Science.gov

Sample records for endemic plant species

  1. [Traightened on Chinese endemic seed plant species of medicine plants used in Tibetan medicine].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hua-rong; Mu, Ze-jing; Du, Xiao-lang; He, Jun-wei; Cao, Lan; Zhong, Guo-yue

    2015-09-01

    This paper is in order to discussion with the composition and characteristics of Tibetan medicine plant resources, and promote the reasonable protection and utilization of the resources of Tibetan materia medica. Statistical analysis of species, distributions, and others of Chinese endemic seed plant from Tibetan medicine plants and usually used in the clinic of Tibetan medicine. The results showed that there are 523 species (25%) of Chinese endemic seed plant, belonging to 65 families and 162 genera, in about 2 000 varieties of Tibetan medicine plants recorded in relevant literatures. There are 180 Chinese endemic seed plant species (28%) belonging to 42 families and 72 genera from 625 medicine plants usually used in the clinic of Tibetan medicine. Specifically, the most of these Chinese endemic seed plant species are characteristic crude drug used in Tibetan medicine, and mainly or only distributed in Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. And a few species of them were intersected with traditional Chinese medicines (TCM) and other ethnic medicines. In addition, about 10% are listed in China Species Red List. The Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is the most abundant areas of Areal-types of the Chinese endemic seed plant. This is the biological and ecological reason formation the characteristics of Tibetan medicine plant resources. Therefore, strengthen the research of Chinese endemic seed plants used in Tibetan medicine is great significance for the reasonable protection and utilization of Tibetan medicine plant resources.

  2. Diversity distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their implications for conservation planning.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jihong; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Xinghui; Ma, Keping

    2016-09-23

    Endemism is an important concept in biogeography and biodiversity conservation. China is one of the richest countries in biodiversity, with very high levels of plant endemism. In this study, we analysed the distribution patterns of diversity, the degree of differentiation, and the endemicity of Chinese endemic seed plants using the floristic unit as a basic spatial analysis unit and 11 indices. The analysis was based on distribution data of 24,951 native seed plant species (excluding subspecies and varieties) and 12,980 Chinese endemic seed plant species, which were sourced from both specimen records and published references. The distribution patterns of Chinese endemic flora were generally consistent but disproportionate across China for diversity, degree of differentiation and endemicity. The South Hengduan Mountains Subregion had the highest values for all indices. At the regional level, both the Hengduan Mountains and the Central China regions were highest in diversity and degrees of differentiation. However, both the rate of local endemic to native species and the rate of local to Chinese endemic species were highest in the Taiwan Region and the South Taiwan Region. The Hengduan Mountains Region and the Central China Region are two key conservation priority areas for Chinese endemic seed plants.

  3. Diversity distribution patterns of Chinese endemic seed plant species and their implications for conservation planning

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jihong; Huang, Jianhua; Lu, Xinghui; Ma, Keping

    2016-01-01

    Endemism is an important concept in biogeography and biodiversity conservation. China is one of the richest countries in biodiversity, with very high levels of plant endemism. In this study, we analysed the distribution patterns of diversity, the degree of differentiation, and the endemicity of Chinese endemic seed plants using the floristic unit as a basic spatial analysis unit and 11 indices. The analysis was based on distribution data of 24,951 native seed plant species (excluding subspecies and varieties) and 12,980 Chinese endemic seed plant species, which were sourced from both specimen records and published references. The distribution patterns of Chinese endemic flora were generally consistent but disproportionate across China for diversity, degree of differentiation and endemicity. The South Hengduan Mountains Subregion had the highest values for all indices. At the regional level, both the Hengduan Mountains and the Central China regions were highest in diversity and degrees of differentiation. However, both the rate of local endemic to native species and the rate of local to Chinese endemic species were highest in the Taiwan Region and the South Taiwan Region. The Hengduan Mountains Region and the Central China Region are two key conservation priority areas for Chinese endemic seed plants. PMID:27658845

  4. Elevational plant species richness patterns and their drivers across non-endemics, endemics and growth forms in the Eastern Himalaya.

    PubMed

    Manish, Kumar; Pandit, Maharaj K; Telwala, Yasmeen; Nautiyal, Dinesh C; Koh, Lian Pin; Tiwari, Sudha

    2017-09-01

    Despite decades of research, ecologists continue to debate how spatial patterns of species richness arise across elevational gradients on the Earth. The equivocal results of these studies could emanate from variations in study design, sampling effort and data analysis. In this study, we demonstrate that the richness patterns of 2,781 (2,197 non-endemic and 584 endemic) angiosperm species along an elevational gradient of 300-5,300 m in the Eastern Himalaya are hump-shaped, spatial scale of extent (the proportion of elevational gradient studied) dependent and growth form specific. Endemics peaked at higher elevations than non-endemics across all growth forms (trees, shrubs, climbers, and herbs). Richness patterns were influenced by the proportional representation of the largest physiognomic group (herbs). We show that with increasing spatial scale of extent, the richness patterns change from a monotonic to a hump-shaped pattern and richness maxima shift toward higher elevations across all growth forms. Our investigations revealed that the combination of ambient energy (air temperature, solar radiation, and potential evapo-transpiration) and water availability (soil water content and precipitation) were the main drivers of elevational plant species richness patterns in the Himalaya. This study highlights the importance of factoring in endemism, growth forms, and spatial scale when investigating elevational gradients of plant species distributions and advances our understanding of how macroecological patterns arise.

  5. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi from New Caledonian ultramafic soils improve tolerance to nickel of endemic plant species.

    PubMed

    Amir, Hamid; Lagrange, Alexandre; Hassaïne, Nadine; Cavaloc, Yvon

    2013-10-01

    In order to improve knowledge about the role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in the tolerance to heavy metals in ultramafic soils, the present study investigated the influence of two Glomus etunicatum isolates from New Caledonian ultramafic maquis (shrubland), on nickel tolerance of a model plant species Sorghum vulgare, and of two ultramafic endemic plant species, Alphitonia neocaledonica and Cloezia artensis. In a first step, plants were grown in a greenhouse, on sand with defined concentrations of Ni, to appreciate the effects of the two isolates on the alleviation of Ni toxicity in controlled conditions. In a second step, the influence of the AMF on A. neocaledonica and C. artensis plants grown in a New Caledonian ultramafic soil rich in extractable nickel was investigated. Ni reduced mycorrhizal colonization and sporulation of the fungal isolates, but the symbionts increased plant growth and adaptation of endemic plant species to ultramafic conditions. One of the two G. etunicatum isolates showed a stronger positive effect on plant biomass and phosphorus uptake, and a greater reduction in toxicity symptoms and Ni concentration in roots and shoots. The symbionts seemed to act as a barrier to the absorption of Ni by the plant and reduced root-to-shoot Ni translocation. Results indicate the potential of selected native AMF isolates from ultramafic areas for ecological restoration of such degraded ecosystems.

  6. Factors affecting plant species richness and endemism on land-bridge islands - An example from the East Aegean archipelago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panitsa, Maria; Trigas, Panayiotis; Iatrou, Gregoris; Sfenthourakis, Spyros

    2010-07-01

    The native flora and a number of environmental factors were recorded for twenty islands in the eastern Aegean archipelago (Greece) in order to study the patterns of native and endemic plant species diversity as well as the effects of environmental factors in shaping these patterns at different levels of endemism. Stepwise regressions were used to test the effects of these factors on species richness of native and especially of endemic plants, at local scales. The performance of the Choros model was also compared with the separate effects of area and habitat diversity using simple linear regressions. The residuals from the species-area functions of native and endemic species were used as indices of relative island richness. Out of the 2238 species and subspecies recorded in total, 302 taxa (13.4%) are endemics (either single island endemics or endemic at a broader scale, namely Aegean, Greek-Aegean, or Anatolian-Aegean). All native, all endemic and Aegean endemic species similarities among islands were assessed and the three matrices were compared with the matrices of among-island geographical distances and island similarities based on components of habitat diversity using Mantel test. Among the factors tested, habitat diversity, of which elevation is another dimension, is the main factor affecting floral richness on east Aegean islands. The patterns exhibited by local endemics, though, are of a more idiosyncratic nature since this factor is the major predictor of species richness of most of the endemics levels (including single island endemics) except the Aegean endemics which are better predicted by elevation. The Choros model does not provide a better prediction of richness than habitat diversity alone. There is a positive correlation between native species similarities and geographical distances among islands, but no correlation between environmental and floral similarities.

  7. Transcriptome sequencing and simple sequence repeat marker development for three Macaronesian endemic plant species1

    PubMed Central

    White, Oliver W.; Doo, Bethany; Carine, Mark A.; Chapman, Mark A.

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Oceanic islands offer unparalleled opportunities to investigate evolutionary processes such as adaptation and speciation. However, few genomic resources are available for oceanic island endemics. In this study, we publish transcriptome sequences from three Macaronesian endemic plant species (Argyranthemum broussonetii [Asteraceae], Descurainia bourgaeana [Brassicaceae], and Echium wildpretii [Boraginaceae]) that are representative of lineages that have radiated in the region. In addition, the utility of transcriptome data for marker development is demonstrated. Methods and Results: Transcriptomes from the three plant species were sequenced, assembled, and annotated. Between 1972 and 2282 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were identified for each taxon. Primers were designed and tested for 30 of the candidate SSRs identified in Argyranthemum, of which 12 amplified well across three species and eight were polymorphic. Conclusions: We demonstrate here that a single transcriptome sequence is sufficient to identify hundreds of polymorphic SSR markers. The SSRs are applicable to a wide range of questions relating to the evolution of island lineages. PMID:27610280

  8. Conservation Priorities in a Biodiversity Hotspot: Analysis of Narrow Endemic Plant Species in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Adrien S.; Hollingsworth, Peter M.; Ahrends, Antje; Jaffré, Tanguy; Veillon, Jean-Marie; L’Huillier, Laurent; Fogliani, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    New Caledonia is a global biodiversity hotspot facing extreme environmental degradation. Given the urgent need for conservation prioritisation, we have made a first-pass quantitative assessment of the distribution of Narrow Endemic Species (NES) in the flora to identify species and sites that are potentially important for conservation action. We assessed the distributional status of all angiosperm and gymnosperm species using data from taxonomic descriptions and herbarium samples. We characterised species as being NES if they occurred in 3 or fewer locations. In total, 635 of the 2930 assessed species were classed as NES, of which only 150 have been subjected to the IUCN conservation assessment. As the distributional patterns of un-assessed species from one or two locations correspond well with assessed species which have been classified as Critically Endangered or Endangered respectively, we suggest that our distributional data can be used to prioritise species for IUCN assessment. We also used the distributional data to produce a map of “Hotspots of Plant Narrow Endemism” (HPNE). Combined, we used these data to evaluate the coincidence of NES with mining activities (a major source of threat on New Caledonia) and also areas of conservation protection. This is to identify species and locations in most urgent need of further conservation assessment and subsequent action. Finally, we grouped the NES based on the environments they occurred in and modelled the habitat distribution of these groups with a Maximum Entropy Species Distribution Model (MaxEnt). The NES were separable into three different groups based primarily on geological differences. The distribution of the habitat types for each group coincide partially with the HPNE described above and also indicates some areas which have high habitat suitability but few recorded NES. Some of these areas may represent under-sampled hotspots of narrow endemism and are priorities for further field work. PMID:24058470

  9. Molecular Systematics of Threatened Seed Plant Species Endemic in the Caribbean Islands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A review of available Caribbean Island red-lists species (CR and EN categories based on the IUCN guidelines from 2001, and E category established according to the IUCN guidelines from 1980) is presented. A database of at least 1,300 endemic species that are either Critically Endangered or Endangered...

  10. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  11. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  12. Investigation of Plant Species with Identified Seed Oil Fatty Acids in Chinese Literature and Analysis of Five Unsurveyed Chinese Endemic Species

    PubMed Central

    Li, Changsheng; Cheng, Xiaojun; Jia, Qingli; Song, Huan; Liu, Xiangling; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Cuizhu; Zhang, Yansheng; Ohlrogge, John; Zhang, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Diverse fatty acid structures from different plant species are important renewable resources for industrial raw materials and as liquid fuels with high energy density. Because of its immense geographical and topographical variations, China is a country with enormous diversity of plant species, including large numbers of plants endemic to China. The richness of this resource of species provides a wide range of fatty acids in seeds or other tissues, many of which have been identified by Chinese scientists. However, in the past, most publications describing analysis of these plants were written in Chinese, making access for researchers from other countries difficult. In this study, we investigated reports on seed and fruit oil fatty acids as described in Chinese literature. Six books and more than one thousand papers were collected and the identified fatty acids and relevant plant species were summarized. In total, about 240 fatty acids from almost 1,500 plant species were identified from available Chinese literature. Only about one third of these species were retrieved in the PhyloFAdb and SOFA online databases of plant fatty acids. By referring to a summary of plant species endemic to China, 277 Chinese endemic species from 68 families have been surveyed for seed fatty acids. These account for <2% of total Angiosperm species endemic to China indicating the scope of species yet to be surveyed. To discover additional new fatty acid structures that might benefit society, it is important in the future to study oilseed fatty acids of the many other Chinese endemic plants. As an example, seeds of five unsurveyed species were collected and their fatty acids were analyzed. Ricinoleic acid was detected for the first time in the Salicaceae family. PMID:28275379

  13. Investigation of Plant Species with Identified Seed Oil Fatty Acids in Chinese Literature and Analysis of Five Unsurveyed Chinese Endemic Species.

    PubMed

    Li, Changsheng; Cheng, Xiaojun; Jia, Qingli; Song, Huan; Liu, Xiangling; Wang, Kai; Zhao, Cuizhu; Zhang, Yansheng; Ohlrogge, John; Zhang, Meng

    2017-01-01

    Diverse fatty acid structures from different plant species are important renewable resources for industrial raw materials and as liquid fuels with high energy density. Because of its immense geographical and topographical variations, China is a country with enormous diversity of plant species, including large numbers of plants endemic to China. The richness of this resource of species provides a wide range of fatty acids in seeds or other tissues, many of which have been identified by Chinese scientists. However, in the past, most publications describing analysis of these plants were written in Chinese, making access for researchers from other countries difficult. In this study, we investigated reports on seed and fruit oil fatty acids as described in Chinese literature. Six books and more than one thousand papers were collected and the identified fatty acids and relevant plant species were summarized. In total, about 240 fatty acids from almost 1,500 plant species were identified from available Chinese literature. Only about one third of these species were retrieved in the PhyloFAdb and SOFA online databases of plant fatty acids. By referring to a summary of plant species endemic to China, 277 Chinese endemic species from 68 families have been surveyed for seed fatty acids. These account for <2% of total Angiosperm species endemic to China indicating the scope of species yet to be surveyed. To discover additional new fatty acid structures that might benefit society, it is important in the future to study oilseed fatty acids of the many other Chinese endemic plants. As an example, seeds of five unsurveyed species were collected and their fatty acids were analyzed. Ricinoleic acid was detected for the first time in the Salicaceae family.

  14. Are there any widespread endemic flowering plant species in Macaronesia? Phylogeography of Ranunculus cortusifolius.

    PubMed

    Williams, Bethany R M; Schaefer, Hanno; De Sequeira, Miguel Menezes; Reyes-Betancort, J Alfredo; Patiño, Jairo; Carine, Mark A

    2015-10-01

    Oceanic island endemics typically exhibit very restricted distributions. In Macaronesia, only one endemic angiosperm species, Ranunculus cortusifolius, has a distribution spanning the archipelagos of the Azores, Madeira, and Canaries. Earlier work suggested possible differences between archipelagos and the multiple origins of the species. This paper tests the hypothesis that R. cortusifolius is a single widespread Macaronesian endemic species with a single origin. Chloroplast (matK-trnK, psbJ-petA) and ITS sequences were generated from across the distribution of R. cortusifolius. Relationships were investigated using Bayesian inference and divergence times estimated using BEAST. Infraspecific variation was investigated using statistical parsimony. The general mixed Yule-coalescent model (GMYC) was further used to identify putative species boundaries based on maternally inherited plastid data. The hypothesis of multiple independent origins of R. cortusifolius is rejected. Divergence of the R. cortusifolius lineage from a western Mediterranean sister group in the late Miocene is inferred. Distinct genotypes were resolved within R. cortusifolius that are endemic to the Azores, Madeira, and the Canaries. Four to five putative species were delimited by different versions of the GMYC model. Ranunculus cortusifolius is the result of a single colonization of Macaronesia. The large distances between archipelagos have been effective barriers to dispersal, promoting allopatric diversification at the molecular level with diversification also evident within the Canaries. Isolation has not been accompanied by marked morphological diversification, which may be explained by the typical association of R. cortusifolius with stable and climatically buffered laurel forest communities. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  15. Competitive abilities of three narrowly endemic plant species in experimental neighborhoods along a fire gradient.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Ascencio, P F; Menges, E S

    2000-05-01

    We conducted field experiments manipulating lichens, shrubs, and herbs along a time-since-fire gradient and assessing effects on three endemic herbaceous species of Florida scrub: Eryngium cuneifolium, Hypericum cumulicola, and Polygonella basiramia. Responses included seed germination, survival, biomass, and fecundity. Transplants into recently burned patches generally had higher survival, larger biomass, and greater reproductive output than transplants into long-unburned patches. Open areas and sites near oaks frequently were more favorable than sites near Florida rosemary. Ground lichens did not affect germination but increased mortality rate of seedlings. Neighboring small shrubby and herbaceous species did not affect the performance of these species. Of the three species, naturally occurring E. cuneifolium were farthest from large shrubs, and their microhabitats had the least ground lichens and shrubs. Eryngium cuneifolium and H. cumulicola are capable of forming persistent seed banks and their recruitment after fire depends mostly on these dormant seeds. Polygonella basiramia relies on seed dispersal and immediate seed germination to colonize recently burned patches. Management for these species should involve variable fire regimes to allow all three species to persist along with many other scrub endemics.

  16. Population structure of Annona crassiflora: an endemic plant species of the Brazilian Cerrado.

    PubMed

    Gwinner, R; Setotaw, T A; Rodrigues, F A; França, D V C; da Silveira, F A; Pio, L A S; Pasqual, M

    2016-12-23

    Habitat fragmentation has numerous consequences, particularly to endemic species, and has a negative impact on the genetic diversity of neglected species, leading to genetic drift. Annona crassiflora Mart. is a species that is endemic to Brazil, and its incidence in the Cerrado biome has decreased. The identification and characterization of its remaining diversity is necessary for its conservation. Our aim was to study the population structure of A. crassiflora populations from different Cerrado regions in Minas Gerais State, Brazil (Corinto, Curvelo, Carmo da Mata, Boa Esperança, and Paraguaçu) using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and DNA content. Nuclear DNA content was estimated by flow cytometry using 10 individuals from each population. ISSR markers were used for genotyping accessions in order to study their genetic diversity and population structures. We found considerable genetic variation among populations, with the highest variability observed in the Curvelo population. There was a significant positive correlation between DNA content and latitude (r = 0.46, P = 0. 0003). A Bayesian-based cluster analysis grouped the populations into three clusters, which followed their geographical origins. There was some level of genetic diversity and differentiation among the populations, suggesting the need for a conservation plan for this species. The ISSR markers and DNA content analysis were effective in studying the genetic diversity and population structure of A. crassiflora.

  17. Interpretation of patterns of genetic variation in endemic plant species of oceanic islands

    PubMed Central

    Stuessy, Tod F; Takayama, Koji; López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Crawford, Daniel J

    2014-01-01

    Oceanic islands offer special opportunities for understanding the patterns and processes of evolution. The availability of molecular markers in recent decades has enhanced these opportunities, facilitating the use of population genetics to reveal divergence and speciation in island systems. A common pattern seen in taxa on oceanic islands is a decreased level of genetic variation within and among populations, and the founder effect has often been invoked to explain this observation. Founder effects have a major impact on immigrant populations, but, over millions of years, the original genetic signature will normally be erased as a result of mutation, recombination, drift and selection. Therefore, the types and degrees of genetic modifications that occur must often be caused by other factors, which should be considered when explaining the patterns of genetic variation. The age of the island is extremely important because oceanic islands subside on their submarine plates over time. Erosion caused by wind, rain and wave action combine to grind down soft volcanic substrates. These geomorphological events can have a dramatic impact on population number and size, and hence levels of genetic diversity. The mode of speciation is also of significance. With anagenesis, genetic variation accumulates through time, whereas, with cladogenenesis, the gene pool splits into populations of adaptively radiating species. Breeding systems, population sizes and generation times are also important, as is hybridization between closely related taxa. Human disturbance has affected plant population number and size through the harvesting of forests and the introduction of invasive plants and animals. Therefore, the explanation of the observed levels of genetic variation in species of oceanic islands requires the consideration of many interconnected physical, biological and anthropomorphic factors. PMID:26074627

  18. Environmental impact of Mt. Etna's degassing: volcanogenic trace elements bioaccumulation in two endemic plant species (Senecio aethnensis and Rumex aethnensis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alessandro, Walter; Calabrese, Sergio; Bellomo, Sergio; Brusca, Lorenzo; di Maio, Giuseppe; Parello, Francesco; Saiano, Filippo

    2010-05-01

    A biomonitoring survey, above tree line level, using two endemic species (Senecio aethnensis and Rumex aethnensis) was performed on Mt. Etna, in order to evaluate the dispersion and the impact of volcanic atmospheric emissions. Samples of leaves were collected in summer 2008 from 30 sites in the upper part of the volcano (1500-3000 m a.s.l). Acid digestion of samples was carried out with a microwave oven, and 44 elements were analyzed by using plasma spectrometry (ICP-MS and ICP-OES). The highest concentrations of all investigated elements were found in the samples collected closest to the degassing craters, and in the downwind sector, confirming that the eastern flank of Mt. Etna is the most impacted by volcanic emissions. Leaves collected along two radial transects from the active vents on the eastern flank, highlight that the levels of metals decrease one or two orders of magnitude with increasing distance from the source. This variability is higher for volatile elements (As, Bi, Cd, Cs, Pb, Sb, Tl) than for more refractory elements (Al, Ba, Sc, Si, Sr, Th, U). The two different species of plants do not show significant differences in the bioaccumulation of most of the analyzed elements, except for lanthanides, which are systematically enriched in Rumex leaves. The high concentrations of many toxic elements in the leaves allow us to consider these plants as highly tolerant species to the volcanic emissions, and suitable for biomonitoring researches in the Mt. Etna area.

  19. Determining the factors affecting the distribution of Muscari latifolium, an endemic plant of Turkey, and a mapping species distribution model.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Hatice; Yilmaz, Osman Yalçın; Akyüz, Yaşar Feyza

    2017-02-01

    Species distribution modeling was used to determine factors among the large predictor candidate data set that affect the distribution of Muscari latifolium, an endemic bulbous plant species of Turkey, to quantify the relative importance of each factor and make a potential spatial distribution map of M. latifolium. Models were built using the Boosted Regression Trees method based on 35 presence and 70 absence records obtained through field sampling in the Gönen Dam watershed area of the Kazdağı Mountains in West Anatolia. Large candidate variables of monthly and seasonal climate, fine-scale land surface, and geologic and biotic variables were simplified using a BRT simplifying procedure. Analyses performed on these resources, direct and indirect variables showed that there were 14 main factors that influence the species' distribution. Five of the 14 most important variables influencing the distribution of the species are bedrock type, Quercus cerris density, precipitation during the wettest month, Pinus nigra density, and northness. These variables account for approximately 60% of the relative importance for determining the distribution of the species. Prediction performance was assessed by 10 random subsample data sets and gave a maximum the area under a receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) value of 0.93 and an average AUC value of 0.8. This study provides a significant contribution to the knowledge of the habitat requirements and ecological characteristics of this species. The distribution of this species is explained by a combination of biotic and abiotic factors. Hence, using biotic interaction and fine-scale land surface variables in species distribution models improved the accuracy and precision of the model. The knowledge of the relationships between distribution patterns and environmental factors and biotic interaction of M. latifolium can help develop a management and conservation strategy for this species.

  20. Elevational gradient of vascular plant species richness and endemism in Crete--the effect of post-isolation mountain uplift on a continental island system.

    PubMed

    Trigas, Panayiotis; Panitsa, Maria; Tsiftsis, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    Understanding diversity patterns along environmental gradients and their underlying mechanisms is a major topic in current biodiversity research. In this study, we investigate for the first time elevational patterns of vascular plant species richness and endemism on a long-isolated continental island (Crete) that has experienced extensive post-isolation mountain uplift. We used all available data on distribution and elevational ranges of the Cretan plants to interpolate their presence between minimum and maximum elevations in 100-m elevational intervals, along the entire elevational gradient of Crete (0-2400 m). We evaluate the influence of elevation, area, mid-domain effect, elevational Rapoport effect and the post-isolation mountain uplift on plant species richness and endemism elevational patterns. Furthermore, we test the influence of the island condition and the post-isolation mountain uplift to the elevational range sizes of the Cretan plants, using the Peloponnese as a continental control area. Total species richness monotonically decreases with increasing elevation, while endemic species richness has a unimodal response to elevation showing a peak at mid-elevation intervals. Area alone explains a significant amount of variation in species richness along the elevational gradient. Mid-domain effect is not the underlying mechanism of the elevational gradient of plant species richness in Crete, and Rapoport's rule only partly explains the observed patterns. Our results are largely congruent with the post-isolation uplift of the Cretan mountains and their colonization mainly by the available lowland vascular plant species, as high-elevation specialists are almost lacking from the Cretan flora. The increase in the proportion of Cretan endemics with increasing elevation can only be regarded as a result of diversification processes towards Cretan mountains (especially mid-elevation areas), supported by elevation-driven ecological isolation. Cretan plants have

  1. Elevational Gradient of Vascular Plant Species Richness and Endemism in Crete – The Effect of Post-Isolation Mountain Uplift on a Continental Island System

    PubMed Central

    Trigas, Panayiotis; Panitsa, Maria; Tsiftsis, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    Understanding diversity patterns along environmental gradients and their underlying mechanisms is a major topic in current biodiversity research. In this study, we investigate for the first time elevational patterns of vascular plant species richness and endemism on a long-isolated continental island (Crete) that has experienced extensive post-isolation mountain uplift. We used all available data on distribution and elevational ranges of the Cretan plants to interpolate their presence between minimum and maximum elevations in 100-m elevational intervals, along the entire elevational gradient of Crete (0–2400 m). We evaluate the influence of elevation, area, mid-domain effect, elevational Rapoport effect and the post-isolation mountain uplift on plant species richness and endemism elevational patterns. Furthermore, we test the influence of the island condition and the post-isolation mountain uplift to the elevational range sizes of the Cretan plants, using the Peloponnese as a continental control area. Total species richness monotonically decreases with increasing elevation, while endemic species richness has a unimodal response to elevation showing a peak at mid-elevation intervals. Area alone explains a significant amount of variation in species richness along the elevational gradient. Mid-domain effect is not the underlying mechanism of the elevational gradient of plant species richness in Crete, and Rapoport's rule only partly explains the observed patterns. Our results are largely congruent with the post-isolation uplift of the Cretan mountains and their colonization mainly by the available lowland vascular plant species, as high-elevation specialists are almost lacking from the Cretan flora. The increase in the proportion of Cretan endemics with increasing elevation can only be regarded as a result of diversification processes towards Cretan mountains (especially mid-elevation areas), supported by elevation-driven ecological isolation. Cretan plants have

  2. Genetic diversity of an Azorean endemic and endangered plant species inferred from inter-simple sequence repeat markers

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Maria S.; Mendonça, Duarte; Bettencourt, Sílvia X.; Borba, Ana R.; Melo, Catarina; Baptista, Cláudio; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the levels and distribution of genetic diversity is important for designing conservation strategies for threatened and endangered species so as to guarantee sustainable survival of populations and to preserve their evolutionary potential. Picconia azorica is a valuable Azorean endemic species recently classified as endangered. To contribute with information useful for the establishment of conservation programmes, the genetic variability and differentiation among 230 samples from 11 populations collected in three Azorean islands was accessed with eight inter-simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 64 polymorphic loci were detected. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and no genetic structure was detected between populations and between islands. Also the coefficient of genetic differentiation and the level of gene flow indicate that geographical distances do not act as barriers for gene flow. In order to ensure the survival of populations in situ and ex situ management practices should be considered, including artificial propagation through the use of plant tissue culture techniques, not only for the restoration of habitat but also for the sustainable use of its valuable wood. PMID:24969504

  3. Genetic diversity of an Azorean endemic and endangered plant species inferred from inter-simple sequence repeat markers.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Maria S; Mendonça, Duarte; Bettencourt, Sílvia X; Borba, Ana R; Melo, Catarina; Baptista, Cláudio; da Câmara Machado, Artur

    2014-06-26

    Knowledge of the levels and distribution of genetic diversity is important for designing conservation strategies for threatened and endangered species so as to guarantee sustainable survival of populations and to preserve their evolutionary potential. Picconia azorica is a valuable Azorean endemic species recently classified as endangered. To contribute with information useful for the establishment of conservation programmes, the genetic variability and differentiation among 230 samples from 11 populations collected in three Azorean islands was accessed with eight inter-simple sequence repeat markers. A total of 64 polymorphic loci were detected. The majority of genetic variability was found within populations and no genetic structure was detected between populations and between islands. Also the coefficient of genetic differentiation and the level of gene flow indicate that geographical distances do not act as barriers for gene flow. In order to ensure the survival of populations in situ and ex situ management practices should be considered, including artificial propagation through the use of plant tissue culture techniques, not only for the restoration of habitat but also for the sustainable use of its valuable wood.

  4. Shifts in Species Interactions Due to the Evolution of Functional Differences between Endemics and Non-Endemics: An Endemic Syndrome Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Gorman, Courtney E.; Potts, Brad M.; Schweitzer, Jennifer A.; Bailey, Joseph K.

    2014-01-01

    Species ranges have been shifting since the Pleistocene, whereby fragmentation, isolation, and the subsequent reduction in gene flow have resulted in local adaptation of novel genotypes and the repeated evolution of endemic species. While there is a wide body of literature focused on understanding endemic species, very few studies empirically test whether or not the evolution of endemics results in unique function or ecological differences relative to their widespread congeners; in particular while controlling for environmental variation. Using a common garden composed of 15 Eucalyptus species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (9 endemic to Tasmania, 6 non-endemic), here we hypothesize and show that endemic species are functionally and ecologically different from non-endemics. Compared to non-endemics, endemic Eucalyptus species have a unique suite of functional plant traits that have extended effects on herbivores. We found that while endemics occupy many diverse habitats, they share similar functional traits potentially resulting in an endemic syndrome of traits. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets analyzing the functional differences between endemics and non-endemics in a common garden setting, and establishes a foundation for additional studies of endemic/non-endemic dynamics that will be essential for understanding global biodiversity in the midst of rapid species extinctions and range shifts as a consequence of global change. PMID:25340402

  5. Shifts in species interactions due to the evolution of functional differences between endemics and non-endemics: an endemic syndrome hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Courtney E; Potts, Brad M; Schweitzer, Jennifer A; Bailey, Joseph K

    2014-01-01

    Species ranges have been shifting since the Pleistocene, whereby fragmentation, isolation, and the subsequent reduction in gene flow have resulted in local adaptation of novel genotypes and the repeated evolution of endemic species. While there is a wide body of literature focused on understanding endemic species, very few studies empirically test whether or not the evolution of endemics results in unique function or ecological differences relative to their widespread congeners; in particular while controlling for environmental variation. Using a common garden composed of 15 Eucalyptus species within the subgenus Symphyomyrtus (9 endemic to Tasmania, 6 non-endemic), here we hypothesize and show that endemic species are functionally and ecologically different from non-endemics. Compared to non-endemics, endemic Eucalyptus species have a unique suite of functional plant traits that have extended effects on herbivores. We found that while endemics occupy many diverse habitats, they share similar functional traits potentially resulting in an endemic syndrome of traits. This study provides one of the first empirical datasets analyzing the functional differences between endemics and non-endemics in a common garden setting, and establishes a foundation for additional studies of endemic/non-endemic dynamics that will be essential for understanding global biodiversity in the midst of rapid species extinctions and range shifts as a consequence of global change.

  6. Species richness and endemism in the native flora of California.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Bruce G; Thornhill, Andrew H; Freyman, William A; Ackerly, David D; Kling, Matthew M; Morueta-Holme, Naia; Mishler, Brent D

    2017-03-01

    California's vascular flora is the most diverse and threatened in temperate North America. Previous studies of spatial patterns of Californian plant diversity have been limited by traditional metrics, non-uniform geographic units, and distributional data derived from floristic descriptions for only a subset of species. We revisited patterns of sampling intensity, species richness, and relative endemism in California based on equal-area spatial units, the full vascular flora, and specimen-based distributional data. We estimated richness, weighted endemism (inverse range-weighting of species), and corrected weighted endemism (weighted endemism corrected for richness), and performed a randomization test for significantly high endemism. Possible biases in herbarium data do not obscure patterns of high richness and endemism at the spatial resolution studied. High species richness was sometimes associated with significantly high endemism (e.g., Klamath Ranges) but often not. In Stebbins and Major's (1965) main endemism hotspot, Southwestern California, species richness is high across much of the Peninsular and Transverse ranges but significantly high endemism is mostly localized to the Santa Rosa and San Bernardino mountains. In contrast, species richness is low in the Channel Islands, where endemism is significantly high, as also found for much of the Death Valley region. Measures of taxonomic richness, even with greater weighting of range-restricted taxa, are insufficient for identifying areas of significantly high endemism that warrant conservation attention. Differences between our findings and those in previous studies appear to mostly reflect the source and scale of distributional data, and recent analytical refinements. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  7. Evaluation of three endemic Mediterranean plant species Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea for Phytoremediation of Ni, Pb and Zn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chami, Ziad Al; Amer, Nasser; Bitar, Lina Al; Mondelli, Donato; Dumontet, Stefano

    2013-04-01

    The success of phytoremediation depends upon the identification of suitable plants species that hyperaccumulate/tolerate heavy metals and produce large amounts of biomass. In this study, three endemic Mediterranean plant species Atriplex halimus, Medicago lupulina and Portulaca oleracea, were grown hydroponically to assess their potential use in phytoremediation of Ni, Pb and Zn and biomass production. The objective of this research is to improve phytoremediation procedures by searching for a new endemic Mediterranean plant species which can be used for phytoremediation of low/moderate contamination in the Mediterranean arid and semiarid conditions and bioenergy production. The hydroponics experiment was carried out in a growth chamber using half strength Hoagland's solution as control (CTR) and 5 concentrations for Pb and Zn (5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 mg L-1) and 3 concentrations for Ni (1, 2, and 5 mg L-1). Complete randomized design with five replications was adopted. Main growth parameters (shoot and root dry weight, shoot and root length and chlorophyll content) were determined. Shoots and roots were analyzed for their metals contents. Some interesting contributions of this research are: (i) plant metal uptake efficiency ranked as follows: A. halimus > M. lupulina > P. oleracea, whereas heavy metal toxicity ranked as follows: Ni > Zn > Pb, (ii) none of the plant species was identified as hyperaccumulator, (iii) Atriplex halimus and Medicago lupulina can accumulate Ni, Pb and Zn in their roots, (iv) translocate small fraction to their above ground biomass, and (v) indicate moderate pollution levels of the environment. In addition, as they are a good biomass producer, they can be used in phytostabilisation of marginal lands and their above ground biomass can be used for livestock feeding as well for bioenergy production.

  8. Species delimitation in plants using the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau endemic Orinus (Poaceae: Tridentinae) as an example.

    PubMed

    Su, Xu; Wu, Guili; Li, Lili; Liu, Jianquan

    2015-07-01

    Accurate identification of species is essential for the majority of biological studies. However, defining species objectively and consistently remains a challenge, especially for plants distributed in remote regions where there is often a lack of sufficient previous specimens. In this study, multiple approaches and lines of evidence were used to determine species boundaries for plants occurring in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, using the genus Orinus (Poaceae) as a model system for an integrative approach to delimiting species. A total of 786 individuals from 102 populations of six previously recognized species were collected for niche, morphological and genetic analyses. Three plastid DNA regions (matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA) and one nuclear DNA region [internal transcribed space (ITS)] were sequenced. Whereas six species had been previously recognized, statistical analyses based on character variation, molecular data and niche differentiation identified only two well-delimited clusters, together with a third possibly originating from relatively recent hybridization between, or historical introgression from, the other two. Based on a principle of integrative species delimitation to reconcile different sources of data, the results provide compelling evidence that the six previously recognized species of the genus Orinus that were examined should be reduced to two, with new circumscriptions, and a third, identified in this study, should be described as a new species. This empirical study highlights the value of applying genetic differentiation, morphometric statistics and ecological niche modelling in an integrative approach to re-circumscribing species boundaries. The results produce relatively objective, operational and unbiased taxonomic classifications of plants occurring in remote regions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Species delimitation in plants using the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau endemic Orinus (Poaceae: Tridentinae) as an example

    PubMed Central

    Su, Xu; Wu, Guili; Li, Lili; Liu, Jianquan

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Accurate identification of species is essential for the majority of biological studies. However, defining species objectively and consistently remains a challenge, especially for plants distributed in remote regions where there is often a lack of sufficient previous specimens. In this study, multiple approaches and lines of evidence were used to determine species boundaries for plants occurring in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau, using the genus Orinus (Poaceae) as a model system for an integrative approach to delimiting species. Methods A total of 786 individuals from 102 populations of six previously recognized species were collected for niche, morphological and genetic analyses. Three plastid DNA regions (matK, rbcL and trnH-psbA) and one nuclear DNA region [internal transcribed space (ITS)] were sequenced. Key Results Whereas six species had been previously recognized, statistical analyses based on character variation, molecular data and niche differentiation identified only two well-delimited clusters, together with a third possibly originating from relatively recent hybridization between, or historical introgression from, the other two. Conclusions Based on a principle of integrative species delimitation to reconcile different sources of data, the results provide compelling evidence that the six previously recognized species of the genus Orinus that were examined should be reduced to two, with new circumscriptions, and a third, identified in this study, should be described as a new species. This empirical study highlights the value of applying genetic differentiation, morphometric statistics and ecological niche modelling in an integrative approach to re-circumscribing species boundaries. The results produce relatively objective, operational and unbiased taxonomic classifications of plants occurring in remote regions. PMID:25987712

  10. Relationship between Maximum Leaf Photosynthesis, Nitrogen Content and Specific Leaf Area in Balearic Endemic and Non‐endemic Mediterranean Species

    PubMed Central

    GULÍAS, JAVIER; FLEXAS, JAUME; MUS, MAURICI; CIFRE, JOSEP; LEFI, ELKADRI; MEDRANO, HIPÓLITO

    2003-01-01

    Gas exchange parameters, leaf nitrogen content and specific leaf area (SLA) were measured in situ on 73 C3 and five C4 plant species in Mallorca, west Mediterranean, to test whether species endemic to the Balearic Islands differed from widespread, non‐endemic Mediterranean species and crops in their leaf traits and trait inter‐relationships. Endemic species differed significantly from widespread species and crops in several parameters; in particular, photosynthetic capacity, on an area basis (A), was 20 % less in endemics than in non‐endemics. Similar differences between endemics and non‐endemics were found in parameters such as SLA and leaf nitrogen content per area (Na). Nevertheless, most of the observed differences were found only within the herbaceous deciduous species. These could be due to the fact that most of the non‐endemic species within this group have adapted to ruderal areas, while none of the endemics occupies this kind of habitat. All the species—including the crops—showed a positive, highly significant correlation between photosynthetic capacity on a mass basis (Am), leaf nitrogen content on a mass basis (Nm) and SLA. However, endemic species had a lower Am for any given SLA and Nm. Hypotheses are presented to explain these differences, and their possible role in reducing the distribution of many endemic Balearic species is discussed. PMID:12805082

  11. Honokiol and magnolol production by in vitro micropropagated plants of Magnolia dealbata, an endangered endemic Mexican species.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Fabiola; Chávez, Marco; Garduño-Ramírez, María Luisa; Chávez-Avila, Víctor M; Mata, Martín; Cruz-Sosa, Francisco

    2010-02-01

    pharmacological and phytomedicinal screening applications and, above all, would safeguard this plant species from the threat of extinction.

  12. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J.; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

    2009-02-01

    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff ( Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  13. Bird pollination of Canary Island endemic plants.

    PubMed

    Ollerton, Jeff; Cranmer, Louise; Stelzer, Ralph J; Sullivan, Steve; Chittka, Lars

    2009-02-01

    The Canary Islands are home to a guild of endemic, threatened bird-pollinated plants. Previous work has suggested that these plants evolved floral traits as adaptations to pollination by flower specialist sunbirds, but subsequently, they appear to have co-opted generalist passerine birds as sub-optimal pollinators. To test this idea, we carried out a quantitative study of the pollination biology of three of the bird-pollinated plants, Canarina canariensis (Campanulaceae), Isoplexis canariensis (Veronicaceae) and Lotus berthelotii (Fabaceae), on the island of Tenerife. Using colour vision models, we predicted the detectability of flowers to bird and bee pollinators. We measured pollinator visitation rates, nectar standing crops as well as seed-set and pollen removal and deposition. These data showed that the plants are effectively pollinated by non-flower specialist passerine birds that only occasionally visit flowers. The large nectar standing crops and extended flower longevities (>10 days) of Canarina and Isoplexis suggests that they have evolved a bird pollination system that effectively exploits these low frequency non-specialist pollen vectors and is in no way sub-optimal. Seed set in two of the three species was high and was significantly reduced or zero in flowers where pollinator access was restricted. In L. berthelotii, however, no fruit set was observed, probably because the plants were self-incompatible horticultural clones of a single genet. We also show that, while all three species are easily detectable for birds, the orange Canarina and the red Lotus (but less so the yellow-orange Isoplexis) should be difficult to detect for insect pollinators without specialised red receptors, such as bumblebees. Contrary to expectations if we accept that the flowers are primarily adapted to sunbird pollination, the chiffchaff (Phylloscopus canariensis) was an effective pollinator of these species.

  14. Secondary Metabolites of Hypericum leptophyllum Hochst., an Endemic Turkish Species

    PubMed Central

    Camas, Necdet; Radusiene, Jolita; Stanius, Zydrunas; Caliskan, Omer; Cirak, Cuneyt

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the presence of the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin, the naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin, the phenylpropane chlorogenic acid and the flavonoids rutin, hyperoside, kaempferol, isoquercetine, quercitrine, and quercetine was investigated in Hypericum leptophyllum Hochst., an endemic Turkish species for the first time. The aerial parts representing a total of 30 individuals were collected at full flowering and dissected into floral, leaf, and stem tissues. After being dried at room temperature, the plant materials were assayed for secondary metabolite concentrations by HPLC. Aerial plant parts accumulated chlorogenic acid, hyperoside, isoquercetine, quercitrine, and quercetine, but they did not accumulate hyperforin, hypericin, pseudohypericin, rutin, and kaempferol. Accumulation levels of the detected compounds varied with plant tissues. Such kind of data could be useful for elucidation of the chemotaxonomical significance of the corresponding compounds and phytochemical evaluation of this endemic species. PMID:22649295

  15. Scena propylea (Druce) (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) an endemic species of Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Baz, F; Coates, R; Teston, J A; González, J M

    2013-06-01

    A revision of the bibliography, as well as an analysis on the data from the specimen labels of Scena propylea (Druce) (Erebidae: Arctiinae: Euchromiina) deposited in different scientific collections, was carried out and included information from 1894 to 2010. Its geographical distribution is restricted to the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt which determines this species as endemic. Data are provided on the biogeography, ecology and biology for this species. Its food plant is Thenardia floribunda (Apocynaceae) which is also endemic to Mexico. From this analysis, we propose the inclusion of both species in the document known as the Norma Oficial Mexicana 059 which encompasses the environmental protection of wild flora and fauna species native to Mexico and their risk categories, as well as the specifications for their inclusion, exclusion or change and a list of all species at risk.

  16. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jeanette K; Klausmeyer, Kirk R; Fesenmyer, Kurt A; Furnish, Joseph; Gardali, Thomas; Grantham, Ted; Katz, Jacob V E; Kupferberg, Sarah; McIntyre, Patrick; Moyle, Peter B; Ode, Peter R; Peek, Ryan; Quiñones, Rebecca M; Rehn, Andrew C; Santos, Nick; Schoenig, Steve; Serpa, Larry; Shedd, Jackson D; Slusark, Joe; Viers, Joshua H; Wright, Amber; Morrison, Scott A

    2015-01-01

    The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate

  17. Patterns of Freshwater Species Richness, Endemism, and Vulnerability in California

    PubMed Central

    Furnish, Joseph; Gardali, Thomas; Grantham, Ted; Katz, Jacob V. E.; Kupferberg, Sarah; McIntyre, Patrick; Moyle, Peter B.; Ode, Peter R.; Peek, Ryan; Quiñones, Rebecca M.; Rehn, Andrew C.; Santos, Nick; Schoenig, Steve; Serpa, Larry; Shedd, Jackson D.; Slusark, Joe; Viers, Joshua H.; Wright, Amber; Morrison, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    The ranges and abundances of species that depend on freshwater habitats are declining worldwide. Efforts to counteract those trends are often hampered by a lack of information about species distribution and conservation status and are often strongly biased toward a few well-studied groups. We identified the 3,906 vascular plants, macroinvertebrates, and vertebrates native to California, USA, that depend on fresh water for at least one stage of their life history. We evaluated the conservation status for these taxa using existing government and non-governmental organization assessments (e.g., endangered species act, NatureServe), created a spatial database of locality observations or distribution information from ~400 data sources, and mapped patterns of richness, endemism, and vulnerability. Although nearly half of all taxa with conservation status (n = 1,939) are vulnerable to extinction, only 114 (6%) of those vulnerable taxa have a legal mandate for protection in the form of formal inclusion on a state or federal endangered species list. Endemic taxa are at greater risk than non-endemics, with 90% of the 927 endemic taxa vulnerable to extinction. Records with spatial data were available for a total of 2,276 species (61%). The patterns of species richness differ depending on the taxonomic group analyzed, but are similar across taxonomic level. No particular taxonomic group represents an umbrella for all species, but hotspots of high richness for listed species cover 40% of the hotspots for all other species and 58% of the hotspots for vulnerable freshwater species. By mapping freshwater species hotspots we show locations that represent the top priority for conservation action in the state. This study identifies opportunities to fill gaps in the evaluation of conservation status for freshwater taxa in California, to address the lack of occurrence information for nearly 40% of freshwater taxa and nearly 40% of watersheds in the state, and to implement adequate

  18. Is the extremely rare Iberian endemic plant species Castrilanthemum debeauxii (Compositae, Anthemideae) a 'living fossil'? Evidence from a multi-locus species tree reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Tomasello, Salvatore; Álvarez, Inés; Vargas, Pablo; Oberprieler, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    The present study provides results of multi-species coalescent species tree analyses of DNA sequences sampled from multiple nuclear and plastid regions to infer the phylogenetic relationships among the members of the subtribe Leucanthemopsidinae (Compositae, Anthemideae), to which besides the annual Castrilanthemum debeauxii (Degen, Hervier & É.Rev.) Vogt & Oberp., one of the rarest flowering plant species of the Iberian Peninsula, two other unispecific genera (Hymenostemma, Prolongoa), and the polyploidy complex of the genus Leucanthemopsis belong. Based on sequence information from two single- to low-copy nuclear regions (C16, D35, characterised by Chapman et al. (2007)), the multi-copy region of the nrDNA internal transcribed spacer regions ITS1 and ITS2, and two intergenic spacer regions of the cpDNA gene trees were reconstructed using Bayesian inference methods. For the reconstruction of a multi-locus species tree we applied three different methods: (a) analysis of concatenated sequences using Bayesian inference (MrBayes), (b) a tree reconciliation approach by minimizing the number of deep coalescences (PhyloNet), and (c) a coalescent-based species-tree method in a Bayesian framework ((∗)BEAST). All three species tree reconstruction methods unequivocally support the close relationship of the subtribe with the hitherto unclassified genus Phalacrocarpum, the sister-group relationship of Castrilanthemum with the three remaining genera of the subtribe, and the further sister-group relationship of the clade of Hymenostemma+Prolongoa with a monophyletic genus Leucanthemopsis. Dating of the (∗)BEAST phylogeny supports the long-lasting (Early Miocene, 15-22Ma) taxonomical independence and the switch from the plesiomorphic perennial to the apomorphic annual life-form assumed for the Castrilanthemum lineage that may have occurred not earlier than in the Pliocene (3Ma) when the establishment of a Mediterranean climate with summer droughts triggered evolution towards

  19. When endemic coral-reef fish species serve as models: endemic mimicry patterns in the Marquesas Islands.

    PubMed

    Delrieu-Trottin, E; Planes, S; Williams, J T

    2016-09-01

    This article documents several cases of widespread species, which usually mimic other widespread species throughout the Indo-Pacific, using endemic Marquesan species as a model and displaying endemic mimicry patterns. This discovery adds a new line of evidence to the uniqueness of the Marquesas Islands, which not only host a high number of endemic reef-fish species, but also endemic mimicry patterns.

  20. Global warming and extinctions of endemic species from biodiversity hotspots.

    PubMed

    Malcolm, Jay R; Liu, Canran; Neilson, Ronald P; Hansen, Lara; Hannah, Lee

    2006-04-01

    Global warming is a key threat to biodiversity, but few researchers have assessed the magnitude of this threat at the global scale. We used major vegetation types (biomes) as proxies for natural habitats and, based on projected future biome distributions under doubled-CO2 climates, calculated changes in habitat areas and associated extinctions of endemic plant and vertebrate species in biodiversity hotspots. Because of numerous uncertainties in this approach, we undertook a sensitivity analysis of multiple factors that included (1) two global vegetation models, (2) different numbers of biome classes in our biome classification schemes, (3) different assumptions about whether species distributions were biome specific or not, and (4) different migration capabilities. Extinctions were calculated using both species-area and endemic-area relationships. In addition, average required migration rates were calculated for each hotspot assuming a doubled-CO2 climate in 100 years. Projected percent extinctions ranged from <1 to 43% of the endemic biota (average 11.6%), with biome specificity having the greatest influence on the estimates, followed by the global vegetation model and then by migration and biome classification assumptions. Bootstrap comparisons indicated that effects on hotpots as a group were not significantly different from effects on random same-biome collections of grid cells with respect to biome change or migration rates; in some scenarios, however, botspots exhibited relatively high biome change and low migration rates. Especially vulnerable hotspots were the Cape Floristic Region, Caribbean, Indo-Burma, Mediterranean Basin, Southwest Australia, and Tropical Andes, where plant extinctions per hotspot sometimes exceeded 2000 species. Under the assumption that projected habitat changes were attained in 100 years, estimated global-warming-induced rates of species extinctions in tropical hotspots in some cases exceeded those due to deforestation, supporting

  1. A database on endemic plants at Tirumala hills in India

    PubMed Central

    Latheef, Shaik Abdul; Prasad, Beerkam; Bavaji, Middi; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam

    2008-01-01

    Medicinal plants play an important role in health care. The use of medicinal plants for treatment is growing in view of cost and non-compliance of modern medicine as in case of non-communicable diseases. Plants such as Boswellia, ovalifoliolata, Cycas beddomei, Pimpinella tirupatiensis, Pterocarpus santalinus, Shorea thumbuggaia, Syzygium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida are endemic to Tirumala hills of seshachalam range falling under the Eastern Ghats of India. These plants species have medicinal properties such as anti-tumorogenic, anti-microbial, purgative, hypoglycemic, abortificient, analgesic, anti-septic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory. We created a database named DEPTH in an attempt to communicate data of these plants to the scientific community. DEPTH contains data on scientific name, vernacular name, family name, morphological description, economic importance, known medicinal compounds and medicinal importance. Availability http://svimstpt.ap.nic.in/MedicinalPlants/mainpage.htm PMID:18317578

  2. A database on endemic plants at Tirumala hills in India.

    PubMed

    Latheef, Shaik Abdul; Prasad, Beerkam; Bavaji, Middi; Subramanyam, Gangapatnam

    2008-01-27

    Medicinal plants play an important role in health care. The use of medicinal plants for treatment is growing in view of cost and non-compliance of modern medicine as in case of non-communicable diseases. Plants such as Boswellia, ovalifoliolata, Cycas beddomei, Pimpinella tirupatiensis, Pterocarpus santalinus, Shorea thumbuggaia, Syzygium alternifolium, Terminalia pallida are endemic to Tirumala hills of seshachalam range falling under the Eastern Ghats of India. These plants species have medicinal properties such as anti-tumorogenic, anti-microbial, purgative, hypoglycemic, abortificient, analgesic, anti-septic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory. We created a database named DEPTH in an attempt to communicate data of these plants to the scientific community. DEPTH contains data on scientific name, vernacular name, family name, morphological description, economic importance, known medicinal compounds and medicinal importance. http://svimstpt.ap.nic.in/MedicinalPlants/mainpage.htm.

  3. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation.

    PubMed

    Swenson, Jennifer J; Young, Bruce E; Beck, Stephan; Comer, Pat; Córdova, Jesús H; Dyson, Jessica; Embert, Dirk; Encarnación, Filomeno; Ferreira, Wanderley; Franke, Irma; Grossman, Dennis; Hernandez, Pilar; Herzog, Sebastian K; Josse, Carmen; Navarro, Gonzalo; Pacheco, Víctor; Stein, Bruce A; Timaná, Martín; Tovar, Antonio; Tovar, Carolina; Vargas, Julieta; Zambrana-Torrelio, Carlos M

    2012-01-27

    The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants) and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients) with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000), based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (< 20 km2 to > 200,000 km2) across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic species have

  4. Plant and animal endemism in the eastern Andean slope: challenges to conservation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The Andes-Amazon basin of Peru and Bolivia is one of the most data-poor, biologically rich, and rapidly changing areas of the world. Conservation scientists agree that this area hosts extremely high endemism, perhaps the highest in the world, yet we know little about the geographic distributions of these species and ecosystems within country boundaries. To address this need, we have developed conservation data on endemic biodiversity (~800 species of birds, mammals, amphibians, and plants) and terrestrial ecological systems (~90; groups of vegetation communities resulting from the action of ecological processes, substrates, and/or environmental gradients) with which we conduct a fine scale conservation prioritization across the Amazon watershed of Peru and Bolivia. We modelled the geographic distributions of 435 endemic plants and all 347 endemic vertebrate species, from existing museum and herbaria specimens at a regional conservation practitioner's scale (1:250,000-1:1,000,000), based on the best available tools and geographic data. We mapped ecological systems, endemic species concentrations, and irreplaceable areas with respect to national level protected areas. Results We found that sizes of endemic species distributions ranged widely (< 20 km2 to > 200,000 km2) across the study area. Bird and mammal endemic species richness was greatest within a narrow 2500-3000 m elevation band along the length of the Andes Mountains. Endemic amphibian richness was highest at 1000-1500 m elevation and concentrated in the southern half of the study area. Geographical distribution of plant endemism was highly taxon-dependent. Irreplaceable areas, defined as locations with the highest number of species with narrow ranges, overlapped slightly with areas of high endemism, yet generally exhibited unique patterns across the study area by species group. We found that many endemic species and ecological systems are lacking national-level protection; a third of endemic

  5. Cytotoxicity screening of endemic plants from Guayana highlands.

    PubMed

    Guil-Guerrero, José Luis; Campra, Pablo

    2009-08-01

    A chemical-ecology approach has been used to screen plants growing in Guyana Highlands as an indicator of production of biologically active secondary metabolites. Extracts of leaves from 19 species, most of them endemic in this area, and collected at the top of Roraima Tepui (2,723 m) were screened in vitro at different concentrations for their potential cytotoxic activity against three tumour cell lines: HT29 (colon), A549 (lung) and MDA-MB-231 (breast). MTT (tetrazolium blue) colorimetric assay was employed as cytotoxicity test. Extracts of nine species caused less than 30% growth in at least one cell line. From these species, high cytotoxic activity was detected in Casearia sylvestris var. lingua and Ledotamnus sessiliflorus extracts; medium activity was found in Cyathea sp. Two other species, Cyrilla racemiflora and Heliamphora minor showed lower but significant cytotoxicity. Further cytotoxicity-directed fractionation of these extracts would be advisable to isolate and identify the active principles of these plants.

  6. Among-species differences in pollen quality and quantity limitation: implications for endemics in biodiverse hotspots.

    PubMed

    Alonso, Conchita; Navarro-Fernández, Carmen M; Arceo-Gómez, Gerardo; Meindl, George A; Parra-Tabla, Víctor; Ashman, Tia-Lynn

    2013-11-01

    Insufficient pollination is a function of quantity and quality of pollen receipt, and the relative contribution of each to pollen limitation may vary with intrinsic plant traits and extrinsic ecological properties. Community-level studies are essential to evaluate variation across species in quality limitation under common ecological conditions. This study examined whether endemic species are more limited by pollen quantity or quality than non-endemic co-flowering species in three endemic-rich plant communities located in biodiversity hotspots of different continents (Andalusia, California and Yucatan). Natural variations in pollen receipt and pollen tube formation were analysed for 20 insect-pollinated plants. Endemic and non-endemic species that co-flowered were paired in order to estimate and compare the quantity and quality components of pre-zygotic pollination success, obtained through piecewise regression analysis of the relationship between pollen grains and pollen tubes of naturally pollinated wilted flowers. Pollen tubes did not frequently exceed the number of ovules per flower. Only the combination of abundant and good quality pollen and a low number of ovules per flower conferred relief from pre-zygotic pollen limitation in the three stochastic pollination environments studied. Quality of pollen receipt was found to be as variable as quantity among study species. The relative pollination success of endemic and non-endemic species, and its quantity and quality components, was community dependent. Assessing both quality and quantity of pollen receipt is key to determining the ovule fertilization potential of both endemic and widespread plants in biodiverse hotspot regions. Large natural variation among flowers of the same species in the two components and pollen tube formation deserves further analysis in order to estimate the environmental, phenotypic and intraindividual sources of variation that may affect how plants evolve to overcome this limitation in

  7. Kenyan endemic bird species at home in novel ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Habel, Jan Christian; Teucher, Mike; Rödder, Dennis; Bleicher, Marie-Therese; Dieckow, Claudia; Wiese, Anja; Fischer, Christina

    2016-04-01

    Riparian thickets of East Africa harbor a large number of endemic animal and plant species, but also provide important ecosystem services for the human being settling along streams. This creates a conflicting situation between nature conservation and land-use activities. Today, most of this former pristine vegetation is highly degraded and became replaced by the invasive exotic Lantana camara shrub species. In this study, we analyze the movement behavior and habitat use of a diverse range of riparian bird species and model the habitat availability of each of these species. We selected the following four riparian bird species: Bare-eyed Thrush Turdus tephronotus, Rufous Chatterer Turdoides rubiginosus, Zanzibar Sombre Greenbul Andropadus importunus insularis, and the Kenyan endemic Hinde's Babbler Turdoides hindei. We collected telemetric data of 14 individuals during a 2 months radio-tracking campaign along the Nzeeu River in southeast Kenya. We found that (1) all four species had similar home-range sizes, all geographically restricted and nearby the river; (2) all species mainly use dense thicket, in particular the invasive L. camara; (3) human settlements were avoided by the bird individuals observed; (4) the birds' movement, indicating foraging behavior, was comparatively slow within thickets, but significantly faster over open, agricultural areas; and (5) habitat suitability models underline the relevance of L. camara as suitable surrogate habitat for all understoreyed bird species, but also show that the clearance of thickets has led to a vanishing of large and interconnected thickets and thus might have negative effects on the population viability in the long run.

  8. Endemic plants harbour specific Trichoderma communities with an exceptional potential for biocontrol of phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Zachow, Christin; Berg, Christian; Müller, Henry; Monk, Jana; Berg, Gabriele

    2016-10-10

    Trichoderma strains exhibit enormous potential for applications in biotechnology, in particular as biocontrol agents against pathogens. However, little is known about the diversity of plant-associated Trichoderma communities at a global scale and their antagonistic spectrum. In order to gather information about structure and function, we compared Trichoderma biomes of endemic (Aeonium, Diospyros, Hebe, Rhododendron) and cosmopolitan plants (Zea mays) in a global study encompassing the area Northwest Africa to New Zealand via the European Alps and Madagascar. At the quantitative level we found no differences between cosmopolitan and endemic plants. Statistically significant differences were detected at the qualitative level: Trichoderma populations of endemic plants were highly specific and diverse with hot spots appearing in Madagascar and New Zealand. By contrast, maize plants from all sites shared the majority of Trichoderma species (65.5%). Interestingly, the high above ground biodiversity in ecosystems containing endemic plants was confirmed by a high below ground Trichoderma diversity. Despite the differences, we found a global Trichoderma core community shared by all analysed plants, which was dominated by T. koningii and T. koningiopsis. Amplicon-based network analyses revealed a high similarity between maize Trichoderma grown world-wide and distinct populations of endemic plants. Furthermore, Trichoderma strains from endemic plants showed a higher antagonistic activity against fungal pathogens compared to maize-associated strains. Our results showed that endemic plants are associated with a specific Trichoderma microbiome which possesses a high antagonistic activity indicating that it has potential to be used for biocontrol purposes.

  9. A global assessment of endemism and species richness across island and mainland regions.

    PubMed

    Kier, Gerold; Kreft, Holger; Lee, Tien Ming; Jetz, Walter; Ibisch, Pierre L; Nowicki, Christoph; Mutke, Jens; Barthlott, Wilhelm

    2009-06-09

    Endemism and species richness are highly relevant to the global prioritization of conservation efforts in which oceanic islands have remained relatively neglected. When compared to mainland areas, oceanic islands in general are known for their high percentage of endemic species but only moderate levels of species richness, prompting the question of their relative conservation value. Here we quantify geographic patterns of endemism-scaled richness ("endemism richness") of vascular plants across 90 terrestrial biogeographic regions, including islands, worldwide and evaluate their congruence with terrestrial vertebrates. Endemism richness of plants and vertebrates is strongly related, and values on islands exceed those of mainland regions by a factor of 9.5 and 8.1 for plants and vertebrates, respectively. Comparisons of different measures of past and future human impact and land cover change further reveal marked differences between mainland and island regions. While island and mainland regions suffered equally from past habitat loss, we find the human impact index, a measure of current threat, to be significantly higher on islands. Projected land-cover changes for the year 2100 indicate that land-use-driven changes on islands might strongly increase in the future. Given their conservation risks, smaller land areas, and high levels of endemism richness, islands may offer particularly high returns for species conservation efforts and therefore warrant a high priority in global biodiversity conservation in this century.

  10. A comparative study of the antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant activity and total content of phenolic compounds of cell cultures and wild plants of three endemic species of Ephedra.

    PubMed

    Parsaeimehr, Ali; Sargsyan, Elmira; Javidnia, Katayoun

    2010-03-11

    Investigations were carried out to determine antimicrobial and antioxidant properties and total phenol content of three wild species of Ephedra compared with their respective callus cultures. Callus induction was performed in a standard Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium with the following hormonal ranges (mg/L) for every species NAA:1.5, Kin:1 for Ephedra strobiliacea, NAA:2, Kin:1 for Ephedra procera and NAA:2, Kin:0.5 for Ephedra pachyclada. These ranges of PGPR (Plant Growth Promote Regulators) were chosen based on callus induction rates, RGR (Relative Growth Rate) and their fresh weights. An antimicrobial test against five gram negative and two gram positive bacteria and two fungi was performed using the disc diffusion method. All methanolic extracts showed antimicrobial activity, but the antimicrobial activity of the callus cultures was lower than those of the wild plants. E. strobilacea showed the highest antimicrobial activity, and all methanolic extracts of the wild plants and callus cultures unexpectedly showed the highest antimicrobial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. A FRAP (Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power) test was conducted to evaluate extracts for antioxidant activity. E. strobilacea with 1.61 +/- 0.08 mmol eq quercetin/g extract and 0.278 +/- 0.02 mmol eq quercetin/g extract for the wild plant and callus, respectively, showed the highest results.The total phenol content of extracts was measured by a Folin Ciocalteau test. All the chosen species displayed phenol contents but E. strobilacea had the highest amount (504.9 +/- 41.51 micromol eq catechin/g extracts and 114.61 +/- 15.13 micromol eq catechin/g extracts for the wild plants and callus, respectively).

  11. Transcriptomic resources for an endemic Neotropical plant lineage (Gesneriaceae).

    PubMed

    Serrano-Serrano, Martha L; Marcionetti, Anna; Perret, Mathieu; Salamin, Nicolas

    2017-04-01

    Despite the extensive phenotypic variation that characterizes the Gesneriaceae family, there is a lack of genomic resources to investigate the molecular basis of their diversity. We developed and compared the transcriptomes for two species of the Neotropical lineage of the Gesneriaceae. Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of floral and leaf samples were used to generate multigene sequence data for Sinningia eumorpha and S. magnifica, two species endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A total of 300 million reads were used to assemble the transcriptomes, with an average of 92,038 transcripts and 43,506 genes per species. The transcriptomes showed good quality metrics, with the presence of all eukaryotic core genes, and an equal representation of clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classifications between species. The orthologous search produced 8602 groups, with 15-20% of them annotated using BLAST tools. This study provides the first step toward a comprehensive multispecies transcriptome characterization of the Gesneriaceae family. These resources are the basis for comparative analyses in this species-rich Neotropical plant group; they will also allow the investigation of the evolutionary importance of multiple metabolic pathways and phenotypic diversity, as well as developmental programs in these nonmodel species.

