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Sample records for endocrine system organs

  1. The clandestine organs of the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia

    2017-08-16

    This review analyzes what could be regarded as the "clandestine organs" of the endocrine system: the gut microbiome, the immune system, and the stress system. The immune system is very closely related to the endocrine system, with many intertwined processes and signals. Many researchers now consider the microbiome as an 'organ' that affects the organism at many different levels. While stress is certainly not an organ, it affects so many processes, including endocrine-related processes, that the stress response system deserved a special section in this review. Understanding the connections, effects, and feedback mechanisms between the different "clandestine organs" and the endocrine system will provide us with a better understanding of how an organism functions, as well as reinforce the idea that there are no independent organs or systems, but a complex, interacting network of molecules, cells, tissues, signaling pathways, and mechanisms that constitute an individual. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Teens > Endocrine System A A A ... is called the endocrine system . What Is the Endocrine System? Although we rarely think about the endocrine system, ...

  3. Endocrine system: part 1.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Carolyn; Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    2014-05-27

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series and is the first of two articles on the endocrine system, examines the structure and function of the organs of the endocrine system. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health. The role of the endocrine system and the types, actions and control of hormones are explored. The gross structure of the pituitary and thyroid glands are described along with relevant physiology. Several disorders of the thyroid gland are outlined. The second article examines growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands.

  4. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Parents > Endocrine System A A A ... to help the body function properly. About the Endocrine System The foundations of the endocrine system are the ...

  5. Sensitization of endocrine organs to anterior pituitary hormones by the autonomic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Engeland, William C

    2013-01-01

    Hormone secretion from endocrine glands constitutes a primary component of homeostatic control systems that defend whole body tissue viability and function. Endocrine organ secretion is controlled by efferent mechanisms that consist of both hormonal and neural elements. Anatomical evidence for dual control has led to increased understanding of how autonomic neural activity modulates functional sensitivity to hormonal input. The clinical relevance of autonomic-endocrine interactions is illustrated by examining functional control of the adrenal cortex and the ovary, two tissues that require tropic support from the anterior pituitary and receive sympathetic neural input. Extrapituitary mechanisms of adrenal cortical control including sympathetic neural activity have been implicated in controlling the amplitude of the cortisol awakening response (CAR), a diagnostic index of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in humans. In addition, increases in sympathetic neural tone have been implicated in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), a leading cause of female infertility. These examples offer strong evidence for the capability of autonomic neural activity to alter the functional sensitivity of endocrine glands. This interaction has significant clinical relevance and needs to be incorporated into our view in assessing endocrine organ function and dysfunction. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Endocrine System (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... System The major glands that make up the human endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids, adrenals, pineal body, and the reproductive glands, which include the ovaries ...

  7. Endocrine system and obesity.

    PubMed

    Ashburn, Doyle D; Reed, Mary Jane

    2010-10-01

    Obesity is associated with significant alterations in endocrine function. An association with type 2 diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia has been well documented. This article highlights the complexities of treating endocrine system disorders in obese patients. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Endocrine system: part 2.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella; Johnstone, Carolyn

    2014-06-03

    This article, the last in the life sciences series, is the second of two articles on the endocrine system. It discusses human growth hormone, the pancreas and adrenal glands. The relationships between hormones and their unique functions are also explored. It is important that nurses understand how the endocrine system works and its role in maintaining health to provide effective care to patients. Several disorders caused by human growth hormone or that affect the pancreas and adrenal glands are examined.

  9. [Disperse endocrine system and APUD concept].

    PubMed

    Mil'to, I V; Sukhodolo, I V; Gereng, E A; Shamardina, L A

    2011-01-01

    This review describes the problems of disperse endocrine system and APUD-system morphology, summarizes some debatable issues of single endocrine cell biology. The data presented refer to the history of both systems discovery, morphological methods of their study, developmental sources, their structural organization and physiological roles of their cells. The significance of single endocrine cells in the regulation of the organism functions is discussed.

  10. Chronobiology in the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Haus, Erhard

    2007-08-31

    Biological signaling occurs in a complex web with participation and interaction of the central nervous system, the autonomous nervous system, the endocrine glands, peripheral endocrine tissues including the intestinal tract and adipose tissue, and the immune system. All of these show an intricate time structure with rhythms and pulsatile variations in multiple frequencies. Circadian (about 24-hour) and circannual (about 1-year) rhythms are kept in step with the cyclic environmental surrounding by the timing and length of the daily light span. Rhythmicity of many endocrine variables is essential for their efficacy and, even in some instances, for the qualitative nature of their effects. Indeed, the continuous administration of certain hormones and their synthetic analogues may show substantially different effects than expected. In the design of drug-delivery systems and treatment schedules involving directly or indirectly the endocrine system, consideration of the human time organization is essential. A large amount of information on the endocrine time structure has accumulated, some of which is discussed in this review.

  11. The skeleton as an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    DiGirolamo, Douglas J; Clemens, Thomas L; Kousteni, Stavroula

    2012-11-01

    Surprising new discoveries in the field of skeletal biology show that bone cells produce endocrine hormones that regulate phosphate and glucose homeostasis. In this Review, we examine the features of these new endocrine pathways and discuss their physiological importance in the context of our current understanding of energy metabolism and mineral homeostasis. Consideration of evolutionary and comparative biology provides clues that a key driving force for the emergence of these hormonal pathways was the development of a large, energy-expensive musculoskeletal system. Specialized bone cells also evolved and produced endocrine hormones to integrate the skeleton in global mineral and nutrient homeostasis. The recognition of bone as a true endocrine organ represents a fertile area for further research and should improve the diagnosis and treatment of metabolic diseases such as osteoporosis and diabetes mellitus.

  12. Your Endocrine System (For Kids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Endocrine System KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Endocrine System A A A en español Tu sistema endocrino ... a pea, is the "master gland" of the endocrine system. It makes and releases a bunch of hormones ...

  13. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    McGown, Christine; Birerdinc, Aybike; Younossi, Zobair M

    2014-02-01

    Obesity is one of the most important health challenges faced by developed countries and is increasingly affecting adolescents and children. Obesity is also a considerable risk factor for the development of numerous other chronic diseases, such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, heart disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The epidemic proportions of obesity and its numerous comorbidities are bringing into focus the highly complex and metabolically active adipose tissue. Adipose tissue is increasingly being considered as a functional endocrine organ. This article discusses the endocrine effects of adipose tissue during obesity and the systemic impact of this signaling. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Human skin: an independent peripheral endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    Zouboulis, C C

    2000-01-01

    The historical picture of the endocrine system as a set of discrete hormone-producing organs has been substituted by organs regarded as organized communities in which the cells emit, receive and coordinate molecular signals from established endocrine organs, other distant sources, their neighbors, and themselves. In this wide sense, the human skin and its tissues are targets as well as producers of hormones. Although the role of hormones in the development of human skin and its capacity to produce and release hormones are well established, little attention has been drawn to the ability of human skin to fulfil the requirements of a classic endocrine organ. Indeed, human skin cells produce insulin-like growth factors and -binding proteins, propiomelanocortin derivatives, catecholamines, steroid hormones and vitamin D from cholesterol, retinoids from diet carotenoids, and eicosanoids from fatty acids. Hormones exert their biological effects on the skin through interaction with high-affinity receptors, such as receptors for peptide hormones, neurotransmitters, steroid hormones and thyroid hormones. In addition, the human skin is able to metabolize hormones and to activate and inactivate them. These steps are overtaken in most cases by different skin cell populations in a coordinated way indicating the endocrine autonomy of the skin. Characteristic examples are the metabolic pathways of the corticotropin-releasing hormone/propiomelanocortin axis, steroidogenesis, vitamin D, and retinoids. Hormones exhibit a wide range of biological activities on the skin, with major effects caused by growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1, neuropeptides, sex steroids, glucocorticoids, retinoids, vitamin D, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands, and eicosanoids. At last, human skin produces hormones which are released in the circulation and are important for functions of the entire organism, such as sex hormones, especially in aged individuals, and insulin-like growth

  15. Genetic testing by cancer site: endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Pilarski, Robert; Nagy, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Numerous hereditary syndromes, caused by mutations in multiple tumor suppressor genes and oncogenes, can cause tumors in organs of the endocrine system. The primary syndromes (and genes) addressed here include multiple endocrine neoplasia types 1 and 2 (MEN1 and RET genes), Cowden syndrome (PTEN), hereditary pheochromocytoma/paraganglioma syndromes (multiple genes), and von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). Clinical genetic testing is available for each of these syndromes and is generally directed to individuals with endocrine or other tumors and additional features suggestive of a hereditary syndrome. However, for some endocrine tumors, the proportion because of heredity is so high that genetic testing may be appropriate for all affected individuals. Management for hereditary cases typically involves aggressive screening and/or surgical protocols, starting at young ages to minimize morbidity and mortality. Endocrine tumors can be less commonly seen in a number of other hereditary syndromes (eg, neurofibromatosis), which are not reviewed in this section.

  16. [The vitamin D endocrine system].

    PubMed

    Castro, Luiz Claudio Gonçalves de

    2011-11-01

    The vitamin D endocrine system comprises a group of 7-dehydrocholesterol-derived secosteroid molecules, including its active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxy-vitamin D (1,25(OH)(2)D), its precursors and other metabolites, its binding protein (DBP) and nuclear receptor (VDR), as well as cytochrome P450 complex enzymes participating in activation and inactivation pathways of those molecules. The biologic effects of 1,25(OH)(2)D are mediated by VDR, a ligand-activated transcription factor which is a member of the nuclear receptors family, spread in almost all human cells. In addition to its classic role in the regulation of calcium metabolism and bone health, evidence suggests that 1,25(OH)(2)D directly or indirectly modulates about 3% of the human genome, participating in the regulation of chief functions of systemic homeostasis, such as cell growth, differentiation and apoptosis, regulation of immune, cardiovascular and musculoskeletal systems, and insulin metabolism. Given the critical influence of the vitamin D endocrine system in many processes of systemic metabolic equilibrium, the laboratory assays available for the evaluation of this system have to present high accuracy and reproducibility, enabling the establishment of cutoff points that, beyond being consensually accepted, reliably express the vitamin D status of the organism, and the respective clinical-metabolic impacts on the global health of the individual.

  17. Selenium and endocrine systems.

    PubMed

    Beckett, Geoffrey J; Arthur, John R

    2005-03-01

    The trace element selenium (Se) is capable of exerting multiple actions on endocrine systems by modifying the expression of at least 30 selenoproteins, many of which have clearly defined functions. Well-characterized selenoenzymes are the families of glutathione peroxidases (GPXs), thioredoxin reductases (TRs) and iodothyronine deiodinases (Ds). These selenoenzymes are capable of modifying cell function by acting as antioxidants and modifying redox status and thyroid hormone metabolism. Se is also involved in cell growth, apoptosis and modifying the action of cell signalling systems and transcription factors. During thyroid hormone synthesis GPX1, GPX3 and TR1 are up-regulated, providing the thyrocytes with considerable protection from peroxidative damage. Thyroidal D1 in rats and both D1 and D2 in humans are also up-regulated to increase the production of bioactive 3,5,3'-tri-iodothyronine (T3). In the basal state, GPX3 is secreted into the follicular lumen where it may down-regulate thyroid hormone synthesis by decreasing hydrogen peroxide concentrations. The deiodinases are present in most tissues and provide a mechanism whereby individual tissues may control their exposure to T3. Se is also able to modify the immune response in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Low sperm production and poor sperm quality are consistent features of Se-deficient animals. The pivotal link between Se, sperm quality and male fertility is GPX4 since the enzyme is essential to allow the production of the correct architecture of the midpiece of spermatozoa. Se also has insulin-mimetic properties, an effect that is probably brought about by stimulating the tyrosine kinases involved in the insulin signalling cascade. Furthermore, in the diabetic rat, Se not only restores glycaemic control but it also prevents or alleviates the adverse effects that diabetes has on cardiac, renal and platelet function.

  18. Cellular and molecular interactions of thymus with endocrine organs and nervous system.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Y; Hato, F

    2001-02-01

    T-cell ontogenesis has been disclosed to depend on the interactions of thymus with endocrine glands and nervous system as follows: i/ Thymic deprivation not only impaired the immunological development but also brought about the dysgenesis of pituitary anterior lobe. Conversely, hypophysectomy resulted in thymus atrophy with the disturbed immune responses. ii/ Binding of pituitary acidophilic cell hormones to their receptors on thymus epithelial cells (TECs) augmented the release of thymic hormonal peptides (THPs) in vitro. iii/ Elevation of blood glucocorticoid level after stress caused atrophy of thymus cortex through double positive thymocyte apoptosis. Morpho-molecular alterations of cytoplasm preceded nuclear damage in the apoptotic thymocytes. iv/ Administration of thymosin to the streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice repressed mononuclear cell infiltration to the pancreatic islets. v/ Autonomic nerve fibers innervate thymic parenchyma. Binding of acetylcholines (Achs) to Ach receptors on TECs enhanced protein synthetic activity which seemed to connect with THP production. vi/ Thymectomy not only depressed the immune responses but also accelerated the reduction of leaming and memory ability with aging. The operation appears to disturb the brain adrenoceptor functions and to suppress the regulatory roles of hypothalamus to other nervous tissues. vii/ Several kinds of THPs, separated from the culture supernatant of TEC line by high performance liquid chromatography, showed a favorable effect on the thymocytes at different stage of differentiation and maturation. viii/ Thymosin, thymulin and THPs were capable of proliferating and differentiating thymocytes in vitro. However, the administration of each thymic product to the thymus-deprived animals could not restore from their "wasting disease". Since TECs are composed of a heterogeneous population, it would be one of essential ways for isolating "true thymus hormone" (TTH) to use the material which consists of

  19. Trauma and the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Joana; Varela, Ana; Medina, José Luís

    2010-12-01

    The endocrine system may be the target of different types of trauma with varied consequences. The present article discusses trauma of the hypothalamic-pituitary axes, adrenal glands, gonads, and pancreas. In addition to changes in circulating hormone levels due to direct injury to these structures, there may be an endocrine response in the context of the stress caused by the trauma. Copyright © 2010 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Purinergic Signaling Pathways in Endocrine System

    PubMed Central

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M.; Stojilkovic, Stanko S.

    2015-01-01

    Adenosine-5′-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5′-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5′-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5′-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5′-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. PMID:25960051

  1. Purinergic signaling pathways in endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Bjelobaba, Ivana; Janjic, Marija M; Stojilkovic, Stanko S

    2015-09-01

    Adenosine-5'-triphosphate is released by neuroendocrine, endocrine, and other cell types and acts as an extracellular agonist for ligand-gated P2X cationic channels and G protein-coupled P2Y receptors in numerous organs and tissues, including the endocrine system. The breakdown of ATP by ectonucleotidases not only terminates its extracellular messenger functions, but also provides a pathway for the generation of two additional agonists: adenosine 5'-diphosphate, acting via some P2Y receptors, and adenosine, a native agonist for G protein-coupled adenosine receptors, also expressed in the endocrine system. This article provides a review of purinergic signaling pathways in the hypothalamic magnocellular neurosecretory cells and neurohypophysis, hypothalamic parvocellular neuroendocrine system, adenohypophysis, and effector glands organized in five axes: hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone, and hypothalamic-pituitary-prolactin. We attempted to summarize current knowledge of purinergic receptor subtypes expressed in the endocrine system, including their roles in intracellular signaling, hormone secretion, and other cell functions. We also briefly review the release mechanism for adenosine-5'-triphosphate by neuroendocrine, endocrine and surrounding cells, the enzymes involved in adenosine-5'-triphosphate hydrolysis to adenosine-5'-diphosphate and adenosine, and the relevance of this pathway for sequential activation of receptors and termination of signaling. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Effects of Alcohol on the Endocrine System

    PubMed Central

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2013-01-01

    Synopsis The endocrine system ensures a proper communication between various organs of the body to maintain a constant internal environment. The endocrine system also plays an essential role in enabling the body to respond and appropriately cope with changes in the internal or external environments, such as respond to stress and injury. These functions of the endocrine system to maintain body homeostasis are aided by its communication with the nervous system, immune system and body’s circadian mechanism. Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiological and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. PMID:24011889

  3. Purinergic signalling in endocrine organs.

    PubMed

    Burnstock, Geoffrey

    2014-03-01

    There is widespread involvement of purinergic signalling in endocrine biology. Pituitary cells express P1, P2X and P2Y receptor subtypes to mediate hormone release. Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) regulates insulin release in the pancreas and is involved in the secretion of thyroid hormones. ATP plays a major role in the synthesis, storage and release of catecholamines from the adrenal gland. In the ovary purinoceptors mediate gonadotrophin-induced progesterone secretion, while in the testes, both Sertoli and Leydig cells express purinoceptors that mediate secretion of oestradiol and testosterone, respectively. ATP released as a cotransmitter with noradrenaline is involved in activities of the pineal gland and in the neuroendocrine control of the thymus. In the hypothalamus, ATP and adenosine stimulate or modulate the release of luteinising hormone-releasing hormone, as well as arginine-vasopressin and oxytocin. Functionally active P2X and P2Y receptors have been identified on human placental syncytiotrophoblast cells and on neuroendocrine cells in the lung, skin, prostate and intestine. Adipocytes have been recognised recently to have endocrine function involving purinoceptors.

  4. Oxidative stress and the ageing endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Giovanni; Salvioli, Stefano; Franceschi, Claudio

    2013-04-01

    Ageing is a process characterized by a progressive decline in cellular function, organismal fitness and increased risk of age-related diseases and death. Several hundred theories have attempted to explain this phenomenon. One of the most popular is the 'oxidative stress theory', originally termed the 'free radical theory'. The endocrine system seems to have a role in the modulation of oxidative stress; however, much less is known about the role that oxidative stress might have in the ageing of the endocrine system and the induction of age-related endocrine diseases. This Review outlines the interactions between hormones and oxidative metabolism and the potential effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine organs. Many different mechanisms that link oxidative stress and ageing are discussed, all of which converge on the induction or regulation of inflammation. All these mechanisms, including cell senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction and microRNA dysregulation, as well as inflammation itself, could be targets of future studies aimed at clarifying the effects of oxidative stress on ageing of endocrine glands.

  5. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  6. The Vitamin D Endocrine System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, Anthony W.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the physiology and biochemistry of the vitamin D endocrine system, including role of biological calcium and phosphorus, vitamin D metabolism, and related diseases. A 10-item, multiple-choice test which can be used to obtain continuing medical education credit is included. (JN)

  7. Syndromes that Link the Endocrine System and Genitourinary Tract.

    PubMed

    Özlük, Yasemin; Kılıçaslan, Işın

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system and genitourinary tract unite in various syndromes. Genitourinary malignancies may cause paraneoplastic endocrine syndromes by secreting hormonal substances. These entities include Cushing`s syndrome, hypercalcemia, hyperglycemia, polycythemia, hypertension, and inappropriate ADH or HCG production. The most important syndromic scenarios that links these two systems are hereditary renal cancer syndromes with specific genotype/phenotype correlation. There are also some very rare entities in which endocrine and genitourinary systems are involved such as Carney complex, congenital adrenal hyperplasia and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome. We will review all the syndromes regarding manifestations present in endocrine and genitourinary organs.

  8. Predicting chemical impacts on vertebrate endocrine systems.

    PubMed

    Nichols, John W; Breen, Miyuki; Denver, Robert J; Distefano, Joseph J; Edwards, Jeremy S; Hoke, Robert A; Volz, David C; Zhang, Xiaowei

    2011-01-01

    Animals have evolved diverse protective mechanisms for responding to toxic chemicals of both natural and anthropogenic origin. From a governmental regulatory perspective, these protective responses complicate efforts to establish acceptable levels of chemical exposure. To explore this issue, we considered vertebrate endocrine systems as potential targets for environmental contaminants. Using the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT), hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG), and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axes as case examples, we identified features of these systems that allow them to accommodate and recover from chemical insults. In doing so, a distinction was made between effects on adults and those on developing organisms. This distinction was required because endocrine system disruption in early life stages may alter development of organs and organ systems, resulting in permanent changes in phenotypic expression later in life. Risk assessments of chemicals that impact highly regulated systems must consider the dynamics of these systems in relation to complex environmental exposures. A largely unanswered question is whether successful accommodation to a toxic insult exerts a fitness cost on individual animals, resulting in adverse consequences for populations. Mechanistically based mathematical models of endocrine systems provide a means for better understanding accommodation and recovery. In the short term, these models can be used to design experiments and interpret study findings. Over the long term, a set of validated models could be used to extrapolate limited in vitro and in vivo testing data to a broader range of untested chemicals, species, and exposure scenarios. With appropriate modification, Tier 2 assays developed in support of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program could be used to assess the potential for accommodation and recovery and inform the development of mechanistically based models.

  9. Minireview: Gut Microbiota: The Neglected Endocrine Organ

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Gerard; Stilling, Roman M.; Kennedy, Paul J.; Stanton, Catherine; Cryan, John F.

    2014-01-01

    The concept that the gut microbiota serves as a virtual endocrine organ arises from a number of important observations. Evidence for a direct role arises from its metabolic capacity to produce and regulate multiple compounds that reach the circulation and act to influence the function of distal organs and systems. For example, metabolism of carbohydrates results in the production of short-chain fatty acids, such as butyrate and propionate, which provide an important source of nutrients as well as regulatory control of the host digestive system. This influence over host metabolism is also seen in the ability of the prebiotic inulin to influence production of relevant hormones such as glucagon-like peptide-1, peptide YY, ghrelin, and leptin. Moreover, the probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus PL60, which produces conjugated linoleic acid, has been shown to reduce body-weight gain and white adipose tissue without effects on food intake. Manipulating the microbial composition of the gastrointestinal tract modulates plasma concentrations of tryptophan, an essential amino acid and precursor to serotonin, a key neurotransmitter within both the enteric and central nervous systems. Indirectly and through as yet unknown mechanisms, the gut microbiota exerts control over the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. This is clear from studies on animals raised in a germ-free environment, who show exaggerated responses to psychological stress, which normalizes after monocolonization by certain bacterial species including Bifidobacterium infantis. It is tempting to speculate that therapeutic targeting of the gut microbiota may be useful in treating stress-related disorders and metabolic diseases. PMID:24892638

  10. Sleep and the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2016-03-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Sleep and the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Dionne; Tsai, Sheila C

    2015-07-01

    In this article, the effect of sleep and sleep disorders on endocrine function and the influence of endocrine abnormalities on sleep are discussed. Sleep disruption and its associated endocrine consequences in the critically ill patient are also reviewed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. The endocrine system and ageing.

    PubMed

    Chahal, H S; Drake, W M

    2007-01-01

    Complex changes occur within the endocrine system of ageing individuals. This article explores the changes that occur in the metabolism and production of various hormones and discusses the resulting clinical consequences. As individuals age there is a decline in the peripheral levels of oestrogen and testosterone, with an increase in luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and sex hormone-binding globulin. Additionally there is a decline in serum concentrations of growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I and dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulphate-bound form. Even though there are complex changes within the hypothalmo-pituitary-adrenal/thyroid axis, there is minimal change in adrenal and thyroid function with ageing. The clinical significance of these deficiencies with age are variable and include reduced protein synthesis, decrease in lean body mass and bone mass, increased fat mass, insulin resistance, higher cardiovascular disease risk, increase in vasomotor symptoms, fatigue, depression, anaemia, poor libido, erectile deficiency and a decline in immune function. For each endocrine system, studies have been carried out in an attempt to reverse the effects of ageing by altering the serum hormonal levels of older individuals. However, the real benefits of hormonal treatment in older individuals are still being evaluated.

  13. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Marisa; Oliveira, Teresa; Fernandes, Ruben

    2013-04-20

    Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of nutritional intake (leptin, angiotensin), control of sensitivity to insulin and inflammatory process mediators (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, among others) and pathways (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) for example). This paper reviews some of the biochemical and metabolic aspects of adipose tissue and its relationship to inflammatory disease and insulin resistance.

  14. Biochemistry of adipose tissue: an endocrine organ

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Marisa; Oliveira, Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue is no longer considered to be an inert tissue that stores fat. This tissue is capable of expanding to accommodate increased lipids through hypertrophy of existing adipocytes and by initiating differentiation of pre-adipocytes. Adipose tissue metabolism exerts an impact on whole-body metabolism. As an endocrine organ, adipose tissue is responsible for the synthesis and secretion of several hormones. These are active in a range of processes, such as control of nutritional intake (leptin, angiotensin), control of sensitivity to insulin and inflammatory process mediators (tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), resistin, visfatin, adiponectin, among others) and pathways (plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) and acylation stimulating protein (ASP) for example). This paper reviews some of the biochemical and metabolic aspects of adipose tissue and its relationship to inflammatory disease and insulin resistance. PMID:23671428

  15. Telomerase and the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Pacini, Furio; Cantara, Silvia; Capezzone, Marco; Marchisotta, Stefania

    2011-03-29

    Telomeres are nucleoprotein complexes located at the ends of chromosomes that have a critical role in the maintenance of chromosomal integrity. This involvement is based on complex secondary and tertiary structures that rely on DNA-DNA, DNA-protein and protein-protein interactions. De novo synthesis and maintenance of telomere repeats is controlled by telomerase, a specialized complex that consists of a telomerase RNA component and a protein component--telomerase reverse transcriptase. When telomerase is silent (its default state in differentiated somatic cells), chromosomes shorten with every cell division, thus limiting the lifespan of the cells (the process of senescence) and preventing unlimited cell proliferation, which might eventually lead to the development of cancer. During this process, occasionally, a cell can activate telomerase, which stabilizes short telomeres and enables immortalization-a process essential for malignant transformation. Thus, although telomere erosion is a barrier to malignant progression, paradoxically, in certain circumstances it might also trigger tumorigenesis. A number of studies have demonstrated unequivocally that reactivation of telomerase in the presence of short telomeres is one of the most common features of human cancers, including those of the endocrine system.

  16. Analyzing endocrine system conservation and evolution.

    PubMed

    Bonett, Ronald M

    2016-08-01

    Analyzing variation in rates of evolution can provide important insights into the factors that constrain trait evolution, as well as those that promote diversification. Metazoan endocrine systems exhibit apparent variation in evolutionary rates of their constituent components at multiple levels, yet relatively few studies have quantified these patterns and analyzed them in a phylogenetic context. This may be in part due to historical and current data limitations for many endocrine components and taxonomic groups. However, recent technological advancements such as high-throughput sequencing provide the opportunity to collect large-scale comparative data sets for even non-model species. Such ventures will produce a fertile data landscape for evolutionary analyses of nucleic acid and amino acid based endocrine components. Here I summarize evolutionary rate analyses that can be applied to categorical and continuous endocrine traits, and also those for nucleic acid and protein-based components. I emphasize analyses that could be used to test whether other variables (e.g., ecology, ontogenetic timing of expression, etc.) are related to patterns of rate variation and endocrine component diversification. The application of phylogenetic-based rate analyses to comparative endocrine data will greatly enhance our understanding of the factors that have shaped endocrine system evolution. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The endocrine system in diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Alrefai, Hisham; Allababidi, Hisham; Levy, Shiri; Levy, Joseph

    2002-07-01

    The pathophysiology of diabetes mellitus is complex and not fully understood. However, it emerges as an abnormal metabolic condition associated with a systemic damage to the vascular bed. Cumulative evidence also reveals that the endocrine system is not intact in patients with diabetes mellitus. It is not clear whether the changes observed in the endocrine system represent a primary defect or reflect the effects of the impaired insulin action and abnormal carbohydrate and lipid metabolism on the hormonal milieu. Review of the literature reveals that the function of the entire endocrine system including the functions of hormones from the hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal, thyroid, parathyroid, the vitamin D system, the gonads, and the endocrine function of the adipose tissue, is impaired. Good metabolic control and insulin treatment may reverse some of these abnormalities. It remains unanswered as to what extent these changes in the endocrine system contribute to the vascular pathologies observed in individuals affected by diabetes mellitus and whether part of the abnormalities observed in the endocrine system reflect a basic cellular defect in the diabetic syndrome.

  18. Effects of alcohol on the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2013-09-01

    Chronic consumption of a large amount of alcohol disrupts the communication between nervous, endocrine, and immune system and causes hormonal disturbances that lead to profound and serious consequences at physiologic and behavioral levels. These alcohol-induced hormonal dysregulations affect the entire body and can result in various disorders such as stress abnormalities, reproductive deficits, body growth defect, thyroid problems, immune dysfunction, cancers, bone disease, and psychological and behavioral disorders. This review summarizes the findings from human and animal studies that provide consistent evidence on the various effects of alcohol abuse on the endocrine system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Nanotoxicity: a growing need for study in the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xuefei; Liu, Ying; Kong, Xiangjun; Lobie, Peter E; Chen, Chunying; Zhu, Tao

    2013-05-27

    Nanomaterials (NMs) are engineered for commercial purposes such as semiconductors, building materials, cosmetics, and drug carriers, while natural nanoparticles (NPs) already exist in the environment. Due to their unique physicochemical properties, they may interact actively with biological systems. Some of these interactions might be detrimental to human health, and therefore studies on the potential 'nanotoxicity' of these materials in different organ systems are warranted. The purpose of developing the concept of nanotoxicity is to recognize and evaluate the hazards and risks of NMs and evaluate safety. This review will summarize and discuss recent reports derived from cell lines or animal models concerning the effects of NMs on, and their application in, the endocrine system of mammalian and other species. It will present an update on current studies of the effects of some typical NMs-such as metal-based NMs, carbon-based NMs, and dendrimers-on endocrine functions, in which some effects are adverse or unwanted and others are favorable or intended. Disruption of endocrine function is associated with adverse health outcomes including reproductive failure, metabolic syndrome, and some types of cancer. Further investigations are therefore required to obtain a thorough understanding of any potential risk of pathological endocrine disruption from products containing NMs. This review aims to provide impetus for further studies on the interactions of NMs with endocrine functions. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Zebrafish in endocrine systems: recent advances and implications for human disease.

    PubMed

    Löhr, Heiko; Hammerschmidt, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Since its introduction as a genetic vertebrate model system approximately 30 years ago, the focus of zebrafish research has increasingly shifted to questions that are also relevant for human development and disease. Here, we review the potential of the zebrafish as a model for human endocrine systems. A recent review compared the functions of the different endocrine systems and glands in zebrafish with those in other vertebrates, including humans, coming to the conclusion that major aspects are conserved. Here, we present an updated overview of this rapidly growing field of zebrafish research, focusing on the hypothalamo-pituitary axis, which links the central nervous system with the endocrine systems, and on major processes that are under (neuro)endocrine control and are the subject of intensive current research in other endocrine model organisms, such as feeding circuits and energy homeostasis, sleep, stress, reproduction, osmoregulation, and calcium homeostasis. Finally, we summarize the strengths and weaknesses of zebrafish as a model for studying endocrine systems.

  1. D-Amino Acids in the Nervous and Endocrine Systems

    PubMed Central

    Kiriyama, Yoshimitsu

    2016-01-01

    Amino acids are important components for peptides and proteins and act as signal transmitters. Only L-amino acids have been considered necessary in mammals, including humans. However, diverse D-amino acids, such as D-serine, D-aspartate, D-alanine, and D-cysteine, are found in mammals. Physiological roles of these D-amino acids not only in the nervous system but also in the endocrine system are being gradually revealed. N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are associated with learning and memory. D-Serine, D-aspartate, and D-alanine can all bind to NMDA receptors. H2S generated from D-cysteine reduces disulfide bonds in receptors and potentiates their activity. Aberrant receptor activity is related to diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and schizophrenia. Furthermore, D-amino acids are detected in parts of the endocrine system, such as the pineal gland, hypothalamus, pituitary gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and testis. D-Aspartate is being investigated for the regulation of hormone release from various endocrine organs. Here we focused on recent findings regarding the synthesis and physiological functions of D-amino acids in the nervous and endocrine systems. PMID:28053803

  2. Appetite-Controlling Endocrine Systems in Teleosts

    PubMed Central

    Rønnestad, Ivar; Gomes, Ana S.; Murashita, Koji; Angotzi, Rita; Jönsson, Elisabeth; Volkoff, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    Mammalian studies have shaped our understanding of the endocrine control of appetite and body weight in vertebrates and provided the basic vertebrate model that involves central (brain) and peripheral signaling pathways as well as environmental cues. The hypothalamus has a crucial function in the control of food intake, but other parts of the brain are also involved. The description of a range of key neuropeptides and hormones as well as more details of their specific roles in appetite control continues to be in progress. Endocrine signals are based on hormones that can be divided into two groups: those that induce (orexigenic), and those that inhibit (anorexigenic) appetite and food consumption. Peripheral signals originate in the gastrointestinal tract, liver, adipose tissue, and other tissues and reach the hypothalamus through both endocrine and neuroendocrine actions. While many mammalian-like endocrine appetite-controlling networks and mechanisms have been described for some key model teleosts, mainly zebrafish and goldfish, very little knowledge exists on these systems in fishes as a group. Fishes represent over 30,000 species, and there is a large variability in their ecological niches and habitats as well as life history adaptations, transitions between life stages and feeding behaviors. In the context of food intake and appetite control, common adaptations to extended periods of starvation or periods of abundant food availability are of particular interest. This review summarizes the recent findings on endocrine appetite-controlling systems in fish, highlights their impact on growth and survival, and discusses the perspectives in this research field to shed light on the intriguing adaptations that exist in fish and their underlying mechanisms. PMID:28458653

  3. Mysid crustaceans as potential test organisms for the evaluation of environmental endocrine disruption: a review.

    PubMed

    Verslycke, Tim A; Fockedey, Nancy; McKenney, Charles L; Roast, Stephen D; Jones, Malcolm B; Mees, Jan; Janssen, Colin R

    2004-05-01

    Anthropogenic chemicals that disrupt the hormonal systems (endocrine disruptors) of wildlife species recently have become a widely investigated and politically charged issue. Invertebrates account for roughly 95% of all animals, yet surprisingly little effort has been made to understand their value in signaling potential environmental endocrine disruption. This omission largely can be attributed to the high diversity of invertebrates and the shortage of fundamental knowledge of their endocrine systems. Insects and crustaceans are exceptions and, as such, appear to be excellent candidates for evaluating the environmental consequences of chemically induced endocrine disruption. Mysid shrimp (Crustacea: Mysidacea) may serve as a viable surrogate for many crustaceans and have been put forward as suitable test organisms for the evaluation of endocrine disruption by several researchers and regulatory bodies (e.g., the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency). Despite the long-standing use of mysids in toxicity testing, little information exists on their endocrinology, and few studies have focused on the potential of these animals for evaluating the effects of hormone-disrupting compounds. Therefore, the question remains as to whether the current standardized mysid endpoints can be used or adapted to detect endocrine disruption, or if new procedures must be developed, specifically directed at evaluating hormone-regulated endpoints in these animals. This review summarizes the ecological importance of mysids in estuarine and marine ecosystems, their use in toxicity testing and environmental monitoring, and their endocrinology and important hormone-regulated processes to highlight their potential use in assessing environmental endocrine disruption.

  4. Rhythms in the endocrine system of fish: a review.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Mairi; Azpeleta, Clara; López-Olmeda, Jose Fernando

    2017-04-26

    The environment which living organisms inhabit is not constant and many factors, such as light, temperature, and food availability, display cyclic and predictable variations. To adapt to these cyclic changes, animals present biological rhythms in many of their physiological variables, timing their functions to occur when the possibility of success is greatest. Among these variables, many endocrine factors have been described as displaying rhythms in vertebrates. The aim of the present review is to provide a thorough review of the existing knowledge on the rhythms of the endocrine system of fish by examining the hormones that show rhythmicity, how environmental factors control these rhythms and the variation in the responses of the endocrine system depending on the time of the day. We mainly focused on the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, which can be considered as the master axis of the endocrine system of vertebrates and regulates a great variety of functions, including reproduction, growth, metabolism, energy homeostasis, stress response, and osmoregulation. In addition, the rhythms of other hormones, such as melatonin and the factors, produced in the gastrointestinal system of fish are reviewed.

  5. The gut microbial endocrine organ: bacterially derived signals driving cardiometabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Brown, J Mark; Hazen, Stanley L

    2015-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, which vastly outnumber host cells in the body. Although generally overlooked in the field of endocrinology, gut microbial symbionts organize to form a key endocrine organ that converts nutritional cues from the environment into hormone-like signals that impact both normal physiology and chronic disease in the human host. Recent evidence suggests that several gut microbial-derived products are sensed by dedicated host receptor systems to alter cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression. In fact, gut microbial metabolism of dietary components results in the production of proatherogenic circulating factors that act through a meta-organismal endocrine axis to impact CVD risk. Whether pharmacological interventions at the level of the gut microbial endocrine organ will reduce CVD risk is a key new question in the field of cardiovascular medicine. Here we discuss the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead in targeting meta-organismal endocrinology for CVD prevention.

  6. The Gut Microbial Endocrine Organ: Bacterially-Derived Signals Driving Cardiometabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Brown, J. Mark; Hazen, Stanley L.

    2015-01-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is home to trillions of bacteria, which vastly outnumber host cells in the body. Although generally overlooked in the field of endocrinology, gut microbial symbionts organize to form a key endocrine organ that convert nutritional cues from the environment into hormone-like signals that impact both normal physiology and chronic disease in the human host. Recent evidence suggests that several gut microbial-derived products are sensed by dedicated host receptor systems to alter cardiovascular disease (CVD) progression. In fact, gut microbial metabolism of dietary components results in the production of proatherogenic circulating factors that act through a meta-organismal endocrine axis to impact CVD risk. Whether pharmacological interventions at the level of the gut microbial endocrine organ will reduce CVD risk is a key new question in the field of cardiovascular medicine. Here we discuss the opportunities and challenges that lie ahead in targeting meta-organismal endocrinology for CVD prevention. PMID:25587655

  7. Bariatric Surgery and the Endocrine System

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs ... Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types of Hormones Brainy Hormones What Do Hormones Do? Infographics Myth vs ...

  8. [The immuno-endocrine system. A new endocrine theory: the problem of the packed transport].

    PubMed

    Csaba, György

    2011-05-15

    Since the eighties of the last century hormone content was justified in immune cells (lymphocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages and mast cells), which produce, store and secrete these hormones. Although the amount of these materials in immune cells is relatively small, the mass of the producers (immune cells) is so large, that the phenomenon must be considered from endocrinological point of view, underlying the important differences between the "classical" and immuno-endocrine systems. Cells of the classic (built-in) endocrine system are mono-producers, while immune cells can synthesize many types of hormones (polyproducers). In addition, these cells can transport the whole hormone-producing machinery to the site of need, producing a local effect. This can be observed, for example, in the case of endorphin producing immune cells during inflammation and during early pregnancy around the chorionic villi. Hormone producing immune cells also have receptors for many hormones, so that they are poly-receivers. Via hormone producing and receiving capacity there is a bidirectional connection between the neuro-endocrine and immuno-endocrine systems. In addition, there is a network inside the immuno-endocrine system. The packed transport theory attempts to explain the mechanism and importance of the immuno-endocrine system.

  9. The significance of Ciona intestinalis as a stem organism in integrative studies of functional evolution of the chordate endocrine, neuroendocrine, and nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Shin; Kawada, Tsuyoshi; Sakai, Tsubasa; Aoyama, Masato; Osugi, Tomohiro; Shiraishi, Akira; Satake, Honoo

    2016-02-01

    Ascidians are the closest phylogenetic neighbors to vertebrates and are believed to conserve the evolutionary origin in chordates of the endocrine, neuroendocrine, and nervous systems involving neuropeptides and peptide hormones. Ciona intestinalis harbors various homologs or prototypes of vertebrate neuropeptides and peptide hormones including gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs), tachykinins (TKs), and calcitonin, as well as Ciona-specific neuropeptides such as Ciona vasopressin, LF, and YFV/L peptides. Moreover, molecular and functional studies on Ciona tachykinin (Ci-TK) have revealed the novel molecular mechanism of inducing oocyte growth via up-regulation of vitellogenesis-associated protease activity, which is expected to be conserved in vertebrates. Furthermore, a series of studies on Ciona GnRH receptor paralogs have verified the species-specific regulation of GnRHergic signaling including unique signaling control via heterodimerization among multiple GnRH receptors. These findings confirm the remarkable significance of ascidians in investigations of the evolutionary processes of the peptidergic systems in chordates, leading to the promising advance in the research on Ciona peptides in the next stage based on the recent development of emerging technologies including genome-editing techniques, peptidomics-based multi-color staining, machine-learning prediction, and next-generation sequencing. These technologies and bioinformatic integration of the resultant "multi-omics" data will provide unprecedented insights into the comprehensive understanding of molecular and functional regulatory mechanisms of the Ciona peptides, and will eventually enable the exploration of both conserved and diversified endocrine, neuroendocrine, and nervous systems in the evolutionary lineage of chordates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spontaneous pathology of the baboon endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Guardado-Mendoza, R; Dick, E J; Jimenez-Ceja, L M; Davalli, A; Chavez, A O; Folli, F; Hubbard, G B

    2009-12-01

    Study of endocrine pathology in animal models is critical to understanding endocrine pathology in humans. We evaluated 434 endocrine-related diagnoses from 4619 baboon necropsies, established the incidence of spontaneous endocrine pathology, and analyzed the clinical and biochemical data associated with the individual cases. The most common diagnoses in descending order, were pancreatic islet cell amyloidosis (n = 259), ovarian cysts (n = 50), pituitary adenoma (n = 37), pancreatic islet cell adenoma (n = 20), granulosa cell tumor (n = 15), thyroid adenoma (n = 11), adrenal hyperplasia (n = 10), thyroid carcinoma (n = 8), and pheochromocytoma (n = 6). The incidence of pancreatic islet cell amyloidosis progressively increased with age. Pheochromocytomas were associated with renal and heart failure. The incidence of pancreatic islet cell amyloidosis and adrenal pathology was similar to humans; the incidence of pituitary adenoma and thyroid pathology was lower than in humans. Endocrine disease in baboons is common and shares clinical and biochemical characteristics with endocrine disease in humans.

  11. Endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Pombo, M; Castro-Feijóo, L

    2005-12-01

    Man does not come into the world pre-determined. The lifetime set of environmental conditions impinging on a given individual has been termed the ambiome, which together with the genome and the proteome determines each individual's development and construction. Among the most important elements making up the ambiome are endocrine disruptors. An endocrine disruptor is a chemical substance that has adverse effects on an organism or its progeny, through the endocrine system. The number of known endocrine disruptors is large and continuously increasing, and includes both naturally occurring and synthetic substances. We are convinced that they entail genuine problems; although it is difficult to assess their magnitude and real significance, and we will certainly need some time, probably several decades, to obtain conclusive results; but even so, we consider that the existing body of evidence about effects of endocrine disruptors on human health is sufficiently worrying to justify precautionary measures.

  12. VEGF-targeted cancer therapeutics-paradoxical effects in endocrine organs.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yihai

    2014-09-01

    Systemic administration of antiangiogenic drugs that target components of the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A; VEGF) signal transduction pathway has become a viable therapeutic option for patients with various types of cancer. Nevertheless, these drugs can drive alterations in healthy vasculatures, which in turn are associated with adverse effects in healthy tissues. VEGF is crucial for vascular homeostasis and the maintenance of vascular integrity and architecture in endocrine organs. Given these critical physiological functions, systemic delivery of drugs that target VEGF signalling can block VEGF-mediated vascular functions in endocrine organs, such as the thyroid gland, and lead to endocrine dysfunction, including hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency and altered insulin sensitivity. This Review discusses emerging evidence from preclinical and clinical studies that contributes to understanding the mechanisms that underlie the vascular changes and subsequent modulations of endocrine function that are induced by targeted inhibition of VEGF signalling. Understanding these mechanisms is crucial for the design of antiangiogenic drugs with minimal associated adverse effects that will enable effective treatment of patients with cancer.

  13. The diffuse endocrine system: from embryogenesis to carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Montuenga, Luis M; Guembe, Laura; Burrell, M Angela; Bodegas, M Elena; Calvo, Alfonso; Sola, Jesús J; Sesma, Pilar; Villaro, Ana C

    2003-01-01

    In the present review we will summarise the current knowledge about the cells comprising the Diffuse Endocrine System (DES) in mammalian organs. We will describe the morphological, histochemical and functional traits of these cells in three major systems gastrointestinal, respiratory and prostatic. We will also focus on some aspects of their ontogeny and differentiation, as well as to their relevance in carcinogenesis, especially in neuroendocrine tumors. The first chapter describes the characteristics of DES cells and some of their specific biological and biochemical traits. The second chapter deals with DES in the gastrointestinal organs, with special reference to the new data on the differentiation mechanisms that leads to the appearance of endocrine cells from an undifferentiated stem cell. The third chapter is devoted to DES of the respiratory system and some aspects of its biological role, both, during development and adulthood. Neuroendocrine hyperplasia and neuroendocrine lung tumors are also addressed. Finally, the last chapter deals with the prostatic DES, discussing its probable functional role and its relevance in hormone-resistant prostatic carcinomas.

  14. Evolution of the reproductive endocrine system in chordates.

    PubMed

    Kubokawa, Kaoru; Tando, Yukiko; Roy, Sonali

    2010-07-01

    The cephalochordate, amphioxus, is phylogenetically placed at the most primitive position in the chordate clade. Despite many studies on the endocrine system of amphioxus, definitive evidence has not been reported for the presence an endocrine system comparable to the pituitary-gonadal axis, which is important in the regulation of reproduction in vertebrates. Recent genome analyses in the amphioxus, Branchiostoma floridae, showed that it does not have any pituitary hormone genes except the thyrostimulin gene. Thyrostimulin is a heterodimeric glycoprotein hormone consisting of α and β subunits, and is present in various organs of vertebrates. Analyses of a phylogenetic tree and a synteny suggest that amphioxus' thyrostimulin is an ancestral type of the glycoprotein hormones in chordates. In addition, genes for sex steroidogenic enzymes belonging to the CYP family were found in the genome sequences. The conversion pathway of sex steroids from cholesterol to estrogen, androgen, and major sex steroids was also identified in the gonads of amphioxus in vitro. Furthermore, we demonstrated the expression of genes encoding thyrostimulin and sex steroidogenic enzymes by an in situ hybridization technique. Here, we discuss the evolution of hormones and reproductive functions in the neuroendocrine control system of chordates. © The Author(s) 2010. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Bone marrow adipose tissue as an endocrine organ: close to the bone?

    PubMed

    Sulston, Richard J; Cawthorn, William P

    2016-10-01

    White adipose tissue (WAT) is a major endocrine organ, secreting a diverse range of hormones, lipid species, cytokines and other factors to exert diverse local and systemic effects. These secreted products, known as 'adipokines', contribute extensively to WAT's impact on physiology and disease. Adipocytes also exist in the bone marrow (BM), but unlike WAT, study of this bone marrow adipose tissue (MAT) has been relatively limited. We recently discovered that MAT contributes to circulating adiponectin, an adipokine that mediates cardiometabolic benefits. Moreover, we found that MAT expansion exerts systemic effects. Together, these observations identify MAT as an endocrine organ. Additional studies are revealing further secretory functions of MAT, including production of other adipokines, cytokines and lipids that exert local effects within bone. These observations suggest that, like WAT, MAT has secretory functions with diverse potential effects, both locally and systemically. A major limitation is that these findings are often based on in vitro approaches that may not faithfully recapitulate the characteristics and functions of BM adipocytes in vivo. This underscores the need to develop improved methods for in vivo analysis of MAT function, including more robust transgenic models for MAT targeting, and continued development of techniques for non-invasive analysis of MAT quantity and quality in humans. Although many aspects of MAT formation and function remain poorly understood, MAT is now attracting increasing research focus; hence, there is much promise for further advances in our understanding of MAT as an endocrine organ, and how MAT impacts human health and disease.

  16. Pathophysiology of the Effects of Alcohol Abuse on the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body's most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and the hypothalamic-posterior pituitary axis, as well as other sources of hormones, such as the endocrine pancreas and endocrine adipose tissue. Alcohol abuse disrupts all of these systems and causes hormonal disturbances that may result in various disorders, such as stress intolerance, reproductive dysfunction, thyroid problems, immune abnormalities, and psychological and behavioral disorders. Studies in both humans and animal models have helped shed light on alcohol's effects on various components of the endocrine system and their consequences.

  17. Pathophysiology of the Effects of Alcohol Abuse on the Endocrine System

    PubMed Central

    Rachdaoui, Nadia; Sarkar, Dipak K.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol can permeate virtually every organ and tissue in the body, resulting in tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Considerable evidence indicates that alcohol abuse results in clinical abnormalities of one of the body’s most important systems, the endocrine system. This system ensures proper communication between various organs, also interfacing with the immune and nervous systems, and is essential for maintaining a constant internal environment. The endocrine system includes the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis, the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal axis, the hypothalamic–pituitary–thyroid axis, the hypothalamic–pituitary–growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1 axis, and the hypothalamic–posterior pituitary axis, as well as other sources of hormones, such as the endocrine pancreas and endocrine adipose tissue. Alcohol abuse disrupts all of these systems and causes hormonal disturbances that may result in various disorders, such as stress intolerance, reproductive dysfunction, thyroid problems, immune abnormalities, and psychological and behavioral disorders. Studies in both humans and animal models have helped shed light on alcohol’s effects on various components of the endocrine system and their consequences.

  18. [Regeneration of endocrine gastroenteropancreatic system in experimental and clinical pathology: concept development and current problems].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, V F

    2013-01-01

    Literature review contains the literature data and the results of author's own investigations describing the coming into being and the development of the concepts on the regeneration of endocrine gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system under the conditions of norm, experimental and clinical pathology. Data analysis permitted to reveal the similarities and differences in the course of this process in various organs of the digestive system. Endocrine GEP system renewal occurs at different levels of its organization. At the tissue level, the endocrine cells renewal occurs via the transformation of exocrine cells into the endocrine ones and as a result of differentiation from stem cells via the "agranular" cell stage which are precursors of the endocrine cells. This pathway of regeneration is the major one after the damage. Regeneration at cellular level occurs through mitotic division of the differentiated endocrine cells (early stage of regeneration) and as a result of the formation granules with different hormonal profile in D-cells. At the intracellular level, the regeneration is realized through the intracellular structure restoration after their damage induced by the increase of cell functional activity accompanied by degranulation and dystrophic changes development

  19. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center Pacientes y Cuidadores Hormones and Health The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Steroid and Hormone ... Hormones and Health › Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) The Endocrine System Hormones Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) EDCs Myth vs. ...

  20. Endocannabinoids and the Endocrine System in Health and Disease.

    PubMed

    Hillard, Cecilia J

    2015-01-01

    Some of the earliest reports of the effects of cannabis consumption on humans were related to endocrine system changes. In this review, the effects of cannabinoids and the role of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor in the regulation of the following endocrine systems are discussed: the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin and oxytocin, thyroid hormone and growth hormone, and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Preclinical and human study results are presented.

  1. How does obesity affect the endocrine system? A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Poddar, M; Chetty, Y; Chetty, V T

    2017-06-01

    Obesity is a chronic, relapsing medical condition that results from an imbalance of energy expenditure and consumption. It is a leading cause of preventable illness, disability and premature death. The causes of obesity are multifactorial and include behavioural, socioeconomic, genetic, environmental and psychosocial factors. Rarely are endocrine diseases, e.g., hypothyroidism or Cushing's syndrome, the cause of obesity. What is less understood is how obesity affects the endocrine system. In this review, we will discuss the impact of obesity on multiple endocrine systems, including the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, changes in vitamin D homeostasis, gender steroids and thyroid hormones. We will also examine the renin angiotensin aldosterone system and insulin pathophysiology associated with obesity. We will provide a general overview of the biochemical changes that can be seen in patients with obesity, review possible aetiologies of these changes and briefly consider current guidelines on their management. This review will not discuss endocrine causes of obesity. © 2017 World Obesity Federation.

  2. Organization versus activation: the role of endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs) during embryonic development in wildlife.

    PubMed Central

    Guillette, L J; Crain, D A; Rooney, A A; Pickford, D B

    1995-01-01

    Many environmental contaminants disrupt the vertebrate endocrine system. Although they may be no more sensitive to endocrine-disrupting contaminants (EDCs) than other vertebrates, reptiles are good sentinels of exposure to EDCs due to the lability in their sex determination. This is exemplified by a study of alligators at Lake Apopka, Florida, showing that EDCs have altered the balance of reproductive hormones resulting in reproductive dysfunction. Such alterations may be activationally or organizationally induced. Much research emphasizes the former, but a complete understanding of the influence of EDCs in nature can be generated only after consideration of both activational and organizational alterations. The organizational model suggests that a small quantity of an EDC, administered during a specific period of embryonic development, can permanently modify the organization of the reproductive, immune, and nervous systems. Additionally, this model helps explain evolutionary adaptations to naturally occurring estrogenic compounds, such as phytoestrogens. PMID:8593864

  3. Update: Systemic Diseases and the Cardiovascular System (II). The endocrine system and the heart: a review.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Soo S; Pearce, Elizabeth N

    2011-03-01

    Normal endocrine function is essential for cardiovascular health. Disorders of the endocrine system, consisting of hormone hyperfunction and hypofunction, have multiple effects on the cardiovascular system. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of disorders of the pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, and adrenal glands, with respect to the impact of endocrine dysfunction on the cardiovascular system. We also review the cardiovascular benefits of restoring normal endocrine function. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Monogenic autoimmune diseases of the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Matthew B; Hattersley, Andrew T; Flanagan, Sarah E

    2016-10-01

    The most common endocrine diseases, type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism, are the result of autoimmunity. Clustering of autoimmune endocrinopathies can result from polygenic predisposition, or more rarely, may present as part of a wider syndrome due to a mutation within one of seven genes. These monogenic autoimmune diseases show highly variable phenotypes both within and between families with the same mutations. The average age of onset of the monogenic forms of autoimmune endocrine disease is younger than that of the common polygenic forms, and this feature combined with the manifestation of other autoimmune diseases, specific hallmark features, or both, can inform clinicians as to the relevance of genetic testing. A genetic diagnosis can guide medical management, give an insight into prognosis, inform families of recurrence risk, and facilitate prenatal diagnoses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Environmental Endocrine Disruptors: Effects on the human male reproductive system

    PubMed Central

    Sweeney, M.F.; Hasan, N.; Soto, A.M.; Sonnenschein, C.

    2016-01-01

    Incidences of altered development and neoplasia of male reproductive organs have increased during the last 50 years, as shown by epidemiological data. These data are associated with the increased presence of environmental chemicals, specifically “endocrine disruptors,” that interfere with normal hormonal action. Much research has gone into testing the effects of specific endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the development of male reproductive organs and endocrine-related cancers in both in vitro and in vivo models. Efforts have been made to bridge the accruing laboratory findings with the epidemiological data to draw conclusions regarding the relationship between EDCs, altered development and carcinogenesis. The ability of EDCs to predispose target fetal and adult tissues to neoplastic transformation is best explained under the framework of the tissue organization field theory of carcinogenesis (TOFT), which posits that carcinogenesis is development gone awry. Here, we focus on the available evidence, from both empirical and epidemiological studies, regarding the effects of EDCs on male reproductive development and carcinogenesis of endocrine target tissues. We also critique current research methodology utilized in the investigation of EDCs effects and outline what could possibly be done to address these obstacles moving forward. PMID:26847433

  6. Environmental endocrine disruptors: Effects on the human male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Sweeney, M F; Hasan, N; Soto, A M; Sonnenschein, C

    2015-12-01

    Incidences of altered development and neoplasia of male reproductive organs have increased during the last 50 years, as shown by epidemiological data. These data are associated with the increased presence of environmental chemicals, specifically "endocrine disruptors," that interfere with normal hormonal action. Much research has gone into testing the effects of specific endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on the development of male reproductive organs and endocrine-related cancers in both in vitro and in vivo models. Efforts have been made to bridge the accruing laboratory findings with the epidemiological data to draw conclusions regarding the relationship between EDCs, altered development and carcinogenesis. The ability of EDCs to predispose target fetal and adult tissues to neoplastic transformation is best explained under the framework of the tissue organization field theory of carcinogenesis (TOFT), which posits that carcinogenesis is development gone awry. Here, we focus on the available evidence, from both empirical and epidemiological studies, regarding the effects of EDCs on male reproductive development and carcinogenesis of endocrine target tissues. We also critique current research methodology utilized in the investigation of EDCs effects and outline what could possibly be done to address these obstacles moving forward.

  7. Environmental exposures that affect the endocrine system: public health implications.

    PubMed

    DeRosa, C; Richter, P; Pohl, H; Jones, D E

    1998-01-01

    In recent years much attention has been focused on the potential for a wide range of xenobiotic chemicals to interact with and disrupt the endocrine systems of animal and human populations. An overview of the chemicals that have been implicated as endocrine disruptors is presented. The ubiquity in the environment and associated body burdens of these chemicals in human populations are described. Potential mechanisms of action are reviewed, including the role of specific intracellular receptors and their interactions with endogenous and exogenous materials. The subsequent upregulation or downregulation of physiological processes at critical stages of development is discussed. The potential for joint toxic action and interaction of chemical mixtures is also discussed. The acknowledged role of wildlife populations as sentinels of potential human health effects is reviewed, and the weight of evidence for the role and impact of endocrine disruptors is presented. The implications of exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals for human health are reviewed, with special emphasis on the potential for transgenerational effects in at-risk populations. Recommendations for future research include the development of (1) structural activity and in vivo and in vitro functional toxicology methods to screen chemicals for their endocrine-disrupting ability, (2) biomarkers of exposure and effect, and (3) in situ sentinel systems.

  8. The endocrine system and sarcopenia: potential therapeutic benefits.

    PubMed

    McIntire, Kevin L; Hoffman, Andrew R

    2011-12-01

    Age related muscle loss, known as sarcopenia, is a major factor in disability, loss of mobility and quality of life in the elderly. There are many proposed mechanisms of age-related muscle loss that include the endocrine system. A variety of hormones regulate growth, development and metabolism throughout the lifespan. Hormone activity may change with age as a result of reduced hormone secretion or decreased tissue responsiveness. This review will focus on the complex interplay between the endocrine system, aging and skeletal muscle and will present possible benefits of therapeutic interventions for sarcopenia.

  9. Endocrine glands

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... and nervous systems work very closely together. The brain continuously sends instructions to the endocrine system, and ... master switchboard because it's the part of the brain that controls the endocrine system. The pituitary gland, ...

  10. Endocrine disorders and medically assisted procreation.

    PubMed

    Luk, J

    2011-04-01

    A normal endocrine environment is imperative to maintain normal reproduction in women. The major endocrine organs that play a part in the reproductive system include hypothalamic pituitary axis, adrenal gland, thyroid gland, and the ovary. Each endocrine organ is in close communication and relationship with one another. Any endocrine disorders that significantly affect any of these organs would disrupt reproduction resulting in infertility. In this review, we will provide an overview of the common endocrine disorders and the available medical management including assisted reproductive technology (ART) and hormonal supplementation to overcome the endocrine disorders in order to achieve fertility for the female patients.

  11. The impact of opioids on the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Katz, Nathaniel; Mazer, Norman A

    2009-02-01

    Opioids have been used for medicinal and analgesic purposes for centuries. However, their negative effects on the endocrine system, which have been known for some times, are barely discussed in modern medicine. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review of the impact of opioids on the endocrine system. A review of the English language literature on preclinical and clinical studies of any type on the influence of opioids on the endocrine system was conducted. Preliminary recommendations for monitoring and managing these problems were provided. Long-term opioid therapy for either addiction or chronic pain often induces hypogonadism owing to central suppression of hypothalamic secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone. Symptoms of opioid-induced hypogonadism include loss of libido, infertility, fatigue, depression, anxiety, loss of muscle strength and mass, osteoporosis, and compression fractures in both men and women; impotence in men; and menstrual irregularities and galactorrhea in women. In view of the increased use of opioids for chronic pain, it has become increasingly important to monitor patients taking opioids and manage endocrine complications. Therefore, patients on opioid therapy should be routinely screened for such symptoms and for laboratory abnormalities in sex hormones. Opioid-induced hypogonadism seems to be a common complication of therapeutic or illicit opioid use. Patients on long-term opioid therapy should be prospectively monitored, and in cases of opioid-induced hypogonadism, we recommend nonopioid pain management, opioid rotation, or sex hormone supplementation after careful consideration of the risks and benefits.

  12. [Novel concepts in biology of diffuse endocrine system: results and future investigations].

    PubMed

    Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse endocrine system is a largest part of endocrine system of vertebrates. Recend findings showed that DES-cells are not neuroectodermal but have ectodermal, mesodermal, and entodermal ontogeny. The article reviews novel concept of diffuse endocrine system anatomy and physiology, functional role of DES hormones and poorly investigated aspects like DES-cell morphology, hormones secretion in normal and pathologic conditions. Further research of diffuse endocrine system has a great significance for biochemistry, morphology, and clinical medicine.

  13. Long non-coding RNAs as regulators of the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Marko; Lodish, Harvey F; Sun, Lei

    2015-03-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a large and diverse group of RNAs that are often lineage-specific and that regulate multiple biological functions. Many are nuclear and are essential parts of ribonucleoprotein complexes that modify chromatin segments and establish active or repressive chromatin states; others are cytosolic and regulate the stability of mRNA or act as microRNA sponges. This Review summarizes the current knowledge of lncRNAs as regulators of the endocrine system, with a focus on the identification and mode of action of several endocrine-important lncRNAs. We highlight lncRNAs that have a role in the development and function of pancreatic β cells, white and brown adipose tissue, and other endocrine organs, and discuss the involvement of these molecules in endocrine dysfunction (for example, diabetes mellitus). We also address the associations of lncRNAs with nuclear receptors involved in major hormonal signalling pathways, such as estrogen and androgen receptors, and the relevance of these associations in certain endocrine cancers.

  14. Long non-coding RNAs as regulators of the endocrine system

    PubMed Central

    Knoll, Marko; Lodish, Harvey F.; Sun, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a large and diverse group of RNAs that are often lineage-specific and that regulate multiple biological functions. Many are nuclear and are essential parts of ribonucleoprotein complexes that modify chromatin segments and establish active or repressive chromatin states; others are cytosolic and regulate the stability of mRNA or act as microRNA sponges. This Review summarizes the current knowledge of lncRNAs as regulators of the endocrine system, with a focus on the identification and mode of action of several endocrine-important lncRNAs. We highlight lncRNAs that have a role in the development and function of pancreatic β cells, white and brown adipose tissue, and other endocrine organs, and discuss the involvement of these molecules in endocrine dysfunction (for example, diabetes mellitus). We also address the associations of lncRNAs with nuclear receptors involved in major hormonal signalling pathways, such as estrogen and androgen receptors, and the relevance of these associations in certain endocrine cancers. PMID:25560704

  15. 38 CFR 4.119 - Schedule of ratings-endocrine system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-endocrine system. 4.119 Section 4.119 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Endocrine System § 4.119 Schedule of ratings—endocrine system. Rating 7900Hyperthyroidism Thyroid enlargement, tachycardia (more than 100 beats...

  16. Endocrine system on chip for a diabetes treatment model.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Dao Thi Thuy; van Noort, Danny; Jeong, In-Kyung; Park, Sungsu

    2017-02-21

    The endocrine system is a collection of glands producing hormones which, among others, regulates metabolism, growth and development. One important group of endocrine diseases is diabetes, which is caused by a deficiency or diminished effectiveness of endogenous insulin. By using a microfluidic perfused 3D cell-culture chip, we developed an 'endocrine system on chip' to potentially be able to screen drugs for the treatment of diabetes by measuring insulin release over time. Insulin-secreting β-cells are located in the pancreas, while L-cells, located in the small intestines, stimulate insulin secretion. Thus, we constructed a co-culture of intestinal-pancreatic cells to measure the effect of glucose on the production of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the L-cell line (GLUTag) and insulin from the pancreatic β-cell line (INS-1). After three days of culture, both cell lines formed aggregates, exhibited 3D cell morphology, and showed good viability (>95%). We separately measured the dynamic profile of GLP-1 and insulin release at glucose concentrations of 0.5 and 20 mM, as well as the combined effect of GLP-1 on insulin production at these glucose concentrations. In response to glucose stimuli, GLUTag and INS-1 cells produced higher amounts of GLP-1 and insulin, respectively, compared to a static 2D cell culture. INS-1 combined with GLUTag cells exhibited an even higher insulin production in response to glucose stimulation. At higher glucose concentrations, the diabetes model on chip showed faster saturation of the insulin level. Our results suggest that the endocrine system developed in this study is a useful tool for observing dynamical changes in endocrine hormones (GLP-1 and insulin) in a glucose-dependent environment. Moreover, it can potentially be used to screen GLP-1 analogues and natural insulin and GLP-1 stimulants for diabetes treatment.

