Science.gov

Sample records for endocytosis nuclear translocation

  1. Activated ErbB3 Translocates to the Nucleus via Clathrin-independent Endocytosis, Which Is Associated with Proliferating Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Reif, Raymond; Adawy, Alshaimaa; Vartak, Nachiket; Schröder, Jutta; Günther, Georgia; Ghallab, Ahmed; Schmidt, Marcus; Schormann, Wiebke; Hengstler, Jan G.

    2016-01-01

    Members of the receptor tyrosine kinase family (RTK) have been shown to be present in the nucleus of cells; however, the mechanisms underlying their trafficking to the nucleus, and their relevance once there are poorly understood. In the present study, we focus on the RTK ErbB3 and elucidate the mechanisms regulating its trafficking. We show that heregulin-stimulation induces trafficking of phosphorylated ErbB3 from the plasma membrane to the nucleus via a clathrin-independent mechanism. Nuclear import of ErbB3 occurs via importin β1, which drives the receptor through the nuclear pore complex. In the nucleus, ErbB3 interacts with transcription complexes, and thereby has a role in transcriptional regulation. Our results also demonstrate that ErbB3 nuclear localization is transient as it is exported out of the nucleus by the nuclear receptor protein crm-1. Analysis of normal, regenerating tissues, and tumors showed that ErbB3 nuclear translocation is a common event in proliferating tissues. PMID:26719328

  2. Akt phosphorylation is essential for nuclear translocation and retention in NGF-stimulated PC12 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Truong Le Xuan Nguyen; Choi, Joung Woo; Lee, Sang Bae; Ye, Keqiang; Woo, Soo-Dong; Lee, Kyung-Hoon; Ahn, Jee-Yin . E-mail: jyahn@med.skku.ac.kr

    2006-10-20

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) elicits Akt translocation into the nucleus, where it phosphorylates nuclear targets. Here, we describe that Akt phosphorylation can promote the nuclear translocation of Akt and is necessary for its nuclear retention. Overexpression of Akt-K179A, T308A, S473A-mutant failed to show either nuclear translocation or nuclear Akt phosphorylation, whereas expression of wild-type counterpart elicited profound Akt phosphorylation and induced nuclear translocation under NGF stimulation. Employing the PI3K inhibitor and a variety of mutants PI3K, we showed that nuclear translocation of Akt was mediated by activation of PI3K, and Akt phosphorylation status in the nucleus required PI3K activity. Thus the activity of PI3K might contribute to the nuclear translocation of Akt, and that Akt phosphorylation is essential for its nuclear retention under NGF stimulation conditions.

  3. Elevated chromosome translocation frequencies in New Zealand nuclear test veterans.

    PubMed

    Wahab, M A; Nickless, E M; Najar-M'kacher, R; Parmentier, C; Podd, J V; Rowland, R E

    2008-01-01

    In 1957/58 the British Government conducted a series of nuclear tests in the mid-Pacific codenamed Operation Grapple, which involved several naval vessels from Britain and New Zealand. Two New Zealand frigates with 551 personnel onboard were stationed at various distances between 20 and 150 nautical miles from ground zero. In the present study we applied the cytomolecular technique mFISH (multicolour fluorescent in situ hybridisation) to investigate a potential link between chromosome abnormalities and possible past radiation exposure in New Zealand nuclear test veterans who participated in Operation Grapple. Compared to age matched controls, the veterans showed significantly higher (P < 0.0001) frequencies of chromosomal abnormalities (275 translocations and 12 dicentrics in 9,360 cells vs. 96 translocations and 1 dicentric in 9,548 cells in the controls), in addition to a significant excess of CCRs (complex chromosomal rearrangements) in the veterans. A Kolmogorov-Smirnoff test showed that the distributions of translocations for the two groups were significantly different.

  4. Conversion of graded phosphorylation into switch-like nuclear translocation via autoregulatory mechanisms in ERK signalling

    PubMed Central

    Shindo, Yuki; Iwamoto, Kazunari; Mouri, Kazunari; Hibino, Kayo; Tomita, Masaru; Kosako, Hidetaka; Sako, Yasushi; Takahashi, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    The phosphorylation cascade in the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway is a versatile reaction network motif that can potentially act as a switch, oscillator or memory. Nevertheless, there is accumulating evidence that the phosphorylation response is mostly linear to extracellular signals in mammalian cells. Here we find that subsequent nuclear translocation gives rise to a switch-like increase in nuclear ERK concentration in response to signal input. The switch-like response disappears in the presence of ERK inhibitor, suggesting the existence of autoregulatory mechanisms for ERK nuclear translocation involved in conversion from a graded to a switch-like response. In vitro reconstruction of ERK nuclear translocation indicates that ERK-mediated phosphorylation of nucleoporins regulates ERK translocation. A mathematical model and knockdown experiments suggest a contribution of nucleoporins to regulation of the ERK nuclear translocation response. Taken together, this study provides evidence that nuclear translocation with autoregulatory mechanisms acts as a switch in ERK signalling. PMID:26786866

  5. Bovine Lactoferrampin, Human Lactoferricin, and Lactoferrin 1-11 Inhibit Nuclear Translocation of HIV Integrase.

    PubMed

    Wang, Winston Yan; Wong, Jack Ho; Ip, Denis Tsz Ming; Wan, David Chi Cheong; Cheung, Randy Chifai; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to investigate fragments derived from human and bovine lactoferrins for ability to inhibit nuclear translocation of HIV-1 integrase. It was shown that human lactoferricin, human lactoferrin 1-11, and bovine lactoferrampin reduced nuclear distribution of HIV-1 integrase. Bovine lactoferrampin could inhibit both the activity and nuclear translocation of HIV-1 integrase. Human lactoferrampin, bovine lactoferricin, and bovine lactoferrin 1-11 had no effect on HIV-1 integrase nuclear translocation. Human lactoferrampin which inhibited the activity of integrase did not prevent its nuclear translocation. Human lactoferricin and lactoferrin 1-11 did not inhibit HIV-1 integrase nuclear translocation despite their ability to attenuate the enzyme activity. The discrepancy between the findings on reduction of HIV-1 activity and inhibition of nuclear translocation of HIV-1 integrase was due to the different mechanisms involved. A similar reasoning can also be applied to the different inhibitory potencies of the milk peptides on different HIV enzymes, i.e., nuclear translocation.

  6. Prediction of nuclear proteins using nuclear translocation signals proposed by probabilistic latent semantic indexing

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Identification of subcellular localization in proteins is crucial to elucidate cellular processes and molecular functions in a cell. However, given a tremendous amount of sequence data generated in the post-genomic era, determining protein localization based on biological experiments can be expensive and time-consuming. Therefore, developing prediction systems to analyze uncharacterised proteins efficiently has played an important role in high-throughput protein analyses. In a eukaryotic cell, many essential biological processes take place in the nucleus. Nuclear proteins shuttle between nucleus and cytoplasm based on recognition of nuclear translocation signals, including nuclear localization signals (NLSs) and nuclear export signals (NESs). Currently, only a few approaches have been developed specifically to predict nuclear localization using sequence features, such as putative NLSs. However, it has been shown that prediction coverage based on the NLSs is very low. In addition, most existing approaches only attained prediction accuracy and Matthew's correlation coefficient (MCC) around 54%~70% and 0.250~0.380 on independent test set, respectively. Moreover, no predictor can generate sequence motifs to characterize features of potential NESs, in which biological properties are not well understood from existing experimental studies. Results In this study, first we propose PSLNuc (Protein Subcellular Localization prediction for Nucleus) for predicting nuclear localization in proteins. First, for feature representation, a protein is represented by gapped-dipeptides and the feature values are weighted by homology information from a smoothed position-specific scoring matrix. After that, we incorporate probabilistic latent semantic indexing (PLSI) for feature reduction. Finally, the reduced features are used as input for a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. In addition to PSLNuc, we further identify gapped-dipeptide signatures for putative NLSs and NESs

  7. Featured Article: Effect of copper on nuclear translocation of copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase-1

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Ge, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase-1 (CCS-1), facilitating copper insertion into superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1), is present in the nucleus. However, it is unknown how CCS-1 is translocated to the nucleus. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of copper on nuclear translocation of CCS-1. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were subjected to hypoxia, causing an increase in both copper and CCS-1 in the nucleus. Treatment with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) not only decreased the total cellular concentration and the nuclear translocation of copper, but also completely suppressed the entry of CCS-1 to the nucleus. On the other hand, siRNA targeting CCS-1 neither inhibited the increase in total concentrations nor blocked the nuclear translocation of copper. This study thus demonstrates that under hypoxia condition, both copper and CCS-1 are transported to the nucleus. The nuclear translocation of CCS-1 is copper dependent, but the nuclear translocation of copper could take place alternatively in a CCS-1-independent pathway. PMID:27190267

  8. Featured Article: Effect of copper on nuclear translocation of copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase-1.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Ge, Yan; Kang, Y James

    2016-08-01

    Copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase-1 (CCS-1), facilitating copper insertion into superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD-1), is present in the nucleus. However, it is unknown how CCS-1 is translocated to the nucleus. The present study was undertaken to determine the effect of copper on nuclear translocation of CCS-1. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were subjected to hypoxia, causing an increase in both copper and CCS-1 in the nucleus. Treatment with tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA) not only decreased the total cellular concentration and the nuclear translocation of copper, but also completely suppressed the entry of CCS-1 to the nucleus. On the other hand, siRNA targeting CCS-1 neither inhibited the increase in total concentrations nor blocked the nuclear translocation of copper. This study thus demonstrates that under hypoxia condition, both copper and CCS-1 are transported to the nucleus. The nuclear translocation of CCS-1 is copper dependent, but the nuclear translocation of copper could take place alternatively in a CCS-1-independent pathway.

  9. Nuclear Receptor-Induced Chromosomal Proximity and DNA Breaks Underlie Specific Translocations in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chunru; Yang, Liuqing; Tanasa, Bogdan; Hutt, Kasey; Ju, Bong-gun; Ohgi, Kenny; Zhang, Jie; Rose, Dave; Fu, Xiang-Dong; Glass, Christopher K.; Rosenfeld, Michael G.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of leukemia/lymphoma and also appear in solid tumors, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. By establishing a cellular model that mimics the relative frequency of authentic translocation events without proliferation selection, we report mechanisms of nuclear receptor-dependent tumor translocations. Intronic binding of liganded-AR first juxtaposes translocation loci by triggering intra- and interchromosomal interactions. AR then promotes site-specific DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) at translocation loci by recruiting two types of enzymatic machinery induced by genotoxic stress and liganded-AR, including Activation-Induced Cytidine Deaminase (AID) and the LINE-1 repeat-encoded ORF2 endonuclease. These enzymatic machineries synergistically generate site-selective DSBs at juxtaposed translocation loci that are ligated by Non-Homologous Ending Joining (NHEJ) pathway for specific translocations. Our data suggest that the confluence of two parallel pathways initiated by liganded-nuclear receptor and genotoxic stress underlie non-random tumor translocations, which may function in many types of tumors and pathological processes. PMID:19962179

  10. SIRT1 interacts with and protects glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) from nuclear translocation: Implications for cell survival after irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, Hyun-Yoo; Woo, Seon Rang; Shen, Yan-Nan; Yun, Mi Yong; Shin, Hyun-Jin; Park, Eun-Ran; Kim, Su-Hyeon; Park, Jeong-Eun; Ju, Yeun-Jin; Hong, Sung Hee; Hwang, Sang-Gu; Cho, Myung-Haing; Kim, Joon; Lee, Kee-Ho

    2012-08-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 serves to retain GAPDH in the cytosol, preventing GAPDH nuclear translocation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer When SIRT1 is depleted, GAPDH translocation occurs even in the absence of stress. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Upon irradiation, SIRT1 interacts with GAPDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 prevents irradiation-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer SIRT1 presence rather than activity is essential for inhibiting GAPDH translocation. -- Abstract: Upon apoptotic stimulation, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a cytosolic enzyme normally active in glycolysis, translocates into the nucleus and activates an apoptotic cascade therein. In the present work, we show that SIRT1 prevents nuclear translocation of GAPDH via interaction with GAPDH. SIRT1 depletion triggered nuclear translocation of cytosolic GAPDH even in the absence of apoptotic stress. Such translocation was not, however, observed when SIRT1 enzymatic activity was inhibited, indicating that SIRT1 protein per se, rather than the deacetylase activity of the protein, is required to inhibit GAPDH translocation. Upon irradiation, SIRT1 prevented irradiation-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH, accompanied by interaction of SIRT1 and GAPDH. Thus, SIRT1 functions to retain GAPDH in the cytosol, protecting the enzyme from nuclear translocation via interaction with these two proteins. This serves as a mechanism whereby SIRT1 regulates cell survival upon induction of apoptotic stress by means that include irradiation.

  11. S-Nitrosylation Regulates Nuclear Translocation of Chloride Intracellular Channel Protein CLIC4*

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Mariam; Shukla, Anjali; Amin, Palak; Niedelman, Wendy; Lee, Jessica; Jividen, Kasey; Phang, Juanita M.; Ding, Jinhui; Suh, Kwang S.; Curmi, Paul M. G.; Yuspa, Stuart H.

    2010-01-01

    Nuclear translocation of chloride intracellular channel protein CLIC4 is essential for its role in Ca2+-induced differentiation, stress-induced apoptosis, and modulating TGF-β signaling in mouse epidermal keratinocytes. However, post-translational modifications on CLIC4 that govern nuclear translocation and thus these activities remain to be elucidated. The structure of CLIC4 is dependent on the redox environment, in vitro, and translocation may depend on reactive oxygen and nitrogen species in the cell. Here we show that NO directly induces nuclear translocation of CLIC4 that is independent of the NO-cGMP pathway. Indeed, CLIC4 is directly modified by NO through S-nitrosylation of a cysteine residue, as measured by the biotin switch assay. NO enhances association of CLIC4 with the nuclear import proteins importin α and Ran. This is likely a result of the conformational change induced by S-nitrosylated CLIC4 that leads to unfolding of the protein, as exhibited by CD spectra analysis and trypsinolysis of the modified protein. Cysteine mutants of CLIC4 exhibit altered nitrosylation, nuclear residence, and stability, compared with the wild type protein likely as a consequence of altered tertiary structure. Moreover, tumor necrosis factor α-induced nuclear translocation of CLIC4 is dependent on nitric-oxide synthase activity. Inhibition of nitric-oxide synthase activity inhibits tumor necrosis factor α-induced nitrosylation and association with importin α and Ran and ablates CLIC4 nuclear translocation. These results suggest that S-nitrosylation governs CLIC4 structure, its association with protein partners, and thus its intracellular distribution. PMID:20504765

  12. G-protein coupling and nuclear translocation of the human abscisic acid receptor LANCL2

    PubMed Central

    Fresia, Chiara; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Guida, Lucrezia; Booz, Valeria; Bruzzone, Santina; Sturla, Laura; Di Bona, Melody; Pesce, Mattia; Usai, Cesare; De Flora, Antonio; Zocchi, Elena

    2016-01-01

    Abscisic acid (ABA), a long known phytohormone, has been recently demonstrated to be present also in humans, where it targets cells of the innate immune response, mesenchymal and hemopoietic stem cells and cells involved in the regulation of systemic glucose homeostasis. LANCL2, a peripheral membrane protein, is the mammalian ABA receptor. We show that N-terminal glycine myristoylation causes LANCL2 localization to the plasmamembrane and to cytoplasmic membrane vesicles, where it interacts with the α subunit of a Gi protein and starts the ABA signaling pathway via activation of adenylate cyclase. Demyristoylation of LANCL2 by chemical or genetic means triggers its nuclear translocation. Nuclear enrichment of native LANCL2 is also induced by ABA treatment. Therefore human LANCL2 is a non-transmembrane G protein-coupled receptor susceptible to hormone-induced nuclear translocation. PMID:27222287

  13. Nitric oxide induces thioredoxin-1 nuclear translocation: Possible association with the p21Ras survival pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Arai, Roberto J.; Yodoi, J.; Debbas, V.; Laurindo, Francisco R.; Stern, A.; Monteiro, Hugo P. . E-mail: hpmonte@uol.com.br

    2006-10-06

    One of the major redox-regulating molecules with thiol reducing activity is thioredoxin-1 (TRX-1). TRX-1 is a multifunctional protein that exists in the extracellular millieu, cytoplasm, and nucleus, and has a distinct role in each environment. It is well known that TRX-1 promptly migrates to the nuclear compartment in cells exposed to oxidants. However, the intracellular location of TRX-1 in cells exposed to nitrosothiols has not been investigated. Here, we demonstrated that the exposure of HeLa cells to increasing concentrations of the nitrosothiol S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) promoted TRX-1 nuclear accumulation. The SNAP-induced TRX-1 translocation to the nucleus was inhibited by FPTIII, a selective inhibitor of p21Ras. Furthermore, TRX-1 migration was attenuated in cells stably transfected with NO insensitive p21Ras (p21{sup RasC118S}). Downstream to p21Ras, the MAP Kinases ERK1/2 were activated by SNAP under conditions that promote TRX-1 nuclear translocation. Inhibition of MEK prevented SNAP-stimulated ERK1/2 activation and TRX-1 nuclear migration. In addition, cells treated with p21Ras or MEK inhibitor showed increased susceptibility to cell death induced by SNAP. In conclusion, our observations suggest that the nuclear translocation of TRX-1 is induced by SNAP involving p21Ras survival pathway.

  14. Acetylation promotes TyrRS nuclear translocation to prevent oxidative damage

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xuanye; Li, Chaoqun; Xiao, Siyu; Tang, Yunlan; Huang, Jing; Zhao, Shuan; Li, Xueyu; Li, Jixi; Zhang, Ruilin; Yu, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) is well known for its essential aminoacylation function in protein synthesis. Recently, TyrRS has been shown to translocate to the nucleus and protect against DNA damage due to oxidative stress. However, the mechanism of TyrRS nuclear localization has not yet been determined. Herein, we report that TyrRS becomes highly acetylated in response to oxidative stress, which promotes nuclear translocation. Moreover, p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF), an acetyltransferase, and sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent deacetylase, regulate the nuclear localization of TyrRS in an acetylation-dependent manner. Oxidative stress increases the level of PCAF and decreases the level of SIRT1 and deacetylase activity, all of which promote the nuclear translocation of hyperacetylated TyrRS. Furthermore, TyrRS is primarily acetylated on the K244 residue near the nuclear localization signal (NLS), and acetylation inhibits the aminoacylation activity of TyrRS. Molecular dynamics simulations have shown that the in silico acetylation of K244 induces conformational changes in TyrRS near the NLS, which may promote the nuclear translocation of acetylated TyrRS. Herein, we show that the acetylated K244 residue of TyrRS protects against DNA damage in mammalian cells and zebrafish by activating DNA repair genes downstream of transcription factor E2F1. Our study reveals a previously unknown mechanism by which acetylation regulates an aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase, thus affecting the repair pathways for damaged DNA. PMID:28069943

  15. TDP-43 Inhibits NF-κB Activity by Blocking p65 Nuclear Translocation

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingyan; Cynader, Max S.; Jia, William

    2015-01-01

    TDP-43 (TAR DNA binding protein 43) is a heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (hnRNP) that has been found to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases. TDP-43’s involvement in nuclear factor-kappaB pathways has been reported in both neurons and microglial cells. The NF-κB pathway targets hundreds of genes, many of which are involved in inflammation, immunity and cancer. p50/p65 (p50/RelA) heterodimers, as the major Rel complex in the NF-κB family, are induced by diverse external physiological stimuli and modulate transcriptional activity in almost all cell types. Both p65 and TDP-43 translocation occur through the classic nuclear transportation system. In this study, we report that TDP-43 overexpression prevents TNF-α induced p65 nuclear translocation in a dose dependent manner, and that this further inhibits p65 transactivation activity. The inhibition by TDP-43 does not occur through preventing IκB degradation but probably by competing for the nuclear transporter-importin α3 (KPNA4). This competition is dependent on the presence of the nuclear localization signal (NLS) in TDP-43. Silencing TDP-43 using a specific siRNA also increased p65 nuclear localization upon TNF-α stimulation, suggesting that endogenous TDP-43 may be a default suppressor of the NF-κB pathway. Our results indicate that TDP-43 may play an important role in regulating the levels of NF-κB activity by controlling the nuclear translocation of p65. PMID:26571498

  16. Non-muscle myosin IIB is critical for nuclear translocation during 3D invasion

    PubMed Central

    Yenepalli, Aishwarya; Denais, Celine Marie; Rape, Andrew; Beach, Jordan R.; Wang, Yu-li; Schiemann, William P.; Baskaran, Harihara; Lammerding, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Non-muscle myosin II (NMII) is reported to play multiple roles during cell migration and invasion. However, the exact biophysical roles of different NMII isoforms during these processes remain poorly understood. We analyzed the contributions of NMIIA and NMIIB in three-dimensional (3D) migration and in generating the forces required for efficient invasion by mammary gland carcinoma cells. Using traction force microscopy and microfluidic invasion devices, we demonstrated that NMIIA is critical for generating force during active protrusion, and NMIIB plays a major role in applying force on the nucleus to facilitate nuclear translocation through tight spaces. We further demonstrate that the nuclear membrane protein nesprin-2 is a possible linker coupling NMIIB-based force generation to nuclear translocation. Together, these data reveal a central biophysical role for NMIIB in nuclear translocation during 3D invasive migration, a result with relevance not only to cancer metastasis but for 3D migration in other settings such as embryonic cell migration and wound healing. PMID:26261182

  17. HSP72 inhibits Smad3 activation and nuclear translocation in renal epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Mao, Haiping; Li, Shu; Cao, Shirong; Li, Zhijian; Zhuang, Shougang; Fan, Jinjin; Dong, Xiuqing; Borkan, Steven C; Wang, Yihan; Yu, Xueqing

    2010-04-01

    Although heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) ameliorates renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis by inhibiting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), the underlying mechanism is unknown. Because Smad proteins transduce TGF-beta signaling from the cytosol to the nucleus and HSP72 assists in protein folding and facilitates nuclear translocation, we investigated whether HSP72 inhibits TGF-beta-induced EMT by modulating Smad expression, activation, and nuclear translocation. To evaluate the roles of distinct HSP72 structural domains in these processes, we constructed vectors that expressed wild-type HSP72 or mutants lacking either the peptide-binding domain (HSP72-DeltaPBD), which is responsible for substrate binding and refolding, or the nuclear localization signal (HSP72-DeltaNLS). Overexpression of wild-type HSP72 or HSP72-DeltaNLS inhibited TGF-beta1-induced EMT, but HSP72-DeltaPBD did not, suggesting a critical role for the PBD in this inhibition. HSP72 overexpression inhibited TGF-beta1-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of Smad3 and p-Smad3, but not Smad2; these inhibitory effects required the PBD but not the NLS. Coimmunoprecipitation assays suggested a physical interaction between Smad3 and the PBD. siRNA knockdown of endogenous HSP72 enhanced both TGF-beta1-induced Smad3 phosphorylation and EMT and confirmed the interaction of HSP72 with both Smad3 and p-Smad3. In vivo, induction of HSP72 by geranylgeranylacetone suppressed Smad3 phosphorylation in renal tubular cells after unilateral ureteral obstruction. In conclusion, HSP72 inhibits EMT in renal epithelial cells primarily by exerting domain-specific effects on Smad3 activation and nuclear translocation.

  18. Nuclear translocation of glutathione S-transferase {pi} is mediated by a non-classical localization signal

    SciTech Connect

    Kawakatsu, Miho; Goto, Shinji; Yoshida, Takako; Urata, Yoshishige; Li, Tao-Sheng

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} Nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is abrogated by the deletion of the last 16 amino acid residues in the carboxy-terminal region, indicating that residues 195-208 of GST{pi} are required for nuclear translocation. {yields} The lack of a contiguous stretch of positively charged amino acid residues within the carboxy-terminal region of GST{pi}, suggests that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is mediated by a non-classical nuclear localization signal. {yields} An in vitro transport assay shows that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} is dependent on cytosolic factors and ATP. -- Abstract: Glutathione S-transferase {pi} (GST{pi}), a member of the GST family of multifunctional enzymes, is highly expressed in human placenta and involved in the protection of cellular components against electrophilic compounds or oxidative stress. We have recently found that GST{pi} is expressed in the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and nucleus in some cancer cells, and that the nuclear expression of GST{pi} appears to correlate with resistance to anti-cancer drugs. Although the mitochondrial targeting signal of GST{pi} was previously identified in the amino-terminal region, the mechanism of nuclear translocation remains completely unknown. In this study, we find that the region of GST{pi}195-208 is critical for nuclear translocation, which is mediated by a novel and non-classical nuclear localization signal. In addition, using an in vitro transport assay, we demonstrate that the nuclear translocation of GST{pi} depends on the cytosolic extract and ATP. Although further experiments are needed to understand in depth the precise mechanism of nuclear translocation of GST{pi}, our results may help to establish more efficient anti-cancer therapy, especially with respect to resistance to anti-cancer drugs.

  19. Nuclear translocation of RanGAP1 coincides with virtual nuclear envelope breakdown in fission yeast meiosis.

    PubMed

    Asakawa, Haruhiko; Hiraoka, Yasushi; Haraguchi, Tokuko

    2011-05-01

    In higher eukaryotes, mitosis proceeds with nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) and disassembly of the nuclear pore complex (NPC); this is designated "open" mitosis. On the other hand, in many fungi, mitosis and chromosome segregation takes place without NEBD; this is designated "closed" mitosis. In a recent study on Schizosaccharomyces pombe, a closed mitosis organism, we reported a novel phenomenon that is equivalent to NEBD: a mixing of nuclear proteins and cytoplasmic proteins occurred transiently for a few minutes in meiosis without physical breakdown of the nuclear envelope. We designated this event virtual nuclear envelope breakdown (V-NEBD). In S. pombe, nuclear translocation of Rna1, a RanGAP1 homolog in S. pombe, occurs during meiosis, and this translocation of Rna1 leads to collapse of the Ran-GTP gradient across the nuclear envelope and occurs coincidently with V-NEBD. Here, we describe possible roles of RanGAP1 in V-NEBD in S. pombe and provide insights into the roles V-NEBD may play in meiosis.

  20. Death Inducer-Obliterator 1 Triggers Apoptosis after Nuclear Translocation and Caspase Upregulation

    PubMed Central

    García-Domingo, David; Ramírez, Dorian; González de Buitrago, Gonzalo; Martínez-A, Carlos

    2003-01-01

    Death inducer-obliterator 1 (DIO-1) is a gene that is upregulated early in apoptosis. Here we report that in healthy cells, the DIO-1 gene product was located in the cytoplasm, where it formed oligomers. After interleukin-3 starvation or c-Myc-induced apoptosis in serum-free conditions, DIO-1 translocated to the nucleus, where it upregulated caspase levels and activity. A nuclear localization signal deletion mutant (DIO-1ΔNLS) was unable to translocate to the nuclear compartment in the absence of interleukin-3 and failed to upregulate procaspase levels or trigger cell death. In addition, cells stably expressing DIO-1ΔNLS were protected from apoptosis induced by interleukin-3 withdrawal. These results indicate that DIO-1 has a relevant role in regulating the early stages of cell death. PMID:12697821

  1. Nuclear translocation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 and its significance in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Yao, Lu-Tian; Liang, Zhi-Yong; Zhou, Wei-Xun; You, Lei; Shao, Qian-Qian; Huang, Shuai; Guo, Jun-Chao; Zhao, Yu-Pei

    2015-01-01

    Nuclear translocation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) was previously observed in some kinds of cancer. However, whether the phenomenon occurs in pancreatic cancer (PC), a malignancy with very dismal prognosis, remains unknown. In the present study, FGFR3 expression was firstly detected by Western blot and immunohistochemical staining in specimens of PC. Then, its correlations with clinicopathologic features and patient survival were evaluated. It was shown that FGFR3 was highly expressed in all the nuclear extracts, but in only one out of four whole tissue lysates, of tumor tissues, in contrast to those of non-tumor ones. Using immunohistochemistry, nuclear expression of FGFR3 was found to mainly locate in tumor cells, and was significantly associated with N stage. Furthermore, high FGFR3 nuclear expression was revealed to be associated with poor overall and disease-free survival in univariate analysis. For overall survival in the whole cohort and disease-free survival in patients with curative resection, high nuclear expression of FGFR3 was significant or marginally significant in multivariate analysis. However, its cytoplasmic expression was not related to clinical, pathologic variables and prognosis. These data suggest that nuclear translocation of FGFR3 is frequent and carries clinicopathologic as well as prognostic significances in PC.

  2. AIRE-induced apoptosis is associated with nuclear translocation of stress sensor protein GAPDH

    SciTech Connect

    Liiv, Ingrid; Haljasorg, Uku; Kisand, Kai; Maslovskaja, Julia; Laan, Martti; Peterson, Paert

    2012-06-22

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE induces apoptosis in epithelial cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CARD domain of AIRE is sufficient for apoptosis induction. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer AIRE induced apoptosis involves GAPDH translocation to the nuclei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Deprenyl inhibits AIRE induced apoptosis. -- Abstract: AIRE (Autoimmune Regulator) has a central role in the transcriptional regulation of self-antigens in medullary thymic epithelial cells, which is necessary for negative selection of autoreactive T cells. Recent data have shown that AIRE can also induce apoptosis, which may be linked to cross-presentation of these self-antigens. Here we studied AIRE-induced apoptosis using AIRE over-expression in a thymic epithelial cell line as well as doxycycline-inducible HEK293 cells. We show that the HSR/CARD domain in AIRE together with a nuclear localization signal is sufficient to induce apoptosis. In the nuclei of AIRE-positive cells, we also found an increased accumulation of a glycolytic enzyme, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate (GAPDH) reflecting cellular stress and apoptosis. Additionally, AIRE-induced apoptosis was inhibited with an anti-apoptotic agent deprenyl that blocks GAPDH nitrosylation and nuclear translocation. We propose that the AIRE-induced apoptosis pathway is associated with GAPDH nuclear translocation and induction of NO-induced cellular stress in AIRE-expressing cells.

  3. Free Radicals Generated by Ionizing Radiation Signal Nuclear Translocation of p53

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martinez, J. D.; Pennington, M. E.; Craven, M. T.; Warters, R. L.

    1997-01-01

    The p53 tumor suppressor is a transcription factor that regulates several pathways, which function collectively to maintain the integrity of the genome. Nuclear localization is critical for wild-type function. However, the signals that regulate subcellular localization of p53 have not been identified. Here, we examine the effect of ionizing radiation on the subcellular localization of p53 in two cell lines in which p63 is normally sequestered in the cytoplasm and found that ionizing radiation caused a biphasic translocation response. p53 entered the nucleus 1-2 hours postirradiation (early response), subsequently emerged from the nucleus, and then again entered the nucleus 12-24 hours after the cells had been irradiated (delayed response). These changes in subcellular localization could be completely blocked by the free radical scavenger, WR1065. By comparison, two DNA-damaging agents that do not generate free radicals, mitomycin C and doxorubicin, caused translocation only after 12-24 h of exposure to the drugs, and this effect could not be inhibited by WR1065. Hence, although all three DNA-damaging agents induced relocalization of p53 to the nucleus, only the translocation caused by radiation was sensitive to free radical scavenging. We suggest that the free radicals generated by ionizing radiation can signal p53 translocation to the nucleus.

  4. Downregulation of Iduna is associated with AIF nuclear translocation in neonatal brain after hypoxia-ischemia.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaoxia; Cheng, Jianhua; Gao, Yubo; Ding, Juan; Ni, Xinli

    2017-03-27

    In adult stroke models, the neuroprotective protein, Iduna, inhibits poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 (PARP-1)-dependent cell death by decreasing apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation. Because the PARP1-dependent pathway and Iduna, which promotes AIF degradation, contribute to hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain damage in the immature brain, we examined the relationship between Iduna expression and AIF nuclear translocation in the cerebral cortex of postnatal day 7 rats after HI. Ninety rats were divided into three groups: sham, 1-h hypoxia and 2-h hypoxia. The HI insult was induced by permanent ligation of the left common carotid artery plus 1 or 2h of hypoxia. Brain damage pathological features were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, Nissl staining, transmission electron microscopy, TUNEL staining and immunofluorescence. Immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis were used to assess protein expression and ubiquitination status of AIF. The interaction between Iduna and AIF was tested by co-immunoprecipitation. Learning and memory were analyzed by the Morris water maze test. Compared with sham animals, the number of surviving neurons in the cerebral cortex decreased, and cell damage and DNA breakage were severe in rats with HI, with worse damage in the 2-h group. Iduna expression significantly decreased, whereas nuclear AIF expression increased. Furthermore, Iduna downregulation negatively correlated with nuclear AIF abundance in the 2-h HI group (r=-0.950; P<0.0001). Additionally, learning and memory ability decreased with hypoxic time. These results suggest that AIF nuclear translocation and neuronal cell death are associated with Iduna loss after severe HI in the immature brain.

  5. Yes and Lyn play a role in nuclear translocation of the epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Iida, M; Brand, T M; Campbell, D A; Li, C; Wheeler, D L

    2013-02-07

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a central regulator of tumor progression in human cancers. Cetuximab is an anti-EGFR antibody that has been approved for use in oncology. Previously we investigated mechanisms of resistance to cetuximab using a model derived from the non-small cell lung cancer line NCI-H226. We demonstrated that cetuximab-resistant clones (Ctx(R)) had increased nuclear localization of the EGFR. This process was mediated by Src family kinases (SFKs), and nuclear EGFR had a role in resistance to cetuximab. To better understand SFK-mediated nuclear translocation of EGFR, we investigated which SFK member(s) controlled this process as well as the EGFR tyrosine residues that are involved. Analyses of mRNA and protein expression indicated upregulation of the SFK members Yes (v-Yes-1 yamaguchi sarcoma viral oncogene) and Lyn (v-yes-1 Yamaguchi sarcoma viral-related oncogene homolog) in all Ctx(R) clones. Further, immunoprecipitation analysis revealed that EGFR interacts with Yes and Lyn in Ctx(R) clones, but not in cetuximab-sensitive (Ctx(S)) parental cells. Using RNAi interference, we found that knockdown of either Yes or Lyn led to loss of EGFR translocation to the nucleus. Conversely, overexpression of Yes or Lyn in low nuclear EGFR-expressing Ctx(S) parental cells led to increased nuclear EGFR. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays confirmed nuclear EGFR complexes associated with the promoter of the known EGFR target genes B-Myb and iNOS. Further, all Ctx(R) clones exhibited upregulation of B-Myb and iNOS at the mRNA and protein levels. siRNAs directed at Yes or Lyn led to decreased binding of EGFR complexes to the B-Myb and iNOS promoters based on ChIP analyses. SFKs have been shown to phosphorylate EGFR on tyrosines 845 and 1101 (Y845 and Y1101), and mutation of Y1101, but not Y845, impaired nuclear entry of the EGFR. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that Yes and Lyn phosphorylate EGFR at Y1101, which influences EGFR

  6. Evidence that the beta-catenin nuclear translocation assay allows for measuring presenilin 1 dysfunction.

    PubMed Central

    Van Gassen, G.; De Jonghe, C.; Nishimura, M.; Yu, G.; Kuhn, S.; St George-Hyslop, P.; Van Broeckhoven, C.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Mutations in the presenilin (PSEN) genes are responsible for the majority of early-onset Alzheimer disease (AD) cases. PSEN1 is a component of a high molecular weight, endoplasmic reticulum, membrane-bound protein complex, including beta-catenin. Pathogenic PSEN1 mutations were demonstrated to have an effect on beta-catenin and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta(GSK-3beta), two members of the wingless Wnt pathway. The nuclear translocation and the stability of beta-catenin, and the interaction between GSK3beta and PSEN1 were influenced. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stably transfected human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells overexpressing wild-type (wt) and mutant (mt) PSEN1, treated with and without LiCl, were used to isolate cytoplasmic and nuclear fractions. By Western blot analysis, endogenous beta-catenin levels were examined. By analyzing cytosolic fractions of PSEN1, transfected and nontransfected HEK 293 cells, and total brain extracts of AD patients and controls, we evaluated the effect of PSEN1 overexpression on beta-catenin stability. Finally, we analyzed the effect of pathogenic PSEN1 mutations on the interaction between PSEN1 and GSK3beta by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. RESULTS: We report reduced nuclear translocation of beta-catenin in cells stably expressing I143T, G384A, and T113-114ins PSEN1. The G384A PSEN1 mutation showed a similar pronounced effect on nuclear translocation of beta-catenin, as reported for processing of amyloid precursor protein (APP) into amyloid beta(Abeta). Overexpression of PSEN1 and the presence of pathogenic mutations in PSEN1 had no significant effect on the stability of beta-catenin. Nonspecific binding of overexpressed PSEN1 to endogenous GSK3beta was observed when GSK3beta was immunoprecipitated. Immunoprecipitation of PSEN1 in cells overexpressing PSEN1 and in native cells, however, did not result in co-immunoprecipitation of endogenous GSK3beta. CONCLUSION: Our results further establish the nuclear

  7. Role of AIP and its homologue the blindness-associated protein AIPL1 in regulating client protein nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    van der Spuy, J; Cheetham, M E

    2004-08-01

    Mutations in the AIPL1 (aryl hydrocarbon receptor interacting protein-like 1) cause the blinding disease Leber's congenital amaurosis. AIPL1 is a homologue of the AIP. AIP functions as part of a chaperone heterocomplex to facilitate signalling by the AhR and plays an important role in regulating the nuclear translocation of the receptor. We review the evidence for the role of AIP in protein translocation and compare the potential functions of AIPL1 in the translocation of its interacting partner the NEDD8 ultimate buster protein 1.

  8. Real-time imaging nuclear translocation of Akt1 in HCC cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Li; Li, Jinjun; He, Xianghuo

    2007-05-18

    Akt is one of the critical mediators in cellular signaling, and overactivation of Akt related pathway frequently occurs in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In this study, we presented that Akt was upregulated in HCC cell lines, and its active phosphorylated form was mainly located in the nucleus. Employing the laser confocal techniques for imaging intracellular protein dynamics, we monitored the transnuclear movement of GFP-tagged wild-type Akt1 (Akt1-WT-GFP) and its inactive mutant (Akt1-T308A/S473A-GFP) in live SMMC-7721 HCC cells, and both of fusion proteins were found to distribute over the cytoplasm and nucleus. Moreover, it was found that platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) was able to accelerate the nuclear translocation of wild-type Akt1 in HCC cells but failed to speed up the motion of the mutant. It was demonstrated that activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and Akt1 facilitated the nuclear translocation of Akt1, but the phosphorylation at threonine 308 and serine 473 was not prerequisite.

  9. Nuclear Translocation of Crk Adaptor Proteins by the Influenza A Virus NS1 Protein

    PubMed Central

    Ylösmäki, Leena; Fagerlund, Riku; Kuisma, Inka; Julkunen, Ilkka; Saksela, Kalle

    2016-01-01

    The non-structural protein-1 (NS1) of many influenza A strains, especially those of avian origin, contains an SH3 ligand motif, which binds tightly to the cellular adaptor proteins Crk (Chicken tumor virus number 10 (CT10) regulator of kinase) and Crk-like adapter protein (CrkL). This interaction has been shown to potentiate NS1-induced activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), but additional effects on the host cell physiology may exist. Here we show that NS1 can induce an efficient translocation of Crk proteins from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, which results in an altered pattern of nuclear protein tyrosine phosphorylation. This was not observed using NS1 proteins deficient in SH3 binding or engineered to be exclusively cytoplasmic, indicating a physical role for NS1 as a carrier in the nuclear translocation of Crk. These data further emphasize the role of Crk proteins as host cell interaction partners of NS1, and highlight the potential for host cell manipulation gained by a viral protein simply via acquiring a short SH3 binding motif. PMID:27092521

  10. Nuclear translocation of phospholipase C-zeta, an egg-activating factor, during early embryonic development

    SciTech Connect

    Sone, Yoshie; Ito, Masahiko; Shirakawa, Hideki; Shikano, Tomohide; Takeuchi, Hiroyuki; Kinoshita, Katsuyuki; Miyazaki, Shunichi . E-mail: shunm@research.twmu.ac.jp

    2005-05-13

    Phospholipase C-zeta (PLC{zeta}), a strong candidate of the egg-activating sperm factor, causes intracellular Ca{sup 2+} oscillations and egg activation, and is subsequently accumulated into the pronucleus (PN), when expressed in mouse eggs by injection of RNA encoding PLC{zeta}. Changes in the localization of expressed PLC{zeta} were investigated by tagging with a fluorescent protein. PLC{zeta} began to translocate into the PN formed at 5-6 h after RNA injection and increased there. Observation in the same embryo revealed that PLC{zeta} in the PN dispersed to the cytoplasm upon nuclear envelope breakdown and translocated again into the nucleus after cleavage. The dynamics was found in the second mitosis as well. When RNA was injected into fertilization-originated 1-cell embryos or blastomere(s) of 2-8-cell embryos, the nuclear localization of expressed PLC{zeta} was recognized in every embryo up to blastocyst. Thus, PLC{zeta} exhibited alternative cytoplasm/nucleus localization during development. This supports the view that the sperm factor could control cell cycle-dependent generation of Ca{sup 2+} oscillations in early embryogenesis.

  11. Drs2p-related P-type ATPases Dnf1p and Dnf2p Are Required for Phospholipid Translocation across the Yeast Plasma Membrane and Serve a Role in Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Pomorski, Thomas; Lombardi, Ruben; Riezman, Howard; Devaux, Philippe F.; van Meer, Gerrit; Holthuis, Joost C. M.

    2003-01-01

    Plasma membranes in eukaryotic cells display asymmetric lipid distributions with aminophospholipids concentrated in the inner and sphingolipids in the outer leaflet. This asymmetry is maintained by ATP-driven lipid transporters whose identities are unknown. The yeast plasma membrane contains two P-type ATPases, Dnf1p and Dnf2p, with structural similarity to ATPase II, a candidate aminophospholipid translocase from bovine chromaffin granules. Loss of Dnf1p and Dnf2p virtually abolished ATP-dependent transport of NBD-labeled phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylserine, and phosphatidylcholine from the outer to the inner plasma membrane leaflet, leaving transport of sphingolipid analogs unaffected. Labeling with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid revealed that the amount of phosphatidylethanolamine exposed on the surface of Δdnf1Δdnf2 cells increased twofold relative to wild-type cells. Phosphatidylethanolamine exposure by Δdnf1Δdnf2 cells further increased upon removal of Drs2p, an ATPase II homolog in the yeast Golgi. These changes in lipid topology were accompanied by a cold-sensitive defect in the uptake of markers for bulk-phase and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Our findings demonstrate a requirement for Dnf1p and Dnf2p in lipid translocation across the yeast plasma membrane. Moreover, it appears that Dnf1p, Dnf2p and Drs2p each help regulate the transbilayer lipid arrangement in the plasma membrane, and that this regulation is critical for budding endocytic vesicles. PMID:12631737

  12. MAP kinase-signaling controls nuclear translocation of tripeptidyl-peptidase II in response to DNA damage and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Preta, Giulio; Klark, Rainier de; Chakraborti, Shankhamala; Glas, Rickard

    2010-08-27

    Research highlights: {yields} Nuclear translocation of TPPII occurs in response to different DNA damage inducers. {yields} Nuclear accumulation of TPPII is linked to ROS and anti-oxidant enzyme levels. {yields} MAPKs control nuclear accumulation of TPPII. {yields} Inhibited nuclear accumulation of TPPII decreases DNA damage-induced {gamma}-H2AX expression. -- Abstract: Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are a continuous hazard in eukaroytic cells by their ability to cause damage to biomolecules, in particular to DNA. Previous data indicated that the cytosolic serine peptidase tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII) translocates into the nucleus of most tumor cell lines in response to {gamma}-irradiation and ROS production; an event that promoted p53 expression as well as caspase-activation. We here observed that nuclear translocation of TPPII was dependent on signaling by MAP kinases, including p38MAPK. Further, this was caused by several types of DNA-damaging drugs, a DNA cross-linker (cisplatinum), an inhibitor of topoisomerase II (etoposide), and to some extent also by nucleoside-analogues (5-fluorouracil, hydroxyurea). In the minority of tumor cell lines where TPPII was not translocated into the nucleus in response to DNA damage we observed reduced intracellular ROS levels, and the expression levels of redox defense systems were increased. Further, treatment with the ROS-inducer {gamma}-hexa-chloro-cyclohexane ({gamma}-HCH, lindane), an inhibitor of GAP junctions, restored nuclear translocation of TPPII in these cell lines upon {gamma}-irradiation. Moreover, blocking nuclear translocation of TPPII in etoposide-treated cells, by using a peptide-derived inhibitor (Z-Gly-Leu-Ala-OH), attenuated expression of {gamma}-H2AX in {gamma}-irradiated melanoma cells. Our results indicated a role for TPPII in MAPK-dependent DNA damage signaling.