  12. Transcriptomic resources for an endemic Neotropical plant lineage (Gesneriaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Serrano, Martha L.; Marcionetti, Anna; Perret, Mathieu; Salamin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Despite the extensive phenotypic variation that characterizes the Gesneriaceae family, there is a lack of genomic resources to investigate the molecular basis of their diversity. We developed and compared the transcriptomes for two species of the Neotropical lineage of the Gesneriaceae. Methods and Results: Illumina sequencing and de novo assembly of floral and leaf samples were used to generate multigene sequence data for Sinningia eumorpha and S. magnifica, two species endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A total of 300 million reads were used to assemble the transcriptomes, with an average of 92,038 transcripts and 43,506 genes per species. The transcriptomes showed good quality metrics, with the presence of all eukaryotic core genes, and an equal representation of clusters of orthologous groups (COG) classifications between species. The orthologous search produced 8602 groups, with 15–20% of them annotated using BLAST tools. Discussion: This study provides the first step toward a comprehensive multispecies transcriptome characterization of the Gesneriaceae family. These resources are the basis for comparative analyses in this species-rich Neotropical plant group; they will also allow the investigation of the evolutionary importance of multiple metabolic pathways and phenotypic diversity, as well as developmental programs in these nonmodel species. PMID:28439475

  13. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L; Treglia, Michael L; Grant, William E; Smeins, Fred E; Rogers, William E

    2015-04-21

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also

  14. Species distribution modelling for conservation of an endangered endemic orchid

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiao-Hsuan; Wonkka, Carissa L.; Treglia, Michael L.; Grant, William E.; Smeins, Fred E.; Rogers, William E.

    2015-01-01

    Concerns regarding the long-term viability of threatened and endangered plant species are increasingly warranted given the potential impacts of climate change and habitat fragmentation on unstable and isolated populations. Orchidaceae is the largest and most diverse family of flowering plants, but it is currently facing unprecedented risks of extinction. Despite substantial conservation emphasis on rare orchids, populations continue to decline. Spiranthes parksii (Navasota ladies' tresses) is a federally and state-listed endangered terrestrial orchid endemic to central Texas. Hence, we aimed to identify potential factors influencing the distribution of the species, quantify the relative importance of each factor and determine suitable habitat for future surveys and targeted conservation efforts. We analysed several geo-referenced variables describing climatic conditions and landscape features to identify potential factors influencing the likelihood of occurrence of S. parksii using boosted regression trees. Our model classified 97 % of the cells correctly with regard to species presence and absence, and indicated that probability of existence was correlated with climatic conditions and landscape features. The most influential variables were mean annual precipitation, mean elevation, mean annual minimum temperature and mean annual maximum temperature. The most likely suitable range for S. parksii was the eastern portions of Leon and Madison Counties, the southern portion of Brazos County, a portion of northern Grimes County and along the borders between Burleson and Washington Counties. Our model can assist in the development of an integrated conservation strategy through: (i) focussing future survey and research efforts on areas with a high likelihood of occurrence, (ii) aiding in selection of areas for conservation and restoration and (iii) framing future research questions including those necessary for predicting responses to climate change. Our model could also

  15. A new species of Amphitecna (Bignoniaceae) endemic to Chiapas, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Rodriguez, Andres Ernesto; Burelo Ramos, Carlos Manuel; Gomez-Dominguez, Héctor

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Amphitecna loreae Ortiz-Rodr. & Burelo, sp. nov. (Bignoniaceae), a new species endemic to the karst rainforest in southern Mexico, is described and illustrated. The new species differs from the other species of Amphitecna by the combination of cauliflorous inflorescences, larger flowers, buds rounded at apex, and globose-ellipsoid rather than acuminate fruits. A key to the Mexican species of Amphitecna is presented. PMID:27489485

  16. The endemic medicinal plants of Northern Balochistan, Pakistan and their uses in traditional medicine.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Tahira; Ahmad, Mushtaq; Mohammad Tareen, Niaz; Jabeen, Rukhsana; Sultana, Shazia; Zafar, Muhammad; Zain-ul-Abidin, Sheikh

    2015-09-15

    The highlands of Northern Balochistan are the hot spots of medicinal and endemic plant in Pakistan. These plants are still commonly used for medicinal purposes by local people in their daily lives. This study first documented the information about the medicinal uses of endemic species of Balochistan-province Pakistan. A survey was performed using open ended questionnaires, free listening and personal observations with 152 informants (54% female, 46% male). In addition, the use value (MUV), use report (UR), fidelity level (FL), frequency citation (FC), relative frequency citation (RFC), family importance value (FIV) of species were determined and the informant consensus factor (ICF) was calculated for the medicinal plants included in the study. A total of 24 endemic plants belonging to 19 genera and 14 families were used by the local inhabitants to treat 12 categories of various diseases. The most common families of endemic plant species as depicted by its number of species (6 species) and FIV (9.9) was Fabaceae as the dominant family. The endemic plant species comprised perennial herbs (30%), annual herbs (25%), shrubs (29%) and under shrubs (16% each), no endemic tree species was reported in the study area. The highest number of species were used in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases (12 species). The main route of administration is oral injection (62%) while the most frequently used form of external administration of herbal medicine was paste (5.4%) and the most commonly applied methods of preparation are powder (48.2%). Highest use report were calculated for Allium baluchistanicum and Viola makranica, (8 UR each), and least use report were calculated for two species Heliotropium remotiflorum and Tetracme stocksii (1 UR for each). Use values of the recorded plant species have been calculated which showed a highest use value of (0.73) for A. baluchistanicum and (0.56) for Berberis baluchistanica while the lowest UVs were attained for T. stocksii (0

  17. Endemic Mimosa species from Mexico prefer alphaproteobacterial rhizobial symbionts.

    PubMed

    Bontemps, Cyril; Rogel, Marco Antonio; Wiechmann, Anja; Mussabekova, Assel; Moody, Sarah; Simon, Marcelo F; Moulin, Lionel; Elliott, Geoffrey N; Lacercat-Didier, Laurence; Dasilva, Cindy; Grether, Rosaura; Camargo-Ricalde, Sara L; Chen, Weimin; Sprent, Janet I; Martínez-Romero, Esperanza; Young, J Peter W; James, Euan K

    2016-01-01

    The legume genus Mimosa has > 500 species, with two major centres of diversity, Brazil (c. 350 spp.) and Mexico (c. 100 spp.). In Brazil most species are nodulated by Burkholderia. Here we asked whether this is also true of native and endemic Mexican species. We have tested this apparent affinity for betaproteobacteria by examining the symbionts of native and endemic species of Mimosa in Mexico, especially from the central highlands where Mimosa spp. have diversified. Nodules were tested for betaproteobacteria using in situ immunolocalization. Rhizobia isolated from the nodules were genetically characterized and tested for their ability to nodulate Mimosa spp. Immunological analysis of 25 host taxa suggested that most (including all the highland endemics) were not nodulated by betaproteobacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S rRNA, recA, nodA, nodC and nifH genes from 87 strains isolated from 20 taxa confirmed that the endemic Mexican Mimosa species favoured alphaproteobacteria in the genera Rhizobium and Ensifer: this was confirmed by nodulation tests. Host phylogeny, geographic isolation and coevolution with symbionts derived from very different soils have potentially contributed to the striking difference in the choice of symbiotic partners by Mexican and Brazilian Mimosa species.

  18. Introducing two federally listed carbonate-endemic plants onto a disturbed site in the San Bernardino Mountains, California

    Treesearch

    Orlando Mistretta; Scott D. White

    2001-01-01

    Erigeron parishii and Eriogonum ovalifolium var. vineum are federally listed local endemic plants occurring almost exclusively on carbonate soils in the northeastern San Bernardino Mountains. In 1991 and 1992, both species were planted onto a barren cut slope above a limestone quarry haul road. The plants were irrigated through the first summer and fall after planting...

  19. Climatic Factors Drive Population Divergence and Demography: Insights Based on the Phylogeography of a Riparian Plant Species Endemic to the Hengduan Mountains and Adjacent Regions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Shao-Tian; Nie, Ze-Long; Zhang, Jian-Wen; Zhou, Zhuo; Deng, Tao; Sun, Hang

    2015-01-01

    Quaternary climatic factors have played a significant role in population divergence and demography. Here we investigated the phylogeography of Osteomeles schwerinae, a dominant riparian plant species of the hot/warm-dry river valleys of the Hengduan Mountains (HDM), Qinling Mountains (QLM) and Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau (YGP). Three chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) regions (trnD-trnT, psbD-trnT, petL-psbE), one single copy nuclear gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase; G3pdh), and climatic data during the Last Interglacial (LIG; c. 120–140 ka), Last Glacial Maximum (LGM; c. 21 ka), and Current (c. 1950–2000) periods were used in this study. Six cpDNA haplotypes and 15 nuclear DNA (nDNA) haplotypes were identified in the 40 populations of O. schwerinae. Spatial Analysis of Molecular Variance, median-joining networks, and Bayesian phylogenetic trees based on the cpDNA and nDNA datasets, all suggested population divergence between the QLM and HDM-YGP regions. Our climatic analysis identified significant heterogeneity of the climatic factors in the QLM and HDM-YGP regions during the aforementioned three periods. The divergence times based on cpDNA and nDNA haplotypes were estimated to be 466.4–159.4 ka and 315.8–160.3 ka, respectively, which coincide with the time of the weakening of the Asian monsoons in these regions. In addition, unimodal pairwise mismatch distribution curves, expansion times, and Ecological Niche Modeling suggested a history of population expansion (rather than contraction) during the last glaciation. Interestingly, the expansion times were found being well consistent with the intensification of the Asian monsoons during this period. We inferred that the divergence between the two main lineages is probably caused by disruption of more continuous distribution because of weakening of monsoons/less precipitation, whilst subsequent intensification of the Asian monsoons during the last glaciation facilitated the expansion of O. schwerinae

  20. Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera.

    PubMed

    Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muñoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the "value" of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes.

  1. Endemicity and evolutionary value: a study of Chilean endemic vascular plant genera

    PubMed Central

    Scherson, Rosa A; Albornoz, Abraham A; Moreira-Muñoz, Andrés S; Urbina-Casanova, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    This study uses phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential (phylogenetic diversity and community structure) to evaluate the evolutionary value of vascular plant genera endemic to Chile. Endemicity is regarded as a very important consideration for conservation purposes. Taxa that are endemic to a single country are valuable conservation targets, as their protection depends upon a single government policy. This is especially relevant in developing countries in which conservation is not always a high resource allocation priority. Phylogeny-based measures of evolutionary potential such as phylogenetic diversity (PD) have been regarded as meaningful measures of the “value” of taxa and ecosystems, as they are able to account for the attributes that could allow taxa to recover from environmental changes. Chile is an area of remarkable endemism, harboring a flora that shows the highest number of endemic genera in South America. We studied PD and community structure of this flora using a previously available supertree at the genus level, to which we added DNA sequences of 53 genera endemic to Chile. Using discrepancy values and a null model approach, we decoupled PD from taxon richness, in order to compare their geographic distribution over a one-degree grid. An interesting pattern was observed in which areas to the southwest appear to harbor more PD than expected by their generic richness than those areas to the north of the country. In addition, some southern areas showed more PD than expected by chance, as calculated with the null model approach. Geological history as documented by the study of ancient floras as well as glacial refuges in the coastal range of southern Chile during the quaternary seem to be consistent with the observed pattern, highlighting the importance of this area for conservation purposes. PMID:24683462

  2. Recovering endemic plants of the Channel Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McEachern, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    At the California Channel Islands, off the state’s southern coast, cold waters from the north mix with warmer waters from the south. Each of the eight Channel Islands, which were never connected to the mainland, developed unique floras as colonizing plants adapted to their new island homes. This part of California is one of only five Mediterranean climate regions in the world, characterized by hot, dry summers and cool, wet winters. Thus, the islands support a truly unusual assemblage of plants and animals found nowhere else.

  3. Long-term shifts in the phenology of rare and endemic Rocky Mountain plants.

    PubMed

    Munson, Seth M; Sher, Anna A

    2015-08-01

    • Mountainous regions support high plant productivity, diversity, and endemism, yet are highly vulnerable to climate change. Historical records and model predictions show increasing temperatures across high elevation regions including the Southern Rocky Mountains, which can have a strong influence on the performance and distribution of montane plant species. Rare plant species can be particularly vulnerable to climate change because of their limited abundance and distribution.• We tracked the phenology of rare and endemic species, which are identified as imperiled, across three different habitat types with herbarium records to determine if flowering time has changed over the last century, and if phenological change was related to shifts in climate.• We found that the flowering date of rare species has accelerated 3.1 d every decade (42 d total) since the late 1800s, with plants in sagebrush interbasins showing the strongest accelerations in phenology. High winter temperatures were associated with the acceleration of phenology in low elevation sagebrush and barren river habitats, whereas high spring temperatures explained accelerated phenology in the high elevation alpine habitat. In contrast, high spring temperatures delayed the phenology of plant species in the two low-elevation habitats and precipitation had mixed effects depending on the season.• These results provide evidence for large shifts in the phenology of rare Rocky Mountain plants related to climate, which can have strong effects on plant fitness, the abundance of associated wildlife, and the future of plant conservation in mountainous regions. © 2015 Botanical Society of America, Inc.

  4. Global patterns of freshwater species diversity, threat and endemism.

    PubMed

    Collen, Ben; Whitton, Felix; Dyer, Ellie E; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Cumberlidge, Neil; Darwall, William R T; Pollock, Caroline; Richman, Nadia I; Soulsby, Anne-Marie; Böhm, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Global-scale studies are required to identify broad-scale patterns in the distributions of species, to evaluate the processes that determine diversity and to determine how similar or different these patterns and processes are among different groups of freshwater species. Broad-scale patterns of spatial variation in species distribution are central to many fundamental questions in macroecology and conservation biology. We aimed to evaluate how congruent three commonly used metrics of diversity were among taxa for six groups of freshwater species. Global. We compiled geographical range data on 7083 freshwater species of mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fishes, crabs and crayfish to evaluate how species richness, richness of threatened species and endemism are distributed across freshwater ecosystems. We evaluated how congruent these measures of diversity were among taxa at a global level for a grid cell size of just under 1°. We showed that although the risk of extinction faced by freshwater decapods is quite similar to that of freshwater vertebrates, there is a distinct lack of spatial congruence in geographical range between different taxonomic groups at this spatial scale, and a lack of congruence among three commonly used metrics of biodiversity. The risk of extinction for freshwater species was consistently higher than for their terrestrial counterparts. We demonstrate that broad-scale patterns of species richness, threatened-species richness and endemism lack congruence among the six freshwater taxonomic groups examined. Invertebrate species are seldom taken into account in conservation planning. Our study suggests that both the metric of biodiversity and the identity of the taxa on which conservation decisions are based require careful consideration. As geographical range information becomes available for further sets of species, further testing will be warranted into the extent to which geographical variation in the richness of these six freshwater groups

  5. Global patterns of freshwater species diversity, threat and endemism

    PubMed Central

    Collen, Ben; Whitton, Felix; Dyer, Ellie E; Baillie, Jonathan E M; Cumberlidge, Neil; Darwall, William R T; Pollock, Caroline; Richman, Nadia I; Soulsby, Anne-Marie; Böhm, Monika

    2014-01-01

    Aim Global-scale studies are required to identify broad-scale patterns in the distributions of species, to evaluate the processes that determine diversity and to determine how similar or different these patterns and processes are among different groups of freshwater species. Broad-scale patterns of spatial variation in species distribution are central to many fundamental questions in macroecology and conservation biology. We aimed to evaluate how congruent three commonly used metrics of diversity were among taxa for six groups of freshwater species. Location Global. Methods We compiled geographical range data on 7083 freshwater species of mammals, amphibians, reptiles, fishes, crabs and crayfish to evaluate how species richness, richness of threatened species and endemism are distributed across freshwater ecosystems. We evaluated how congruent these measures of diversity were among taxa at a global level for a grid cell size of just under 1°. Results We showed that although the risk of extinction faced by freshwater decapods is quite similar to that of freshwater vertebrates, there is a distinct lack of spatial congruence in geographical range between different taxonomic groups at this spatial scale, and a lack of congruence among three commonly used metrics of biodiversity. The risk of extinction for freshwater species was consistently higher than for their terrestrial counterparts. Main conclusions We demonstrate that broad-scale patterns of species richness, threatened-species richness and endemism lack congruence among the six freshwater taxonomic groups examined. Invertebrate species are seldom taken into account in conservation planning. Our study suggests that both the metric of biodiversity and the identity of the taxa on which conservation decisions are based require careful consideration. As geographical range information becomes available for further sets of species, further testing will be warranted into the extent to which geographical variation in

  6. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands.

    PubMed

    Romeiras, Maria M; Monteiro, Filipa; Duarte, M Cristina; Schaefer, Hanno; Carine, Mark

    2015-05-15

    Conservation of plant diversity on islands relies on a good knowledge of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic diversity of species. In recent decades, a combination of morphology- and DNA-based approaches has become the standard for investigating island plant lineages and this has led, in some cases, to the discovery of previously overlooked diversity, including 'cryptic species'. The flora of the Cape Verde archipelago in the North Atlantic is currently thought to comprise ∼740 vascular plant species, 92 of them endemics. Despite the fact that it is considered relatively well known, there has been a 12 % increase in the number of endemics in the last two decades. Relatively few of the Cape Verde plant lineages have been included in genetic studies so far and little is known about the patterns of diversification in the archipelago. Here we present an updated list for the endemic Cape Verde flora and analyse diversity patterns for three endemic plant lineages (Cynanchum, Globularia and Umbilicus) based on one nuclear (ITS) and four plastid DNA regions. In all three lineages, we find genetic variation. In Cynanchum, we find two distinct haplotypes with no clear geographical pattern, possibly reflecting different ploidy levels. In Globularia and Umbilicus, differentiation is evident between populations from northern and southern islands. Isolation and drift resulting from the small and fragmented distributions, coupled with the significant distances separating the northern and southern islands, could explain this pattern. Overall, our study suggests that the diversity in the endemic vascular flora of Cape Verde is higher than previously thought and further work is necessary to characterize the flora.

  7. Fungal root endophyte associations of plants endemic to the Pamir Alay Mountains of Central Asia.

    PubMed

    Zubek, Szymon; Nobis, Marcin; Błaszkowski, Janusz; Mleczko, Piotr; Nowak, Arkadiusz

    2011-06-01

    The fungal root endophyte associations of 16 species from 12 families of plants endemic to the Pamir Alay Mountains of Central Asia are presented. The plants and soil samples were collected in Zeravshan and Hissar ranges within the central Pamir Alay mountain system. Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) was found in 15 plant species; in 8 species it was of the Arum type and in 4 of the Paris type, while 3 taxa revealed intermediate arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) morphology. AMF colonization was found to be absent only in Matthiola integrifolia, the representative of the Brassicaceae family. The AM status and morphology are reported for the first time for all the species analyzed and for the genera Asyneuma, Clementsia, and Eremostachys. Mycelia of dark septate endophytes (DSE) accompanied the AMF colonization in ten plant species. The frequency of DSE occurrence in the roots was low in all the plants, with the exception of Spiraea baldschuanica. However, in the case of both low and higher occurrence, the percentage of DSE root colonization was low. Moreover, the sporangia of Olpidium spp. were sporadically found inside the root epidermal cells of three plant species. Seven AMF species (Glomeromycota) found in the trap cultures established with soils surrounding roots of the plants being studied were reported for the first time from this region of Asia. Our results provide information that might well be of use to the conservation and restoration programmes of these valuable plant species. The potential application of beneficial root-inhabiting fungi in active plant protection projects of rare, endemic and endangered plants is discussed.

  8. Potential ecosystem service delivery by endemic plants in New Zealand vineyards: successes and prospects.

    PubMed

    Shields, Morgan W; Tompkins, Jean-Marie; Saville, David J; Meurk, Colin D; Wratten, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Vineyards worldwide occupy over 7 million hectares and are typically virtual monocultures, with high and costly inputs of water and agro-chemicals. Understanding and enhancing ecosystem services can reduce inputs and their costs and help satisfy market demands for evidence of more sustainable practices. In this New Zealand work, low-growing, endemic plant species were evaluated for their potential benefits as Service Providing Units (SPUs) or Ecosystem Service Providers (ESPs). The services provided were weed suppression, conservation of beneficial invertebrates, soil moisture retention and microbial activity. The potential Ecosystem Dis-services (EDS) from the selected plant species by hosting the larvae of a key vine moth pest, the light-brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), was also quantified. Questionnaires were used to evaluate winegrowers' perceptions of the value of and problems associated with such endemic plant species in their vineyards. Growth and survival rates of the 14 plant species, in eight families, were evaluated, with Leptinella dioica (Asteraceae) and Acaena inermis 'purpurea' (Rosaceae) having the highest growth rates in terms of area covered and the highest survival rate after 12 months. All 14 plant species suppressed weeds, with Leptinella squalida, Geranium sessiliforum (Geraniaceae), Hebe chathamica (Plantaginaceae), Scleranthus uniflorus (Caryophyllaceae) and L. dioica, each reducing weed cover by >95%. Plant species also differed in the diversity of arthropods that they supported, with the Shannon Wiener diversity index (H') for these taxa ranging from 0 to 1.3. G. sessiliforum and Muehlenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae) had the highest invertebrate diversity. Density of spiders was correlated with arthropod diversity and G. sessiliflorum and H. chathamica had the highest densities of these arthropods. Several plant species associated with higher soil moisture content than in control plots. The best performing species in this context

  9. Potential ecosystem service delivery by endemic plants in New Zealand vineyards: successes and prospects

    PubMed Central

    Saville, David J.; Meurk, Colin D.; Wratten, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Vineyards worldwide occupy over 7 million hectares and are typically virtual monocultures, with high and costly inputs of water and agro-chemicals. Understanding and enhancing ecosystem services can reduce inputs and their costs and help satisfy market demands for evidence of more sustainable practices. In this New Zealand work, low-growing, endemic plant species were evaluated for their potential benefits as Service Providing Units (SPUs) or Ecosystem Service Providers (ESPs). The services provided were weed suppression, conservation of beneficial invertebrates, soil moisture retention and microbial activity. The potential Ecosystem Dis-services (EDS) from the selected plant species by hosting the larvae of a key vine moth pest, the light-brown apple moth (Epiphyas postvittana), was also quantified. Questionnaires were used to evaluate winegrowers’ perceptions of the value of and problems associated with such endemic plant species in their vineyards. Growth and survival rates of the 14 plant species, in eight families, were evaluated, with Leptinella dioica (Asteraceae) and Acaena inermis ‘purpurea’ (Rosaceae) having the highest growth rates in terms of area covered and the highest survival rate after 12 months. All 14 plant species suppressed weeds, with Leptinella squalida, Geranium sessiliforum (Geraniaceae), Hebe chathamica (Plantaginaceae), Scleranthus uniflorus (Caryophyllaceae) and L. dioica, each reducing weed cover by >95%. Plant species also differed in the diversity of arthropods that they supported, with the Shannon Wiener diversity index (H′) for these taxa ranging from 0 to 1.3. G. sessiliforum and Muehlenbeckia axillaris (Polygonaceae) had the highest invertebrate diversity. Density of spiders was correlated with arthropod diversity and G. sessiliflorum and H. chathamica had the highest densities of these arthropods. Several plant species associated with higher soil moisture content than in control plots. The best performing species in this

  10. The Scirtothrips dorsalis Species Complex: Endemism and Invasion in a Global Pest

    PubMed Central

    Dickey, Aaron M.; Kumar, Vivek; Hoddle, Mark S.; Funderburk, Joe E.; Morgan, J. Kent; Jara-Cavieres, Antonella; Shatters, Robert G. Jr.; Osborne, Lance S.; McKenzie, Cindy L.

    2015-01-01

    Invasive arthropods pose unique management challenges in various environments, the first of which is correct identification. This apparently mundane task is particularly difficult if multiple species are morphologically indistinguishable but accurate identification can be determined with DNA barcoding provided an adequate reference set is available. Scirtothrips dorsalis is a highly polyphagous plant pest with a rapidly expanding global distribution and this species, as currently recognized, may be comprised of cryptic species. Here we report the development of a comprehensive DNA barcode library for S. dorsalis and seven nuclear markers via next-generation sequencing for identification use within the complex. We also report the delimitation of nine cryptic species and two morphologically distinguishable species comprising the S. dorsalis species complex using histogram analysis of DNA barcodes, Bayesian phylogenetics, and the multi-species coalescent. One member of the complex, here designated the South Asia 1 cryptic species, is highly invasive, polyphagous, and likely the species implicated in tospovirus transmission. Two other species, South Asia 2, and East Asia 1 are also highly polyphagous and appear to be at an earlier stage of global invasion. The remaining members of the complex are regionally endemic, varying in their pest status and degree of polyphagy. In addition to patterns of invasion and endemism, our results provide a framework both for identifying members of the complex based on their DNA barcode, and for future species delimiting efforts. PMID:25893251

  11. Differences in insect resistance between tomato species endemic to the Galapagos Islands

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Galapagos Islands constitute a highly diverse ecosystem and a unique source of variation in the form of endemic species. There are two endemic tomato species, Solanum galapagense and S. cheesmaniae and two introduced tomato species, S. pimpinellifolium and S. lycopersicum. Morphologically the two endemic tomato species of the Galapagos Islands are clearly distinct, but molecular marker analysis showed no clear separation. Tomatoes on the Galapagos are affected by both native and exotic herbivores. Bemisia tabaci is an important introduced insect species that feeds on a wide range of plants. In this article, we address the question whether the differentiation between S. galapagense and S. cheesmaniae may be related to differences in susceptibility towards phloem-feeders and used B. tabaci as a model to evaluate this. Results We have characterized 12 accessions of S. galapagense, 22 of S. cheesmaniae, and one of S. lycopersicum as reference for whitefly resistance using no-choice experiments. Whitefly resistance was found in S. galapagense only and was associated with the presence of relatively high levels of acyl sugars and the presence of glandular trichomes of type I and IV. Genetic fingerprinting using 3316 SNP markers did not show a clear differentiation between the two endemic species. Acyl sugar accumulation as well as the climatic and geographical conditions at the collection sites of the accessions did not follow the morphological species boundaries. Conclusion Our results suggest that S. galapagense and S. cheesmaniae might be morphotypes rather than two species and that their co-existence is likely the result of selective pressure. PMID:23972016

  12. Patterns of genetic diversity in three plant lineages endemic to the Cape Verde Islands

    PubMed Central

    Romeiras, Maria M.; Monteiro, Filipa; Duarte, M. Cristina; Schaefer, Hanno; Carine, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Conservation of plant diversity on islands relies on a good knowledge of the taxonomy, distribution and genetic diversity of species. In recent decades, a combination of morphology- and DNA-based approaches has become the standard for investigating island plant lineages and this has led, in some cases, to the discovery of previously overlooked diversity, including ‘cryptic species’. The flora of the Cape Verde archipelago in the North Atlantic is currently thought to comprise ∼740 vascular plant species, 92 of them endemics. Despite the fact that it is considered relatively well known, there has been a 12 % increase in the number of endemics in the last two decades. Relatively few of the Cape Verde plant lineages have been included in genetic studies so far and little is known about the patterns of diversification in the archipelago. Here we present an updated list for the endemic Cape Verde flora and analyse diversity patterns for three endemic plant lineages (Cynanchum, Globularia and Umbilicus) based on one nuclear (ITS) and four plastid DNA regions. In all three lineages, we find genetic variation. In Cynanchum, we find two distinct haplotypes with no clear geographical pattern, possibly reflecting different ploidy levels. In Globularia and Umbilicus, differentiation is evident between populations from northern and southern islands. Isolation and drift resulting from the small and fragmented distributions, coupled with the significant distances separating the northern and southern islands, could explain this pattern. Overall, our study suggests that the diversity in the endemic vascular flora of Cape Verde is higher than previously thought and further work is necessary to characterize the flora. PMID:25979965

  13. [Research advance in rare and endemic plant Tetraena mongolica Maxim].

    PubMed

    Zhen, Jiang-Hong; Liu, Guo-Hou

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, the research advance in rare and endemic plant Tetraena mongolica Maxim. was summarized from the aspects of morphology, anatomy, palynology, cytology, seed-coat micro-morphology, embryology, physiology, biology, ecology, genetic diversity, chemical constituents, endangered causes, and conservation approaches, and the further research directions were prospected. It was considered that population viability, idioplasm conservation and artificial renewal, molecular biology of ecological adaptability, and assessment of habitat suitability should be the main aspects for the future study of T. mongolica.

  14. Managing conservation reliant species: Hawai'i's endangered endemic waterbirds.

    PubMed

    Underwood, Jared G; Silbernagle, Mike; Nishimoto, Mike; Uyehara, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Hawai'I's coastal plain wetlands are inhabited by five endangered endemic waterbird species. These include the Hawaiian Coot ('alae ke'oke'o), Hawaiian Duck (koloa maoli), Hawaiian Stilt (ae'o), Hawaiian Gallinule (Moorhen) ('alae 'ula), and Hawaiian Goose (nēnē). All five species are categorized as being "conservation reliant." The current strategy to recover these endangered birds includes land protection and active management of wetlands. To assess the effectiveness of the current management paradigm, we compared species population trends across the state to those on six actively managed wetland national wildlife refuges (Refuges) thought to be critical for the survival of these endangered species. To perform the evaluation we relied on systematic semiannual population counts that have been conducted across most wetlands in the state and monthly population counts that have occurred on Refuges during the same time period. We found that statewide and Refuge populations of the Hawaiian Coot, Stilt and Gallinule have rebounded from historic lows and over the last 20 years have slowly increased or remained stable. We also documented that Refuges are important to each species year-round and that a disproportionately larger percentage of the population for each species is found on them. Understanding of why Refuges successfully house a disproportionate percentage of these "conservation reliant" species can inform current and future conservation efforts as well as ensure long-term population viability for these species.

  15. Managing Conservation Reliant Species: Hawai'i's Endangered Endemic Waterbirds

    PubMed Central

    Underwood, Jared G.; Silbernagle, Mike; Nishimoto, Mike; Uyehara, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Hawai'I's coastal plain wetlands are inhabited by five endangered endemic waterbird species. These include the Hawaiian Coot ('alae ke'oke'o), Hawaiian Duck (koloa maoli), Hawaiian Stilt (ae'o), Hawaiian Gallinule (Moorhen) ('alae 'ula), and Hawaiian Goose (nēnē). All five species are categorized as being “conservation reliant.” The current strategy to recover these endangered birds includes land protection and active management of wetlands. To assess the effectiveness of the current management paradigm, we compared species population trends across the state to those on six actively managed wetland national wildlife refuges (Refuges) thought to be critical for the survival of these endangered species. To perform the evaluation we relied on systematic semiannual population counts that have been conducted across most wetlands in the state and monthly population counts that have occurred on Refuges during the same time period. We found that statewide and Refuge populations of the Hawaiian Coot, Stilt and Gallinule have rebounded from historic lows and over the last 20 years have slowly increased or remained stable. We also documented that Refuges are important to each species year-round and that a disproportionately larger percentage of the population for each species is found on them. Understanding of why Refuges successfully house a disproportionate percentage of these “conservation reliant” species can inform current and future conservation efforts as well as ensure long-term population viability for these species. PMID:23825687

  16. A review of the endemic Hawaiian Drosophilidae and their host plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Magnacca, K.N.; Foote, D.; O'Grady, P. M.

    2008-01-01

    The Hawaiian Drosophilidae is one of the best examples of rapid speciation in nature. Nearly 1,000 species of endemic drosophilids have evolved in situ in Hawaii since a single colonist arrived over 25 million years ago. A number of mechanisms, including ecological adaptation, sexual selection, and geographic isolation, have been proposed to explain the evolution of this hyperdiverse group of species. Here, we examine the known ecological associations of 326 species of endemic Hawaiian Drosophilidae in light of the phylogenetic relationships of these species. Our analysis suggests that the long-accepted belief of strict ecological specialization in this group does not hold for all taxa. While many species have a primary host plant family, females will also oviposit on non-preferred host plant taxa. Host shifting is fairly common in some groups, especially the grimshawi and modified mouthparts species groups of Drosophila, and the Scaptomyza subgenus Elmomyza. Associations with types of substrates (bark, leaves, flowers) are more evolutionarily conserved than associations with host plant families. These data not only give us insight into the role ecology has played in the evolution of this large group, but can help in making decisions about the management of rare and endangered host plants and the insects that rely upon them for survival. Copyright ?? 2008 Magnolia Press.

  17. Genetic differentiation and karyotype variation in Hedysarum chaiyrakanicum, an endemic species of Tuva Republic, Russia.

    PubMed

    Zvyagina, Natalia S; Dorogina, Olga V; Krasnikov, Alexander A

    2016-05-01

    Overgrazing and mining affect vegetation, particularly in mountains. At times, it goes to such an extent that the plant species become vulnerable and slowly extinct from its habitat. Such endemic species need to be protected. One such endemic species Hedysarum chaiyrakanicum Kurbatsky, a vulnerable steppe vegetation of Tuva Republic, Russia was evaluated for its genetic diversity and taxonomic definition using molecular technique and chromosome number adjustment. The genetic differentiation among H. chaiyrakanicum, H. setigerum Turcz. and H. gmelinii Ledeb. genotypes was determined using five inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers and then examined with Nei's genetic distance coefficient (D) and Shannon's information index (H). A total of 134 reproducible bands were detected with polymorphism percentage of 98%. The genetic diversity of H. chaiyrakanicum was found to be 0.343 while the Shannon index H(sp) was determined as 8 06. The chromosome number 2n = 16 is newly observed within the H. chaiyrakanicum. The genetic relationship based on ISSR data supported the taxonomic distinction of H. chaiyrakanicum from H. setigerum and H. gmelinii. We recommend both in situ and ex situ conservation strategies, specially germplasm sampling, to save this endemic species.

  18. Population Genetics of the Endemic Hawaiian Species Chrysodracon hawaiiensis and Chrysodracon auwahiensis (Asparagaceae): Insights from RAPD and ISSR Variation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Pei-Luen; Yorkson, Mitsuko; Morden, Clifford W.

    2016-01-01

    The genus Chrysodracon has six endemic species in the Hawaii Islands. Chrysodracon hawaiiensis is endemic to Hawaii Island and was described as a distinct species in 1980. It was listed as an endangered species on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List in 1997. This woody plant species was, at one time, common in exposed dry forests, but it became very rare due to grazing pressure and human development. The tree species Chrysodracon auwahiensis (C. auwahiensis), endemic to Maui and Molokai, still has large adult populations in dry lands of the islands, but unfortunately no regeneration from seed has been reported in those areas for many years. The two endemic species were examined using the molecular technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) to determine the genetic structure of the populations and the amount of variation. Both species possess similar genetic structure. Larger and smaller populations of both species contain similar levels of genetic diversity as determined by the number of polymorphic loci, estimated heterozygosity, and Shannon’s index of genetic diversity. Although population diversity of Chrysodracon hawaiiensis (C. hawaiiensis) is thought to have remained near pre-disturbance levels, population size continues to decline as recruitment is either absent or does not keep pace with senescence of mature plants. Conservation recommendations for both species are suggested. PMID:27537876

  19. Population Genetics of the Endemic Hawaiian Species Chrysodracon hawaiiensis and Chrysodracon auwahiensis (Asparagaceae): Insights from RAPD and ISSR Variation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Pei-Luen; Yorkson, Mitsuko; Morden, Clifford W

    2016-08-16

    The genus Chrysodracon has six endemic species in the Hawaii Islands. Chrysodracon hawaiiensis is endemic to Hawaii Island and was described as a distinct species in 1980. It was listed as an endangered species on the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) Red List in 1997. This woody plant species was, at one time, common in exposed dry forests, but it became very rare due to grazing pressure and human development. The tree species Chrysodracon auwahiensis (C. auwahiensis), endemic to Maui and Molokai, still has large adult populations in dry lands of the islands, but unfortunately no regeneration from seed has been reported in those areas for many years. The two endemic species were examined using the molecular technique of random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter simple sequence repeats (ISSR) to determine the genetic structure of the populations and the amount of variation. Both species possess similar genetic structure. Larger and smaller populations of both species contain similar levels of genetic diversity as determined by the number of polymorphic loci, estimated heterozygosity, and Shannon's index of genetic diversity. Although population diversity of Chrysodracon hawaiiensis (C. hawaiiensis) is thought to have remained near pre-disturbance levels, population size continues to decline as recruitment is either absent or does not keep pace with senescence of mature plants. Conservation recommendations for both species are suggested.

  20. Invasive exotic plant species in Sierra Nevada ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Carla M. D' Antonio; Eric L. Berlow; Karen L. Haubensak

    2004-01-01

    The Sierra Nevada is a topographically and floristically diverse region of the western United States. While it comprises only a fifth of the total land area of California, half of the native plant species in the state occur within the range. In addition, more than 400 plant species are endemic to the Sierra Nevada and many of these are listed as threatened or have...

  1. Biodiversity hotspots house most undiscovered plant species.

    PubMed

    Joppa, Lucas N; Roberts, David L; Myers, Norman; Pimm, Stuart L

    2011-08-09

    For most organisms, the number of described species considerably underestimates how many exist. This is itself a problem and causes secondary complications given present high rates of species extinction. Known numbers of flowering plants form the basis of biodiversity "hotspots"--places where high levels of endemism and habitat loss coincide to produce high extinction rates. How different would conservation priorities be if the catalog were complete? Approximately 15% more species of flowering plant are likely still undiscovered. They are almost certainly rare, and depending on where they live, suffer high risks of extinction from habitat loss and global climate disruption. By using a model that incorporates taxonomic effort over time, regions predicted to contain large numbers of undiscovered species are already conservation priorities. Our results leave global conservation priorities more or less intact, but suggest considerably higher levels of species imperilment than previously acknowledged.

  2. Genetically Altered Plant Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Researchers in Robert Ferl's lab at the University of Florida in Gainesville, genetically altered this Arabdopsis Thaliana (a brassica species) plant to learn how extreme environments, such as the low atmospheric pressure on Mars, affect plant genes. They inserted green fluorescent protein (GFP) near the on/off switches for anoxia and drought genes. When those genes were turned on after exposure to reduced atmospheric pressure, GFP was turned on as well, causing cells expressing those genes to glow green under a blue light. The natural fluorescence of chlorophyll accounts for the red glow.

  3. Iridoids and phenylethanoid glycosides from the aerial parts of Ajuga tenorei, an endemic Italian species.

    PubMed

    Frezza, Claudio; Venditti, Alessandro; Di Cecco, Mirella; Ciaschetti, Giampiero; Serafini, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2017-01-01

    We report the first analysis in absolute, and in particular, concerning the phytochemical pattern, about an endemic Italian species, Ajuga tenorei C. Presl. The analysis, performed by means of techniques such as Column Chromatography and NMR spectroscopy and Mass spectrometry, led to the isolation and the identification of five compounds namely verbascoside (1), echinacoside (2), ajugoside (3), harpagide (4) and 8-O-acetylharpagide (5). The presence of these compounds is important from both chemotaxonomic and ethno-pharmacological point of view. For what concerns the first point is confirmed the correct botanical classification of the species. The isolated compounds are also known to exert peculiar pharmacological activities and their presence may give a rationale to the historical medicinal properties associated to the Ajuga genus in general, since these plants have a long traditional use in many parts of the world. Such fact might suggest the use of also this species in this sense.

  4. Systematic revision and phylogeny of the endemic southeastern Asiatic Pristaulacus comptipennis species group (Hymenoptera: Aulacidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    TThe endemic southeastern Asiatic Pristaulacus comptipennis species group is revised and illustrated. Twenty species are recognized: P. asiaticus Turrisi & Smith, sp. nov. (China), P. boninensis Konishi (Japan), P. comptipennis Enderlein (Japan, China, Taiwan, Laos), P. corellianus Turrisi & Smith, ...

  5. Two new species in the endemic Chinese leafhopper genera Flexocerus and Idioceroides (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Idiocerinae).

    PubMed

    Xue, Qingquan; Zhang, Yalin

    2015-02-24

    Two new species of endemic Chinese leafhopper genera (Flexocerus Kuoh & Fang and Idioceroides Matsumura), F. sinuatus sp. nov. and I. petaliformis sp. nov. are described and illustrated. Keys to species for both genera are provided.

  6. Genetic consequences of cladogenetic vs. anagenetic speciation in endemic plants of oceanic islands

    PubMed Central

    Takayama, Koji; López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J.; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F.

    2015-01-01

    Adaptive radiation is a common mode of speciation among plants endemic to oceanic islands. This pattern is one of cladogenesis, or splitting of the founder population, into diverse lineages in divergent habitats. In contrast, endemic species have also evolved primarily by simple transformations from progenitors in source regions. This is anagenesis, whereby the founding population changes genetically and morphologically over time primarily through mutation and recombination. Gene flow among populations is maintained in a homogeneous environment with no splitting events. Genetic consequences of these modes of speciation have been examined in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, which contains two principal islands of differing geological ages. This article summarizes population genetic results (nearly 4000 analyses) from examination of 15 endemic species, involving 1716 and 1870 individuals in 162 and 163 populations (with amplified fragment length polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats, respectively) in the following genera: Drimys (Winteraceae), Myrceugenia (Myrtaceae), Rhaphithamnus (Verbenaceae), Robinsonia (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) and Erigeron (Asteraceae, Astereae). The results indicate that species originating anagenetically show high levels of genetic variation within the island population and no geographic genetic partitioning. This contrasts with cladogenetic species that show less genetic diversity within and among populations. Species that have been derived anagenetically on the younger island (1–2 Ma) contain less genetic variation than those that have anagenetically speciated on the older island (4 Ma). Genetic distinctness among cladogenetically derived species on the older island is greater than among similarly derived species on the younger island. An important point is that the total genetic variation within each genus analysed is comparable, regardless of whether adaptive divergence occurs. PMID:26311732

  7. Genetic consequences of cladogenetic vs. anagenetic speciation in endemic plants of oceanic islands.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Koji; López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F

    2015-08-26

    Adaptive radiation is a common mode of speciation among plants endemic to oceanic islands. This pattern is one of cladogenesis, or splitting of the founder population, into diverse lineages in divergent habitats. In contrast, endemic species have also evolved primarily by simple transformations from progenitors in source regions. This is anagenesis, whereby the founding population changes genetically and morphologically over time primarily through mutation and recombination. Gene flow among populations is maintained in a homogeneous environment with no splitting events. Genetic consequences of these modes of speciation have been examined in the Juan Fernández Archipelago, which contains two principal islands of differing geological ages. This article summarizes population genetic results (nearly 4000 analyses) from examination of 15 endemic species, involving 1716 and 1870 individuals in 162 and 163 populations (with amplified fragment length polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats, respectively) in the following genera: Drimys (Winteraceae), Myrceugenia (Myrtaceae), Rhaphithamnus (Verbenaceae), Robinsonia (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) and Erigeron (Asteraceae, Astereae). The results indicate that species originating anagenetically show high levels of genetic variation within the island population and no geographic genetic partitioning. This contrasts with cladogenetic species that show less genetic diversity within and among populations. Species that have been derived anagenetically on the younger island (1-2 Ma) contain less genetic variation than those that have anagenetically speciated on the older island (4 Ma). Genetic distinctness among cladogenetically derived species on the older island is greater than among similarly derived species on the younger island. An important point is that the total genetic variation within each genus analysed is comparable, regardless of whether adaptive divergence occurs. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the

  8. Microsatellite markers for the New Zealand endemic Myosotis pygmaea species group (Boraginaceae) amplify across species1

    PubMed Central

    Prebble, Jessica M.; Tate, Jennifer A.; Meudt, Heidi M.; Symonds, V. Vaughan

    2015-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed as polymorphic markers for the New Zealand endemic Myosotis pygmaea species group (Boraginaceae) for use in species delimitation and population and conservation genetic studies. Methods and Results: Illumina MiSeq sequencing was performed on genomic DNA from seedlings of M. drucei. From trimmed paired-end sequences >400 bp, 484 microsatellite loci were identified. Twelve of 48 microsatellite loci tested were found to be polymorphic and consistently scorable when screened on 53 individuals from four populations representing the geographic range of M. drucei. They also amplify in all other species in the M. pygmaea species group, i.e., M. antarctica, M. brevis, M. glauca, and M. pygmaea, as well as 18 other Myosotis species. Conclusions: These 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers establish an important resource for research and conservation of the M. pygmaea species group and potentially other Southern Hemisphere Myosotis. PMID:26082880

  9. Reproductive biology and natural hybridization between two endemic species of Pitcairnia (Bromeliaceae).

    PubMed

    Wendt, T; Canela, M B; Gelli de Faria, A P; Rios, R I

    2001-10-01

    We investigated pollination biology and breeding systems in hybridizing populations of Pitcairnia albiflos and P. staminea; both species are endemic to rocky outcrops at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. These species are morphologically distinct and easily recognized by floral color: white in P. albiflos and red in P. staminea. Putative hybrids show a large range of intermediate pink floral colors. The showy hermaphroditic flowers offer pollen and nectar that attract many visitors including bees, butterflies, hawk moths, and bats. Although the flowers of both parental species and hybrids open at night, only P. albiflos had other adaptations for nocturnal pollination. Flowering times overlapped during three consecutive years of observation. Bees visited both species and putative hybrids. Cross-pollinations were performed within and among parental species and hybrids in a greenhouse using plants transplanted from the field. Pitcairnia staminea and hybrids are self-compatible and could be spontaneously self-pollinated, whereas P. albiflos, though self-compatible, needs pollinators' services for self-pollination. Facultative agamospermy was found in the parental species. Prezygotic and postzygotic reproductive barriers between these taxa were weak. Reciprocal hand-pollinations between parental species and with hybrids yielded high fruit sets with viable seeds. Evaluations of fruit set, seed set, seed germination, and pollen viability were undertaken to compare the fitness of the hybrids relative to their parents. The hybrids showed equivalent fitness, except for lower pollen viability. Some conservation implications are noted.

  10. A parasitic plant increases native and exotic plant species richness in vernal pools

    PubMed Central

    Graffis, Andrea M.; Kneitel, Jamie M.

    2015-01-01

    Species interactions are well known to affect species diversity in communities, but the effects of parasites have been less studied. Previous studies on parasitic plants have found both positive and negative effects on plant community diversity. Cuscuta howelliana is an abundant endemic parasitic plant that inhabits California vernal pools. We tested the hypothesis that C. howelliana acts as a keystone species to increase plant species richness in vernal pools through a C. howelliana removal experiment at Beale Air Force Base in north-central California. Vernal pool endemic plants were parasitized more frequently, and Eryngium castrense and Navarretia leucocephala were the most frequently parasitized host plant species of C. howelliana. Cuscuta howelliana caused higher plant species richness, both natives and exotics, compared with removal plots. However, there was no single plant species that significantly increased with C. howelliana removal. Decreases in Eryngium castrense percent cover plots with C. howelliana is a plausible explanation for differences in species richness. In conclusion, C. howelliana led to changes in species composition and increases in plant species richness, consistent with what is expected from the effects of a keystone species. This research provides support for a shift in management strategies that focus on species-specific targets to strategies that target maintenance of complex species interactions and therefore maximize biodiversity and resilience of ecosystems. PMID:26307042

  11. Divergent selection along climatic gradients in a rare central European endemic species, Saxifraga sponhemica

    PubMed Central

    Walisch, Tania J.; Colling, Guy; Bodenseh, Melanie; Matthies, Diethart

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The effects of habitat fragmentation on quantitative genetic variation in plant populations are still poorly known. Saxifraga sponhemica is a rare endemic of Central Europe with a disjunct distribution, and a stable and specialized habitat of treeless screes and cliffs. This study therefore used S. sponhemica as a model species to compare quantitative and molecular variation in order to explore (1) the relative importance of drift and selection in shaping the distribution of quantitative genetic variation along climatic gradients; (2) the relationship between plant fitness, quantitative genetic variation, molecular genetic variation and population size; and (3) the relationship between the differentiation of a trait among populations and its evolvability. Methods Genetic variation within and among 22 populations from the whole distribution area of S. sponhemica was studied using RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA) markers, and climatic variables were obtained for each site. Seeds were collected from each population and germinated, and seedlings were transplanted into a common garden for determination of variation in plant traits. Key Results In contrast to previous results from rare plant species, strong evidence was found for divergent selection. Most population trait means of S. sponhemica were significantly related to climate gradients, indicating adaptation. Quantitative genetic differentiation increased with geographical distance, even when neutral molecular divergence was controlled for, and QST exceeded FST for some traits. The evolvability of traits was negatively correlated with the degree of differentiation among populations (QST), i.e. traits under strong selection showed little genetic variation within populations. The evolutionary potential of a population was not related to its size, the performance of the population or its neutral genetic diversity. However, performance in the common garden was lower for plants from

  12. Population dynamics in central and edge populations of a narrowly endemic plant.

    PubMed

    Aikens, Melissa L; Roach, Deborah A

    2014-07-01

    Species' range limits can be caused by environmental gradients, and in such cases, abundance is thought to be highest in the center of a species range and decline towards the edge (the abundant-center model). Although in theory decreased abundance is caused by a decline in performance at the edge, it has been shown that performance and abundance are not necessarily related. Few studies have compared abundance and performance in center and edge populations of endemic species, whose ranges may be restricted by the availability of specialized habitat rather than environmental gradients across their range. Additionally, range-wide studies that examine both northern and southern edge populations are rare. We used Roan Mountain rattlesnake-root (Prenanthes roanensis), a perennial plant endemic to the Southern Appalachians (USA), to compare abundance and performance between central populations and populations at the northern and southern edges of the range. To account for multiple fitness components across the life cycle, we measured performance of edge populations as vital-rate contributions to population growth rate compared to the center. Abundance did not decline at the range edge, but some vital-rate contributions were lower in edge populations compared to central populations. However, each edge population differed in which vital-rate contributions were lower compared to the center. Our results do not support the abundant-center model, and it appears that local factors are important in structuring the range of this endemic species. It is important to recognize that when implementing conservation or management plans, populations in close proximity may have substantial variation in demographic rates due to differences in the local environment.

  13. Nitrogen species in drinking water indicate potential exposure pathway for Balkan Endemic Nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Niagolova, Nedialka; McElmurry, Shawn P; Voice, Thomas C; Long, David T; Petropoulos, Evangelos A; Havezov, Ivan; Chou, Karen; Ganev, Varban

    2005-03-01

    This study explored two hypotheses relating elevated concentrations of nitrogen species in drinking water and the disease Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN). Drinking water samples were collected from a variety of water supplies in both endemic and non-endemic villages in the Vratza and Montana districts of Bulgaria. The majority of well water samples exceeded US drinking water standards for nitrate + nitrite. No statistically significant difference was observed for any of the nitrogen species between villages classified as endemic and non-endemic. Other constituents (sodium, potassium and chloride) known to be indicators of anthropogenic pollution were also found at elevated concentrations and all followed the order wells > springs > taps. This ordering coincides with the proximity of human influences to the water sources. Our results clearly establish an exposure pathway between anthropogenic activity and drinking water supplies, suggesting that the causative agent for BEN could result from surface contamination.

  14. Examining the relationship between total species richness and single island palaeo- and neo-endemics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallimanis, A. S.; Panitsa, M.; Bergmeier, E.; Dimopoulos, P.

    2011-03-01

    Recently, Emerson and Kolm (2005) hypothesized that diversity begets speciation (DBS hypothesis). The relationship between total species richness and single island endemic diversity (as a proportion of the total species richness of the island) has been used as evidence for the DBS hypothesis. This relationship has been documented in oceanic archipelagos, but many criticisms have been raised on whether this relationship truly supports the DBS hypothesis. In this study we tested if this hypothesis holds in the Aegean archipelago (a continental archipelago with continuous human presence over millennia). Endemism in the Aegean includes mainly neo-endemic species but also relictual populations of formerly more widespread species (i.e. palaeo-endemics). Contrary to the DBS hypothesis, we found that total species richness was not significantly correlated to single island endemics (neither neo-endemics nor palaeo-endemics) as a proportion of the island flora. Furthermore, we found that neo-endemic diversity (either as species richness or as a proportion of the islands flora) is mainly correlated to island maximum elevation, while area and isolation were less important. So if this ratio is indeed an index of speciation, then an alternative explanation might be that elevation (interpreted as a proxy for habitat heterogeneity) is the driver of speciation in our case. Palaeo-endemics, on the other hand, were present in only six of the largest islands in the Aegean and their diversity was strongly correlated only with island area, perhaps implying that larger islands support larger population sizes that buffer stochastic extinctions risks.

  15. Antileishmanial Activity of Medicinal Plants Used in Endemic Areas in Northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1–100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity. PMID:25126099

  16. Antileishmanial activity of medicinal plants used in endemic areas in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    De Queiroz, Aline Cavalcanti; Dias, Thays de Lima Matos Freire; Da Matta, Carolina Barbosa Brito; Cavalcante Silva, Luiz Henrique Agra; de Araújo-Júnior, João Xavier; de Araújo, Givanildo Bernardino; Moura, Flávia de Barros Prado; Alexandre-Moreira, Magna Suzana

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the leishmanicidal activity of five species of plants used in folk medicine in endemic areas of the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Data were collected in the cities of Colonia Leopoldina, Novo Lino, and União dos Palmares, Alagoas state, from patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis (Leishmania amazonensis) who use medicinal plants to treat this disease. Plants extracts were tested at a concentration of 1-100 μg/mL in all experiments, except in an assay to evaluate activity against amastigotes, when 10 μg/mL was used. All plants extracts did not show deleterious activity to the host cell evidenced by LDH assay at 100, 10, and 1 μg/mL after 48 h of incubation. The plants extracts Hyptis pectinata (L.) Poit, Aloe vera L., Ruta graveolens L., Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng.) Pedersen, and Chenopodium ambrosioides L. exhibited direct activity against extracellular forms at 100 μg/mL; these extracts inhibited growth by 81.9%, 82.9%, 74.4%, 88.7%, and 87.4%, respectively, when compared with promastigotes. The plants extracts H. pectinata, A. vera, and R. graveolens also significantly diminished the number of amastigotes at 10 μg/mL, inhibiting growth by 85.0%, 40.4%, 94.2%, and 97.4%, respectively, when compared with control. Based on these data, we conclude that the five plants exhibited considerable leishmanicidal activity.

  17. Paternal effects on seed germination: a barrier to the genetic assimilation of an endemic plant taxon?

    PubMed

    Andersson, S; Månsby, E; Prentice, H C

    2008-09-01

    We used a crossing experiment to investigate post-zygotic barriers that might limit introgression between a pair of closely-related, gynodioecious plant species--the widespread weed Silene vulgaris and the local Swedish endemic S. uniflora ssp. petraea. The study not only considered the effects of hybridization on conventionally-used (primary) fitness components such as seed set and progeny survival, but also provided a test for the effects of interspecific hybridization on characters with more subtle or habitat-specific effects on fitness. We detected highly significant paternal effects on seed germination properties, with the germination characteristics of hybrid seed resembling those of the species that served as the pollen donor. These paternal effects on germination represent a potentially strong barrier to interspecific introgression in the two species' natural habitats, where an inappropriate germination response in the habitat of the maternal parent may lead to the failure of seedling establishment. Interspecific crosses had weak or variable effects on progeny survival, flowering and sex ratio, but these effects could not be interpreted in terms of barriers to introgression. Our results indicate that nuclear restorers in S. vulgaris have the capacity to suppress cytoplasmic male-sterility genes in its endemic congener.

  18. A new species of Homonota (Reptilia: Squamata: Gekkota: Phyllodactylidae) endemic to the hills of Paraje Tres Cerros, Corrientes Province, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cajade, Rodrigo; Etchepare, Eduardo Gabriel; Falcione, Camila; Barrasso, Diego Andrés; Alvarez, Blanca Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    The genus Homonota comprises nine South American species of terrestrial and nocturnal lizards. Homonota lizards lack the femoral pores typical of other South American Phyllodactylidae, and their infradigital lamellas are not expanded. We here describe a new species, Homonota taragui sp. nov., exclusively found on a small group of three hills up to 179 meters above sea level in central eastern Corrientes Province, Argentina. The new species differs from other Homonota species by a combination of characters, including: a well-marked dorsal, reticulate, dark pattern contrasting with a lighter colored background; small, star-shaped chromatophores on the abdomen; the post-orbital region of the head covered by granular scales; the dorsal and anterior regions of the thighs covered by keeled scales interspersed with cycloid scales; and the internasal scale in contact with rostral scales. The conservation status of Homonota taragui sp. nov. may be vulnerable, due to its localized endemism with populations on three small hills surrounded by intense agricultural and livestock activity. Two endemic plant species are known from these hills, and this new lizard represents the first endemic animal species.

  19. Comparison of endemic and exotic entomopathogenic nematode species for control of Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae).

    PubMed

    Berry, R E; Liu, J; Reed, G

    1997-12-01

    We compared the efficacy of 2 endemic strains of entomopathogenic nematodes isolated from Hermiston, OR, with that of 3 exotic nematode species for control of Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsa decemlineata (Say). In laboratory experiments, the exotic Heterorhabditis species were more pathogenic to Colorado potato beetle than were the endemic Heterorhabditis strains. Exotic Steinernema species were less pathogenic to Colorado potato beetle than the exotic Heterorhabditis species. No Colorado potato beetle adults emerged from soil treated with H. marelatus Liu & Berry, a new species collected from Seaside, OR. Nematode pathogenicity was detected up to 14 wk after application in Galleria mellonella (L.) in soil taken from field plots treated with endemic and exotic nematode species.

  20. Molluskan species richness and endemism on New Caledonian seamounts: Are they enhanced compared to adjacent slopes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelin, Magalie; Puillandre, Nicolas; Lozouet, Pierre; Sysoev, Alexander; de Forges, Bertrand Richer; Samadi, Sarah

    2011-06-01

    Seamounts were often considered as 'hotspots of diversity' and 'centers of endemism', but recently this opinion has been challenged. After 25 years of exploration and the work of numerous taxonomists, the Norfolk Ridge (Southwest Pacific) is probably one of the best-studied seamount chains worldwide. However, even in this intensively explored area, the richness and the geographic patterns of diversity are still poorly characterized. Among the benthic organisms, the post-mortem remains of mollusks can supplement live records to comprehensively document geographical distributions. Moreover, the accretionary growth of mollusk shells informs us about the life span of the pelagic larva. To compare diversity and level of endemism between the Norfolk Ridge seamounts and the continental slopes of New Caledonia we used species occurrence data drawn from (i) the taxonomic literature on mollusks and (ii) a raw dataset of mainly undescribed deep-sea species of the hyperdiverse Turridae. Patterns of endemism and species richness were analyzed through quantitative indices of endemism and species richness estimator metrics. To date, 403 gastropods and bivalves species have been recorded on the Norfolk Ridge seamounts. Of these, at least 38 species (˜10%) are potentially endemic to the seamounts and nearly all of 38 species have protoconchs indicating lecithotrophic larval development. Overall, our results suggest that estimates of species richness and endemism, when sampling effort is taken into account, were not significantly different between slopes and seamounts. By including in our analyses 347 undescribed morphospecies from the Norfolk Ridge, our results also demonstrate the influence of taxonomic bias on our estimates of species richness and endemism.

  1. Origin and evolution of endemic Galápagos Varronia species (Cordiaceae).

    PubMed

    Weeks, Andrea; Baird, Kristen E; McMullen, Conley K

    2010-11-01

    Four endemic Varronia species (Cordiaceae) occupy the Galápagos archipelago. Three comprise the V. leucophlyctis complex (V. anderssonii, V. leucophlyctis, V. scouleri), whose species' limits are not well defined but that is morphologically distinct from the fourth endemic species, V. revoluta. Sequence data from the nuclear rDNA ITS region and the cpDNA ndhF gene were gathered from 49 accessions of Varronia from five Galápagos islands in order to test the evolutionary relationships of endemic Varronia species, determine the number of immigration events to the islands and estimate their age of origin. All endemic species nest within the clade of species belonging to Varronia, which is an entirely American genus. We find little evidence of phylogenetic structuring of the V. leucophlyctis complex but divergent phylogenetic signals from nuclear and chloroplast genomes regarding its relationship to V. revoluta. Results are consistent with a hybridization event involving ancestral Galapagean lineages, with chloroplast and nuclear data suggesting one or two dispersal events from the Americas to the Galápagos, respectively. Fossil-based divergence time estimates indicate endemic species diverged from American continental species as early as 4.5 Myr ago and radiated 1.12 Myr, which coincides with ages of exposed and subsided Galápagos islands.

  2. Management and conservation of tree squirrels: the importance of endemism, species richness, and forest condition

    Treesearch

    John L. Koprowski

    2005-01-01

    Tree squirrels are excellent indicators of forest health yet the taxon is understudied. Most tree squirrels in the Holarctic Region are imperiled with some level of legal protection. The Madrean Archipelago is the epicenter for tree squirrel diversity in North America with 5 endemic species and 2 introduced species. Most species of the region are poorly studied in...

  3. Ménage à trois-two endemic species of deceptive orchids and one pollinator species.

    PubMed

    Gögler, Julia; Stökl, Johannes; Sramkova, Anna; Twele, Robert; Francke, Wittko; Cozzolino, Salvatore; Cortis, Pierluigi; Scrugli, Antonio; Ayasse, Manfred

    2009-09-01

    In the sexually deceptive orchid genus Ophrys, reproductive isolation is based on the specific attraction of males of a single pollinator species by mimicking the female species-specific sex pheromone. Changes in the odor composition can lead to hybridization and speciation by the attraction of a new pollinator that acts as an isolation barrier toward other sympatrically occurring Ophrys species. On Sardinia, we investigated the evolutionary origin of two sympatrically occurring endemic species, Ophrys chestermanii and O. normanii, which are both pollinated by males of the cuckoo bumblebee Bombus vestalis. Chemical and electrophysiological analyses of floral scent and genetic analyses with amplified fragment length polymorphisms and plastid-markers clearly showed that O. normanii is neither a hybrid nor a hybrid species. The two species evolved from different ancestors, viz. O. normanii from O. tenthredinifera and O. chestermanii from O. annae, and converged to the same pollinator attracted by the same bouquet of polar compounds. In spite of sympatry, pollinator sharing and overlapping blooming periods, no evidence has been obtained for gene flow between O. chestermanii and O. normanii indicating an unusual case among sexually deceptive orchids in which postmating rather than premating reproductive isolation mechanisms strongly prevent interspecific gene flow.

  4. Heteroploid reticulate evolution and taxonomic status of an endemic species with bicentric geographical distribution.

    PubMed

    Uwe Nierbauer, Kai; Paule, Juraj; Zizka, Georg

    2017-01-24

    Reticulate evolution is considered to be among the main mechanisms of plant evolution, often leading to the establishment of new species. However, complex evolutionary scenarios result in a challenging definition of evolutionary and taxonomic units. In the present study, we aimed to examine the evolutionary origin and revise the species status of Campanula baumgartenii, a rare endemic species from the polyploid complex Campanula section Heterophylla. Morphometry, flow cytometric ploidy estimation, AFLPs, as well as chloroplast and nuclear DNA sequence markers were used to assess the morphological and genetic differentiation among C. baumgartenii, C. rotundifolia and other closely related taxa. Tetra- and hexaploid C. baumgartenii is morphologically and molecularly (AFLP) differentiated from sympatric C. rotundifolia. Contrasting signals from nuclear (ITS) and chloroplast (trnL-rpl32) markers suggest a hybrid origin of C. baumgartenii with C. rotundifolia and a taxon related to the alpine C. scheuchzeri as ancestors. Additionally, hexaploid C. baumgartenii currently hybridizes with co-occurring tetraploid C. rotundifolia resulting in pentaploid hybrids, for which C. baumgartenii serves as both seed and pollen donor. Based on the molecular and morphological differentiation, we propose to keep C. baumgartenii as a separate species. This study exemplifies that detailed population genetic studies can provide a solid basis for taxonomic delimitation within Campanula section Heterophylla as well as for sound identification of conservation targets.

  5. Adaptation to metals in widespread and endemic plants.

    PubMed

    Shaw, A J

    1994-12-01

    Bryophytes, including the mosses, liverworts, and hornworts, occur in a variety of habitats with high concentrations of metals and have other characteristics that are advantageous for studies of metal tolerance. Mosses may evolve genetically specialized, metal-tolerant races less frequently than flowering plants. Some species of mosses appear to have inherently high levels of metal tolerance even in individuals that have not been subjected to natural selection in contaminated environments. Scopelophila cataractae, one of the so-called copper mosses, not only tolerates extremely high concentrations of metals in its substrates, but requires these substrates for optimum growth. This species should be included in mechanistic studies of tolerance at the cellular and molecular levels.