  17. Interplay between the endocrine and circadian systems in fishes.

    PubMed

    Isorna, Esther; de Pedro, Nuria; Valenciano, Ana I; Alonso-Gómez, Ángel L; Delgado, María J

    2017-03-01

    The circadian system is responsible for the temporal organisation of physiological functions which, in part, involves daily cycles of hormonal activity. In this review, we analyse the interplay between the circadian and endocrine systems in fishes. We first describe the current model of fish circadian system organisation and the basis of the molecular clockwork that enables different tissues to act as internal pacemakers. This system consists of a net of central and peripherally located oscillators and can be synchronised by the light-darkness and feeding-fasting cycles. We then focus on two central neuroendocrine transducers (melatonin and orexin) and three peripheral hormones (leptin, ghrelin and cortisol), which are involved in the synchronisation of the circadian system in mammals and/or energy status signalling. We review the role of each of these as overt rhythms (i.e. outputs of the circadian system) and, for the first time, as key internal temporal messengers that act as inputs for other endogenous oscillators. Based on acute changes in clock gene expression, we describe the currently accepted model of endogenous oscillator entrainment by the light-darkness cycle and propose a new model for non-photic (endocrine) entrainment, highlighting the importance of the bidirectional cross-talking between the endocrine and circadian systems in fishes. The flexibility of the fish circadian system combined with the absence of a master clock makes these vertebrates a very attractive model for studying communication among oscillators to drive functionally coordinated outputs.

  18. Effects of environmental endocrine disruptors and phytoestrogens on the kisspeptin system.

    PubMed

    Patisaul, Heather B

    2013-01-01

    Sex steroid hormones, most notably estradiol, play a pivotal role in the sex-specific organization and function of the kisspeptin system. Endocrine--disrupting compounds are anthropogenic or naturally occurring compounds that interact with steroid hormone signaling. Thus, these compounds have the potential to disrupt the sexually dimorphic ontogeny and function of kisspeptin signaling pathways, resulting in adverse effects on neuroendocrine physiology. This chapter reviews the small but growing body of evidence for endocrine disruption of the kisspeptin system by the exogenous estrogenic compounds bisphenol A, polychlorinated biphenyl mixtures, and the phytoestrogen genistein. Disruption is region, sex, and compound specific, and associated with shifts in the timing of pubertal onset, irregular estrous cycles, and altered sociosexual behavior. These effects highlight that disruption of kisspeptin signaling pathways could have wide ranging effects across multiple organ systems, and potentially underlies a suite of adverse human health trends including precocious female puberty, idiopathic infertility, and metabolic syndrome.

  19. Dynamic modulation of sociality and aggression: an examination of plasticity within endocrine and neuroendocrine systems.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Aubrey M; Vitousek, Maren N

    2017-08-19

    Endocrine and neuroendocrine systems are key mediators of behavioural plasticity and allow for the ability to shift social behaviour across dynamic contexts. These systems operate across timescales, modulating both rapid responses to environmental changes and developmental plasticity in behavioural phenotypes. Thus, not only do endocrine systems mediate behavioural plasticity, but also the systems themselves exhibit plasticity in functional capabilities. This flexibility at both the mechanistic and behavioural levels can be crucial for reproduction and survival. Here, we discuss how plasticity in nonapeptide and steroid actions may influence the expression of, and allow rapid shifts between, sociality and aggression-behavioural shifts that can be particularly important for social interactions. Recent findings of overlap in the mechanisms that modulate social and aggressive behaviour suggest the potential for a mechanistic continuum between these behaviours. We briefly discuss the potential for a sociality-aggression continuum and novel techniques that will enable probing of the functional connectivity of social behaviours. From an evolutionary perspective, we suggest that plasticity in endocrine and neuroendocrine mechanisms of behaviour may be important targets of selection, and discuss the conditions under which we would predict selection to have resulted in differences in endocrine plasticity across species that differ in social organization.This article is part of the themed issue 'Physiological determinants of social behaviour in animals'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  20. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    Your endocrine system includes eight major glands throughout your body. These glands make hormones. Hormones are chemical messengers. They ... levels. In the United States, the most common endocrine disease is diabetes. There are many others. They ...

  1. Neurological Complications of Endocrine Disease.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Karen S; Grunwald, Tal; De Luca, Francesco

    2017-02-01

    The endocrine system is a complex group of organs and glands that relates to multiple other organs and systems in the body with the ultimate goal of maintaining homeostasis. This complex network functions through hormones excreted by several glands and released in the blood, targeting different body tissues and modulating their function. Any primary disorders affecting the endocrine glands and altering the amount of hormones synthesized and released will lead to disruption in the functions of multiple organs. The central nervous system of a developing child is particularly sensitive to endocrine disorders. A variety of neurological manifestations have been described as features of several endocrine diseases in childhood. Their knowledge may contribute to an early diagnosis of a particular endocrine condition, especially when more typical features are not present yet. In this article, we discuss specific neurological manifestations found in various endocrine disorders in children. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Full system bifurcation analysis of endocrine bursting models.

    PubMed

    Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Osinga, Hinke M; Riess, Thorsten; Sherman, Arthur

    2010-06-21

    Plateau bursting is typical of many electrically excitable cells, such as endocrine cells that secrete hormones and some types of neurons that secrete neurotransmitters. Although in many of these cell types the bursting patterns are regulated by the interplay between voltage-gated calcium channels and calcium-sensitive potassium channels, they can be very different. We investigate so-called square-wave and pseudo-plateau bursting patterns found in endocrine cell models that are characterized by a super- or subcritical Hopf bifurcation in the fast subsystem, respectively. By using the polynomial model of Hindmarsh and Rose (Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B 221 (1222) 87-102), which preserves the main properties of the biophysical class of models that we consider, we perform a detailed bifurcation analysis of the full fast-slow system for both bursting patterns. We find that both cases lead to the same possibility of two routes to bursting, that is, the criticality of the Hopf bifurcation is not relevant for characterizing the route to bursting. The actual route depends on the relative location of the full-system's fixed point with respect to a homoclinic bifurcation of the fast subsystem. Our full-system bifurcation analysis reveals properties of endocrine bursting that are not captured by the standard fast-slow analysis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Animal models of endocrine/organ-specific autoimmune diseases: do they really help us to understand human autoimmunity?

    PubMed

    Lam-Tse, W K; Lernmark, A; Drexhage, H A

    2002-12-01

    non-obese diabetes (NOD) mouse are the most well studied, yet many studies have also been carried out in the obese strain (OS) chicken. Apart from these spontaneous models there are animal models that are induced by environmental perturbations (viruses, toxic substances), by thymectomy procedures or by genetic manipulations, e.g., the RIP-LCMV model and the BDC 2.5 TCR mouse model. A general blueprint has emerged from the studies into the early stages of the pathogenesis of endocrine/organ-specific autoimmune diseases in these animal models: animals at risk to develop endocrine/organ-specific autoimmune diseases show various pre-autoimmune aberrancies in their target glands, T cells, macrophages (Mphi) and dendritic cells (DC). The presumably aberrant target cells, T cells, DC and Mphi need to interact abnormally before autoimmune disease can fully develop. In this abnormal interaction additional aberrancies in other regulatory systems may play a role in a further exacerbation of the self-directed immune response, such as defects in the hypothalamus pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis system. The various aberrancies are partly genetically determined by a variety of separate genes, particularly MHC-related genes, but they may also be environmentally induced (e.g., via viruses, high iodine diet, and other experimental manipulations). Recently evidence has been gathered for pre-autoimmune aberrancies similar to the animal models in the DC/ Mphi compartment and the HPA axis in humans at risk to develop endocrine/organ-specific autoimmune diseases. However, analogous pre-autoimmune abnormalities in human target glands or in T cell function have not yet been found with certainty. We believe that animal models of endocrine/organ-specific autoimmune disease still hold immense promise for the discovery of pathways, genes and environmental factors that determine the development of endocrine/organ-specific autoimmune diseases. Animals affected by such diseases provide a unique

  4. Endocrine disruption by dietary phyto-oestrogens: impact on dimorphic sexual systems and behaviours.

    PubMed

    Patisaul, Heather B

    2016-07-08

    A wide range of health benefits have been ascribed to soya intake including a lowered risk of osteoporosis, heart disease, breast cancer, and menopausal symptoms. Because it is a hormonally active diet, however, soya can also be endocrine disrupting, suggesting that intake has the potential to cause adverse health effects in certain circumstances, particularly when exposure occurs during development. Consequently, the question of whether or not soya phyto-oestrogens are beneficial or harmful to human health is neither straightforward nor universally applicable to all groups. Possible benefits and risks depend on age, health status, and even the presence or absence of specific gut microflora. As global consumption increases, greater awareness and consideration of the endocrine-disrupting properties of soya by nutrition specialists and other health practitioners is needed. Consumption by infants and small children is of particular concern because their hormone-sensitive organs, including the brain and reproductive system, are still undergoing sexual differentiation and maturation. Thus, their susceptibility to the endocrine-disrupting activities of soya phyto-oestrogens may be especially high. As oestrogen receptor partial agonists with molecular and cellular properties similar to anthropogenic endocrine disruptors such as bisphenol A, the soya phyto-oestrogens provide an interesting model for how attitudes about what is 'synthetic' v. what is 'natural,' shapes understanding and perception of what it means for a compound to be endocrine disrupting and/or potentially harmful. This review describes the endocrine-disrupting properties of soya phyto-oestrogens with a focus on neuroendocrine development and behaviour.

  5. Early Outgrowth Cells Release Soluble Endocrine Antifibrotic Factors That Reduce Progressive Organ Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Yuen, Darren A.; Connelly, Kim A.; Zhang, Yanling; Advani, Suzanne L.; Thai, Kerri; Kabir, Golam; Kepecs, David; Spring, Christopher; Smith, Christopher; Batruch, Ihor; Kosanam, Hari; Advani, Andrew; Diamandis, Eleftherios; Marsden, Philip A.; Gilbert, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    Adult bone marrow-derived cells can improve organ function in chronic disease models, ostensibly by the release of paracrine factors. It has, however, been difficult to reconcile this prevailing paradigm with the lack of cell retention within injured organs and their rapid migration to the reticuloendothelial system. Here, we provide evidence that the salutary antifibrotic effects of bone marrow-derived early outgrowth cells (EOCs) are more consistent with an endocrine mode of action, demonstrating not only the presence of antifibrotic factors in the plasma of EOC-treated rats but also that EOC conditioned medium (EOC-CM) potently attenuates both TGF-β- and angiotensin II-induced fibroblast collagen production in vitro. To examine the therapeutic relevance of these findings in vivo, 5/6 subtotally nephrectomized rats, a model of chronic kidney and heart failure characterized by progressive fibrosis of both organs, were randomized to receive i.v. injections of EOC-CM, unconditioned medium, or 106 EOCs. Rats that received unconditioned medium developed severe kidney injury with cardiac diastolic dysfunction. In comparison, EOC-CM-treated rats demonstrated substantially improved renal and cardiac function and structure, mimicking the changes found in EOC-treated animals. Mass spectrometric analysis of EOC-CM identified proteins that regulate cellular functions implicated in fibrosis. These results indicate that EOCs secrete soluble factor(s) with highly potent antifibrotic activity, that when injected intravenously replicate the salutary effects of the cells themselves. Together, these findings suggest that an endocrine mode of action may underlie the effectiveness of cell therapy in certain settings and portend the possibility for systemic delivery of cell-free therapy. PMID:23922321

  6. Neuroendocrine targets of endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Gore, Andrea C

    2010-01-01

    The central neuroendocrine systems are responsible for the control of homeostatic processes in the body, including reproduction, growth, metabolism and energy balance, as well as stress responsiveness. These processes are initiated by signals in the central nervous system, specifically the hypothalamus, and are conveyed first by neural and then by endocrine effectors. The neuroendocrine systems, as the links between the brain and peripheral endocrine organs, play critical roles in the ability of an organism to respond to its environment under normal circumstances. When neuroendocrine homeostasis is disrupted by environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals, a variety of perturbations can ensue, particularly when endocrine disruption occurs during critical developmental time periods. This article will discuss the evidence for environmental endocrine disruption of neuroendocrine systems and the effects on endocrine and reproductive functions.

  7. Endocrine Disrupting Chemical Impacts on Aquatic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jobling, Susan

    2014-07-01

    We often talk about the importance of water, but one area that's often overlooked is the safety of our water supply. How many people actually think about the purity of their water when they turn on the tap? We may have real reason to be concerned because our water delivery systems and treatment technology seem to be stuck in the past, relying on old water treatment and water delivery systems. While these systems still do a great job filtering out particles, parasites and bacteria, they usually fail to remove 21st century contaminants like pesticides, industrial chemicals, lead, pharmaceuticals and arsenic. Indeed our water contains already a whole plethora of things in daily commerce and pharmaceuticals are increasingly showing up in the water supply, including antibiotics, anti-convulsants, mood altering medications and sex hormones. As the world's dependence on chemicals grows, our water supplies will continue to feel the effects, which inevitably will touch every person on this planet...

  8. ALTERATIONS IN DEVELOPMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS OF WILDLIFE POPULATIONS EXPOSED TO ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CONTAMINANTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife and human populations are affected by contaminants in natural settings. This problem has been a growing concern over the last decade with the realization that various environmental chemicals can alter the development and functioning of endocrine organs, cells and target ...

  9. ALTERATIONS IN DEVELOPMENT OF REPRODUCTIVE AND ENDOCRINE SYSTEMS OF WILDLIFE POPULATIONS EXPOSED TO ENDOCRINE-DISRUPTING CONTAMINANTS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Wildlife and human populations are affected by contaminants in natural settings. This problem has been a growing concern over the last decade with the realization that various environmental chemicals can alter the development and functioning of endocrine organs, cells and target ...

  10. Artificial endocrine controller for power management in robotic systems.

    PubMed

    Sauzé, Colin; Neal, Mark

    2013-12-01

    The robots that operate autonomously for extended periods in remote environments are often limited to gather only small amounts of power through photovoltaic solar panels. Such limited power budgets make power management critical to the success of the robot's mission. Artificial endocrine controllers, inspired by the mammalian endocrine system, have shown potential as a method for managing competing demands, gradually switching between behaviors, synchronizing behavior with external events, and maintaining a stable internal state of the robot. This paper reports the results obtained using these methods to manage power in an autonomous sailing robot. Artificial neural networks are used for sail and rudder control, while an artificial endocrine controller modulates the magnitude of actuator movements in response to battery or sunlight levels. Experiments are performed both in simulation and using a real robot. In simulation a 13-fold reduction in median power consumption is achieved; in the robot this is reduced to a twofold reduction because of the limitations of the simulation model. Additional simulations of a long term mission demonstrate the controller's ability to make gradual behavioral transitions and to synchronize behaviors with diurnal and seasonal changes in sunlight levels.

  11. Endocrine system dynamics and MS epidemiology.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, James; Moore, Helena

    2010-05-01

    In the kidney there is a co-transport relationship in the nephron between the reabsorption of positive Na(+) ions and the reabsorption of negative ions such as uric acid anions. Uric acid acts as an anti-oxidant and it has been shown to have a sealing effect on the blood-brain barrier. The theory developed here is that chronic neurological vasoconstriction in cool environmental conditions injects an offset into the rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blood pressure control loop and reduces demand for angiotensin and aldosterone. (Aldosterone is produced in the adrenal gland and has a direct effect on renal reabsorption of Na(+) ions.) Via co-transport these conditions will reduce the body's ability to reabsorb uric acid and this in turn will weaken the integrity of the blood-brain barrier. Also, in cool environments, where levels of vasopressin (ADH) and aldosterone are lower, the gain of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland (HPA) axis is reduced so that the production average levels of ACTH, cortisone and aldosterone will be biased at a lower level and the kidney-local levels of aldosterone in particular will remain lower. This paper develops these ideas and suggests that they can help explain the traditionally-recognized latitudinal gradient in MS epidemiology. Also, acclimatization to heat encourages sweating, which should create a greater demand for the renal reabsorption of Na(+) ions which enables greater reabsorption of uric acid. Therefore people living at low latitudes should have a lower chance of hypouricemia and a lower chance of developing MS. In fact people who spend their first fifteen years in the tropics almost never go onto develop MS. And MS patients in relapse are consistently hypouricemic. This hypothesis can explain both of these facts. The paper goes onto show how the MS condition will tend to progress because of a number of self-sustaining effects: over time the immune system becomes more targeted to myelin, MS patients are

  12. MYSID CRUSTACEANS AS POTENTIAL TEST ORGANISMS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verslycke, Tim A., Nancy Fockedey, Charles L. McKenney, Jr., Stephen D. Roast, Malcolm B. Jones, Jan Mees and Colin R. Janssen. 2004. Mysid Crustaceans as Potential Test Organisms for the Evaluation of Environmental Endocrine Disruption: A Review. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23(5):12...

  13. MYSID CRUSTACEANS AS POTENTIAL TEST ORGANISMS FOR THE EVALUATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS: A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    Verslycke, Tim A., Nancy Fockedey, Charles L. McKenney, Jr., Stephen D. Roast, Malcolm B. Jones, Jan Mees and Colin R. Janssen. 2004. Mysid Crustaceans as Potential Test Organisms for the Evaluation of Environmental Endocrine Disruption: A Review. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 23(5):12...

  14. The endocrine system in chronic nitric oxide deficiency.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Félix; Moreno, Juan Manuel; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; García-Estañ, Joaquín

    2007-01-01

    The experimental model of chronic inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production has proven to be a useful tool to study cardiovascular and renal lesions produced by this type of hypertension, which are similar to those found in human hypertension. It also offers a unique opportunity to study the interaction of NO with the humoral systems, known to have a role in the normal physiology of vascular tone and renal function. This review provides a thorough and updated analysis of the interactions of NO with the endocrine system. There is special focus on the main vasoactive factors, including the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, catecholamines, vasopressin, and endothelin among others. Recent discoveries of crosstalk between the endocrine system and NO are also reported. Study of these humoral interactions indicates that NO is a molecule with ubiquitous function and that its inhibition alters virtually to all other known regulatory systems. Thus, hypothyroidism attenuates the pressor effect of NO inhibitor N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, whereas hyperthyroidism aggravates the effects of NO synthesis inhibition; the sex hormone environment determines the blood pressure response to NO blockade; NO may play a homeostatic role against the prohypertensive effects of mineralocorticoids, thyroid hormones and insulin; and finally, NO deficiency affects not only blood pressure but also glucose and lipid homeostasis, mimicking the human metabolic syndrome X, suggesting that NO deficiency may be a link between metabolic and cardiovascular disease.

  15. In vitro steroid profiling system for the evaluation of endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Yosuke; Yamashita, Toshiyuki; Okuno, Masashi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro; Bamba, Takeshi

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine disruptors (ED) are chemicals that affect various aspects of the endocrine system, often leading to the inhibition of steroidogenesis. Current chemical safety policies that restrict human exposure to such chemicals describe often time-consuming and costly methods for the evaluation of ED effects. We aimed to develop an effective tool for accurate phenotypic chemical toxicology studies. We developed an in vitro ED evaluation system using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS/MS) methods for metabolomic analysis of multi-marker profiles. Accounting for sample preparation and GC/MS/MS conditions, we established a screening method that allowed the simultaneous analysis of 17 steroids with good reproducibility and a linear calibration curve. Moreover, we applied the developed system to H295R human adrenocortical cells exposed to forskolin and prochloraz in accordance with the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) guidelines and observed dose-dependent variations in steroid profiles. While the OECD guidelines include only testosterone and 17β-estradiol, our system enabled a comprehensive and highly sensitive analysis of steroid profile alteration due to ED exposure. The application of our ED evaluation screen could be economical and provide novel insights into the hazards of ED exposure to the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  17. Mechanisms of arsenic disruption on gonadal, adrenal and thyroid endocrine systems in humans: A review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Jie; Xiang, Ping; Luo, Jun; Hong, Huachang; Lin, Hongjun; Li, Hong-Bo; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-10-01

    Due to its toxicity as a carcinogen and wide distribution in the environment, arsenic (As) exposure in humans is of public concern globally. Many studies have manifested that As exposure induces cancers besides pathological effects in humans. Animal studies showed that chronic As exposure induces serious neurological effects. Based on recent studies, researchers proposed that As, including arsenate (AsV) and arsenite (AsIII), is also an endocrine disruptor. This review discusses the mechanisms of As toxicity on three endocrine systems including gonadal, adrenal and thyroid endocrine systems. Arsenic methylation and oxidative stress are responsible for As-induced disorders of endocrine systems, however, strong binding of AsIII to thiols also play an important role. Some studies showed AsV toxicity on endocrine systems, but mechanistic investigation is lacking. Research is needed to look into their toxicity mechanisms to help cure the illnesses caused by As-induced endocrine system disorders. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. The regulation of interleukin-6 implicates skeletal muscle as an integrative stress sensor and endocrine organ

    PubMed Central

    Welc, Steven S.; Clanton, Thomas L.

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle has been identified as an endocrine organ owing to its capacity to produce and secrete a variety of cytokines (myokines) and other proteins. To date, myokines have primarily been studied in response to exercise or metabolic challenges; however, numerous observations suggest that skeletal muscle may also release myokines in response to certain categories of internal or external stress exposure. Internal stress signals include oxidative or nitrosative stress, damaged or unfolded proteins, hyperthermia or energy imbalance. External stress signals, which act as indicators of organismal stress or injury in other cells, employ mediators such as catecholamines, endotoxin, alarmins, ATP and pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β. External stress signals generally induce cellular responses through membrane receptor systems. In this review, we focus on the regulation of interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a prototypical stress response myokine and highlight evidence that IL-6 gene regulation in muscle is inherently organized to respond to a wide variety of internal and external stressors. Given that IL-6 can initiate protective, anti-inflammatory or restorative processes throughout the organism during life-threatening conditions, we present the argument that skeletal muscle has a physiological function as a sensor and responder to stress. Furthermore, we hypothesize that it may comprise a fundamental component of the organism’s acute stress response. PMID:22941979

  19. Maternal bisphenol A alters fetal endocrine system: Thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, R G

    2016-09-01

    Because bisphenol A (BPA) has been detected in animals, the aim of this study was to investigate the possible effects of maternal BPA exposure on the fetal endocrine system (thyroid-adipokine axis). BPA (20 or 40 μg/kg body weight) was orally administered to pregnant rats from gestation day (GD) 1-20. In both treated groups, the dams and their fetuses had lower serum thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) levels, and higher thyrotropin (TSH) level than control dams and fetuses at GD 20. Some histopathological changes in fetal thyroid glands were observed in both maternal BPA groups at embryonic day (ED) 20, including fibroblast proliferation, hyperplasia, luminal obliteration, oedema, and degeneration. These disorders resulted in the suppression of fetal serum growth hormone (GH), insulin growth factor-1 (IGF1) and adiponectin (ADP) levels, and the elevation of fetal serum leptin, insulin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) levels in both treated groups with respect to control. The depraved effects of both treated groups were associated with reduced maternal and fetal body weight compared to the control group. These alterations were dose dependent. Thus, BPA might penetrate the placental barrier and perturb the fetal thyroid adipokine axis to influence fat metabolism and the endocrine system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Developmental Programming and Endocrine Disruptor Effects on Reproductive Neuroendocrine Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    The ability of a species to reproduce successfully requires the careful orchestration of developmental processes during critical time points, particularly the late embryonic and early postnatal periods. This article begins with a brief presentation of the evidence for how gonadal steroid hormones exert these imprinting effects upon the morphology of sexually differentiated hypothalamic brain regions, the mechanisms underlying these effects, and their implications in adulthood. Then, I review the evidence that aberrant exposure to hormonally-active substances such as exogenous endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), may result in improper hypothalamic programming, thereby decreasing reproductive success in adulthood. The field of endocrine disruption has shed new light on the discipline of basic reproductive neuroendocrinology through studies on how early life exposures to EDCs may alter gene expression via non-genomic, epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Importantly, these effects may be transmitted to future generations if the germline is affected via transgenerational, epigenetic actions. By understanding the mechanisms by which natural hormones and xenobiotics affect reproductive neuroendocrine systems, we will gain a better understanding of normal developmental processes, as well as to develop the potential ability to intervene when development is disrupted. PMID:18394690

  1. 78 FR 57859 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Endocrine Disruption Potential of Drugs: Nonclinical Evaluation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-20

    ... determine the potential for a drug to disrupt the endocrine system. This draft guidance also discusses... compounds that have the potential to interfere with some aspect of the endocrine system of an organism or its progeny. Any component of the endocrine system can be a target of endocrine disruptors, although...

  2. Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Masumi

    2013-12-30

    The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans (jawless vertebrates). Hagfishes as one of the only two extant members of the class of agnathans are considered the most primitive vertebrates known, living or extinct. Accordingly, studies on their reproduction are important for understanding the evolution and phylogenetic aspects of the vertebrate reproductive endocrine system. In gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), the hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary have been extensively studied and shown to have well-defined roles in the control of reproduction. In hagfish, it was thought that they did not have the same neuroendocrine control of reproduction as gnathostomes, since it was not clear whether the hagfish pituitary gland contained tropic hormones of any kind. This review highlights the recent findings of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish. In contrast to gnathostomes that have two gonadotropins (GTH: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), only one pituitary GTH has been identified in the hagfish. Immunohistochemical and functional studies confirmed that this hagfish GTH was significantly correlated with the developmental stages of the gonads and showed the presence of a steroid (estradiol) feedback system at the hypothalamic-pituitary levels. Moreover, while the identity of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has not been determined, immunoreactive (ir) GnRH has been shown in the hagfish brain including seasonal changes of ir-GnRH corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages. In addition, a hagfish PQRFamide peptide was identified and shown to stimulate the expression of hagfish GTHβ mRNA in the hagfish pituitary. These findings provide evidence that there are neuroendocrine-pituitary hormones that share common structure and functional features compared to later evolved vertebrates.

  3. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Endocrine System in the Hagfish

    PubMed Central

    Nozaki, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary system is considered to be a seminal event that emerged prior to or during the differentiation of the ancestral agnathans (jawless vertebrates). Hagfishes as one of the only two extant members of the class of agnathans are considered the most primitive vertebrates known, living or extinct. Accordingly, studies on their reproduction are important for understanding the evolution and phylogenetic aspects of the vertebrate reproductive endocrine system. In gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates), the hormones of the hypothalamus and pituitary have been extensively studied and shown to have well-defined roles in the control of reproduction. In hagfish, it was thought that they did not have the same neuroendocrine control of reproduction as gnathostomes, since it was not clear whether the hagfish pituitary gland contained tropic hormones of any kind. This review highlights the recent findings of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine system in the hagfish. In contrast to gnathostomes that have two gonadotropins (GTH: luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone), only one pituitary GTH has been identified in the hagfish. Immunohistochemical and functional studies confirmed that this hagfish GTH was significantly correlated with the developmental stages of the gonads and showed the presence of a steroid (estradiol) feedback system at the hypothalamic-pituitary levels. Moreover, while the identity of hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) has not been determined, immunoreactive (ir) GnRH has been shown in the hagfish brain including seasonal changes of ir-GnRH corresponding to gonadal reproductive stages. In addition, a hagfish PQRFamide peptide was identified and shown to stimulate the expression of hagfish GTHβ mRNA in the hagfish pituitary. These findings provide evidence that there are neuroendocrine-pituitary hormones that share common structure and functional features compared to later evolved vertebrates. PMID:24416029

  4. Human exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds: Their role in reproductive systems, metabolic syndrome and breast cancer. A review.

    PubMed

    Giulivo, Monica; Lopez de Alda, Miren; Capri, Ettore; Barceló, Damià

    2016-11-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are released into the environment from different sources. They are mainly used in packaging industries, pesticides and food constituents. Clinical evidence, experimental models, and epidemiological studies suggest that EDCs have major risks for humans by targeting different organs and systems in the body (e.g. reproductive system, breast tissue, adipose tissue, pancreas, etc.). Due to the ubiquity of human exposure to these compounds the aim of this review is to describe the most recent data on the effects induced by phthalates, bisphenol A and parabens in a critical window of exposure: in utero, during pregnancy, infants, and children. The interactions and mechanisms of toxicity of EDCs in relation to human general health problems, especially those broadening the term of endocrine disruption to 'metabolic disruption', should be deeply investigated. These include endocrine disturbances, with particular reference to reproductive problems and breast, testicular and ovarian cancers, and metabolic diseases such as obesity or diabetes.

  5. Endocrine disruption of cadmium in rats using the OECD enhanced TG 407 test system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng Juan; Liu, Zhao Ping; Jia, Xu Dong; Chen, Hao; Tan, Yan Jun

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the endocrine disrupting effects of cadmium (Cd) using OECD enhanced TG407 test guideline. Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into six groups and accordingly administered with 0, 1, 2.5, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg•BW/day of Cd by gavage for 28 days. Body weight, food consumption, hematology, biochemistry, sex hormone levels, urinary β2-microglobulin, organ weights and histopathology and estrous cycle were detected. Cd could significantly decrease animals' body weight (P<0.05). Serum luteinizing hormone (LH) at 10-20 mg/kg•BW groups and testosterone (T) at 2.5 and 10 mg/kg•BW groups decreased significantly (P<0.05). However, no statistically significant change was found in urinary β2-microglobulin among Cd-treatment groups (P>0.05). Endpoints related to female reproduction including uterus weight and histopathological change at 10-20 mg/kg•BW groups showed significant increase (P<0.05). While among male rats in 2.5, 10, 20 mg/kg•BW groups, weight of prostate, thyroids, and seminal vesicle glands significantly decreased (P<0.05). Moreover, no histopathological change was observed in kidney. Results suggested that Cd can cause endocrine disrupting effects in SD rats. Comparing with possible renal toxicity of Cd, its toxicity on endocrine system was more sensitive. Copyright © 2014 The Editorial Board of Biomedical and Environmental Sciences. Published by China CDC. All rights reserved.

  6. Ex situ bioengineering of bioartificial endocrine glands: a new frontier in regenerative medicine of soft tissue organs.

    PubMed

    Toni, Roberto; Tampieri, Anna; Zini, Nicoletta; Strusi, Valentina; Sandri, Monica; Dallatana, Davide; Spaletta, Giulia; Bassoli, Elena; Gatto, Andrea; Ferrari, Andrea; Martin, Ivan

    2011-10-20

    Ex situ bioengineering is one of the most promising perspectives in the field of regenerative medicine allowing for organ reconstruction outside the living body; i.e. on the laboratory bench. A number of hollow viscera of the cardiovascular, respiratory, genitourinary, and digestive systems have been successfully bioengineered ex situ, exploiting biocompatible scaffolds with a 3D morphology that recapitulates that of the native organ (organomorphic scaffold). In contrast, bioengineering of entire soft tissue organs and, in particular endocrine glands still remains a substantial challenge. Primary reasons are that no organomorphic scaffolding for endocrine viscera have as yet been entirely assembled using biocompatible materials, nor is there a bioreactor performance capable of supporting growth within the thickness range of the regenerating cell mass which has proven to be reliable enough to ensure formation of a complete macroscopic gland ex situ. Current technical options for reconstruction of endocrine viscera include either biocompatible 3D reticular scaffolds lacking any organomorphic geometry, or allogenic/xenogenic acellular 3D matrices derived from a gland similar to that to be bioengineered, eventually recellularized by autologous/heterologous cells. In 2007, our group designed, using biocompatible material, an organomorphic scaffold-bioreactor unit for bioengineering ex situ the human thyroid gland, chosen as a model for its simple anatomical organization (repetitive follicular cavities). This unit reproduces both the 3D native geometry of the human thyroid stromal/vascular scaffold, and the natural thyrocyte/vascular interface. It is now under intense investigation as an experimental tool to test cellular 3D auto-assembly of thyroid tissue and its related vascular system up to the ex situ generation of a 3D macroscopic thyroid gland. We believe that these studies will lay the groundwork for a new concept in regenerative medicine of soft tissue and

  7. [Endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal and pancreatic systems. Multiple endocrine adenoma from another viewpoint].

    PubMed

    Klempa, I; Helmstädter, V; Feurle, G; Röttger, P

    1980-05-01

    The 24 endocrine pancreatic tumors and 14 carcinoids were examined immunohistochemically for cholecystokinin, insulin, gastrin, GIP, glucagon, sercretin, VIP, motilin, neurotensin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, and ACTH. In 12 tumors of the pancreas more than one peptide-containing cell type was observed. The clinical symptoms showed hypersecretion of only one of the hormones, however. The midgut carcinoids (jejunum, appendix) represented the classical view of the carcinoid as an argentaffin cell tumor secreting 5-hydroxytryptamine. Tumors originating in the foregut (bronchus, stomach, duodenum) and hindgut carcinoids (rectum) were nonargentaffine, containing and secreting various polypeptide hormones. We conclude that light microscopic immunohistochemical methods are useful in distinguishing endocrine from nonendocrine tumors and multihormonal syndromes (MEA) in the classification of predominant hormone-secreting tumors.

  8. [The role of selenium in endocrine system diseases].

    PubMed

    Balázs, Csaba; Rácz, Károly

    2013-10-13

    Oxygen derived free radicals, generated by a number of cellular reactions, include superoxide anion, hydrogen peroxide and hydroxyl radicals. They exert their cytotoxic effects mainly via peroxidation of the cell membrane resulting in the loss of membrane integrity. The essential trace element, selenium exerts complex effects on the endocrine systems, partly due to its antioxidant capacity. Well-characterized selenoproteins include iodothyronine deiodinases, glutathione peroxidases and thioredoxin reductases involved in thyroid hormone metabolism and protection from oxidative damage. The value of selenium supplementation in autoimmune thyroid disorders has been investigated and most studies confirmed the beneficial effect of selenium supplementation in Hashimoto's and Graves's diseases. Recently, selenium proved to be effective in mild inflammatory orbitopathy. There are a number of reports about the effect of selenium in diabetes mellitus, but the data are controversial as both insulin-like and diabetes-inducing effects of selenium have been described. Selenium was successfully used in both female and male infertility of autoimmune origin.

  9. Insect Mating Behavior: Endocrine Control of a Chemical Communication System.

    PubMed

    Barth, R H

    1965-08-20

    Experiments on several species of moths and cockroaches indicate that the production of sex pheromone (a male attractant) in virgin females is under endocrine control in some species but not in others. The presence or absence of endocrine control over pheromone production may be correlated with the type of life cycle exhibited.

  10. In vivo endocrine disruption assessment of wastewater treatment plant effluents with small organisms.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Luis; Seriki, Kemi; Mateos, Stéphanie; Loire, Nicolas; Guédon, Nathalie; Lemkine, Gregory F; Demeneix, Barbara A; Tindall, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    Surface water receives a variety of micro-pollutants that could alter aquatic organisms' reproduction and development. It is known that a few nanograms per litre of these compounds can induce endocrine-disrupting effects in aquatic species. Many compounds are released daily in wastewater, and identifying the compounds responsible for inducing such disruption is difficult. Methods using biological analysis are therefore an alternative to chemical analysis, as the endocrine disruption potential of the stream as a whole is considered. To detect hormonal disruption of thyroid and oestrogenic functions, fluorescent Xenopus laevis tadpoles and medaka (Oryzias latipes) fish larvae bearing genetic constructs integrating hormonal responsive elements were used for physiological screens for potential endocrine disruption in streams from an urban wastewater treatment plant. The Xenopus model was used to assess thyroid disruption and the medaka model oestrogenic disruption in wastewater samples. Assays using the genetically modified organisms were conducted on 9 influent and 32 effluent samples. The thyroidal effect of wastewater was either reduced or removed by the treatment plant; no oestrogenic effect was detected in any of the wastewater samples.

  11. Endocrine Disruptors (Chapter 14) in Mammalian Toxicology Book

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...

  12. Endocrine Disruptors (Chapter 14) in Mammalian Toxicology Book

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous substances that alter endocrine system function(s) and consequently cause adverse health effects in intact organisms or its progeny. The endocrine system is important for a wide range of biological processes, from normal cell si...

  13. Proteomic Analysis of the Reproductive Organs of the Hermaphroditic Gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis Exposed to Different Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Giusti, Arnaud; Leprince, Pierre; Mazzucchelli, Gabriel; Thomé, Jean-Pierre; Lagadic, Laurent; Ducrot, Virginie; Joaquim-Justo, Célia

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have reported perturbations of mollusc reproduction following exposure to low concentrations (ng/L range) of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). However, the mechanisms of action of these molecules on molluscs are still poorly understood. Investigation of the modifications of protein expression in organisms exposed to chemicals using proteomic methods can provide a broader and more comprehensive understanding of adverse impacts of pollution on organisms than conventional biochemical biomarkers (e.g., heat-shock proteins, metallothioneins, GST, EROD). In this study we have investigated the impacts of four chemicals, which exhibit different endocrine disrupting properties in vertebrates, on the proteome of the hermaphroditic freshwater pulmonate gastropod Lymnaea stagnalis after 21 days of exposure. Testosterone, tributyltin, chlordecone and cyproterone acetate were chosen as tested compounds as they can induce adverse effects on the reproduction of this snail. The 2D-DIGE method was used to identify proteins whose expression was affected by these compounds. In addition to modifying the expression of proteins involved in the structure and function of the cytoskeleton, chemicals had impacts on the expression of proteins involved in the reproduction of L. stagnalis. Exposure to 19.2 µg/L of chlordecone increased the abundance of ovipostatin, a peptide transmitted during mating through seminal fluid, which reduces oviposition in this species. The expression of yolk ferritin, the vitellogenin equivalent in L. stagnalis, was reduced after exposure to 94.2 ng Sn/L of tributyltin. The identification of yolk ferritin and the modification of its expression in snails exposed to chemicals were refined using western blot analysis. Our results showed that the tested compounds influenced the abundance of yolk ferritin in the reproductive organs. Alteration in proteins involved in reproductive pathways (e.g., ovipostatin and yolk ferritin) could constitute relevant

  14. The endocrine and reproductive system: adverse effects of hormonally active substances?

    PubMed

    Greim, Helmut A

    2004-04-01

    Chemicals that have the intrinsic property to modulate or even disrupt the endocrine system are present in the human environment. Because it is the potency of such chemicals that determines the toxicologic relevance, assessment of the risk to human health must consider both the endocrine disrupting potential and the potency. Usually in vitro assays are applied to detect the potential of a hormone-like effect, and such data are considered useful to set priorities for additional testing and for mechanistic studies. However, such data allow only determination of relative potency of a chemical as compared with other xenobiotics, natural compounds, or endogenous hormones. Relevant information on the endocrine-disrupting potency can be taken only from in vivo assays, eg, the Hershberger (male reproductive organs) and uterotrophic (female reproductive organs) assays, the updated versions of the 28- and 90-day toxicity studies in rodents, and the 2-generation studies in rodents. With the use of this information and the concentration of these chemicals in humans, the potency of the effect as compared with endogenous hormone activity can be estimated. So far, the relative potencies of chemicals tested in in vitro systems as compared with estradiol are several orders of magnitude smaller, whereas potency of the phytoestrogen, eg, isoflavones such as genistein or daidzein, can even exceed that of estradiol, especially in infants who are fed soy-based formula as a sole source of nutrition. Although there are still open questions regarding in utero or early postnatal exposure, the low potencies and concentrations of manmade chemicals as compared with the endogenous hormones in humans make it unlikely that adverse effects occur at common exposure.

  15. Catecholamines, cardiac natriuretic peptides and chromogranin A: evolution and physiopathology of a 'whip-brake' system of the endocrine heart.

    PubMed

    Tota, Bruno; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Gattuso, Alfonsina

    2010-09-15

    In the past 50 years, extensive evidence has shown the ability of vertebrate cardiac non-neuronal cells to synthesize and release catecholamines (CA). This formed the mindset behind the search for the intrinsic endocrine heart properties, culminating in 1981 with the discovery of the natriuretic peptides (NP). CA and NP, co-existing in the endocrine secretion granules and acting as major cardiovascular regulators in health and disease, have become of great biomedical relevance for their potent diagnostic and therapeutic use. The concept of the endocrine heart was later enriched by the identification of a growing number of cardiac hormonal substances involved in organ modulation under normal and stress-induced conditions. Recently, chromogranin A (CgA), a major constituent of the secretory granules, and its derived cardio-suppressive and antiadrenergic peptides, vasostatin-1 and catestatin, were shown as new players in this framework, functioning as cardiac counter-regulators in 'zero steady-state error' homeostasis, particularly under intense excitatory stimuli, e.g. CA-induced myocardial stress. Here, we present evidence for the hypothesis that is gaining support, particularly among human cardiologists. The actions of CA, NP and CgA, we argue, may be viewed as a hallmark of the cardiac capacity to organize 'whip-brake' connection-integration processes in spatio-temporal networks. The involvement of the nitric oxide synthase (NOS)/nitric oxide (NO) system in this configuration is discussed. The use of fish and amphibian paradigms will illustrate the ways that incipient endocrine-humoral agents have evolved as components of cardiac molecular loops and important intermediates during evolutionary transitions, or in a distinct phylogenetic lineage, or under stress challenges. This may help to grasp the old evolutionary roots of these intracardiac endocrine/paracrine networks and how they have evolved from relatively less complicated designs. The latter can also be used

  16. [Chronic heart failure and cachexia: role of endocrine system].

    PubMed

    Dei Cas, A; Muoio, A; Zavaroni, I

    2011-12-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is a major health problem that carries a devastating prognosis. The prognosis worsens considerably once cardiac cachexia has been diagnosed. Neurohormonal, metabolic, hemodynamic and immunological alterations are involved in the initiation and progression of cardiac cachexia. Cachexia is characterized by a hypothalamic inappropriate response to the mechanisms controlling energy homeostasis. Levels of the anorexigenic hormone leptin are decreased whereas the orexigenic gherlin hormone levels are normal or elevated. Nevertheless, energy intake is not increased as expected due to a persistent activation of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) system (anorexigenic) paralleled by a decreased activity of the neuropeptide Y (NPY, orexigenic) neurons. Cachexia is also characterized by an imbalance in anabolic (impairment in the growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-I axis, insulin resistance) and catabolic (increased levels of catecholamines, increased cortisol/dehydroepiandrosterone ratio and activation of proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleuchin-6, interleuchin-1') at the basis of the wasting process. This review discusses the complex role of the endocrine system in modulating energy balance, appetite and metabolism in patients with chronic heart failure. A joint multidisciplinary effort of the cardiologists, immunologists and endocrinologists might be useful to identify the precise mechanisms involved in the neuroendocrine alteration and to develop therapeutic strategies able to improve the prognosis of CHF patients.

  17. Vitamin D endocrine system involvement in autoimmune rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Pizzorni, Carmen; Sulli, Alberto

    2011-12-01

    Vitamin D is synthesized from cholesterol in the skin (80-90%) under the sunlight and then metabolized into an active D hormone in liver, kidney and peripheral immune/inflammatory cells. These endocrine-immune effects include also the coordinated activities of the vitamin D-activating enzyme, 1alpha-hydroxylase (CYP27B1), and the vitamin D receptor (VDR) on cells of the immune system in mediating intracrine and paracrine actions. Vitamin D is implicated in prevention and protection from chronic infections (i.e. tubercolosis), cancer (i.e. breast cancer) and autoimmune rheumatic diseases since regulates both innate and adaptive immunity potentiating the innate response (monocytes/macrophages with antimicrobial activity and antigen presentation), but suppressing the adaptive immunity (T and B lymphocyte functions). Vitamin D has modulatory effects on B lymphocytes and Ig production and recent reports have demonstrated that 1,25(OH)2D3 does indeed exert direct effects on B cell homeostasis. A circannual rhythm of trough vitamin D levels in winter and peaks in summer time showed negative correlation with clinical status at least in rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus. Recently, the onset of symptoms of early arthritis during winter or spring have been associated with greater radiographic evidence of disease progression at 12 months possibly are also related to seasonal lower vitamin D serum levels. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals-Mechanisms of action on male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Sidorkiewicz, Iwona; Zaręba, Kamil; Wołczyński, Sławomir; Czerniecki, Jan

    2017-07-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that can cause disturbances in the endocrine system and have multiple harmful effects on health by targeting different organs and systems in the human body. Mass industrial production and widespread use of EDCs have resulted in worldwide contamination. Accumulating evidence suggest that human exposure to EDCs is related to the impairment of male reproductive function and can interrupt other hormonally regulated metabolic processes, particularly if exposure occurs during early development. Investigation of studies absent in previous reviews and meta-analysis of adverse effects of EDCs on functioning of the male reproductive system is the core of this work. Four main modes of action of EDCs on male fertility have been summarized in this review. First, studies describing estrogen- pathway disturbing chemicals are investigated. Second, androgen-signaling pathway alterations and influence on androgen sensitive tissues are examined. Third, evaluation of steroidogenesis dysfunction is discussed by focusing on the steroid hormone biosynthesis pathway, which is targeted by EDCs. Last, the reportedly destructive role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on sperm function is discussed. Spermatogenesis is a remarkably complex process, hence multiple studies point out various dysfunctions depending on the development state at which the exposure occurred. Collected data show the need to account for critical windows of exposure such as fetal, perinatal and pubertal periods as well as effects of mixtures of several compounds in future research.

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi: histopathology of endocrine system in immunocompromised mice.

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, K. S.; Lagrange, P. H.; da Costa, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally immunocompromised athymic mice, neonatal mice and adult outbred OFI mice treated with the immunosuppressive agents cyclophosphamide (CY), dexamethasone (DM) and indomethacin (IM) were infected with trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi Y and CL strains. 10(4) parasites were used, except in the case of IM treatment, where mice received 10(3) trypomastigotes in one group and 10(5) in another. The course of parasitaemia, tissue distribution of amastigotes and time of mortality were compared with an infected thymus intact control group. Neonate and indomethacin treated mice presented the same pattern of parasitaemia. Death occurred as early as 9-10 days after infection. A single dose of CY 200 mg/kg given 5 days after infection enhanced the parasitaemia and increased the number of parasites in the tissues. All groups were similar in terms of colonization of the endocrine system by parasites and the adrenals showed the highest density of amastigotes nests. The thyroid gland (analysed only in neonates) showed intense amastigote accumulation. Colonization of the ovary was observed with amastigotes in both the theca interna and in the stroma. The testes (also examined only in the neonate) showed that the interstitial cells, the tunica albuginea of the seminiferous tubules and the loose connective tissue were infected. Athymic nude mice showed the most intense parasite colonization of the islets of Langerhans. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7734334

  20. [Reaction of the endocrine system to continuous and intermittent electromagnetic fields].

    PubMed

    Zagorskaia, E A

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews Soviet and foreign data about the effects of low frequency electromagnetic fields of continuous and intermittent generation on the endocrine system of animals and humans. It has been shown that the pituitary-adrenal, pituitary-thyroid and reproductive systems are sensitive to these effects. It is postulated that the endocrine responses to electromagnetic effects are similar to the general adaptive reactions to various pathophysiological exposures.

  1. Endocrine Effects of Circadian Disruption.

    PubMed

    Bedrosian, Tracy A; Fonken, Laura K; Nelson, Randy J

    2016-01-01

    Disruption of circadian rhythms, provoked by artificial lighting at night, inconsistent sleep-wake schedules, and transmeridian air travel, is increasingly prevalent in modern society. Desynchrony of biological rhythms from environmental light cycles has dramatic consequences for human health. In particular, disrupting homeostatic oscillations in endocrine tissues and the hormones that these tissues regulate can have cascading effects on physiology and behavior. Accumulating evidence suggests that chronic disruption of circadian organization of endocrine function may lead to metabolic, reproductive, sleep, and mood disorders. This review discusses circadian control of endocrine systems and the consequences of distorting rhythmicity of these systems.

  2. [Dementia due to Endocrine Diseases].

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Akiko; Yoneda, Makoto

    2016-04-01

    Endocrine diseases affecting various organs, such as the pituitary gland, the thyroid, the parathyroid, the adrenal glands and the pancreas, occasionally cause dementia. While Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the main cause of dementia in the elderly and is untreatable, dementia caused by endocrine diseases is treatable in most cases. However, patients with dementia associated with endocrine diseases show memory impairments similar to those found in AD, often leading to misdiagnoses. Patients with endocrine diseases often present with other characteristic systemic and neuropsychiatric symptoms caused by altered hormone levels. Such neuropsychiatric symptoms include involuntary movements, depression, seizures, and muscle weakness. In these cases, abnormalities in imaging and blood or urine tests are helpful in making a differential diagnosis. As delays in the diagnosis and treatment of these patients may cause irreversible brain damage, it is imperative for clinicians to carefully exclude the possibility of latent endocrine diseases when treating patients with dementia.

  3. Radiologic manifestations in the musculoskeletal system of miscellaneous endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Chew, F S

    1991-01-01

    The manifestations of endocrine derangements in the musculoskeletal system in infancy and childhood are disturbances in growth and maturation and in adulthood are disturbances in maintenance and metabolism. Hypercortisolism during skeletal immaturity suppresses growth. In the adult, hypercortisolism leads to osteoporosis, osteonecrosis, and muscle wasting. Deficiency of growth hormone during skeletal development results in short stature. An excess of growth hormone in a skeletally immature individual results in gigantism, an excess in a skeletally mature individual results in acromegaly. Patients with gigantism have extreme height with normal body proportions. Musculoskeletal manifestations of acromegaly include soft-tissue thickening, vertebral body enlargement, characteristic hand and foot changes, and enthesal bony proliferation. Hyperthyroidism causes catabolism of protein and loss of connective tissue, which manifest as muscle wasting. Deficient levels of thyroid hormone cause defects in growth and development. Severe growth retardation from congenital hypothyroidism is rare because neonatal screening recognizes the disorder and leads to early treatment. The skeletal manifestation of hypergonadism in children is precocious growth and early skeletal maturation. Although the initial precocious growth spurt results in a tall child, early closure of the growth plates results in a short adult. Hypogonadism in the prepubertal child results in delayed adolescence and delayed skeletal maturation. Diabetes mellitus in childhood results in decreased growth, a phenomenon presumed to be secondary to nutritional abnormalities. Generalized osteoporosis and short stature are common. In the adult, generalized osteoporosis may accompany insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus if obesity is absent. Calcification of interdigital arteries of the foot is common in diabetics and uncommon in other conditions. Additional skeletal manifestations relate to complications of diabetes such as

  4. Early and late endocrine effects in pediatric central nervous system diseases.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Ivy R; Cheung, Clement C

    2014-01-01

    Endocrinopathies are frequently linked to central nervous system disease, both as early effects prior to the disease diagnosis and/or late effects after the disease has been treated. In particular, tumors and infiltrative diseases of the brain and pituitary, such as craniopharyngioma, optic pathway and hypothalamic gliomas, intracranial germ cell tumor, and Langerhans cell histiocytosis, can present with abnormal endocrine manifestations that precede the development of neurological symptoms. Early endocrine effects include diabetes insipidus, growth failure, obesity, and precocious or delayed puberty. With improving prognosis and treatment of childhood brain tumors, many survivors experience late endocrine effects related to medical and surgical interventions. Chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary axes governing growth, thyroid, gonadal, and adrenal function. In addition, obesity and metabolic alterations are frequent late manifestations. Diagnosing and treating both early and late endocrine manifestations can dramatically improve the growth, well-being, and quality of life of patients with childhood central nervous system diseases.

  5. The Endocrine System [and] Instructor's Guide: The Endocrine System. Health Occupations Education Module: Instructional Materials in Anatomy and Physiology for Pennsylvania Health Occupations Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Evaluation Systems, Inc., Amherst, MA.

    This module on the endocrine system is one of 17 modules designed for individualized instruction in health occupations education programs at both the secondary and postsecondary levels. It is part of an eight-unit miniseries on anatomy and physiology within the series of 17 modules. Following a preface which explains to the student how to use the…

  6. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The endocrine system produces hormones which are powerful natural chemicals that regulate important life processes. Endocrine disruptors are human-made chemicals distributed globally which have the potential to interfere with the endocrine system and produce serious biological e...

  7. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The endocrine system produces hormones which are powerful natural chemicals that regulate important life processes. Endocrine disruptors are human-made chemicals distributed globally which have the potential to interfere with the endocrine system and produce serious biological e...

  8. [State of the endocrine system in rats of various ages under immobilization stress and influence of adaptogenic biomos].

    PubMed

    Alesina, M Iu; Sukachova, O O; Zilberman, S Ts; Konovalenko, O O; Nesterenko, G O; Beskrovnyĭ, O M

    1993-01-01

    The effect of administration, of BIOMOS-VJ on the concentration of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, corticosterone, insulin and glucose in the blood serum of the normal state and under conditions of immobilization stress of young and aged Wistar's rats has been studied. The experiments have shown that the administration of preparation prevents the appearance of disturbances in endocrine system of the organism typical of stress such as a decrease in concentration of thyroid hormones and insulin and also a considerable increase in corticosterone and glucose concentration in the blood serum. On the basis of the results indicating the influence of BIOMOS-VJ on the endocrine system of young and aged Wistar's rats it is assumed that this preparation has gero-protected properties.

  9. Medical Consequences of Chernobyl with Focus on the Endocrine System - Part 2.

    PubMed

    Foley, Thomas P; Límanová, Zdeňka; Potluková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    In the last 70 years, atomic disasters have occurred several times. The nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in North-Central Ukraine was a unique experience in population exposures to radiation by all ages, and ongoing studies have brought a large amount of information effects of radiation on human organism. Concerning the deteriorating global security situation and the strong rhetoric of some of the world leaders, the knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the preventive measures designed to decrease the detrimental effects of radiation gains a new dimension, and involves all of us. This review focuses on the long-term effects of Chernobyl catastrophe especially on the endocrine system in children and in adults, and includes a summary of preventive measures in case of an atomic disaster.

  10. Medical consequences of Chernobyl with focus on the endocrine system: Part 1.

    PubMed

    Foley, Thomas P; Límanová, Zdeňka; Potluková, Eliška

    2015-01-01

    In the last 70 years, atomic disasters have occurred several times. The nuclear power plant accident at Chernobyl in 1986 in North-Central Ukraine was a unique experience in population exposures to radiation by all ages, and ongoing studies have brought a large amount of information on effects of radiation on human organism. Concerning the deteriorating global security situation and the strong rhetoric of some of the world leaders, the knowledge on the biological effects of ionizing radiation and the preventive measures designed to decrease the detrimental effects of radiation gains a new dimension, and involves all of us. This review focuses on the long-term effects of Chernobyl catastrophe especially on the endocrine system in children and in adults, and includes a summary of preventive measures in case of an atomic disaster.

  11. TNM staging of foregut (neuro)endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system

    PubMed Central

    Klöppel, G.; Alhman, H.; Caplin, M.; Couvelard, A.; de Herder, W. W.; Erikssson, B.; Falchetti, A.; Falconi, M.; Komminoth, P.; Körner, M.; Lopes, J. M.; McNicol, A-M.; Nilsson, O.; Perren, A.; Scarpa, A.; Scoazec, J-Y.; Wiedenmann, B.

    2006-01-01

    The need for standards in the management of patients with endocrine tumors of the digestive system prompted the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS) to organize a first Consensus Conference, which was held in Frascati (Rome) and was based on the recently published ENETS guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of digestive neuroendocrine tumors (NET). Here, we report the tumor–node–metastasis proposal for foregut NETs of the stomach, duodenum, and pancreas that was designed, discussed, and consensually approved at this conference. In addition, we report the proposal for a working formulation for the grading of digestive NETs based on mitotic count and Ki-67 index. This proposal, which needs to be validated, is meant to help clinicians in the stratification, treatment, and follow-up of patients. PMID:16967267

  12. Vitamin D endocrine system after short-term space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoten, William B. (Principal Investigator); Sergeev, Igor N. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    The exposure of the body to microgravity during space flight causes a series of well-documented changes in Ca(2+) metabolism, yet the cellular/molecular mechanisms leading to these changes are poorly understood. There is some evidence for microgravity-induced alterations in the vitamin D endocrine system, which is known to be primarily involved in the regulation of Ca(2+) metabolism. Vitamin D-dependent Ca(2+) binding proteins, or calbindins, are believed to have a significant role in maintaining cellular Ca(2+) homeostasis. We used immunocytochemical, biochemical and molecular approaches to analyze the expression of calbindin-D(sub 28k) and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in kidneys and intestines of rats flown for 9 days aboard the Spacelab 3 mission. The effects of microgravity on calbindins in rats in space vs. 'grounded' animals (synchronous Animal Enclosure Module controls and tail suspension controls) were compared. Exposure to microgravity resulted in a significant decrease in calbindin-D(sub 28k) content in kidneys and calbindin-D(sub 9k) in the intestine of flight and suspended animals, as measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Immunocytochemistry (ICC) in combination with quantitative computer image analysis was used to measure in situ the expression of calbindins in kidneys and intestine, and insulin in pancreas. There was a large decrease in the distal tubular cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 28k) and absorptive cell-associated calbindin-D(sub 9k) immunoreactivity in the space and suspension kidneys and intestine, as compared with matched ground controls. No consistent differences in pancreatic insulin immunoreactivity between space, suspension and ground controls was observed. There were significant correlations between results by quantitative ICC and ELISA. Western blot analysis showed no consistent changes in the low levels of intestinal and renal vitamin D receptors. These findings suggest that a decreased expression of calbindins after a short

  13. [New approaches in obesity treatment: the gastrointestinal tract as an endocrine organ].

    PubMed

    Silveira Rodríguez, Manuela Belén; Gómez-Pan, Antonio; Carraro Casieri, Raffaele

    2006-09-02

    The gastrointestinal tract, besides digesting and processing nutrients, is now regarded as an endocrine organ able to modulate appetite, satiety, and carbohydrate metabolism. Several enteroendocrine cells produce numerous peptides codifying either orexigenic (ghrelin, orexins) or anorexigenic signals (pancreatic polypeptide, peptide YY, cholecystokinin, amylin, bombesin homologs, apolipoprotein A-IV, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, oxyntomodulin), which interact in a complex network with other peripheral signals of energy balance and with different neuropeptides involved in the central control of appetite and energy homeostasis. The growing knowledge of the actions of these gastrointestinal peptides on appetite regulation and carbohydrate metabolism, and subsequent synthesis of analogs, particularly those derived from amylin and incretins, herald a new era in the therapy of 2 closely related diseases, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  14. Skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ: PGC-1α, myokines and exercise

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Svenia; Handschin, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    An active lifestyle is crucial to maintain health into old age; inversely, sedentariness has been linked to an elevated risk for many chronic diseases. The discovery of myokines, hormones produced by skeletal muscle tissue, suggests the possibility that these might be molecular mediators of the whole body effects of exercise originating from contracting muscle fibers. Even though less is known about the sedentary state, the lack of contraction-induced myokines or the production of a distinct set of hormones in the inactive muscle could likewise contribute to pathological consequences in this context. In this review, we try to summarize the most recent developments in the study of muscle as an endocrine organ and speculate about the potential impact on our understanding of exercise and sedentary physiology, respectively. PMID:26453501

  15. Effect of endocrine disruptor pesticides: a review.

    PubMed

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-06-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health.

  16. Effect of Endocrine Disruptor Pesticides: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Mnif, Wissem; Hassine, Aziza Ibn Hadj; Bouaziz, Aicha; Bartegi, Aghleb; Thomas, Olivier; Roig, Benoit

    2011-01-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are compounds that alter the normal functioning of the endocrine system of both wildlife and humans. A huge number of chemicals have been identified as endocrine disruptors, among them several pesticides. Pesticides are used to kill unwanted organisms in crops, public areas, homes and gardens, and parasites in medicine. Human are exposed to pesticides due to their occupations or through dietary and environmental exposure (water, soil, air). For several years, there have been enquiries about the impact of environmental factors on the occurrence of human pathologies. This paper reviews the current knowledge of the potential impacts of endocrine disruptor pesticides on human health. PMID:21776230

  17. Update on the biologic role of the vitamin D endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Dusso, Adriana S

    2014-03-01

    The integrity of the vitamin D endocrine system is essential for human health. Nutritional vitamin D deficiency in otherwise healthy individuals, associates with a higher risk of mortality for all causes, despite normal serum calcitriol. These deadly causes extend beyond the recognized adverse impact of vitamin D deficiency on calcium and phosphate homeostasis predisposing to secondary hyperparathyroidism, bone loss and vascular calcification. Vitamin D deficiency also associates with an early onset of disorders of aging, including hypertension, proteinuria, insulin resistance, immune abnormalities that enhance the propensity for viral and bacterial infections, autoimmune disorders, cancer, and multiple organ damage due to excessive systemic inflammation causing atherosclerosis, vascular stiffness, renal lesions, and impaired DNA-damage responses. The frequency and severity of all of these disorders markedly increase in chronic kidney disease (CKD) because the kidney is essential to maintain serum levels of calcitriol, the most potent endogenous endocrine activator of the vitamin D receptor (VDR), and also of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, for local rather than systemic VDR activation. The goal of this review is to update the current understanding of the pathophysiology behind the classical and non-classical actions of VDR activation that help prevent the onset and/or attenuate the progression of renal and cardiovascular damage in CKD. This knowledge is essential to identify non-invasive, sensitive and accurate biomarkers of the severity of these disorders, a first step to generate evidence-based recommendations for a safe correction of vitamin D and/or calcitriol deficiency in the course of CKD that effectively improves outcomes.

  18. Further EST analysis of endocrine genes that are preferentially expressed in the neural complex of Ciona intestinalis: receptor and enzyme genes associated with endocrine system in the neural complex.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Toshio; Kawashima, Takeshi; Satou, Yutaka; Satoh, Nori

    2007-01-15

    Identification of orthologs of vertebrate neuropeptides and hypothalamic hormones in the neural complex of ascidians suggests integral roles of the ascidian neural complex in the endocrine system. In the present study, we investigated endocrine-related genes expressed in the neural complex of Ciona intestinalis. Comprehensive analyses of 3'-end sequences of the neural complex cDNAs placed 10,029 clones into 4051 independent clusters or genes, 1524 of them being expressed preferentially in this organ. Comparison of the 1524 genes with the human proteome databank demonstrated that 476 matched previously identified human proteins with distinct functions. Further analyses of sequence similarity of the 476 genes demonstrated that 21 genes are candidates for those involved in the endocrine system. Although we cannot detect hormone or peptide candidates, we found 21 genes such as receptors for peptide ligands, receptor-modulating proteins, and processing enzymes. We then characterized the Ciona prohormone convertase 2 (Ci-PC2) and carboxypeptidase E (Ci-CPE), which are associated with endoproteolytic processing of peptide hormone precursors. Furthermore, genes encoding these transcripts are expressed specifically in the neural complex of young adult ascidians. These data provide the molecular basis for further functional studies of the endocrine role of the neural complex of ascidians.

  19. [Outstanding problems of normal and pathological morphology of the diffuse endocrine system].

    PubMed

    Iaglov, V V; Iaglova, N V

    2011-01-01

    The diffuse endocrine system (DES)--a mosaic-cellular endoepithelial gland--is the biggest part of the human endocrine system. Scientists used to consider cells of DES as neuroectodermal. According to modem data cells of DES are different cytogenetic types because they develop from the different embryonic blastophyllum. So that any hormone-active tumors originated from DES of the digestive, respiratory and urogenital system shouldn't be considered as neuroendocrinal tumors. The basic problems of DES morphology and pathology are the creation of scientifically substantiated histogenetic classification of DES tumors.

  20. The bioartificial thyroid: a biotechnological perspective in endocrine organ engineering for transplantation replacement.