  13. Nuclear translocation of the cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, upon induction of skeletal muscle differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Cambier, Linda; Pomies, Pascal

    2011-06-17

    Highlights: {yields} The cytoskeleton-associated protein, smALP, is expressed in differentiated skeletal muscle. {yields} smALP is translocated from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts upon induction of myogenesis. {yields} The differentiation-dependent nuclear translocation of smALP occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. {yields} The LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear accumulation of the protein. {yields} smALP might act in the nucleus to control some critical aspect of the muscle differentiation process. -- Abstract: The skALP isoform has been shown to play a critical role in actin organization and anchorage within the Z-discs of skeletal muscles, but no data is available on the function of the smALP isoform in skeletal muscle cells. Here, we show that upon induction of differentiation a nuclear translocation of smALP from the cytoplasm to the nucleus of C2C12 myoblasts, concomitant to an up-regulation of the protein expression, occurs in parallel with the nuclear accumulation of myogenin. Moreover, we demonstrate that the LIM domain of smALP is essential for the nuclear translocation of the protein.

  14. SCARB2/LIMP-2 Regulates IFN Production of Plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells by Mediating Endosomal Translocation of TLR9 and Nuclear Translocation of IRF7

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Hao; Zhang, Jialong; Zhang, Xuyuan; Wang, Yanbing; Yu, Haisheng; Yin, Xiangyun; Li, Jingyun; Du, Peishuang; Plumas, Joel; Chaperot, Laurence; Chen, Jianzhu; Su, Lishan; Liu, Yongjun; Zhang, Liguo

    2015-01-01

    Scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) is essential for endosome biogenesis and reorganization and serves as a receptor for both β-glucocerebrosidase and enterovirus 71. However, little is known about its function in innate immune cells. In this study, we show that, among human peripheral blood cells, SCARB2 is most highly expressed in plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs), and its expression is further upregulated by CpG oligodeoxynucleotide stimulation. Knockdown of SCARB2 in pDC cell line GEN2.2 dramatically reduces CpG-induced type I IFN production. Detailed studies reveal that SCARB2 localizes in late endosome/lysosome of pDCs, and knockdown of SCARB2 does not affect CpG oligodeoxynucleotide uptake but results in the retention of TLR9 in the endoplasmic reticulum and an impaired nuclear translocation of IFN regulatory factor 7. The IFN-I production by TLR7 ligand stimulation is also impaired by SCARB2 knockdown. However, SCARB2 is not essential for influenza virus or HSV-induced IFN-I production. These findings suggest that SCARB2 regulates TLR9-dependent IFN-I production of pDCs by mediating endosomal translocation of TLR9 and nuclear translocation of IFN regulatory factor 7. PMID:25862818

  15. Single-molecule conductance measurements of biomolecule translocation across biomimetic nuclear pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dekker, Cees

    2012-02-01

    After a brief overview of our recent work on solid-state nanopores, I will present single-molecule transport data across biomimetic nanopores that contain the key regulating parts of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). The mechanism for the remarkable selectivity of NPCs has remained unclear in a large part due to difficulties in designing experiments that can probe the transport at the relevant length and time scales. Building and measuring on biomimetic NPCs provides new opportunities to address this long-standing problem. covalently tether the natively unfolded Phe-Gly rich domains (FG-domains) of human nuclear binding proteins to a solid-state nanopore (a 10-100 nm sized hole in a SiN membrane). Ionic current measurements provide a probe to monitor single molecules that traverse the pore. Translocation events are observed for transport receptors (Impβ), whereas transport of passive molecules (BSA) is found to be blocked. Interestingly, a single type of nuclear pore proteins appears already sufficient to form a selective barrier for transport. A translocation time of about 2.5 ms is measured for Impβ. This time is found to be similar for transport across Nup153 and Nup98 coated pores, although the observed ionic conductance differs between these two types of pores. We compare two simple models for the pore conductance and find, for both Nups, that the data fits best to a model with an open central channel and a condensed layer along the outer circumference of the pore. reproducing the key features of the NPC, our biomimetic approach opens the way to study a wide variety of nucleo-cytoplasmic transport processes at the single-molecule level in vitro.

  16. Sulfur mustard induced nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH).

    PubMed

    Steinritz, Dirk; Weber, Jana; Balszuweit, Frank; Thiermann, Horst; Schmidt, Annette

    2013-12-05

    Sulfur Mustard (SM) is a vesicant chemical warfare agent, which is acutely toxic to a variety of organ systems including skin, eyes, respiratory system and bone marrow. The underlying molecular pathomechanism was mainly attributed to the alkylating properties of SM. However, recent studies have revealed that cellular responses to SM exposure are of more complex nature and include increased protein expression and protein modifications that can be used as biomarkers. In order to confirm already known biomarkers, to detect potential new ones and to further elucidate the pathomechanism of SM, we conducted large-scale proteomic experiments based on a human keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT) exposed to SM. Surprisingly, our analysis identified glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as one of the up-regulated proteins after exposure of HaCaT cells to SM. In this paper we demonstrate the sulfur mustard induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH in HaCaT cells by 2D gel-electrophoresis (2D GE), immunocytochemistry (ICC), Western Blot (WB) and a combination thereof. 2D GE in combination with MALDI-TOF MS/MS analysis identified GAPDH as an up-regulated protein after SM exposure. Immunocytochemistry revealed a distinct nuclear translocation of GAPDH after exposure to 300μM SM. This finding was confirmed by fractionated WB analysis. 2D GE and subsequent immunoblot staining of GAPDH demonstrated two different spot locations of GAPH (pI 7.0 and pI 8.5) that are related to cytosolic or nuclear GAPDH respectively. After exposure to 300μM SM a significant increase of nuclear GAPDH at pI 8.5 occurred. Nuclear GAPDH has been associated with apoptosis, detection of structural DNA alterations, DNA repair and regulation of genomic integrity and telomere structure. The results of our study add new aspects to the pathophysiology of sulfur mustard toxicity, yet further studies will be necessary to reveal the specific function of nuclear GAPDH in the pathomechanism of sulfur mustard.

  17. Nuclear translocation of doublecortin-like protein kinase and phosphorylation of a transcription factor JDP2

    SciTech Connect

    Nagamine, Tadashi; Nomada, Shohgo; Onouchi, Takashi; Kameshita, Isamu; Sueyoshi, Noriyuki

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Doublecortin-like protein kinase (DCLK) is a microtubule-associated protein kinase. • In living cells, DCLK was cleaved into two functional fragments. • zDCLK(kinase) was translocated into the nucleus by osmotic stresses. • Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2) was identified as zDCLK(kinase)-binding protein. • JDP2 was efficiently phosphorylated by zDCLK(kinase) only when histone was present. - Abstract: Doublecortin-like protein kinase (DCLK) is a microtubule-associated protein kinase predominantly expressed in brain. In a previous paper, we reported that zebrafish DCLK2 (zDCLK) was cleaved into two functional fragments; the N-terminal zDCLK(DC + SP) with microtubule-binding activity and the C-terminal zDCLK(kinase) with a Ser/Thr protein kinase activity. In this study, we demonstrated that zDCLK(kinase) was widely distributed in the cytoplasm and translocated into the nucleus when the cells were treated under hyperosmotic conditions with NaCl or mannitol. By two-hybrid screening using the C-terminal domain of DCLK, Jun dimerization protein 2 (JDP2), a nuclear transcription factor, was identified as zDCLK(kinase)-binding protein. Furthermore, JDP2 served as an efficient substrate for zDCLK(kinase) only when histone was present. These results suggest that the kinase fragment of DCLK is translocated into the nucleus upon hyperosmotic stresses and that the kinase efficiently phosphorylates JDP2, a possible target in the nucleus, with the aid of histones.

  18. Uptake and translocation of radiocesium in cedar leaves following the Fukushima nuclear accident.

    PubMed

    Nishikiori, Tatsuhiro; Watanabe, Mirai; Koshikawa, Masami K; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Ishii, Yumiko; Ito, Shoko; Takenaka, Akio; Watanabe, Keiji; Hayashi, Seiji

    2015-01-01

    Cryptomeria japonica trees in the area surrounding Fukushima, Japan, intercepted (137)Cs present in atmospheric deposits soon after the Fukushima nuclear accident in March 2011. To study the uptake and translocation of (137)Cs in C. japonica leaves, we analyzed activity concentrations of (137)Cs and the concentration ratios of (137)Cs to (133)Cs ((137)Cs/(133)Cs) in old and new leaves of C. japonica collected from a forest on Mount Tsukuba between 9 and 15 months after the accident. Both isotopes were also analyzed in throughfall, bulk precipitation and soil extracts. Water of atmospheric and soil origin were used as proxies for deciphering the absorption from leaf surfaces and root systems, respectively. Results indicate that 20-40% of foliar (137)Cs existed inside the leaf, while 60-80% adhered to the leaf surface. The (137)Cs/(133)Cs ratios inside leaves that had sprouted before the accident were considerably higher than that of the soil extract and lower than that of throughfall and bulk precipitation. Additionally, more than 80% of (137)Cs in throughfall and bulk precipitation was present in the dissolved form, which is available for foliar uptake, indicating that a portion of the (137)Cs inside old leaves was presumably absorbed from the leaf surface. New leaves that sprouted after the accident had similar (137)Cs/(133)Cs ratios to that of the old leaves, suggesting that internal (137)Cs was translocated from old to new leaves. For 17 species of woody plants other than C. japonica, new leaves that sprouted after the accident also contained (137)Cs, and their (137)Cs/(133)Cs ratios were equal to or higher than that of the soil extract. These results suggested that foliar uptake and further translocation of (137)Cs is an important vector of contamination in various tree species during or just after radioactive fallout.

  19. Identification of a 120-kDa protein associated with aromatic hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator.

    PubMed

    Hossain, A; Kikuchi, H; Ikawa, S; Sagami, I; Watanabe, M

    1995-07-06

    The aromatic hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) is a basic helix-loop-helix-PAS protein which forms a heterodimer with aromatic hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), this heterodimer mediating the signal transduction in response to the various xenobiotics such as 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and directly interacting with target genes by binding to xenobiotic responsive elements. An anti-ARNT antibody was raised in rabbits against the bacterially expressed ARNT of amino acids 21-328 from the N-terminal. Using this antibody, besides ARNT itself, we detected at least one protein, 120 kDa, in the immunoprecipitate of anti-ARNT antibodies in HepG2 cells as well as in Hepa-1 cells. However, this protein is not present in the immunoprecipitate of the anti-AHR antisera nor in that of the preimmune sera of the rabbits used for the immunization.

  20. Cyclic AMP regulates the expression and nuclear translocation of RFC40 in MCF7 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gupte, Rakhee S. . E-mail: rakhee_gupte@nymc.edu; Sampson, Valerie; Traganos, Frank; Darzynkiewicz, Zbigniew; Lee, Marietta Y.W.T.

    2006-04-01

    We have previously shown that the regulatory subunit of PKA, RI{alpha}, functions as a nuclear transport protein for the second subunit of the replication factor C complex, RFC40, and that this transport appears to be crucial for cell cycle progression from G1 to S phase. In this study, we found that N {sup 6}-monobutyryl cAMP significantly up-regulates the expression of RFC40 mRNA by 1.8-fold and its endogenous protein by 2.3-fold with a subsequent increase in the RI{alpha}-RFC40 complex formation by 3.2-fold. Additionally, the nuclear to cytoplasmic ratio of RFC40 increased by 26% followed by a parallel increase in the percentage of S phase cells by 33%. However, there was reduction in the percentage of G1 cells by 16% and G2/M cells by 43% with a concurrent accumulation of cells in S phase. Interestingly, the higher percentage of S phase cells did not correlate with a parallel increase in DNA replication. Moreover, although cAMP did not affect the expression of the other RFC subunits, there was a significant decrease in the RFC40-37 complex formation by 81.3%, substantiating the decrease in DNA replication rate. Taken together, these findings suggest that cAMP functions as an upstream modulator that regulates the expression and nuclear translocation of RFC40.

  1. Stress response decreases NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and increases I-kappaBalpha expression in A549 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Wong, H R; Ryan, M; Wispé, J R

    1997-01-01

    The stress response and stress proteins confer protection against diverse forms of cellular and tissue injury, including acute lung injury. The stress response can inhibit nonstress protein gene expression, therefore transcriptional inhibition of proinflammatory responses could be a mechanism of protection against acute lung injury. To explore this possibility, we determined the effects of the stress response on nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF-kappaB, an important regulator of proinflammatory gene expression. In A549 cells induction of the stress response decreased tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-mediated NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. TNF-alpha initiates NF-kappaB nuclear translocation by causing dissociation of the inhibitory protein I-kappaBalpha from NF-kappaB and rapid degradation of I-kappaBalpha. Prior induction of the stress response inhibited TNF-alpha-mediated dissociation of I-kappaBalpha from NF-kappaB and subsequent degradation of I-kappaBalpha. Induction of the stress response also increased expression of I-kappaBalpha. We conclude that the stress response affects NFkappaB-mediated gene regulation by two independent mechanisms. The stress response stabilizes I-kappaBalpha and induces expression of I-kappaBalpha. The composite result of these two effects is to decrease NF-kappaB nuclear translocation. We speculate that the protective effect of the stress response against acute lung injury involves a similar effect on the I-kappaB/NF-kappaB pathway. PMID:9153285

  2. Nuclear translocation uncovers the amyloid peptide Aβ42 as a regulator of gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Barucker, Christian; Harmeier, Anja; Weiske, Joerg; Fauler, Beatrix; Albring, Kai Frederik; Prokop, Stefan; Hildebrand, Peter; Lurz, Rudi; Heppner, Frank L; Huber, Otmar; Multhaup, Gerhard

    2014-07-18

    Although soluble species of the amyloid-β peptide Aβ42 correlate with disease symptoms in Alzheimer disease, little is known about the biological activities of amyloid-β (Aβ). Here, we show that Aβ peptides varying in lengths from 38 to 43 amino acids are internalized by cultured neuroblastoma cells and can be found in the nucleus. By three independent methods, we demonstrate direct detection of nuclear Aβ42 as follows: (i) biochemical analysis of nuclear fractions; (ii) detection of biotin-labeled Aβ in living cells by confocal laser scanning microscopy; and (iii) transmission electron microscopy of Aβ in cultured cells, as well as brain tissue of wild-type and transgenic APPPS1 mice (overexpression of amyloid precursor protein and presenilin 1 with Swedish and L166P mutations, respectively). Also, this study details a novel role for Aβ42 in nuclear signaling, distinct from the amyloid precursor protein intracellular domain. Chromatin immunoprecipitation showed that Aβ42 specifically interacts as a repressor of gene transcription with LRP1 and KAI1 promoters. By quantitative RT-PCR, we confirmed that mRNA levels of the examined candidate genes were exclusively decreased by the potentially neurotoxic Aβ42 wild-type peptide. Shorter peptides (Aβ38 or Aβ40) and other longer peptides (nontoxic Aβ42 G33A substitution or Aβ43) did not affect mRNA levels. Overall, our data indicate that the nuclear translocation of Aβ42 impacts gene regulation, and deleterious effects of Aβ42 in Alzheimer disease pathogenesis may be influenced by altering the expression profiles of disease-modifying genes.

  3. Methylseleninic acid promotes antitumour effects via nuclear FOXO3a translocation through Akt inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Tarrado-Castellarnau, Míriam; Cortés, Roldán; Zanuy, Miriam; Tarragó-Celada, Josep; Polat, Ibrahim H.; Hill, Richard; Fan, Teresa W.; Link, Wolfgang; Cascante, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Selenium supplement has been shown in clinical trials to reduce the risk of different cancers including lung carcinoma. Previous studies reported that the antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic activities of methylseleninic acid (MSA) in cancer cells could be mediated by inhibition of the PI3K pathway. A better understanding of the downstream cellular targets of MSA will provide information on its mechanism of action and will help to optimise its use in combination therapies with PI3K inhibitors. For this study, the effects of MSA on viability, cell cycle, metabolism, apoptosis, protein and mRNA expression, and Reactive Oxygen Species production were analysed in A549 cells. FOXO3a subcellular localisation was examined in A549 cells and in stably transfected human osteosarcoma U2foxRELOC cells. Our results demonstrate that MSA induces FOXO3a nuclear translocation in A549 cells and in U2OS cells that stably express GFP-FOXO3a. Interestingly, sodium selenite, another selenium compound, did not induce any significant effects on FOXO3a translocation despite inducing apoptosis. Single strand break of DNA, disruption of tumour cell metabolic adaptations, decrease in ROS production, and cell cycle arrest in G1 accompanied by induction of apoptosis are late events occurring after 24 h of MSA treatment in A549 cells. Our findings suggest that FOXO3a is a relevant mediator of the antiproliferative effects of MSA. This new evidence on the mechanistic action of MSA can open new avenues in exploiting its antitumour properties and in the optimal design of novel combination therapies. We present MSA as a promising chemotherapeutic agent with synergistic antiproliferative effects with cisplatin. PMID:26375988

  4. Nuclear translocation of NF-κB in intact human gut tissue upon stimulation with coffee and roasting products.

    PubMed

    Sauer, Tanja; Raithel, Martin; Kressel, Jürgen; Muscat, Sonja; Münch, Gerald; Pischetsrieder, Monika

    2011-09-01

    In the healthy gut, NF-κB is a critical factor of the intestinal immune system, whereas inflammatory bowel diseases are associated with chronic activation of NF-κB. Previous studies indicated that coffee induces nuclear translocation of NF-κB in macrophages, an effect attributed to roasting products. In the present work, coffee extract or roasting products induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB in macrophages, Caco-2 cells, and primary human intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (up to fivefold, p<0.001). Since the effect clearly depended on the cell type, ex vivo experiments were performed with intact human gut tissue from biopsies. The uniformity of the specimens and tissue viability during ex vivo incubation for up to 2 h were verified. Roasting products led to a concentration dependent significant increase of nuclear translocation of NF-κB in human gut tissue (up to 2.85 fold increase, p=0.0321), whereas coffee extract induced a trend towards higher nuclear NF-κB concentration. NF-κB activation in macrophages and Caco-2 cells by roasting products was significantly blocked by co-incubation with catalase (p=0.011 and p=0.024) indicating involvement of H(2)O(2)-signaling. Monitoring of extracellular H(2)O(2) indicated that roasting products in coffee constantly generate H(2)O(2) by spontaneous oxygen reduction, which is only partially detoxified by cellular antioxidative systems. Thus, it can be concluded that ex vivo stimulation of intact human gut tissue is a valuable model to study nutritional effects on complex tissue systems. Furthermore, the consumption of coffee and roasting products may be able to induce nuclear NF-κB translocation in the human gut.

  5. Syntaxin 6-mediated Golgi translocation plays an important role in nuclear functions of EGFR through microtubule-dependent trafficking

    PubMed Central

    Du, Y; Shen, J; Hsu, JL; Han, Z; Hsu, M-C; Yang, C-C; Kuo, H-P; Wang, Y-N; Yamaguchi, H; Miller, SA; Hung, M-C

    2013-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are cell surface receptors that initiate signal cascades in response to ligand stimulation. Abnormal expression and dysregulated intracellular trafficking of RTKs have been shown to be involved in tumorigenesis. Recent evidence shows that these cell surface receptors translocate from cell surface to different cellular compartments, including the Golgi, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the nucleus, to regulate physiological and pathological functions. Although some trafficking mechanisms have been resolved, the mechanism of intracellular trafficking from cell surface to the Golgi is not yet completely understood. Here we report a mechanism of Golgi translocation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in which EGF-induced EGFR travels to the Golgi via microtubule-dependent movement by interacting with dynein and fuses with the Golgi through syntaxin 6-mediated membrane fusion. We also demonstrate that the microtubule- and syntaxin 6-mediated Golgi translocation of EGFR is necessary for its consequent nuclear translocation and nuclear functions. Thus, together with previous studies, the microtubule- and syntaxin 6-mediated trafficking pathway from cell surface to the Golgi, ER and the nucleus defines a comprehensive trafficking route for EGFR to travel from cell surface to the Golgi and the nucleus. PMID:23376851

  6. Syntaxin 6-mediated Golgi translocation plays an important role in nuclear functions of EGFR through microtubule-dependent trafficking.

    PubMed

    Du, Y; Shen, J; Hsu, J L; Han, Z; Hsu, M-C; Yang, C-C; Kuo, H-P; Wang, Y-N; Yamaguchi, H; Miller, S A; Hung, M-C

    2014-02-06

    Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are cell surface receptors that initiate signal cascades in response to ligand stimulation. Abnormal expression and dysregulated intracellular trafficking of RTKs have been shown to be involved in tumorigenesis. Recent evidence shows that these cell surface receptors translocate from cell surface to different cellular compartments, including the Golgi, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the nucleus, to regulate physiological and pathological functions. Although some trafficking mechanisms have been resolved, the mechanism of intracellular trafficking from cell surface to the Golgi is not yet completely understood. Here we report a mechanism of Golgi translocation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in which EGF-induced EGFR travels to the Golgi via microtubule-dependent movement by interacting with dynein and fuses with the Golgi through syntaxin 6-mediated membrane fusion. We also demonstrate that the microtubule- and syntaxin 6-mediated Golgi translocation of EGFR is necessary for its consequent nuclear translocation and nuclear functions. Thus, together with previous studies, the microtubule- and syntaxin 6-mediated trafficking pathway from cell surface to the Golgi, ER and the nucleus defines a comprehensive trafficking route for EGFR to travel from cell surface to the Golgi and the nucleus.

  7. Statistics of assay validation in high throughput cell imaging of nuclear factor kappaB nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Morelock, Maurice M; Hunter, Edward A; Moran, Timothy J; Heynen, Susanne; Laris, Casey; Thieleking, Michael; Akong, Michael; Mikic, Ivana; Callaway, Scott; DeLeon, Rodney P; Goodacre, Angela; Zacharias, David; Price, Jeffrey H

    2005-10-01

    This report describes statistical validation methods implemented on assay data for inhibition of subcellular redistribution of nuclear factor kappaB (NF kappaB) in HeLa cells. We quantified cellular inhibition of cytoplasmic-nuclear translocation of NF kappaB in response to a range of concentrations of interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist in the presence of IL-1alpha using eight replicate rows in each four 96-well plates scanned five times on each of 2 days. Translocation was measured as the fractional localized intensity of the nucleus (FLIN), an implementation of our more general fractional localized intensity of the compartments (FLIC), which analyzes whole compartments in the context of the entire cell. The NF kappaB antagonist assay (inhibition of IL-1- induced NF kappaB translocation) data were collected on a Q3DM (San Diego, CA) EIDAQtrade mark 100 high throughput microscopy system. [In 2003, Q3DM was purchased by Beckman Coulter Inc. (Fullerton, CA), which released the IC 100 successor to the EIDAQ 100.] The generalized FLIC method is described along with two-point (minimum-maximum) and multiple point titration statistical methods. As a ratio of compartment intensities that tend to change proportionally, FLIN was resistant to photobleaching errors. Two-point minimum-maximum statistical analyses yielded the following: a Z' of 0.174 with the data as n = 320 independent well samples; Z' by row data in a range of 0.393-0.933, with a mean of 0.766; by-plate Z' data of 0.310, 0.443, 0.545, and 0.794; and by-plate means of columns Z' data of 0.879, 0.927, 0.945, and 0.963. The mean 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for IL-1 receptor antagonist over all experiments was 213 ng/ml. The combined IC50 coefficients of variation (CVs) were 0.74%, 0.85%, 2.09%, and 2.52% for the four plates. Repeatability IC50 CVs were as follows: day to day 3.0%, row to row 8.0%, plate to plate 2.8%, and day to day 0.6%. The number of cells required for statistically resolvable

  8. Phosphorylation inhibits DNA-binding of alternatively spliced aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator

    SciTech Connect

    Kewley, Robyn J. . E-mail: rkewley@csu.edu.au; Whitelaw, Murray L.

    2005-12-09

    The basic helix-loop-helix/PER-ARNT-SIM homology (bHLH/PAS) transcription factor ARNT (aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator) is a key component of various pathways which induce the transcription of cytochrome P450 and hypoxia response genes. ARNT can be alternatively spliced to express Alt ARNT, containing an additional 15 amino acids immediately N-terminal to the DNA-binding basic region. Here, we show that ARNT and Alt ARNT proteins are differentially phosphorylated by protein kinase CKII in vitro. Phosphorylation had an inhibitory effect on DNA-binding to an E-box probe by Alt ARNT, but not ARNT, homodimers. This inhibitory phosphorylation occurs through Ser77. Moreover, a point mutant, Alt ARNT S77A, shows increased activity on an E-box reporter gene, consistent with Ser77 being a regulatory site in vivo. In contrast, DNA binding by an Alt ARNT/dioxin receptor heterodimer to the xenobiotic response element is not inhibited by phosphorylation with CKII, nor does Alt ARNT S77A behave differently from wild type Alt ARNT in the context of a dioxin receptor heterodimer.

  9. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator is an essential regulator of murine hematopoietic stem cell viability

    PubMed Central

    Krock, Bryan L.; Eisinger-Mathason, Tzipora S.; Giannoukos, Dionysios N.; Shay, Jessica E.; Gohil, Mercy; Lee, David S.; Nakazawa, Michael S.; Sesen, Julie; Skuli, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are master regulators of the transcriptional response to low oxygen and play essential roles in embryonic development, tissue homeostasis, and disease. Recent studies have demonstrated that hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) within the bone marrow localize to a hypoxic niche and that HIF-1α promotes HSC adaptation to stress. Because the related factor HIF-2α is also expressed in HSCs, the combined role of HIF-1α and HIF-2α in HSC maintenance is unclear. To this end, we have conditionally deleted the HIF-α dimerization partner, the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) in the hematopoietic system to ablate activity of both HIF-1α and HIF-2α and assessed the functional consequence of ARNT deficiency on fetal liver and adult hematopoiesis. We determined that ARNT is essential for adult and fetal HSC viability and homeostasis. Importantly, conditional knockout of both Hif-1α and Hif-2α phenocopied key aspects of these HSC phenotypes, demonstrating that the impact of Arnt deletion is primarily HIF dependent. ARNT-deficient long-term HSCs underwent apoptosis, potentially because of reduced B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) expression. Our results suggest that HIF activity may regulate HSC homeostasis through these prosurvival factors. PMID:25855602

  10. Nuclear Translocation Sequence and Region in Autographa californica Multiple Nucleopolyhedrovirus ME53 That Are Important for Optimal Baculovirus Production

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yang; de Jong, Jondavid; Nagy, Éva; Theilmann, David A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV) is in the family Baculoviridae, genus Alphabaculovirus. AcMNPV me53 is a highly conserved immediate early gene in all lepidopteran baculoviruses that have been sequenced and is transcribed up to late times postinfection. Although me53 is not essential for viral DNA synthesis, infectious budded virus (BV) production is greatly attenuated when it is deleted. ME53 associates with the nucleocapsid on both budded virus and occlusion-derived virus, but not with the virus envelope. ME53 colocalizes in plasma membrane foci with the envelope glycoprotein GP64 in a GP64-dependent manner. ME53 localizes in the cytoplasm early postinfection, and despite the lack of a reported nuclear localization signal (NLS), ME53 translocates to the nucleus at late times postinfection. To map determinants of ME53 that facilitate its nuclear translocation, recombinant AcMNPV bacmids containing a series of ME53 truncations, internal deletions, and peptides fused with hemagglutinin (HA) or green fluorescent protein (GFP) tags were constructed. Intracellular-localization studies identified residues within amino acids 109 to 137 at the N terminus of ME53 that acted as the nuclear translocation sequence (NTS), facilitating its nuclear transport at late times postinfection. The first 100 N-terminal amino acids and the last 50 C-terminal amino acids of ME53 are dispensable for high levels of budded virus production. The region within amino acids 101 to 398, which also contains the NTS, is critical for optimal levels of budded virus production. IMPORTANCE Baculovirus me53 is a conserved immediate early gene found in all sequenced lepidopteran alpha- and betabaculoviruses. We first identified residues within amino acids 109 to 137 at the N terminus that act as the ME53 nuclear translocation sequence (NTS) to facilitate its nuclear translocation and defined an internal region within amino acids 101 to 398, which includes the NTS, as

  11. MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Teng; Ji, Jiang; Guo, Yong-li

    2013-11-08

    Highlights: •Curcumin activates MST1 in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced apoptosis of melanoma cells. •ROS production is involved in curcumin-induced MST1 activation. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced JNK activation in melanoma cells. •MST1 mediates curcumin-induced Foxo3a nuclear translocation and Bim expression. -- Abstract: Different groups including ours have shown that curcumin induces melanoma cell apoptosis, here we focused the role of mammalian Sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) in it. We observed that curcumin activated MST1-dependent apoptosis in cultured melanoma cells. MST1 silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) suppressed curcumin-induced cell apoptosis, while MST1 over-expressing increased curcumin sensitivity. Meanwhile, curcumin induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in melanoma cells, and the ROS scavenger, N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), almost blocked MST1 activation to suggest that ROS might be required for MST1 activation by curcumin. c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) activation by curcumin was dependent on MST1, since MST1 inhibition by RNAi or NAC largely inhibited curcumin-induced JNK activation. Further, curcumin induced Foxo3 nuclear translocation and Bim-1 (Foxo3 target gene) expression in melanoma cells, such an effect by curcumin was inhibited by MST1 RNAi. In conclusion, we suggested that MST1 activation by curcumin mediates JNK activation, Foxo3a nuclear translocation and apoptosis in melanoma cells.

  12. Cinnamaldehyde enhances Nrf2 nuclear translocation to upregulate phase II detoxifying enzyme expression in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tzou-Chi; Chung, Yu-Ling; Wu, Mei-Li; Chuang, Show-Mei

    2011-05-11

    Cinnamaldehyde has been demonstrated to stimulate glutathione production and the expression of phase II detoxifying enzymes in HepG2 cells. The mechanism underlying this cinnamaldehyde-mediated gene expression relies on Nrf2 transcriptional activity. Therefore, the molecular signaling events in cinnamaldehyde-mediated detoxifying enzyme expression were further investigated in this study. Cinnamaldehyde activated ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK signaling pathways, but not the p38 MAP kinase pathway, subsequently leading to Nrf2 nuclear translocation and eventually increasing phase II enzyme expression. In contrast, inhibition of ERK1/2, Akt, or JNK pathways attenuated Nrf2 nuclear translocation and phase II enzyme expression. Depletion of Nrf2 by small RNA interference (si-RNA) showed that the protein levels of phase II enzymes were no longer induced by cinnamaldehyde. A luciferase reporter assay and an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) also demonstrated that cinnamaldehyde-activated signaling resulted in the increased transcriptional activity of Nrf2 through binding to the ARE4 enhancer sequence. Altogether, these data suggest that ERK1/2, Akt, and JNK pathways activated by cinnamaldehyde collectively control Nrf2 nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity, leading to the increase of phase II enzyme expression. Application of an appropriate chemopreventive agent such as cinnamaldehyde could potentially be an alternative strategy for cancer chemoprevention.

  13. FGF1 nuclear translocation is required for both its neurotrophic activity and its p53-dependent apoptosis protection.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Enfedaque, Aida; Bouleau, Sylvina; Laurent, Maryvonne; Courtois, Yves; Mignotte, Bernard; Vayssière, Jean-Luc; Renaud, Flore

    2009-11-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 1 (FGF1) is a differentiation and survival factor for neuronal cells both in vitro and in vivo. FGF1 activities can be mediated not only by paracrine and autocrine pathways involving FGF receptors but also by an intracrine pathway, which is an underestimated mode of action. Indeed, FGF1 lacks a secretion signal peptide and contains a nuclear localization sequence (NLS), which is consistent with its usual intracellular and nuclear localization. To progress in the comprehension of the FGF1 intracrine pathway in neuronal cells, we examined the role of the nuclear translocation of FGF1 for its neurotrophic activity as well as for its protective activity against p53-dependent apoptosis. Thus, we have transfected PC12 cells with different FGF1 expression vectors encoding wild type or mutant (Delta NLS) FGF1. This deletion inhibited both FGF1 nuclear translocation and FGF1 neurotrophic activity (including differentiation and serum-free cell survival). We also show that endogenous FGF1 protection of PC12 cells against p53-dependent cell death requires FGF1 nuclear translocation. Strikingly, wild type FGF1 is found interacting with p53, in contrast to the mutant FGF1 deleted of its NLS, suggesting the presence of direct and/or indirect interactions between FGF1 and p53 pathways. Thus, we present evidences that FGF1 may act by a nuclear pathway to induce neuronal differentiation and to protect the cells from apoptosis whether cell death is induced by serum depletion or p53 activation.

  14. [X-ray irradiation induces apoptosis of mouse GC1 sperm cells via nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor].

    PubMed

    Yang, Huiying; Ding, Jingbin; Wang, Zhijun; Ding, Juan; Xia, Xinshe; Zhao, Wei

    2017-03-01

    Objective To study the effect of X-ray irradiation on the localization of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) in mouse GC1 sperm cells. Methods After GC1 cells were treated with 0, 3, 6 and 9 Gy X irradiation, BrdU incorporation assay was performed to detect the proliferation of GC1 cells. Forty-eight hours after irradiation, the nuclear condensation was observed by DAPI staining. The subcellular localization of AIF was showed using the immunofluorescence staining, both in the whole cell extracts and in nuclear extracts, and the expression levels of AIF were detected using Western blot analysis. Results With the increase of X-ray irradiation dose, the proliferation of GC1 cells significantly decreased, and the activity of cells was weakened. After 6 Gy irradiation, in nuclear extracts, but not in the whole cell extracts, the protein AIF was upregulated significantly. It meant the nuclear translocation of protein AIF. Conclusion X-ray irradiation induces the apoptosis of mouse GC1 sperm cells, meanwhile, the nuclear translocation of AIF occurs.

  15. Small ubiquitin-related modifier 1 is involved in hepatocellular carcinoma progression via mediating p65 nuclear translocation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun; Tao, Xiaofang; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Peng; Sha, Manqi; Ma, Yong; Geng, Xiaoping; Feng, Lijie; Shen, Yujun; Yu, Yifan; Wang, Siying; Fang, Shengyun; Shen, Yuxian

    2016-01-01

    Small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) proteins participate in a post-translational modification called SUMOylation and regulate a variety of intracellular processes, such as targeting proteins for nuclear import. The nuclear transport of p65 results in the activation of NF-κB, and p65 contains several SUMO interacting motifs (SIMs). However, the relationship between p65 and SUMO1 in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. In this study, we demonstrated the potential roles of SUMO1 in HCC via the regulation of p65 subcellular localization. We found that either SUMO1- or p65-positive immunoreactivity was remarkably increased in the nuclei of tumor tissues in HCC patients compared with non-tumor tissues, and further analysis suggested a correlation between SUMO1- and nuclear p65-positive immunoreactivities (R = 0.851, P = 0.002). We also verified the interaction between p65 and SUMO1 in HCC by co-immunoprecipitation. TNF-α and hypoxia increased SUMO1 protein levels and enhanced SUMO1-modified p65 SUMOylation. Moreover, the knockdown of SUMO1 decreased p65 nuclear translocation and inhibited NF-κB transcriptional activity. Further the results of this study revealed that the knockdown of SUMO1 suppressed the proliferation and migration of hepatoma cells. These results suggest that SUMO1 contributes to HCC progression by promoting p65 nuclear translocation and regulating NF-κB activity. PMID:26993772

  16. Identification of functional domains of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator protein (ARNT).

    PubMed Central

    Reisz-Porszasz, S; Probst, M R; Fukunaga, B N; Hankinson, O

    1994-01-01

    The activated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and the AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT) bind DNA as a heterodimer. Both proteins represent a novel class of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH)-containing transcription factors in that (i) activation of AHR requires the binding of ligand (e.g., 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin [TCDD]), (ii) the xenobiotic responsive element (XRE) recognized by the AHR/ARNT heterodimer differs from the recognition sequence for nearly all other bHLH proteins, and (iii) both proteins contain a PAS homology region, which in the Drosophila PER and SIM proteins functions as a dimerization domain. A cDNA for mouse ARNT has been cloned, and potential functional domains of ARNT were investigated by deletion analysis. A mutant lacking all regions of ARNT other than the bHLH and PAS regions is unimpaired in TCDD-dependent dimerization and subsequent XRE binding and only modestly reduced in ability to complement an ARNT-deficient mutant cell line, c4, in vivo. Both the first and second alpha helices of the bHLH region are required for dimerization. The basic region is required for XRE binding but not for dimerization. Deletion of either the A or B segments of the PAS region slightly affects TCDD-induced heterodimerization, while deletion of the complete PAS region severely affects (but does not eliminate) dimerization. Thus, ARNT possesses multiple domains required for maximal heterodimerization. Mutants deleted for PAS A, PAS B, and the complete PAS region all retain some degree of XRE binding, yet none can rescue the c4 mutant. Therefore, both the PAS A and PAS B segments, besides contributing to dimerization, apparently fulfill additional, unknown functions required for biological activity of ARNT. Images PMID:8065341

  17. Simulated microgravity inhibits osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells via depolymerizing F-actin to impede TAZ nuclear translocation

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Zhe; Luo, Qing; Lin, Chuanchuan; Kuang, Dongdong; Song, Guanbin

    2016-01-01

    Microgravity induces observed bone loss in space flight, and reduced osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) partly contributes to this phenomenon. Abnormal regulation or functioning of the actin cytoskeleton induced by microgravity may cause the inhibited osteogenesis of BMSCs, but the underlying mechanism remains obscure. In this study, we demonstrated that actin cytoskeletal changes regulate nuclear aggregation of the transcriptional coactivator with PDZ-binding motif (TAZ), which is indispensable for osteogenesis of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Moreover, we utilized a clinostat to model simulated microgravity (SMG) and demonstrated that SMG obviously depolymerized F-actin and hindered TAZ nuclear translocation. Interestingly, stabilizing the actin cytoskeleton induced by Jasplakinolide (Jasp) significantly rescued TAZ nuclear translocation and recovered the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in SMG, independently of large tumor suppressor 1(LATS1, an upstream kinase of TAZ). Furthermore, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) also significantly recovered the osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs in SMG through the F-actin-TAZ pathway. Taken together, we propose that the depolymerized actin cytoskeleton inhibits osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs through impeding nuclear aggregation of TAZ, which provides a novel connection between F-actin cytoskeleton and osteogenesis of BMSCs and has important implications in bone loss caused by microgravity. PMID:27444891

  18. Arsenic Trioxide Activate Transcription of Heme Oxygenase-1 by Promoting Nuclear Translocation of NFE2L2.

    PubMed

    Yue, Zhen; Zhong, Lingzhi; Mou, Yan; Wang, Xiaotong; Zhang, Haiying; Wang, Yang; Xia, Jianxin; Li, Ronggui; Wang, Zonggui

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that induced expression of Heme Oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is responsible for the resistance of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells to the chemotherapeutic agent arsenic trioxide (ATO). The present study was aimed at investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of HO-1 that occurs after exposure of MG63 cells to ATO. First, using RT-QPCT and Western-blot, we found that ATO strongly induced the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in these human osteosarcoma cells. Then by analyzing HO-1 mRNA of MG63 cells exposed to ATO in the presence and absence of a transcription inhibitor Actinomycin-D (Act-D), we demonstrated that ATO activates HO-1 expression in MG63 cells by regulating the transcription of the gene. Finally, through the analysis of the NFE2L2 protein levels among the total cellular and nuclear proteins by Western-blot and Immunocytochemical staning, we determined that ATO enhanced the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-like 2 (NFE2L2), also known as Nrf2. From these results we have concluded that transcription activation of HO-1 resulting from the nuclear translocation of NFE2L2 is the underlying molecular mechanism for its high induction, which, in turn, is responsible for the resistance of human osteosarcoma cells to ATO treatment.

  19. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in human liver is regulated by miR-24

    SciTech Connect

    Oda, Yuki; Nakajima, Miki; Mohri, Takuya; Takamiya, Masataka; Aoki, Yasuhiro; Fukami, Tatsuki; Yokoi, Tsuyoshi

    2012-05-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) forms a heterodimer with aryl hydrocarbon receptor or hypoxia inducible factor 1α to mediate biological responses to xenobiotic exposure and hypoxia. Although the regulation mechanism of the ARNT expression is largely unknown, earlier studies reported that the human ARNT protein level was decreased by hydrogen peroxide or reactive oxygen species. These stimuli increase the miR-24 level in various human cell lines. In silico analysis predicts that some microRNAs including miR-16 and miR-23b may bind to ARNT mRNA. This background prompted us to investigate whether human ARNT is regulated by microRNAs. Overexpression of miR-24 into HuH-7 and HepG2 cells significantly decreased the ARNT protein level, but not the ARNT mRNA level, indicating translational repression. However, overexpression of miR-16 or miR-23b caused no change in the ARNT expression. The miR-24-dependent down-regulation of ARNT decreased the expression of its downstream genes such as CYP1A1 and carbonic anhydrase IX. Luciferase assay was performed to determine the element on the ARNT mRNA to which miR-24 binds. Finally, it was demonstrated that the miR-24 levels in a panel of 26 human livers were inversely correlated with the protein levels or the translational efficiency of ARNT. Taken together, we found that miR-24 negatively regulates ARNT expression in human liver, affecting the expression of its downstream genes. miR-24 would be one of the factors underlying the mechanisms by which ARNT protein is decreased by reactive oxygen species. -- Highlights: ► Overexpression of miR-24 into human cell lines decreased the ARNT protein level. ► miR-24-dependent down-regulation of ARNT affected the expression of CYP1A1 and CA IX. ► Luciferase assay was performed to identify functional MREs for miR-24 in ARNT mRNA. ► The miR-24 levels inversely correlated with the ARNT protein levels in human liver.

  20. Regulation of nuclear translocation of nuclear factor-kappaB relA: evidence for complex dynamics at the single-cell level.