  6. Adaptation to metals in widespread and endemic plants.

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, A J

    1994-01-01

    Bryophytes, including the mosses, liverworts, and hornworts, occur in a variety of habitats with high concentrations of metals and have other characteristics that are advantageous for studies of metal tolerance. Mosses may evolve genetically specialized, metal-tolerant races less frequently than flowering plants. Some species of mosses appear to have inherently high levels of metal tolerance even in individuals that have not been subjected to natural selection in contaminated environments. Scopelophila cataractae, one of the so-called copper mosses, not only tolerates extremely high concentrations of metals in its substrates, but requires these substrates for optimum growth. This species should be included in mechanistic studies of tolerance at the cellular and molecular levels. PMID:7713025

  7. Endemic Amorphophallus (Araceae) from Madagascar: a revised key, a new species and molecular phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Hetterscheid, Wilbert L A; Claudel, Cyrille

    2014-12-01

    Since the revision of Amorphophallus of Madagascar (Bot Jahrb Syst 121(1):1-17, 1999) several additional new species have been described. The recent discovery of another new species promted the preparation of a revised key as well as the description of the new species. Amorphophallus hildebrandtii, never restudied since its analysis by Engler in 1881, has been refound and restudied. Meanwhile molecular phylogenetic studies have provided new insights in the relationships of the endemic Madagascan species. The new species Amorphophallus perrieri is described. A new revised key to the endemic Amorphophallus species of Madagascar is provided. An emended description of A. hildebrandtii is provided. A molecular phylogeny of the endemic Madagascan species of Amorphophallus is provided. The enigmatic character of a very short spadix in A. hildebrandtii has been confirmed, after it was thought for many years that it was artificially shorter in the holotype specimen than in nature. This was suggested by the fact that the spadix of the holotype is broken. The monophyletic character of the Madagascan endemic species clade remained unchallenged after analysis including all new species discovered recently, incl. the new species presented in this paper.

  8. Uncertainty in predicting range dynamics of endemic alpine plants under climate warming.

    PubMed

    Hülber, Karl; Wessely, Johannes; Gattringer, Andreas; Moser, Dietmar; Kuttner, Michael; Essl, Franz; Leitner, Michael; Winkler, Manuela; Ertl, Siegrun; Willner, Wolfgang; Kleinbauer, Ingrid; Sauberer, Norbert; Mang, Thomas; Zimmermann, Niklaus E; Dullinger, Stefan

    2016-07-01

    Correlative species distribution models have long been the predominant approach to predict species' range responses to climate change. Recently, the use of dynamic models is increasingly advocated for because these models better represent the main processes involved in range shifts and also simulate transient dynamics. A well-known problem with the application of these models is the lack of data for estimating necessary parameters of demographic and dispersal processes. However, what has been hardly considered so far is the fact that simulating transient dynamics potentially implies additional uncertainty arising from our ignorance of short-term climate variability in future climatic trends. Here, we use endemic mountain plants of Austria as a case study to assess how the integration of decadal variability in future climate affects outcomes of dynamic range models as compared to projected long-term trends and uncertainty in demographic and dispersal parameters. We do so by contrasting simulations of a so-called hybrid model run under fluctuating climatic conditions with those based on a linear interpolation of climatic conditions between current values and those predicted for the end of the 21st century. We find that accounting for short-term climate variability modifies model results nearly as differences in projected long-term trends and much more than uncertainty in demographic/dispersal parameters. In particular, range loss and extinction rates are much higher when simulations are run under fluctuating conditions. These results highlight the importance of considering the appropriate temporal resolution when parameterizing and applying range-dynamic models, and hybrid models in particular. In case of our endemic mountain plants, we hypothesize that smoothed linear time series deliver more reliable results because these long-lived species are primarily responsive to long-term climate averages. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Demographic variation and conservation of the narrow endemic plant Ranunculus weyleri

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cursach, Joana; Besnard, Aurélien; Rita, Juan; Fréville, Hélène

    2013-11-01

    Ranunculus weyleri is a narrow endemic protected plant from Majorca Island. It is known from only five populations located in two mountain areas 48 km apart. Using demographic data collected from 2007 to 2010, we assessed the demographic status of two populations - font des Coloms (FC) and talaia Moreia (TM) - using Integral Projection Models (IPMs). We showed that none of the two populations were declining under a deterministic model. Population FC was stable (λ = 1.026, CI95% = 0.965-1.093), while population TM showed sign of demographic expansion (λ = 1.113, CI95% = 1.032-1.219). Plant survival, flowering probability and the mean number of seedlings per floral peduncle were lower in TM, whereas growth and the number of floral peduncles per reproductive plant were lower in FC. Elasticity analyses showed that management strategies increasing plant survival and growth would be the most efficient to increase λ for both populations. Herbivory pressure by goats has been shown to be high in TM, resulting in high predation rate on floral peduncles. Controlling goat pressure may thus represent a promising management option, provided that we can demonstrate a negative impact of herbivory by goats on survival and growth which are the most critical parts of the life cycle in this species. Meanwhile, initiating a long-term monitoring is of crucial importance to get more insights into the relationships between environmental variation, plant performance and population dynamics.

  10. Spatial variation in the climatic predictors of species compositional turnover and endemism.

    PubMed

    Di Virgilio, Giovanni; Laffan, Shawn W; Ebach, Malte C; Chapple, David G

    2014-08-01

    Previous research focusing on broad-scale or geographically invariant species-environment dependencies suggest that temperature-related variables explain more of the variation in reptile distributions than precipitation. However, species-environment relationships may exhibit considerable spatial variation contingent upon the geographic nuances that vary between locations. Broad-scale, geographically invariant analyses may mask this local variation and their findings may not generalize to different locations at local scales. We assess how reptile-climatic relationships change with varying spatial scale, location, and direction. Since the spatial distributions of diversity and endemism hotspots differ for other species groups, we also assess whether reptile species turnover and endemism hotspots are influenced differently by climatic predictors. Using New Zealand reptiles as an example, the variation in species turnover, endemism and turnover in climatic variables was measured using directional moving window analyses, rotated through 360°. Correlations between the species turnover, endemism and climatic turnover results generated by each rotation of the moving window were analysed using multivariate generalized linear models applied at national, regional, and local scales. At national-scale, temperature turnover consistently exhibited the greatest influence on species turnover and endemism, but model predictive capacity was low (typically r (2) = 0.05, P < 0.001). At regional scales the relative influence of temperature and precipitation turnover varied between regions, although model predictive capacity was also generally low. Climatic turnover was considerably more predictive of species turnover and endemism at local scales (e.g., r (2) = 0.65, P < 0.001). While temperature turnover had the greatest effect in one locale (the northern North Island), there was substantial variation in the relative influence of temperature and precipitation predictors in the

  11. Spatial variation in the climatic predictors of species compositional turnover and endemism

    PubMed Central

    Di Virgilio, Giovanni; Laffan, Shawn W; Ebach, Malte C; Chapple, David G

    2014-01-01

    Previous research focusing on broad-scale or geographically invariant species-environment dependencies suggest that temperature-related variables explain more of the variation in reptile distributions than precipitation. However, species–environment relationships may exhibit considerable spatial variation contingent upon the geographic nuances that vary between locations. Broad-scale, geographically invariant analyses may mask this local variation and their findings may not generalize to different locations at local scales. We assess how reptile–climatic relationships change with varying spatial scale, location, and direction. Since the spatial distributions of diversity and endemism hotspots differ for other species groups, we also assess whether reptile species turnover and endemism hotspots are influenced differently by climatic predictors. Using New Zealand reptiles as an example, the variation in species turnover, endemism and turnover in climatic variables was measured using directional moving window analyses, rotated through 360°. Correlations between the species turnover, endemism and climatic turnover results generated by each rotation of the moving window were analysed using multivariate generalized linear models applied at national, regional, and local scales. At national-scale, temperature turnover consistently exhibited the greatest influence on species turnover and endemism, but model predictive capacity was low (typically r2 = 0.05, P < 0.001). At regional scales the relative influence of temperature and precipitation turnover varied between regions, although model predictive capacity was also generally low. Climatic turnover was considerably more predictive of species turnover and endemism at local scales (e.g., r2 = 0.65, P < 0.001). While temperature turnover had the greatest effect in one locale (the northern North Island), there was substantial variation in the relative influence of temperature and precipitation predictors in the remaining

  12. Wild Plant Species with Extremely Small Populations Require Conservation and Reintroduction in China

    Treesearch

    Hai Ren; Qianmei Zhang; Hongfang Lu; Hongxiao Liu; Qinfeng Guo; Jun Wang; Shuguang Jian; Hai’ou Bao

    2012-01-01

    China is exceptionally rich in biodiversity, with more than 30000 vascular plant species that include many endemic genera, species of ancient origin, and cultivated plants (Yang et al. 2005). Because of rapid economic development, population growth, pollution, and continuing resource exploitation, China’s plant diversity faces severe threats. According to the Chinese...

  13. A conservation framework for the Critically Endangered endemic species of the Caribbean palm Coccothrinax.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    With 30 threatened species [14 Critically Endangered (CR) and 16 Endangered, sensu IUCN)] Coccothrinax (c. 54 species) is the flagship palm genus for conservation in the Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot. Coccothrinax has its center of taxonomic diversity in these islands, with c. 51 endemic spe...

  14. Ptilagrostis contracta (Stipeae, Poaceae), a New Species Endemic to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhong-Shuai; Li, Ling-Lu; Chen, Wen-Li

    2017-01-01

    A new species, Ptilagrostis contracta, endemic to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is described and illustrated. It is distinguished from other species in Ptilagrostis by having contracted panicles, 1-geniculate awns with hairy columns and scabrous bristles and evenly pubescent lemmas. Evidence from lemma epidermal pattern, cytology and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the nuclear ITS sequence data confirm its systematic position in Ptilagrostis.

  15. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of southern Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  16. Population genetics of Phaedranassa cuencana Minga, C. Ulloa & Oleas (Amaryllidaceae), an endemic species of Southern Ecuador

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Phaedranassa is a genus of Amaryllidaceae mostly endemic to the Northern Andes. Six out of the eight species described in Ecuador are endangered or vulnerable to extinction. Phaedranassa cuencana was first described in 2015. This species is restricted to the southern part of Ecuador, around the city...

  17. Two new species of endemic Ecuadorean Amaryllidaceae (Asparagales, Amaryllidaceae, Amarylloideae, Eucharideae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Technical Abstract New species of the genera Stenomesson and Eucharis (Amaryllidaceae) are described from Ecuador. Stenomesson ecuadorense is the second species of the genus reported from that country, and the only endemic one. It is related to S. miniatum and S. campanulatum, both from Peru, with...

  18. From flowering to dispersal: reproductive ecology of an endemic plant, Astragalus australis var. olympicus (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Kaye, T N

    1999-09-01

    Astragalus australis var. olympicus is an endemic plant of the Olympic Mountains, Washington. It is considered a Species of Concern by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. This study focused on the reproductive biology of the plant from flower production through seed germination to identify possible weak points that might contribute to its rarity and impede its conservation. Most plants produced a large mean number of flowers and ovules (314.8 and 4106, respectively), but relatively few of these formed fruits and seeds (25.8 and 3.8%, respectively). In decreasing importance, ovules in fruits were lost to predation, seed abortion, and lack of fertilization. The percentages of these fates differed among sites and years. Excluding pollinators by bagging flowers reduced fruit set by ∼50%, but seed set per fruit and seed mass were unaffected. Germination was affected by scarification, temperature, and moisture availability. About 11% of seeds damaged by predispersal seed predators (weevil larvae) remained viable and were released from dormancy. I hypothesize that predispersal seed predation (over 80% at one site) has a negative effect on population growth. Conservation of this species could benefit from improved fruit set and decreased seed predation.

  19. In vitro antitumor actions of extracts from endemic plant Helichrysum zivojinii

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this research was to determine the intensity and mechanisms of the cytotoxic actions of five extracts isolated from the endemic plant species Helichrysum zivojinii Černjavski & Soška (family Asteraceae) against specific cancer cell lines. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of normal immunocompetent cells implicated in the antitumor immune response, the cytotoxicity of extracts was also tested against healthy peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Methods The aerial parts of the plants were air-dried, powdered, and successively extracted with solvents of increasing polarity to obtain hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl-acetate, n-butanol and methanol extracts. The cytotoxic activities of the extracts against human cervix adenocarcinoma HeLa, human melanoma Fem-x, human myelogenous leukemia K562, human breast adenocarcinoma MDA-MB-361 cells and PBMC were evaluated by the MTT test. The mode of HeLa cell death was investigated by morphological analysis. Changes in the cell cycle of HeLa cells treated with the extracts were analyzed by flow cytometry. The apoptotic mechanisms induced by the tested extracts were determined using specific caspase inhibitors. Results The investigated Helichrysum zivojinii extracts exerted selective dose-dependent cytotoxic actions against selected cancer cell lines and healthy immunocompetent PBMC stimulated to proliferate, while the cytotoxic actions exerted on unstimulated PBMC were less pronounced. The tested extracts exhibited considerably stronger cytotoxic activities towards HeLa, Fem-x and K562 cells in comparison to resting and stimulated PBMC. It is worth noting that the cytotoxicity of the extracts was weaker against unstimulated PBMC in comparison to stimulated PBMC. Furthermore, each of the five extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells, through the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic signaling pathways. Conclusion Extracts obtained from the endemic plant Helichrysum zivojinii may represent an

  20. Single origin and subsequent diversification of central Andean endemic Umbilicaria species.

    PubMed

    Hestmark, Geir; Miadlikowska, Jolanta; Kauff, Frank; Fraker, Emily; Molnar, Katalin; Lutzoni, François

    2011-01-01

    We studied an Andean endemic group of species of the lichen-forming fungal genus Umbilicaria from the subalpine and low-alpine zone, with their biogeographic center in Bolivia and Peru. A number of species and varieties have been described from this element, but apparent instability in several morphological traits has made it difficult to precisely delimit taxa. Based on DNA sequences of nuclear ITS, LSU and mitochondrial SSU from extensive collections from Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador and Peru, we present here a molecular phylogenetic analysis of this Andean endemic element within genus Umbilicaria. All analyses (MP, ML and Bayesian) support a single origin for the element and a division into two major groups characterized by different apothecium types: the Umbilicaria dichroa group and U. calvescens group. Taxa U. krempelhuberi, U. peruviana and U. subcalvescens are nested withinn U. calvescens and are treated as conspecific with the latter species. The endemic element shares a most recent common ancestor with the Umbilicaria vellea group, which has a worldwide distribution and contains several asexually reproducing (sorediate) species. Independent reversals to sexual reproduction might explain the evolution of two types of apothecia in this monophyletic endemic lineage. A number of cosmopolitan, mostly high-alpine, species of Umbilicaria also present in the central Andes are related only remotely to the endemic element and do not exhibit speciation into endemics. Because the An-dean element dominates the Umbilicaria habitats of the low- and subalpine zones we propose that the founder colonized the Andes at a time when the mountains had not yet reached their current elevation while the high-alpine species arrived more recently.

  1. Phytophthora Species, New Threats to the Plant Health in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Ik-Hwa; Choi, Woobong

    2014-01-01

    Given the lack of a resistant genetic pool in host plants, the introduction of exotic invasive pathogens can result in epidemics that affect a specific ecosystem and economy. Plant quarantine, which is designed to protect endemic plant resources, is a highly invaluable safeguard that should keep biosecurity with increasing international trade and global transportation. A total of 34 species of plant pathogens including Phytophthora infestans were documented as introduced from other countries into Korea from 1900 to 2010. The genus Phytophthora, classified in oomycetes, includes more than 120 species that are mostly recognized worldwide as highly invasive plant pathogens. After 2000, over 50 new species of Phytophthora were identified internationally as plant pathogens occurring in crops and forest trees. In Korea, Phytophthora is also one of the most serious plant pathogens. To date, 22 species (about one-fifth of known species) of the genus have been identified and reported as plant pathogens in the country. The likelihood of new exotic Phytophthora species being introduced into Korea continues to increase, thus necessitating intensive plant quarantine inspections. As new potential threats to plant health in Korea, six Phytophthora species, namely, P. alni, P. inundata, P. kernoviae, P. pinifolia, P. quercina, and P. ramorum, are discussed in this review with focus on history, disease, biology, management, and plant quarantine issues. PMID:25506298

  2. Endemic malagasy Dalbergia species inhibit quorum sensing in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    PubMed

    Rasamiravaka, Tsiry; Jedrzejowski, Anaïs; Kiendrebeogo, Martin; Rajaonson, Sanda; Randriamampionona, Denis; Rabemanantsoa, Christian; Andriantsimahavandy, Abel; Rasamindrakotroka, Andry; Duez, Pierre; El Jaziri, Mondher; Vandeputte, Olivier M

    2013-05-01

    Various species of the plant genus Dalbergia are traditionally used as medicine for sundry ailments and some of them have been shown recently to quench the virulence of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Cell-to-cell communication mechanisms, quorum sensing (QS) in particular, are key regulators of virulence in many pathogenic bacteria. Screening n-hexane extracts of leaves, roots and bark of endemic Malagasy Dalbergia species for their capacity to antagonize QS mechanisms in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 showed that many reduced the expression of the QS-regulated genes lasB and rhlA. However, only the extract of Dalbergia trichocarpa bark (DTB) showed a significant reduction of QS gene expression without any effect on the aceA gene encoding a QS-independent isocitrate lyase. Further characterization of DTB impact on QS revealed that the QS systems las and rhl are inhibited and that swarming, twitching, biofilm formation and the production of pyocyanin, elastase and proteases are also hampered in the presence of the DTB extract. Importantly, compared with the known QS inhibitor naringenin, the DTB extract showed a stronger negative effect on twitching, biofilm formation and tobramycin resistance. Preliminary structural characterization of these potent biofilm disrupters suggests that they belong to the phytosterols. The strong inhibition of motility and biofilm formation suggests that the DTB extract contains agents disrupting biofilm architecture, which is an important observation in the context of the design of new drugs targeting biofilm-encapsulated pathogens.

  3. Disentangling the influence of environmental and anthropogenic factors on the distribution of endemic vascular plants in Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Fois, Mauro; Fenu, Giuseppe; Cañadas, Eva Maria; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2017-01-01

    Due to the impelling urgency of plant conservation and the increasing availability of high resolution spatially interpolated (e.g. climate variables) and categorical data (e.g. land cover and vegetation type), many recent studies have examined relationships among plant species distributions and a diversified set of explanatory factors; nevertheless, global and regional patterns of endemic plant richness remain in many cases unexplained. One such pattern is the 294 endemic vascular plant taxa recorded on a 1 km resolution grid on the environmentally heterogeneous island of Sardinia. Sixteen predictors, including topographic, geological, climatic and anthropogenic factors, were used to model local (number of taxa inside each 1 km grid cell) Endemic Vascular Plant Richness (EVPR). Generalized Linear Models were used to evaluate how each factor affected the distribution of local EVPR. Significant relationships with local EVPR and topographic, geological, climatic and anthropogenic factors were found. In particular, elevation explained the larger fraction of variation in endemic richness but other environmental factors (e.g. precipitation seasonality and slope) and human-related factors (e.g. the Human Influence Index (HII) and the proportion of anthropogenic land uses) were, respectively, positively and negatively correlated with local EVPR. Regional EVPR (number of endemic taxa inside each 100 m elevation interval) was also measured to compare local and regional EVPR patterns along the elevation gradient. In contrast to local, regional EVPR tended to decrease with altitude partly due to the decreasing area covered along altitude. The contrasting results between local and regional patterns suggest that local richness increases as a result of increased interspecific aggregation along altitude, whereas regional richness may depend on the interaction between area and altitude. This suggests that the shape and magnitude of the species-area relationship might vary with

  4. The nature of plant species

    PubMed Central

    Rieseberg, Loren H.; Wood, Troy E.; Baack, Eric J.

    2008-01-01

    Many botanists doubt the existence of plant species1–5, viewing them as arbitrary constructs of the human mind, as opposed to discrete, objective entities that represent reproductively independent lineages or ‘units of evolution’. However, the discreteness of plant species and their correspondence with reproductive communities have not been tested quantitatively, allowing zoologists to argue that botanists have been overly influenced by a few ‘botanical horror stories’, such as dandelions, blackberries and oaks6,7. Here we analyse phenetic and/or crossing relationships in over 400 genera of plants and animals. We show that although discrete phenotypic clusters exist in most genera (>80%), the correspondence of taxonomic species to these clusters is poor (<60%) and no different between plants and animals. Lack of congruence is caused by polyploidy, asexual reproduction and over-differentiation by taxonomists, but not by contemporary hybridization. Nonetheless, crossability data indicate that 70% of taxonomic species and 75% of phenotypic clusters in plants correspond to reproductively independent lineages (as measured by postmating isolation), and thus represent biologically real entities. Contrary to conventional wisdom8, plant species are more likely than animal species to represent reproductively independent lineages. PMID:16554818

  5. Genetic differentiation within and among island populations of the endangered plant Aster miyagii (Asteraceae), an endemic to the Ryukyu Islands.

    PubMed

    Maki, M

    2001-12-01

    Genetic diversity was examined at 17 putative allozyme loci in 18 populations of the insular endemic plant Aster miyagii (Asteraceae). This species is geographically restricted to only three islands of the Ryukyu Islands and is on the federal list of threatened plants. Genetic differentiation within an island is small, suggesting that gene flow among populations on the same island is sufficiently large to prevent divergence. By contrast, genetic differentiation among islands is large, especially between Amamioshima Island and the other two islands, suggesting that gene flow between the islands is highly restricted. Two unique alleles are nearly fixed in populations on Amamioshima Island, which is the southernmost island of the three. Comparatively, genetic diversity is the smallest on Amamioshima Island. This genetic paucity on Amamioshima Island is probably a result of a population bottleneck at colonization or the small effective population size on this island. Genetic diversity at the species level of A. miyagii is larger than those of the species with a similar life history and of the congeneric widespread species, suggesting that the species has an old origin as an insular endemic species.

  6. Decalepisarayalpathra (J. Joseph & V. Chandras.) Venter, an endemic and endangered ethno medicinal plant from Western Ghats, India.

    PubMed

    Verma, Sunil K; Sarkar, Manoj K

    2015-01-01

    Decalepis arayalpatra is an endemic and critically endangered plant of India. May 2014 issue of Natural Products Research publishes the findings of R. S. Verma et al. on the chemical composition of D. arayalpatra. This study was conducted to characterise the root aroma of this plant for possible industrial applications. The authors suggest that due to its peculiar vanilla flavour, the plant could be explored as a potential substitute of vanillin-aroma in the flavour industry. Owing to the fact that D. arayalpatra is a critically endangered plant species, and its habitat is now limited to only the protected areas and reserve forest in southern part of India, and that collecting any plant from such reserve forests for commercial activities is illegal as per the law of the country, this specific conclusion of the authors is totally un-substantiated by the law of land, hence, calls for further review.

  7. Conservation of tropical plant species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This book is designed to provide a review of the methods and current status of conservation of many tropical plant species. Future perspectives of conservation of tropical species will also be discussed. The section on methods covers the range of conservation techniques, in situ, seed banking, in vi...

  8. Endemic species may have complex histories: within-refugium phylogeography of an endangered Iberian vole.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, S; Paupério, J; Herman, J S; Ferreira, C M; Pita, R; Vale-Gonçalves, H M; Cabral, J A; Garrido-García, J A; Soriguer, R C; Beja, P; Mira, A; Alves, P C; Searle, J B

    2017-02-01

    Glacial refugia protected and promoted biodiversity during the Pleistocene, not only at a broader scale, but also for many endemics that contracted and expanded their ranges within refugial areas. Understanding the evolutionary history of refugial endemics is especially important in the case of endangered species to recognize the origins of their genetic structure and thus produce better informed conservation practices. The Iberian Peninsula is an important European glacial refugium, rich in endemics of conservation concern, including small mammals, such as the Cabrera vole (Microtus cabrerae). This near-threatened rodent is characterized by an unusual suite of genetic, life history and ecological traits, being restricted to isolated geographic nuclei in fast-disappearing Mediterranean subhumid herbaceous habitats. To reconstruct the evolutionary history of the Cabrera vole, we studied sequence variation at mitochondrial, autosomal and sex-linked loci, using invasive and noninvasive samples. Despite low overall mitochondrial and nuclear nucleotide diversities, we observed two main well-supported mitochondrial lineages, west and east. Phylogeographic modelling in the context of the Cabrera vole's detailed fossil record supports a demographic scenario of isolation of two populations during the Last Glacial Maximum from a single focus in the southern part of the Iberian Peninsula. In addition, our data suggest subsequent divergence within the east, and secondary contact and introgression of the expanding western population, during the late Holocene. This work emphasizes that refugial endemics may have a phylogeographic history as rich as that of more widespread species, and conservation of such endemics includes the preservation of that genetic legacy.

  9. Coccidia species in endemic and native New Zealand passerines.

    PubMed

    Schoener, E R; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Castro, I

    2013-05-01

    New Zealand native passerines are hosts to a large variety of gastrointestinal parasites, including coccidia. Coccidian parasites are generally host-specific, obligate intracellular protozoan parasites. In passerine birds, members of the genus Isospora are most common. Under natural conditions, these parasites seldom pose a threat, but stressors such as quarantine for translocation, overcrowding, or habitat changes may cause an infection outbreak that can severely affect wild populations. Although coccidia are important pathogens and have caused mortalities in kiwi (Apteryx spp.) and hihi (Notiomystis cincta), their prevalence, epidemiology, life cycles, and taxonomic relationships are still widely unknown in native New Zealand songbirds. Over a period of 3 years (2007-2009), we examined 330 fecal samples of six native passerine species: tui (Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae), North Island saddleback (Philesturnus carunculatus rufusater), North Island robin (Petroica longipes), silvereye (Zosterops lateralis), and fantail (Rhipidura fuliginosa). The overall prevalence by flotation of coccidian infection in the New Zealand bird species examined was 21-38 %, 21 % in North Island robin, 38 % in tui, and 25 % in saddleback. Similar to prior studies in other countries, preliminary sequencing results suggest that coccidia in passerines in New Zealand are members of the family Eimeriidae, unlike the phenotypically similar genus Cystisospora of mammals. Using molecular methods, we identified at least five new genetically distinct Isospora species in the examined birds (three in tui and one each in saddlebacks and North Island robins).

  10. Chemical composition of Achillea schischkinii Sosn., an endemic species from Turkey

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this study, we investigated the chemical composition of an endemic species of Achillea schischkinii Sosn. (Asteraceae) collected from an eastern part of Turkey (Van). Air-dried aerial parts were subjected to water-distillation using a Clevenger-type system. The essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS...

  11. Plant endemism in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis (Argentina): understanding links between phylogeny and regional biogeographical patterns1

    PubMed Central

    Chiapella, Jorge O.; Demaio, Pablo H.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We compiled a checklist with all known endemic plants occurring in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis, an isolated mountainous range located in central Argentina. In order to obtain a better understanding of the evolutionary history, relationships and age of the regional flora, we gathered basic information on the biogeographical and floristic affinities of the endemics, and documented the inclusion of each taxon in molecular phylogenies. We listed 89 taxa (including 69 species and 20 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 53 genera and 29 families. The endemics are not distributed evenly, being more abundant in the lower than in the middle and upper vegetation belts. Thirty-two genera (60.3%) have been included in phylogenetic analyses, but only ten (18.8%) included local endemic taxa. A total of 28 endemic taxa of the Sierras CSL have a clear relationship with a widespread species of the same genus, or with one found close to the area. Available phylogenies for some taxa show divergence times between 7.0 – 1.8 Ma; all endemic taxa are most probably neoendemics sensu Stebbins and Major. Our analysis was specifically aimed at a particular geographic area, but the approach of analyzing phylogenetic patterns together with floristic or biogeographical relationships of the endemic taxa of an area, delimited by clear geomorphological features, could reveal evolutionary trends shaping the area. PMID:25878555

  12. Plant endemism in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis (Argentina): understanding links between phylogeny and regional biogeographical patterns.

    PubMed

    Chiapella, Jorge O; Demaio, Pablo H

    2015-01-01

    We compiled a checklist with all known endemic plants occurring in the Sierras of Córdoba and San Luis, an isolated mountainous range located in central Argentina. In order to obtain a better understanding of the evolutionary history, relationships and age of the regional flora, we gathered basic information on the biogeographical and floristic affinities of the endemics, and documented the inclusion of each taxon in molecular phylogenies. We listed 89 taxa (including 69 species and 20 infraspecific taxa) belonging to 53 genera and 29 families. The endemics are not distributed evenly, being more abundant in the lower than in the middle and upper vegetation belts. Thirty-two genera (60.3%) have been included in phylogenetic analyses, but only ten (18.8%) included local endemic taxa. A total of 28 endemic taxa of the Sierras CSL have a clear relationship with a widespread species of the same genus, or with one found close to the area. Available phylogenies for some taxa show divergence times between 7.0 - 1.8 Ma; all endemic taxa are most probably neoendemics sensu Stebbins and Major. Our analysis was specifically aimed at a particular geographic area, but the approach of analyzing phylogenetic patterns together with floristic or biogeographical relationships of the endemic taxa of an area, delimited by clear geomorphological features, could reveal evolutionary trends shaping the area.

  13. New species of the fleas Farhangia and Nestivalius, from endemic rodents in Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Mardon, D K; Durden, L A

    2003-03-01

    The fleas (Siphonaptera: Pygiopsyllidae) Farhangia quattuordecimdentata sp. n. and Farhangia sedecimdentata sp. n. are described from pygmy squirrels (Prosciurillus spp.), and Nestivalius sulawesiensis sp. n. from murine rodents, all from Sulawesi, Indonesia. Both new species of Farhangia were collected in Central Sulawesi (Sulawesi Tengah); F. quattuordecimdentata sp. n. was recovered mainly from P. murinus, whereas F. sedecimdentata sp. n. was recovered mainly from P. leucomus. These new species are compared with the two previously described species of Farhangia: F. celebensis (Ewing) from P. murinus in North Sulawesi (Sulawesi Utara) and F. sciuri (Ewing) from the tree squirrel Callosciurus prevosti in Sabah (Borneo). Nestivalius sulawesiensis sp. n. was collected from six species of endemic murine rodents in both North and Central Sulawesi. It is compared to the morphologically similar N. pomerantzi (Traub) from Mindanao, which parasitizes murine hosts that are endemic to the Philippines.

  14. Ptilagrostis contracta (Stipeae, Poaceae), a New Species Endemic to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhong-Shuai; Li, Ling-Lu

    2017-01-01

    A new species, Ptilagrostis contracta, endemic to Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is described and illustrated. It is distinguished from other species in Ptilagrostis by having contracted panicles, 1-geniculate awns with hairy columns and scabrous bristles and evenly pubescent lemmas. Evidence from lemma epidermal pattern, cytology and molecular phylogenetic analyses based on the nuclear ITS sequence data confirm its systematic position in Ptilagrostis. PMID:28060805

  15. Collembola of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) with descriptions of five endemic cave-restricted species.

    PubMed

    Bernard, Ernest C; Soto-Adames, Felipe N; Wynne, J Judson

    2015-04-24

    Eight species of Collembola are reported from recent collections made in caves on the Polynesian island of Rapa Nui (Easter Island). Five of these species are new to science and apparently endemic to the island: Coecobrya aitorererere n. sp., Cyphoderus manuneru n. sp., Entomobrya manuhoko n. sp., Pseudosinella hahoteana n. sp. and Seira manukio n. sp. The Hawaiian species Lepidocyrtus olena Christiansen & Bellinger and the cosmopolitan species Folsomia candida Willem also were collected from one or more caves. Coecobrya kennethi Jordana & Baquero, recently described from Rapa Nui and identified as endemic, was collected in sympatric association with C. aitorererere n.sp. With the exception of F. candida, all species are endemic to Rapa Nui or greater Polynesia and appear to be restricted to the cave environment on Rapa Nui. A key is provided to separate Collembola species reported from Rapa Nui. We provide recommendations to aid in the conservation and management of these new Collembola, as well as the other presumed cave-restricted arthropods.

  16. Universal species-area and endemics-area relationships at continental scales.

    PubMed

    Storch, David; Keil, Petr; Jetz, Walter

    2012-08-02

    Despite the broad conceptual and applied relevance of how the number of species or endemics changes with area (the species-area and endemics-area relationships (SAR and EAR)), our understanding of universality and pervasiveness of these patterns across taxa and regions has remained limited. The SAR has traditionally been approximated by a power law, but recent theories predict a triphasic SAR in logarithmic space, characterized by steeper increases in species richness at both small and large spatial scales. Here we uncover such universally upward accelerating SARs for amphibians, birds and mammals across the world’s major landmasses. Although apparently taxon-specific and continent-specific, all curves collapse into one universal function after the area is rescaled by using the mean range sizes of taxa within continents. In addition, all EARs approximately follow a power law with a slope close to 1, indicating that for most spatial scales there is roughly proportional species extinction with area loss. These patterns can be predicted by a simulation model based on the random placement of contiguous ranges within a domain. The universality of SARs and EARs after rescaling implies that both total and endemic species richness within an area, and also their rate of change with area, can be estimated by using only the knowledge of mean geographic range size in the region and mean species richness at one spatial scale.

  17. Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kathryn, Mceachern A.; Thomson, D.M.; Chess, K.A.

    2009-01-01

    Islands experience higher rates of species extinction than mainland ecosystems, with biological invasions among the leading causes; they also serve as important model systems for testing ideas in basic and applied ecology. Invasive removal programs on islands are conservation efforts that can also be viewed as powerful manipulative experiments, but few data are available to evaluate their effects. We collected demographic and herbivore damage data for Castilleja mollis Pennell, an endangered plant endemic to Santa Rosa Island, California, over a 12-year period before, during, and after the implementation of control for introduced cattle, deer, and elk. We used these long-term data to explore mechanisms underlying herbivore effects, assess the results of herbivore reduction at the scales of both individual plants and populations, and determine how temporal variability in herbivory and plant demography influenced responses to herbivore removals. For individual plants, herbivore effects mediated by disturbance were greater than those of grazing. Deer and elk scraping of the ground substantially increased plant mortality and dormancy and reduced flowering and growth. Stem damage from browsing did not affect survivorship but significantly reduced plant growth and flower production. Herbivore control successfully lowered damage rates, which declined steeply between 1997 and 2000 and have remained relatively low. Castilleja mollis abundances rose sharply after 1997, suggesting a positive effect of herbivore control, but then began to decline steadily again after 2003. The recent decline appears to be driven by higher mean growing season temperatures; interestingly, not only reductions in scraping damage but a period of cooler conditions were significant in explaining increases in C. mollis populations between 1997 and 2002. Our results demonstrate strong effects of introduced herbivores on both plant demography and population dynamics and show that climate

  18. Climate alters response of an endemic island plant to removal of invasive herbivores.

    PubMed

    McEachern, A Kathryn; Thomson, Diane M; Chess, Katherine A

    2009-09-01

    Islands experience higher rates of species extinction than mainland ecosystems, with biological invasions among the leading causes; they also serve as important model systems for testing ideas in basic and applied ecology. Invasive removal programs on islands are conservation efforts that can also be viewed as powerful manipulative experiments, but few data are available to evaluate their effects. We collected demographic and herbivore damage data for Castilleja mollis Pennell, an endangered plant endemic to Santa Rosa Island, California, over a 12-year period before, during, and after the implementation of control for introduced cattle, deer, and elk. We used these long-term data to explore mechanisms underlying herbivore effects, assess the results of herbivore reduction at the scales of both individual plants and populations, and determine how temporal variability in herbivory and plant demography influenced responses to herbivore removals. For individual plants, herbivore effects mediated by disturbance were greater than those of grazing. Deer and elk scraping of the ground substantially increased plant mortality and dormancy and reduced flowering and growth. Stem damage from browsing did not affect survivorship but significantly reduced plant growth and flower production. Herbivore control successfully lowered damage rates, which declined steeply between 1997 and 2000 and have remained relatively low. Castilleja mollis abundances rose sharply after 1997, suggesting a positive effect of herbivore control, but then began to decline steadily again after 2003. The recent decline appears to be driven by higher mean growing season temperatures; interestingly, not only reductions in scraping damage but a period of cooler conditions were significant in explaining increases in C. mollis populations between 1997 and 2002. Our results demonstrate strong effects of introduced herbivores on both plant demography and population dynamics and show that climate

  19. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of two endemic plants from Aksaray in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozusaglam, Meltem Asan; Darilmaz, Derya Onal; Erzengin, Mahmut; Teksen, Mehtap; Erkul, Seher Karaman

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the methanol, ethanol, water, n-hexane and dicholoromethane extracts of two Allium species (Allium scabriflorum and Allium tchihatschewii) which are endemic for the flora of Turkey. The antimicrobial efficiency of the plant was evaluated according to disc diffusion and microdilution broth methods. The antimicrobial test results showed that the extracts of A. scabriflorum and A. tchihatschewii showed varying degrees of antimicrobial activity on the tested microorganisms. The extracts were screened for their possible antioxidant activities by three complementary tests; DPPH free radical-scavenging, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and metal chelating activity assays. All the extracts of A. scabriflorum and A. tchihatschewii exhibited lower DPPH free radical scavenging activity but higher metal chelating activity when compared to standards. The values of scavenging of hydrogen peroxide of the extracts were higher than the standards that of α-tocopherol, BHA, BHT and trolox, but close to that of ascorbic acid. In addition to the antioxidant activity of these plants, the total phenolic compounds and flavonoids were also measured in the extracts. The results presented here may suggest that the extracts of A. scabriflorum and A. tchihatschewii possess antimicrobial and antioxidant properties, and therefore, they can be used as a natural preservative ingredient in food and/or pharmaceutical industry.

  20. A satellite DNA evolutionary analysis in the North American endemic dioecious plant Rumex hastatulus (Polygonaceae).

    PubMed

    del Bosque, M E Quesada; Navajas-Pérez, R; Panero, J L; Fernández-González, A; Garrido-Ramos, M A

    2011-04-01

    We studied the evolution of RAE180 satellite DNA family in the North American endemic dioecious plant Rumex hastatulus. In this species, the Texas race is characterized by a single XX/XY sex chromosome system, whereas the North Carolina race has evolved a derived complex XX/XY(1)Y(2) sex chromosome system. RAE180 repeats were autosomic and poorly represented (2 × 10(-4)% of the genome) with no differences between individuals of different genders or different races of R. hastatulus. In fact, the sex chromosomes of the North Carolina race are still euchromatic, and they have not accumulated satellite DNA sequences, which contrasts with that occurring in the rest of dioecious XX/XY(1)Y(2) Rumex species. In R. hastatulus, we detected the existence of three RAE180 subfamilies. Notwithstanding, while in the Texas race the TX1/NC1 subfamily is the most frequent, the TX2/NC2 subfamily is the most abundant in the North Carolina race. Additionally, the third, less represented subfamily (TX3/NC3) appears currently as relict sequences in both genomes. A common feature of RAE180 satellite is the sudden replacement of one sequence variant by another in different species (or populations as in R. hastatulus races). Thus, the phylogenetic analysis of RAE180 repeats from six dioecious Rumex species supports the "library" hypothesis. According to this hypothesis, we assume that a set of divergent RAE180 variants were present in the ancestral genome of dioecious Rumex species, from which novel tandem arrays originated by the amplification of different variants in different lineages. Differential levels of RAE180 satellite DNA amplification in each lineage, at different evolutionary times, and in different chromosomal positions gave rise to differential patterns of sequence evolution.

  1. The first species of Aplastodiscus endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Hylidae)

    PubMed Central

    Berneck, Bianca V. M.; Giaretta, Ariovaldo A.; Brandão, Reuber A.; Cruz, Carlos A. G.; Haddad, Célio F. B.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The genus Aplastodiscus includes 14 nominal species in four monophyletic groups with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) of South America. A recent study reviewed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus and suggested a third species for the Aplastodiscus perviridis Group. Herein, on the basis of morphology and advertisement call, we describe this species and test its monophyly. The new species is the only Aplastodiscus with endemic occurrence in the Cerrado Biome. In addition, its geographical distribution and conservation status are discussed. PMID:28138301

  2. The first species of Aplastodiscus endemic to the Brazilian Cerrado (Anura, Hylidae).

    PubMed

    Berneck, Bianca V M; Giaretta, Ariovaldo A; Brandão, Reuber A; Cruz, Carlos A G; Haddad, Célio F B

    2017-01-01

    The genus Aplastodiscus includes 14 nominal species in four monophyletic groups with occurrence in the Atlantic Forest and Brazilian Cerrado (Brazilian Savanna) of South America. A recent study reviewed the taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships of the genus and suggested a third species for the Aplastodiscus perviridis Group. Herein, on the basis of morphology and advertisement call, we describe this species and test its monophyly. The new species is the only Aplastodiscus with endemic occurrence in the Cerrado Biome. In addition, its geographical distribution and conservation status are discussed.

  3. Public preference for endemism over other conservation-related species attributes.

    PubMed

    Meuser, Emily; Harshaw, Howard W; Mooers, Arne Ø

    2009-08-01

    Public preferences are likely to play an important role in prioritizing species at risk for conservation. We conducted a survey of British Columbians (Canada) (n =555, r =73%) to examine how the public ranks a species' attributes (rather than named species) with respect to conservation priority. Endemism, defined as species only or mainly occurring in British Columbia or species occurring in British Columbia and nowhere else in Canada, was considered the most important among the measured attributes. This preference was strongest among men and among respondents who had completed postsecondary education. The preference for endemism is generally consistent with science-based federal listings of British Columbian species. This congruence between listing and public opinion is welcome if such congruence is considered important. We suggest that investigating how much the public values species' attributes, as opposed to named species, provides a more efficient way of incorporating public opinion into policies on species at risk, especially if large numbers of species must be ranked for conservation priority.

  4. Sphaerophysa kotschyana, an endemic species from Central Anatolia: antioxidant system responses under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Yildiztugay, Evren; Ozfidan-Konakci, Ceyda; Kucukoduk, Mustafa

    2013-09-01

    Sphaerophysa kotschyana is a Turkish endemic and endangered plant that grows near Salt Lake, in Konya, Turkey. However, little is known about the ability of this plant to generate/remove reactive oxygen species (ROS) or its adaptive biochemical responses to saline environments. After exposure of S. kotschyana to 0, 150, and 300 mM NaCl for 7 and 14 days, we investigated (1) the activities and isozyme compositions of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POX), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and glutathione reductase (GR); (2) the oxidative stress parameters NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity, lipid peroxidation (MDA), total ascorbate (tAsA) content, and total glutathione content (tGlut); and (3) ROS levels for superoxide anion radical (O 2 (·-) ), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), hydroxyl radicals (OH·), and histochemical staining of O 2 (·-) and H2O2. H2O2 content increased after 14 days of salt stress, which was consistent with the results from histochemical staining and NOX activity measurements. In contrast, oxidative stress induced by 150 mM NaCl was more efficiently prevented, as indicated by low malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and especially at 7 days, by increased levels of SOD, POX, APX, and GR. However, at 300 mM NaCl, decreased levels of protective enzymes such as SOD, CAT, POX, and GR, particularly with long-term stress (14 days), resulted in limited ROS scavenging activity and increased MDA levels. Moreover, at 300 mM NaCl, the high H2O2 content caused oxidative damage rather than inducing protective responses against H2O2. These results suggest that S. kotschyana is potentially tolerant to salt-induced damage only at low salt concentrations.

  5. Comparative analysis of midgut bacterial communities in three aedine mosquito species from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India.

    PubMed

    Charan, S S; Pawar, K D; Gavhale, S D; Tikhe, C V; Charan, N S; Angel, B; Joshi, V; Patole, M S; Shouche, Y S

    2016-09-01

    Dengue viruses are transmitted to humans through the bites of infected female aedine mosquitoes. Differences in the composition and structure of bacterial communities in the midguts of mosquitoes may affect the vector's ability to transmit the disease. To investigate and analyse the role of midgut bacterial communities in viral transmission, midgut bacteria from three species, namely Stegomyia aegypti (= Aedes aegypti), Fredwardsius vittatus (= Aedes vittatus) and Stegomyia albopicta (= Aedes albopictus) (all: Diptera: Culicidae), from dengue-endemic and non-endemic areas of Rajasthan, India were compared. Construction and analyses of six 16S rRNA gene libraries indicated that Serratia spp.-related phylotypes dominated all clone libraries of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is not endemic. In dengue-endemic areas, phylotypes related to Aeromonas, Enhydrobacter spp. and uncultivated bacterium dominated the clone libraries of S. aegypti, F. vittatus and S. albopicta, respectively. Diversity indices analysis and real-time TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assays showed bacterial diversity and abundance in the midguts of S. aegypti to be higher than in the other two species. Significant differences observed among midgut bacterial communities of the three mosquito species from areas in which dengue is and is not endemic, respectively, may be related to the vectorial capacity of mosquitoes to carry dengue viruses and, hence, to the prevalence of disease in some areas. © 2016 The Royal Entomological Society.

  6. Nucleated succession by an endemic palm Phoenix pusilla enhances diversity of woody species in the arid Coromandel Coast of India

    PubMed Central

    Kinhal, Vijayalaxmi; Parthasarathy, N.

    2010-01-01

    Background and aims Phoenix pusilla, an endemic shrubby palm, was used as a model nurse plant in degraded tropical dry evergreen forest (TDEF) landscapes. This choice was informed by traditional ecological knowledge of the Irula tribe of south India. We tested whether the presence of P. pusilla in water-stressed arid regions improves conditions for other species to establish, resulting in nucleated succession. Success would point the way forward for establishing species-rich woodland in abandoned farm land on the south-eastern Coromandel Coast of India. Methodology Spatial associations of woody species in the natural landscape were studied. Experimental tests of nurse plant potential examined the extent to which P. pusilla (i) promoted seed germination, (ii) seedling emergence and (iii) establishment of two TDEF species, and (iv) ameliorated soil and microclimatic conditions over 8 months. Principal results Phoenix pusilla cooled the soil by up to 50 % and decreased radiation by up to 9-fold, especially in summer. Soil organic matter and water-holding capacity increased, as did seedling number and seedling height of tested TDEF species. The presence of P. pusilla favoured a greater abundance (20 %) of woody plants with a bias towards primary (11) rather than secondary (2) species, indicating species specificity of the effect. Conclusions Phoenix pusilla ameliorated abiotic stresses present in open ground to create a patchy species-rich mosaic. This nucleated succession created using P. pusilla provided an important refuge for primary TDEF species. This effect can be expected to have impact at the landscape scale and may prove useful in managing landscapes and in biodiversity conservation. The conservation value of these patchy landscapes deserves to be more widely recognized as they persist in populated areas and thus merit protection. The value of traditional tribal knowledge in identifying a highly effective nurse species is highlighted by this study. PMID

  7. An AFLP estimation of the outcrossing rate of Spondias tuberosa (Anacardiaceae), an endemic species to the Brazilian semiarid region.

    PubMed

    Fernandes Santos, Carlos Antonio; de Souza Gama, Renata Natália Cândido

    2013-06-01

    The umbu tree (Spondias tuberosa) is one of the most important endemic species to the Brazilian tropical semiarid region. The umbu tree has edible fruits with a peculiar flavor that are consumed in natura or in a semi-industrialized form, such as jams, candies and juices. The majority of endemic species to Brazilian semiarid region have not been studied or sampled to form germ-plasm collections, which increases the risk of losing genetic variability of the adapted species to xerophytic conditions. The aim of this study was to estimate outcrossing rates in S. tuberosa using a multilocus mixed model in order to guide genetic resources and breeding programs of this species. DNA samples were extracted from 92 progenies of umbu trees, which were distributed among 12 families. These trees were planted by seed in 1991 in Petrolina, PE, Brazil. The experimental design was a randomized block, with a total of 42 progenies sampled in three regions. The experimental units were composed by five plants and five replications. The outcrossing rate was estimated by the multilocus model, which is available in the MLTR software, and was based on 17 polymorphic AFLP bands obtained from AAA_CTG and AAA_CTC primer combinations. The observed heterozygotes ranged from 0.147 to 0.499, with a maximum frequency estimated for the AAA_CTC 10 amplicon. The multilocus outcrossing estimation (t(m)) was 0.804 +/- 0.072, while the single-locus (t(s)) was 0.841 +/- 0.079, which suggests that S. tuberosa is predominantly an outcrossing species. The difference between t(m) and t(s) was -0.037 +/- 0.029, which indicates that biparental inbreeding was nearly absent. The mean inbreeding coefficient or fixation index (F) among maternal plants was--0.103 +/- 0.045, and the expected F was 0.108, which indicates that there was no excess of heterozygotes in the maternal population. The outcrossing estimates obtained in the present study indicate that S. tuberosa is an open-pollinated species. Biometrical

  8. Phylogeography sheds light on the central–marginal hypothesis in a Mediterranean narrow endemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Pouget, Marine; Youssef, Sami; Migliore, Jérémy; Juin, Marianick; Médail, Frédéric; Baumel, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Understanding the factors that shape variation in genetic diversity across the geographic ranges of species is an important challenge in the effort to conserve evolutionary processes sustaining biodiversity. The historical influences leading to a central–marginal organization of genetic diversity have been explored for species whose range is known to have expanded from refugia after glacial events. However, this question has rarely been addressed for Mediterranean endemic plants of azonal habitats such as rocky slopes or screes. In this context, this comprehensive study examined molecular and field data from Arenaria provincialis (Caryophyllaceae), a narrow endemic plant of south-eastern France. Methods Across the whole geographic range, an investigation was made of whether high levels of abundance and genetic diversity (estimated from amplified fragment length polymorphism markers) are centrally distributed, to evaluate the relevance of the central–marginal hypothesis. Phylogeographic patterns inferred from chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) were used, applying Bayesian methods to test the influence of past biogeographic events. Multivariate analysis combining phylogeographic and ecological data was used to reveal the historical and ecological distinctiveness of populations. Key Results Despite the narrow distribution of A. provincialis, a high level of nucleotide variation is found within cpDNA loci, supporting its persistence throughout the Pleistocene period. The area characterized by the highest genetic diversity is centrally located. Structured phylogeography and Bayesian factor analysis supported the hypothesis that the central area of the distribution was the source of both westward and eastward migrations, probably during arid periods of the Pleistocene, and more recently was a crossroads of backward migrations. By contrast, the two areas located today at the range limits are younger, have reduced genetic diversity and are marginal in the

  9. Syzygium pyneei (Myrtaceae), a new critically endangered endemic species from Mauritius

    PubMed Central

    Byng, James W.; Florens, F. B. Vincent; Baider, Cláudia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Syzygium Gaertn. (Myrtaceae), Syzygium pyneei Byng, V. Florens & Baider, is described from Mondrain Reserve on the island of Mauritius. This species is endemic to the island and differs from any other species by its combination of cauliflory, relatively large flowers, light green to cream hypanthium, light pink stamens, short thick petioles, coriaceous leaves and round, cuneate or sub-cordate to cordate leaf bases. Syzygium pyneei Byng, V. Florens & Baider is known from only two individuals from the type locality and merits the conservation status of Critically Endangered (CR C2a(i,ii); D). PMID:25878549

  10. A newly recognised Australian endemic species of Austrolecanium Gullan & Hodgson 1998 (Hemiptera: Coccidae) from Queensland.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yen-Po; Ding, Zheng Yee; Gullan, Penny J; Cook, Lyn G

    2017-05-26

    Austrolecanium cryptocaryae Lin & Cook sp. n. is described based on adult female morphology and DNA sequences from mitochondrial and nuclear loci. This Australian endemic species was found on the underside of leaves of Cryptocarya microneura (Lauraceae) in Queensland. All phylogenetic analyses of four independent DNA loci and a concatenated dataset show that A. cryptocaryae is monophyletic and closely related to A. sassafras Gullan & Hodgson, the type species of Austrolecanium Gullan & Hodgson. The adult female of A. cryptocaryae is described and illustrated and a table is provided of the characters that differ among adult females of the three species of Austrolecanium currently recognised (A. cappari (Froggatt), A. cryptocaryae sp. n. and A. sassafras).

  11. Multiple filarial species microfilaraemia: a comparative study of areas with endemic and sporadic onchocerciasis.

    PubMed

    Uttah, Emmanuel; Ibeh, Dominic C

    2011-12-01

    The study was aimed at determining the pattern of co-occurrence of species of microfilaraemia between onchocerciasis endemic and sporadic populations. From every consenting person of one year and above, 50 μl of day and night blood samples were collected and processed respectively with Haemotoxylin and Giemsa as vital stains. Two skin snips (one each from the waist and the shoulder) were also taken from these individuals and processed. Results showed single species microfilaraemia (86.4 and 82.3%), double species microfilaraemia (12.2 and 16.9%) and triple species microfilaraemia (1.4 and 0.7%) for endemic and sporadic populations respectively. All the species had single species microfilaraemia mostly, but Mansonella perstans and Loa loa showed greatest tendency towards double and triple species microfilaraemia. The prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia among those positive for Onchocerca volvulus was significantly lower than the overall prevalence of Wuchereria bancrofti. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilaraemia was most common among those who had L. loa microfilaraemia. Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial intensity was higher among those with M. perstans microfilaraemia than among those positive for any of the other filarial species. Similarly, the intensity of M. perstans microfilaraemia among those positive for W. bancrofti exceeded the overall intensity of M. perstans. It is concluded that there was no definite pattern in mf densities discernible from co- occurrence infections either in the onchocerciasis endemic or sporadic population. There could be varied outcomes of onchocerciasis infection attributable to positive or negative regulatory effects of other pathogens harbored by the victims.

  12. A new genus and two new species of feather lice (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) from New Zealand endemic passerines (Aves: Passeriformes).

    PubMed

    Valim, Michel P; Palma, Ricardo L

    2015-03-09

    The first descriptions of New Zealand endemic feather lice belonging to the Brueelia-complex (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) are given. The new genus Melibrueelia and new species M. novaeseelandiae are described, illustrated and compared with morphologically close taxa within the complex. The type host of M. novaeseelandiae is the tui, Prosthemadera novaeseelandiae (Gmelin, 1788), and an additional host is the bellbird, Anthornis melanura (Sparrman, 1786) (Passeriformes: Meliphagidae), both endemic to New Zealand. Also, the new species Brueelia callaeincola is described and illustrated from four endemic bird species belonging to two endemic genera and an endemic family: Philesturnus carunculatus (Gmelin, 1789) (the type host), Ph. rufusater (Lesson, 1828), Callaeas cinerea (Gmelin, 1788) and C. wilsoni (Bonaparte, 1851) (Passeriformes: Callaeidae). Brief discussions on possible evolutionary histories of the new taxa are included.

  13. Sweet drinks are made of this: conservation genetics of an endemic palm species from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Namoff, Sandra; Veloz, Alberto; Jiménez, Francisco; Rodríguez-Peña, Rosa A; Peguero, Brígido; Lewis, Carl; Moynihan, Jeremy; Abdo, Melissa; Maunder, Mike; Von Wettberg, Eric; Meerow, Alan W; Griffith, M Patrick; Francisco-Ortega, Javier

    2011-01-01

    Pseudophoenix ekmanii is a threatened palm species endemic to the Dominican Republic. Sap from trees is extracted to make a local drink; once they are tapped the individual usually dies. Plants are also illegally harvested for the nursery trade and destroyed by poachers hunting the endemic and threatened Hispaniolan parrot. We used 7 DNA microsatellite markers to assist land managers in developing conservation strategies for this palm. We sampled 4 populations along the known distribution range of this species (3 populations from the mainland and 1 from the small island of Isla Beata), for a total sample of n = 104. We found strong evidence for genetic drift, inbreeding, and moderate gene flow (i.e., all populations had at least 4 loci that were not in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, at least 9 loci pairs were in linkage disequilibrium, the pairwise F(ST) values ranged from 0.069 to 0.266, and had positive F(IS) values). Data supported an isolation-by-distance model, and cluster analyses based on genetic distances resolved 2 groups that match a north-south split. The population from Isla Beata had the lowest levels of genetic diversity and was the only one in which we found pairs of individuals with identical shared multilocus genotypes.

  14. Potential distribution of mosquito vector species in a primary malaria endemic region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Altamiranda-Saavedra, Mariano; Arboleda, Sair; Parra, Juan L; Peterson, A Townsend; Correa, Margarita M

    2017-01-01

    Rapid transformation of natural ecosystems changes ecological conditions for important human disease vector species; therefore, an essential task is to identify and understand the variables that shape distributions of these species to optimize efforts toward control and mitigation. Ecological niche modeling was used to estimate the potential distribution and to assess hypotheses of niche similarity among the three main malaria vector species in northern Colombia: Anopheles nuneztovari, An. albimanus, and An. darlingi. Georeferenced point collection data and remotely sensed, fine-resolution satellite imagery were integrated across the Urabá -Bajo Cauca-Alto Sinú malaria endemic area using a maximum entropy algorithm. Results showed that An. nuneztovari has the widest geographic distribution, occupying almost the entire study region; this niche breadth is probably related to the ability of this species to colonize both, natural and disturbed environments. The model for An. darlingi showed that most suitable localities for this species in Bajo Cauca were along the Cauca and Nechí river. The riparian ecosystems in this region and the potential for rapid adaptation by this species to novel environments, may favor the establishment of populations of this species. Apparently, the three main Colombian Anopheles vector species in this endemic area do not occupy environments either with high seasonality, or with low seasonality and high NDVI values. Estimated overlap in geographic space between An. nuneztovari and An. albimanus indicated broad spatial and environmental similarity between these species. An. nuneztovari has a broader niche and potential distribution. Dispersal ability of these species and their ability to occupy diverse environmental situations may facilitate sympatry across many environmental and geographic contexts. These model results may be useful for the design and implementation of malaria species-specific vector control interventions optimized for

  15. Potential distribution of mosquito vector species in a primary malaria endemic region of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Altamiranda-Saavedra, Mariano; Arboleda, Sair; Parra, Juan L.; Peterson, A. Townsend

    2017-01-01

    Rapid transformation of natural ecosystems changes ecological conditions for important human disease vector species; therefore, an essential task is to identify and understand the variables that shape distributions of these species to optimize efforts toward control and mitigation. Ecological niche modeling was used to estimate the potential distribution and to assess hypotheses of niche similarity among the three main malaria vector species in northern Colombia: Anopheles nuneztovari, An. albimanus, and An. darlingi. Georeferenced point collection data and remotely sensed, fine-resolution satellite imagery were integrated across the Urabá –Bajo Cauca–Alto Sinú malaria endemic area using a maximum entropy algorithm. Results showed that An. nuneztovari has the widest geographic distribution, occupying almost the entire study region; this niche breadth is probably related to the ability of this species to colonize both, natural and disturbed environments. The model for An. darlingi showed that most suitable localities for this species in Bajo Cauca were along the Cauca and Nechí river. The riparian ecosystems in this region and the potential for rapid adaptation by this species to novel environments, may favor the establishment of populations of this species. Apparently, the three main Colombian Anopheles vector species in this endemic area do not occupy environments either with high seasonality, or with low seasonality and high NDVI values. Estimated overlap in geographic space between An. nuneztovari and An. albimanus indicated broad spatial and environmental similarity between these species. An. nuneztovari has a broader niche and potential distribution. Dispersal ability of these species and their ability to occupy diverse environmental situations may facilitate sympatry across many environmental and geographic contexts. These model results may be useful for the design and implementation of malaria species-specific vector control interventions optimized

  16. The nature of serpentine endemism.

    PubMed

    Anacker, Brian L

    2014-02-01

    Serpentine soils are a model system for the study of plant adaptation, speciation, and species interactions. Serpentine soil is an edaphically stressful, low productivity soil type that hosts stunted vegetation and a spectacular level of plant endemism. One of the first papers on serpentine plant endemism was by Arthur Kruckeberg, titled "Intraspecific variability in the response of certain native plant species to serpentine soil." Published in the American Journal of Botany in 1951, it has been cited over 100 times. Here, I review the context and content of the paper, as well as its impact. On the basis of the results of reciprocal transplant experiments in the greenhouse, Kruckeberg made three important conclusions on the nature of serpentine plant endemism: (1) Plants are locally adapted to serpentine soils, forming distinct soil ecotypes; (2) soil ecotypes are the first stage in the evolutionary progression toward serpentine endemism; and (3) serpentine endemics are restricted from more fertile nonserpentine soils by competition. Kruckeberg's paper inspired a substantial amount of research, especially in the three areas reviewed here: local adaptation and plant traits, speciation, and the interaction of climate and soil in plant endemism. In documenting soil ecotypes, Kruckeberg identified serpentine soils as a potent selective factor in plant evolution and helped establish serpentine soils as a model system in evolution and ecology.

  17. Microsatellite markers for Kleinia neriifolia, an endemic Asteraceae species on the Canary Islands.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Lin; Li, Chun; Sun, Ye; Wang, Fa-Guo; Xing, Fu-Wu

    2012-12-01

    Microsatellite makers were developed in Kleinia neriifolia, an endemic Asteraceae species on the Canary Islands, for investigation of the population genetic structure and colonization history of this insular species. • Seventeen polymorphic and seven monomorphic microsatellite loci were isolated and characterized from K. neriifolia using the protocol of Fast Isolation by AFLP of Sequences COntaining repeats (FIASCO). At the population level, the number of alleles detected per locus varied from two to 16, and the observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.105-1.000 and 0.100-0.923, respectively. • These highly informative loci are potentially useful to obtain a deeper understanding of the evolutionary process of K. neriifolia.

  18. Old fossils–young species: evolutionary history of an endemic gastropod assemblage in Lake Malawi

    PubMed Central

    Schultheiß, Roland; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Wilke, Thomas; Albrecht, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Studies on environmental changes provide important insights into modes of speciation, into the (adaptive) reoccupation of ecological niches and into species turnover. Against this background, we here examine the history of the gastropod genus Lanistes in the African Rift Lake Malawi, guided by four general evolutionary scenarios, and compare it with patterns reported from other endemic Malawian rift taxa. Based on an integrated approach using a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny and a trait-specific molecular clock in combination with insights from the fossil record and palaeoenvironmental data, we demonstrate that the accumulation of extant molecular diversity in the endemic group did not start before approximately 600 000 years ago from a single lineage. Fossils of the genus from the Malawi Rift, however, are over one million years older. We argue that severe drops in the lake level of Lake Malawi in the Pleistocene offer a potential explanation for this pattern. Our results also challenge previously established phylogenetic relationships within the genus by revealing parallel evolution and providing evidence that the endemic Lanistes species are not restricted to the lake proper but are present throughout the Malawi Rift. PMID:19439440

  19. Old fossils-young species: evolutionary history of an endemic gastropod assemblage in Lake Malawi.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Roland; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Wilke, Thomas; Albrecht, Christian

    2009-08-07

    Studies on environmental changes provide important insights into modes of speciation, into the (adaptive) reoccupation of ecological niches and into species turnover. Against this background, we here examine the history of the gastropod genus Lanistes in the African Rift Lake Malawi, guided by four general evolutionary scenarios, and compare it with patterns reported from other endemic Malawian rift taxa. Based on an integrated approach using a mitochondrial DNA phylogeny and a trait-specific molecular clock in combination with insights from the fossil record and palaeoenvironmental data, we demonstrate that the accumulation of extant molecular diversity in the endemic group did not start before approximately 600,000 years ago from a single lineage. Fossils of the genus from the Malawi Rift, however, are over one million years older. We argue that severe drops in the lake level of Lake Malawi in the Pleistocene offer a potential explanation for this pattern. Our results also challenge previously established phylogenetic relationships within the genus by revealing parallel evolution and providing evidence that the endemic Lanistes species are not restricted to the lake proper but are present throughout the Malawi Rift.

  20. Photosynthetic responses to water deficit in six Mediterranean sclerophyll species: possible factors explaining the declining distribution of Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris, an endemic Balearic species.

    PubMed

    Gulías, J; Flexas, J; Abadía, A; Madrano, H

    2002-07-01

    We sought to explain the declining distribution in the Balearic Islands of the endemic shrub Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris R. Chodat, by comparing its photosynthetic response to drought with that of several widely distributed, competing Mediterranean species (R. alaternus L., Quercus ilex L., Pistacia lentiscus L., Q. humilis Mill. and P. terebinthus L.). All of the study species, except for the two Rhamnus species, avoided desiccation by rapidly adjusting their stomatal conductance at the onset of drought, and maintaining constant leaf relative water content. The two Rhamnus species showed desiccation-tolerant behavior; i.e., as drought progressed, their predawn leaf relative water content decreased simultaneously with stomatal closure. All four desiccation-avoiding species showed a significant positive correlation between leaf thermal dissipation (estimated by the fluorescence parameter NPQ (non-photochemical quenching)) and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle (DPS). The two Rhamnus species exhibited maximum DPS regardless of treatment, but only R. alaternus increased NPQ in response to drought. Rhamnus ludovici-salvatoris had a high ratio of photorespiration to photosynthesis and a low intrinsic water-use efficiency; traits that are likely to be unfavorable for plant productivity under arid conditions. It also had the lowest DPS and thermal dissipation among the six species. We conclude that the photosynthetic traits of R. ludovici-salvatoris account for its limited ability to compete with other species in the Mediterranean region.

  1. The history of endemic Iberian ground beetle description (Insecta, Coleoptera, Carabidae): which species were described first?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-Valverde, Alberto; Ortuño, Vicente M.