    PubMed

    Toni, Roberto; Casa, Claudia Della; Spaletta, Giulia; Marchetti, Giacomo; Mazzoni, Perseo; Bodria, Monica; Ravera, Simone; Dallatana, Davide; Castorina, Sergio; Riccioli, Vincenzo; Castorina, Emilio Giovanni; Antoci, Salvatore; Campanile, Enrico; Raise, Gabriella; Scalise, Gabriella; Rossi, Raffaella; Rossio, Raffaella; Ugolotti, Giorgio; Ugolottio, Giorgio; Martorella, Andrew; Roti, Elio; Rot, Elio; Sgallari, Fiorella; Pinchera, Aldo

    2007-01-01

    A new concept for ex situ endocrine organ bioengineering is presented, focused on the realization of a human bioartificial thyroid gland. It is based on the theoretical assumption and experimental evidence that symmetries in geometrical coordinates of the thyroid tissue remain invariant with respect to developmental, physiological or pathophysiological transformations occuring in the gland architecture. This topological arrangement is dependent upon physical connections established between cells, cell adhesion molecules and extracellular matrix, leading to the view that the thyroid parenchyma behaves like a deformable "putty", moulded onto an elastic stromal/vascular scaffold (SVS) dictating the final morphology of the gland. In particular, we have raised the idea that the geometry of the SVS per se provides pivotal epigenetic information to address the genetically-programmed, thyrocyte and endothelial/vascular proliferation and differentiation towards a functionally mature gland, making organ form a pre-requirementfor organ function. A number of experimental approaches are explored to obtain a reliable replica of a human thyroid SVS, and an informatic simulation is designed based on fractal growth of the thyroid intraparenchymal arterial tree. Various tissue-compatible and degradable synthetic or biomimetic polymers are discussed to act as a template of the thyroid SVS, onto which to co-seed autologous human thyrocyte (TPC) and endothelial/vascular (EVPC) progenitor cells. Harvest and expansion of both TPC and EVPC in primary culture are considered, with specific attention to the selection of normal thyrocytes growing at a satisfactory rate to colonize the synthetic matrix. In addition, both in vitro and in vivo techniques to authenticate TPC and EVPC lineage differentiation are reviewed, including immunocytochemistry, reverse trascriptase-polymerase chain reaction, flow cytomery and proteomics. Finally, analysis of viability of the thyroid construct following

  1. Autoreactive T cells in endocrine/organ-specific autoimmunity: why has progress been so slow?

    PubMed

    Roep, Bart O

    2002-12-01

    It has been generally accepted that T cells play a critical role in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Immunotherapy aimed at T cells usually intervenes in the disease process. Yet, it has proven very difficult to identify the pathogenic T cells. This is partly caused by lack of measures to detect autoreactive T cells in a specific, sensitive and reproducible fashion as is achievable for determination of autoantibodies. There are, however, more explanations for the perhaps disappointing progress in this area: unlike autoantibodies, the relevant (disease-associated) autoreactive T cells act in the tissue lesion, and only circulate in very low precursor frequencies. Moreover, T cell autoreactivity is counteracted by various mechanisms of immune regulation. Candidate target autoantigens of T cells have been identified by autoantibodies, while there is little evidence that these autoantibodies are pathogenic. It is therefore conceivable that additional T cell targets exist. Finally, results from experimental animal models of endocrine autoimmunity have raised false expectations. Nonetheless, significant progress in our understanding of the contribution of (autoreactive) T cells to organ-specific destruction and autoimmune disease has been achieved. Although cross-sectional detection of autoreactive T cells bears little relevance to diagnosis, longitudinal studies have proven useful in determining the fate of islet implantation in type 1 diabetes patients, defined the immunological efficacy of immuno-intervention studies, and have led to definition of relevant target autoantigens and peptides that will help to monitor disease-associated autoimmunity. In conclusion, progress in the area of autoreactive T cells in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes may have seemed slow in the eyes of the beholder, but in fact, studies on T cells have contributed significantly to the unravelling of the pathogenic processes leading to the definition of appropriate targets for immuno-intervention.

  2. [Intracellular signal transduction of endocrine organs and expanded DNA fragment size in myotonic dystrophy].

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, M; Hasegawa, T; Komori, T; Hirose, K; Tanabe, H

    1995-06-01

    The Ellsworth-Howard (EH) test was performed in 16 patients with myotonic dystrophy (DM), who were divided into two groups according to serum calcium level; Group I showing normal serum calcium (8 patients) and Group II with hypocalcemia (8 patients). Patients in Group II were recognized as having pseudohypoparathyroidism (PHP) type II and those in Group I as normal. Therefore, it was suggested that an abnormality of A kinase might be present in Group II patients. We additionally performed the thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) tolerance test in the same patients and 7 normal controls to examine an abnormality of C kinase. delta TSH (delta TSH: peak minus pre TSH) values in DM patients were significantly lower than those in normal controls. Moreover, delta TSH values in Group II were significantly lower than those in Group I. It was suggested that the abnormality of C kinase might be present in Group II patients. Taken together, our results indicated that some patients with DM might possess abnormalities of signal transduction of both A and C kinases. We compared the degree of endocrine involvement determined by both the EH test and the TRH tolerance test with expanded DNA fragment (EF) size determined by standard Southern blot analysis using an appropriate cDNA probe (cDNA25 probe). There was significant negative correlation between EF size and the results of the EH test and negative correlation between the EF size and the results of the TRH tolerance test. These findings suggested that EF size might be correlated with disease severity in affected endocrine organs.

  3. Cadmium in vivo exposure alters stress response and endocrine-related genes in the freshwater snail Physa acuta. New biomarker genes in a new model organism.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Paz, Pedro; Morales, Mónica; Sánchez-Argüello, Paloma; Morcillo, Gloria; Martínez-Guitarte, José Luis

    2017-01-01

    The freshwater snail Physa acuta is a sensitive organism to xenobiotics that is appropriate for toxicity testing. Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal with known toxic effects on several organisms, which include endocrine disruption and activation of the cellular stress responses. There is scarce genomic information on P. acuta; hence, in this work, we identify several genes related to the hormonal system, the stress response and the detoxification system to evaluate the effects of Cd. The transcriptional activity of the endocrine-related genes oestrogen receptor (ER), oestrogen-related receptor (ERR), and retinoid X receptor (RXR), the heat shock proteins genes hsp70 and hsp90 and a metallothionein (MT) gene was analysed in P. acuta exposed to Cd. In addition, the hsp70 and hsp90 genes were also evaluated after heat shock treatment. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that Cd presence induced a significant increase in the mRNA levels of ER, ERR and RXR, suggesting a putative mode of action that could explain the endocrine disruptor activity of this heavy metal at the molecular level on Gastropoda. Moreover, the hsp70 gene was upregulated after 24-h Cd treatment, but the hsp90 gene expression was not affected. In contrast, the hsp70 and hsp90 genes were strongly upregulated during heat shock response. Finally, the MT gene expression showed a non-significant variability after Cd exposure. In conclusion, this study provides, for the first time, information about the effects of Cd on the endocrine system of Gastropoda at the molecular level and offers new putative biomarker genes that could be useful in ecotoxicological studies, risk assessment and bioremediation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Influences of the environment on the endocrine and paracrine fish growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor-I system.

    PubMed

    Reinecke, M

    2010-04-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a key component of the complex system that regulates differentiation, development, growth and reproduction of fishes. The IGF-I gene is mainly expressed in the liver that represents the principal source of endocrine IGF-I but also in numerous other organs where the hormone most probably acts in an autocrine-paracrine manner. The primary stimulus for synthesis and release of IGF-I is growth hormone (GH) from the anterior pituitary. Thus, in analogy to mammals, it is usual to speak of a fish 'GH-IGF-I axis'. The GH-IGF-I system is affected by changes in the environment and probably represents a target of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDC) that impair many physiological processes in fishes. Thus, the review deals with the influences of changes in different environmental factors, such as food availability, temperature, photoperiod, season, salinity and EDCs, on GH gene expression in pituitary, IGF-I gene expression in liver and extrahepatic sites and the physiological effects resulting from the evoked alterations in endocrine and local IGF-I. Environmental influences certainly interact with each other but for convenience of the reader they will be dealt with in separate sections. Current trends in GH-IGF-I research are analysed and future focuses are suggested at the end of the sections.

  5. Fate of endocrine disrupters in waste stabilization pond systems.

    PubMed

    Gomez, E; Wang, X; Dagnino, S; Leclercq, M; Escande, A; Casellas, C; Picot, B; Fenet, H

    2007-01-01

    The performance in the removal of estrogenicity from wastewater was studied in three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Different treatment processes were evaluated: stabilization ponds and trickling filter. Sampling was performed from the input to the output of the treatment systems. The total estrogenic activity was determined with MCF-7-derived cell lines which express the endogenous estrogen receptor alpha. The two wastewater stabilization ponds with long retention time had high removal of estrogenicity (90% to 95%). Trickling filters despite being effective at removing organic load were less effective in removing estrogenicity (42%), and post tertiary ponds enhanced estrogenicity removal.

  6. Genes expressed in the ring gland, the major endocrine organ of Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Harvie, P D; Filippova, M; Bryant, P J

    1998-01-01

    We have used an enhancer-trap approach to begin characterizing the function of the Drosophila endocrine system during larval development. Five hundred and ten different lethal PZ element insertions were screened to identify those in which a reporter gene within the P element showed strong expression in part or all of the ring gland, the major site of production and release of developmental hormones, and which had a mutant phenotype consistent with an endocrine defect. Nine strong candidate genes were identified in this screen, and eight of these are expressed in the lateral cells of the ring gland that produce ecdysteroid molting hormone (EC). We have confirmed that the genes detected by these enhancer traps are expressed in patterns similar to those detected by the reporter gene. Two of the genes encode proteins, protein kinase A and calmodulin, that have previously been implicated in the signaling pathway leading to EC synthesis and release in other insects. A third gene product, the translational elongation factor EF-1alpha F1, could play a role in the translational regulation of EC production. The screen also identified the genes couch potato and tramtrack, previously known from their roles in peripheral nervous system development, as being expressed in the ring gland. One enhancer trap revealed expression of the gene encoding the C subunit of vacuolar ATPase (V-ATPase) in the medial cells of the ring gland, which produce the juvenile hormone that controls progression through developmental stages. This could reveal a function of V-ATPase in the response of this part of the ring gland to adenotropic neuropeptides. However, the gene identified by this enhancer trap is ubiquitously expressed, suggesting that the enhancer trap is detecting only a subset of its control elements. The results show that the enhancer trap approach can be a productive way of exploring tissue-specific genetic functions in Drosophila. PMID:9584098

  7. Effects of Anorexia Nervosa on the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Baskaran, Charumathi; Misra, Madhusmita; Klibanski, Anne

    2017-03-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is characterized by severe undernutrition associated with alterations in multiple endocrine axes, which are primarily adaptive to the state of caloric deprivation. Hormonal changes include growth hormone (GH) resistance with low insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) levels, hypothalamic hypogonadism, relative hypercortisolemia and changes in appetite regulating hormones, including leptin, ghrelin, and peptide YY. These alterations contribute to abnormalities in bone metabolism leading to low bone mass, impaired bone microarchitecture, and increased risk for fracture, and may also negatively impact cognition, emotions and mood. The best strategy to improve all biologic outcomes is weight and menstrual recovery. Physiological estrogen replacement improves bone accrual rates and measures of trait anxiety in adolescents with AN. Other therapies including testosterone and IGF-1 replacement, and use of DHEA with oral estrogen-progesterone combination pills, bisphosphonates and teriparatide have also been studied to improve bone outcomes. Copyright© of YS Medical Media ltd.

  8. Impact of Endocrine Disruptors on the Thyroid Hormone System.

    PubMed

    Gutleb, Arno C; Cambier, Sébastien; Serchi, Tommaso

    2016-01-01

    The thyroid hormone (TH) system plays a central role in central physiological processes of many species, including mammals and humans, ranging from growth and cell differentiation, energy metabolism, thermoregulation and phasing of hibernation or annual movements of migratory species, metamorphosis from larvae to adult forms, brain development, reproduction, or the cardiovascular system. Several chemicals are known to be TH-disrupting compounds (THDCs) and have been shown to interact with virtually all elements of TH homeostasis such as feedback mechanisms with the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, TH synthesis, TH storage and release from the thyroid gland, transport protein binding and TH distribution in tissues and organs, cellular TH uptake, intracellular TH metabolism, and TH receptor binding. Therefore, chemicals interfering with the TH homeostasis have the potential to interact with many of these important processes, and especially early-life stage exposure results in permanent alterations of tissue organization and homeostatic regulation of adaptive processes. This is not only of theoretical importance as the reported plasma concentrations of THDCs in human plasma fall well within the range of reported in vitro effect concentrations, and this is of even higher importance as the developing fetus and young children are in a sensitive developmental stage. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Adipose tissue as an endocrine organ: role of leptin and adiponectin in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Fortuño, A; Rodríguez, A; Gómez-Ambrosi, J; Frühbeck, G; Díez, J

    2003-03-01

    Obesity, the most common nutritional disorder in industrial countries, is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Nevertheless, the molecular basis linking obesity with cardiovascular disturbances have not yet been fully clarified. Recent advances in the biology of adipose tissue indicate that it is not simply an energy storage organ, but also a secretory organ, producing a variety of bioactive substances, including leptin and adiponectin, that may influence the function as well as the structural integrity of the cardiovascular system. Leptin, besides being a satiety signal for the central nervous system and to be related to insulin and glucose metabolism, may also play an important role in regulating vascular tone because of the widespread distribution of functional receptors in the vascular cells. On the other hand, the more recently discovered protein, adiponectin, seems to play a protective role in experimental models of vascular injury, in probable relation to its ability to suppress the attachment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is an early event in the atherosclerotic process. There is already considerable evidence linking altered production of some adipocyte hormones with the cardiovascular complications of obesity. Therefore, the knowledge of alterations in the endocrine function of adipose tissue may help to further understand the high cardiovascular risk associated with obesity.

  10. Endocrine activity of persistent organic pollutants accumulated in human silicone implants--Dosing in vitro assays by partitioning from silicone.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Dorothea; Mayer, Philipp; Pedersen, Mikael; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2015-11-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) accumulated in human tissues may pose a risk for human health by interfering with the endocrine system. This study establishes a new link between actual human internal POP levels and the endocrine active dose in vitro, applying partitioning-controlled dosing from silicone to the H295R steroidogenesis assay: (1) Measured concentrations of POPs in silicone breast implants were taken from a recent study and silicone disks were loaded according to these measurements. (2) Silicone disks were transferred into H295R cell culture plates in order to control exposure of the adrenal cells by equilibrium partitioning. (3) Hormone production of the adrenal cells was measured as toxicity endpoint. 4-Nonylphenol was used for method development, and the new dosing method was compared to conventional solvent-dosing. The two dosing modes yielded similar dose-dependent hormonal responses of H295R cells. However, with the partitioning-controlled freely dissolved concentrations (Cfree) as dose metrics, dose-response curves were left-shifted by two orders of magnitude relative to spiked concentrations. Partitioning-controlled dosing of POPs resulted in up to 2-fold increases in progestagen and corticosteroid levels at Cfree of individual POPs in or below the femtomolar range. Silicone acted not only as source of the POPs but also as a sorption sink for lipophilic hormones, stimulating the cellular hormone production. Methodologically, the study showed that silicone can be used as reference partitioning phase to transfer in vivo exposure in humans (silicone implants) to in vitro assays (partition-controlled dosing). The main finding was that POPs at the levels at which they are found in humans can interfere with steroidogenesis in a human adrenocortical cell line. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Endocrine glands (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Endocrine glands release hormones (chemical messengers) into the bloodstream to be transported to various organs and tissues throughout the body. For instance, the pancreas secretes insulin, which ...

  12. Contaminant impacts to the endocrine system in largemouth bass in northeast U.S. rivers

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.B.; Sorenson, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    The National Biological Service (NBS) in cooperation with the USGS-National Water Quality Assessment (NAWQA) program conducted a reconnaissance investigation of potential disruption of the endocrine system in carp and largemouth bass (LMB) from streams and rivers across the US. Chemical analysis of sediment and fish tissue, from agricultural and industrial sites in NAWQA study units, indicated the potential for impacts to the endocrine system of fish. Collections of 39 male and 28 female LMB were made in fall 1994 from contaminated and reference sites in three major river systems in the Northeast US (Potomac, Hudson, and Connecticut rivers). Additional fish collections will be made at these same sites in Spring 1995. Blood and gonadal tissue samples will give a triad of bioindicators (17B-estradiol/11-ketotestosterone ratios, vitellogenin, and gonad histopathology) of potential endocrine disruption. Chemical residue for tissue will also be made from selected LMB to compare with the bioindicators. Comparisons of contaminated sites and reference site indicated a significantly lower E/T ratio in female LMB from two contaminated sites (Housatonic River in the Connecticut River system and the Anacostia River in the Potomac River system). Additionally, significantly higher E/T ratios in male LMB were found from each of the three river systems. These E/T ratios indicate that endocrine disruption is both estrogenic to male LMB (feminization) and potentially androgenic to the female LMB (masculinization).

  13. Correlation of mechanistic data and histopathology in the evaluation of selected toxic endpoints of the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Capen, C C

    1998-12-28

    The objective of this review is to correlate endocrinologic data from mechanistic studies with quantitative histopathology in selected examples of toxic endpoints of the endocrine system in laboratory animals. Mechanistic data can aid in the interpretation of animal toxicology findings and help clarify their significance in risk assessment. Endocrine organs of rodents frequently undergo proliferative changes with advancing age and following chronic exposure to large doses of xenobiotic chemicals, and the sensitivity of rodent endocrine tissues appears to be increasing. Many xenobiotic chemicals in large doses disrupt thyroid function in rodents either by a direct effect on the thyroid influencing synthesis of thyroid hormones or by adversely influencing their peripheral metabolism. A number of chemicals disrupt thyroid function by inhibiting the important enzyme, thyroperoxidase (TPO). A contemporary example of a chemical acting as TPO-inhibitor is sulfamethazine. In short-term mechanistic studies in rats there was a log-dose response relationship in circulating levels of thyroid and pituitary hormones plus a similar non-linear dose-response in morphologic changes in thyroid follicular cells. Endocrinologic data from mechanistic studies and histopathologic/ultrastructural findings will also be presented for the effects of the food color, FDC Red No. 3 (Erythrosine), on the thyroid gland in rats and parathyroid hormone-related protein (a major causative factor in cancer-associated hypercalcemia) on parathyroid chief cells in mice.

  14. The Effects of Electromagnetic Field on the Endocrine System in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Sangün, Özlem; Dündar, Bumin; Çömlekçi, Selçuk; Büyükgebiz, Attila

    2015-12-01

    Children are exposed to various kind of non-ionizan radiation in their daily life involuntarily. The potential sensitivity of developing organism to the effects of radiofrequency (RF) signals, the higher estimated specific absorption rate (SAR) values of children and greater lifetime cumulative risk raised the scientific interest for children's vulnerability to electromagnetic fields (EMFs). In modern societies, children are being exposed to EMFs in very early ages. There are many researches in scientific literature investigating the alterations of biological parameters in living organisms after EMFs. Although the international guidelines did not report definite, convincing data about the causality, there are unignorable amount of studies indicating the increased risk of cancer, hematologic effects and cognitive impairment. Although they are less in amount; growing number of studies reveal the impacts on metabolism and endocrine function. Reproductive system and growth look like the most challenging fields. However there are also some concerns on detrimental effects of EMFs on thyroid functions, adrenal hormones, glucose homeostasis and melatonin levels. It is not easy to conduct a study investigating the effects of EMFs on a fetus or child due to ethical issues. Hence, the studies are usually performed on virtual models or animals. Although the results are conflicting and cannot be totally matched with humans; there is growing evidence to distress us about the threats of EMF on children.

  15. A COMPUTATIONAL LIBRARY OF THE BIOMOLECULAR TARGETS FOR TOXICITY: RECEPTORS IN THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Computational Library of the Biomolecular Targets for Toxicity: Receptors in the Endocrine System

    Authors: James R. Rabinowitz and Stephen B. Little, MTB/ECD/NHEERL/ORD, and Huajun Fan, Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina
    Structure activity models ...

  16. The Use of Metabolising Systems for In Vitro Testing of Endocrine Disruptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legislation and prospective proposals in for instance the USA, Europe, and Japan require, or may require that chemicals are tested for their ability to disrupt the hormonal systems of mammals. Chemicals found to test positive are considered to be endocrine active substances (EAS...

  17. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Barbering/Cosmetology. Module 7.0: Endocrine System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on the endocrine system is the seventh of ten (CE 028 308-318) in the barbering/cosmetology course of a bilingual skills training program. (A Vocabulary Development Workbook for modules 6-10 is available as CE 028 313.) The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory epxerience. Module objectives are for students to…

  18. Review: the role of neural crest cells in the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Adams, Meghan Sara; Bronner-Fraser, Marianne

    2009-01-01

    The neural crest is a pluripotent population of cells that arises at the junction of the neural tube and the dorsal ectoderm. These highly migratory cells form diverse derivatives including neurons and glia of the sensory, sympathetic, and enteric nervous systems, melanocytes, and the bones, cartilage, and connective tissues of the face. The neural crest has long been associated with the endocrine system, although not always correctly. According to current understanding, neural crest cells give rise to the chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla, chief cells of the extra-adrenal paraganglia, and thyroid C cells. The endocrine tumors that correspond to these cell types are pheochromocytomas, extra-adrenal paragangliomas, and medullary thyroid carcinomas. Although controversies concerning embryological origin appear to have mostly been resolved, questions persist concerning the pathobiology of each tumor type and its basis in neural crest embryology. Here we present a brief history of the work on neural crest development, both in general and in application to the endocrine system. In particular, we present findings related to the plasticity and pluripotency of neural crest cells as well as a discussion of several different neural crest tumors in the endocrine system.

  19. Bilingual Skills Training Program. Barbering/Cosmetology. Module 7.0: Endocrine System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northern New Mexico Community Coll., El Rito.

    This module on the endocrine system is the seventh of ten (CE 028 308-318) in the barbering/cosmetology course of a bilingual skills training program. (A Vocabulary Development Workbook for modules 6-10 is available as CE 028 313.) The course is designed to furnish theoretical and laboratory epxerience. Module objectives are for students to…

  20. A COMPUTATIONAL LIBRARY OF THE BIOMOLECULAR TARGETS FOR TOXICITY: RECEPTORS IN THE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    A Computational Library of the Biomolecular Targets for Toxicity: Receptors in the Endocrine System

    Authors: James R. Rabinowitz and Stephen B. Little, MTB/ECD/NHEERL/ORD, and Huajun Fan, Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina
    Structure activity models ...

  1. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE KINETICS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation a model for the hormonal regulation of the reproductive endocrine system in the adult male rat will be discussed. The model includes a description of the kinetics of the androgenic hormones testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, as well as the receptor-mediate...

  2. A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THE KINETICS OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ENDOCRINE SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this presentation a model for the hormonal regulation of the reproductive endocrine system in the adult male rat will be discussed. The model includes a description of the kinetics of the androgenic hormones testosterone and dihydrotestosterone, as well as the receptor-mediate...

  3. The Use of Metabolising Systems for In Vitro Testing of Endocrine Disruptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    Legislation and prospective proposals in for instance the USA, Europe, and Japan require, or may require that chemicals are tested for their ability to disrupt the hormonal systems of mammals. Chemicals found to test positive are considered to be endocrine active substances (EAS...

  4. [The crisis of the hormonal system: the health-effects of endocrine disruptors].

    PubMed

    Csaba, György

    2017-09-01

    The endocrine disruptors are natural or arteficial molecules wich are present in the animal (human) environment and entering into the organism. They are bound by hormone receptors, simulating or inhibiting the normal hormonal message. This way they are able to stimulate or hinder the function of the given cell, as well as the synthesis and transport of hormones or receptors. They can cause faulty hormonal imprinting in critical periods of development with lifelong consequences, as alteration of hormone-influenced cell functions, inclination to or manifestation of diseases, so they have medical importance. The number of endocrine disruptors as well as their amount are large and continously growing. Numerous, in adult age manifested disease (e.g. malignant tumors) can be deduced to perinatal harms. Their long-lasting effect can cause the alteration of basal human developmental characteristics (e.g. start of menarche). Vitamins A and D are hormones (exohormones) and could be endocrine disruptors. Perinatal imprinting caused by endocrine disruptors is transmitted to the progenies epigenetically, which also can influence the drug-sensitivity of offspring' receptors. If the epigenetic change is continuously transmitted to the progeny generations, this could have human-evolutionary importance. Orv Hetil. 2017; 158(37): 1443-1451.

  5. Bridging epidemiology and model organisms to increase understanding of endocrine disrupting chemicals and human health effects.

    PubMed

    Woodruff, Tracey J

    2011-10-01

    Concerning temporal trends in human reproductive health has prompted concern about the role of environmentally mediated risk factors. The population is exposed to chemicals present in air, water, food and in a variety of consumer and personal care products, subsequently multiple chemicals are found human populations around the globe. Recent reviews find that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) can adversely affect reproductive and developmental health. However, there are still many knowledge gaps. This paper reviews some of the key scientific concepts relevant to integrating information from human epidemiologic and model organisms to understand the relationship between EDC exposure and adverse human health effects. Additionally, areas of new insights which influence the interpretation of the science are briefly reviewed, including: enhanced understanding of toxicity pathways; importance of timing of exposure; contribution of multiple chemical exposures; and low dose effects. Two cases are presented, thyroid disrupting chemicals and anti-androgens chemicals, which illustrate how our knowledge of the relationship between EDCs and adverse human health effects is strengthened and data gaps reduced when we integrate findings from animal and human studies.

  6. Divergent roles for thyroid hormone receptor β isoforms in the endocrine axis and auditory system

    PubMed Central

    Abel, E. Dale; Boers, Mary-Ellen; Pazos-Moura, Carmen; Moura, Egberto; Kaulbach, Helen; Zakaria, Marjorie; Lowell, Bradford; Radovick, Sally; Liberman, M. Charles; Wondisford, Fredric

    1999-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) modulate various physiological functions in many organ systems. The TRα and TRβ isoforms are products of 2 distinct genes, and the β1 and β2 isoforms are splice variants of the same gene. Whereas TRα1 and TRβ1 are widely expressed, expression of the TRβ2 isoform is mainly limited to the pituitary, triiodothyronine-responsive TRH neurons, the developing inner ear, and the retina. Mice with targeted disruption of the entire TRβ locus (TRβ-null) exhibit elevated thyroid hormone levels as a result of abnormal central regulation of thyrotropin, and also develop profound hearing loss. To clarify the contribution of the TRβ2 isoform to the function of the endocrine and auditory systems in vivo, we have generated mice with targeted disruption of the TRβ2 isoform. TRβ2-null mice have preserved expression of the TRα and TRβ1 isoforms. They develop a similar degree of central resistance to thyroid hormone as TRβ-null mice, indicating the important role of TRβ2 in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Growth hormone gene expression is marginally reduced. In contrast, TRβ2-null mice exhibit no evidence of hearing impairment, indicating that TRβ1 and TRβ2 subserve divergent roles in the regulation of auditory function. PMID:10430610

  7. Endocrine and Local IGF-I in the Bony Fish Immune System.

    PubMed

    Franz, Anne-Constance; Faass, Oliver; Köllner, Bernd; Shved, Natallia; Link, Karl; Casanova, Ayako; Wenger, Michael; D'Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Ullrich, Oliver; Reinecke, Manfred; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-26

    A role for GH and IGF-I in the modulation of the immune system has been under discussion for decades. Generally, GH is considered a stimulator of innate immune parameters in mammals and teleost fish. The stimulatory effects in humans as well as in bony fish often appear to be correlated with elevated endocrine IGF-I (liver-derived), which has also been shown to be suppressed during infection in some studies. Nevertheless, data are still fragmentary. Some studies point to an important role of GH and IGF-I particularly during immune organ development and constitution. Even less is known about the potential relevance of local (autocrine/paracrine) IGF-I within adult and developing immune organs, and the distinct localization of IGF-I in immune cells and tissues of mammals and fish has not been systematically defined. Thus far, IGF-I has been localized in different mammalian immune cell types, particularly macrophages and granulocytes, and in supporting cells, but not in T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we detected IGF-I in phagocytic cells isolated from rainbow trout head kidney and, in contrast to some findings in mammals, in T-cells of a channel catfish cell line. Thus, although numerous analogies among mammals and teleosts exist not only for the GH/IGF-system, but also for the immune system, there are differences that should be further investigated. For instance, it is unclear whether the primarily reported role of GH/IGF-I in the innate immune response is due to the lack of studies focusing on the adaptive immune system, or whether it truly preferentially concerns innate immune parameters. Infectious challenges in combination with GH/IGF-I manipulations are another important topic that has not been sufficiently addressed to date, particularly with respect to developmental and environmental influences on fish growth and health.

  8. Endocrine and Local IGF-I in the Bony Fish Immune System

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Anne-Constance; Faass, Oliver; Köllner, Bernd; Shved, Natallia; Link, Karl; Casanova, Ayako; Wenger, Michael; D’Cotta, Helena; Baroiller, Jean-François; Ullrich, Oliver; Reinecke, Manfred; Eppler, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A role for GH and IGF-I in the modulation of the immune system has been under discussion for decades. Generally, GH is considered a stimulator of innate immune parameters in mammals and teleost fish. The stimulatory effects in humans as well as in bony fish often appear to be correlated with elevated endocrine IGF-I (liver-derived), which has also been shown to be suppressed during infection in some studies. Nevertheless, data are still fragmentary. Some studies point to an important role of GH and IGF-I particularly during immune organ development and constitution. Even less is known about the potential relevance of local (autocrine/paracrine) IGF-I within adult and developing immune organs, and the distinct localization of IGF-I in immune cells and tissues of mammals and fish has not been systematically defined. Thus far, IGF-I has been localized in different mammalian immune cell types, particularly macrophages and granulocytes, and in supporting cells, but not in T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we detected IGF-I in phagocytic cells isolated from rainbow trout head kidney and, in contrast to some findings in mammals, in T-cells of a channel catfish cell line. Thus, although numerous analogies among mammals and teleosts exist not only for the GH/IGF-system, but also for the immune system, there are differences that should be further investigated. For instance, it is unclear whether the primarily reported role of GH/IGF-I in the innate immune response is due to the lack of studies focusing on the adaptive immune system, or whether it truly preferentially concerns innate immune parameters. Infectious challenges in combination with GH/IGF-I manipulations are another important topic that has not been sufficiently addressed to date, particularly with respect to developmental and environmental influences on fish growth and health. PMID:26821056

  9. High School Students' Written Argumentation Qualities with Problem-Based Computer-Aided Material (PBCAM) Designed about Human Endocrine System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vekli, Gülsah Sezen; Çimer, Atilla

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated development of students' scientific argumentation levels in the applications made with Problem-Based Computer-Aided Material (PBCAM) designed about Human Endocrine System. The case study method was used: The study group was formed of 43 students in the 11th grade of the science high school in Rize. Human Endocrine System…

  10. Potential endocrine disrupting organic chemicals in treated municipal wastewater and river water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Zaugg, S.D.

    2000-01-01

    Select endocrine disrupting organic chemicals were measured in treated wastewater from Chicago, IL, Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, Detroit, MI, and Milwaukee, WI, and in the Des Plaines, Illinois, and Minnesota Rivers during the fall of 1997 and the spring of 1998. Emphasis was given to alkylphenolpolyethoxylate (APEO) derived compounds, although 17-??-estradiol, bisphenol A, caffeine, total organic carbon, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and other compounds also were measured. Contaminants were isolated by continuous liquid-liquid extraction (CLLE) with methylene chloride and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in full scan and selected ion monitoring modes. The extracts were derivatized to form the methyl esters of alkylphenolethoxycarboxylates (APEC), and EDTA was isolated by evaporation and derivatized to form the tetrapropyl ester. The mass spectra of nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) compounds are complex and show variations among the different ethoxylate and carboxylate homologs, reflecting variations in the ethylene oxide chain length. Recoveries for target compounds and surrogate standards ranged from 20-130%, with relative standard deviations of 9.9-53%. Detection limits for the various compounds ranged from 0.06-0.35 ??g/L. Analysis of the wastewater effluents detected a number of compounds including NP, NPEO, OP, OPEO, NPEC, caffeine, and EDTA at concentrations ranging from <1-439 ??g/L, with EDTA and NPEC being most abundant. There was variability in compound distributions and concentrations between the various sewage treatment plants, indicating differences in treatment type and influent composition. Several wastewater-derived compounds were detected in the river samples, with EDTA and NPEC persisting for considerable distance downstream from wastewater discharges, and NP and NPEO being attenuated more rapidly.

  11. The application of membrane bioreactors as decentralised systems for removal of endocrine disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Le-Minh, N; Coleman, H M; Khan, S J; van Luer, Y; Trang, T T T; Watkins, G; Stuetz, R M

    2010-01-01

    The concentrations of some important endocrine disrupting chemicals and pharmaceuticals after various stages of wastewater treatment were investigated. The endocrine disrupting chemicals included natural and synthetic estrogenic and androgenic steroids. The pharmaceuticals included a series of sulfonamide antibiotics and trimethoprim. The removal efficiency of a membrane bioreactor (MBR) was investigated and compared with a conventional activated sludge (CAS) system. Samples were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Results showed that the MBR and CAS systems effectively removed steroidal estrogens and androgens, but only partially eliminated the target antibiotics from wastewater. The MBR was shown to be more effective than the CAS system which was possibly attributed to the high solid retention time and concentration of biosolids in the MBR. The results highlight the potential wider application of MBRs for the removal of trace chemical contaminants in wastewater and their potential for use as decentralised wastewater treatment systems.

  12. [Endocrine disruptors : Evidence from epidemiological studies necessitates a critical review of model systems].

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, M; Gebauer, S; Nüchter, M; Baber, R; Ried, J; von Bergen, M; Kiess, W

    2017-06-01

    Endocrine disruptive chemicals (EDCs) cause adverse health effects through interaction with endocrine systems. They are classified by chemical structure, effects on specific endocrine systems, bioaccumulation, persistence in the environment, or clinically observable effects. For research of the complex mechanisms of action in the human body, only in vitro model systems have so far been available, that have insufficient high-throughput capacity, which makes risk evaluation more difficult. In addition, in industrial nations, living people are often exposed to mixtures of substances, with various effects. The clinical importance of epigenetic changes caused by the action of EDCs during vulnerable phases of development is currently unclear. Epidemiological studies are criticized because reproducibility is not always guaranteed. Nevertheless, they remain the method of choice for the development and analysis of suitable model systems. Positive associations, in spite of sometimes conflicting results, are key in the selection of factors that can then be analysed in model systems in an unbiased way. This article depicts the mainly positive epidemiological findings for EDC-caused effects in the fields of growth and metabolism, neurocognitive development and sexual development and reproduction. As a result, there is a need for closer linkage between epidemiological studies and mechanistic research into model systems, especially focusing on the interaction of different EDCs and the consequences of prenatal and early life exposure.

  13. The Effects of Nanomaterials as Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Iavicoli, Ivo; Fontana, Luca; Leso, Veruscka; Bergamaschi, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, nanoparticles have been increasingly used in several industrial, consumer and medical applications because of their unique physico-chemical properties. However, in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that these properties are also closely associated with detrimental health effects. There is a serious lack of information on the potential nanoparticle hazard to human health, particularly on their possible toxic effects on the endocrine system. This topic is of primary importance since the disruption of endocrine functions is associated with severe adverse effects on human health. Consequently, in order to gather information on the hazardous effects of nanoparticles on endocrine organs, we reviewed the data available in the literature regarding the endocrine effects of in vitro and in vivo exposure to different types of nanoparticles. Our aim was to understand the potential endocrine disrupting risks posed by nanoparticles, to assess their underlying mechanisms of action and identify areas in which further investigation is needed in order to obtain a deeper understanding of the role of nanoparticles as endocrine disruptors. Current data support the notion that different types of nanoparticles are capable of altering the normal and physiological activity of the endocrine system. However, a critical evaluation of these findings suggests the need to interpret these results with caution since information on potential endocrine interactions and the toxicity of nanoparticles is quite limited. PMID:23949635

  14. Human biological monitoring of suspected endocrine-disrupting compounds

    PubMed Central

    Faniband, Moosa; Lindh, Christian H; Jönsson, Bo AG

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine-disrupting compounds are exogenous agents that interfere with the natural hormones of the body. Human biological monitoring is a powerful method for monitoring exposure to endocrine disrupting compounds. In this review, we describe human biological monitoring systems for different groups of endocrine disrupting compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants, phthalates, alkylphenols, pesticides, metals, perfluronated compounds, parabens, ultraviolet filters, and organic solvents. The aspects discussed are origin to exposure, metabolism, matrices to analyse, analytical determination methods, determinants, and time trends. PMID:24369128

  15. Endocrine targets of hypoxia-inducible factors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hsiu-Chi; Tsai, Shaw-Jenq

    2017-07-01

    Endocrine is an important and tightly regulated system for maintaining body homeostasis. Endocrine glands produce hormones, which are released into blood stream to guide the target cells responding to all sorts of stimulations. For maintaining body homeostasis, the secretion and activity of a particular hormone needs to be adjusted in responding to environmental challenges such as changes in nutritional status or chronic stress. Hypoxia, a status caused by reduced oxygen availability or imbalance of oxygen consumption/supply in an organ or within a cell, is a stress that affects many physiological and pathological processes. Hypoxic stress in endocrine organs is especially critical because endocrine glands control body homeostasis. Local hypoxia affects not only the particular gland but also the downstream cells/organs regulated by hormones secreted from this gland. Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that function as master regulators of oxygen homeostasis. Recent studies report that aberrant expression of HIFs in endocrine organs may result in the development and/or progression of diseases including diabetes, endometriosis, infertility and cancers. In this article, we will review recent findings in HIF-mediated endocrine organ dysfunction and the systemic syndromes caused by these disorders. © 2017 Society for Endocrinology.

  16. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-03-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis.

  17. Possible Involvement of Photoperiodic Regulation in Reproductive Endocrine System of Female Olive Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun Chul; Lee, Chi Hoon; Hur, Sung Pyu; Kim, Byeong Hoon; Park, Jun Young; Lee, Young Don

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of female olive flounder. To investigate the influence on brain-pituitary axis in endocrine system by regulating photoperiod, compared expression level of Kisspeptin and sbGnRH mRNA in brain and FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA in pituitary before and after spawning. Photoperiod was treated natural photoperiod and long photoperiod (15L:9D) conditions from Aug. 2013 to Jun. 2014. Continuous long photoperiod treatment from Aug. (post-spawning phase) was inhibited gonadal development of female olive flounder. In natural photoperiod group, the Kiss2 expression level a significant declined in Mar. (spawning period). And also, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels were increasing at this period. However, in long photoperiod group, hypothalamic Kiss2, FSH-β, LH-β and GH mRNA expression levels did not show any significant fluctuation. These results suggest that expression of hypothalamic Kiss2, GtH and GH in the pituitary would change in response to photoperiod and their possible involvement of photoperiodic regulation in reproductive endocrine system of the BPG axis. PMID:25949205

  18. The effects of opioids and opioid analogs on animal and human endocrine systems.

    PubMed

    Vuong, Cassidy; Van Uum, Stan H M; O'Dell, Laura E; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Friedman, Theodore C

    2010-02-01

    Opioid abuse has increased in the last decade, primarily as a result of increased access to prescription opioids. Physicians are also increasingly administering opioid analgesics for noncancer chronic pain. Thus, knowledge of the long-term consequences of opioid use/abuse has important implications for fully evaluating the clinical usefulness of opioid medications. Many studies have examined the effect of opioids on the endocrine system; however, a systematic review of the endocrine actions of opioids in both humans and animals has, to our knowledge, not been published since 1984. Thus, we reviewed the literature on the effect of opioids on the endocrine system. We included both acute and chronic effects of opioids, with the majority of the studies done on the acute effects although chronic effects are more physiologically relevant. In humans and laboratory animals, opioids generally increase GH and prolactin and decrease LH, testosterone, estradiol, and oxytocin. In humans, opioids increase TSH, whereas in rodents, TSH is decreased. In both rodents and humans, the reports of effects of opioids on arginine vasopressin and ACTH are conflicting. Opioids act preferentially at different receptor sites leading to stimulatory or inhibitory effects on hormone release. Increasing opioid abuse primarily leads to hypogonadism but may also affect the secretion of other pituitary hormones. The potential consequences of hypogonadism include decreased libido and erectile dysfunction in men, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea in women, and bone loss or infertility in both sexes. Opioids may increase or decrease food intake, depending on the type of opioid and the duration of action. Additionally, opioids may act through the sympathetic nervous system to cause hyperglycemia and impaired insulin secretion. In this review, recent information regarding endocrine disorders among opioid abusers is presented.

  19. The Effects of Opioids and Opioid Analogs on Animal and Human Endocrine Systems

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Cassidy; Van Uum, Stan H. M.; O'Dell, Laura E.; Lutfy, Kabirullah; Friedman, Theodore C.

    2010-01-01

    Opioid abuse has increased in the last decade, primarily as a result of increased access to prescription opioids. Physicians are also increasingly administering opioid analgesics for noncancer chronic pain. Thus, knowledge of the long-term consequences of opioid use/abuse has important implications for fully evaluating the clinical usefulness of opioid medications. Many studies have examined the effect of opioids on the endocrine system; however, a systematic review of the endocrine actions of opioids in both humans and animals has, to our knowledge, not been published since 1984. Thus, we reviewed the literature on the effect of opioids on the endocrine system. We included both acute and chronic effects of opioids, with the majority of the studies done on the acute effects although chronic effects are more physiologically relevant. In humans and laboratory animals, opioids generally increase GH and prolactin and decrease LH, testosterone, estradiol, and oxytocin. In humans, opioids increase TSH, whereas in rodents, TSH is decreased. In both rodents and humans, the reports of effects of opioids on arginine vasopressin and ACTH are conflicting. Opioids act preferentially at different receptor sites leading to stimulatory or inhibitory effects on hormone release. Increasing opioid abuse primarily leads to hypogonadism but may also affect the secretion of other pituitary hormones. The potential consequences of hypogonadism include decreased libido and erectile dysfunction in men, oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea in women, and bone loss or infertility in both sexes. Opioids may increase or decrease food intake, depending on the type of opioid and the duration of action. Additionally, opioids may act through the sympathetic nervous system to cause hyperglycemia and impaired insulin secretion. In this review, recent information regarding endocrine disorders among opioid abusers is presented. PMID:19903933

  20. Diffuse endocrine system, neuroendocrine tumors and immunity: what's new?

    PubMed

    Ameri, Pietro; Ferone, Diego

    2012-01-01

    During the last two decades, research into the modulation of immunity by the neuroendocrine system has flourished, unravelling significant effects of several neuropeptides, including somatostatin (SRIH), and especially cortistatin (CST), on immune cells. Scientists have learnt that the diffuse neuroendocrine system can regulate the immune system at all its levels: innate immunity, adaptive immunity, and maintenance of immune tolerance. Compelling studies with animal models have demonstrated that some neuropeptides may be effective in treating inflammatory disorders, such as sepsis, and T helper 1-driven autoimmune diseases, like Crohn's disease and rheumatoid arthritis. Here, the latest findings concerning the neuroendocrine control of the immune system are discussed, with emphasis on SRIH and CST. The second part of the review deals with the immune response to neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). The anti-NET immune response has been described in the last years and it is still being characterized, similarly to what is happening for several other types of cancer. In parallel with investigations addressing the mechanisms by which the immune system contrasts NET growth and spreading, ground-breaking clinical trials of dendritic cell vaccination as immunotherapy for metastatic NETs have shown in principle that the immune reaction to NETs can be exploited for treatment. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Organic watermelon production systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The increasing perception by consumers that organic food tastes better and is healthier continues to expand the demand for organically produced crops. Research investigating certified organic production requires a systems approach to determine the optimum combination of individual components to max...

  2. [Role of the endocrine system in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease].

    PubMed

    Hagymási, Krisztina; Reismann, Péter; Rácz, Károly; Tulassay, Zsolt

    2009-11-29

    The most frequent liver disorder in metabolic syndrome is the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. Its pathogenesis is a complex, multifactorial process, characterized by insulin resistance and involvement of the endocrine system. Hypothyroidism may lead to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis via hyperlipidemia and obesity. Adult patients with growth hormone deficiency have a metabolic syndrome-like phenotype with obesity and many characteristic metabolic alterations. The chronic activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis results in metabolic syndrome as well. Cushing's syndrome has also features of metabolic syndrome. Mild elevation of transaminase activities is commonly seen in patients with adrenal failure. Non-alcoholic steatosis is twice as common in postmenopusal as in premenopausal women and hormonal replacement therapy decreases the risk of steatosis. Insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus type 2, sleeping apnoe syndrome, cardiovascular disorders and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease are more frequent in polycystic ovary syndrome. Hypoandrogenism in males and hyperandrogenism in females may lead to fatty liver via obesity and insulin resistance. Adipokines (leptin, acylation stimulating protein, adiponectin) have a potential role in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver. The alterations of endocrine system must be considered in the background of cryptogenic liver diseases. The endocrine perspective may help the therapeutic approaches in the future.

  3. Individual variation in endocrine systems: moving beyond the 'tyranny of the Golden Mean'.

    PubMed

    Williams, Tony D

    2008-05-12

    Twenty years ago, Albert Bennett published a paper in the influential book New directions in ecological physiology arguing that individual variation was an 'underutilized resource'. In this paper, I review our state of knowledge of the magnitude, mechanisms and functional significance of phenotypic variation, plasticity and flexibility in endocrine systems, and argue for a renewed focus on inter-individual variability. This will provide challenges to conventional wisdom in endocrinology itself, e.g. re-evaluation of relatively simple, but unresolved questions such as structure-function relationships among hormones, binding globulins and receptors, and the functional significance of absolute versus relative hormone titres. However, there are also abundant opportunities for endocrinologists to contribute solid mechanistic understanding to key questions in evolutionary biology, e.g. how endocrine regulation is involved in evolution of complex suites of traits, or how hormone pleiotropy regulates trade-offs among life-history traits. This will require endocrinologists to embrace the raw material of adaptation (heritable, individual variation and phenotypic plasticity) and to take advantage of conceptual approaches widely used in evolutionary biology (selection studies, reaction norms, concepts of evolutionary design) as well as a more explicit focus on the endocrine basis of life-history traits that are of primary interest to evolutionary biologists (cf. behavioural endocrinology).

  4. Once and for all, LXRα and LXRβ are gatekeepers of the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Maqdasy, Salwan; Trousson, Amalia; Tauveron, Igor; Volle, David H; Baron, Silvère; Lobaccaro, Jean-Marc A

    2016-06-01

    Liver X receptors (LXRs) α and β are nuclear receptors whose transcriptional activity is regulated by oxysterols, the oxidized forms of cholesterol. Described in the late 1990s as lipid sensors, both LXRs regulate cholesterol and fatty acid homeostasis. Over the years, deep phenotypic analyses of mouse models deficient for LXRα and/or LXRβ have pointed out various other physiological functions including glucose homeostasis, immunology, and neuroprotection. This review enlightens the "endocrine" functions of LXRs; they deeply impact plasma glucose directly and by modulating insulin signaling, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis, thyroid and pituitary hormone levels, and bone homeostasis. Besides, LXR signaling is also involved in adrenal physiology, steroid synthesis, and male and female reproduction. Hence, LXRs are definitely involved in the endocrine system and could thus be considered as endocrine receptors, even though oxysterols do not fully correspond to the definition of hormones. Finally, because they are ligand-regulated transcription factors, LXRs are potential pharmacological targets with promising beneficial metabolic effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mammalian development in a changing environment: exposure to endocrine disruptors reveals the developmental plasticity of steroid-hormone target organs.

    PubMed

    Markey, Caroline M; Coombs, Macall A; Sonnenschein, Carlos; Soto, Ana M

    2003-01-01

    Recent findings in the field of environmental endocrine disruption have revealed that developmental exposure to estrogenic chemicals induces morphological, functional, and behavioral anomalies associated with reproduction. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of in utero exposure to low doses of the estrogenic chemical bisphenol A (BPA) on the development of the female reproductive tissues and mammary glands in CD-1 mice. Humans are exposed to BPA, which leaches from dental materials and plastic food and beverage containers. Here we report that prenatal exposure to BPA induces alterations in tissue organization within the ovaries and mammary glands and disrupts estrous cyclicity in adulthood. Because estrogen receptors are expressed developmentally in these estrogen-target organs, we propose that BPA may directly affect the expression of genes involved in their morphogenesis. In addition, alterations in the sexual differentiation of the brain, and thus the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, may further contribute to the observed phenotype. The emerging field of endocrine disruptors promises to provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the development of hormone-target organs and demonstrates that the environment plays important roles in the making of phenotypes.

  6. Commonly used endocrine drugs.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Mário Miguel; Dias, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine drugs are agents directed to a malfunctioning endocrine path. Several agents are secreted in or target the nervous system, and are thus more prone to cause neurologic adverse events (AEs). This chapter focuses on commonly used endocrine agents directed to the hypothalamus-pituitary axis, thyroid, and antidiabetic agents. The therapeutic agents are discussed in terms of indication, mechanism of action, description, and frequency of AEs, and risk factors for occurrence where available. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. [The effect of normobaric hypoxia on the functioning of links in the endocrine system].

    PubMed

    Shakhtarin, V V; Kiriachkov, Iu Iu; Palyga, G F; Khmelevskiĭ, Ia M; Sloventantor, V Iu; Simakova, G M; Kruglikov, A P

    1990-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the data on change in the blood level of ACTH, STH, TSH, cortisol, T3, insulin, C-peptide during a 25-minute session of respiration using a gaseous hypoxic mixture with 10% oxygen (GHM-10). The investigation was performed in 23 healthy volunteers. Change in the hormonal status, characteristic of a moderate stress-reaction, was observed in 60% of the examinees. It was found out that during a GHM-10 session a degree of change in function of the studied factors of the endocrine system showed correlation with change in the activity of the autonomic nervous system.

  8. A Multiplex Human Syndrome Implicates a Key Role for Intestinal Cell Kinase in Development of Central Nervous, Skeletal, and Endocrine Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lahiry, Piya; Wang, Jian; Robinson, John F.; Turowec, Jacob P.; Litchfield, David W.; Lanktree, Matthew B.; Gloor, Gregory B.; Puffenberger, Erik G.; Strauss, Kevin A.; Martens, Mildred B.; Ramsay, David A.; Rupar, C. Anthony; Siu, Victoria; Hegele, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Six infants in an Old Order Amish pedigree were observed to be affected with endocrine-cerebro-osteodysplasia (ECO). ECO is a previously unidentified neonatal lethal recessive disorder with multiple anomalies involving the endocrine, cerebral, and skeletal systems. Autozygosity mapping and sequencing identified a previously unknown missense mutation, R272Q, in ICK, encoding intestinal cell kinase (ICK). Our results established that R272 is conserved across species and among ethnicities, and three-dimensional analysis of the protein structure suggests protein instability due to the R272Q mutation. We also demonstrate that the R272Q mutant fails to localize at the nucleus and has diminished kinase activity. These findings suggest that ICK plays a key role in the development of multiple organ systems. PMID:19185282

  9. Accessory and main olfactory systems influences on predator odor-induced behavioral and endocrine stress responses in rats

    PubMed Central

    Masini, Cher V.; Garcia, Robert J.; Sasse, Sarah K.; Nyhuis, Tara J.; Day, Heidi E.W.; Campeau, Serge

    2009-01-01

    Exposures to predator odors are very effective methods to evoke a variety of stress responses in rodents. We have previously found that ferret odor exposure leads to changes in endocrine hormones (corticosterone and ACTH) and behavior. To distinguish the contributions of the main and accessory olfactory systems in these responses, studies were designed to interfere with these two systems either independently, or simultaneously. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 10% zinc sulfate (ZnSO4), which renders rodents anosmic (unable to smell) while leaving the accessory olfactory areas intact, or saline, in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the vomeronasal organs of rats were surgically removed (VNX) to block accessory olfactory processing, while leaving the main olfactory system intact. And in the 3rd experiment both the main and accessory olfactory areas were disrupted by combining the two procedures in the same rats. Neither ZnSO4 treatment or VNX alone reliably reduced the increased corticosterone response to ferret odor compared to strawberry odor, but in combination, they did. This suggests that processing through the main or the accessory olfactory system can elicit the endocrine stress response to ferret odor. VNX alone also did not affect the behavioral responses to the ferret. ZnSO4 treatment, alone and in combination with VNX, led to changes in behavior in response to both ferret and strawberry odor, making the behavioral results less clearly interpretable. Overall these studies suggest that both the main and accessory olfactory systems mediate the neuroendocrine response to predator odor. PMID:19800371

  10. The use of metabolising systems for in vitro testing of endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, M N; Janssens, W; Bernauer, U; Brandon, E; Coecke, S; Combes, R; Edwards, P; Freidig, A; Freyberger, A; Kolanczyk, R; Mc Ardle, C; Mekenyan, O; Schmieder, P; Schrader, T; Takeyoshi, M; van der Burg, B

    2008-10-01

    Legislation and prospective legislative proposals in for instance the USA, Europe, and Japan require, or may require that chemicals are tested for their ability to disrupt the hormonal systems of mammals. Chemicals found to test positive are considered to be endocrine active substances (EAS) and may be putative endocrine disruptors (EDs). To date, there is still little or no experience with incorporating metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro tests for EAS. This is a situation in sharp contrast to genotoxicity testing, where in vitro tests are routinely conducted with and without metabolic capacity. Originally prepared for the Organisation of Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), this detailed review paper reviews why in vitro assays for EAS should incorporate mammalian systems of metabolism and metabolic enzyme systems, and indicates how this could be done. The background to ED testing, the available test methods, and the role of mammalian metabolism in the activation and the inactivation of both endogenous and exogenous steroids are described. The available types of systems are compared, and the potential problems in incorporating systems in in vitro tests for EAS, and how these might be overcome, are discussed. Lastly, some recommendations for future activities are made.

  11. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay

    SciTech Connect

    Taxvig, Camilla Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  12. Use of external metabolizing systems when testing for endocrine disruption in the T-screen assay.

    PubMed

    Taxvig, Camilla; Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Nellemann, Christine

    2011-02-01

    Although, it is well-established that information on the metabolism of a substance is important in the evaluation of its toxic potential, there is limited experience with incorporating metabolic aspects into in vitro tests for endocrine disrupters. The aim of the current study was a) to study different in vitro systems for biotransformation of ten known endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDs): five azole fungicides, three parabens and 2 phthalates, b) to determine possible changes in the ability of the EDs to bind and activate the thyroid receptor (TR) in the in vitro T-screen assay after biotransformation and c) to investigate the endogenous metabolic capacity of the GH3 cells, the cell line used in the T-screen assay, which is a proliferation assay used for the in vitro detection of agonistic and antagonistic properties of compounds at the level of the TR. The two in vitro metabolizing systems tested the human liver S9 mix and the PCB-induced rat microsomes gave an almost complete metabolic transformation of the tested parabens and phthalates. No marked difference the effects in the T-screen assay was observed between the parent compounds and the effects of the tested metabolic extracts. The GH3 cells themselves significantly metabolized the two tested phthalates dimethyl phthalate (DMP) and diethyl phthalate (DEP). Overall the results and qualitative data from the current study show that an in vitro metabolizing system using liver S9 or microsomes could be a convenient method for the incorporation of metabolic and toxicokinetic aspects into in vitro testing for endocrine disrupting effects.

  13. The endocrine cells in the gastroenteropancreatic system of the bowfin, Amia calva L.: an immunohistochemical, ultrastructural, and immunocytochemical analysis.

    PubMed

    Youson, J H; Al-Mahrouki, A A; Naumovski, D; Conlon, J M

    2001-12-01

    The gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) endocrine system of bowfin (Amia calva) was described using light and electron microscopy and immunological methods. The islet organ (endocrine pancreas) consists of diffusely scattered, mostly small islets and isolated patches of cells among and within the exocrine acini. The islets are composed of abundant, centrally located B cells immunoreactive to bovine and lamprey insulin antisera and D cells showing a widespread distribution and specificity to somatostatin antibodies. A and F cells are present at the very periphery of the islets and are immunoreactive with antisera against glucagon (and glucagon-like peptide) and several peptides of the pancreatic polypeptide (PP)-family, respectively. The peptides of the two families usually collocates within the same peripheral islet cells and are the most common immunoreactive peptides present in the extra-islet tissue. Immunocytochemistry and fine structural observations characterised the granule morphology for B and D cells and identified two cell types with granules immunoreactive to glucagon antisera. These two putative A cells had similar granules, which were distinct from either B or D cells, but one of the cells had rod-shaped cytoplasmic inclusions within cisternae of what appeared to be rough endoplasmic reticulum. The inclusions were not immunoreactive to either insulin or glucagon antisera. Only small numbers of cells in the stomach and intestine immunoreacted to antisera against somatostatin, glucagon, and PP-family peptides. The paucity of these cells was reflected in the low concentrations of these peptides in intestinal extracts. The GEP system of bowfin is not unlike that of other actinopterygian fishes, but there are some marked differences that may reflect the antiquity of this system and/or may be a consequence of the ontogeny of this system in this species.

  14. [Effects of magnesium valproate on endocrine system and reproductive functions of female epileptics].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Li; Ding, Jun-Qing; Huang, Xi-Shun

    2011-08-09

    To explore the effects of valproate (VPA) on endocrine system in adolescent and reproductive female patients with epilepsy. A total of 30 adolescent and reproductive female patients with a diagnosis of epilepsy at our hospital during July 2009 to March 2010 were recruited. All cases with magnesium VPA alone were included. The levels of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P) and testosterone (T) were detected respectively at pre-therapy and 3, 6 and 12 months post-therapy. And the changes of menstruation and ovaries were recorded. The serum concentration of PRL was lower at 3 and 6 months post-therapy than that at pre-therapy. There was significant difference (P = 0.010 and 0.014). The serum concentration of E2 significantly decreased after a 3-month therapy of valproate (P < 0.05). While comparing the parameter's level between the initial test and at a 3, 6 and 12-month follow-up, the level of P significantly decreased in the later groups than that of the former one while the level of T showed a marked increase. The levels of FSH and LH were not significantly different at pre- and post-therapy. And 6 (20%) of them presented with menstrual dysfunctions and 3 (10%) polycystic ovary. The valproate therapy can not only cause the changes of endocrine system and hormonal levels, but also induce such endocrine dysfunction syndromes as menstrual suspension and polycystic ovary. It eventually causes polycystic ovary syndrome.

  15. Effects of 4-nonylphenol on the endocrine system of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas.

    PubMed

    Lye, Christina M; Bentley, Matthew G; Galloway, Tamara

    2008-06-01

    There is a considerable body of evidence to suggest that many anthropogenic chemicals, most notably xeno-estrogens, are able to disrupt the endocrine system of vertebrates. There have been few comparable studies on the effects of exposure to these chemicals that may serve as biomarkers of endocrine disruption in aquatic invertebrate species. In addition, the evidence available is complex, conflicting, and far from conclusive. The present study aimed to investigate the impact of the xeno-estrogen 4-nonylphenol (4-NP, nominal concentrations 10-100 microg L(-1)) on the regulation and functioning of the endocrine system of the shore crab Carcinus maenas. It also set out to establish whether 4-NP are causing the effects (i.e., changes of exoskeletons including secondary sexual characteristics, pheromonally mediated behavior and ecdysone levels, and the presence of vt in the male hepatopancreas) found recently in wild shore crabs (Lye et al.,2005). The study utilizes morphological (e.g., gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices) and hormonal (ecdysteroid moulting hormone levels and the induction of female specific proteins, vitellins) biomarkers using radioimmunoassay and an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay applied to the soluble protein fraction of adult male hepatopancreatic homogenates. Exposure of C. maenas to an effective concentration as low as 1.5 microg L(-1) 4-NP resulted in a reduced testis weight, increased liver weight, and altered levels of ecdysone equivalents compared to controls. Induction of vitellin-like proteins was absent in all samples tested. The ecological implications and the possible mechanisms for the action of 4-NP on the response of the shore crab to xeno-estrogen exposure are discussed.

  16. Toxicological assessment of drugs that affect the endocrine system in puberty-related disorders.

    PubMed

    Maranghi, Francesca; Tassinari, Roberta; Mantovani, Alberto

    2013-10-01

    Toxicologists must ensure that clinical risk-to-benefit analysis should be made both for genders and age groups, with any treatment. Puberty concerns physiological changes leading to organism's maturation. Pubertal growth disorders are increasing in last decades: besides causing physical and psychological distress, they may signal underlying endocrine-metabolic abnormalities with serious health consequences later on. Therapeutic approaches for some health conditions in childhood and adolescence are considered. The authors discuss how some diseases and treatments can impact pubertal growth. The authors look at particular immunological disorders such as asthma and how both the disease and treatment affects pubertal growth. They also discuss how the provision of available data can help to assess the dose-response of the drug, in these cases, and minimize the chance of side effects. The authors also discuss pediatric inflammatory bowel disease and how both the disease and treatment can mitigate the growth delay. Last, but not least, the authors discuss how the effects of the drugs used in the treatment of psychiatric disorders may accentuate endocrine issues in juvenile patients. Hyperprolactinemia induction by some antipsychotics is highlighted as an example. Appropriate risk-benefit analysis of drugs prescribed during childhood and adolescence and intended to be used in the long term is required. Furthermore, future treatment strategies and safer compounds development should be supported by the knowledge of mechanisms underlying adverse side effects in pubertal growth and development.

  17. The hidden life of NAD+-consuming ectoenzymes in the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Malavasi, Fabio; Deaglio, Silvia; Zaccarello, Gianluca; Horenstein, Alberto L; Chillemi, Antonella; Audrito, Valentina; Serra, Sara; Gandione, Marina; Zitella, Andrea; Tizzani, Alessandro

    2010-10-01

    Ectoenzymes are a family of cell surface molecules whose catalytic domain lies in the extracellular region. A subset of this family, nucleotide-metabolizing ectoenzymes, are key components in the regulation of the extracellular balance between nucleotides (e.g. NAD(+) or ATP) and nucleosides (e.g. adenosine). Their substrates and products are signalling molecules that act by binding to specific receptors, triggering signals that regulate a variety of functions, ranging from the migration of immune cells, to synaptic transmission in the brain, to hormone/receptor interactions in the glands. Almost two decades of accumulated data indicate that these regulatory processes significantly affect the endocrine system, a tightly controlled information signal complex with clear evidence of fine regulation. Functional models discussed in this review include insulin secretion, bone modelling and the association between hormones and behaviour. The emerging pattern is one of a system operating as a scale-free network that hinges around hubs of key molecules, such as NAD(+) or ATP. The underlying natural link between nucleotides, ectoenzymes and the endocrine system is far from being clearly demonstrated. However, the body of evidence supporting the existence of such connection is growing exponentially. This review will try to read the available evidence in a hypothesis-oriented perspective, starting from the description of NAD(+) and of ecto- and endoenzymes involved in its metabolism.

  18. Medical comorbidity in bipolar disorder: relationship between illnesses of the endocrine/metabolic system and treatment outcome

    PubMed Central

    Kemp, David E; Gao, Keming; Chan, Philip; Ganocy, Stephen J; Findling, Robert L; Calabrese, Joseph R

    2010-01-01

    Objective The present study examined the relationship between medical burden in bipolar disorder and several indicators of illness severity and outcome. It was hypothesized that illnesses of the endocrine/metabolic system would be associated with greater psychiatric symptom burden and would impact the response to treatment with lithium and valproate. Method Data were analyzed from two studies evaluating lithium and valproate for rapid-cycling presentations of bipolar I and II disorder. General medical comorbidity was assessed by the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS). Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses were conducted to explore the relationships between medical burden, body mass index (BMI), substance use disorder status, and depressive symptom severity. Results Of 225 patients enrolled, 41.8% had a recent substance use disorder, 50.7% were male, and 69.8% had bipolar I disorder. The mean age of the sample was 36.8 (SD = 10.8) years old. The mean number of comorbid medical disorders per patient was 2.5 (SD = 2.5), and the mean CIRS total score was 4.3 (SD = 3.1). A significant positive correlation was observed between baseline depression severity and the number of organ systems affected by medical illness (p = 0.04). Illnesses of the endocrine/metabolic system were inversely correlated with remission from depressive symptoms (p = 0.02), and obesity was specifically associated with poorer treatment outcome. For every 1-unit increase in BMI, the likelihood of response decreased by 7.5% [odds ratio (OR) = 0.93, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.87–0.99; p = 0.02] and the likelihood of remission decreased by 7.3% (OR = 0.93, 95% CI: 0.87–0.99; p = 0.03). The effect of comorbid substance use on the likelihood of response differed significantly according to baseline BMI. The presence of a comorbid substance use disorder resulted in a lower odds of response, but only among patients with a BMI ≥ 23 (p = 0.02). Conclusion Among patients with

  19. Spatial and temporal patterns of endocrine active chemicals in small streams indicate differential exposure to aquatic organisms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.E.; Barber, L.B.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2014-01-01

    Alkylphenolic chemicals (APCs) and hormones were measured six times from February through October 2007 in three Minnesota streams receiving wastewater to identify spatial and temporal patterns in concentrations and in estrogen equivalency. Fish were collected once during the study to evaluate endpoints indicative of endocrine disruption. The most commonly detected APCs were 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-nonylphenol and the most commonly detected hormones were estrone and androstenedione. Chemical concentrations were greatest for nonylphenol ethoxycarboxylates (NPECs) (5,000-140,000 ng/l), followed by 4-nonlylphenol and 4-nonylphenolethoxylates (50-880 ng/l), 4-tert-octylphenol and 4-tert-octylphenolethoxylates with concentrations as great as 130 ng/l, and hormones (0.1-54 ng/l). Patterns in chemicals and estrogen equivalency indicated that wastewater effluent is a pathway of APCs and hormones to downstream locations in this study. However, upstream contributions can be equally or more important indicating alternative sources. This study indicates that aquatic organisms experience both spatially and temporally variable exposures in the number of compounds, total concentrations, and estrogenicity. This variability was evident in fish collected from the three rivers as no clear upstream to downstream pattern of endocrine disruption endpoints emerged.