    PubMed Central

    Schooley, Kenneth; Zhu, Ping; Dower, Steven K; Qwarnström, Eva E

    2003-01-01

    We have analysed activation of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) in response to interleukin-1 (IL-1) in human fibroblasts by tracking intracellular distribution and levels of endogenous relA, NF-kappaB1 and inhibitor of kappaB (I-kappaB) alpha using semi-quantitative confocal microscopy. Nuclear translocation of endogenous relA correlated with I-kappaBalpha degradation during stimulation with IL-1, whereas no effects were seen on levels or localization of NF-kappaB1. During pathway activation, relA was transported up a concentration gradient, resulting in a 3-4-fold increase in nuclear levels, but without any significant decrease in cytoplasmic concentration. IL-1 stimulation caused translocation of only 20% of the relA, but resulted in degradation of up to 70% of the cytoplasmic I-kappaBalpha. RelA nuclear translocation in fibroblasts correlated with DNA-binding activity measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA), both with respect to kinetics and IL-1 concentration-dependence. Clonal populations of cells demonstrated a marked degree of heterogeneity in the response to IL-1. The single-cell assay revealed the presence of responder and non-responder subpopulations, with an enhanced proportion of responder cells, and prolonged responses at higher concentrations of IL-1. Comparing different cell types demonstrated that whereas HepG2 cells, as fibroblasts, showed good correlation between nuclear translocation of relA and activation of DNA binding by relA-containing dimers, EL4 thymoma cells showed no effect on relA localization, even during induction of significant levels NF-kappaB activity, as measured by EMSA. The analysis shows that stimulation by IL-1 results in transient perturbation of the NF-kappaB system, which cycles between the resting and active states with net redistribution of a minor proportion of its DNA-binding component. In addition, it demonstrates significant cell-to-cell variations, as well as cell-type-specific differences in net rel

  1. Doxorubicin attenuates CHIP-guarded HSF1 nuclear translocation and protein stability to trigger IGF-IIR-dependent cardiomyocyte death

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Chih-Yang; Kuo, Wei-Wen; Lo, Jeng-Fan; Ho, Tsung-Jung; Pai, Pei-ying; Chiang, Shu-Fen; Chen, Pei-Yu; Tsai, Fu-Jen; Tsai, Chang-Hai; Huang, Chih-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective antitumor drugs, but its cardiotoxicity has been a major concern for its use in cancer therapy for decades. Although DOX-induced cardiotoxicity has been investigated, the underlying mechanisms responsible for this cardiotoxicity have not been completely elucidated. Here, we found that the insulin-like growth factor receptor II (IGF-IIR) apoptotic signaling pathway was responsible for DOX-induced cardiotoxicity via proteasome-mediated heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) degradation. The carboxyl-terminus of Hsp70 interacting protein (CHIP) mediated HSF1 stability and nuclear translocation through direct interactions via its tetratricopeptide repeat domain to suppress IGF-IIR expression and membrane translocation under physiological conditions. However, DOX attenuated the HSF1 inhibition of IGF-IIR expression by diminishing the CHIP–HSF1 interaction, removing active nuclear HSF1 and triggering HSF1 proteasomal degradation. Overexpression of CHIP redistributed HSF1 into the nucleus, inhibiting IGF-IIR expression and preventing DOX-induced cardiomyocyte apoptosis. Moreover, HSF1A, a small molecular drug that enhances HSF1 activity, stabilized HSF1 expression and minimized DOX-induced cardiac damage in vitro and in vivo. Our results suggest that the cardiotoxic effects of DOX result from the prevention of CHIP-mediated HSF1 nuclear translocation and activation, which leads to an upregulation of the IGF-IIR apoptotic signaling pathway. We believe that the administration of an HSF1 activator or agonist may further protect against the DOX-induced cell death of cardiomyocytes. PMID:27809308

  2. HDL endocytosis and resecretion.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Stangl, Herbert

    2013-11-01

    HDL removes excess cholesterol from peripheral tissues and delivers it to the liver and steroidogenic tissues via selective lipid uptake without catabolism of the HDL particle itself. In addition, endocytosis of HDL holo-particles has been debated for nearly 40years. However, neither the connection between HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake, nor the physiological relevance of HDL uptake has been delineated clearly. This review will focus on HDL endocytosis and resecretion and its relation to cholesterol transfer. We will discuss the role of HDL endocytosis in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis in tissues and cell types involved in atherosclerosis, focusing on liver, macrophages and endothelium. We will critically summarize the current knowledge on the receptors mediating HDL endocytosis including SR-BI, F1-ATPase and CD36 and on intracellular HDL transport routes. Dependent on the tissue, HDL is either resecreted (retro-endocytosis) or degraded after endocytosis. Finally, findings on HDL transcytosis across the endothelial barrier will be summarized. We suggest that HDL endocytosis and resecretion is a rather redundant pathway under physiologic conditions. In case of disturbed lipid metabolism, however, HDL retro-endocytosis represents an alternative pathway that enables tissues to maintain cellular cholesterol homeostasis.

  3. Regulation of cell proliferation by ERK and signal-dependent nuclear translocation of ERK is dependent on Tm5NM1-containing actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Schevzov, Galina; Kee, Anthony J; Wang, Bin; Sequeira, Vanessa B; Hook, Jeff; Coombes, Jason D; Lucas, Christine A; Stehn, Justine R; Musgrove, Elizabeth A; Cretu, Alexandra; Assoian, Richard; Fath, Thomas; Hanoch, Tamar; Seger, Rony; Pleines, Irina; Kile, Benjamin T; Hardeman, Edna C; Gunning, Peter W

    2015-07-01

    ERK-regulated cell proliferation requires multiple phosphorylation events catalyzed first by MEK and then by casein kinase 2 (CK2), followed by interaction with importin7 and subsequent nuclear translocation of pERK. We report that genetic manipulation of a core component of the actin filaments of cancer cells, the tropomyosin Tm5NM1, regulates the proliferation of normal cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Tm5NM1, which have reduced proliferative capacity, are insensitive to inhibition of ERK by peptide and small-molecule inhibitors, indicating that ERK is unable to regulate proliferation of these knockout (KO) cells. Treatment of wild-type MEFs with a CK2 inhibitor to block phosphorylation of the nuclear translocation signal in pERK resulted in greatly decreased cell proliferation and a significant reduction in the nuclear translocation of pERK. In contrast, Tm5NM1 KO MEFs, which show reduced nuclear translocation of pERK, were unaffected by inhibition of CK2. This suggested that it is nuclear translocation of CK2-phosphorylated pERK that regulates cell proliferation and this capacity is absent in Tm5NM1 KO cells. Proximity ligation assays confirmed a growth factor-stimulated interaction of pERK with Tm5NM1 and that the interaction of pERK with importin7 is greatly reduced in the Tm5NM1 KO cells.

  4. Regulation of cell proliferation by ERK and signal-dependent nuclear translocation of ERK is dependent on Tm5NM1-containing actin filaments

    PubMed Central

    Schevzov, Galina; Kee, Anthony J.; Wang, Bin; Sequeira, Vanessa B.; Hook, Jeff; Coombes, Jason D.; Lucas, Christine A.; Stehn, Justine R.; Musgrove, Elizabeth A.; Cretu, Alexandra; Assoian, Richard; Fath, Thomas; Hanoch, Tamar; Seger, Rony; Pleines, Irina; Kile, Benjamin T.; Hardeman, Edna C.; Gunning, Peter W.

    2015-01-01

    ERK-regulated cell proliferation requires multiple phosphorylation events catalyzed first by MEK and then by casein kinase 2 (CK2), followed by interaction with importin7 and subsequent nuclear translocation of pERK. We report that genetic manipulation of a core component of the actin filaments of cancer cells, the tropomyosin Tm5NM1, regulates the proliferation of normal cells both in vitro and in vivo. Mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking Tm5NM1, which have reduced proliferative capacity, are insensitive to inhibition of ERK by peptide and small-molecule inhibitors, indicating that ERK is unable to regulate proliferation of these knockout (KO) cells. Treatment of wild-type MEFs with a CK2 inhibitor to block phosphorylation of the nuclear translocation signal in pERK resulted in greatly decreased cell proliferation and a significant reduction in the nuclear translocation of pERK. In contrast, Tm5NM1 KO MEFs, which show reduced nuclear translocation of pERK, were unaffected by inhibition of CK2. This suggested that it is nuclear translocation of CK2-phosphorylated pERK that regulates cell proliferation and this capacity is absent in Tm5NM1 KO cells. Proximity ligation assays confirmed a growth factor–stimulated interaction of pERK with Tm5NM1 and that the interaction of pERK with importin7 is greatly reduced in the Tm5NM1 KO cells. PMID:25971798

  5. Chalcones from Angelica keiskei attenuate the inflammatory responses by suppressing nuclear translocation of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hee Ryun; Lee, Hwa Jin; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2014-12-01

    The ethyl acetate-soluble fraction from the ethanolic extract of Angelica keiskei showed potent inhibitory activity against the production of nitric oxide (NO) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 cells. We identified seven chalcones (1-7) from EtOAc-soluble fractions through the activity-guided separation. Four active principles, identified as 4-hydroxyderrcine (1), xanthoangelol E (2), xanthokeismin A (4), and xanthoangelol B (5), inhibited the production of NO and the expression of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6, in LPS-activated macrophages. Western blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated that these chalcones attenuated protein and mRNA levels of inflammatory enzymes such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Moreover, these active compounds suppressed the degradation of inhibitory-κBα (I-κBα) and the translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) into nuclei of LPS-activated macrophages. These data demonstrate that four chalcones (1, 2, 4, and 5) from A. keiskei can suppress the LPS-induced production of NO and the expression of iNOS/COX-2 genes by inhibiting the degradation of I-κBα and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Taken together, four chalcones from A. keiskei may have efficacy as anti-inflammatory agents.

  6. A lignan induces lysosomal dependent degradation of FoxM1 protein to suppress β-catenin nuclear translocation

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Guang-zhi; Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Yu-ih; Han, Yeong Eun; Shin, Jung Sook; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Jeon, Raok; Kim, Young Hwa; Park, Tae Jun; Kim, Keun Il; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2017-01-01

    Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers. In this study, we isolated a lignan [(−)-(2R,3R)-1,4-O-diferuloylsecoisolariciresinol, DFS] from Alnus japonica (Betulaceae) and investigated its biological activity and mechanism of action on colon cancer. DFS reduced the viability of colon cancer cells and induced cell cycle arrest. DFS also suppressed β-catenin nuclear translocation and β-catenin target gene expression through a reduction in FoxM1 protein. To assess the mechanism of the action of DFS, we investigated the effect of DFS on endogenous and exogenous FoxM1 protein degradation in colon cancer cells. DFS-induced FoxM1 protein degradation was suppressed by lysosomal inhibitors, chloroquine and bafilomycin A1, but not by knock-down of proteasomal proteins. The mechanism of DFS for FoxM1 degradation is lysosomal dependent, which was not reported before. Furthermore, we found that FoxM1 degradation was partially lysosomal-dependent under normal conditions. These observations indicate that DFS from A. japonica suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation by reducing β-catenin nuclear translocation. DFS induces lysosomal-dependent FoxM1 protein degradation. This is the first report on the lysosomal degradation of FoxM1 by a small molecule. DFS may be useful in treating cancers that feature the elevated expression of FoxM1. PMID:28378765

  7. Elevated LIM kinase 1 in nonmetastatic prostate cancer reflects its role in facilitating androgen receptor nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Mardilovich, Katerina; Gabrielsen, Mads; McGarry, Lynn; Orange, Clare; Patel, Rachana; Shanks, Emma; Edwards, Joanne; Olson, Michael F

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer affects a large proportion of the male population, and is primarily driven by androgen receptor (AR) activity. First-line treatment typically consists of reducing AR signaling by hormone depletion, but resistance inevitably develops over time. One way to overcome this issue is to block AR function via alternative means, preferably by inhibiting protein targets that are more active in tumors than in normal tissue. By staining prostate cancer tumor sections, elevated LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) expression and increased phosphorylation of its substrate Cofilin were found to be associated with poor outcome and reduced survival in patients with nonmetastatic prostate cancer. A LIMK-selective small molecule inhibitor (LIMKi) was used to determine whether targeted LIMK inhibition was a potential prostate cancer therapy. LIMKi reduced prostate cancer cell motility, as well as inhibiting proliferation and increasing apoptosis in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells more effectively than in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. LIMK inhibition blocked ligand-induced AR nuclear translocation, reduced AR protein stability and transcriptional activity, consistent with its effects on proliferation and survival acting via inhibition of AR activity. Furthermore, inhibition of LIMK activity increased αTubulin acetylation and decreased AR interactions with αTubulin, indicating that the role of LIMK in regulating microtubule dynamics contributes to AR function. These results indicate that LIMK inhibitors could be beneficial for the treatment of prostate cancer both by reducing nuclear AR translocation, leading to reduced proliferation and survival, and by inhibiting prostate cancer cell dissemination.

  8. Importin-7 mediates memory consolidation through regulation of nuclear translocation of training-activated MAPK in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qian; Zhang, Xuchen; Liang, Xitong; Zhang, Fang; Wang, Lianzhang; Zhong, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Translocation of signaling molecules, MAPK in particular, from the cytosol to nucleus represents a universal key element in initiating the gene program that determines memory consolidation. Translocation mechanisms and their behavioral impact, however, remain to be determined. Here, we report that a highly conserved nuclear transporter, Drosophila importin-7 (DIM-7), regulates import of training-activated MAPK for consolidation of long-term memory (LTM). We show that silencing DIM-7 functions results in impaired LTM, whereas overexpression of DIM-7 enhances LTM. This DIM-7–dependent regulation of LTM is confined to a consolidation time window and in mushroom body neurons. Image data show that bidirectional alteration in DIM-7 expression results in proportional changes in the intensity of training-activated MAPK accumulated within the nuclei of mushroom body neurons during LTM consolidation. Such DIM-7–regulated nuclear accumulation of activated MAPK is observed only in the training specified for LTM induction and determines the amplitude, but not the time course, of memory consolidation. PMID:26929354

  9. A lignan induces lysosomal dependent degradation of FoxM1 protein to suppress β-catenin nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Dong, Guang-Zhi; Jeong, Ji Hye; Lee, Yu-Ih; Han, Yeong Eun; Shin, Jung Sook; Kim, Yoon-Jung; Jeon, Raok; Kim, Young Hwa; Park, Tae Jun; Kim, Keun Il; Ryu, Jae-Ha

    2017-04-05

    Colon cancer is one of the most common cancers. In this study, we isolated a lignan [(-)-(2R,3R)-1,4-O-diferuloylsecoisolariciresinol, DFS] from Alnus japonica (Betulaceae) and investigated its biological activity and mechanism of action on colon cancer. DFS reduced the viability of colon cancer cells and induced cell cycle arrest. DFS also suppressed β-catenin nuclear translocation and β-catenin target gene expression through a reduction in FoxM1 protein. To assess the mechanism of the action of DFS, we investigated the effect of DFS on endogenous and exogenous FoxM1 protein degradation in colon cancer cells. DFS-induced FoxM1 protein degradation was suppressed by lysosomal inhibitors, chloroquine and bafilomycin A1, but not by knock-down of proteasomal proteins. The mechanism of DFS for FoxM1 degradation is lysosomal dependent, which was not reported before. Furthermore, we found that FoxM1 degradation was partially lysosomal-dependent under normal conditions. These observations indicate that DFS from A. japonica suppresses colon cancer cell proliferation by reducing β-catenin nuclear translocation. DFS induces lysosomal-dependent FoxM1 protein degradation. This is the first report on the lysosomal degradation of FoxM1 by a small molecule. DFS may be useful in treating cancers that feature the elevated expression of FoxM1.

  10. Efficient nuclear drug translocation and improved drug efficacy mediated by acidity-responsive boronate-linked dextran/cholesterol nanoassembly.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing-Yi; Lei, Qi; Yang, Bin; Jia, Hui-Zhen; Qiu, Wen-Xiu; Wang, Xuli; Zeng, Xuan; Zhuo, Ren-Xi; Feng, Jun; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2015-06-01

    The present study reported a lysosome-acidity-targeting bio-responsive nanovehicle self-assembled from dextran (Dex) and phenylboronic acid modified cholesterol (Chol-PBA), aiming at the nucleus-tropic drug delivery. The prominent advantage of this assembled nanoconstruction arose from its susceptibility to acidity-labile dissociation concurrently accompanied with the fast liberation of encapsulated drugs, leading to efficient nuclear drug translocation and consequently favorable drug efficacy. By elaborately exploiting NH4Cl pretreatment to interfere with the cellular endosomal acidification progression, this study clearly evidenced at a cellular level the strong lysosomal-acidity dependency of nuclear drug uptake efficiency, which was shown to be the main factor influencing the drug efficacy. The boronate-linked nanoassembly displayed nearly no cytotoxicity and can remain structural stability under the simulated physiological conditions including 10% serum and the normal blood sugar concentration. The cellular exposure to cholesterol was found to bate the cellular uptake of nanoassembly in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a cholesterol-associated mechanism of the intracellular internalization. The in vivo antitumor assessment in xenograft mouse models revealed the significant superiority of DOX-loaded Dex/Chol-PBA nanoassembly over the controls including free DOX and the DOX-loaded non-sensitive Dex-Chol, as reflected by the more effective tumor-growth inhibition and the better systematic safety. In terms of the convenient preparation, sensitive response to lysosomal acidity and efficient nuclear drug translocation, Dex/Chol-PBA nanoassembly derived from natural materials shows promising potentials as the nanovehicle for nucleus-tropic drug delivery especially for antitumor agents. More attractively, this study offers a deeper insight into the mechanism concerning the contribution of acidity-responsive delivery to the enhanced chemotherapy performance.

  11. CH5137291, an androgen receptor nuclear translocation-inhibiting compound, inhibits the growth of castration-resistant prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ishikura, Nobuyuki; Kawata, Hiromitsu; Nishimoto, Ayako; Nakamura, Ryo; Tsunenari, Toshiaki; Watanabe, Miho; Tachibana, Kazutaka; Shiraishi, Takuya; Yoshino, Hitoshi; Honma, Akie; Emura, Takashi; Ohta, Masateru; Nakagawa, Toshito; Houjo, Takao; Corey, Eva; Vessella, Robert L; Aoki, Yuko; Sato, Haruhiko

    2015-04-01

    Resistance of prostate cancer to castration is currently an unavoidable problem. The major mechanisms underlying such resistance are androgen receptor (AR) overexpression, androgen-independent activation of AR, and AR mutation. To address this problem, we developed an AR pure antagonist, CH5137291, with AR nuclear translocation-inhibiting activity, and compared its activity and characteristics with that of bicalutamide. Cell lines corresponding to the mechanisms of castration resistance were used: LNCaP-BC2 having AR overexpression and LNCaP-CS10 having androgen-independent AR activation. VCaP and LNCaP were used as hormone-sensitive prostate cancer cells. In vitro functional assay clearly showed that CH5137291 inhibited the nuclear translocation of wild-type ARs as well as W741C- and T877A-mutant ARs. In addition, it acted as a pure antagonist on the transcriptional activity of these types of ARs. In contrast, bicalutamide did not inhibit the nuclear translocation of these ARs, and showed a partial/full agonistic effect on the transcriptional activity. CH5137291 inhibited cell growth more strongly than bicalutamide in VCaP and LNCaP cells as well as in LNCaP-BC2 and LNCaP-CS10 cells in vitro. In xenograft models, CH5137291 strongly inhibited the tumor growth of LNCaP, LNCaP-BC2, and LNCaP-CS10, whereas bicalutamide showed a weaker effect in LNCaP and almost no effect in LNCaP-BC2 and LNCaP-CS10 xenografts. Levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) in plasma correlated well with the antitumor effect of both agents. CH5137291 inhibited the growth of LNCaP tumors that had become resistant to bicalutamide treatment. A docking model suggested that CH5137291 intensively collided with the M895 residue of helix 12, and therefore strongly inhibited the folding of helix 12, a cause of AR agonist activity, in wild-type and W741C-mutant ARs. In cynomolgus monkeys, the serum concentration of CH5137291 increased dose-dependently and PSA level decreased 80% at 100 mg/kg. CH

  12. Nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 regulates VEGF-A-induced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and tube formation

    SciTech Connect

    Okazaki, Hideki; Tokumaru, Sho; Hanakawa, Yasushi; Shiraishi, Ken; Shirakata, Yuji; Dai, Xiuju; Yang, Lijun; Tohyama, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Koji; Sayama, Koji

    2011-09-02

    Highlights: {yields} VEGF-A enhanced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and increased tube formation. {yields} VEGF-A treated lymphatic endothelial cell showed activation of STAT3. {yields} Dominant-negative STAT3 inhibited VEGF-A-induced lymphatic endothelial cell migration and tube formation. -- Abstract: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell-specific growth factor that regulates endothelial functions, and signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) are known to be important during VEGF receptor signaling. The aim of this study was to determine whether STAT3 regulates VEGF-induced lymphatic endothelial cell (LEC) migration and tube formation. VEGF-A (33 ng/ml) enhanced LEC migration by 2-fold and increased tube length by 25% compared with the control, as analyzed using a Boyden chamber and Matrigel assay, respectively. Western blot analysis and immunostaining revealed that VEGF-A induced the nuclear translocation of phosphorylated STAT3 in LECs, and this translocation was blocked by the transfection of LECs with an adenovirus vector expressing a dominant-negative mutant of STAT3 (Ax-STAT3F). Transfection with Ax-STAT3F also almost completely inhibited VEGF-A-induced LEC migration and tube formation. These results indicate that STAT3 is essential for VEGF-A-induced LEC migration and tube formation and that STAT3 regulates LEC functions.

  13. Stress-induced nuclear-to-cytoplasmic translocation of cyclin C promotes mitochondrial fission in yeast.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Katrina F; Khakhina, Svetlana; Kim, Stephen K; Strich, Randy

    2014-01-27

    Mitochondrial morphology is maintained by the opposing activities of dynamin-based fission and fusion machines. In response to stress, this balance is dramatically shifted toward fission. This study reveals that the yeast transcriptional repressor cyclin C is both necessary and sufficient for stress-induced hyperfission. In response to oxidative stress, cyclin C translocates from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where it is destroyed. Prior to its destruction, cyclin C both genetically and physically interacts with Mdv1p, an adaptor that links the GTPase Dnm1p to the mitochondrial receptor Fis1p. Cyclin C is required for stress-induced Mdv1p mitochondrial recruitment and the efficient formation of functional Dnm1p filaments. Finally, coimmunoprecipitation studies and fluorescence microscopy revealed an elevated association between Mdv1p and Dnm1p in stressed cells that is dependent on cyclin C. This study provides a mechanism by which stress-induced gene induction and mitochondrial fission are coordinated through translocation of cyclin C.

  14. Nuclear translocation and overexpression of GAPDH by the hyper-pressure in retinal ganglion cell

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Choong-Il; Lee, Sung-Ho; Seong, Gong-Je; Kim, Yeon-Hyang; Lee, Mi-Young . E-mail: miyoung@sch.ac.kr

    2006-03-24

    To investigate the effect of hyper-pressure on retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5), RGC-5 cells were exposed to an ambient hydrostatic pressure of 100 mm Hg. Upon treatment, the proliferation of RGC-5 cells was inhibited and neuronal apoptosis was detected by specific apoptosis marker TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling). To probe into the mechanism mediating the apoptosis of RGC-5 cells in 100 mm Hg, protein profile alterations following hyper-pressure treatment were examined using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by MALDI-TOF. Out of the 400 protein spots of RGC-5 cells detected on 2-DE gels, 37 differentially expressed protein spots were further identified using in gel tryptic digestion and mass spectrometry. Among these proteins, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase (GAPDH) was significantly expressed 10 times more in 100 mm Hg than in normal pressure. The accumulation of GAPDH in the nucleus and its translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus in 100 mm Hg were observed using a microscope. These results suggest that the hyper-pressure-induced apoptosis in RGC-5 cells may be involved with not only the increase of GAPDH expression, but also the accumulation and the translocalization of GAPDH to the nucleus.

  15. Ferulic acid (FA) abrogates γ-radiation induced oxidative stress and DNA damage by up-regulating nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and activation of NHEJ pathway.

    PubMed

    Das, Ujjal; Manna, Krishnendu; Khan, Amitava; Sinha, Mahuya; Biswas, Sushobhan; Sengupta, Aaveri; Chakraborty, Anindita; Dey, Sanjit

    2017-01-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the radioprotective effect of ferulic acid (FA), a naturally occurring plant flavonoid in terms of DNA damage and damage related alterations of repair pathways by gamma radiation. FA was administered at a dose of 50 mg/kg body weight for five consecutive days prior to exposing the swiss albino mice to a single dose of 10 Gy gamma radiation. Ionising radiation induces oxidative damage manifested by decreased expression of Cu, Zn-SOD (SOD stands for super oxide dismutase), Mn-SOD and catalase. Gamma radiation promulgated reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated DNA damage and modified repair pathways. ROS enhanced nuclear translocation of p53, activated ATM (ataxia telangiectasia-mutated protein), increased expression of GADD45a (growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible protein) gene and inactivated Non homologous end joining (NHEJ) repair pathway. The comet formation in irradiated mice peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) reiterated the DNA damage in IR exposed groups. FA pretreatment significantly prevented the comet formation and regulated the nuclear translocation of p53, inhibited ATM activation and expression of GADD45a gene. FA promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2) and activated NHEJ repair pathway to overcome ROS mediated oxidative stress and DNA damage. Therefore, the current study stated that FA can challenge the oxidative stress by (i) inducing nuclear translocation of Nrf2, (ii) scavenging ROS, and (iii) activating NHEJ DNA repair process.

  16. Evolutionary analysis of a large mtDNA translocation (numt) into the nuclear genome of the Panthera genus species.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Heup; Antunes, Agostinho; Luo, Shu-Jin; Menninger, Joan; Nash, William G; O'Brien, Stephen J; Johnson, Warren E

    2006-02-01

    Translocation of cymtDNA into the nuclear genome, also referred to as numt, has been reported in many species, including several closely related to the domestic cat (Felis catus). We describe the recent transposition of 12,536 bp of the 17 kb mitochondrial genome into the nucleus of the common ancestor of the five Panthera genus species: tiger, P. tigris; snow leopard, P. uncia; jaguar, P. onca; leopard, P. pardus; and lion, P. leo. This nuclear integration, representing 74% of the mitochondrial genome, is one of the largest to be reported in eukaryotes. The Panthera genus numt differs from the numt previously described in the Felis genus in: (1) chromosomal location (F2-telomeric region vs. D2-centromeric region), (2) gene make up (from the ND5 to the ATP8 vs. from the CR to the COII), (3) size (12.5 vs. 7.9 kb), and (4) structure (single monomer vs. tandemly repeated in Felis). These distinctions indicate that the origin of this large numt fragment in the nuclear genome of the Panthera species is an independent insertion from that of the domestic cat lineage, which has been further supported by phylogenetic analyses. The tiger cymtDNA shared around 90% sequence identity with the homologous numt sequence, suggesting an origin for the Panthera numt at around 3.5 million years ago, prior to the radiation of the five extant Panthera species.

  17. Defective CFTR- β-catenin interaction promotes NF-κB nuclear translocation and intestinal inflammation in cystic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jie Ting; Tsang, Lai Ling; Jiang, Xiaohua; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2016-01-01

    While inflammation with aberrant activation of NF-κB pathway is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF), the molecular mechanisms underlying the link between CFTR defect and activation of NF-κB-mediated pro-inflammatory response remain elusive. Here, we investigated the link between CFTR defect and NF-κB activation in ΔF508cftr−/− mouse intestine and human intestinal epithelial cell lines. Our results show that the NF-κB/COX-2/PGE2 pathway is activated whereas the β-catenin pathway is suppressed in CF mouse intestine and CFTR-knockdown cells. Activation of β-catenin pathway by GSK3 inhibitors suppresses CFTR mutation/knockdown-induced NF-κB/COX-2/PGE2 pathway in ΔF508 mouse intestine and CFTR-knockdown cells. In contrast, suppression of β-catenin signaling induces the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. In addition, CFTR co-localizes and interacts with β-catenin while CFTR mutation disrupts the interaction between NF-κB and β-catenin in mouse intestine. Treatment with proteasome inhibitor MG132 completely reverses the reduced expression of β-catenin in Caco-2 cells. Collectively, these results indicate that CFTR stabilizes β-catenin and prevents its degradation, defect of which results in the activation of NF-κB-mediated inflammatory cascade. The present study has demonstrated a previously unsuspected interaction between CFTR and β-catenin that regulates NF-κB nuclear translocation in mouse intestine. Therefore, our study provides novel insights into the physiological function of CFTR and pathogenesis of CF-related diseases in addition to the NF-κB-mediated intestinal inflammation seen in CF. PMID:27588407

  18. Nuclear Translocation of β-Catenin during Mesenchymal Stem Cells Differentiation into Hepatocytes Is Associated with a Tumoral Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Herencia, Carmen; Martínez-Moreno, Julio M.; Herrera, Concepción; Corrales, Fernando; Santiago-Mora, Raquel; Espejo, Isabel; Barco, Monserrat; Almadén, Yolanda; de la Mata, Manuel; Rodríguez-Ariza, Antonio; Muñoz-Castañeda, Juan R.

    2012-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin pathway controls biochemical processes related to cell differentiation. In committed cells the alteration of this pathway has been associated with tumors as hepatocellular carcinoma or hepatoblastoma. The present study evaluated the role of Wnt/β-catenin activation during human mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into hepatocytes. The differentiation to hepatocytes was achieved by the addition of two different conditioned media. In one of them, β-catenin nuclear translocation, up-regulation of genes related to the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, such as Lrp5 and Fzd3, as well as the oncogenes c-myc and p53 were observed. While in the other protocol there was a Wnt/β-catenin inactivation. Hepatocytes with nuclear translocation of β-catenin also had abnormal cellular proliferation, and expressed membrane proteins involved in hepatocellular carcinoma, metastatic behavior and cancer stem cells. Further, these cells had also increased auto-renewal capability as shown in spheroids formation assay. Comparison of both differentiation protocols by 2D-DIGE proteomic analysis revealed differential expression of 11 proteins with altered expression in hepatocellular carcinoma. Cathepsin B and D, adenine phosphoribosyltransferase, triosephosphate isomerase, inorganic pyrophosphatase, peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase A or lactate dehydrogenase β-chain were up-regulated only with the protocol associated with Wnt signaling activation while other proteins involved in tumor suppression, such as transgelin or tropomyosin β-chain were down-regulated in this protocol. In conclusion, our results suggest that activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway during human mesenchymal stem cells differentiation into hepatocytes is associated with a tumoral phenotype. PMID:22506042

  19. Defective CFTR- β-catenin interaction promotes NF-κB nuclear translocation and intestinal inflammation in cystic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kaisheng; Zhang, Xiaohu; Zhang, Jie Ting; Tsang, Lai Ling; Jiang, Xiaohua; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2016-09-27

    While inflammation with aberrant activation of NF-κB pathway is a hallmark of cystic fibrosis (CF), the molecular mechanisms underlying the link between CFTR defect and activation of NF-κB-mediated pro-inflammatory response remain elusive. Here, we investigated the link between CFTR defect and NF-κB activation in ΔF508cftr-/- mouse intestine and human intestinal epithelial cell lines. Our results show that the NF-κB/COX-2/PGE2 pathway is activated whereas the β-catenin pathway is suppressed in CF mouse intestine and CFTR-knockdown cells. Activation of β-catenin pathway by GSK3 inhibitors suppresses CFTR mutation/knockdown-induced NF-κB/COX-2/PGE2 pathway in ΔF508 mouse intestine and CFTR-knockdown cells. In contrast, suppression of β-catenin signaling induces the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. In addition, CFTR co-localizes and interacts with β-catenin while CFTR mutation disrupts the interaction between NF-κB and β-catenin in mouse intestine. Treatment with proteasome inhibitor MG132 completely reverses the reduced expression of β-catenin in Caco-2 cells. Collectively, these results indicate that CFTR stabilizes β-catenin and prevents its degradation, defect of which results in the activation of NF-κB-mediated inflammatory cascade. The present study has demonstrated a previously unsuspected interaction between CFTR and β-catenin that regulates NF-κB nuclear translocation in mouse intestine. Therefore, our study provides novel insights into the physiological function of CFTR and pathogenesis of CF-related diseases in addition to the NF-κB-mediated intestinal inflammation seen in CF.

  20. A role for nuclear translocation of tripeptidyl-peptidase II in reactive oxygen species-dependent DNA damage responses

    SciTech Connect

    Preta, Giulio; Klark, Rainier de; Glas, Rickard

    2009-11-27

    Responses to DNA damage are influenced by cellular metabolism through the continuous production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), of which most are by-products of mitochondrial respiration. ROS have a strong influence on signaling pathways during responses to DNA damage, by relatively unclear mechanisms. Previous reports have shown conflicting data on a possible role for tripeptidyl-peptidase II (TPPII), a large cytosolic peptidase, within the DNA damage response. Here we show that TPPII translocated into the nucleus in a p160-ROCK-dependent fashion in response to {gamma}-irradiation, and that nuclear expression of TPPII was present in most {gamma}-irradiated transformed cell lines. We used a panel of nine cell lines of diverse tissue origin, including four lymphoma cell lines (T, B and Hodgkins lymphoma), a melanoma, a sarcoma, a colon and two breast carcinomas, where seven out of nine cell lines showed nuclear TPPII expression after {gamma}-irradiation. Further, this required cellular production of ROS; treatment with either N-acetyl-Cysteine (anti-oxidant) or Rotenone (inhibitor of mitochondrial respiration) inhibited nuclear accumulation of TPPII. The local density of cells was important for nuclear accumulation of TPPII at early time-points following {gamma}-irradiation (at 1-4 h), indicating a bystander effect. Further, we showed that the peptide-based inhibitor Z-Gly-Leu-Ala-OH, but not its analogue Z-Gly-(D)-Leu-Ala-OH, excluded TPPII from the nucleus. This correlated with reduced nuclear expression of p53 as well as caspase-3 and -9 activation in {gamma}-irradiated lymphoma cells. Our data suggest a role for TPPII in ROS-dependent DNA damage responses, through alteration of its localization from the cytosol into the nucleus.

  1. Angiogenin-induced protein kinase B/Akt activation is necessary for angiogenesis but is independent of nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Kang, Dong-Ku; Kim, Hak Yong; Kang, Sang Sun; Chang, Soo-Ik . E-mail: sichang@cbnu.ac.kr

    2007-01-12

    Angiogenin, a potent angiogenic factor, binds to endothelial cells and is endocytosed and rapidly translocated to and concentrated in the nucleolus where it binds to DNA. In this study, we report that angiogenin induces transient phosphorylation of protein kinase B/Akt in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVE) cells. LY294002 inhibits the angiogenin-induced protein kinase B/Akt activation and also angiogenin-induced cell migration in vitro as well as angiogenesis in chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane in vivo without affecting nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells. These results suggest that cross-talk between angiogenin and protein kinase B/Akt signaling pathways is essential for angiogenin-induced angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo, and that angiogenin-induced PKB/Akt activation is independent of nuclear translocation of angiogenin in HUVE cells.

  2. Glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1 mediates ligand-independent nuclear translocation and activation of constitutive androstane receptor in vivo.

    PubMed

    Min, Gyesik; Kemper, J Kim; Kemper, Byron

    2002-07-19

    Phenobarbital (PB) induction of CYP2B genes is mediated by translocation of the constitutively active androstane receptor (CAR) to the nucleus. Interaction of CAR with p160 coactivators and enhancement of CAR transactivation by the coactivators have been shown in cultured cells. In the present studies, the interaction of CAR with the p160 coactivator glucocorticoid receptor-interacting protein 1 (GRIP1) was examined in vitro and in vivo. Binding of GRIP1 to CAR was shown by glutathione S-transferase (GST) pull-down and affinity DNA binding. N- or C-terminal fragments of GRIP1 that contained the central receptor-interacting domain bound to GST-CAR, but the presence of ligand increased the binding to GST-CAR of only the fragments containing the C-terminal region. In gel shift analysis, binding to CAR was observed only with GRIP1 fragments containing the C-terminal region, and the binding was increased by a CAR agonist and decreased by a CAR antagonist. Expression of GRIP1 enhanced CAR-mediated transactivation in cultured hepatic-derived cells 2-3-fold. In hepatocytes transfected in vivo, expression of exogenous GRIP1 alone induced transactivation of the CYP2B1 PB-dependent enhancer 15-fold, whereas CAR expression alone resulted in only a 3-fold enhancement in untreated mice. Remarkably, CAR and GRIP1 together synergistically transactivated the enhancer about 150-fold, which is approximately equal to activation by PB treatment. In PB-treated mice, expression of exogenous CAR alone had little effect, expression of GRIP1 increased transactivation about 2-fold, and with CAR and GRIP, a 4-fold activation was observed. In untreated mice, expression of GRIP resulted in nuclear translocation of green fluorescent protein-CAR. These results strongly suggest that a p160 coactivator functions in CAR-mediated transactivation in vivo in response to PB treatment and that the synergistic activation of CAR by GRIP in untreated animals results from both nuclear translocation and

  3. Nuclear Translocation of Jacob in Hippocampal Neurons after Stimuli Inducing Long-Term Potentiation but Not Long-Term Depression

    PubMed Central

    Behnisch, Thomas; YuanXiang, PingAn; Bethge, Philipp; Parvez, Suhel; Chen, Ying; Yu, Jin; Karpova, Anna; Frey, Julietta U.; Mikhaylova, Marina; Kreutz, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years a number of potential synapto-nuclear protein messengers have been characterized that are thought to be involved in plasticity-related gene expression, and that have the capacity of importin- mediated and activity-dependent nuclear import. However, there is a surprising paucity of data showing the nuclear import of such proteins in cellular models of learning and memory. Only recently it was found that the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein 2 (CREB2) transits to the nucleus during long-term depression (LTD), but not during long-term potentiation (LTP) of synaptic transmission in hippocampal primary neurons. Jacob is another messenger that couples NMDA-receptor-activity to nuclear gene expression. We therefore aimed to study whether Jacob accumulates in the nucleus in physiological relevant models of activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Methodology/Principal Findings We have analyzed the dynamics of Jacob's nuclear import following induction of NMDA-receptor dependent LTP or LTD at Schaffer collateral-CA1 synapses in rat hippocampal slices. Using time-lapse imaging of neurons expressing a Jacob-Green-Fluorescent-Protein we found that Jacob rapidly translocates from dendrites to the nucleus already during the tetanization period of LTP, but not after induction of LTD. Immunocytochemical stainings confirmed the nuclear accumulation of endogenous Jacob in comparison to apical dendrites after induction of LTP but not LTD. Complementary findings were obtained after induction of NMDA-receptor dependent chemical LTP and LTD in hippocampal primary neurons. However, in accordance with previous studies, high concentrations of NMDA and glycine as well as specific activation of extrasynaptic NMDA-receptors resembling pathological conditions induce an even more profound increase of nuclear Jacob levels. Conclusions/Significance Taken together, these findings suggest that the two major forms of NMDA-receptor dependent

  4. BIG3 Inhibits the Estrogen-Dependent Nuclear Translocation of PHB2 via Multiple Karyopherin-Alpha Proteins in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nam-Hee; Yoshimaru, Tetsuro; Chen, Yi-An; Matsuo, Taisuke; Komatsu, Masato; Miyoshi, Yasuo; Tanaka, Eiji; Sasa, Mitsunori; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Katagiri, Toyomasa

    2015-01-01

    We recently reported that brefeldin A-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 3 (BIG3) binds Prohibitin 2 (PHB2) in cytoplasm, thereby causing a loss of function of the PHB2 tumor suppressor in the nuclei of breast cancer cells. However, little is known regarding the mechanism by which BIG3 inhibits the nuclear translocation of PHB2 into breast cancer cells. Here, we report that BIG3 blocks the estrogen (E2)-dependent nuclear import of PHB2 via the karyopherin alpha (KPNA) family in breast cancer cells. We found that overexpressed PHB2 interacted with KPNA1, KPNA5, and KPNA6, thereby leading to the E2-dependent translocation of PHB2 into the nuclei of breast cancer cells. More importantly, knockdown of each endogenous KPNA by siRNA caused a significant inhibition of E2-dependent translocation of PHB2 in BIG3-depleted breast cancer cells, thereby enhancing activation of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). These data indicated that BIG3 may block the KPNAs (KPNA1, KPNA5, and KPNA6) binding region(s) of PHB2, thereby leading to inhibition of KPNAs-mediated PHB2 nuclear translocation in the presence of E2 in breast cancer cells. Understanding this regulation of PHB2 nuclear import may provide therapeutic strategies for controlling E2/ERα signals in breast cancer cells. PMID:26052702

  5. Rapid regulation of nuclear proteins by rapamycin-induced translocation in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Ding, Lin; Laor, Dana; Weisman, Ronit; Forsburg, Susan L

    2014-07-01

    Genetic analysis of protein function requires a rapid means of inactivating the gene under study. Typically, this exploits temperature-sensitive mutations or promoter shut-off techniques. We report the adaptation to Schizosaccharomyces pombe of the anchor-away technique, originally designed in budding yeast by Laemmli lab. This method relies on a rapamycin-mediated interaction between the FRB- and FKBP12-binding domains to relocalize nuclear proteins of interest to the cytoplasm. We demonstrate a rapid nuclear depletion of abundant proteins as proof of principle.

  6. Increased AICD generation does not result in increased nuclear translocation or activation of target gene transcription

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, Elaine; Isbert, Simone; Kern, Andreas; Jaeger, Sebastian; Martin, Anne M.; Hebert, Sebastien S.; Behl, Christian; Weggen, Sascha; De Strooper, Bart; Pietrzik, Claus U.

    2008-08-01

    A sequence of amyloid precursor protein (APP) cleavages culminates in the sequential release of the APP intracellular domain (AICD) and the amyloid {beta} peptide (A{beta}) and/or p3 fragment. One of the environmental factors favouring the accumulation of AICD appears to be a rise in intracellular pH. Here we further identified the metabolism and subcellular localization of artificially expressed constructs under such conditions. We also co-examined the mechanistic lead up to the AICD accumulation and explored possible significances for its increased expression. We found that most of the AICD generated under pH neutralized conditions is likely cleaved from C83. While the AICD surplus was unable to further activate transcription of a luciferase reporter via a Gal4-DNA-binding domain, it failed entirely via the endogenous promoter regions of proposed target genes, APP and KAI1. The lack of a specific transactivation potential was also demonstrated by the unchanged levels of target gene mRNA. However, rather than translocating to the nucleus, the AICD surplus remains membrane tethered or free in the cytosol where it interacts with Fe65. Therefore we provide strong evidence that an increase in AICD generation does not directly promote gene activation of previously proposed target 0011gen.

  7. A novel nuclear DNA helicase with high specific activity from Pisum sativum catalytically translocates in the 3'-->5' direction.

    PubMed

    Phan, Tuan-Nghia; Ehtesham, Nasreen Z; Tuteja, Renu; Tuteja, Narendra

    2003-04-01

    A novel ATP-dependent nuclear DNA unwinding enzyme from pea has been purified to apparent homogeneity and characterized. This enzyme is present at extremely low abundance and has the highest specific activity among plant helicases. It is a heterodimer of 54 and 66 kDa polypeptides as determined by SDS/PAGE. On gel filtration chromatography and glycerol gradient centrifugation it gives a native molecular mass of 120 kDa and is named as pea DNA helicase 120 (PDH120). The enzyme can unwind 17-bp partial duplex substrates with equal efficiency whether or not they contain a fork. It translocates unidirectionally along the bound strand in the 3'-->5' direction. The enzyme also exhibits intrinsic single-stranded DNA- and Mg2+-dependent ATPase activity. ATP is the most favoured cofactor but other NTPs and dNTPs can also support the helicase activity with lower efficiency (ATP > GTP = dCTP > UTP > dTTP > CTP > dATP > dGTP) for which divalent cation (Mg2+ > Mn2+) is required. The DNA intercalating agents actinomycin C1, ethidium bromide, daunorubicin and nogalamycin inhibit the DNA unwinding activity of PDH120 with Ki values of 5.6, 5.2, 4.0 and 0.71 micro Ms, respectively. This inhibition might be due to the intercalation of the inhibitors into duplex DNA, which results in the formation of DNA-inhibitor complexes that impede the translocation of PDH120. Isolation of this new DNA helicase should make an important contribution to our better understanding of DNA transaction in plants.

  8. Endocytosis of Nanomedicines

    PubMed Central

    Sahay, Gaurav; Alakhova, Daria Y; Kabanov, Alexander V

    2010-01-01

    Novel nanomaterials are being developed to improve diagnosis and therapy of diseases through effective delivery of drugs, biopharmaceutical molecules and imaging agents to target cells in disease sites. Such diagnostic and therapeutic nanomaterials, also termed “nanomedicines”, often require site-specific cellular entry to deliver their payload to subcellular locations hidden beneath cell membranes. Nanomedicines can employ multiple pathways for cellular entry, which are currently insufficiently understood. This review, first, classifies various mechanisms of endocytosis available to nanomedicines including phagocytosis and pinocytosis through clathrin-dependent and clathrin-independent pathways. Second, it describes the current experimental tools to study endocytosis of nanomedicines. Third, it provides specific examples from recent literature and our own work on endocytosis of nanomedicines. Finally, these examples are used to ascertain 1) the role of particle size, shape, material composition, surface chemistry and/or charge for utilization of a selected pathway(s); 2) the effect of cell type on the processing of nanomedicines; 3) the effect of nanomaterial-cell interactions on the processes of endocytosis, the fate of the nanomedicines and the resulting cellular responses. This review will be useful to a diverse audience of students and scientists who are interested in understanding endocytosis of nanomedicines. PMID:20226220

  9. Reduced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB p65 in the footpad epidermis of dogs infected with distemper virus.