    2007-01-01

    iological correlates of species description dates can be used to predict the characteristics of yet-to-be-described species. Such information can be useful in the planning of biodiversity field surveys. This paper explores the influence of five factors—body size, geographic range size, geographic location, habitat and number of congeners—on the probability of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles, and attempts to identify the effects of each factor, alone or in combination, through variation partitioning. Small-bodied and hypogean species were found to have been described later, as were those with smaller geographic ranges, while the number of congeners did not significantly affect description date. Additionally, Eastern hypogean species were described earlier than Western ones because of major lithology differences from east to west in the Iberian Peninsula, and concomitant geographic taxonomic bias. However, effects of each factor alone are quite small in comparison with effects of the combination of factors, due to their considerable correlation. Thus, "rarity", in its broadest sense, has been the determining factor of date of description of endemic Iberian ground-beetles. Previously, the technical difficulty encountered in the study of rare species retarded their description, whereas now they have become a "fashionable" object of study among carabidologists, due to the possibility of rapid publication. In order to improve the incomplete checklist of Iberian ground beetles it would be necessary to focus sampling efforts on marginal habitats and hypogean fauna.

  2. A preliminary study on the distribution patterns of endemic species of Fulgoromorpha (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha) in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Mozaffarian, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Iran is known as the most complex and varied country in southwest Asia, in terms of geography, vegetation, climate and consequently biological diversity. The rather high number of recorded endemic species of Fulgoromorpha in Iran indicates a high potential for speciation in some areas. In this study, in order to identify the endemic zones for Fulgoromorpha of Iran, three main biogeographic regions of the country were divided into 13 primary zones, mainly according to the distribution of published and unpublished locality records of endemic species. Using Venn diagrams and cluster analyses on the primary zones, 6 final endemic zones were recognized: Caspian zone, southern slopes of Alborz, Zagros Mountains, Kerman Mountains, Khorasan Mountains, and Baluchestan and Persian Gulf coasts. Then a similarity map was produced for endemic zones using a Multidimensional analysis (Alscal) and the differences between the positions of the same zones in the similarity and geographic maps were discussed. PMID:24039521

  3. A preliminary study on the distribution patterns of endemic species of Fulgoromorpha (Hemiptera, Auchenorrhyncha) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mozaffarian, Fariba

    2013-01-01

    Iran is known as the most complex and varied country in southwest Asia, in terms of geography, vegetation, climate and consequently biological diversity. The rather high number of recorded endemic species of Fulgoromorpha in Iran indicates a high potential for speciation in some areas. In this study, in order to identify the endemic zones for Fulgoromorpha of Iran, three main biogeographic regions of the country were divided into 13 primary zones, mainly according to the distribution of published and unpublished locality records of endemic species. Using Venn diagrams and cluster analyses on the primary zones, 6 final endemic zones were recognized: Caspian zone, southern slopes of Alborz, Zagros Mountains, Kerman Mountains, Khorasan Mountains, and Baluchestan and Persian Gulf coasts. Then a similarity map was produced for endemic zones using a Multidimensional analysis (Alscal) and the differences between the positions of the same zones in the similarity and geographic maps were discussed.

  4. Public reaction to invasive plant species in a disturbed Colorado landscape

    Treesearch

    Michael T. Daab; Courtney G. Flint

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plant species degrade ecosystems in many ways. Controlling invasive plants is costly for government agencies, businesses, and individuals. North central Colorado is currently experiencing large-scale disturbance, and millions of acres are vulnerable to invasion because of natural and socioeconomic processes. Mountain pine beetles typically endemic to this...

  5. Variations in the endemic fish assemblage of a global freshwater ecoregion: Associations with introduced species in cascading reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daga, Vanessa S.; Gubiani, Éder A.

    2012-05-01

    The present study aimed at assessing spatial and temporal changes in the composition and structure of an endemic fish assemblage and the possible associations with introduces species in a system of cascading reservoirs, in Iguaçu River, state of Paraná, southern Brazil. We collected 135,639 specimens: 131,716 individuals of endemic species and 3923 of introduced species. The most abundant introduced species were: Odontesthes bonariensis (85.1%), Prochilodus lineatus (7.5%) and Tilapia rendalli (4.9%). Significant spatial and temporal differences in richness were observed for both endemic and introduced species. The composition and structure of the assemblage of endemic and introduced fish exhibited significant spatial differences. The Procrustes analysis showed a significant spatial association between composition and structure of the assemblage of endemic and introduced fish in Iguaçu River. Changes in the endemic fish assemblage of Iguaçu River related to the establishment of introduced species and to habitat changes caused by cascading reservoirs enable advancing knowledge on environmental impacts in freshwater ecoregions.

  6. The complete chloroplast genome of Gentiana straminea (Gentianaceae), an endemic species to the Sino-Himalayan subregion.

    PubMed

    Ni, Lianghong; Zhao, Zhili; Xu, Hongxi; Chen, Shilin; Dorje, Gaawe

    2016-02-15

    Endemic to the Sino-Himalayan subregion, the medicinal alpine plant Gentiana straminea is a threatened species. The genetic and molecular data about it is deficient. Here we report the complete chloroplast (cp) genome sequence of G. straminea, as the first sequenced member of the family Gentianaceae. The cp genome is 148,991bp in length, including a large single copy (LSC) region of 81,240bp, a small single copy (SSC) region of 17,085bp and a pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 25,333bp. It contains 112 unique genes, including 78 protein-coding genes, 30 tRNAs and 4 rRNAs. The rps16 gene lacks exon2 between trnK-UUU and trnQ-UUG, which is the first rps16 pseudogene found in the nonparasitic plants of Asterids clade. Sequence analysis revealed the presence of 13 forward repeats, 13 palindrome repeats and 39 simple sequence repeats (SSRs). An entire cp genome comparison study of G. straminea and four other species in Gentianales was carried out. Phylogenetic analyses using maximum likelihood (ML) and maximum parsimony (MP) were performed based on 69 protein-coding genes from 36 species of Asterids. The results strongly supported the position of Gentianaceae as one member of the order Gentianales. The complete chloroplast genome sequence will provide intragenic information for its conservation and contribute to research on the genetic and phylogenetic analyses of Gentianales and Asterids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. New Pesticidal Diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae), an Endemic Neotropical Plant Living in the Endangered Brazilian Biome Rupestrian Grasslands.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Mariana C; Cantrell, Charles L; Duke, Stephen O; Ali, Abbas; Rosa, Luiz H

    2017-01-21

    Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient, and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera, and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Phytotoxicity bioassay-directed fractionation of the extract revealed one new isopimaradiene, 8(9),15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone, and three new cleistanthane diterpenoids, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, 3,20-epoxy-7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol, and 20-nor-3,7-dioxo-1,8,11,13-cleistanthatetraen-10-ol. These new structures are proposed based on interpretation of ¹H, (13)C, COSY, NOESY, HSQC, and HMBC NMR data. 8(9),15-isopimaradien-1,3,7,11-tetraone was especially phytotoxic with an IC50 value (30 μM) comparable to those of commercial herbicides clomazone, EPTC, and naptalam. In addition, 7-oxo-8,11,13-cleistanthatrien-3-ol provided 100% mortality at a concentration of 125 ppm against one-day-old Ae. aegypti larvae. Our results show that ancient and unique plants, like the endangered narrowly endemic neotropical species V. gigantea present in the Rupestrian grasslands, should also be protected because they can be sources of new bioactive compounds.

  8. New phytotoxic diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae), an endemic neotropical plant living in the endangered Brazilian biome Rupestrian grasslands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against ...

  9. New phytotoxic diterpenoids from Vellozia gigantea (Velloziaceae), an endemic neotropical plant living in the endangered Brazilian biome Rupestrian grasslands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vellozia gigantea is a rare, ancient and endemic neotropical plant present in the Brazilian Rupestrian grasslands. The dichloromethane extract of V. gigantea adventitious roots was phytotoxic against Lactuca sativa, Agrostis stolonifera and Lemna paucicostata, and showed larvicidal activity against ...

  10. The ancient Balkan lakes harbor a new endemic species of Diaphanosoma Fischer, 1850 (Crustacea: Branchiopoda: Cladocera).

    PubMed

    Korovchinsky, Nikolai M; Petkovski, Trajan K

    2014-04-01

    Diaphanosoma macedonicum sp. nov. is described from material collected from the ancient Lakes Dojran and Prespa, located in the central part of the Balkan Peninsula. It can be regarded as a member of the "D. mongolianum" species group. It is characterized by specific, but not readily visible features, such as the absence of a thorn near the posterior valve margins, as well as setules between setae of the ventral valve inflection, and the presence of more chitinized integument. The discovery of this new species previously identified as "Diaphanosoma brachyurum (Liévin)" highlights the necessity of more detailed investigations of the zooplankton of Balkan lakes potentially populated by greater numbers of endemic cladoceran species. A short overview of the ancient lakes in the Central Balkans is provided.

  11. Two new species of Trichuris (Nematoda: Trichuridae) collected from endemic murines of Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Hideo; Dewi, Kartika

    2017-04-12

    Two new species of the genus Trichuris (Nematoda: Trichuridae) parasitic in the old endemic murids of Indonesia are described: T. musseri sp. nov. from Echiothrix centrosa (Murinae: Rattini) in Sulawesi and T. mallomyos sp. nov. from Mallomys rothschildi (Murinae: Hydromyini) in Papua Indonesia. Both species are characterized by having a gradually tapered and sharply pointed distal end of the spicule, being readily distinguished from most of the congeners known from murid rodents. Trichuris musseri is readily distinguished from T. mallomyos by having a much smaller body and large number of nuclei per subdivision of stichosome. The resemblance in spicule morphology between the two new species is of special interest because both hosts belong to different tribes and have different habitats and habits. It remains to be elucidated whether the resemblance is merely homoplasy or actually reflects close phylogenetic relationship of the parasites.

  12. De Novo Transcriptome Assembly in Firmiana danxiaensis, a Tree Species Endemic to the Danxia Landform

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Su-Fang; Li, Ming-Wan; Jing, Hui-Juan; Zhou, Ren-Chao; Yang, Gui-Li; Wu, Wei; Fan, Qiang; Liao, Wen-Bo

    2015-01-01

    Many Firmiana species are locally endemic, providing an interesting system for studying adaptation and speciation. Among these species, F. danxiaensis is a tree species endemic to Mount Danxia in Guangdong, China, which is an area known for presenting the Danxia landform. How F. danxiaensis could have adapted to the stressful environment of rocky cliffs covered with barren soils in the Danxia landform is still unknown. In this study, we performed de novo assembly of the transcriptome of F. danxiaensis, obtaining 47,221 unigenes with an N50 value of 987 bp. Homology analysis showed that 32,318 of the unigenes presented hits in the NCBI non-redundant database, and 31,857 exhibited significant matches with the protein database of Theobroma cacao. Gene Ontology (GO) annotation showed that hundreds of unigenes participated in responses to various stresses or nutritional starvation, which may help us to understand the adaptation of F. danxiaensis to Danxia landform. Additionally, we found 263 genes related to responses to Cd, partially explaining the high accumulation of Cd observed in Firmiana species. The EuKaryotic Orthologous Groups (KOG) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotations revealed many genes playing roles in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and environmental adaptation, which may also contribute to the survivor and success of Firmiana species in extreme environments. Based on the obtained transcriptome, we further identified a Firmiana-specific whole-genome duplication event that occurred approximately 20 Mya, which may have provided raw materials for the diversification of Firmiana species. PMID:26427005

  13. Phylogeography of the endangered darkling beetle species of Pimelia endemic to Gran Canaria (Canary Islands).

    PubMed

    Contreras-Días, Hermans G; Moya, Oscar; Oromí, Pedro; Juan, Carlos

    2003-08-01

    Phylogenetic and geographical nested clade analysis (NCA) methods were applied to mitochondrial DNA sequences of Pimelia darkling beetles (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) endemic to Gran Canaria, an island in the Canary archipelago. The three species P. granulicollis, P. estevezi and P. sparsa occur on the island, the latter with three recognized subspecies. Another species, P. fernandezlopezi (endemic to the island of La Gomera) is a close relative of P. granulicollis based on partial Cytochrome Oxidase I mtDNA sequences obtained in a previous study. Some of these beetles are endangered, so phylogeographical structure within species and populations can help to define conservation priorities. A total of about 700 bp of Cytochrome Oxidase II were examined in 18 populations and up to 75 individuals excluding outgroups. Among them, 22 haplotypes were exclusive to P. granulicollis and P. estevezi and 31 were from P. sparsa. Phylogenetic analysis points to the paraphyly of Gran Canarian Pimelia, as the La Gomera P. fernandezlopezi haplotypes are included in them, and reciprocal monophyly of two species groups: one constituted by P. granulicollis, P. estevezi and P. fernandezlopezi (subgenus Aphanaspis), and the other by P. sparsa'sensu lato'. The two species groups show a remarkably high mtDNA divergence. Within P. sparsa, different analyses all reveal a common result, i.e. conflict between current subspecific taxonomic designations and evolutionary units, while P. estevezi and P. fernandezlopezi are very close to P. granulicollis measured at the mtDNA level. Geographical NCA identifies several cases of nonrandom associations between haplotypes and geography that may be caused by allopatric fragmentation of populations with some cases of restriction of gene flow or range expansion. Analyses of molecular variance and geographical NCA allow definition of evolutionary units for conservation purposes in both species-groups and suggest scenarios in which vicariance caused by

  14. Using a network modularity analysis to inform management of a rare endemic plant in the northern Great Plains, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Droege, Sam; Rabie, Paul A.; Larson, Jennifer L.; Devalez, Jelle; Haar, Milton; McDermott-Kubeczko, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    1. Analyses of flower-visitor interaction networks allow application of community-level information to conservation problems, but management recommendations that ensue from such analyses are not well characterized. Results of modularity analyses, which detect groups of species (modules) that interact more with each other than with species outside their module, may be particularly applicable to management concerns. 2. We conducted modularity analyses of networks surrounding a rare endemic annual plant, Eriogonum visheri, at Badlands National Park, USA, in 2010 and 2011. Plant species visited were determined by pollen on insect bodies and by flower species upon which insects were captured. Roles within modules (network hub, module hub, connector and peripheral, in decreasing order of network structural importance) were determined for each species. 3. Relationships demonstrated by the modularity analysis, in concert with knowledge of pollen species carried by insects, allowed us to infer effects of two invasive species on E. visheri. Sharing a module increased risk of interspecific pollen transfer to E. visheri. Control of invasive Salsola tragus, which shared a module with E. visheri, is therefore a prudent management objective, but lack of control of invasive Melilotus officinalis, which occupied a different module, is unlikely to negatively affect pollination of E. visheri. Eriogonum pauciflorum may occupy a key position in this network, supporting insects from the E. visheri module when E. visheri is less abundant. 4. Year-to-year variation in species' roles suggests management decisions must be based on observations over several years. Information on pollen deposition on stigmas would greatly strengthen inferences made from the modularity analysis. 5. Synthesis and applications: Assessing the consequences of pollination, whether at the community or individual level, is inherently time-consuming. A trade-off exists: rather than an estimate of fitness effects, the

  15. In vitro anti-neoplastic activity of the ethno-pharmaceutical plant Hypericum adenotrichum Spach endemic to Western Turkey.

    PubMed

    Ozmen, Ali; Bauer, Sabine; Gridling, Manuela; Singhuber, Judith; Krasteva, Stanimira; Madlener, Sibylle; Vo, Than Phuong Nha; Stark, Nicole; Saiko, Philipp; Fritzer-Szekeres, Monika; Szekeres, Thomas; Askin-Celik, Tülay; Krenn, Liselotte; Krupitza, Georg

    2009-10-01

    Hypericum perforatum (St. John's wort) is well-established for its antidepressant activity throughout the world and also various other species within this genus are used in different folk medicines. Hyperforin of St. John's wort inhibited growth of cancer cell lines and the use of hypericin (another compound of H. perforatum) in cancer photodynamic therapy is proposed. Therefore, we investigated the anti-cancer properties of H. adenotrichum Spach (Guttiferae), an endemic species in Turkey called 'kantaron', which is used for wound healing and antiseptic effects. Freeze-dried plant was extracted with petroleum ether, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and methanol and the bioactivity of these extracts was analysed by proliferation assay, cell death determination, by investigating protein expression profiles specific for cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as well as composition by HPLC. The strongest anti-proliferative activity was determined for the petroleum ether extract with an IpC50 of approximately 5.8 microg/ml medium (referring to 1 mg dried plant) which correlated with cyclin D1 suppression and p21 induction. This extract also induced phosphorylation of H2AX, and activated caspase-3 followed by signature-type cleavage of PARP resulting in approximately 50% apoptosis at 23.2 microg/ml after 24 h of treatment. Neither hyperforin, hypericin, or amentoflavone contributed to these properties. To the best of our knowledge, we report for the first time that the endemic plant H. adenotrichum Spach exhibits potent p53-independent anti-neoplastic properties due to yet unexplored Hypericum constituents.

  16. Parasitism of a Hawaiian endemic moth by invasive and purposely introduced Hymenoptera species.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Leyla V; Wright, Mark G

    2010-04-01

    The impact of invasive alien species on native organisms is a cause for serious concern. This concern is especially relevant in the Hawaiian archipelago because of its high level of endemicity, severe impacts of accidental introductions of invasive species, and long history of purposeful biological control introductions. Results from a previous study showed that the parasitoid assemblage associated with an endemic moth Udea stellata (Butler) comprised seven species: three adventive species, two purposely introduced species, and two of unknown origin. The objectives of this study were to assess the parasitism levels of alien wasps on populations of U. stellata at different sites and to determine the specific stages that were used by the spectrum of parasitoid species that attack U. stellata. Standardized collections of wild larvae were conducted at eight sites located on the islands of Kauai, Oahu, and Hawaii. In total, 3,531 larvae were collected in a 2-yr survey. Of these, 8.0% were collected as first instar, 23.0% as second instar, 39.0% as third instar, 21.0% as fourth instar, 7.1% as fifth instar, and 1.8% as sixth instar. Of the larvae that survived laboratory rearing, 43.0% were parasitized. Information collected in the surveys was complemented with data from life-table studies to determine stage-specific parasitism. All larval stages were susceptible to parasitism by at least one parasitoid species; second and third instars were susceptible to attack by all seven parasitoid species. Adventive parasitoids rather than purposely introduced ones were responsible for the greater part of the apparent mortality observed. At low and low-medium elevations, the parasitoid assemblage was dominated by adventive species. The two purposely introduced parasitoids were present in remote relatively undisturbed sites on the islands Kauai and Hawaii. The sometimes high parasitism rates by adventive species found in this study were shown to have minimal effect at the population

  17. Unravelling the evolutionary history and future prospects of endemic species restricted to former glacial refugia.

    PubMed

    Razgour, Orly; Salicini, Irene; Ibáñez, Carlos; Randi, Ettore; Juste, Javier

    2015-10-01

    The contemporary distribution and genetic composition of biodiversity bear a signature of species' evolutionary histories and the effects of past climatic oscillations. For many European species, the Mediterranean peninsulas of Iberia, Italy and the Balkans acted as glacial refugia and the source of range recolonization, and as a result, they contain disproportionately high levels of diversity. As these areas are particularly threatened by future climate change, it is important to understand how past climatic changes affected their biodiversity. We use an integrated approach, combining markers with different evolutionary rates and combining phylogenetic analysis with approximate Bayesian computation and species distribution modelling across temporal scales. We relate phylogeographic processes to patterns of genetic variation in Myotis escalerai, a bat species endemic to the Iberian Peninsula. We found a distinct population structure at the mitochondrial level with a strong geographic signature, indicating lineage divergence into separate glacial refugia within the Iberian refugium. However, microsatellite markers suggest higher levels of gene flow resulting in more limited structure at recent time frames. The evolutionary history of M. escalerai was shaped by the effects of climatic oscillations and changes in forest cover and composition, while its future is threatened by climatically induced range contractions and the role of ecological barriers due to competition interactions in restricting its distribution. This study warns that Mediterranean peninsulas, which provided refuge for European biodiversity during past glaciation events, may become a trap for limited dispersal and ecologically limited endemic species under future climate change, resulting in loss of entire lineages. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three species of endemic New Zealand birds.

    PubMed

    Howe, Laryssa; Hunter, Stuart; Burrows, Elizabeth; Roe, Wendi

    2014-03-01

    Four cases of fatal toxoplasmosis in three endemic New Zealand avian species are reported. Between 2009 and 2012, two kereru (Hemiphaga novaeseelandiae), one North Island brown kiwi (Apteryx mantelli), and one North Island kaka (Nestor meridionalis) were submitted for necropsy examination. On gross postmortem, the kiwi had marked hepatosplenomegaly while the kaka and two kereru had swollen, slightly firm, deep-red lungs. Histologically there was extensive hepatocellular necrosis in the liver of the kiwi while the kaka and kereru showed severe fibrinous bronchointerstitial pneumonia. In the kiwi, protozoal organisms were present within both hepatocytes and Kupffer cells of the liver and within the epithelial cells and macrophages of the interstitium of the lungs in the kaka and two kereru. The diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was confirmed with immunohistochemistry and PCR of paraffin-embedded formalin-fixed tissue of the liver, lungs, or both. Genotyping of up to seven markers revealed that an atypical Type II isolate of Toxoplasma gondii was present in at least three of the cases. This study provides evidence that T. gondii can cause mortality in these endemic species and suggests further research is needed to determine the full extent of morbidity and mortality caused by this parasite in New Zealand's unique avifauna.

  19. Reverse osmosis plant maintenance and efficacy in chronic kidney disease endemic region in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Jayasumana, Channa; Ranasinghe, Omesh; Ranasinghe, Sachini; Siriwardhana, Imalka; Gunatilake, Sarath; Siribaddana, Sisira

    2016-11-01

    Chronic Interstitial Nephritis in Agricultural Communities (CINAC) causes major morbidity and mortality for farmers in North-Central province (NCP) of Sri Lanka. To prevent the CINAC, reverse osmosis (RO) plants are established to purify the water and reduce the exposure to possible nephrotoxins through drinking water. We assessed RO plant maintenance and efficacy in NCP. We have interviewed 10 RO plant operators on plant establishment, maintenance, usage and funding. We also measured total dissolved solids (TDS in ppm) to assess the efficacy of the RO process. Most RO plants were operated by community-based organizations. They provide clean and sustainable water source for many in the NCP for a nominal fee, which tends to be variable. The RO plant operators carry out RO plant maintenance. However, maintenance procedures and quality management practices tend to vary from an operator to another. RO process itself has the ability to lower the TDS of the water. On average, RO process reduces the TDS to 29 ppm. The RO process reduces the impurities in water available to many individuals within CINAC endemic regions. However, there variation in maintenance, quality management, and day-to-day care between operators can be a cause for concern. This variability can affect the quality of water produced by RO plant, its maintenance cost and lifespan. Thus, uniform regulation and training is needed to reduce cost of maintenance and increase the efficacy of RO plants.

  20. Two new species of endemic Ecuadorean Amaryllidaceae (Asparagales, Amaryllidaceae, Amarylloideae, Eucharideae)

    PubMed Central

    Meerow, Alan W.; Jost, Lou; Oleas, Nora

    2015-01-01

    Abstract New species of the genera Stenomesson and Eucharis (Amaryllidaceae) are described from Ecuador. Stenomesson ecuadorense is the second species of the genus reported from that country, and the only endemic one. It is related to Stenomesson miniatum and Stenomesson campanulatum, both from Peru, with which it shares orange flower color and the fusion of the staminal corona to the perianth tube. It differs from Stenomesson miniatum by the non-urceolate perianth, from Stenomesson campanulatum by its shorter stamens and longer perianth, and from both by its lower montane, cloud forest habitat. Eucharis ruthiana, found in the vicinity of Zamora, is related to Eucharis moorei from which it differs by the narrower leaves and tepals; short, deeply cleft staminal corona; the long teeth on either side of the free filaments; the narrowly subulate, incurved free filaments; and the shorter style. The green mature fruit and campanulate floral morphology place it in Eucharis subg. Heterocharis. PMID:25931969

  1. Two new species of endemic Ecuadorean Amaryllidaceae (Asparagales, Amaryllidaceae, Amarylloideae, Eucharideae).

    PubMed

    Meerow, Alan W; Jost, Lou; Oleas, Nora

    2015-01-01

    New species of the genera Stenomesson and Eucharis (Amaryllidaceae) are described from Ecuador. Stenomessonecuadorense is the second species of the genus reported from that country, and the only endemic one. It is related to Stenomessonminiatum and Stenomessoncampanulatum, both from Peru, with which it shares orange flower color and the fusion of the staminal corona to the perianth tube. It differs from Stenomessonminiatum by the non-urceolate perianth, from Stenomessoncampanulatum by its shorter stamens and longer perianth, and from both by its lower montane, cloud forest habitat. Eucharisruthiana, found in the vicinity of Zamora, is related to Eucharismoorei from which it differs by the narrower leaves and tepals; short, deeply cleft staminal corona; the long teeth on either side of the free filaments; the narrowly subulate, incurved free filaments; and the shorter style. The green mature fruit and campanulate floral morphology place it in Eucharissubg.Heterocharis.

  2. SELECTING PLANT SPECIES FOR PESTICIDE REGISTRATION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current test protocols used by the US EPA for the registration of pesticides examines plant responses of 10 crop species but may not examine regionally important native plants or crops. In order to test the efficiency of current test protocols we selected six native plant species...

  3. SELECTING PLANT SPECIES FOR PESTICIDE REGISTRATION TESTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Current test protocols used by the US EPA for the registration of pesticides examines plant responses of 10 crop species but may not examine regionally important native plants or crops. In order to test the efficiency of current test protocols we selected six native plant species...

  4. Invasive plant species in hardwood tree plantations

    Treesearch

    Rochelle R. Beasley; Paula M. Pijut

    2010-01-01

    Invasive plants are species that can grow and spread aggressively, mature quickly, and invade an ecosystem causing economic and environmental damage. Invasive plants usually invade disturbed areas, but can also colonize small areas quickly, and may spread and dominate large areas in a few short years. Invasive plant species displace native or desirable forest...

  5. Do invasive plant species alter soil health?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive species may alter soil characteristics or interact with the soil microbial community to yield a competitive advantage. Our objectives were to determine: if invasive plant species alter soil properties important to soil health; and the long-term effects of invasive plant species on soil pro...

  6. Phytotoxic triterpene saponis from Bellis longifolia, an endemic plant of Crete

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In continuation of our research on discovery of bioactive compounds from plants we have screened extracts of 65 plant species of the Cretan flora for their phytotoxic activity. All plants were extracted successively with CH2Cl2, MeOH and H2O. Phytotoxicity evaluation of the 249 generated extracts wa...

  7. A novel third species of the Western Ghats endemic genus Ghatixalus (Anura: Rhacophoridae), with description of its tadpole.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Robin Kurian; Mathew, Jobin K; Cyriac, Vivek Philip; Zachariah, Arun; Raju, David V; Zachariah, Anil

    2015-11-24

    The Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot is a recognized center of rhacophorid diversity as demonstrated by several recent studies. The endemic genus Ghatixalus is represented by two species from two separate high-elevation regions within the Ghats. Here, we describe a third species that can be distinguished by morphological and larval characters, as well as by its phylogenetic placement.

  8. Bioaccumulation of heavy metals by endemic Viola species from the soil in the vicinity of the As-Sb-Tl mine "allchar' Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Baceva, K; Stafilov, T; Matevski, V

    2014-01-01

    Allchar mine is an abandoned arsenic-antimony-thallium deposit located on the northwestern part of Kozuf Mt., Republic of Macedonia. Allchar is a unique deposit within the world, due to the variety of its mineral composition especially and in the high content of thallium. The aim of this work was to assess the level of contamination at this post-mining area as well as to determine the intensity of accumulation of various elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ga, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Sr, Tl, V, and Zn) with focus on As, Sb and Tl, in two endemic Viola species from this locality (Viola allcharensis G. Beck, Viola arsenica G. Beck) and one Balkan endemic species (Viola macedonica Boiss. & Heldr.). Samples of different plant parts and soil were digested and then analysed by ICP-AES. It was found that the accumulation of As, Sb, and Tl in these endemic species is significantly high. In this study a systematic investigation of the As-Sb-Tl contamination of soils and their bioavailability was carried out using the extraction procedure in order to explore the mobility and potential bioavailability of the As, Sb, and Tl.

  9. Alpine endemic spiders shed light on the origin and evolution of subterranean species

    PubMed Central

    Mammola, Stefano; Arnedo, Miquel A.

    2015-01-01

    We designed a comparative study to unravel the phylogeography of two Alpine endemic spiders characterized by a different degree of adaptation to subterranean life: Troglohyphantes vignai (Araneae, Linyphiidae) and Pimoa rupicola (Araneae, Pimoidae), the latter showing minor adaptation to hypogean life. We sampled populations of the model species in caves and other subterranean habitats across their known geographical range in the Western Alps. By combining phylogeographic inferences and Ecological Niche Modeling techniques, we inferred the biogeographic scenario that led to the present day population structure of the two species. According to our divergent time estimates and relative uncertainties, the isolation of T. vignai and P. rupicola from their northern sister groups was tracked back to Middle–Late Miocene. Furthermore, the fingerprint left by Pleistocene glaciations on the population structure revealed by the genetic data, led to the hypothesis that a progressive adaptation to subterranean habitats occurred in T. vignai, followed by strong population isolation. On the other hand, P. rupicola underwent a remarkable genetic bottleneck during the Pleistocene glaciations, that shaped its present population structure. It seems likely that such shallow population structure is both the result of the minor degree of specialization to hypogean life and the higher dispersal ability characterizing this species. The simultaneous study of overlapping spider species showing different levels of adaptation to hypogean life, disclosed a new way to clarify patterns of biological diversification and to understand the effects of past climatic shift on the subterranean biodiversity. PMID:26734503

  10. Clutch size in the tropical scincid lizard Emoia sanfordi, a species endemic to the Vanuatu Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Alison Madeline; Eckstut, Mallory Elizabeth; Klein, Elaine Renee; Austin, Christopher Cowell

    2008-08-01

    The majority of species in the scincid genus Emoia (Squamata: Scincidae) have a fixed clutch size of two eggs per clutch and produce between two and four clutches per year. One lineage within Emoia, the Emoia samoensis species group, consists of 13 species occurring in Melanesia and the islands of the southwestern Pacific Ocean, and exhibits variation in clutch size, with previously reported clutch sizes of two to five eggs. Little is known about reproduction in several members of this lineage including Emoia sanfordi, a large-bodied lizard endemic to the archipelago of Vanuatu in the South Pacific. We analyzed reproduction and clutch size in E. sanfordi females and discovered that there is a substantial amount of intraspecific variation, with clutch size ranging from two to seven eggs, with a modal clutch size of five eggs. Females were reproductively active throughout the study period of June through October and appear to be laying multiple clutches. The variation in clutch size seen in E. sanfordi is congruent with the variation previously reported within other closely related species.

  11. Detection of Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis in endemic salamander species from central Texas.

    PubMed

    Gaertner, James P; Forstner, Michael R J; O'Donnell, Lisa; Hahn, Dittmar

    2009-03-01

    A nested PCR protocol was used to analyze five endemic salamander species from Central Texas for the presence of the emerging pathogen, chytrid fungus (Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis). Chytrid fungus was detected from samples of each of the five species sampled: with low abundance, in the Texas salamander (Eurycea neotenes) (1 positive out of 16 individuals tested; 1/16), the Blanco River Springs salamander (E. pterophila) (1/20), the threatened San Marcos salamander (E. nana) (1/17), and the endangered Barton Springs salamander (E. sosorum) (1/7); much higher abundance was obtained for the Jollyville Plateau salamander (E. tonkawae) (6/14), which has recently been petitioned for addition to the USA endangered species list. With one exception, sequences of PCR products were identical to the 5.8S rRNA gene, and nearly so for the flanking internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of B. dendrobatidis which confirmed the detection of chytrid fungus, and thus demonstrated the presence of this pathogen in populations of endangered species in Central Texas. These confirmations were obtained from nonconsumptive tail clippings which confirms the applicability of historically collected samples from other studies in the examination of the fungus across time.

  12. Hybridization may facilitate in situ survival of endemic species through periods of climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Matthias; Gruenheit, Nicole; Steel, Mike; Voelckel, Claudia; Deusch, Oliver; Heenan, Peter B.; McLenachan, Patricia A.; Kardailsky, Olga; Leigh, Jessica W.; Lockhart, Peter J.

    2013-12-01

    Predicting survival and extinction scenarios for climate change requires an understanding of the present day ecological characteristics of species and future available habitats, but also the adaptive potential of species to cope with environmental change. Hybridization is one mechanism that could facilitate this. Here we report statistical evidence that the transfer of genetic information through hybridization is a feature of species from the plant genus Pachycladon that survived the Last Glacial Maximum in geographically separated alpine refugia in New Zealand's South Island. We show that transferred glucosinolate hydrolysis genes also exhibit evidence of intra-locus recombination. Such gene exchange and recombination has the potential to alter the chemical defence in the offspring of hybridizing species. We use a mathematical model to show that when hybridization increases the adaptive potential of species, future biodiversity will be best protected by preserving closely related species that hybridize rather than by conserving distantly related species that are genetically isolated.

  13. Chemical composition of the essential oil from Croton kimosorum, an endemic species to Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Rabehaja, Delphin J R; Ihandriharison, Harilala; Ramanoelina, Panja A R; Benja, Rakotonirina; Ratsimamanga-Urverg, Suzanne; Bighelli, Ange; Casanova, Joseph; Tomi, Félix

    2014-01-01

    Croton kimosorum Leandri is an endemic species to Madagascar. The chemical composition of aerial parts, leaf and stem oils is reported for the first time. Analysis was carried out by combination of chromatographic (CC, GC), spectroscopic and spectrometric (MS, 13C NMR) techniques. In total, 76 compounds have been identified. Essential oil isolated from aerial parts contained mainly linalool (21.6%), sabinene (10.4%), 1,8-cineole (6.3%), beta-pinene (6.2%), (E)-beta-caryophyllene (5.9%), terpinen-4-ol (4.8%), geraniol (4,5%) and germacrene D (2.3%). In comparison with the first sample, the composition of leaf and stem oils varied slightly, while essential oil isolated by vapor distillation from a semi-industrial still exhibited similar composition.

  14. The myth of plant species saturation

    Treesearch

    Thomas J. Stohlgren; David T. Barnett; Catherine S. Jarnevich; Curtis Flather; John Kartesz

    2008-01-01

    Plant species assemblages, communities or regional floras might be termed saturated when additional immigrant species are unsuccessful at establishing due to competitive exclusion or other inter-specific interactions, or when the immigration of species is off-set by extirpation of species. This is clearly not the case for state, regional or national floras in the USA...

  15. Trichinella infections in different host species of an endemic district of Serbia.

    PubMed

    Zivojinovic, M; Sofronic-Milosavljevic, Lj; Cvetkovic, J; Pozio, E; Interisano, M; Plavsic, B; Radojicic, S; Kulisic, Z

    2013-05-20

    Trichinella infections are endemic in the Balkan region of Europe. Though trichinellosis and agents thereof are serious problems for human health and animal husbandry, only a limited number of Trichinella isolates from Serbia have been identified at the species level so far. The aim of the present study was the surveillance and monitoring of Trichinella in domestic pigs and wild animals from the endemic district of Branicevo. Investigations performed during the 2009-2010 period revealed Trichinella infections in 344 out of 282,960 (0.12%) domestic pigs. Among wildlife, Trichinella infections were detected in 11 out of 94 (11.7%) wild boars (Sus scrofa), 7 out of 57 (12.3%) red foxes (Vulpes vulpes), 7 out of 13 (53.8%) golden jackals (Canis aureus), and in all three examined wolves (Canis lupus). Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi were the only two species identified. T. britovi was identified in 31% of isolates from wildlife of the Branicevo district and T. spiralis was found in 53% of wild animals; mixed infections were observed in 16% of the animals examined. Findings form the basis of an information campaign for veterinary services, pig owners and the hunter's associations about the risk of the transmission of these zoonotic agents. The application of control programs as established at the Veterinary Specialist Institute of Pozarevac resulted in a decline in Trichinella infections among domestic pigs and the absence of human trichinellosis in the last three years in the Branicevo district. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Discriminative feeding behaviour of Anopheles gambiae s.s. on endemic plants in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Manda, H.; Gouagna, L. C.; Nyandat, E.; Kabiru, E. W.; Jackson, R. R.; Foster, W. A.; Githure, J. I.; Beier, J. C.; Hassanali, A.

    2009-01-01

    Anopheles gambiae Giles s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) is known to feed on plant sugars, but this is the first experimental study to consider whether it discriminates between plant species. Thirteen perennial plant species were selected on the basis of their local availability within the vicinity of human dwellings and larval habitats of An. gambiae s.s. in western Kenya. Groups of 100 or 200 mosquitoes were released into cages either with a cutting of one plant type at a time (single-plant assay) or with cuttings of all 13 plants simultaneously (choice assay), respectively, and left overnight. In the choice assay, direct observations of the percentages of mosquitoes perching or feeding on each plant were recorded over four 1-h periods each night. For both types of assay, mosquitoes were recaptured and the percentage that had fed on plants was assessed by testing them individually for the presence of fructose. To identify which plants the choice-assay mosquitoes had fed on, gas chromatography (GC) profiles of samples of mosquito homogenates were compared with GC profiles of extracts from relevant parts of each plant. Four of the plants that were observed to have been fed on most frequently in the choice assay (Parthenium hysterophorus L., Tecoma stans L., Ricinus communis L., and Senna didymobotrya Fresen) were also shown to have been ingested most often by mosquitoes in both types of assay, suggesting that An. gambiae is differentially responsive to this range of plants, regardless of whether the plants were presented singly or mixed together. Significantly more females than males fed on plants, with the exception of P. hysterophorus L., one of the plants most frequently fed on. For most plant species (ten of 13), GC profiles indicated that An. gambiae obtained sugars primarily from flowers. The exceptions were P. hysterophorus L., Lantana camara L. and R. communis L., on which An. gambiae fed more often from leaves and stems than from flowers. PMID:17373953

  17. Genetic diversity and differentiation of the endangered and endemic species Sauvagesia rhodoleuca in China as detected by ISSR analysis.

    PubMed

    Chai, S F; Jiang, Y S; Zhuang, X Y; Shi, Y C; Wei, X; Luo, W H; Chen, Z Y

    2014-10-20

    Sauvagesia rhodoleuca (Ochnaceae) is an endangered plant that is endemic to southern China. The levels of genetic variation and patterns of population structure in S. rhodoleuca were investigated using inter-simple sequence repeat markers. Eleven primers were used to amplify DNA samples from 117 individuals, and a total of 92 loci were detected. Our results indicated that genetic diversity was quite low both at the species level (percentage of polymorphic bands (PPB) = 41.30%, Nei's gene diversity (h) = 0.1331, and Shannon information index (I) = 0.2028) and the population level (PPB = 16.30-28.26%, h = 0.0496-0.1012, and I = 0.0756-0.1508). A high level of genetic differentiation among populations was detected based on Nei's genetic diversity analysis (0.4344) and analysis of molecular variance (47.03%). The low genetic diversity within population and high population differentiation of S. rhodoleuca were assumed to result largely from limited gene flow, genetic drift, inbreeding, and clonal growth. Conservation strategies for this endangered species are proposed based on the genetic data.

  18. Multilocus analysis of intraspecific differentiation in three endemic bird species from the northern Neotropical dry forest.

    PubMed

    Arbeláez-Cortés, Enrique; Milá, Borja; Navarro-Sigüenza, Adolfo G

    2014-01-01

    Among-species phylogeographic concordance provides insight into the common processes driving lineage divergence in a particular region. However, identifying the processes that caused phylogeographic breaks is not always straight forward, and inferring past environmental conditions in combination with documented geologic events is sometimes necessary to explain current patterns. We searched for concordant phylogeographic patterns and investigated their causes in three bird species (Momotus mexicanus, Melanerpes chrysogenys, and Passerina leclancherii) that belong to three different avian orders and are endemic to the northernmost range of the Neotropical dry forest. We obtained mitochondrial DNA (ND2 and COI or cyt b) and nuclear DNA (20454, GAPDH, MUSK, and TGFB) sequences for at least one locus from 162 individuals across all species and defined climatically stable areas using environmental niche model projections for the last 130,000 years to have a paleoenvironmental framework for the phylogeographic results. All three species showed marked phylogeographic structure, with breaks found in roughly similar areas, such as the border between the Mexican states of Guerrero and Oaxaca, and between southern Jalisco and Michoacán. Both of these regions are known biogeographic breaks among other taxa. Patterns of genetic diversity and differentiation were partially compatible with climatically stable areas. Coalescent analyses revealed recent population growth and estimated the deeper haplogroup divergence of all three taxa to have occurred within the last 600,000 years. The phylogeographic patterns found are noteworthy because they are maintained in a relatively small area for bird species with continuous ranges, and highlight a unique situation when compared to phylogeographic patterns found in other studies of Neotropical birds that have stressed the role of geographic barriers to explain intraspecific differentiation. Our results point to a scenario of population

  19. Population structure of an endemic vulnerable species, the Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus).

    PubMed

    Tzika, Athanasia C; Koenig, Susan; Miller, Ricardo; Garcia, Gerardo; Remy, Christophe; Milinkovitch, Michel C

    2008-01-01

    The Jamaican boa (Epicrates subflavus; also called Yellow boa) is an endemic species whose natural populations greatly and constantly declined since the late 19th century, mainly because of predation by introduced species, human persecution, and habitat destruction. In-situ conservation of the Jamaican boa is seriously hindered by the lack of information on demographic and ecological parameters as well as by a poor understanding of the population structure and species distribution in the wild. Here, using nine nuclear microsatellite loci and a fragment of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene from 87 wild-born individuals, we present the first molecular genetic analyses focusing on the diversity and structure of the natural populations of the Jamaican boa. A model-based clustering analysis of multilocus microsatellite genotypes identifies three groups that are also significantly differentiated on the basis of F-statistics. Similarly, haplotypic network reconstruction methods applied on the cytochrome b haplotypes isolated here identify two well-differentiated haplogroups separated by four to six fixed mutations. Bayesian and metaGA analyses of the mitochondrial data set combined with sequences from other Boidae species indicate that rooting of the haplotypic network occurs most likely between the two defined haplogroups. Both analyses (based on nuclear and mitochondrial markers) underline an Eastern vs. (Western + Central) pattern of differentiation in agreement with geological data and patterns of differentiation uncovered in other vertebrate and invertebrate Jamaican species. Our results provide important insights for improving management of ex-situ captive populations and for guiding the development of proper in-situ species survival and habitat management plans for this spectacular, yet poorly known and vulnerable, snake.

  20. The Value of Georeferenced Collection Records for Predicting Patterns of Mosquito Species Richness and Endemism in the Neotropics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    relative density of species and Trinidad-Tobago the highest, followed by Panama and French Guiana . 4. The potential distribution of species was...methods both showed areas of high species richness in French Guiana , Panama, Trinidad-Tobago, and Colombia. Potential hotspots in endemicity included...unsampled areas in Panama, French Guiana , Colombia, Belize, Venezuela, and Brazil. 6. Argentina, The Bahamas, Bermuda, Bolivia, Cuba, and Peru were the

  1. Assessment of chemical element migration in soil-plant complex of Urov endemic localities of East Transbaikalia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadim V., Ermakov; Valentina, Danilova; Sabsbakhor, Khushvakhtova; Aklexander, Degtyarev; Sergey, Tyutikov; Victor, Berezkin; Elena, Karpova

    2014-05-01

    The comparative evaluation of the levels of biologically active chemical elements and their migration in the soil-plant complex of two Urov endemic locations in East Transbaikalia (Zolinsky and Uryumkansky) and background areas (Western Baikal region and the western area of the Trans-Baikal region) was conducted. The predominant soil-forming rocks in East Transbaikalia are weathering products of Proterozoic carbonated granitoids PR2. The surface rocks consist from granite, granodiorite, diorite quartz diorite, gabbro, norite, gabbro-norite and other. Soils - mountain and cryogenic meadow forests, mountain permafrost taiga podzolised, meadow alluvial, peaty meadow [2]. The paludification of narrow valleys and thermokarst phenomena are typical in Urov endemic localities. It reflects on the spotted of soil and differentiation of chemical composition of soils and plants. Most of the chemical elements in soils were determined by means of X-ray fluorescence, and trace elements in soils and plants - by atomic absorption spectrometry. The selenium content was measured by spectrofluorimetric method [3]. The research processed by methods of variation statistics. It was found that the soils of two locations of the Urov subregion of the biosphere were more enriched with iron, barium, calcium, uranium, thorium, phosphorus, and to a lesser extent strontium compared to background soils. The ratio of Ca: P was significantly higher in the soil of background areas, and Ca: Sr, on the contrary, in endemic soils. In assessing the migration of trace elements in soil-plant complex by means of the total content of trace elements and biological absorption coefficient found a marked accumulation by plants manganese, chromium, arsenic and weak plants accumulation of cobalt and nickel. Soil landscape is not much different in content of selenium, but its migration in plants was reduced in places of spread of Urov disease [1]. The concentrators of cadmium (leaves of different species of willow

  2. The Endemic Insular and Peninsular Species Chaetodipus spinatus (Mammalia, Heteromyidae) Breaks Patterns for Baja California

    PubMed Central

    Álvarez-Castañeda, Sergio Ticul; Murphy, Robert W.

    2014-01-01

    The Baja California peninsula is the second longest, most geographically isolated peninsula on Earth. Its physiography and the presence of many surrounding islands has facilitated studies of the underlying patterns and drivers of genetic structuring for a wide spectrum of organisms. Chaetodipus spinatus is endemic to the region and occurs on 12 associated islands, including 10 in the Gulf of California and two in the Pacific Ocean. This distribution makes it a model species for evaluating natural historical barriers. We test hypotheses associated with the relationship between the range of the species, patterns in other species, and its relationship to Pleistocene-Holocene climatic changes. We analyzed sequence data from mtDNA genes encoding cytochrome b (Cytb) and cytochrome c oxidase subunits I (COI) and III (COIII) in 26 populations including all 12 islands. The matrilineal genealogy, statistical parsimony network and Bayesian skyline plot indicated an origin of C. spinatus in the southern part of the peninsula. Our analyses detected several differences from the common pattern of peninsular animals: no mid-peninsula break exists, Isla Carmen hosts the most divergent population, the population on an ancient southern Midriff island does not differ from peninsular populations, and a mtDNA peninsular discordance occurs near Loreto. PMID:25542029

  3. The reproductive biology of Sophora fernandeziana (Leguminosae), a vulnerable endemic species from Isla Robinson Crusoe.

    PubMed

    Bernardello, Gabriel; Aguilar, Ramiro; Anderson, Gregory J

    2004-02-01

    Sophora fernandeziana is the only legume endemic to Isla Robinson Crusoe (Archipelago Juan Fernández, Chile); it is uncommon and becoming rare. Although its preservation status is listed as "vulnerable," as with many species, little is known of its reproductive biology. Flowering phenology, floral morphology, nectar features, breeding system, and visitors were analyzed in two populations. Flowering is from late winter to early spring. Flowers last 6 d and have a number of ornithophilous features. A floral nectary begins to secrete highly concentrated nectar 48 h after flowers open. Nectar secretion increases as the flower ages but culminates in active nectar reabsorption as the flower senesces. Nectar production is negatively affected by nectar removal. Self-pollen germinates and tubes grow down the style. However, pollen tubes were only observed to enter the ovaries in open pollinated styles, suggesting the possibility of an ovarian self-incompatibility mechanism. Both sexes of the two hummingbird species that inhabit the island are regular visitors. Low fruit and seed set, low genetic diversity, and a shrinking number of populations all contribute to increased concern about the future of this species-and perhaps the hummingbirds that depend on it.

  4. Local Mobile Gene Pools Rapidly Cross Species Boundaries To Create Endemicity within Global Vibrio cholerae Populations

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, Yan; Cordero, Otto X.; Takemura, Alison; Hunt, Dana E.; Schliep, Klaus; Bapteste, Eric; Lopez, Philippe; Tarr, Cheryl L.; Polz, Martin F.

    2011-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae represents both an environmental pathogen and a widely distributed microbial species comprised of closely related strains occurring in the tropical to temperate coastal ocean across the globe (Colwell RR, Science 274:2025–2031, 1996; Griffith DC, Kelly-Hope LA, Miller MA, Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 75:973–977, 2006; Reidl J, Klose KE, FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 26:125–139, 2002). However, although this implies dispersal and growth across diverse environmental conditions, how locally successful populations assemble from a possibly global gene pool, relatively unhindered by geographic boundaries, remains poorly understood. Here, we show that environmental Vibrio cholerae possesses two, largely distinct gene pools: one is vertically inherited and globally well mixed, and the other is local and rapidly transferred across species boundaries to generate an endemic population structure. While phylogeographic analysis of isolates collected from Bangladesh and the U.S. east coast suggested strong panmixis for protein-coding genes, there was geographic structure in integrons, which are the only genomic islands present in all strains of V. cholerae (Chun J, et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106:15442–15447, 2009) and are capable of acquiring and expressing mobile gene cassettes. Geographic differentiation in integrons arises from high gene turnover, with acquisition from a locally cooccurring sister species being up to twice as likely as exchange with conspecific but geographically distant V. cholerae populations. PMID:21486909

  5. Proactive conservation management of an island-endemic bird species in the face of global change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morrison, S.A.; Sillett, T. Scott; Ghalambor, Cameron K.; Fitzpatrick, J.W.; Graber, D.M.; Bakker, V.J.; Bowman, R.; Collins, C.T.; Collins, P.W.; Delaney, K.S.; Doak, D.F.; Koenig, Walter D.; Laughrin, L.; Lieberman, A.A.; Marzluff, J.M.; Reynolds, M.D.; Scott, J.M.; Stallcup, J.A.; Vickers, W.; Boyce, W.M.

    2011-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation in an era of global change and scarce funding benefits from approaches that simultaneously solve multiple problems. Here, we discuss conservation management of the island scrub-jay (Aphelocoma insularis), the only island-endemic passerine species in the continental United States, which is currently restricted to 250-square-kilometer Santa Cruz Island, California. Although the species is not listed as threatened by state or federal agencies, its viability is nonetheless threatened on multiple fronts. We discuss management actions that could reduce extinction risk, including vaccination, captive propagation, biosecurity measures, and establishing a second free-living population on a neighboring island. Establishing a second population on Santa Rosa Island may have the added benefit of accelerating the restoration and enhancing the resilience of that island's currently highly degraded ecosystem. The proactive management framework for island scrub-jays presented here illustrates how strategies for species protection, ecosystem restoration, and adaptation to and mitigation of climate change can converge into an integrated solution. ?? 2011 by American Institute of Biological Sciences. All rights reserved.

  6. Endangered Species (Plants). LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niskern, Diana, Comp.

    This guide is intended for those who wish to study the literature dealing with various aspects of endangered plant species. This document includes the following sections, some of which are bibliographies: (1) "Introductions to the Topic"; (2) "Subject Headings" (for endangered species of plants used by the Library of Congress); (3) "General…

  7. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  8. The Invasive Plant Species Education Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Kevin; James, Krista; Carlson, Kitrina; D'Angelo, Jean

    2010-01-01

    To help high school students gain a solid understanding of invasive plant species, university faculty and students from the University of Wisconsin-Stout (UW-Stout) and a local high school teacher worked together to develop the Invasive Plant Species (IPS) Education Guide. The IPS Education Guide includes nine lessons that give students an…

  9. Extensive cryptic species diversity and fine-scale endemism in the marine red alga Portieria in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Payo, Dioli Ann; Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; D'hondt, Sofie; Calumpong, Hilconida P; De Clerck, Olivier

    2013-02-22

    We investigated species diversity and distribution patterns of the marine red alga Portieria in the Philippine archipelago. Species boundaries were tested based on mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear encoded loci, using a general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model-based approach and a bayesian multilocus species delimitation method. The outcome of the GMYC analysis of the mitochondrial encoded cox2-3 dataset was highly congruent with the multilocus analysis. In stark contrast with the current morphology-based assumption that the genus includes a single, widely distributed species in the Indo-West Pacific (Portieria hornemannii), DNA-based species delimitation resulted in the recognition of 21 species within the Philippines. Species distributions were found to be highly structured with most species restricted to island groups within the archipelago. These extremely narrow species ranges and high levels of intra-archipelagic endemism contrast with the wide-held belief that marine organisms generally have large geographical ranges and that endemism is at most restricted to the archipelagic level. Our results indicate that speciation in the marine environment may occur at spatial scales smaller than 100 km, comparable with some terrestrial systems. Our finding of fine-scale endemism has important consequences for marine conservation and management.

  10. Extensive cryptic species diversity and fine-scale endemism in the marine red alga Portieria in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Payo, Dioli Ann; Leliaert, Frederik; Verbruggen, Heroen; D'hondt, Sofie; Calumpong, Hilconida P.; De Clerck, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    We investigated species diversity and distribution patterns of the marine red alga Portieria in the Philippine archipelago. Species boundaries were tested based on mitochondrial, plastid and nuclear encoded loci, using a general mixed Yule-coalescent (GMYC) model-based approach and a Bayesian multilocus species delimitation method. The outcome of the GMYC analysis of the mitochondrial encoded cox2-3 dataset was highly congruent with the multilocus analysis. In stark contrast with the current morphology-based assumption that the genus includes a single, widely distributed species in the Indo-West Pacific (Portieria hornemannii), DNA-based species delimitation resulted in the recognition of 21 species within the Philippines. Species distributions were found to be highly structured with most species restricted to island groups within the archipelago. These extremely narrow species ranges and high levels of intra-archipelagic endemism contrast with the wide-held belief that marine organisms generally have large geographical ranges and that endemism is at most restricted to the archipelagic level. Our results indicate that speciation in the marine environment may occur at spatial scales smaller than 100 km, comparable with some terrestrial systems. Our finding of fine-scale endemism has important consequences for marine conservation and management. PMID:23269854

  11. The role of peripheral endemism in species diversification: evidence from the coral reef fish genus Anampses (Family: Labridae).

    PubMed

    Hodge, Jennifer R; Read, Charmaine I; van Herwerden, Lynne; Bellwood, David R

    2012-02-01

    We examined how peripherally isolated endemic species may have contributed to the biodiversity of the Indo-Australian Archipelago biodiversity hotspot by reconstructing the evolutionary history of the wrasse genus Anampses. We identified three alternate models of diversification: the vicariance-based 'successive division' model, and the dispersal-based 'successive colonisation' and 'peripheral budding' models. The genus was well suited for this study given its relatively high proportion (42%) of endemic species, its reasonably low diversity (12 species), which permitted complete taxon sampling, and its widespread tropical Indo-Pacific distribution. Monophyly of the genus was strongly supported by three phylogenetic analyses: maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference based on mitochondrial CO1 and 12S rRNA and nuclear S7 sequences. Estimates of species divergence times from fossil-calibrated Bayesian inference suggest that Anampses arose in the mid-Eocene and subsequently diversified throughout the Miocene. Evolutionary relationships within the genus, combined with limited spatial and temporal concordance among endemics, offer support for all three alternate models of diversification. Our findings emphasise the importance of peripherally isolated locations in creating and maintaining endemic species and their contribution to the biodiversity of the Indo-Australian Archipelago. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic variation (AFLPs and nuclear microsatellites) in two anagenetically derived endemic species of Myrceugenia (Myrtaceae) on the Juan Fernández Islands, Chile.

    PubMed

    López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Takayama, Koji; Greimler, Josef; Peñailillo, Patricio; Crawford, Daniel J; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F

    2013-04-01

    Anagenesis (or phyletic evolution) is one mode of speciation that occurs in the evolution of plants on oceanic islands. Of two endemic species on the Juan Fernández Islands (Chile), Myrceugenia fernandeziana and M. schulzei (Myrtaceae), believed to have originated anagenetically from different continental progenitors, the first is endemic to Robinson Crusoe Island and has no clear tie to continental relatives; the last is endemic to the younger island, Alejandro Selkirk Island, and has close affinity to M. colchaguensis in mainland Chile. Using AFLPs and six nuclear microsatellites from 381 individuals representing 33 populations, we determined patterns of genetic variation within and among populations on both islands and between those of the islands and mainland. Considerable genetic variation was found within populations on both islands. The level of gene diversity within M. schulzei was equivalent to that of its close continental relative M. colchaguensis. Genetic diversity was not partitioned geographically in M. fernandeziana and was weakly so and nonsignificantly in M. schulzei. The high genetic variation in both taxa is most likely due to anagenetic speciation. Subsidence of the older island Robinson Crusoe, landscape erosion, and restructuring of communities have severely reduced the overall island population to a single panmictic system. On the younger and less modified Alejandro Selkirk Island, slightly stronger patterns of genetic divergence are seen in M. schulzei. Because both species are genetically diverse and number in the thousands of individuals, neither is presently endangered in the archipelago.

  13. Genetic Characterization of Allium Tuncelianum: An Endemic Edible Allium Species With Garlic Odor

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A. tuncelianum is a native species to the Eastern Anatolia. Its plant architecture resembles garlic (A. sativum) and it has mild garlic odor and flavor. Because of these similarities, it has been locally called “garlic”. In addition, it has 16 chromosomes number in its diploid genome like garlic. ...

  14. Amplification and transport of an endemic fish disease by an introduced species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hershberger, Paul; Leeuw, Bjorn; Jacob, Gregg; Grady, Courtney; Lujan, Kenneth; Gutenberger, Susan; Purcell, Maureen K.; Woodson, James; Winton, James; Parsley, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The introduction of American shad from the Atlantic to the Pacific coast of North America in the late 1800’s and the subsequent population expansion in the 1980’s resulted in the amplification of Ichthyophonus sp., a Mesomycetozoean parasite of wild marine fishes. Sequence analysis of the ribosomal DNA gene complex (small subunit and internal transcribed spacer regions) and Ichthyophonus epidemiological characteristics indicate a low probability that Ichthyophonus was co-introduced with American shad from the Atlantic; rather, Ichthyophonus was likely endemic to marine areas of the Pacific region and amplified by the expanding population of a highly susceptible host species. The migratory life history of shad resulted in the transport of amplified Ichthyophonus from its endemic region in the NE Pacific to the Columbia River watershed. An Ichthyophonus epizootic occurred among American shad in the Columbia River during 2007, when infection prevalence was 72%, and 57% of the infections were scored as moderate or heavy intensities. The epizootic occurred near the record peak of shad biomass in the Columbia River, and corresponded to an influx of 1,595 mt of infected shad tissues into the Columbia River. A high potential for parasite spillback and the establishment of a freshwater Ichthyophonus life cycle in the Columbia River results from currently elevated infection pressures, broad host range, plasticity in Ichthyophonus life history stages, and precedents for establishment of the parasite in other freshwater systems. The results raise questions regarding the risk for sympatric salmonids and the role of Ichthyophonus as a population-limiting factor affecting American shad in the Columbia River.

  15. Leishmania species and zymodemes isolated from endemic areas of cutaneous leishmaniasis in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Nimri, Laila; Soubani, Radwan; Gramiccia, Marina

    2002-01-01

    Background Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is endemic in the Middle Eastern countries. New cases are emerging in areas previously free of the disease. In Jordan, the diagnosis of cases during the 1960s and 1970s was mainly reported in military hospitals in Amman. Endemicity of the disease was ascertained after reporting a total of 524 cases during 1973–1978. Results Leishmania major and Leishmania tropica were isolated from seventy-six autochthonous and imported cases of CL, during eight-year period. The highest infection rates recorded were in the central part of Jordan (60.5%), in males (72.4%) and in the age group 21–30 years (30.5%). Lesions were on the exposed sites of the body, mainly on the face (40%). Both Leishmania spp. were isolated from all parts of the country, although L. major was the predominant species (75% of cases) in all areas except in the north part of Jordan. Isoenzyme characterization of the isolates identified four previously undescribed zymodemes (Z). Four Leishmania major zymodemes were found, one of which was a new zymodeme (ZMON-103 variant in GLUD220); L. major ZMON-103 was the most common zymodeme. Four Leishmania tropica zymodemes were identified, of which three were previously unreported. Of these, ZMON-54 var PGD96–97 was isolated from autochthonous cases, whereas ZMON-59 var MDH100 and ZMON-75 var FH110 were obtained from both autochthonous and imported cases, or from an imported CL case, respectively. Conclusion The findings of this study indicate the emergence of the CL disease in new areas. New foci are reported, where the sporadic nature of the cases indicates recent spread of the disease to these areas and the urge for the implementation of control measures. PMID:12473179

  16. Peripatric speciation of an endemic species driven by Pleistocene climate change: The case of the Mexican prairie dog (Cynomys mexicanus).

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Morales, Gabriela; Gámez, Niza; Castillo-Gámez, Reyna A; Eguiarte, Luis E

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that endemic species could have originated by the isolation and divergence of peripheral populations of widespread species can be tested through the use of ecological niche models (ENMs) and statistical phylogeography. The joint use of these tools provides complementary perspectives on historical dynamics and allows testing hypotheses regarding the origin of endemic taxa. We used this approach to infer the historical processes that have influenced the origin of a species endemic to the Mexican Plateau (Cynomys mexicanus) and its divergence from a widespread ancestor (Cynomys ludovicianus), and to test whether this endemic species originated through peripatric speciation. We obtained genetic data for 295 individuals for two species of black-tailed prairie dogs (C. ludovicianus and C. mexicanus). Genetic data consisted of mitochondrial DNA sequences (cytochrome b and control region), and 10 nuclear microsatellite loci. We estimated dates of divergence between species and between lineages within each species and performed ecological niche modelling (Present, Last Glacial Maximum and Last Interglacial) to determine changes in the distribution range of both species during the Pleistocene. Finally, we used Bayesian inference methods (DIYABC) to test different hypotheses regarding the divergence and demographic history of these species. Data supported the hypothesis of the origin of C. mexicanus from a peripheral population isolated during the Pleistocene [∼230,000 years ago (0.1-0.43 Ma 95% HPD)], with a Pleistocene-Holocene (∼9,000-11,000 years ago) population expansion (∼10-fold increase in population size). We identified the presence of two possible refugia in the southern area of the distribution range of C. ludovicianus and another, consistent with the distribution range of C. mexicanus. Our analyses suggest that Pleistocene climate change had a strong impact in the distribution of these species, promoting peripatric speciation for the origin of

  17. Identification of a putatively multixenobiotic resistance related Abcb1 transporter in amphipod species endemic to the highly pristine Lake Baikal.

    PubMed

    Pavlichenko, Vasiliy V; Protopopova, Marina V; Timofeyev, Maxim; Luckenbach, Till

    2015-04-01

    The fauna of Lake Baikal in Eastern Siberia, the largest freshwater body on Earth, is characterized by high degrees of biodiversity and endemism. Amphipods, a prominent taxon within the indigenous fauna, occur in an exceptionally high number of endemic species. Considering the specific water chemistry of Lake Baikal with extremely low levels of potentially toxic natural organic compounds, it seems conceivable that certain adaptions to adverse environmental factors are missing in endemic species, such as cellular defense mechanisms mitigating toxic effects of chemicals. The degree to which the endemic fauna is affected by the recently occurring anthropogenic water pollution of Lake Baikal may depend on the existence of such cellular defense mechanisms in those species. We here show that endemic amphipods express transcripts for Abcb1, a major component of the cellular multixenobiotic resistance (MXR) defense against toxic chemicals. Based on a partial abcb1 cDNA sequence from Gammarus lacustris, an amphipod species common across Northern Eurasia but only rarely found in Lake Baikal, respective homologous sequences were cloned from five amphipods endemic to Lake Baikal, Eulimnogammarus verrucosus, E. vittatus, E. cyaneus, E. marituji, and Gmelinoides fasciatus, confirming that abcb1 is transcribed in those species. The effects of thermal (25 °C) and chemical stress (1-2 mg L(-1) phenanthrene) in short-term exposures (up to 24 h) on transcript levels of abcb1 and heat shock protein 70 (hsp70), used as a proxy for cellular stress in the experiments, were exemplarily examined in E. verrucosus, E. cyaneus, and Gammarus lacustris. Whereas increases of abcb1 transcripts upon treatments occurred only in the Baikalian species E. verrucosus and E. cyaneus but not in Gammarus lacustris, changes of hsp70 transcript levels were seen in all three species. At least for species endemic to Lake Baikal, the data thus indicate that regulation of the identified amphipod abcb1 is

  18. Exotic plant species invade hot spots of native plant diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Binkley, Dan; Chong, G.W.; Kalkhan, M.A.; Schell, L.D.; Bull, K.A.; Otsuki, Y.; Newman, G.; Bashkin, M.; Yowhan, S.