  20. [Neurotrophic control in the development and function of two endocrine organs: the ovary and the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Vásquez, Siraam

    2007-01-01

    Neurotrophins (NTs) are important for the survival, differentiation and function of sympathetic and sensorial neurons of central and peripheral nervous system. However, similar functions have been described of NTs in non-neural organs. Nerve Growth factor (NGF) participates in the foliculogenesis and ovulation in the ovary, as well as in the islet morphogenesis and insulin secretion of the pancreatic beta cell. The NTs act by binding to two distinct classes of transmembranal receptors: p75 and Trks. Both receptor types lead to activation of intracellular signaling cascades that end with cell survival or apoptosis. In this review different actions of the NTs in the ovarian and the pancreas are described.

  1. Microbial endocrinology: the interplay between the microbiota and the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Neuman, Hadar; Debelius, Justine W; Knight, Rob; Koren, Omry

    2015-07-01

    The new field of microbiome research studies the microbes within multicellular hosts and the many effects of these microbes on the host's health and well-being. We now know that microbes influence metabolism, immunity and even behavior. Essential questions, which are just starting to be answered, are what are the mechanisms by which these bacteria affect specific host characteristics. One important but understudied mechanism appears to involve hormones. Although the precise pathways of microbiota-hormonal signaling have not yet been deciphered, specific changes in hormone levels correlate with the presence of the gut microbiota. The microbiota produces and secretes hormones, responds to host hormones and regulates expression levels of host hormones. Here, we summarize the links between the endocrine system and the gut microbiota. We categorize these interactions by the different functions of the hormones, including those affecting behavior, sexual attraction, appetite and metabolism, gender and immunity. Future research in this area will reveal additional connections, and elucidate the pathways and consequences of bacterial interactions with the host endocrine system. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Thyroid endocrine system disruption by pentachlorophenol: an in vitro and in vivo assay.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yongyong; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2013-10-15

    The present study aimed to evaluate the disruption caused to the thyroid endocrine system by pentachlorophenol (PCP) using in vitro and in vivo assays. In the in vitro assay, rat pituitary GH3 cells were exposed to 0, 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μM PCP. PCP exposure significantly downregulated basal and triiodothyronine (T3)-induced Dio 1 transcription, indicating the antagonistic activity of PCP in vitro. In the in vivo assay, zebrafish embryos were exposed to 0, 1, 3, and 10 μg/L of PCP until 14 days post-fertilization. PCP exposure resulted in decreased thyroxine (T4) levels, but elevated contents of whole-body T3. PCP exposure significantly upregulated the mRNA expression of genes along hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, including those encoding thyroid-stimulating hormone, sodium/iodide symporter, thyroglobulin, Dio 1 and Dio 2, alpha and beta thyroid hormone receptor, and uridinediphosphate-glucuronosyl-transferase. PCP exposure did not influence the transcription of the transthyretin (TTR) gene. The results indicate that PCP potentially disrupts the thyroid endocrine system both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The calcium endocrine system of adolescent rhesus monkeys and controls before and after spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, Meena; Deftos, Leonard; Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Dotsenko, Rita; Bigbee, Allison; Grindeland, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The calcium endocrine system of nonhuman primates can be influenced by chairing for safety and the weightless environment of spaceflight. The serum of two rhesus monkeys flown on the Bion 11 mission was assayed pre- and postflight for vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, parameters of calcium homeostasis, cortisol, and indexes of renal function. Results were compared with the same measures from five monkeys before and after chairing for a flight simulation study. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were 72% lower after the flight than before, and more than after chairing on the ground (57%, P < 0.05). Decreases in parathyroid hormone did not reach significance. Calcitonin showed modest decreases postflight (P < 0.02). Overall, effects of spaceflight on the calcium endocrine system were similar to the effects of chairing on the ground, but were more pronounced. Reduced intestinal calcium absorption, losses in body weight, increases in cortisol, and higher postflight blood urea nitrogen were the changes in flight monkeys that distinguished them from the flight simulation study animals.

  4. The pleiotropic roles of transforming growth factor beta inhomeostasis and carcinogenesis of endocrine organs.

    SciTech Connect

    Fleisch, Markus C.; Maxwell, Christopher A.; Barcellos-Hoff,Mary-Helen

    2006-01-13

    Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is a ubiquitous cytokine that plays a critical role in numerous pathways regulating cellular and tissue homeostasis. TGF-beta is regulated by hormones and is a primary mediator of hormone response in uterus, prostate and mammary gland. This review will address the role of TGF-beta in regulating hormone dependent proliferation and morphogenesis. The subversion of TGF-beta regulation during the processes of carcinogenesis, with particular emphasis on its effects on genetic stability and epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), will also be examined. An understanding of the multiple and complex mechanisms of TGF-beta regulation of epithelial function, and the ultimate loss of TGF-beta function during carcinogenesis, will be critical in the design of novel therapeutic interventions for endocrine-related cancers.

  5. Sustainable systems as organisms?

    PubMed

    Ho, Mae-Wan; Ulanowicz, Robert

    2005-10-01

    Schrödinger [Schrödinger, E., 1944. What is Life? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge] marvelled at how the organism is able to use metabolic energy to maintain and even increase its organisation, which could not be understood in terms of classical statistical thermodynamics. Ho [Ho, M.W., 1993. The Rainbow and the Worm, The Physics of Organisms, World Scientific, Singapore; Ho, M.W., 1998a. The Rainbow and the Worm, The Physics of Organisms, 2nd (enlarged) ed., reprinted 1999, 2001, 2003 (available online from ISIS website www.i-sis.org.uk)] outlined a novel "thermodynamics of organised complexity" based on a nested dynamical structure that enables the organism to maintain its organisation and simultaneously achieve non-equilibrium and equilibrium energy transfer at maximum efficiency. This thermodynamic model of the organism is reminiscent of the dynamical structure of steady state ecosystems identified by Ulanowicz [Ulanowicz, R.E., 1983. Identifying the structure of cycling in ecosystems. Math. Biosci. 65, 210-237; Ulanowicz, R.E., 2003. Some steps towards a central theory of ecosystem dynamics. Comput. Biol. Chem. 27, 523-530]. The healthy organism excels in maintaining its organisation and keeping away from thermodynamic equilibrium--death by another name--and in reproducing and providing for future generations. In those respects, it is the ideal sustainable system. We propose therefore to explore the common features between organisms and ecosystems, to see how far we can analyse sustainable systems in agriculture, ecology and economics as organisms, and to extract indicators of the system's health or sustainability. We find that looking at sustainable systems as organisms provides fresh insights on sustainability, and offers diagnostic criteria for sustainability that reflect the system's health. In the case of ecosystems, those diagnostic criteria of health translate into properties such as biodiversity and productivity, the richness of cycles, the

  6. Endocrine responses to space flights.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Kvetnansky, R; Fickova, M; Kolena, J; Knopp, J; Tigranian, R A; Popova, I A; Grogoriev, A I

    2001-07-01

    Simultaneously with human space flights several series of observations were performed by using experimental animals--mainly rats--exposed to space flights on board of special satellites BION-COSMOS or in Shuttle Transportation Systems (STS). The aims of these experiments were to study in more details: the mechanisms of the changes in bones and skeletal muscle, the alterations of the function of immune system, the radiation effects on organism, the mechanism of the changes of endocrine functions, the evaluation of the role of hormones in alteration of metabolic processes in organism. The advantages of these animal experiments were the possibilities to analyze not only the plasma samples, but it was possible to obtain samples of organs or tissues: for morphological and biochemical analysis for studies of the changes in enzyme activities and in gene expressions, for measurement of metabolic processes and for investigation of the hormone production in endocrine glands and estimation of the response of tissues to hormones. It was also possible to compare the endocrine response to spaceflight and to other stress stimuli. These animal studies are interesting for verification of some hypothesis in the mechanism of adaptation of human organism to the changes of gravity. The disadvantage was, however, that the animals in almost all experiments could be examined only after space flight. The actual inflight changes were investigated only in two SLS flights. In this short review it is not possible to evaluate all hormonal data available on the response of endocrine system to the conditions of space flights. Therefore we will concentrate on the response of pituitary adrenocortical system, pituitary thyroid and pituitary gonadal functions.

  7. The emerging role of the endocannabinoid system in endocrine regulation and energy balance.

    PubMed

    Pagotto, Uberto; Marsicano, Giovanni; Cota, Daniela; Lutz, Beat; Pasquali, Renato

    2006-02-01

    During the last few years, the endocannabinoid system has emerged as a highly relevant topic in the scientific community. Many different regulatory actions have been attributed to endocannabinoids, and their involvement in several pathophysiological conditions is under intense scrutiny. Cannabinoid receptors, named CB1 receptor and CB2 receptor, first discovered as the molecular targets of the psychotropic component of the plant Cannabis sativa, participate in the physiological modulation of many central and peripheral functions. CB2 receptor is mainly expressed in immune cells, whereas CB1 receptor is the most abundant G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the brain. CB1 receptor is expressed in the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland, and its activation is known to modulate all the endocrine hypothalamic-peripheral endocrine axes. An increasing amount of data highlights the role of the system in the stress response by influencing the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and in the control of reproduction by modifying gonadotropin release, fertility, and sexual behavior. The ability of the endocannabinoid system to control appetite, food intake, and energy balance has recently received great attention, particularly in the light of the different modes of action underlying these functions. The endocannabinoid system modulates rewarding properties of food by acting at specific mesolimbic areas in the brain. In the hypothalamus, CB1 receptor and endocannabinoids are integrated components of the networks controlling appetite and food intake. Interestingly, the endocannabinoid system was recently shown to control metabolic functions by acting on peripheral tissues, such as adipocytes, hepatocytes, the gastrointestinal tract, and, possibly, skeletal muscle. The relevance of the system is further strenghtened by the notion that drugs interfering with the activity of the endocannabinoid system are considered as promising candidates for the treatment of various diseases

  8. Adaptation of the human endocrine system to microgravity in the context of integrative physiology and ageing.

    PubMed

    Strollo, F

    2000-01-01

    This review deals with changes occurring in space in different endocrine systems. Sections are dedicated to hormones involved in bone remodelling, the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, pancreatic hormones, the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and the hypothalamic-pituitary-somato-mammotropic system. In space, most systems - especially those regulating bone/muscle metabolism and reproduction - undergo changes resembling those observed during senescence, but recover within weeks or months after return. This suggests space as a possible experimental model for the study of "reversible ageing processes". Studying ageing through space technology might give us the opportunity to combine the holistic view of integrative physiology with the most ambitious goal of the present scientific community, i.e. to yield successful ageing by promoting chronic disease prevention studies and by optimizing safe, anti-ageing therapeutic protocols.

  9. Pleiotropic Activities of HGF/c-Met System in Testicular Physiology: Paracrine and Endocrine Implications.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Giulia; Catizone, Angela

    2014-01-01

    In the last decades, a growing body of evidence has been reported concerning the expression and functional role of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) on different aspects of testicular physiology. This review has the aim to summarize what is currently known regarding this topic. From early embryonic development to adult age, HGF and its receptor c-Met appeared to be clearly detectable in the testis. These molecules acquire different distribution patterns and roles depending on the developmental stage or the post-natal age considered. HGF acts as a paracrine modulator of testicular functions promoting the epithelium-mesenchyme cross-talk as described even in other organs. Interestingly, it has been reported that testicular HGF acts even as an autocrine factor and that its receptor might be modulated by endocrine signals that change at puberty: HGF receptor expressed by Sertoli cells, in fact, is up-regulated by FSH administration. HGF is in turn able to modify endocrine state of the organism being able to increase testosterone secretion of both fetal and adult Leydig cells. Moreover, c-Met is expressed in mitotic and meiotic male germ cells as well as in spermatozoa. The distribution pattern of c-Met on sperm cell membrane changes in the caput and cauda epididymal sperms and HGF is able to maintain epididymal sperm motility in vitro suggesting a physiological role of this growth factor in the acquisition of sperm motility. Noteworthy changes in HGF concentration in seminal plasma have been reported in different andrological diseases. All together these data indicate that HGF has a role in the control of spermatogenesis and sperm quality either directly, acting on male germ cells, or indirectly acting on tubular and interstitial somatic cells of the testis.

  10. [Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter mutations in the tumors of human endocrine organs: Biological and prognostic value].

    PubMed

    Selivanova, L S; Volganova, K S; Abrosimov, A Y U

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of the data available in the literature has shown that telomerase reverse transcriptase TERT promoter may serve as promising markers of malignancy, aggressive disease course, and poor prognosis for malignant tumors of endocrine organs. Considering the established association of mutations with tumors having a poor prognosis (high-grade and anaplastic carcinoma of the thyroid), it is reasonable to perform prognostic-value investigations in a group of low-grade thyroid carcinomas that may occasionally recur and may be resistant to radioactive iodine therapy, i.e. can demonstrate a poor course and prognosis. TERT promoter mutations may be a specific marker of the clinically aggressive forms of adrenocortical carcinoma, but the determination of its diagnostic value calls for additional investigations that will have the larger number cases and establish the association with clinical features and survival rates.

  11. Endocrine Disruptors and Obesity: An Examination of Selected Persistent Organic Pollutants in the NHANES 1999–2002 Data

    PubMed Central

    Elobeid, Mai A.; Brock, David W.; Allison, David B.; Padilla, Miguel A.; Ruden, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may cause perturbations in endogenous hormonal regulation that predispose to weight gain. Using data from NHANES (1999–2002), we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and selected persistent organic pollutants (POPs) via multiple linear regressions. Consistent interaction was found between gender, ln oxychlordane and ln p,p’ DDT. Also, we found an association between WC and ln oxychlordane and ln hpcdd in subjects with detectable levels of POPs, whereas an association between WC and ln p,p’ DDT was observed in all subjects. Furthermore, ln Ocdd showed an increase with higher WC and BMI, whereas, ln trans-nonachlor decreased with higher BMI. Hence, BMI and WC are associated with POPs levels, making the chemicals plausible contributors to the obesity epidemic. PMID:20717554

  12. Organic contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conn, K.E.; Siegrist, R.L.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.

    2007-01-01

    Wastewater from thirty onsite wastewater treatment systems was sampled during a reconnaissance field study to quantify bulk parameters and the occurrence of organic wastewater contaminants including endocrine disrupting compounds in treatment systems representing a variety of wastewater sources and treatment processes and their receiving environments. Bulk parameters ranged in concentrations representative of the wide variety of wastewater sources (residential vs. non-residential). Organic contaminants such as sterols, surfactant metabolites, antimicrobial agents, stimulants, metal-chelating agents, and other consumer product chemicals, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry were detected frequently in onsite system wastewater. Wastewater composition was unique between source type likely due to differences in source water and chemical usage. Removal efficiencies varied by engineered treatment type and physicochemical properties of the contaminant, resulting in discharge to the soil treatment unit at ecotoxicologically-relevant concentrations. Organic wastewater contaminants were detected less frequently and at lower concentrations in onsite system receiving environments. Understanding the occurrence and fate of organic wastewater contaminants in onsite wastewater treatment systems will aid in minimizing risk to ecological and human health.

  13. Clinical review: kinase inhibitors: adverse effects related to the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B

    2013-04-01

    The use of kinase inhibitors (KIs) in the treatment of cancer has become increasingly common, and practitioners must be familiar with endocrine-related side effects associated with these agents. This review provides an update to the clinician regarding the management of potential endocrinological effects of KIs. PubMed was employed to identify relevant manuscripts. A review of the literature was conducted, and data were summarized and incorporated. KIs, including small molecule KIs and monoclonal antibodies directed against kinases, have emerged over the past decade as an important class of anticancer agents. KIs specifically interfere with signaling pathways that are dysregulated in certain types of cancers and also target common mechanisms of growth, invasion, metastasis, and angiogenesis. Currently, at least 20 KIs are approved as cancer therapeutics. However, KIs may affect a broad spectrum of targets and may have additional, unidentified mechanisms of action at the cellular level due to overlap between signaling pathways in the tumor cell and endocrine system. Recent reports in the literature have identified side effects associated with KIs, including alterations in thyroid function, bone metabolism, linear growth, gonadal function, fetal development, adrenal function, and glucose metabolism. Clinicians need to monitor the thyroid functions of patients on KIs. In addition, bone density and vitamin D status should be assessed. Special care should be taken to follow linear growth and development in children taking these agents. Clinicians should counsel patients appropriately on the potential adverse effects of KIs on fetal development.

  14. Dynamics of some parameters of the endocrine and lymphatic systems in rats during cold adaptation

    SciTech Connect

    Borodin, Yu.I.; Sedova, L.A.; Selyatitskaya, V.G.; Shorin, Yu.P.

    1986-02-01

    This paper examines the combined behavior of the endocrine and lymphatic systems in rats at stages of long-term adaptation of the animals to moderate cold. After decapitation of male Wister rats, the corticosterone concentration in the blood plasma was determined by saturation analysis and serum levels of thyroxine (T/sub 4/) and triiodothyronine (T/sub 3/) were determined by radioimmunoassay. The thymus was weighed and the structure of the popliteal lymph nodes (LN) was studied in histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin and with azure II-eosin. Morphometry of the structural components of LN was undertaken and the numbers of the various cell forms per 1000 cells were counted in different zones of LN. The increase in activity of the lymphoid tissue in the phase of adaptation may be connected with intensification of the peripheral action of thyroid hormones. During long-term adaptation, in the phase of consistently increased specific resistance, a new type of endocrine-lymphoid relation is formed, and it differs significantly both in the original state and in the acute phase of stress.

  15. Biodegradation of Endocrine Disruptors in Solid-Liquid Two-Phase Partitioning Systems by Enrichment Cultures

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Silvia Cristina Cunha; Ouellette, Julianne; Juteau, Pierre; Lépine, François; Déziel, Eric

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring and synthetic estrogens and other molecules from industrial sources strongly contribute to the endocrine disruption of urban wastewater. Because of the presence of these molecules in low but effective concentrations in wastewaters, these endocrine disruptors (EDs) are only partially removed after most wastewater treatments, reflecting the presence of these molecules in rivers in urban areas. The development of a two-phase partitioning bioreactor (TPPB) might be an effective strategy for the removal of EDs from wastewater plant effluents. Here, we describe the establishment of three ED-degrading microbial enrichment cultures adapted to a solid-liquid two-phase partitioning system using Hytrel as the immiscible water phase and loaded with estrone, estradiol, estriol, ethynylestradiol, nonylphenol, and bisphenol A. All molecules except ethynylestradiol were degraded in the enrichment cultures. The bacterial composition of the three enrichment cultures was determined using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and showed sequences affiliated with bacteria associated with the degradation of these compounds, such as Sphingomonadales. One Rhodococcus isolate capable of degrading estrone, estradiol, and estriol was isolated from one enrichment culture. These results highlight the great potential for the development of TPPB for the degradation of highly diluted EDs in water effluents. PMID:23728808

  16. Social Interactions and Familial Relationships Preservice Science Teachers Describe during Interviews about Their Drawings of the Endocrine and Gastrointestinal Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined preservice science teachers' understandings of the structure and function of the human gastrointestinal and endocrine systems through drawings and interviews. Moreover, the preservice science teachers described where they thought they learned about the systems. The 142 preservice teachers were asked to draw the human…

  17. The organic Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibb, Bruce C.

    2015-05-01

    In the second of two essays looking at organic chemistry that can be found in the Solar System, Bruce C. Gibb focuses on the gas and ice giants as well as their satellites -- concluding the tour on Saturn's fascinating moon Titan.

  18. Life-cycle exposure to microcystin-LR interferes with the reproductive endocrine system of male zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Su, Yujing; Li, Li; Hou, Jie; Wu, Ning; Lin, Wang; Li, Guangyu

    2016-06-01

    Recently, MC-LR reproductive toxicity drew great attention. Limited information was available on endocrine-disrupting effects of MC-LR on the reproduction system in fish. In the present study, zebrafish hatchlings (5 d post-fertilization) were exposed to 0, 0.3, 3 and 30μg/L MC-LR for 90 d until they reached sexual maturity. Male zebrafish were selected, and changes in growth and developmental parameters, testicular histological structure as well as the levels of gonadal steroid hormones were studied along with the related-gene transcriptional responses in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG-axis). The results, for the first time, show a life cycle exposure to MC-LR causes growth inhibition, testicular damage and delayed sperm maturation. A significant decrease in T/E2 ratio indicated that MC-LR disrupted sex steroid hormones balance. The changes in transcriptional responses of HPG-axis related genes revealed that MC-LR promoted the conversion of T to E2 in circulating blood. It was also noted that vtg1 mRNA expression in the liver was up-regulated, which implied that MC-LR could induce estrogenic-like effects at environmentally relevant concentrations and long-term exposure. Our findings indicated that a life cycle exposure to MC-LR causes endocrine disruption with organic and functional damage of the testis, which might compromise the quality of life for the survivors and pose a potent threat on fish reproduction and thus population dynamics in MCs-contaminated aquatic environments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Human exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals: effects on the male and female reproductive systems.

    PubMed

    Sifakis, Stavros; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Tsatsakis, Aristeidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-04-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) comprise a group of chemical compounds that have been examined extensively due to the potential harmful effects in the health of human populations. During the past decades, particular focus has been given to the harmful effects of EDCs to the reproductive system. The estimation of human exposure to EDCs can be broadly categorized into occupational and environmental exposure, and has been a major challenge due to the structural diversity of the chemicals that are derived by many different sources at doses below the limit of detection used by conventional methodologies. Animal and in vitro studies have supported the conclusion that endocrine disrupting chemicals affect the hormone dependent pathways responsible for male and female gonadal development, either through direct interaction with hormone receptors or via epigenetic and cell-cycle regulatory modes of action. In human populations, the majority of the studies point towards an association between exposure to EDCs and male and/or female reproduction system disorders, such as infertility, endometriosis, breast cancer, testicular cancer, poor sperm quality and/or function. Despite promising discoveries, a causal relationship between the reproductive disorders and exposure to specific toxicants is yet to be established, due to the complexity of the clinical protocols used, the degree of occupational or environmental exposure, the determination of the variables measured and the sample size of the subjects examined. Future studies should focus on a uniform system of examining human populations with regard to the exposure to specific EDCs and the direct effect on the reproductive system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Integration of in silico methods and computational systems biology to explore endocrine-disrupting chemical binding with nuclear hormone receptors.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, P; Sack, A; Wampole, M; Bobst, S; Vracko, M

    2017-07-01

    Thousands of potential endocrine-disrupting chemicals present difficult regulatory challenges. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals can interfere with several nuclear hormone receptors associated with a variety of adverse health effects. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) has released its reviews of Tier 1 screening assay results for a set of pesticides in the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program (EDSP), and recently, the Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project (CERAPP) data. In this study, the predictive ability of QSAR and docking approaches is evaluated using these data sets. This study also presents a computational systems biology approach using carbaryl (1-naphthyl methylcarbamate) as a case study. For estrogen receptor and androgen receptor binding predictions, two commercial and two open source QSAR tools were used, as was the publicly available docking tool Endocrine Disruptome. For estrogen receptor binding predictions, the ADMET Predictor, VEGA, and OCHEM models (specificity: 0.88, 0.88, and 0.86, and accuracy: 0.81, 0.84, and 0.88, respectively) were each more reliable than the MetaDrug™ model (specificity 0.81 and accuracy 0.77). For androgen receptor binding predictions, the Endocrine Disruptome and ADMET Predictor models (specificity: 0.94 and 0.8, and accuracy: 0.78 and 0.71, respectively) were more reliable than the MetaDrug™ model (specificity 0.33 and accuracy 0.4). A consensus approach is proposed that reaches general agreement among the models (specificity 0.94 and accuracy 0.89). This study integrates QSAR, docking, and systems biology approaches as a virtual screening tool for use in risk assessment. As such, this systems biology pathways and network analysis approach provides a means to more critically assess the potential effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Some aspects of interactivity between endocrine and immune systems required for successful reproduction.

    PubMed

    Weghofer, Andrea; Himaya, Eric; Kushnir, Vitaly A; Barad, David H; Lazzaroni-Tealdi, Emanuela; Yu, Yao; Wu, Yan-Guang; Gleicher, Norbert

    2015-04-11

    In successful reproduction, endocrine and immune systems closely interact. We here attempt to further elucidate the relationship between androgen levels, systemic activation of the immune system and reproductive success in infertile women, utilizing 2 distinct infertile patient cohorts. In Group 1, we investigated 322 women (ages 38.6+/-5.4 years) at initial presentation; in Group 2 125 women undergoing in vitro fertilization (169 IVF cycles, ages 38.9+/-5.5 years). In Group 1, we assessed androgens and an immune panel, previously demonstrated to discriminate between activated quiescent immune systems; in Group 2, utilizing the same immune panel, we investigated whether immune system activation relates to embryo quality in IVF cycles. No individual immune test within the immune panel was associated with androgen levels. The total/free testosterone ratio (TT/FT) was, however, significantly associated with presence of gammopathies (in IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE; P=0.026). Surprisingly, immune system activation was associated with significantly improved embryo quality (P=0.008), a finding persistent after adjustment for age and repeat IVF cycles (P=0.006). Association of immune system activation with improved embryo quality concurs with previously reported immune activation in association with normal functional ovarian reserve (FOR) and normal androgen levels, while, counter intuitively, hypoandrogenism and low FOR are associated with lack of immune system activation. Mild immune system activation, therefore, likely appears essential for establishment of pregnancy, and may be regulated by androgens.

  2. Neonatal Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals Impairs Learning Behaviour by Disrupting Hippocampal Organization in Male Swiss Albino Mice.

    PubMed

    Bhaskar, Rakesh; Mishra, Ashish K; Mohanty, Banalata

    2017-02-16

    Hippocampus is highly susceptible to endocrine disrupting chemicals exposure particularly during the critical phase of brain development. In this study, mice offspring were exposed to endocrine disruptors mancozeb (MCZ) and imidacloprid (IMI) individually (40 mg MCZ and 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) as well as to their equimixture (40 mg MCZ + 0.65 mg IMI/kg/day) through the diet of lactating mothers from post-natal day (PND) 1 to PND 28. Half of the randomly selected male offspring were killed at PND 29, and the rest half were left unexposed and killed at PND 63. Brain weight, histology, plasma hormone profile and working memory performance were the various end-points studied. Brain weight was significantly decreased in the mixture-exposed group at PND 29, which persisted to PND 63. Total thickness of pyramidal cell layers decreased significantly along with misalignment, shrinkage and degeneration of pyramidal neurons in CA1 and CA3 regions of the IMI and mixture-exposed groups. The length and branch points of dendrites of pyramidal neurons were decreased significantly in mixture-exposed group at both PND 29 and PND 63. Dendritic spine density was also reduced in mixture-exposed group offspring. Testosterone level was significantly decreased only at PND 29, but corticosterone level was increased at both PND 29 and PND 63 in mixture-exposed offspring. T-maze task performance revealed significantly increased time duration and reduced path efficiency in mixture-exposed group offspring. The results thus indicate that pesticide mixture exposure could lead to changes in learning behaviour even at doses that individually did not induce any adverse effect on hippocampal organization.

  3. Aging of the endocrine system and its potential impact on sarcopenia.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Giovanni; Cesari, Matteo; Mari, Daniela

    2016-11-01

    Sarcopenia, occurring as a primary consequence of aging, is a progressive generalized decline of skeletal muscle mass, strength and function. The pathophysiology of sarcopenia is complex and multifactorial. One major cause of muscle mass and strength loss with aging appears to be the alteration in hormonal networks involved in the inflammatory processes, muscle regeneration and protein synthesis. This review describes the recent findings concerning the role of the aging on the endocrine system in the development of sarcopenia. We also report the benefits and safety of hormone replacement therapy in elderly subjects and discuss future perspectives in the therapy and prevention of skeletal muscle aging. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs)

    MedlinePlus

    ... metabolism (how the body converts food to fuel), reproduction, growth and development, and the way your body ... body. It controls overall endocrine system functions including reproduction, stress responses, growth, lactation (production and secretion of ...

  5. Research on Endocrine Disruptors

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA researchers are developing innovative approaches, tools, models and data to improve the understanding of potential risks to human health and wildlife from chemicals that could disrupt the endocrine system.

  6. The response of endocrine system to stress loads during space flight in human subject

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macho, L.; Koška, J.; Kšinantová, L.; Pacak, K.; Hoff, T.; Noskov, V. B.; Grigoriev, A. I.; Vigaš, M.; Kvetňanský, R.

    The responses of endocrine system to the exposure to stress-work load and hormonal changes during oral glucose tolerance tests were studied in the Slovak astronaut before (three weeks before flight), during (on the 4th and the 6th days of space flight), and after space flight (1-3 days and 15-17 days after space flight) on board of space station MIR. Blood samples during the tests were collected via cannula inserted into cubital vein, centrifuged in the special appliance Plasma-03, frozen in Kryogem-03, and at the end of the 8-day space flight transforred to Earth in special container for hormonal analysis. Preflight workload produced an increase of plasma norepinephrine and a moderate elevation of epinephrine levels. Plasma levels of insulin, growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol were not markedly changed immediately or 10 min after the end of work load. The higher increases of plasma growth hormone, prolactin and catecholamine levels were noted after workload during space flight as compared to preflight response. The higher plasma glucose and insulin levels were noted during the oral glucose tolerance test in space flight and also in the post flight period. Plasma epinephrine levels were slightly decreasing during glucose tolerance test; however, plasma norepinephrine levels were not changed. The similar patterns of catecholamine levels during glucose tolerance test were found when compared the preflight, in-flight and post flight values. These data demonstrate the changes of the dynamic responses of endocrine system to stress-work and metabolic loads during space flight in human subject.

  7. Blood biomarkers of endocrine, immune, inflammatory, and metabolic systems in obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Wesley Elon; Ferouz-Colborn, Aliya; Samoszuk, Michael K; Azad, Armaghan; Lu, Jiuliu; Riley, John S; Cruz, Amabelle B; Podolak, Susann; Clark, Doni J; Bray, Kurtis R; Southwick, Paula C

    2016-08-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a common disorder, affecting over 100 million adults. Untreated OSA leads to serious health consequences and perturbations in endocrine, immune, inflammatory, and metabolic systems. Study objectives are to evaluate the association between OSA and biomarkers, and to test the hypothesis that a combination of markers may be useful in screening for OSA. A multicenter trial was conducted enrolling symptomatic male patients with suspected OSA. All subjects underwent in-laboratory overnight polysomnography. A non-symptomatic control group was also obtained. Eleven biomarkers were tested: HbA1c, CRP, EPO, IL-6, uric acid, cortisol, hGH, prolactin, testosterone, DHEA (Beckman Coulter UniCel DxC 600i Synchron® Access® Clinical Systems), IGF-1. 73 male subjects were enrolled; 26 had moderate/severe OSA. ROC curve analysis showed HbA1c, CRP, EPO, IL-6, and Uric Acid (AUCs: 0.76, 0.73, 0.65, 0.65, 0.61) were superior to the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (AUC: 0.52). Concurrent elevation of HbA1c and CRP provide even greater predictive power. A combination of elevated HbA1c, CRP, and EPO provided 0.08 increase in AUC (0.84 [0.75 - 0.94]) over individual markers (p<0.05), with high sensitivity (85%), and specificity (79%) for moderate/severe OSA. OSA induces characteristic endocrine, immune, inflammatory, and metabolic disturbances that can be detected with blood biomarkers. These biomarkers are superior to standard screening questionnaires. Various clusters of these biomarkers have an even greater association with OSA and thus may represent physiologic signatures of the disorder that may have value in initial screening for OSA as well as for follow-up of therapy response. Copyright © 2016 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The response of endocrine system to stress loads during space flight in human subject.

    PubMed

    Macho, L; Koska, J; Ksinantova, L; Pacak, K; Hoff, T; Noskov, V B; Grigoriev, A I; Vigas, M; Kvetnansky, R

    2003-01-01

    The responses of endocrine system to the exposure to stress-work load and hormonal changes during oral glucose tolerance tests were studied in the Slovak astronaut before (three weeks before flight), during (on the 4th and the 6th days of space flight), and after space flight (1-3 days and 15-17 days after space flight) on board of space station MIR. Blood samples during the tests were collected via cannula inserted into cubital vein, centrifuged in the special appliance Plasma-03, frozen in Kryogem-03, and at the end of the 8-day space flight transferred to Earth in special container for hormonal analysis. Preflight workload produced an increase of plasma norepinephrine and a moderate elevation of epinephrine levels. Plasma levels of insulin, growth hormone, prolactin and cortisol were not markedly changed immediately or 10 min after the end of work load. The higher increases of plasma growth hormone, prolactin and catecholamine levels were noted after workload during space flight as compared to preflight response. The higher plasma glucose and insulin levels were noted during the oral glucose tolerance test in space flight and also in the post flight period. Plasma epinephrine levels were slightly decreasing during glucose tolerance test; however, plasma norepinephrine levels were not changed. The similar patterns of catecholamine levels during glucose tolerance test were found when compared the preflight, in-flight and post flight values. These data demonstrate the changes of the dynamic responses of endocrine system to stress-work and metabolic loads during space flight in human subject.

  9. Influences of pre- and postnatal nutritional exposures on vascular/endocrine systems in animals.

    PubMed Central

    Hoet, J J; Ozanne, S; Reusens, B

    2000-01-01

    Human epidemiological and animal studies have revealed the long-term effects of malnutrition during gestation and early life on the health of the offspring. The aim of the current review is to survey the different means of achieving fetal malnutrition and its consequences, mainly in animals, and to identify key areas in which to direct future research. We address the impact of various models of a maternal protein-restricted diet and global maternal caloric restriction (either through the reduction of nutrient supply or through mechanic devices), the influence of maternal diabetes, and other maternal causes of fetal damage (maternal infections and toxic food components). More specifically, we enumerate data on how the different insults at different prenatal and early postnatal periods affect and program the development and the function of organs involved in diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Particular emphasis is given to the endocrine pancreas, but insulin-sensitive tissues, kidneys, and vasculature are also analyzed. Where available, the protective effects of maternal food supplementation for fetal organ development and function are discussed. Specific attention is paid to the amino acids profile, and the preventive role of taurine is discussed. Tentative indications about critical time windows for fetal development under different deleterious conditions are presented whenever possible. We also discuss future research and intervention. PMID:10852855

  10. Endocrine dysfunction in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Leal, A M O; Foss, N T

    2009-01-01

    Leprosy is still an endemic disease, especially in Third World countries, and, because of migration, it still persists in Europe and the United States. The disease affects the peripheral nerves, skin, and multiple internal organs, making its clinical recognition difficult. In particular, the endocrine manifestations caused by leprosy have been underestimated, even by specialists. The endocrine changes present in leprosy include hypogonadism, sterility, and osteoporosis. In addition, the spectral immune nature of leprosy offers an attractive model to investigate the pathogenetic correlation between the patterns of inflammation in the poles of its spectrum and the hormonal disarrangements observed in this disease. It is important that those involved in leprosy management be aware of the potential endocrine changes and their treatment to address the disease in all of its aspects. In this article, we review the findings on endocrine dysfunction in leprosy, including a survey of the literature and of our own work.

  11. The endocrine system controlling sexual reproduction in animals: Part of the evolutionary ancient but well conserved immune system?

    PubMed

    De Loof, Arnold; Schoofs, Liliane; Huybrechts, Roger

    2016-01-15

    Drastic changes in hormone titers, in particular of steroid hormones, are intuitively interpreted as necessary and beneficial for optimal functioning of animals. Peaks in progesterone- and estradiol titers that accompany the estrus cycle in female vertebrates as well as in ecdysteroids at each molt and during metamorphosis of holometabolous insects are prominent examples. A recent analysis of insect metamorphosis yielded the view that, in general, a sharp rise in sex steroid hormone titer signals that somewhere in the body some tissue(s) is undergoing programmed cell death/apoptosis. Increased steroid production is part of this process. Typical examples are ovarian follicle cells in female vertebrates and invertebrates and the prothoracic gland cells, the main production site of ecdysteroids in larval insects. A duality emerges: programmed cell death-apoptosis is deleterious at the cellular level, but it may yield beneficial effects at the organismal level. Reconciling both opposites requires reevaluating the probable evolutionary origin and role of peptidic brain hormones that direct steroid hormone synthesis. Do e.g. Luteinizing Hormone in vertebrates and Prothoracicotropic Hormone (PTTH: acting through the Torso receptor) in insects still retain an ancient role as toxins in the early immune system? Does the functional link of some neuropeptides with Ca(2+)-induced apoptosis make sense in endocrine archeology? The endocrine system as a remnant of the ancient immune system is undoubtedly counterintuitive. Yet, we will argue that such paradigm enables the logical framing of many aspects, the endocrine one inclusive of both male and female reproductive physiology. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Endocrine Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    ... high or too low, you may have an endocrine disease or disorder. Endocrine diseases and disorders also occur if your body does not respond to hormones the way it is supposed to. Featured Topics Adrenal Insufficiency ... Topics Research Discoveries & News Children with Cushing ...

  13. The follicular and endocrine environment in women with endometriosis: local and systemic cytokine production.

    PubMed

    Pellicer, A; Albert, C; Mercader, A; Bonilla-Musoles, F; Remohí, J; Simón, C

    1998-09-01

    To assess the endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine milieu in patients with endometriosis on the basis of the measurement of several cytokines in serum and follicular fluid (FF) and in vitro culture of granulosa luteal cells. Case-control study. In vitro fertilization program at the Instituto Valenciano de Infertilidad. Twenty patients with laparoscopically documented endometriosis and 18 controls. Fifteen subjects were studied in a natural cycle and 23 were investigated in a stimulated cycle while undergoing IVF. Individual follicle aspiration, oocyte isolation, FF storage, and preparation of luteinized granulosa cell cultures. Diagnostic laparoscopy in natural cycles. Serum (day of ovum pick-up or laparoscopy) and FF measurement of interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Secretion of IL-1beta, IL-6, and VEGF in the cell-conditioned medium. Results were compared between patients with endometriosis and controls. Interleukin-6 levels in serum were increased in the natural cycles of patients with endometriosis and modulated by ovarian stimulation, showing a significant decrease in hMG- and FSH-stimulated cycles and a significant increase after hCG administration. In addition, IL-6 levels were increased in the FF of patients with endometriosis and released in higher amounts by their granulosa luteal cells. Vascular endothelial growth factor was accumulated in lesser concentrations in the FF of patients with endometriosis. Interleukin-1beta levels did not show significant changes. Implantation rates were decreased significantly in patients with endometriosis who were undergoing IVF. The data demonstrate that cytokines are regulated differently in patients with endometriosis, who have increased IL-6 production, and suggest that fine hormonal modulation of this cytokine occurs at the systemic and local (ovarian) levels. These changes show that the endocrine, paracrine, and autocrine milieu is different in patients with endometriosis and

  14. Immunologic endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Michels, Aaron W; Eisenbarth, George S

    2010-02-01

    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA-like molecules determining tissue-specific targeting that, with the loss of tolerance, leads to organ-specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Graves disease, Hashimoto thyroiditis, Addison disease, and many others result from autoimmune-mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in patients with type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. Although therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Immunologic Endocrine Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Michels, Aaron W.; Eisenbarth, George S.

    2010-01-01

    Autoimmunity affects multiple glands in the endocrine system. Animal models and human studies highlight the importance of alleles in HLA (human leukocyte antigen)-like molecules determining tissue specific targeting that with the loss of tolerance leads to organ specific autoimmunity. Disorders such as type 1A diabetes, Grave's disease, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Addison's disease, and many others result from autoimmune mediated tissue destruction. Each of these disorders can be divided into stages beginning with genetic susceptibility, environmental triggers, active autoimmunity, and finally metabolic derangements with overt symptoms of disease. With an increased understanding of the immunogenetics and immunopathogenesis of endocrine autoimmune disorders, immunotherapies are becoming prevalent, especially in type 1A diabetes. Immunotherapies are being used more in multiple subspecialty fields to halt disease progression. While therapies for autoimmune disorders stop the progress of an immune response, immunomodulatory therapies for cancer and chronic infections can also provoke an unwanted immune response. As a result, there are now iatrogenic autoimmune disorders arising from the treatment of chronic viral infections and malignancies. PMID:20176260

  16. Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans.

    PubMed Central

    Colborn, T; vom Saal, F S; Soto, A M

    1993-01-01

    Large numbers and large quantities of endocrine-disrupting chemicals have been released into the environment since World War II. Many of these chemicals can disturb development of the endocrine system and of the organs that respond to endocrine signals in organisms indirectly exposed during prenatal and/or early postnatal life; effects of exposure during development are permanent and irreversible. The risk to the developing organism can also stem from direct exposure of the offspring after birth or hatching. In addition, transgenerational exposure can result from the exposure of the mother to a chemical at any time throughout her life before producing offspring due to persistence of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in body fat, which is mobilized during egg laying or pregnancy and lactation. Mechanisms underlying the disruption of the development of vital systems, such as the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems, are discussed with reference to wildlife, laboratory animals, and humans. PMID:8080506

  17. The KiSS-1/GPR54 system: putative target for endocrine disruption of reproduction at hypothalamic-pituitary unit?

    PubMed

    Navarro, Victor M; Tena-Sempere, Manuel

    2008-04-01

    The hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) unit, key element in the control of development and function of the reproductive axis, is highly sensitive to the organizing and activational effects of endogenous and exogenous compounds with sex steroid activity. Thus, inappropriate sex steroid input during early critical periods of their maturation can induce immediate or delayed defects in the neuroendocrine systems governing reproduction, which might eventually lead to alterations in the timing of puberty onset and/or infertility. Similarly, later inadequate exposures can cause dysfunctions of the gonadotropic axis. In recent years, kisspeptins (the products of KiSS-1 gene that operate through the G protein-coupled receptor 54) have emerged as fundamental regulators of puberty onset and gonadotropin secretion, and neurons in the hypothalamus expressing KiSS-1 have been demonstrated as essential conduits for the dynamic control of the gonadotropic axis by a number of hormonal factors. In this context, the hypothalamic KiSS-1 system has been proven sensitive to the early organizing effects, as well as to the acute regulatory actions, of gonadal steroids: phenomena which are likely to play fundamental roles in the sexual differentiation of gonadotropin secretion, and its feedback regulation by androgen and oestrogen. These observations raise the question on whether the hypothalamic KiSS-1 system might constitute a potential target for endocrine disruption of puberty onset and reproductive function at the HP unit by compounds with oestrogenic, androgenic or anti-androgenic activity. We review herein the physiological basis and initial, albeit so far scarce, experimental evidence supporting such possibility.

  18. Nonruminant Nutrition Symposium: Involvement of gut neural and endocrine systems in pathological disorders of the digestive tract.

    PubMed

    Furness, J B; Poole, D P

    2012-04-01

    The functioning of the gastrointestinal tract is under the control of the most extensive system of peripheral neurons in the body, the enteric nervous system, and the largest endocrine system of the body, the GEP endocrine system. The enteric nervous system in large mammals contains 500 million neurons, and the GEP endocrine system produces more than 30 hormones. Numerous enteric neuropathies affecting both humans and animals have been described and digestive disorders affect commercially important species, such as horses and cattle. The most severe enteric neuropathies (e.g., lethal white syndrome in horses or Hirschsprung's disease in humans) can be fatal. Also, horses with ileus or other digestive disorders are commonly euthanized. In this review we discuss examples of enteric neuropathies that affect agricultural animals and humans: prion disease, postoperative ileus, distal enteric aganglionosis, and infective diarrhea. Enteric neurons and glia are a location of prion proteins and are involved in transmission of the infection from gut to brain and brain to gut. Postoperative ileus is a complex disorder involving the local inhibitory effects of sympathetic nervous system activation and the release of opioids, presumably from enteric neurons. Intestinal inflammation, especially of the external muscle that includes enteric ganglia, also occurs in ileus. Congenital distal bowel aganglionosis, responsible for lethal white syndrome in horses, Hirschsprung's disease in humans, and similar conditions in mice and rats, is a fatal condition if untreated. Mutations of the same genes can cause the condition in each of these species. The only effective current treatment is surgical removal of the aganglionic bowel. Infectious diarrheas involve activation of enteric secretomotor neurons by pathogens and the toxins they produce, which causes substantial fluid loss. Strategies to target enteric neurons in the treatment of secretory diarrheas have not been developed. Disorders

  19. Behaviour of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting chemicals in simplified sewage treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Emanuel M F; de Queiroz, Fernanda B; Afonso, Robson J C F; Aquino, Sérgio F; Chernicharo, Carlos A L

    2013-10-15

    This work assessed the behaviour of nine pharmaceuticals and/or endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) in demo-scale upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors (UASB reactors) coupled to distinct simplified post-treatment units (submerged bed, polishing ponds, and trickling filters) fed on raw sewage taken from a municipality in Brazil. The dissolved concentration of the studied micropollutants in the raw and treated sewage was obtained using solid phase extraction (SPE) followed by analysis in a liquid chromatography system coupled to a hybrid high resolution mass spectrometer consisting of an ion-trap and time of flight (LC-MS-IT-TOF). The UASB reactors demonstrated that they were not appropriate for efficiently removing the assessed compounds from the sewage. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that the hydraulic retention time (HRT) was an important parameter for the removal of the hydrophilic and less biodegradable compounds, such as trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole. The post-treatment units substantially increased the removal of most target micropollutants present in the anaerobic effluents, with a greater removal of micropollutants in simplified systems that require a large construction area, such as the submerged bed and polishing ponds, probably because of the higher HRT employed. Alternatively, compact post-treatment systems, such as trickling filters, tended to be less effective at removing most of the micropollutants studied, and the type of packing proved to be crucial for determining the fate of such compounds using trickling filters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The influence of natural organic matter and cations on the rejection of endocrine disrupting and pharmaceutically active compounds by nanofiltration.

    PubMed

    Comerton, Anna M; Andrews, Robert C; Bagley, David M

    2009-02-01

    The impact of natural organic matter (NOM) and cations on the rejection of five endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) (acetaminophen, carbamazepine, estrone, gemfibrozil, oxybenzone) by nanofiltration (NF) was examined. The water matrices included membrane bioreactor (MBR) effluent, Lake Ontario water and laboratory-prepared waters modelled to represent the characteristics of the Lake Ontario water. The impact of cations in natural waters on compound rejection was also examined by doubling the natural cation concentration (calcium, magnesium, sodium) in both the Lake Ontario water and the MBR effluent. The presence of Suwannee River NOM spiked into laboratory-grade water was found to cause an increase in compound NF rejection. In addition, the presence of cations alone in laboratory-grade water did not have a significant impact on rejection with the exception of the polar compound gemfibrozil. However, when cation concentration in natural waters was increased, a significant decrease in the rejection of EDCs and PhACs was observed. This suggests that the presence of cations may result in a reduction in the association of EDCs and PhACs with NOM.

  1. Skeletal muscle as an endocrine organ: Role of [Na+]i/[K+]i-mediated excitation-transcription coupling

    PubMed Central

    Kapilevich, Leonid V.; Kironenko, Tatyana A.; Zaharova, Anna N.; Kotelevtsev, Yuri V.; Dulin, Nickolai O.; Orlov, Sergei N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary During the last two decades numerous research teams demonstrated that skeletal muscles function as an exercise-dependent endocrine organ secreting dozens of myokines. Variety of physiological and pathophysiological implications of skeletal muscle myokines secretion has been described; however, upstream signals and sensing mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain poorly understood. It is well documented that in skeletal muscles intensive exercise triggers dissipation of transmembrane gradient of monovalent cations caused by permanent activation of voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels. Recently, we demonstrated that sustained elevation of the [Na+]i/[K+]i ratio triggers expression of dozens ubiquitous genes including several canonical myokines, such as interleukin 6 and cyclooxygenase 2, in the presence of intra- and extracellular Ca2+ chelators. These data allowed us to suggest a novel [Na+]i/[K+]i-sensitive, Ca2+i-independent mechanism of excitation-transcription coupling which triggers myokine production. This pathway exists in parallel with canonical signaling mediated by Ca2+i, AMP-activated protein kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α). In our mini-review we briefly summarize data supporting this hypothesis as well as unresolved issues aiming to forthcoming studies. PMID:27610402

  2. Influence of naturally occurring dissolved organic matter, colloids, and cations on nanofiltration of pharmaceutically active and endocrine disrupting compounds.

    PubMed

    Sadmani, A H M Anwar; Andrews, Robert C; Bagley, David M

    2014-12-01

    This study examined the rejection of selected pharmaceutically active (PhAC) and endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) when using nanofiltration as a function of naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM), colloidal particles, cations and their interactions. Lake Ontario water served as a source of natural DOM and colloidal particles. PhAC/EDC rejection experiments were conducted using raw Lake Ontario water and Lake Ontario water that was pre-treated with either ultrafiltration to remove colloidal particles, or fluidized ion exchange resins to remove DOM. Additionally, the concentration of cations (Ca(2+), Mg(2+), and Na(+)) in the raw and pre-treated water matrices was varied. While ionic PhACs and EDCs exhibited high rejections from all the water matrices examined, neutral compounds were most effectively rejected in water containing DOM and no colloids, and least effectively rejected from colloid-containing water with increased cations but no DOM. The presence of DOM significantly improved compound rejection and the increase in cation concentration significantly decreased rejection. The presence of colloids had comparatively little effect except to mitigate the impact of increased cation concentration, apparently providing some cation-buffering capacity. The sequence in which constituents are removed from waters during treatment may significantly impact PhAC and EDC removal, especially of neutral compounds.

  3. Characterization of Insulin-Immunoreactive Cells and Endocrine Cells Within the Duct System of the Adult Human Pancreas.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Zhang, Xiaoxi; Yu, Lan; Zou, Xia; Zhao, Hailu

    2016-01-01

    The adult pancreatic duct system accommodates endocrine cells that have the potential to produce insulin. Here we report the characterization and distribution of insulin-immunoreactive cells and endocrine cells within the ductal units of adult human pancreas. Sequential pancreas sections from 12 nondiabetic adults were stained with biomarkers of ductal epithelial cells (cytokeratin 19), acinar cells (amylase), endocrine cells (chromogranin A; neuron-specific enolase), islet hormones (insulin, glucagon, somatostatin, pancreatic polypeptide), cell proliferation (Ki-67), and neogenesis (CD29). The number of islet hormone-immunoreactive cells increased from large ducts to the terminal branches. The insulin-producing cells outnumbered endocrine cells reactive for glucagon, somatostatin, or pancreatic polypeptide. The proportions of insulin-immunoreactive count compared with local islets (100% as a baseline) were 1.5% for the main ducts, 7.2% for interlobular ducts, 24.8% for intralobular ducts, 67.9% for intercalated ducts, and 348.9% for centroacinar cells. Both Ki-67- and CD29-labeled cells were predominantly localized in the terminal branches around the islets. The terminal branches also showed cells coexpressing islet hormones and cytokeratin 19. The adult human pancreatic ducts showed islet hormone-producing cells. The insulin-reactive cells predominantly localized in terminal branches where they may retain potential capability for β-cell neogenesis.

  4. Immunohistochemical detection of fibroblast growth factor receptors in normal endocrine cells and related tumors of the digestive system.

    PubMed

    La Rosa, S; Uccella, S; Erba, S; Capella, C; Sessa, F

    2001-12-01

    Endocrine tumors (ETs) of the digestive system produce several growth factors including acidic and basic fibroblast growth factors (aFGF and bFGF, respectively), which are thought to be involved in the growth of tumor cells and in the proliferation of tumor stromal cells. Their actions depend on binding to four specific receptors--FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4--whose distribution in normal endocrine cells and related tumors of the gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) system has previously been examined. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded normal tissues and 60 well-characterized GEP endocrine tumors were immunostained using specific antibodies directed against various GEP hormones, aFGF, FGFR1, FGFR2, FGFR3, and FGFR4. Acidic FGF immunoreactivity (IR) was found in gut EC cells; FGFR1 immunoreactivity in rare duodenal endocrine cells and in pancreatic A cells; FGFR2 immunoreactivity in gastric and duodenal G cells, pancreatic B cells, and rectal EC cells; FGFR3 immunoreactivity in duodenal G cells; and FGFR4 immunoreactivity in rectal L cells and in pancreatic B, PP, and A cells. Immunoreactivity for at least one of the four FGFRs was found in all tumors, independently of FGFR expression in the putative cell of origin. EC cell tumors, which were all positive for aFGF, were found to express at least three different FGFRs. FGFRs also were localized in the stromal cells of all the tumors examined. The tumor stroma was more abundant in EC cell tumors than in other types of neoplasms. The results suggest that aFGF-FGFR interaction may be involved in the modulation of normal endocrine cell functions and in the regulation of tumor growth and stromal proliferation of EC cell carcinoids.

  5. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. It is important to recognize the neurologic signs and symptoms caused by the endocrine disorders while managing endocrine disorders. This article provides an overview of the neurologic manifestations found in various endocrine disorders that affect pediatric patients. It is valuable to think about 'endocrine disorder' as a cause of the neurologic manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of hormonal imbalance can rapidly relieve the neurologic symptoms. Better understanding of the interaction between the endocrine system and the nervous system, combined with the knowledge about the pathophysiology of the neurologic manifestations presented in the endocrine disorders might allow earlier diagnosis and better treatment of the endocrine disorders. PMID:25654063

  6. Endocrine disorders and the neurologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jeesuk

    2014-12-01

    The nervous system and the endocrine system are closely interrelated and both involved intimately in maintaining homeostasis. Endocrine dysfunctions may lead to various neurologic manifestations such as headache, myopathy, and acute encephalopathy including coma. It is important to recognize the neurologic signs and symptoms caused by the endocrine disorders while managing endocrine disorders. This article provides an overview of the neurologic manifestations found in various endocrine disorders that affect pediatric patients. It is valuable to think about 'endocrine disorder' as a cause of the neurologic manifestations. Early diagnosis and treatment of hormonal imbalance can rapidly relieve the neurologic symptoms. Better understanding of the interaction between the endocrine system and the nervous system, combined with the knowledge about the pathophysiology of the neurologic manifestations presented in the endocrine disorders might allow earlier diagnosis and better treatment of the endocrine disorders.

  7. Method of identification and isolation of organs of endocrine secretion in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Kashirina, N.K.

    1987-10-01

    The authors describe a procedure based on electron autoradiography for isolating and determining the morphology of the adrenal, pituitary, and thyroid glands in albino mice, and use the procedure to give a description, in this paper, of the configuration, location, and physiological interaction of these glands relative to the other organs in these laboratory animals. The procedure overcomes the difficulties encountered in such determinations owing to factors such as smallness.

  8. Circumventricular organs: definition and role in the regulation of endocrine and autonomic function.

    PubMed

    Ganong, W F

    2000-01-01

    1. The circumventricular organs (CVO) are structures that permit polypeptide hypothalamic hormones to leave the brain without disrupting the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and permit substances that do not cross the BBB to trigger changes in brain function. 2. In mammals, CVO include only the median eminence and adjacent neurohypophysis, organum vasculosum lamina terminalis, subfornical organ and the area postrema. 3. The CVO are characterized by their small size, high permeability and fenestrated capillaries. The subcommissural organ is not highly permeable and does not have fenestrated capillaries, but new evidence indicates that it may be involved in the hypertension produced by aldosterone acting on the brain. 4. Feedback control of corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) secretion is exerted by free steroids diffusing into the brain, but substances such as cytokines and angiotensin II act on CVO to produce increases in CRH secretion. Gonadal steroids also diffuse into the brain to regulate gonadotrophin-releasing hormone secretion. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone secretion is regulated by thyroid hormones transported across cerebral capillaries. However, CVO may be involved in the negative feedback control of growth hormone and prolactin secretion.

  9. Successful organic dairy systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Demand for organic dairy products has continually increased and at times outpaced supply for a number of years. This has created favorable milk pricing for certified organic dairy farmers, as the stability of organic milk prices has provided organic dairy farmers with a security not found in the con...

  10. Evidence for alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system in blacks.

    PubMed

    Bell, N H; Greene, A; Epstein, S; Oexmann, M J; Shaw, S; Shary, J

    1985-08-01

    As compared with values in white subjects, bone mass is known to be increased and urinary calcium to be diminished in black individuals. To evaluate the possibility that these changes are associated with alterations in the vitamin D-endocrine system, an investigation was performed in 12 black subjects, 7 men and 5 women, and 14 white subjects, 8 men and 6 women, ranging in age from 20 to 35 yr. All of them were hospitalized on a metabolic ward and were given a constant daily diet containing 400 mg of calcium, 900 mg of phosphorus, and 110 meq of sodium. Whereas mean serum calcium, ionized calcium, and phosphate were the same in the two groups, mean serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (350 +/- 34 vs. 225 +/- 26 pg/ml, P less than 0.01) and mean serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) (41 +/- 3 vs. 29 +/- 2 pg/ml, P less than 0.01) were significantly higher, and mean serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OHD) was significantly lower in the blacks than in the whites (6 +/- 1 vs. 20 +/- 2 ng/ml, P less than 0.001). Mean urinary sodium and 24-h creatinine clearance were the same in the two groups, whereas mean urinary calcium was significantly lower (101 +/- 14 vs. 166 +/- 13 mg/d, P less than 0.01) and mean urinary cyclic AMP was significantly higher (3.11 +/- 0.47 vs. 1.84 +/- 0.25 nM/dl glomerular filtrate, P less than 0.01) in the blacks. Further, the blacks excreted an intravenous calcium load, 15 mg/kg body weight, as efficiently as the whites (49 +/- 3 vs. 53 +/- 3%, NS). Mean serum Gla protein was lower in blacks than in whites (14 +/- 2 vs. 24 +/- 3 ng/ml, P less than 0.02), and increased significantly in both groups in response to 1,25(OH)2D3, 4 micrograms/d for 4 d. There was a blunted response of urinary calcium to 1,25(OH)2D3 in the blacks, and mean serum calcium did not change. The results indicate that alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system with enhanced renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and increased circulating 1,25(OH)2D as a result of

  11. Evidence for alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system in obese subjects.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, N H; Epstein, S; Greene, A; Shary, J; Oexmann, M J; Shaw, S

    1985-01-01

    Serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (PTH) is increased in obese as compared with nonobese subjects and declines with weight loss. To determine whether alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system occurs in obesity and whether ensuing secondary hyperparathyroidism is associated with a reduction in urinary calcium, a study was performed in 12 obese white individuals, five men and seven women, and 14 nonobese white subjects, eight men and six women, ranging in age from 20 to 35 yr. Body weight averaged 106 +/- 6 kg in the obese and 68 +/- 2 kg in the nonobese subjects (P less than 0.01). Each of them were hospitalized on a metabolic ward and were given a constant daily diet containing 400 mg of calcium and 900 mg of phosphorus. Whereas mean serum calcium, serum ionized calcium, and serum phosphorus were the same in the two groups, mean serum immunoreactive PTH (518 +/- 48 vs. 243 +/- 33 pg/ml, P less than 0.001), mean serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D [1,25(OH)2D] (37 +/- 2 vs. 29 +/- 2, P less than 0.01), and mean serum Gla protein (33 +/- 2 vs. 24 +/- 2 ng/ml, P less than 0.02) were significantly higher, and mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) (8 +/- 1 vs. 20 +/- 2 ng/ml, P less than 0.001) was significantly lower in the obese than in the nonobese men and women. Mean urinary phosphorus was the same in the two groups, whereas mean urinary calcium (115 +/- 10 vs. 166 +/- 13 mg/d, P less than 0.01) was significantly lower, and mean urinary cyclic AMP (3.18 +/- 0.43 vs. 1.84 +/- 0.25 nM/dl GF, P less than 0.01) and creatinine clearance (216 +/- 13 vs. 173 +/- 6 liter/d, P less than 0.01) were significantly higher in the obese than in the nonobese individuals. There was a significant positive correlation between percentage of ideal body weight and urinary cyclic AMP (r = 0.524, P less than 0.01) and between percentage of ideal body weight and serum immunoreactive PTH (r = 0.717, P less than 0.01) in the two groups. The results provide evidence that alteration of the

  12. Evidence for alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system in blacks.

    PubMed Central

    Bell, N H; Greene, A; Epstein, S; Oexmann, M J; Shaw, S; Shary, J

    1985-01-01

    As compared with values in white subjects, bone mass is known to be increased and urinary calcium to be diminished in black individuals. To evaluate the possibility that these changes are associated with alterations in the vitamin D-endocrine system, an investigation was performed in 12 black subjects, 7 men and 5 women, and 14 white subjects, 8 men and 6 women, ranging in age from 20 to 35 yr. All of them were hospitalized on a metabolic ward and were given a constant daily diet containing 400 mg of calcium, 900 mg of phosphorus, and 110 meq of sodium. Whereas mean serum calcium, ionized calcium, and phosphate were the same in the two groups, mean serum immunoreactive parathyroid hormone (350 +/- 34 vs. 225 +/- 26 pg/ml, P less than 0.01) and mean serum 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) (41 +/- 3 vs. 29 +/- 2 pg/ml, P less than 0.01) were significantly higher, and mean serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OHD) was significantly lower in the blacks than in the whites (6 +/- 1 vs. 20 +/- 2 ng/ml, P less than 0.001). Mean urinary sodium and 24-h creatinine clearance were the same in the two groups, whereas mean urinary calcium was significantly lower (101 +/- 14 vs. 166 +/- 13 mg/d, P less than 0.01) and mean urinary cyclic AMP was significantly higher (3.11 +/- 0.47 vs. 1.84 +/- 0.25 nM/dl glomerular filtrate, P less than 0.01) in the blacks. Further, the blacks excreted an intravenous calcium load, 15 mg/kg body weight, as efficiently as the whites (49 +/- 3 vs. 53 +/- 3%, NS). Mean serum Gla protein was lower in blacks than in whites (14 +/- 2 vs. 24 +/- 3 ng/ml, P less than 0.02), and increased significantly in both groups in response to 1,25(OH)2D3, 4 micrograms/d for 4 d. There was a blunted response of urinary calcium to 1,25(OH)2D3 in the blacks, and mean serum calcium did not change. The results indicate that alteration of the vitamin D-endocrine system with enhanced renal tubular reabsorption of calcium and increased circulating 1,25(OH)2D as a result of

  13. Endocrine disrupting compounds in drinking water supply system and human health risk implication.

    PubMed

    Wee, Sze Yee; Aris, Ahmad Zaharin

    2017-09-01

    To date, experimental and epidemiological evidence of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) adversely affecting human and animal populations has been widely debated. Notably, human health risk assessment is required for risk mitigation. The lack of human health risk assessment and management may thus unreliably regulate the quality of water resources and efficiency of treatment processes. Therefore, drinking water supply systems (DWSSs) may be still unwarranted in assuring safe access to potable drinking water. Drinking water supply, such as tap water, is an additional and crucial route of human exposure to the health risks associated with EDCs. A holistic system, incorporating continuous research in DWSS monitoring and management using multi-barrier approach, is proposed as a preventive measure to reduce human exposure to the risks associated with EDCs through drinking water consumption. The occurrence of EDCs in DWSSs and corresponding human health risk implications are analyzed using the Needs, Approaches, Benefits, and Challenges (NABC) method. Therefore, this review may act as a supportive tool in protecting human health and environmental quality from EDCs, which is essential for decision-making regarding environmental monitoring and management purposes. Subsequently, the public could have sustainable access to safer and more reliable drinking water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Endocrine Disruptors

    MedlinePlus

    ... plastic bottles, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food, toys, cosmetics, and pesticides. The NIEHS supports studies to determine whether exposure to endocrine disruptors may result in human health effects including lowered fertility and an increased incidence of ...

  15. Deviations in the endocrine system and brain of patients with fibromyalgia: cause or consequence of pain and associated features?

    PubMed

    Geenen, Rinie; Bijlsma, Johannes W J

    2010-04-01

    The brain and endocrine system are crucial interfaces responding to pathological and psychological processes. This review discusses whether endocrine deviations and structural and functional changes in the brain are a cause or consequence of fibromyalgia. Studies in patients with fibromyalgia virtually uniformly observed subtle alterations in hypothalamic pituitary adrenal functioning, hyporeactive autonomic nervous system responsiveness to stressors, and structural and functional changes in the brain. Our model proposes that predisposing factors, such as genetic vulnerability and trauma, have led to an alteration of the nociceptive system including several neuroendocrine changes. The resulting pain and associated symptoms, such as sleep disturbance, low fitness, fatigue, stress, and distress, are a cause of new neuroendocrine changes. The model predicts that favorable neuroendocrine changes are to be expected after successful pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions that target pain and associated symptoms.