    PubMed

    Friess, M; Engelhardt, P; Dobbelaere, D; Zurbriggen, A; Gröne, A

    2005-01-01

    Infection of canine footpads with the canine distemper virus (CDV) can cause massive epidermal thickening (hard pad disease), as a consequence of increased proliferation of keratinocytes and hyperkeratosis. Keratinocytes of canine footpad epidermis containing detectable CDV nucleoprotein antigen and CDV mRNA were shown previously to have increased proliferation indices. Because various proteins that play a role in the proliferation of epidermal cells are viral targets, the potential participation of such proteins in CDV-associated keratinocyte proliferation was investigated. Transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-alpha), cell cycle regulatory proteins p21, p27 and p53, and nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB transcription factor components p50 and p65 were studied in the footpad epidermis from the following groups of dogs inoculated with CDV: group 1, consisting of seven dogs with clinical distemper and CDV in the footpad epidermis; group 2, consisting of four dogs with clinical distemper but no CDV in the footpad epidermis; group 3, consisting of eight dogs with neither clinical distemper nor CDV in the footpad epithelium. Group 4 consisted of two uninoculated control dogs. The expression of TGF-alpha, p21, p27 and p53, and p50 in the basal layer, lower and upper spinous layers, and in the granular layer did not differ statistically between CDV-positive (group 1) and CDV-negative (groups 2-4) footpad epidermis. However, there were differences in the levels of nuclear and cytoplasmic p65 expression between group 1 dogs and the other three groups. Thus, footpads from group 1 dogs had more keratinocytes containing p65 in the cytoplasm and, conversely, fewer nuclei that were positive for p65. These findings indicate that p65 translocation into the nucleus is reduced in CDV-infected footpad epidermis. Such decreased translocation of p65 may help to explain increased keratinocyte proliferation in hard pad disease and suggests interference of CDV with the NF-kappaB pathway.

  10. Reciprocal translocations

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 26, describes reciprocal translocations of chromosomes: their occurrence, breakpoints, and multiple rearrangements. In addition, phenotypes of balanced and unbalanced translocation carriers and fetal death are discussed. Examples of translocation families are given. Meiosis and genetic risk in translocation carriers is presented. Finally, sperm chromosomes in meiotic segregation analysis is mentioned. 39 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Sulfasalazine prevents the increase in TGF-β, COX-2, nuclear NFκB translocation and fibrosis in CCl4-induced liver cirrhosis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Chávez, E; Castro-Sánchez, L; Shibayama, M; Tsutsumi, V; Moreno, M G; Muriel, P

    2012-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that this sulfasalazine (SF) inhibits the nuclear factor κB (NFκB) pathway, which regulates important genes during inflammation and immune answer. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of SF on carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver fibrosis. We formed the following experimental groups of rats: controls, damage induced by chronic CCl(4) (0.4 g/kg, intraperitoneally, three times a week for 8 weeks) administration and CCl(4) + SF (100 mg/kg/day, postoperatively for 8 weeks) administration. We determined the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (γ-GTP), cyclooxygenase (COX)-1 and COX-2, lipid peroxidation, glutathione levels, collagen content, expression of transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and nuclear translocation of NFκB. SF was capable to inhibit the ALT and γ-GTP elevated levels induced with the CCl(4) administration. SF had antioxidant properties, prevented the lipid peroxidation and the imbalance of reduced and oxidized glutathione produced by CCl(4). Importantly, SF blocked the accumulation of collagen in the liver, the expression of TGF-β, the nuclear translocation of NFκB and the activity of COX-2, all induced with the administration of CCl(4) in the rat. These results show that SF has strong antifibrotic properties because of its antioxidant properties and its ability to prevent nuclear translocation of NFκB and consequently the expression of TGF-β and the activity of COX-2.

  12. FOXP2 promotes the nuclear translocation of POT1, but FOXP2(R553H), mutation related to speech-language disorder, partially prevents it.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Yuko; Fujita, Eriko; Momoi, Takashi

    2011-07-08

    FOXP2 is a forkhead box-containing transcription factor with several recognizable sequence motifs. However, little is known about the FOXP2-associated proteins except for C-terminal binding protein (CtBP). In the present study, we attempted to isolate the FOXP2-associated protein with a yeast two-hybrid system using the C-terminal region, including the forkhead domain, as a bait probe, and identified protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) as a FOXP2-associated protein. Immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the association with FOXP2 and POT1. POT1 alone localized in the cytoplasm but co-localized with FOXP2 and the forkhead domain of FOXP2 in nuclei. However, both FOXP2 with mutated nuclear localization signals and (R553H) mutated forkhead, which is associated with speech-language disorder, prevented the nuclear translocation of POT1. These results suggest that FOXP2 is a binding partner for the nuclear translocation of POT1. As loss of POT1 function induces the cell arrest, the impaired nuclear translocation of POT1 in the developing neuronal cells may be associated with the pathogenesis of speech-language disorder with FOXP2(R553H) mutation.

  13. FOXP2 promotes the nuclear translocation of POT1, but FOXP2(R553H), mutation related to speech-language disorder, partially prevents it

    SciTech Connect

    Tanabe, Yuko; Fujita, Eriko; Momoi, Takashi

    2011-07-08

    Highlights: {yields} We isolated protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) as a FOXP2-associated protein by a yeast two-hybrid. {yields} FOXP2 associated and co-localized with POT1 in the nuclei. {yields} FOXP2(R553H) also co-localized with POT1 in both the cytoplasm and nuclei. {yields} FOXP2(R553H) partially prevented the nuclear translocation of POT1. {yields} FOXP2(R553H) mutation may be associated with the pathogenesis of speech-language disorder. -- Abstract: FOXP2 is a forkhead box-containing transcription factor with several recognizable sequence motifs. However, little is known about the FOXP2-associated proteins except for C-terminal binding protein (CtBP). In the present study, we attempted to isolate the FOXP2-associated protein with a yeast two-hybrid system using the C-terminal region, including the forkhead domain, as a bait probe, and identified protection of telomeres 1 (POT1) as a FOXP2-associated protein. Immunoprecipitation assay confirmed the association with FOXP2 and POT1. POT1 alone localized in the cytoplasm but co-localized with FOXP2 and the forkhead domain of FOXP2 in nuclei. However, both FOXP2 with mutated nuclear localization signals and (R553H) mutated forkhead, which is associated with speech-language disorder, prevented the nuclear translocation of POT1. These results suggest that FOXP2 is a binding partner for the nuclear translocation of POT1. As loss of POT1 function induces the cell arrest, the impaired nuclear translocation of POT1 in the developing neuronal cells may be associated with the pathogenesis of speech-language disorder with FOXP2(R553H) mutation.

  14. Upregulation and nuclear translocation of testicular ghrelin protects differentiating spermatogonia from ionizing radiation injury

    PubMed Central

    Li, W; Zeng, Y; Zhao, J; Zhu, C-J; Hou, W-G; Zhang, S

    2014-01-01

    Proper control of apoptotic signaling is important for maintenance of testicular homeostasis after ionizing radiation (IR). Herein, we challenged the hypothesis that ghrelin, a pleiotropic modulator, is potentially involved in IR-induced germ cell injury. Lower body exposure to 2 Gy of IR induced a notable increase of ghrelin expression in the nuclear of differentiating spermatogonia at defined stages, with an impairment in the Leydig cells (LCs)-expressing ghrelin. Unexpectedly, inhibition of the ghrelin pathway by intraperitoneal injection of a specific GHS-R1α antagonist enhanced spermatogonia elimination by apoptosis during the early recovery following IR, and thereafter resulted in impaired male fertility, suggesting that the anti-apoptotic effects of evoked ghrelin, although transient along testicular IR injury, have a profound influence on the post-injury recovery. In addition, inhibition of ghrelin signaling resulted in a significant increase in the intratesticular testosterone (T) level at the end of 21 days after IR, which should stimulate the spermatogenic recovery from surviving spermatogonia to a certain extent during the late stage. We further demonstrated that the upregulation and nuclear trafficking of ghrelin, elaborately regulated by IR-elicited antioxidant system in spermatogonia, may act through a p53-dependent mechanism. The elicitation of ghrelin expression by IR stress, the regulation of ghrelin expression by IR-induced oxidative stress and the interaction between p53 and ghrelin signaling during IR injury were confirmed in cultured spermatogonia. Hence, our results represent the first evidence in support of a radioprotective role of ghrelin in the differentiating spermatogonia. The acutely, delicate regulation of local-produced ghrelin appears to be a fine-tune mechanism modulating the balance between testicular homeostasis and early IR injury. PMID:24853426

  15. Upregulation and nuclear translocation of testicular ghrelin protects differentiating spermatogonia from ionizing radiation injury.

    PubMed

    Li, W; Zeng, Y; Zhao, J; Zhu, C-J; Hou, W-G; Zhang, S

    2014-05-22

    Proper control of apoptotic signaling is important for maintenance of testicular homeostasis after ionizing radiation (IR). Herein, we challenged the hypothesis that ghrelin, a pleiotropic modulator, is potentially involved in IR-induced germ cell injury. Lower body exposure to 2 Gy of IR induced a notable increase of ghrelin expression in the nuclear of differentiating spermatogonia at defined stages, with an impairment in the Leydig cells (LCs)-expressing ghrelin. Unexpectedly, inhibition of the ghrelin pathway by intraperitoneal injection of a specific GHS-R1α antagonist enhanced spermatogonia elimination by apoptosis during the early recovery following IR, and thereafter resulted in impaired male fertility, suggesting that the anti-apoptotic effects of evoked ghrelin, although transient along testicular IR injury, have a profound influence on the post-injury recovery. In addition, inhibition of ghrelin signaling resulted in a significant increase in the intratesticular testosterone (T) level at the end of 21 days after IR, which should stimulate the spermatogenic recovery from surviving spermatogonia to a certain extent during the late stage. We further demonstrated that the upregulation and nuclear trafficking of ghrelin, elaborately regulated by IR-elicited antioxidant system in spermatogonia, may act through a p53-dependent mechanism. The elicitation of ghrelin expression by IR stress, the regulation of ghrelin expression by IR-induced oxidative stress and the interaction between p53 and ghrelin signaling during IR injury were confirmed in cultured spermatogonia. Hence, our results represent the first evidence in support of a radioprotective role of ghrelin in the differentiating spermatogonia. The acutely, delicate regulation of local-produced ghrelin appears to be a fine-tune mechanism modulating the balance between testicular homeostasis and early IR injury.

  16. Ceramide synthase 6 modulates TRAIL sensitivity and nuclear translocation of active caspase-3 in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    White-Gilbertson, S; Mullen, T; Senkal, C; Lu, P; Ogretmen, B; Obeid, L; Voelkel-Johnson, C

    2009-02-26

    We have previously shown that the death receptor ligand TRAIL (tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand) induces an increase of intracellular C(16)-ceramide in sensitive SW480 but not in resistant SW620 cells. Resistance in SW620 cells was overcome by exogenous ceramide, leading us to propose that defective ceramide signaling contributes to TRAIL resistance. In this study we found that the increase in C(16)-ceramide in SW480 cells was inhibited by fumonisin B1, an inhibitor of ceramide synthases (CerS). Protein analysis revealed that TRAIL-resistant SW620 cells expressed lower levels of ceramide synthase 6 (CerS6, also known as longevity assurance homologue 6), which prompted us to investigate the effect of CerS6 modulation on TRAIL phenotype. RNAi against CerS6 resulted in a specific and significant decrease of the C(16)-ceramide species, which was sufficient to inhibit TRAIL-induced apoptosis. In cells with decreased levels of CerS6, caspase-3 was activated but failed to translocate into the nucleus. CerS6 localized primarily to the perinuclear region, suggesting this enzyme may be important in regulation of nuclear permeability. Moderate elevation in CerS6 expression was sufficient to reverse TRAIL resistance in SW620 cells. These results suggest that modulation of CerS6 expression may constitute a new therapeutic strategy to alter apoptotic susceptibility.

  17. Knockdown of MAP4 and DNAL1 produces a post-fusion and pre-nuclear translocation impairment in HIV-1 replication

    SciTech Connect

    Gallo, Daniel E. Hope, Thomas J.

    2012-01-05

    DNAL1 and MAP4 are both microtubule-associated proteins. These proteins were identified as HIV-1 dependency factors in a screen with wild-type HIV-1. In this study we demonstrate that knockdown using DNAL1 and MAP4 siRNAs and shRNAs inhibits HIV-1 infection regardless of envelope. Using a fusion assay, we show that DNAL1 and MAP4 do not impact fusion. By assaying for late reverse transcripts and 2-LTR circles, we show that DNAL1 and MAP4 inhibit both by approximately 50%. These results demonstrate that DNAL1 and MAP4 impact reverse transcription but not nuclear translocation. DNAL1 and MAP4 knockdown cells do not display cytoskeletal defects. Together these experiments indicate that DNAL1 and MAP4 may exert their functions in the HIV life cycle at reverse transcription, prior to nuclear translocation.

  18. Knockdown of MAP4 and DNAL1 produces a post-fusion and pre-nuclear translocation impairment in HIV-1 replication.

    PubMed

    Gallo, Daniel E; Hope, Thomas J

    2012-01-05

    DNAL1 and MAP4 are both microtubule-associated proteins. These proteins were identified as HIV-1 dependency factors in a screen with wild-type HIV-1. In this study we demonstrate that knockdown using DNAL1 and MAP4 siRNAs and shRNAs inhibits HIV-1 infection regardless of envelope. Using a fusion assay, we show that DNAL1 and MAP4 do not impact fusion. By assaying for late reverse transcripts and 2-LTR circles, we show that DNAL1 and MAP4 inhibit both by approximately 50%. These results demonstrate that DNAL1 and MAP4 impact reverse transcription but not nuclear translocation. DNAL1 and MAP4 knockdown cells do not display cytoskeletal defects. Together these experiments indicate that DNAL1 and MAP4 may exert their functions in the HIV life cycle at reverse transcription, prior to nuclear translocation.

  19. Nuclear translocation of {alpha}N-catenin by the novel zinc finger transcriptional repressor ZASC1

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaerts, Sven; Vanlandschoot, Ann; Hengel, Jolanda van; Roy, Frans van . E-mail: F.Vanroy@dmbr.UGent.be

    2005-11-15

    Alpha-catenins anchor the transmembrane cell-cell adhesion molecule E-cadherin indirectly to the actin cytoskeleton through interaction with {beta}-catenin or plakoglobin. Three different {alpha}-catenins are known at present: {alpha}E-, {alpha}T-, and {alpha}N-catenin. Despite their different expression patterns, no functional differences between the {alpha}-catenins are known. In a yeast two-hybrid screening with {alpha}N-catenin as bait, we identified the Cys{sub 2}-His{sub 2} zinc finger protein ZASC1. The mRNA and protein of ZASC1 were ubiquitously expressed in various cell lines and human tissues. Our results suggest an association of the ZASC1 protein with DNA, and luciferase reporter assays revealed that ZASC1 is a transcriptional repressor. Upon transient overexpression, the ZASC1 protein localized in the nucleus, to where it was able to recruit cytoplasmic {alpha}N-catenin. Neither the highly related {alpha}E-catenin nor {alpha}T-catenin interacted with ZASC1. By interchanging parts of {alpha}N-catenin and {alpha}E-catenin cDNAs, we were able to narrow down the interaction region of {alpha}N-catenin to two limited amino-terminal regions. On the other hand, the interaction of ZASC1 with {alpha}N-catenin can be mediated by the domain comprising zinc fingers six to eight of ZASC1. The interaction and nuclear cotranslocation of a neural {alpha}-catenin with a putative proto-oncogene product as reported here provides novel insights into the signaling functions of {alpha}-catenins.

  20. Hypericin-mediated sonodynamic therapy induces autophagy and decreases lipids in THP-1 macrophage by promoting ROS-dependent nuclear translocation of TFEB

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xuesong; Zhang, Xin; Zheng, Longbin; Kou, Jiayuan; Zhong, Zhaoyu; Jiang, Yueqing; Wang, Wei; Dong, Zengxiang; Liu, Zhongni; Han, Xiaobo; Li, Jing; Tian, Ye; Zhao, Yajun; Yang, Liming

    2016-01-01

    Lipid catabolism disorder is the primary cause of atherosclerosis. Transcription factor EB (TFEB) prevents atherosclerosis by activating macrophage autophagy to promote lipid degradation. Hypericin-mediated sonodynamic therapy (HY-SDT) has been proved non-invasively inducing THP-1-derived macrophage apoptosis; however, it is unknown whether macrophage autophagy could be triggered by HY-SDT to influence cellular lipid catabolism via regulating TFEB. Here, we report that HY-SDT resulted in the time-dependent THP-1-derived macrophage autophagy activation through AMPK/AKT/mTOR pathway. Besides, TFEB nuclear translocation in macrophage was triggered by HY-SDT to promote autophagy activation and lysosome regeneration which enhanced lipid degradation in response to atherogenic lipid stressors. Moreover, following HY-SDT, the ABCA1 expression level was increased to promote lipid efflux in macrophage, and the expression levels of CD36 and SR-A were decreased to inhibit lipid uptake, both of which were prevented by TFEB knockdown. These results indicated that TFEB nuclear translocation activated by HY-SDT was not only the key regulator of autophagy activation and lysosome regeneration in macrophage to promote lipolysis, but also had a crucial role in reverse cholesterol transporters to decrease lipid uptake and increase lipid efflux. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were adequately generated in macrophage by HY-SDT. Further, ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine abolished HY-SDT-induced TFEB nuclear translocation and autophagy activation, implying that ROS were the primary upstream factors responsible for these effects during HY-SDT. In summary, our data indicate that HY-SDT decreases lipid content in macrophage by promoting ROS-dependent nuclear translocation of TFEB to influence consequent autophagy activation and cholesterol transporters. Thus, HY-SDT may be beneficial for atherosclerosis via TFEB regulation to ameliorate lipid overload in atherosclerotic plaques. PMID:28005078

  1. Gefitinib resistance in HCC mahlavu cells: upregulation of CD133 expression, activation of IGF-1R signaling pathway, and enhancement of IGF-1R nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Bodzin, Adam S; Wei, Zhengyu; Hurtt, Reginald; Gu, Tina; Doria, Cataldo

    2012-07-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the major form of primary liver cancer which accounts for more than half million deaths annually worldwide. While the incidence of HCC is still on the rise, options of treatment are limited and the overall survival rate is poor. The acquisition of cancer drug resistance remains one of the key hurdles to successful treatment. Clearly, a thorough understanding of the underlying mechanisms is needed for new strategies to design novel treatments and/or to improve the current therapies. In the present study, we examined the expression of cancer stem cell (CSC) marker CD133, the activation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling, and the nuclear translocation of IGF-1R in HCC Mahlavu cells under the treatment of gefitinib, a cancer drug that inhibits epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway. Our results demonstrated that Mahlavu cells exhibited strong gefitinib resistance and the CD133 expression level was dramatically increased (from 3.88% to 32%) after drug treatment. In addition, the gefitinib treated cells displayed increased levels of phosphorylation in IGF-1R and Akt, indicating the intensified activation of this cancer-associated signaling pathway. Moreover, we revealed that IGF-1R underwent nuclear translocation in gefitinib treated cells using confocal microscopy. The IGF-1R nuclear translocation was enhanced under gefitinib treatment and appeared in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that increased IGF-1R nuclear translocation after gefitinib treatment may contribute to the drug resistance and IGF1-R activation, which might also associate with the upregulation of CD133 expression.

  2. Retinoic acid induces nuclear FAK translocation and reduces breast cancer cell adhesion through Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Angel Matías; Shortrede, Jorge Eduardo; Vargas-Roig, Laura María; Flamini, Marina Inés

    2016-07-15

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women, with metastases being the cause of death in 98%. In previous works we have demonstrated that retinoic acid (RA), the main retinoic acid receptor (RAR) ligand, is involved in the metastatic process by inhibiting migration through a reduced expression of the specific migration-related proteins Moesin, c-Src, and FAK. At present, our hypothesis is that RA also acts for short periods in a non-genomic action to cooperate with motility reduction and morphology of breast cancer cells. Here we identify that the administration of 10(-6) M RA (10-20 min) induces the activation of the migration-related proteins Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin in T-47D breast cancer cells. The phosphorylation exerted by the selective agonists for RARα and RARβ, on Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin was comparable to the activation exerted by RA. The RARγ agonist only led to a weak activation, suggesting the involvement of RARα and RARβ in this pathway. We then treated the cells with different inhibitors that are involved in cell signaling to regulate the mechanisms of cell motility. RA failed to activate Moesin, FAK, and Paxillin in cells treated with Src inhibitor (PP2) and PI3K inhibitor (WM), suggesting the participation of Src-PI3K in this pathway. Treatment with 10(-6) M RA for 20 min significantly decreased cell adhesion. However, when cells were treated with 10(-6) M RA and FAK inhibitor, the RA did not significantly inhibit adhesion, suggesting a role of FAK in the adhesion inhibited by RA. By immunofluorescence and immunoblotting analysis we demonstrated that RA induced nuclear FAK translocation leading to a reduced cellular adhesion. These findings provide new information on the actions of RA for short periods. RA participates in cell adhesion and subsequent migration, modulating the relocation and activation of proteins involved in cell migration.

  3. Endocytosis in enterocytes.

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; de Laffolie, Jan; Barone, Maria Vittoria; Naim, Hassan Y

    2016-05-01

    Endocytosis is a fundamental cell biological process, which carries out essential functions in a polarized epithelial cell such as enterocytes provided with a huge surface area of the brush border membrane. Major tasks of enterocytes, which are regulated by endocytic signals, are digestion and absorption of nutrients and drugs/pharmacological agents, barrier permeability to microorganism, toxins and antigens, and transcytotic crosstalk between intestinal lumen and lamina propria cells with access to the circulation.Investigations on inflammatory bowel diseases such as food allergy, celiac disease, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis focus on immune processes originating within enterocytes as antigen presenting cells. Thus the initiation of oral tolerance, that is, the binding of food antigens to MHC class II proteins, might be localized within late endosomes of enterocytes. Furthermore, the late endosomal compartment of enterocytes seems to be involved in the processing of luminal antigens during the pathogenesis of celiac disease and inflammatory bowel diseases. Investigations of inherited diseases such as microvillus inclusion disease have revealed a pathogenetic defect in the autophagocytotic and/or recycling pathway of enterocytes.Our progress in the cell and molecular biological understanding of the endocytosis and the methodical opportunities of translational research offer now new therapeutic options for patients suffering from endocytosis-related diseases of enterocytes.

  4. LKB1 inhibits the proliferation of gastric cancer cells by suppressing the nuclear translocation of Yap and β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lian-Gang; Bian, Shi-Bo; Cui, Jian-Xin; Xi, Hong-Qing; Zhang, Ke-Cheng; Qin, Hong-Zhen; Zhu, Xiao-Ming; Chen, Lin

    2016-04-01

    patients. LKB1 inhibits the proliferation of GC cells by suppressing the nuclear translocation of Yap and β-catenin.

  5. Water-Soluble Coenzyme Q10 Inhibits Nuclear Translocation of Apoptosis Inducing Factor and Cell Death Caused by Mitochondrial Complex I Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Li, Haining; Chen, Guisheng; Ma, Wanrui; Li, Ping-An Andy

    2014-01-01

    The objectives of the study were to explore the mechanism of rotenone-induced cell damage and to examine the protective effects of water-soluble Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on the toxic effects of rotenone. Murine hippocampal HT22 cells were cultured with mitochondrial complex I inhibitor rotenone. Water-soluble CoQ10 was added to the culture media 3 h prior to the rotenone incubation. Cell viability was determined by alamar blue, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by dihydroethidine (DHE) and mitochondrial membrane potential by tetramethyl rhodamine methyl ester (TMRM). Cytochrome c, caspase-9 and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) were measured using Western blotting after 24 h rotenone incubation. Rotenone caused more than 50% of cell death, increased ROS production, AIF nuclear translocation and reduction in mitochondrial membrane potential, but failed to cause mitochondrial cytochrome c release and caspase-9 activation. Pretreatment with water-soluble CoQ10 enhanced cell viability, decreased ROS production, maintained mitochondrial membrane potential and prevented AIF nuclear translocation. The results suggest that rotenone activates a mitochondria-initiated, caspase-independent cell death pathway. Water-soluble CoQ10 reduces ROS accumulation, prevents the fall of mitochondrial membrane potential, and inhibits AIF translocation and subsequent cell death. PMID:25089873

  6. Caspase-independent cell death mediated by apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) nuclear translocation is involved in ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hengwen; Yang, Shana; Li, Jianhua; Zhang, Yajie; Gao, Dongsheng; Zhao, Shenting

    2016-03-25

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world. The aim of radiotherapy is to eradicate cancer cells with ionizing radiation. Except for the caspase-dependent mechanism, several lines of evidence demonstrated that caspase-independent mechanism is directly involved in the cell death responding to irradiation. For this reason, defining the contribution of caspase-independent molecular mechanisms represents the main goal in radiotherapy. In this study, we focused on the role of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), the caspase-independent molecular, in ionizing radiation induced hepatocellular carcinoma cell line (HepG2) cell death. We found that ionizing radiation has no function on AIF expression in HepG2 cells, but could induce AIF release from the mitochondria and translocate into nuclei. Inhibition of AIF could reduce ionizing radiation induced HepG2 cell death. These studies strongly support a direct relationship between AIF nuclear translocation and radiation induced cell death. What's more, AIF nuclear translocation is caspase-independent manner, but not caspase-dependent manner, in this process. These new findings add a further attractive point of investigation to better define the complex interplay between caspase-independent cell death and radiation therapy.

  7. A small molecule induces integrin β4 nuclear translocation and apoptosis selectively in cancer cells with high expression of integrin β4

    PubMed Central

    Liu, ShuYan; Ge, Di; Chen, LiNa; Zhao, Jing; Su, Le; Zhang, ShangLi; Miao, JunYing; Zhao, BaoXiang

    2016-01-01

    Increased integrin β4 (ITGB4) level is accompanied by malignant progression of multiple carcinomas. However, selective therapeutic strategies against cancer cells expressing a high level of ITGB4 have not been reported. Here, for the first time, we report that a chiral small molecule, SEC, selectively promotes apoptosis in cancer cells expressing a high level of ITGB4 by inducing ITGB4 nuclear translocation. Nuclear ITGB4 can bind to the ATF3 promoter region and activate the expression of ATF3, then upregulate the downstream pro-apoptosis genes. Furthermore, SEC promoted the binding of annexin A7 (ANXA7) to ITGB4 and increased ANXA7 GTPase activity. Activated ANXA7 promoted ITGB4 nuclear translocation by triggering ITGB4 phosphorylation at Y1494. SEC also inhibited the growth of xenograft tumors in the avian embryo model. We identified a small molecule, SEC, with selective pro-apoptosis effects on cancer cells with high expression of ITGB4, both in vitro and in vivo, by triggering the binding of ITGB4 and ANXA7, ITGB4 nuclear trafficking, and pro-apoptosis gene expression. PMID:26918348

  8. The intracellular domain of teneurin-1 interacts with MBD1 and CAP/ponsin resulting in subcellular codistribution and translocation to the nuclear matrix

    SciTech Connect

    Nunes, Samantha M.; Ferralli, Jacqueline; Choi, Karen; Brown-Luedi, Marianne; Minet, Ariane D.; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth . E-mail: chiquet@fmi.ch

    2005-04-15

    Teneurin-1 is a type II transmembrane protein expressed in neurons of the developing and adult central nervous system. To investigate the intracellular signaling of teneurin-1, we searched for proteins interacting with its intracellular domain. One of the proteins identified is the c-Cbl-associated protein CAP/ponsin, an adaptor protein containing SH3 domains. This interaction results on one hand in the recruitment of the soluble intracellular domain of teneurin-1 to the cell membrane enriched in CAP/ponsin. On the other hand, it leads to the translocation of CAP/ponsin to the nucleus, the major site of accumulation of the intracellular domain of teneurin-1. The second interacting protein identified is the methyl-CpG binding protein MBD1. In the nucleus, the intracellular domain of teneurin-1 colocalizes with this transcriptional repressor in foci associated with the nuclear matrix. We propose that these interactions are part of a specific signaling pathway. Evidence for cleavage and nuclear translocation of the intracellular domain has been obtained by the detection of endogenous teneurin-1 immunoreactivity in nuclear speckles in chick embryo fibroblasts. Furthermore, in the nuclear matrix fraction of these cells as well as in cells expressing a hormone-inducible full-length teneurin-1 protein, a teneurin-1 fragment of identical size could be detected as in cells transfected with the intracellular domain alone.

  9. Nuclear translocation of UDCA by the glucocorticoid receptor is required to reduce TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Solá, Susana; Amaral, Joana D; Castro, Rui E; Ramalho, Rita M; Borralho, Pedro M; Kren, Betsy T; Tanaka, Hirotoshi; Steer, Cifford J; Rodrigues, Cecília M P

    2005-10-01

    Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) inhibits classical mitochondrial pathways of apoptosis by either directly stabilizing mitochondrial membranes or modulating specific upstream targets. Furthermore, UDCA regulates apoptosis-related genes from transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1)-induced hepatocyte apoptosis by a nuclear steroid receptor (NSR)-dependent mechanism. In this study, we further investigated the potential role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in the anti-apoptotic function of UDCA. Our results with short interference RNA (siRNA) technology confirmed that UDCA significantly reduces TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis of primary rat hepatocytes through a GR-dependent effect. Immunoprecipitation assays and confocal microscopy showed that UDCA enhanced free GR levels with subsequent GR nuclear translocation. Interestingly, when a carboxy-terminus deleted form of GR was used, UDCA no longer increased free GR and/or GR translocation, nor did it protect against TGF-beta1-induced apoptosis. In co-transfection experiments with GR response element reporter and overexpression constructs, UDCA did not enhance the transactivation of GR with TGF-beta1. Finally, using a fluorescently labeled UDCA molecule, the bile acid appeared diffuse in the cytosol but was aggregated in the nucleus of hepatocytes. Both siRNA assays and transfection experiments with either wild-type or mutant forms of GR showed that nuclear trafficking occurs through a GR-dependent mechanism. In conclusion, these results further clarify the anti-apoptotic mechanism(s) of UDCA and suggest that GR is crucial for the nuclear translocation of this bile acid for reducing apoptosis.

  10. Nucleoplasmic/nucleolar translocation and identification of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) in Dictyostelium BAF60a/SMARCD1 homologue Snf12.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Andrew; O'Day, Danton H

    2012-09-01

    Dictyostelium is a model eukaryote for the study of several cellular processes; however, comparatively little is known about its nucleolus. Identification of nucleolar proteins is key to understanding this nuclear subcompartment, but only four have been identified in Dictyostelium. As discussed in this article, a potential relationship between nucleolar NumA1 and BAF60a/SMARCD1 suggested BAF60a may also reside in the nucleolus. Here, we identify BAF60a homologue Snf12 as the fifth nucleolar protein in Dictyostelium. Immunolocalization experiments demonstrate that Snf12 is nucleoplasmic, but translocates to nucleoli upon actinomycin-D-induced transcription inhibition (0.05 mg/mL, 4 h). Translocation was accompanied by a microtubule-independent protrusion of nucleolar Snf12 regions from the nucleus followed by detection of Snf12 in cytoplasmic circles for at least 48 h. Residues (372)KRKR(375) are both necessary and sufficient for nucleoplasmic localization of Snf12 and represent a functional nuclear localization signal (NLS), similar to recently identified NLSs in other Dictyostelium proteins. Since nucleolar and nucleoplasmic proteins redistribute during mitosis, we investigated Snf12 dynamics during this time. Dictyostelium undergoes closed mitosis, meaning its nuclear envelope remains intact. Despite this, during metaphase and anaphase Snf12 redistributed throughout the cytoplasm before reaccumulating in the nucleus during telophase, unlike the previously reported nucleoplasmic redistribution of nucleolar NumA1. The nuclear exit of Snf12 was independent of its putative nuclear export signal and not inhibited by exportin inhibition, suggesting that the redistribution of nuclear proteins during mitosis in Dictyostelium is mediated by other mechanisms. Snf12 is the second Dictyostelium nucleolar protein for which its dynamics during mitosis have been investigated.

  11. The metastasis suppressor NDRG1 modulates the phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin through mechanisms involving FRAT1 and PAK4.

    PubMed

    Jin, Runsen; Liu, Wensheng; Menezes, Sharleen; Yue, Fei; Zheng, Minhua; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R

    2014-07-15

    N-myc downstream-regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) is a potent metastasis suppressor that has been demonstrated to inhibit the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)-induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) by maintaining the cell-membrane localization of E-cadherin and β-catenin in prostate and colon cancer cells. However, the precise molecular mechanism remains unclear. In this investigation, we demonstrate that NDRG1 inhibits the phosphorylation of β-catenin at Ser33/37 and Thr41 and increases the levels of non-phosphorylated β-catenin at the plasma membrane in DU145 prostate cancer cells and HT29 colon cancer cells. The mechanism of inhibiting β-catenin phosphorylation involves the NDRG1-mediated upregulation of the GSK3β-binding protein FRAT1, which prevents the association of GSK3β with the Axin1-APC-CK1 destruction complex and the subsequent phosphorylation of β-catenin. Additionally, NDRG1 is shown to modulate the WNT-β-catenin pathway by inhibiting the nuclear translocation of β-catenin. This is mediated through an NDRG1-dependent reduction in the nuclear localization of p21-activated kinase 4 (PAK4), which is known to act as a transporter for β-catenin nuclear translocation. The current study is the first to elucidate a unique molecular mechanism involved in the NDRG1-dependent regulation of β-catenin phosphorylation and distribution.

  12. Adenylyl cyclase A expression is tip-specific in Dictyostelium slugs and directs StatA nuclear translocation and CudA gene expression.

    PubMed

    Verkerke-van Wijk, I; Fukuzawa, M; Devreotes, P N; Schaap, P

    2001-06-01

    cAMP oscillations, generated by adenylyl cyclase A (ACA), coordinate cell aggregation in Dictyostelium and have also been implicated in organizer function during multicellular development. We used a gene fusion of the ACA promoter with a labile lacZ derivative to study the expression pattern of ACA. During aggregation, most cells expressed ACA, but thereafter expression was lost in all cells except those of the anterior tip. Before aggregation, ACA transcription was strongly upregulated by nanomolar cAMP pulses. Postaggregative transcription was sustained by nanomolar cAMP pulses, but downregulated by a continuous micromolar cAMP stimulus and by the stalk-cell-inducing factor DIF. Earlier work showed that the transcription factor StatA displays tip-specific nuclear translocation and directs tip-specific expression of the nuclear protein CudA, which is essential for culmination. Both StatA and CudA were present in nuclei throughout the entire slug in an aca null mutant that expresses ACA from the constitutive actin15 promoter. This suggests that the tip-specific expression of ACA directs tip-specific nuclear translocation of StatA and tip-specific expression of CudA.

  13. Overexpression of glutaredoxin protects cardiomyocytes against nitric oxide-induced apoptosis with suppressing the S-nitrosylation of proteins and nuclear translocation of GAPDH

    SciTech Connect

    Inadomi, Chiaki; Murata, Hiroaki; Ihara, Yoshito; Goto, Shinji; Urata, Yoshishige; Yodoi, Junji; Kondo, Takahito; Sumikawa, Koji

    2012-08-31

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer GRX1 overexpression protects myocardiac H9c2 cells against NO-induced apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NO-induced nuclear translocation of GAPDH is suppressed in GRX overexpressors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Oxidation of GAPDH by NO is less in GRX overexpressors than in controls. -- Abstract: There is increasing evidence demonstrating that glutaredoxin 1 (GRX1), a cytosolic enzyme responsible for the catalysis of protein deglutathionylation, plays distinct roles in inflammation and apoptosis by inducing changes in the cellular redox system. In this study, we investigated whether and how the overexpression of GRX1 protects cardiomyocytes against nitric oxide (NO)-induced apoptosis. Cardiomyocytes (H9c2 cells) were transfected with the expression vector for mouse GRX1 cDNA, and mock-transfected cells were used as a control. Compared with the mock-transfected cells, the GRX1-transfected cells were more resistant to NO-induced apoptosis. Stimulation with NO significantly increased the nuclear translocation of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), a pro-apoptotic protein, in the mock-transfected cells, but did not change GAPDH localization in the GRX1-transfected cells. Furthermore, we found that NO stimulation clearly induced the oxidative modification of GAPDH in the mock-transfected cells, whereas less modification of GAPDH was observed in the GRX1-transfected cells. These data suggest that the overexpression of GRX1 could protect cardiomyocytes against NO-induced apoptosis, likely through the inhibition of the oxidative modification and the nuclear translocation of GAPDH.

  14. Mechanistic insights of O-GlcNAcylation that promote progression of cholangiocarcinoma cells via nuclear translocation of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Phoomak, Chatchai; Vaeteewoottacharn, Kulthida; Sawanyawisuth, Kanlayanee; Seubwai, Wunchana; Wongkham, Chaisiri; Silsirivanit, Atit; Wongkham, Sopit

    2016-01-01

    O-GlcNAcylation, an O-linked protein glycosylation with a single molecule of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), is reversibly controlled by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and N-acetyl D-glucosaminidase (OGA). Aberrant O-GlcNAcylation contributes an important role in initiation and progression of many human cancers. Elevation of O-GlcNAcylation in tumor tissues and poor prognosis of cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) patients have been reported. In this study, the role of O-GlcNAcylation in promoting tumor progression was further investigated in CCA cell lines. Suppression of O-GlcNAcylation using small interfering RNAs of OGT (siOGT) significantly reduced cell migration and invasion of CCA cells whereas siOGA treated cells exhibited opposite effects. Manipulating levels of O-GlcNAcylation did affect the nuclear translocation of NF-κB and Akt-phosphorylation together with expression of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs). O-GlcNAcylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB, the upstream signaling cascade of MMP activation were shown to be important for MMP activation. Immunoprecipitation revealed the elevation of O-GlcNAc-modified NF-κB with increased cellular O-GlcNAcylation. Involvement of O-GlcNAcylation in MMP-mediated migration and invasion of CCA cells was shown to be via O-GlcNAcylation and nuclear translocation of NF-κB. This information indicates the significance of O-GlcNAcylation in controlling the metastatic ability of CCA cells, hence, O-GlcNAcylation and its products may be new targets for treatment of metastatic CCA. PMID:27290989

  15. Nuclear translocation kinetics of NF-kappaB in macrophages challenged with pathogens in a microfluidic platform.

    PubMed

    James, Conrad D; Moorman, Matthew W; Carson, Bryan D; Branda, Catherine S; Lantz, Jeffrey W; Manginell, Ronald P; Martino, Anthony; Singh, Anup K

    2009-06-01

    We have developed a microfluidic platform for real-time imaging of host-pathogen interactions and cellular signaling events. Host cells are immobilized in a controlled environment for optical interrogation of the kinetics and stochasticity of immune response to pathogenic challenges. Here, we have quantitatively measured activation of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway in RAW264.7 murine macrophage-like cells. This was achieved by measuring the cytoplasm-to-nucleus translocation kinetics of a green fluorescent protein fusion construct to the NF-kappaB transcription factor subunit RelA (GFP-RelA). Translocation kinetics in response to live bacteria and purified lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenges were measured, and this work presents the first demonstration of live imaging of host cell infection on a microfluidic platform with quantitative analysis of an early (<0.5 h from infection) immune signaling event. Our data show that a 1,000x increase in the LPS dose led to a ~10x increase in a host cell activation metric we developed in order to describe NF-kappaB translocation kinetics. Using this metric, live bacteria challenges were assigned an equivalent LPS dose as a first step towards comparing NF-kappaB translocation kinetics between TLR4-only pathway signaling (activated by LPS) and multiple pathway signaling (activated by whole bacteria). The device also contains a unique architecture for capturing and fluidically isolating single host cells for the purpose of differentiating between primary and secondary immune signaling.

  16. Lipid-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Ewers, Helge; Helenius, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is used by a number of viruses and toxins to gain entry into cells. Some have evolved to use specific lipids in the plasma membrane as their receptors. They include bacterial toxins such as Shiga and Cholera toxin and viruses such as mouse polyoma virus and simian virus 40. Through multivalent binding to glycosphingolipids, they induce lipid clustering and changes in membrane properties. Internalization occurs by unusual endocytic mechanisms involving lipid rafts, induction of membrane curvature, trans-bilayer coupling, and activation of signaling pathways. Once delivered to early endosomes, they follow diverse intracellular routes to the lumen of the ER, from which they penetrate into the cytosol. The role of the lipid receptors is central in these well-studied processes. PMID:21576253

  17. IKKβ phosphorylation regulates RPS3 nuclear translocation and NF-κB function during Escherichia coli O157:H7 infection

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Fengyi; Weaver, Amanda; Gao, Xiaofei; Bern, Michael; Hardwidge, Philip R.; Lenardo, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    NF-κB is a major gene regulator in immune responses and ribosomal protein S3 (RPS3) is an NF-κB subunit that directs specific gene transcription. However, it is unknown how RPS3 nuclear translocation is regulated. Here we report that IKKβ phosphorylation of serine 209 (S209) was crucial for RPS3 nuclear localization in response to activating stimuli. Moreover, the foodborne pathogen Escherichia coli O157:H7 virulence protein NleH1 specifically inhibited RPS3 S209 phosphorylation and blocked RPS3 function, thereby promoting bacterial colonization and diarrhea but decreasing mortality in a gnotobiotic piglet infection model. Thus, the IKKβ-dependent modification of a specific amino acid in RPS3 promotes specific NF-κB functions that underlie the molecular pathogenetic mechanisms of E. coli O157:H7. PMID:21399639

  18. Inhibitory function of adapter-related protein complex 2 alpha 1 subunit in the process of nuclear translocation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genome

    SciTech Connect

    Kitagawa, Yukiko; Kameoka, Masanori Shoji-Kawata, Sanae; Iwabu, Yukie; Mizuta, Hiroyuki; Tokunaga, Kenzo; Fujino, Masato; Natori, Yukikazu; Yura, Yoshiaki; Ikuta, Kazuyoshi

    2008-03-30

    The transfection of human cells with siRNA against adapter-related protein complex 2 alpha 1 subunit (AP2{alpha}) was revealed to significantly up-regulate the replication of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). This effect was confirmed by cell infection with vesicular stomatitis virus G protein-pseudotyped HIV-1 as well as CXCR4-tropic and CCR5-tropic HIV-1. Viral adsorption, viral entry and reverse transcription processes were not affected by cell transfection with siRNA against AP2{alpha}. In contrast, viral nuclear translocation as well as the integration process was significantly up-regulated in cells transfected with siRNA against AP2{alpha}. Confocal fluorescence microscopy revealed that a subpopulation of AP2{alpha} was not only localized in the cytoplasm but was also partly co-localized with lamin B, importin {beta} and Nup153, implying that AP2{alpha} negatively regulates HIV-1 replication in the process of nuclear translocation of viral DNA in the cytoplasm or the perinuclear region. We propose that AP2{alpha} may be a novel target for disrupting HIV-1 replication in the early stage of the viral life cycle.

  19. Analysis and Quantitation of NF-[kappa]B Nuclear Translocation in Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha (TNF-[alpha]) Activated Vascular Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuseler, John W.; Merrill, Dana M.; Rogers, Jennifer A.; Grisham, Matthew B.; Wolf, Robert E.

    2006-07-01

    Nuclear factor kappa B (NF-[kappa]B) is a heterodimeric transcription factor typically composed of p50 and p65 subunits and is a pleiotropic regulator of various inflammatory and immune responses. In quiescent cells, p50/p65 dimers are sequestered in the cytoplasm bound to its inhibitors, the I-[kappa]Bs, which prevent entry into the nucleus. Following cellular stimulation, the I-[kappa]Bs are rapidly degraded, activating NF-[kappa]B. The active form of NF-[kappa]B rapidly translocates into the nucleus, binding to consensus sequences in the promoter/enhancer region of various genes, promoting their transcription. In human vascular endothelial cells activated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha, the activation and translocation of NF-[kappa]B is rapid, reaching maximal nuclear localization by 30 min. In this study, the appearance of NF-[kappa]B (p65 subunit, p65-NF-[kappa]B) in the nucleus visualized by immunofluorescence and quantified by morphometric image analysis (integrated optical density, IOD) is compared to the appearance of activated p65-NF-[kappa]B protein in the nucleus determined biochemically. The appearance of p65-NF-[kappa]B in the nucleus measured by fluorescence image analysis and biochemically express a linear correlation (R2 = 0.9477). These data suggest that localization and relative protein concentrations of NF-[kappa]B can be reliably determined from IOD measurements of the immunofluorescent labeled protein.

  20. Annexin A1 nuclear translocation induces retinal ganglion cell apoptosis after ischemia-reperfusion injury through the p65/IL-1β pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yin; Li, Xing; Gong, Jieling; Li, Lu; Chen, Liwen; Zheng, Lu; Chen, Zhiqi; Shi, Jing; Zhang, Hong

    2017-04-04

    The degeneration of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) has been identified as a major problem in glaucoma. Previous studies have indicated an association between annexin A1 (ANXA1) and neuronal cell apoptosis, and RGCs apoptosis in acute ischemia-reperfusion was attributed to an increased production of IL-1β. We found that the expression and nuclear translocation of ANXA1 were upregulated in models of acute ischemia-reperfusion in RGCs in vivo. ANXA1 was found to have a promoting effect on the expression of IL-1β in primary cultured RGCs, which could be inhibited by treatment with ANXA1 shRNA or the p65 inhibitor BAY 11-7082. ANXA1 interacted with p65, and recruited it into the nucleus. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that ANXA1 accumulated at the IL-1β gene promoter. The reduction of p65 nuclear translocation using a membrane-permeable ANXA1 peptide containing a Ser5Ala mutation led to a decrease in the expression of IL-1β, and acute ischemia-reperfusion induced RGCs apoptosis in vivo. These results indicate that in RGCs, ANXA1 increases IL-1β expression by recruiting p65 to the nucleus, which induces cell apoptosis. The obtained results may help the development of a novel treatment strategy against RGCs apoptosis in acute ischemia-reperfusion injury.