    1999-01-01

    ome theories and experimental studies suggest that areas of low plant species richness may be invaded more easily than areas of high plant species richness. We gathered nested-scale vegetation data on plant species richness, foliar cover, and frequency from 200 1-m2 subplots (20 1000-m2 modified-Whittaker plots) in the Colorado Rockies (USA), and 160 1-m2 subplots (16 1000-m2 plots) in the Central Grasslands in Colorado, Wyoming, South Dakota, and Minnesota (USA) to test the generality of this paradigm.At the 1-m2 scale, the paradigm was supported in four prairie types in the Central Grasslands, where exotic species richness declined with increasing plant species richness and cover. At the 1-m2 scale, five forest and meadow vegetation types in the Colorado Rockies contradicted the paradigm; exotic species richness increased with native-plant species richness and foliar cover. At the 1000-m2 plot scale (among vegetation types), 83% of the variance in exotic species richness in the Central Grasslands was explained by the total percentage of nitrogen in the soil and the cover of native plant species. In the Colorado Rockies, 69% of the variance in exotic species richness in 1000-m2 plots was explained by the number of native plant species and the total percentage of soil carbon.At landscape and biome scales, exotic species primarily invaded areas of high species richness in the four Central Grasslands sites and in the five Colorado Rockies vegetation types. For the nine vegetation types in both biomes, exotic species cover was positively correlated with mean foliar cover, mean soil percentage N, and the total number of exotic species. These patterns of invasibility depend on spatial scale, biome and vegetation type, spatial autocorrelation effects, availability of resources, and species-specific responses to grazing and other disturbances. We conclude that: (1) sites high in herbaceous foliar cover and soil fertility, and hot spots of plant diversity (and biodiversity

  19. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    El Bahloul, Yasmina; Dauchot, Nicolas; Machtoun, Ikrame; Gaboun, Fatima; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Microsatellite loci were developed for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa with a combination of a typical library enrichment procedure and a 454 GS FLX Titanium–based high-throughput sequencing approach. • Methods and Results: A genomic DNA library was enriched and further screened using (GA)15, (GTA)8, and (TTC)8 biotin-labeled probes coupled with chemi-luminescence detection. To increase simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci number, an ultra-high-throughput sequencing-based approach was used. Evaluation of all primer pairs was performed with labeled dUTP on an ABI 3130xl sequencer. Eleven polymorphic SSR loci were selected out of 79 SSR regions and extensively characterized on 150 individuals from eight populations. Total alleles ranged from six to 19 alleles per locus while expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.618 to 0.869. • Conclusions: The SSRs developed here will be used to further characterize the genetic diversity of A. spinosa across its distribution range, mainly in the southern part of Morocco and southwestern Algeria. They may also be transferable to other Sapotaceae species. PMID:25202614

  20. Development and characterization of microsatellite loci for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa (Sapotaceae).

    PubMed

    El Bahloul, Yasmina; Dauchot, Nicolas; Machtoun, Ikrame; Gaboun, Fatima; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2014-04-01

    Microsatellite loci were developed for the Moroccan endemic endangered species Argania spinosa with a combination of a typical library enrichment procedure and a 454 GS FLX Titanium-based high-throughput sequencing approach. • A genomic DNA library was enriched and further screened using (GA)15, (GTA)8, and (TTC)8 biotin-labeled probes coupled with chemi-luminescence detection. To increase simple sequence repeat (SSR) loci number, an ultra-high-throughput sequencing-based approach was used. Evaluation of all primer pairs was performed with labeled dUTP on an ABI 3130xl sequencer. Eleven polymorphic SSR loci were selected out of 79 SSR regions and extensively characterized on 150 individuals from eight populations. Total alleles ranged from six to 19 alleles per locus while expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.618 to 0.869. • The SSRs developed here will be used to further characterize the genetic diversity of A. spinosa across its distribution range, mainly in the southern part of Morocco and southwestern Algeria. They may also be transferable to other Sapotaceae species.

  1. Genetic diversity of Vriesea cacuminis (Bromeliaceae): an endangered and endemic Brazilian species.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, P C C; Pinheiro, L C; Domingues, R; Forzza, R C; Machado, M A; Viccini, L F

    2013-06-13

    Data about the genetic structure can help to understand the evolutionary process of natural populations as well as to drive strategies of conservation. Vriesea cacuminis, an endemic Brazilian Bromeliad, has been found in 2 areas of Minas Gerais State. One is a legal preservation unit (Ibitipoca State Park) and the other an unprotected area (Serra Negra). The 2 areas belong to the Mantiqueira Mountain Range Complex; both are characterized by steep relief with high altitudes and by heterogenic vegetation formed by a mosaic of rocky fields and forest fragments. According to International Union for Conservation of Nature criteria, V. cacuminis is designated as "vulnerable". We examined the genetic variability and population structure of 70 individuals (3 populations) of V. cacuminis, using 16 ISSR markers. Although V. cacuminis is considered a rare species, the estimated genetic diversity was found to be relatively high (Shannon index = 0.33; percentage of polymorphic bands = 87%). The populations were found not to be structured (AMOVA test, ΦST = 0.16), probably due to the cross-breeding. Based on Bayesian analysis, this species includes one cluster containing the populations from Ibitipoca State Park and another cluster including the population from Serra Negra. This information will help determine strategies to maintain the genetic variability of these populations.

  2. Distribution of endemic relict groups of Saharan scorpions, with the description of new genus and species from Mauritania.

    PubMed

    Qi, Jian-Xin; Lourenço, Wilson R

    2007-01-01

    A new genus and species of Saharan buthid scorpion is described on the basis of a single specimen collected in the desert of Mauritania. This new scorpion taxon represents yet another endemic relict in the Saharan fauna. Comments are also included on the evolution of the Sahara desert and the possible consequences of this on the distribution of the extant scorpion fauna.

  3. Kallisteine A and B, two new coumarins from the roots of Peucedanum paniculatum L, a species endemic to Corsica.

    PubMed

    Vellutini, Muriel; Tomi, Félix; Richomme, Pascal; Casanova, Joseph

    2007-04-01

    From the dichloromethane extract of the roots of Peucedanum paniculatum L., two new coumarins, a species endemic to Corsica, have been isolated. Their structures were elucidated, on the basis of spectroscopic studies, particularly 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, as 6-(7'-beta-cyclolavandulyl)-7-hydroxycoumarin 1 and a spirodihydrofurano-coumarin 2 (Kallisteine A and B).

  4. Beta-cyclolavandulyl and beta-isocyclolavandulyl esters from Peucedanum paniculatum L., an endemic species to Corsica.

    PubMed

    Vellutini, Muriel; Baldovini, Nicolas; de Rocca Serra, Dominique; Tomi, Félix; Casanova, Joseph

    2005-08-01

    Eight cyclolavandulyl esters (beta-cyclolavandulyl and beta-isocyclolavandulyl acetate, propionate, isobutyrate, isovalerate) were identified in the leaf and root oils of Peucedanum paniculatum L., an endemic species to Corsica, by comparison of their spectroscopic data with those of synthetic material. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods. The antimicrobial activity of essential oils of leaves and roots was evaluated against eleven microorganisms.

  5. Contrasting patterns of connectivity among endemic and widespread fire coral species ( Millepora spp.) in the tropical Southwestern Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Júlia N.; Nunes, Flávia L. D.; Zilberberg, Carla; Sanchez, Juan A.; Migotto, Alvaro E.; Hoeksema, Bert W.; Serrano, Xaymara M.; Baker, Andrew C.; Lindner, Alberto

    2017-09-01

    Fire corals are the only branching corals in the South Atlantic and provide an important ecological role as habitat-builders in the region. With three endemic species ( Millepora brazilensis, M. nitida and M. laboreli) and one amphi-Atlantic species ( M. alcicornis), fire coral diversity in the Brazilian Province rivals that of the Caribbean Province. Phylogenetic relationships and patterns of population genetic structure and diversity were investigated in all four fire coral species occurring in the Brazilian Province to understand patterns of speciation and biogeography in the genus. A total of 273 colonies from the four species were collected from 17 locations spanning their geographic ranges. Sequences from the 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) were used to evaluate phylogenetic relationships. Patterns in genetic diversity and connectivity were inferred by measures of molecular diversity, analyses of molecular variance, pairwise differentiation, and by spatial analyses of molecular variance. Morphometrics of the endemic species M. braziliensis and M. nitida were evaluated by discriminant function analysis; macro-morphological characters were not sufficient to distinguish the two species. Genetic analyses showed that, although they are closely related, each species forms a well-supported clade. Furthermore, the endemic species characterized a distinct biogeographic barrier: M. braziliensis is restricted to the north of the São Francisco River, whereas M. nitida occurs only to the south. Millepora laboreli is restricted to a single location and has low genetic diversity. In contrast, the amphi-Atlantic species M. alcicornis shows high genetic connectivity within the Brazilian Province, and within the Caribbean Province (including Bermuda), despite low levels of gene flow between these populations and across the tropical Atlantic. These patterns reflect the importance of the Amazon-Orinoco Plume and the Mid-Atlantic Barrier as biogeographic barriers, and suggest that

  6. Disturbance by an endemic rodent in an arid shrubland is a habitat filter: effects on plant invasion and taxonomical, functional and phylogenetic community structure.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Víctor M; Rios, Rodrigo S; Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Stotz, Gisela C; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2017-03-01

    Disturbance often drives plant invasion and may modify community assembly. However, little is known about how these modifications of community patterns occur in terms of taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic structure. This study evaluated in an arid shrubland the influence of disturbance by an endemic rodent on community functional divergence and phylogenetic structure as well as on plant invasion. It was expected that disturbance would operate as a habitat filter favouring exotic species with short life cycles. Sixteen plots were sampled along a disturbance gradient caused by the endemic fossorial rodent Spalacopus cyanus , measuring community parameters and estimating functional divergence for life history traits (functional dispersion index) and the relative contribution to functional divergence of exotic and native species. The phylogenetic signal (Pagel's lambda) and phylogenetic community structure (mean phylogenetic distance and mean nearest taxon phylogenetic distance) were also estimated. The use of a continuous approach to the disturbance gradient allowed the identification of non-linear relationships between disturbance and community parameters. The relationship between disturbance and both species richness and abundance was positive for exotic species and negative for native species. Disturbance modified community composition, and exotic species were associated with more disturbed sites. Disturbance increased trait convergence, which resulted in phylogenetic clustering because traits showed a significant phylogenetic signal. The relative contribution of exotic species to functional divergence increased, while that of natives decreased, with disturbance. Exotic and native species were not phylogenetically distinct. Disturbance by rodents in this arid shrubland constitutes a habitat filter over phylogeny-dependent life history traits, leading to phylogenetic clustering, and drives invasion by favouring species with short life cycles. Results can be

  7. Testing the suitability of some endemic and exotic species for eco-engineering applications to control slope processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammeraat, L. H.; van Beek, L. P. H.

    2009-04-01

    including the vetiver grass slopes. In the second spring after the start of the experiment however, a large rainfall event occurred and one of the test slopes planted with vetiver grass, slumped downwards over a slide plane at 30-40 cm depth, whereas the other vetiver slope remained in position. The other test slopes did not show any downward movement or erosion phenomena. The disappointing effectiveness of vetiver might be attributed to 1) hot and dry summer conditions when root growth is reduced or stops, to 2) low winter temperature conditions, which also hampers biomass production or creating frost damage, 3) the relative dense subsoil, which is difficult to penetrate by roots. Although Spanish cane showed good effectiveness, it spreads very fast and uncontrolled to other places, and is then difficult to remove. The conclusion can be made that despite the wide application of vetiver, also in the Mediterranean, it is not suitable for Mediterranean areas with either too dry conditions or that are too cold in winter. Spanish cane is also not suitable for its uncontrolled expansion. The remaining conclusion is that endemic species that are adapted to the local conditions are more favorable for application in eco-engineering applications, given that the species selected have potential for capturing sediment and increasing infiltration under overland flow conditions, or have well developed deep root systems that increase slope stability.

  8. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-01-01

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change. PMID:27210568

  9. Population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum, a pioneer annual plant endemic to mobile sand dunes, in response to global climate change.

    PubMed

    Qian, Chaoju; Yin, Hengxia; Shi, Yong; Zhao, Jiecai; Yin, Chengliang; Luo, Wanyin; Dong, Zhibao; Chen, Guoxiong; Yan, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Ru; Ma, Xiao-Fei

    2016-05-23

    Climate change plays an important role in the transition of ecosystems. Stratigraphic investigations have suggested that the Asian interior experienced frequent transitions between grassland and desert ecosystems as a consequence of global climate change. Using maternally and bi-parentally inherited markers, we investigated the population dynamics of Agriophyllum squarrosum (Chenopodiaceae), an annual pioneer plant endemic to mobile sand dunes. Phylogeographic analysis revealed that A. squarrosum could originate from Gurbantunggut desert since ~1.6 Ma, and subsequently underwent three waves of colonisation into other deserts and sandy lands corresponding to several glaciations. The rapid population expansion and distribution range shifts of A. squarrosum from monsoonal climate zones suggested that the development of the monsoonal climate significantly enhanced the population growth and gene flow of A. squarrosum. These data also suggested that desertification of the fragile grassland ecosystems in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau was more ancient than previously suggested and will be aggravated under global warming in the future. This study provides new molecular phylogeographic insights into how pioneer annual plant species in desert ecosystems respond to global climate change, and facilitates evaluation of the ecological potential and genetic resources of future crops for non-arable dry lands to mitigate climate change.

  10. Strong reproductive isolation despite occasional hybridization between a widely distributed and a narrow endemic Rhododendron species

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yong-Peng; Xie, Wei-Jia; Sun, Wei-Bang; Marczewski, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive isolation (RI) plays an important role for speciation, but assessing reproductive barriers at all life-cycle stages remains challenging. In plants, most studies addressing the topic have been focusing on herbs with short generation times. The present study attempted to quantify several reproductive barriers between a hybridizing species pair of long-lived woody rhododendrons. Consistent with findings of previous studies, pre-zygotic reproductive barriers contributed more to total RI than post-zygotic reproductive barriers. Especially in the more widespread species geographic isolation was an important barrier, and pollinator constancy contributed exceptionally to RI in both species. Additionally to strong pre-zygotic reproductive barriers, post-zygotic reproductive barriers were considerable, and had asymmetric tendencies favoring one of the species as maternal parent. Overall, despite occasional hybridization, the present study provides evidence for strong RI between R. cyanocarpum and R. delavayi. PMID:26751844

  11. Hotspots of species richness, threat and endemism for terrestrial vertebrates in SW Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual, López-López; Luigi, Maiorano; Alessandra, Falcucci; Emilio, Barba; Luigi, Boitani

    2011-09-01

    The Mediterranean basin, and the Iberian Peninsula in particular, represent an outstanding "hotspot" of biological diversity with a long history of integration between natural ecosystems and human activities. Using deductive distribution models, and considering both Spain and Portugal, we downscaled traditional range maps for terrestrial vertebrates (amphibians, breeding birds, mammals and reptiles) to the finest possible resolution with the data at hand, and we identified hotspots based on three criteria: i) species richness; ii) vulnerability, and iii) endemism. We also provided a first evaluation of the conservation status of biodiversity hotspots based on these three criteria considering both existing and proposed protected areas (i.e., Natura 2000). For the identification of hotspots, we used a method based on the cumulative distribution functions of species richness values. We found no clear surrogacy among the different types of hotspots in the Iberian Peninsula. The most important hotspots (considering all criteria) are located in the western and southwestern portions of the study area, in the Mediterranean biogeographical region. Existing protected areas are not specifically concentrated in areas of high species richness, with only 5.2% of the hotspots of total richness being currently protected. The Natura 2000 network can potentially constitute an important baseline for protecting vertebrate diversity in the Iberian Peninsula although further improvements are needed. We suggest taking a step forward in conservation planning in the Mediterranean basin, explicitly considering the history of the region as well as its present environmental context. This would allow moving from traditional reserve networks (conservation focused on "patterns") to considerations about the "processes" that generated present biodiversity.

  12. Recent evolutionary history of Lost World endemics: population genetics, species delimitation, and phylogeography of sky-island treefrogs.

    PubMed

    Salerno, P E; Señaris, J C; Rojas-Runjaic, F J M; Cannatella, D C

    2015-01-01

    The tepuis of South America are massive flattop mountains with cliffs up to 1000m and summits up to 3100m. Tepuis hold enormous endemicity levels, but little is known about the origins of the endemic flora and fauna. Recently diverged lineages offer the possibility of understanding the origins of summit endemicity by examining population dynamics and dispersal. We examine species delimitation, clade relationships, and demographic patterns of three recently diverged lineages of Tepuihyla, an endemic treefrog clade. These three lineages represent two currently recognized species, T. edelcae and T. rodriguezi. Given the low divergences in both nuclear and mitochondrial genes among lineages, we find unexpectedly high numbers of unique nuclear haplotypes and moderate levels of lineage sorting. We also find support from multiple analyses for a cryptic, undescribed summit species within T. edelcae. We suggest that the genetic and distribution patterns of the four most recently diverged Tepuihyla lineages support a concurrent speciation event during the Pliocene, and suggest a biogeographic hypothesis in which a widespread climatic change made mid- and low-elevation habitat unsuitable for the common ancestor within the timeframe of their divergence.

  13. Phylogeographic Insights into a Peripheral Refugium: The Importance of Cumulative Effect of Glaciation on the Genetic Structure of Two Endemic Plants

    PubMed Central

    Zecca, Giovanni; Minuto, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    Quaternary glaciations and mostly last glacial maximum have shaped the contemporary distribution of many species in the Alps. However, in the Maritime and Ligurian Alps a more complex picture is suggested by the presence of many Tertiary paleoendemisms and by the divergence time between lineages in one endemic species predating the Late Pleistocene glaciation. The low number of endemic species studied limits the understanding of the processes that took place within this region. We used species distribution models and phylogeographical methods to infer glacial refugia and to reconstruct the phylogeographical pattern of Silene cordifolia All. and Viola argenteria Moraldo & Forneris. The predicted suitable area for last glacial maximum roughly fitted current known distribution. Our results suggest that separation of the major clades predates the last glacial maximum and the following repeated glacial and interglacial periods probably drove differentiations. The complex phylogeographical pattern observed in the study species suggests that both populations and genotypes extinction was minimal during the last glacial maximum, probably due to the low impact of glaciations and to topographic complexity in this area. This study underlines the importance of cumulative effect of previous glacial cycles in shaping the genetic structure of plant species in Maritime and Ligurian Alps, as expected for a Mediterranean mountain region more than for an Alpine region. PMID:27870888

  14. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C.; Gouveia, Carla A.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Rodrigues, Ana I.; Nording, Malin L.; Castilho, Paula C.

    2014-01-01

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS•+, FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL−1. Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis—PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples. PMID:26785236

  15. Antioxidant Capacity, Cytotoxicity and Antimycobacterial Activity of Madeira Archipelago Endemic Helichrysum Dietary and Medicinal Plants.

    PubMed

    Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra C; Gouveia, Carla A; Carvalho, Maria J; Rodrigues, Ana I; Nording, Malin L; Castilho, Paula C

    2014-10-31

    The potential bioactivity of dietary and medicinal endemic Helichrysum plants from Madeira Archipelago was explored, for the first time, in order to supply new information for the general consumer. In vitro antioxidant properties were investigated using DPPH, ABTS(•+), FRAP and β-Carotene assays, and the total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) were also determined. Although the results generally showed a large variation among the three analyzed plants, the methanolic extracts showed the highest antioxidant capacity. Exception is made for H. devium n-hexane extract that showed good radical scavenger capacity associated to compounds with good reducing properties. In the Artemia salina toxicity assay and antimycobaterial activity, H. devium was the most potent plant with the lowest LD50 at 216.7 ± 10.4 and MIC ≤ 50 μg·mL(-1). Chemometric evaluation (Principal Component Analysis-PCA) showed close interdependence between the ABTS, TPC and TFC methods and allowed to group H. devium samples.

  16. Endemic shrimp Macrobrachium pantanalense as a test species to assess potential contamination by pesticides in Pantanal (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Soares, Mayara Pereira; Jesus, Fátima; Almeida, Ana Rita; Zlabek, Vladimir; Grabic, Roman; Domingues, Inês; Hayd, Liliam

    2017-02-01

    Pantanal is a biome characterized by an extraordinary diversity and abundance of wildlife and houses several endemic species such as the freshwater shrimp Macrobrachium pantanalense. However, the increase in agriculture and husbandry activities in the region has contributed with residues of pesticides reaching aquatic systems. The main objective of this study is to assess the sensitivity of the endemic shrimp M. pantanalense compared with other freshwater species: the shrimp M. amazonicum, the crustacean Daphnia similis and the fish Danio rerio. The sensitivity of these organisms was assessed through acute exposure to copper and cypermethrin (through the formulation Barrage(®), widely used in Pantanal). For copper the species sensitivity decreased in the following order: D. similis (48 h-EC50 0.051 mg/L) > M. pantanalense > D. rerio > M. amazonicum (48 h-LC50 26.34 mg/L). Copper caused reduced length of shrimps and zebrafish and reduced heartbeat of zebrafish embryos. For cypermethrin the species sensitivity decreased in the following order: M. pantanalense (96 h-LC50 0.05 μg/L) > M. amazonicum > D. similis > D. rerio (144 h-LC50 1680 μg/L). Major effects of cypermethrin included reduced length of shrimps and zebrafish, as well as early hatching and increased incidence of developmental deformities in zebrafish embryos. This study highlights the importance of using endemic species for risk evaluations in sensitive biomes such as Pantanal. Moreover, it emphasizes the importance of testing pesticides toxicity as commercial formulations. Furthermore, we suggest that the endemic shrimp species M. pantanalense can be successfully used as a test species in ecotoxicology.

  17. On three endemic species of the linyphiid spider genus Canariphantes Wunderlich, 1992 (Araneae, Linyphiidae) from the Azores archipelago.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Luís Carlos; Bosmans, Robert; Cardoso, Pedro; Borges, Paulo A V

    2014-07-28

    We describe Canariphantes junipericola n. sp. and C. relictus n. sp., new single-island endemic linyphiid spiders from the islands of Flores and Santa Maria (Azorean archipelago, Macaronesia), respectively. The female of the first species was incorrectly assigned to Canariphantes acoreensis (Wunderlich, 1992), a species occurring in four islands in the Central Group of Azores (Faial, Pico, São Jorge and Terceira). The latter species is transferred to Canariphantes, its male redescribed and the female genitalia described for the first time. We discuss the systematic affinities of these new species and comment on their conservation status. 

  18. Chlamydia gallinacea, not C. psittaci, is the endemic chlamydial species in chicken (Gallus gallus).

    PubMed

    Guo, Weina; Li, Jing; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-18

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of Chlamydia spp. in domestic birds in China, oral and cloacal swabs of healthy chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons were collected nationwide from live-animal markets and examined by Chlamydia spp. 23 S rRNA gene FRET-PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and confirmatory sequencing. Overall, 26.2% of the birds (602/2,300) were positive for Chlamydia spp. and five Chlamydia spp. were identified. While occasional detection of C. suis and C. muridarum in poultry is reported here for the first time, the predominant chlamydial agent was C. gallinacea representing 63.8% of all positives (384/602) and 81.2% of positive chickens (359/442). Analysis of the C. gallinacea ompA phylogeny revealed at least 13 well segregated variants (serovars). Seven-month monitoring of C. gallinacea-infected chickens indicated that the infection was persistent. C. gallinacea-infected chickens remained without overt clinical disease, but showed body weight gains significantly reduced by 6.5-11.4% beginning in week 3 post-infection. This study indicates that C. gallinacea is the endemic chlamydial species in chickens, whereas C. psittaci dominates only in pigeons. Further studies are required to address the specific conditions under which C. gallinacea could act as an avian pathogen and possibly also a zoonotic agent.

  19. Chlamydia gallinacea, not C. psittaci, is the endemic chlamydial species in chicken (Gallus gallus)

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Weina; Li, Jing; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard; Gong, Jiansen; Fan, Weixing; Wang, Chengming

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence and diversity of Chlamydia spp. in domestic birds in China, oral and cloacal swabs of healthy chickens, ducks, geese and pigeons were collected nationwide from live-animal markets and examined by Chlamydia spp. 23 S rRNA gene FRET-PCR followed by high-resolution melting curve analysis and confirmatory sequencing. Overall, 26.2% of the birds (602/2,300) were positive for Chlamydia spp. and five Chlamydia spp. were identified. While occasional detection of C. suis and C. muridarum in poultry is reported here for the first time, the predominant chlamydial agent was C. gallinacea representing 63.8% of all positives (384/602) and 81.2% of positive chickens (359/442). Analysis of the C. gallinacea ompA phylogeny revealed at least 13 well segregated variants (serovars). Seven-month monitoring of C. gallinacea-infected chickens indicated that the infection was persistent. C. gallinacea-infected chickens remained without overt clinical disease, but showed body weight gains significantly reduced by 6.5–11.4% beginning in week 3 post-infection. This study indicates that C. gallinacea is the endemic chlamydial species in chickens, whereas C. psittaci dominates only in pigeons. Further studies are required to address the specific conditions under which C. gallinacea could act as an avian pathogen and possibly also a zoonotic agent. PMID:26778053

  20. Ecological effects of the invasive giant madagascar day gecko on endemic mauritian geckos: applications of binomial-mixture and species distribution models.

    PubMed

    Buckland, Steeves; Cole, Nik C; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Gallagher, Laura E; Henshaw, Sion M; Besnard, Aurélien; Tucker, Rachel M; Bachraz, Vishnu; Ruhomaun, Kevin; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the giant Madagascar day gecko Phelsuma grandis has increased the threats to the four endemic Mauritian day geckos (Phelsuma spp.) that have survived on mainland Mauritius. We had two main aims: (i) to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos at a landscape level; and (ii) to investigate the effects of P. grandis on the abundance and risks of extinction of the endemic geckos at a local scale. An ensemble forecasting approach was used to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos. We used hierarchical binomial mixture models and repeated visual estimate surveys to calculate the abundance of the endemic geckos in sites with and without P. grandis. The predicted range of each species varied from 85 km2 to 376 km2. Sixty percent of the predicted range of P. grandis overlapped with the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos; 15% of the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos overlapped with P. grandis. Levin's niche breadth varied from 0.140 to 0.652 between P. grandis and the four endemic geckos. The abundance of endemic geckos was 89% lower in sites with P. grandis compared to sites without P. grandis, and the endemic geckos had been extirpated at four of ten sites we surveyed with P. grandis. Species Distribution Modelling, together with the breadth metrics, predicted that P. grandis can partly share the equivalent niche with endemic species and survive in a range of environmental conditions. We provide strong evidence that smaller endemic geckos are unlikely to survive in sympatry with P. grandis. This is a cause of concern in both Mauritius and other countries with endemic species of Phelsuma.

  1. Ecological Effects of the Invasive Giant Madagascar Day Gecko on Endemic Mauritian Geckos: Applications of Binomial-Mixture and Species Distribution Models

    PubMed Central

    Buckland, Steeves; Cole, Nik C.; Aguirre-Gutiérrez, Jesús; Gallagher, Laura E.; Henshaw, Sion M.; Besnard, Aurélien; Tucker, Rachel M.; Bachraz, Vishnu; Ruhomaun, Kevin; Harris, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The invasion of the giant Madagascar day gecko Phelsuma grandis has increased the threats to the four endemic Mauritian day geckos (Phelsuma spp.) that have survived on mainland Mauritius. We had two main aims: (i) to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos at a landscape level; and (ii) to investigate the effects of P. grandis on the abundance and risks of extinction of the endemic geckos at a local scale. An ensemble forecasting approach was used to predict the spatial distribution and overlap of P. grandis and the endemic geckos. We used hierarchical binomial mixture models and repeated visual estimate surveys to calculate the abundance of the endemic geckos in sites with and without P. grandis. The predicted range of each species varied from 85 km2 to 376 km2. Sixty percent of the predicted range of P. grandis overlapped with the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos; 15% of the combined predicted ranges of the four endemic geckos overlapped with P. grandis. Levin's niche breadth varied from 0.140 to 0.652 between P. grandis and the four endemic geckos. The abundance of endemic geckos was 89% lower in sites with P. grandis compared to sites without P. grandis, and the endemic geckos had been extirpated at four of ten sites we surveyed with P. grandis. Species Distribution Modelling, together with the breadth metrics, predicted that P. grandis can partly share the equivalent niche with endemic species and survive in a range of environmental conditions. We provide strong evidence that smaller endemic geckos are unlikely to survive in sympatry with P. grandis. This is a cause of concern in both Mauritius and other countries with endemic species of Phelsuma. PMID:24785293

  2. Antioxidant Capacities and Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Three Endemic Nolana Species by HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Simirgiotis, Mario J; Benites, Julio; Areche, Carlos; Sepúlveda, Beatriz

    2015-06-22

    The antioxidant features, polyphenolic composition and chromatographic fingerprints of the aerial parts from three Chilean endemic plants from the Paposo Valley located on the cost of the Atacama Desert were investigated for the first time using high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector and electrospray ionization mass analysis (HPLC-PDA-ESI-MS) and spectroscopic methods. The phenolic fingerprints obtained for the plants were compared and correlated with the antioxidant capacities measured by the bleaching of the DPPH radical, the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and quantification of the total content of phenolics and flavonoids measured by spectroscopic methods. Thirty phenolics were identified for the first time for these species, mostly phenolic acids, flavanones, flavonols and some of their glycoside derivatives, together with three saturated fatty acids (stearic, palmitic and arachidic acids). Nolana ramosissima showed the highest antioxidant activity (26.35 ± 1.02 μg/mL, 116.07 ± 3.42 μM Trolox equivalents/g dry weight and 81.23% ± 3.77% of inhibition in the DPPH, FRAP and scavenging activity (SA) assays, respectively), followed by  N. aplocaryoides (85.19 ± 1.64 μg/mL, 65.87 ± 2.33 μM TE/g DW and 53.27% ± 3.07%) and N. leptophylla (124.71 ± 3.01, 44.23 ± 5.18 μM TE/g DW and 38.63% ± 1.85%).

  3. Transcriptome-based phylogeny of endemic Lake Baikal amphipod species flock: fast speciation accompanied by frequent episodes of positive selection.

    PubMed

    Naumenko, Sergey A; Logacheva, Maria D; Popova, Nina V; Klepikova, Anna V; Penin, Aleksey A; Bazykin, Georgii A; Etingova, Anna E; Mugue, Nikolai S; Kondrashov, Alexey S; Yampolsky, Lev Y

    2017-01-01

    Endemic species flocks inhabiting ancient lakes, oceanic islands and other long-lived isolated habitats are often interpreted as adaptive radiations. Yet molecular evidence for directional selection during species flocks radiation is scarce. Using partial transcriptomes of 64 species of Lake Baikal (Siberia, Russia) endemic amphipods and two nonendemic outgroups, we report a revised phylogeny of this species flock and analyse evidence for positive selection within the endemic lineages. We confirm two independent invasions of amphipods into Baikal and demonstrate that several morphological features of Baikal amphipods, such as body armour and reduction in appendages and sensory organs, evolved in several lineages in parallel. Radiation of Baikal amphipods has been characterized by short phylogenetic branches and frequent episodes of positive selection which tended to be more frequent in the early phase of the second invasion of amphipods into Baikal when the most intensive diversification occurred. Notably, signatures of positive selection are frequent in genes encoding mitochondrial membrane proteins with electron transfer chain and ATP synthesis functionality. In particular, subunits of both the membrane and substrate-level ATP synthases show evidence of positive selection in the plankton species Macrohectopus branickii, possibly indicating adaptation to active plankton lifestyle and to survival under conditions of low temperature and high hydrostatic pressures known to affect membranes functioning. Other functional categories represented among genes likely to be under positive selection include Ca-binding muscle-related proteins, possibly indicating adaptation to Ca-deficient low mineralization Baikal waters. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Distribution of endemic and alien plants along Mediterranean rivers: a useful tool to identify areas in need of protection?

    PubMed

    Angiolini, Claudia; Nucci, Alessia; Landi, Marco; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2013-08-01

    The main aim was to obtain information about the more critical sectors of Mediterranean-type rivers, especially in the islands where the percentage of endemic species is high, even in riparian habitats. Our hypothesis was that endemic and alien species, considered important in defining conservation priorities along rivers, have different patterns of distribution and their coexistence indicates human impacts on fluvial systems, which can cause natural habitat loss. Generalized Additive Models were used to model the distribution patterns of endemic and alien species along the longitudinal gradient. They showed that endemic species were linked to the most natural areas in the middle and upper sections of the rivers, whereas the distribution of aliens in middle and lower sections can be regarded as a consequence of human impact. This finding underlined the presence in the middle sections of the rivers of areas with important floristic features that are also affected by alien species. What currently seems a situation of equilibrium turns out to call for careful control, first and foremost, by maintaining riparian vegetation. Our results highlighted the utility of our method for rapidly obtaining information about the criticalities of rivers in Mediterranean biodiversity hotspots. Copyright © 2013 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  5. Ultrastructure of Oryza glumaepatula, a wild rice species endemic of tropical America.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ethel; Espinoza, Ana M

    2005-01-01

    Orv'za gluniaepatula is a perennial wild rice species, endemic to tropical America, previously known as the Latin American race of Orrza rufipogon. In Costa Rica, it is found in the northern region of the country, mainly in the wetland of the Medio Queso River, Los Chiles, Alajuela. It is diploid, of AA type genome and because of its genetic relatedness to cultivated rice it is included in the O. saliva complex. We describe the ultrastructure of leaf blade, spikelet, ligule and auricles. Special emphasis is given to those traits of major taxonomic value for O. glumaepatula and to those characters that distinguish this species from O. rufipogon and O. sativa. O. glumaepatula has a leaf blade covered with tombstone-shaped, oblong and spheroid epicuticular wax papillae. It has diamond-shaped stomata surrounded by spherical papillae, rows of zipper-like silica cells, bulky prickle trichomes of ca. 40 microm in length and small hirsute trichomes of ca. 32 tpm in length. The central vein is covered with large, globular papillae of ca. 146 microm in length, a characteristic that distinguishes this species from O. rufipogon and O. sativa. The border of the leaf blade exhibits a row of even-sized bulky prickle trichomes of ca. 42.5 microm in length. Auricles have attenuated trichomes of ca. 5.5 mm in length on the edges and small bicellular trichomes of 120 microm in length on the surface. The ligule has a large number of short attenuated trichomes on its surface of 100 microm in length. These latter two traits have important taxonomic value since they were found in O. glumaepatula but not found in O. sativa or in O. rufipogon. The spikelet has the typical morphology of the Oryza genus. Fertile lemmas have abundant spines, a trait shared with O. rufipogon but not with O. sativa. The sterile lemmas are wing-shaped with serrated borders, a characteristic that distinguishes this species from O. rufipogon and O. sativa. All the ultrastructure characters observed in O

  6. The myth of plant species saturation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Barnett, David T.; Jarnevich, Catherine S.; Flather, Curtis; Kartesz, John

    2008-01-01

    Plant species assemblages, communities or regional floras might be termed ‘saturated’ when additional immigrant species are unsuccessful at establishing due to competitive exclusion or other inter-specific interactions, or when the immigration of species is off-set by extirpation of species. This is clearly not the case for state, regional or national floras in the USA where colonization (i.e. invasion by exotic species) exceeds extirpation by roughly a 24 to 1 margin. We report an alarming temporal trend in plant invasions in the Pacific Northwest over the past 100 years whereby counties highest in native species richness appear increasingly invaded over time. Despite the possibility of some increased awareness and reporting of native and exotic plant species in recent decades, historical records show a significant, consistent long-term increase in exotic species (number and frequency) at county, state and regional scales in the Pacific Northwest. Here, as in other regions of the country, colonization rates by exotic species are high and extirpation rates are negligible. The rates of species accumulation in space in multi-scale vegetation plots may provide some clues to the mechanisms of the invasion process from local to national scales.

  7. Yet another new species from one of the best-studied neotropical areas: Plantago humboldtiana (Plantaginaceae), an extremely narrow endemic new species from a waterfall in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics. PMID:27231665

  8. Yet another new species from one of the best-studied neotropical areas: Plantago humboldtiana (Plantaginaceae), an extremely narrow endemic new species from a waterfall in southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hassemer, Gustavo; Rønsted, Nina

    2016-01-01

    This article presents and describes Plantago humboldtiana, an extremely narrow endemic rheophytic new species from a waterfall in Corupá, Santa Catarina state, southern Brazil. The new species is unique in presenting a combination of type-G antrorse trichomes on scapes, pendulous inflorescences and 1-seeded pyxidia. Only one population is known to exist, despite intensive search efforts in nearby, similar environments. Its conservation status is assessed as critically endangered (CR) as the only known population is restricted to a dramatically small area, and is subject to extreme fluctuation due to occasional floods, and also to intense visitation by tourists, which can disturb its fragile habitat. We also present an updated identification key to the species of Plantago that occur in Santa Catarina. The recent description of three narrow endemic, threatened new species of Plantago in Santa Catarina, which is the Brazilian state with its flora best studied, highlights the need for more taxonomic research, especially in the neotropics.

  9. Outstanding micro-endemism in New Caledonia: More than one out of ten animal species have a very restricted distribution range.

    PubMed

    Caesar, Maram; Grandcolas, Philippe; Pellens, Roseli

    2017-01-01

    New Caledonia is a biodiversity hotspot, with an extremely high number of endemic species with narrow distribution ranges that are at high risk of extinction due to open-cast nickel mining, invasive species and seasonal man-induced fires. Mentions of micro-endemism permeate the literature on the biota of this archipelago. However, so far there has been no research comparing distribution range in different animal groups. The aim of this study is to examine the implication of different sampling effort variables in order to distinguish micro-endemicity from data deficiency, and evaluate the distribution range, frequency, and extent to which micro-endemism is common to several groups of organisms. We compiled a dataset derived from publications in Zoologia Neocaledonica, comprising 1,149 species, of which 86% are endemic to New Caledonia. We found that the sampling effort variables that were best correlated with distribution range were the number of sampling dates and the number of collectors per species. The median value of sampling dates was used to establish a cut-off point for defining adequately sampled species. We showed that, although only 52% of species were sampled adequately enough to determine their distribution range, the number of species with a very narrow distribution range was still high. Among endemics from New Caledonia, 12% (116 species) have ranges ≤5.2km2 and 3.9% (38 species) have ranges between 23 and 100 km2. Surprisingly, a similar trend was observed in non-endemic species: 22% occurred in areas ≤ 5.2 km2, and 8% in areas 23-100 km2, suggesting that environmental dissimilarity may play an important role in the distribution of these species. Micro-endemic species were predominant in 18 out of 20 orders. These results will contribute to a re-assessment of the IUCN red list of species in this archipelago, indicating that at least 116 species are probably critically endangered.

  10. Chilades pandava mothers discriminate among Cycas species during oviposition choice tests, but only in an endemic naïve population.

    PubMed

    Marler, Thomas E; Lindström, Anders J; Marler, Paris N

    2016-08-02

    Host and non-host plant species communicate with insect herbivores to influence oviposition decisions. We studied if Chilades pandava female adults expressed oviposition preferences among host Cycas species in 2 choice tests, counting 39,420 eggs among assays from 4 butterfly populations. A naïve butterfly population from Cycas nongnoochiae habitat oviposited 2.2-fold more eggs on leaves of Cycas species that are susceptible to butterfly herbivory than on leaves of its native host Cycas nongnoochiae. In contrast, Chilades pandava populations experienced with novel Cycas species in Thailand, Philippines, and Guam exhibited no preference in choice tests between leaves of susceptible versus leaves of minimally damaged Cycas species. The results indicated that oviposition deterrents and/or stimulants partly mediate the sustainable relationship between an endemic Cycas species and the naïve Chilades pandava population from its habitat. Alternatively, differences in infochemicals among Cycas species do not enable discrimination in oviposition choices for Chilades pandava populations that have experienced Cycas species exhibiting no evolutionary history with Chilades pandava.

  11. Microhabitat distribution of two Florida scrub endemic plants in comparison to their habitat-generalist congeners.

    PubMed

    Maliakal-Witt, Satya; Menges, Eric S; Denslow, J S

    2005-03-01

    Habitat-specialist species may be restricted to a narrower range of microhabitats than habitat-generalist species. We addressed this hypothesis by comparing microhabitats of two pairs of congeners that differ in habitat specificity and co-occur in one distinct habitat type, Florida rosemary scrub. We characterized microhabitats of rosemary scrub specialists, Polygonella basiramia and Lechea cernua, their habitat-generalist congeners, Polygonella robusta and Lechea deckertii, and random points in the rosemary scrub habitat. Plants of both habitat specialists occurred in microhabitats with significantly more bare sand than plants of habitat-generalist species and random points. Plants of all four species occurred in microhabitats that were farther from dominant shrubs, Ceratiola and Quercus spp., than random points. Seedlings of both habitat specialists grew larger in bare sand microhabitats, whereas ground lichens and litter did not affect seedling growth of the habitat generalists. As the time since fire increases, bare sand cover decreases, Ceratiola density increases, Quercus density remains constant, and shrubs become taller. Physical characteristics, such as soil temperature, soil carbon, and soil moisture, differ slightly with respect to microhabitat. Our results suggest that P. basiramia and L. cernua are specialized on bare sand microhabitats that characterize their preferred habitat, rosemary scrub. Microhabitat specialization may limit the distribution of these rare species.

  12. Extinction risks of Amazonian plant species

    PubMed Central

    Feeley, Kenneth J.; Silman, Miles R.

    2009-01-01

    Estimates of the number, and preferably the identity, of species that will be threatened by land-use change and habitat loss are an invaluable tool for setting conservation priorities. Here, we use collections data and ecoregion maps to generate spatially explicit distributions for more than 40,000 vascular plant species from the Amazon basin (representing more than 80% of the estimated Amazonian plant diversity). Using the distribution maps, we then estimate the rates of habitat loss and associated extinction probabilities due to land-use changes as modeled under 2 disturbance scenarios. We predict that by 2050, human land-use practices will have reduced the habitat available to Amazonian plant species by ≈12–24%, resulting in 5–9% of species becoming “committed to extinction,” significantly fewer than other recent estimates. Contrary to previous studies, we find that the primary determinant of habitat loss and extinction risk is not the size of a species' range, but rather its location. The resulting extinction risk estimates are a valuable conservation tool because they indicate not only the total percentage of Amazonian plant species threatened with extinction but also the degree to which individual species and habitats will be affected by current and future land-use changes. PMID:19617552

  13. Psoralea margaretiflora (Psoraleeae, Fabaceae): A new species from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Eastern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Stirton, Charles H; Clark, V Ralph; Barker, Nigel P; Muasya, A Muthama

    2011-01-01

    A new species of Psoralea is described. Psoralea margaretiflora C.H. Stirton & V.R. Clark is endemic to the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Eastern Cape, South Africa. This resprouter is characterised by its small greenish-white flowers with a small trifid purple nectar patch and translucent veins; 5(-7)-pinnate leaflets; multi-branching erect short seasonal flowering shoots; and tall habit of many stiff bare stems with the seasonal shoots massed at the apex. It is most similar to Psoralea oligophylla Eckl. & Zeyh., a widespread species found in the Eastern Cape. The reseeder Psoralea oligophylla differs in its lax virgate spreading habit with numerous long glaucous seasonal shoots; single stem, 1(-3)- glaucous leaflets; more numerous white flowers; and standard petals with a purple ring surrounding a bright yellow nectar patch.

  14. Psoralea margaretiflora (Psoraleeae, Fabaceae): A new species from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Eastern Cape, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Stirton, Charles H.; Clark, V. Ralph; Barker, Nigel P.; Muasya, A. Muthama

    2011-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Psoralea is described. Psoralea margaretiflora C.H. Stirton & V.R. Clark is endemic to the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Eastern Cape, South Africa. This resprouter is characterised by its small greenish-white flowers with a small trifid purple nectar patch and translucent veins; 5(–7)-pinnate leaflets; multi-branching erect short seasonal flowering shoots; and tall habit of many stiff bare stems with the seasonal shoots massed at the apex. It is most similar to Psoralea oligophylla Eckl. & Zeyh., a widespread species found in the Eastern Cape. The reseeder Psoralea oligophylla differs in its lax virgate spreading habit with numerous long glaucous seasonal shoots; single stem, 1(–3)- glaucous leaflets; more numerous white flowers; and standard petals with a purple ring surrounding a bright yellow nectar patch. PMID:22171191

  15. Combining habitat requirements of endemic bird species and other ecosystem services may synergistically enhance conservation efforts.

    PubMed

    Brambilla, Mattia; Ilahiane, Luca; Assandri, Giacomo; Ronchi, Silvia; Bogliani, Giuseppe

    2017-05-15

    Biodiversity conservation and the optimisation of other ecosystem service delivery as a contribution to human well-being are often tackled as mutually alternative targets. Modern agriculture is a great challenge for the fulfilment of both. Here, we explore the potential benefits of integrating biodiversity conservation and the preservation of wider ecosystem services, considering the conservation of an endemic species (Moltoni's warbler Sylvia subalpina; Aves: Sylvidae) and soil erosion control (a final ecosystem service) in intensive vineyards in Italy. We modelled factors affecting warbler occurrence and abundance at 71 study plots by means of N-mixture models, and estimated soil erosion at the same plots by means of the Universal Soil Loss Equation. Shrub cover had positive effects on both warbler abundance and soil retention, whereas higher slopes promote warbler abundance as well as soil erosion. Creating shrub patches over sloping sites would be at the same time particularly suited for warblers and for soil retention. We simulated three alternative conservation strategies: exclusive focus on warbler conservation (1), exclusive focus on soil preservation (2), integration of the two targets (3). Strategies assumed the creation of 1.5-ha shrub patches over 5% of the total area covered by plots and targeted either at wildlife or soil conservation. The exclusive strategies would allow an increase of 105 individuals and the preservation of 783 tons ha(-1)year(-1), respectively. Each individual strategy would ensure benefits for the other target corresponding to 61-64% of the above totals. The integrated strategy would allow for the achievement of 91-93% of the benefits (96 warblers and 729 tons ha(-1)year(-1)) of the individual strategies. The integration of the two approaches could provide important synergies, allowing to broaden the effects of conservation strategies, such as agri-environmental schemes that could be drawn from our results (and which are

  16. Phytochemical analysis of non-volatile fraction of Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora (Viv.) (Asteraceae), an endemic species of La Maddalena Archipelago (Sardinia--Italy).

    PubMed

    Ornano, Luigi; Venditti, Alessandro; Donno, Yuri; Sanna, Cinzia; Ballero, Mauro; Bianco, Armandodoriano

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia caerulescens subsp. densiflora Viv. is a rare endemic species from Corsica and Sardinia. We studied a sample collected from Razzoli, an island of the La Maddalena Archipelago. The polar secondary metabolites content of this species was investigated for the first time in this study showing the presence of sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, caffeoylquinic acids and a coumarin, with the presence of several compounds already recognised in this genus. The metabolites composition was analysed in two different phenological stages, post blooming and flowering. During the blooming stage, the plant showed a molecular pattern mainly represented by sesquiterpenes and sterols with a minor amount of phenolics, while in flowering stage the molecular pattern was more rich in flavonoids and phenylpropanoids.

  17. A new tropical montane firefly genus and species, active during winter and endemic to the southeastern Atlantic Rainforest (Coleoptera: Lampyridae).

    PubMed

    Silveira, Luiz Felipe Lima DA; Mermudes, José Ricardo Miras

    2017-01-17

    Here we describe Araucariocladus hiems gen. et sp. nov. (Lampyridae: Amydetinae), a firefly species endemic to high montane forests, and occurring during June, a relatively cool and dry month in the Southeastern Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil. We tentatively place it in Psilocladina McDermott, and discuss the limitations of its classification. We also provide illustrations of key structural features of the new taxa and discuss its affinities.

  18. Three new species of Solanum (Brevantherum Clade) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Giacomin, Leandro L; Stehmann, João R

    2014-01-01

    Three new Brazilian species of the Brevantherum clade of Solanum (Solanaceae) are described, all closely related to the poorly known Solanum inornatum Witasek. Solanum bradei Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., and Solanum kriegeri Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., differ from S. inornatum in having very small deltate calyx lobes that are not accrescent in fruit. Solanum bradei is a shrub up to 1.8 m with generally pedunculate inflorescences and tiny translucent fruits, whereas Solanum kriegeri is a dwarf glabrescent plant growing on sandy soils in cloud forests, with larger fruits and sessile to subsessile inflorescence. Solanum friburgense Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., has linear calyx lobes like S. inornatum, and is characterized by its 2-foliate sympodia and leaf pubescence, with trichomes concentrated on leaf veins. The species here described and illustrated are restricted to the mountain ranges of Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil and are all of considerable conservation concern.

  19. Three new species of Solanum (Brevantherum Clade) endemic to the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Giacomin, Leandro L.; Stehmann, João R.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Three new Brazilian species of the Brevantherum clade of Solanum (Solanaceae) are described, all closely related to the poorly known Solanum inornatum Witasek. Solanum bradei Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., and Solanum kriegeri Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., differ from S. inornatum in having very small deltate calyx lobes that are not accrescent in fruit. Solanum bradei is a shrub up to 1.8 m with generally pedunculate inflorescences and tiny translucent fruits, whereas Solanum kriegeri is a dwarf glabrescent plant growing on sandy soils in cloud forests, with larger fruits and sessile to subsessile inflorescence. Solanum friburgense Giacomin & Stehmann, sp. nov., has linear calyx lobes like S. inornatum, and is characterized by its 2-foliate sympodia and leaf pubescence, with trichomes concentrated on leaf veins. The species here described and illustrated are restricted to the mountain ranges of Mantiqueira and Serra do Mar in the Atlantic forests of southeastern Brazil and are all of considerable conservation concern. PMID:25009438

  20. Competition with wind-pollinated plant species alters floral traits of insect-pollinated plant species

    PubMed Central

    Flacher, Floriane; Raynaud, Xavier; Hansart, Amandine; Motard, Eric; Dajoz, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Plant traits related to attractiveness to pollinators (e.g. flowers and nectar) can be sensitive to abiotic or biotic conditions. Soil nutrient availability, as well as interactions among insect-pollinated plants species, can induce changes in flower and nectar production. However, further investigations are needed to determine the impact of interactions between insect-pollinated species and abiotically pollinated species on such floral traits, especially floral rewards. We carried out a pot experiment in which three insect-pollinated plant species were grown in binary mixtures with four wind-pollinated plant species, differing in their competitive ability. Along the flowering period, we measured floral traits of the insect-pollinated species involved in attractiveness to pollinators (i.e. floral display size, flower size, daily and total 1) flower production, 2) nectar volume, 3) amount of sucrose allocated to nectar). Final plant biomass was measured to quantify competitive interactions. For two out of three insect-pollinated species, we found that the presence of a wind-pollinated species can negatively impact floral traits involved in attractiveness to pollinators. This effect was stronger with wind-pollinated species that induced stronger competitive interactions. These results stress the importance of studying the whole plant community (and not just the insect-pollinated plant community) when working on plant-pollinator interactions. PMID:26335409

  1. A new species of Megatibicen endemic to Mescalero-Monahans shinnery sands (Hemiptera: Auchenorrhyncha: Cicadidae).

    PubMed

    Cole, Jeffrey A

    2017-02-23

    Megatibicen harenosus sp. n. is described from the Mescalero-Monahans shinnery sands of New Mexico and Texas, U.S.A. The new species is diagnosed from similar species, especially M. tremulus which it resembles closely, by male genital morphology, color pattern, calling song, and ecology. Seven characters from the male calling song are described from analysis of field recordings, of which all four temporal song characters are significantly different from M. tremulus. With one of the most southwestern distribution of any Megatibicen species, M. harenosus is a new addition to the rich, endemic, and understudied Mescalero-Monahans shinnery sands biota. The possibility that M. harenosus and M. tremulus are sister species is raised. The ecological, biological, and evolutionary species concepts support species status for M. harenosus, and an hypothesis of peripatric speciation in peripheral isolation is advanced.

  2. Patterns of endemism and species richness in Malagasy cophyline frogs support a key role of mountainous areas for speciation.

    PubMed

    Wollenberg, Katharina C; Vieites, David R; van der Meijden, Arie; Glaw, Frank; Cannatella, David C; Vences, Miguel

    2008-08-01

    Cophyline narrow-mouthed frogs (Anura: Microhylidae) are a diverse endemic radiation of Madagascar. Cophylines contain a high proportion of range restricted species and constitute a good model system to understand patterns of evolutionary diversification in tropical ecosystems. We combine spatial and phylogenetic analyses for a near-complete taxon sample to test competing explanations for patterns of species richness (SR) and endemism. Our reconstruction of the phylogeny of cophylines indicates the presence of 22 new species and several instances of nonmonophyly. We found a strong historical signal in current cophyline ranges indicating a high degree of spatial niche conservatism in clade diversification, with clades occurring in the North of Madagascar constituting the most derived in the phylogeny. We identified six positively correlated centers of SR and endemism that can neither be explained by stochastic models such as elevational or latitudinal mid-domain effect, nor by low-elevation river catchments. Instead, the locations of these centers in areas spanning a high altitudinal range in combination with specific climatic parameters support a key role of mountainous areas for speciation of these anurans, although we cannot exclude an influence of habitat loss due to human impact. High conservation priority is ascribed to these areas.

  3. Species interaction mechanisms maintain grassland plant species diversity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Theory has outpaced empirical research in pursuit of identifying mechanisms maintaining species diversity. Here we demonstrate how data from diversity-ecosystem functioning experiments can be used to test maintenance of diversity theory. We predict that grassland plant diversity can be maintained by...

  4. Bioactivity and chemical characterisation of Lophostemon suaveolens--an endemic Australian Aboriginal traditional medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Naz, Tarannum; Packer, Joanne; Yin, Ping; Brophy, Joseph J; Wohlmuth, Hans; Renshaw, Dane E; Smith, Joshua; Elders, Yaegl Community; Vemulpad, Subramanyam R; Jamie, Joanne F

    2016-01-01

    Lophostemon suaveolens is a relatively unexplored endemic medicinal plant of Australia. Extracts of fresh leaves of L. suaveolens obtained from sequential extraction with n-hexane and dichloromethane exhibited antibacterial activity in the disc diffusion and MTT microdilution assays against Streptococcus pyogenes and methicillin sensitive and resistant strains of Staphylococcus aureus (minimum bactericidal concentration < 63 μg/mL). The dichloromethane extract and chromatographic fractions therein inhibited nitric oxide in RAW264.7 murine macrophages (IC50 3.7-11.6 μg/mL) and also PGE2 in 3T3 murine fibroblasts (IC50 2.8-19.7 μg/mL). The crude n-hexane, dichloromethane and water extracts of the leaves and chromatographic fractions from the dichloromethane extract also showed modest antioxidant activity in the ORAC assay. GC-MS analysis of the n-hexane fraction showed the presence of the antibacterial compounds aromadendrene, spathulenol, β-caryophyllene, α-humulene and α-pinene and the anti-inflammatory compounds β-caryophyllene and spathulenol. Fractionation of the dichloromethane extract led to the isolation of eucalyptin and the known anti-inflammatory compound betulinic acid.

  5. Spider diversity and endemism in a South American hotspot: 20 new species of Carapoia (Araneae: Pholcidae) from Brazil's Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Huber, Bernhard A

    2016-10-19

    The Atlantic Forest along the eastern South American coast is widely recognized as a hotspot with extreme levels of diversity, endemism, and threat. A megatransect study (2003-2015) focusing on pholcid spiders and covering 48 localities across a large part of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest resulted in 132 morphospecies, of which 81% were new to science. The present paper deals with the species of Carapoia González-Sponga, 1998 collected during this campaign. The endemism level is 100%, i.e. all 26 species of Carapoia in the Atlantic Forest are not known from (and not likely to occur) anywhere else. While few species (all of them with non-overlapping ranges) occur in the most southern and northern regions, the central region (between Rio Doce and Rio Paraguaçu; largely equivalent to what has been called the 'Bahia refuge') is characterized by high diversity and up to five species per locality. The following species are newly described (from South to North): C. voltavelha (Santa Catarina); C. macacu, C. divisa (Rio de Janeiro); C. nairae, C. capixaba, C. mirim, C. patafina (Espírito Santo); C. pau, C. gracilis, C. zumbii, C. dandarae, C. marceloi, C. viridis, C. jiboia, C. carvalhoi, C. carybei (Bahia); C. alagoas (Alagoas); C. saltinho, C. abdita (Pernambuco); C. septentrionalis (Pernambuco to Rio Grande do Norte). New records and amendments are given for most previously described Atlantic Forest species.

  6. Evidence for electrotropism in some plant species.

    PubMed

    Gorgolewski, S; Rozej, B

    2001-01-01

    The ever-present global Atmospheric Electrical Field (AEF) is used by many plant species. There are many natural habitats with electrotropic plants and habitats with no AEF. The plants growing there are not electrotropic, like the plants growing under the canopies of the trees or the Arecibo radio telescope. Examples are given of different plants which belong to one or the other class, and the criteria how to distinguish them. In addition to natural habitat observations, laboratory experiments were run in search of the sensitivity of electrotropic effect to different electric field intensities. During a few years, it was established that in very strong fields (of the order of 1 MV/m) all plants respond immediately to the field. This type of reaction is due to the Coulomb forces, but electrotropism depends on electric field interaction with ions. The "reference field" (130 V/m) was always used with stronger fields in the several kV/m range which enhance plant growth rate and size similar to plant growth hormones. Surprising effects were also observed with reversed and horizontal field polarity. In conclusion electrotropic plants deprived of the electrical field do not develop as expected, as can be seen in Biosphere 2. This is an instructive example of what happens when we forget to provide the plants with this vital natural environmental factor. Electrical fields of different intensity, directions and configurations are cheap and easy to generate. c2001 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evidence for electrotropism in some plant species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorgolewski, S.; Rożej, B.

    2001-01-01

    The ever-present global Atmospheric Electrical Field (AEF) is used by many plant species. There are many natural habitats with electrotropic plants and habitats with no AEF. The plants growing there are not electrotropic, like the plants growing under the canopies of the trees or the Arecibo radio telescope. Examples are given of different plants which belong to one or the other class, and the criteria how to distinguish them. In addition to natural habitat observations, laboratory experiments were run in search of the sensitivity of electrotropic effect to different electric field intensities. During a few years, it was established that in very strong fields (of the order of 1 MV/m) all plants respond immediately to the field. This type of reaction is due to the Coulomb forces, but electrotropism depends on electric field interaction with ions. The "reference field" (130 V/m) was always used with stronger fields in the several kV/m range which enhance plant growth rate and size similar to plant growth hormones. Surprising effects were also observed with reversed and horizontal field polarity. In conclusion electrotropic plants deprived of the electrical field do not develop as expected, as can be seen in Biosphere 2. This is an instructive example of what happens when we forget to provide the plants with this vital natural environmental factor. Electrical fields of different intensity, directions and configurations are cheap and easy to generate.

  8. Endemic Mimosa species can serve as mycorrhizal "resource islands" within semiarid communities of the Tehuacán-Cuicatlán Valley, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Camargo-Ricalde, Sara Lucía; Dhillion, Shivcharn S

    2003-06-01

    This paper explores if Mimosa species (Fabaceae-Mimosoideae) can serve as arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and nutrient "resource islands" in six plant communities in the semiarid valley of Tehuacán-Cuicatlán, Mexico. Spatial heterogeneity related to the occurrence of Mimosa species results in temporal differences in AM-fungal spore numbers and soil nutrients. A higher number of AM-fungal spores were found in the soil below the canopies of six endemic Mimosa species than in the soil from non-vegetated areas. For four species, Mimosa adenantheroides, Mimosa calcicola, Mimosa luisana and Mimosa polyantha, the soil below their canopies had more AM-fungal spores than the soil in non-vegetated areas during the wet season than during the dry season. Two species, Mimosa lacerata and Mimosa texana var. filipes, however, had more spores under their canopies during the dry season than during the wet season. Although physical differences are present within and between sites, in general the soil below the canopies of Mimosa species had significantly higher nutrient levels than the soil from non-vegetated areas. Mimosa species thus form "resource islands" that are not only rich in nutrients but also in mycorrhizal propagules. Mimosa species can serve as mycorrhizal "resource islands" by directly affecting AM-fungal spore dynamics and/or by serving as spore-traps. A range of plants associated with Mimosa species may benefit from the higher number of AM propagules. We believe that the use of Mimosa resource islands as an option for biodiversity conservation and for land restoration ought to be considered in the Valley.

  9. MODERN PROPAGATION TECHNIQUES- A CONSERVAION TOOL FOR CERTAIN ENDEMIC MEDICINAL PLANTS IN NILGIRI BIOSPHERE RESERVE

    PubMed Central

    Paulsamy, S.; Arumugasamy, K.

    2002-01-01

    There plant species of medicinal and vegatational fire break importance such as Berberis tinctoria, Elaegnus kologa and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa were identified in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and their eco-physiological behaviors were analysed. The study revealed that generally all the there species were having shorter period of seed dormacy, poor viability of seeds and higher mortality of saplings. These poor eco-physiological features are the major factors for their limited distribution, lesser population and weaker establishment. Hence to overcome these factors the modern reproductive strategies like tissue culture techniques are suggested. PMID:22557048

  10. Modern propagation techniques- a conservaion tool for certain endemic medicinal plants in nilgiri biosphere reserve.

    PubMed

    Paulsamy, S; Arumugasamy, K

    2002-01-01

    There plant species of medicinal and vegatational fire break importance such as Berberis tinctoria, Elaegnus kologa and Rhodomyrtus tomentosa were identified in Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve and their eco-physiological behaviors were analysed. The study revealed that generally all the there species were having shorter period of seed dormacy, poor viability of seeds and higher mortality of saplings. These poor eco-physiological features are the major factors for their limited distribution, lesser population and weaker establishment. Hence to overcome these factors the modern reproductive strategies like tissue culture techniques are suggested.

  11. Ensemble habitat mapping of invasive plant species

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stohlgren, T.J.; Ma, P.; Kumar, S.; Rocca, M.; Morisette, J.T.; Jarnevich, C.S.; Benson, N.

    2010-01-01

    Ensemble species distribution models combine the strengths of several species environmental matching models, while minimizing the weakness of any one model. Ensemble models may be particularly useful in risk analysis of recently arrived, harmful invasive species because species may not yet have spread to all suitable habitats, leaving species-environment relationships difficult to determine. We tested five individual models (logistic regression, boosted regression trees, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and maximum entropy model or Maxent) and ensemble modeling for selected nonnative plant species in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming; Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and areas of interior Alaska. The models are based on field data provided by the park staffs, combined with topographic, climatic, and vegetation predictors derived from satellite data. For the four invasive plant species tested, ensemble models were the only models that ranked in the top three models for both field validation and test data. Ensemble models may be more robust than individual species-environment matching models for risk analysis. ?? 2010 Society for Risk Analysis.

  12. Ensemble habitat mapping of invasive plant species.

    PubMed

    Stohlgren, Thomas J; Ma, Peter; Kumar, Sunil; Rocca, Monique; Morisette, Jeffrey T; Jarnevich, Catherine S; Benson, Nate

    2010-02-01

    Ensemble species distribution models combine the strengths of several species environmental matching models, while minimizing the weakness of any one model. Ensemble models may be particularly useful in risk analysis of recently arrived, harmful invasive species because species may not yet have spread to all suitable habitats, leaving species-environment relationships difficult to determine. We tested five individual models (logistic regression, boosted regression trees, random forest, multivariate adaptive regression splines (MARS), and maximum entropy model or Maxent) and ensemble modeling for selected nonnative plant species in Yellowstone and Grand Teton National Parks, Wyoming; Sequoia and Kings Canyon National Parks, California, and areas of interior Alaska. The models are based on field data provided by the park staffs, combined with topographic, climatic, and vegetation predictors derived from satellite data. For the four invasive plant species tested, ensemble models were the only models that ranked in the top three models for both field validation and test data. Ensemble models may be more robust than individual species-environment matching models for risk analysis.

  13. Germination and early plant development of ten plant species ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Ten agronomic plant species were exposed to different concentrations of nano titanium dioxide (nTiO2) or nano cerium oxide (nCeO2) (0, 250, 500 and 1000 mg/L) to examine potential effects on germination and early seedling development. We modified a standard test protocol developed for soluble chemicals (OPPTS 850.4200) to determine if such an approach might be useful for screening engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) and whether there were differences in response across a range of commercially important plant species to two common metal oxide ENMs. Eight of 10 species responded to nTiO2, and 5 species responded to nCeO2. Overall, it appeared that early root growth may be a more sensitive indicator of potential effects from ENM exposure than germination. The observed effects did not always relate to the exposure concentration, indicating that mass-based concentration may not fully explain developmental effects of these two ENMs. The results suggest that nTiO2 and nCeO2 have different effects on early plant growth of agronomic species, which may alter the timing of specific developmental events during their life cycle. In addition, standard germination tests, which are commonly used for toxicity screening of new materials, may not detect the subtle but potentially more important changes associated with early growth and development in terrestrial plants. Engineered nanoparticles (ENMs) have been recognized as valuable components of new technologies and are current

  14. Important biological factors for utilizing native plant species

    Treesearch

    Loren E. Wiesner

    1999-01-01

    Native plant species are valuable resources for revegetation of disturbed ecosystems. The success of these plantings is dependent on the native species selected, quality of seed used, condition of the soil, environmental conditions before and after planting, planting equipment used, time of planting, and other factors. Most native species contain dormant seed. Dormancy...

  15. High levels of genetic diversity and population structure in an endemic and rare species: implications for conservation

    PubMed Central

    Turchetto, Caroline; Segatto, Ana Lúcia A.; Mäder, Geraldo; Rodrigues, Daniele M.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Freitas, Loreta B.