  16. Characterizing field sediments from three European river basins with special emphasis on endocrine effects - A recommendation for Potamopyrgus antipodarum as test organism.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Claudia; Balaam, Jan; Leonards, Pim; Brix, Rikke; Streck, Georg; Tuikka, Anita; Bervoets, Lieven; Brack, Werner; van Hattum, Bert; Meire, Patrick; de Deckere, Eric

    2010-06-01

    The assessment of endocrine disrupting potentials of field sediments has until now been mostly limited to classical chemical analysis, in vitro assays and in vivo bioassays performed with vertebrates. There is an urgent need for easy, cheap and reproducible invertebrate tests which may be applied in certain monitoring activities. Since the mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum is known to be tolerant to natural stressors, but also sensitive to endocrine disrupting chemicals, it is very likely that this organism could be suitable for the assessment of endocrine effects of e.g. field sediments. Within this study the endocrine potential of sediments in three European river basins was assessed. The yeast estrogen screen (YES) and a sediment contact test with P. antipodarum were performed. Furthermore, analyses of physico-chemical properties and concentrations of heavy metals, PAHs, organotins, natural steroids and alkylphenols were done. In the sediment contact test, the reproduction of the snail was promoted by a part of the sediments. This phenomenon could not be explained by their physico-chemical properties. However, at some of those sites a high estrogenic activity was detected in the YES, leading to the assumption that endocrine disrupting compounds could be responsible for those effects. This assumption could be confirmed to some extent with partially high concentrations of xeno-estrogens (e.g. nonylphenol) at the certain sites. Our study demonstrates the applicability of the test with P. antipodarum for a variety of sediments and once again points out the need of suitable in vivo biotests for the risk assessment of field sediments.

  17. [Effects on endocrine system of female rats exposed to chronic arsenic].

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiwei; Guo, Hongyu; Xia, Yajuan

    2011-03-01

    To study the effect on endocrine system of female rats exposed to chronic arsenic. 50 female Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups: control group, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 microg/ml arsenic groups. The hormone levels were determined by RIA exposing arsenic for 32 weeks. The hormone levels of female rats were disorder in different arsenic groups. E2, P level increased and LH level decreased in arsenic groups compared to controls, but there were no significant differences( P > 0.05). FSH and PRL level increased in low arsenic group and decreased in high arsenic groups (P > 0.05). GnRH and Cort level increased in arsenic groups, and GnRH level obviously increased in 0.4 microg/ml group and Cort level obviously increased in 0.1 and 0.4 microg/ml groups (P < 0.05). The hormone levels were disordered in rats exposed to chronic arsenic.

  18. Sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds in North Carolina waterways: a geographic information systems approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sackett, Dana K.; Pow, Crystal Lee; Rubino, Matthew J.; Aday, D.D.; Cope, W. Gregory; Kullman, Seth W.; Rice, J.A.; Kwak, Thomas J.; Law, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), particularly estrogenic compounds, in the environment has drawn public attention across the globe, yet a clear understanding of the extent and distribution of estrogenic EDCs in surface waters and their relationship to potential sources is lacking. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the potential input of estrogenic EDC sources in North Carolina water bodies using a geographic information system (GIS) mapping and analysis approach. Existing data from state and federal agencies were used to create point and nonpoint source maps depicting the cumulative contribution of potential sources of estrogenic EDCs to North Carolina surface waters. Water was collected from 33 sites (12 associated with potential point sources, 12 associated with potential nonpoint sources, and 9 reference), to validate the predictive results of the GIS analysis. Estrogenicity (measured as 17β-estradiol equivalence) ranged from 0.06 ng/L to 56.9 ng/L. However, the majority of sites (88%) had water 17β-estradiol concentrations below 1 ng/L. Sites associated with point and nonpoint sources had significantly higher 17β-estradiol levels than reference sites. The results suggested that water 17β-estradiol was reflective of GIS predictions, confirming the relevance of landscape-level influences on water quality and validating the GIS approach to characterize such relationships.

  19. Sources of endocrine-disrupting compounds in North Carolina waterways: a geographic information systems approach.

    PubMed

    Sackett, Dana K; Pow, Crystal Lee; Rubino, Matthew J; Aday, D Derek; Cope, W Gregory; Kullman, Seth; Rice, James A; Kwak, Thomas J; Law, Mac

    2015-02-01

    The presence of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs), particularly estrogenic compounds, in the environment has drawn public attention across the globe, yet a clear understanding of the extent and distribution of estrogenic EDCs in surface waters and their relationship to potential sources is lacking. The objective of the present study was to identify and examine the potential input of estrogenic EDC sources in North Carolina water bodies using a geographic information system (GIS) mapping and analysis approach. Existing data from state and federal agencies were used to create point and nonpoint source maps depicting the cumulative contribution of potential sources of estrogenic EDCs to North Carolina surface waters. Water was collected from 33 sites (12 associated with potential point sources, 12 associated with potential nonpoint sources, and 9 reference), to validate the predictive results of the GIS analysis. Estrogenicity (measured as 17β-estradiol equivalence) ranged from 0.06 ng/L to 56.9 ng/L. However, the majority of sites (88%) had water 17β-estradiol concentrations below 1 ng/L. Sites associated with point and nonpoint sources had significantly higher 17β-estradiol levels than reference sites. The results suggested that water 17β-estradiol was reflective of GIS predictions, confirming the relevance of landscape-level influences on water quality and validating the GIS approach to characterize such relationships.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi Disrupts Thymic Homeostasis by Altering Intrathymic and Systemic Stress-Related Endocrine Circuitries

    PubMed Central

    Lepletier, Ailin; de Carvalho, Vinicius Frias; e Silva, Patricia Machado Rodrigues; Villar, Silvina; Pérez, Ana Rosa; Savino, Wilson; Morrot, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that experimental infection caused by Trypanosoma cruzi is associated with changes in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis. Increased glucocorticoid (GC) levels are believed to be protective against the effects of acute stress during infection but result in depletion of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes by apoptosis, driving to thymic atrophy. However, very few data are available concerning prolactin (PRL), another stress-related hormone, which seems to be decreased during T. cruzi infection. Considering the immunomodulatory role of PRL upon the effects caused by GC, we investigated if intrathymic cross-talk between GC and PRL receptors (GR and PRLR, respectively) might influence T. cruzi-induced thymic atrophy. Using an acute experimental model, we observed changes in GR/PRLR cross-activation related with the survival of CD4+CD8+ thymocytes during infection. These alterations were closely related with systemic changes, characterized by a stress hormone imbalance, with progressive GC augmentation simultaneously to PRL reduction. The intrathymic hormone circuitry exhibited an inverse modulation that seemed to counteract the GC-related systemic deleterious effects. During infection, adrenalectomy protected the thymus from the increase in apoptosis ratio without changing PRL levels, whereas an additional inhibition of circulating PRL accelerated the thymic atrophy and led to an increase in corticosterone systemic levels. These results demonstrate that the PRL impairment during infection is not caused by the increase of corticosterone levels, but the opposite seems to occur. Accordingly, metoclopramide (MET)-induced enhancement of PRL secretion protected thymic atrophy in acutely infected animals as well as the abnormal export of immature and potentially autoreactive CD4+CD8+ thymocytes to the periphery. In conclusion, our findings clearly show that Trypanosoma cruzi subverts mouse thymus homeostasis by altering intrathymic and systemic stress

  1. Update in endocrine autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Mark S

    2008-10-01

    The endocrine system is a common target in pathogenic autoimmune responses, and there has been recent progress in our understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of autoimmune endocrine diseases. Rapid progress has recently been made in our understanding of the genetic factors involved in endocrine autoimmune diseases. Studies on monogenic autoimmune diseases that include endocrine phenotypes like autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1 and immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked have helped reveal the role of key regulators in the maintenance of immune tolerance. Highly powered genetic studies have found and confirmed many new genes outside of the established role of the human leukocyte antigen locus with these diseases, and indicate an essential role of immune response pathways in these diseases. Progress has also been made in identifying new autoantigens and the development of new animal models for the study of endocrine autoimmunity. Finally, although hormone replacement therapy is still likely to be a mainstay of treatment in these disorders, there are new agents being tested for potentially treating and reversing the underlying autoimmune process. Although autoimmune endocrine disorders are complex in etiology, these recent advances should help contribute to improved outcomes for patients with, or at risk for, these disorders.

  2. Ophthalmic clues to the endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Z; Chen, Y; Lin, Z; Shi, X

    2017-01-01

    Eye is a vital sense organ and reflects the physical and mental wellbeing of a person. Detailed examination of the eye is an essential part in the clinical evaluation of patients with any systemic disorder. The interaction between ophthalmologists and endocrinologists is often limited to Graves' ophthalmopathy and diabetic retinopathy. However, there are many ophthalmic manifestations, which are characteristically seen in endocrine disorders. In this review, we shall discuss the ocular manifestations of the endocrine syndromes excluding the Graves' ophthalmopathy and diabetic retinopathy. We performed a PubMed search of articles published in English showing the ophthalmic features in the endocrine disorders. Relevant cited articles were also retrieved. Most of the publications included in the review were case reports and review articles. Many endocrine disorders have characteristic manifestations pertaining to the various structures of the eye. The involvement is seen from the external structures of the eye to the inner most layers of the retina. Many ocular-endocrine syndromes also exist with characteristic clues to the clinical diagnosis. The endocrinologists need to be aware of these ocular signs that help in the early diagnosis of the underlying disorder. A syndromic approach is essential in the diagnosis of endocrinopathy in patients presenting with ophthalmic features.

  3. Endocrine effects of real-life mixtures of persistent organic pollutants (POP) in experimental models and wild fish.

    PubMed

    Berg, Vidar; Kraugerud, Marianne; Nourizadeh-Lillabadi, Rasoul; Olsvik, Pål A; Skåre, Janneche U; Alestrøm, Peter; Ropstad, Erik; Zimmer, Karin Elisabeth; Lyche, Jan L

    2016-01-01

    A series of studies have assessed the occurrence, levels, and potential adverse effects of persistent organic pollutants (POP) in fish from Lake Mjøsa. In this lake, high levels of various POP were detected in biota. Fish from the nearby Lake Losna contain background levels of POP and served as reference (controls) in these studies. Significantly higher prevalence of mycobacteriosis and pathological changes were documented in burbot (Lota lota) from Mjøsa compared to burbot from Losna. Further, transcriptional profiling identified changes in gene expression in burbot from Mjøsa compared to burbot from Losna associated with drug metabolism enzymes and oxidative stress. POP extracted from burbot liver oil from the two lakes was used to expose zebrafish (Danio rerio) during two consecutive generations. During both generations, POP mixtures from both lakes increased the rate of mortality, induced earlier onset of puberty, and skewed sex ratio toward males. However, opposite effects on weight gain were found in exposure groups compared to controls during the two generations. Exposure to POP from both lakes was associated with suppression of ovarian follicle development. Analyses of genome-wide transcription profiling identified functional networks of genes associated with weight homeostasis, steroid hormone functions, and insulin signaling. In human cell studies using adrenocortical H295R and primary porcine theca and granulosa cells, exposure to lake extracts from both populations modulated steroid hormone production with significant difference from controls. The results suggest that POP from both lakes may possess the potential to induce endocrine disruption and may adversely affect health in wild fish.

  4. Effects of arsenic supplementation in feed on laying performance, arsenic retention of eggs and organs, biochemical indices and endocrine hormones.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X Y; Zhou, M Y; Li, L L; Jiang, Y J; Zou, X T

    2017-02-01

    1. The primary objective of this experiment was to estimate the toxic effects of arsenic (As) supplementation in feed on laying performance, As retention by eggs and organs, serum biochemical indices and endocrine hormones in laying hens. 2. A total of 320 "Jinghong Number 1" hens, 56-week-old, were randomly allocated into four treatments of four replicates with 20 layers in each. Graded arsenical was added to the basal diet in the experimental diets at As levels of 0, 17, 34 and 51 mg/kg, respectively. The trial lasted for 9 weeks including 1 week for acclimatisation. 3. Supplementation of dietary As for eight weeks had no effect on laying performance. As retention in albumen, yolk, egg, liver and kidney increased as As levels increased The level of serum phosphorus (P) was minimised at the 17 mg As/kg group. The activity of serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) increased linearly. No differences were observed for levels of serum calcium (Ca), alkaline phosphatase (AKP) and serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT). Concentrations of estradiol (E2) and progesterone (PG) declined at 34 and 51 mg/kg As levels compared with the control group. As supplementation exerted no influence on levels of serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinising hormone (LH), triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4) and the ratio between T3 and T4. 4. In conclusion, dietary As supplementation accelerated retention in tissues and eggs, and affected the laying rate by diminishing hormone levels of E2 and PG at 51 mg/kg.

  5. A systematic expression analysis implicates Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C in the regulation of the vascular and endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Zielonka, Matthias; Xia, Jingjing; Friedel, Roland H; Offermanns, Stefan; Worzfeld, Thomas

    2010-09-10

    Plexins serve as receptors for semaphorins and play important roles in the developing nervous system. Plexin-B2 controls decisive developmental programs in the neural tube and cerebellum. However, whether Plexin-B2 also regulates biological functions in adult nonneuronal tissues is unknown. Here we show by two methodologically independent approaches that Plexin-B2 is expressed in discrete cell types of several nonneuronal tissues in the adult mouse. In the vasculature, Plexin-B2 is selectively expressed in functionally specialized endothelial cells. In endocrine organs, Plexin-B2 localizes to the pancreatic islets of Langerhans and to both cortex and medulla of the adrenal gland. Plexin-B2 expression is also detected in certain types of immune and epithelial cells. In addition, we report on a systematic comparison of the expression patterns of Plexin-B2 and its ligand Sema4C, which show complementarity or overlap in some but not all tissues. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Plexin-B2 and its family member Plexin-B1 display largely nonredundant expression patterns. This work establishes Plexin-B2 and Sema4C as potential regulators of the vascular and endocrine system and provides an anatomical basis to understand the biological functions of this ligand-receptor pair. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Microcystin-LR impairs zebrafish reproduction by affecting oogenesis and endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yanyan; Xie, Liqiang; Yan, Yunjun

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that microcystins (MCs) are able to exert negative effects on the reproductive system of fish. However, few data are actually available on the effects of MC-LR on the reproductive system of female fish. In the present study, female zebrafish were exposed to 2, 10, and 50 μg L(-1) of MC-LR for 21 d, and its effects on oogenesis, sex hormones, transcription of genes on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonad (HPG) axis, and reproduction were investigated for the first time. It was observed that egg production significantly declined at ⩾ 10 μg L(-1) MC-LR. MC-LR exposure to zebrafish increased the concentrations of 17β-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (VTG) at 10 μg L(-1) level, whereas concentrations of E2, VTG and testosterone declined at 50 μg L(-1) MC-LR. The transcriptions of steroidogenic pathway gene (cyp19a, cyp19b, 17βhsd, cyp17 and hmgra) changed as well after the exposure and corresponded well with the alterations of hormone levels. A number of intra- and extra-ovarian factors, such as gnrh3, gnrhr1, fshβ, fshr, lhr, bmp15, mrpβ, ptgs2 and vtg1 which regulate oogenesis, were significantly changed with a different dose-related effect. Moreover, MC-LR exposure to female zebrafish resulted in decreased fertilization and hatching rates, and may suggest the possibility of trans-generational effects of MC-LR exposure. The results demonstrate that MC-LR could modulate endocrine function and oogenesis, eventually leading to disruption of reproductive performance in female zebrafish. These data suggest there is a risk for aquatic population living in MC polluted areas. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Obesity: an endocrine tumor?

    PubMed

    Dizdar, Omer; Alyamaç, Evrim

    2004-01-01

    Obesity is one of the most common disorders in clinical practice. The prevalance of obesity has increased by more than 60% since 1990. Adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ secreting many factors into the blood, known as adipokines, including leptin, adipsin, acylation-stimulating protein, adiponectin, etc. This article examines the hypothesis that obesity may be evaluated as an endocrine tumor, regarding its genetic basis, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of adipocytes, neovascularisation within the adipose tissue associated with growth, and beneficisal metabolic effects of surgical removal of excess adipose tissue by liposuction. Assuming obesity as an endocrine tumor may bring out new treatment modalities. Liposuction as "cytoreductive surgery", antiangiogenic teraphy or anti-neoplastic drugs may be important components of obesity treatment in future.

  8. Does balneotherapy with low radon concentration in water influence the endocrine system? A controlled non-randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Katalin; Berhés, István; Kovács, Tibor; Kávási, Norbert; Somlai, János; Bender, Tamás

    2009-08-01

    Radon bath is a well-established modality of balneotherapy for the management of degenerative musculoskeletal disorders. The present study was conducted to ascertain whether baths of relatively low (80 Bq/l) radon concentration have any influence on the functioning of the endocrine system. In the study, a non-randomized pilot study, 27 patients with degenerative musculoskeletal disorders received 30-min radon baths (of 31-32 degrees C temperature and 80 Bq/l average radon concentration) daily, for 15 days. Twenty-five patients with matching pathologies were subjected to balneotherapy according to the same protocol, using thermal water with negligible radon content (6 Bq/l). Serum thyroid stimulating hormone, prolactin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and dehydroepiandrosterone levels were measured before and after a balneotherapy course of 15 sessions. Comparison of the accumulated data using the Wilcoxon test did not reveal any significant difference between pre- and post-treatment values or between the two patient groups. It is noted that while the beneficial effects of balneotherapy with radon-containing water on degenerative disorders is widely known, only few data have been published in the literature on its effect on endocrine functions. The present study failed to demonstrate any substantial effect of thermal water with relatively low radon content on the functioning of the endocrine system.

  9. Evaluating the effects of endocrine disruptors on endocrine function during development.

    PubMed Central

    Bigsby, R; Chapin, R E; Daston, G P; Davis, B J; Gorski, J; Gray, L E; Howdeshell, K L; Zoeller, R T; vom Saal, F S

    1999-01-01

    The major concerns with endocrine disruptors in the environment are based mostly on effects that have been observed on the developing embryo and fetus. The focus of the present manuscript is on disruption of three hormonal systems: estrogens, androgens, and thyroid hormones. These three hormonal systems have been well characterized with regard to their roles in normal development, and their actions during development are known to be perturbed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals. During development, organs are especially sensitive to low concentrations of the sex steroids and thyroid hormones. Changes induced by exposure to these hormones during development are often irreversible, in contrast with the reversible changes induced by transient hormone exposure in the adult. Although it is known that there are differences in embryonic/fetal/neonatal versus adult endocrine responses, minimal experimental information is available to aid in characterizing the risk of endocrine disruptors with regard to a number of issues. Issues discussed here include the hypothesis of greater sensitivity of embryos/fetuses to endocrine disruptors, irreversible consequences of exposure before maturation of homeostatic systems and during periods of genetic imprinting, and quantitative information related to the shape of the dose-response curve for specific developmental phenomena. PMID:10421771

  10. Early weaning PCB 95 exposure alters the neonatal endocrine system: thyroid adipokine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, R G

    2013-12-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are persistent environmental pollutants that can severely disrupt the endocrine system. In the present study, early-weaned male rats were administered a single dose of 2,3,6-2',5'-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB 95; 32 mg/kg per day, by i.p. injection) for two consecutive days (postnatal days (PNDs) 15 and 16) and killed 24 and 48 h after the administration of the last dose. Compared with the control group, administration of PCB 95 induced a reduction (P<0.01) in serum concentrations of thyroxine, triiodothyronine, and GH and an increase (P<0.01) in the serum concentration of TSH at PNDs 17 and 18. These conspicuous perturbations led to some histopathological deterioration in the thyroid gland characterized by follicular degeneration, edema, fibrosis, hemorrhage, luminal obliteration, and hypertrophy with reduced colloidal contents at PND 18. The dyshormonogenesis and thyroid dysgenesis may be attributed to the elevation of DNA fragmentation at PNDs 17 and 18. Furthermore, this hypothyroid state revealed higher (P<0.01) serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin, and tumor necrosis factor and lower (P<0.01) serum concentrations of IGF1 and insulin at both PNDs compared with the control group. Interestingly, the body weight of the neonates in the PCB 95 group exhibited severe decreases throughout the experimental period in relation to that of the control group. These results imply that PCB 95 may act as a disruptor of the developmental hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Hypothyroidism caused by PCB 95 may impair the adipokine axis, fat metabolism, and in general postnatal development. Thus, further studies need to be carried out to understand this concept.

  11. [Pressor, renal and endocrine effects of systemic infusion of L-arginine in hypertensive patients].

    PubMed

    Dell'Omo, G; Catapano, G; Ebel, M; Gazzano, A; Ducci, M; Del Chicca, M; Clerico, A; Pedrinelli, R

    1995-01-01

    In this study we compared the pressor, renal and endocrine effects of the physiological precursor of endothelial derived nitric oxide, L-arginine, with D-glucose, a substrate inactive on nitric oxide. Ten subjects with mild to moderate primary hypertension underwent infusion with either L-arginine (5 patients) or D-glucose (5 patients). The substances were infused over 25 min at equiosmolar rates, preceded and followed by a 25-min saline infusion. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate were monitored at 3-min intervals; hormonal and humoral variables, inulin and para-aminohippurate clearance, and electrolyte excretion were measured at the end of each period at maximum diuresis. L-arginine and D-glucose brought about comparable increases in serum osmolality and similar hemodilution as compared with control saline. During L-arginine infusion, systolic and diastolic BP dropped by 16.6% and 11% respectively and recovered during the post-infusion period. Heart rate, plasma renin activity, and plasma norepinephrine did not change significantly. The percent BP decrease induced by L-arginine was significantly greater than that caused by D-glucose. Glomerular filtration rate remained stable, and renal plasma flow increased with both substances. However, only L-arginine stimulated markedly natriuresis, kaliuresis, and chloruresis. It also seemed to induce systemic acidosis, possibly as a consequence of hydrochloric acid generated during its metabolism. Circulating insulin, atrial natriuretic peptide, growth hormone, and glucagon levels increased, and plasma aldosterone remained unchanged during L-arginine infusion. During D-glucose infusion, insulin was stimulated and the other hormones were inhibited.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. [Effect of Danzhi Xiaoyao Powder on neuro-immuno-endocrine system in patients with depression].

    PubMed

    Li, Yu-juan; Luo, He-chun; Qian, Rui-qin

    2007-03-01

    To observe the effect of Danzhi Xiaoyao Powder (DXP) on neuro-immuno-endocrine system in patients with depression. A randomized double-blinded and controlled study was conducted in 63 cases of depression. They were assigned to the DXP group (32 cases, treated with DXP) and the control group (31 cases, treated with maprotiline). The curative effect was evaluated with Hamilton's depressive scale (HAMD) before and at the end of the 2nd, 4th and 6th week of the treatment. Serum levels of serotonin (5-HT), norepinephrine (NE), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), cortisol (CORT), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) were detected before and at the 6th week of the treatment. After 2 weeks of treatment, the total score of HAMD decreased remarkably in both groups (P < 0.01), and the total score, as well as the scores of the three factors, i. e. anxiety/somatization, cognitive impairment and feeling of despair, were lower in the DXP group than that in the control group respectively (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). After 4 and 6 weeks of treatment the total score and score of the three factors all reduced significantly in both groups (P < 0.01), with insignificant difference between the groups. After 6 weeks of treatment, the serum levels of 5-HT and BDNF increased (P < 0.01), and the serum IL-6 level decreased in both groups (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01), the serum CORT level reduced in the DXP group (P < 0.01), while the serum NE level elevated in the control group (P < 0.01). DXP is effective in improving symptoms of depression by regulating the levels of 5-HT, BDNF, CORT and IL-6.

  13. Characterization of the vitamin D endocrine system in human sebocytes in vitro.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Christina; Seltmann, Holger; Seifert, Markus; Tilgen, Wolfgang; Zouboulis, Christos C; Reichrath, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    Sebocytes are sebum-producing cells that form the sebaceous glands. We investigated the role of sebocytes as target cells for vitamin D metabolites and the existence of an enzymatic machinery for the local synthesis and metabolism of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3), calcitriol], the biologically active vitamin D metabolite, in these cell types. Expression of vitamin D receptor (VDR), vitamin D-25-hydroxylase (25 OHase), 25-hydroxyvitamin D-1alpha-hydroxylase (1 alphaOHase), and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D-24-hydroxylase (24 OHase) was detected in SZ95 sebocytes in vitro using real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Splice variants of 1alphaOHase were identified by nested touchdown polymerase chain reaction. We demonstrated that incubation of SZ95 sebocytes with 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) resulted in a cell culture condition-, time-, and dose-dependent modulation of cell proliferation, cell cycle regulation, lipid content and interleukin-6/interleukin-8 secretion in vitro. RNA expression of VDR and 24 OHase was upregulated along with vitamin D analogue treatment. Although several other splice variants of 1alphaOHase were detected, our findings indicate that the full length product represents the major 1 alphaOHase gene product in SZ95 cells. In conclusion, SZ95 sebocytes express VDR and the enzymatic machinery to synthesize and metabolize biologically active vitamin D analogues. Sebocytes represent target cells for biologically active metabolites. Our findings indicate that the vitamin D endocrine system is of high importance for sebocyte function and physiology. We conclude that sebaceous glands represent potential targets for therapy with vitamin D analogues or for pharmacological modulation of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) synthesis/metabolism.

  14. A systemic approach to cancer treatment: tumor cell reprogramming focused on endocrine-related cancers.

    PubMed

    Biava, P M; Nicolini, A; Ferrari, P; Carpi, A; Sell, S

    2014-01-01

    The term "cancer cell reprogramming" is used to define any kind of intervention aimed at transforming cancer cells into terminally differentiated cells. Using this approach, new technologies have been applied with different methods for a more systemic approach to cancer treatment. This review reports on advances of these technologies, including our personal contributions, mainly carried out on endocrine-related cancers. Some of the interventions, aimed at reverting cancer cells into a normal phenotype, are based on the evidence that tumor development is suppressed by the embryonic microenvironment. On the basis of this rationale, experiments have been conducted using stem cell differentiation stage factors (SCDSFs) taken at different stages of development of Zebrafish embryos, oocyte extracts, or naïve human umbilical cord matrix derived stem cells (UMDSCs). SCDSFs induce significant growth inhibition on different tumor cell lines in vitro, likely because of increases in cell cycle regulatory molecules, such as p53 and pRb. Treatment with these factors activates apoptosis and differentiation related to caspase-3. This is achieved via p73 apoptotic-dependent pathway activation with a concurrent normalization of the E-cadherin and beta-catenin ratio. Extracts from prophase amphibian oocytes could reprogram relevant epigenetic alterations in MCF-7 and HCC1954 breast cancer cell lines, while un-engineered (naïve) human UMDSCs attenuated growth of MDA-231 human breast carcinoma cells. A product prepared for human treatments, containing SCDSFs at very low doses, yielded favorable results in breast cancer and in intermediate-advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. Other reprogramming interventions used in the models of breast, prostate and ovarian cancer cell lines are described. Finally, current and future perspectives of this novel technology are discussed and a new hallmark of cancer is suggested: the loss of differentiation of cancer cells.

  15. Conserved Genetic Pathways Controlling the Development of the Diffuse Endocrine System in Vertebrates and Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Hartenstein, Volker; Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina

    2014-01-01

    The midgut epithelium is formed by absorptive enterocytes, secretory cells and endocrine cells. Each of these lineages is derived from the pluripotent progenitors that constitute the embryonic endoderm; the mature midgut retains pools of self-renewing stem cells that continue to produce all lineages. Recent findings in vertebrates and Drosophila shed light on the genetic mechanism that specifies the fate of the different lineages. A pivotal role is played by the Notch signaling pathway that, in a manner that appears to be very similar to the way in which Notch signaling selects neural progenitors within the neurectoderm, distinguishes the fate of secretory/endocrine cells and enterocytes. Proneural genes encoding bHLH transcription factors are expressed and required in prospective endocrine cells; activation of the Notch pathways restricts the number of these cells and promotes enterocyte development. In this review we compare the development of the intestinal endocrine cells in vertebrates and insects and summarize recent findings dealing with genetic pathways controlling this cell type. PMID:20005229

  16. Conserved genetic pathways controlling the development of the diffuse endocrine system in vertebrates and Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Hartenstein, Volker; Takashima, Shigeo; Adams, Katrina L

    2010-05-01

    The midgut epithelium is formed by absorptive enterocytes, secretory cells and endocrine cells. Each of these lineages is derived from the pluripotent progenitors that constitute the embryonic endoderm; the mature midgut retains pools of self-renewing stem cells that continue to produce all lineages. Recent findings in vertebrates and Drosophila shed light on the genetic mechanism that specifies the fate of the different lineages. A pivotal role is played by the Notch signaling pathway that, in a manner that appears to be very similar to the way in which Notch signaling selects neural progenitors within the neurectoderm, distinguishes the fate of secretory/endocrine cells and enterocytes. Proneural genes encoding bHLH transcription factors are expressed and required in prospective endocrine cells; activation of the Notch pathways restricts the number of these cells and promotes enterocyte development. In this review we compare the development of the intestinal endocrine cells in vertebrates and insects and summarize recent findings dealing with genetic pathways controlling this cell type. Copyright 2009. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A TEST SYSTEM TO EVALUATE ENDOCRINE EFFECTS IN BIRDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An overview of the process and status of the development of one and two generation Japanese quail reproduction studies for regulatory use will be presented from the perspective of members of the subgroup of the OECD Expert Group on Assessment of Endocrine Disrupting Effects in Bi...

  18. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS: A REVIEW OF SOME SOURCES, EFFECTS, AND MECHANISMS OF ACTIONS ON BEHAVIOR AND NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Frye, C.; Bo, E.; Calamandrei, G.; Calzà, L.; Dessì-Fulgheri, F.; Fernández, M.; Fusani, L.; Kah, O.; Kajta, M.; Le Page, Y.; Patisaul, H.B.; Venerosi, A.; Wojtowicz, A.K.; Panzica, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Some environmental contaminants interact with hormones and may exert adverse consequences due to their actions as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Exposure in people is typically due to contamination of the food chain, inhalation of contaminated house dust, or occupational exposure. EDCs include pesticides and herbicides (such as diphenyl-dichloro-trichloroethane, DDT, or its metabolites), methoxychlor, biocides, heat stabilizers and chemical catalysts (such as tributyltin, TBT), plastic contaminants (e.g. bisphenol A, BPA), pharmaceuticals (i.e. diethylstilbestrol, DES; 17alpha-ethynilestradiol, EE2), or dietary components (such as phytoestrogens). The goal of this review is to address sources, effects and actions of EDCs, with an emphasis on topics discussed at the International Congress on Steroids and the Nervous System. EDCs may alter reproductively-relevant or non-reproductive, sexually-dimorphic behaviors. In addition, EDCs may have significant effects on neurodevelopmental processes, influencing morphology of sexually-dimorphic cerebral circuits. Exposure to EDCs is more dangerous if it occurs during specific “critical periods” of life, such as intrauterine, perinatal, juvenile or puberty periods, when organisms are more sensitive to hormonal disruption, than in other periods. However, exposure to EDCs in adulthood also can alter physiology. Several EDCs are xenoestrogens, may alter serum lipid concentrations, or metabolism enzymes that are necessary for converting cholesterol to steroid hormones, ultimately altering production of E2 and/or other steroids. Finally, many EDCs may have actions via, or independent of, classic actions at cognate steroid receptors. EDCs may have effects through numerous other substrates, such as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), signal transduction pathways, calcium influx, and/or neurotransmitter receptors. Thus, EDCs, from varied

  19. Do endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias?

    PubMed

    Botta, Sisir; Cunha, Gerald R; Baskin, Laurence S

    2014-12-01

    Endocrine disruptors or environmental agents, disrupt the endocrine system, leading to various adverse effects in humans and animals. Although the phenomenon has been noted historically in the cases of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the term "endocrine disruptor" is relatively new. Endocrine disruptors can have a variety of hormonal activities such as estrogenicity or anti-androgenicity. The focus of this review concerns on the induction of hypospadias by exogenous estrogenic endocrine disruptors. This has been a particular clinical concern secondary to reported increased incidence of hypospadias. Herein, the recent literature is reviewed as to whether endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias. A literature search was performed for studies involving both humans and animals. Studies within the past 5 years were reviewed and categorized into basic science, clinical science, epidemiologic, or review studies. Forty-three scientific articles were identified. Relevant sentinel articles were also reviewed. Additional pertinent studies were extracted from the reference of the articles that obtained from initial search results. Each article was reviewed and results presented. Overall, there were no studies which definitely stated that endocrine disruptors caused hypospadias. However, there were multiple studies which implicated endocrine disruptors as one component of a multifactorial model for hypospadias. Endocrine disruption may be one of the many critical steps in aberrant development that manifests as hypospadias.

  20. Do endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias?

    PubMed Central

    Botta, Sisir; Cunha, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Endocrine disruptors or environmental agents, disrupt the endocrine system, leading to various adverse effects in humans and animals. Although the phenomenon has been noted historically in the cases of diethylstilbestrol (DES) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), the term “endocrine disruptor” is relatively new. Endocrine disruptors can have a variety of hormonal activities such as estrogenicity or anti-androgenicity. The focus of this review concerns on the induction of hypospadias by exogenous estrogenic endocrine disruptors. This has been a particular clinical concern secondary to reported increased incidence of hypospadias. Herein, the recent literature is reviewed as to whether endocrine disruptors cause hypospadias. Methods A literature search was performed for studies involving both humans and animals. Studies within the past 5 years were reviewed and categorized into basic science, clinical science, epidemiologic, or review studies. Results Forty-three scientific articles were identified. Relevant sentinel articles were also reviewed. Additional pertinent studies were extracted from the reference of the articles that obtained from initial search results. Each article was reviewed and results presented. Overall, there were no studies which definitely stated that endocrine disruptors caused hypospadias. However, there were multiple studies which implicated endocrine disruptors as one component of a multifactorial model for hypospadias. Conclusions Endocrine disruption may be one of the many critical steps in aberrant development that manifests as hypospadias. PMID:26816789

  1. Developmental Exposure to Endocrine Disruptors and the Obesity Epidemic

    PubMed Central

    Newbold, Retha R.; Padilla-Banks, Elizabeth; Snyder, Ryan J.; Phillips, Terry M.; Jefferson, Wendy N.

    2007-01-01

    Xenobiotic and dietary compounds with hormone-like activity can disrupt endocrine signaling pathways that play important roles during perinatal differentiation and result in alterations that are not apparent until later in life. Evidence implicates developmental exposure to environmental hormone-mimics with a growing list of health problems. Obesity is currently receiving needed attention since it has potential to overwhelm health systems worldwide with associated illnesses such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Here, we review the literature that proposes an association of exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals with the development of obesity. We describe an animal model of developmental exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES), a potent perinatal endocrine disruptor with estrogenic activity, to study mechanisms involved in programming an organism for obesity. This experimental animal model provides an example of the growing scientific field termed “the developmental origins of adult disease” and suggests new targets of abnormal programming by endocrine disrupting chemicals. PMID:17321108

  2. [Endocrine xenoestrogenics disrupters: molecular mechanisms and detection methods].

    PubMed

    Mnif, Wissem; Pillon, Arnaud; Balaguer, Patrick; Bartegi, Aghleb

    2007-01-01

    The attention paid to endocriniens modulators for purpose micropolluants (endocrine disrupters) has been increasingly studied these last years particularly on animals. The results of this study raised big concerns from Doctors and Biologists on the eventual risks human health can face. Indeed, endocrine systems of the body play an essential and pervasive role in both the short- and long-term regulation of metabolic processes. Nutritional, behavioural, and reproductive processes are intricately regulated by endocrine systems, as are growth (including bone growth/remodelling), gut, cardiovascular, and kidney function and responses to all forms of stress. Disorders of any of the endocrine system, involving both over- and under-active hormone secretion, result inevitably in disease, the effects of which may extend to many different organs and functions and are often debilitating or life-threatening. Viewed from this general perspective, the threat posed from environmental chemicals with endocrine activity (either agonist or antagonistic) is potentially serious. However, the fact that humans and wildlife are exposed to such chemicals does not necessarily mean that clinically manifest disturbance of the relevant endocrine system will result, because much depends on the level and duration of exposure and on the timing of exposure. Indeed, a large numbers of environmental estrogens are suspected of altering human health as well as the marine ecosystem balance. The objective of this review is to study the different molecular mechanisms of these xenoestrogenes micropolluants, in order to emphasize their potential risk and to present some of the different experimental methods for their detection.

  3. [Endocrine disruptors are a novel direction of endocrinologic scientific investigation].

    PubMed

    Iaglova, N V; Iaglov, V V

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are exogenous anthropogenic chemicals (pesticides, herbicides, polychlorinated biphenyls, bisphenol A, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates and others), that are able to bind hormonal receptors of endocrine and other cells in vivo and act like hormones. These substances disrupt endocrine regulation of metabolism, reproduction and adaptive reactions of organisms and promote human and animal endocrine disorders.

  4. Thyroid endocrine status of wild European eels (Anguilla anguilla) in the Loire (France). Relationships with organic contaminant body burdens.

    PubMed

    Couderc, M; Marchand, J; Zalouk-Vergnoux, A; Kamari, A; Moreau, B; Blanchet-Letrouvé, I; Le Bizec, B; Mouneyrac, C; Poirier, L

    2016-04-15

    In teleost fish, thyroid function is involved in various critical physiological processes. Given the complexity of the hypothalamo-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis, a large number of genes and proteins can be the potential target of endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs). The aim of this study was to evaluate, in yellow and silver European eels (Anguilla anguilla), potential effects of EDCs on thyroid status by analyzing the associations between EDC body burdens and thyroid hormones (THs). In yellow individuals, greater free T3/T4 ratios (FT3/FT4) and lower plasma FT4 levels were associated with greater concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), as highlighted by significant correlations with many congeners. Few positive relationships with alkylphenols were noticed. In contrast, silver eels usually exhibited less significant correlations between THs and contaminant loads. Expression of a series of genes involved in the HPT axis was also investigated in the silver individuals. Concerning mRNA expression in silver females, some main correlations were noticed: thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSHβ) gene expression was significantly correlated to numerous PCBs, and hepatic mRNA levels of deiodinase 2 (Deio 2) were negatively correlated to 2-hydroxyfluorene (2-OHF) and 2-naphtol (2-OHNa). Thyroid receptor (TRα and TRβ) mRNA levels exhibited weak negative correlations with some PBDEs in silver females and males. Hepatic vitellogenin (Vtg) mRNA levels were detected in all silver males but at lower levels than in silver females. In males, Vtg mRNA levels were positively associated to FT4/TT4. In silver females, strong positive correlations were found between congeners of PCBs, PBDEs and PFAS suggesting potential estrogenic effects. Overall, the observed results indicate that several organic contaminants, mainly dl-, ndl-PCBs and PBDEs, could be associated with changes in thyroid homeostasis in these fish, via direct or indirect

  5. Organizing Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Charles R.

    The development of information systems is described with regard to the roles of the system user and the data processing specialist. Institutional needs are best served by coordination efforts, usually handled by a management systems office, which is also responsible for the maintenance and production of an institutional data element dictionary and…

  6. Endocrine-disrupting chemical exposure and the American alligator: a review of the potential role of environmental estrogens on the immune system of a top trophic carnivore.

    PubMed

    Finger, John W; Gogal, Robert M

    2013-11-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) alter cellular and organ system homeostasis by interfering with the body's normal physiologic processes. Numerous studies have identified environmental estrogens as modulators of EDC-related processes in crocodilians, notably in sex determination. Other broader studies have shown that environmental estrogens dysregulate normal immune function in mammals, birds, turtles, lizards, fish, and invertebrates; however, the effects of such estrogenic exposures on alligator immune function have not been elucidated. Alligators occupy a top trophic status, which may give them untapped utility as indicators of environmental quality. Environmental estrogens are also prevalent in the waters they occupy. Understanding the effects of these EDCs on alligator immunity is critical for managing and assessing changes in their health and is thus the focus of this review.

  7. Incorporation of endocrine disruption into chemical hazard scoring for pollution prevention and current list of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Whaley, D A; Keyes, D; Khorrami, B

    2001-11-01

    Research continues to support the theory of endocrine disruption. Endocrine disruption is defined as the ability of a chemical contaminating the workplace or the environment to interfere with homeostasis, development, reproduction, and/or behavior in a living organism or it's offspring. Certain classes of environmentally persistent chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dioxins, furans, and some pesticides can adversely effect the endocrine systems of aquatic life and terrestrial wildlife. The University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTN), developed a method for hazard scoring chemicals for the aquatic ecosystem. The Indiana Clean Manufacturing Technology and Safe Materials Institute at Purdue University (CMTI) later expanded the scoring system to include terms for worker hazard as well as terms for contamination of soil and air quality, and for stratospheric ozone depletion. We call the CMTI chemical hazard score the Purdue score. At West Virginia University, two improvements of the Purdue chemical hazard score are developed, a normalizing of the term for soil contamination, and addition of hazard score terms for ecosystem endocrine disruption. The results of incorporating endocrine disruption terms into the hazard scoring equations resulted in increased hazard rankings, often substantially increased, for 26 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) among 200 Superfund chemicals. Because data suggesting human endocrine disruption from such chemicals is still controversial, no endocrine disruptor term has been added to the human toxicity portions of the chemical hazard scoring system at this time. The third product of this work is assembly of a current consolidated list of (1) established or probable, mostly synthetic, industrial chemical and medication EDCs and (2) suspect (less certain) synthetic and natural (phytoestrogen) possible endocrine disrupting chemicals, with the goal of contributing to future development of quantitative structure activity

  8. Executive Summary to EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Chappell, V. A.; Fenton, S. E.; Flaws, J. A.; Nadal, A.; Prins, G. S.; Toppari, J.; Zoeller, R. T.

    2015-01-01

    This Executive Summary to the Endocrine Society's second Scientific Statement on environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) provides a synthesis of the key points of the complete statement. The full Scientific Statement represents a comprehensive review of the literature on seven topics for which there is strong mechanistic, experimental, animal, and epidemiological evidence for endocrine disruption, namely: obesity and diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. EDCs such as bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diethyl ethers, and dioxins were emphasized because these chemicals had the greatest depth and breadth of available information. The Statement also included thorough coverage of studies of developmental exposures to EDCs, especially in the fetus and infant, because these are critical life stages during which perturbations of hormones can increase the probability of a disease or dysfunction later in life. A conclusion of the Statement is that publications over the past 5 years have led to a much fuller understanding of the endocrine principles by which EDCs act, including nonmonotonic dose-responses, low-dose effects, and developmental vulnerability. These findings will prove useful to researchers, physicians, and other healthcare providers in translating the science of endocrine disruption to improved public health. PMID:26414233

  9. Executive Summary to EDC-2: The Endocrine Society's Second Scientific Statement on Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Gore, A C; Chappell, V A; Fenton, S E; Flaws, J A; Nadal, A; Prins, G S; Toppari, J; Zoeller, R T

    2015-12-01

    This Executive Summary to the Endocrine Society's second Scientific Statement on environmental endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) provides a synthesis of the key points of the complete statement. The full Scientific Statement represents a comprehensive review of the literature on seven topics for which there is strong mechanistic, experimental, animal, and epidemiological evidence for endocrine disruption, namely: obesity and diabetes, female reproduction, male reproduction, hormone-sensitive cancers in females, prostate cancer, thyroid, and neurodevelopment and neuroendocrine systems. EDCs such as bisphenol A, phthalates, pesticides, persistent organic pollutants such as polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diethyl ethers, and dioxins were emphasized because these chemicals had the greatest depth and breadth of available information. The Statement also included thorough coverage of studies of developmental exposures to EDCs, especially in the fetus and infant, because these are critical life stages during which perturbations of hormones can increase the probability of a disease or dysfunction later in life. A conclusion of the Statement is that publications over the past 5 years have led to a much fuller understanding of the endocrine principles by which EDCs act, including nonmonotonic dose-responses, low-dose effects, and developmental vulnerability. These findings will prove useful to researchers, physicians, and other healthcare providers in translating the science of endocrine disruption to improved public health.

  10. Developmental effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in wildlife and humans

    SciTech Connect

    Colborn, T. ); vom Saal, F.S. ); Soto, A.M. )

    1993-10-01

    Large numbers and large quantities of endoncrine-disrupting chemicals have been released into the environment since World War II. Many of these chemicals can disturb development of the endocrine system and of the organs that respond to endocrine signals in organisms indirectly exposed during prenatal and/or early postnatal life; effects of exposure during development are permanent and irreversible. The risk to the developing organism can also stem from direct exposure of the offspring after birth or hatching. In addition, trangenerational exposure can result from the exposure of the mother to a chemical at any time throughout her life before producing offspring due to persistent of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in body fat, which is mobilized during egg laying or pregnancy and lactation. Mechanisms underlying the disruption of the development of vital systems, such as the endocrine, reproductive, and immune systems, are discussed with reference to wildlife, laboratory animals, and humans.

  11. Seasonal variation and partitioning of endocrine disrupting chemicals in waters and sediments of the Pearl River system, South China.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jian; Duan, Dandan; Yang, Yu; Ran, Yong; Chen, Diyun

    2016-12-01

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) were seasonally investigated in surface water, suspended particulate matter, and sediments of the Pearl River Delta (PRD), South China. EDC concentrations in the surface water were generally higher in the summer than in winter. The surface water in the investigated rivers was heavily contaminated by the phenolic xenoestrogens. Moreover, the in-situ log Ksoc and log Kpoc values and their regression with log Kow in the field experiments suggest that binding mechanisms other than hydrophobic interaction are present for the sedimentary organic carbon and particulate organic carbon (SOC/POC). The logKsoc-logKow and logKpoc-logKow regression analyses imply that higher complexity of nonhydrophobic interactions with EDCs is present on the SOC samples comparing with the POC samples, which is related to their different sources.

  12. The Endocrine Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillman, David

    1987-01-01

    Promotes a reductionist approach to teaching about the endocrine system in high school biology and anatomy courses. Encourages the study of how hormones travel to the cells and affect them. Provides suggestions for activities and discussion questions, along with sample diagrams and flow charts. (TW)

  13. The Endocrine Machinery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fillman, David

    1987-01-01

    Promotes a reductionist approach to teaching about the endocrine system in high school biology and anatomy courses. Encourages the study of how hormones travel to the cells and affect them. Provides suggestions for activities and discussion questions, along with sample diagrams and flow charts. (TW)

  14. Sampling in the Great Lakes for pharmaceuticals, personal care products, and endocrine-disrupting substances using the passive polar organic chemical integrative sampler.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongxia; Helm, Paul A; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2010-04-01

    The passive polar organic chemical integrative sampler in the pharmaceutical configuration (i.e., pharmaceutical-POCIS) was calibrated for sampling at water temperatures of 5, 15 and 25 degrees C to determine the influence of temperature on chemical-specific sampling rates (R(S)), thus providing more robust estimates of the time-weighted average concentrations of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine-disrupting substances (EDS) in surface water. The effect of water temperature and flow on the R(S) of these analytes was evaluated in the laboratory with a static system. The loss of the test compounds from water by uptake into POCIS was linear over an 8-d period, and these experimental data yielded R(S) values in the range of 0.07 to 2.46 L/d across the temperature range for the 30 compounds tested. Water temperature and flow influenced POCIS uptake rates, but these effects were relatively small, which is consistent with the theory for uptake into POCIS samplers. Therefore, under a narrow range of water temperatures and flows, it may not be necessary to adjust the R(S) for POCIS. Except for acidic drugs and sulfonamide antibiotics, R(S) values were positively correlated with octanol-water partition coefficients (log K(OW)) of the test compounds. A linear relationship was also observed between R(S) and chromatographic retention times on a C18 reversed-phase column. These observations may provide a rapid method for estimating the R(S) of additional chemicals in the POCIS. The application of the R(S) to POCIS deployed for one month in Lake Ontario, Canada, during the summers of 2006 and 2008 yielded estimates of PPCP and EDS concentrations that are consistent with conventional concentration measurements of these compounds in Lake Ontario surface water. (c) 2009 SETAC.

  15. Liver abnormalities and endocrine diseases.

    PubMed

    Burra, Patrizia

    2013-08-01

    The liver and its pleotropic functions play a fundamental role in regulating metabolism, and is also an inevitable target of multiple metabolic disorders. The numerous and constant relationships and feedback mechanisms between the liver and all endocrine organs is reflected by the fact that an alteration of one oftentimes results in the malfunction of the other. Hypo- and hyperthyroidism are frequently associated with hepatic alterations, and thyroid diseases must be excluded in transaminase elevation of unknown cause. Drugs such as propylthiouracil, used in the treatment of hyperthyroidism, may induce liver damage, and other drugs such as amiodarone, carbamazepine, and several chemotherapeutic agents can lead to both thyroid and liver abnormalities. Liver diseases such as hepatitis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cirrhosis may cause altered levels of thyroid hormones, and alcoholic liver disease, both due to the noxious substance ethanol as well as to the hepatic damage it causes, may be responsible for altered thyroid function. Both excess and insufficiency of adrenal function may result in altered liver function, and adrenocortical dysfunction may be present in patients with cirrhosis, especially during episodes of decompensation. Again an important player which affects both the endocrine system and the liver, alcohol may be associated with pseudo-Cushing syndrome. Sex hormones, both intrinsic as well as extrinsically administered, have an important impact on liver function. While oestrogens are related to cholestatic liver damage, androgens are the culprit of adenomas and hepatocellular carcinoma, among others. Chronic liver disease, on the other hand, has profound repercussions on sex hormone metabolism, inducing feminization in men and infertility and amenorrhoea in women. Lastly, metabolic syndrome, the pandemia of the present and future centuries, links the spectrum of liver damage ranging from steatosis to cirrhosis, to the array of endocrine alterations

  16. Endocrine disorders in mitochondrial disease.

    PubMed

    Schaefer, Andrew M; Walker, Mark; Turnbull, Douglass M; Taylor, Robert W

    2013-10-15

    Endocrine dysfunction in mitochondrial disease is commonplace, but predominantly restricted to disease of the endocrine pancreas resulting in diabetes mellitus. Other endocrine manifestations occur, but are relatively rare by comparison. In mitochondrial disease, neuromuscular symptoms often dominate the clinical phenotype, but it is of paramount importance to appreciate the multi-system nature of the disease, of which endocrine dysfunction may be a part. The numerous phenotypes attributable to pathogenic mutations in both the mitochondrial (mtDNA) and nuclear DNA creates a complex and heterogeneous catalogue of disease which can be difficult to navigate for novices and experts alike. In this article we provide an overview of the endocrine disorders associated with mitochondrial disease, the way in which the underlying mitochondrial disorder influences the clinical presentation, and how these factors influence subsequent management. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  17. An evaluation of the endocrine disruptive potential of crude oil water accommodated fractions and crude oil contaminated surface water to freshwater organisms using in vitro and in vivo approaches.

    PubMed

    Truter, J Christoff; van Wyk, Johannes H; Oberholster, Paul J; Botha, Anna-Maria; Mokwena, Lucky M

    2017-05-01

    Knowledge regarding the potential impacts of crude oil on endocrine signaling in freshwater aquatic vertebrates is limited. The expression of selected genes as biomarkers for altered endocrine signaling was studied in African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, tadpoles and juvenile Mozambique tilapia, Oreochromis mossambicus, exposed to weathered bunker and unweathered refinery crude oil water accommodated fractions (WAFs). In addition, the expression of the aforementioned genes was quantified in X. laevis tadpoles exposed to surface water collected from the proximity of an underground oil bunker. The (anti)estrogenicity and (anti)androgenicity of crude oil, crude oil WAFs, and surface water were furthermore evaluated using recombinant yeast. Thyroid hormone receptor beta expression was significantly down-regulated in X. laevis in response to both oil WAF types, whereas a further thyroid linked gene, type 2 deiodinase, was up-regulated in O. mossambicus exposed to a high concentration of bunker oil WAF. In addition, both WAFs altered the expression of the adipogenesis-linked peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in X. laevis. The crude oil and WAFs exhibited antiestrogenic and antiandrogenic activity in vitro. However, O. mossambicus androgen receptor 2 was the only gene, representing the reproductive system, significantly affected by WAF exposure. Estrogenicity, antiestrogenicity, and antiandrogenicity were detected in surface water samples; however, no significant changes were observed in the expression of any of the genes evaluated in X. laevis exposed to surface water. The responses varied among the 2 model organisms used, as well as among the 2 types of crude oil. Nonetheless, the data provide evidence that crude oil pollution may lead to adverse health effects in freshwater fish and amphibians as a result of altered endocrine signaling. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1330-1342. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  18. Endocrine Dysfunctions in Patients with Inherited Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Erdöl, Şahin; Sağlam, Halil

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Inherited metabolic diseases (IMDs) can affect many organ systems, including the endocrine system. There are limited data regarding endocrine dysfunctions related to IMDs in adults, however, no data exist in pediatric patients with IMDs. The aim of this study was to investigate endocrine dysfunctions in patients with IMDs by assessing their demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Methods: Data were obtained retrospectively from the medical reports of patients with IMDs who were followed by the division of pediatric metabolism and nutrition between June 2011 and November 2013. Results: In total, 260 patients [139 males (53%) and 121 females (47%)] with an IMD diagnosis were included in the study. The mean age of the patients was 5.94 (range; 0.08 to 49) years and 95.8% (249 of 260 patients) were in the pediatric age group. Growth status was evaluated in 258 patients and of them, 27 (10.5%) had growth failure, all cases of which were attributed to non-endocrine reasons. There was a significant correlation between growth failure and serum albumin levels below 3.5 g/dL (p=0.002). Only three of 260 (1.1%) patients had endocrine dysfunction. Of these, one with lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase deficiency and another with Kearns-Sayre syndrome had diabetes, and one with glycerol kinase deficiency had glucocorticoid deficiency. Conclusion: Endocrine dysfunction in patients with IMDs is relatively rare. For this reason, there is no need to conduct routine endocrine evaluations in most patients with IMDs unless a careful and detailed history and a physical examination point to an endocrine dysfunction. PMID:27086477

  19. Late-life effects on rat reproductive system after developmental exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupters.

    PubMed

    Isling, Louise Krag; Boberg, Julie; Jacobsen, Pernille Rosenskjold; Mandrup, Karen Riiber; Axelstad, Marta; Christiansen, Sofie; Vinggaard, Anne Marie; Taxvig, Camilla; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Hass, Ulla

    2014-01-01

    This study examined late-life effects of perinatal exposure of rats to a mixture of endocrine-disrupting contaminants. Four groups of 14 time-mated Wistar rats were exposed by gavage from gestation day 7 to pup day 22 to a mixture of 13 anti-androgenic and estrogenic chemicals including phthalates, pesticides, u.v.-filters, bisphenol A, parabens, and the drug paracetamol. The groups received vehicle (control), a mixture of all 13 chemicals at 150-times (TotalMix150) or 450-times (TotalMix450) high-end human exposure, or 450-times a mixture of nine predominantly anti-androgenic chemicals (AAMix450). Onset of puberty and estrous cyclicity at 9 and 12 months of age were assessed. Few female offspring showed significantly regular estrus cyclicity at 12 months of age in the TotalMix450 and AAMix450 groups compared with controls. In 19-month-old male offspring, epididymal sperm counts were lower than controls, and in ventral prostate an overrepresentation of findings related to hyperplasia was observed in exposed groups compared with controls, particularly in the group dosed with anti-androgens. A higher incidence of pituitary adenoma at 19 months of age was found in males and females in the AAMix450 group. Developmental exposure of rats to the highest dose of a human-relevant mixture of endocrine disrupters induced adverse effects late in life, manifested as earlier female reproductive senescence, reduced sperm counts, higher score for prostate atypical hyperplasia, and higher incidence of pituitary tumors. These delayed effects highlight the need for further studies on the role of endocrine disrupters in hormone-related disorders in aging humans.

  20. Short-term exposure of arsenite disrupted thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in the HPT axis in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hong-Jie; Li, Hong-Bo; Xiang, Ping; Zhang, Xiaowei; Ma, Lena Q

    2015-10-01

    Arsenic (As) pollution in aquatic environment may adversely impact fish health by disrupting their thyroid hormone homeostasis. In this study, we explored the effect of short-term exposure of arsenite (AsIII) on thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish. We measured As concentrations, As speciation, and thyroid hormone thyroxine levels in whole zebrafish, oxidative stress (H2O2) and damage (MDA) in the liver, and gene transcription in hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) axis in the brain and liver tissues of zebrafish after exposing to different AsIII concentrations for 48 h. Result indicated that exposure to AsIII increased inorganic As in zebrafish to 0.46-0.72 mg kg(-1), induced oxidative stress with H2O2 being increased by 1.4-2.5 times and caused oxidative damage with MDA being augmented by 1.6 times. AsIII exposure increased thyroxine levels by 1.3-1.4 times and modulated gene transcription in HPT axis. Our study showed AsIII caused oxidative damage, affected thyroid endocrine system and altered gene transcription in HPT axis in zebrafish. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Bioconcentration and metabolism of BDE-209 in the presence of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and impact on the thyroid endocrine system and neuronal development in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiangwei; Chen, Qi; Zhou, Peng; Li, Wenwen; Wang, Junxia; Huang, Changjiang; Wang, Xianfeng; Lin, Kuangfei; Zhou, Bingsheng

    2014-08-01

    Interactions between organic toxicants and nanoparticles (NPs) in the aquatic environment may modify toxicant bioavailability and consequently the toxicant's environmental fate and toxicity. Therefore, we investigated the influence of titanium dioxide NPs (nano-TiO2) on deca-BDE (BDE-209; a polybrominated diphenyl ether congener) bioconcentration, metabolism and its effects on the thyroid endocrine system in zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to various concentrations of BDE-209 alone or in combination with nano-TiO2 (0.1 mg/L) until 7-day post-fertilization. Nano-TiO2 can adsorb BDE-209 and nano-TiO2 is taken up into developing zebrafish larvae. Chemical measurements showed that BDE-209 was bioconcentrated and metabolized in zebrafish larvae, and BDE-209 uptake was enhanced by nano-TiO2. Furthermore, increased BDE-209 metabolites were detected in larvae co-exposed with nano-TiO2. BDE-209 exposure significantly increased whole-body thyroid hormone contents (T3 and T4); T4 content significantly increased in the larvae co-exposed with nano-TiO2. Nano-TiO2 exposure alone did not induce generation of reactive oxygen species, lipid peroxidative oxidation, gene transcription or thyroid hormone levels. Upregulation of several gene transcriptions (tshβ, tg, dio2) in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis was also observed. Furthermore, co-exposure of nano-TiO2 and BDE-209 caused a decrease in locomotion activity and downregulation of specific genes and proteins involved in the central nervous system of developing zebrafish larvae (e.g. myelin basic protein and α1-tubulin). These results indicate nano-TiO2 enhances BDE-209 bioavailability and metabolism, leading to thyroid endocrine disruption and developmental neurotoxicity in zebrafish.

  2. The origins of the vertebrate hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) and hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid (HPT) endocrine systems: new insights from lampreys.

    PubMed

    Sower, Stacia A; Freamat, Mihael; Kavanaugh, Scott I

    2009-03-01

    The acquisition of a hypothalamic-pituitary axis was a seminal event in vertebrate evolution leading to the neuroendocrine control of many complex functions including growth, reproduction, osmoregulation, stress and metabolism. Lampreys as basal vertebrates are the earliest evolved vertebrates for which there are demonstrated functional roles for two gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRHs) that act via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis controlling reproductive processes. With the availability of the lamprey genome, we have identified a novel GnRH form (lamprey GnRH-II) and a novel glycoprotein hormone receptor, lGpH-R II (thyroid-stimulating hormone-like receptor). Based on functional studies, in situ hybridization and phylogenetic analysis, we hypothesize that the newly identified lamprey GnRH-II is an ancestral GnRH to the vertebrate GnRHs. This finding opens a new understanding of the GnRH family and can help to delineate the evolution of the complex neuro/endocrine axis of reproduction. A second glycoprotein hormone receptor (lGpH-R II) was also identified in the sea lamprey. The existing data suggest the existence of a primitive, overlapping yet functional HPG and HPT endocrine systems in this organism, involving one possibly two pituitary glycoprotein hormones and two glycoprotein hormone receptors as opposed to three or four glycoprotein hormones interacting specifically with three receptors in gnathostomes. We hypothesize that the glycoprotein hormone/glycoprotein hormone receptor systems emerged as a link between the neuro-hormonal and peripheral control levels during the early stages of gnathostome divergence. The significance of the results obtained by analysis of the HPG/T axes in sea lamprey may transcend the limited scope of the corresponding physiological compartments by providing important clues in respect to the interplay between genome-wide events (duplications), coding sequence (mutation) and expression control level evolutionary mechanisms

  3. Assessment of the effects of the carbamazepine on the endogenous endocrine system of Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    Oropesa, A L; Floro, A M; Palma, P

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, the endocrine activity of the antiepileptic pharmaceutical carbamazepine (CBZ) in the crustacean Daphnia magna was assessed. To assess the hormonal activity of the drug, we exposed maternal daphnids and embryos to environmental relevant concentrations of CBZ (ranging from 10 to 200 μg/L) and to mixtures of CBZ with fenoxycarb (FEN; 1 μg/L). Chronic exposure to CBZ significantly decreased the reproductive output and the number of molts of D. magna at 200 μg/L. This compound induced the production of male offspring (12 ± 1.7 %), in a non-concentration-dependent manner, acting as a weak juvenile hormone analog. Results showed that this substance, at tested concentrations, did not antagonize the juvenoid action of FEN. Further, CBZ has shown to be toxic to daphnid embryos through maternal exposure interfering with their normal gastrulation and organogenesis stages but not producing direct embryo toxicity. These findings suggest that CBZ could act as an endocrine disruptor in D. magna as it decreases the reproductive output, interferes with sex determination, and causes development abnormality in offspring. Therefore, CBZ could directly affect the population sustainability.

  4. The male reproductive system and its susceptibility to endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Pflieger-Bruss, S; Schuppe, H-C; Schill, W-B

    2004-12-01

    In the past years, there has been increased interest in assessing the relationship between impaired male fertility and environmental factors. Human male fertility is a complex process and therefore a great variety of sites may be affected by exogenous noxae. Lifestyle factors as well as various environmental and occupational agents may impair male fertility. Many studies have been published reporting on reproductive dysfunctions in male animals and humans. Especially environmental pollutants with endocrine activity are discussed as a possible cause of this detrimental development. Evidence from animal experiments show that substances with oestrogenic and antiandrogenic properties may cause hypospadia, cryptorchidism, reduction of sperm density and an increase of testicular tumours. Many adverse effects on animal male fertility have been documented for phthalates and some chlorinated hydrocarbons such as polychlorinated biphenyls and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins. For other chemicals such as bisphenol A and nonylphenols animal data are conflicting. Environmental pollutants may mediate their effects by receptor binding, modulation of hormone-regulated mechanisms or direct toxic effects. Data on environmental chemicals and human male fertility are scarce, and risk assessment is mostly based on the results of animal studies. However, there are indications that exposure to endocrine active chemicals during early development may alter hormone responsiveness in adulthood. Furthermore, some of the chemicals are found in fluids that are associated with human reproduction, such as follicular fluid, seminal fluid and cervical mucus. Recent studies suggest a correlation between pesticide exposure and standard semen parameters as well as in vitro fertilization rates.

  5. New aspects of cadmium as endocrine disruptor.

    PubMed

    Takiguchi, Masufumi; Yoshihara, Shin'ichi

    2006-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an industrial and environmental pollutant that exerts adverse effects on a number of organs in humans and animals. Reproductive organs, such as the testis and placenta, are sensitive to the toxic effects of Cd. In animal experiments, high-dose exposure to Cd induced severe testicular interstitial hemorrhage with edema, and increased incidence of fetal death and placental necrosis. Low-dose exposure to Cd affects steroid synthesis in male and female reproductive organs. In 1998, the Ministry of Environment in Japan listed Cd in the strategy plan SPEED98 as one of the chemicals suspected of having possible endocrine disrupting activity. Recently, it has been shown that Cd has potent estrogen- and androgen-like activities in vivo and in vitro, by directly binding to estrogen and androgen receptors. However, the precise mechanisms underlying the effects of Cd as an endocrine disruptor remain to be elucidated. In this review, we will discuss evidence thus far presented concerning the effects of Cd on the endocrine system.