  1. NAD+ treatment can prevent rotenone-induced increases in DNA damage, Bax levels and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor in differentiated PC12 cells.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yunyi; Nie, Hui; Wei, Xunbin; Fu, Shen; Ying, Weihai

    2015-04-01

    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) plays critical roles in energy metabolism, mitochondrial functions, calcium homeostasis and immunological functions. Our previous studies have found that NAD(+) administration can profoundly decrease ischemic brain injury and traumatic brain injury. Our recent study has also provided first direct evidence indicating that NAD(+) treatment can decrease cellular apoptosis, while the mechanisms underlying this protective effect remain unclear. In our current study, we determined the effects of NAD(+) treatment on several major factors in apoptosis and necrosis, including levels of Bax and nuclear translocation of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), as well as levels of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and intracellular ATP in rotenone-treated differentiated PC12 cells. We found that NAD(+) treatment can markedly attenuate the rotenone-induced increases in the levels of Bax and nuclear translocation of AIF in the cells. We further found that NAD(+) treatment can significantly attenuate the rotenone-induced increase in the levels of DSBs and decrease in the intracellular ATP levels. Collectively, our study has suggested mechanisms underlying the preventive effects of NAD(+) on apoptosis, which has highlighted the therapeutic potential of NAD(+) for decreasing apoptotic changes in multiple major diseases.

  2. Down-regulation of nuclear HMGB1 reduces ischemia-induced HMGB1 translocation and release and protects against liver ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Fu, Cheng; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Lan; Yan, Yutao; Xiang, Ying; Zheng, Fang; Gong, Feili; Chen, Song; Chen, Gang

    2017-04-06

    Hepatocyte-specific HMGB1 deletion has been found to worsen the injury and inflammation in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), highlighting a role for intracellular HMGB1 in cellular protection. Down-regulation of nuclear HMGB1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) might not only decrease its injurious extracellular role by reducing its release but also serve to maintain its beneficial intracellular role, thus protecting against IRI. We established a non-lethal liver IRI model in mice via segmental hepatic warm ischemia for 1 h and reperfusion for 6 h. HMGB1-siRNA achieved a reduction of ~60-70% in the nuclear HMGB1 expression in the liver at 48 h post-treatment. Knockdown of nuclear HMGB1 expression dramatically reduced both the degree of nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1 during hepatic ischemia and of HMGB1 release after hepatic reperfusion, resulting in significant preservation of liver function and a marked reduction in pathological damage. Also, HMGB1-siRNA pretreatment markedly inhibited the increases in hepatic expression of TLR4, TLR2, RAGE, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, iNOS, and COX-2 seen in control mice after hepatic reperfusion. We demonstrated for the first time that down-regulation of nuclear HMGB1 reduces ischemia-induced HMGB1 release and protects against liver IRI, which is helpful for better understanding the role of HMGB1 in organ IRI.

  3. The expression of S100P increases and promotes cellular proliferation by increasing nuclear translocation of β-catenin in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Luyan; Chen, Shuqin; Jiang, Hongye; Huang, Jiaming; Jin, Wenyan; Yao, Shuzhong

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that S100P has a significant role in cancer, and is associated with poor clinical outcomes. The expression of S100P mRNA and protein in endometrial cancer and normal endometrium tissues was detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Moreover, we reduced the expression of S100P in HEC-1A and Ishikawa endometrial cancer cell lines by siRNA transfection. Based on the reduced S100P mRNA expression, we measured the effects of S100P on cellular proliferation by the cell-counting kit-8. Nuclear β-catenin protein level was detected by western blotting. Cyclin D1 and c-myc mRNA expression regulated by β-catenin was detected by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. We found that the expression of S100P mRNA and protein increased in endometrial cancer tissues compared with the normal endometrium. Local S100P expression progressively increased from pathologic differenciation grade 1 to 3. After reducing the S100P expression, the cellular proliferation ability, nuclear β-catenin protein level, cyclin D1 and c-myc mRNA levels reduced. It indicated that S100P could promote cell proliferation by increasing nuclear translocation of β-catenin. The expression of S100P mRNA and protein in endometrial cancer significantly increased and is associated with pathologic differenciation grade. S100P may promote endometrial cell proliferation by increasing nuclear translocation of β-catenin.

  4. Caspase 3 inactivates biologically active full length interleukin-33 as a classical cytokine but does not prohibit nuclear translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Ali, Shafaqat; Nguyen, Dang Quan; Falk, Werner; Martin, Michael Uwe

    2010-01-15

    IL-33 is a member of the IL-1 family of cytokines with dual function which either activates cells via the IL-33 receptor in a paracrine fashion or translocates to the nucleus to regulate gene transcription in an intracrine manner. We show that full length murine IL-33 is active as a cytokine and that it is not processed by caspase 1 to mature IL-33 but instead cleaved by caspase 3 at aa175 to yield two products which are both unable to bind to the IL-33 receptor. Full length IL-33 and its N-terminal caspase 3 breakdown product, however, translocate to the nucleus. Finally, bioactive IL-33 is not released by cells constitutively or after activation. This suggests that IL-33 is not a classical cytokine but exerts its function in the nucleus of intact cells and only activates others cells via its receptor as an alarm mediator after destruction of the producing cell.

  5. Enzymatic product formation impairs both the chloroplast receptor- binding function as well as translocation competence of the NADPH: protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase, a nuclear-encoded plastid precursor protein

    PubMed Central

    1995-01-01

    The key enzyme of chlorophyll biosynthesis in higher plants, the light- dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.6.99.1), is a nuclear-encoded plastid protein. Its posttranslational transport into plastids of barley depends on the intraplastidic availability of one of its substrates, protochlorophyllide (PChlide). The precursor of POR (pPOR), synthesized from a corresponding full-length barley cDNA clone by coupling in vitro transcription and translation, is enzymatically active and converts PChlide to chlorophyllide (Chlide) in a light- and NADPH-dependent manner. Chlorophyllide formed catalytically remains tightly but noncovalently bound to the precursor protein and stabilizes a transport-incompetent conformation of pPOR. As shown by in vitro processing experiments, the chloroplast transit peptide in the Chlide-pPOR complex appears to be masked and thus is unable to physically interact with the outer plastid envelope membrane. In contrast, the chloroplast transit peptide in the naked pPOR (without its substrates and its product attached to it) and in the pPOR- substrate complexes, such as pPOR-PChlide or pPOR-PChlide-NADPH, seems to react independently of the mature region of the polypeptide, and thus is able to bind to the plastid envelope. When envelope-bound pPOR- PChlide-NADPH complexes were exposed to light during a short preincubation, the enzymatically produced Chlide slowed down the actual translocation step, giving rise to the sequential appearance of two partially processed translocation intermediates. However, ongoing translocation induced by feeding the chloroplasts delta-aminolevulinic acid, a precursor of PChlide, was able to override these two early blocks in translocation, suggesting that the plastid import machinery has a substantial capacity to denature a tightly folded, envelope-bound precursor protein. Together, our results show that pPOR with Chlide attached to it is impaired both in the ATP-dependent step of binding to a

  6. Nuclear translocation of the cardiac L-type calcium channel C-terminus is regulated by sex and 17β-estradiol.

    PubMed

    Mahmoodzadeh, S; Haase, H; Sporbert, A; Rharass, T; Panáková, D; Morano, I

    2016-08-01

    The cardiac voltage gated l-type Ca(2+) channel (Cav1.2) constitutes the main entrance gate for Ca(2+) that triggers cardiac contraction. Several studies showed that the distal C-terminus fragment of Cav1.2 α1C subunit (α1C-dCT) is proteolytically cleaved and shuttles between the plasma membrane and the nucleus, which is regulated both developmentally and by Ca(2+). However, the effects of sex and sex hormone 17β-estradiol (E2, estrogen) on α1C-dCT nuclear translocation are still unexplored. To investigate the sexual disparity in the α1C-dCT nuclear translocation, we first generated an antibody directed against a synthetic peptide (GRRASFHLE) located in α1C-dCT, and used it to probe ventricular myocytes from adult female and male mice. Immunocytochemistry of isolated mouse primary adult ventricular myocytes revealed both nuclear staining and cytosolic punctuate staining around the T-tubules. The ratio of nuclear to cytosolic intensity (Inuc/Icyt) was significantly higher in isolated female cardiomyocytes (1.42±0.05) compared to male cardiomyocytes (1.05±0.02). Western blot analysis of nuclear fraction confirmed these data. Furthermore, we found a significant decrease in nuclear staining intensity of α1C-dCT in both female and male cardiomyocytes upon serum withdrawal for 18h (Inuc/Icyt 1.05±0.02 and 0.89±0.02, respectively). Interestingly, subsequent E2 treatment (10(-8)M) for 8h normalized the intracellular distribution of α1C-dCT in male cardiomyocytes (Inuc/Icyt 1.04±0.02), but not in female cardiomyocytes. Acute treatment of male cardiomyocytes with E2 for 45min revealed a similar effect. This effect of E2 was revised by ICI indicating the involvement of ER in this signaling pathway. Taken together, our results showed that the shuttling of α1C-CT in cardiomyocytes is regulated in a sex-dependent manner, and E2-activated ER may play a role in the nuclear shuttling of α1C-dCT in male cardiomyocytes. This may explain, at least partly, the observed

  7. BZLF1, an Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early protein, induces p65 nuclear translocation while inhibiting p65 transcriptional function

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, Thomas E.; Kenney, Shannon C. . E-mail: shann@med.unc.edu

    2004-10-25

    We have previously demonstrated that the Epstein-Barr virus immediate-early BZLF1 protein interacts with, and is inhibited by, the NF-{kappa}B family member p65. However, the effects of BZLF1 on NF-{kappa}B activity have not been intensively studied. Here we show that BZLF1 inhibits p65-dependent gene expression. BZLF1 inhibited the ability of IL-1, as well as transfected p65, to activate the expression of two different NF-{kappa}B-responsive genes, ICAM-1 and I{kappa}B-{alpha}. BZLF1 also reduced the constitutive level of I{kappa}B-{alpha} protein in HeLa and A549 cells, and increased the amount of nuclear NF-{kappa}B to a similar extent as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-{alpha}) treatment. In spite of this BZLF1-associated increase in the nuclear form of NF-{kappa}B, BZLF1 did not induce binding of NF-{kappa}B to NF-{kappa}B responsive promoters (as determined by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay) in vivo, although TNF-{alpha} treatment induced NF-{kappa}B binding as expected. Overexpression of p65 dramatically inhibited the lytic replication cycle of EBV in 293-EBV cells, confirming that NF-{kappa}B also inhibits BZLF1 transcriptional function. Our results are consistent with a model in which BZLF1 inhibits the transcriptional function of p65, resulting in decreased transcription of I{kappa}B-{alpha}, decreased expression of I{kappa}B-{alpha} protein, and subsequent translocation of NF-{kappa}B to the nucleus. This nuclear translocation of NF-{kappa}B may promote viral latency by negatively regulating BZLF1 transcriptional activity. In situations where p65 activity is limiting in comparison to BZLF1, the ability of BZLF1 to inhibit p65 transcriptional function may protect the virus from the host immune system during the lytic form of infection.

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-binding protein (PBP) but not PPAR-interacting protein (PRIP) is required for nuclear translocation of constitutive androstane receptor in mouse liver

    SciTech Connect

    Guo Dongsheng; Sarkar, Joy; Ahmed, Mohamed R.; Viswakarma, Navin; Jia Yuzhi; Yu Songtao; Sambasiva Rao, M.; Reddy, Janardan K. . E-mail: jkreddy@northwestern.edu

    2006-08-25

    The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) regulates transcription of phenobarbital-inducible genes that encode xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes in liver. CAR is localized to the hepatocyte cytoplasm but to be functional, it translocates into the nucleus in the presence of phenobarbital-like CAR ligands. We now demonstrate that adenovirally driven EGFP-CAR, as expected, translocates into the nucleus of normal wild-type hepatocytes following phenobarbital treatment under both in vivo and in vitro conditions. Using this approach we investigated the role of transcription coactivators PBP and PRIP in the translocation of EGFP-CAR into the nucleus of PBP and PRIP liver conditional null mouse hepatocytes. We show that coactivator PBP is essential for nuclear translocation of CAR but not PRIP. Adenoviral expression of both PBP and EGFP-CAR restored phenobarbital-mediated nuclear translocation of exogenously expressed CAR in PBP null livers in vivo and in PBP null primary hepatocytes in vitro. CAR translocation into the nucleus of PRIP null livers resulted in the induction of CAR target genes such as CYP2B10, necessary for the conversion of acetaminophen to its hepatotoxic intermediate metabolite, N-acetyl-p-benzoquinone imine. As a consequence, PRIP-deficiency in liver did not protect from acetaminophen-induced hepatic necrosis, unlike that exerted by PBP deficiency. These results establish that transcription coactivator PBP plays a pivotal role in nuclear localization of CAR, that it is likely that PBP either enhances nuclear import or nuclear retention of CAR in hepatocytes, and that PRIP is redundant for CAR function.

  9. The Ah receptor nuclear translocator gene (ARNT) is located on q21 of human chromosome 1 and on mouse chromosome 3 near Cf-3

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.; Brooks, B.A.; Heinzmann, C. ); Mohandas, T. )

    1993-09-01

    The authors have mapped the Ah (aryl hydrocarbon) receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) gene to a conserved linkage group located on mouse chromosome 3 and human chromosome 1. EcoRi-digested DNA from a panel of 17 human x mouse somatic cell hybrids was probed with a cDNA fragment of the human ARNT gene. Six of the 17 independent mouse x human hybrids were positive for human bands. Human chromosome 1 showed complete cosegregation with the gene, whereas discordant segregation was observed for all other human chromosomes. The human gene was localized to 1q21 by using DNA from mouse x human hybrid clones that retain translocations involving human chromosome 1, by segregation analysis in nine informative CEPH families, and by in situ hybridization. The mouse homologue was mapped to mouse chromosome 3 using a panel of 16 hamster x mouse somatic cell hybrids. Six of 16 mouse x hamster hybrids were positive for mouse bands, showing complete concordance with mouse chromosome 3. The mouse Arnt gene was regionally mapped on chromosome 3, using linkage analysis in an interspecific backcross. The results indicate that the mouse gene resides about 40 cM from the centromere and about 10 cM proximal to Cf-3, the gene for tissue factor. 41 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  10. CRTC1 Nuclear Translocation Following Learning Modulates Memory Strength via Exchange of Chromatin Remodeling Complexes on the Fgf1 Gene.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Shusaku; Teubner, Brett J W; Hevi, Charles; Hara, Kumiko; Kobayashi, Ayumi; Dave, Rutu M; Shintaku, Tatsushi; Jaikhan, Pattaporn; Yamagata, Hirotaka; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Watanabe, Yoshifumi; Zakharenko, Stanislav S; Shumyatsky, Gleb P

    2017-01-10

    Memory is formed by synapse-to-nucleus communication that leads to regulation of gene transcription, but the identity and organizational logic of signaling pathways involved in this communication remain unclear. Here we find that the transcription cofactor CRTC1 is a critical determinant of sustained gene transcription and memory strength in the hippocampus. Following associative learning, synaptically localized CRTC1 is translocated to the nucleus and regulates Fgf1b transcription in an activity-dependent manner. After both weak and strong training, the HDAC3-N-CoR corepressor complex leaves the Fgf1b promoter and a complex involving the translocated CRTC1, phosphorylated CREB, and histone acetyltransferase CBP induces transient transcription. Strong training later substitutes KAT5 for CBP, a process that is dependent on CRTC1, but not on CREB phosphorylation. This in turn leads to long-lasting Fgf1b transcription and memory enhancement. Thus, memory strength relies on activity-dependent changes in chromatin and temporal regulation of gene transcription on specific CREB/CRTC1 gene targets.

  11. Japanese Encephalitis Virus NS5 Inhibits the Type I Interferon Production by Blocking the Nuclear Translocation of IRF3 and NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jing; Chen, Zheng; Li, Yunchuan; Zhao, Zikai; He, Wen; Zohaib, Ali; Song, Yunfeng; Deng, Chenglin; Zhang, Bo; Chen, Huanchun; Cao, Shengbo

    2017-02-08

    The type I interferon (IFN) response is part of a first-line defense against viral infection. To initiate replication, viruses have developed powerful evasion strategies to counteract host IFN responses. In present study, we found that Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) NS5 protein could inhibit double strand RNA (dsRNA)-induced IFN-β expression in a dose-dependent manner. Our data further demonstrated that JEV NS5 suppressed the activation of IFN transcriptional factors, IRF3 and NF-κB. However, there was no defect in the phosphorylation of IRF3 and degradation of IκB, an upstream inhibitor of NF-κB, upon NS5 expression, indicating a direct inhibition of the nuclear localization of IRF3 and NF-κB by NS5. Mechanically, NS5 was shown to interact with the nuclear transport proteins, KPNA2, KPNA3 and KPNA4, which competitively blocked the interaction of KPNA3 and KPNA4 with their cargo molecules, IRF3 and p65, a subunit of NF-κB, and thus inhibited the nuclear translocation of IRF3 and NF-κB. Furthermore, overexpression of KPNA3 and KPNA4 restored the activity of IRF3 and NF-κB and increased the production of IFN-β in NS5-expressing or JEV-infected cells. Additionally, an up-regulated replication level of JEV was shown upon KPNA3 or KPNA4 overexpression. These results suggest that JEV NS5 inhibits the induction of type I IFN by targeting KPNA3 and KPNA4.IMPORTANCE JEV is the major cause of viral encephalitis in South and Southeast Asia with high mortality. However, the molecular mechanisms contributing to the severe pathogenesis are poorly understood. The ability of JEV to counteract the host innate immune response may be one of the potential mechanisms responsible for JEV virulence. Here, we demonstrate the ability of JEV NS5 to interfere with the dsRNA-induced nuclear translocation of IRF3 and NF-κB by competitively inhibiting the interaction of IRF3 and NF-κB with nuclear transport proteins. Via this mechanism, JEV NS5 suppresses the induction of type I

  12. Herpesvirus Genome Recognition Induced Acetylation of Nuclear IFI16 Is Essential for Its Cytoplasmic Translocation, Inflammasome and IFN-β Responses

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Mairaj Ahmed; Dutta, Sujoy; Veettil, Mohanan Valiya; Dutta, Dipanjan; Iqbal, Jawed; Kumar, Binod; Roy, Arunava; Chikoti, Leela; Singh, Vivek Vikram; Chandran, Bala

    2015-01-01

    The IL-1β and type I interferon-β (IFN-β) molecules are important inflammatory cytokines elicited by the eukaryotic host as innate immune responses against invading pathogens and danger signals. Recently, a predominantly nuclear gamma-interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) involved in transcriptional regulation has emerged as an innate DNA sensor which induced IL-1β and IFN-β production through inflammasome and STING activation, respectively. Herpesvirus (KSHV, EBV, and HSV-1) episomal dsDNA genome recognition by IFI16 leads to IFI16-ASC-procaspase-1 inflammasome association, cytoplasmic translocation and IL-1β production. Independent of ASC, HSV-1 genome recognition results in IFI16 interaction with STING in the cytoplasm to induce interferon-β production. However, the mechanisms of IFI16-inflammasome formation, cytoplasmic redistribution and STING activation are not known. Our studies here demonstrate that recognition of herpesvirus genomes in the nucleus by IFI16 leads into its interaction with histone acetyltransferase p300 and IFI16 acetylation resulting in IFI16-ASC interaction, inflammasome assembly, increased interaction with Ran-GTPase, cytoplasmic redistribution, caspase-1 activation, IL-1β production, and interaction with STING which results in IRF-3 phosphorylation, nuclear pIRF-3 localization and interferon-β production. ASC and STING knockdowns did not affect IFI16 acetylation indicating that this modification is upstream of inflammasome-assembly and STING-activation. Vaccinia virus replicating in the cytoplasm did not induce nuclear IFI16 acetylation and cytoplasmic translocation. IFI16 physically associates with KSHV and HSV-1 genomes as revealed by proximity ligation microscopy and chromatin-immunoprecipitation studies which is not hampered by the inhibition of acetylation, thus suggesting that acetylation of IFI16 is not required for its innate sensing of nuclear viral genomes. Collectively, these studies identify the increased nuclear

  13. Herpesvirus Genome Recognition Induced Acetylation of Nuclear IFI16 Is Essential for Its Cytoplasmic Translocation, Inflammasome and IFN-β Responses.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mairaj Ahmed; Dutta, Sujoy; Veettil, Mohanan Valiya; Dutta, Dipanjan; Iqbal, Jawed; Kumar, Binod; Roy, Arunava; Chikoti, Leela; Singh, Vivek Vikram; Chandran, Bala

    2015-07-01

    The IL-1β and type I interferon-β (IFN-β) molecules are important inflammatory cytokines elicited by the eukaryotic host as innate immune responses against invading pathogens and danger signals. Recently, a predominantly nuclear gamma-interferon-inducible protein 16 (IFI16) involved in transcriptional regulation has emerged as an innate DNA sensor which induced IL-1β and IFN-β production through inflammasome and STING activation, respectively. Herpesvirus (KSHV, EBV, and HSV-1) episomal dsDNA genome recognition by IFI16 leads to IFI16-ASC-procaspase-1 inflammasome association, cytoplasmic translocation and IL-1β production. Independent of ASC, HSV-1 genome recognition results in IFI16 interaction with STING in the cytoplasm to induce interferon-β production. However, the mechanisms of IFI16-inflammasome formation, cytoplasmic redistribution and STING activation are not known. Our studies here demonstrate that recognition of herpesvirus genomes in the nucleus by IFI16 leads into its interaction with histone acetyltransferase p300 and IFI16 acetylation resulting in IFI16-ASC interaction, inflammasome assembly, increased interaction with Ran-GTPase, cytoplasmic redistribution, caspase-1 activation, IL-1β production, and interaction with STING which results in IRF-3 phosphorylation, nuclear pIRF-3 localization and interferon-β production. ASC and STING knockdowns did not affect IFI16 acetylation indicating that this modification is upstream of inflammasome-assembly and STING-activation. Vaccinia virus replicating in the cytoplasm did not induce nuclear IFI16 acetylation and cytoplasmic translocation. IFI16 physically associates with KSHV and HSV-1 genomes as revealed by proximity ligation microscopy and chromatin-immunoprecipitation studies which is not hampered by the inhibition of acetylation, thus suggesting that acetylation of IFI16 is not required for its innate sensing of nuclear viral genomes. Collectively, these studies identify the increased nuclear

  14. Dynorphin 1-17 and Its N-Terminal Biotransformation Fragments Modulate Lipopolysaccharide-Stimulated Nuclear Factor-kappa B Nuclear Translocation, Interleukin-1beta and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha in Differentiated THP-1 Cells

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Dynorphin 1–17, (DYN 1–17) opioid peptide produces antinociception following binding to the kappa-opioid peptide (KOP) receptor. Upon synthesis and release in inflamed tissues by immune cells, DYN 1–17 undergoes rapid biotransformation and yields a unique set of opioid and non-opioid fragments. Some of these major fragments possess a role in immunomodulation, suggesting that opioid-targeted therapeutics may be effective in diminishing the severity of inflammatory disorders. This study aimed to examine the immunomodulatory effects of DYN 1–17 and major N-terminal fragments found in the inflammatory environment on nuclear factor-kappaB/p65 (NF-κB/p65) nuclear translocation and the release of interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated, differentiated THP-1 cells. The results demonstrate that NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation was significantly attenuated following treatment with DYN 1–17 and a specific range of fragments, with the greatest reduction observed with DYN 1–7 at a low concentration (10 nM). Antagonism with a selective KOP receptor antagonist, ML-190, significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of DYN 1–17, DYN 1–6, DYN 1–7 and DYN 1–9, but not other DYN 1–17 N-terminal fragments (DYN 1–10 and 1–11) on NF-κB/p65 nuclear translocation. DYN 1–17 and selected fragments demonstrated differential modulation on the release of IL-1β and TNF-α with significant inhibition observed with DYN 1–7 at low concentrations (1 nM and 10 pM). These effects were blocked by ML-190, suggesting a KOP receptor-mediated pathway. The results demonstrate that DYN 1–17 and certain N-terminal fragments, produced in an inflamed environment, play an anti-inflammatory role by inhibiting NF-κB/p65 translocation and the subsequent cytokine release through KOP receptor-dependent and independent pathways. PMID:27055013

  15. Transcription of the Tollip gene is elevated in intestinal epithelial cells through impaired O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of the negative regulator Elf-1

    SciTech Connect

    Sugi, Yutaka; Takahashi, Kyoko; Nakano, Kou; Hosono, Akira; Kaminogawa, Shuichi

    2011-09-09

    Highlights: {yields} Transcriptional activation of the Tollitip gene is higher in IECs than in monocytes. {yields} Nt -194/-186 region acts as a cis-element and is recognized by Elf-1. {yields} Elf-1 suppresses Tollip gene transcription in monocytes but not in IECs. {yields} O-GlcNAc modification is necessary for nuclear translocation of Elf-1. {yields} O-GlcNAcylation-dependent nuclear translocation of Elf-1 is impaired in IECs. -- Abstract: Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) must be tolerant of the large number of commensal bacteria inhabiting the intestinal tract to avoid excessive inflammatory reactions. Toll-interacting protein (Tollip), a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor signaling, is known to be expressed at high levels in IECs, and to thereby contribute to the hyporesponsiveness of IECs to commensals. In this study, we analyzed the underlying mechanisms for elevated transcription of the Tollip gene in IECs using a human IEC line, Caco-2, and a human monocyte line, THP-1, as a control. Elf-1 was identified as a transcription factor that negatively regulates Tollip gene expression. The transcription factor Elf-1 was localized in the nucleus by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification, whereas the unmodified form was detected only in the cytoplasm. Comparison of Caco-2 and THP-1 cells revealed that O-GlcNAc modification of Elf-1 was significantly lower in IECs than in monocytes. Collectively, the results indicate that insufficient O-GlcNAc modification prevents Elf-1-mediated transcriptional repression and thereby upregulates Tollip gene expression in IECs.

  16. Forkhead Box Protein J1 (FOXJ1) is Overexpressed in Colorectal Cancer and Promotes Nuclear Translocation of β-Catenin in SW620 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kuiliang; Fan, Jianghao; Wu, Jing

    2017-01-01

    Background FOXJ1, which is a forkhead transcription factor, has been previously studied mostly as a ciliary transcription factor. The role of FOXJ1 in cancer progression is still elusive and controversial. In the present study, the effect of FOXJ1 in progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) was investigated. Material/Methods The pattern of FOXJ1 expression was investigated using the method of immunohistochemistry (IHC) in a tissue microarray (TMA) incorporating 50 pairs of colon cancer specimens and adjacent normal tissue. In addition, the correlation of FOXJ1 expression with clinicopathological characteristics was evaluated in the other TMA containing 208 cases of colon cancer. Moreover, the influence of regulating FOXJ1 level on the proliferation, migration, and invasion ability of colorectal cancer (CRC) cells was evaluated. Results Increased expression of FOXJ1was significantly associated with clinical stage (p<0.05), metastasis of lymph node (p<0.05), and invasion depth (p<0.001) in colon cancer, suggesting FOXJ1 is a tumor promoter in CRC. Consistently, FOXJ1 overexpression significantly enhanced the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CRC cells, while silencing of FOXJ1 induced the opposite effect. Furthermore, up-regulation of FOXJ1 in SW620 cells markedly inhibited the level of truncated APC and the phosphorylation of β-catenin, while the level of cyclinD1 was decreased. In addition, overexpression of FOXJ1 significantly promoted nuclear translocation of β-catenin in SW620 cells. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that increased FOXJ1 contributes to the progression of CRC, which might be associated with the promotion effect of β-catenin nuclear translocation. FOXJ1 may be a novel therapeutic target in CRC. PMID:28209947

  17. Down-regulation of nuclear HMGB1 reduces ischemia-induced HMGB1 translocation and release and protects against liver ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Guangyuan; Fu, Cheng; Wang, Lu; Zhu, Lan; Yan, Yutao; Xiang, Ying; Zheng, Fang; Gong, Feili; Chen, Song; Chen, Gang

    2017-01-01

    Hepatocyte-specific HMGB1 deletion has been found to worsen the injury and inflammation in liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI), highlighting a role for intracellular HMGB1 in cellular protection. Down-regulation of nuclear HMGB1 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) might not only decrease its injurious extracellular role by reducing its release but also serve to maintain its beneficial intracellular role, thus protecting against IRI. We established a non-lethal liver IRI model in mice via segmental hepatic warm ischemia for 1 h and reperfusion for 6 h. HMGB1-siRNA achieved a reduction of ~60–70% in the nuclear HMGB1 expression in the liver at 48 h post-treatment. Knockdown of nuclear HMGB1 expression dramatically reduced both the degree of nuclear-cytoplasmic translocation of HMGB1 during hepatic ischemia and of HMGB1 release after hepatic reperfusion, resulting in significant preservation of liver function and a marked reduction in pathological damage. Also, HMGB1-siRNA pretreatment markedly inhibited the increases in hepatic expression of TLR4, TLR2, RAGE, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1, iNOS, and COX-2 seen in control mice after hepatic reperfusion. We demonstrated for the first time that down-regulation of nuclear HMGB1 reduces ischemia-induced HMGB1 release and protects against liver IRI, which is helpful for better understanding the role of HMGB1 in organ IRI. PMID:28382970

  18. Delayed remote ischemic preconditioning produces an additive cardioprotection to sevoflurane postconditioning through an enhanced heme oxygenase 1 level partly via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Chenghui; Li, Huatong; Yao, Yuntai; Li, Lihuan

    2014-11-01

    Although both sevoflurane postconditioning (SPoC) and delayed remote ischemic preconditioning (DRIPC) have been proved effective in various animal and human studies, the combined effect of these 2 strategies remains unclear. Therefore, this study was designed to investigate this effect and elucidate the related signal mechanisms in a Langendorff perfused rat heart model. After 30-minute balanced perfusion, isolated hearts were subjected to 30-minute ischemia followed by 60-minute reperfusion except 90-minute perfusion for control. A synergic cardioprotective effect of SPoC (3% v/v) and DRIPC (4 cycles 5-minute occlusion/5-minute reflow at the unilateral hindlimb once per day for 3 days before heart isolation) was observed with facilitated cardiac functional recovery and decreased cardiac enzyme release. The infarct size-limiting effect was more pronounced in the combined group (6.76% ± 2.18%) than in the SPoC group (16.50% ± 4.55%, P < .001) or in the DRIPC group (10.22% ± 2.57%, P = .047). Subsequent analysis revealed that an enhanced heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) expression, but not protein kinase B/AKt or extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and 2 activation, was involved in the synergic cardioprotective effect, which was further confirmed in the messenger RNA level of HO-1. Such trend was also observed in the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation, an upstream regulation of HO-1. In addition, correlation analysis showed a significantly positive relationship between HO-1 expression and Nrf2 translocation (r = 0.729, P < .001). Hence, we conclude that DRIPC may produce an additive cardioprotection to SPoC through an enhanced HO-1 expression partly via Nrf2 translocation.

  19. Mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 mediates nuclear translocation of ORE3 to promote ORE9 gene expression in methyl jasmonate-induced leaf senescence.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yushan; Liu, Jian; Chai, Jinyu; Xing, Da

    2016-01-01

    Methyl jasmonate (MeJA) is a potent promoter of plant senescence. ORESARA3 (ORE3)/ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE2 (EIN2), a protein similar to the members of the disease-related Nramp metal transporter family, is involved in cross-talk among several senescence processes related to abscisic acid, ethylene, MeJA, age and darkness. Nevertheless, the mechanism involved in the regulation of ORE3/EIN2 in exogenous MeJA-induced leaf senescence remains unclear. The C-terminal end of ORE3/EIN2 (CEND) was cleaved from ORE3/EIN2 located in the endoplasmic reticulum and then transferred to the nucleus during MeJA-induced senescence. Further analyses showed that mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (MPK6) promoted CEND cleavage and nuclear translocation. Nuclear CEND accumulated ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3 (EIN3), a transcription factor that accelerates MeJA-induced leaf senescence wherein ORESARA9 (ORE9) expression was suppressed in ein3, ore3, and mpk6 mutant plants. ChIP experiments revealed that EIN3 bound directly to the ORE9 promoter and this binding was enhanced in MeJA-induced leaf senescence. This study revealed the effect of the signalling pathway involving MPK6-ORE3-EIN3-ORE9 on regulating leaf senescence and provided insights into the mechanism of MeJA in promoting leaf senescence in Arabidopsis thaliana.

  20. Morphological changes and nuclear translocation of DLC1 tumor suppressor protein precede apoptosis in human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan Baozhu Jefferson, Amy M.; Millecchia, Lyndell; Popescu, Nicholas C.; Reynolds, Steven H.

    2007-11-01

    We have previously shown that reactivation of DLC1, a RhoGAP containing tumor suppressor gene, inhibits tumorigenicity of human non-small cell lung carcinoma cells (NSCLC). After transfection of NSCLC cells with wild type (WT) DLC1, changes in cell morphology were observed. To determine whether such changes have functional implications, we generated several DLC1 mutants and examined their effects on cell morphology, proliferation, migration and apoptosis in a DLC1 deficient NSCLC cell line. We show that WT DLC1 caused actin cytoskeleton-based morphological alterations manifested as cytoplasmic extensions and membrane blebbings in most cells. Subsequently, a fraction of cells exhibiting DLC1 protein nuclear translocation (PNT) underwent caspase 3-dependent apoptosis. We also show that the RhoGAP domain is essential for the occurrence of morphological alterations, PNT and apoptosis, and the inhibition of cell migration. DLC1 PNT is dependent on a bipartite nuclear localizing sequence and most likely is regulated by a serine-rich domain at N-terminal part of the DLC1 protein. Also, we found that DLC1 functions in the cytoplasm as an inhibitor of tumor cell proliferation and migration, but in the nucleus as an inducer of apoptosis. Our analyses provide evidence for a possible link between morphological alterations, PNT and proapoptotic and anti-oncogenic activities of DLC1 in lung cancer.

  1. Nuclear translocation of FGFR1 and FGF2 in pancreatic stellate cells facilitates pancreatic cancer cell invasion

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Stacey J; Chioni, Athina-Myrto; Ghallab, Mohammed; Anderson, Rhys K; Lemoine, Nicholas R; Kocher, Hemant M; Grose, Richard P

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is characterised by desmoplasia, driven by activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs). Over-expression of FGFs and their receptors is a feature of pancreatic cancer and correlates with poor prognosis, but whether their expression impacts on PSCs is unclear. At the invasive front of human pancreatic cancer, FGF2 and FGFR1 localise to the nucleus in activated PSCs but not cancer cells. In vitro, inhibiting FGFR1 and FGF2 in PSCs, using RNAi or chemical inhibition, resulted in significantly reduced cell proliferation, which was not seen in cancer cells. In physiomimetic organotypic co-cultures, FGFR inhibition prevented PSC as well as cancer cell invasion. FGFR inhibition resulted in cytoplasmic localisation of FGFR1 and FGF2, in contrast to vehicle-treated conditions where PSCs with nuclear FGFR1 and FGF2 led cancer cells to invade the underlying extra-cellular matrix. Strikingly, abrogation of nuclear FGFR1 and FGF2 in PSCs abolished cancer cell invasion. These findings suggest a novel therapeutic approach, where preventing nuclear FGF/FGFR mediated proliferation and invasion in PSCs leads to disruption of the tumour microenvironment, preventing pancreatic cancer cell invasion. PMID:24503018

  2. Sorting Nexin 9 facilitates podocin endocytosis in the injured podocyte

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Yu; Hidaka, Teruo; Ueno, Takashi; Akiba-Takagi, Miyuki; Trejo, Juan Alejandro Oliva; Seki, Takuto; Nagai-Hosoe, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Eriko; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Yusuke; Asanuma, Katsuhiko

    2017-01-01

    The irreversibility of glomerulosclerotic changes depends on the degree of podocyte injury. We have previously demonstrated the endocytic translocation of podocin to the subcellular area in severely injured podocytes and found that this process is the primary disease trigger. Here we identified the protein sorting nexin 9 (SNX9) as a novel facilitator of podocin endocytosis in a yeast two-hybrid analysis. SNX9 is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, actin rearrangement and vesicle transport regulation. Our results revealed and confirmed that SNX9 interacts with podocin exclusively through the Bin–Amphiphysin–Rvs (BAR) domain of SNX9. Immunofluorescence staining revealed the expression of SNX9 in response to podocyte adriamycin-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, an analysis of human glomerular disease biopsy samples demonstrated strong SNX9 expression and co-localization with podocin in samples representative of severe podocyte injury, such as IgA nephropathy with poor prognosis, membranous nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. In conclusion, we identified SNX9 as a facilitator of podocin endocytosis in severe podocyte injury and demonstrated the expression of SNX9 in the podocytes of both nephropathy model mice and human patients with irreversible glomerular disease. PMID:28266622

  3. Sorting Nexin 9 facilitates podocin endocytosis in the injured podocyte.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Yu; Hidaka, Teruo; Ueno, Takashi; Akiba-Takagi, Miyuki; Trejo, Juan Alejandro Oliva; Seki, Takuto; Nagai-Hosoe, Yoshiko; Tanaka, Eriko; Horikoshi, Satoshi; Tomino, Yasuhiko; Suzuki, Yusuke; Asanuma, Katsuhiko

    2017-03-07

    The irreversibility of glomerulosclerotic changes depends on the degree of podocyte injury. We have previously demonstrated the endocytic translocation of podocin to the subcellular area in severely injured podocytes and found that this process is the primary disease trigger. Here we identified the protein sorting nexin 9 (SNX9) as a novel facilitator of podocin endocytosis in a yeast two-hybrid analysis. SNX9 is involved in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, actin rearrangement and vesicle transport regulation. Our results revealed and confirmed that SNX9 interacts with podocin exclusively through the Bin-Amphiphysin-Rvs (BAR) domain of SNX9. Immunofluorescence staining revealed the expression of SNX9 in response to podocyte adriamycin-induced injury both in vitro and in vivo. Finally, an analysis of human glomerular disease biopsy samples demonstrated strong SNX9 expression and co-localization with podocin in samples representative of severe podocyte injury, such as IgA nephropathy with poor prognosis, membranous nephropathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. In conclusion, we identified SNX9 as a facilitator of podocin endocytosis in severe podocyte injury and demonstrated the expression of SNX9 in the podocytes of both nephropathy model mice and human patients with irreversible glomerular disease.

  4. socs7, a target gene of microRNA-145, regulates interferon-β induction through STAT3 nuclear translocation in bladder cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, S; Yamada, N; Kumazaki, M; Yasui, Y; Iwasaki, J; Naito, S; Akao, Y

    2013-02-07

    We recently reported that microRNA (miR)-145 is downregulated and induces apoptosis in human bladder cancer cells. Also, it is suggested that the ectopic expression of miR-145 induces apoptosis with the induction of TRAIL expression in several cancer cells. Here, we demonstrated a novel mechanism of apoptosis induction by miR-145 in bladder cancer cells. Exogenous miR-145 in T24 and NKB1 cells markedly increased the expression levels of interferon (IFN)-β, 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1, which lies upstream of 2'-5' oligoadenylates/RNase L system, and TRAIL, and induced apparent caspase-dependent apoptosis that was suppressed by cotreatment with a pan-caspase inhibitor; moreover, these expression levels were reduced by cotreatment with an miR-145 inhibitor. The apoptosis did not depend on Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) expression, because TLR3-silencing failed to inhibit IFN-β induction by miR-145. Then, we focused on the suppressor of cytokine signaling 7 (socs7), whose expression level was upregulated in bladder cancer cells compared with its level in normal human urothelial cells, as a putative target gene involved in IFN-β induction by miR-145. Expectedly, exogenous miR-145 decreased the expression level of SOCS7, and socs7-silencing enhanced IFN-β induction by transfection with a TLR3 ligand, polyinosinic acid-polycytidylic acid (PIC). The results of a luciferase reporter assay revealed that miR-145 targeted socs7. In addition, socs7-silencing significantly decreased the level of p-Akt and suppressed the growth of T24 cells. Furthermore, exogenous miR-145 or socs7-silencing promoted nuclear translocation of STAT3. In conclusion, the machinery of IFN-β induction through the regulation of SOCS7 by miR-145 was closely associated with the induction of apoptosis. Moreover, exogenous miR-145 promoted IFN-β induction by targeting socs7, which resulted in the nuclear translocation of STAT3. Additionally, our data indicate that SOCS7 functioned as an oncogene

  5. Thyroid Hormone-Induced Cytosol-to-Nuclear Translocation of Rat Liver Nrf2 Is Dependent on Kupffer Cell Functioning

    PubMed Central

    Videla, Luis A.; Cornejo, Pamela; Romanque, Pamela; Santibáñez, Catherine; Castillo, Iván; Vargas, Romina

    2012-01-01

    L-3,3′,5-triiodothyronine (T3) administration upregulates nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in rat liver, which is redox-sensitive transcription factor mediating cytoprotection. In this work, we studied the role of Kupffer cell respiratory burst activity, a process related to reactive oxygen species generation and liver homeostasis, in Nrf2 activation using the macrophage inactivator gadolinium chloride (GdCl3; 10 mg/kg i.v. 72 h before T3 [0.1 mg/kg i.p.]) or NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (1.5 mmol/L added to the drinking water for 7 days before T3), and determinations were performed 2 h after T3. T3 increased nuclear/cytosolic Nrf2 content ratio and levels of heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1), catalytic subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase, and thioredoxin (Western blot) over control values, proteins whose gene transcription is induced by Nrf2. These changes were suppressed by GdCl3 treatment prior to T3, an agent-eliciting Kupffer-cell depletion, inhibition of colloidal carbon phagocytosis, and the associated respiratory burst activity, with enhancement in nuclear inhibitor of Nrf2 kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1)/Nrf2 content ratios suggesting Nrf2 degradation. Under these conditions, T3-induced tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) response was eliminated by previous GdCl3 administration. Similar to GdCl3, apocynin given before T3 significantly reduced liver Nrf2 activation and HO-1 expression, a NADPH oxidase inhibitor eliciting abolishment of colloidal carbon-induced respiratory burst activity without altering carbon phagocytosis. It is concluded that Kupffer cell functioning is essential for upregulation of liver Nrf2-signaling pathway by T3. This contention is supported by suppression of the respiratory burst activity of Kupffer cells and the associated reactive oxygen species production by GdCl3 or apocynin given prior to T3, thus hindering Nrf2 activation. PMID:22649286

  6. La Piedad Michoacán Mexico Virus V protein antagonizes type I interferon response by binding STAT2 protein and preventing STATs nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Pisanelli, Giuseppe; Laurent-Rolle, Maudry; Manicassamy, Balaji; Belicha-Villanueva, Alan; Morrison, Juliet; Lozano-Dubernard, Bernardo; Castro-Peralta, Felipa; Iovane, Giuseppe; García-Sastre, Adolfo

    2016-02-02

    La Piedad Michoacán Mexico Virus (LPMV) is a member of the Rubulavirus genus within the Paramyxoviridae family. LPMV is the etiologic agent of "blue eye disease", causing a significant disease burden in swine in Mexico with long-term implications for the agricultural industry. This virus mainly affects piglets and is characterized by meningoencephalitis and respiratory distress. It also affects adult pigs, causing reduced fertility and abortions in females, and orchitis and epididymitis in males. Viruses of the Paramyxoviridae family evade the innate immune response by targeting components of the interferon (IFN) signaling pathway. The V protein, expressed by most paramyxoviruses, is a well-characterized IFN signaling antagonist. Until now, there were no reports on the role of the LPMV-V protein in inhibiting the IFN response. In this study we demonstrate that LPMV-V protein antagonizes type I but not type II IFN signaling by binding STAT2, a component of the type I IFN cascade. Our results indicate that the last 18 amino acids of LPMV-V protein are required for binding to STAT2 in human and swine cells. While LPMV-V protein does not affect the protein levels of STAT1 or STAT2, it does prevent the IFN-induced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of STAT1 and STAT2 thereby inhibiting cellular responses to IFN α/β.