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of genetic structure and variability of isolated species is of critical importance in evaluating whether stochastic or human-caused factors are affecting rare species. Low genetic diversity compromises the ability of populations to evolve and reduces their chances of survival under environmental changes. Petunia secreta, a rare and endemic species, is an annual and heliophilous herb that is bee-pollinated and easily recognizable by its purple and salverform corolla. It was described as a new species of the Petunia genus in 2005. Few individuals of P. secreta have been observed in nature and little is known about this species. All the natural populations of P. secreta that were found were studied using 15 microsatellite loci, two intergenic plastid sequences and morphological traits. Statistical analysis was performed to describe the genetic diversity of this rare species and the results compared with those of more widespread and frequent Petunia species from the same geographic area to understand whether factors associated with population size could affect rare species of this genus. The results showed that despite its rarity, P. secreta presented high genetic diversity that was equivalent to or even higher than that of widespread Petunia species. It was shown that this species is divided into two evolutionary lineages, and the genetic differentiation indices between them and other congeneric species presented different patterns. The major risk to P. secreta maintenance is its rarity, suggesting the necessity of a preservation programme and more biological and evolutionary studies that handle the two evolutionary lineages independently. PMID:26768602

  16. A new dolphin species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., endemic to southern Australian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Charlton-Robb, Kate; Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Thompson, Ross; Austin, Jeremy; Owen, Kylie; McKechnie, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically 'the southern Australian Tursiops' was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical 'southern form of Tursiops' most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of 'Burrunan Dolphin' following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic threats.

  17. A New Dolphin Species, the Burrunan Dolphin Tursiops australis sp. nov., Endemic to Southern Australian Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Charlton-Robb, Kate; Gershwin, Lisa-ann; Thompson, Ross; Austin, Jeremy; Owen, Kylie; McKechnie, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Small coastal dolphins endemic to south-eastern Australia have variously been assigned to described species Tursiops truncatus, T. aduncus or T. maugeanus; however the specific affinities of these animals is controversial and have recently been questioned. Historically ‘the southern Australian Tursiops’ was identified as unique and was formally named Tursiops maugeanus but was later synonymised with T. truncatus. Morphologically, these coastal dolphins share some characters with both aforementioned recognised Tursiops species, but they also possess unique characters not found in either. Recent mtDNA and microsatellite genetic evidence indicates deep evolutionary divergence between this dolphin and the two currently recognised Tursiops species. However, in accordance with the recommendations of the Workshop on Cetacean Systematics, and the Unified Species Concept the use of molecular evidence alone is inadequate for describing new species. Here we describe the macro-morphological, colouration and cranial characters of these animals, assess the available and new genetic data, and conclude that multiple lines of evidence clearly indicate a new species of dolphin. We demonstrate that the syntype material of T. maugeanus comprises two different species, one of which is the historical ‘southern form of Tursiops’ most similar to T. truncatus, and the other is representative of the new species and requires formal classification. These dolphins are here described as Tursiops australis sp. nov., with the common name of ‘Burrunan Dolphin’ following Australian aboriginal narrative. The recognition of T. australis sp. nov. is particularly significant given the endemism of this new species to a small geographic region of southern and south-eastern Australia, where only two small resident populations in close proximity to a major urban and agricultural centre are known, giving them a high conservation value and making them susceptible to numerous anthropogenic threats

  18. Cryobanking of plant species, promise and status

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Currently, the PAGRP has over 4,000 unique samples of clonally propagated species and about 49,000 seed samples in long-term liquid nitrogen storage. Cryopreservation of plant genetic resources has several advantages over germplasm maintenance in field or in vitro; the main of the advantages are pro...

  19. Genetic analyses of nickel tolerance in a North American serpentine endemic plant, Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Burrell, A Millie; Hawkins, Angela K; Pepper, Alan E

    2012-11-01

    The evolution of metal tolerance in plants is an important model for studies of adaptation to environment, population genetics, and speciation. Here, we investigated nickel tolerance in the North American serpentine endemic Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae in comparison with its nonserpentine sister taxon C. amplexicaulis var. amplexicaulis. We hypothesized that the serpentine endemic would have a heritable growth advantage on nickel-containing substrates. We employed an artificial growth assay to quantify biomass accumulation. Study plants were crossed to create an F(2:3) population that was used to determine the heritability of nickel tolerance and to map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Nickel accumulation in both laboratory populations and native specimens was examined using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The serpentine endemic had a dramatic growth advantage at concentrations of nickel >30 µmol/L. Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae and its nonserpentine sister taxon both accumulated nickel to substantial levels. Nickel tolerance was highly heritable (h(2) = 0.59) and not associated with accumulation. The QTL analyses identified two major loci for nickel tolerance, on linkage group 2 (LG2) and linkage group 9 (LG9). In our study, nickel tolerance was determined by two major loci with large effects. At both loci, alleles from the serpentine parent conferred positive effects on nickel tolerance, suggesting that they are adaptive in the natural serpentine environment. The mechanism of nickel tolerance in the serpentine plant was not exclusion of nickel. Nickel tolerance may have an inducible component in C. amplexicaulis var. barbarae.

  20. Mapping National Plant Biodiversity Patterns in South Korea with the MARS Species Distribution Model.

    PubMed

    Choe, Hyeyeong; Thorne, James H; Seo, Changwan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of existing species is crucial to assess regional biodiversity. However, data inventories are insufficient in many areas. We examine the ability of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) multi-response species distribution model to overcome species' data limitations and portray plant species distribution patterns for 199 South Korean plant species. The study models species with two or more observations, examines their contribution to national patterns of species richness, provides a sensitivity analysis of different range threshold cutoff approaches for modeling species' ranges, and presents considerations for species modeling at fine spatial resolution. We ran MARS models for each species and tested four threshold methods to transform occurrence probabilities into presence or absence range maps. Modeled occurrence probabilities were extracted at each species' presence points, and the mean, median, and one standard deviation (SD) calculated to define data-driven thresholds. A maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity threshold was also calculated, and the range maps from the four cutoffs were tested using independent plant survey data. The single SD values were the best threshold tested for minimizing omission errors and limiting species ranges to areas where the associated occurrence data were correctly classed. Eight individual species range maps for rare plant species were identified that are potentially affected by resampling predictor variables to fine spatial scales. We portray spatial patterns of high species richness by assessing the combined range maps from three classes of species: all species, endangered and endemic species, and range-size rarity of all species, which could be used in conservation planning for South Korea. The MARS model is promising for addressing the common problem of few species occurrence records. However, projected species ranges are highly dependent on the threshold and scale

  1. Deep Interisland Genetic Divergence in the Macaronesian Endemic Mosquito Ochlerotatus eatoni (Diptera: Culicidae), Indication of Cryptic Species.

    PubMed

    Khadem, Mahnaz

    2015-09-01

    Ochlerotatus eatoni (Edwards, 1916) is a species endemic to Canary and Madeira Islands that, based on morphology, is considered to be single species. Mitochondrial 16S rRNA and cytochrome oxidase I (COI) sequence data demonstrate that the populations from Tenerife and Madeira Islands are highly differentiated (F(ST) = 0.93). The phylogenetic analysis also separates the two populations into two highly distinct groups. The sharp mitochondrial genetic differentiation between islands is congruent with the published nuclear (allozyme) data. However, mtDNA data did not reveal any significant genetic differentiation within islands. Extreme interisland genetic divergence, but lack of morphological variation, is indicative of the existence of cryptic species. I suggest the elevation of populations to at least incipient species status, designating the populations from Tenerife and Madeira Islands as Oc. eatoni. hewitti and Oc. eatoni. krimbasi, respectively.

  2. A new species of Dactylogyrus (Monogenea: Dactylogyridae) parasitic on an endangered freshwater fish, Rhodeus atremius atremius, endemic to Japan.

    PubMed

    Nitta, Masato; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2016-10-01

    A new dactylogyrid monogenean Dactylogyrus bicorniculus sp. nov. is described from the gills of the kazetoge bitterling, Rhodeus atremius atremius (Jordan and Thompson, 1914), an endemic species in Japan, from Saga Prefecture, northern Kyūshū. D. bicorniculus sp. nov. resembles Dactylogyrus bicornis Malevitskaja, 1941 and Dactylogyrus lophogonus Zhang and Ji, 1980 because they have two common features, a large V-shaped ventral bar and well-developed second marginal hooks. However, the new species is distinguished from these congeners by a shorter penis and an accessory piece. A phylogenetic analysis of 28S rDNA shows that D. bicorniculus sp. nov. is a basal species with the T-shaped ventral bar in the genus. The new species has strict host-specificity to R. a. atremius, one of the endangered freshwater fishes in Japan, and may face the danger of co-extinction with its host. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Egyptian plant species as new ozone indicators.

    PubMed

    Madkour, Samia A; Laurence, J A

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test and select one or more highly sensitive, specific and environmentally successful Egyptian bioindicator plants for ozone (O3). For that purpose more than 30 Egyptian species and cultivars were subjected to extensive screening studies under controlled environmental and pollutant exposure conditions to mimic the Egyptian environmental conditions and O3 levels in urban and rural sites. Four plant species were found to be more sensitive to O3 than the universally used O3-bioindicator, tobacco Bel W3, under the Egyptian environmental conditions used. These plant species, jute (Corchorus olitorius c.v. local), clover (Trifolium alexandrinum L. c.v. Masry), garden rocket (Eruca sativa c.v. local) and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L. c.v. local), ranked in order of decreasing sensitivity, exhibited typical O3 injury symptoms faster and at lower 03 concentrations than Bel W3. Three variables were tested in search of a reliable tool for the diagnosis and prediction of O3 response prior to the appearance of visible foliar symptoms: pigment degradation, stomatal conductance (g(s)) and net photosynthetic CO2 assimilation (Pnet). Pigment degradation was found to be unreliable in predicting species sensitivity to O3. Evidence supporting stomatal conductance involvement in 03 tolerance was found only in tolerant species. A good correlation was found between g(s), restriction of O3 and CO2 influx into the mesophyll tissues, and Pnet. Changes in Pnet seemed to depend largely on fluctuations in g(s).

  4. Two new species of Bebearia Hemming, 1960, as further evidence of centre of endemism of butterflies in Western Nigeria (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Limenitinae).

    PubMed

    Sáfián, Szabolcs; Pyrcz, Tomasz; Brattström, Oskar

    2016-10-17

    Two new endemic butterfly species from the genus Bebearia: B. oshogbo sp. nov. and B. wojtusiaki sp. nov., are described from western Nigeria; B. oshogbo is most closely related to the Guineo-Congolian B. tentyris (Hewitson) and the Upper Guinean B. osyris (Schultze), whereas B. wojtusiaki constitutes a morphological and biogeographic link between the Central African B. plistonax (Hewitson) and the Upper Guinean endemic B. arcadius (Fabricius). The finding of these new species gives further strong evidence that western Nigeria should be recognized as a distinct biogeographic sub-region of West Africa, as the area hosts a substantial number of endemic taxa (listed in the discussion).

  5. Two new endemic genera and a new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Western Ghats of India

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Bufonidae are a large family of toads with a subcosmopolitan distribution. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed a radiation of toads (Adenominae) with distinct adult and larval ecomorphs on the Southern parts of the Indian subcontinent. The Indian torrential species "Ansonia" ornata has a basal position in this clade and does not group with South-East Asian Ansonia. Additionally, the nested position of "Bufo" koynayensis and an undescribed sister species, and their distinct ecologies including a non-typical egg-laying strategy within bufonids, support the recognition of a second distinct genus. In this paper we describe two new genera and one new species from the Adenominae clade. Findings Ansonia ornata Günther, 1876 "1875" is transferred to Ghatophryne gen. nov., a genus of torrentially adapted toads that are endemic to the Western Ghats of India. On the basis of close morphological resemblance and distribution, Ansonia rubigina Pillai and Pattabiraman, 1981 is provisionally transferred to this new genus. The Western Ghats endemic toad Bufo koynayensis Soman, 1963 is transferred to a new genus Xanthophryne gen. nov. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, we additionally describe a new species, Xanthophryne tigerinus sp. nov., from Amboli in the Western Ghats. Conclusion The descriptions and subsequent taxonomic changes we propose result in three genera of bufonids recognised as being endemic to the Western Ghats (Ghatophryne gen. nov., Xanthophryne gen. nov. and Pedostibes), and one to Sri Lanka (Adenomus). The spatial distribution, and arrangement of these lineages at the base of Adenominae diversification, reflects their Early Neogene isolation in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot. PMID:19968866

  6. Two new endemic genera and a new species of toad (Anura: Bufonidae) from the Western Ghats of India.

    PubMed

    Biju, Sd; Van Bocxlaer, Ines; Giri, Varad B; Loader, Simon P; Bossuyt, Franky

    2009-12-07

    Bufonidae are a large family of toads with a subcosmopolitan distribution. Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses have revealed a radiation of toads (Adenominae) with distinct adult and larval ecomorphs on the Southern parts of the Indian subcontinent. The Indian torrential species "Ansonia" ornata has a basal position in this clade and does not group with South-East Asian Ansonia. Additionally, the nested position of "Bufo" koynayensis and an undescribed sister species, and their distinct ecologies including a non-typical egg-laying strategy within bufonids, support the recognition of a second distinct genus. In this paper we describe two new genera and one new species from the Adenominae clade. Ansonia ornata Günther, 1876 "1875" is transferred to Ghatophryne gen. nov., a genus of torrentially adapted toads that are endemic to the Western Ghats of India. On the basis of close morphological resemblance and distribution, Ansonia rubigina Pillai and Pattabiraman, 1981 is provisionally transferred to this new genus. The Western Ghats endemic toad Bufo koynayensis Soman, 1963 is transferred to a new genus Xanthophryne gen. nov. Based on molecular and morphological evidence, we additionally describe a new species, Xanthophryne tigerinus sp. nov., from Amboli in the Western Ghats. The descriptions and subsequent taxonomic changes we propose result in three genera of bufonids recognised as being endemic to the Western Ghats (Ghatophryne gen. nov., Xanthophryne gen. nov. and Pedostibes), and one to Sri Lanka (Adenomus). The spatial distribution, and arrangement of these lineages at the base of Adenominae diversification, reflects their Early Neogene isolation in the Western Ghats-Sri Lanka hotspot.

  7. Travelling to the south: Phylogeographic spatial diffusion model in Monttea aphylla (Plantaginaceae), an endemic plant of the Monte Desert.

    PubMed

    Baranzelli, Matias C; Cosacov, Andrea; Ferreiro, Gabriela; Johnson, Leigh A; Sérsic, Alicia N

    2017-01-01

    Effects of Pleistocene climatic oscillations on plant phylogeographic patterns are relatively well studied in forest, savanna and grassland biomes, but such impacts remain less explored on desert regions of the world, especially in South America. Here, we performed a phylogeographical study of Monttea aphylla, an endemic species of the Monte Desert, to understand the evolutionary history of vegetation communities inhabiting the South American Arid Diagonal. We obtained sequences of three chloroplast (trnS-trnfM, trnH-psbA and trnQ-rps16) and one nuclear (ITS) intergenic spacers from 272 individuals of 34 localities throughout the range of the species. Population genetic and Bayesian coalescent analyses were performed to infer genealogical relationships among haplotypes, population genetic structure, and demographic history of the study species. Timing of demographic events was inferred using Bayesian Skyline Plot and the spatio-temporal patterns of lineage diversification was reconstructed using Bayesian relaxed diffusion models. Palaeo-distribution models (PDM) were performed through three different timescales to validate phylogeographical patterns. Twenty-five and 22 haplotypes were identified in the cpDNA and nDNA data, respectively. that clustered into two main genealogical lineages following a latitudinal pattern, the northern and the southern Monte (south of 35° S). The northern Monte showed two lineages of high genetic structure, and more relative stable demography than the southern Monte that retrieved three groups with little phylogenetic structure and a strong signal of demographic expansion that would have started during the Last Interglacial period (ca. 120 Ka). The PDM and diffusion models analyses agreed in the southeast direction of the range expansion. Differential effect of climatic oscillations across the Monte phytogeographic province was observed in Monttea aphylla lineages. In northern Monte, greater genetic structure and more relative stable

  8. Genetic Diversity in Nothofagus alessandrii (Fagaceae), an Endangered Endemic Tree Species of the Coastal Maulino Forest of Central Chile

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Díaz, Cristian; Ruiz, Eduardo; González, Fidelina; Fuentes, Glenda; Cavieres, Lohengrin A.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims The endemic tree Nothofagus alessandrii (Fagaceae) has been historically restricted to the coastal range of Region VII of central Chile, and its forests have been increasingly destroyed and fragmented since the end of the 19th century. In this study, the patterns of within- and among-population genetic diversity in seven fragments of this endangered narrowly endemic tree were examined. Methods Allozyme electrophoresis of seven loci of N. alessandrii was used to estimate genetic diversity, genetic structure and gene flow. Key Results High levels of genetic diversity were found as shown by mean expected heterozygosity (He = 0·182 ± 0·034), percentage of polymorphic loci (Pp = 61·2 %), mean number of alleles per locus (A = 1·8) and mean number of alleles per polymorphic locus (Ap = 2·3). Genetic differentiation was also high (GST = 0·257 and Nm = 0·7). These values are high compared with more widespread congeneric species. Conclusions Despite its endemic status and restricted geographical range N. alessandrii showed high levels of genetic diversity. The observed patterns of diversity are explained in part by historical processes and more recent human fragmentation. PMID:17513870

  9. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa).

    PubMed

    Clark, V Ralph; Schrire, Brian D; Barker, Nigel P

    2015-01-01

    Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigoferamagnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg-Koudeveldberg-Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Ericapasserinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurearecondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigoferaasantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryopsexsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryopsproteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment.

  10. Description and DNA barcoding of Ochetostethomorpha secunda, a new species of the South African endemic burrower bug genus (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Cydnidae) from Namibia.

    PubMed

    Lis, Jerzy A; Lis, Barbara; Ziaja, Dariusz J; Dobosz, Roland

    2014-11-19

    Ochetostethomorpha secunda sp. nov. from Namibia, the second species of the South African endemic genus is described, illustrated, and compared with O. nollothensis Schumacher, 1913. The new species is the third of the subfamily Sehirinae known from Namibia. Moreover, a DNA barcode sequence was generated for this new species (827 bp of cytochrome oxidase I) and was deposited in GenBank.

  11. Clonal growth and plant species abundance

    PubMed Central

    Herben, Tomáš; Nováková, Zuzana; Klimešová, Jitka

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aims Both regional and local plant abundances are driven by species' dispersal capacities and their abilities to exploit new habitats and persist there. These processes are affected by clonal growth, which is difficult to evaluate and compare across large numbers of species. This study assessed the influence of clonal reproduction on local and regional abundances of a large set of species and compared the predictive power of morphologically defined traits of clonal growth with data on actual clonal growth from a botanical garden. The role of clonal growth was compared with the effects of seed reproduction, habitat requirements and growth, proxied both by LHS (leaf–height–seed) traits and by actual performance in the botanical garden. Methods Morphological parameters of clonal growth, actual clonal reproduction in the garden and LHS traits (leaf-specific area – height – seed mass) were used as predictors of species abundance, both regional (number of species records in the Czech Republic) and local (mean species cover in vegetation records) for 836 perennial herbaceous species. Species differences in habitat requirements were accounted for by classifying the dataset by habitat type and also by using Ellenberg indicator values as covariates. Key Results After habitat differences were accounted for, clonal growth parameters explained an important part of variation in species abundance, both at regional and at local levels. At both levels, both greater vegetative growth in cultivation and greater lateral expansion trait values were correlated with higher abundance. Seed reproduction had weaker effects, being positive at the regional level and negative at the local level. Conclusions Morphologically defined traits are predictive of species abundance, and it is concluded that simultaneous investigation of several such traits can help develop hypotheses on specific processes (e.g. avoidance of self-competition, support of offspring) potentially

  12. DNA barcoding for identification of sand fly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) from leishmaniasis-endemic areas of Peru.

    PubMed

    Nzelu, Chukwunonso O; Cáceres, Abraham G; Arrunátegui-Jiménez, Martín J; Lañas-Rosas, Máximo F; Yañez-Trujillano, Henrry H; Luna-Caipo, Deysi V; Holguín-Mauricci, Carlos E; Katakura, Ken; Hashiguchi, Yoshihisa; Kato, Hirotomo

    2015-05-01

    Phlebotomine sand flies are the only proven vectors of leishmaniases, a group of human and animal diseases. Accurate knowledge of sand fly species identification is essential in understanding the epidemiology of leishmaniasis and vector control in endemic areas. Classical identification of sand fly species based on morphological characteristics often remains difficult and requires taxonomic expertise. Here, we generated DNA barcodes of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COI) gene using 159 adult specimens morphologically identified to be 19 species of sand flies, belonging to 6 subgenera/species groups circulating in Peru, including the vector species. Neighbor-joining (NJ) analysis based on Kimura 2-Parameter genetic distances formed non-overlapping clusters for all species. The levels of intraspecific genetic divergence ranged from 0 to 5.96%, whereas interspecific genetic divergence among different species ranged from 8.39 to 19.08%. The generated COI barcodes could discriminate between all the sand fly taxa. Besides its success in separating known species, we found that DNA barcoding is useful in revealing population differentiation and cryptic diversity, and thus promises to be a valuable tool for epidemiological studies of leishmaniasis.

  13. Multilocus sequence data reveal dozens of putative cryptic species in a radiation of endemic Californian mygalomorph spiders (Araneae, Mygalomorphae, Nemesiidae).

    PubMed

    Leavitt, Dean H; Starrett, James; Westphal, Michael F; Hedin, Marshal

    2015-10-01

    We use mitochondrial and multi-locus nuclear DNA sequence data to infer both species boundaries and species relationships within California nemesiid spiders. Higher-level phylogenetic data show that the California radiation is monophyletic and distantly related to European members of the genus Brachythele. As such, we consider all California nemesiid taxa to belong to the genus Calisoga Chamberlin, 1937. Rather than find support for one or two taxa as previously hypothesized, genetic data reveal Calisoga to be a species-rich radiation of spiders, including perhaps dozens of species. This conclusion is supported by multiple mitochondrial barcoding analyses, and also independent analyses of nuclear data that reveal general genealogical congruence. We discovered three instances of sympatry, and genetic data indicate reproductive isolation when in sympatry. An examination of female reproductive morphology does not reveal species-specific characters, and observed male morphological differences for a subset of putative species are subtle. Our coalescent species tree analysis of putative species lays the groundwork for future research on the taxonomy and biogeographic history of this remarkable endemic radiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mapping National Plant Biodiversity Patterns in South Korea with the MARS Species Distribution Model

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyeyeong; Thorne, James H.; Seo, Changwan

    2016-01-01

    Accurate information on the distribution of existing species is crucial to assess regional biodiversity. However, data inventories are insufficient in many areas. We examine the ability of Multivariate Adaptive Regression Splines (MARS) multi-response species distribution model to overcome species’ data limitations and portray plant species distribution patterns for 199 South Korean plant species. The study models species with two or more observations, examines their contribution to national patterns of species richness, provides a sensitivity analysis of different range threshold cutoff approaches for modeling species’ ranges, and presents considerations for species modeling at fine spatial resolution. We ran MARS models for each species and tested four threshold methods to transform occurrence probabilities into presence or absence range maps. Modeled occurrence probabilities were extracted at each species’ presence points, and the mean, median, and one standard deviation (SD) calculated to define data-driven thresholds. A maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity threshold was also calculated, and the range maps from the four cutoffs were tested using independent plant survey data. The single SD values were the best threshold tested for minimizing omission errors and limiting species ranges to areas where the associated occurrence data were correctly classed. Eight individual species range maps for rare plant species were identified that are potentially affected by resampling predictor variables to fine spatial scales. We portray spatial patterns of high species richness by assessing the combined range maps from three classes of species: all species, endangered and endemic species, and range-size rarity of all species, which could be used in conservation planning for South Korea. The MARS model is promising for addressing the common problem of few species occurrence records. However, projected species ranges are highly dependent on the threshold and scale

  15. Conservation genetics of Annamocarya sinensis (Dode) Leroy, an endangered endemic species.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z Y; Pang, X M; Han, J W; Wang, Y; Li, Y Y

    2013-03-11

    The endangered perennial plant Annamocarya sinensis (Dode) Leroy is a tertiary relict tree restricted to southeastern China and northern Vietnam. To explore endangerment mechanisms, develop protection strategies, and guide reintroduction efforts for this species, we investigated genetic diversity and population structure by surveying 70 individuals from three distinct populations using 12 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We found high genetic diversity for A. sinensis as indicated by high allelic diversity (allelic number = 4.667 ± 0.436, effective number of alleles = 2.913 ± 0.249), excess heterozygosity (observed heterozygosity = 0.586 ± 0.039, expected heterozygosity = 0.582 ± 0.029), and low fixation index (-0.028 ± 0.057). Our research revealed low genetic differentiation (FST = 0.066 ± 0.011) and no correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance. Analysis of molecular variance attributed 87% of the variance to differences within the population, whereas 13% was distributed among populations. The protection strategy should aim to protect as many populations as possible. Promoting sexual reproduction among various genotypes and establishing an outcrossing program are advisable for A. sinensis.

  16. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies: is geography sufficient or does current and historical climate matter?

    PubMed

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel W; Fjeldså, Jon; Maruyama, Pietro K; Rahbek, Carsten; Sandel, Brody; Sonne, Jesper; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Wang, Zhiheng; Sutherland, William J

    2014-10-01

    Island biogeography has greatly contributed to our understanding of the processes determining species' distributions. Previous research has focused on the effects of island geography (i.e., island area, elevation, and isolation) and current climate as drivers of island species richness and endemism. Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography, current and historical climate, and bird richness/endemism. We found that island geography, especially island area but also isolation and elevation, largely explained the variation in island species richness and endemism. Current and historical climate only added marginally to our understanding of the distribution of species on islands, and this was idiosyncratic to each archipelago. In the West Indies, endemic richness was slightly reduced on islands with historically unstable climates; weak support for the opposite was found in Wallacea. In both archipelagos, large islands with many endemics and situated far from other large islands had high importance for the linkage within modules, indicating that these islands potentially act as speciation pumps and source islands for surrounding smaller islands within the module and, thus, define the biogeographical modules. Large islands situated far from the mainland and/or with a high number of nonendemics acted as links between modules. Additionally, in Wallacea, but not in the West Indies, climatically unstable islands tended to interlink biogeographical modules. The weak and idiosyncratic effect of historical climate on island richness, endemism, and network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the

  17. Determinants of bird species richness, endemism, and island network roles in Wallacea and the West Indies: is geography sufficient or does current and historical climate matter?

    PubMed Central

    Dalsgaard, Bo; Carstensen, Daniel W; Fjeldså, Jon; Maruyama, Pietro K; Rahbek, Carsten; Sandel, Brody; Sonne, Jesper; Svenning, Jens-Christian; Wang, Zhiheng; Sutherland, William J

    2014-01-01

    Island biogeography has greatly contributed to our understanding of the processes determining species' distributions. Previous research has focused on the effects of island geography (i.e., island area, elevation, and isolation) and current climate as drivers of island species richness and endemism. Here, we evaluate the potential additional effects of historical climate on breeding land bird richness and endemism in Wallacea and the West Indies. Furthermore, on the basis of species distributions, we identify island biogeographical network roles and examine their association with geography, current and historical climate, and bird richness/endemism. We found that island geography, especially island area but also isolation and elevation, largely explained the variation in island species richness and endemism. Current and historical climate only added marginally to our understanding of the distribution of species on islands, and this was idiosyncratic to each archipelago. In the West Indies, endemic richness was slightly reduced on islands with historically unstable climates; weak support for the opposite was found in Wallacea. In both archipelagos, large islands with many endemics and situated far from other large islands had high importance for the linkage within modules, indicating that these islands potentially act as speciation pumps and source islands for surrounding smaller islands within the module and, thus, define the biogeographical modules. Large islands situated far from the mainland and/or with a high number of nonendemics acted as links between modules. Additionally, in Wallacea, but not in the West Indies, climatically unstable islands tended to interlink biogeographical modules. The weak and idiosyncratic effect of historical climate on island richness, endemism, and network roles indicates that historical climate had little effects on extinction-immigration dynamics. This is in contrast to the strong effect of historical climate observed on the

  18. Population size and identity influence the reaction norm of the rare, endemic plant Cochlearia bavarica across a gradient of environmental stress.

    PubMed

    Paschke, Melanie; Bernasconi, Giorgina; Schmid, Bernhard

    2003-03-01

    Habitat degradation and loss can result in population decline and genetic erosion, limiting the ability of organisms to cope with environmental change, whether this is through evolutionary genetic response (requiring genetic variation) or through phenotypic plasticity (i.e., the ability of a given genotype to express a variable phenotype across environments). Here we address the question whether plants from small populations are less plastic or more susceptible to environmental stress than plants from large populations. We collected seed families from small (<100) versus large natural populations (>1,000 flowering plants) of the rare, endemic plant Cochlearia bavarica (Brassicaceae). We exposed the seedlings to a range of environments, created by manipulating water supply and light intensity in a 2 x 2 factorial design in the greenhouse. We monitored plant growth and survival for 300 days. Significant effects of offspring environment on offspring characters demonstrated that there is phenotypic plasticity in the responses to environmental stress in this species. Significant effects of population size group, but mainly of population identity within the population size groups, and of maternal plant identity within populations indicated variation due to genetic (plus potentially maternal) variation for offspring traits. The environment x maternal plant identity interaction was rarely significant, providing little evidence for genetically- (plus potentially maternally-) based variation in plasticity within populations. However, significant environment x population-size-group and environment x population-identity interactions suggested that populations differed in the amount of plasticity, the mean amount being smaller in small populations than in large populations. Whereas on day 210 the differences between small and large populations were largest in the environment in which plants grew biggest (i.e., under benign conditions), on day 270 the difference was largest in

  19. High levels of genetic diversity and population structure in an endemic and rare species: implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Turchetto, Caroline; Segatto, Ana Lúcia A; Mäder, Geraldo; Rodrigues, Daniele M; Bonatto, Sandro L; Freitas, Loreta B

    2016-01-13

    The analysis of genetic structure and variability of isolated species is of critical importance in evaluating whether stochastic or human-caused factors are affecting rare species. Low genetic diversity compromises the ability of populations to evolve and reduces their chances of survival under environmental changes. Petunia secreta, a rare and endemic species, is an annual and heliophilous herb that is bee-pollinated and easily recognizable by its purple and salverform corolla. It was described as a new species of the Petunia genus in 2005. Few individuals of P. secreta have been observed in nature and little is known about this species. All the natural populations of P. secreta that were found were studied using 15 microsatellite loci, two intergenic plastid sequences and morphological traits. Statistical analysis was performed to describe the genetic diversity of this rare species and the results compared with those of more widespread and frequent Petunia species from the same geographic area to understand whether factors associated with population size could affect rare species of this genus. The results showed that despite its rarity, P. secreta presented high genetic diversity that was equivalent to or even higher than that of widespread Petunia species. It was shown that this species is divided into two evolutionary lineages, and the genetic differentiation indices between them and other congeneric species presented different patterns. The major risk to P. secreta maintenance is its rarity, suggesting the necessity of a preservation programme and more biological and evolutionary studies that handle the two evolutionary lineages independently. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  20. 77 FR 34463 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing 38 Species on Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), propose to list 38 species on the Hawaiian Islands of Molokai, Lanai, and Maui as endangered under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act). We are also reaffirming the listing of two endemic Hawaiian plants currently listed as endangered. We propose to designate critical habitat for 39 of these 40 plant and animal species. Critical habitat is not determinable for the plant Cyanea mauiensis. In this document, we also propose to designate critical habitat for 11 previously listed plant and animal species that do not have designated critical habitat, and propose to revise critical habitat for 85 plant species that are already listed as endangered or threatened. The proposed critical habitat designation totals 271,062 acres (ac) (109,695 hectares (ha)) on the islands of Molokai, Lanai, Maui, and Kahoolawe (collectively called Maui Nui), and includes both occupied and unoccupied habitat. Approximately 47 percent of the area being proposed as critical habitat is already designated as critical habitat for the 85 plant species or other species. We also propose to delist the plant Gahnia lanaiensis, due to new information that this species is synonymous with G. lacera, a widespread species from New Zealand. In addition, we propose name changes or corrections for 11 endangered plants and 2 endangered birds, and taxonomic revisions for 2 endangered plant species.

  1. Unveiling cryptic species diversity of flowering plants: successful biological species identification of Asian Mitella using nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Okuyama, Yudai; Kato, Makoto

    2009-05-16

    Although DNA sequence analysis is becoming a powerful tool for identifying species, it is not easy to assess whether the observed genetic disparity corresponds to reproductive isolation. Here, we compared the efficiency of biological species identification between nuclear ribosomal and chloroplast DNA sequences, focusing on an Asian endemic perennial lineage of Mitella (Asimitellaria; Saxifragaceae). We performed artificial cross experiments for 43 pairs of ten taxonomic species, and examined their F1 hybrid pollen fertility in vitro as a quantitative measure of postzygotic reproductive isolation. A nonlinear, multiple regression analysis indicated that the nuclear ribosomal DNA distances are sufficient to explain the observed pattern of F1 hybrid pollen fertility, and supplementation with chloroplast DNA distance data does not improve the explanatory power. Overall, with the exception of a recently diverged species complex with more than three biological species, nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences successfully circumscribed ten distinct biological species, of which two have not been described (and an additional one has not been regarded as a distinct taxonomic species) to date. We propose that nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences contribute to reliable identification of reproductively isolated and cryptic species of Mitella. More comparable studies for other plant groups are needed to generalize our findings to flowering plants.

  2. Sweet drinks are made of this: Conservation genetics of an endemic palm species from the Dominican Republic

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pseudophoenix ekmanii is a threatened palm species restricted to the Parque Nacional of Jaragua in the southernmost region of Hispaniola. Sap from individual trees is commonly extracted to make a local drink; once they are tapped the plant usually dies. Additionally, adult plants are harvested for...

  3. Spatial and temporal population genetic variation and structure of Nothotsuga longibracteata (Pinaceae), a relic conifer species endemic to subtropical China

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Yingjun; Liu, Yifei; Kang, Ming; Yi, Guanmei; Huang, Hongwen

    2013-01-01

    Nothotsuga longibracteata, a relic and endangered conifer species endemic to subtropical China, was studied for examining the spatial-temporal population genetic variation and structure to understand the historical biogeographical processes underlying the present geographical distribution. Ten populations were sampled over the entire natural range of the species for spatial analysis, while three key populations with large population sizes and varied age structure were selected for temporal analyses using both nuclear microsatellites (nSSR) and chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR). A recent bottleneck was detected in the natural populations of N. longibracteata. The spatial genetic analysis showed significant population genetic differentiation across its total geographical range. Notwithstanding, the temporal genetic analysis revealed that the level of genetic diversity between different age class subpopulations remained constant over time. Eleven refugia of the Last Glacial Maximum were identified, which deserve particular attention for conservation management. PMID:24385864

  4. Spatial and temporal population genetic variation and structure of Nothotsuga longibracteata (Pinaceae), a relic conifer species endemic to subtropical China.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yingjun; Liu, Yifei; Kang, Ming; Yi, Guanmei; Huang, Hongwen

    2013-12-01

    Nothotsuga longibracteata, a relic and endangered conifer species endemic to subtropical China, was studied for examining the spatial-temporal population genetic variation and structure to understand the historical biogeographical processes underlying the present geographical distribution. Ten populations were sampled over the entire natural range of the species for spatial analysis, while three key populations with large population sizes and varied age structure were selected for temporal analyses using both nuclear microsatellites (nSSR) and chloroplast microsatellites (cpSSR). A recent bottleneck was detected in the natural populations of N. longibracteata. The spatial genetic analysis showed significant population genetic differentiation across its total geographical range. Notwithstanding, the temporal genetic analysis revealed that the level of genetic diversity between different age class subpopulations remained constant over time. Eleven refugia of the Last Glacial Maximum were identified, which deserve particular attention for conservation management.

  5. New species of Austropurcellia, cryptic short-range endemic mite harvestmen (Arachnida, Opiliones, Cyphophthalmi) from Australia's Wet Tropics biodiversity hotspot.

    PubMed

    Jay, Katya R; Popkin-Hall, Zachary R; Coblens, Michelle J; Oberski, Jill T; Sharma, Prashant P; Boyer, Sarah L

    2016-01-01

    The genus Austropurcellia is a lineage of tiny leaf-litter arachnids that inhabit tropical rainforests throughout the eastern coast of Queensland, Australia. The majority of their diversity is found within the Wet Tropics rainforests of northeast Queensland, an area known for its exceptionally high levels of biodiversity and endemism. Studying the biogeographic history of limited-dispersal invertebrates in the Wet Tropics can provide insight into the role of climatic changes such as rainforest contraction in shaping rainforest biodiversity patterns. Here we describe six new species of mite harvestmen from the Wet Tropics rainforests, identified using morphological data, and discuss the biogeography of Austropurcellia with distributions of all known species. With this taxonomic contribution, the majority of the known diversity of the genus has been documented.

  6. Molecular biology, phytochemistry and bioactivity of three endemic Aloe species from Mauritius and Réunion Islands.

    PubMed

    Ranghoo-Sanmukhiya, Mala; Govinden-Soulange, Joyce; Lavergne, Christophe; Khoyratty, Shannoo; Da Silva, Denis; Frederich, Michel; Kodja, Hippolyte

    2010-01-01

    Aloe tormentorii, A. purpurea and A. macra are used as multipurpose folk medicines in Réunion and Mauritius Islands and are mistaken for the introduced Aloe vera. To compare the phytochemical, antimicrobial and DNA profiles of Aloe endemic to Mauritius and Réunion with the profiles of A. vera. Methodology - Leaf extracts of these Aloe species were analysed using standard phytochemical screening techniques, TLC and by HPLC. These extracts were also assayed for antimicrobial activity using microdilution techniques. Genetic diversity was studied using RAPD markers. Phytochemical and antimicrobial assays and RAPD analysis showed that Mascarene Aloe species were very different from A. vera. This study is the first report highlighting the differences between Aloe sp.p from Mascarene and Aloe vera at the metabolic and genomic level. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Spider species richness and sampling effort at Cracraft´S Belém Area of Endemism.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Bruno V B; Aguiar-Neto, Manoel B; Oliveira, Ubirajara DE; Santos, Adalberto J; Brescovit, Antonio D; Martíns, Marlúcia B; Bonaldo, Alexandre B

    2017-01-01

    A list of spider species is presented for the Belém Area of Endemism, the most threatened region in the Amazon Basin, comprising portions of eastern State of Pará and western State of Maranhão, Brazil. The data are based both on records from the taxonomic and biodiversity survey literature and on scientific collection databases. A total of 319 identified species were recorded, with 318 occurring in Pará and only 22 in Maranhão. About 80% of species are recorded at the vicinities of the city of Belém, indicating that sampling effort have been strongly biased. To identify potentially high-diversity areas, discounting the effect of variations in sampling effort, the residues of a linear regression between the number of records and number of species mapped in each 0.25°grid cells were analyzed. One grid, representing the Alto Turiaçu Indigenous land, had the highest deviation from the expected from the linear regression, indicating high expected species richness. Several other grid cells showed intermediate values of the regression residuals, indicating species richness moderately above to the expected from the model.

  8. In the shadows: Phylogenomics and coalescent species delimitation unveil cryptic diversity in a Cerrado endemic lizard (Squamata: Tropidurus).

    PubMed

    Domingos, Fabricius M C B; Colli, Guarino R; Lemmon, Alan; Lemmon, Emily Moriarty; Beheregaray, Luciano B

    2017-02-01

    The recognition of cryptic diversity within geographically widespread species is gradually becoming a trend in the highly speciose Neotropical biomes. The statistical methods to recognise such cryptic lineages are rapidly advancing, but have rarely been applied to genomic-scale datasets. Herein, we used phylogenomic data to investigate phylogenetic history and cryptic diversity within Tropidurus itambere, a lizard endemic to the Cerrado biodiversity hotspot. We applied a series of phylogenetic methods to reconstruct evolutionary relationships and a coalescent Bayesian species delimitation approach (BPP) to clarify species limits. The BPP results suggest that the widespread nominal taxon comprises a complex of 5 highly supported and geographically structured cryptic species. We highlight and discuss the different topological patterns recovered by concatenated and coalescent species tree methods for these closely related lineages. Finally, we suggest that the existence of cryptic lineages in the Cerrado is much more common than traditionally thought, highlighting the value of using NGS data and coalescent techniques to investigate patterns of species diversity.

  9. Life history and biogeographic diversification of an endemic western North American freshwater fish clade using a comparative species tree approach.

    PubMed

    Baumsteiger, Jason; Kinziger, Andrew P; Aguilar, Andres

    2012-12-01

    The west coast of North America contains a number of biogeographic freshwater provinces which reflect an ever-changing aquatic landscape. Clues to understanding this complex structure are often encapsulated genetically in the ichthyofauna, though frequently as unresolved evolutionary relationships and putative cryptic species. Advances in molecular phylogenetics through species tree analyses now allow for improved exploration of these relationships. Using a comprehensive approach, we analyzed two mitochondrial and nine nuclear loci for a group of endemic freshwater fish (sculpin-Cottus) known for a wide ranging distribution and complex species structure in this region. Species delimitation techniques identified three novel cryptic lineages, all well supported by phylogenetic analyses. Comparative phylogenetic analyses consistently found five distinct clades reflecting a number of unique biogeographic provinces. Some internal node relationships varied by species tree reconstruction method, and were associated with either Bayesian or maximum likelihood statistical approaches or between mitochondrial, nuclear, and combined datasets. Limited cases of mitochondrial capture were also evident, suggestive of putative ancestral hybridization between species. Biogeographic diversification was associated with four major regions and revealed historical faunal exchanges across regions. Mapping of an important life-history character (amphidromy) revealed two separate instances of trait evolution, a transition that has occurred repeatedly in Cottus. This study demonstrates the power of current phylogenetic methods, the need for a comprehensive phylogenetic approach, and the potential for sculpin to serve as an indicator of biogeographic history for native ichthyofauna in the region.

  10. Endemic Lake Baikal sponges from deep water. 1: Potential cryptic speciation and discovery of living species known only from fossils.

    PubMed

    Itskovich, Valeria B; Kaluzhnaya, Oxana V; Veynberg, Elena; Erpenbeck, Dirk

    2015-07-23

    We revealed new deep-water species and cryptic speciation within freshwater sponges of the endemic family Lubomirskiidae (Porifera; Demospongiae; Spongillina) based on molecular and spicule morphology analyses of ITS and CO1 mtDNA. Lubomirskiidae contains a group of closely related species which are a dominant component of the benthos in Lake Baikal, the world's deepest and most ancient lake. Spicule morphology was similar between two Recent samples and species only known previously from fossils in Late Pliocene (3.2-2.8 mya) sediments. Despite the morphological similarity with the cosmopolitan family Spongillidae, molecular analysis of ITS sequences has reliably assigned these species to Lubomirskiidae. This not only indicates that species identification of freshwater fossil sponge spicules should be made with caution, but also suggests that the structure of megascleres may not be a reliable character for interpretations of paleoclimatic reconstructions for the Baikal region. Our results do not support the current classification of Lubomirskiidae into its morphologically defined genera and species, suggesting a strong discrepancy between molecular and morphological variation in Baikalian sponges. This present contribution is the first part of a study on the phylogenetic relationships of the Lake Baikal deep water sponge fauna.

  11. Next-generation sequencing identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Aconitum austrokoreense Koidz., an endemic and endangered medicinal plant of Korea.

    PubMed

    Yun, Y-E; Yu, J-N; Nam, G H; Ryu, S-A; Kim, S; Oh, K; Lim, C E

    2015-05-11

    We used next-generation sequencing to develop 9 novel microsatellite markers in Aconitum austrokoreense, an endemic and endangered medicinal plant in Korea. Owing to its very limited distribution, over-harvesting for traditional medicinal purposes, and habitat loss, the natural populations are dramatically declining in Korea. All novel microsatellite markers were successfully genotyped using 64 samples from two populations (Mt. Choejeong, Gyeongsangbuk-do and Ungseokbong, Gyeongsangnam-do) of Gyeongsang Province. The number of alleles ranged from 2 to 7 per locus in each population. Observed and expected heterozygosities ranged from 0.031 to 0.938 and from 0.031 to 0.697, respectively. The novel markers will be valuable tools for assessing the genetic diversity of A. austrokoreense and for germplasm conservation of this endangered species.

  12. RESPONSE OF WETLAND PLANT SPECIES TO HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding hydrologic requirements of native and introduced species is critical to sustaining native plant communities in wetlands of disturbed landscapes. We examined plant assemblages and 31 species from emergent wetlands in an urbanizing area of the Pacific Northwest, USA,...

  13. RESPONSE OF WETLAND PLANT SPECIES TO HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding hydrologic requirements of native and introduced species is critical to sustaining native plant communities in wetlands of disturbed landscapes. We examined plant assemblages and 31 species from emergent wetlands in an urbanizing area of the Pacific Northwest, USA, ...

  14. RESPONSE OF WETLAND PLANT SPECIES TO HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding hydrologic requirements of native and introduced species is critical to sustaining native plant communities in wetlands of disturbed landscapes. We examined plant assemblages and 31 species from emergent wetlands in an urbanizing area of the Pacific Northwest, USA,...

  15. RESPONSE OF WETLAND PLANT SPECIES TO HYDROLOGIC CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding hydrologic requirements of native and introduced species is critical to sustaining native plant communities in wetlands of disturbed landscapes. We examined plant assemblages and 31 species from emergent wetlands in an urbanizing area of the Pacific Northwest, USA, ...

  16. Chemical characterization and antimicrobial activity of rhizome essential oils of very closely allied Zingiberaceae species endemic to Borneo: Alpinia ligulata K. Schum. and Alpinia nieuwenhuizii Val.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, Mashitah M; Ibrahim, Halijah; Hamid, Nurulhusna A

    2011-05-01

    Two poorly studied, morphologically allied Alpinia species endemic to Borneo, viz., A. ligulata and A. nieuwenhuizii, were investigated here for their rhizome essential oil. The oil compositions and antimicrobial activities were compared with those of A. galanga, a better known plant. A fair number of compounds were identified in the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses, with large differences in the oil composition between the three species. The rhizome oil of A. galanga was rich in 1,8-cineole (29.8%), while those of A. ligulata and A. nieuwenhuizii were both found to be extremely rich in (E)-methyl cinnamate (36.4 and 67.8%, resp.). The three oils were screened for their antimicrobial activity against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and two fungal species. The efficiency of growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus var. aureus was found to decline in the order of A. nieuwenhuizii>A. ligulata ∼ A. galanga, while that of Escherichia coli decreased in the order of A. galanga>A. nieuwenhuzii ∼ A. ligulata. Only the A. galanga oil inhibited the other bacteria and the fungi tested. Copyright © 2011 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  17. Integrative taxonomy by molecular species delimitation: multi-locus data corroborate a new species of Balkan Drusinae micro-endemics.

    PubMed

    Vitecek, Simon; Kučinić, Mladen; Previšić, Ana; Živić, Ivana; Stojanović, Katarina; Keresztes, Lujza; Bálint, Miklós; Hoppeler, Felicitas; Waringer, Johann; Graf, Wolfram; Pauls, Steffen U

    2017-06-06

    Taxonomy offers precise species identification and delimitation and thus provides basic information for biological research, e.g. through assessment of species richness. The importance of molecular taxonomy, i.e., the identification and delimitation of taxa based on molecular markers, has increased in the past decade. Recently developed exploratory tools now allow estimating species-level diversity in multi-locus molecular datasets. Here we use molecular species delimitation tools that either quantify differences in intra- and interspecific variability of loci, or divergence times within and between species, or perform coalescent species tree inference to estimate species-level entities in molecular genetic datasets. We benchmark results from these methods against 14 morphologically readily differentiable species of a well-defined subgroup of the diverse Drusinae subfamily (Trichoptera, Limnephilidae). Using a 3798 bp (6 loci) molecular data set we aim to corroborate a geographically isolated new species by integrating comparative morphological studies and molecular taxonomy. Our results indicate that only multi-locus species delimitation provides taxonomically relevant information. The data further corroborate the new species Drusus zivici sp. nov. We provide differential diagnostic characters and describe the male, female and larva of this new species and discuss diversity patterns of Drusinae in the Balkans. We further discuss potential and significance of molecular species delimitation. Finally we argue that enhancing collaborative integrative taxonomy will accelerate assessment of global diversity and completion of reference libraries for applied fields, e.g., conservation and biomonitoring.

  18. A new species of Isoperla (Insecta, Plecoptera) from the Karawanken, with considerations on the Southern Limestone Alps as centers of endemism

    PubMed Central

    Graf, Wolfram; Konar, Martin; Murányi, Dávid; Orci, Kirill Márk; Vitecek, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the genus Isoperla (Plecoptera, Perlodidae), belonging to the oxylepis species-group is described, and the male mating call is characterized. Its range falls within a small region of the Southern Limestone Alps which is well known to be one endemism-centre of aquatic insects. PMID:25408608

  19. The Fleas of Endemic and Introduced Small Mammals in Central Highland Forests of Madagascar: Faunistics, Species Diversity, and Absence of Host Specificity.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Steven M; Randrenjarison Andriniaina, H Rico; Soarimalala, Voahangy; Beaucournu, Jean-Claude

    2015-09-01

    Data are presented on the flea species of the genera Paractenopsyllus (Ceratophyllidae, Leptopsyllinae) and Synopsyllus (Pulicidae, Xenopsyllinae) obtained from small mammals during two 2014 seasonal surveys at a montane humid forest site (Ambohitantely) in the Central Highlands of Madagascar. The mammal groups included the endemic family Tenrecidae (tenrecs) and subfamily Nesomyinae (rodents) and two introduced families Muridae (rodents) and Soricidae (shrews); no fleas were recovered from the latter family. The surveys were conducted at the end of the wet and dry seasons with 288 individual small mammals captured, including 12 endemic and four introduced species. These animals yielded 344 fleas, representing nine species endemic to Madagascar; no introduced species was collected. Some seasonal variation was found in the number of trapped small mammals, but no marked difference was found in species richness. For flea species represented by sufficient samples, no parasite-host specificity was found, and there is evidence for considerable lateral exchange in the local flea fauna between species of tenrecs and the two rodent families (endemic and introduced). The implications of these results are discussed with regards to small mammal species richness and community structure, as well as a possible mechanism for the maintenance of sylvatic cycles of bubonic plague in the montane forests of Madagascar. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Origin and diversification of Hibiscus glaber, species endemic to the oceanic Bonin Islands, revealed by chloroplast DNA polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Takayama, Koji; Ohi-Toma, Tetsuo; Kudoh, Hiroshi; Kato, Hidetoshi

    2005-04-01

    Abstract Two woody Hibiscus species co-occur in the Bonin Islands of the northwestern Pacific Ocean: Hibiscus glaber Matsum. is endemic to the islands, and its putative ancestral species, Hibiscus tiliaceus L., is widely distributed in coastal areas of the tropics and subtropics. To infer isolating mechanisms that led to speciation of H. glaber and the processes that resulted in co-occurrence of the two closely related species on the Bonin Islands, we conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses on chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) sequences. Materials collected from a wide area of the Pacific and Indian Oceans were used, and two closely related species, Hibiscus hamabo Siebold Zucc. and Hibiscus macrophyllus Roxb., were also included in the analyses. The constructed tree suggested that H. glaber has been derived from H. tiliaceus, and that most of the modern Bonin populations of H. tiliaceus did not share most recent ancestry with H. glaber. Geographic isolation appears to be the most important mechanism in the speciation of H. glaber. The co-occurrence of the two species can be attributed to multiple migrations of different lineages into the islands. While a wide and overlapping geographical distribution of haplotypes was found in H. tiliaceus, localized geographical distribution of haplotypes was detected in H. glaber. It is hypothesized that a shift to inland habitats may have affected the mode of seed dispersal from ocean currents to gravity and hence resulted in geographical structuring of H. glaber haplotypes.

  1. Three new helminth species from two endemic plethodontid salamanders, Typhlomolge rathbuni and Eurycea nana, in central Texas.

    PubMed

    Moravec, F; Huffman, D G

    2000-01-01

    Helminthological examination of two rare, endemic species of plethodontid salamanders, the Texas blind salamander (Typhlomolge rathbuni Stejneger) and the San Marcos dwarf salamander (Eurycea nana Bishop), from the subterranean waters and springs in San Marcos, Hays County, central Texas, USA revealed the presence of three new, previously undescribed species of intestinal helminths: Brachycoelium longleyi sp. n. (Trematoda) from T. rathbuni (type host) and E. nana, Dendronucleata americana sp. n. (Acanthocephala) from T. rathbuni, and Amphibiocapillaria texensis sp. n. (Nematoda) from T. rathbuni; nematode larvae probably belonging to the last named species were recorded from E. nana. Brachycoelium longleyi can be distinguished from all congeners primarily by its conspicuously small eggs among other features, whereas A. texensis differs from its closest congeneric species A. tritonispiunctati mainly in the structure of mature eggs and a markedly shorter spicule. Dendronucleata americana is the first species of the family Dendronucleatidae from the New World, differing from its Asian congeners mainly in the number and arrangement of proboscis hooks, number of giant hypodermic nuclei and in the position of testes.

  2. Effective Population Size, Gene Flow, and Species Status in a Narrow Endemic Sunflower, Helianthus neglectus, Compared to Its Widespread Sister Species, H. petiolaris

    PubMed Central

    Raduski, Andrew R.; Rieseberg, Loren H.; Strasburg, Jared L.

    2010-01-01

    Species delimitation has long been a difficult and controversial process, and different operational criteria often lead to different results. In particular, investigators using phenotypic vs. molecular data to delineate species may recognize different boundaries, especially if morphologically or ecologically differentiated populations have only recently diverged. Here we examine the genetic relationship between the widespread sunflower species Helianthus petiolaris and its narrowly distributed sand dune endemic sister species H. neglectus using sequence data from nine nuclear loci. The two species were initially described as distinct based on a number of minor morphological differences, somewhat different ecological tolerances, and at least one chromosomal rearrangement distinguishing them; but detailed molecular data has not been available until now. We find that, consistent with previous work, H. petiolaris is exceptionally genetically diverse. Surprisingly, H. neglectus harbors very similar levels of genetic diversity (average diversity across loci is actually slightly higher in H. neglectus). It is extremely unlikely that such a geographically restricted species could maintain these levels of genetic variation in isolation. In addition, the two species show very little evidence of any genetic divergence, and estimates of interspecific gene flow are comparable to gene flow estimates among regions within H. petiolaris. These results indicate that H. petiolaris and H. neglectus likely do not represent two distinct, isolated gene pools; H. neglectus is probably more accurately thought of as a geographically restricted, morphologically and ecologically distinct subspecies of H. petiolaris rather than a separate species. PMID:20386650

  3. Additions to the checklist of Scoliidae, Sphecidae, Pompilidae and Vespidae of Peru, with notes on the endemic status of some species (Hymenoptera, Aculeata)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Eduardo Fernando; Grandinete, Yuri Campanholo; Noll, Fernando Barbosa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The first checklist of the Peruvian Hymenoptera listed 1169 species and subspecies of aculeate wasps, including 173 species of Pompilidae, seven of Scoliidae, 39 of Sphecidae and 403 of Vespidae. Herein are reported 32 species as new for Peru based mainly on the collection of the Natural History Museum, London. The loss of the endemic status of two species is also reported: Entypus peruvianus (Rohwer) (Pompilidae: Pepsinae) and Omicron ruficolle schunkei Giordani Soika (Vespidae: Eumeninae). PMID:26448706

  4. Helminths from an introduced species (Tupinambis merianae), and two endemic species (Trachylepis atlantica and Amphisbaena ridley) from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ramalho, A C O; da Silva, R J; Schwartz, H O; Péres, A K

    2009-08-01

    The present study reports the occurrence of helminths in the introduced species Tupinambis merianae (tegu lizard), and in two endemic species Trachylepis atlantica (small lizard) and Amphisbaena ridleyi (two-head-snake lizard ), from Fernando de Noronha Archipelago, State of Pernambuco, Brazil. Nine species of helminths were found, mainly in the digestive tract and accessory organs, with the following prevalence (P) and mean infection intensity (MII). Tupinambis merianae: Diaphanocephalus galeatus (P = 96%, MII = 20.5), Spinicauda spinicauda (P = 100%, MII = 197.8), and Oochoristica sp.l (P = 20%, MII = 4.4). Trachylepis atlantica: Moaciria alvarengai (P = 20%, MII = 1.4), S. spinicauda (P = 92%, MII = 22.1), Mesocoelium monas (P = 4%, MII = 3.0), Platynosomum sp. (P = 8%, MII = 7.0), and Oochoristica sp.2 (P = 16%, MII = 1.25). Amphisbaena ridleyi: Aplectana albae (P = 96%, MII = 143.4), Thelandros alvarengai (P = 4%, MII = 1.0), Me. monas (P = 44%, MII = 2.8), Platynosomum sp. (P = 36%; MII = 13.8), and Oochoristica sp.2 (P = 48%; MII = 2.17). More than 80% of T. merianae were infected with 2, or more, helminth species. In Tr. atlantica, single-species infections were present in 50% of the specimens, but co-occurrence of 2 parasites was also high (41.7%). In A. ridleyi, multiple infections were more common, with up to 5 parasite species present. The helminth fauna observed allowed us to conclude that helminths can be carried together with their host when they colonize new geographic localities and that these introduced helminths can, in turn, colonize endemic, or native, hosts.

  5. DNA barcode analysis of butterfly species from Pakistan points towards regional endemism

    PubMed Central

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saleem; Khan, Arif M; Adamowicz, Sarah J; Hebert, Paul D N

    2013-01-01

    DNA barcodes were obtained for 81 butterfly species belonging to 52 genera from sites in north-central Pakistan to test the utility of barcoding for their identification and to gain a better understanding of regional barcode variation. These species represent 25% of the butterfly fauna of Pakistan and belong to five families, although the Nymphalidae were dominant, comprising 38% of the total specimens. Barcode analysis showed that maximum conspecific divergence was 1.6%, while there was 1.7–14.3% divergence from the nearest neighbour species. Barcode records for 55 species showed <2% sequence divergence to records in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), but only 26 of these cases involved specimens from neighbouring India and Central Asia. Analysis revealed that most species showed little incremental sequence variation when specimens from other regions were considered, but a threefold increase was noted in a few cases. There was a clear gap between maximum intraspecific and minimum nearest neighbour distance for all 81 species. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that members of each species formed a monophyletic cluster with strong bootstrap support. The barcode results revealed two provisional species that could not be clearly linked to known taxa, while 24 other species gained their first coverage. Future work should extend the barcode reference library to include all butterfly species from Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries to gain a better understanding of regional variation in barcode sequences in this topographically and climatically complex region. PMID:23789612

  6. Quantifying the discrepancy between regional climate and climate in the micro-habitats of a rare, endemic plant of the Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsiou, Theofania-Sotiria; Conti, Elena; Theodoridis, Spyros; Körner, Christian; Randin, Christophe-François

    2014-05-01

    Alpine vegetation is predicted to be extremely vulnerable to climate change. Effects of ongoing climate warming on plant species have already been reported in the Alps, such as upward shift of species distribution, range contraction or changes in species composition in the form of thermophilisation. Extrinsic factors such as land-area reduction occurring at high elevations in a mountain range and species' intrinsic properties (e.g., their growth form, reproductive strategy or dispersal capacity) are both affecting the response of alpine species to rapid climate change. However, recent studies have shown that the topographic complexity usually found in the alpine zones creates a variety of microclimate conditions that counteract the effect of warming climate. Here we aimed at characterising the microclimate conditions that alpine plant species experience. We used a rare endemic plant of the Maritime Alps, Saxifraga florulenta, as a model taxon because of its specific topographic and edaphic requirements. We hypothesized that temperature conditions at sites where populations of S. florulenta are located are decoupled from the local and regional climate. We also hypothesised topographic-related factors are better predictors than other proxies constrained by elevation only to explain the variation of water stress. To test these hypotheses, we recorded temperature conditions at the microsite where individual grow and reconstructed 30-year time series. We used stable isotopes signal (13C) as the best proxies for water availability. We then compared our recorded temperature data to temperature produced by coarse scale geographic climate layers that are commonly used for predicting species distribution under current and changing climate. We found that the reconstructed extreme temperatures were significantly different from the temperatures of the coarse scale geographic climate layers. In particular, the reconstructed maximum temperatures were lower than the ones of the

  7. Snow duration effects on density of the alpine endemic plant Packera franciscana

    Treesearch

    James F. Fowler; Steven Overby

    2016-01-01

    Packera franciscana (Greene) W.A. Weber and Á. Löve (Asteraceae) (San Francisco Peaks ragwort) is an alpine-zone endemic of the San Francisco Peaks in northern Arizona. Previous studies have shown that P. franciscana is patchily distributed in alpine-zone talus habitats. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between snow duration and P. franciscana...

  8. Coalescence patterns of endemic Tibetan species of stream salamanders (Hynobiidae: Batrachuperus).

    PubMed

    Lu, Bin; Zheng, Yuchi; Murphy, Robert W; Zeng, Xiaomao

    2012-07-01

    Orogenesis of topographically diverse montane regions often drives complex evolutionary histories of species. The extensive biodiversity of the eastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, which gradually decreases eastwardly, facilitates a comparison of historical patterns. We use coalescence methods to compare species of stream salamanders (Batrachuperus) that occur at high and low elevations. Coalescent simulations reveal that closely related species are likely to have been influenced by different drivers of diversification. Species living in the western high-elevation region with its northsouth extending mountains appear to have experienced colonization via dispersal followed by isolation and divergence. In contrast, species on the eastern low-elevation region, which has many discontinuous mountain ranges, appear to have experienced fragmentation, sometimes staged, of wide-ranging ancestral populations. The two groups of species appear to have been affected differently by glaciation. High-elevation species, which are more resistant to cooler temperatures, appear to have experienced population declines as recently as the last glaciation (0.016-0.032Ma). In contrast, salamanders dwelling in the warmer and wetter habitats at low-elevation environs appear to have been affected less by the relatively recent, milder glaciation, and more so by harsher, extensive glaciations (0.5-0.175 Ma). Thus, elevation, topography and cold tolerance appear to drive evolutionary patterns of diversification and demography even among closely related taxa. The comparison of multiple species in genealogical analyses can lead to an understanding of the evolutionary drivers.

  9. Ciliate biogeography in Antarctic and Arctic freshwater ecosystems: endemism or global distribution of species?

    PubMed

    Petz, Wolfgang; Valbonesi, Alessandro; Schiftner, Uwe; Quesada, Antonio; Cynan Ellis-Evans, J

    2007-02-01

    Ciliate diversity was investigated in situ in freshwater ecosystems of the maritime (South Shetland Islands, mainly Livingston Island, 63 degrees S) and continental Antarctic (Victoria Land, 75 degrees S), and the High Arctic (Svalbard, 79 degrees N). In total, 334 species from 117 genera were identified in both polar regions, i.e. 210 spp. (98 genera) in the Arctic, 120 spp. (73 genera) in the maritime and 59 spp. (41 genera) in the continental Antarctic. Forty-four species (13% of all species) were common to both Arctic and Antarctic freshwater bodies and 19 spp. to both Antarctic areas (12% of all species). Many taxa are cosmopolitans but some, e.g. Stentor and Metopus spp., are not, and over 20% of the taxa found in any one of the three areas are new to science. Cluster analysis revealed that species similarity between different biotopes (soil, moss) within a study area was higher than between similar biotopes in different regions. Distinct differences in the species composition of freshwater and terrestrial communities indicate that most limnetic ciliates are not ubiquitously distributed. These observations and the low congruence in species composition between both polar areas, within Antarctica and between high- and temperate-latitude water bodies, respectively, suggest that long-distance dispersal of limnetic ciliates is restricted and that some species have a limited geographical distribution.

  10. Radix dolgini: The integrative taxonomic approach supports the species status of a Siberian endemic snail (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Lymnaeidae).

    PubMed

    Vinarski, Maxim V; Aksenova, Olga V; Bespalaya, Yulia V; Bolotov, Ivan N; Schniebs, Katrin; Gofarov, Mikhail Yu; Kondakov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    The molecular techniques are the standard tool for the study of the taxonomic position and phylogenetic affinities of the lymnaeid genus Radix Montfort, 1810, and the majority of the European representatives of this taxon have been studied in this respect. However, a plethora of nominal species of Radix described from Northern Asia (Siberia and the Russian Far East) are still characterized only morphologically, raising some doubts concerning their validity. In this paper, we present the triple (morphological, molecular, and zoogeographical) evidence that there is at least one endemic species of Radix, Radix dolgini (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), widely distributed in Siberia and Western Mongolia. Phylogenetically, it is a sister species to the European R. labiata (Rossmaessler, 1835) [=R. peregra auct.], and their common ancestor most probably lived in the Pliocene, nearly 3.25Myr ago. Our results assume the existence of an extended dispersal barrier for freshwater hydrobionts between Europe and Siberia in the Late Pliocene that may be important for biogeographical explanations. Three other nominal Siberian species of Radix: R. kurejkae (Gundrizer and Starobogatov, 1979), R. gundrizeri (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983), and R. ulaganica (Kruglov and Starobogatov, 1983) proved to be the junior synonyms of R. dolgini.