  6. Septin functions in organ system physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Dolat, Lee; Hu, Qicong; Spiliotis, Elias T

    2014-02-01

    Human septins comprise a family of 13 genes that encode for >30 protein isoforms with ubiquitous and tissue-specific expressions. Septins are GTP-binding proteins that assemble into higher-order oligomers and filamentous polymers, which associate with cell membranes and the cytoskeleton. In the last decade, much progress has been made in understanding the biochemical properties and cell biological functions of septins. In parallel, a growing number of studies show that septins play important roles for the development and physiology of specific tissues and organs. Here, we review the expression and function of septins in the cardiovascular, immune, nervous, urinary, digestive, respiratory, endocrine, reproductive, and integumentary organ systems. Furthermore, we discuss how the tissue-specific functions of septins relate to the pathology of human diseases that arise from aberrations in septin expression.

  7. Septin functions in organ system physiology and pathology

    PubMed Central

    Dolat, Lee; Hu, Qicong

    2015-01-01

    Human septins comprise a family of 13 genes that encode for >30 protein isoforms with ubiquitous and tissue-specific expressions. Septins are GTP-binding proteins that assemble into higher-order oligomers and filamentous polymers, which associate with cell membranes and the cytoskeleton. In the last decade, much progress has been made in understanding the biochemical properties and cell biological functions of septins. In parallel, a growing number of studies show that septins play important roles for the development and physiology of specific tissues and organs. Here, we review the expression and function of septins in the cardiovascular, immune, nervous, urinary, digestive, respiratory, endocrine, reproductive, and integumentary organ systems. Furthermore, we discuss how the tissue-specific functions of septins relate to the pathology of human diseases that arise from aberrations in septin expression. PMID:24114910

  8. Development of SPR Immunosensing System Using Microchannel Cell for Simultaneous Detection of Several Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Norio; K. Vengatajalabathy, Gobi; Shoyama, Yukihiro; Maeda, Hideaki; Kawazumi, Hirofumi; Iwasaka, Hiroyuki

    The endocrine-disrupting chemicals affect the functioning of hormones of animals and are called “environmental hormones". They exist in various environments at very low concentrations in the range of ppt to ppb levels. Thus, highly sensitive determination of environmental hormones with high selectivity is indispensable in regulating the ecosystem, and the instrumentation that allows the on-site analysis of environmental hormones is paid much attention. In this research project, we are aiming at development of new optical immunosensing system for highly sensitive, selective, on-site and simultaneous detection of several environmental hormones at low cost. We report here the results of our research investigations on application of immunosensing technique to highly sensitive detection of environmental hormones, preparation of monoclonal antibodies, fabrication of the microchannel, miniaturization of the surface-plasmon-resonance detector, design of the compact total-sensing-system.

  9. [Novel methods and their applicability in the evaluation of the genetic background of endocrine system tumours].

    PubMed

    Patócs, Attila; Likó, István; Butz, Henriett; Baghy, Kornélia; Rácz, Károly

    2015-12-20

    The technical developments leading to revolution in clinical genetic testing offer new approaches for patients with cancer. From one mutation or one gene approach the scale of genetic testing moved to whole exome or whole genome scale. It is well known that many tumours are genetically determined and they are part of familial tumour syndromes. In addition, some mutations indicate specific molecular targeted therapies. Although sampling and sample preparation are different for testing germline and somatic mutations, the technical background of the analysis is the same. The aim of clinical genetic testing is to identify patients who are carriers of disease-causing mutations or to test tumour tissue for the presence of genetic alterations which may be targets for therapeutic approaches. In this review the authors summarize novel possibilities offered by next-generation sequencing in clinical genetic testing of patients with endocrine tumours. In addition, the authors review recent guidelines on technical and ethical issues related to these novel methods.

  10. Principles of Pharmacology and Toxicology Also Govern Effects of Chemicals on the Endocrine System.

    PubMed

    Autrup, Herman; Barile, Frank A; Blaauboer, Bas J; Degen, Gisela H; Dekant, Wolfgang; Dietrich, Daniel; Domingo, Jose L; Gori, Gio Batta; Greim, Helmuth; Hengstler, Jan G; Kacew, Sam; Marquardt, Hans; Pelkonen, Olavi; Savolainen, Kai; Vermeulen, Nico P

    2015-07-01

    The present debate on chemicals with Hormonal activity, often termed 'endocrine disruptors', is highly controversial and includes challenges of the present paradigms used in toxicology and in hazard identification and risk characterization. In our opinion, chemicals with hormonal activity can be subjected to the well-evaluated health risk characterization approach used for many years including adverse outcome pathways. Many of the points arguing for a specific approach for risk characterization of chemicals with hormonal activity are based on highly speculative conclusions. These conclusions are not well supported when evaluating the available information. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. The relative risk and its distribution of endocrine disrupting chemicals, pharmaceuticals and personal care products to freshwater organisms in the Bohai Rim, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Shi, Yajuan; Lu, Yonglong; Johnson, Andrew C; Sarvajayakesavalu, Suriyanarayanan; Liu, Zhaoyang; Su, Chao; Zhang, Yueqing; Juergens, Monika D; Jin, Xiaowei

    2017-07-15

    In this study, the risks to aquatic organisms posed by 12 commonly detected pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that are extensively used in Bohai coastal region of China were examined. These were linear alkylbenzene sulfonate (LAS), nonylphenol (NP), diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), norfloxacin (NOR), sulfamethoxazole (SMX), erythromycin (ERY), bisphenol A (BPA), ofloxacin (OFL), carbamazepine (CBZ), naproxen (NPX), atenolol (ATL) and metoprolol (MET). Their relative risk was ranked based on the proximity between the medians of the reported effect concentrations and measured river or lake water concentrations. The surfactants (LAS) and endocrine disrupting chemicals NP (a breakdown product of the surfactant nonylphenol polyethoxylate) and DEHP (a plasticizer) were identified as posing the greatest risk from this range of chemicals. LAS had a hundred-fold higher risk than any of the pharmaceuticals. The highest risk ranked pharmaceuticals were all antibiotics. Zinc (Zn) and mercury (Hg) were added to the comparison as representative heavy metals. Zn posed a risk higher than all the organics. The risk posed by Hg was less than the surfactants but greater than the selected pharmaceuticals. Whereas LAS and DEHP could cause harmful effects to all the wildlife groups, NP and BPA posed the greatest risk to fish. Antibiotics showed the highest risk to algae. Spatial and temporal distributions of PPCPs and EDCs were conducted for risk identification, source analysis and seasonal change exploration. Municipal sewage effluent linked to urban areas was considered to be the major source of pharmaceuticals. With regard to seasonal influence the risk posed by LAS to the aquatic organisms was significantly affected by wet and dry seasonal change. The dilution effects were the common feature of LAS and ERY risks. The difference in LAS and ERY risk patterns along the rivers was mainly affected by the elimination process

  12. Effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals from leather industry effluents on male reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vikas; Majumdar, Chandrajeetbalo; Roy, Partha

    2008-09-01

    The leather tanning industry is characterized by the production of different kinds of effluents, generated in each step of leather processing. These effluents have various chemical compounds which may cause toxicity and endocrine disruption and are thus known as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC). This study was aimed to examine the androgenic potential of leather industry effluents collected from northern region of India. Hershberger assay data showed a significant increase (p<0.05) in the weight and structure of sex accessory tissues of castrated rats. Reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis demonstrated a significant change (p<0.05) in the expression patterns of the major steroidogenic enzymes in adrenal and testes namely, cytochrome P450scc, 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17beta-hydroxysteroid dehydorgenase in castrated and intact rats. This was further supported by increased enzymatic activities measured in vitro spectrophotometrically. Serum hormone profile demonstrated a dose dependent increase in testicular and adrenal testosterone productions in intact and castrated rats, respectively. This was further supported by decreased level of gonadotrophic hormones (LH and FSH) in treated groups of animals. Further, the effluent treatment resulted in the development of hyperplasia in seminiferous tubules of testes in treated rats as evident from histopathological studies and about two-fold increases in daily sperm production. On analysis of water samples using GC-MS, it was found to contain various aromatic compounds (nonylphenol, hexaclrobenzene and several azo dyes) some of which independently demonstrated similar effects as shown by water samples. Our data suggests that the effluents from leather industry have potential EDC demonstrating androgenic activities.

  13. N-acetyltransferase (nat) is a critical conjunct of photoperiodism between the circadian system and endocrine axis in Antheraea pernyi.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Ahmed A M; Wang, Qiushi; Bembenek, Jadwiga; Ichihara, Naoyuki; Hiragaki, Susumu; Suzuki, Takeshi; Takeda, Makio

    2014-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1923, the biology of photoperiodism remains a mystery in many ways. We sought the link connecting the circadian system to an endocrine switch, using Antheraea pernyi. PER-, CLK- and CYC-ir were co-expressed in two pairs of dorsolateral neurons of the protocerebrum, suggesting that these are the circadian neurons that also express melatonin-, NAT- and HIOMT-ir. The results suggest that a melatonin pathway is present in the circadian neurons. Melatonin receptor (MT2 or MEL-1B-R)-ir in PTTH-ir neurons juxtaposing clock neurons suggests that melatonin gates PTTH release. RIA showed a melatonin rhythm with a peak four hours after lights off in adult brain both under LD16:8 (LD) and LD12:12 (SD), and both the peak and the baseline levels were higher under LD than SD, suggesting a photoperiodic influence. When pupae in diapause were exposed to 10 cycles of LD, or stored at 4 °C for 4 months under constant darkness, an increase of NAT activity was observed when PTTH released ecdysone. DNA sequence upstream of nat contained E-boxes to which CYC/CLK could bind, and nat transcription was turned off by clk or cyc dsRNA. dsRNA(NAT) caused dysfunction of photoperiodism. dsRNA(PER) upregulated nat transcription as anticipated, based on findings in the Drosophila melanogaster circadian system. Transcription of nat, cyc and clk peaked at ZT12. RIA showed that dsRNA(NAT) decreased melatonin while dsRNA(PER) increased melatonin. Thus nat, a clock controlled gene, is the critical link between the circadian clock and endocrine switch. MT-binding may release PTTH, resulting in termination of diapause. This study thus examined all of the basic functional units from the clock: a photoperiodic counter as an accumulator of mRNA(NAT), to endocrine switch for photoperiodism in A. pernyi showing this system is self-complete without additional device especially for photoperiodism.

  14. Endocrine Proxies Can Simplify Endocrine Complexity to Enable Evolutionary Prediction.

    PubMed

    Davidowitz, Goggy

    2016-08-01

    It is well understood that much of evolutionary change is mediated through the endocrine system with growing interest to identify how this occurs. This however, causes a conflict of sorts. To understand endocrine mechanism, a focus on detail is required. In contrast, to understand evolutionary change, reduction to a few key traits is essential. Endocrine proxies, measurable traits that accurately reflect specific hormonal titers or the timing of specific hormonal events, can reduce endocrine complexity to a few traits that enable predictions of how the endocrine system regulates evolutionary change. In the tobacco hornworm (Manduca sexta, Sphingidae), three endocrine proxies, measured on 5470 individuals, were used to test explicit predictions of how the endocrine system regulates the response to 10 generations of simultaneous selection on body size and development time. The critical weight (CW) reflects the variation in the cessation of juvenile hormone (JH) secretion in the last larval instar, the interval to cessation of growth (ICG) reflects the variation in prothoracicotropic hormone and 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E). Growth rate (GR) reflects the nutrient signaling pathways, primarily the insulin and TOR This is a standard identity similar to DNA signaling pathways. These three endocrine proxies explained 99% and 93% of the variation in body size and development time, respectively, following the 10 generations of simultaneous selection. When the two focal traits, body size and development time, were selected in the same direction, both to either increase or both to decrease, the response to selection was determined primarily by the CW and the ICG, proxies for the developmental hormones JH and 20E, and constrained by GR. In contrast, when the two focal traits were selected in opposite directions, one to increase and the other to decrease, the response to selection was determined primarily by the insulin and TOR signaling pathways as measured by their proxy, GR, and

  15. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and skin manifestations.

    PubMed

    Ju, Qiang; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2016-09-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous compounds that have the ability to disrupt the production and actions of hormones through direct or indirect interaction with hormone receptors, thus acting as agonists or antagonists. Human health is affected after either individual occupation or dietary and environmental exposure to EDCs. On the other hand, skin is one of the largest organs of the body and its main function is protection from noxious substances. EDCs perturb the endocrine system, and they are also carcinogenic, immunotoxic, and hepatotoxic to human skin. In addition, their effects on keratinocytes, melanocytes, sebocytes, inflammatory and immunological cells, and skin stem cells produce inflammatory and allergic skin diseases, chloracne, disorders of skin pigmentation, skin cancer, and skin aging. Mechanisms, which EDCs use to induce these skin disorders are complicated, and involve the interference of endogenous hormones and most importantly the activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor signal pathway. Further studies on EDCs and skin diseases are necessary to elucidate these mechanisms.

  16. [Xenoestrogens: endocrine disrupting compounds].

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Milena; Murias, Marek

    2008-11-01

    In recent years much attention has been paid to the issues of chemicals that disrupt the normal function of endocrine system, namely xenoestrogens. These chemicals can mimic the activity of endogenous estrogens, antagonize their interaction with estrogen receptors or disrupt the synthesis, metabolism and functions of endogenous female hormones. Due to the fact that they act thanks to many different mechanisms, it is very difficult to estimate their estrogenic activity by means of a simple tests. The important issue remains the fact that xenoestrogens may have a positive or negative influence on the function of the endocrine system. It seems to be very important that there are many sources of xenoestrogens, that is not only vegetables and fruit (phytoestrogens), but also metals (Co, Cu, Ni, Cr, Pb), dental appliances (alkilphenols), food containers or blood containers (PVC--polyvinyl chloride, DEHP--di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), cosmetics (parabens) and pesticides (DDT--dichlor-diphenyl-trichlorethylane, endosulfane).

  17. Self-Organized Criticality Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.

    2013-07-01

    Contents: (1) Introduction - Norma B. Crosby --- (2) Theoretical Models of SOC Systems - Markus J. Aschwanden --- (3) SOC and Fractal Geometry - R. T. James McAteer --- (4) Percolation Models of Self-Organized Critical Phenomena - Alexander V. Milovanov --- (5) Criticality and Self-Organization in Branching Processes: Application to Natural Hazards - Álvaro Corral, Francesc Font-Clos --- (6) Power Laws of Recurrence Networks - Yong Zou, Jobst Heitzig, Jürgen Kurths --- (7) SOC computer simolations - Gunnar Pruessner --- (8) SOC Laboratory Experiments - Gunnar Pruessner --- (9) Self-Organizing Complex Earthquakes: Scaling in Data, Models, and Forecasting - Michael K. Sachs et al. --- (10) Wildfires and the Forest-Fire Model - Stefan Hergarten --- (11) SOC in Landslides - Stefan Hergarten --- (12) SOC and Solar Flares - Paul Charbonneau --- (13) SOC Systems in Astrophysics - Markus J. Aschwanden ---

  18. Ultrasound and ultrasound-related techniques in endocrine diseases.

    PubMed

    Trimboli, Pierpaolo; Dietrich, Christoph F; David, Emanuele; Mastroeni, Giampiero; Ventura Spagnolo, Orazio; Sidhu, Paul S; Letizia, Claudio; Messineo, Daniela; D'Ambrosio, Ferdinando; Radzina, Maija; Cantisani, Vito

    2017-09-05

    Ultrasound examination has become essential to evaluate morphology and size of several endocrine glands and detect the presence of lesions within these organs. Nevertheless, with the recent advances of ultrasound technology, we have opportunity to correlate the echostructure of thyroid, ovary, testis, parathyroids, etc. to their function. Thus, the ultrasound systems are in-office essential instruments for many clinical specialists. Herein we presented the most updated information about the use of ultrasound in specific endocrine-related issues, such as thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal gland, and testicle.

  19. Fertility and endocrine effects of intra-abdominally misplaced intrauterine system for more than 2 years: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Botros, George; Haddad, Nabil

    2009-06-01

    This case report shows with documented evidence that a misplaced Mirena intrauterine system in the abdominal cavity had an endocrine and contraceptive effect causing amenorrhea and infertility for 2 years and 5 months. This had been proved by a negative hysteroscopy in November 2004 and an abdominal X-ray showing the device which was done in May 2007. Intraabdominal misplacement of the LNG-IUS has been reported in the literature with variable consequences and effects. In this case report, we reviewed the literature and assessed the fertility and endocrine consequences.

  20. Endocrine and metabolic dysfunction in yellow perch, Perca flavescens, exposed to organic contaminants and heavy metals in the St. Lawrence River

    SciTech Connect

    Hontela, A.; Duclos, D.; Fortin, R.; Dumont, P.

    1995-04-01

    The endocrine and biochemical responses to the acute stress of capture and handling were investigated in sexually mature and in immature male and female yellow perch, Perca flavescens, from a site contaminated by organic contaminants (PAHs and PCBs) and heavy metals (Hg, Cd, As, and Zn) and from a reference site in the St. Lawrence River. Following a standardized capture and handling stress, fish from the contaminated site did not exhibit the expected physiological stress response observed in fish from the reference site. Blood cortisol and thyroxine levels were lower, and liver glycogen stores were greater in mature males and females, as well as in the immature fish from the contaminated site, compared to the reference site. Fish from the contaminated site also had smaller gonads and lower condition factor. The impaired ability to elevate blood cortisol in response to an acute stress may be used as a biomarker of toxic stress in health assessment of feral fish from polluted environments.

  1. [Endocrine function in obesity].

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Castro, Paula; Sangiao-Alvarellos, Susana; Brandón-Sandá, Iria; Cordido, Fernando

    2011-10-01

    Obesity is associated to significant disturbances in endocrine function. Hyper insulinemia and insulin resistance are the best known changes in obesity, but their mechanisms and clinical significance are not clearly established. Adipose tissue is considered to be a hormone-secreting endocrine organ; and increased leptin secretion from the adipocyte, a satiety signal, is a well-established endocrine change in obesity. In obesity there is a decreased GH secretion. Impairment of somatotropic function in obesity is functional and may be reversed in certain circumstances. The pathophysiological mechanism responsible for low GH secretion in obesity is probably multifactorial. There are many data suggesting that a chronic state of somatostatin hypersecretion results in inhibition of GH release. Increased FFA levels, as well as a deficient ghrelin secretion, probably contribute to the impaired GH secretion. In women, abdominal obesity is associated to hyperandrogenism and low sex hormone-binding globulin levels. Obese men, particularly those with morbid obesity, have decreased testosterone and gonadotropin levels. Obesity is associated to an increased cortisol production rate, which is compensated for by a higher cortisol clearance, resulting in plasma free cortisol levels that do not change when body weight increases. Ghrelin is the only known circulating orexigenic factor, and has been found to be decreased in obese people. In obesity there is also a trend to increased TSH and free T3 levels. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. TNM staging of midgut and hindgut (neuro) endocrine tumors: a consensus proposal including a grading system.

    PubMed

    Rindi, G; Klöppel, G; Couvelard, A; Komminoth, P; Körner, M; Lopes, J M; McNicol, A-M; Nilsson, O; Perren, A; Scarpa, A; Scoazec, J-Y; Wiedenmann, B

    2007-10-01

    Criteria for the staging and grading of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) of midgut and hindgut origin were established at the second Consensus Conference in Frascati (Rome) organized by the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society (ENETS). The proposed tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) classifications are based on the recently published ENETS Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of gastroenteropancreatic NETs and follow our previous proposal for foregut tumors. The new TNM classifications for NETs of the ileum, appendix, colon, and rectum, and the grading system were designed, discussed, and consensually approved by all conference participants. These proposals need to be validated and are meant to help clinicians in the stratification, treatment and follow-up of patients.

  3. Effects of 1-week head-down tilt bed rest on bone formation and the calcium endocrine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Whalen, Robert T.; Fung, Paul; Sherrard, Donald J.; Maloney, Norma

    1992-01-01

    The -6-deg head-down tilt (HDT) is employed in the study of 8 subjects to determine early responses in human bone and calcium endocrines during spaceflight. The average rates of bone formation in the iliac crest are determined by means of a single-dose labeling schedule and are found to decrease in 6 of the subjects. The decrease varies directly with walking miles, and increased excretion of urinary Ca and Na are observed preceding increased levels of ionized serum calcium on a bed-rest day late in the week. Reduced phosphorous excretions are also followed by increased serum phosphorous on day six, and reductions are noted in parathyroid hormone and vitamin D by the end of the experiment. The data demonstrate the responsiveness of the skeletal system to biomechanical stimuli such as the HDT.

  4. Removal performance of nitrogen and endocrine-disrupting pesticides simultaneously in the enhanced biofilm system for polluted source water pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li-Juan; Yang, Guang-Feng; Zhu, Liang; Xu, Xiang-Yang

    2014-10-01

    The removal performances of nitrogen and trace levels of endocrine-disrupting pesticides (cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos) were studied in the enhanced biofilm pretreatment system at various substrates concentrations and dissolve oxygen (DO) niches. No significant change of EDPs removal occurred with the increased feed of ammonia nitrogen in aerobic batch tests or nitrate in anaerobic batch reactors, but significantly enhanced via reed addition both in aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Simultaneously enhanced denitrification and EDPs removal were achieved in the anoxic niche with reed addition. The results of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) indicated that new bands appeared, and some bands became more intense with the reed addition. Sequences analysis showed that the dominant species belonged to Methylophilaceae, Hyphomicrobium, Bacillus and Thauera, which were related to the nitrogen or EDPs removals. In addition, the growth of functional heterotrophic microbes may be promoted via reed addition.

  5. Endocrine Tumor: Overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home > Types of Cancer > Endocrine Tumor Endocrine Tumor This is Cancer.Net’s Guide to Endocrine Tumor. Use the menu below to choose the ... social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Endocrine Tumor Introduction Statistics Risk Factors Symptoms and Signs ...

  6. Impact of co-exposure with butachlor and triadimefon on thyroid endocrine system in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Cao, Chuyan; Wang, Qiangwei; Jiao, Fang; Zhu, Guonian

    2016-09-01

    Butachlor (BTL) and triadimefon (TDF), the widely used herbicide and fungicide, are unavoidable enter into the aquatic environment. However, there were limited study regarding to the joint toxicity of these two pesticides on fish at present. To evaluate the potential thyroid-disrupting toxicity and exposed to different concentrations of BTL mixed with TDF. Zebrafish embryo (n=3) were exposed to 0.01 and 0.05 fold of LC50 from the acute joint toxicity test, of which 0.32mg/L (BTL) and 9.41mg/L (TDF) for single or mixture agents (BTL: 0.0064mg/L, 0.032mg/L; TDF: 0.1882mg/L, 0.9410mg/L; co-exposure: 0.0032mg/L BTL+0.0941mg/L TDF, 0.016mg/l BTL+0.4705mg/L TDF) after 10-day post-fertilization. Hatching, malformation, survival rates and thyroid hormones (THs), genes expression involved in HPT-axis of embryos were measured and detected in control and separately/co-exposure treatments. THs contents were evaluated by ELISA kit and the expression levels of genes were determined by RT-PCR. Hatching, malformation and survival rates of embryos exposed to single BTL exhibited no statistically significant difference from the control besides decreased of high concentration in survival rates. Exposure to TDF reduced hatching, survival rate and increased malformation. The combined exposure to BTL and TDF resulted in greater adverse effects on embryonic development. BTL exposure significantly increased free T3 and T4 contents. Elevated free T3 content was also observed in the larvae exposed with single BTL. Co-exposure of the two pesticides caused greater enhanced of T3 and T4 levels. Furthermore, gene data showed BTL up-regulated the mRNA expression of tpo, tshβ, tg, ttr, dio2, TDF up-regulated the mRNA expression of tpo, trα, ttr, dio2 and down-regulated trβ gene. The mixture of the two pesticides caused up-regulation mRNA expression of trα, trβ, tg, ttr, dio2. BTL and TDF resulted in adverse effects on zebrafish embryonic development and caused thyroid endocrine disruption

  7. [Endocrine abnormalities in HIV-infected patients].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Kedzia, Agnieszka; Krupej-Kedzierska, Joanna; Okopień, Bogusław

    2013-01-01

    HIV infection is associated with a number of adverse consequences, including endocrine disorders. The endocrine changes associated with HIV infection have been studied in depth and, as the results of so far carried out studies suggest, their aetiology is usually multifactoral. Their pathogenesis includes direct infection of endocrine glands by HIV or opportunistic organisms, infiltration by neoplasms and adverse effects of drugs. Endocrine problems that most frequently affect this group of patients include: hypogonadism, adrenal insufficiency, thyroid disorders, impaired growth hormone release, lipodystrophy and bone loss. They may develop in both the early as well as late stages of the infection, ranging from subclinical disturbances to overt endocrine symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to review the aetiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of HIV-associated endocrine disturbances with a special emphasis on the most recent literature.

  8. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M [Waxahachie, TX; Sorini-Wong, Susan S [Laramie, WY; Wong, Gregory K [Laramie, WY

    2011-03-01

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  9. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.; Bomstad, Theresa M [Laramie, WY; Sorini-Wong, Susan S [Laramie, WY

    2009-02-10

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  10. Opioids and endocrine dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Hester, Joan

    2012-01-01

    The endocrine effects of opioids used for the management of persistent pain are poorly understood by clinicians and patients, and hormone levels are rarely measured. It is recognized that opioids exert this effect via the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Additional effects on adrenal hormones, weight, blood pressure and bone density may also occur. Symptoms and signs of sex hormone deficiency occur in both men and women but are under-reported and are often clinically unrecognized. The potential effects of long term opioid therapy on the endocrine system should be explained to patients before opioid therapy is commenced. Monitoring of sex hormones is recommended; if there are deficiencies opioids should be tapered and withdrawn, if this is clinically acceptable. If opioid therapy has to continue, hormone replacement therapy should be initiated and monitored by an endocrinologist. PMID:26516462

  11. [Endocrine disease symptoms].

    PubMed

    Reincke, M

    2013-10-01

    Diseases of the endocrine system can be classified according to the prevalence into two categories: very frequent endocrinopathies, which affect a population of several millions in Germany and include diabetes mellitus, endemic goiter, osteoporosis and obesity. On the other hand there are a large number of rare endocrine diseases which share the paradox of other rare diseases: they are also often falsely suspected in patients who are not affected but at the same time there are sometimes long delays in diagnosis in those who do have the disease. In cases of adrenal insufficiency, absolute glucocorticoid deficiency can progress to an adrenal crisis which is fatal if not treated. Patients with de Quervain thyroiditis often suffer from prolonged episodes of fever with tender, diffuse goiter and neck pain. Pheochromocytomas should be recognized early in the course of disease because of life-threatening cardiovascular complications. This article highlights the essential characteristics in order to increase awareness.

  12. Endocrine disrupters as obesogens

    PubMed Central

    Grün, Felix; Blumberg, Bruce

    2009-01-01

    The recent dramatic rise in obesity rates is an alarming global health trend that consumes an ever increasing portion of health care budgets in Western countries. The root cause of obesity is thought to be a prolonged positive energy balance. Hence, the major focus of preventative programs for obesity has been to target overeating and inadequate physical exercise. Recent research implicates environmental risk factors, including nutrient quality, stress, fetal environment and pharmaceutical or chemical exposure as relevant contributing influences. Evidence points to endocrine disrupting chemicals that interfere with the body's adipose tissue biology, endocrine hormone systems or central hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis as suspects in derailing the homeostatic mechanisms important to weight control. This review highlights recent advances in our understanding of the molecular targets and mechanisms of action for these compounds and areas of future research needed to evaluate the significance of their contribution to obesity. PMID:19433244

  13. Endocrine active contaminants in aquatic systems and intersex in common sport fishes.

    PubMed

    Lee Pow, Crystal S D; Law, J Mac; Kwak, Thomas J; Cope, W Gregory; Rice, James A; Kullman, Seth W; Aday, D Derek

    2017-04-01

    Male fish are susceptible to developing intersex, a condition characterized by the presence of testicular oocytes. In the present study, the relationship between intersex and exposure to estrogenic endocrine active contaminants (EACs) was assessed for 2 genera of sport fish, Micropterus and Lepomis, at 20 riverine sites. Seasonal trends and relationships between EACs and intersex (prevalence and severity) were examined at varying putative sources of EACs throughout North Carolina, identified as point sources, nonpoint sources, and reference sites. Intersex was identified in both genera, which was documented for the first time in wild-caught Lepomis. Intersex was more prevalent (59.8%) and more severe (1.6 mean rank) in Micropterus, which was highly correlation to EACs in sediment. In contrast, intersex was less common (9.9%) and less severe (0.2 mean rank) in Lepomis and was highly correlated to EACs in the water column. The authors found that concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, industrial EACs, and estrogens were highest at point source sites; however, no source type variation was identified in the prevalence or severity of intersex, nor were there seasonal trends in intersex or EAC concentrations. The authors' results associate genus-specific prevalence of intersex with specific EAC classes in common sport fishes having biological, ecological, and conservation implications. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:959-968. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  14. The gut endocrine system as a coordinator of postprandial nutrient homoeostasis.

    PubMed

    Gribble, Fiona M

    2012-11-01

    Hormones from the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are released following food ingestion and trigger a range of physiological responses including the coordination of appetite and glucose homoeostasis. The aim of this review is to discuss the pathways by which food ingestion triggers secretion of cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and the altered patterns of gut hormone release observed following gastric bypass surgery. Our understanding of how ingested nutrients trigger secretion of these gut hormones has increased dramatically, as a result of physiological studies in human subjects and animal models and in vitro studies on cell lines and primary intestinal cultures. Specialised enteroendocrine cells located within the gut epithelium are capable of directly detecting a range of nutrient stimuli through a range of receptors and transporters. It is concluded that the arrival of nutrients at the apical surface of enteroendocrine cells is a major stimulus for gut hormone release, thereby coupling these endocrine signals to the arrival of absorbed nutrients in the bloodstream.

  15. Endocrine active contaminants in aquatic systems and intersex in common sport fishes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee Pow, Crystal S. D.; Law, J. Mac; Kwak, Thomas J.; Cope, W. Gregory; Rice, James A.; Kullman, Seth W.; Aday, D. Derek

    2017-01-01

    Male fish are susceptible to developing intersex, a condition characterized by the presence of testicular oocytes. In the present study, the relationship between intersex and exposure to estrogenic endocrine active contaminants (EACs) was assessed for 2 genera of sport fish, Micropterus and Lepomis, at 20 riverine sites. Seasonal trends and relationships between EACs and intersex (prevalence and severity) were examined at varying putative sources of EACs throughout North Carolina, identified as point sources, nonpoint sources, and reference sites. Intersex was identified in both genera, which was documented for the first time in wild-caught Lepomis. Intersex was more prevalent (59.8%) and more severe (1.6 mean rank) in Micropterus, which was highly correlation to EACs in sediment. In contrast, intersex was less common (9.9%) and less severe (0.2 mean rank) in Lepomis and was highly correlated to EACs in the water column. The authors found that concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, industrial EACs, and estrogens were highest at point source sites; however, no source type variation was identified in the prevalence or severity of intersex, nor were there seasonal trends in intersex or EAC concentrations. The authors’ results associate genus-specific prevalence of intersex with specific EAC classes in common sport fishes having biological, ecological, and conservation implications.

  16. The role of the endocrine system in feeding-induced tissue-specific circadian entrainment.

    PubMed

    Sato, Miho; Murakami, Mariko; Node, Koichi; Matsumura, Ritsuko; Akashi, Makoto

    2014-07-24

    The circadian clock is entrained to environmental cycles by external cue-mediated phase adjustment. Although the light input pathway has been well defined, the mechanism of feeding-induced phase resetting remains unclear. The tissue-specific sensitivity of peripheral entrainment to feeding suggests the involvement of multiple pathways, including humoral and neuronal signals. Previous in vitro studies with cultured cells indicate that endocrine factors may function as entrainment cues for peripheral clocks. However, blood-borne factors that are well characterized in actual feeding-induced resetting have yet to be identified. Here, we report that insulin may be involved in feeding-induced tissue-type-dependent entrainment in vivo. In ex vivo culture experiments, insulin-induced phase shift in peripheral clocks was dependent on tissue type, which was consistent with tissue-specific insulin sensitivity, and peripheral entrainment in insulin-sensitive tissues involved PI3K- and MAPK-mediated signaling pathways. These results suggest that insulin may be an immediate early factor in feeding-mediated tissue-specific entrainment. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Non-analgesic effects of opioids: opioids and the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Jennifer A; Opper, Susan E; Agarwal, Sonali; Fibuch, Eugene E

    2012-01-01

    Opioids are among the oldest known and most widely used analgesics. The application of opioids has expanded over the last few decades, especially in the treatment of chronic non-malignant pain. This upsurge in opioid use has been accompanied by the increasingly recognized occurrence of opioid-associated endocrinopathy. This may arise after exposure to enteral, parenteral, or neuraxial opioids. Opioid-associated endocrinopathy consists primarily of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis or hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction and may manifest with symptoms of hypogonadism, adrenal dysfunction, and other hormonal disturbances. Additionally, opioid related endocrine dysfunction may be coupled with such disorders as osteoporosis and mood disturbances including depression. Undesirable changes in pain sensitivity such as opioid-induced hyperalgesia, and reduced potency of opioid analgesia may also be potential consequences of chronic opioid consumption. Few studies to date have been able to establish what degree of opioid exposure, in terms of dose or duration of therapy, may predispose patients to opioid-associated endocrinopathy. This article will review the currently available literature concerning opioid-associated endocrinopathy and will provide recommendations for the evaluation, monitoring, and management of opioid-associated endocrinopathy and its other accompanying undesired effects.

  18. The impact of cancer therapy on the endocrine system in survivors of childhood brain tumours.

    PubMed

    Gleeson, H K; Shalet, S M

    2004-12-01

    Survival rates are improving following cancer therapy for childhood brain tumours. There is therefore a growing cohort of survivors at risk of late effects of cancer therapy. Endocrine problems are very common in these patients. The recognition and prompt management of these are essential to prevent further morbidity and impairment of quality of life. Cranial radiation can damage hypothalamic-pituitary function, most frequently affecting GH status; however, higher radiation doses may cause more widespread hypothalamic-pituitary damage. Early puberty secondary to cranial irradiation is now being managed with gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues to improve final height. Prompt diagnosis and management of GH deficiency may improve final height outcome; continued GH therapy beyond final height aids the achievement of adult body composition (lean body mass and bone mass) and GH therapy in adulthood improves quality of life. Both cranial irradiation alone and with spinal irradiation can result in radiation damage to the thyroid resulting in hypothyroidism and thyroid nodules, a high proportion of which are malignant. Gonadal damage secondary to spinal irradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy may have long-term consequences including infertility.

  19. Autophagy in the endocrine glands.

    PubMed

    Weckman, Andrea; Di Ieva, Antonio; Rotondo, Fabio; Syro, Luis V; Ortiz, Leon D; Kovacs, Kalman; Cusimano, Michael D

    2014-04-01

    Autophagy is an important cellular process involving the degradation of intracellular components. Its regulation is complex and while there are many methods available, there is currently no single effective way of detecting and monitoring autophagy. It has several cellular functions that are conserved throughout the body, as well as a variety of different physiological roles depending on the context of its occurrence in the body. Autophagy is also involved in the pathology of a wide range of diseases. Within the endocrine system, autophagy has both its traditional conserved functions and specific functions. In the endocrine glands, autophagy plays a critical role in controlling intracellular hormone levels. In peptide-secreting cells of glands such as the pituitary gland, crinophagy, a specific form of autophagy, targets the secretory granules to control the levels of stored hormone. In steroid-secreting cells of glands such as the testes and adrenal gland, autophagy targets the steroid-producing organelles. The dysregulation of autophagy in the endocrine glands leads to several different endocrine diseases such as diabetes and infertility. This review aims to clarify the known roles of autophagy in the physiology of the endocrine system, as well as in various endocrine diseases.

  20. An approach to the identification and regulation of endocrine disrupting pesticides.

    PubMed

    Ewence, Annette; Brescia, Susy; Johnson, Ian; Rumsby, Paul C

    2015-04-01

    Recent decades have seen an increasing interest in chemicals that interact with the endocrine system and have the potential to alter the normal function of this system in humans and wildlife. Chemicals that produce adverse effects caused by interaction with endocrine systems are termed Endocrine Disrupters (EDs). This interest has led regulatory authorities around the world (including the European Union) to consider whether potential endocrine disrupters should be identified and assessed for effects on human health and wildlife and what harmonised criteria could be used for such an assessment. This paper reviews the results of a study whereby toxicity data relating to human health effects of 98 pesticides were assessed for endocrine disruption potential using a number of criteria including the Specific Target Organ Toxicity for repeat exposure (STOT-RE) guidance values used in the European Classification, Labelling and Packaging (CLP) Regulation. Of the pesticides assessed, 27% required further information in order to make a more definitive assessment, 14% were considered to be endocrine disrupters, more or less likely to pose a risk, and 59% were considered not to be endocrine disrupters. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Endocrine disruptors and female fertility: focus on (bovine) ovarian follicular physiology.

    PubMed

    Petro, E M L; Leroy, J L M R; Van Cruchten, S J M; Covaci, A; Jorssen, E P A; Bols, P E J

    2012-12-01

    Throughout the previous century, the production, use and, as a result, presence of chemicals in the environment increased enormously. Consequently, humans and animals are exposed to a wide variety of chemical substances of which some possess the ability to disrupt the endocrine system in the body, thereby denominated as "endocrine disrupting chemicals" (EDCs) or "endocrine disruptors". Because the reproductive system is a target organ for endocrine disruption, EDCs are postulated as one of the possible causes of human subfertility. Within the reproductive system, the ovarian follicle can be considered as an extremely fragile microenvironment where interactions between the oocyte and its surrounding somatic cells are essential to generate a fully competent oocyte. In this review, we explore how EDCs can interfere with the well-balanced conditions in the ovarian follicle. In addition, we highlight the bovine ovarian follicle as an alternative in vitro model for EDC and broader toxicology research.

  2. Endocrine dysfunction in sepsis: a beneficial or deleterious host response?

    PubMed

    Gheorghiţă, Valeriu; Barbu, Alina Elena; Gheorghiu, Monica Livia; Căruntu, Florin Alexandru

    2015-03-01

    Sepsis is a systemic, deleterious inflammatory host response triggered by an infective agent leading to severe sepsis, septic shock and multi-organ failure. The host response to infection involves a complex, organized and coherent interaction between immune, autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral systems. Recent data have confirmed that disturbances of the autonomic nervous and neuroendocrine systems could contribute to sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. Through this review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the endocrine dysfunction as response to sepsis, specifically addressed to vasopressin, copeptin, cortisol, insulin and leptin. We searched the following readily accessible, clinically relevant databases: PubMed, UpToDate, BioMed Central. The immune system could be regarded as a "diffuse sensory organ" that signals the presence of pathogens to the brain through different pathways, such as the vagus nerve, endothelial activation/dysfunction, cytokines and neurotoxic mediators and the circumventricular organs, especially the neurohypophysis. The hormonal profile changes substantially as a consequence of inflammatory mediators and microorganism products leading to inappropriately low levels of vasopressin, sick euthyroid syndrome, reduced adrenal responsiveness to ACTH, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia as well as hyperleptinemia. In conclusion, clinical diagnosis of this "pan-endocrine illness" is frequently challenging due to the many limiting factors. The most important benefits of endocrine markers in the management of sepsis may be reflected by their potential to be used as biomarkers in different scoring systems to estimate the severity of the disease and the risk of death.

  3. Challenges in assigning endocrine-specific modes of action: Recommendations for researchers and regulators.

    PubMed

    Mihaich, Ellen M; Schäfers, Christoph; Dreier, David A; Hecker, Markus; Ortego, Lisa; Kawashima, Yukio; Dang, Zhi-Chao; Solomon, Keith

    2017-03-01

    As regulatory programs evaluate substances for their endocrine-disrupting properties, careful study design and data interpretation are needed to distinguish between responses that are truly endocrine specific and those that are not. This is particularly important in regulatory environments where criteria are under development to identify endocrine-disrupting properties to enable hazard-based regulation. Irrespective of these processes, most jurisdictions use the World Health Organization/International Programme on Chemical Safety definition of an endocrine disruptor, requiring that a substance is demonstrated to cause a change in endocrine function that consequently leads to an adverse effect in an intact organism. Such a definition is broad, and at its most cautious might capture many general mechanisms that would not specifically denote an endocrine disruptor. In addition, endocrine responses may be adaptive in nature, designed to maintain homeostasis rather than induce an irreversible adverse effect. The likelihood of indirect effects is increased in (eco)toxicological studies that require the use of maximum tolerated concentrations or doses, which must produce some adverse effect. The misidentification of indirect effects as truly endocrine mediated has serious consequences for prompting animal- and resource-intensive testing and regulatory consequences. To minimize the risk for misidentification, an objective and transparent weight-of-evidence procedure based on biological plausibility, essentiality, and empirical evidence of key events in an adverse outcome pathway is recommended to describe the modes of action that may be involved in toxic responses in nontarget organisms. Confounding factors such as systemic toxicity, general stress, and infection can add complexity to such an evaluation and should be considered in the weight of evidence. A recommended set of questions is proffered to help guide researchers and regulators in discerning endocrine and

  4. Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Law and science combine in the estimation of risks from endocrine disruptors (EDs) and actions for their regulation. For both, dose–response models are the causal link between exposure and probability (or percentage change) of adverse response. The evidence that leads to either regulations or judicial decrees is affected by uncertainty and limited knowledge, raising difficult policy issues that we enumerate and discuss. In the United States, some courts have dealt with EDs, but causation based on animal studies has been a stumbling block for plaintiffs seeking compensation, principally because those courts opt for epidemiological evidence. The European Union (EU) has several regulatory tools and ongoing research on the risks associated with bisphenol A, under the Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) Regulation and other regulations or directives. The integration of a vast (in kind and in scope) number of research papers into a statement of causation for either policy or to satisfy legal requirements, in both the United States and the EU, relies on experts. We outline the discursive dilemma and issues that may affect consensus-based results and a Bayesian causal approach that accounts for the evolution of information, yielding both value of information and flexibility associated with public choices. PMID:26740809

  5. Detection of Bacillus and Stenotrophomonas species growing in an organic acid and endocrine-disrupting chemical-rich environment of distillery spent wash and its phytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Chandra, Ram; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Sugarcane molasses-based distillery spent wash (DSW) is well known for its toxicity and complex mixture of various recalcitrant organic pollutants with acidic pH, but the chemical nature of these pollutants is unknown. This study revealed the presence of toxic organic acids (butanedioic acid bis(TMS)ester; 2-hydroxysocaproic acid; benzenepropanoic acid, α-[(TMS)oxy], TMS ester; vanillylpropionic acid, bis(TMS)), and other recalcitrant organic pollutants (2-furancarboxylic acid, 5-[[(TMS)oxy] methyl], TMS ester; benzoic acid 3-methoxy-4-[(TMS)oxy], TMS ester; and tricarballylic acid 3TMS), which are listed as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. In addition, several major heavy metals were detected, including Fe (163.947), Mn (4.556), Zn (2.487), and Ni (1.175 mg l(-1)). Bacterial community analysis by restriction fragment length polymorphism revealed that Bacillus and Stenotrophomonas were dominant autochthonous bacterial communities belonging to the phylum Firmicutes and γ-Proteobacteria, respectively. The presence of Bacillus and Stenotrophomonas species in highly acidic environments indicated its broad range adaptation. These findings indicated that these autochthonous bacterial communities were pioneer taxa for in situ remediation of this hazardous waste during ecological succession. Further, phytotoxicity assay of DSW with Phaseolus mungo L. and Triticum aestivum revealed that T. aestivum was more sensitive than P. mungo L. in the seed germination test. The results of this study may be useful for monitoring and toxicity assessment of sugarcane molasses-based distillery waste at disposal sites.

  6. Enantioselective disruption of the endocrine system by Cis-Bifenthrin in the male mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Wang, Jiangcong; Pan, Xiuhong; Miao, Wenyu; Lin, Xiaojian; Wang, Linggang; Fu, Zhengwei

    2015-07-01

    Bifenthrin (BF), as a chiral pyrethroid, is widely used to control field and household pests in China. At present, the commercial BF is a mixed compound containing cis isomers (cis-BF) including two enantiomers of 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF. In the present study, the two individual cis-BF enantiomers were separated by a preparative supercritical fluid chromatography. Then, four week-old adolescent male ICR mice were orally administered 1R-cis-BF and 1S-cis-BF separately daily for 3 weeks at doses of 0, 7.5 and 15 mg/kg/day, respectively. Results showed that the transcription status of some genes involved in cholesterol synthesis and transport as well as testosterone (T) synthesis in the testes were influenced by cis-BF enantiomers. Especially, we observed that the transcription status of key genes on the pathway of T synthesis including cytochrome P450 cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and cytochrome P450 17α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (P45017α)) were selectively altered in the testis of mice when treated with 1S-cis-BF, suggesting that it is the possible reason to explain why the lower serum T concentration in 1S-cis-BF treated group. Taken together, it concluded that both of the cis-BF enantiomers have the endocrine disruption activities, while 1S-cis-BF was higher than 1R-cis-BF in mice when exposed during the puberty. The data was helpful to understand the toxicity of cis-BF in mammals under enantiomeric level. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Interleukin 13 and serotonin: linking the immune and endocrine systems in murine models of intestinal inflammation.

    PubMed

    Shajib, Md Sharif; Wang, Huaqing; Kim, Janice J; Sunjic, Ivana; Ghia, Jean-Eric; Denou, Emmanuel; Collins, Matthew; Denburg, Judah A; Khan, Waliul I

    2013-01-01

    Infiltration of activated immune cells and increased cytokine production define the immunophenotype of gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation. In addition, intestinal inflammation is accompanied by alteration in the numbers of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) synthesizing enterochromaffin (EC) cells and in 5-HT amount. It has been established that EC cells express interleukin (IL)-13 receptor, additionally IL-13 has been implicated in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. In this study, we investigated the role of IL-13 mediated 5-HT signaling in pathogenesis of colitis. Colitis was induced in IL-13 deficient (IL-13-/-) and wild-type (WT) mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS), as well as in IL-13-/- mice given recombinant mouse IL-13 (rmIL-13) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HTP), the direct precursor of 5-HT. Elevated colonic IL-13 levels were observed in WT mice receiving DSS in comparison to control. IL-13-/- mice administered DSS exhibited significantly reduced severity of colitis compared to WT mice as reflected by macroscopic and histological damage assessments. Following DSS administration, significantly lower pro-inflammatory cytokine production and fewer infiltrating macrophages were observed in IL-13-/- mice compared to WT. The reduced severity of colitis observed in IL-13-/- mice was also accompanied by down-regulation of EC cell numbers and colonic 5-HT content. In addition, increasing colonic 5-HT content by administration of rmIL-13 or 5-HTP exacerbated severity of DSS colitis in IL-13-/- mice. IL-13-/- mice also exhibited reduced severity of DNBS-induced colitis. These results demonstrate that IL-13 plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of experimental colitis and 5-HT is an important mediator of IL-13 driven intestinal inflammation. This study revealed important information on immune-endocrine axis in gut in relation to inflammation which may ultimately lead to better strategy in managing various intestinal

  8. Hypothalamic transcriptional expression of the kisspeptin system and sex steroid receptors differs among polycystic ovary syndrome rat models with different endocrine phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Carvalho, Kátia Cândido; Giannocco, Gisele; Duarte, Daniele Coelho; Garcia, Natália; Soares-Junior, José Maria; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Maliqueo, Manuel; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Maciel, Gustavo Arantes Rosa

    2017-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder that affects reproductive-age women. The mechanisms underlying the endocrine heterogeneity and neuroendocrinology of polycystic ovary syndrome are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of the kisspeptin system and gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse regulators in the hypothalamus as well as factors related to luteinizing hormone secretion in the pituitary of polycystic ovary syndrome rat models induced by testosterone or estradiol. A single injection of testosterone propionate (1.25 mg) (n=10) or estradiol benzoate (0.5 mg) (n=10) was administered to female rats at 2 days of age to induce experimental polycystic ovary syndrome. Controls were injected with a vehicle (n=10). Animals were euthanized at 90-94 days of age, and the hypothalamus and pituitary gland were used for gene expression analysis. Rats exposed to testosterone exhibited increased transcriptional expression of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor-β and reduced expression of kisspeptin in the hypothalamus. However, rats exposed to estradiol did not show any significant changes in hormone levels relative to controls but exhibited hypothalamic downregulation of kisspeptin, tachykinin 3 and estrogen receptor-α genes and upregulation of the gene that encodes the kisspeptin receptor. Testosterone- and estradiol-exposed rats with different endocrine phenotypes showed differential transcriptional expression of members of the kisspeptin system and sex steroid receptors in the hypothalamus. These differences might account for the different endocrine phenotypes found in testosterone- and estradiol-induced polycystic ovary syndrome rats.

  9. Effects of the pesticides carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, lindane, triallate, trifluralin, 2,4-D, and pentachlorophenol on the metabolic endocrine and reproductive endocrine system in ewes.

    PubMed

    Rawlings, N C; Cook, S J; Waldbillig, D

    1998-05-08

    Many pesticides are used in the agricultural environment, and some may have the potential to disrupt reproductive or endocrine function. Ewes, in separate groups of 6, received orally into their rumen either empty gelatin capsules or capsules containing chlorpyrifos (12.5 mg/kg), trifluralin (17.5 mg/kg), lindane (2.5 mg/kg), or pentachlorophenol (2 mg/kg) 2 times per week for 43 d. Dimethoate (0.2 mg/kg), carbofuran (0.30 mg/kg), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (10 mg/kg), or triallate (5 mg/kg) was given 3 times per week. After 36 d of treatment, blood samples were taken every 12 min for 6 h for hormone analysis. Ewes were euthanized at the end of the study for necropsy and histopathology. No overt signs of toxicity were seen, and body weight was not affected by treatment. Carbofuran caused a significant increase in serum concentrations of thyroxine compared to control ewes, but all other pesticides, except trifluralin, resulted in a marked decrease in thyroxine concentrations. Serum concentrations of cortisol were significantly increased by trifluralin and chlorpyrifos. Concentrations of insulin in serum were markedly increased in ewes given dimethoate, lindane, trifluralin, triallate, and pentachlorophenol, and concentrations of estradiol were also significantly increased in ewes given lindane and trifluralin. Mean serum concentrations of LH were markedly decreased by trifluralin, and basal LH concentrations were significantly decreased by lindane, dimethoate, and trifluralin but increased by triallate. Both pentachlorophenol and triallate caused a significant increase in severity of oviductal intraepithelial cysts in ewes. Data suggest that several currently used pesticides could influence serum concentrations of reproductive and metabolic hormones, particularly thyroxine, the major secretory product of the thyroid and a principal regulator of metabolism.

  10. Circadian rhythms and endocrine functions in adult insects.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Guy; Hazan, Esther; Rafaeli, Ada

    2013-01-01

    Many behavioral and physiological processes in adult insects are influenced by both the endocrine and circadian systems, suggesting that these two key physiological systems interact. We reviewed the literature and found that experiments explicitly testing these interactions in adult insects have only been conducted for a few species. There is a shortage of measurements of hormone titers throughout the day under constant conditions even for the juvenile hormones (JHs) and ecdysteroids, the best studied insect hormones. Nevertheless, the available measurements of hormone titers coupled with indirect evidence for circadian modulation of hormone biosynthesis rate, and the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in hormone biosynthesis, binding or degradation are consistent with the hypothesis that the circulating levels of many insect hormones are influenced by the circadian system. Whole genome microarray studies suggest that the modulation of farnesol oxidase levels is important for the circadian regulation of JH biosynthesis in honey bees, mosquitoes, and fruit flies. Several studies have begun to address the functional significance of circadian oscillations in endocrine signaling. The best understood system is the circadian regulation of Pheromone Biosynthesis Activating Neuropeptide (PBAN) titers which is important for the temporal organization of sexual behavior in female moths. The evidence that the circadian and endocrine systems interact has important implications for studies of insect physiology and behavior. Additional studies on diverse species and physiological processes are needed for identifying basic principles underlying the interactions between the circadian and endocrine systems in insects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transcriptional analysis of abdominal fat in chickens divergently selected on bodyweight at two ages reveals novel mechanisms controlling adiposity: validating visceral adipose tissue as a dynamic endocrine and metabolic organ.

    PubMed

    Resnyk, C W; Carré, W; Wang, X; Porter, T E; Simon, J; Le Bihan-Duval, E; Duclos, M J; Aggrey, S E; Cogburn, L A

    2017-08-16

    Decades of intensive genetic selection in the domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) have enabled the remarkable rapid growth of today's broiler (meat-type) chickens. However, this enhanced growth rate was accompanied by several unfavorable traits (i.e., increased visceral fatness, leg weakness, and disorders of metabolism and reproduction). The present descriptive analysis of the abdominal fat transcriptome aimed to identify functional genes and biological pathways that likely contribute to an extreme difference in visceral fatness of divergently selected broiler chickens. We used the Del-Mar 14 K Chicken Integrated Systems microarray to take time-course snapshots of global gene transcription in abdominal fat of juvenile [1-11 weeks of age (wk)] chickens divergently selected on bodyweight at two ages (8 and 36 wk). Further, a RNA sequencing analysis was completed on the same abdominal fat samples taken from high-growth (HG) and low-growth (LG) cockerels at 7 wk, the age with the greatest divergence in body weight (3.2-fold) and visceral fatness (19.6-fold). Time-course microarray analysis revealed 312 differentially expressed genes (FDR ≤ 0.05) as the main effect of genotype (HG versus LG), 718 genes in the interaction of age and genotype, and 2918 genes as the main effect of age. The RNA sequencing analysis identified 2410 differentially expressed genes in abdominal fat of HG versus LG chickens at 7 wk. The HG chickens are fatter and over-express numerous genes that support higher rates of visceral adipogenesis and lipogenesis. In abdominal fat of LG chickens, we found higher expression of many genes involved in hemostasis, energy catabolism and endocrine signaling, which likely contribute to their leaner phenotype and slower growth. Many transcription factors and their direct target genes identified in HG and LG chickens could be involved in their divergence in adiposity and growth rate. The present analyses of the visceral fat transcriptome in

  12. Endocrine disruption in aquatic vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Kloas, Werner; Urbatzka, Ralph; Opitz, Robert; Würtz, Sven; Behrends, Thomas; Hermelink, Björn; Hofmann, Frauke; Jagnytsch, Oana; Kroupova, Hana; Lorenz, Claudia; Neumann, Nadja; Pietsch, Constanze; Trubiroha, Achim; Van Ballegooy, Christoph; Wiedemann, Caterina; Lutz, Ilka

    2009-04-01

    Environmental compounds can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. The main sink of such substances, called endocrine disrupters (ED), are surface waters. Thus, aquatic vertebrates, such as fish and amphibians, are most endangered. ED can adversely affect reproductive biology and the thyroid system. ED act by (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic modes of action, resulting in abnormal sexual differentiation and impaired reproduction. These effects are mainly driven by direct interferences of ED with sex steroid receptors rather than indirectly by impacting synthesis and bioavailability of sex steroids, which in turn might affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Recent findings reveal that, in addition to the human-produced waste of ED, natural sources, such as parasites and decomposition of leaves, also might act as ED, markedly affecting sexual differentiation and reproduction in fish and amphibians. Although the thyroid system has essential functions in both fish and amphibians, amphibian metamorphosis has been introduced as the most sensitive model to detect thyroidal ED; no suitable fish model exists. Whereas ED may act primarily on only one specific endocrine target, all endocrine systems will eventually be deregulated as they are intimately connected to each other. The recent ecotoxicological issue of pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) present in the aquatic environment indicates a high potential for further endocrine modes of action on aquatic vertebrates by ED derived from PhACs, such as glucocorticoids, progestins, and beta-agonists.

  13. Endocrine dysfunction in sepsis: a beneficial or deleterious host response?

    PubMed Central

    Gheorghiţă, Valeriu; Barbu, Alina Elena; Gheorghiu, Monica Livia; Căruntu, Florin Alexandru

    2015-01-01

    Sepsis is a systemic, deleterious inflammatory host response triggered by an infective agent leading to severe sepsis, septic shock and multi-organ failure. The host response to infection involves a complex, organized and coherent interaction between immune, autonomic, neuroendocrine and behavioral systems. Recent data have confirmed that disturbances of the autonomic nervous and neuroendocrine systems could contribute to sepsis-induced organ dysfunction. Through this review, we aimed to summarize the current knowledge about the endocrine dysfunction as response to sepsis, specifically addressed to vasopressin, copeptin, cortisol, insulin and leptin. We searched the following readily accessible, clinically relevant databases: PubMed, UpToDate, BioMed Central. The immune system could be regarded as a “diffuse sensory organ” that signals the presence of pathogens to the brain through different pathways, such as the vagus nerve, endothelial activation/dysfunction, cytokines and neurotoxic mediators and the circumventricular organs, especially the neurohypophysis. The hormonal profile changes substantially as a consequence of inflammatory mediators and microorganism products leading to inappropriately low levels of vasopressin, sick euthyroid syndrome, reduced adrenal responsiveness to ACTH, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia as well as hyperleptinemia. In conclusion, clinical diagnosis of this “pan-endocrine illness” is frequently challenging due to the many limiting factors. The most important benefits of endocrine markers in the management of sepsis may be reflected by their potential to be used as biomarkers in different scoring systems to estimate the severity of the disease and the risk of death. PMID:25763364

  14. Cancer and developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed Central

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2003-01-01

    Developing organisms have increased susceptibility to cancer if they are exposed to environmental toxicants during rapid growth and differentiation. Human studies have demonstrated clear increases in cancer after prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation, and there is suggestive evidence that brain tumors and leukemia are associated with parental exposures to chemicals. Animal experiments have demonstrated increased tumor formation induced by prenatal or neonatal exposure to a variety of chemicals, including direct-acting carcinogens and drugs. Recently, natural estrogens have been classified as known human carcinogens. Prenatal exposure to natural and synthetic estrogens is associated with increases in breast and vaginal tumors in humans as well as uterine tumors in animals. Synthetic halogenated chemicals increase liver tumors after early life-stage exposure. Recently, a prototypical endocrine-disrupting compound, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, has been shown to be a developmental toxicant of the mammary gland in rodents. Dioxin alters multiple endocrine systems, and its effects on the developing breast involve delayed proliferation and differentiation of the mammary gland, as well as an elongation of the window of sensitivity to potential carcinogens. Implications of these new findings suggest that causes of endocrine-related cancers or susceptibility to cancer may be a result of developmental exposures rather than exposures existing at or near the time of tumor detection. PMID:12676588

  15. Cancer and developmental exposure to endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Birnbaum, Linda S; Fenton, Suzanne E

    2003-04-01

    Developing organisms have increased susceptibility to cancer if they are exposed to environmental toxicants during rapid growth and differentiation. Human studies have demonstrated clear increases in cancer after prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation, and there is suggestive evidence that brain tumors and leukemia are associated with parental exposures to chemicals. Animal experiments have demonstrated increased tumor formation induced by prenatal or neonatal exposure to a variety of chemicals, including direct-acting carcinogens and drugs. Recently, natural estrogens have been classified as known human carcinogens. Prenatal exposure to natural and synthetic estrogens is associated with increases in breast and vaginal tumors in humans as well as uterine tumors in animals. Synthetic halogenated chemicals increase liver tumors after early life-stage exposure. Recently, a prototypical endocrine-disrupting compound, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, has been shown to be a developmental toxicant of the mammary gland in rodents. Dioxin alters multiple endocrine systems, and its effects on the developing breast involve delayed proliferation and differentiation of the mammary gland, as well as an elongation of the window of sensitivity to potential carcinogens. Implications of these new findings suggest that causes of endocrine-related cancers or susceptibility to cancer may be a result of developmental exposures rather than exposures existing at or near the time of tumor detection.

  16. Effects of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on lead bioconcentration and toxicity on thyroid endocrine system and neuronal development in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Miao, Wei; Zhu, Biran; Xiao, Xiaohong; Li, Ying; Dirbaba, Niguse Bekele; Zhou, Bingsheng; Wu, Hongjuan

    2015-04-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted considerable attention because of their wide range of applications. Interactions between heavy metals (e.g., Pb) and NPs in aquatic environments may modify the bioavailability and toxicity of heavy metals. Therefore, this study investigated the influence of NPs (e.g., nano-TiO2) on the bioavailability and toxicity of Pb and its effects in the thyroid endocrine and nervous systems of zebrafish (Danio rerio) larvae. Zebrafish embryos (2-h post-fertilization) were exposed to five concentrations of Pb alone (0, 5, 10, 20, and 30μg/L) or in combination with nano-TiO2 (0.1mg/L) until 6 days post-fertilization. Results showed that the bioconcentration of Pb was significantly enhanced when combined with nano-TiO2 than when used alone. Zebrafish exposure to Pb alone at 30μg/L significantly decreased the thyroid hormone levels (T4 and T3), whereas nano-TiO2 treatment alone did not produce detectable changes. The levels of T4 and T3 were further decreased when Pb was combined with nano-TiO2 than when used alone. The transcription of the thyroid hormone-related factor tg gene was remarkably down-regulated by Pb treatment alone but up-regulated when Pb was combined with nano-TiO2. The significant up-regulation of tshβ gene and the down-regulation of TTR gene expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid were observed in Pb with or without nano-TiO2 treatment groups. In addition, the transcription of genes involved in central nervous system (CNS) development (α-tubulin, mbp, gfap and shha) were significantly down-regulated by Pb and nano-TiO2 co-exposure as compared with Pb exposure alone. The locomotion activity analyzes confirmed that nano-TiO2 might enhance the toxicity of Pb to CNS development. These results suggest that nano-TiO2 increase bioconcentration of lead, which lead to the disruption of thyroid endocrine and neuronal system in zebrafish larvae. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Dual Positive Regulation of Embryo Implantation by Endocrine and Immune Systems--Step-by-Step Maternal Recognition of the Developing Embryo.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Araki, Yoshihiko; Imakawa, Kazuhiko; Saito, Shigeru; Daikoku, Takiko; Shigeta, Minoru; Kanzaki, Hideharu; Mori, Takahide

    2016-03-01

    In humans, HCG secreted from the implanting embryo stimulates progesterone production of the corpus luteum to maintain embryo implantation. Along with this endocrine system, current evidence suggests that the maternal immune system positively contributes to the embryo implantation. In mice, immune cells that have been sensitized with seminal fluid and then the developing embryo induce endometrial differentiation and promote embryo implantation. After hatching, HCG activates regulatory T and B cells through LH/HCG receptors and then stimulates uterine NK cells and monocytes through sugar chain receptors, to promote and maintain pregnancy. In accordance with the above, the intrauterine administration of HCG-treated PBMC was demonstrated to improve implantation rates in women with repeated implantation failures. These findings suggest that the maternal immune system undergoes functional changes by recognizing the developing embryos in a stepwise manner even from a pre-fertilization stage and facilitates embryo implantation in cooperation with the endocrine system.

  18. Effects of un-ionized ammonia on histological, endocrine, and whole organism endpoints in slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus).

    PubMed

    Spencer, P; Pollock, R; Dubé, M

    2008-12-11

    mine effluents hold potential to affect the health of slimy sculpin including acute, chronic, histological and endocrine endpoints.

  19. [Preoperative Management of Patients with Collagen Disease and Endocrine Disease].

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yoshiro

    2015-09-01

    Collagen disease and endocrine disease are frequently associated with systemic organ dysfunctions with a high perioperative morbidity and mortality. The aims of pre-operative management of these patients are to evaluate the extent of the disease process, systemic consequences and side effects of drugs therapy for the disease and to stabilize the symptoms so that the risk of surgery and anesthesia may be minimized.

  20. Endocrine controls of keratin expression.

    PubMed

    Ramot, Yuval; Paus, Ralf; Tiede, Stephan; Zlotogorski, Abraham

    2009-04-01

    Keratins are a family of intermediate filaments that serve various crucial roles in skin physiology. For mammalian skin to function properly, and to produce epidermal and hair keratins that are optimally adapted for their environment, it is critical that keratin gene and protein expression are stringently controlled. Given that the skin is not only targeted by multiple hormones, but also constitutes a veritable peripheral endocrine organ, it is not surprizing that intracutaneous keratin expression is underlined by tight endocrine controls. These controls encompass thyroid hormones, steroid hormones such as glucocorticoids (GCs), retinoic acid (RA) and vitamin D, and several neuroendocrine mediators. Here, we review why a better understanding of the endocrine controls of keratin expression is not only required for an improved insight into normal human skin and hair function, but may also open new therapeutic avenues in a wide range of skin and hair diseases.