  7. Blockage of Autophagy in C6 Glioma Cells Enhanced Radiosensitivity Possibly by Attenuating DNA-PK-Dependent DSB Due to Limited Ku Nuclear Translocation and DNA Binding.

    PubMed

    Liu, C; He, W; Jin, M; Li, H; Xu, H; Liu, H; Yang, K; Zhang, T; Wu, G; Ren, J

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most lethal brain tumor and notorious for its resistance to ionizing radiation (IR). Recent evidence suggests that one possible mechanism that enables resistance to IR and protects cells against therapeutic stress is cellular autophagy. The molecular basis for this pro-survival function, however, remains elusive. Herein, we report a molecular mechanism by which IR-induced autophagy accelerates the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). We demonstrate that IR induces the accumulation of autophagosomes, which is accompanied by elevated expression of autophagyrelated genes beclin-1, atg5, atg7, and atg12. Beclin-1 knockdown impaired the induction of IR-mediated autophagy and significantly sensitized glioma cells to radiation therapy in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, our data is the first to demonstrate that the radiosensitizing effect of beclin-1 knockdown may result from the disruption of nuclear translocation and DNA binding activity of Ku proteins and consequent attenuation of DSB repair. Our findings help advance our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying IR-induced autophagy and provide a promising adjunctive therapeutic strategy for the radiosensitization of malignant glioma.

  8. The response of L5178Y lymphoma sublines to oxidative stress: antioxidant defence, iron content and nuclear translocation of the p65 subunit of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Bouzyk, E; Gradzka, I; Iwaneńko, T; Kruszewski, M; Sochanowicz, B; Szumiel, I

    2000-01-01

    We examined the response to hydrogen peroxide of two L5178Y (LY) sublines which are inversely cross-sensitive to hydrogen peroxide and X-rays: LY-R cells are radio-resistant and hydrogen peroxide-sensitive, whereas LY-S cells are radiosensitive and hydrogen peroxide-resistant. Higher initial DNA breaks and higher iron content (potentially active in the Fenton reaction) were found in the hydrogen peroxide sensitive LY-R cells than in the hydrogen peroxide resistant LY-S cells, whereas the antioxidant defence of LY-R cells was weaker. In particular, catalase activity is twofold higher in LY-S than in LY-R cells. The content of monobromobimane-reactive thiols is 54% higher in LY-S than in LY-R cells. In contrast, the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) is about two times higher in LY-R than in LY-S cells; however, upon induction with selenium the activity increases 15.6-fold in LY-R cells and 50.3-fold in LY-S cells. Altogether, the sensitivity difference is related to the iron content, the amount of the initial DNA damage, as well as to the efficiency of the antioxidant defence system. Differential nuclear translocation of p65-NF-kappaB in LY sublines is due to the more efficient antioxidant defence in LY-S than in LY-R cells.

  9. Role of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator in K{sub ATP} channel-mediated insulin secretion in INS-1 insulinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ji-Seon; Zheng Haifeng; Kim, Sung Joon; Ho, Won-Kyung; Chun, Yang-Sook

    2009-02-20

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) has been known to participate in cellular responses to xenobiotic and hypoxic stresses, as a common partner of aryl hydrocarbon receptor and hypoxia inducible factor-1/2{alpha}. Recently, it was reported that ARNT is essential for adequate insulin secretion in response to glucose input and that its expression is downregulated in the pancreatic islets of diabetic patients. In the present study, the authors addressed the mechanism by which ARNT regulates insulin secretion in the INS-1 insulinoma cell line. In ARNT knock-down cells, basal insulin release was elevated, but insulin secretion was not further stimulated by a high-glucose challenge. Electrophysiological analyses revealed that glucose-dependent membrane depolarization was impaired in these cells. Furthermore, K{sub ATP} channel activity and expression were reduced. Of two K{sub ATP} channel subunits, Kir6.2 was found to be positively regulated by ARNT at the mRNA and protein levels. Based on these results, the authors suggest that ARNT expresses K{sub ATP} channel and by so doing regulates glucose-dependent insulin secretion.

  10. Xenoestrogens down-regulate aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 mRNA expression in human breast cancer cells via an estrogen receptor alpha-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Qin, Xian-Yang; Zaha, Hiroko; Nagano, Reiko; Yoshinaga, Jun; Yonemoto, Junzo; Sone, Hideko

    2011-10-10

    Environmental chemicals with estrogenic activity, known as xenoestrogens, may cause impaired reproductive development and endocrine-related cancers in humans by disrupting endocrine functions. Aryl-hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator 2 (ARNT2) is believed to play important roles in a variety of physiological processes, including estrogen signaling pathways, that may be involved in the pathogenesis and therapeutic responses of endocrine-related cancers. However, much of the underlying mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we investigated whether ARNT2 expression is regulated by a range of representative xenoestrogens in human cancer cell lines. Bisphenol A (BPA), benzyl butyl phthalate (BBP), and 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(2-chlorophenyl-4-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDT) were found to be estrogenic toward BG1Luc4E2 cells by an E-CALUX bioassay. ARNT2 expression was downregulated by BPA, BBP, and o,p'-DDT in a dose-dependent manner in estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1)-positive MCF-7 and BG1Luc4E2 cells, but not in estrogen receptor-negative LNCaP cells. The reduction in ARNT2 expression in cells treated with the xenoestrogens was fully recovered by the addition of a specific ESR1 antagonist, MPP. In conclusion, we have shown for the first time that ARNT2 expression is modulated by xenoestrogens by an ESR1-dependent mechanism in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

  11. Robertsonian translocations

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 27, describes the occurrence of Robertsonian translocations (RTs), which refer to the recombination of whole chromosome arms, in both monocentric and dicentric chromosomes. The nonrandom participation of acrocentric chromosomes in RTs is documented by various methods, including unbiased ascertainment and ascertainment through trisomy, infertility, unspecified mental retardation, and Prader-Willi syndrome. Causes of nonrandom participation of chromosomes in RTs is presented, as are the following topics: segregation in carriers of RTs and segregation in sperm cells of RT carriers, interchromosomal effects and conclusions. 48 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Vaccination inhibits TLR2 transcription via suppression of GR nuclear translocation and binding to TLR2 promoter in porcine lung infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhiyuan; Liu, Maojun; Zou, Huafeng; Li, Xian; Shao, Guoqing; Zhao, Ruqian

    2013-12-27

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and glucocorticoid receptor (GR) act respectively as effectors of innate immune and stress responses. The crosstalk between them is critical for the maintenance of homeostasis during the immune response. Vaccination is known to boost adaptive immunity, yet it remains elusive whether vaccination may affect GR/TLR interactions following infection. Duroc×Meishan crossbred piglets were allocated to three groups. The control group (CC) received neither vaccination nor infection; the non-vaccinated infection group (NI) was artificially infected intratracheally with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M. hyopneumoniae); while the vaccinated, infected group (VI) was vaccinated intramuscularly with inactivated M. hyopneumoniae one month before infection. The clinical signs and macroscopic lung lesions were significantly reduced by vaccination. However, vaccination did not affect the concentration of M. hyopneumoniae DNA in the lung. Serum cortisol was significantly decreased in both NI and VI pigs (P<0.01), but only VI pigs demonstrated significantly diminished nuclear GR content. TLRs 1-10 were all expressed in lung, among which TLR2 was the most abundant and was significantly up-regulated (P<0.05) in NI pigs, but not in VI pigs. Accordingly, GR binding to the GR response element on TLR2 promoter was significantly increased (P<0.05) in NI pigs, but not in VI pigs. These results suggest that the inhibition of GR nuclear translocation and binding to the TLR2 promoter, which results in diminished TLR2 expression, is associated with the protective effect of vaccination on M. hyopneumoniae-induced lung lesions in the pig.

  13. Positive Regulation by γ-Aminobutyric Acid B Receptor Subunit-1 of Chondrogenesis through Acceleration of Nuclear Translocation of Activating Transcription Factor-4*

    PubMed Central

    Takahata, Yoshifumi; Hinoi, Eiichi; Takarada, Takeshi; Nakamura, Yukari; Ogawa, Shinya; Yoneda, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    A view that signaling machineries for the neurotransmitter γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) are functionally expressed by cells outside the central nervous system is now prevailing. In this study, we attempted to demonstrate functional expression of GABAergic signaling molecules by chondrocytes. In cultured murine costal chondrocytes, mRNA was constitutively expressed for metabotropic GABAB receptor subunit-1 (GABABR1), but not for GABABR2. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed the predominant expression of GABABR1 by prehypertrophic to hypertrophic chondrocytes in tibial sections of newborn mice. The GABABR agonist baclofen failed to significantly affect chondrocytic differentiation determined by Alcian blue staining and alkaline phosphatase activity in cultured chondrocytes, whereas newborn mice knocked out of GABABR1 (KO) showed a decreased body size and delayed calcification in hyoid bone and forelimb and hindlimb digits. Delayed calcification was also seen in cultured metatarsals from KO mice with a marked reduction of Indian hedgehog gene (Ihh) expression. Introduction of GABABR1 led to synergistic promotion of the transcriptional activity of activating transcription factor-4 (ATF4) essential for normal chondrogenesis, in addition to facilitating ATF4-dependent Ihh promoter activation. Although immunoreactive ATF4 was negligibly detected in the nucleus of chondrocytes from KO mice, ATF4 expression was again seen in the nucleus and cytoplasm after the retroviral introduction of GABABR1 into cultured chondrocytes from KO mice. In nuclear extracts of KO chondrocytes, a marked decrease was seen in ATF4 DNA binding. These results suggest that GABABR1 positively regulates chondrogenesis through a mechanism relevant to the acceleration of nuclear translocation of ATF4 for Ihh expression in chondrocytes. PMID:22879594

  14. Cell biology of neuronal endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Parton, R G; Dotti, C G

    1993-09-01

    Endocytosis is the process by which cells take in fluid and components of the plasma membrane. In this way cells obtain nutrients and trophic factors, retrieve membrane proteins for degradation, and sample their environment. In neuronal cells endocytosis is essential for the recycling of membrane after neurotransmitter release and plays a critical role during early developmental stages. Moreover, alterations of the endocytic pathway have been attributed a crucial role in the pathophysiology of certain neurological diseases. Although well characterized at the ultrastructural level, little is known of the dynamics and molecular organization of the neuronal endocytic pathways. In this respect most of our knowledge comes from studies of non-neuronal cells. In this review we will examine the endocytic pathways in neurons from a cell biological viewpoint by making comparisons with non-neuronal cells and in particular with another polarized cell, the epithelial cell.

  15. Endocytosis and its regulation in plants.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lusheng; Li, Ruili; Pan, Jianwei; Ding, Zhaojun; Lin, Jinxing

    2015-06-01

    Endocytosis provides a major route of entry for membrane proteins, lipids, and extracellular molecules into the cell. Recent evidence indicates that multiple cellular processes require endocytosis, including nutrient uptake, signaling transduction, and plant-microbe interactions. Also, advanced microscopy, combined with biochemical and genetic approaches, has provided more insights into the molecular machinery and functions of endocytosis in plants. Here we review mechanisms of the clathrin-dependent and membrane microdomain-associated endocytic routes in plant cells. In addition, degradation of endocytosed proteins and endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT)-mediated vesicle formation at the endosome are discussed. Finally, we summarize the essential roles of various regulators during plant endocytosis.

  16. RET/PTC1-Driven Neoplastic Transformation and Proinvasive Phenotype of Human Thyrocytes Involve Met Induction and β-Catenin Nuclear Translocation1

    PubMed Central

    Cassinelli, Giuliana; Favini, Enrica; Degl'Innocenti, Debora; Salvi, Alessandro; De Petro, Giuseppina; Pierotti, Marco A; Zunino, Franco; Borrello, Maria Grazia; Lanzi, Cinzia

    2009-01-01

    Activation of the RET gene by chromosomal rearrangements generating RET/PTC oncogenes is a frequent, early, and causative event in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). We have previously shown that, in human primary thyrocytes, RET/PTC1 induces a transcriptional program including the MET proto-oncogene. In PTCs, β-catenin is frequently mislocated to the cytoplasm nucleus. We investigated the interplay between Ret/ptc1 signaling and Met in regulating the proinvasive phenotype and β-catenin localization in cellular models of human PTC. Here, we show that Met protein is expressed and is constitutively active in human thyrocytes exogenously expressing RET/PTC1 as well as a mutant (Y451F) devoid of the main Ret/ptc1 multidocking site. Both in transformed thyrocytes and in the human PTC cell line TPC-1, Ret/ptc1-Y451-dependent signaling and Met cooperated to promote a proinvasive phenotype. Accordingly, gene/functional silencing of either RET/PTC1 or MET abrogated early branching morphogenesis in TPC-1 cells. The same effect was obtained by blocking the common downstream effector Akt. Y451 of Ret/ptc1 was required to promote proliferation and nuclear translocation of β-catenin, suggesting that these oncogene-driven effects are Met-independent. Pharmacologic inhibition of Ret/ptc1 and Met tyrosine kinases by the multitarget small molecule RPI-1 blocked cell proliferation and invasive ability and dislocated β-catenin from the nucleus. Altogether, these results support that Ret/ptc1 cross talks with Met at transcriptional and signaling levels and promotes β-catenin transcriptional activity to drive thyrocyte neoplastic transformation. Such molecular network, promoting disease initiation and acquisition of a proinvasive phenotype, highlights new options to design multitarget therapeutic strategies for PTCs. PMID:19107227

  17. MIR517C inhibits autophagy and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition phenotype in human glioblastoma through KPNA2-dependent disruption of TP53 nuclear translocation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuntao; Xiao, Limin; Liu, Yawei; Wang, Hai; Li, Hong; Zhou, Qiang; Pan, Jun; Lei, Bingxi; Huang, Annie; Qi, Songtao

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition (EMT), a crucial embryonic development program, has been linked to the regulation of glioblastoma (GBM) progression and invasion. Here, we investigated the role of MIR517C/miR-517c, which belongs to the C19MC microRNA cluster identified in our preliminary studies, in the pathogenesis of GBM. We found that MIR517C was associated with improved prognosis in patients with GBM. Furthermore, following treatment with the autophagy inducer temozolomide (TMZ) and low glucose (LG), MIR517C degraded KPNA2 (karyopherin alpha 2 [RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1]) and subsequently disturbed the nuclear translocation of TP53 in the GBM cell line U87 in vitro. Interestingly, this microRNA could inhibit autophagy and reduce cell migration and infiltration in U87 cells harboring wild-type (WT) TP53, but not in U251 cells harboring mutant (MU) TP53. Moreover, the expression of epithelial markers (i.e., CDH13/T-cadherin and CLDN1 [claudin 1]) increased, while the expression of mesenchymal markers (i.e., CDH2/N-cadherin, SNAI1/Snail, and VIM [vimentin]) decreased, indicating that the EMT status was blocked by MIR517C in U87 cells. Compared with MIR517C overexpression, MIR517C knockdown promoted infiltration of U87 cells to the surrounding structures in nude mice in vivo. The above phenotypic changes were also observed in TP53+/+ and TP53-/- HCT116 colon cancer cells. In summary, our study provided support for a link between autophagy and EMT status in WT TP53 GBM cells and provided evidence for the signaling pathway (MIR517C-KPNA2-cytoplasmic TP53) involved in attenuating autophagy and eliminating the increased migration and invasion during the EMT. PMID:26553592

  18. MIR517C inhibits autophagy and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition phenotype in human glioblastoma through KPNA2-dependent disruption of TP53 nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuntao; Xiao, Limin; Liu, Yawei; Wang, Hai; Li, Hong; Zhou, Qiang; Pan, Jun; Lei, Bingxi; Huang, Annie; Qi, Songtao

    2015-01-01

    The epithelial-to-mesenchymal (-like) transition (EMT), a crucial embryonic development program, has been linked to the regulation of glioblastoma (GBM) progression and invasion. Here, we investigated the role of MIR517C/miR-517c, which belongs to the C19MC microRNA cluster identified in our preliminary studies, in the pathogenesis of GBM. We found that MIR517C was associated with improved prognosis in patients with GBM. Furthermore, following treatment with the autophagy inducer temozolomide (TMZ) and low glucose (LG), MIR517C degraded KPNA2 (karyopherin alpha 2 [RAG cohort 1, importin alpha 1]) and subsequently disturbed the nuclear translocation of TP53 in the GBM cell line U87 in vitro. Interestingly, this microRNA could inhibit autophagy and reduce cell migration and infiltration in U87 cells harboring wild-type (WT) TP53, but not in U251 cells harboring mutant (MU) TP53. Moreover, the expression of epithelial markers (i.e., CDH13/T-cadherin and CLDN1 [claudin 1]) increased, while the expression of mesenchymal markers (i.e., CDH2/N-cadherin, SNAI1/Snail, and VIM [vimentin]) decreased, indicating that the EMT status was blocked by MIR517C in U87 cells. Compared with MIR517C overexpression, MIR517C knockdown promoted infiltration of U87 cells to the surrounding structures in nude mice in vivo. The above phenotypic changes were also observed in TP53(+/+) and TP53(-/-) HCT116 colon cancer cells. In summary, our study provided support for a link between autophagy and EMT status in WT TP53 GBM cells and provided evidence for the signaling pathway (MIR517C-KPNA2-cytoplasmic TP53) involved in attenuating autophagy and eliminating the increased migration and invasion during the EMT.

  19. Endocytosis as a biological response in receptor pharmacology: evaluation by fluorescence microscopy.

    PubMed

    Campa, Víctor M; Capilla, Almudena; Varela, María J; de la Rocha, Arlet M Acanda; Fernandez-Troyano, Juan C; Barreiro, R Belén; Lopez-Gimenez, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    The activation of G-protein coupled receptors by agonist compounds results in diverse biological responses in cells, such as the endocytosis process consisting in the translocation of receptors from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm within internalizing vesicles or endosomes. In order to functionally evaluate endocytosis events resulted from pharmacological responses, we have developed an image analysis method -the Q-Endosomes algorithm- that specifically discriminates the fluorescent signal originated at endosomes from that one observed at the plasma membrane in images obtained from living cells by fluorescence microscopy. Mu opioid (MOP) receptor tagged at the carboxy-terminus with yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and permanently expressed in HEK293 cells was used as experimental model to validate this methodology. Time-course experiments performed with several agonists resulted in different sigmoid curves depending on the drug used to initiate MOP receptor endocytosis. Thus, endocytosis resulting from the simultaneous activation of co-expressed MOP and serotonin 5-HT2C receptors by morphine plus serotonin was significantly different, in kinetics as well as in maximal response parameters, from the one caused by DAMGO, sufentanyl or methadone. Therefore, this analytical tool permits the pharmacological characterization of receptor endocytosis in living cells with functional and temporal resolution.

  20. Hypoxia induced E-cadherin involving regulators of Hippo pathway due to HIF-1α stabilization/nuclear translocation in bone metastasis from breast carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Maroni, Paola; Matteucci, Emanuela; Drago, Lorenzo; Banfi, Giuseppe; Bendinelli, Paola; Desiderio, Maria Alfonsina

    2015-01-15

    Wwox as a novel molecule in the HIF-1α-HDM2 regulatory loop, necessary for the dynamic regulation of the HIF-1α amount, and we suggested that the reduction of endogenous Wwox free pool under hypoxia might also be due to the interaction with HDM2, sequestering the E3 ubiquitin ligase. We highlighted the importance of nuclear HIF-1α in the biology of metastasis for the mesenchymal-epithelial transition: this phenotype was regulated by Wwox plus hypoxia through E-cadherin target gene, playing a pivotal role in bone metastasis colonization. - Highlights: • E-cadherin accumulates in hypoxic bone metastasis opposite to primary carcinoma. • HIF-1 and PPARγ cooperate in inducing E-cadherin under hypoxia in metastatic cells. • Wwox regulates HIF-1α phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. • Hypoxia plus Wwox prevent HIF-1α degradation via HDM2 forming a regulatory loop.

  1. Ricin A chain reaches the endoplasmic reticulum after endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Qiong; Zhan Jinbiao . E-mail: jzhan2k@zju.edu.cn; Chen Xinhong; Zheng Shu

    2006-05-12

    Ricin is a potent ribosome inactivating protein and now has been widely used for synthesis of immunotoxins. To target ribosome in the mammalian cytosol, ricin must firstly retrograde transport from the endomembrane system to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the ricin A chain (RTA) is recognized by ER components that facilitate its membrane translocation to the cytosol. In the study, the fusion gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RTA was expressed with the pET-28a (+) system in Escherichia coli under the control of a T7 promoter. The fusion protein showed a green fluorescence. The recombinant protein can be purified by metal chelated affinity chromatography on a column of NTA. The rabbit anti-GFP antibody can recognize the fusion protein of EGFP-RTA just like the EGFP protein. The cytotoxicity of EGFP-RTA and RTA was evaluated by the MTT assay in HeLa and HEP-G2 cells following fluid-phase endocytosis. The fusion protein had a similar cytotoxicity of RTA. After endocytosis, the subcellular location of the fusion protein can be observed with the laser scanning confocal microscopy and the immuno-gold labeling Electro Microscopy. This study provided important evidence by a visualized way to prove that RTA does reach the endoplasmic reticulum.

  2. Molecular characterization and tissue distribution of aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator isoforms, ARNT1 and ARNT2, and identification of novel splice variants in common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo).

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Seon; Kim, Eun-Young; Iwata, Hisato; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2007-04-01

    High levels of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) and related planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (PHAHs) are accumulated in fish-eating birds including common cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo). Most of the biochemical and toxic effects of TCDD are mediated by a basic helix-loop-helix and a conserved region among Per, ARNT, and Sim (bHLH/PAS) proteins, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) and AHR nuclear translocator (ARNT). To study the molecular mechanism of TCDD toxicity in common cormorant as an avian model species, characterization of the AHR/ARNT signaling pathway in this species is necessary. The present study focuses on molecular characterization of ARNT from common cormorant (ccARNT). The cDNA of the ccARNT isoform, ccARNT1 obtained by the screening of hepatic cDNA library contains a 2424-bp open reading frame that encodes 807 amino acids, exhibiting high identities (92%) with chicken ARNT. This isoform contains a unique 22 amino acid residue in 3' end of PAS A domain as is also recognized in chicken ARNT. The ccARNT2 cDNA isolated from brain tissue has a 2151-bp open reading frame. The deduced amino acid sequence of ccARNT2 protein (716 aa) shows a conservation of bHLH and PAS motif in its N-terminal region with high similarities (96% and 78%, respectively) to that of ccARNT1. Using quantitative RT-PCR methods, the tissue distribution profiles of ccARNT1 and ccARNT2 were unveiled. Both ccARNT1 and ccARNT2 mRNAs were ubiquitously expressed in all examined tissues including liver. The expression profile of ccARNT1 was comparable with that of rodent ARNT1, but ccARNT2 was not with rodent ARNT2, implying different roles of ARNT2 between the two species. There was a significant positive correlation between ARNT1 and ARNT2 mRNA expression levels in the liver of wild cormorant population, indicating that their expressions may be enforced by similar transcriptional regulation mechanism. Novel variants of ccARNT1 and ccARNT2 isoforms that were supposed to

  3. Endocytosis and Signaling during Development

    PubMed Central

    Bökel, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The development of multicellular organisms relies on an intricate choreography of intercellular communication events that pattern the embryo and coordinate the formation of tissues and organs. It is therefore not surprising that developmental biology, especially using genetic model organisms, has contributed significantly to the discovery and functional dissection of the associated signal-transduction cascades. At the same time, biophysical, biochemical, and cell biological approaches have provided us with insights into the underlying cell biological machinery. Here we focus on how endocytic trafficking of signaling components (e.g., ligands or receptors) controls the generation, propagation, modulation, reception, and interpretation of developmental signals. A comprehensive enumeration of the links between endocytosis and signal transduction would exceed the limits of this review. We will instead use examples from different developmental pathways to conceptually illustrate the various functions provided by endocytic processes during key steps of intercellular signaling. PMID:24591521

  4. Neurotensin-induced Proinflammatory Signaling in Human Colonocytes Is Regulated by β-Arrestins and Endothelin-converting Enzyme-1-dependent Endocytosis and Resensitization of Neurotensin Receptor 1*

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ivy Ka Man; Murphy, Jane E.; Bakirtzi, Kyriaki; Bunnett, Nigel W.; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2012-01-01

    The neuropeptide/hormone neurotensin (NT) mediates intestinal inflammation and cell proliferation by binding of its high affinity receptor, neurotensin receptor-1 (NTR1). NT stimulates IL-8 expression in NCM460 human colonic epithelial cells by both MAP kinase- and NF-κB-dependent pathways. Although the mechanism of NTR1 endocytosis has been studied, the relationship between NTR1 intracellular trafficking and inflammatory signaling remains to be elucidated. In the present study, we show that in NCM460 cells exposed to NT, β-arrestin-1 (βARR1), and β-arrestin-2 (βARR2) translocate to early endosomes together with NTR1. Endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) degrades NT in acidic conditions, and its activity is crucial for NTR1 recycling. Pretreatment of NCM460 cells with the ECE-1 inhibitor SM19712 or gene silencing of βARR1 or βARR2 inhibits NT-stimulated ERK1/2 and JNK phosphorylation, NF-κB p65 nuclear translocation and phosphorylation, and IL-8 secretion. Furthermore, NT-induced cell proliferation, but not IL-8 transcription, is attenuated by the JNK inhibitor, JNK(AII). Thus, NTR1 internalization and recycling in human colonic epithelial cells involves βARRs and ECE-1, respectively. Our results also indicate that βARRs and ECE-1-dependent recycling regulate MAP kinase and NF-κB signaling as well as cell proliferation in human colonocytes in response to NT. PMID:22416137

  5. Endocytosis in Giardia: Evidence of Absence.

    PubMed

    Zamponi, Nahuel; Feliziani, Constanza; Touz, María C

    2016-11-01

    Zumthor et al. recently reported a novel function for clathrin coatomer in Giardia lamblia endocytosis. On the basis of old and new data, we propose an updated model of the participation of clathrin function in this parasite.

  6. Mechanisms Underlying Stage-1 TRPL Channel Translocation in Drosophila Photoreceptors

    PubMed Central

    Lieu, Minh-Ha; Vallejos, Maximiliano J.; Michael, Emily; Tsunoda, Susan

    2012-01-01

    Background TRP channels function as key mediators of sensory transduction and other cellular signaling pathways. In Drosophila, TRP and TRPL are the light-activated channels in photoreceptors. While TRP is statically localized in the signaling compartment of the cell (the rhabdomere), TRPL localization is regulated by light. TRPL channels translocate out of the rhabdomere in two distinct stages, returning to the rhabdomere with dark-incubation. Translocation of TRPL channels regulates their availability, and thereby the gain of the signal. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms underlying this trafficking of TRPL channels. Methodology/Principal Findings We first examine the involvement of de novo protein synthesis in TRPL translocation. We feed flies cycloheximide, verify inhibition of protein synthesis, and test for TRPL translocation in photoreceptors. We find that protein synthesis is not involved in either stage of TRPL translocation out of the rhabdomere, but that re-localization to the rhabdomere from stage-1, but not stage-2, depends on protein synthesis. We also characterize an ex vivo eye preparation that is amenable to biochemical and genetic manipulation. We use this preparation to examine mechanisms of stage-1 TRPL translocation. We find that stage-1 translocation is: induced with ATP depletion, unaltered with perturbation of the actin cytoskeleton or inhibition of endocytosis, and slowed with increased membrane sterol content. Conclusions/Significance Our results indicate that translocation of TRPL out of the rhabdomere is likely due to protein transport, and not degradation/re-synthesis. Re-localization from each stage to the rhabdomere likely involves different strategies. Since TRPL channels can translocate to stage-1 in the absence of ATP, with no major requirement of the cytoskeleton, we suggest that stage-1 translocation involves simple diffusion through the apical membrane, which may be regulated by release of a light-dependent anchor in

  7. Phospholipid Scramblase-1-Induced Lipid Reorganization Regulates Compensatory Endocytosis in Neuroendocrine Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ory, Stéphane; Ceridono, Mara; Momboisse, Fanny; Houy, Sébastien; Chasserot-Golaz, Sylvette; Heintz, Dimitri; Calco, Valérie; Haeberlé, Anne-Marie; Espinoza, Flor A.; Sims, Peter J.; Bailly, Yannick; Bader, Marie-France; Gasman, Stéphane

    2013-01-01

    Calcium-regulated exocytosis in neuroendocrine cells and neurons is accompanied by the redistribution of phosphatidylserine (PS) to the extracellular space, leading to a disruption of plasma membrane asymmetry. How and why outward translocation of PS occurs during secretion are currently unknown. Immunogold labeling on plasma membrane sheets coupled with hierarchical clustering analysis demonstrate that PS translocation occurs at the vicinity of the secretory granule fusion sites. We found that altering the function of the phospholipid scramblase-1 (PLSCR-1) by expressing a PLSCR-1 calcium-insensitive mutant or by using chromaffin cells from PLSCR-1−/− mice prevents outward translocation of PS in cells stimulated for exocytosis. Remarkably, whereas transmitter release was not affected, secretory granule membrane recapture after exocytosis was impaired, indicating that PLSCR-1 is required for compensatory endocytosis but not for exocytosis. Our results provide the first evidence for a role of specific lipid reorganization and calcium-dependent PLSCR-1 activity in neuroendocrine compensatory endocytosis. PMID:23426682

  8. Ultrafast endocytosis at Caenorhabditis elegans neuromuscular junctions

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Shigeki; Liu, Qiang; Davis, M Wayne; Hollopeter, Gunther; Thomas, Nikita; Jorgensen, Nels B; Jorgensen, Erik M

    2013-01-01

    Synaptic vesicles can be released at extremely high rates, which places an extraordinary demand on the recycling machinery. Previous ultrastructural studies of vesicle recycling were conducted in dissected preparations using an intense stimulation to maximize the probability of release. Here, a single light stimulus was applied to motor neurons in intact Caenorhabditis elegans nematodes expressing channelrhodopsin, and the animals rapidly frozen. We found that docked vesicles fuse along a broad active zone in response to a single stimulus, and are replenished with a time constant of about 2 s. Endocytosis occurs within 50 ms adjacent to the dense projection and after 1 s adjacent to adherens junctions. These studies suggest that synaptic vesicle endocytosis may occur on a millisecond time scale following a single physiological stimulus in the intact nervous system and is unlikely to conform to current models of endocytosis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.00723.001 PMID:24015355

  9. Clathrin-Independent Pathways of Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Mayor, Satyajit; Parton, Robert G.; Donaldson, Julie G.

    2014-01-01

    There are many pathways of endocytosis at the cell surface that apparently operate at the same time. With the advent of new molecular genetic and imaging tools, an understanding of the different ways by which a cell may endocytose cargo is increasing by leaps and bounds. In this review we explore pathways of endocytosis that occur in the absence of clathrin. These are referred to as clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE). Here we primarily focus on those pathways that function at the small scale in which some have distinct coats (caveolae) and others function in the absence of specific coated intermediates. We follow the trafficking itineraries of the material endocytosed by these pathways and finally discuss the functional roles that these pathways play in cell and tissue physiology. It is likely that these pathways will play key roles in the regulation of plasma membrane area and tension and also control the availability of membrane during cell migration. PMID:24890511

  10. Phosphorylation of Nrf2 in the transcription activation domain by casein kinase 2 (CK2) is critical for the nuclear translocation and transcription activation function of Nrf2 in IMR-32 neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Apopa, Patrick L; He, Xiaoqing; Ma, Qiang

    2008-02-01

    The antioxidant-activated transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) regulates the induction of cytoprotective genes against chemical toxicity and oxidative injuries. The role of phosphorylation in Nrf2 activation has been suggested but remains elusive. We report that phenolic antioxidant/pro-oxidant tert-butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) induced two forms of the Nrf2 protein in neuroblastoma cells (IMR-32), which migrated as distinctive bands on SDS-PAGE. In vitro treatment with lambda phosphatase eliminated the slower migrating form and increased the amount of the faster migrating form of Nrf2. In vivo (32)Pi-phosphorylation resulted in (32)Pi-labeling of the Nrf2 protein in the presence of tBHQ that can be dephosphorylated by lambda phosphotase, indicating that the slower migrating form is a phosphorylated Nrf2 protein and the faster form an unphosphorylated Nrf2. Unphosphorylated Nrf2 predominated in the cytoplasm, whereas the phosphorylated form preferentially localized in the nucleus. Nuclear Nrf2 can be dephosphorylated by lambda phosphotase in vitro and be converted to the faster migrating form, implicating phosphorylation of Nrf2 in the cytoplasmic-nuclear translocation of the protein. Deletional analyses from both the carboxyl- and amino-ends revealed the transcription activation (TA) domains Neh4 (Nrf2-ECH homology 4) and Neh5 (Nrf2-ECH homology 5) as a major region necessary for the phosphorylation. The TA domains are characterized by the presence of multiple phosphorylation sites of casein kinase 2 (CK2). Moreover, CK2 phosphorylated the TA domains in vitro. Treatment with CK2 inhibitor 2-dimethylamino-4,5,6,7,-tetrabromo-1H-benzimidazole (DMAT) blocked the induction of endogenous target genes of Nrf2 in cells and inhibited the TA activities of both the full length and the TA domains of Nrf2 to a large extent. Finally, phosphorylation of the TA domains correlated with the nuclear translocation of Nrf2 that was inhibited by DMAT in a

  11. Nuclear translocation of Acinetobacter baumannii transposase induces DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin gene.

    PubMed

    Moon, Dong Chan; Choi, Chul Hee; Lee, Su Man; Lee, Jung Hwa; Kim, Seung Il; Kim, Dong Sun; Lee, Je Chul

    2012-01-01

    Nuclear targeting of bacterial proteins has emerged as a pathogenic mechanism whereby bacterial proteins induce host cell pathology. In this study, we examined nuclear targeting of Acinetobacter baumannii transposase (Tnp) and subsequent epigenetic changes in host cells. Tnp of A. baumannii ATCC 17978 possesses nuclear localization signals (NLSs), (225)RKRKRK(230). Transient expression of A. baumannii Tnp fused with green fluorescent protein (GFP) resulted in the nuclear localization of these proteins in COS-7 cells, whereas the truncated Tnp without NLSs fused with GFP were exclusively localized in the cytoplasm. A. baumannii Tnp was found in outer membrane vesicles, which delivered this protein to the nucleus of host cells. Nuclear expression of A. baumannii Tnp fused with GFP in A549 cells induced DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin (CDH1) gene, whereas the cytoplasmic localization of the truncated Tnp without NLSs fused with GFP did not induce DNA methylation. DNA methylation in the promoters of E-cadherin gene induced by nuclear targeting of A. baumannii Tnp resulted in down-regulation of gene expression. In conclusion, our data show that nuclear traffic of A. baumannii Tnp induces DNA methylation of CpG regions in the promoters of E-cadherin gene, which subsequently down-regulates gene expression. This study provides a new insight into the epigenetic control of host genes by bacterial proteins.

  12. MicroRNA-21 Promotes Proliferation of Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes through Mediation of NF-κB Nuclear Translocation in a Rat Model of Collagen-Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying; Xian, Pei-Feng; Yang, Lu; Wang, Sheng-Xu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was designed to investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-21 on cell proliferation in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of RA. FLS were primary-cultured from a rat RA model. RA-FLS and normal FLS were infected with lentivirus (anti-miR-21 or pro-miR-21) for overexpression or downregulation of miR-21, respectively. The effects of miR-21 overexpression or inhibition on nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and FLS cell proliferation were evaluated by western blotting and MTT assays. The effects of an inhibitor of NF-κB nuclear translocation (BAY 11-7082) were also evaluated. The results showed that the levels of miR-21 and nucleoprotein NF-κB were increased in FLS of RA model rats compared to the control group. Downregulation of miR-21 in RA FLS led to a significant decrease in nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and cell proliferation rates compared to the antinegative control (NC) group. However, miR-21 overexpression in normal FLS resulted in a significant increase of nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and cell proliferation rates compared to the pro-NC group. The effects of miR-21 overexpression were reversed by BAY 11-7082. We concluded that upregulated miR-21 in FLS in RA model rats may promote cell proliferation by facilitating NF-κB nuclear translocation, thus affecting the NF-κB pathway.

  13. MicroRNA-21 Promotes Proliferation of Fibroblast-Like Synoviocytes through Mediation of NF-κB Nuclear Translocation in a Rat Model of Collagen-Induced Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Xian, Pei-Feng; Yang, Lu; Wang, Sheng-Xu

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is overexpressed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This study was designed to investigate the effect and mechanism of miR-21 on cell proliferation in fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) of RA. FLS were primary-cultured from a rat RA model. RA-FLS and normal FLS were infected with lentivirus (anti-miR-21 or pro-miR-21) for overexpression or downregulation of miR-21, respectively. The effects of miR-21 overexpression or inhibition on nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and FLS cell proliferation were evaluated by western blotting and MTT assays. The effects of an inhibitor of NF-κB nuclear translocation (BAY 11-7082) were also evaluated. The results showed that the levels of miR-21 and nucleoprotein NF-κB were increased in FLS of RA model rats compared to the control group. Downregulation of miR-21 in RA FLS led to a significant decrease in nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and cell proliferation rates compared to the antinegative control (NC) group. However, miR-21 overexpression in normal FLS resulted in a significant increase of nucleoprotein NF-κB levels and cell proliferation rates compared to the pro-NC group. The effects of miR-21 overexpression were reversed by BAY 11-7082. We concluded that upregulated miR-21 in FLS in RA model rats may promote cell proliferation by facilitating NF-κB nuclear translocation, thus affecting the NF-κB pathway. PMID:27429986

  14. From the nucleus to the plasma membrane: translocation of the nuclear proteins histone H3 and lamin B1 in apoptotic microglia.

    PubMed

    Klein, Barbara; Lütz-Meindl, Ursula; Kerschbaum, Hubert H

    2014-05-01

    Nuclear autoantibodies have been found in patients with autoimmune diseases. One possible source for nuclear antigens are apoptotic cells. However, the mechanism of how apoptotic cells make nuclear factors accessible to the immune system is still elusive. In the present study, we investigated the redistribution of nuclear components after UV irradiation in the microglial cell line BV-2 and in primary mouse microglia at the ultrastructural level. We used transmission electron microscopy-coupled electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) to measure phosphorus as an indicator for nucleic acids and immunogold labeling to detect histone H3 and lamin B1 in apoptotic cells. EELS revealed elevated concentrations of phosphorus in nuclear and cytoplasmic condensed chromatin compared to the remaining cytoplasm. Furthermore, immunolabeling of lamin B1 and histone H3 was detected in apoptotic microglia not only in the nucleus, but also in the cytoplasm, and even at the plasma membrane. Confocal images of apoptotic microglia, which were not previously permeabilized, showed patches of histone H3 and lamin B1 labeling at the cell surface. The pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK (carbobenzoxy-valyl-alanyl-aspartyl-[O-methyl]-fluoromethylketone) prevented the occurrence of cytoplasmic condensed chromatin in apoptotic microglia. Our findings indicate that nuclear components leak from the nucleus into the cytoplasm in apoptotic microglia. At least histone H3 and lamin B1 reach the cell surface, this may promote autoreactive processes.

  15. An immersed boundary method for endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tseng, Yu-Hau; Huang, Huaxiong

    2014-09-01

    Endocytosis is one of the cellular functions for capturing (engulfing) vesicles or microorganisms. Understanding the biophysical mechanisms of this cellular process is essential from a bioengineering point of view since it will provide guidance for developing effective targeted drug delivery therapies. In this paper, we propose an immersed boundary (IB) method that can be used to simulate the dynamical process of this important biological function. In our model, membranes of the vesicle and the cell are treated as Canham-Helfrich Hamiltonian interfaces. The membrane-bound molecules are modeled as insoluble surfactants such that the molecules after binding are regarded as a product of a “chemical” reaction. Our numerical examples show that the immersed boundary method is a useful simulation tool for studying endocytosis, where the roles of interfacial energy, fluid flow and viscous dissipation in the success of the endocytosis process can be investigated in detail. A distinct feature of our IB method is the treatment of the two binding membranes that is different from the merging of fluid-fluid interfaces. Another important feature of our method is the strict conservation of membrane-borne receptors and ligands, which is important for predicting the dynamics of the endocytosis process.

  16. On the Modeling of Endocytosis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tao; Sknepnek, Rastko; Bowick, M.J.; Schwarz, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    The cell membrane deforms during endocytosis to surround extracellular material and draw it into the cell. Results of experiments on endocytosis in yeast show general agreement that 1) actin polymerizes into a network of filaments exerting active forces on the membrane to deform it, and 2) the large-scale membrane deformation is tubular in shape. In contrast, there are three competing proposals for precisely how the actin filament network organizes itself to drive the deformation. We use variational approaches and numerical simulations to address this competition by analyzing a meso-scale model of actin-mediated endocytosis in yeast. The meso-scale model breaks up the invagination process into three stages: 1) initiation, where clathrin interacts with the membrane via adaptor proteins; 2) elongation, where the membrane is then further deformed by polymerizing actin filaments; and 3) pinch-off. Our results suggest that the pinch-off mechanism may be assisted by a pearling-like instability. We rule out two of the three competing proposals for the organization of the actin filament network during the elongation stage. These two proposals could be important in the pinch-off stage, however, where additional actin polymerization helps break off the vesicle. Implications and comparisons with earlier modeling of endocytosis in yeast are discussed. PMID:25650919

  17. Inhibitors of endocytosis prevent Wnt/Wingless signalling by reducing the level of basal β-catenin/Armadillo.

    PubMed

    Gagliardi, Maria; Hernandez, Ana; McGough, Ian J; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2014-11-15

    A key step in the canonical Wnt signalling pathway is the inhibition of GSK3β, which results in the accumulation of nuclear β-catenin (also known as CTNNB1), and hence regulation of target genes. Evidence suggests that endocytosis is required for signalling, yet its role and the molecular understanding remains unclear. A recent and controversial model suggests that endocytosis contributes to Wnt signalling by causing the sequestration of the ligand-receptor complex, including LRP6 and GSK3 to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), thus preventing GSK3β from accessing β-catenin. Here, we use specific inhibitors (Dynasore and Dyngo-4a) to confirm the essential role of endocytosis in Wnt/Wingless signalling in human and Drosophila cells. However, we find no evidence that, in Drosophila cells or wing imaginal discs, LRP6/Arrow traffics to MVBs or that MVBs are required for Wnt/Wingless signalling. Moreover, we show that activation of signalling through chemical blockade of GSK3β is prevented by endocytosis inhibitors, suggesting that endocytosis impacts on Wnt/Wingless signalling downstream of the ligand-receptor complex. We propose that, through an unknown mechanism, endocytosis boosts the resting pool of β-catenin upon which GSK3β normally acts.

  18. Inhibitors of endocytosis prevent Wnt/Wingless signalling by reducing the level of basal β-catenin/Armadillo

    PubMed Central

    Gagliardi, Maria; Hernandez, Ana; McGough, Ian J.; Vincent, Jean-Paul

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT A key step in the canonical Wnt signalling pathway is the inhibition of GSK3β, which results in the accumulation of nuclear β-catenin (also known as CTNNB1), and hence regulation of target genes. Evidence suggests that endocytosis is required for signalling, yet its role and the molecular understanding remains unclear. A recent and controversial model suggests that endocytosis contributes to Wnt signalling by causing the sequestration of the ligand–receptor complex, including LRP6 and GSK3 to multivesicular bodies (MVBs), thus preventing GSK3β from accessing β-catenin. Here, we use specific inhibitors (Dynasore and Dyngo-4a) to confirm the essential role of endocytosis in Wnt/Wingless signalling in human and Drosophila cells. However, we find no evidence that, in Drosophila cells or wing imaginal discs, LRP6/Arrow traffics to MVBs or that MVBs are required for Wnt/Wingless signalling. Moreover, we show that activation of signalling through chemical blockade of GSK3β is prevented by endocytosis inhibitors, suggesting that endocytosis impacts on Wnt/Wingless signalling downstream of the ligand–receptor complex. We propose that, through an unknown mechanism, endocytosis boosts the resting pool of β-catenin upon which GSK3β normally acts. PMID:25236598

  19. Blockade of Y177 and Nuclear Translocation of Bcr-Abl Inhibits Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qianyin; Huang, Zhenglan; Gao, Miao; Cao, Weixi; Xiao, Qin; Luo, Hongwei; Feng, Wenli

    2017-03-02

    The gradual emerging of resistance to imatinib urgently calls for the development of new therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The fusion protein Bcr-Abl, which promotes the malignant transformation of CML cells, is mainly located in the cytoplasm, while the c-Abl protein which is expressed in the nucleus can induce apoptosis. Based on the hetero-dimerization of FKBP (the 12-kDa FK506- and rapamycin-binding protein) and FRB (the FKBP-rapamycin binding domain of the protein kinase, mTOR) mediated by AP21967, we constructed a nuclear transport system to induce cytoplasmic Bcr-Abl into nuclear. In this study, we reported the construction of the nuclear transport system, and we demonstrated that FN3R (three nuclear localization signals were fused to FRBT2098L with a FLAG tag), HF2S (two FKBP domains were in tandem and fused to the SH2 domain of Grb2 with an HA tag) and Bcr-Abl form a complexus upon AP21967. Bcr-Abl was imported into the nucleus successfully by the nuclear transport system. The nuclear transport system inhibited CML cell proliferation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) pathways mainly by HF2S. It was proven that nuclear located Bcr-Abl induced CML cell (including imatinib-resistant K562G01 cells) apoptosis by activation of p73 and its downstream molecules. In summary, our study provides a new targeted therapy for the CML patients even with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI)-resistance.