  11. Phylogeny and biogeography of pacific Rubus subgenus Idaeobatus (Rosaceae) species: Investigating the origin of the endemic Hawaiian raspberry R. macraei

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morden, C.W.; Gardner, D.E.; Weniger, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    The endemic Hawaiian raspberries Rubus hawaiensis and R. macraei (both subgenus Idaeobatus) had been thought to be closely related species until recent molecular studies demonstrated otherwise. These studies suggest that they are the products of separate colonizations to the Hawaiian Islands. Affinities of R. hawaiensis to R. spectabilis of western North America were clearly confirmed. However, no clear relation to R. macraei has been published. This study was initiated to examine species of subg. Idaeobatus from the surrounding Pacific region as well as species from other subgenera to better evaluate biogeographic and phylogenetic affinities of R. macraei by means of chromosome analysis and molecular data using the chloroplast gene ndbF. Results show that R. macraei clusters in a clade with species of blackberries, subg. Rubus, and of these it is most closely linked to R. ursinus. Chromosomally, R. macraei is 2n = 6x = 42, a number that would be a new report for subg. Idaeobatus. However, polyploidy is common in subg. Rubus. Analyses indicate that R. macraei and R. hawaiensis are derived from separate colonizations from North America and that similarities between them are due to convergent evolution in the Hawaiian environment.

  12. DNA barcode analysis of butterfly species from Pakistan points towards regional endemism.

    PubMed

    Ashfaq, Muhammad; Akhtar, Saleem; Khan, Arif M; Adamowicz, Sarah J; Hebert, Paul D N

    2013-09-01

    DNA barcodes were obtained for 81 butterfly species belonging to 52 genera from sites in north-central Pakistan to test the utility of barcoding for their identification and to gain a better understanding of regional barcode variation. These species represent 25% of the butterfly fauna of Pakistan and belong to five families, although the Nymphalidae were dominant, comprising 38% of the total specimens. Barcode analysis showed that maximum conspecific divergence was 1.6%, while there was 1.7-14.3% divergence from the nearest neighbour species. Barcode records for 55 species showed <2% sequence divergence to records in the Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), but only 26 of these cases involved specimens from neighbouring India and Central Asia. Analysis revealed that most species showed little incremental sequence variation when specimens from other regions were considered, but a threefold increase was noted in a few cases. There was a clear gap between maximum intraspecific and minimum nearest neighbour distance for all 81 species. Neighbour-joining cluster analysis showed that members of each species formed a monophyletic cluster with strong bootstrap support. The barcode results revealed two provisional species that could not be clearly linked to known taxa, while 24 other species gained their first coverage. Future work should extend the barcode reference library to include all butterfly species from Pakistan as well as neighbouring countries to gain a better understanding of regional variation in barcode sequences in this topographically and climatically complex region. © 2013 The Authors. Molecular Ecology Resources published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Intraspecific chemical variability of essential oil from leaves of Cupressus atlantica Gaussen, an endemic and endangered coniferous species in Morocco.

    PubMed

    Abbad, Abdelaziz; Sfairi, Youssef; Lahcen, Hassani; Bekkouche, Khalid; Markouk, Mohammed; Wohlmuth, Hans; Leach, David

    2013-01-01

    The composition of essential oils isolated from leaves of 11 natural populations of Cupressus atlantica, an endemic and endangered coniferous species from Morocco, was investigated by GC-MS. In total, 42 essential oil components were identified, accounting for 73.1-97.7% of the total oil. Monoterpene (25.2-84.9%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (12.2-46.8%) were the principal subclasses of compounds, with α-pinene (15-65.4%), germacrene D (5.9-30.5%), δ-3-carene (2-16.6%) and γ-cadinene (1.3-9.8%) as the main constituents. The results of the oil composition were analysed by hierarchical cluster and principal component analysis that established three main groups of essential oils. These oils were differentiated by the content of the major constituents (α-pinene, germacrene D, δ-3-carene and γ-cadinene), geographical location and climatic characteristics.

  14. Karyological study of Amphisbaena ridleyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae), an endemic species of the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The karyotype of Amphisbaena ridleyi, an endemic species of the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, in State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is described after conventional staining, Ag-NOR impregnation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe. The diploid number is 46, with nine pairs of macrochromosomes (three metacentrics, four subtelocentrics and two acrocentrics) and 14 pairs of microchromosomes. The Ag-NOR is located in the telomeric region of the long arm of metacentric chromosome 2 and FISH revealed signals only in the telomeric region of all chromosomes. Further cytogenetic data on other amphisbaenians as well as a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of this clade is needed in order to understand the evolutionary changes on amphisbaenian karyotypes. PMID:21637605

  15. Karyological study of Amphisbaena ridleyi (Squamata, Amphisbaenidae), an endemic species of the Archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, Pernambuco, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Laguna, Marcia Maria; Amaro, Renata Cecília; Mott, Tamí; Yonenaga-Yassuda, Yatiyo; Rodrigues, Miguel Trefaut

    2010-01-01

    The karyotype of Amphisbaena ridleyi, an endemic species of the archipelago of Fernando de Noronha, in State of Pernambuco, Brazil, is described after conventional staining, Ag-NOR impregnation and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with a telomeric probe. The diploid number is 46, with nine pairs of macrochromosomes (three metacentrics, four subtelocentrics and two acrocentrics) and 14 pairs of microchromosomes. The Ag-NOR is located in the telomeric region of the long arm of metacentric chromosome 2 and FISH revealed signals only in the telomeric region of all chromosomes. Further cytogenetic data on other amphisbaenians as well as a robust phylogenetic hypothesis of this clade is needed in order to understand the evolutionary changes on amphisbaenian karyotypes.

  16. Species Distribution Modelling of Aedes aegypti in two dengue-endemic regions of Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Syeda Hira; Atif, Salman; Rasheed, Syed Basit; Zaidi, Farrah; Hussain, Ejaz

    2016-03-01

    Statistical tools are effectively used to determine the distribution of mosquitoes and to make ecological inferences about the vector-borne disease dynamics. In this study, we utilised species distribution models to understand spatial patterns of Aedes aegypti in two dengue-prevalent regions of Pakistan, Lahore and Swat. Species distribution models can potentially indicate the probability of suitability of Ae. aegypti once introduced to new regions like Swat, where invasion of this species is a recent phenomenon. The distribution of Ae. aegypti was determined by applying the MaxEnt algorithm on a set of potential environmental factors and species sample records. The ecological dependency of species on each environmental variable was analysed using response curves. We quantified the statistical performance of the models based on accuracy assessment and spatial predictions. Our results suggest that Ae. aegypti is widely distributed in Lahore. Human population density and urban infrastructure are primarily responsible for greater probability of mosquito occurrence in this region. In Swat, Ae. aegypti has clumped distribution, where urban patches provide refuge to the species in an otherwise hostile heterogeneous environment and road networks are assumed to have facilitated in passive-mediated dispersal of species. In Pakistan, Ae. aegypti is expanding its range northwards; this could be associated with rapid urbanisation, trade and travel. The main implication of this expansion is that more people are at risk of dengue fever in the northern highlands of Pakistan. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Invasion genetics of the Ciona intestinalis species complex: from regional endemism to global homogeneity.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Aibin; Macisaac, Hugh J; Cristescu, Melania E

    2010-11-01

    Determining the degree of population connectivity and investigating factors driving genetic exchange at various geographical scales are essential to understanding population dynamics and spread potential of invasive species. Here, we explore these issues in the highly invasive vase tunicate, Ciona intestinalis, a species whose invasion history has been obscured by its poorly understood taxonomy and population genetics. Recent phylogenetic and comparative genomic studies suggest that C. intestinalis is a cryptic species complex consisting of at least three species. We reconstructed phylogenies based on both mitochondrial (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 3--NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 region and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 gene) and nuclear (internal transcribed spacer 1) sequences, results of which support four major phylogroups corresponding to the previously reported spA, spB and Ciona spp. (spC) as well as an undescribed cryptic species (spD). While spC and spD remain restricted to their native ranges in the Mediterranean Sea and Black Sea, respectively, the highly invasive species (spA and spB) have disjunct global distributions. Despite extensive interspecific divergences, we identified low phylogeographical structure within these two invasive species. Haplotype network analyses revealed comparatively limited mutation steps among haplotypes within each species. Population genetic analyses based on two mtDNA fragments and eight unlinked microsatellites illustrated relatively low population differentiation and high population connectivity at both regional and continental scales in the two invasive species. Human-mediated dispersal coupled with a high potential for natural dispersal is probably responsible for the observed genetic homogeneity.

  18. Meaningful traits for grouping plant species across arid ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bär Lamas, Marlene Ivonne; Carrera, A L; Bertiller, M B

    2016-05-01

    Grouping species may provide some degree of simplification to understand the ecological function of plants on key ecosystem processes. We asked whether groups of plant species based on morpho-chemical traits associated with plant persistence and stress/disturbance resistance reflect dominant plant growth forms in arid ecosystems. We selected twelve sites across an aridity gradient in northern Patagonia. At each site, we identified modal size plants of each dominant species and assessed specific leaf area (SLA), plant height, seed mass, N and soluble phenol concentration in green and senesced leaves at each plant. Plant species were grouped according with plant growth forms (perennial grasses, evergreen shrubs and deciduous shrubs) and plant morphological and/or chemical traits using cluster analysis. We calculated mean values of each plant trait for each species group and plant growth form. Plant growth forms significantly differed among them in most of the morpho-chemical traits. Evergreen shrubs were tall plants with the highest seed mass and soluble phenols in leaves, deciduous shrubs were also tall plants with high SLA and the highest N in leaves, and perennial grasses were short plants with high SLA and low concentration of N and soluble phenols in leaves. Grouping species by the combination of morpho-chemical traits yielded 4 groups in which species from one growth form prevailed. These species groups differed in soluble phenol concentration in senesced leaves and plant height. These traits were highly correlated. We concluded that (1) plant height is a relevant synthetic variable, (2) growth forms adequately summarize ecological strategies of species in arid ecosystems, and (3) the inclusion of plant morphological and chemical traits related to defenses against environmental stresses and herbivory enhanced the potential of species grouping, particularly within shrubby growth forms.

  19. Essential Oils from Fruits with Different Colors and Leaves of Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira: An Endemic Species from Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Raquel R.; Fernandes, Caio P.; Caramel, Otávio P.; Tietbohl, Luis A. C.; Santos, Marcelo G.; Carvalho, José C. T.; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira is an endemic plant of Brazilian Atlantic Forest and widely spread in the sandbanks of “Restinga de Jurubatiba” National Park. It is popularly known by local population as “camboim-de-cachorro” or “cambuí-preto” and recognized by its black ripe fruits. However, specimens with yellow ripe fruits were localized in the “Restinga de Jurubatiba” National Park. The aim of the present study was to evaluate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from leaves and fruits of N. obscura specimens with different fruit color (black and yellow) by GC and GC-MS. Essential oils from leaves of specimens with black and yellow fruits indicated a predominance of sesquiterpenes (81.1% and 84.8%, resp.). Meanwhile, essential oil from black fruits presented a predominance of monoterpenes (50.5%), while essential oil from yellow fruits had sesquiterpenes (39.9%) as major substances. Despite previous studies about this species, including essential oil extraction, to our knowledge this is the first report on N. obscura fruits with different colors. Our results suggest the occurrence of unless two different varieties for this species. PMID:23484148

  20. Essential oils from fruits with different colors and leaves of Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira: an endemic species from Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Raquel R; Fernandes, Caio P; Caramel, Otávio P; Tietbohl, Luis A C; Santos, Marcelo G; Carvalho, José C T; Rocha, Leandro

    2013-01-01

    Neomitranthes obscura (DC.) N. Silveira is an endemic plant of Brazilian Atlantic Forest and widely spread in the sandbanks of "Restinga de Jurubatiba" National Park. It is popularly known by local population as "camboim-de-cachorro" or "cambuí-preto" and recognized by its black ripe fruits. However, specimens with yellow ripe fruits were localized in the "Restinga de Jurubatiba" National Park. The aim of the present study was to evaluate chemical composition of essential oils obtained from leaves and fruits of N. obscura specimens with different fruit color (black and yellow) by GC and GC-MS. Essential oils from leaves of specimens with black and yellow fruits indicated a predominance of sesquiterpenes (81.1% and 84.8%, resp.). Meanwhile, essential oil from black fruits presented a predominance of monoterpenes (50.5%), while essential oil from yellow fruits had sesquiterpenes (39.9%) as major substances. Despite previous studies about this species, including essential oil extraction, to our knowledge this is the first report on N. obscura fruits with different colors. Our results suggest the occurrence of unless two different varieties for this species.

  1. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Don A; Catford, Jane A; Barney, Jacob N; Hulme, Philip E; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-11-18

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks.

  2. New combinations for Pacific endemic species: Marquesan Poaceae, and Micronesian Myrtaceae

    PubMed Central

    Tornabene, Michael W.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract As part of the preparation for a comprehensive online flora of Pacific oceanic islands, numerous taxonomic changes have been necessary, primarily due to a new wealth of global molecular phylogenetic studies on genera that include Pacific islands species. In order to compile an accurate checklist of the Pacific island flora with up-to-date taxonomies, we are moving several species to their currently accepted genera. Two Marquesan Pennisetum Rich. are transferred to Cenchrus L. with the new combinations Cenchrus articularis (Trin.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner, and Cenchrus henryanus (F. Br.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner. A key to Marquesas Cenchrus is also provided to differentiate the two species. Additionally, one species of Eugenia L. is transferred to Syzygium Gaertn. with the new combination Syzygium stelechanthoides (Kaneh.) M. Tornabene & W.L. Wagner in accord with the aforementioned studies. PMID:24399889

  3. The Scirtothrips dorsalis species complex: Endemism and invasion in a global pest

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasive arthropods pose unique management challenges in various environments, the first of which is correct identification. This apparently mundane task is particularly difficult if multiple species are morphologically indistinguishable but accurate identification can be determined with DNA barcodi...

  4. Characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers in Pinus armandii (Pinaceae), an endemic conifer species to China1

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Wan-Lin; Wang, Ruo-Nan; Yan, Xiao-Hao; Niu, Chuan; Gong, Lin-Lin; Li, Zhong-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Pinus armandii (Pinaceae) is an important conifer tree species in central and southwestern China, and it plays a key role in the local forest ecosystems. To investigate its population genetics and design effective conservation strategies, we characterized 18 polymorphic microsatellite markers for this species. Methods and Results: Eighteen novel polymorphic and 16 monomorphic microsatellite loci of P. armandii were isolated using Illumina MiSeq technology. The number of alleles per locus ranged from two to five. The expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.061 to 0.609 with an average of 0.384, and the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.063 to 0.947 with an average of 0.436. Seventeen loci could be successfully transferred to five related Pinus species (P. koraiensis, P. griffithii, P. sibirica, P. pumila, and P. bungeana). Conclusions: These novel microsatellites could potentially be used to investigate the population genetics of P. armandii and related species. PMID:27785387

  5. Endemic palm species shed light on habitat shifts and the assembly of the Cerrado and Restinga floras.

    PubMed

    Bacon, Christine D; Moraes R, Monica; Jaramillo, Carlos; Antonelli, Alexandre

    2017-05-01

    Species expansions into new habitats are often associated with physiological adaptations, for instance when rain forest lineages colonize dry habitats. Although such shifts have been documented for the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), little is known about the biogeographic origin of species occupying an extreme South American habitat type, the coastal dunes (Restinga). We examined the formation of this poorly known, endangered habitat by reconstructing the evolutionary history of two endemic species. Due to the proposed recency and uniqueness of this habitat, we hypothesized that Restinga species of the palm genus Allagoptera to be recently evolved and to present derived morphological characters. To detect habit shifts in absolute time, we used one plastid and nine nuclear genes to reconstruct the phylogenetic and biogeographic history of Allagoptera. We used light microscopy and stable isotope analysis to explore whether morphological adaptations occurred concomitantly with habitat shifts. Phylogenetic relationships were well supported and we found ancestral lineages of Allagoptera to be widely distributed throughout habitats that are currently occupied by extant species. Over the last ca. 7Ma Allagoptera has shifted its preference to increasingly dry habitats. Coincident with the colonization of the Cerrado and Restinga, morphological adaptations also evolved, including subterranean stems that are fire-resistant and long underground stem and root systems that facilitate water access. We did not find differences in metabolic pathway or modifications to pollen morphology when compared to other palm lineages. Assuming that the evolutionary history of Allagoptera is indicative of the habitat in which it occurs, our results infer a recent origin for Cerrado species. Although little is known about the formation of the Restinga habitat, our results also suggest a longer history than currently proposed; with an origin of Restinga habitats dating back to the Late Pliocene.

  6. Local Hotspots of Endemism or Artifacts of Incorrect Taxonomy? The Status of Microendemic Pill Millipede Species of the Genus Glomeris in Northern Italy (Diplopoda, Glomerida).

    PubMed

    Wesener, Thomas; Conrad, Cathrin

    2016-01-01

    Local endemic species with their unique evolutionary history always stirred the interest of scientists. One such area especially rich in endemics is northern Italy. In case of pill millipedes of the genus Glomeris Latreille, 1803, only a single species is found in northern Europe, while 22 country-endemics alone are known from Italy. Many of these endemics, however, have not been studied in several decades; therefore we aimed to determine whether this diversity is the result of overlooked synonymies or natural processes. A focus was placed on the local endemics that are in some aspects morphologically similar to the widespread and variable G. klugii Brandt, 1833. The local endemics Glomeris larii Verhoeff, 1921, G. primordialis Verhoeff, 1930, G. oblongoguttata Verhoeff, 1894, G. oropensis Verhoeff, 1936, G. transalpina Koch, 1836, G. romana Verhoeff, 1900, G. ligurica Latzel, 1884 and G. apuana Verhoeff, 1911 were included in a molecular analysis incorporating ribosomal nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (COI) genes. Individuals were sequenced and compared to 31 specimens from 18 localities of G. klugii. The final dataset included 657 base pairs for 56 terminals in the COI, and 14 terminals with 1068 base pairs in the combined 28S and COI analysis. Our analysis shows intraspecific distances of up to 5% in the COI gene in G. klugii that are not strictly correlated to geography or color pattern. G. larii is discovered to be genetically and morphologically identical to G. klugii and is synonymised with the latter. Interspecific distances in our dataset vary between 6.7 to 15.9%, with the lowest (6.7-9.0%) between G. primordialis and G. klugii. Our analysis confirms the species status of the local endemics G. primordialis, G. oblongoguttata, G. oropensis, G. transalpina, G. ligurica and G. apuana. We also confirm the synonymy of G. undulata Koch, 1844 under G. klugii. G. genuensis Latzel, 1886 is indistinguishable from G. ligurica.

  7. Local Hotspots of Endemism or Artifacts of Incorrect Taxonomy? The Status of Microendemic Pill Millipede Species of the Genus Glomeris in Northern Italy (Diplopoda, Glomerida)

    PubMed Central

    Wesener, Thomas; Conrad, Cathrin

    2016-01-01

    Local endemic species with their unique evolutionary history always stirred the interest of scientists. One such area especially rich in endemics is northern Italy. In case of pill millipedes of the genus Glomeris Latreille, 1803, only a single species is found in northern Europe, while 22 country-endemics alone are known from Italy. Many of these endemics, however, have not been studied in several decades; therefore we aimed to determine whether this diversity is the result of overlooked synonymies or natural processes. A focus was placed on the local endemics that are in some aspects morphologically similar to the widespread and variable G. klugii Brandt, 1833. The local endemics Glomeris larii Verhoeff, 1921, G. primordialis Verhoeff, 1930, G. oblongoguttata Verhoeff, 1894, G. oropensis Verhoeff, 1936, G. transalpina Koch, 1836, G. romana Verhoeff, 1900, G. ligurica Latzel, 1884 and G. apuana Verhoeff, 1911 were included in a molecular analysis incorporating ribosomal nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (COI) genes. Individuals were sequenced and compared to 31 specimens from 18 localities of G. klugii. The final dataset included 657 base pairs for 56 terminals in the COI, and 14 terminals with 1068 base pairs in the combined 28S and COI analysis. Our analysis shows intraspecific distances of up to 5% in the COI gene in G. klugii that are not strictly correlated to geography or color pattern. G. larii is discovered to be genetically and morphologically identical to G. klugii and is synonymised with the latter. Interspecific distances in our dataset vary between 6.7 to 15.9%, with the lowest (6.7–9.0%) between G. primordialis and G. klugii. Our analysis confirms the species status of the local endemics G. primordialis, G. oblongoguttata, G. oropensis, G. transalpina, G. ligurica and G. apuana. We also confirm the synonymy of G. undulata Koch, 1844 under G. klugii. G. genuensis Latzel, 1886 is indistinguishable from G. ligurica. PMID:27632210

  8. Multilocus analysis of nucleotide variation in Drosophila madeirensis, an endemic species of the Laurisilva forest in Madeira.

    PubMed

    Khadem, M; Munté, A; Camacho, R; Aguadé, M; Segarra, C

    2012-04-01

    Drosophila madeirensis is an endemic species of Madeira that inhabits the island Laurisilva forest. Nucleotide variation in D. madeirensis is analysed in six genomic regions and compared to that previously reported for the same regions in Drosophila subobscura, an abundant species in the Palearctic region that is closely related to D. madeirensis. The gene regions analysed are distributed along the O(3) inversion. The O(3) arrangement is monomorphic in D. madeirensis, and it was present in ancestral populations of D. subobscura but went extinct in this species after the origin of the derived O(ST) and O(3+4) arrangements. Levels of nucleotide polymorphism in D. madeirensis are similar to those present in the O(ST) and O(3+4) arrangements of D. subobscura, and the frequency spectrum is skewed towards rare variants. Purifying selection against deleterious nonsynonymous mutations is less effective in D. madeirensis. Although D. madeirensis and D. subobscura coexist at present in Madeira, no clear evidence of introgression was detected in the studied regions. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  9. Three new endemic species of Epictia Gray, 1845 (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) from the dry forest of northwestern Peru.

    PubMed

    Koch, Claudia; Venegas, Pablo J; Böhme, Wolfgang

    2015-06-02

    Three new blind snake species of the genus Epictia are described based on material collected in the Peruvian Regions Amazonas, Cajamarca and La Libertad. All three species are well differentiated from all congeners based on characteristics of their morphology and coloration. They share 10 scale rows around the middle of the tail and possess two supralabials with the anterior one in broad contact with the supraocular. Epictia septemlineata sp. nov. has 16 subcaudal scales, 257 mid-dorsal scale rows, a yellowish-white rostral, and a black terminal spine. Epictia vanwallachi sp. nov. exhibits 16 subcaudals, 188 mid-dorsal scale rows, a grayish-brown rostral, and a yellow terminal spine. Epictia antoniogarciai sp. nov. features 14-18 subcaudals, 195-208 mid-dorsal scale rows, a bright yellow or yellowish-white rostral, and the terminal spine and terminal portion of the tail yellow. All three species were collected in the interandean dry forest valleys of the Marañón River and its tributaries. This region is an area of endemism and warrants further attention from systematic and conservation biologists.

  10. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Troyo, Adriana; Solano, Mayra E.; Avendaño, Adrián; Beier, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100×100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C. nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases. PMID:20073347

  11. Urban mosquito species (Diptera: Culicidae) of dengue endemic communities in the Greater Puntarenas area, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Calderón-Arguedas, Olger; Troyo, Adriana; Solano, Mayra E; Avendaño, Adrián; Beier, John C

    2009-12-01

    Field studies were conducted to determine the mosquito species richness in the urban area of Greater Puntarenas in Costa Rica. Two cross-sectional entomological surveys were performed in seven localities of Puntarenas: one survey was performed during the wet season and the other during the dry season. The sections evaluated were determined by applying a stratified cluster sampling method using satellite imagery, and a sample of 26 cells (100 x 100m) was selected for the study. The number of cells per locality was proportional to the area of each locality. The presence of mosquito larvae and pupae in water-filled artificial and natural containers was determined in each cell. Infestation was expressed as a diversity index per type of container (Ii). Eight types of larvae were identified (Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex interrogator, Culex nigripalpus, Culex corniger, Culex tarsalis, Limatus durhamii and Toxorhynchites theobaldi) and in two cases it was only possible to identify the genus (Culex sp. and Uranotaenia sp.). A. aegypti was the most common species followed by C. quinquefascitus. Diversity of wet environments can explain the co-occurrence of various culicid species in some localities. Although A. aegypti is the only documented disease vector in the area, C quinquefasciatus, C nigripalpus, and the other species of Culex could be considered potential vectors of other pathogens. The presence and ecology of all mosquito species should be studied to optimize surveillance and prevention of dengue and to prevent the emergence of other mosquito-transmitted diseases.

  12. Long-term shifts in the phenology of rare and endemic Rocky Mountain plants

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Munson, Seth M.; Sher, Anna A

    2015-01-01

    CONCLUSIONS: These results provide evidence for large shifts in the phenology of rare Rocky Mountain plants related to climate, which can have strong effects on plant fitness, the abundance of associated wildlife, and the future of plant conservation in mountainous regions.                   

  13. Microsatellite loci for Gossypium davidsonii (Malvaceae) and other D-genome, Sonoran Desert endemic cotton species.

    PubMed

    Kuester, Adam P; Nason, John D

    2012-03-01

    Microsatellite primers previously developed for domesticated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum; tetraploid) were screened for their utility in investigating genetic structure and gene flow within G. davidsonii and five other wild, Mexican, D-genome cotton species (all diploid). We screened 50 microsatellite primer pairs from the Cotton Marker Database, identifying 10 loci as polymorphic within G. davidsonii. In genotyping approximately 200 individuals from four populations, we found that the number of alleles per locus ranged from seven to 17, and mean observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.145 to 0.492 and from 0.436 to 0.734, respectively. We genotyped six to 20 individuals from each of the remaining species, finding these 10 loci to cross-amplify in all cases and in most cases to be polymorphic. These markers may be useful for further investigation of population genetics of G. davidsonii and other wild D-genome cotton species.

  14. Genetic and morphological analyses indicate that the Australian endemic scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi (Scorpiones: Urodacidae) is a species complex

    PubMed Central

    Luna-Ramirez, Karen; Miller, Adam D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Australian scorpions have received far less attention from researchers than their overseas counterparts. Here we provide the first insight into the molecular variation and evolutionary history of the endemic Australian scorpion Urodacus yaschenkoi. Also known as the inland robust scorpion, it is widely distributed throughout arid zones of the continent and is emerging as a model organism in biomedical research due to the chemical nature of its venom. Methods We employed Bayesian Inference (BI) methods for the phylogenetic reconstructions and divergence dating among lineages, using unique haplotype sequences from two mitochondrial loci (COXI, 16S) and one nuclear locus (28S). We also implemented two DNA taxonomy approaches (GMYC and PTP/dPTP) to evaluate the presence of cryptic species. Linear Discriminant Analysis was used to test whether the linear combination of 21 variables (ratios of morphological measurements) can predict individual’s membership to a putative species. Results Genetic and morphological data suggest that U. yaschenkoi is a species complex. High statistical support for the monophyly of several divergent lineages was found both at the mitochondrial loci and at a nuclear locus. The extent of mitochondrial divergence between these lineages exceeds estimates of interspecific divergence reported for other scorpion groups. The GMYC model and the PTP/bPTP approach identified major lineages and several sub-lineages as putative species. Ratios of several traits that approximate body shape had a strong predictive power (83–100%) in discriminating two major molecular lineages. A time-calibrated phylogeny dates the early divergence at the onset of continental-wide aridification in late Miocene and Pliocene, with finer-scale phylogeographic patterns emerging during the Pleistocene. This structuring dynamics is congruent with the diversification history of other fauna of the Australian arid zones. Discussion Our results indicate that the

  15. Dioxin uptake by Indian plant species.

    PubMed

    Pandey, J S; Kumar, R; Wate, S R

    2008-08-01

    Dioxins like various gaseous pollutants and aerosols can be scavenged by appropriate vegetative greenbelts. Based on their stomatal properties and the models for contaminant uptake, uptake of dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD) by three important Indian plant species, viz. Eugenia jambolana (Jamun), Azadirachta indica (Neem) and Ficus religiosa (Peepal), has been estimated. 2,3,7,8-TCDD is a contaminant with severe harmful ecological ramifications. Computations show that Ficus religiosa has highest uptake capacity. The present exercise has its utility in designing appropriate green-belts for mitigating adverse environmental and human health impacts due to dioxins. This can be an effective management option for mitigating the damages caused by dioxins.

  16. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of Centaurea ensiformis Hub.-Mor. (Asteraceae), a species endemic to Mugla (Turkey).

    PubMed

    Ugur, Aysel; Duru, Mehmet Emin; Ceylan, Ozgur; Sarac, Nurdan; Varol, Omer; Kivrak, Ibrahim

    2009-01-01

    The n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol extracts of the aerial parts of Centaurea ensiformis, endemic to Turkey, have been assessed for antimicrobial and antioxidant activities. The chemical composition of the hexane extract of this plant was determined. The antimicrobial activities on microorganisms, including multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria, were evaluated using the disc diffusion method. The antioxidant activities were determined by using four complementary in vitro assays: inhibition of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical, total antioxidant activity, and the total amount of phenolic and flavonoid compounds. The structure of the active extract was elucidated by: thin layer chromatography, column chromatography, gas chromatography or gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The various extracts of C. ensiformis inhibited the growth of tested bacteria. All the C. ensiformis extracts had no effect on the yeasts. The total antioxidant activity increased with the increasing amount of the extracts (20, 40, 80 and 160 microg), which contained linoleic acid emulsion. The major compounds of the hexane extract of the plant were caryophyllene oxide (28.72%), spathulenol (17.81%), eudesmol (13.03%) and beta-bourbonene (8.51%).

  17. Reevaluating species number, distribution and endemism of the coral genus Pocillopora Lamarck, 1816 using species delimitation methods and microsatellites.

    PubMed

    Gélin, P; Postaire, B; Fauvelot, C; Magalon, H

    2017-04-01

    Species delimitation methods based on genetic information, notably using single locus data, have been proposed as means of increasing the rate of biodiversity description, but can also be used to clarify complex taxonomies. In this study, we explore the species diversity within the cnidarian genus Pocillopora, widely distributed in the tropical belt of the Indo-Pacific Ocean. From 943 Pocillopora colonies sampled in the Western Indian Ocean, the Tropical Southwestern Pacific and Southeast Polynesia, representing a huge variety of morphotypes, we delineated Primary Species Hypotheses (PSH) applying the Automatic Barcode Gap Discovery method, the Poisson Tree Processes algorithm and the Generalized mixed Yule-coalescent model on two mitochondrial markers (Open Reading Frame and Dloop) and reconstructing a haploweb using one nuclear marker (Internal Transcribed Spacer 2). Then, we confronted identified PSHs to the results of clustering analyses using 13 microsatellites to determine Secondary Species Hypotheses (SSH). Based on the congruence of all methods used and adding sequences from the literature, we defined at least 18 Secondary Species Hypotheses among 14 morphotypes, confirming the high phenotypic plasticity in Pocillopora species and the presence of cryptic lineages. We also identified three new genetic lineages never found to date, which could represent three new putative species. Moreover, the biogeographical ranges of several SSHs were re-assessed in the light of genetic data, which may have direct implications in conservation policies. Indeed, the cryptic diversity within this genus should be taken into account seriously, as neglecting its importance is source of confusion in our understanding of ecosystem functioning. Next generation sequencing, combined with other parameters (i.e. microstructure, zooxanthellae identification, ecology even at a micro-scale, resistance and resilience ability to bleaching) will be the next step towards an integrative

  18. The taxonomic foundation, species circumscription and continental endemisms of Singerocybe: evidence from morphological and molecular data.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jiao; Feng, Bang; Yang, Zhu L; Li, Yan-Chun; Ratkowsky, David; Gates, Genevieve; Takahashi, Haruki; Rexer, Karl-Heinz; Kost, Gerhard W; Karunarathna, Samantha C

    2014-01-01

    The genus Singerocybe (Tricholomataceae, Agaricales, Basidiomycota) has been the subject of controversy since its proposal in 1988. Its taxonomic foundation, species circumscription and geographical distribution have not yet been examined with molecular sequence data. In this study phylogenetic analyses on this group of fungi were conducted based on collections from Europe, eastern Asia, southern Asia, North America and Australia, with four nuclear markers, ITS, nrLSU, tef1-α and rpb2. Molecular phylogenetic analyses, together with morphological observations, strongly support Singerocybe as a monophyletic group and identify the vesicles in the pileal and stipe cuticle as a synapomorphy of this genus. Seven species are recognized in the genus, including one new species and four new combinations. Clitocybe trogioides and Clitocybe trogioides var. odorifera are synonyms of Singerocybe humilis and Singerocybe alboinfundibuliformis respectively. Most of these species are geographically restricted in their distributions. Furthermore our study expands the distribution range of Singerocybe from the North Temperate Zone to Australia (Tasmania) and tropical southern Asia.

  19. Determining the population boundaries of a narrowly endemic perennial plant, Lane Mountain milk-vetch, in San Bernardino County, California

    Treesearch

    David Charlton

    2007-01-01

    The Lane Mountain milk-vetch (Astragalus jaegerianus) is a federally endangered species. It was first discovered in 1939 by Edmund Jaeger in the central Mojave Desert of California. This plant species was not collected again until the army became interested in expanding Fort Irwin’s western boundary in the 1980’s. Following its rediscovery,...

  20. Teaching the Species Concept Using Hybrid Plants and Habitats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, C. M.; Oldham, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a field exercise which links ecology and taxonomy in the teaching of the species concept. Two common hedgerow plants (red and white campions) are used as a pair of "species" that are normally distinct. Plants of intermediate character can be encountered, and the status of these plants is investigated. (Author/JN)

  1. Teaching the Species Concept Using Hybrid Plants and Habitats.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, C. M.; Oldham, J. H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a field exercise which links ecology and taxonomy in the teaching of the species concept. Two common hedgerow plants (red and white campions) are used as a pair of "species" that are normally distinct. Plants of intermediate character can be encountered, and the status of these plants is investigated. (Author/JN)

  2. Plants used in the treatment of leishmanial ulcers due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis in an endemic area of Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    França, F; Lago, E L; Marsden, P D

    1996-01-01

    This paper records the plants used in the treatment of cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis (L(V)b) among the rural population of a cocoa-producing coastal area of Bahia state, Brazil. An enquiry conducted among a hundred patients identified 49 plants species used to treat skin ulceration caused by this Leishmania species. The principal plants used are caju-branco (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardiaceae), used by 65% of the population, folha-fogo (Clidemia hirta,Melastomataceae) 39%, alfavaca-grossa (Plectranthus amboinicus, Lamiaceae) 33%, mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides, Chenopodiaceae) 31%, erva-de-santa-maria (Solanum americanum, Solanaceae) (25%) and transagem (Plantago major, Plantaginaceae) 2%.

  3. Dissolved oxygen fluctuations in karst spring flow and implications for endemic species: Barton Springs, Edwards aquifer, Texas, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Bourgeais, Renan

    2013-01-01

    Karst aquifers and springs provide the dissolved oxygen critical for survival of endemic stygophiles worldwide, but little is known about fluctuations of dissolved oxygen concentrations (DO) and factors that control those concentrations. We investigated temporal variation in DO at Barton Springs, Austin, Texas, USA. During 2006–2012, DO fluctuated by as much as a factor of 2, and at some periods decreased to concentrations that adversely affect the Barton Springs salamander (Eurycea sorosum) (≤4.4 mg/L), a federally listed endangered species endemic to Barton Springs. DO was lowest (≤4.4 mg/L) when discharge was low (≤1 m3/s) and spring water temperature was >21 °C, although not at a maximum; the minimum DO recorded was 4.0 mg/L. Relatively low DO (3/s) and maximum T (22.2 °C). A four-segment linear regression model with daily data for discharge and spring water temperature as explanatory variables provided an excellent fit for mean daily DO (Nash–Sutcliffe coefficient for the validation period of 0.90). DO also fluctuated at short-term timescales in response to storms, and DO measured at 15-min intervals could be simulated with a combination of discharge, spring temperature, and specific conductance as explanatory variables. On the basis of the daily-data regression model, we hypothesize that more frequent low DO corresponding to salamander mortality could result from (i) lower discharge from Barton Springs resulting from increased groundwater withdrawals or decreased recharge as a result of climate change, and (or) (ii) higher groundwater temperature as a result of climate change.

  4. Host-plants shape insect diversity: phylogeny, origin, and species diversity of native Hawaiian leafhoppers (Cicadellidae: Nesophrosyne).

    PubMed

    Bennett, Gordon M; O'Grady, Patrick M

    2012-11-01

    Herbivorous insects and the plants on which they specialize, represent the most abundant terrestrial life on earth, yet their inter-specific interactions in promoting species diversification remains unclear. This study utilizes the discreet geologic attributes of Hawai'i and one of the most diverse endemic herbivore radiations, the leafhoppers (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Nesophrosyne), as a model system to understand the role of host-plant use in insect diversification. A comprehensive phylogeny is reconstructed to examine the origins, species diversification, and host-plant use of the native Hawaiian leafhoppers. Results support a monophyletic Nesophrosyne, originating from the Western Pacific basin, with a sister-group relationship to the genus Orosius. Nesophrosyne is characterized by high levels of endemicity according to individual islands, volcanoes, and geologic features. Clades demonstrate extensive morphologically cryptic diversity among allopatric species, utilizing widespread host-plant lineages. Nesophrosyne species are host-plant specific, demonstrating four dominant patterns of specialization that shape species diversification: (1) diversification through host switching; (2) specialization on widespread hosts with allopatric speciation; (3) repeated, independent shifts to the same hosts; and, (4) absence or low abundance on some host. Finally, evidence suggests competing herbivore radiations limit ecological opportunity for diversifying insect herbivores. Results provide evolutionary insights into the mechanisms that drive and shape this biodiversity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Plant population and habitat characteristics of the endemic Sonoran Desert cactus Peniocereus striatus in Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Greta; Rutman, Sue; Munson, Seth M.

    2010-01-01

    Peniocereus striatus (Brandegee) Buxb. (Cactaceae) is an endemic Sonoran Desert cactus that reaches its northern range limit in southwestern Arizona. One U.S. population occupies a small area of Organ Pipe Cactus National Monument near the U.S./Mexico international boundary, which has been monitored since 1939. An extensive survey conducted in 2002, covering 177 ha, resulted in the discovery of 88 new plants, in addition to the relocation of 57 plants found in previous surveys. Despite potential increases in population size and spatial distribution, mean plant height and number of basal stems has not significantly changed in recent years. Bud scars revealed that a majority of the population was sexually mature. Peniocereus striatus occurrence increased with decreasing slope, spanned every slope aspect, and was highest on rocky soils, but was noticeably low on west and northwest slopes and areas where severe land degradation had previously occurred. Over half of P. striatus plants were nursed by shrubs and subshrubs, while 40% occurred under leguminous trees. A severe frost in January 2002 top-killed 19% of the population, with the greatest damage in drainage bottoms. However, long-term (1944–2002) climate records show that there has been an overall increase in the number of frost free days in the region, which, coupled with land use change, has implications for the future health of this population.

  6. New pasture plants intensify invasive species risk

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, Don A.; Catford, Jane A.; Barney, Jacob N.; Hulme, Philip E.; Inderjit; Martin, Tara G.; Pauchard, Aníbal; Pyšek, Petr; Richardson, David M.; Riley, Sophie; Visser, Vernon

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural intensification is critical to meet global food demand, but intensification threatens native species and degrades ecosystems. Sustainable intensification (SI) is heralded as a new approach for enabling growth in agriculture while minimizing environmental impacts. However, the SI literature has overlooked a major environmental risk. Using data from eight countries on six continents, we show that few governments regulate conventionally bred pasture taxa to limit threats to natural areas, even though most agribusinesses promote taxa with substantial weed risk. New pasture taxa (including species, subspecies, varieties, cultivars, and plant-endophyte combinations) are bred with characteristics typical of invasive species and environmental weeds. By introducing novel genetic and endophyte variation, pasture taxa are imbued with additional capacity for invasion and environmental impact. New strategies to prevent future problems are urgently needed. We highlight opportunities for researchers, agribusiness, and consumers to reduce environmental risks associated with new pasture taxa. We also emphasize four main approaches that governments could consider as they build new policies to limit weed risks, including (i) national lists of taxa that are prohibited based on environmental risk; (ii) a weed risk assessment for all new taxa; (iii) a program to rapidly detect and control new taxa that invade natural areas; and (iv) the polluter-pays principle, so that if a taxon becomes an environmental weed, industry pays for its management. There is mounting pressure to increase livestock production. With foresight and planning, growth in agriculture can be achieved sustainably provided that the scope of SI expands to encompass environmental weed risks. PMID:25368175

  7. Endemicity of leptospirosis in domestic and wild animal species from Reunion Island (Indian Ocean).

    PubMed

    Desvars, A; Naze, F; Benneveau, A; Cardinale, E; Michault, A

    2013-06-01

    Leptospirosis is the major infectious disease on Reunion Island but little is known about the animal reservoir. We conducted a wide-ranging survey that included samples from 574 animals belonging to 12 species. The seroprevalence and prevalence of renal carriage varied greatly depending on the species, with the highest seroprevalence (79·5%) found in Norway rats, and the lowest (13·2%) in tenrecs. The renal carriage rate ranged from 84·6% in mice to 0% in tenrecs. Our results suggest that rodents are the most important reservoirs of leptospirosis on Reunion Island. The epidemiological role that animals play in human infection is discussed. For the first time, we quantified the renal concentration of leptospires in ten naturally infected mammals. The history of Reunion Island colonization probably explains why the circulating Leptospira serogroups were similar to those found in Europe. Our study provides evidence that will help implement preventive measures against this zoonosis.

  8. Vascular plant species of the Pawnee National Grassland

    Treesearch

    Donald L. Hazlett

    1998-01-01

    This report briefly describes the main vegetation types and lists the vascular plant species that are known to occur in and near the Pawnee National Grassland, Weld County, Colorado. A checklist includes the scientific and common names for 521 species. Of these, 115 plant species (22 percent) are not native to this region. The life forms, habitats, and geographic...

  9. Validation of EST-derived microsatellite markers for two Cerrado-endemic Campomanesia (Myrtaceae) species.

    PubMed

    Miranda, E A G C; Boaventura-Novaes, C R D; Braga, R S; Reis, E F; Pinto, J F N; Telles, M P C

    2016-03-04

    We assessed the transferability of 120 EST-derived Eucalyptus microsatellite primers to Campomanesia adamantium and C. pubescens. Both species are berry trees native to the Brazilian Cerrado, and population genetic information is poor. Twelve markers were used to analyze the genetic variability of four sampled populations. Regarding DNA extraction, we sampled leaf tissues from two populations of each species (80 individuals). Of the 120 primers evaluated, 87 did not amplify any PCR products, and 21 rendered nonspecific amplification. Twelve primers were successfully transferred, providing a low combined probability of genetic identity for both species (5.718 x 10(-10) for C. adamantium; 1.182 x 10(-11) for C. pubescens) and a high probability of paternity exclusion (0.99939 for C. adamantium; 0.99982 for C. pubescens). The average number of alleles in the polymorphic loci was 6.8 for C. adamantium and 7.8 for C. pubescens, ranging from 2 to 16 alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity values for C. adamantium and C. pubescens were 0.504 and 0.503, respectively, and the expected heterozygosity values for C. adamantium and C. pubescens were 0.517 and 0.579, respectively. The populations exhibited structured genetic variability with qP values of 0.105 for C. adamantium and 0.249 for C. pubescens. Thus, we concluded that these 12 microsatellite markers, transferred from Eucalyptus, were efficient for population genetic studies of C. adamantium and C. pubescens.

  10. Tramps, narrow endemics and morphologically cryptic species in the epiphyllous liverwort Diplasiolejeunea.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shanshan; Schäfer-Verwimp, Alfons; Meinecke, Philipp; Feldberg, Kathrin; Bombosch, Andrea; Pócs, Tamás; Schmidt, Alexander R; Reitner, Joachim; Schneider, Harald; Heinrichs, Jochen

    2012-11-01

    Diplasiolejeunea is a pantropical, epiphytic genus of leafy liverworts that occurs from the lowlands to more than 4000m altitude. Phylogenetic analyses of a molecular dataset consisting of three markers (nuclear ribosomal ITS region, plastidic trnL-F region and rbcL gene) and 122 accessions (plus two outgroups, Colura and Cololejeunea) indicate that the evolutionary diversity of Diplasiolejeunea is underestimated by current morphology-based classification. Four morphologically semi-cryptic species have been recovered. The molecular phylogenies support a deep split into a Neotropical and a Paleotropical clade, the latter structured into Australasian, Asian and Afromadacascan lineages. Presented results confirm the ranges of two pantropical species (D. cavifolia, D. rudolphiana), provide evidence for dispersal from the Neotropics into the Paleotropics, indicate speciation along altitudinal gradients and demonstrate extensive morphological homoplasy. We propose a revised supraspecific classification of Diplasiolejeunea into a predominantly Paleotropical subgenus Physolejeunea and predominantly Neotropical subgenera Austrolejeuneopsis and Diplasiolejeunea, the former containing mainly epiphytic species, the latter mainly epiphylls. Several clades are supported by combinations of morphological character states, and could be assigned to sections at some later point. This is the first comprehensive phylogeny of a largely epiphyllous genus of liverworts.

  11. Behavioral and physiological adjustments to new predators in an endemic island species, the Galápagos marine iguana.

    PubMed

    Berger, Silke; Wikelski, Martin; Romero, L Michael; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Rödl, Thomas

    2007-12-01

    For the past 5 to 15 million years, marine iguanas (Amblyrhynchus cristatus), endemic to the Galápagos archipelago, experienced relaxed predation pressure and consequently show negligible anti-predator behavior. However, over the past few decades introduced feral cats and dogs started to prey on iguanas on some of the islands. We investigated experimentally whether behavioral and endocrine anti-predator responses changed in response to predator introduction. We hypothesized that flight initiation distances (FID) and corticosterone (CORT) concentrations should increase in affected populations to cope with the novel predators. Populations of marine iguanas reacted differentially to simulated predator approach depending on whether or not they were previously naturally exposed to introduced predators. FIDs were larger at sites with predation than at sites without predation. Furthermore, the occurrence of new predators was associated with increased stress-induced CORT levels in marine iguanas. In addition, age was a strong predictor of variation in FID and CORT levels. Juveniles, which are generally more threatened by predators compared to adults, showed larger FIDs and higher CORT baseline levels as well as higher stress-induced levels than adults. The results demonstrate that this naive island species shows behavioral and physiological plasticity associated with actual predation pressure, a trait that is presumably adaptive. However, the adjustments in FID are not sufficient to cope with the novel predators. We suggest that low behavioral plasticity in the face of introduced predators may drive many island species to extinction.

  12. Genetic assessment of the Atlantic Forest bristle porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus (Rodentia: Erethizontidae), an endemic species threatened with extinction.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, C G; Martinez, R A; Giné, G A F; Faria, D M; Gaiotto, F A

    2011-05-24

    The bristle-spined porcupine, Chaetomys subspinosus, an endemic rodent from Atlantic Forest, was considered to be abundant in the recent past, but population reductions due to habitat loss and expansion of human activities caused this species to be included in the "vulnerable" category of the World Conservation Union Red List. We performed the first genetic assessment in natural populations of this focal species along its geographical distribution. Thirty-five non-invasive samples (hair) were collected from three natural populations in the Brazilian States of Sergipe, Bahia and Espírito Santo. Genetic similarity obtained by Jaccard's index, based on dominant RAPD and ISSR markers, varied between 25 and 100%. Four clusters, mainly coincident with the geographical distribution of the populations, were observed. Analysis of molecular variance based on 47 polymorphic loci showed that there was 15.99% genetic variability among populations and 84.01% within populations. The estimated genetic structure among populations (Φ(ST)) was 0.16. The populations may have formed a continuum along the past distribution of the Atlantic rainforest but historical events of human occupation resulted in recent divergence among sampled populations.

  13. Identification of a New Borrelia Species among Small Mammals in Areas of Northern Spain Where Lyme Disease Is Endemic

    PubMed Central

    Gil, Horacio; Barral, Marta; Escudero, Raquel; García-Pérez, Ana L.; Anda, Pedro

    2005-01-01

    The role of small mammals as reservoir hosts for Borrelia burgdorferi was investigated in several areas where Lyme disease is endemic in northern Spain. A low rate of infestation by Ixodes ricinus nymphs was found in the small mammal populations studied that correlated with the near-absence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in 184 animals tested and with the lack of transmission of B. burgdorferi sensu lato to I. ricinus larvae that fed on them. In contrast, questing ticks collected at the same time and in the same areas were found to carry a highly variable B. burgdorferi sensu lato repertoire (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana, and Borrelia afzelii). Interestingly, the only isolate obtained from small mammals (R57, isolated from a bank vole) grouped by phylogenetic analyses with other Borrelia species but in a separate clade from the Lyme disease and relapsing fever organisms, suggesting that it is a new species. This new agent was widely distributed among small mammals, with infection rates of 8.5 to 12% by PCR. Moreover, a high seroprevalence to B. burgdorferi sensu lato was found in the animal sera, suggesting cross-reactivity between B. burgdorferi sensu lato and R57. Although small mammals do not seem to play an important role as reservoirs for B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the study area, they seem to be implicated in the maintenance of spirochetes similar to R57. PMID:15746336

  14. Identification of a new Borrelia species among small mammals in areas of northern Spain where Lyme disease is endemic.

    PubMed

    Gil, Horacio; Barral, Marta; Escudero, Raquel; García-Pérez, Ana L; Anda, Pedro

    2005-03-01

    The role of small mammals as reservoir hosts for Borrelia burgdorferi was investigated in several areas where Lyme disease is endemic in northern Spain. A low rate of infestation by Ixodes ricinus nymphs was found in the small mammal populations studied that correlated with the near-absence of B. burgdorferi sensu lato in 184 animals tested and with the lack of transmission of B. burgdorferi sensu lato to I. ricinus larvae that fed on them. In contrast, questing ticks collected at the same time and in the same areas were found to carry a highly variable B. burgdorferi sensu lato repertoire (B. burgdorferi sensu stricto, Borrelia garinii, Borrelia valaisiana, and Borrelia afzelii). Interestingly, the only isolate obtained from small mammals (R57, isolated from a bank vole) grouped by phylogenetic analyses with other Borrelia species but in a separate clade from the Lyme disease and relapsing fever organisms, suggesting that it is a new species. This new agent was widely distributed among small mammals, with infection rates of 8.5 to 12% by PCR. Moreover, a high seroprevalence to B. burgdorferi sensu lato was found in the animal sera, suggesting cross-reactivity between B. burgdorferi sensu lato and R57. Although small mammals do not seem to play an important role as reservoirs for B. burgdorferi sensu lato in the study area, they seem to be implicated in the maintenance of spirochetes similar to R57.

  15. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  16. RELATIVE ABUNDANCE AND SPECIES COMPOSITION OF MOSQUITO POPULATIONS (DIPTERA:CULICIDAE) IN A LA CROSSE VIRUS- ENDEMIC AREA IN WESTERN NORTH CAROLINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Container surveys were conducted in 5 communities on the Cherokee Indian Reservation, an area of western North Carolina endemic for transmission of La Crosse (LAC) virus, to determine the potential for peridomestic mosquito breeding, the relative abundance of mosquito species, an...

  17. Plant Species Recovery on a Compacted Skid Road.

    PubMed

    Demir, Murat; Makineci, Ender; Gungor, Beyza Sat

    2008-05-15

    This study was executed to determine the plant species of herbaceous cover in a skid road subjected to soil compaction due to timber skidding in a beech (Fagus orientalis Lipsky.) stand. Our previous studies have shown that ground based timber skidding destroys the soils extremely, and degradations on ecosystem because of the timber skidding limit recovery and growth of plant cover on skid roads. However, some plant species show healthy habitat, recovery and they can survive after the extreme degradation in study area. We evaluated composition of these plant species and their cover-abundance scales in 100 m x 3 m transect. 15 plant species were determined belongs to 12 plant families and Liliaceae was the highest representative plant family. Smilax aspera L., Epimedium pubigerum (DC.) Moren et Decaisne, Carex distachya Desf. var. distachya Desf., Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn., Trachystemon orientalis (L.) G. Don, Hedera helix L. have the highest coverabundance scale overall of determined species on compacted skid road.

  18. Using species spectra to evaluate plant community conservation value along a gradient of anthropogenic disturbance.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, José A P; Silva, Luís; Garcia, Patricia V; Weber, Everett; Soares, António O

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the impact of anthropogenic disturbance on the partitioning of plant communities (species spectra) across a landcover gradient of community types, categorizing species on the basis of their biogeographic, ecological, and conservation status. We tested a multinomial model to generate species spectra and monitor changes in plant assemblages as anthropogenic disturbance rise, as well as the usefulness of this method to assess the conservation value of a given community. Herbaceous and arborescent communities were sampled in five Azorean islands. Margins were also sampled to account for edge effects. Different multinomial models were applied to a data set of 348 plant species accounting for differences in parameter estimates among communities and/or islands. Different levels of anthropogenic disturbance produced measurable changes on species spectra. Introduced species proliferated and indigenous species declined, as anthropogenic disturbance and management intensity increased. Species assemblages of relevance other than economic (i.e., native, endemic, threatened species) were enclosed not only in natural habitats, but also in human managed arborescent habitats, which can positively contribute for the preservation of indigenous species outside remnants of natural areas, depending on management strategies. A significant presence of invasive species in margin transects of most community types will contribute to an increase in edge effect that might facilitate invasion. The multinomial model developed in this study was found to be a novel and expedient tool to characterize the species spectra at a given community and its use could be extrapolated for other assemblages or organisms, in order to evaluate and forecast the conservation value of a site.

  19. The leaf, wood and bark oils of three species of Myodocarpus (Myodocarpaceae) endemic to New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Lebouvier, Nicolas; Lawes, Douglas; Hnawia, Edouard; Page, Michael; Brophy, Joseph; Nour, Mohammed

    2014-09-01

    The leaf, wood and bark oils of three species of Myodocarpus, M. viellardii Brongn. & Gris, M. fraxinifolius Brongn. & Gris and M. lanceolatus Dubard & R. Viguier have been examined. From the wood oil of M. viellardii the major components were α-pinene (22.4%) and a monoterpene methyl ester, methyl myodocarpate (methyl 3,7-dimethylbicyclo [4,1,0]hept-3-ene-7-carboxylate) (61%), based on the δ-3-carene skeleton. Also present in lesser amounts was the corresponding acid, myodocarpic acid (3,7-dimethylbicyclo[4,1,0]hept-3-ene-7-carboxilic acid) and the corresponding alcohol, myodocarpol (3,7- dimethylbicyclo[4,1,0]hept-3-en-7-yl) methanol), in lesser (< 3%) amounts. The bark oil contained β-caryophyllene (13.8%) and a series of long chain fatty alcohols, dodecanol, tetradecanol, hexadecanol, octadecanol and octadec-9-en-1-ol in amounts of 1.4-15% (all but octadecanol > 11%). The leaf oil of this species produced a sesquiterpenic oil with the principal components being β-caryophyllene (36%), α-humulene (11.1%) and bicyclogermacrene (10.6%). In M. fraxinifolius, both the wood and bark oils contained a series of long chain alcohols, tetradecanol (30-38%), hexadecanol (23-29%) and octadec-9-en-1-ol (12%) as principal components. In the leaf oil of this species the principal component was β-caryophyllene (63%), with lesser amounts of humulene oxide II (2.9%), isocomene (2.8%) and viridiflorol (1.4%). In M. lanceolatus, the leaf oil was dominated by the monoterpene hydrocarbons α-pinene (22.9%) and δ-3-carene (32.6%). In the wood oil of this species the principal components were geraniol (7.4%), citronellol (4.7%), germacrene-B (7.1%), zingiberine (6.8%) and linalool (6.7%), while in the bark oil they were geraniol (12.4%), citronellol (2.6%), germacrene-B (5.8%), and linalool (6.5%).

  20. Antirheumatoid Arthritis Activities and Chemical Compositions of Phenolic Compounds-Rich Fraction from Urtica atrichocaulis, an Endemic Plant to China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mengyue; Li, Ke; Nie, Yuxiao; Wei, Yingfang; Li, Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    Urtica atrichocaulis, an endemic plant to China, is commonly used to treat rheumatoid arthritis even though its pharmaceutical activities and chemical constituents were not studied. Herein, we reported our investigations on the chemical compositions of the phenolic compounds-rich fraction from U. atrichocaulis (TFUA) and their antirheumatoid arthritis activities. We found that the TFUA significantly inhibited the adjuvant-induced rats arthritis, carrageenin-induced rats paw edema, cotton pellet-induced mice granuloma, and the acetic acid-induced mice writhing response. Our phytochemical investigations on the TFUA resulted in the first-time isolation and identification of 17 phenolic constituents and a bis (5-formylfurfuryl) ether. The extensive HPLC analysis also revealed the chemical compositions of TFUA. Our further biological evaluation of the main phenolic components, individually and collectively, indicated that the antirheumatoid arthritis activities of TFUA were the combined effect of multiple phenolic constituents. PMID:21904564

  1. Plant species loss decreases arthropod diversity and shifts trophic structure.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Nick M; Crutsinger, Gregory M; Gross, Kevin; Haarstad, John; Knops, Johannes M H; Tilman, David

    2009-10-01

    Plant diversity is predicted to be positively linked to the diversity of herbivores and predators in a foodweb. Yet, the relationship between plant and animal diversity is explained by a variety of competing hypotheses, with mixed empirical results for each hypothesis. We sampled arthropods for over a decade in an experiment that manipulated the number of grassland plant species. We found that herbivore and predator species richness were strongly, positively related to plant species richness, and that these relationships were caused by different mechanisms at herbivore and predator trophic levels. Even more dramatic was the threefold increase, from low- to high-plant species richness, in abundances of predatory and parasitoid arthropods relative to their herbivorous prey. Our results demonstrate that, over the long term, the loss of plant species propagates through food webs, greatly decreasing arthropod species richness, shifting a predator-dominated trophic structure to being herbivore dominated, and likely impacting ecosystem functioning and services.

  2. Regional endemism and cryptic species revealed by molecular and morphological analysis of a widespread species of Neotropical catfish.

    PubMed

    Martin, A P; Bermingham, E

    2000-06-07

    The lower Central American landscape was fully emergent approximately three million years ago, an event which marked the beginning of the Great American biotic interchange. Freshwater fishes participated in the biotic interchange. Because primary freshwater fishes are restricted to freshwater, they provide an excellent system for investigating the interplay of historical and recent processes on the assembly, structure and diversity of the regions' aquatic ecosystems. We focused on examining the history of diversification for a species of catfish (Pimelodella chagresi) whose distribution spans multiple, isolated drainage basins across the Isthmian landscape and into north-western South America. Analysis of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes and morphological traits indicated that P. chagresi, as currently recognized, comprises a species complex. In addition, along the Pacific slope of Panama, repeated dispersion, diversification, extinction and possibly hybridization are thought to underlie a complex distribution of haplotypes. Overall, the results underscore the tremendous importance of historical processes on regional biodiversity.

  3. The Effect of a Digital Learning Environment on Children's Conceptions about the Protection of Endemic Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrou, Stella; Korfiatis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a pilot learning intervention for improving children's ideas about plant protection. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase aimed at exploring children's ideas about plant protection. These ideas were taken into account for the design and development of a digital learning environment. The second…

  4. The Effect of a Digital Learning Environment on Children's Conceptions about the Protection of Endemic Plants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrou, Stella; Korfiatis, Konstantinos

    2013-01-01

    This study presents the results of a pilot learning intervention for improving children's ideas about plant protection. The research was executed in two phases. The first phase aimed at exploring children's ideas about plant protection. These ideas were taken into account for the design and development of a digital learning environment. The second…

  5. Evolutionary responses of native plant species to invasive plants: a review.

    PubMed

    Oduor, Ayub M O

    2013-12-01

    Strong competition from invasive plant species often leads to declines in abundances and may, in certain cases, cause localized extinctions of native plant species. Nevertheless, studies have shown that certain populations of native plant species can co-exist with invasive plant species,suggesting the possibility of adaptive evolutionary responses of those populations to the invasive plants. Empirical inference of evolutionary responses of the native plant species to invasive plants has involved experiments comparing two conspecific groups of native plants for differences in expression of growth/reproductive traits: populations that have experienced competition from the invasive plant species (i.e. experienced natives) versus populations with no known history of interactions with the invasive plant species (i.e. naıve natives). Here, I employ a meta-analysis to obtain a general pattern of inferred evolutionary responses of native plant species from 53 such studies. In general, the experienced natives had significantly higher growth/reproductive performances than naıve natives, when grown with or without competition from invasive plants.While the current results indicate that certain populations of native plant species could potentially adapt evolutionarily to invasive plant species, the ecological and evolutionary mechanisms that probably underlie such evolutionary responses remain unexplored and should be the focus of future studies.

  6. Two new endemic species of Epictia Gray, 1845 (Serpentes: Leptotyphlopidae) from Northern Peru.

    PubMed

    Koch, Claudia; Cruz, Roy Santa; Cárdenas, Heidy

    2016-08-11

    Herein, we describe two new thread snake species of the genus Epictia from elevations higher than 2000 meters above sea level in the Andes of the Cajamarca Region in Northern Peru. Both species share 10 midtail scale rows, a broad contact between the anterior supralabial and the supraocular scales in most of the specimens, and a yellow spot on the snout and the terminal part of the tail. Epictia venegasi sp. nov. is described on the basis of nine specimens and can further be differentiated from its congeners by having 211-221 mid-dorsal scale rows and a color pattern where each body scale is black on the anterior half and yellow on the posterior half. The description of Epictia vonmayi sp. nov. is based on two specimens which can further be differentiated from their congeners by having 196-205 mid-dorsal scale rows and 14 distinct black longitudinal stripes around the body, which run through the center of each scale and are separated by bright yellow interspaces; accordingly the tail exhibits 10 black longitudinal stripes which likewise run through the center of each scale.

  7. Biology of Anopheles saperoi, an Endemic Species in Okinawajima, the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan.

    PubMed

    Mannen, Kosuke; Toma, Takako; Minakawa, Noboru; Higa, Yukiko; Miyagi, Ichiro

    2016-03-01

    Biological studies of Anopheles saperoi were conducted using larval and adult mosquito collections in the northern part of Okinawajima of the Ryukyu Archipelago from June 2009 to July 2010. Anopheles saperoi was the most collected species in the northern Okinawajima, except Motobu Peninsula, where it was not collected. The southern distribution of An. saperoi was Sugita Stream, Nago City. Anopheles saperoi was collected throughout the year with reproduction (gonotrophic cycle) observed year-round. Immature densities varied for Hinna and Yona streams, and were negatively affected by precipitation patterns. Human attraction activity of females varied for by study area and collection time and was positively affected by temperature, but negatively by heavy rainfall. The greatest female human attraction activity was observed during 3:00-5:00 p.m., with peak at twilight. Parity rates varied from 23.1% to 83.3% throughout the year.