  1. Ligand structure-function relationships in the vitamin D endocrine system from the perspective of drug development (including cancer treatment).

    PubMed

    Norman, Anthony W; Mizwicki, Mathew T; Okamura, William H

    2003-01-01

    It has become readily apparent to many scientists and pharmaceutical companies that the vitamin D endocrine system offers a wide array of drug development opportunities. There are already successes, as noted by 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 (Roche, and Abbott) for renal osteodystrophy and osteoporosis and 1alpha(OH)D3 (Leo, Chugai, Teijin) for renal osteodystrophy and (in Japan) osteoporosis, 1alpha,24(OH)2-24-cyclopropyl-D3 (Dovonex) and 1alpha,24(OH)2D3 (Teijin) for psoriasis, and 19-nor-1alpha,25(OH)2D2 (Abbott) for renal osteodystrophy, as well as drugs under active development. Yet there are still many important and challenging drug development frontiers, particularly in the area of cancer treatment and immune system disorders where exploration is only in the initial early stages. In addition, the application of vitamin D-related drugs in neurology and brain pathology should not be overlooked. It is to be hoped that the cellular and molecular basis for the vexing problem of analog-induced hypercalcemia will be elucidated. Given that there are believed to be over 2000 analogs of 1alpha,25(OH)2D3 already available for consideration, it is to be expected that over the next decade a significant number of new vitamin D structure-function drug development projects will be brought to conclusion.

  2. IDENTIFYING ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS BY HIGH-RESOLUTION MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The EPA is currently interested in human and ecosystem exposure to endocrine disruptors (1)-compounds that interfere with endogenous hormone systems. Possible endocrine disruptors in the environment include certain pesticides, industrial by-products, and pharmaceuticals. Such c...

  3. Endocrine-Active Pharmaceuticals: An Environmental Concern?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, there has been growing interest in pharmaceuticals that are specifically designed to have endocrine activity, such as the estrogens used in birth control pills, exerting unintended effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. These pharmaceuticals may not be persistent...

  4. Endocrine-Active Pharmaceuticals: An Environmental Concern?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recently, there has been growing interest in pharmaceuticals that are specifically designed to have endocrine activity, such as the estrogens used in birth control pills, exerting unintended effects on fish and other aquatic organisms. These pharmaceuticals may not be persistent...

  5. Lineage determinants in early endocrine development

    PubMed Central

    Rieck, Sebastian; Bankaitis, Eric D.; Wright, Christopher V.E.

    2013-01-01

    Pancreatic endocrine cells are produced from a dynamic epithelium in a process that, as in any developing organ, is driven by interacting programs of spatiotemporally regulated intercellular signals and autonomous gene regulatory networks. These algorithms work to push progenitors and their transitional intermediates through a series of railroad-station-like switching decisions to regulate flux along specific differentiation tracks. Extensive research on pancreas organogenesis over the last 20 years, greatly spurred by the potential to restore functional β-cell mass in diabetic patients by transplantation therapy, is advancing our knowledge of how endocrine lineage bias is established and allocation is promoted. The field is working towards the goal of generating a detailed blueprint of how heterogeneous cell populations interact and respond to each other, and other influences such as the extracellular matrix, to move into progressively refined and mature cell states. Here, we highlight how signaling codes and transcriptional networks might determine endocrine lineage within a complex and dynamic architecture, based largely on studies in the mouse. The process begins with the designation of multipotent progenitor cells (MPC) to pancreatic buds that subsequently move through a newly proposed period involving epithelial plexus formation-remodeling, and ends with formation of clustered endocrine islets connected to the vascular and peripheral nervous systems. Developing this knowledge base, and increasing the emphasis on direct comparisons between mouse and human, will yield a more complete and focused picture of pancreas development, and thereby inform β-cell-directed differentiation from human embryonic stem or induced pluripotent stem cells (hESC, iPSC). Additionally, a deeper understanding may provide surprising therapeutic angles by defining conditions that allow the controllable reprogramming of endodermal or pancreatic cell populations. PMID:22728667

  6. Endocrine active chemicals and endocrine disruption in Minnesota streams and lakes: implications for aquatic resources, 1994-2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Kathy E.; Schoenfuss, Heiko L.; Barber, Larry B.; Writer, Jeff H.; Blazer, Vicki; Keisling, Richard L.; Ferrey, Mark L.

    2010-01-01

    Although these studies indicate that wastewater-treatment plant effluent is a conduit for endocrine active chemicals to surface waters, endocrine active chemicals also were present in surface waters with no obvious wastewater-treatment plant effluent sources. Endocrine active chemicals were detected and indicators of endocrine disruption in fish were measured at numerous sites upstream from discharge of wastewater-treatment plant effluent. These observations indicate that other unidentified sources of endocrine active chemicals exist, such as runoff from land surfaces, atmospheric deposition, inputs from onsite septic systems, or other groundwater sources. Alternatively, some endocrine active chemicals may not yet have been identified or measured. The presence of biological indicators of endocrine disruption in male fish indicates that the fish are exposed to endocrine active chemicals. However indicators of endocrine disruption in male fish does not indicate an effect on fish reproduction or changes in fish populations.

  7. Personality Traits: Hierarchically Organized Systems.

    PubMed

    Fajkowska, Małgorzata

    2017-03-13

    Personality science has always been and is still ready for new theorizing on traits. Accordingly, this paper presents the recently proposed Traits as Hierarchical Systems (THS) model, where personality traits are not only the emergent properties of the three-level hierarchy of the personality system, but are also hierarchical per se. As hierarchical systems, they are organized into three levels: mechanisms and processes, structures, and behavioral markers. In this approach trait denotes the underlying, recurrent mechanisms that pattern its structure and account for the stability/variability of individual characteristics. Here, traits might be described as processes with a slow rate of change that can be substituted for structure. The main function of personality traits, within the personality system, is stimulation processing. Three dominant functions of stimulation processing in traits are proposed: reactive, regulative, and self-regulative. Some important questions regarding the concept of trait remain, e.g. concerning trait stability, determinacy, measurement, their relation to overt behaviors, personality type or state, differentiation between temperament traits and other-than-temperament personality traits. All of these topics are discussed in this paper, as well as the compatible and distinctive features of this approach in relation to selected, modern trait theories. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Designing Endocrine Disruption Out of the Next Generation of Chemicals

    PubMed Central

    Schug, T.T; Abagyan, R.; Blumberg, B.; Collins, T.J.; Crews, D.; DeFur, P.L.; Dickerson, S.M.; Edwards, T.M.; Gore, A.C.; Guillette, L.J.; Hayes, T.; Heindel, J.J.; Moores, A.; Patisaul, H.B.; Tal, T.L.; Thayer, K.A.; Vandenberg, L.N.; Warner, J.; Watson, C.S.; Saal, F.S. vom; Zoeller, R.T.; O’Brien, K.P.; Myers, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    A central goal of green chemistry is to avoid hazard in the design of new chemicals. This objective is best achieved when information about a chemical’s potential hazardous effects is obtained as early in the design process as feasible. Endocrine disruption is a type of hazard that to date has been inadequately addressed by both industrial and regulatory science. To aid chemists in avoiding this hazard, we propose an endocrine disruption testing protocol for use by chemists in the design of new chemicals. The Tiered Protocol for Endocrine Disruption (TiPED) has been created under the oversight of a scientific advisory committee composed of leading representatives from both green chemistry and the environmental health sciences. TiPED is conceived as a tool for new chemical design, thus it starts with a chemist theoretically at “the drawing board.” It consists of five testing tiers ranging from broad in silico evaluation up through specific cell- and whole organism-based assays. To be effective at detecting endocrine disruption, a testing protocol must be able to measure potential hormone-like or hormone-inhibiting effects of chemicals, as well as the many possible interactions and signaling sequellae such chemicals may have with cell-based receptors. Accordingly, we have designed this protocol to broadly interrogate the endocrine system. The proposed protocol will not detect all possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption, because scientific understanding of these phenomena is advancing rapidly. To ensure that the protocol remains current, we have established a plan for incorporating new assays into the protocol as the science advances. In this paper we present the principles that should guide the science of testing new chemicals for endocrine disruption, as well as principles by which to evaluate individual assays for applicability, and laboratories for reliability. In a ‘proof-of-principle’ test, we ran 6 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that act

  9. Designing Endocrine Disruption Out of the Next Generation of Chemicals.

    PubMed

    Schug, T T; Abagyan, R; Blumberg, B; Collins, T J; Crews, D; DeFur, P L; Dickerson, S M; Edwards, T M; Gore, A C; Guillette, L J; Hayes, T; Heindel, J J; Moores, A; Patisaul, H B; Tal, T L; Thayer, K A; Vandenberg, L N; Warner, J; Watson, C S; Saal, F S Vom; Zoeller, R T; O'Brien, K P; Myers, J P

    2013-01-01

    A central goal of green chemistry is to avoid hazard in the design of new chemicals. This objective is best achieved when information about a chemical's potential hazardous effects is obtained as early in the design process as feasible. Endocrine disruption is a type of hazard that to date has been inadequately addressed by both industrial and regulatory science. To aid chemists in avoiding this hazard, we propose an endocrine disruption testing protocol for use by chemists in the design of new chemicals. The Tiered Protocol for Endocrine Disruption (TiPED) has been created under the oversight of a scientific advisory committee composed of leading representatives from both green chemistry and the environmental health sciences. TiPED is conceived as a tool for new chemical design, thus it starts with a chemist theoretically at "the drawing board." It consists of five testing tiers ranging from broad in silico evaluation up through specific cell- and whole organism-based assays. To be effective at detecting endocrine disruption, a testing protocol must be able to measure potential hormone-like or hormone-inhibiting effects of chemicals, as well as the many possible interactions and signaling sequellae such chemicals may have with cell-based receptors. Accordingly, we have designed this protocol to broadly interrogate the endocrine system. The proposed protocol will not detect all possible mechanisms of endocrine disruption, because scientific understanding of these phenomena is advancing rapidly. To ensure that the protocol remains current, we have established a plan for incorporating new assays into the protocol as the science advances. In this paper we present the principles that should guide the science of testing new chemicals for endocrine disruption, as well as principles by which to evaluate individual assays for applicability, and laboratories for reliability. In a 'proof-of-principle' test, we ran 6 endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) that act via

  10. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors.

  11. Evaluation of a photocatalytic reactor membrane pilot system for the removal of pharmaceuticals and endocrine disrupting compounds from water.

    PubMed

    Benotti, Mark J; Stanford, Benjamin D; Wert, Eric C; Snyder, Shane A

    2009-04-01

    A photocatalytic reactor membrane pilot system, employing UV/TiO(2) photocatalysis, was evaluated for its ability to remove thirty-two pharmaceuticals, endocrine disrupting compounds, and estrogenic activity from water. Concentrations of all compounds decreased following treatment, and removal followed pseudo-first-order kinetics as a function of the amount of treatment. Twenty-nine of the targeted compounds in addition to total estrogenic activity were greater than 70% removed while only three compounds were less than 50% removed following the highest level of treatment (4.24 kW h/m(3)). No estrogenically active transformation products were formed during treatment. Additionally, the unit was operated in photolytic mode (UV only) and photolytic plus H(2)O(2) mode (UV/H(2)O(2)) to determine the relative amount of energy required. Based on the electrical energy per order (EEO), the unit achieved the greatest efficiency when operated in photolytic plus H(2)O(2) mode for the conditions tested.

  12. From the bench to emerging new clinical concepts: Our present understanding of the importance of the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Trémezaygues, Léa; Reichrath, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    It is well accepted that growth and differentiation of keratinocytes and other cell types are regulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)], the active form of vitamin D. Moreover, growing evidence now indicates that the UV-B-mediated cutaneous photosynthesis of vitamin D [and the consecutive cutaneous production of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3))] represents an evolutionary highly-conserved endocrine system that protects the skin against environmental hazards that may promote skin cancerogenesis, including ultraviolet and ionizing radiation. It is the aim of this review to summarize our present understanding of the cutaneous vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) and its importance for the prevention of skin cancerogenesis.

  13. Magnetic porous carbon derived from Co-doped metal-organic frameworks for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of endocrine disrupting chemicals.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lin; Wei, Jiayi; Zheng, Ruixue; Wang, Chun; Wu, Qiuhua; Wang, Zhi

    2017-08-10

    Metal-organic frameworks-5 (MOF-5) was explored as a template to prepare porous carbon due to its high surface area, large pore volume, and permanent nanoscale porosity. Magnetic porous carbon, Co@MOF-5-C, was fabricated by the one-step direct carbonization of Co-doped MOF-5. After carbonization, the magnetic cobalt nanoparticles are well dispersed in the porous carbon matrix, and Co@MOF-5-C displays strong magnetism (with the saturation magnetization intensity of 70.17emu/g), high-specific surface area, and large pore volume. To evaluate its extraction performance, the Co@MOF-5-C was applied as an adsorbent for the magnetic solid-phase extraction of endocrine disrupting chemicals, followed by their analysis with high-performance liquid chromatography. The developed method exhibits a good linear response in the range of 0.5-100 ng/mL for pond water and 1.0-100 ng/mL for juice samples. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) for the analytes were in the range of 0.1-0.2 ng/mL. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Muscle tissue as an endocrine organ: comparative secretome profiling of slow-oxidative and fast-glycolytic rat muscle explants and its variation with exercise.

    PubMed

    Roca-Rivada, Arturo; Al-Massadi, Omar; Castelao, Cecilia; Senín, Lucía L; Alonso, Jana; Seoane, Luisa María; García-Caballero, Tomás; Casanueva, Felipe F; Pardo, María

    2012-09-18

    The notion that skeletal muscle is a secretory organ capable to release proteins that can act locally in an autocrine/paracrine manner or even in an endocrine manner to communicate with distant tissues has now been recognized. Under this context, a new paradigm has arisen implicating the muscle in metabolism regulation. Considering the evidences that give exercise a protective role against illnesses associated to physical inactivity, it becomes of especial relevance to characterize muscle secreted proteins. In the present study we show for the first time the secretome characterization and the comparative 2-DE secretome analysis among fast-glycolytic (gastrocnemius) and slow-oxidative (soleus) rat muscle explants and its variation after exercise intervention. We have identified 19 differently secreted proteins when comparing soleus and gastrocnemius secretomes, and 10 in gastrocnemius and 17 in soleus distinctive secreted proteins after 1 week of endurance exercise training. Among identified proteins, DJ-1 was found to be more abundant in fast-glycolytic fiber secretomes. On the contrary, FABP-3 was elevated in slow-oxidative fiber secretomes, although its secretion from gastrocnemius muscle increased in exercised animals. These and other secreted proteins identified in this work may be considered as potential myokines. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. An endocrine role for brown adipose tissue?

    PubMed

    Villarroya, Joan; Cereijo, Rubén; Villarroya, Francesc

    2013-09-01

    White adipose tissue is recognized as both a site of energy storage and an endocrine organ that produces a myriad of endocrine factors called adipokines. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is the main site of nonshivering thermogenesis in mammals. The amount and activity of brown adipocytes are associated with protection against obesity and associated metabolic alterations. These effects of BAT are traditionally attributed to its capacity for the oxidation of fatty acids and glucose to sustain thermogenesis. However, recent data suggest that the beneficial effects of BAT could involve a previously unrecognized endocrine role through the release of endocrine factors. Several signaling molecules with endocrine properties have been found to be released by brown fat, especially under conditions of thermogenic activation. Moreover, experimental BAT transplantation has been shown to improve glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity mainly by influencing hepatic and cardiac function. It has been proposed that these effects are due to the release of endocrine factors by brown fat, such as insulin-like growth factor I, interleukin-6, or fibroblast growth factor-21. Further research is needed to determine whether brown fat plays an endocrine role and, if so, to comprehensively identify which endocrine factors are released by BAT. Such research may reveal novel clues for the observed association between brown adipocyte activity and a healthy metabolic profile, and it could also enlarge a current view of potential therapeutic tools for obesity and associated metabolic diseases.

  16. A data storage, retrieval and analysis system for endocrine research. [for Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, L. E.; Johnston, D. A.

    1975-01-01

    This retrieval system builds, updates, retrieves, and performs basic statistical analyses on blood, urine, and diet parameters for the M071 and M073 Skylab and Apollo experiments. This system permits data entry from cards to build an indexed sequential file. Programs are easily modified for specialized analyses.

  17. Fetal and Neonatal Endocrine Disruptors

    PubMed Central

    Büyükgebiz, Atilla

    2012-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors are substances commonly encountered in every setting and condition in the modern world. It is virtually impossible to avoid the contact with these chemical compounds in our daily life. Molecules defined as endocrine disruptors constitute an extremely heterogeneous group and include synthetic chemicals used as industrial solvents/lubricants and their by-products. Natural chemicals found in human and animal food (phytoestrogens) also act as endocrine disruptors. Different from adults, children are not exposed only to chemical toxins in the environment but may also be exposed during their intrauterine life. Hundreds of toxic substances, which include neuro-immune and endocrine toxic chemical components that may influence the critical steps of hormonal, neurological and immunological development, may affect the fetus via the placental cord and these substances may be excreted in the meconium. Children and especially newborns are more sensitive to environmental toxins compared to adults. Metabolic pathways are immature, especially in the first months of life. The ability of the newborn to metabolize, detoxify and eliminate many toxins is different from that of the adults. Although exposures occur during fetal or neonatal period, their effects may sometimes be observed in later years. Further studies are needed to clarify the effects of these substances on the endocrine system and to provide evidence for preventive measures. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:22672860

  18. Prediction of Endocrine System Affectation in Fisher 344 Rats by Food Intake Exposed with Malathion, Applying Naïve Bayes Classifier and Genetic Algorithms.

    PubMed

    Mora, Juan David Sandino; Hurtado, Darío Amaya; Sandoval, Olga Lucía Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Reported cases of uncontrolled use of pesticides and its produced effects by direct or indirect exposition, represent a high risk for human health. Therefore, in this paper, it is shown the results of the development and execution of an algorithm that predicts the possible effects in endocrine system in Fisher 344 (F344) rats, occasioned by ingestion of malathion. It was referred to ToxRefDB database in which different case studies in F344 rats exposed to malathion were collected. The experimental data were processed using Naïve Bayes (NB) machine learning classifier, which was subsequently optimized using genetic algorithms (GAs). The model was executed in an application with a graphical user interface programmed in C#. There was a tendency to suffer bigger alterations, increasing levels in the parathyroid gland in dosages between 4 and 5 mg/kg/day, in contrast to the thyroid gland for doses between 739 and 868 mg/kg/day. It was showed a greater resistance for females to contract effects on the endocrine system by the ingestion of malathion. Females were more susceptible to suffer alterations in the pituitary gland with exposure times between 3 and 6 months. The prediction model based on NB classifiers allowed to analyze all the possible combinations of the studied variables and improving its accuracy using GAs. Excepting the pituitary gland, females demonstrated better resistance to contract effects by increasing levels on the rest of endocrine system glands.

  19. Prediction of Endocrine System Affectation in Fisher 344 Rats by Food Intake Exposed with Malathion, Applying Naïve Bayes Classifier and Genetic Algorithms

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Juan David Sandino; Hurtado, Darío Amaya; Sandoval, Olga Lucía Ramos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Reported cases of uncontrolled use of pesticides and its produced effects by direct or indirect exposition, represent a high risk for human health. Therefore, in this paper, it is shown the results of the development and execution of an algorithm that predicts the possible effects in endocrine system in Fisher 344 (F344) rats, occasioned by ingestion of malathion. Methods: It was referred to ToxRefDB database in which different case studies in F344 rats exposed to malathion were collected. The experimental data were processed using Naïve Bayes (NB) machine learning classifier, which was subsequently optimized using genetic algorithms (GAs). The model was executed in an application with a graphical user interface programmed in C#. Results: There was a tendency to suffer bigger alterations, increasing levels in the parathyroid gland in dosages between 4 and 5 mg/kg/day, in contrast to the thyroid gland for doses between 739 and 868 mg/kg/day. It was showed a greater resistance for females to contract effects on the endocrine system by the ingestion of malathion. Females were more susceptible to suffer alterations in the pituitary gland with exposure times between 3 and 6 months. Conclusions: The prediction model based on NB classifiers allowed to analyze all the possible combinations of the studied variables and improving its accuracy using GAs. Excepting the pituitary gland, females demonstrated better resistance to contract effects by increasing levels on the rest of endocrine system glands. PMID:27833725

  20. [Thymus endocrine function and the immune system indices of cancer patients after neutron and gamma therapy].

    PubMed

    Grinevich, Iu A; Martynenko, S V; Baraboĭ, V A; Monich, A Iu; Tolstopiatov, B A; Konovalenko, V F; Protsyk, V S

    1992-01-01

    Patients with head and neck and locomotor system tumors received neutron therapy in the total doses of 4-8 and 12-14 Gy which was followed by a pronounced dose-dependent decrease in the serum thymus factor and total blood-lymphocyte levels. The latter changes were predominantly due to a decrease in the non-T-non-B cell concentration. Following the treatment, a rise in the level of circulating immune complexes and those of IgA and IgG was observed. Changes in the immune system proved less apparent in patients with locomotor system cancer who had been given 20 Gy of gamma-ray radiation.

  1. Endocrine disrupters and menopausal health.

    PubMed

    Holmes, Philip; Rumsby, Paul; Harrison, Paul T C

    2004-06-01

    Chemicals known to disrupt the endocrine system of animal models are assessed for their potential impact on the health of menopausal and postmenopausal women. These "endocrine disrupters" consist of two groups of compounds - man-made and naturally occurring. There is some evidence to suggest that the naturally occurring phytoestrogens, derived from plant material, may have some beneficial effects on menopausal symptoms and the risk of breast cancer, cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis. Further studies are required to confirm these possibilities. Some man-made environmental pollutants appear to increase the risk of breast cancer, although again the evidence is inconclusive. Mechanistic experiments indicate that these chemicals interact with oestrogen receptors and alter metabolism in a number of different ways, some of which may be important in postmenopausal women. Further investigation of the differences in mode of action between the man-made and the natural endocrine disrupters may lead to important insights into their effects on women's health.

  2. Amphibians as model to study endocrine disrupters.

    PubMed

    Kloas, Werner; Lutz, Ilka

    2006-10-13

    Environmental compounds can interfere with endocrine systems of wildlife and humans. These so-called endocrine disrupters (ED) are known to affect reproductive biology and thyroid system. The classical model species for these endocrine systems are amphibians and therefore they can serve as sentinels for detection of the modes of action (MOAs) of ED. Recently, amphibians are being reviewed as suitable models to assess (anti)estrogenic and (anti)androgenic MOAs influencing reproductive biology as well as (anti)thyroidal MOAs interfering with the thyroid system. The development of targeted bioassays in combination with adequate chemical analyses is the prerequisite for a concise risk assessment of ED.

  3. Automated image analysis of intra-tumoral and peripheral endocrine organ vascular bed regression using 'Fibrelength' as a novel structural biomarker.

    PubMed

    Hargreaves, Adam; Bigley, Alison; Price, Shirley; Kendrew, Jane; Barry, Simon T

    2017-02-10

    The study of vascular modulation has received a great deal of attention in recent years as knowledge has increased around the role of angiogenesis within disease contexts such as cancer. Despite rapidly expanding insights into the molecular processes involved and the concomitant generation of a number of anticancer vascular modulating chemotherapeutics, techniques used in the measurement of structural vascular change have advanced more modestly, particularly with regard to the preclinical quantification of off-target vascular regression within systemic, notably endocrine, blood vessels. Such changes translate into a number of major clinical side effects and there remains a need for improved preclinical screening and analysis. Here we present the generation of a novel structural biomarker, which can be incorporated into a number of contemporary image analysis platforms and used to compare tumour versus systemic host tissue vascularity. By contrasting the measurements obtained, the preclinical efficacy of vascular modulating chemotherapies can be evaluated in light of the predicted therapeutic window. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Endocrine links between food reward and caloric homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Lattemann, Dianne Figlewicz

    2008-11-01

    Both intrinsic and extrinsic (endocrine) inputs to the central nervous system (CNS) modulate motivation for feeding. Endocrine inputs such as insulin and leptin can have very rapid effects, but also the potential for chronic actions to decrease rewarding attributes of food. Future studies should elucidate the neural and cellular mechanisms which underlie these endocrine actions in the CNS.

  5. Role of beta2 agonists in respiratory medicine with particular attention to novel patents and effects on endocrine system and immune response.

    PubMed

    Larocca, Nancy E; Moreno, Dolores; Garmendia, Jenny V; De Sanctis, Juan B

    2011-09-01

    Beta adrenergic receptors are very important in respiratory medicine. Traditionally, the stimulation of beta adrenergic receptors by beta2-agonists is commonly used for giving bronchodilation in chronic airflow obstruction However; the wide distribution of these receptors in cells and tissues other than airway smooth muscle suggests that beta agonists should offer other beneficial effects in respiratory disease. Recent studies have shown the importance of these receptors in the modulation of endocrine and immune system that affect respiratory function and may decrease therapy effectiveness in asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. New patented compound and uses have provided new insights in future therapeutics of respiratory diseases in which genetic, endocrine and immune response should be considered.

  6. Endocrine FGFs: Evolution, Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Pharmacotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Itoh, Nobuyuki; Ohta, Hiroya; Konishi, Morichika

    2015-01-01

    The human fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family comprises 22 structurally related polypeptides that play crucial roles in neuronal functions, development, and metabolism. FGFs are classified as intracrine, paracrine, and endocrine FGFs based on their action mechanisms. Paracrine and endocrine FGFs are secreted signaling molecules by acting via cell-surface FGF receptors (FGFRs). Paracrine FGFs require heparan sulfate as a cofactor for FGFRs. In contrast, endocrine FGFs, comprising FGF19, FGF21, and FGF23, require α-Klotho or β-Klotho as a cofactor for FGFRs. Endocrine FGFs, which are specific to vertebrates, lost heparan sulfate-binding affinity and acquired a systemic signaling system with α-Klotho or β-Klotho during early vertebrate evolution. The phenotypes of endocrine FGF knockout mice indicate that they play roles in metabolism including bile acid, energy, and phosphate/active vitamin D metabolism. Accumulated evidence for the involvement of endocrine FGFs in human genetic and metabolic diseases also indicates their pathophysiological roles in metabolic diseases, potential risk factors for metabolic diseases, and useful biomarkers for metabolic diseases. The therapeutic utility of endocrine FGFs is currently being developed. These findings provide new insights into the physiological and pathophysiological roles of endocrine FGFs and potential diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for metabolic diseases. PMID:26483756

  7. Endocrine manifestations of eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Warren, Michelle P

    2011-02-01

    The endocrinopathies associated with eating disorders involve multiple systems and mechanisms designed to preserve energy and protect essential organs. Those systems that are most affected are in need of significant energy, such as the reproductive and skeletal systems. The changes in neuropeptides and in the hypothalamic axis that mediate these changes also receive input from neuroendocrine signals sensitive to satiety and food intake and in turn may be poised to provide significant energy conservation. These adaptive changes are described, including the thyroid, GH, and cortisol axes, as well as the gastrointestinal tract. Articles were found via PubMed search for both original articles and reviews summarizing current understanding of the endocrine changes of eating disorders based on peer review publications on the topic between 1974 and 2009. The signals that control weight and food intake are complex and probably involve multiple pathways that appear to have as a central control the hypothalamus, in particular the medial central area. The hypothalamic dysfunction of eating disorders provides a reversible experiment of nature that gives insight into understanding the role of various neuropeptides signaling nutritional status, feeding behavior, skeletal repair, and reproductive function.

  8. Interaction of the endocrine system with inflammation: a function of energy and volume regulation.

    PubMed

    Straub, Rainer H

    2014-02-13

    During acute systemic infectious disease, precisely regulated release of energy-rich substrates (glucose, free fatty acids, and amino acids) and auxiliary elements such as calcium/phosphorus from storage sites (fat tissue, muscle, liver, and bone) are highly important because these factors are needed by an energy-consuming immune system in a situation with little or no food/water intake (sickness behavior). This positively selected program for short-lived infectious diseases is similarly applied during chronic inflammatory diseases. This review presents the interaction of hormones and inflammation by focusing on energy storage/expenditure and volume regulation. Energy storage hormones are represented by insulin (glucose/lipid storage and growth-related processes), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (muscle and bone growth), androgens (muscle and bone growth), vitamin D (bone growth), and osteocalcin (bone growth, support of insulin, and testosterone). Energy expenditure hormones are represented by cortisol (breakdown of liver glycogen/adipose tissue triglycerides/muscle protein, and gluconeogenesis; water retention), noradrenaline/adrenaline (breakdown of liver glycogen/adipose tissue triglycerides, and gluconeogenesis; water retention), growth hormone (glucogenic, lipolytic; has also growth-related aspects; water retention), thyroid gland hormones (increase metabolic effects of adrenaline/noradrenaline), and angiotensin II (induce insulin resistance and retain water). In chronic inflammatory diseases, a preponderance of energy expenditure pathways is switched on, leading to typical hormonal changes such as insulin/IGF-1 resistance, hypoandrogenemia, hypovitaminosis D, mild hypercortisolemia, and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Though necessary during acute inflammation in the context of systemic infection or trauma, these long-standing changes contribute to increased mortality in chronic

  9. Interaction of the endocrine system with inflammation: a function of energy and volume regulation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    During acute systemic infectious disease, precisely regulated release of energy-rich substrates (glucose, free fatty acids, and amino acids) and auxiliary elements such as calcium/phosphorus from storage sites (fat tissue, muscle, liver, and bone) are highly important because these factors are needed by an energy-consuming immune system in a situation with little or no food/water intake (sickness behavior). This positively selected program for short-lived infectious diseases is similarly applied during chronic inflammatory diseases. This review presents the interaction of hormones and inflammation by focusing on energy storage/expenditure and volume regulation. Energy storage hormones are represented by insulin (glucose/lipid storage and growth-related processes), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) (muscle and bone growth), androgens (muscle and bone growth), vitamin D (bone growth), and osteocalcin (bone growth, support of insulin, and testosterone). Energy expenditure hormones are represented by cortisol (breakdown of liver glycogen/adipose tissue triglycerides/muscle protein, and gluconeogenesis; water retention), noradrenaline/adrenaline (breakdown of liver glycogen/adipose tissue triglycerides, and gluconeogenesis; water retention), growth hormone (glucogenic, lipolytic; has also growth-related aspects; water retention), thyroid gland hormones (increase metabolic effects of adrenaline/noradrenaline), and angiotensin II (induce insulin resistance and retain water). In chronic inflammatory diseases, a preponderance of energy expenditure pathways is switched on, leading to typical hormonal changes such as insulin/IGF-1 resistance, hypoandrogenemia, hypovitaminosis D, mild hypercortisolemia, and increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Though necessary during acute inflammation in the context of systemic infection or trauma, these long-standing changes contribute to increased mortality in chronic

  10. Hypothalamic transcriptional expression of the kisspeptin system and sex steroid receptors differs among polycystic ovary syndrome rat models with different endocrine phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Marcondes, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Carvalho, Kátia Cândido; Giannocco, Gisele; Duarte, Daniele Coelho; Garcia, Natália; Soares-Junior, José Maria; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Maliqueo, Manuel; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Maciel, Gustavo Arantes Rosa

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous endocrine disorder that affects reproductive-age women. The mechanisms underlying the endocrine heterogeneity and neuroendocrinology of polycystic ovary syndrome are still unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of the kisspeptin system and gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse regulators in the hypothalamus as well as factors related to luteinizing hormone secretion in the pituitary of polycystic ovary syndrome rat models induced by testosterone or estradiol. METHODS: A single injection of testosterone propionate (1.25 mg) (n=10) or estradiol benzoate (0.5 mg) (n=10) was administered to female rats at 2 days of age to induce experimental polycystic ovary syndrome. Controls were injected with a vehicle (n=10). Animals were euthanized at 90-94 days of age, and the hypothalamus and pituitary gland were used for gene expression analysis. RESULTS: Rats exposed to testosterone exhibited increased transcriptional expression of the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor-β and reduced expression of kisspeptin in the hypothalamus. However, rats exposed to estradiol did not show any significant changes in hormone levels relative to controls but exhibited hypothalamic downregulation of kisspeptin, tachykinin 3 and estrogen receptor-α genes and upregulation of the gene that encodes the kisspeptin receptor. CONCLUSIONS: Testosterone- and estradiol-exposed rats with different endocrine phenotypes showed differential transcriptional expression of members of the kisspeptin system and sex steroid receptors in the hypothalamus. These differences might account for the different endocrine phenotypes found in testosterone- and estradiol-induced polycystic ovary syndrome rats.

  11. Neuro-Endocrine Networks Controlling Immune System in Health and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Procaccini, Claudio; Pucino, Valentina; De Rosa, Veronica; Marone, Gianni; Matarese, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The nervous and immune systems have long been considered as compartments that perform separate and different functions. However, recent clinical, epidemiological, and experimental data have suggested that the pathogenesis of several immune-mediated disorders, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), might involve factors, hormones, and neural mediators that link the immune and nervous system. These molecules are members of the same superfamily, which allow the mutual and bi-directional neural–immune interaction. More recently, the discovery of leptin, one of the most abundant adipocyte-derived hormones that control food intake and metabolism, has suggested that nutritional/metabolic status, acting at central level, can control immune self-tolerance, since it promotes experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of MS. Here, we summarize the most recent advances and the key players linking the central nervous system, immune tolerance, and the metabolic status. Understanding this coordinated interaction may pave the way for novel therapeutic approaches to increase host defense and suppress immune-mediated disorders. PMID:24778633

  12. Biological Significance of GPCR Heteromerization in the Neuro-Endocrine System

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Maud; Jockers, Ralf

    2010-01-01

    Clustering of proteins in higher order complexes is a common theme in biology and profoundly influences protein function. The idea that seven-transmembrane spanning G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) might form dimers or higher order oligomeric complexes has been formulated more than 20 years ago. Since then, this phenomenon has been investigated with many different biochemical and biophysical techniques. The more recent notion of GPCR heteromerization describes the specific association of two different GPCRs. GPCR heteromerization may be of primary importance in neuroendocrinology, as this may explain at least some of the functional crosstalks described between different hormonal systems. Importantly, many GPCR heteromers have distinct functional properties compared to their corresponding homomers. Heteromer-specific pharmacological profiles might be exploited for drug design and open new therapeutic options. GPCR heteromerization has been first studied in heterologous expression systems. Today, increasing evidence for the existence of GPCR heteromers in endogenous systems is emerging providing crucial evidence for the physiological function of GPCR heteromerization. PMID:22649357

  13. The menace of endocrine disruptors on thyroid hormone physiology and their impact on intrauterine development.

    PubMed

    Mastorakos, George; Karoutsou, Eftychia I; Mizamtsidi, Maria; Creatsas, George

    2007-06-01

    The delivery of the appropriate thyroid hormones quantity to target tissues in euthyroidism is the result of unopposed synthesis, transport, metabolism, and excretion of these hormones. Thyroid hormones homeostasis depends on the maintenance of the circulating 'free' thyroid hormone reserves and on the development of a dynamic balance between the 'free' hormones reserves and those of the 'bound' hormones with the transport proteins. Disturbance of this hormone system, which is in constant interaction with other hormone systems, leads to an adaptational counter-response targeting to re-establish a new homeostatic equilibrium. An excessive disturbance is likely to result, however, in hypo- or hyper- thyroid clinical states. Endocrine disruptors are chemical substances forming part of 'natural' contaminating agents found in most ecosystems. There is abundant evidence that several key components of the thyroid hormones homeostasis are susceptible to the action of endocrine disruptors. These chemicals include some chlorinated organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, herbicides, and pharmaceutical agents. Intrauterine exposure to endocrine disruptors that either mimic or antagonize thyroid hormones can produce permanent developmental disorders in the structure and functioning of the brain, leading to behavioral changes. Steroid receptors are important determinants of the consequences of endocrine disruptors. Their interaction with thyroid hormones complicates the effect of endocrine disruptors. The aim of this review is to present the effect of endocrine disruptors on thyroid hormones physiology and their potential impact on intrauterine development.

  14. Students' Understandings of Human Organs and Organ Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2001-01-01

    Discusses students' understandings of their own internal structure. Analysis shows the extent to which student understanding increases with age and the degree to which students know more about some organs and organ systems than others. Gender differences in the drawings were generally not large and there were some intriguing differences in the…

  15. Students' Understandings of Human Organs and Organ Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiss, Michael J.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2001-01-01

    Discusses students' understandings of their own internal structure. Analysis shows the extent to which student understanding increases with age and the degree to which students know more about some organs and organ systems than others. Gender differences in the drawings were generally not large and there were some intriguing differences in the…

  16. Vitamin D endocrine system and the immune response in rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Cutolo, Maurizio; Plebani, M; Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Adorini, Luciano; Tincani, Angela

    2011-01-01

    Epidemiological evidence indicates a significant association between vitamin D deficiency and an increased incidence of autoimmune diseases. The presence of vitamin D receptors (VDRs) in the cells of the immune system and the fact that several of these cells produce the vitamin D hormone suggested that vitamin D could have immunoregulatory properties, and now potent immunomodulatory activities on dendritic cells, Th1 and Th17 cells, as well as B cells have been confirmed. Serum levels of vitamin D have been found to be significantly lower in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, undifferentiated connective tissue disease, and type-1 diabetes mellitus than in the healthy population. In addition, it was also found that lower levels of vitamin D were associated with higher disease activity in rheumatoid arthritis. Promising clinical results together with evidence for the regulation of multiple immunomodulatory mechanisms by VDR agonists represent a sound basis for further exploration of their potential in the treatment of rheumatic autoimmune disorders. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. GATA factors in endocrine neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Pihlajoki, Marjut; Färkkilä, Anniina; Soini, Tea; Heikinheimo, Markku; Wilson, David B.

    2015-01-01

    GATA transcription factors are structurally-related zinc finger proteins that recognize the consensus DNA sequence WGATAA (the GATA motif), an essential cis-acting element in the promoters and enhancers of many genes. These transcription factors regulate cell fate specification and differentiation in a wide array of tissues. As demonstrated by genetic analyses of mice and humans, GATA factors play pivotal roles in the development, homeostasis, and function of several endocrine organs including the adrenal cortex, ovary, pancreas, parathyroid, pituitary, and testis. Additionally, GATA factors have been shown to be mutated, overexpressed, or underexpressed in a variety of endocrine tumors (e.g., adrenocortical neoplasms, parathyroid tumors, pituitary adenomas, and sex cord stromal tumors). Emerging evidence suggests that GATA factors play a direct role in the initiation, proliferation, or propagation of certain endocrine tumors via modulation of key developmental signaling pathways implicated in oncogenesis, such as the WNT/β-catenin and TGFβ pathways. Altered expression or function of GATA factors can also affect the metabolism, ploidy, and invasiveness of tumor cells. This article provides an overview of the role of GATA factors in endocrine neoplasms. Relevant animal models are highlighted. PMID:26027919

  18. Review of the biological effects of weightlessness on the human endocrine system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes-Fulford, M.

    1993-01-01

    Studies from space flights over the past two decades have demonstrated that there are basic physiological changes in humans during space flight. These changes include cephalad fluid shifts, loss of fluid and electrolytes, loss of muscle mass, space motion sickness, anemia, reduced immune response, and loss of calcium and mineralized bone. The cause of most of these manifestations is not known but the general approach has been to investigate systemic and hormonal changes. However, data from the 1973-1974 Skylabs, Spacelab 3 (SL-3), Spacelab D-I (SL-DI), and now the new SLS-1 missions support a more basic biological response to microgravity that may occur at the tissue, cellular, and molecular level. This report summarizes ground-based and SLS-1 experiments that examined the mechanism of loss of red blood cell mass in humans, the loss of bone mass and lowered osteoblast growth under space flight conditions, and loss of immune function in microgravity.

  19. Aging of the mammalian gastrointestinal tract: a complex organ system.

    PubMed

    Saffrey, M Jill

    2014-06-01

    Gastrointestinal disorders are a major cause of morbidity in the elderly population. The gastrointestinal tract is the most complex organ system; its diverse cells perform a range of functions essential to life, not only secretion, digestion, absorption and excretion, but also, very importantly, defence. The gastrointestinal tract acts not only as a barrier to harmful materials and pathogens but also contains the vast number of beneficial bacterial populations that make up the microbiota. Communication between the cells of the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous and endocrine systems modifies behaviour; the organisms of the microbiota also contribute to this brain-gut-enteric microbiota axis. Age-related physiological changes in the gut are not only common, but also variable, and likely to be influenced by external factors as well as intrinsic aging of the cells involved. The cellular and molecular changes exhibited by the aging gut cells also vary. Aging intestinal smooth muscle cells exhibit a number of changes in the signalling pathways that regulate contraction. There is some evidence for age-associated degeneration of neurons and glia of the enteric nervous system, although enteric neuronal losses are likely not to be nearly as extensive as previously believed. Aging enteric neurons have been shown to exhibit a senescence-associated phenotype. Epithelial stem cells exhibit increased mitochondrial mutation in aging that affects their progeny in the mucosal epithelium. Changes to the microbiota and intestinal immune system during aging are likely to contribute to wider aging of the organism and are increasingly important areas of analysis. How changes of the different cell types of the gut during aging affect the numerous cellular interactions that are essential for normal gut functions will be important areas for future aging research.

  20. Endocrine and metabolic emergencies: thyroid storm

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Richard; Matfin, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Thyrotoxicosis is a common endocrine condition that may be secondary to a number of underlying processes. Thyroid storm (also known as thyroid or thyrotoxic crisis) represents the severe end of the spectrum of thyrotoxicosis and is characterized by compromised organ function. Whilst rare in the modern era, the mortality rate remains high, and prompt consideration of this endocrine emergency, with specific treatments, can improve outcomes. PMID:23148158

  1. Vitamin D endocrine system and psoriasis vulgaris--review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rucević, Ivana; Barisić-Drusko, Vladimira; Glavas-Obrovac, Ljubica; Stefanić, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Vitamin D exerts its physiological functions on calcium and bone metabolism in humans through the active metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3(1,25(OH)2D3). The other spectrum of vitamin D activities includes important effects on cellular proliferation, differentiation and the immune system. These effects are mediated through the intracellularly located vitamin D receptor (VDR). VDR is a member of the steroid, estrogen and retinoid receptor gene family of proteins that mediate transcriptional activities of the respective ligands. The VDR complex binds in the nucleus to the vitamin D responsive element on the gene. Several polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene have been described including FokI in exon 2, BsmI and ApaI in intron 8 and TaqI in exon 9. Alterations in vitamin D-1,25 (OH)2D3 levels and polymorphisms of VDR gene have been shown to be associated with several malignant or autoimmune diseases such as sclerosis multiplex, breast cancer, diabetes mellitus, malignant melanoma, and psoriasis vulgaris. The effects of VDR gene polymorphisms including immunomodulation, stimulation of cellular differentiation and inhibition of proliferation make it a possible candidate for therapy of psoriasis as well as for the psoriasis gene modification. The objective of this article is to present the state-of-the-art in the VDR gene polymorphism research in psoriasis vulgaris.

  2. Expression of RYamide in the nervous and endocrine system of Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Roller, Ladislav; Čižmár, Daniel; Bednár, Branislav; Žitňan, Dušan

    2016-06-01

    RYamides are neuropeptides encoded by a gene whose precise expression and function have not yet been determined. We identified the RYamide gene transcript (fmgV1g15f, SilkBase database) and predicted two candidates for G-protein coupled RYamide receptors (A19-BAG68418 and A22-BAG68421) in the silkworm Bombyx mori. We cloned the RYamide transcript and described its spatial expression using in situ hybridisation. In the larval central nervous system (CNS) expression of RYamide was restricted to 12-14 small neurons in the brain and two posterior neurons in the terminal abdominal ganglion. During metamorphosis their number decreased to eight protocerebral neurons in the adults. Multiple staining, using various insect neuropeptide antibodies, revealed that neurons expressing RYamide are different from other peptidergic cells in the CNS. We also found RYamide expression in the enteroendocrine cells (EC) of the anterior midgut of larvae, pupae and adults. Two minor subpopulations of these EC were also immunoreactive to antibodies against tachykinin and myosupressin. This expression pattern suggests RYamides may play a role in the regulation of feeding and digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Performance of metal-organic framework MIL-101 after surfactant modification in the extraction of endocrine disrupting chemicals from environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhenzhen; Lee, Hian Kee

    2015-10-01

    The research presented in this paper explored the modification and application of a metal-organic framework, MIL-101, with nonionic surfactant-Triton X-114 in dispersive solid-phase extraction for the preconcentration of four endocrine disrupting chemicals (estrone, 17α-ethynylestradiol, estriol and diethylstilbestrol) from environmental water samples. Triton X-114 molecules could be adsorbed by the hydrophobic surface of the MIL-101 crystals, and thus improved the dispersibility of MIL-101 in aqueous solution by serving as a hydrophilic coating. Cloud point phase separation from Triton X-114 accelerated the separation of extracts from the aqueous matrix. The proposed method combines the favorable attributes of strong adsorption capacity resulting from the porous structure of MIL-101 and self-assembly of Triton X-114 molecules. Post-extraction derivatization using N-methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide was employed to facilitate the quantitative determination of the extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main factors affecting the preparation of modified MIL-101, and extraction of the analytes, such as the amount of surfactant, the ultrasonic and vortex durations, solution pH and desorption conditions, were investigated in detail. Under the optimized conditions, the present method yielded low limits of detection (0.006-0.023 ng/mL), good linearity from 0.09 to 45 ng/mL (coefficients of determination higher than 0.9980) and acceptable precision (relative standard deviations of 2.2-13%). The surface modified MIL-101 was demonstrated to be effective for the extraction of the selected estrogens from aqueous samples, giving rise to markedly improved extraction performance compared to the unmodified MIL-101. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dechlorination of endocrine disrupting chemicals using Mg 0/ZnCl 2 bimetallic system.

    PubMed

    Begum, Asfiya; Gautam, Sumit Kumar

    2011-03-01

    In the present study, Mg 0/ZnCl 2 bimetallic system was evaluated for its efficiency to dechlorinate endosulfan and lindane in aqueous phase. Presence of acetone in the reaction mixture played an important role by increasing the solubilities of both pesticides and thereby accelerating its mass transfer. Water acetone ratio of 2:1 and 1:1 (v/v) was found optimum for the dechlorination of endosulfan and lindane respectively. Presence of H+ ions in the reaction mixture (50 μl ml(-1) of glacial acetic acid) accelerated the degradation efficiency of 30 ppm initial concentration of endosulfan (96% removal) and lindane (98% removal) at Mg 0/ZnCl 2 dose of 5/1 mg ml(-1) within 30 min of reaction. Dechlorination kinetics for endosulfan and lindane (10, 30 and 50 ppm initial concentration of each pesticide) with varying Mg 0/ZnCl 2 doses and the time course profiles of each pesticide were well fitted into the first order dechlorination reaction. The optimum observed rate constant (k(obs)') values for endosulfan (0.2168, 0.1209 and 0.1614 min(-1) for 10, 30 and 50 ppm initial concentration respectively) and lindane (0.1746, 0.1968 and 0.2253 min(-1) for 10, 30 and 50 ppm initial concentration respectively) dechlorination were obtained when the reactions were conducted with doses of 7.5/1 mg ml(-1) and 5/1 mg ml(-1) Mg 0/ZnCl 2 respectively. Endosulfan and lindane were completely dechlorinated into their hydrocarbon skeletons namely, Bicyclo [2,2,1] hepta 2-5 diene and Benzene respectively as revealed by GCMS analysis. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Is nitrate an ecologically relevant endocrine disruptor in vertebrates?

    PubMed

    Guillette, Louis J; Edwards, Thea M

    2005-01-01

    The last three decades have brought clear recognition that many populations of animals are experiencing severe declines or local and global extinctions. Many examples have become common knowledge to the general public, such as worldwide declines in amphibian populations and extensive loss of coral reefs. The mechanisms underlying these and other changes are poorly understood. However, a growing literature indicates that a wide array of chemical contaminants have the potential to disrupt normal cell-to-cell signaling mechanisms. A global pollutant of most aquatic systems, nitrate has the potential to be an endocrine disrupting contaminant. This paper reviews studies performed on vertebrates demonstrating that nitrate and/or nitrite have the potential to alter endocrine function. Further, a retrospective study of our work on alligators from various lakes in Florida suggests that nitrate could contribute to some of the altered endocrine parameters previously reported in juvenile animals. We propose hypotheses suggesting that nitrate could alter steroidogenesis by 1) conversion to nitrite and nitric oxide in the mitochondria, the site of initial steroid synthesis, 2) altering Cl(-) ion concentrations in the cell by substituting for Cl(-) in the membrane transport pump or 3) binding to the heme region of various P450 enzymes associated with steroidogenesis and altering enzymatic action. Future studies are needed to examine the endocrine disruptive action of this ubiquitous pollutant. A growing literature indicates that all biologists studying natural systems, whether they choose to or not, must now consider contaminant exposure as a direct influence on their studies. That is, ubiquitous global contamination has the potential to alter the endocrine, nervous and immune systems of all organisms with resulting changes in gene expression and phenotypes.

  6. The eye as a window to rare endocrine disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chopra, Rupali; Chander, Ashish; Jacob, Jubbin J.

    2012-01-01

    The human eye, as an organ, can offer critical clues to the diagnosis of various systemic illnesses. Ocular changes are common in various endocrine disorders such as diabetes mellitus and Graves’ disease. However there exist a large number of lesser known endocrine disorders where ocular involvement is significant. Awareness of these associations is the first step in the diagnosis and management of these complex patients. The rare syndromes involving the pituitary hypothalamic axis with significant ocular involvement include Septo-optic dysplasia, Kallman's syndrome, and Empty Sella syndrome all affecting the optic nerve at the optic chiasa. The syndromes involving the thyroid and parathyroid glands that have ocular manifestations and are rare include Mc Cune Albright syndrome wherein optic nerve decompression may occur due to fibrous dysplasia, primary hyperparathyroidism that may present as red eye due to scleritis and Ascher syndrome wherein ptosis occurs. Allgrove's syndrome, Cushing's disease, and Addison's disease are the rare endocrine syndromes discussed involving the adrenals and eye. Ocular involvement is also seen in gonadal syndromes such as Bardet Biedl, Turner's, Rothmund's, and Klinefelter's syndrome. This review also highlights the ocular manifestation of miscellaneous syndromes such as Werner's, Cockayne's, Wolfram's, Kearns Sayre's, and Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome. The knowledge of these relatively uncommon endocrine disorders and their ocular manifestations will help an endocrinologist reach a diagnosis and will alert an ophthalmologist to seek specialty consultation of an endocrinologist when encountered with such cases. PMID:22629495

  7. Adrenocortical endocrine disruption.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Philip W

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal has been neglected in endocrine disruption regulatory testing strategy. The adrenal is a vital organ, adrenocortical insufficiency is recognised in life threatening "adrenal crises" and Addison's disease, and the consequences of off-target toxicological inhibition of adrenocortical steroidogenesis is well recognised in clinical medicine, where drugs such as aminoglutethimide and etomidate killed patients via unrecognised inhibition of adrenocortical steroidogenic enzymes (e.g. CYP11B1) along the cortisol and aldosterone pathways. The consequences of adrenocortical dysfunction during early development are also recognised in the congenital salt wasting and adrenogenital syndromes presenting neonatally, yet despite a remit to focus on developmental and reproductive toxicity mechanisms of endocrine disruption by many regulatory agencies (USEPA EDSTAC; REACH) the assessment of adrenocortical function has largely been ignored. Further, every step in the adrenocortical steroidogenic pathway (ACTH receptor, StAR, CYP's 11A1, 17, 21, 11B1, 11B2, and 3-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase Δ4,5 isomerase) is known to be a potential target with multiple examples of chemicals inhibiting these targets. Many of these chemicals have been detected in human and wildlife tissues. This raises the question of whether exposure to low level environmental chemicals may be affecting adrenocortical function. This review examines the omission of adrenocortical testing in the current regulatory frameworks; the characteristics that make the adrenal cortex particularly vulnerable to toxic insult; chemicals and their toxicological targets within the adrenocortical steroidogenic pathways; the typical manifestations of adrenocortical toxicity (e.g. human iatrogenically induced pharmacotoxicological adrenal insufficiency, manifestations in typical mammalian regulatory general toxicology studies, manifestations in wildlife) and models of adrenocortical functional assessment. The utility of the

  8. Ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, T H; Brown, R; Brugger, K E; Campbell, P M; Holt, M; Länge, R; McCahon, P; Tattersfield, L J; van Egmond, R

    2000-01-01

    The European Centre for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals proposes a tiered approach for the ecological risk assessment of endocrine disruptors, integrating exposure and hazard (effects) characterization. Exposure assessment for endocrine disruptors should direct specific tests for wildlife species, placing hazard data into a risk assessment context. Supplementing the suite of mammalian screens now under Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) validation, high priority should be given to developing a fish screening assay for detecting endocrine activity in oviparous species. Taking into account both exposure characterization and alerts from endocrine screening, higher tier tests are also a priority for defining adverse effects. We propose that in vivo mammalian and fish assays provide a comprehensive screening battery for diverse hormonal functions (including androgen, estrogen, and thyroid hormone), whereas Amphibia should be considered at higher tiers if there are exposure concerns. Higher tier endocrine-disruptor testing should include fish development and fish reproduction tests, whereas a full life-cycle test could be subsequently used to refine aquatic risk assessments when necessary. For avian risk assessment, the new OECD Japanese quail reproduction test guideline provides a valuable basis for developing a test to detecting endocrine-mediated reproductive effects; this species could be used, where necessary, for an avian life-cycle test. For aquatic and terrestrial invertebrates, data from existing developmental and reproductive tests remain of high value for ecological risk assessment. High priority should be given to research into comparative endocrine physiology of invertebrates to support data extrapolation to this diverse fauna. PMID:11102288

  9. [Postpartum endocrine syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ducarme, G; Châtel, P; Luton, D

    2008-05-01

    Postpartum endocrine syndromes occur in the year after delivery. They are due to immunologic and vascular modifications during pregnancy. The Sheehan syndrome is the first described postpartum endocrine syndrome and consists on a hypophyse necrosis in relation with a hypovolemic shock during delivery. The immunologic consequences of the pregnancy are the most frequent, sometimes discrete and transitory. The physiological evolution of the endocrine glands during pregnancy and the most frequent post-partum endocrine syndromes are discussed: postpartum lymphocytic hypophysitis, thyroiditis and Sheehan' syndrome.

  10. WORK ORGANIZATIONS AS DYNAMIC SYSTEMS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A theory of organizational functioning which is conducive to the generating of action implications is described. Data from 24 organizations are used to examine the relationship of organizational climate to managerial behavior. (Author)

  11. Autonomous Organization-Based Adaptive Information Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    intentional Multi - agent System (MAS) approach [10]. While these approaches are functional AIS systems, they lack the ability to reorganize and adapt...extended a multi - agent system with a self- reorganizing architecture to create an autonomous, adaptive information system. Design Our organization-based...goals. An advantage of a multi - agent system using the organization theoretic model is its extensibility. The practical, numerical limits to the

  12. Fish endocrine disruption responses to a major wastewater treatment facility upgrade.

    PubMed

    Barber, Larry B; Vajda, Alan M; Douville, Chris; Norris, David O; Writer, Jeffery H

    2012-02-21

    The urban-water cycle modifies natural stream hydrology, and domestic and commercial activities increase the burden of endocrine-disrupting chemicals, such as steroidal hormones and 4-nonylphenol, that can disrupt endocrine system function in aquatic organisms. This paper presents a series of integrated chemical and biological investigations into the occurrence, fate, and effects of endocrine-disrupting chemicals in the City of Boulder Colorado's WWTF and Boulder Creek, the receiving stream. Results are presented showing the effects of a full-scale upgrade of the WWTF (that treats 0.6 m(3) s(-1) of sewage) from a trickling filter/solids contact process to an activated sludge process on the removal of endocrine-disrupting compounds and other contaminants (including nutrients, boron, bismuth, gadolinium, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) through each major treatment unit. Corresponding impacts of pre- and postupgrade effluent chemistry on fish reproductive end points were evaluated using on-site, continuous-flow experiments, in which male fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed for 28 days to upstream Boulder Creek water and WWTF effluent under controlled conditions. The upgrade of the WWTF resulted in improved removal efficiency for many endocrine-disrupting chemicals, particularly 17β-estradiol and estrone, and fish exposed to the postupgrade effluent indicated reduction in endocrine disruption relative to preupgrade conditions.

  13. A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION, WITH COMMENTS ON THE US EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have witnessed a growing concern for chemicals that have the potential to adversely affect the normal functioning of the endocrine system. The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) of the World Health Organization has recently reviewed the curren...

  14. A GLOBAL PERSPECTIVE ON ENDOCRINE DISRUPTION, WITH COMMENTS ON THE US EXPERIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The last two decades have witnessed a growing concern for chemicals that have the potential to adversely affect the normal functioning of the endocrine system. The International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS) of the World Health Organization has recently reviewed the curren...

  15. Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a ubiquitous issue of concern in our aquatic systems. Commonly detected EDCs include natural and synthetic hormones, surfactants, plasticizers, disinfectants, herbicides and metals. The potency of these chemicals varies substantially, as ...

  16. Pheochromocytoma: an endocrine stress mimicking disorder.

    PubMed

    Kantorovich, Vitaly; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Pacak, Karel

    2008-12-01

    A pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor that can uniquely mimic numerous stress-associated disorders, with variations in clinical manifestations resulting from different patterns of catecholamine secretion and actions of released catecholamines on physiological systems.

  17. PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA: AN ENDOCRINE STRESS MIMICKING DISORDER

    PubMed Central

    Kantorovich, Vitaly; Eisenhofer, Graeme; Pacak, Karel

    2008-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is an endocrine tumor that can uniquely mimic numerous stress-associated disorders, with variations in clinical manifestations resulting from different patterns of catecholamine secretion and actions of released catecholamines on physiological systems. PMID:19120142

  18. Endocrine-Disrupting Compounds in Aquatic Ecosystems.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are a ubiquitous issue of concern in our aquatic systems. Commonly detected EDCs include natural and synthetic hormones, surfactants, plasticizers, disinfectants, herbicides and metals. The potency of these chemicals varies substantially, as ...

  19. Endocrine System (For Teens)

    MedlinePlus

    ... en español El sistema endocrino Ever dozed through chemistry class and wondered what chemistry had to do with you? A lot! Your ... the rate at which cells burn fuels from food to produce energy. The production and release of ...

  20. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals and male reproductive health.

    PubMed

    Knez, Jure

    2013-05-01

    Endocrine-disrupting chemicals are substances present in the environment that can interfere with normal hormonal balance and thus exert potentially adverse health effects on the human organism. Male reproductive system development and function may be susceptible to the effects of such environmental toxicants. Bisphenol A, phthalates and alkylphenols are important components of multiple products and are thus ubiquitously present in the environment. It has been demonstrated under laboratory conditions that they can exert detrimental effects on the male reproductive system. However, human exposure data are scarce and do not uniformly support toxicity of these substances at environmental concentrations. Despite substantial research efforts, the final answer to the problem of endocrine-disrupting chemicals is not yet in sight. Copyright © 2013 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Adrenomedullin and endocrine disorders.

    PubMed

    Letizia, C; Rossi, G; Cerci, S

    2003-12-01

    Adrenomedullin (AM) is a recently discovered potent vasodilatory peptide, originally isolated in extracts of human pheochromocytoma, with activities including maintenance of cardiovascular and renal homeostasis through vasodilatation, diuresis and natriuresis. Human AM consists of 52 amino acids with a 6-member ring structure linked by a disulfide bond and amidated COOH terminal, which belongs to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and amylin. The main sites of AM production are the lungs, vascular tissues (both endothelial and smooth muscle cells), heart, kidney, adrenal glands, pancreatic islets, placenta, anterior pituitary gland and gastrointestinal neuroendocrine system. Intravenous injection of AM increases blood flow predominantly in the tissues with the highest AM expression, suggesting that AM functions primarily as a paracrine/autocrine hormone, but it is also important as circulating hormone. The objective of this review is to analyze the evidence that AM may play a role in some endocrine disorders.

  2. Systemic Therapies for Nonmetastatic Breast Cancer: The Role of Neoadjuvant and Adjuvant Chemotherapy and the Use of Endocrine Therapy.

    PubMed

    Bychkovsky, Brittany L; Dizon, Don S; Sikov, William M

    2016-12-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogenous disease, comprised of at least 3 major subtypes: hormone receptor-positive/HER2-(HR+), HER2+, and HR-/HER2-(triple negative) breast cancers. The medical management of each subype is distinct. In this article, we review contemporary data supporting the use of chemotherapy, endocrine therapy and biologic therapies, especially HER2-directed agents, in the adjuvant and neoadjuvant setting in patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic (stage I-III) breast cancer.

  3. Organ system heterogeneity DB: a database for the visualization of phenotypes at the organ system level.

    PubMed

    Mannil, Deepthi; Vogt, Ingo; Prinz, Jeanette; Campillos, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Perturbations of mammalian organisms including diseases, drug treatments and gene perturbations in mice affect organ systems differently. Some perturbations impair relatively few organ systems while others lead to highly heterogeneous or systemic effects. Organ System Heterogeneity DB (http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/Organ_System_Heterogeneity/) provides information on the phenotypic effects of 4865 human diseases, 1667 drugs and 5361 genetically modified mouse models on 26 different organ systems. Disease symptoms, drug side effects and mouse phenotypes are mapped to the System Organ Class (SOC) level of the Medical Dictionary of Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). Then, the organ system heterogeneity value, a measurement of the systemic impact of a perturbation, is calculated from the relative frequency of phenotypic features across all SOCs. For perturbations of interest, the database displays the distribution of phenotypic effects across organ systems along with the heterogeneity value and the distance between organ system distributions. In this way, it allows, in an easy and comprehensible fashion, the comparison of the phenotypic organ system distributions of diseases, drugs and their corresponding genetically modified mouse models of associated disease genes and drug targets. The Organ System Heterogeneity DB is thus a platform for the visualization and comparison of organ system level phenotypic effects of drugs, diseases and genes.

  4. Organ system heterogeneity DB: a database for the visualization of phenotypes at the organ system level

    PubMed Central

    Mannil, Deepthi; Vogt, Ingo; Prinz, Jeanette; Campillos, Monica

    2015-01-01

    Perturbations of mammalian organisms including diseases, drug treatments and gene perturbations in mice affect organ systems differently. Some perturbations impair relatively few organ systems while others lead to highly heterogeneous or systemic effects. Organ System Heterogeneity DB (http://mips.helmholtz-muenchen.de/Organ_System_Heterogeneity/) provides information on the phenotypic effects of 4865 human diseases, 1667 drugs and 5361 genetically modified mouse models on 26 different organ systems. Disease symptoms, drug side effects and mouse phenotypes are mapped to the System Organ Class (SOC) level of the Medical Dictionary of Regulatory Activities (MedDRA). Then, the organ system heterogeneity value, a measurement of the systemic impact of a perturbation, is calculated from the relative frequency of phenotypic features across all SOCs. For perturbations of interest, the database displays the distribution of phenotypic effects across organ systems along with the heterogeneity value and the distance between organ system distributions. In this way, it allows, in an easy and comprehensible fashion, the comparison of the phenotypic organ system distributions of diseases, drugs and their corresponding genetically modified mouse models of associated disease genes and drug targets. The Organ System Heterogeneity DB is thus a platform for the visualization and comparison of organ system level phenotypic effects of drugs, diseases and genes. PMID:25313158

  5. Assessment of thyroid endocrine system impairment and oxidative stress mediated by cobalt ferrite (CoFe2 O4 ) nanoparticles in zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Farooq; Liu, Xiaoyi; Zhou, Ying; Yao, Hongzhou; Zhao, Fangfang; Ling, Zhaoxing; Xu, Chao

    2016-12-01

    Fascinating super paramagnetic uniqueness of iron oxide particles at nano-scale level make them extremely useful in the state of the art therapies, equipments, and techniques. Cobalt ferrite (CoFe2 O4 ) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are extensively used in nano-based medicine and electronics, results in extensive discharge and accumulation into the environment. However, very limited information is available for their endocrine disrupting potential in aquatic organisms. In this study, the thyroid endocrine disrupting ability of CoFe2 O4 NPs in Zebrafish larvae for 168-h post fertilization (hpf) was evaluated. The results showed the elevated amounts of T4 and T3 hormones by malformation of hypothalamus pituitary axis in zebrafish larvae. These elevated levels of whole body THs leads to delayed hatching, head and eye malformation, arrested development, and alterations in metabolism. The influence of THs disruption on ROS production and change in activities of catalase (CAT), mu-glutathione s-transferase (mu-GST), and acid phosphatase (AP) were also studied. The production of significantly higher amounts of in vivo generation of ROS leads to membrane damage and oxidative stress. Presences of NPs and NPs agglomerates/aggregates were also the contributing factors in mechanical damaging the membranes and physiological structure of thyroid axis. The increased activities of CAT, mu-GST, and AP confirmed the increased oxidative stress, possible DNA, and metabolic alterations, respectively. The excessive production of in vivo ROS leads to severe apoptosis in head, eye, and heart region confirming that malformation leads to malfunctioning of hypothalamus pituitary axis. ROS-induced oxidative DNA damage by formation of 8-OHdG DNA adducts elaborates the genotoxicity potential of CoFe2 O4 NPs. This study will help us to better understand the risk and assessment of endocrine disrupting potential of nanoparticles. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 2068-2080, 2016

  6. Circadian clock control of endocrine factors.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Karen L; Berry, Ryan; Frank, Stuart J; Young, Martin E

    2014-08-01

    Organisms experience dramatic fluctuations in demands and stresses over the course of the day. In order to maintain biological processes within physiological boundaries, mechanisms have evolved for anticipation of, and adaptation to, these daily fluctuations. Endocrine factors have an integral role in homeostasis. Not only do circulating levels of various endocrine factors oscillate over the 24 h period, but so too does responsiveness of target tissues to these signals or stimuli. Emerging evidence suggests that these daily endocrine oscillations do not occur solely in response to behavioural fluctuations associated with sleep-wake and feeding-fasting cycles, but are orchestrated by an intrinsic timekeeping mechanism known as the circadian clock. Disruption of circadian clocks by genetic and/or environmental factors seems to precipitate numerous common disorders, including the metabolic syndrome and cancer. Collectively, these observations suggest that strategies designed to realign normal circadian rhythmicities hold potential for the treatment of various endocrine-related disorders.