  20. Blockade of Y177 and Nuclear Translocation of Bcr-Abl Inhibits Proliferation and Promotes Apoptosis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qianyin; Huang, Zhenglan; Gao, Miao; Cao, Weixi; Xiao, Qin; Luo, Hongwei; Feng, Wenli

    2017-01-01

    The gradual emerging of resistance to imatinib urgently calls for the development of new therapy for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). The fusion protein Bcr-Abl, which promotes the malignant transformation of CML cells, is mainly located in the cytoplasm, while the c-Abl protein which is expressed in the nucleus can induce apoptosis. Based on the hetero-dimerization of FKBP (the 12-kDa FK506- and rapamycin-binding protein) and FRB (the FKBP-rapamycin binding domain of the protein kinase, mTOR) mediated by AP21967, we constructed a nuclear transport system to induce cytoplasmic Bcr-Abl into nuclear. In this study, we reported the construction of the nuclear transport system, and we demonstrated that FN3R (three nuclear localization signals were fused to FRBT2098L with a FLAG tag), HF2S (two FKBP domains were in tandem and fused to the SH2 domain of Grb2 with an HA tag) and Bcr-Abl form a complexus upon AP21967. Bcr-Abl was imported into the nucleus successfully by the nuclear transport system. The nuclear transport system inhibited CML cell proliferation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5) pathways mainly by HF2S. It was proven that nuclear located Bcr-Abl induced CML cell (including imatinib-resistant K562G01 cells) apoptosis by activation of p73 and its downstream molecules. In summary, our study provides a new targeted therapy for the CML patients even with Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor (TKI)-resistance. PMID:28257089

  1. Physiology in conservation translocations

    PubMed Central

    Tarszisz, Esther; Dickman, Christopher R.; Munn, Adam J.

    2014-01-01

    Conservation translocations aim to restore species to their indigenous ranges, protect populations from threats and/or reinstate ecosystem functions. They are particularly important for the conservation and management of rare and threatened species. Despite tremendous efforts and advancement in recent years, animal conservation translocations generally have variable success, and the reasons for this are often uncertain. We suggest that when little is known about the physiology and wellbeing of individuals either before or after release, it will be difficult to determine their likelihood of survival, and this could limit advancements in the science of translocations for conservation. In this regard, we argue that physiology offers novel approaches that could substantially improve translocations and associated practices. As a discipline, it is apparent that physiology may be undervalued, perhaps because of the invasive nature of some physiological measurement techniques (e.g. sampling body fluids, surgical implantation). We examined 232 publications that dealt with translocations of terrestrial vertebrates and aquatic mammals and, defining ‘success’ as high or low, determined how many of these studies explicitly incorporated physiological aspects into their protocols and monitoring. From this review, it is apparent that physiological evaluation before and after animal releases could progress and improve translocation/reintroduction successes. We propose a suite of physiological measures, in addition to animal health indices, for assisting conservation translocations over the short term and also for longer term post-release monitoring. Perhaps most importantly, we argue that the incorporation of physiological assessments of animals at all stages of translocation can have important welfare implications by helping to reduce the total number of animals used. Physiological indicators can also help to refine conservation translocation methods. These approaches fall

  2. Unsaturated acyl chains dramatically enhanced cellular uptake by direct translocation of a minimalist oligo-arginine lipopeptide.

    PubMed

    Swiecicki, J-M; Di Pisa, M; Lippi, F; Chwetzoff, S; Mansuy, C; Trugnan, G; Chassaing, G; Lavielle, S; Burlina, F

    2015-10-07

    The recurring issue with cell penetrating peptides is how to increase direct translocation vs. endocytosis, to avoid premature degradation. Acylation by a cis unsaturated chain (C22:6) of a short cationic peptide provides a new rational design to favour diffuse cytosolic and dense Golgi localisations.

  3. Peptide IDR-1002 Inhibits NF-κB Nuclear Translocation by Inhibition of IκBα Degradation and Activates p38/ERK1/2–MSK1-Dependent CREB Phosphorylation in Macrophages Stimulated with Lipopolysaccharide

    PubMed Central

    Huante-Mendoza, Alejandro; Silva-García, Octavio; Oviedo-Boyso, Javier; Hancock, Robert E. W.; Baizabal-Aguirre, Víctor M.

    2016-01-01

    The inflammatory response is a critical molecular defense mechanism of the innate immune system that mediates the elimination of disease-causing bacteria. Repair of the damaged tissue, and the reestablishment of homeostasis, must be accomplished after elimination of the pathogen. The innate defense regulators (IDRs) are short cationic peptides that mimic natural host defense peptides and are effective in eliminating pathogens by enhancing the activity of the immune system while controlling the inflammatory response. Although the role of different IDRs as modulators of inflammation has been reported, there have been only limited studies of the signaling molecules regulated by this type of peptide. The present study investigated the effect of IDR-1002 on nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and cAMP-response element-binding protein (CREB) transcription factors that are responsible for triggering and controlling inflammation, respectively, in macrophages. We found that TNF-α and COX-2 expression, IκBα phosphorylation, and NF-κB nuclear translocation were strongly inhibited in macrophages pre-incubated with IDR-1002 and then stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). IDR-1002 also increased CREB phosphorylation at Ser133 via activation of the p38/ERK1/2–MSK1 signaling pathways without detectable expression of the cytokines IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 involved is suppressing inflammation or alternative activation. Transcriptional activation of NF-κB and CREB is known to require interaction with the transcriptional coactivator CREB-binding protein (CBP). To test for CBP–NF-κB and CBP–CREB complex formation, we performed co-immunoprecipitation assays. These assays showed that IDR-1002 inhibited the interaction between CBP and NF-κB in macrophages stimulated with LPS, which might explain the inhibition of TNF-α and COX-2 expression. Furthermore, the complex between CBP and CREB in macrophages stimulated with IDR-1002 was also inhibited, which might explain why IDR-1002 did

  4. Fumaric Acid Esters Do Not Reduce Inflammatory NF-κB/p65 Nuclear Translocation, ICAM-1 Expression and T-Cell Adhesiveness of Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Haarmann, Axel; Nehen, Mathias; Deiß, Annika; Buttmann, Mathias

    2015-08-13

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) is approved for disease-modifying treatment of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. Animal experiments suggested that part of its therapeutic effect is due to a reduction of T-cell infiltration of the central nervous system (CNS) by uncertain mechanisms. Here we evaluated whether DMF and its primary metabolite monomethyl fumarate (MMF) modulate pro-inflammatory intracellular signaling and T-cell adhesiveness of nonimmortalized single donor human brain microvascular endothelial cells at low passages. Neither DMF nor MMF at concentrations of 10 or 50 µM blocked the IL-1β-induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB/p65, whereas the higher concentration of DMF inhibited the nuclear entry of p65 in human umbilical vein endothelium cultured in parallel. DMF and MMF also did not alter the IL-1β-stimulated activation of p38 MAPK in brain endothelium. Furthermore, neither DMF nor MMF reduced the basal or IL-1β-inducible expression of ICAM-1. In accordance, both fumaric acid esters did not reduce the adhesion of activated Jurkat T cells to brain endothelium under basal or inflammatory conditions. Therefore, brain endothelial cells probably do not directly mediate a potential blocking effect of fumaric acid esters on the inflammatory infiltration of the CNS by T cells.

  5. Species-specific responses of constitutively active receptor (CAR)-CYP2B coupling: lack of CYP2B inducer-responsive nuclear translocation of CAR in marine teleost, scup (Stenotomus chrysops).

    PubMed

    Iwata, Hisato; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Negishi, Masahiko; Stegeman, John J

    2002-04-01

    The mammalian constitutively active receptor (CAR) is a novel ligand-activated transcription factor that participates in controlling the expression of cytochrome P450 2B (CYP2B) genes in response to pharmaceutical agents (phenobarbital) and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons (ortho-substituted PCBs). The occurrence and physiological function of this protein are as yet unknown in marine animals, where there has been a paradoxical lack of induction by PB-type chemicals. One approach to understanding CAR function is to study the evolutionary history of processes such as CAR-CYP2B coupling. In this study, CAR function was evaluated in a representative teleost fish (scup, Stenotomus chrysops). Treatment of scup with 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP), which is one of the most potent CYP2B inducers in mouse, caused no increase in hepatic alkoxyresorufin O-dealkylase activity nor in immunodetectable CYP2B-like protein levels. Western blot analyses of scup livers using anti-human CAR antisera revealed the occurrence of a putative CAR homologue in nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions, but no nuclear accumulation of CAR following TCPOBOP treatment, which is a first step regulating the transcriptional activation of CYP2B genes in mouse. Immunohistochemical study also showed no translocation of CAR into nucleus in the hepatocytes of TCPOBOP-treated scup. These results suggest that there may be species-specific differences in CAR activation or CAR-CYP2B coupling signaling transduction in fish from those in mouse.

  6. PS1/γ-Secretase-Mediated Cadherin Cleavage Induces β-Catenin Nuclear Translocation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Rhayra B.; Fortuna-Costa, Anneliese; Chicaybam, Leonardo; Lopes, Daiana V.; Dutra, Hélio S.; Borojevic, Radovan; Bonamino, Martin; Mermelstein, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) are considered a promising tool for bone bioengineering. However, the mechanisms controlling osteoblastic commitment are still unclear. Osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs requires the activation of β-catenin signaling, classically known to be regulated by the canonical Wnt pathway. However, BMSCs treatment with canonical Wnts in vitro does not always result in osteogenic differentiation and evidence indicates that a more complex signaling pathway, involving cadherins, would be required to induce β-catenin signaling in these cells. Here we showed that Wnt3a alone did not induce TCF activation in BMSCs, maintaining the cells at a proliferative state. On the other hand, we verified that, upon BMSCs osteoinduction with dexamethasone, cadherins were cleaved by the PS1/γ-secretase complex at the plasma membrane, and this event was associated with an enhanced β-catenin translocation to the nucleus and signaling. When PS1/γ-secretase activity was inhibited, the osteogenic process was impaired. Altogether, we provide evidence that PS1/γ-secretase-mediated cadherin cleavage has as an important role in controlling β-catenin signaling during the onset of BMSCs osteogenic differentiation, as part of a complex signaling pathway responsible for cell fate decision. A comprehensive map of these pathways might contribute to the development of strategies to improve bone repair. PMID:28053606

  7. Cyclin B2 undergoes cell cycle-dependent nuclear translocation and, when expressed as a non-destructible mutant, causes mitotic arrest in HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Cyclin proteins form complexes with members of the p34cdc2 kinase family and they are essential components of the cell cycle regulatory machinery. They are thought to determine the timing of activation, the subcellular distribution, and/or the substrate specificity of cdc2- related kinases, but their precise mode of action remains to be elucidated. Here we report the cloning and sequencing of avian cyclin B2. Based on the use of monospecific antibodies raised against bacterially expressed protein, we also describe the subcellular distribution of cyclin B2 in chick embryo fibroblasts and in DU249 hepatoma cells. By indirect immunofluorescence microscopy we show that cyclin B2 is cytoplasmic during interphase of the cell cycle, but undergoes an abrupt translocation to the cell nucleus at the onset of mitotic prophase. Finally, we have examined the phenotypic consequences of expressing wild-type and mutated versions of avian cyclin B2 in HeLa cells. We found that expression of cyclin B2 carrying a mutation at arginine 32 (to serine) caused HeLa cells to arrest in a pseudomitotic state. Many of the arrested cells displayed multiple mitotic spindles, suggesting that the centrosome cycle had continued in spite of the cell cycle arrest. PMID:1532584

  8. Chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester induces cell cycle arrest by the inhibition of nuclear translocation of β-catenin in HCT116 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Kyung-Mi; Yun, Ji Ho; Lee, Dong Hwa; Park, Young Gyun; Son, Kun Ho; Nho, Chu Won; Kim, Yeong Shik

    2015-04-17

    We demonstrate that chikusetsusaponin IVa methyl ester (CME), a triterpenoid saponin from the root of Achyranthes japonica, has an anticancer activity. We investigate its molecular mechanism in depth in HCT116 cells. CME reduces the amount of β-catenin in nucleus and inhibits the binding of β-catenin to specific DNA sequences (TCF binding elements, TBE) in target gene promoters. Thus, CME appears to decrease the expression of cell cycle regulatory proteins such as Cyclin D1, as a representative target for β-catenin, as well as CDK2 and CDK4. As a result of the decrease of the cell cycle regulatory proteins, CME inhibits cell proliferation by arresting the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Therefore, we suggest that CME as a novel Wnt/β-catenin inhibitor can be a putative agent for the treatment of colorectal cancers. - Highlights: • CME inhibits cell proliferation in HCT116 cells. • CME increases cell cycle arrest at G0/G1 phase and apoptosis. • CME attenuates cyclin D1 and regulates cell cycle regulatory proteins. • CME inhibits β-catenin translocation to nucleus.

  9. Reduced nuclear translocation of serum response factor is associated with skeletal muscle atrophy in a cigarette smoke-induced mouse model of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ran; Gong, Xuefang; Jiang, Hua; Lin, Chunyi; Chen, Yuqin; Xu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Chenting; Wang, Jian; Lu, Wenju; Zhong, Nanshan

    2017-01-01

    Skeletal muscle atrophy and dysfunction are common complications in the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the underlying molecular mechanism remains elusive. Serum response factor (SRF) is a transcription factor which is critical in myocyte differentiation and growth. In this study, we established a mouse COPD model induced by cigarette smoking (CS) exposure for 24 weeks, with apparent pathophysiological changes, including increased airway resistance, enlarged alveoli, and skeletal muscle atrophy. Levels of upstream regulators of SRF, striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS), and ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) were decreased in quadriceps muscle of COPD mice. Meanwhile, the nucleic location of SRF was diminished along with its cytoplasmic accumulation. There was a downregulation of the target muscle-specific gene, Igf1. These results suggest that the CS is one of the major causes for COPD pathogenesis, which induces the COPD-associated skeletal muscle atrophy which is closely related to decreasing SRF nucleic translocation, consequently downregulating the SRF target genes involved in muscle growth and nutrition. The STARS/RhoA signaling pathway might contribute to this course by impacting SRF subcellular distribution. PMID:28260872

  10. Nuclear Localization of CD26 Induced by a Humanized Monoclonal Antibody Inhibits Tumor Cell Growth by Modulating of POLR2A Transcription

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Kohji; Hayashi, Mutsumi; Madokoro, Hiroko; Nishida, Hiroko; Du, Wenlin; Ohnuma, Kei; Sakamoto, Michiie; Morimoto, Chikao; Yamada, Taketo

    2013-01-01

    CD26 is a type II glycoprotein known as dipeptidyl peptidase IV and has been identified as one of the cell surface markers associated with various types of cancers and a subset of cancer stem cells. Recent studies have suggested that CD26 expression is involved in tumor growth, tumor invasion, and metastasis. The CD26 is shown in an extensive intracellular distribution, ranging from the cell surface to the nucleus. We have previously showed that the humanized anti-CD26 monoclonal antibody (mAb), YS110, exhibits inhibitory effects on various cancers. However, functions of CD26 on cancer cells and molecular mechanisms of impaired tumor growth by YS110 treatment are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrated that the treatment with YS110 induced nuclear translocation of both cell-surface CD26 and YS110 in cancer cells and xenografted tumor. It was shown that the CD26 and YS110 were co-localized in nucleus by immunoelectron microscopic analysis. In response to YS110 treatment, CD26 was translocated into the nucleus via caveolin-dependent endocytosis. It was revealed that the nuclear CD26 interacted with a genomic flanking region of the gene for POLR2A, a subunit of RNA polymerase II, using a chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. This interaction with nuclear CD26 and POLR2A gene consequently led to transcriptional repression of the POLR2A gene, resulting in retarded cell proliferation of cancer cells. Furthermore, the impaired nuclear transport of CD26 by treatment with an endocytosis inhibitor or expressions of deletion mutants of CD26 reversed the POLR2A repression induced by YS110 treatment. These findings reveal that the nuclear CD26 functions in the regulation of gene expression and tumor growth, and provide a novel mechanism of mAb-therapy related to inducible translocation of cell-surface target molecule into the nucleus. PMID:23638030

  11. β-catenin nuclear translocation in colorectal cancer cells is suppressed by PDE10A inhibition, cGMP elevation, and activation of PKG

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kevin; Lindsey, Ashley S.; Li, Nan; Gary, Bernard; Andrews, Joel; Keeton, Adam B.; Piazza, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10) is a cGMP and cAMP degrading PDE isozyme that is highly expressed in the brain striatum where it appears to play an important role in cognition and psychomotor activity. PDE10 inhibitors are being developed for the treatment of schizophrenia and Huntington's disease and are generally well tolerated, possibly because of low expression levels in most peripheral tissues. We recently reported high levels of PDE10 in colon tumors and that genetic silencing of PDE10 by siRNA or inhibition with small molecule inhibitors can suppress colon tumor cell growth with a high degree of selectivity over normal colonocytes (Li et al., Oncogene 2015). These observations suggest PDE10 may have an unrecognized role in tumorigenesis. Here we report that the concentration range by which the highly specific PDE10 inhibitor, Pf-2545920 (MP-10), inhibits colon tumor cell growth parallels the concentration range required to increase cGMP and cAMP levels, and activates PKG and PKA, respectively. Moreover, PDE10 knockdown by shRNA reduces the sensitivity of colon tumor cells to the growth inhibitory activity of Pf-2545920. Pf-2545920 also inhibits the translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus, thereby reducing β-catenin mediated transcription of survivin, resulting in caspase activation and apoptosis. PDE10 mRNA was also found to be elevated in colon tumors compared with normal tissues. These findings suggest that PDE10 can be targeted for cancer therapy or prevention whereby inhibition results in cGMP elevation and PKG activation to reduce β-catenin-mediated transcription of survival proteins leading to the selective apoptosis of cancer cells. PMID:26713600

  12. β-catenin nuclear translocation in colorectal cancer cells is suppressed by PDE10A inhibition, cGMP elevation, and activation of PKG.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kevin; Lindsey, Ashley S; Li, Nan; Gary, Bernard; Andrews, Joel; Keeton, Adam B; Piazza, Gary A

    2016-02-02

    Phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10) is a cGMP and cAMP degrading PDE isozyme that is highly expressed in the brain striatum where it appears to play an important role in cognition and psychomotor activity. PDE10 inhibitors are being developed for the treatment of schizophrenia and Huntington's disease and are generally well tolerated, possibly because of low expression levels in most peripheral tissues. We recently reported high levels of PDE10 in colon tumors and that genetic silencing of PDE10 by siRNA or inhibition with small molecule inhibitors can suppress colon tumor cell growth with a high degree of selectivity over normal colonocytes (Li et al., Oncogene 2015). These observations suggest PDE10 may have an unrecognized role in tumorigenesis. Here we report that the concentration range by which the highly specific PDE10 inhibitor, Pf-2545920 (MP-10), inhibits colon tumor cell growth parallels the concentration range required to increase cGMP and cAMP levels, and activates PKG and PKA, respectively. Moreover, PDE10 knockdown by shRNA reduces the sensitivity of colon tumor cells to the growth inhibitory activity of Pf-2545920. Pf-2545920 also inhibits the translocation of β-catenin to the nucleus, thereby reducing β-catenin mediated transcription of survivin, resulting in caspase activation and apoptosis. PDE10 mRNA was also found to be elevated in colon tumors compared with normal tissues. These findings suggest that PDE10 can be targeted for cancer therapy or prevention whereby inhibition results in cGMP elevation and PKG activation to reduce β-catenin-mediated transcription of survival proteins leading to the selective apoptosis of cancer cells.

  13. Herpes simplex virus 2 modulates apoptosis and stimulates NF-{kappa}B nuclear translocation during infection in human epithelial HEp-2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yedowitz, Jamie C.; Blaho, John A. . E-mail: john.blaho@mssm.edu

    2005-11-25

    Virus-mediated apoptosis is well documented in various systems, including herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). HSV-2 is closely related to HSV-1 but its apoptotic potential during infection has not been extensively scrutinized. We report that (i) HEp-2 cells infected with HSV-2(G) triggered apoptosis, assessed by apoptotic cellular morphologies, oligosomal DNA laddering, chromatin condensation, and death factor processing when a translational inhibitor (CHX) was added at 3 hpi. Thus, HSV-2 induced apoptosis but was unable to prevent the process from killing cells. (ii) Results from a time course of CHX addition experiment indicated that infected cell protein produced between 3 and 5 hpi, termed the apoptosis prevention window, are required for blocking virus-induced apoptosis. This corresponds to the same prevention time frame as reported for HSV-1. (iii) Importantly, CHX addition prior to 3 hpi led to less apoptosis than that at 3 hpi. This suggests that proteins produced immediately upon infection are needed for efficient apoptosis induction by HSV-2. This finding is different from that observed previously with HSV-1. (iv) Infected cell factors produced during the HSV-2(G) prevention window inhibited apoptosis induced by external TNF{alpha} plus cycloheximide treatment. (v) NF-{kappa}B translocated to nuclei and its presence in nuclei correlated with apoptosis prevention during HSV-2(G) infection. (vi) Finally, clinical HSV-2 isolates induced and prevented apoptosis in HEp-2 cells in a manner similar to that of laboratory strains. Thus, while laboratory and clinical HSV-2 strains are capable of modulating apoptosis in human HEp-2 cells, the mechanism of HSV-2 induction of apoptosis differs from that of HSV-1.

  14. Nuclear translocation of the 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS (membrane associated rapid response to steroids) receptor protein and NF{kappa}B in differentiating NB4 leukemia cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Wenqing; Beilhartz, Greg; Roy, Yvette; Richard, Cynthia L.; Curtin, Maureen; Brown, Lauren; Cadieux, Danielle; Coppolino, Marc; Farach-Carson, Mary C.; Nemere, Ilka; Meckling, Kelly A.

    2010-04-15

    1,25 Dihydroxyvitamin D{sub 3} (1,25D{sub 3}) primes NB4 promyelocytic leukemia cells to differentiate along the monocyte/macrophage lineage through a non-genomic mechanism. Here we show that NB4 cells express high levels of the recently identified membrane receptor for 1,25D{sub 3}, which is a distinct gene product from the classical nuclear vitamin D receptor. This 57 kDa protein, named 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS (Membrane Activated Rapid Response to Steroids)/ERp57/PIA3 appears to associate in a complex with the transcription factor, nuclear factor kappa B (NF{kappa}B). In unstimulated cells, 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS can be co-immunoprecipitated with antibodies directed at NF{kappa}B, and NF{kappa}B is co-precipitated when antibodies against 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS or ERp57 are used. Confocal microscopy and subcellular fractionation studies demonstrate that both 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS and NF{kappa}B begin translocating to the nucleus within minutes of co-stimulation with 1,25D{sub 3} and phorbol ester. The predominant nuclear localization of both proteins precedes the expression of the monocyte/macrophage phenotype and suggests that this event may be critical to the differentiation pathway. This suggests a role for 1,25D{sub 3}-MARRS in the nucleus as a regulator of gene expression. Here it may also regulate the activity of NF{kappa}B and other factors with which it may be interacting.

  15. A novel CXCR3-B chemokine receptor-induced growth-inhibitory signal in cancer cells is mediated through the regulation of Bach-1 protein and Nrf2 protein nuclear translocation.

    PubMed

    Balan, Murugabaskar; Pal, Soumitro

    2014-02-07

    Chemokines and their receptors play diverse roles in regulating cancer growth and progression. The receptor CXCR3 can have two splice variants with opposite functions. CXCR3-A promotes cell growth, whereas CXCR3-B mediates growth-inhibitory signals. However, the negative signals through CXCR3-B in cancer cells are not well characterized. In this study, we found that CXCR3-B-mediated signaling in MCF-7 and T47D breast cancer cells induced apoptotic cell death. Signals through CXCR3-B decreased the levels of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and increased the expression of apoptotic cleaved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Along with up-regulation in apoptosis, CXCR3-B signals were associated with a decrease in cellular autophagy with reduced levels of the autophagic markers Beclin-1 and LC3B. Notably, CXCR3-B down-regulated the expression of the cytoprotective and antiapoptotic molecule heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) at the transcriptional level. There was an increased nuclear localization of Bach-1 and nuclear export of Nrf2, which are important negative and positive transcription factors, respectively, for HO-1 expression. We also observed that CXCR3-B promoted the activation of p38 MAPK and the inhibition of ERK-1/2. CXCR3-B could not induce cancer cell apoptosis at the optimal level when we either inhibited p38 activity or knocked down Bach-1. Further, CXCR3-B-induced apoptosis was down-regulated when we overexpressed HO-1. Together, our data suggest that CXCR3-B mediates a growth-inhibitory signal in breast cancer cells through the modulations of nuclear translocation of Bach-1 and Nrf2 and down-regulation of HO-1. We suggest that the induction of CXCR3-B-mediated signaling can serve as a novel therapeutic approach where the goal is to promote tumor cell apoptosis.

  16. Multiscale perspectives of virus entry via endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Barrow, Eric; Nicola, Anthony V; Liu, Jin

    2013-06-05

    Most viruses take advantage of endocytic pathways to gain entry into host cells and initiate infections. Understanding of virus entry via endocytosis is critically important for the design of antiviral strategies. Virus entry via endocytosis is a complex process involving hundreds of cellular proteins. The entire process is dictated by events occurring at multiple time and length scales. In this review, we discuss and evaluate the available means to investigate virus endocytic entry, from both experimental and theoretical/numerical modeling fronts, and highlight the importance of multiscale features. The complexity of the process requires investigations at a systems biology level, which involves the combination of different experimental approaches, the collaboration of experimentalists and theorists across different disciplines, and the development of novel multiscale models.

  17. Actin-Regulator Feedback Interactions during Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xinxin; Galletta, Brian J.; Cooper, John A.; Carlsson, Anders E.

    2016-01-01

    Endocytosis mediated by clathrin, a cellular process by which cells internalize membrane receptors and their extracellular ligands, is an important component of cell signaling regulation. Actin polymerization is involved in endocytosis in varying degrees depending on the cellular context. In yeast, clathrin-mediated endocytosis requires a pulse of polymerized actin and its regulators, which recruit and activate the Arp2/3 complex. In this article, we seek to identify the main protein-protein interactions that 1) cause actin and its regulators to appear in pulses, and 2) determine the effects of key mutations and drug treatments on actin and regulator assembly. We perform a joint modeling/experimental study of actin and regulator dynamics during endocytosis in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We treat both a stochastic model that grows an explicit three-dimensional actin network, and a simpler two-variable Fitzhugh-Nagumo type model. The models include a negative-feedback interaction of F-actin onto the Arp2/3 regulators. Both models explain the pulse time courses and the effects of interventions on actin polymerization: the surprising increase in the peak F-actin count caused by reduced regulator branching activity, the increase in F-actin resulting from slowing of actin disassembly, and the increased Arp2/3 regulator lifetime resulting from latrunculin treatment. In addition, they predict that decreases in the regulator branching activity lead to increases in accumulation of regulators, and we confirmed this prediction with experiments on yeast harboring mutations in the Arp2/3 regulators, using quantitative fluorescence microscopy. Our experimental measurements suggest that the regulators act quasi-independently, in the sense that accumulation of a particular regulator is most strongly affected by mutations of that regulator, as opposed to the others. PMID:27028652

  18. Actin and Endocytosis in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Goode, Bruce L.; Eskin, Julian A.; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis, the process whereby the plasma membrane invaginates to form vesicles, is essential for bringing many substances into the cell and for membrane turnover. The mechanism driving clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) involves > 50 different protein components assembling at a single location on the plasma membrane in a temporally ordered and hierarchal pathway. These proteins perform precisely choreographed steps that promote receptor recognition and clustering, membrane remodeling, and force-generating actin-filament assembly and turnover to drive membrane invagination and vesicle scission. Many critical aspects of the CME mechanism are conserved from yeast to mammals and were first elucidated in yeast, demonstrating that it is a powerful system for studying endocytosis. In this review, we describe our current mechanistic understanding of each step in the process of yeast CME, and the essential roles played by actin polymerization at these sites, while providing a historical perspective of how the landscape has changed since the preceding version of the YeastBook was published 17 years ago (1997). Finally, we discuss the key unresolved issues and where future studies might be headed. PMID:25657349

  19. Exocytosis and endocytosis: modes, functions, and coupling mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling-Gang; Hamid, Edaeni; Shin, Wonchul; Chiang, Hsueh-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Vesicle exocytosis releases content to mediate many biological events, including synaptic transmission essential for brain functions. Following exocytosis, endocytosis is initiated to retrieve exocytosed vesicles within seconds to minutes. Decades of studies in secretory cells reveal three exocytosis modes coupled to three endocytosis modes: (a) full-collapse fusion, in which vesicles collapse into the plasma membrane, followed by classical endocytosis involving membrane invagination and vesicle reformation; (b) kiss-and-run, in which the fusion pore opens and closes; and (c) compound exocytosis, which involves exocytosis of giant vesicles formed via vesicle-vesicle fusion, followed by bulk endocytosis that retrieves giant vesicles. Here we review these exo- and endocytosis modes and their roles in regulating quantal size and synaptic strength, generating synaptic plasticity, maintaining exocytosis, and clearing release sites for vesicle replenishment. Furthermore, we highlight recent progress in understanding how vesicle endocytosis is initiated and is thus coupled to exocytosis. The emerging model is that calcium influx via voltage-dependent calcium channels at the calcium microdomain triggers endocytosis and controls endocytosis rate; calmodulin and synaptotagmin are the calcium sensors; and the exocytosis machinery, including SNARE proteins (synaptobrevin, SNAP25, and syntaxin), is needed to coinitiate endocytosis, likely to control the amount of endocytosis.

  20. Topical androgen antagonism promotes cutaneous wound healing without systemic androgen deprivation by blocking β-catenin nuclear translocation and cross-talk with TGF-β signaling in keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Toraldo, Gianluca; Bhasin, Shalender; Bakhit, Mena; Guo, Wen; Serra, Carlo; Safer, Joshua D; Bhawan, Jag; Jasuja, Ravi

    2012-01-01

    Orchidectomy in rodents and lower testosterone levels in men are associated with improved cutaneous wound healing. However, due to the adverse effects on skeletal and sexual tissues, systemic androgen blockade is not a viable therapeutic intervention. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that topical application of an androgen antagonist would elicit accelerated wound healing without systemic androgen antagonism. Full-thickness cutaneous wounds were created on adult C57BL6/J mice. Daily topical application of androgen receptor antagonist, flutamide, resulted in improved gap closure similar to orchiectomized controls and faster than orchidectomized mice treated with topical testosterone. In vivo data showed that the effects of androgen antagonism on wound closure primarily accelerate keratinocytes migration without effecting wound contraction. Consequently, mechanisms of testosterone action on reepithelialization were investigated in vitro by scratch wounding assays in confluent keratinocytes. Testosterone inhibited keratinocyte migration and this effect was in part mediated through promotion of nuclear translocation of β-catenin and by attenuating transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) signaling through β-catenin. The link between Wnt and TGF beta signaling was confirmed by blocking β-catenin and by following TGF-β-induced transcription of a luciferase reporter gene. Together, these data show that blockade of β-catenin can, as a potential target for novel therapeutic interventions, accelerate cutaneous wound healing.

  1. Translocation (Y;12) in lipoma.

    PubMed

    Liang, Cher-Wei; Mariño-Enríquez, Adrian; Johannessen, Catherine; Hornick, Jason L; Dal Cin, Paola

    2011-01-01

    Lipomas are the most common benign mesenchymal neoplasm in adults, and have been extensively characterized at the cytogenetic level. Chromosomal aberrations have been observed in the majority of lipomas, two-thirds of which involve chromosomal region 12q14.3. To date, structural rearrangements have been reported affecting every chromosome except chromosome Y. Here we report a case of a lipoma that shows a novel apparently balanced translocation involving chromosomes Y and 12. Fluorescence in situ hybridization using a break-apart HMGA2 in-house probe set detected a single signal on the normal chromosome 12 but not on either the derivative chromosome Y or 12, indicating a cryptic loss of 12q14.3, where HMGA2 is mapped. Immunohistochemical studies, however, revealed overexpression of HMGA2 with nuclear expression in the majority of tumor cells, whereas MDM2 and CDK4 were negative. The overexpression of HMGA2 may be caused by a cryptic chromosomal aberration affecting either the cytogenetically unaltered HMGA2 allele or HMGA2 regulators elsewhere. The current case broadens our knowledge about the translocation partners of HMGA2 in lipomas and highlights the biological complexity in regulating HMGA2 expression.

  2. Age-Related Nuclear Translocation of P2X6 Subunit Modifies Splicing Activity Interacting with Splicing Factor 3A1

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Hernández, Juan Ignacio; Sebastián-Serrano, Álvaro; Gómez-Villafuertes, Rosa

    2015-01-01

    P2X receptors are ligand-gated ion channels sensitive to extracellular nucleotides formed by the assembling of three equal or different P2X subunits. In this work we report, for the first time, the accumulation of the P2X6 subunit inside the nucleus of hippocampal neurons in an age-dependent way. This location is favored by its anchorage to endoplasmic reticulum through its N-terminal domain. The extracellular domain of P2X6 subunit is the key to reach the nucleus, where it presents a speckled distribution pattern and is retained by interaction with the nuclear envelope protein spectrin α2. The in vivo results showed that, once inside the nucleus, P2X6 subunit interacts with the splicing factor 3A1, which ultimately results in a reduction of the mRNA splicing activity. Our data provide new insights into post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA splicing, describing a novel mechanism that could explain why this process is sensitive to changes that occur with age. PMID:25874565

  3. Translocated effectors of Yersinia

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Young, Glenn M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Currently, all known translocated effectors of Yersinia are delivered into host cells by type III secretion systems (T3SSs). Pathogenic Yersinia maintain the plasmid-encoded Ysc T3SS for the specific delivery of the well-studied Yop effectors. New horizons for effector biology have opened with the discovery of the Ysps of Y. enterocolitica Biovar 1B, which are translocated into host cells by the chromosome-endoded Ysa T3SS. The reported arsenal of effectors is likely to expand since genomic analysis has revealed gene-clusters in some Yersinia that code for other T3SSs. These efforts also revealed possible type VI secretion (T6S) systems, which may indicate translocation of effectors occurs by multiple mechanisms. PMID:19185531

  4. Bromelain inhibits nuclear factor kappa-B translocation, driving human epidermoid carcinoma A431 and melanoma A375 cells through G(2)/M arrest to apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bhui, Kulpreet; Tyagi, Shilpa; Srivastava, Amit Kumar; Singh, Madhulika; Roy, Preeti; Singh, Richa; Shukla, Yogeshwer

    2012-03-01

    Bromelain, obtained from pineapple, is already in use clinically as adjunct in chemotherapy. Our objective was to test its ability to act as a sole anti-cancer agent. Therefore, we describe its anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory and subsequent anti-cancer effects in vitro, against human epidermoid carcinoma-A431 and melanoma-A375 cells. Bromelain exhibited reduction in proliferation of both these cell-lines and suppressed their potential for anchorage-independent growth. Further, suppression of inflammatory signaling by bromelain was evident by inhibition of Akt regulated-nuclear factor-kappaB activation via suppression of inhibitory-kappaBα phosphorylation and concomitant reduction in cyclooxygenase-2. Since, the inflammatory cascade is well-known to be closely allied to cancer; we studied the effect of bromelain on events/molecules central to it. Bromelain caused depletion of intracellular glutathione and generation of reactive oxygen-species followed by mitochondrial membrane depolarization. This led to bromelain-induced cell-cycle arrest at G(2)/M phase which was mediated by modulation of cyclin B1, phospho-cdc25C, Plk1, phospho-cdc2, and myt1. This was subsequently followed by induction of apoptosis, indicated by membrane-blebbing, modulation of Bax-Bcl-2 ratio, Apaf-1, caspase-9, and caspase-3; chromatin-condensation, increase in caspase-activity and DNA-fragmentation. Bromelain afforded substantial anti-cancer potential in these settings; hence we suggest it as a potential prospect for anti-cancer agent besides only an additive in chemotherapy.

  5. Muscarinic regulation of SCA-9 cell proliferation via nitric oxide synthases, arginases and cyclooxygenases. Role of the nuclear translocation factor-κB.

    PubMed

    Español, Alejandro; Dasso, Maximiliano; Cella, Maximiliano; Goren, Nora; Sales, María Elena

    2012-05-15

    The submandibular gland-derived tumor cell line SCA-9 is considered a useful tool to study the signaling pathways involved in proliferation, and their regulation, triggered by different stimuli. It is proposed that the non neuronal cholinergic system: acethylcholine, the enzymes that synthesize and degrade it, and the nicotinic and muscarinic receptors, play a key role in tumorigenesis. Here, we investigate the role of muscarinic receptors in SCA-9 cell proliferation, and the modulation of cholinergic signaling pathways exerted by the nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB). The activation of cholinergic receptors by carbachol (10⁻⁹M) increased cell proliferation (P<0.001). This was prevented by preincubating cells with the muscarinic antagonist atropine but not by mecamylamine, a nicotinic receptor blocker. Phospholipase C (PLC)/nitric oxide synthase (NOS)/arginase pathway is involved in this effect, since carbachol stimulated nitric oxide production, increased NOS2 and NOS3 expressions, urea production, and arginase II expression (P<0.001). Also, phospholipase A₂ (PLA₂)/cyclooxygenase (COX) pathway is up-regulated in carbachol-induced SCA-9 cell proliferation, because prostaglandin E₂ liberation (P<0.001) is increased and COX-1 expression is turned up (P<0.001). Interactions between PLC/NOS/arginases and PLA₂/COX pathways via its metabolites were detected. SCA-9 cells exhibit a constitutive activation of NF-κB, which regulates carbachol-induced NOS2 and 3, arginase II and COX-1 expressions. In addition, protein kinase C is involved in the up-regulation of NOS2 and arginase II enzymes induced by carbachol via NF-κB. In conclusion, the activation of cholinergic receptors in SCA-9 tumor cells promotes proliferation via muscarinic effector enzymes, and reveals the participation of NF-κB at this step of tumorigenesis.

  6. Cell mobility after endocytosis of carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirbhai, Massooma; Flores, Thomas; Jedlicka, Sabrina; Rotkin, Slava

    2013-03-01

    Directed cell movement plays a crucial role in cellular behaviors such as neuronal cell division, cell migration, and cell differentiation. There is evidence in preclinical in vivo studies that small fields have successfully been used to enhance regrowth of damages spinal cord axons but with a small success rate. Fortunately, the evolution of functional biomaterials and nanotechnology may provide promising solutions for enhancing the application of electric fields in guiding neuron migration and neurogenesis within the central nervous system. In this work, we studied how endocytosis and subsequent retention of carbon nanotubes affects the mobility of cells under the influence of an electric field, including the directed cell movement.

  7. Simulations of Polymer Translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocks, H.

    2008-07-01

    Transport of molecules across membranes is an essential mechanism for life processes. These molecules are often long, and the pores in the membranes are too narrow for the molecules to pass through as a single unit. In such circumstances, the molecules have to squeeze -- i.e., translocate -- themselves through the pores. DNA, RNA and proteins are such naturally occuring long molecules in a variety of biological processes. Understandably, the process of translocation has been an active topic of current research: not only because it is a cornerstone of many biological processes, but also due to its relevance for practical applications. Translocation is a complicated process in living organisms -- the presence of chaperone molecules, pH, chemical potential gradients, and assisting molecular motors strongly influence its dynamics. Consequently, the translocation process has been empirically studied in great variety in biological literature. Study of translocation as a biophysical process is more recent. Herein, the polymer is simplified to a sequentially connected string of N monomers as it passes through a narrow pore on a membrane. The quantities of interest are the typical time scale for the polymer to leave a confining cell (the ``escape of a polymer from a vesicle'' time scale), and the typical time scale the polymer spends in the pore (the ``dwell'' time scale) as a function of N and other parameters like membrane thickness, membrane adsorption, electrochemical potential gradient, etc. Our research is focused on computer simulations of translocation. Since our main interest is in the scaling properties, we use a highly simplified description of the translocation process. The polymer is described as a self-avoiding walk on a lattice, and its dynamics consists of single-monomer jumps from one lattice site to another neighboring one. Since we have a very efficient program to simulate such polymer dynamics, which we decribe in Chapter 2, we can perform long

  8. Problem-Elephant Translocation: Translocating the Problem and the Elephant?

    PubMed Central

    Fernando, Prithiviraj; Leimgruber, Peter; Prasad, Tharaka; Pastorini, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Human-elephant conflict (HEC) threatens the survival of endangered Asian elephants (Elephas maximus). Translocating “problem-elephants” is an important HEC mitigation and elephant conservation strategy across elephant range, with hundreds translocated annually. In the first comprehensive assessment of elephant translocation, we monitored 16 translocations in Sri Lanka with GPS collars. All translocated elephants were released into national parks. Two were killed within the parks where they were released, while all the others left those parks. Translocated elephants showed variable responses: “homers” returned to the capture site, “wanderers” ranged widely, and “settlers” established home ranges in new areas soon after release. Translocation caused wider propagation and intensification of HEC, and increased elephant mortality. We conclude that translocation defeats both HEC mitigation and elephant conservation goals. PMID:23236404

  9. Kinetics of virus entry by endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhdanov, Vladimir P.

    2015-04-01

    Entry of virions into the host cells is either endocytotic or fusogenic. In both cases, it occurs via reversible formation of numerous relatively weak bonds resulting in wrapping of a virion by the host membrane with subsequent membrane rupture or scission. The corresponding kinetic models are customarily focused on the formation of bonds and do not pay attention to the energetics of the whole process, which is crucially dependent, especially in the case of endocytosis, on deformation of actin filaments forming the cytoskeleton of the host cell. The kinetic model of endocytosis, proposed by the author, takes this factor into account and shows that the whole process can be divided into a rapid initial transient stage and a long steady-state stage. The entry occurs during the latter stage and can be described as a first-order reaction. Depending on the details of the dependence of the grand canonical potential on the number of bonds, the entry can be limited either by the interplay of bond formation and membrane rupture (or scission) or by reaching a maximum of this potential.

  10. Shape transitions during clathrin-induced endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Gaurav; Sain, Anirban

    2016-12-01

    Endocytosis is among the most common transport mechanisms which cells employ to receive macromolecules, the so-called cargo, from its extra cellular environment. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME), in particular, involves the cytoplasmic protein clathrin which induces formation and internalization of clathrin-coated membrane buds that contain extra-cellular cargo. Decades of experimental work have established that the morphology of the clathrin coat evolves with time and induces its curvature on the membrane bud; but energetics of the process remain unclear. Recent experiments by Avinoam et al. [Science 348, 1369 (2015), 10.1126/science.aaa9555] reported that the area of the clathrin coat remains fixed while its curvature increases with time and also the clathrin molecules in the coat turn over rapidly. We show that these observations challenge existing models of coated membrane bud formation. We analyze their data to bring out certain features consistent with the underlying lattice structure of the coat. We hypothesize that membrane curvature inhibits clathrin deposition and propose a kinetic model that explains the area distribution of clathrin coats. We also show that their data on shape evolution of the coated membrane bud can be approximately understood from simple geometric considerations. However, the energetics of the coat formation which controls the kinetics of the process remains a puzzle.