  8. Escaping to the summits: phylogeography and predicted range dynamics of Cerastium dinaricum, an endangered high mountain plant endemic to the western Balkan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kutnjak, Denis; Kuttner, Michael; Niketić, Marjan; Dullinger, Stefan; Schönswetter, Peter; Frajman, Božo

    2014-09-01

    The Balkans are a major European biodiversity hotspot, however, almost nothing is known about processes of intraspecific diversification of the region's high-altitude biota and their reaction to the predicted global warming. To fill this gap, genome size measurements, AFLP fingerprints, plastid and nuclear sequences were employed to explore the phylogeography of Cerastium dinaricum. Range size changes under future climatic conditions were predicted by niche-based modeling. Likely the most cold-adapted plant endemic to the Dinaric Mountains in the western Balkan Peninsula, the species has conservation priority in the European Union as its highly fragmented distribution range includes only few small populations. A deep phylogeographic split paralleled by divergent genome size separates the populations into two vicariant groups. Substructure is pronounced within the southeastern group, corresponding to the area's higher geographic complexity. Cerastium dinaricum likely responded to past climatic oscillations with altitudinal range shifts, which, coupled with high topographic complexity of the region and warmer climate in the Holocene, sculptured its present fragmented distribution. Field observations revealed that the species is rarer than previously assumed and, as shown by modeling, severely endangered by global warming as viable habitat was predicted to be reduced by more than 70% by the year 2080. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Vocal Behavior of the Elusive Purple Frog of India (Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis), a Fossorial Species Endemic to the Western Ghats

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Ashish; Suyesh, Robin; Biju, S. D.; Bee, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative descriptions of animal vocalizations can inform an understanding of their evolutionary functions, the mechanisms for their production and perception, and their potential utility in taxonomy, population monitoring, and conservation. The goal of this study was to provide the first acoustical and statistical analysis of the advertisement calls of Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis. Commonly known as the Indian purple frog, N. sahyadrensis is an endangered species endemic to the Western Ghats of India. As the only known species in its family (Nasikabatrachidae), it has ancient evolutionary ties to frogs restricted to the Seychelles archipelago (Sooglossidae). The role of vocalizations in the behavior of this unique species poses interesting questions, as the animal is fossorial and potentially earless and it breeds explosively above the soil for only about two weeks a year. In this study, we quantified 19 acoustic properties of 208 calls recorded from 10 males. Vocalizations were organized into distinct call groups typically composed of two to six short (59 ms), pulsatile calls, each consisting of about five to seven pulses produced at a rate of about 106 pulses/s. The frequency content of the call consisted of a single dominant peak between 1200–1300 Hz and there was no frequency modulation. The patterns of variation within and among individuals were typical of those seen in other frogs. Few of the properties we measured were related to temperature, body size, or condition, though there was little variation in temperature. Field observations and recordings of captive individuals indicated that males engaged in both antiphonal calling and call overlap with nearby calling neighbors. We discuss our findings in relation to previous work on vocal behavior in other fossorial frogs and in sooglossid frogs. PMID:24516517

  10. Potential extinction of Antarctic endemic fungal species as a consequence of global warming.

    PubMed

    Selbmann, Laura; Isola, Daniela; Fenice, Massimiliano; Zucconi, Laura; Sterflinger, Katja; Onofri, Silvano

    2012-11-01

    Cryomyces spp. are fungi adapted to the harsh conditions of the McMurdo Dry Valleys in the Antarctic. The structure of their cell wall is one of the main factors for their uncommon ability to survive external stressors. The cells are, in fact, embedded in a thick and strongly melanised cell wall encrusted with black rigid plaques giving a supplementary protection and making them practically impregnable and refractory even to commercial enzymes including chitinases and glucanases. The Antarctic fungus Lecanicillium muscarium CCFEE 5003, able to produce an arsenal of lytic enzymes, including chitinases and glucanases, is known for its ability to degrade the cell walls of different food spoiling and opportunistic fungi as well as plant pathogenic Oomycota. Active cells of Cryomyces spp. were cultivated in dual culture with the mycoparasitic fungus both in liquid and solid media. Light microscope observations revealed that the cell walls of Cryomyces were heavily decayed. This resulted in the release of protoplasts. Hyphae penetration was evident with both scanning and transmission electron microscope observations. Due to its ecological amplitude (i.e. temperature growth range 0-28 °C), the parasitic fungus could easily expand its area of distribution as a consequence of global warming by invading new areas towards the interior of the continent. The establishment of interactions with organisms living at present in border ecosystems may lead to extinction of extremely specialized and poorly competitive entities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Valuing the Endangered Species Antirrhinum lopesianum: Neuroprotective Activities and Strategies for in vitro Plant Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Andreia; Fortalezas, Sofia; Pimpão, Rui; Figueira, Inês; Maroco, João; Aguiar, Carlos; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Miguel, Célia; Santos, Cláudia N.

    2013-01-01

    Plant phytochemicals are described as possessing considerable neuroprotective properties, due to radical scavenging capacity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, important bioactivities in neurodegeneration. Antirrhinum lopesianum is a rare endemism from the Iberian Peninsula, occurring at the northeastern border between Portugal and Spain. It is classified as Endangered, due to its highly fragmented geographical occupation, facing a high risk of extinction in the Portuguese territory, within 20 years. Here, we describe for the first time the chemical characterization of extracts of the species concerning total phenol content, flavonoid content and antioxidant properties. The profile of high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) of the polyphenol-enriched fraction of plant extracts was also performed, showing the great potential of the species as a source of bioactive phytochemical compounds. A. lopesianum’s potential for neuroprotection was revealed by a significant acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity and also by a neuroprotective effect on a human cell model of neurodegeneration. Moreover, this is the first report describing a successful procedure for the in vitro propagation of this endangered species. The comparison of phenolic content and the HPLC-DAD profile of wild and in vitro propagated plants revealed that in vitro plants maintain the ability to produce secondary metabolites, but the profiles are differentially affected by the growth regulators. The results presented here greatly contribute to the value for this species regarding its potential as a source of phytochemicals with prospective neuroprotective health benefits. PMID:26784465

  12. Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa)

    PubMed Central

    Clark, V. Ralph; Schrire, Brian D.; Barker, Nigel P.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigofera magnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg–Koudeveldberg–Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Erica passerinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurea recondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigofera asantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryops exsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryops proteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment. PMID:25941448

  13. Bioactive coumarins from the roots and fruits of Ferulago trifida Boiss., an endemic species to Iran.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, Saeed; Delnavazi, Mohammad-Reza; Hadjiaghaee, Reza; Jafari-Nodooshan, Saeedeh; Khalighi-Sigaroodi, Farahnaz; Akhbari, Maryam; Hadjiakhoondi, Abbas; Yassa, Narguess

    2017-09-27

    Phytochemical analysis of the Ferulago trifida Boiss. from Apiaceae family led to the isolation and identification of suberosin (1), isoimperatorin (2), prantschimgin (3), oxypeucedanin (4), oxypeucedanin methanolate (5), suberenol (6), 6-hydroxymethylherniarin (7), oxypeucedanin hydrate (8), ulopterol (9), bergapten (10), xanthotoxin (11), imperatorin (12) and grandivittin (13) from chloroform extracts of the roots (1-9) and fruits (1, 2, 8, 10-13) of this species. Oxypeucedanin methanolate and suberenol demonstrated a potent antioxidant power with 268.2 ± 5.4 and 251.2 ± 6.2 mmol FSE/100 g, respectively, compared by BHT (267.2 ± 4.2 mmol FSE/100 g) in FRAP method. The potent antibacterial effects were found for oxypeucedanin methanolate on S. epidermidis (IZ; 26 mm, MIC; 250 μg mL(-1)) an oxypeucedanin hydrate on K. pneumoniae (IZ: 21 mm, MIC: 250 μg mL(-1)). Moreover, suberosin showed higher preferential toxicity against MDA-MB-23 cells (IC50: 0.21 mM, SI: 5.0), in comparison with tamoxifen (IC50: 0.012 mM, SI: 2.45) in MTT assay.

  14. Antibacterial and antioxidant properties of biosynthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles from Ceropegia candelabrum L. - An endemic species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murali, M.; Mahendra, C.; Nagabhushan; Rajashekar, N.; Sudarshana, M. S.; Raveesha, K. A.; Amruthesh, K. N.

    2017-05-01

    Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) were synthesized for the first time from any of the species of Ceropegia. Presently, ZnO-NPs were synthesized from the leaf extract of Ceropegia candelabrum with zinc nitrate using a simple hydrothermal process. The synthesized ZnO-NPs showed an absorption peak at 320 nm which is one of the characteristic features of ZnO-NPs. The FT-IR characterization revealed a spectrum band at 551.93 cm- 1 corresponding to the functional group metal oxide. SEM images showed agglomeration of nanoparticles with a hexagonal shape. XRD results are in corroboration with SEM images as the synthesized particles were of hexagonal wurtzite shape and the size of the particles was in the range of 12-35 nm calculated using Scherrer's formula. The elemental analysis using EDS confirmed high zinc content of 70.48% stating that the process of biosynthesis of nanoparticles was carried out in accordance. The biosynthesized ZnO-NPs offered significant antibacterial potential against S. aureus, B. subtilis, E. coli and S. typhi. The antioxidant results revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) RSA from 0% to 55.43% (IC50 = 95.09 μg mL- 1). The results affirm that biosynthesized ZnO-NPs can be used as an alternative to present-day chemical compounds.

  15. Chemical Profile, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activities of Achillea moschata Wulfen, an Endemic Species from the Alps.

    PubMed

    Vitalini, Sara; Madeo, Moira; Tava, Aldo; Iriti, Marcello; Vallone, Lisa; Avato, Pinarosa; Cocuzza, Clementina Elvezia; Simonetti, Paolo; Argentieri, Maria Pia

    2016-06-25

    Aerial parts of Achillea moschata Wulfen (Asteraceae) growing wild in the Italian Rhaetian Alps were investigated to describe, for the first time, their phenolic content, as well as to characterize the essential oil. Inspection of the metabolic profile combining HPLC-DAD and ESI-MS/MS data showed that the methanol extract contained glycosylated flavonoids with luteolin and apigenin as the main aglycones. Among them, the major compound was 7-O-glucosyl apigenin. Caffeoyl derivates were other phenolics identified. The essential oil obtained by steam distillation and investigated by GC/FID and GC/MS showed camphor, 1,8-cineole, and bornylacetate as the main constituents. The antioxidant capacity of three different extracts with increasing polarity and of the essential oil was evaluated by employing ABTS·+ and DPPH· radical scavenging assays. The methanolic extract was the only significantly effective sample against both synthetic radicals. All samples were also tested against Gram-positive (Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) bacterial species using the disk diffusion assay. The non-polar extracts (dichloromethane and petroleum ether) and the essential oil possessed a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity expressed according to inhibition zone diameter (8-24 mm).

  16. Soil organisms shape the competition between grassland plant species.

    PubMed

    Sabais, Alexander C W; Eisenhauer, Nico; König, Stephan; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François; Scheu, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Decomposers and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) both determine plant nutrition; however, little is known about their interactive effects on plant communities. We set up a greenhouse experiment to study effects of plant competition (one- and two-species treatments), Collembola (Heteromurus nitidus and Protaphorura armata), and AMF (Glomus intraradices) on the performance (above- and belowground productivity and nutrient uptake) of three grassland plant species (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Plantago lanceolata) belonging to three dominant plant functional groups (grasses, legumes, and herbs). Generally, L. perenne benefited from being released from intraspecific competition in the presence of T. pratense and P. lanceolata. However, the presence of AMF increased the competitive strength of P. lanceolata and T. pratense against L. perenne and also modified the effects of Collembola on plant productivity. The colonization of roots by AMF was reduced in treatments with two plant species suggesting that plant infection by AMF was modified by interspecific plant interactions. Collembola did not affect total colonization of roots by AMF, but increased the number of mycorrhizal vesicles in P. lanceolata. AMF and Collembola both enhanced the amount of N and P in plant shoot tissue, but impacts of Collembola were less pronounced in the presence of AMF. Overall, the results suggest that, by differentially affecting the nutrient acquisition and performance of plant species, AMF and Collembola interactively modify plant competition and shape the composition of grassland plant communities. The results suggest that mechanisms shaping plant community composition can only be understood when complex belowground interactions are considered.

  17. Mycorrhizal species differentially alter plant growth and response to herbivory.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Alison E; Bever, James D

    2007-01-01

    Plants simultaneously interact with multiple organisms which can both positively and negatively affect their growth. Herbivores can reduce plant growth through loss of plant biomass and photosynthetic area, while plant mutualists, such as mycorrhizal fungi, can increase plant growth through uptake of essential nutrients. This is the first study examining whether species-specific associations with mycorrhizal fungi alter plant tolerance to herbivory. We grew Plantago lanceolata plants with three species of mycorrhizal fungi previously shown to have differential impacts on plant growth and subjected them to herbivory by the specialist lepidopteran herbivore, Junonia coenia. Association with mycorrhizal fungus Glomus white provided the greatest growth benefit but did not alter plant response to herbivory. Alternatively, association with Archaeospora trappei provided less growth promotion but did lead to tolerance to herbivory in the form of an increased growth rate. Finally, an association with the fungus Scutellospora calospora led to neither plant growth promotion nor tolerance to herbivory. In fact, an association with S. calospora appeared to reduce plant tolerance to herbivory. An association with all three species of mycorrhizae resulted in a pattern of growth similar to that of plants grown only with Glomus white, suggesting that growth promotion by multiple mycorrhizal species is driven by the inclusion of a "super fungus," in this case, Glomus white. This work illustrates that plant response to herbivory depends upon the mycorrhizal fungal mutualist with which a plant is associated.

  18. Diversity of the endophytic fungi associated with the ancient and narrowly endemic neotropical plant Vellozia gigantea from the endangered Brazilian rupestrian grasslands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The diversity of cultivable endophytic fungal community associated with the rare, ancient and narrowly endemic Neotropical plant Vellozia gigantea present in the Brazilian Rupestrian Grasslands was assessed. Two hundred and eighty-five fungal isolates obtained were identified into 27 genera and 87 t...

  19. Binucleation to breed new plant species adaptable to their environments.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2015-01-01

    Classical plant breeding approaches may fall short to breed new plant species of high environmental and ecological interests. Biotechnological and genetic manipulations, on the other hand, may hold more effective capabilities to circumvent the limitations of sexual incompatibility and conventional breeding programs. Given that plant cells encompass multiple copies of organellar genomes (mitochondrial and plastidial genomes), an important question could be raised about whether an artificial attempt to duplicate the nuclear genome might also be conceivable through a binucleation approach (generating plant cells with 2 nuclei from 2 different plant species) for potential production of new polyploidies that would characterize new plant species. Since the complexities of plant genomes are the result of multiple genome duplications, an artificial binucleation approach would thus be of some interest to eventually varying plant genomes and producing new polyploidy from related or distal plant species. Here, I discuss the potentiality of such an approach to engineer binucleated plant cells as a germ of new plant species to fulfill some environmental applications such as increasing the biodiversity and breeding new species adaptable to harsh environmental stresses and increasing green surfaces to reduce atmospheric pollutions in arid lands with poor vegetation.

  20. Numerical taxonomy of Vibrio cholerae and related species isolated from areas that are endemic and nonendemic for cholera.

    PubMed Central

    McNicol, L A; De, S P; Kaper, J B; West, P A; Colwell, R R

    1983-01-01

    A total of 165 strains of vibrios isolated from clinical and environmental sources in the United States, India, and Bangladesh, 11 reference cultures, and 4 duplicated cultures were compared in a numerical taxonomic study using 83 unit characters. Similarity between strains was computed by using the simple matching coefficient and the Jaccard coefficient. Strains were clustered by unweighted average linkage and single linkage algorithms. All methods gave similar cluster compositions. The estimated probability of error in the study was obtained from a comparison of the results of duplicated strains and was within acceptable limits. A total of 174 of the 180 organisms studied were divided into eight major clusters. Two clusters were identified as Vibrio cholerae, one as Vibrio mimicus, one as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, three as Vibrio species, and one as Aeromonas hydrophila. The V. mimicus cluster could be further divided into two subclusters, and the major V. cholerae group could be split into seven minor subclusters. Phenotypic traits routinely used to identify clinical isolates of V. cholerae can be used to identify environmental V. cholerae isolates. No distinction was found between strains of V. cholerae isolated from regions endemic for cholera and strains from nonendemic regions. PMID:6874901

  1. Natural colonization and adaptation of a mosquito species in Galapagos and its implications for disease threats to endemic wildlife.

    PubMed

    Bataille, Arnaud; Cunningham, Andrew A; Cedeño, Virna; Patiño, Leandro; Constantinou, Andreas; Kramer, Laura D; Goodman, Simon J

    2009-06-23

    Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife have been recognized as a major threat to global biodiversity. Endemic species on isolated oceanic islands, such as the Galápagos, are particularly at risk in the face of introduced pathogens and disease vectors. The black salt-marsh mosquito (Aedes taeniorhynchus) is the only mosquito widely distributed across the Galápagos Archipelago. Here we show that this mosquito naturally colonized the Galápagos before the arrival of man, and since then it has evolved to represent a distinct evolutionary unit and has adapted to habitats unusual for its coastal progenitor. We also present evidence that A. taeniorhynchus feeds on reptiles in Galápagos in addition to previously reported mammal and bird hosts, highlighting the important role this mosquito might play as a bridge-vector in the transmission and spread of extant and newly introduced diseases in the Galápagos Islands. These findings are particularly pertinent for West Nile virus, which can cause significant morbidity and mortality in mammals (including humans), birds, and reptiles, and which recently has spread from an introductory focus in New York to much of the North and South American mainland and could soon reach the Galápagos Islands. Unlike Hawaii, there are likely to be no highland refugia free from invading mosquito-borne diseases in Galápagos, suggesting bleak outcomes to possible future pathogen introduction events.

  2. Native herbaceous plant species with potential use in phytoremediation of heavy metals, spotlight on wetlands - A review.

    PubMed

    Oyuela Leguizamo, Mayerly Alexandra; Fernández Gómez, Wilmar Darío; Sarmiento, Martha Cecilia Gutiérrez

    2017-02-01

    Soil, air and water pollution caused by the mobility and solubility of heavy metals significantly damages the environment, human health, plants and animals. One common in situ method used for the decontamination of heavy metals is phytoremediation. This usually involves the use of exotic species. However, these species may exhibit invasive behavior, thereby, affect the environmental and ecological dynamics of the ecosystem into which they are introduced. This paper focuses on some native herbaceous plant species reported on the wetlands of Bogota, Colombia, with potential use in phytoremediation of heavy metals. To do that, the authors identified and searched a bibliography based on key words related to heavy metal decontamination. In addition, authors gathered and analyzed relevant information that allowed the comprehension of the phytoremediation process. This paper suggests the study of 41 native or endemic species regarding their behavior towards heavy metal contamination. From a survey of herbaceous plants reported in Bogota, native and endemic species that belong to predominant families in heavy metal accumulation processes were selected. Although found in Colombian's wetlands, these can also be found worldwide. Therefore, they are of great interest due to their global presence and their potential for use in phytoremediation. The current research about the development of phytoremediation focuses on the identification of new herbaceous species able to decontaminate substratum polluted with heavy metals to contribute with the investigation of the ecology and environment of the nature's remnants in urban wetland ecosystems. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Abundance, natural infection with trypanosomes, and food source of an endemic species of triatomine, Panstrongylus howardi (Neiva 1911), on the Ecuadorian Central Coast.

    PubMed

    Villacís, Anita G; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Lascano, Mauricio S; Yumiseva, César A; Baus, Esteban G; Grijalva, Mario J

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of domestic triatomines is the foundation of Chagas disease control. Regional initiatives are eliminating introduced triatomine species. In this scenario, endemic triatomines can occupy the ecological niches left open and become a threat to long-term Chagas disease control efforts. This study determined the abundance, colonization, and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate of the endemic Panstrongylus howardi in 10 rural communities located in Ecuador's Manabí Province. In total, 518 individuals of P. howardi were collected. Infestation indices of 1.4% and 6.6% were found in the domestic and peridomestic environments, respectively. We determined a T. cruzi infection rate of 53.2% (N = 47) in this species. P. howardi has a high capacity to adapt to different habitats, especially in the peridomicile. This implies a considerable risk of transmission because of the frequency of intradomicile invasion. Therefore, this species needs to be taken into account in Chagas control and surveillance efforts in the region.

  4. Abundance, Natural Infection with Trypanosomes, and Food Source of an Endemic Species of Triatomine, Panstrongylus howardi (Neiva 1911), on the Ecuadorian Central Coast

    PubMed Central

    Villacís, Anita G.; Ocaña-Mayorga, Sofía; Lascano, Mauricio S.; Yumiseva, César A.; Baus, Esteban G.; Grijalva, Mario J.

    2015-01-01

    The elimination of domestic triatomines is the foundation of Chagas disease control. Regional initiatives are eliminating introduced triatomine species. In this scenario, endemic triatomines can occupy the ecological niches left open and become a threat to long-term Chagas disease control efforts. This study determined the abundance, colonization, and Trypanosoma cruzi infection rate of the endemic Panstrongylus howardi in 10 rural communities located in Ecuador's Manabí Province. In total, 518 individuals of P. howardi were collected. Infestation indices of 1.4% and 6.6% were found in the domestic and peridomestic environments, respectively. We determined a T. cruzi infection rate of 53.2% (N = 47) in this species. P. howardi has a high capacity to adapt to different habitats, especially in the peridomicile. This implies a considerable risk of transmission because of the frequency of intradomicile invasion. Therefore, this species needs to be taken into account in Chagas control and surveillance efforts in the region. PMID:25385867

  5. DNA barcoding in Atlantic Forest plants: What is the best marker for Sapotaceae species identification?

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Caio Vinicius; Moraes, Ramiris César Souza; Alves-Araújo, Anderson; Alves, Marccus; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; van den Berg, Cássio; Gaiotto, Fernanda Amato

    2014-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is a phytogeographic domain with a high rate of endemism and large species diversity. The Sapotaceae is a botanical family for which species identification in the Atlantic Forest is difficult. An approach that facilitates species identification in the Sapotaceae is urgently needed because this family includes threatened species and valuable timber species. In this context, DNA barcoding could provide an important tool for identifying species in the Atlantic Forest. In this work, we evaluated four plant barcode markers (matK, rbcL, trnH-psbA and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region - ITS) in 80 samples from 26 species of Sapotaceae that occur in the Atlantic Forest. ITS yielded the highest average interspecific distance (0.122), followed by trnH-psbA (0.019), matK (0.008) and rbcL (0.002). For species discrimination, ITS provided the best results, followed by matK, trnH-psbA and rbcL. Furthermore, the combined analysis of two, three or four markers did not result in higher rates of discrimination than obtained with ITS alone. These results indicate that the ITS region is the best option for molecular identification of Sapotaceae species from the Atlantic Forest. PMID:25505841

  6. The Gyrodactylus (Monogenea, Gyrodactylidae) parasite fauna of freshwater sand gobies (Teleostei, Gobioidei) in their centre of endemism, with description of seven new species.

    PubMed

    Vanhove, Maarten P M; Economou, Alcibiades N; Zogaris, Stamatis; Giakoumi, Sofia; Zanella, Davor; Volckaert, Filip A M; Huyse, Tine

    2014-02-01

    While Gobioidei comprises showcases of (adaptive) radiation, the scientific interest they yielded did not ensure full understanding of goby biodiversity. Even in a well-studied region like Europe, wide knowledge gaps remain. Sand gobies represent one of the few clades whose monogenean parasites have been thoroughly studied. However, in the Balkans, part of the sand gobies' centre of endemism, these parasites were unstudied. We focus on Greek and Croatian freshwater gobies. From five sand goby species, the first parasites are reported, describing seven new Gyrodactylus species. Economidichthys pygmaeus harbours Gyrodactylus benedeni sp. n. and Gyrodactylus dorlodoti sp. n. Its congener E. trichonis hosts G. meelkopae sp. n. Knipowitschia milleri was found to host G. charon sp. n., K. thessala is infected by G. bios sp. n., and K. croatica by G. douglasadamsi sp. n. and G. hellemansi sp. n. Gyrodactylus bubyri was found on its type host K. caucasica. A diverse parasite fauna is expected for a region known for its biodiversity and endemism. The contribution of parasites to species richness in such hotspots is overlooked. The observed species richness per host is rather low compared to the better-studied eastern Atlantic sand gobies. Host vicariance is considered to mediate parasite specificity in this fauna. Some new flatworm species display unique morphological features, such as the remarkable size of the marginal hook sickle proper compared to its foot in the Economidichthys parasites, or a characteristically kinked marginal hook sickle in G. douglasadamsi sp. n. These features reflect their hosts' endemism in the Balkans.

  7. Molecular archives of climatic history: exploring patterns of genomic differentiation in endemic species radiations of ancient lakes (MOLARCH)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martens, K.

    2009-04-01

    Little is known about the evolutionary response of species to global climate change because time scales are too long to be directly studied. Recent phylogenetic studies on taxa inhabiting ancient lakes suggested that climate-induced environmental changes can be reconstructed by analyzing genetic patterns within and among species. In fact such evolutionary responses seem to coincide with climate driven lake level-fluctuations and to be concentrated within narrow periods of time. Yet, it remains unclear to what extent such changes occur simultaneously across taxonomic groups and ecological guilds. Our study combines phylogenetic and paleoclimate data to test how patterns of evolutionary diversification agree with predictions of three groups of hypotheses (i) the ‘turnover pulse' and ‘paleo-ecological incumbency' hypotheses, predicting that speciation pulses across major taxa coincide with times of major lake level changes; (ii) the ‘ecological locking' hypothesis, also predicts simultaneous speciation pulses but not necessarily at times of major lake level changes; (iii) the ‘individual response' hypothesis, predicts no correlation of speciation pulses across taxa. These hypotheses will be tested using mtDNA sequences from selected endemic taxa (fish, crustaceans) of Lakes Baikal and Tanganyika, the two oldest lakes on Earth. Patterns of intraspecific diversity (reflecting dynamics of population size changes) and of the synchrony of interspecific divergences across taxa are used to investigate the evolutionary effects of lake level changes on different time scales, in taxa occurring in different habitats, within lakes and across continents. Combined with paleoclimatic information this will elucidate the effects of global climatic induced changes on the more general dynamics of diversification, loss of variation, adaptive radiations and speciation events. Computer simulations of sequence evolution generated in various ecological scenarios will be used to

  8. Germination and soil seed bank traits of Podocarpus angustifolius (Podocarpaceae): an endemic tree species from Cuban rain forests.

    PubMed

    Ferrandis, Pablo; Bonilla, Marta; Osorio, Licet del Carmen

    2011-09-01

    Podocarpus angustifolius is an endangered recalcitrant-seeded small tree, endemic to mountain rain forests in the central and Pinar del Río regions in Cuba. In this study, the germination patterns of P. angustifolius seeds were evaluated and the nature of the soil seed bank was determined. Using a weighted two-factor design, we analyzed the combined germination response to seed source (i.e. freshly matured seeds directly collected from trees versus seeds extracted from soil samples) and pretreatment (i.e. seed water-immersion for 48h at room temperature). Germination was delayed for four weeks (= 30 days) in all cases, regardless of both factors analyzed. Moreover, nine additional days were necessary to achieve high germination values (in the case of fresh, pretreated seeds). These results overall may indicate the existence of a non-deep simple morphophysiological dormancy in P. angustifolius seeds. The water-immersion significantly enhanced seed germination, probably as a result of the hydration of recalcitrant seeds. Although germination of seeds extracted from soil samples was low, probably due to aging and pathogen effects throughout the time of burial, the study revealed the existence of a persistent soil seed bank (at least short-termed) of approximately 42 viable seeds per m2 in the upper 10cm of soil. Such a record is noteworthy since references to persistent soil seed banks in recalcitrant-seeded species are scarce in the literature. The population consequences derived from the formation of persistent soil seed banks in this endangered species are discussed.

  9. Functional identity versus species richness: herbivory resistance in plant communities

    PubMed Central

    Heimann, Juliane; Köhler, Günter; Mitschunas, Nadine; Weisser, Wolfgang W.

    2010-01-01

    The resistance of a plant community against herbivore attack may depend on plant species richness, with monocultures often much more severely affected than mixtures of plant species. Here, we used a plant–herbivore system to study the effects of selective herbivory on consumption resistance and recovery after herbivory in 81 experimental grassland plots. Communities were established from seed in 2002 and contained 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 or 60 plant species of 1, 2, 3 or 4 functional groups. In 2004, pairs of enclosure cages (1 m tall, 0.5 m diameter) were set up on all 81 plots. One randomly selected cage of each pair was stocked with 10 male and 10 female nymphs of the meadow grasshopper, Chorthippus parallelus. The grasshoppers fed for 2 months, and the vegetation was monitored over 1 year. Consumption resistance and recovery of vegetation were calculated as proportional changes in vegetation biomass. Overall, grasshopper herbivory averaged 6.8%. Herbivory resistance and recovery were influenced by plant functional group identity, but independent of plant species richness and number of functional groups. However, herbivory induced shifts in vegetation composition that depended on plant species richness. Grasshopper herbivory led to increases in herb cover at the expense of grasses. Herb cover increased more strongly in species-rich mixtures. We conclude that selective herbivory changes the functional composition of plant communities and that compositional changes due to selective herbivory depend on plant species richness. PMID:20429014

  10. [Primary pharmacological screening of an endemic plant from the Southern Morocco (Tetraena gaetula [Emb. & Maire] Beier & Thulin)].

    PubMed

    El Hamsas El Youbi, Amal; Bousta, Dalila; Ouahidi, Ibtissam; Aarab, Lotfi

    2010-10-01

    Tetraena gaetula (Emb. & Maire) Beier & Thulin (Zygophyllum gaetulum Emb. & Maire, Zygophyllaceae) is an endemic plant from the southern Morocco. This plant is widely used in Moroccan traditional medicine as an antispasmodic and antidiabetic. Our work aims to evaluate several pharmacological properties of extracts of T. gaetula such pro- or antiproliferative, immunomodulatory, analgesic and antidepressant effects. Initially, we studied intraperitoneally the acute toxicity of aqueous extract of T. gaetula in mice; the lethal dose 50 is 1.2 g/kg of body weight. Our results also showed a stimulating proliferative activity of T. gaetula, particularly at 6 μg/μL of the proteic extract on T lymphocytes. However, this same concentration of proteic extract induced rather cytotoxicity on B cells and macrophages. Our ex vivo results showed a dose-dependent response: (i) stimulation of lymphocyte subpopulations and monocytes in a dose 600 mg/kg, and (ii) immunosuppression at a dose 300 mg/kg. The pharmacological results in vivo showed a pronounced antidepressant effect of the proteic extract at all doses. However, the aqueous extract showed analgesic and anti-depressant effects, mainly at doses 300 and 600 mg/kg. Copyright © 2010 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Planting trials of 10 Mexican pine species in Hawaii

    Treesearch

    Craig D. Whitesell

    1974-01-01

    Ten species of Mexican pines were planted on adverse sites at 6450 feet (1970 m) elevation on Maui, and five species on similar sites at 3200 feet (975 m) elevation on Molokai, Hawaii. Initial survival was poor because of the low quality of the planting stock and harsh site conditions, but subsequent mortality was low. Growth and vigor has been satisfactory. Average...

  12. When are native species inappropriate for conservation planting?

    Treesearch

    Amy C. Ganguli; David M. Engle; Paul M. Mayer; Samuel D. Fuhlendorf

    2008-01-01

    Conservation agencies and organizations are generally reluctant to encourage the use of invasive plant species in conservation programs. Harsh lessons learned in the past have resulted in tougher screening protocols for nonin digenous species introductions and removal of many nonindigenous invaders from planting programs worldwide. Although the focus of screening and...

  13. Host plant species affects virulence in monarch butterfly parasites.

    PubMed

    de Roode, Jacobus C; Pedersen, Amy B; Hunter, Mark D; Altizer, Sonia

    2008-01-01

    1. Studies have considered how intrinsic host and parasite properties determine parasite virulence, but have largely ignored the role of extrinsic ecological factors in its expression. 2. We studied how parasite genotype and host plant species interact to determine virulence of the protozoan parasite Ophryocystis elektroscirrha (McLaughlin & Myers 1970) in the monarch butterfly Danaus plexippus L. We infected monarch larvae with one of four parasite genotypes and reared them on two milkweed species that differed in their levels of cardenolides: toxic chemicals involved in predator defence. 3. Parasite infection, replication and virulence were affected strongly by host plant species. While uninfected monarchs lived equally long on both plant species, infected monarchs suffered a greater reduction in their life spans (55% vs. 30%) on the low-cardenolide vs. the high-cardenolide host plant. These life span differences resulted from different levels of parasite replication in monarchs reared on the two plant species. 4. The virulence rank order of parasite genotypes was unaffected by host plant species, suggesting that host plant species affected parasite genotypes similarly, rather than through complex plant species-parasite genotype interactions. 5. Our results demonstrate that host ecology importantly affects parasite virulence, with implications for host-parasite dynamics in natural populations.

  14. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of three endemic plants from Algerian Sahara.

    PubMed

    Bouchouka, Elmouloud; Djilani, Abdelouaheb; Bekkouche, Abdesselem

    2012-01-01

    Saharan plants are known by their high content of antioxidant products like phenolic compounds due to the extreme climatic conditions. They constitute the basis of treatments used by local population for various diseases. The purposes of this study were to measure the total phenolic compounds and total fl avonoid compounds, to determine antioxidant capacity, and to evaluate the antibacterial activity of three wild Saharan medicinal plants. Hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of ethanol:water extract and the residu of the extracted aqueous layer of Ferula vesceritensis fruits, Genista saharae aerial parts and Zilla macropterae fruits were assayed to determine their antibacterial activity using the disc diffusion method against: Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27853). In addition, the total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids and antioxydant activity using DPPH test of ethyl acetate fractions (EAF) of plant parts studied were investigated. Gallic acid, quercetin and vitamin C were used for these parameters. Among the extracts tested, ethyl acetate fractions of all plants and hexane fraction of F. vesceritensis showed activity against S. aureus. Good activity was shown by EAF of G. saharae. According to the results, it is observed that Z. macropterae fruits possess a good antioxidant activity. The results indicate that the ethyl acetate fraction of G. sahara Aerial parts possesses a good antibacterial activity against S. aureus, which justifies its use in traditional medicine for treating respiratory diseases. Furthermore, evaluation of in vitro antioxidant capacity of Ethyl acetate fractions of these plants, particular Z. macroptera fruits, has also provided interesting results. Zilla macroptera fruits may therefore be a good source of antioxidants.

  15. How many genera and species of woolly monkeys (Atelidae, Platyrrhine, Primates) are there? The first molecular analysis of Lagothrix flavicauda, an endemic Peruvian primate species.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-García, Manuel; Pinedo-Castro, Myreya; Shostell, Joseph Mark

    2014-10-01

    We sequenced COI and COII mitochondrial genes of 141 Neotropical woolly monkeys to provide new insights concerning their phylogeography and phylogenetic relationships. For the first time, eight individuals of the endemic and extremely rare Peruvian yellow-tailed woolly monkey (flavicauda) were sequenced at these genes and compared with other Lagothrix taxa (poeppigii, lagotricha, lugens and cana). There were four main results. (1) L. flavicauda showed a gene diversity of zero, whereas poeppigii and lugens showed high levels of gene diversity and lagotricha and cana showed more modest levels of gene diversity. The absence of gene diversity found for L. flavicauda strongly supports that it is one of the 25 more endangered primates on earth; (2) Our genetic distance and phylogenetic analyses, which included many cases of genetic introgression and recent hybridization, suggest that all woolly monkeys could be included in one unique genus, Lagotrix, divided into two species: L. flavicauda and L. lagotricha. The last species is divided into at least four subspecies. Our molecular results agree with Fooden's (1963) classification, but do not support the classification proposed by Groves (2001). (3) Poeppigii was the first taxon within L. lagotricha to experience a mitochondrial haplotype diversification, while cana and lagotricha experienced more recent mitochondrial haplotype diversification; (4) Poeppigii and lagotricha were the taxa which showed the greatest evidence of population expansions in different Pleistocene periods, whereas lugens experienced a population declination in the last 25,000 YA.

  16. Plant exposures: a state profile of the most common species.

    PubMed

    Krenzelok, E P; Jacobsen, T D; Aronis, J M

    1996-08-01

    Plant exposures are the fourth most common cause of poisoning and 86% of those exposures involve the pediatric population. The large number of plant-related exposures and the lack of knowledge about plant toxicity has led to plant paranoia and considerable educational efforts to reduce the number of exposures. These efforts are often dictated by misconceptions and folklore. AAPCC TESS data on all plant exposures for the years 1985-1994 were electronically analyzed by plant species and state to establish a frequency distribution in the US. Aggregate national data was also tabulated. A total of 912,534 plant exposures were analyzed to tabulate the top 30 plant exposures for each state. Philodendron species were the most common exposures, followed by Dieffenbachia species, Euphorbia pulcherrima, Capsicum annuum and Ilex species. There were considerable differences between states relating to indoor vs outdoor plants and native vs introduced varieties. Plant exposures are common and poison information centers devote significant clinical service and educational effort to manage them and to enhance public awareness. Recognition of specific plant species and exposure frequency in a poison center region can be a basis for staff education and the development of appropriate poison prevention education brochures. This can direct better utilization of poison center's resources.

  17. Geological and climatic changes in quaternary shaped the evolutionary history of Calibrachoa heterophylla, an endemic South-Atlantic species of petunia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The glacial and interglacial cycles that characterized the Quaternary greatly affected the distribution and genetic diversity of plants. In the Neotropics, few phylogeographic studies have focused on coastal species outside of the Atlantic Rainforest. Climatic and sea level changes during the Quaternary played an important role in the evolutionary history of many organisms found in coastal regions. To contribute to a better understanding of plant evolution in this environment in Southern South America, we focused on Calibrachoa heterophylla (Solanaceae), an endemic and vulnerable wild petunia species from the South Atlantic Coastal Plain (SACP). Results We assessed DNA sequences from two cpDNA intergenic spacers and analyzed them using a phylogeographic approach. The present phylogeographic study reveals the influence of complex geologic and climatic events on patterns of genetic diversification. The results indicate that C. heterophylla originated inland and subsequently colonized the SACP; the data show that the inland haplogroup is more ancient than the coastal one and that the inland was not affected by sea level changes in the Quaternary. The major diversification of C. heterophylla that occurred after 0.4 Myr was linked to sea level oscillations in the Quaternary, and any diversification that occurred before this time was obscured by marine transgressions that occurred before the coastal sand barrier’s formation. Results of the Bayesian skyline plot showed a recent population expansion detected in C. heterophylla seems to be related to an increase in temperature and humidity that occurred at the beginning of the Holocene. Conclusions The geographic clades have been formed when the coastal plain was deeply dissected by paleochannels and these correlate very well with the distributional limits of the clades. The four major sea transgressions formed a series of four sand barriers parallel to the coast that progressively increased the availability of

  18. Fuel breaks affect nonnative species abundance in Californian plant communities

    Treesearch

    Kyle E Merriam; Jon E. Keeley; Jan L. Beyers

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the abundance of nonnative plants on fuel breaks and in adjacent untreated areas to determine if fuel treatments promote the invasion of nonnative plant species. Understanding the relationship between fuel treatments and nonnative plants is becoming increasingly important as federal and state agencies are currently implementing large fuel treatment...

  19. The Alpine Cushion Plant Silene acaulis as Foundation Species: A Bug’s-Eye View to Facilitation and Microclimate

    PubMed Central

    Molenda, Olivia; Reid, Anya; Lortie, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms–predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson’s diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants. PMID:22655035

  20. The alpine cushion plant Silene acaulis as foundation species: a bug's-eye view to facilitation and microclimate.

    PubMed

    Molenda, Olivia; Reid, Anya; Lortie, Christopher J

    2012-01-01

    Alpine ecosystems are important globally with high levels of endemic and rare species. Given that they will be highly impacted by climate change, understanding biotic factors that maintain diversity is critical. Silene acaulis is a common alpine nurse plant shown to positively influence the diversity and abundance of organisms--predominantly other plant species. The hypothesis that cushion or nurse plants in general are important to multiple trophic levels has been proposed but rarely tested. Alpine arthropod diversity is also largely understudied worldwide, and the plant-arthropod interactions reported are mostly negative, that is,. herbivory. Plant and arthropod diversity and abundance were sampled on S. acaulis and at paired adjacent microsites with other non-cushion forming vegetation present on Whistler Mountain, B.C., Canada to examine the relative trophic effects of cushion plants. Plant species richness and abundance but not Simpson's diversity index was higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetation. Arthropod richness, abundance, and diversity were all higher on cushion microsites relative to other vegetated sites. On a microclimatic scale, S. acaulis ameliorated stressful conditions for plants and invertebrates living inside it, but the highest levels of arthropod diversity were observed on cushions with tall plant growth. Hence, alpine cushion plants can be foundation species not only for other plant species but other trophic levels, and these impacts are expressed through both direct and indirect effects associated with altered environmental conditions and localized productivity. Whilst this case study tests a limited subset of the membership of alpine animal communities, it clearly demonstrates that cushion-forming plant species are an important consideration in understanding resilience to global changes for many organisms in addition to other plants.

  1. Analyses of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) indicate rapid radiation of Diospyros species (Ebenaceae) endemic to New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Radiation in some plant groups has occurred on islands and due to the characteristic rapid pace of phenotypic evolution, standard molecular markers often provide insufficient variation for phylogenetic reconstruction. To resolve relationships within a clade of 21 closely related New Caledonian Diospyros species and evaluate species boundaries we analysed genome-wide DNA variation via amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP). Results A neighbour-joining (NJ) dendrogram based on Dice distances shows all species except D. minimifolia, D. parviflora and D. vieillardii to form unique clusters of genetically similar accessions. However, there was little variation between these species clusters, resulting in unresolved species relationships and a star-like general NJ topology. Correspondingly, analyses of molecular variance showed more variation within species than between them. A Bayesian analysis with BEAST produced a similar result. Another Bayesian method, this time a clustering method, Structure, demonstrated the presence of two groups, highly congruent with those observed in a principal coordinate analysis (PCO). Molecular divergence between the two groups is low and does not correspond to any hypothesised taxonomic, ecological or geographical patterns. Conclusions We hypothesise that such a pattern could have been produced by rapid and complex evolution involving a widespread progenitor for which an initial split into two groups was followed by subsequent fragmentation into many diverging populations, which was followed by range expansion of then divergent entities. Overall, this process resulted in an opportunistic pattern of phenotypic diversification. The time since divergence was probably insufficient for some species to become genetically well-differentiated, resulting in progenitor/derivative relationships being exhibited in a few cases. In other cases, our analyses may have revealed evidence for the existence of cryptic species, for which

  2. Screening of some rare endemic Italian plants for inhibitory activity on 5-lipoxygenase.

    PubMed

    Prieto, José-María; Bader, Ammar; Martini, Francesca; Ríos, José-Luis; Morelli, Ivano

    2005-12-01

    The extracts of four rare plants found on the islands of Sicily, Vulcano and Marettimo, Southern Italy, were screened for their inhibitory effect on the production of leukotriene B4 by 5-lipoxygenase in intact cells. The methanol extracts of pods of Cytisus aeolicus and aerial parts of Thymus richardii were the most active extracts, inhibiting almost completely the leukotriene B4 production at 200 and 50 microg/ml, respectively.

  3. Phylogeography of the Vermilion Flycatcher species complex: Multiple speciation events, shifts in migratory behavior, and an apparent extinction of a Galápagos-endemic bird species.

    PubMed

    Carmi, Ore; Witt, Christopher C; Jaramillo, Alvaro; Dumbacher, John P

    2016-09-01

    full species corresponding to the two currently recognized subspecies, nanus and dubius. The population of dubius is presumed to be extinct, and thus would represent the first documented extinction of a Galápagos-endemic bird species. Two strongly supported mitochondrial clades divide Galápagos subspecies nanus in a geographic pattern that conflicts with previous hypotheses that were based on plumage color. Several populations of nanus have recently become extinct or are in serious decline. Urgent conservation measures should seek to preserve the deep mitochondrial DNA diversity within nanus, and further work should explore whether additional forms should be recognized within nanus. Ancestral states analysis based on our phylogeny revealed that the most recent common ancestor of extant Vermilion Flycatcher populations was migratory, and that migratory behavior was lost more often than gained within Pyrocephalus and close relatives, as has been shown to be the case within Tyrannidae as a whole.

  4. Variation of chemical composition of essential oils in wild populations of Thymus algeriensis Boiss. et Reut., a North African endemic Species

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thymus algeriensis is an endemic aromatic plant to Tunisia largely used in folk medicine and as a culinary herb. The bulks aromatic plants come from wild populations whose essential oils compositions as well as their biological properties are severely affected by the geographical location and the phase of the plant development. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to provide more information on the variation of essential oil composition of T. algeriensis collected during the vegetative and the flowering phases and from eight different geographical regions. Besides, influence of population location and phenological stage on yield and metal chelating activity of essential oils is also assessed. Methods The essential oil composition of Thymus algeriensis was determined mainly by GC/FID and GC/MS. The chemical differentiation among populations performed on all compounds was assessed by linear discriminate analysis and cluster analysis based on Euclidean distance. Results A total of 71 compounds, representing 88.99 to 99.76% of the total oil, were identified. A significant effect of the population location on the chemical composition variability of T. algeriensis oil was observed. Only 18 out of 71 compounds showed a statistically significant variation among population locations and phenological stages. Chemical differentiation among populations was high. Minor compounds play an important role to distinguish between chemical groups. Five chemotypes according to the major compounds have been distinguished. Chemotypes distribution is linked to the population location and not to bioclimate, indicating that local selective environmental factors acted on the chemotype diversity. Conclusions The major compounds at the species level were α-pinene (7.41-13.94%), 1,8-cineole (7.55-22.07%), cis-sabinene hydrate (0.10-12.95%), camphor (6.8-19.93%), 4-terpineol (1.55-11.86%), terpenyl acetate (0-14.92%) and viridiflorol (0-11.49%). Based on major compounds, the

  5. Extensive Overlap of Tropical Rainforest Bacterial Endophytes between Soil, Plant Parts, and Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Haruna, Emmanuel; Zin, Noraziah M; Kerfahi, Dorsaf; Adams, Jonathan M

    2017-06-22

    The extent to which distinct bacterial endophyte communities occur between different plant organs and species is poorly known and has implications for bioprospecting efforts. Using the V3 region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene, we investigated the diversity patterns of bacterial endophyte communities of three rainforest plant species, comparing leaf, stem, and root endophytes plus rhizosphere soil community. There was extensive overlap in bacterial communities between plant organs, between replicate plants of the same species, between plant species, and between plant organ and rhizosphere soil, with no consistent clustering by compartment or host plant species. The non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) analysis highlighted an extensively overlapping bacterial community structure, and the β-nearest taxon index (βNTI) analysis revealed dominance of stochastic processes in community assembly, suggesting that bacterial endophyte operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were randomly distributed among plant species and organs and rhizosphere soil. Percentage turnover of OTUs within pairs of samples was similar both for plant individuals of the same species and of different species at around 80-90%. Our results suggest that sampling extra individuals, extra plant organs, extra species, or use of rhizosphere soil, might be about equally effective for obtaining new OTUs for culture. These observations suggest that the plant endophyte community may be much more diverse, but less predictable, than would be expected from culturing efforts alone.

  6. Development and characterization of 12 microsatellite markers for the Island Night Lizard (Xantusia riversiana), a threatened species endemic to the Channel Islands, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Donnell, Ryan P.; Drost, Charles A.; Mock, Karen E.

    2014-01-01

    The Island Night Lizard is a federally threatened species endemic to the Channel Islands of California. Twelve microsatellite loci were developed for use in this species and screened in 197 individuals from across San Nicolas Island, California. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 6 to 21. Observed heterozygosities ranged from 0.520 to 0.843. These microsatellite loci will be used to investigate population structure, effective population size, and gene flow across the island, to inform protection and management of this species.

  7. Adaptive radiation within New Zealand endemic species of the cockroach genus Celatoblatta Johns (Blattidae): a response to Plio-Pleistocene mountain building and climate change.

    PubMed

    Chinn, Warren G; Gemmell, Neil J

    2004-06-01

    The South Island of New Zealand offers unique opportunities to study insect evolution due to long-term physical isolation, recent alpine habitats and high levels of biotic endemism. Using DNA sequence data from cytochrome oxidase subunit 1, we investigated the phylogeographical pattern among 10 endemic cockroach species within the genus Celatoblatta Johns (Blattidae). We tested the hypothesis that an ancestral cockroach species underwent rapid speciation in response to major climatic differentiation induced by mountain building. Results suggest that speciation was a twofold process, with an interspecific radiation of Pliocene/Pleistocene age followed by intraspecific diversification during the mid Pleistocene. Average genetic distance (maximum likelihood GTR + I + Gamma) was 9.17%, with a maximum of 14.5%. Data revealed eight deep well-supported branches, each with terminal clades. Six clades were differentiated according to morphological species, while the seventh was composed of three sympatric species. We consider the latter to be a phylogenetic species, possibly as a result of hybridization within a defined geographical area. This finding seriously challenges species distinctions for these three cockroach species. Correlation between genetic distances and a Climate Similarity Index (CSI) was negative, suggesting that species found in similar habitats are also genetically closely related. A Mantel test on within-clade genetic distances vs. linear geographical distance was positive, suggesting allopatric isolation for those haplotypes. We present a model of speciation for South Island Celatoblatta.

  8. Phylogeny strongly drives seed dormancy and quality in a climatically buffered hotspot for plant endemism.

    PubMed

    Dayrell, Roberta L C; Garcia, Queila S; Negreiros, Daniel; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Silveira, Fernando A O

    2017-01-01

    Models of costs and benefits of dormancy (D) predict that the evolutionarily stable strategy in long-term stable environments is for non-dormancy (ND), but this prediction remains to be tested empirically. We reviewed seed traits of species in the climatically buffered, geologically stable and nutrient-impoverished campo rupestre grasslands in Brazil to test the hypothesis that ND is favoured over D. We examined the relative importance of life-history traits and phylogeny in driving the evolution of D and assessed seed viability at the community level. Germination and viability data were retrieved from 67 publications and ND/D was determined for 168 species in 25 angiosperm families. We also obtained the percentage of embryoless, viable and dormant seeds for 74 species. Frequencies of species with dormant and non-dormant seeds were compared with global databases of dormancy distribution. The majority of campo rupestre taxa (62·5 %) had non-dormant seeds, and the ND/D ratio was the highest for any vegetation type on Earth. Dormancy was unrelated to other species life-history traits, suggesting that contemporary factors are poor predictors of D. We found a significant phylogenetic structure in the dormancy categorical trait. Dormancy diversity was highly skewed towards the root of the phylogenetic tree and there was a strong phylogenetic signal in the data, suggesting a major role of phylogeny in determining the evolution of D versus ND and seed viability. Quantitative analysis of the data revealed that at least half of the seeds produced by 46 % of the surveyed populations were embryoless and/or otherwise non-viable. Our results support the view that long-term climatic and geological stability favour ND. Seed viability data show that campo rupestre species have a markedly low investment in regeneration from seeds, highlighting the need for specific in situ and ex situ conservation strategies to avoid loss of biodiversity. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford

  9. When Anthropogenic River Disturbance Decreases Hybridisation between Non-Native and Endemic Cyprinids and Drives an Ecomorphological Displacement towards Juvenile State in Both Species.

    PubMed

    Corse, Emmanuel; Pech, Nicolas; Sinama, Melthide; Costedoat, Caroline; Chappaz, Rémi; Gilles, André

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact of non-native species on native species is a major challenge in molecular ecology, particularly for genetically compatible fish species. Invasions are generally difficult to study because their effects may be confused with those of environmental or human disturbances. Colonized ecosystems are differently impacted by human activities, resulting in diverse responses and interactions between native and non-native species. We studied the dynamics between two Cyprinids species (invasive Chondrostoma nasus and endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma) and their hybrids in 16 populations (from allopatric to sympatric situations and from little to highly fragmented areas) corresponding to 2,256 specimens. Each specimen was assigned to a particular species or to a hybrid pool using molecular identification (cytochrome b and 41 microsatellites). We carried out an ecomorphological analysis based on size, age, body shape, and diet (gut vacuity and molecular fecal contents). Our results contradicted our initial assumptions on the pattern of invasion and the rate of introgression. There was no sign of underperformance for the endemic species in areas where hybridisation occurred. In the unfragmented zone, the introduced species was found mostly downstream, with body shapes similar to those in allopatric populations while both species were found to be more insectivorous than the reference populations. However, high level of hybridisation was detected, suggesting interactions between the two species during spawning and/or the existence of hybrid swarm. In the disturbed zone, introgression was less frequent and slender body shape was associated with diatomivorous behaviour, smaller size (juvenile characteristics) and greater gut vacuity. Results suggested that habitat degradation induced similar ecomorphological trait changes in the two species and their hybrids (i.e. a transition towards a pedomorphic state) where the invasive species is more affected than the

  10. When Anthropogenic River Disturbance Decreases Hybridisation between Non-Native and Endemic Cyprinids and Drives an Ecomorphological Displacement towards Juvenile State in Both Species

    PubMed Central

    Sinama, Melthide; Costedoat, Caroline; Chappaz, Rémi; Gilles, André

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the impact of non-native species on native species is a major challenge in molecular ecology, particularly for genetically compatible fish species. Invasions are generally difficult to study because their effects may be confused with those of environmental or human disturbances. Colonized ecosystems are differently impacted by human activities, resulting in diverse responses and interactions between native and non-native species. We studied the dynamics between two Cyprinids species (invasive Chondrostoma nasus and endemic Parachondrostoma toxostoma) and their hybrids in 16 populations (from allopatric to sympatric situations and from little to highly fragmented areas) corresponding to 2,256 specimens. Each specimen was assigned to a particular species or to a hybrid pool using molecular identification (cytochrome b and 41 microsatellites). We carried out an ecomorphological analysis based on size, age, body shape, and diet (gut vacuity and molecular fecal contents). Our results contradicted our initial assumptions on the pattern of invasion and the rate of introgression. There was no sign of underperformance for the endemic species in areas where hybridisation occurred. In the unfragmented zone, the introduced species was found mostly downstream, with body shapes similar to those in allopatric populations while both species were found to be more insectivorous than the reference populations. However, high level of hybridisation was detected, suggesting interactions between the two species during spawning and/or the existence of hybrid swarm. In the disturbed zone, introgression was less frequent and slender body shape was associated with diatomivorous behaviour, smaller size (juvenile characteristics) and greater gut vacuity. Results suggested that habitat degradation induced similar ecomorphological trait changes in the two species and their hybrids (i.e. a transition towards a pedomorphic state) where the invasive species is more affected than the

  11. Cyclical changes in seroprevalence of leptospirosis in California sea lions: endemic and epidemic disease in one host species?

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd-Smith, James O; Greig, Denise J; Hietala, Sharon; Ghneim, George S; Palmer, Lauren; St Leger, Judy; Grenfell, Bryan T; Gulland, Frances MD

    2007-01-01

    Background Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease infecting a broad range of mammalian hosts, and is re-emerging globally. California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) have experienced recurrent outbreaks of leptospirosis since 1970, but it is unknown whether the pathogen persists in the sea lion population or is introduced repeatedly from external reservoirs. Methods We analyzed serum samples collected over an 11-year period from 1344 California sea lions that stranded alive on the California coast, using the microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for antibodies to Leptospira interrogans serovar Pomona. We evaluated seroprevalence among yearlings as a measure of incidence in the population, and characterized antibody persistence times based on temporal changes in the distribution of titer scores. We conducted multinomial logistic regression to determine individual risk factors for seropositivity with high and low titers. Results The serosurvey revealed cyclical patterns in seroprevalence to L. interrogans serovar Pomona, with 4–5 year periodicity and peak seroprevalence above 50%. Seroprevalence in yearling sea lions was an accurate index of exposure among all age classses, and indicated on-going exposure to leptospires in non-outbreak years. Analysis of titer decay rates showed that some individuals probably maintain high titers for more than a year following exposure. Conclusion This study presents results of an unprecedented long-term serosurveillance program in marine mammals. Our results suggest that leptospirosis is endemic in California sea lions, but also causes periodic epidemics of acute disease. The findings call into question the classical dichotomy between maintenance hosts of leptospirosis, which experience chronic but largely asymptomatic infections, and accidental hosts, which suffer acute illness or death as a result of disease spillover from reservoir species. PMID:17986335

  12. [Rare plant species: floristic, phytocoenotic and population approach].

    PubMed

    Zlobin, Iu A

    2011-01-01

    The system of concepts used when estimating the rarity of plants is analyzed and the basic categories of rarity are defined, namely: true, diffuse, peripheral and temporal. The insufficiency of scientific information on ecological and coenotic relationships of rare plants is demonstrated and the necessity of a complex assessment of population system of a rare plant species is substantiated. The importance and limitations of the information on rare plants contained in the Red Books and the Red Lists for phytosozological practice is discussed.

  13. Herbivory and dominance shifts among exotic and congeneric native plant species during plant community establishment.

    PubMed

    Engelkes, Tim; Meisner, Annelein; Morriën, Elly; Kostenko, Olga; Van der Putten, Wim H; Macel, Mirka

    2016-02-01

    Invasive exotic plant species often have fewer natural enemies and suffer less damage from herbivores in their new range than genetically or functionally related species that are native to that area. Although we might expect that having fewer enemies would promote the invasiveness of the introduced exotic plant species due to reduced enemy exposure, few studies have actually analyzed the ecological consequences of this situation in the field. Here, we examined how exposure to aboveground herbivores influences shifts in dominance among exotic and phylogenetically related native plant species in a riparian ecosystem during early establishment of invaded communities. We planted ten plant communities each consisting of three individuals of each of six exotic plant species as well as six phylogenetically related natives. Exotic plant species were selected based on a rapid recent increase in regional abundance, the presence of a congeneric native species, and their co-occurrence in the riparian ecosystem. All plant communities were covered by tents with insect mesh. Five tents were open on the leeward side to allow herbivory. The other five tents were completely closed in order to exclude insects and vertebrates. Herbivory reduced aboveground biomass by half and influenced which of the plant species dominated the establishing communities. Exposure to herbivory did not reduce the total biomass of natives more than that of exotics, so aboveground herbivory did not selectively enhance exotics during this early stage of plant community development. Effects of herbivores on plant biomass depended on plant species or genus but not on plant status (i.e., exotic vs native). Thus, aboveground herbivory did not promote the dominance of exotic plant species during early establishment of the phylogenetically balanced plant communities.

  14. Nepetalactone content in shoot cultures of three endemic Nepeta species and the evaluation of their antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Nestorović, Jasmina; Misić, Danijela; Siler, Branislav; Soković, Marina; Glamoclija, Jasmina; Cirić, Ana; Maksimović, Vuk; Grubisić, Dragoljub

    2010-09-01

    Rapid micropropagation of Nepeta rtanjensis, N. sibirica and N. nervosa was performed. Qualitative and quantitative nepetalactone content in methanol extracts of in vitro grown plants was analysed by reverse-phase HPLC coupled with UV and MS detection. Only trans,cis-nepetalactone was detected in shoots of N. rtanjensis, while cis,trans-nepetalactone stereoisomer was present in N. sibirica. No nepetalactone was observed in shoots of N. nervosa. The antimicrobial activity of methanol extracts, against eight bacterial and eight fungal species, was evaluated. All the tested extracts showed significant antibacterial and strong antifungal activity. However, N. rtanjensis extract exhibited the best antimicrobial potential.

  15. Monitoring restoration impacts to endemic plant communities in soil inclusions of arid environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Louhaichi, Mounir; Pyke, David A.; Shaff, Scott E.; Johnson, Douglas E.

    2013-01-01

    Soil inclusions are small patches of soil with different properties than the surrounding, dominant soil. In arid areas of western North America, soil inclusions called slickspot soils are saltier than adjacent soil and support different types of native vegetation. Traditional sagebrush restoration efforts, such as using drills to plant seeds or herbicides to control invasive vegetation, may damage sensitive slickspot soil and supporting vegetation. USGS scientists David Pyke and Scott Shaff and collaborators monitored slickspot size and cover of endangered slickspot peppergrass for two years to see if they were affected by the application of the herbicide glyphosate or by a minimum-till drill in the Snake River Plain, ID. The researchers examined the use of aerial photographs versus on-the-ground measurements and concluded that slickspot sizes were not affected by these treatments. Remote sensing using aerial photographs proved a useful method for mapping slickspot soils.

  16. Phylogeography, genetic diversity and population structure in a Patagonian endemic plant

    PubMed Central

    Bonasora, Marisa G.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Phylogeographical patterns provide valuable insight into the historical processes underlying diversification, and may provide a better understanding of biodiversity, dispersal modes, diversification times, extinctions, refuge areas and other species-/population-level processes. Here, we examine the genetic structure of Oxalis laciniata, a representative of Oxalis, which is an important emerging model in evolutionary biology and phylogenetic studies. We analyse genetic correlation, haplotype diversity and genetic structure. In this study, cpDNA reveals the presence of 16 haplotypes, connected in tree networks. Genetic diversity is high and polymorphism is low among populations based on ISSR markers. Both clustering and analysis of the structure of the population indicate two different groups. Distribution modelling predicts two potential distribution areas. Our main conclusions are: (i) The phylogeographical pattern demonstrates non-random organization of genetic variability since two distinct groups can be distinguished; (ii) two refugia are proposed: one is situated in the SE, holding the most ancestral haplotypes; and the second one is situated in the SW; (iii) we propose an in situ diversification hypothesis for the populations located in the steppe; (iv) the centre of diversification coincides with the centre of the distribution; (v) distribution modelling shows a strong correspondence with the distribution of the species but it also suggests the possibility of occurrence in the Central Andes. PMID:28567240

  17. Herbivore-induced coexistence of competing plant species.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Reiichiro; Crawley, Michael J

    2011-01-07

    We study a series of spatially implicit lottery models in which two competing plant species, with and without defensive traits, are grazed by a herbivore in a homogeneous habitat. One species (palatable) has no defensive traits, while the other (defended) has defensive traits but suffers reduced reproduction as the result of an assumed trade-off. Not surprisingly, coexistence of these plants cannot occur when the herbivore density is very low (the palatable plant always wins) or very high (the defended plant wins). At intermediate densities, however, herbivory can mediate plant coexistence, even in a homogeneous environment. If the herbivore eats several plants per bite, and its forage-selection depends on the average palatability of the plants it eats, then palatable species in the immediate neighbourhood of defended plants may be more likely to persist (associational resistance) even at higher grazing pressure. If the herbivore shows a positive numerical response to the average palatability of the habitat as a whole, then both plant populations are stabilized and coexistence is promoted, because both species obtain a minority advantage through the negative feedback caused by herbivory. If the herbivore exhibits both of these traits, the system may have at most two non-trivial equilibria, one of which is stable and the other unstable. This means that coexistence in such a system is vulnerable to large fluctuations in herbivore density and identity, and this has implications for conservation in systems where large herbivores are managed to promote plant diversity. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Endemic North African Quercus afares Pomel originates from hybridisation between two genetically very distant oak species (Q. suber L. and Q. canariensis Willd.): evidence from nuclear and cytoplasmic markers.

    PubMed

    Mir, C; Toumi, L; Jarne, P; Sarda, V; Di Giusto, F; Lumaret, R

    2006-02-01

    Hybridisation is a potent force in plant evolution, although there are few reported examples of stabilised species that have been created through homoploid hybridisation. We focus here on Quercus afares, an endemic North African species that combines morphological, physiological and ecological traits of both Q. suber and Q. canariensis, two phylogenetically distant species. These two species are sympatric with Q. afares over most of its distribution. We studied two Q. afares populations (one from Algeria and one from Tunisia), as well as several populations of both Q. suber and Q. canariensis sampled both within and outside areas where these species overlap with Q. afares. A genetic analysis was conducted using both nuclear (allozymes) and chloroplastic markers, which shows that Q. afares originates from a Q. suber x Q. canariensis hybridisation. At most loci, Q. afares predominantly possesses alleles from Q. suber, suggesting that the initial cross between Q. suber and Q. canariensis was followed by backcrossing with Q. suber. Other hypotheses that can account for this result, including genetic drift, gene silencing, gene conversion and selection, are discussed. A single Q. suber chlorotype was detected, and all Q. afares individuals displayed this chlorotype, indicating that Q. suber was the maternal parent. Q. afares is genetically, morphologically and ecologically differentiated from its parental species, and can therefore be considered as a stabilised hybrid species.

  19. Biochemical Evaluation of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase from Endemic Plant Cyathobasis fruticulosa (Bunge) Aellen. for the Dietary Treatment of Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Aydaş, Selcen Babaoğlu; Aslım, Belma

    2016-01-01

    Summary Enzyme substitution therapy with the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a new approach to the treatment of patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). This enzyme is responsible for the conversion of phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid. We assessed the PAL enzyme of the endemic plant Cyathobasis fruticulosa (Bunge) Aellen. for its possible role in the dietary treatment of PKU. The enzyme was found to have a high activity of (64.9±0.1) U/mg, with the optimum pH, temperature and buffer (Tris–HCl and l-phenylalanine) concentration levels of pH=8.8, 37 °C and 100 mM, respectively. Optimum enzyme activity was achieved at pH=4.0 and 7.5, corresponding to pH levels of gastric and intestinal juice, and NaCl concentration of 200 mM. The purification of the enzyme by 1.87-fold yielded an activity of 98.6 U/mg. PAL activities determined by HPLC analyses before and after purification were similar. Two protein bands, one at 70 and the other at 23 kDa, were determined by Western blot analysis of the enzyme. This enzyme is a potential candidate for serial production of dietary food and biotechnological products. PMID:27956861

  20. Biochemical Evaluation of Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase from Endemic Plant Cyathobasis fruticulosa (Bunge) Aellen. for the Dietary Treatment of Phenylketonuria.

    PubMed

    Şirin, Seda; Aydaş, Selcen Babaoğlu; Aslım, Belma

    2016-09-01

    Enzyme substitution therapy with the phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a new approach to the treatment of patients with phenylketonuria (PKU). This enzyme is responsible for the conversion of phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid. We assessed the PAL enzyme of the endemic plant Cyathobasis fruticulosa (Bunge) Aellen. for its possible role in the dietary treatment of PKU. The enzyme was found to have a high activity of (64.9±0.1) U/mg, with the optimum pH, temperature and buffer (Tris-HCl and l-phenylalanine) concentration levels of pH=8.8, 37 °C and 100 mM, respectively. Optimum enzyme activity was achieved at pH=4.0 and 7.5, corresponding to pH levels of gastric and intestinal juice, and NaCl concentration of 200 mM. The purification of the enzyme by 1.87-fold yielded an activity of 98.6 U/mg. PAL activities determined by HPLC analyses before and after purification were similar. Two protein bands, one at 70 and the other at 23 kDa, were determined by Western blot analysis of the enzyme. This enzyme is a potential candidate for serial production of dietary food and biotechnological products.

  1. Pollinator coupling can induce synchronized flowering in different plant species.

    PubMed

    Tachiki, Yuuya; Iwasa, Yoh; Satake, Akiko

    2010-11-21

    Synchronous and intermittent plant reproduction has been identified widely in diverse biomes. While synchronous flowering is normally observed within the same species, different species also flower in synchrony. A well-known example of intersp