  7. Challenge and perspective: the relevance of ultraviolet (UV) radiation and the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for psoriasis and other inflammatory skin diseases.

    PubMed

    Reichrath, Jörg; Saternus, Roman; Vogt, Thomas

    2017-03-16

    During evolution, the ability of many organisms to synthesize vitamin D photochemically represented, and still represents, a major driving factor for the development of life on earth. In humans because not more than 10-20% of the requirement of vitamin D can be satisfied by the diet (under most living conditions in the US and Europe), the remaining 80-90% need to be photochemically synthesized in the skin through the action of solar or artificial ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation. The skin is a key organ of the human body's vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), representing both the site of vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites. Human keratinocytes contain the enzymatic machinery (CYP27B1) for the synthesis of the biologically most active natural vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), representing an autonomous vitamin D3 pathway. Cutaneous production of 1,25(OH)2D3 may mediate intracrine, autocrine and paracrine effects on keratinocytes and on neighboring cells. Many skin cells (including keratinocytes, sebocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, macrophages and other skin immune cells) express the vitamin D receptor (VDR), an absolute pre-requisite for exerting genomic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and analogs. The VDR is a member of the superfamily of trans-acting transcriptional regulatory factors, which also contains the steroid and thyroid hormone receptors as well as the retinoid-X receptors (RXR) and retinoic acid receptors (RAR). A large body of evidence, including cDNA microarray analyses of mRNAs, indicates that as many as 500-1000 genes may be controlled by VDR ligands that regulate a broad variety of cellular functions including growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Clinical and laboratory investigations, including the observation that 1,25(OH)2D3 is very effective in inducing the terminal differentiation and in inhibiting the proliferation of cultured human keratinocytes have resulted in the use of 1

  8. Targeting the vitamin D endocrine system (VDES) for the management of inflammatory and malignant skin diseases: An historical view and outlook.

    PubMed

    Reichrath, Jörg; Zouboulis, Christos C; Vogt, Thomas; Holick, Michael F

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin D represents one of the major driving factors for the development of life on earth and for human evolution. While up to 10-20 % of the human organism's requirements in vitamin D can be obtained by the diet (under most living conditions in the USA and Europe), approximately 90 % of all needed vitamin D has to be photosynthesized in the skin through the action of the sun (ultraviolet-B (UV-B)). The skin represents a key organ of the human body's vitamin D endocrine system (VDES), being both the site of vitamin D synthesis and a target tissue for biologically active vitamin D metabolites. It was shown that human keratinocytes possess the enzymatic machinery (CYP27B1) for the synthesis of the biologically most active natural vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), representing an autonomous vitamin D3 pathway. Cutaneous production of 1,25(OH)2D3 may exert intracrine, autocrine, and paracrine effects on keratinocytes and on neighboring cells. Many skin cells (including keratinocytes, sebocytes, fibroblasts, melanocytes, and skin immune cells) express the vitamin D receptor (VDR), an absolute pre-requisite for the mediation of genomic effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 and analogs. VDR belongs to the superfamily of trans-acting transcriptional regulatory factors, which includes the steroid and thyroid hormone receptors as well as the retinoid X receptors (RXR) and retinoic acid receptors (RAR). Numerous studies, including cDNA microarray analyses of messenger RNAs (mRNAs), indicate that as many as 500-1000 genes may be regulated by VDR ligands that control various cellular functions including growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. The observation that 1,25(OH)2D3 is extremely effective in inducing the terminal differentiation and in inhibiting the proliferation of cultured human keratinocytes has resulted in the use of vitamin D analogs for the treatment of psoriasis. This review gives an historical view and summarizes our present knowledge about the

  9. The endocrine quiz.

    PubMed

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P; Nagesh, V Sri

    2014-05-01

    With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject.

  10. Pediatric endocrine surgery.

    PubMed

    Telander, R L; Zimmerman, D; Kaufman, B H; van Heerden, J A

    1985-12-01

    The pediatric surgeon is in a unique position to understand endocrine surgery and, therefore, is expected to develop considerable expertise in this area. In recent years numerous advances and changes have occurred in pediatric endocrine surgery that have led to greater understanding of the disease processes and syndromes and the development of new diagnostic techniques and surgical approaches.

  11. The endocrine quiz

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Baruah, Manash P.; Nagesh, V. Sri

    2014-01-01

    With the recent explosion in endocrine conferences, audience fatigue has set in and conference planners are now looking at newer pedagogic methods to revive the interest of audiences in these conferences. The endocrine quiz has finally come of vogue and is increasingly becoming one of the most popular attractions of any ranking endocrine conference. The endocrine quiz has a large and varied palette and draws questions from religious scriptures, history, literature, current affairs, sports, movies and basic and paramedical sciences. The more we delve into the quizzable aspects of endocrinology, the more we realize that endocrinology is ubiquitous and there is no sphere in human life untouched by endocrine disorders. Be it epic characters like Kumbhakarna and Bheema, fiction characters like Tintin or Orphan Annie, sportspersons like Gail Devers or heads of state like George Bush Sr and Boris Yeltsin, all have contributed to the melting pot of endocrine quizzing. Adding further grist to the endocrine mill are the Nobel prizes, with their attendant anecdotes and controversies. Step into this world of endocrine quizzing to have an up close and personal look at the diverse facets of this subject. PMID:24944922

  12. Immune-endocrine interactions in marsupials and monotremes.

    PubMed

    Peel, E; Belov, K

    2017-01-27

    Interactions between the immune and endocrine systems are not well studied in marsupials and monotremes. One exception to this is the phenomenon of semelparity, which is well covered in the literature as this is an unusual reproductive strategy amongst mammals and is only observed in some dasyurid and didelphid marsupials. Thymus involution provides a direct link between the endocrine and immune systems and warrants further study in marsupials and monotremes. The thymus is a primary immune tissue which is essential for overall immune function. Whilst the organ is large in juvenile animals, it begins to involute around puberty due to the suppressive effects of sex steroids. Thymus involution has a significant effect on the immune system, as it signals the onset of immune aging and decline in function. The output of naïve T lymphocytes by the thymus decreases, increasing susceptibility of aged individuals to infection and cancers. Understanding the links between the immune and endocrine system in marsupials and monotremes may shed light on diseases such as devil facial tumour disease (DFTD) which threatens the future of the Tasmanian devil. We hypothesise that changes in sex hormones around puberty may drive changes in the immune system, such as thymus involution, which may make devils more susceptible to DFTD as they age. In addition, the Schwann cell origin of DFTD may enable tumours to respond to sex hormones, as occurs in similar cancers in humans.

  13. Endocrine disorders & female infertility.

    PubMed

    Unuane, David; Tournaye, Herman; Velkeniers, Brigitte; Poppe, Kris

    2011-12-01

    Female infertility occurs in about 37% of all infertile couples and ovulatory disorders account for more than half of these. The ovaries are in continuous interaction with the other endocrine organs. The interplay may account for infertility occurring at different levels and may render the diagnosis of infertility a difficult exercise for the involved physician. A hypothalamic cause of female infertility should be considered in an appropriate clinical context, with tests pointing to a hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. It can be functional, physiological or related to organic causes. Hyperprolactinemia has well characterized effects on the normal gonadal function and treatment is well established. Acromegaly and Cushing's disease may impair fertility at different levels, mechanisms involved however remain ill defined. Thyroid disorders, both hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism, can interact with the ovaries, through a direct effect on ovarian function, but autoimmunity may be involved, as well as alterations of the sex hormone binding protein levels. Primary ovarian disorders, such as the polycystic ovary syndrome and primary ovarian insufficiency are frequent diseases, for which novel treatments are currently being developed and discussed. We will propose an algorithm for the diagnosis and approach of the female patient presenting with infertility on the basis of the available evidence in literature.

  14. Endocrine-related adverse events associated with immune checkpoint blockade and expert insights on their management.

    PubMed

    Sznol, Mario; Postow, Michael A; Davies, Marianne J; Pavlick, Anna C; Plimack, Elizabeth R; Shaheen, Montaser; Veloski, Colleen; Robert, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    Agents that modulate immune checkpoint proteins, such as cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) and programmed death receptor-1 (PD-1), have become a mainstay in cancer treatment. The clinical benefit afforded by immune checkpoint inhibitors can be accompanied by immune-related adverse events (irAE) that affect the skin, gastrointestinal tract, liver, and endocrine system. The types of irAEs associated with immune checkpoint inhibitors are generally consistent across tumor types. Immune-related endocrine events can affect the pituitary, thyroid, and adrenal glands, as well as other downstream target organs. These events are unique when compared with other irAEs because the manifestations are often irreversible. Immune-related endocrine events are typically grade 1/2 in severity and often present with non-specific symptoms, making them difficult to diagnose. The mechanisms underlying immune-related target organ damage in select individuals remain mostly undefined. Management includes close patient monitoring, appropriate laboratory testing for endocrine function, replacement of hormones, and consultation with an endocrinologist when appropriate. An awareness of the symptoms and management of immune-related endocrine events may aid in the safe and appropriate use of immune checkpoint inhibitors in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Socioeconomic conditions across life related to multiple measures of the endocrine system in older adults: Longitudinal findings from a British birth cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel; Lashen, Hany; Keevil, Brian; Wu, Frederick C.W.; Holly, Jeff M.P.; Ong, Ken K.; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kuh, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about how socioeconomic position (SEP) across life impacts on different axes of the endocrine system which are thought to underlie the ageing process and its adverse consequences. We examined how indicators of SEP across life related to multiple markers of the endocrine system in late midlife, and hypothesized that lower SEP across life would be associated with an adverse hormone profile across multiple axes. Methods Data were from a British cohort study of 875 men and 905 women followed since their birth in March 1946 with circulating free testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) measured at both 53 and 60–64 years, and evening cortisol at 60–64 years. Indicators of SEP were ascertained prospectively across life—paternal occupational class at 4, highest educational attainment at 26, household occupational class at 53, and household income at 60–64 years. Associations between SEP and hormones were investigated using multiple regression and logistic regression models. Results Lower SEP was associated with lower free testosterone among men, higher free testosterone among women, and lower IGF-I and higher evening cortisol in both sexes. For example, the mean standardised difference in IGF-I comparing the lowest with the highest educational attainment at 26 years (slope index of inequality) was −0.4 in men (95% CI -0.7 to −0.2) and −0.4 in women (−0.6 to −0.2). Associations with each hormone differed by SEP indicator used and sex, and were particularly pronounced when using a composite adverse hormone score. For example, the odds of having 1 additional adverse hormone concentration in the lowest compared with highest education level were 3.7 (95% CI: 2.1, 6.3) among men, and 1.6 (1.0, 2.7) among women (P (sex interaction) = 0.02). We found no evidence that SEP was related to apparent age-related declines in free testosterone or IGF-I. Conclusions Lower SEP was associated with an adverse hormone profile

  16. Socioeconomic conditions across life related to multiple measures of the endocrine system in older adults: Longitudinal findings from a British birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Bann, David; Hardy, Rebecca; Cooper, Rachel; Lashen, Hany; Keevil, Brian; Wu, Frederick C W; Holly, Jeff M P; Ong, Ken K; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Kuh, Diana

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about how socioeconomic position (SEP) across life impacts on different axes of the endocrine system which are thought to underlie the ageing process and its adverse consequences. We examined how indicators of SEP across life related to multiple markers of the endocrine system in late midlife, and hypothesized that lower SEP across life would be associated with an adverse hormone profile across multiple axes. Data were from a British cohort study of 875 men and 905 women followed since their birth in March 1946 with circulating free testosterone and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) measured at both 53 and 60-64 years, and evening cortisol at 60-64 years. Indicators of SEP were ascertained prospectively across life-paternal occupational class at 4, highest educational attainment at 26, household occupational class at 53, and household income at 60-64 years. Associations between SEP and hormones were investigated using multiple regression and logistic regression models. Lower SEP was associated with lower free testosterone among men, higher free testosterone among women, and lower IGF-I and higher evening cortisol in both sexes. For example, the mean standardised difference in IGF-I comparing the lowest with the highest educational attainment at 26 years (slope index of inequality) was -0.4 in men (95% CI -0.7 to -0.2) and -0.4 in women (-0.6 to -0.2). Associations with each hormone differed by SEP indicator used and sex, and were particularly pronounced when using a composite adverse hormone score. For example, the odds of having 1 additional adverse hormone concentration in the lowest compared with highest education level were 3.7 (95% CI: 2.1, 6.3) among men, and 1.6 (1.0, 2.7) among women (P (sex interaction) = 0.02). We found no evidence that SEP was related to apparent age-related declines in free testosterone or IGF-I. Lower SEP was associated with an adverse hormone profile across multiple endocrine axes. SEP differences in endocrine

  17. Review of endocrine disorders associated with environmental toxicants and possible involved mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Maqbool, Faheem; Mostafalou, Sara; Bahadar, Haji; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-01-15

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDC) are released into environment from different sources. They are mainly used in packaging industries, pesticides and food constituents. Clinical evidence, experimental models, and epidemiological studies suggest that EDC have major risks for human by targeting different organs and systems in the body. Multiple mechanisms are involved in targeting the normal system, through estrogen receptors, nuclear receptors and steroidal receptors activation. In this review, different methods by which xenobiotics stimulate signaling pathways and genetic mutation or DNA methylation have been discussed. These methods help to understand the results of xenobiotic action on the endocrine system. Endocrine disturbances in the human body result in breast cancer, ovarian problems, thyroid eruptions, testicular carcinoma, Alzheimer disease, schizophrenia, nerve damage and obesity. EDC characterize a wide class of compounds such as organochlorinated pesticides, industrial wastes, plastics and plasticizers, fuels and numerous other elements that exist in the environment or are in high use during daily life. The interactions and mechanism of toxicity in relation to human general health problems, especially endocrine disturbances with particular reference to reproductive problems, diabetes, and breast, testicular and ovarian cancers should be deeply investigated. There should also be a focus on public awareness of these EDC risks and their use in routine life. Therefore, the aim of this review is to summarize all evidence regarding different physiological disruptions in the body and possible involved mechanisms, to prove the association between endocrine disruptions and human diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Criteria for malignancy in gastrointestinal endocrine tumors.

    PubMed

    Bordi, Cesare; D'Adda, Tiziana; Azzoni, Cinzia; Pizzi, Silvia; Bottarelli, Lorena; Mormandi, Francesca; Antonetti, Tommaso; Luong, Tu Vinh; Rindi, Guido

    2006-01-01

    In contrast with the large amount of data generated from endocrine tumors of the pancreas, sparse and mostly unconfirmed data are available on the criteria for the assessment of malignancy risk and patient outcome in endocrine tumors of the gastrointestinal tract. In these conditions the 2000 WHO classification with its standardized scheme of pathologic report constitutes a framework facilitating the assessment of tumor malignancy and has been regarded as useful for clinical purposes, providing the basis for proper management of the patients and for the design of treatment protocols. The classification is based on a combination of pathological and clinical features with parameters specific for each organ in which the endocrine tumors originate. Three main categories, one further subdivided into two subgroups, are considered: (1) well-differentiated endocrine tumors, further subdivided into tumors with benign and with uncertain behavior; (2) well-differentiated endocrine carcinomas, low grade; and (3) poorly differentiated endocrine carcinomas, high grade. In this review the differential tumor characteristics between the different categories are summarized. Moreover, the relevance of additional features with respect to tumor prognostication, chiefly the Ki-67 proliferation index and malignancy-associated genetic changes, is discussed with emphasis on the discrepancies emerging between tumors of foregut and of midgut origin.

  19. Temporal changes of the adrenal endocrine system in a restraint stressed mouse and possibility of postmortem indicators of prolonged psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Takahito; Ikematsu, Kazuya; Abe, Yuki; Ihama, Yoko; Ago, Kazutoshi; Ago, Mihoko; Miyazaki, Tetsuji; Ogata, Mamoru

    2014-07-01

    We investigated temporal changes of adrenal endocrine systems through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) and sympathetic-adrenomedullary (SA) axis in restraint stressed mice. Restraint stress for 1 day to 3 weeks caused a significant increase in serum levels of ACTH and glucocorticoids accompanied with an increase in adrenal weights, indicating activation of the HPA axis. Reflecting the overproduction of glucocorticoids, adrenal cholesterol content decreased. Moreover, adrenal gene expression involved in cholesterol supply, including scavenger receptor-class B type I, HMG-CoA reductase, and hormone-sensitive lipase, was increased over the same period. After 4 weeks stress, all of these changes returned to control levels. In contrast, adrenal gene expression of chromogranin A, which is cosecreted with catecholamine via the SA axis, was increased with 1 day to 2 weeks of stress, and decreased with 3-4 weeks of stress. Our results suggest that analyses of adrenal endocrine systems based on the combination of several markers examined here would be useful for not only proving prolonged psychological stress experience but also determining its duration. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Ascl1b and Neurod1, instead of Neurog3, control pancreatic endocrine cell fate in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background NEUROG3 is a key regulator of pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation in mouse, essential for the generation of all mature hormone producing cells. It is repressed by Notch signaling that prevents pancreatic cell differentiation by maintaining precursors in an undifferentiated state. Results We show that, in zebrafish, neurog3 is not expressed in the pancreas and null neurog3 mutant embryos do not display any apparent endocrine defects. The control of endocrine cell fate is instead fulfilled by two basic helix-loop-helix factors, Ascl1b and Neurod1, that are both repressed by Notch signaling. ascl1b is transiently expressed in the mid-trunk endoderm just after gastrulation and is required for the generation of the first pancreatic endocrine precursor cells. Neurod1 is expressed afterwards in the pancreatic anlagen and pursues the endocrine cell differentiation program initiated by Ascl1b. Their complementary role in endocrine differentiation of the dorsal bud is demonstrated by the loss of all hormone-secreting cells following their simultaneous inactivation. This defect is due to a blockage of the initiation of endocrine cell differentiation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that NEUROG3 is not the unique pancreatic endocrine cell fate determinant in vertebrates. A general survey of endocrine cell fate determinants in the whole digestive system among vertebrates indicates that they all belong to the ARP/ASCL family but not necessarily to the Neurog3 subfamily. The identity of the ARP/ASCL factor involved depends not only on the organ but also on the species. One could, therefore, consider differentiating stem cells into insulin-producing cells without the involvement of NEUROG3 but via another ARP/ASCL factor. PMID:23835295

  1. Ascl1b and Neurod1, instead of Neurog3, control pancreatic endocrine cell fate in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Flasse, Lydie C; Pirson, Justine L; Stern, David G; Von Berg, Virginie; Manfroid, Isabelle; Peers, Bernard; Voz, Marianne L

    2013-07-08

    NEUROG3 is a key regulator of pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation in mouse, essential for the generation of all mature hormone producing cells. It is repressed by Notch signaling that prevents pancreatic cell differentiation by maintaining precursors in an undifferentiated state. We show that, in zebrafish, neurog3 is not expressed in the pancreas and null neurog3 mutant embryos do not display any apparent endocrine defects. The control of endocrine cell fate is instead fulfilled by two basic helix-loop-helix factors, Ascl1b and Neurod1, that are both repressed by Notch signaling. ascl1b is transiently expressed in the mid-trunk endoderm just after gastrulation and is required for the generation of the first pancreatic endocrine precursor cells. Neurod1 is expressed afterwards in the pancreatic anlagen and pursues the endocrine cell differentiation program initiated by Ascl1b. Their complementary role in endocrine differentiation of the dorsal bud is demonstrated by the loss of all hormone-secreting cells following their simultaneous inactivation. This defect is due to a blockage of the initiation of endocrine cell differentiation. This study demonstrates that NEUROG3 is not the unique pancreatic endocrine cell fate determinant in vertebrates. A general survey of endocrine cell fate determinants in the whole digestive system among vertebrates indicates that they all belong to the ARP/ASCL family but not necessarily to the Neurog3 subfamily. The identity of the ARP/ASCL factor involved depends not only on the organ but also on the species. One could, therefore, consider differentiating stem cells into insulin-producing cells without the involvement of NEUROG3 but via another ARP/ASCL factor.

  2. Male endocrine dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Hotaling, James M; Patel, Zamip

    2014-02-01

    Evaluation for endocrine function is a pivotal part of the male infertility workup. Endocrine dysfunction may result from endogenous and exogenous sources. This article describes the traditional roles that the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal endocrine axis plays in spermatogenesis and testicular dysfunction, as well as other insults that may contribute to hypospermatogenesis. Recent research into the role alternative hormonal axes play in spermatogenesis and promising new technologies that may correct inborn or acquired endocrinopathies leading to impaired sperm growth and maturation are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Investigations of the Effects of Synthetic Chemicals on the Endocrine System of Common Carp in Lake Mead, Nevada and Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosen, Michael R.; Goodbred, Steven L.; Patiño, Reynaldo; Leiker, Thomas A.; Orsak, Erik

    2006-01-01

    in Las Vegas Wash and Bay environments include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (including DDT and DDE), and 'emerging contaminants' such as fragrances/musks, flame retardants, triclosan and its breakdown products, personal care products, and pharmaceuticals (Bevans and others, 1996; Boyd and Furlong, 2002; Leiker and others, in press). Many of these compounds are able to interact with the endocrine system of animals and potentially cause reproductive impacts. The National Park Service (NPS) manages Lake Mead National Recreation Area (LMNRA) with about 8 million yearly visitors including 500,000 anglers drawn to its world-class recreational fishery. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (FWS) provides management for the federally designated, endangered razorback sucker (Xyrauchen texanus) and for more than 180 species of migratory birds that utilize LMNRA surface waters. These multiple uses of surface water in the area demonstrate their vital importance to the LMNRA as well as the need to maintain the quality of water at levels that are adequate for these uses.

  4. Toxicogenomic approach to endocrine disrupters: identification of a transcript profile characteristic of chemicals with estrogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Naciff, Jorge M; Daston, George P

    2004-01-01

    Public concerns have been raised in recent years over the possible adverse effects that may result from exposure to chemicals in the environment that have the potential to interfere with the normal function of the endocrine system in wildlife and humans ("endocrine disrupters"). Regulations have been established that require the testing of pesticides used in food crops and drinking water contaminants, for estrogenicity and other hormonal activities. In the United States, the U.S. EPA proposed the Endocrine Disrupter Screening Program, which consists of a Tier 1 screening battery of tests that is designed to identify chemicals capable of interacting with various hormonal systems, and different Tier 2 testing assays that are designed to verify and broaden the Tier 1 results. We identify 2 main problems with this approach: (1) the fact that the developmental stages that are the most susceptible to endocrine disruption are not represented in the screening tier, mainly because developmental effects tend to be latent, and there is no way to economically screen in developing models; and (2) the expense to screen each chemical to be included in this program. Thus, the need arises for an accurate, rapid, and cost effective method for assessing the potential endocrine activity of multiple chemicals during development. We hypothesize that the largely latent developmental effects of some endocrine disruptors are preceded by immediate changes in gene expression in the embryo and fetus. Therefore, an approach to assess the potential estrogenic (and other steroid hormonal) activity of different compounds is to identify those patterns of gene expression elicited in a tissue/organ exposed to these particular classes of chemicals. In this paper, the potential utility of such an approach for screening and better understanding of mechanism of action for specific chemicals with endocrine disrupter activities is presented, using as an example chemicals with estrogenic activity.

  5. [Diabetes and prediabetes in endocrine disorders].

    PubMed

    Krysiak, Robert; Rudzki, Henryk; Okopień, Bogusław

    2012-01-01

    Complex hormonal regulation of carbohydrate metabolism causes that presence of many endocrine disorders may disturb glucose homeostasis. Impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance and frank diabetes are observed in patients with both common and rare endocrine disorders, particularly in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome, hyperthyroidism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, primary aldosteronism, acromegaly, growth hormone deficiency and endocrine tumors of the digestive system. Because most of these disorders may be effectively treated and the treatment often results in a restoration of normal insulin secretion and receptor action as well as glucose absorption, production and metabolism, it is important to differentiate these disorders from other more common types of diabetes. This article reviews the etiology, clinical manifestation, diagnosis and management of endocrine disorders leading to diabetes and prediabetic states with special emphasis on the pathogenesis and clinical consequences of these disorders.

  6. Endocrine disruption in aquatic insects: a review.

    PubMed

    Soin, Thomas; Smagghe, Guy

    2007-02-01

    There is mounting evidence that a wide variety of compounds can have endocrine disrupting effects on humans and wildlife. However, investigations so far have focused primarily on exposure to human and other vertebrates, with invertebrate findings largely restricted to marine mollusks or to the ecdysteroid and juvenile hormone agonists as purposely synthesized endocrine disrupters for the pest management of insects. This article provides a brief description of the insect hormone system, a short sum-up of the relevant insect groups with aquatic life stages, and an overview of the additional evidence for endocrine disruption in aquatic insects from laboratory and field studies since 1999. In addition, the suitability of insects as sentinels for endocrine disrupting chemicals in aquatic ecosystems is discussed. Conclusions are drawn and research needs are defined.

  7. Students' Understandings of Human Organs and Organ Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reiss, Michael J.; Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale

    2001-06-01

    How do people develop their understanding of what is inside them? This study looks at students' understandings of their internal structure. A cross-sectional approach was used involving a total of 158 students in England from six different age groups (ranging from four year old students to first year undergraduates). Students were given a blank piece of A4-sized paper and asked to draw what they thought was inside themselves. Repeated inspections of the completed drawings allowed us to construct a seven point scale of these representations. Our analysis shows the extent to which student understanding increases with age and the degree to which students know more about some organs and organ systems than others. While gender differences in the drawings were generally not large there were some intriguing differences in the ways males and females drew reproductive organs.

  8. Enzyme stability in systems with organic solvents.

    PubMed

    Gladilin, A K; Levashov, A V

    1998-03-01

    This review deals with enzyme stability in organic solvent systems. Based on the current state of the problem, catalytic activity is chosen as the main tool for testing enzyme stability. Various enzyme properties being regarded as their "stability" at present, a classification of the types of enzyme stability most often discussed in the literature is put forward. Aggregation state of the biocatalytic system formed a basis for the analysis of enzyme stability in organic solvent systems. Regularities of enzyme function in homogeneous solutions in water--organic co-solvent mixtures and suspensions in practically anhydrous solvents are discussed, kinetic data being analyzed in parallel to results of structural studies. Based on the elaborated regularities, up-to-date methods for enzyme stabilization in organic solvent systems are considered.

  9. Why Data Systems in Nonprofit Organizations Fail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzlinger, Regina

    1977-01-01

    Analyzes the managerial shortcomings of nonprofit organizations and offers some remedies for improving their information systems and then using the data generated to produce better funding procedures and more effective training for top managers. (Author/JG)

  10. Microchannel systems for fine organic synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makarshin, L. L.; Pai, Z. P.; Parmon, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    Characteristic features of application of microchannel systems in organic synthesis are analyzed. The advantages of such systems over conventional chemical engineering equipment, especially for small-scale processes that require fast implementation in industry to obtain small quantities of the product, are shown. Particular examples of successful use of microchannel reactors for various types of organic synthesis are given, primary attention being devoted to the design features of microchannel reactors. The bibliography includes 118 references.

  11. Contraceptive steroid effects on nonreproductive organ systems.

    PubMed

    Corson, S L

    1986-09-01

    Oral contraceptives affect many organ systems in addition to the reproductive tract. In some cases the alteration is just a clinical laboratory test result value; in others it represents a true alteration in metabolism, with the induction of increased enzyme activity. Even with the markedly reduced steroid content of today's oral contraceptives, the practitioner must continue to be aware of these potential and real effects on nonreproductive organ systems.

  12. Endocrine Drugs in Aircrew

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    stresses. common endocrine diseases are diabetes mellitus, thyrotoxicosis, hypothyroidism, nodular goiter , The human adrenal consists of an outer cortex...about 40% goiter or thyroid carcinoma. of patients with primary hypothyroidism. Insulin requirements in diabetics are frequently increased in

  13. [Endocrine disruptors and reproductive health].

    PubMed

    Colacurci, N; De Franciscis, P

    2010-01-01

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are dangerous chemicals widely used daily and spread in the environment and able to impair male and female fertility by interfering with the endocrine regulation of reproductive system. Many epidemiological studies showed the role of the EDs in the pathogenesis of reproductive pathologies such as infertility, recurrent abortions, malformations and endometriosis. Personal data show a significant correlation between phthalates and bisphenols and endometriosis. Further studies are needed to assess a clear relationship between environmental exposure to ED and reproductive pathologies and to find exposure's markers for environmental pollutants in biological fluids with the aim to have useful instruments for monitoring and preserving the reproductive health of women at risk of occupational/environmental exposure to ED.

  14. Potency matters: thresholds govern endocrine activity.

    PubMed

    Borgert, Christopher J; Baker, Stephen P; Matthews, John C

    2013-10-01

    Whether thresholds exist for endocrine active substances and for endocrine disrupting effects of exogenous chemicals has been posed as a question for regulatory policy by the European Union. This question arises from a concern that the endocrine system is too complex to allow estimations of safe levels of exposure to any chemical with potential endocrine activity, and a belief that any such chemical can augment, retard, or disrupt the normal background activity of endogenous hormones. However, vital signaling functions of the endocrine system require it to continuously discriminate the biological information conveyed by potent endogenous hormones from a more concentrated background of structurally similar, endogenous molecules with low hormonal potential. This obligatory ability to discriminate important hormonal signals from background noise can be used to define thresholds for induction of hormonal effects, without which normal physiological functions would be impossible. From such thresholds, safe levels of exposure can be estimated. This brief review highlights how the fundamental principles governing hormonal effects - affinity, efficacy, potency, and mass action - dictate the existence of thresholds and why these principles also define the potential that exogenous chemicals might have to interfere with normal endocrine functioning.

  15. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases.

    PubMed

    Lencu, Codruţa; Alexescu, Teodora; Petrulea, Mirela; Lencu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary - cortical, and involuntary - metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthyroidism, patients develop ventilation disorders, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and pleural collection. The respiratory abnormalities in hyperthyroidism as a result of the hypermetabolic action of thyroid hormones are hyperventilation, myopathy and cardiovascular involvement; recent studies have reported pulmonary arterial hypertension in Graves' disease, as a result of the association of several mechanisms. Thyroid hypertrophy can induce through compression of the upper airways dyspnea, stridor, wheezing and cough. The respiratory disorders in acromegaly are ventilatory dysfunction and sleep apnea, which contribute to an unfavorable evolution of the disease. Respiratory changes in parathyroid, adrenal and reproductive system diseases have been described. Respiratory disorders should be recognized, investigated and monitored by medical practitioners of various specialties (family physicians, internists, endocrinologists, pneumologists, cardiologists). They are frequently severe, causing an unfavorable evolution of the associated endocrine and respiratory disease.

  16. Respiratory manifestations in endocrine diseases

    PubMed Central

    LENCU, CODRUŢA; ALEXESCU, TEODORA; PETRULEA, MIRELA; LENCU, MONICA

    2016-01-01

    The control mechanisms of respiration as a vital function are complex: voluntary – cortical, and involuntary – metabolic, neural, emotional and endocrine. Hormones and hypothalamic neuropeptides (that act as neurotrasmitters and neuromodulators in the central nervous system) play a role in the regulation of respiration and in bronchopulmonary morphology. This article presents respiratory manifestations in adult endocrine diseases that evolve with hormone deficit or hypersecretion. In hyperthyroidism, patients develop ventilation disorders, obstructive and central sleep apnea, and pleural collection. The respiratory abnormalities in hyperthyroidism as a result of the hypermetabolic action of thyroid hormones are hyperventilation, myopathy and cardiovascular involvement; recent studies have reported pulmonary arterial hypertension in Graves’ disease, as a result of the association of several mechanisms. Thyroid hypertrophy can induce through compression of the upper airways dyspnea, stridor, wheezing and cough. The respiratory disorders in acromegaly are ventilatory dysfunction and sleep apnea, which contribute to an unfavorable evolution of the disease. Respiratory changes in parathyroid, adrenal and reproductive system diseases have been described. Respiratory disorders should be recognized, investigated and monitored by medical practitioners of various specialties (family physicians, internists, endocrinologists, pneumologists, cardiologists). They are frequently severe, causing an unfavorable evolution of the associated endocrine and respiratory disease. PMID:27857512

  17. Pesticide- and sex steroid analogue-induced endocrine disruption differentially targets hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal system during gametogenesis in teleosts - A review.

    PubMed

    Senthilkumaran, Balasubramanian

    2015-08-01

    Pesticide-induced endocrine disruption often mimics sex steroidal action resulting in physiological functional disarray of hypothalamo-hypophyseal-gonadal (HHG) system at multiple levels. Among various group of pesticides, organochlorine and organophosphate family of pesticides are known to impart sex steroidal mimicking activity with slightly higher resemblance to estrogens when compared to androgenic action. This review will highlight the effects of organochlorine (for e.g. endosulfan) and organophosphate (for e.g. malathion) pesticides in comparison with sex-steroid analogue-induced changes on HHG axis during gametogenesis in few teleost fish models. Interestingly, the effects of these compounds have produced differential effects in juveniles and adults which also vary based on exposure dosage and duration. Further, the treatments had caused at times sexually dimorphic effects indicating that the action of these compounds bring out serious implications in sexual development. A comprehensive overview has been provided by considering all these aspects to recognize the adverse impacts of pesticide-induced endocrine disruption with special reference to endosulfan and malathion as those had been applied even today or used before for controlling agricultural pests in several Asian countries including India. This review also compares the effects of sex-steroid analogues where in sex reversal to reproductive dysfunction is evident, which may imply the extent of sexual plasticity in teleosts compared to other vertebrates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Soluble organic nanotubes for catalytic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Linfeng; Yang, Kunran; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Kun

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we report a novel method for constructing a soluble organic nanotube supported catalyst system based on single-molecule templating of core-shell bottlebrush copolymers. Various organic or metal catalysts, such as sodium prop-2-yne-1-sulfonate (SPS), 1-(2-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)ethyl)-1H-imidazole (PEI) and Pd(OAc)2 were anchored onto the tube walls to functionalize the organic nanotubes via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Depending on the ‘confined effect’ and the accessible cavity microenvironments of tubular structures, the organic nanotube catalysts showed high catalytic efficiency and site-isolation features. We believe that the soluble organic nanotubes will be very useful for the development of high performance catalyst systems due to their high stability of support, facile functionalization and attractive textural properties.

  19. Soluble organic nanotubes for catalytic systems.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Linfeng; Yang, Kunran; Zhang, Hui; Liao, Xiaojuan; Huang, Kun

    2016-03-18

    In this paper, we report a novel method for constructing a soluble organic nanotube supported catalyst system based on single-molecule templating of core–shell bottlebrush copolymers. Various organic or metal catalysts, such as sodium prop-2-yne-1-sulfonate (SPS), 1-(2-(prop-2-yn-1-yloxy)ethyl)-1H-imidazole (PEI) and Pd(OAc)2 were anchored onto the tube walls to functionalize the organic nanotubes via copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Depending on the 'confined effect' and the accessible cavity microenvironments of tubular structures, the organic nanotube catalysts showed high catalytic efficiency and site-isolation features. We believe that the soluble organic nanotubes will be very useful for the development of high performance catalyst systems due to their high stability of support, facile functionalization and attractive textural properties.

  20. Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Klotho: Physiology and Pathophysiology of an Endocrine Network of Mineral Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ming Chang; Shiizaki, Kazuhiro; Kuro-o, Makoto; Moe, Orson W.

    2013-01-01

    The metabolically active and perpetually remodeling calcium phosphate–based endoskeleton in terrestrial vertebrates sets the demands on whole-organism calcium and phosphate homeostasis that involves multiple organs in terms of mineral flux and endocrine cross talk. The fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-Klotho endocrine networks epitomize the complexity of systems biology, and specifically, the FGF23-αKlotho axis highlights the concept of the skeleton holding the master switch of homeostasis rather than a passive target organ as hitherto conceived. Other than serving as a coreceptor for FGF23, αKlotho circulates as an endocrine substance with a multitude of effects. This review covers recent data on the physiological regulation and function of the complex FGF23-αKlotho network. Chronic kidney disease is a common pathophysiological state in which FGF23-αKlotho, a multiorgan endocrine network, is deranged in a self-amplifying vortex resulting in organ dysfunction of the utmost severity that contributes to its morbidity and mortality. PMID:23398153

  1. Treatment of trace organic compounds in common onsite wastewater systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robert Siegrist,; Conn, Kathleen E.

    2015-01-01

    Onsite wastewater systems (OWS) have historically been relied on to treat conventional pollutants and pathogens in a fashion similar to that expected from centralized wastewater systems. However, based on the occurrence of, and potential effects from, contaminants of emerging concern in wastewaters, OWS as well as centralized systems need to account for these compounds in system design and use. One group of contaminants involves organic compounds such as those associated with consumer product chemicals and pharmaceuticals, which are collectively referred to as trace organic compounds (TOrCs) due to their very low levels (e.g., ng/L to ug/L) relative to other pollutants. The question being confronted today is how best to account for TOrCs in onsite system design and use while also achieving other goals such as system simplicity, limited operation and maintenance requirements, low cost, and sustainability. In contrast to conventional pollutants such as nutrients and pathogens which have specific and achievable treatment goals, there are currently no enforceable treatment standards for TOrCs, which often have non-traditional toxicological endpoints (i.e. endocrine disruption). As highlighted in this paper, there are a large number of TOrCs that can be present in OWS and they have different properties, can be present at different frequencies of occurrence and concentrations, and have different susceptibilities to treatment in OWS. In general, based on the studies summarized in this paper, TOrCs normally should not require additional considerations beyond those for conventional pollutants and pathogens (e.g., nitrogen or bacteria and virus) during design and use of OWS. That said, there are situations where TOrCs could be a serious concern warranting special consideration in system design and use. In this paper, the frequency of occurrence of TOrCs and the range of concentrations encountered are highlighted. An evolving approach is outlined that could help assess the

  2. Endocrine-Disrupting Chemicals: An Endocrine Society Scientific Statement

    PubMed Central

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Giudice, Linda C.; Hauser, Russ; Prins, Gail S.; Soto, Ana M.; Zoeller, R. Thomas; Gore, Andrea C.

    2009-01-01

    There is growing interest in the possible health threat posed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are substances in our environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone biosynthesis, metabolism, or action resulting in a deviation from normal homeostatic control or reproduction. In this first Scientific Statement of The Endocrine Society, we present the evidence that endocrine disruptors have effects on male and female reproduction, breast development and cancer, prostate cancer, neuroendocrinology, thyroid, metabolism and obesity, and cardiovascular endocrinology. Results from animal models, human clinical observations, and epidemiological studies converge to implicate EDCs as a significant concern to public health. The mechanisms of EDCs involve divergent pathways including (but not limited to) estrogenic, antiandrogenic, thyroid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ, retinoid, and actions through other nuclear receptors; steroidogenic enzymes; neurotransmitter receptors and systems; and many other pathways that are highly conserved in wildlife and humans, and which can be modeled in laboratory in vitro and in vivo models. Furthermore, EDCs represent a broad class of molecules such as organochlorinated pesticides and industrial chemicals, plastics and plasticizers, fuels, and many other chemicals that are present in the environment or are in widespread use. We make a number of recommendations to increase understanding of effects of EDCs, including enhancing increased basic and clinical research, invoking the precautionary principle, and advocating involvement of individual and scientific society stakeholders in communicating and implementing changes in public policy and awareness. PMID:19502515

  3. Endocrine-disrupting chemicals: an Endocrine Society scientific statement.

    PubMed

    Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Bourguignon, Jean-Pierre; Giudice, Linda C; Hauser, Russ; Prins, Gail S; Soto, Ana M; Zoeller, R Thomas; Gore, Andrea C

    2009-06-01

    There is growing interest in the possible health threat posed by endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), which are substances in our environment, food, and consumer products that interfere with hormone biosynthesis, metabolism, or action resulting in a deviation from normal homeostatic control or reproduction. In this first Scientific Statement of The Endocrine Society, we present the evidence that endocrine disruptors have effects on male and female reproduction, breast development and cancer, prostate cancer, neuroendocrinology, thyroid, metabolism and obesity, and cardiovascular endocrinology. Results from animal models, human clinical observations, and epidemiological studies converge to implicate EDCs as a significant concern to public health. The mechanisms of EDCs involve divergent pathways including (but not limited to) estrogenic, antiandrogenic, thyroid, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, retinoid, and actions through other nuclear receptors; steroidogenic enzymes; neurotransmitter receptors and systems; and many other pathways that are highly conserved in wildlife and humans, and which can be modeled in laboratory in vitro and in vivo models. Furthermore, EDCs represent a broad class of molecules such as organochlorinated pesticides and industrial chemicals, plastics and plasticizers, fuels, and many other chemicals that are present in the environment or are in widespread use. We make a number of recommendations to increase understanding of effects of EDCs, including enhancing increased basic and clinical research, invoking the precautionary principle, and advocating involvement of individual and scientific society stakeholders in communicating and implementing changes in public policy and awareness.

  4. Pharmaceuticals, personal care products and endocrine-disrupting chemicals in U.S. surface and finished drinking waters: a proposed ranking system.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arun; Xagoraraki, Irene

    2010-11-01

    This study developed a comprehensive ranking system, for the first time as per authors' knowledge, for prioritizing the monitoring of pharmaceuticals and personal care products and endocrine-disrupting chemicals (together termed as EOCs, hereafter; a total of 100 EOCs considered) in U.S. stream water/source water and finished drinking water (termed as "EOCRank," hereafter). The EOCRank system was developed using a total of 4 criteria: (1) occurrence, (2) treatment in drinking water treatment plants, (3) ecological effects, and (4) health effects and characterized using 7 attributes: prevalence, frequency of detection, removal, bioaccumulation, ecotoxicity (for fish, daphnid, and algae aquatic indicator species), pregnancy effects, and health effects. The health effects attribute was characterized using 7 sub-attributes: carcinogenicity, mutagenicity, impairment of fertility, central nervous system acting, endocrine effects, immunotoxicity, and developmental effects. Rank scores of EOCs were calculated as summations of multiplications of importance weights and utility functions of multiple criteria and were arranged to highlight EOCs needing immediate attention. Two different ranking lists of EOCs were developed for U.S. finished drinking water and stream water/source water and observed to differ with each other, indicating the effect of water type on ranking of EOCs. A ranking list of priority EOCs, developed using a particular criterion, was observed to differ with that, developed using multiple criteria. Health effects and treatment criteria were observed to be important criteria influencing overall data gap rank scores and need further data collection. The generalized nature of the system could be customized for specific geographical locations (occurrence information and importance weights of different components). The developed database of the EOCRank system is available on: http://www.egr.msu.edu/~xagorara/research.html). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All

  5. Endocrine Disruptors in Domestic Animal Reproduction: A Clinical Issue?

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Ulf; Persson, Sara

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this review was to discuss whether endocrine disruption is a clinical concern in domestic animal reproduction. To that end, we firstly summarize the phenomenon of endocrine disruption, giving examples of the agents of concern and their effects on the mammalian reproductive system. Then there is a brief overview of the literature on endocrine disruptors and domestic animal reproduction. Finally, the clinical implications of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive system of farm animals as well as in dogs and cats are discussed. It is concluded that the evidence for clinical cases of endocrine disruption by chemical pollutants is weak, whereas for phytooestrogens, it is well established. However, there is concern that particular dogs and cats may be exposed to man-made endocrine disruptors.

  6. Endocrine Disruptors in Domestic Animal Reproduction: A Clinical Issue?

    PubMed Central

    Magnusson, Ulf; Persson, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Contents The objective of this review was to discuss whether endocrine disruption is a clinical concern in domestic animal reproduction. To that end, we firstly summarize the phenomenon of endocrine disruption, giving examples of the agents of concern and their effects on the mammalian reproductive system. Then there is a brief overview of the literature on endocrine disruptors and domestic animal reproduction. Finally, the clinical implications of endocrine disruptors on the reproductive system of farm animals as well as in dogs and cats are discussed. It is concluded that the evidence for clinical cases of endocrine disruption by chemical pollutants is weak, whereas for phytooestrogens, it is well established. However, there is concern that particular dogs and cats may be exposed to man-made endocrine disruptors. PMID:26382024

  7. Involvement of endocrine system in a patient affected by glycogen storage disease 1b: speculation on the role of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Melis, Daniela; Della Casa, Roberto; Balivo, Francesca; Minopoli, Giorgia; Rossi, Alessandro; Salerno, Mariacarolina; Andria, Generoso; Parenti, Giancarlo

    2014-03-19

    Glycogen storage disease type 1b (GSD1b) is an inherited metabolic defect of glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis due to mutations of the SLC37A4 gene and to defective transport of glucose-6-phosphate. The clinical presentation of GSD1b is characterized by hepatomegaly, failure to thrive, fasting hypoglycemia, and dyslipidemia. Patients affected by GSD1b also show neutropenia and/or neutrophil dysfunction that cause increased susceptibility to recurrent bacterial infections. GSD1b patients are also at risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Occasional reports suggesting an increased risk of autoimmune disorders in GSD1b patients, have been published. These complications affect the clinical outcome of the patients. Here we describe the occurrence of autoimmune endocrine disorders including thyroiditis and growth hormone deficiency, in a patient affected by GSD1b. This case further supports the association between GSD1b and autoimmune diseases.

  8. Relative functions of Gαs and its extra-large variant XLαs in the endocrine system.

    PubMed

    Bastepe, M

    2012-09-01

    Gαs is a ubiquitous signaling protein necessary for the actions of many neurotransmitters, hormones, and autocrine/paracrine factors. Loss-of-function mutations within the gene encoding Gαs, GNAS, are responsible for multiple human diseases, including Albright's Hereditary Osteodystrophy, progressive osseous heteroplasia, and pseudohypoparathyroidism. Gain-of-function mutations in the same gene are found in various endocrine and nonendocrine tumors and in patients with McCune-Albright Syndrome and fibrous dysplasia of bone. In addition to Gαs, GNAS gives rise to multiple additional coding and noncoding transcripts. Among those, XLαs is a paternally expressed product that is partially identical to Gαs. This article reviews the cellular actions of Gαs and XLαs, focusing on the significance of XLαs relative to Gαs in mammalian physiology and human disease. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  9. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Writer, J.H.; Barber, L.B.; Brown, G.K.; Taylor, H.E.; Kiesling, R.L.; Ferrey, M.L.; Jahns, N.D.; Bartell, S.E.; Schoenfuss, H.L.

    2010-01-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17??-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use. ?? 2010.

  10. Anthropogenic tracers, endocrine disrupting chemicals, and endocrine disruption in Minnesota lakes.

    PubMed

    Writer, Jeffrey H; Barber, Larry B; Brown, Greg K; Taylor, Howard E; Kiesling, Richard L; Ferrey, Mark L; Jahns, Nathan D; Bartell, Steve E; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2010-12-01

    Concentrations of endocrine disrupting chemicals and endocrine disruption in fish were determined in 11 lakes across Minnesota that represent a range of trophic conditions and land uses (urban, agricultural, residential, and forested) and in which wastewater treatment plant discharges were absent. Water, sediment, and passive polar organic integrative samplers (POCIS) were analyzed for steroidal hormones, alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and other organic and inorganic molecular tracers to evaluate potential non-point source inputs into the lakes. Resident fish from the lakes were collected, and caged male fathead minnows were deployed to evaluate endocrine disruption, as indicated by the biological endpoints of plasma vitellogenin and gonadal histology. Endocrine disrupting chemicals, including bisphenol A, 17β-estradiol, estrone, and 4-nonylphenol were detected in 90% of the lakes at part per trillion concentrations. Endocrine disruption was observed in caged fathead minnows and resident fish in 90% of the lakes. The widespread but variable occurrence of anthropogenic chemicals in the lakes and endocrine disruption in fish indicates that potential sources are diverse, not limited to wastewater treatment plant discharges, and not entirely predictable based on trophic status and land use.

  11. [Levels of organization of living systems: cooperons].

    PubMed

    Levchenko, V F; Kotolupov, V A

    2010-01-01

    All creatures living on Earth are traditionally being considered in the context of structural-morphological approach, in frame of which there are considered various living systems (for instance, organisms and ecosystems) that have different sizes and organization and use different resources for their existence. These characteristics are sometimes added by some particular functional and ecological characteristics, but usually with respect to the structural ones. We believe that such traditional approach, although illustrating, but distracts from the circumstance that any living system is to be considered an integrated structural-functional complex, the maintenance of existence of this system being impossible without the processes occurring constantly in it and aimed at preserving this complex. This leads us to the concept of cooperons--the self-preserved dynamic structures existing only as a result of various specifically organized cooperative processes (their intensities can vary depending on circumstances). From our point of view, all living systems are cooperons of different hierarchy levels. Some other systems, specifically the symbiotic ones, also are cooperons. In frame of this concept, it is possible to discuss functioning of living systems of different types of organization in a new context closer to physiologists, both for the case of "norm" and for the situation when the cooperative interrelations of parts of the system are impaired (for instance, in systemic diseases).

  12. Systems Office Organization. SPEC Kit 128.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, R. Bruce

    Based on responses solicited from 26 Association of Research Library (ARL) members reflecting a variety of systems office configurations, this report describes the configurations at several ARL institutions and presents some major organizational patterns for systems offices and their relationship to the larger library organization. Original…

  13. Organization of Communication in Information Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datsenko, V. P.; Zaytsev, N. G.

    Organization of communication between the center of an automated system of information exchange and the subscribers to the system is described. The three requirements are: (1) those technical communication means must be chosen which will provide effective and convenient avenues for calls from the subscribers to the center, (2) the required…

  14. Fate of steroid hormones and endocrine activities in swine manure disposal and treatment facilities.

    PubMed

    Combalbert, Sarah; Bellet, Virginie; Dabert, Patrick; Bernet, Nicolas; Balaguer, Patrick; Hernandez-Raquet, Guillermina

    2012-03-01

    Manure may contain high concern endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as steroid hormones, naturally produced by pigs, which are present at μgL(-1) levels. Manure may also contain other EDCs such as nonylphenols (NP), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and dioxins. Thus, once manure is applied to the land as soil fertilizer these compounds may reach aquifers and consequently living organisms, inducing abnormal endocrine responses. In France, manure is generally stored in anaerobic tanks prior spreading on land; when nitrogen removal is requested, manure is treated by aerobic processes before spreading. However, little is known about the fate of hormones and multiple endocrine-disrupting activities in such manure disposal and treatment systems. Here, we determined the fate of hormones and diverse endocrine activities during manure storage and treatment by combining chemical analysis and in vitro quantification of estrogen (ER), aryl hydrocarbon (AhR), androgen (AR), pregnane-X (PXR) and peroxysome proliferator-activated γ (PPARγ) receptor-mediated activities. Our results show that manure contains large quantities of hormones and activates ER and AhR, two of the nuclear receptors studied. Most of these endocrine activities were found in the solid fraction of manure and appeared to be induced mainly by hormones and other unidentified pollutants. Hormones, ER and AhR activities found in manure were poorly removed during manure storage but were efficiently removed by aerobic treatment of manure. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. 78 FR 35909 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Final Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-14

    ... to human health or the environment due to disruption of the endocrine system. The determination of whether a chemical has the potential to interact with the endocrine system will be made on a weight of... endocrine system necessarily meets the standard for information that must be reported in accordance with...

  16. 75 FR 70557 - Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program; Draft Policies and Procedures for Screening Safe Drinking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... to human health or the environment due to disruption of the endocrine system. The determination that a chemical does or is not likely to have the potential to interact with the endocrine system will be... determine ] that a particular chemical has the potential to interact with the endocrine system and therefore...

  17. Mouse models for inherited endocrine and metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Piret, Siân E; Thakker, Rajesh V

    2011-12-01

    In vivo models represent important resources for investigating the physiological mechanisms underlying endocrine and metabolic disorders, and for pre-clinical translational studies that may include the assessments of new treatments. In the study of endocrine diseases, which affect multiple organs, in vivo models provide specific advantages over in vitro models, which are limited to investigation of isolated systems. In recent years, the mouse has become the popular choice for developing such in vivo mammalian models, as it has a genome that shares ∼85% identity to that of man, and has many physiological systems that are similar to those in man. Moreover, methods have been developed to alter the expression of genes in the mouse, thereby generating models for human diseases, which may be due to loss- or gain-of-function mutations. The methods used to generate mutations in the mouse genome include: chemical mutagenesis; conventional, conditional and inducible knockout models; knockin models and transgenic models, and these strategies are often complementary. This review describes some of the different strategies that are utilised for generating mouse models. In addition, some mouse models that have been successfully generated by these methods for some human hereditary endocrine and metabolic disorders are reviewed. In particular, the mouse models generated for parathyroid disorders, which include: the multiple endocrine neoplasias; hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome; disorders of the calcium-sensing receptor and forms of inherited hypoparathyroidism are discussed. The advances that have been made in our understanding of the mechanisms of these human diseases by investigations of these mouse models are described.

  18. Update on the Mammalian Tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Protocols

    EPA Science Inventory

    The endocrine system provides a number of target sites that may be susceptible to disruption by environmental agents. In response to emerging concerns that environmental chemicals may have adverse effects on human health by altering the function of the endocrine system (http://w...

  19. Update on the Mammalian Tier 1 Endocrine Disruptor Screening Protocols

    EPA Science Inventory

    The endocrine system provides a number of target sites that may be susceptible to disruption by environmental agents. In response to emerging concerns that environmental chemicals may have adverse effects on human health by altering the function of the endocrine system (http://w...

  20. Environmental endocrine disruptors: A proposed classification scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Fur, P.L. de; Roberts, J.

    1995-12-31

    A number of chemicals known to act on animal systems through the endocrine system have been termed environmental endocrine disruptors. This group includes some of the PCBs and TCDDs, as well as lead, mercury and a large number of pesticides. The common feature is that the chemicals interact with endogenous endocrine systems at the cellular and/or molecular level to alter normal processes that are controlled or regulated by hormones. Although the existence of artificial or environmental estrogens (e.g. chlordecone and DES) has been known for some time, recent data indicate that this phenomenon is widespread. Indeed, anti-androgens have been held responsible for reproductive dysfunction in alligator populations in Florida. But the significance of endocrine disruption was recognized by pesticide manufacturers when insect growth regulators were developed to interfere with hormonal control of growth. Controlling, regulating or managing these chemicals depends in no small part on the ability to identify, screen or otherwise know that a chemical is an endocrine disrupter. Two possible classifications schemes are: using the effects caused in an animal, or animals as an exposure indicator; and using a known screen for the point of contact with the animal. The former would require extensive knowledge of cause and effect relationships in dozens of animal groups; the latter would require a screening tool comparable to an estrogen binding assay. The authors present a possible classification based on chemicals known to disrupt estrogenic, androgenic and ecdysone regulated hormonal systems.

  1. Exercise and the Regulation of Endocrine Hormones.

    PubMed

    Hackney, Anthony C; Lane, Amy R

    2015-01-01

    The endocrine system has profound regulatory effects within the human body and thus the ability to control and maintain appropriate function within many physiological systems (i.e., homeostasis). The hormones associated with the endocrine system utilize autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine actions on the cells of their target tissues within these physiologic systems to adjust homeostasis. The introduction of exercise as a stressor to disrupt homeostasis can greatly amplify and impact the actions of these hormones. To that end, the endocrine response to an acute exercise session occurs in a progression of phases with the magnitude of the response being relative to the exercise work intensity or volume. Various physiologic mechanisms are considered responsible for these responses, although not all are completely understood or elucidated. Chronic exercise training does not eliminate the acute exercise response but may attenuate the overall effect of the responsiveness as the body adapts in a positive fashion to the training stimulus. Regrettably, an excessive intensity and/or volume of training may lead to maladaptation and is associated with inappropriate endocrine hormonal responses. The mechanisms leading to a deleterious maladaptive state are not well understood and require additional research for elucidation.

  2. [Endocrine disruptors: echoes of congress of Endocrinology in 2012].

    PubMed

    Nassouri, A S; Archambeaud, F; Desailloud, R

    2012-10-01

    The increased prevalence of certain diseases, along with the development of new technologies and industrialization raised the possibility of the involvement of environmental factors, industrial products, nutritional factors, infections, drugs... and endocrine disruptors. These factors may interfere via signaling pathways specific to the organism. Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) have been redefined by the Endocrine Society in 2012 as "exogenous chemical, or mixture of chemicals, that can interfere with any aspect of hormone action". They have therefore potentially deleterious effects on development, growth, metabolism, reproduction, the nervous, immune and cardiovascular systems. Therefore, they constitute a real public health issue. Their long half-life may explain delayed effects and their often lipophilic character may promote maternofetal transmission. Except diethylstilbestrol (DES), few formal proofs have been made on the direct role of EDCs ; arguments are based on cross-sectional studies, in vitro models and animal models. Basic research puts insight into mechanisms of action of EDCs but many questions remain unanswered. Epidemiological data are difficult to interpret because of interindividual differences in susceptibility to EDCs and of nonlinear/nonmonotonique action (as opposed to toxic dose effect), multiple interactions between environmental agents (additive effects and/or synergistic and/or antagonists), the role of the window of exposure, latency, and the possibility of transgenerational effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact.

    PubMed

    Bartsch, Ronny P; Liu, Kang K L; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems.

  4. Network Physiology: How Organ Systems Dynamically Interact

    PubMed Central

    Bartsch, Ronny P.; Liu, Kang K. L.; Bashan, Amir; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.

    2015-01-01

    We systematically study how diverse physiologic systems in the human organism dynamically interact and collectively behave to produce distinct physiologic states and functions. This is a fundamental question in the new interdisciplinary field of Network Physiology, and has not been previously explored. Introducing the novel concept of Time Delay Stability (TDS), we develop a computational approach to identify and quantify networks of physiologic interactions from long-term continuous, multi-channel physiological recordings. We also develop a physiologically-motivated visualization framework to map networks of dynamical organ interactions to graphical objects encoded with information about the coupling strength of network links quantified using the TDS measure. Applying a system-wide integrative approach, we identify distinct patterns in the network structure of organ interactions, as well as the frequency bands through which these interactions are mediated. We establish first maps representing physiologic organ network interactions and discover basic rules underlying the complex hierarchical reorganization in physiologic networks with transitions across physiologic states. Our findings demonstrate a direct association between network topology and physiologic function, and provide new insights into understanding how health and distinct physiologic states emerge from networked interactions among nonlinear multi-component complex systems. The presented here investigations are initial steps in building a first atlas of dynamic interactions among organ systems. PMID:26555073

  5. The organization of an autonomous learning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kanerva, Pentti

    1988-01-01

    The organization of systems that learn from experience is examined, human beings and animals being prime examples of such systems. How is their information processing organized. They build an internal model of the world and base their actions on the model. The model is dynamic and predictive, and it includes the systems' own actions and their effects. In modeling such systems, a large pattern of features represents a moment of the system's experience. Some of the features are provided by the system's senses, some control the system's motors, and the rest have no immediate external significance. A sequence of such patterns then represents the system's experience over time. By storing such sequences appropriately in memory, the system builds a world model based on experience. In addition to the essential function of memory, fundamental roles are played by a sensory system that makes raw information about the world suitable for memory storage and by a motor system that affects the world. The relation of sensory and motor systems to the memory is discussed, together with how favorable actions can be learned and unfavorable actions can be avoided. Results in classical learning theory are explained in terms of the model, more advanced forms of learning are discussed, and the relevance of the model to the frame problem of robotics is examined.

  6. Neonatal endocrine emergencies: a primer for the emergency physician.

    PubMed

    Park, Elizabeth; Pearson, Nadia M; Pillow, M Tyson; Toledo, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The resuscitation principles of securing the airway and stabilizing hemodynamics remain the same in any neonatal emergency. However, stabilizing endocrine disorders may prove especially challenging. Several organ systems are affected simultaneously and the clinical presentation can be subtle. Although not all-inclusive, the implementation of newborn screening tests has significantly reduced morbidity and mortality in neonates. Implementing routine screening tests worldwide and improving the accuracy of present tests remains the challenge for healthcare providers. With further study of these disorders and best treatment practices we can provide neonates presenting to the emergency department with the best possible outcomes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Multiparametric Imaging of Organ System Interfaces.

    PubMed

    Vandoorne, Katrien; Nahrendorf, Matthias

    2017-04-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are a consequence of genetic and environmental risk factors that together generate arterial wall and cardiac pathologies. Blood vessels connect multiple systems throughout the entire body and allow organs to interact via circulating messengers. These same interactions facilitate nervous and metabolic system's influence on cardiovascular health. Multiparametric imaging offers the opportunity to study these interfacing systems' distinct processes, to quantify their interactions, and to explore how these contribute to cardiovascular disease. Noninvasive multiparametric imaging techniques are emerging tools that can further our understanding of this complex and dynamic interplay. Positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance imaging and multichannel optical imaging are particularly promising because they can simultaneously sample multiple biomarkers. Preclinical multiparametric diagnostics could help discover clinically relevant biomarker combinations pivotal for understanding cardiovascular disease. Interfacing systems important to cardiovascular disease include the immune, nervous, and hematopoietic systems. These systems connect with classical cardiovascular organs, such as the heart and vasculature, and with the brain. The dynamic interplay between these systems and organs enables processes, such as hemostasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, matrix remodeling, metabolism, and fibrosis. As the opportunities provided by imaging expand, mapping interconnected systems will help us decipher the complexity of cardiovascular disease and monitor novel therapeutic strategies.

  8. A systems concept of the vestibular organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayne, R.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive model of vestibular organ function is presented. The model is based on an analogy with the inertial guidance systems used in navigation. Three distinct operations are investigated: angular motion sensing, linear motion sensing, and computation. These operations correspond to the semicircular canals, the otoliths, and central processing respectively. It is especially important for both an inertial guidance system and the vestibular organs to distinguish between attitude with respect to the vertical on the one hand, and linear velocity and displacement on the other. The model is applied to various experimental situations and found to be corroborated by them.

  9. A systems concept of the vestibular organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mayne, R.

    1974-01-01

    A comprehensive model of vestibular organ function is presented. The model is based on an analogy with the inertial guidance systems used in navigation. Three distinct operations are investigated: angular motion sensing, linear motion sensing, and computation. These operations correspond to the semicircular canals, the otoliths, and central processing respectively. It is especially important for both an inertial guidance system and the vestibular organs to distinguish between attitude with respect to the vertical on the one hand, and linear velocity and displacement on the other. The model is applied to various experimental situations and found to be corroborated by them.

  10. Endocrine neoplasms in familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Li, Yulong; Simonds, William F

    2015-06-01

    Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism, including multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1), multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A), and the hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor (HPT-JT), comprise 2-5% of primary hyperparathyroidism cases. Familial syndromes of hyperparathyroidism are also associated wi