  11. Yeast Exocytic v-SNAREs Confer Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Gurunathan, Sangiliyandi; Chapman-Shimshoni, Daphne; Trajkovic, Selena; Gerst, Jeffrey E.

    2000-01-01

    In yeast, homologues of the synaptobrevin/VAMP family of v-SNAREs (Snc1 and Snc2) confer the docking and fusion of secretory vesicles at the cell surface. As no v-SNARE has been shown to confer endocytosis, we examined whether yeast lacking the SNC genes, or possessing a temperature-sensitive allele of SNC1 (SNC1ala43), are deficient in the endocytic uptake of components from the cell surface. We found that both SNC and temperature-shifted SNC1ala43 yeast are deficient in their ability to deliver the soluble dye FM4–64 to the vacuole. Under conditions in which vesicles accumulate, FM4–64 stained primarily the cytoplasm as well as fragmented vacuoles. In addition, α-factor–stimulated endocytosis of the α-factor receptor, Ste2, was fully blocked, as evidenced using a Ste2-green fluorescent protein fusion protein as well as metabolic labeling studies. This suggests a direct role for Snc v-SNAREs in the retrieval of membrane proteins from the cell surface. Moreover, this idea is supported by genetic and physical data that demonstrate functional interactions with t-SNAREs that confer endosomal transport (e.g., Tlg1,2). Notably, Snc1ala43 was found to be nonfunctional in cells lacking Tlg1 or Tlg2. Thus, we propose that synaptobrevin/VAMP family members are engaged in anterograde and retrograde protein sorting steps between the Golgi and the plasma membrane. PMID:11029060

  12. Endocytosis of Integrin-Binding Human Picornaviruses

    PubMed Central

    Merilahti, Pirjo; Koskinen, Satu; Heikkilä, Outi; Karelehto, Eveliina; Susi, Petri

    2012-01-01

    Picornaviruses that infect humans form one of the largest virus groups with almost three hundred virus types. They include significant enteroviral pathogens such as rhino-, polio-, echo-, and coxsackieviruses and human parechoviruses that cause wide range of disease symptoms. Despite the economic importance of picornaviruses, there are no antivirals. More than ten cellular receptors are known to participate in picornavirus infection, but experimental evidence of their role in cellular infection has been shown for only about twenty picornavirus types. Three enterovirus types and one parechovirus have experimentally been shown to bind and use integrin receptors in cellular infection. These include coxsackievirus A9 (CV-A9), echovirus 9, and human parechovirus 1 that are among the most common and epidemic human picornaviruses and bind to αV-integrins via RGD motif that resides on virus capsid. In contrast, echovirus 1 (E-1) has no RGD and uses integrin α2β1 as cellular receptor. Endocytosis of CV-A9 has recently been shown to occur via a novel Arf6- and dynamin-dependent pathways, while, contrary to collagen binding, E-1 binds inactive β1 integrin and enters via macropinocytosis. In this paper, we review what is known about receptors and endocytosis of integrin-binding human picornaviruses. PMID:23227048

  13. Oncogene Translocations and NHL

    Cancer.gov

    A colloboration with several large population-based cohorts to determine whether the prevalence or level of t14;18 is associated with risk of NHL and to investigate the clonal relationship between translocation-bearing cells and subsequent tumors

  14. Synaptotagmin-11 inhibits clathrin-mediated and bulk endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhe; Wang, Yeshi; Hu, Meiqin; Chai, Zuying; Wu, Qihui; Huang, Rong; Han, Weiping; Zhang, Claire Xi; Zhou, Zhuan

    2016-01-01

    Precise and efficient endocytosis is essential for vesicle recycling during a sustained neurotransmission. The regulation of endocytosis has been extensively studied, but inhibitors have rarely been found. Here, we show that synaptotagmin-11 (Syt11), a non-Ca(2+)-binding Syt implicated in schizophrenia and Parkinson's disease, inhibits clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) and bulk endocytosis in dorsal root ganglion neurons. The frequency of both types of endocytic event increases in Syt11 knockdown neurons, while the sizes of endocytosed vesicles and the kinetics of individual bulk endocytotic events remain unaffected. Specifically, clathrin-coated pits and bulk endocytosis-like structures increase on the plasma membrane in Syt11-knockdown neurons. Structural-functional analysis reveals distinct domain requirements for Syt11 function in CME and bulk endocytosis. Importantly, Syt11 also inhibits endocytosis in hippocampal neurons, implying a general role of Syt11 in neurons. Taken together, we propose that Syt11 functions to ensure precision in vesicle retrieval, mainly by limiting the sites of membrane invagination at the early stage of endocytosis.

  15. Polarised clathrin-mediated endocytosis of EGFR during chemotactic invasion.

    PubMed

    Mutch, Laura Jane; Howden, Jake Davey; Jenner, Emma Poppy Louise; Poulter, Natalie Sarah; Rappoport, Joshua Zachary

    2014-06-01

    Directed cell migration is critical for numerous physiological processes including development and wound healing. However chemotaxis is also exploited during cancer progression. Recent reports have suggested links between vesicle trafficking pathways and directed cell migration. Very little is known about the potential roles of endocytosis pathways during metastasis. Therefore we performed a series of studies employing a previously characterised model for chemotactic invasion of cancer cells to assess specific hypotheses potentially linking endocytosis to directed cell migration. Our results demonstrate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is indispensable for epidermal growth factor (EGF) directed chemotactic invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Conversely, caveolar endocytosis is not required in this mode of migration. We further found that chemoattractant receptor (EGFR) trafficking occurs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is polarised towards the front of migrating cells. However, we found no role for clathrin-mediated endocytosis in focal adhesion disassembly in this migration model. Thus, this study has characterised the role of endocytosis during chemotactic invasion and has identified functions mechanistically linking clathrin-mediated endocytosis to directed cell motility.

  16. Polarised Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis of EGFR During Chemotactic Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Mutch, Laura Jane; Howden, Jake Davey; Jenner, Emma Poppy Louise; Poulter, Natalie Sarah; Rappoport, Joshua Zachary

    2014-01-01

    Directed cell migration is critical for numerous physiological processes including development and wound healing. However chemotaxis is also exploited during cancer progression. Recent reports have suggested links between vesicle trafficking pathways and directed cell migration. Very little is known about the potential roles of endocytosis pathways during metastasis. Therefore we performed a series of studies employing a previously characterised model for chemotactic invasion of cancer cells to assess specific hypotheses potentially linking endocytosis to directed cell migration. Our results demonstrate that clathrin-mediated endocytosis is indispensable for epidermal growth factor (EGF) directed chemotactic invasion of MDA-MB-231 cells. Conversely, caveolar endocytosis is not required in this mode of migration. We further found that chemoattractant receptor (EGFR) trafficking occurs by clathrin-mediated endocytosis and is polarised towards the front of migrating cells. However, we found no role for clathrin-mediated endocytosis in focal adhesion disassembly in this migration model. Thus, this study has characterised the role of endocytosis during chemotactic invasion and has identified functions mechanistically linking clathrin-mediated endocytosis to directed cell motility. PMID:24921075

  17. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is inhibited during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Fielding, Andrew B; Willox, Anna K; Okeke, Emmanuel; Royle, Stephen J

    2012-04-24

    A long-standing paradigm in cell biology is the shutdown of endocytosis during mitosis. There is consensus that transferrin uptake is inhibited after entry into prophase and that it resumes in telophase. A recent study proposed that endocytosis is continuous throughout the cell cycle and that the observed inhibition of transferrin uptake is due to a decrease in available transferrin receptor at the cell surface, and not to a shutdown of endocytosis. This challenge to the established view is gradually becoming accepted. Because of this controversy, we revisited the question of endocytic activity during mitosis. Using an antibody uptake assay and controlling for potential changes in surface receptor density, we demonstrate the strong inhibition of endocytosis in mitosis of CD8 chimeras containing any of the three major internalization motifs for clathrin-mediated endocytosis (YXXΦ, [DE]XXXL[LI], or FXNPXY) or a CD8 protein with the cytoplasmic tail of the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor. The shutdown is not gradual: We describe a binary switch from endocytosis being "on" in interphase to "off" in mitosis as cells traverse the G(2)/M checkpoint. In addition, we show that the inhibition of transferrin uptake in mitosis occurs despite abundant transferrin receptor at the surface of HeLa cells. Our study finds no support for the recent idea that endocytosis continues during mitosis, and we conclude that endocytosis is temporarily shutdown during early mitosis.

  18. Endocytosis-like protein uptake in the bacterium Gemmata obscuriglobus

    PubMed Central

    Lonhienne, Thierry G. A.; Sagulenko, Evgeny; Webb, Richard I.; Lee, Kuo-Chang; Franke, Josef; Devos, Damien P.; Nouwens, Amanda; Carroll, Bernard J.; Fuerst, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Endocytosis is a process by which extracellular material such as macromolecules can be incorporated into cells via a membrane-trafficking system. Although universal among eukaryotes, endocytosis has not been identified in Bacteria or Archaea. However, intracellular membranes are known to compartmentalize cells of bacteria in the phylum Planctomycetes, suggesting the potential for endocytosis and membrane trafficking in members of this phylum. Here we show that cells of the planctomycete Gemmata obscuriglobus have the ability to uptake proteins present in the external milieu in an energy-dependent process analogous to eukaryotic endocytosis, and that internalized proteins are associated with vesicle membranes. Occurrence of such ability in a bacterium is consistent with autogenous evolution of endocytosis and the endomembrane system in an ancestral noneukaryote cell. PMID:20566852

  19. Chronic insulin effects on insulin signalling and GLUT4 endocytosis are reversed by metformin.

    PubMed Central

    Pryor, P R; Liu, S C; Clark, A E; Yang, J; Holman, G D; Tosh, D

    2000-01-01

    Decreases in insulin-responsive glucose transport and associated levels of cell surface GLUT4 occur in rat adipocytes maintained in culture for 20 h under hyperinsulinaemic and hyperglycaemic conditions. We have investigated whether this defect is due to reduced signalling from the insulin receptor, GLUT4 expression or impaired GLUT4 trafficking. The effects of chronic insulin treatment on glucose transport and GLUT4 trafficking were ameliorated by inclusion of metformin in the culture medium. In comparison with the ic insulin treatment attenuated changes in signalling processes leading to glucose transport. These included insulin receptor tyrosine phosphorylation, phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity and Akt activity, which were all reduced by 60-70%. Inclusion of metformin in the culture medium prevented the effects of the chronic insulin treatment on these signalling processes. In comparison with cells maintained in culture without insulin, the total expression of GLUT4 protein was not significantly altered by chronic insulin treatment, although the level of GLUT1 expression was increased. Trafficking rate constants for wortmannin-induced cell-surface loss of GLUT4 and GLUT1 were assessed by 2-N-4-(1-azi-2, 2,2-trifluoroethyl)benzoyl-1,3-bis(D-mannose-4-yloxy)-2-propyla min e (ATB-BMPA) photolabelling. In comparison with cells acutely treated with insulin, chronic insulin treatment resulted in a doubling of the rate constants for GLUT4 endocytosis. These results suggest that the GLUT4 endocytosis process is very sensitive to the perturbations in signalling that occur under hyperinsulinaemic and hyperglycaemic conditions, and that the resulting elevation of endocytosis accounts for the reduced levels of net GLUT4 translocation observed. PMID:10794717

  20. Dose- and time-dependent expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT) in PCB-, B[a]P-, and TBT-exposed intertidal copepod Tigriopus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bo-Mi; Rhee, Jae-Sung; Hwang, Un-Ki; Seo, Jung Soo; Shin, Kyung-Hoon; Lee, Jae-Seong

    2015-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and aryl hydrocarbon nuclear translocator (ARNT) genes from the copepod Tigriopus japonicus (Tj) were cloned to examine their potential functions in the invertebrate putative AhR-CYP signaling pathway. The amino acid sequences encoded by the Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT genes showed high similarity to homologs of Daphnia and Drosophila, ranging from 68% and 70% similarity for the AhR genes to 56% for the ARNT genes. To determine whether Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT are modulated by environmental pollutants, transcriptional expression of Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT was analyzed in response to exposure to five concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB 126) (control, 10, 50, 100, 500 μg L(-1)), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) (control, 5, 10, 50, 100 μg L(-1)), and tributyltin (TBT) (control, 1, 5, 10, 20 μg L(-1)) 24h after exposure. A time-course experiment (0, 3, 6, 12, 24h) was performed to analyze mRNA expression patterns after exposure to PCB, B[a]P, and TBT. T. japonicus exhibited dose-dependent and time-dependent upregulation of Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT in response to pollutant exposure, and the degree of expression was dependent on the pollutant, suggesting that pollutants such as PCB, B[a]P, and TBT modulate expression of Tj-AhR and Tj-ARNT genes in the putative AhR-CYP signaling pathway.

  1. Rafting with cholera toxin: endocytosis and trafficking from plasma membrane to ER.

    PubMed

    Chinnapen, Daniel J-F; Chinnapen, Himani; Saslowsky, David; Lencer, Wayne I

    2007-01-01

    Cholera toxin (CT), and members of the AB(5) family of toxins enter host cells and hijack the cell's endogenous pathways to induce toxicity. CT binds to a lipid receptor on the plasma membrane (PM), ganglioside GM1, which has the ability to associate with lipid rafts. The toxin can then enter the cell by various modes of receptor-mediated endocytosis and traffic in a retrograde manner from the PM to the Golgi and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Once in the ER, a portion of the toxin is unfolded and retro-translocated to the cytosol so as to induce disease. GM1 is the vehicle that carries CT from PM to ER. Thus, the toxin pathway from PM to ER is a lipid-based sorting pathway, which is potentially meditated by the determinants of the GM1 ganglioside structure itself.

  2. Cortical granule translocation is microfilament mediated and linked to meiotic maturation in the sea urchin oocyte.

    PubMed

    Wessel, Gary M; Conner, Sean D; Berg, Linnea

    2002-09-01

    Cortical granules exocytose after the fusion of egg and sperm in most animals, and their contents function in the block to polyspermy by creating an impenetrable extracellular matrix. Cortical granules are synthesized throughout oogenesis and translocate en masse to the cell surface during meiosis where they remain until fertilization. As the mature oocyte is approximately 125 micro m in diameter (Lytechinus variegatus), many of the cortical granules translocate upwards of 60 micro m to reach the cortex within a 4 hour time window. We have investigated the mechanism of this coordinated vesicular translocation event. Although the stimulus to reinitiate meiosis in sea urchin oocytes is not known, we found many different ways to reversibly inhibit germinal vesicle breakdown, and used these findings to discover that meiotic maturation and cortical granule translocation are inseparable. We also learned that cortical granule translocation requires association with microfilaments but not microtubules. It is clear from endocytosis assays that microfilament motors are functional prior to meiosis, even though cortical granules do not use them. However, just after GVBD, cortical granules attach to microfilaments and translocate to the cell surface. This latter conclusion is based on organelle stratification within the oocyte followed by positional quantitation of the cortical granules. We conclude from these studies that maturation promoting factor (MPF) activation stimulates vesicle association with microfilaments, and is a key regulatory step in the coordinated translocation of cortical granules to the egg cortex.

  3. Direct proof of spontaneous translocation of lipid-covered hydrophobic nanoparticles through a phospholipid bilayer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yachong; Terazzi, Emmanuel; Seemann, Ralf; Fleury, Jean Baptiste; Baulin, Vladimir A.

    2016-01-01

    Hydrophobic nanoparticles introduced into living systems may lead to increased toxicity, can activate immune cells, or can be used as nanocarriers for drug or gene delivery. It is generally accepted that small hydrophobic nanoparticles are blocked by lipid bilayers and accumulate in the bilayer core, whereas big nanoparticles can only penetrate cells through slow energy-dependent processes, such as endocytosis, lasting minutes. In contrast to expectations, we demonstrate that lipid-covered hydrophobic nanoparticles may translocate through lipid membranes by direct penetration within milliseconds. We identified the threshold size for translocation: nanoparticles with diameters smaller than 5 nm stay trapped in the bilayer, whereas those with diameters larger than 5 nm insert into the bilayer, opening pores in the bilayer. The direct proof of this size-dependent translocation was provided by an in situ observation of a single event of a nanoparticle quitting the bilayer. This was achieved with a specially designed microfluidic device combining optical fluorescence microscopy with simultaneous electrophysiological measurements. A quantitative analysis of the kinetic pathway of a single nanoparticle translocation event demonstrated that the translocation is irreversible and that the nanoparticle can translocate only once. This newly discovered one-way translocation mechanism provides numerous opportunities for biotechnological applications, ranging from targeted biomaterial elimination and/or delivery to precise and controlled trapping of nanoparticles. PMID:27847863

  4. Systematic analysis of endocytosis by cellular perturbations.

    PubMed

    Kühling, Lena; Schelhaas, Mario

    2014-01-01

    Endocytosis is an essential process of eukaryotic cells that facilitates numerous cellular and organismal functions. The formation of vesicles from the plasma membrane serves the internalization of ligands and receptors and leads to their degradation or recycling. A number of distinct mechanisms have been described over the years, several of which are only partially characterized in terms of mechanism and function. These are often referred to as novel endocytic pathways. The pathways differ in their mode of uptake and in their intracellular destination. Here, an overview of the set of cellular proteins that facilitate the different pathways is provided. Further, the approaches to distinguish between the pathways by different modes of perturbation are critically discussed, emphasizing the use of genetic tools such as dominant negative mutant proteins.

  5. Physical Principles of Nanoparticle Cellular Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Sulin; Gao, Huajian; Bao, Gang

    2015-09-22

    This review article focuses on the physiochemical mechanisms underlying nanoparticle uptake into cells. When nanoparticles are in close vicinity to a cell, the interactions between the nanoparticles and the cell membrane generate forces from different origins. This leads to the membrane wrapping of the nanoparticles followed by cellular uptake. This article discusses how the kinetics, energetics, and forces are related to these interactions and dependent on the size, shape, and stiffness of nanoparticles, the biomechanical properties of the cell membrane, as well as the local environment of the cells. The discussed fundamental principles of the physiochemical causes for nanoparticle-cell interaction may guide new studies of nanoparticle endocytosis and lead to better strategies to design nanoparticle-based approaches for biomedical applications.

  6. Multifactorial Regulation of G Protein-Coupled Receptor Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohan; Kim, Kyeong-Man

    2017-01-01

    Endocytosis is a process by which cells absorb extracellular materials via the inward budding of vesicles formed from the plasma membrane. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is a highly selective process where receptors with specific binding sites for extracellular molecules internalize via vesicles. G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the largest single family of plasma-membrane receptors with more than 1000 family members. But the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of GPCRs are believed to be highly conserved. For example, receptor phosphorylation in collaboration with β-arrestins plays major roles in desensitization and endocytosis of most GPCRs. Nevertheless, a number of subsequent studies showed that GPCR regulation, such as that by endocytosis, occurs through various pathways with a multitude of cellular components and processes. This review focused on i) functional interactions between homologous and heterologous pathways, ii) methodologies applied for determining receptor endocytosis, iii) experimental tools to determine specific endocytic routes, iv) roles of small guanosine triphosphate-binding proteins in GPCR endocytosis, and v) role of post-translational modification of the receptors in endocytosis. PMID:28035080

  7. Within-Range Translocations and Their Consequences in European Larch

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Stefanie; Liepelt, Sascha; Gerber, Sophie; Petit, Rémy J.

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to biological invasions, translocations of individuals within a species range are understudied, due to difficulties in systematically detecting them. This results in limited knowledge about the corresponding processes and uncertainties regarding the status of extant populations. European larch, a forest tree whose fragmented native distribution is restricted to the Alps and to other Central European mountains, has been massively planted for at least 300 years. Here we focus on the genetic characterization of translocations having taken place within its native range. Microsatellite variation at 13 nuclear loci and sequence data of two mitochondrial DNA fragments were analyzed on the basis of a comprehensive range-wide population sample. Two complementary methods (Geneclass and Structure) were used to infer translocation events based on nuclear data whereas mitochondrial data were used for validation of these inferences. Using Geneclass, we found translocation events in a majority of populations. Additional cases of translocation and many instances of admixture were identified using Structure, thanks to the clear-cut ancestral genetic structure detected in this species. In particular, a strong divide between Alpine and Central European populations, also apparent at mitochondrial markers, helped uncover details on translocation events and related processes. Translocations and associated admixture events were found to be heterogeneously distributed across the species range, with a particularly high frequency in Central Europe. Furthermore, translocations frequently involved multiple geographic sources, some of which were over-represented. Our study illustrates the importance of range-wide investigations for tracing translocations back to their origins and for revealing some of their consequences. It provides some first clues for developing suitable conservation and management strategies. PMID:26000791

  8. Synthetic antigens reveal dynamics of BCR endocytosis during inhibitory signaling.

    PubMed

    Courtney, Adam H; Bennett, Nitasha R; Zwick, Daniel B; Hudon, Jonathan; Kiessling, Laura L

    2014-01-17

    B cells detect foreign antigens through their B cell antigen receptor (BCR). The BCR, when engaged by antigen, initiates a signaling cascade. Concurrent with signaling is endocytosis of the BCR complex, which acts to downregulate signaling and facilitate uptake of antigen for processing and display on the cell surface. The relationship between signaling and BCR endocytosis is poorly defined. Here, we explore the interplay between BCR endocytosis and antigens that either promote or inhibit B cell activation. Specifically, synthetic antigens were generated that engage the BCR alone or both the BCR and the inhibitory co-receptor CD22. The lectin CD22, a member of the Siglec family, binds sialic acid-containing glycoconjugates found on host tissues, inhibiting BCR signaling to prevent erroneous B cell activation. At low concentrations, antigens that can cocluster the BCR and CD22 promote rapid BCR endocytosis; whereas, slower endocytosis occurs with antigens that bind only the BCR. At higher antigen concentrations, rapid BCR endocytosis occurs upon treatment with either stimulatory or inhibitory antigens. Endocytosis of the BCR, in response to synthetic antigens, results in its entry into early endocytic compartments. Although the CD22-binding antigens fail to activate key regulators of antigen presentation (e.g., Syk), they also promote BCR endocytosis, indicating that inhibitory antigens can be internalized. Together, our observations support a functional role for BCR endocytosis in downregulating BCR signaling. The reduction of cell surface BCR levels in the absence of B cell activation should raise the threshold for BCR subsequent activation. The ability of the activating synthetic antigens to trigger both signaling and entry of the BCR into early endosomes suggests strategies for targeted antigen delivery.

  9. ¹¹¹In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab with/without modification with nuclear translocation sequence (NLS) peptides: an Auger electron-emitting radioimmunotherapeutic agent for EGFR-positive and trastuzumab (Herceptin)-resistant breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fasih, Aisha; Fonge, Humphrey; Cai, Zhongli; Leyton, Jeffrey V; Tikhomirov, Ilia; Done, Susan J; Reilly, Raymond M

    2012-08-01

    Increased expression of epidermal growth factor receptors (EGFR) in breast cancer (BC) is often associated with trastuzumab (Herceptin)-resistant forms of the disease and represents an attractive target for novel therapies. Nimotuzumab is a humanized IgG(1) monoclonal antibody that is in clinical trials for treatment of EGFR-overexpressing malignancies. We show here that nimotuzumab derivatized with benzylisothiocyanate diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid for labelling with the subcellular range Auger electron-emitter, (111)In and modified with nuclear translocation sequence (NLS) peptides ((111)In-NLS-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab) was bound, internalized and transported to the nucleus of EGFR-positive BC cells. Emission of Auger electrons in close proximity to the nucleus caused multiple DNA double-strand breaks which diminished the clonogenic survival (CS) of MDA-MB-468 cells that have high EGFR density (2.4 × 10(6) receptors/cell) to less than 3 %. (111)In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab without NLS peptide modification was sevenfold less effective for killing MDA-MB-468 cells. (111)In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab with/without NLS peptide modification were equivalently cytotoxic to MDA-MB-231 and TrR1 BC cells that have moderate EGFR density (5.4 × 10(5) or 4.2 × 10(5) receptors/cell, respectively) reducing their CS by twofold. MDA-MB-231 cells have intrinsic trastuzumab resistance due to low HER2 density, whereas TrR1 cells have acquired resistance despite HER2 overexpression. Biodistribution and microSPECT/CT imaging revealed that (111)In-NLS-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab exhibited more rapid elimination from the blood and lower tumour uptake than (111)In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab. Tumour uptake of the radioimmunoconjugates in mice with MDA-MB-468 xenografts was high (8-16 % injected dose/g) and was blocked by administration of an excess of unlabelled nimotuzumab, demonstrating EGFR specificity. We conclude that (111)In-Bn-DTPA-nimotuzumab with/without NLS peptide modification are promising Auger

  10. Innate Nuclear Sensor IFI16 Translocates into the Cytoplasm during the Early Stage of In Vitro Human Cytomegalovirus Infection and Is Entrapped in the Egressing Virions during the Late Stage

    PubMed Central

    Dell'Oste, Valentina; Gatti, Deborah; Gugliesi, Francesca; De Andrea, Marco; Bawadekar, Mandar; Lo Cigno, Irene; Biolatti, Matteo; Vallino, Marta; Marschall, Manfred; Gariglio, Marisa

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Intrinsic immune mechanisms mediated by constitutively expressed proteins termed “restriction factors” provide frontline antiviral defense. We recently demonstrated that the DNA sensor IFI16 restricts human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication by downregulating viral early and late but not immediate-early mRNAs and their protein expression. We show here that at an early time point during the in vitro infection of low-passage-number human embryonic lung fibroblasts, IFI16 binds to HCMV DNA. However, during a later phase following infection, IFI16 is mislocalized to the cytoplasmic virus assembly complex (AC), where it colocalizes with viral structural proteins. Indeed, upon its binding to pUL97, IFI16 undergoes phosphorylation and relocalizes to the cytoplasm of HCMV-infected cells. ESCRT (endosomal sorting complex required for transport) machinery regulates the translocation of IFI16 into the virus AC by sorting and trafficking IFI16 into multivesicular bodies (MVB), as demonstrated by the interaction of IFI16 with two MVB markers: Vps4 and TGN46. Finally, IFI16 becomes incorporated into the newly assembled virions as demonstrated by Western blotting of purified virions and electron microscopy. Together, these results suggest that HCMV has evolved mechanisms to mislocalize and hijack IFI16, trapping it within mature virions. However, the significance of this IFI16 trapping following nuclear mislocalization remains to be established. IMPORTANCE Intracellular viral DNA sensors and restriction factors are critical components of host defense, which alarm and sensitize immune system against intruding pathogens. We have recently demonstrated that the DNA sensor IFI16 restricts human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) replication by downregulating viral early and late but not immediate-early mRNAs and their protein expression. However, viruses are known to evolve numerous strategies to cope and counteract such restriction factors and neutralize the first line of host

  11. Synucleins regulate the kinetics of synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Karina J; Makani, Sachin; Davis, Taylor; Westphal, Christopher H; Castillo, Pablo E; Chandra, Sreeganga S

    2014-07-09

    Genetic and pathological studies link α-synuclein to the etiology of Parkinson's disease (PD), but the normal function of this presynaptic protein remains unknown. α-Synuclein, an acidic lipid binding protein, shares high sequence identity with β- and γ-synuclein. Previous studies have implicated synucleins in synaptic vesicle (SV) trafficking, although the precise site of synuclein action continues to be unclear. Here we show, using optical imaging, electron microscopy, and slice electrophysiology, that synucleins are required for the fast kinetics of SV endocytosis. Slowed endocytosis observed in synuclein null cultures can be rescued by individually expressing mouse α-, β-, or γ-synuclein, indicating they are functionally redundant. Through comparisons to dynamin knock-out synapses and biochemical experiments, we suggest that synucleins act at early steps of SV endocytosis. Our results categorize α-synuclein with other familial PD genes known to regulate SV endocytosis, implicating this pathway in PD.

  12. Effects of mutant rat dynamin on endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    1993-01-01

    Dynamin is a 100-kD microtubule-activated GTPase. Recent evidence has revealed a high degree of sequence homology with the product of the Drosophila gene shibire, mutations in which block the recycling of synaptic vesicles and, more generally, the formation of coated and non- coated vesicles at the plasma membrane. We have now transfected cultured mammalian COS-7 cells with both wild-type and mutant dynamin cDNAs. Point mutations in the GTP-binding consensus sequence elements of dynamin equivalent to dominant negative mutations in ras, and an NH2- terminal deletion of the entire GTP-binding domain of dynamin, block transferrin uptake and alter the distribution of clathrin heavy chain and alpha-, but not gamma-, adaptin. COOH-terminal deletions reverse these effects, identifying this portion of dynamin as a site of interaction with other components of the endocytic pathway. Over- expression of neither wild-type nor mutant forms of dynamin affected the distribution of microtubules. These results demonstrate a specific role for dynamin and for GTP in the initial stages of receptor-mediated endocytosis. PMID:8335685

  13. Ankyrin-G Inhibits Endocytosis of Cadherin Dimers.

    PubMed

    Cadwell, Chantel M; Jenkins, Paul M; Bennett, Vann; Kowalczyk, Andrew P

    2016-01-08

    Dynamic regulation of endothelial cell adhesion is central to vascular development and maintenance. Furthermore, altered endothelial adhesion is implicated in numerous diseases. Therefore, normal vascular patterning and maintenance require tight regulation of endothelial cell adhesion dynamics. However, the mechanisms that control junctional plasticity are not fully understood. Vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) is an adhesive protein found in adherens junctions of endothelial cells. VE-cadherin mediates adhesion through trans interactions formed by its extracellular domain. Trans binding is followed by cis interactions that laterally cluster the cadherin in junctions. VE-cadherin is linked to the actin cytoskeleton through cytoplasmic interactions with β- and α-catenin, which serve to increase adhesive strength. Furthermore, p120-catenin binds to the cytoplasmic tail of cadherin and stabilizes it at the plasma membrane. Here we report that induced cis dimerization of VE-cadherin inhibits endocytosis independent of both p120 binding and trans interactions. However, we find that ankyrin-G, a protein that links membrane proteins to the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton, associates with VE-cadherin and inhibits its endocytosis. Ankyrin-G inhibits VE-cadherin endocytosis independent of p120 binding. We propose a model in which ankyrin-G associates with and inhibits the endocytosis of VE-cadherin cis dimers. Our findings support a novel mechanism for regulation of VE-cadherin endocytosis through ankyrin association with cadherin engaged in lateral interactions.

  14. Intracellular Trafficking Network of Protein Nanocapsules: Endocytosis, Exocytosis and Autophagy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinxie; Zhang, Xudong; Liu, Gan; Chang, Danfeng; Liang, Xin; Zhu, Xianbing; Tao, Wei; Mei, Lin

    2016-01-01

    The inner membrane vesicle system is a complex transport system that includes endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. However, the details of the intracellular trafficking pathway of nanoparticles in cells have been poorly investigated. Here, we investigate in detail the intracellular trafficking pathway of protein nanocapsules using more than 30 Rab proteins as markers of multiple trafficking vesicles in endocytosis, exocytosis and autophagy. We observed that FITC-labeled protein nanoparticles were internalized by the cells mainly through Arf6-dependent endocytosis and Rab34-mediated micropinocytosis. In addition to this classic pathway: early endosome (EEs)/late endosome (LEs) to lysosome, we identified two novel transport pathways: micropinocytosis (Rab34 positive)-LEs (Rab7 positive)-lysosome pathway and EEs-liposome (Rab18 positive)-lysosome pathway. Moreover, the cells use slow endocytosis recycling pathway (Rab11 and Rab35 positive vesicles) and GLUT4 exocytosis vesicles (Rab8 and Rab10 positive) transport the protein nanocapsules out of the cells. In addition, protein nanoparticles are observed in autophagosomes, which receive protein nanocapsules through multiple endocytosis vesicles. Using autophagy inhibitor to block these transport pathways could prevent the degradation of nanoparticles through lysosomes. Using Rab proteins as vesicle markers to investigation the detail intracellular trafficking of the protein nanocapsules, will provide new targets to interfere the cellular behaver of the nanoparticles, and improve the therapeutic effect of nanomedicine. PMID:27698943

  15. Ankyrin-G Inhibits Endocytosis of Cadherin Dimers*

    PubMed Central

    Cadwell, Chantel M.; Jenkins, Paul M.; Bennett, Vann; Kowalczyk, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of endothelial cell adhesion is central to vascular development and maintenance. Furthermore, altered endothelial adhesion is implicated in numerous diseases. Therefore, normal vascular patterning and maintenance require tight regulation of endothelial cell adhesion dynamics. However, the mechanisms that control junctional plasticity are not fully understood. Vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) is an adhesive protein found in adherens junctions of endothelial cells. VE-cadherin mediates adhesion through trans interactions formed by its extracellular domain. Trans binding is followed by cis interactions that laterally cluster the cadherin in junctions. VE-cadherin is linked to the actin cytoskeleton through cytoplasmic interactions with β- and α-catenin, which serve to increase adhesive strength. Furthermore, p120-catenin binds to the cytoplasmic tail of cadherin and stabilizes it at the plasma membrane. Here we report that induced cis dimerization of VE-cadherin inhibits endocytosis independent of both p120 binding and trans interactions. However, we find that ankyrin-G, a protein that links membrane proteins to the spectrin-actin cytoskeleton, associates with VE-cadherin and inhibits its endocytosis. Ankyrin-G inhibits VE-cadherin endocytosis independent of p120 binding. We propose a model in which ankyrin-G associates with and inhibits the endocytosis of VE-cadherin cis dimers. Our findings support a novel mechanism for regulation of VE-cadherin endocytosis through ankyrin association with cadherin engaged in lateral interactions. PMID:26574545

  16. Vesicle Formation and Endocytosis: Function, Machinery, Mechanisms, and Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Parkar, Nihal S.; Akpa, Belinda S.; Nitsche, Ludwig C.; Wedgewood, Lewis E.; Place, Aaron T.; Sverdlov, Maria S.; Chaga, Oleg

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Vesicle formation provides a means of cellular entry for extracellular substances and for recycling of membrane constituents. Mechanisms governing the two primary endocytic pathways (i.e., caveolae- and clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as well as newly emerging vesicular pathways) have become the focus of intense investigation to improve our understanding of nutrient, hormone, and drug delivery, as well as opportunistic invasion of pathogens. In this review of endocytosis, we broadly discuss the structural and signaling proteins that compose the molecular machinery governing endocytic vesicle formation (budding, invagination, and fission from the membrane), with some regard for the specificity observed in certain cell types and species. Important biochemical functions of endocytosis and diseases caused by their disruption also are discussed, along with the structures of key components of endocytic pathways and their known mechanistic contributions. The mechanisms by which principal components of the endocytic machinery are recruited to the plasma membrane, where they interact to induce vesicle formation, are discussed, together with computational approaches used to simulate simplified versions of endocytosis with the hope of clarifying aspects of vesicle formation that may be difficult to determine experimentally. Finally, we pose several unanswered questions intended to stimulate further research interest in the cell biology and modeling of endocytosis. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 1301–1312. PMID:19113823

  17. Tissue-type plasminogen activator induces synaptic vesicle endocytosis in cerebral cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Yepes, M; Wu, F; Torre, E; Cuellar-Giraldo, D; Jia, D; Cheng, L

    2016-04-05

    The release of the serine proteinase tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) from the presynaptic terminal of cerebral cortical neurons plays a central role in the development of synaptic plasticity, adaptation to metabolic stress and neuronal survival. Our earlier studies indicate that by inducing the recruitment of the cytoskeletal protein βII-spectrin and voltage-gated calcium channels to the active zone, tPA promotes Ca(2+)-dependent translocation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) to the synaptic release site where they release their load of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft. Here we used a combination of in vivo and in vitro experiments to investigate whether this effect leads to depletion of SVs in the presynaptic terminal. Our data indicate that tPA promotes SV endocytosis via a mechanism that does not require the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin. Instead, we show that tPA induces calcineurin-mediated dynamin I dephosphorylation, which is followed by dynamin I-induced recruitment of the actin-binding protein profilin II to the presynaptic membrane, and profilin II-induced F-actin formation. We report that this tPA-induced sequence of events leads to the association of newly formed SVs with F-actin clusters in the endocytic zone. In summary, the data presented here indicate that following the exocytotic release of neurotransmitters tPA activates the mechanism whereby SVs are retrieved from the presynaptic membrane and endocytosed to replenish the pool of vesicles available for a new cycle of exocytosis. Together, these results indicate that in murine cerebral cortical neurons tPA plays a central role coupling SVs exocytosis and endocytosis.

  18. Quantitative analysis of endocytosis with cytoplasmic pHluorin chimeras.

    PubMed

    Prosser, Derek C; Whitworth, Karen; Wendland, Beverly

    2010-09-01

    The pH-sensitive green fluorescent protein (GFP) variant pHluorin is typically fused to the extracellular domain of transmembrane proteins to monitor endocytosis. Here, we have turned pHluorin inside-out, and show that cytoplasmic fusions of pHluorin are effective quantitative reporters for endocytosis and multivesicular body (MVB) sorting. In yeast in particular, fusion of GFP and its variants on the extracellular side of transmembrane proteins can result in perturbed trafficking. In contrast, cytoplasmic fusions are well tolerated, allowing for the quantitative assessment of trafficking of virtually any transmembrane protein. Quenching of degradation-resistant pHluorin in the acidic vacuole permits quantification of extravacuolar cargo proteins at steady-state levels and is compatible with kinetic analysis of endocytosis in live cells.

  19. Multiscale Modeling of Virus Entry via Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jin

    2012-11-01

    Virus infections are ubiquitous and remain major threats to human health worldwide. Viruses are intracellular parasites and must enter host cells to initiate infection. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is the most common entry pathway taken by viruses, the whole process is highly complex and dictated by various events, such as virus motions, membrane deformations, receptor diffusion and ligand-receptor reactions, occurring at multiple length and time scales. We develop a multiscale model for virus entry through receptor-mediated endocytosis. The binding of virus to cell surface is based on a mesoscale three dimensional stochastic adhesion model, the internalization (endocytosis) of virus and cellular membrane deformation is based on the discretization of Helfrich Hamiltonian in a curvilinear space using Monte Carlo method. The multiscale model is based on the combination of these two models. We will implement this model to study the herpes simplex virus entry into B78 cells and compare the model predictions with experimental measurements.

  20. Fluid-phase endocytosis in yeasts other than Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, N; Puente, P; Leal, F

    1990-05-01

    A FITC-dextran internalization assay with Saccharomyces cerevisiae as positive control was used to determine whether fluid-phase endocytosis is a general characteristic of yeasts. Schizosaccharomyces pombe, Pichia polymorpha, Kluyveromyces phaseolosporus, Yarrowia lipolytica and Candida albicans were clearly positive, whereas results obtained with Debaryomyces marama were inconclusive. In all cases internalized FITC-dextran was found to be localized in the vacuoles and the process was always time- and temperature-dependent. Lower eucaryotes, particularly yeasts, appear to have the ability to incorporate substances from the extracellular medium through fluid-phase endocytosis.

  1. Cdk5 and the mystery of synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Chan; Bibb, James A

    2003-11-24

    Regulation of endocytosis by protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation is critical to synaptic vesicle recycling. Two groups have now identified the neuronal kinase Cdk5 (cyclin-dependent kinase 5) as an important regulator of this process. Robinson and coworkers recently demonstrated that Cdk5 is necessary for synaptic vesicle endocytosis (SVE) (Tan et al., 2003), whereas a new report in this issue claims that Cdk5 negatively regulates SVE (Tomizawa et al., 2003). Careful examination of the data reveals a model that helps resolve the apparently contradictory nature of these reports.

  2. Abdominal radiation causes bacterial translocation

    SciTech Connect

    Guzman-Stein, G.; Bonsack, M.; Liberty, J.; Delaney, J.P.

    1989-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if a single dose of radiation to the rat abdomen leads to bacterial translocation into the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN). A second issue addressed was whether translocation correlates with anatomic damage to the mucosa. The radiated group (1100 cGy) which received anesthesia also was compared with a control group and a third group which received anesthesia alone but no abdominal radiation. Abdominal radiation lead to 100% positive cultures of MLN between 12 hr and 4 days postradiation. Bacterial translocation was almost nonexistent in the control and anesthesia group. Signs of inflammation and ulceration of the intestinal mucosa were not seen until Day 3 postradiation. Mucosal damage was maximal by Day 4. Bacterial translocation onto the MLN after a single dose of abdominal radiation was not apparently dependent on anatomical, histologic damage of the mucosa.

  3. Structural insights into ribosome translocation

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Clarence

    2016-01-01

    During protein synthesis, tRNA and mRNA are translocated from the A to P to E sites of the ribosome thus enabling the ribosome to translate one codon of mRNA after the other. Ribosome translocation along mRNA is induced by the universally conserved ribosome GTPase, elongation factor G (EF‐G) in bacteria and elongation factor 2 (EF‐2) in eukaryotes. Recent structural and single‐molecule studies revealed that tRNA and mRNA translocation within the ribosome is accompanied by cyclic forward and reverse rotations between the large and small ribosomal subunits parallel to the plane of the intersubunit interface. In addition, during ribosome translocation, the ‘head’ domain of small ribosomal subunit undergoes forward‐ and back‐swiveling motions relative to the rest of the small ribosomal subunit around the axis that is orthogonal to the axis of intersubunit rotation. tRNA/mRNA translocation is also coupled to the docking of domain IV of EF‐G into the A site of the small ribosomal subunit that converts the thermally driven motions of the ribosome and tRNA into the forward translocation of tRNA/mRNA inside the ribosome. Despite recent and enormous progress made in the understanding of the molecular mechanism of ribosome translocation, the sequence of structural rearrangements of the ribosome, EF‐G and tRNA during translocation is still not fully established and awaits further investigation. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:620–636. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1354 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27117863

  4. Control of protein function through optochemical translocation.

    PubMed

    Engelke, Hanna; Chou, Chungjung; Uprety, Rajendra; Jess, Phillip; Deiters, Alexander

    2014-10-17

    Controlled manipulation of proteins and their function is important in almost all biological disciplines. Here, we demonstrate control of protein activity with light. We present two different applications-light-triggered transcription and light-triggered protease cleavage-both based on the same concept of protein mislocation, followed by optochemically triggered translocation to an active cellular compartment. In our approach, we genetically encode a photocaged lysine into the nuclear localization signal (NLS) of the transcription factor SATB1. This blocks nuclear import of the protein until illumination induces caging group removal and release of the protein into the nucleus. In the first application, prepending this NLS to the transcription factor FOXO3 allows us to optochemically switch on its transcription activity. The second application uses the developed light-activated NLS to control nuclear import of TEV protease and subsequent cleavage of nuclear proteins containing TEV cleavage sites. The small size of the light-controlled NLS (only 20 amino acids) minimizes impact of its insertion on protein function and promises a general approach to a wide range of optochemical applications. Since the light-activated NLS is genetically encoded and optically triggered, it will prove useful to address a variety of problems requiring spatial and temporal control of protein function, for example, in stem-cell, developmental, and cancer biology.

  5. Signalling through phospholipase C interferes with clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Carvou, Nicolas; Norden, Anthony G W; Unwin, Robert J; Cockcroft, Shamshad

    2007-01-01

    We investigated if phosphatidylinositol(4,5)bisphosphate (PtdIns(4,5)P2) hydrolysis by phospholipase C activation through cell surface receptors would interfere with clathrin-mediated endocytosis as recruitment of clathrin assembly proteins is PtdIns(4,5)P2-dependent. In the WKPT renal epithelial cell line, endocytosed insulin and beta2-glycoprotein I (beta2gpI) were observed in separate compartments, although endocytosis of both ligands was clathrin-dependent as demonstrated by expression of the clathrin-binding C-terminal domain of AP180 (AP180-C). The two uptake mechanisms were different as only insulin uptake was reduced when the mu2-subunit of the adaptor complex AP-2 was silenced by RNA interference. ATP receptors are expressed at the apical surface of renal cells and, thus, we examined the effect of extracellular ATP on insulin and beta2gpI uptake. ATP stimulated phospholipase C activity, and also suppressed uptake of insulin, but not beta2gpI. This effect was reversed by the PLC inhibitor U-73122. In polarized cell cultures, insulin uptake was apical, whereas beta2gpI uptake was through the basolateral membrane, thus providing an explanation for selective inhibition of insulin endocytosis by ATP. Taken together, these results demonstrate that stimulation of apical G-protein-coupled P2Y receptors, which are coupled to phospholipase C activation diminishes clathrin-mediated endocytosis without interfering with basolateral endocytic mechanisms.

  6. Revisiting the endocytosis of the m2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor.

    PubMed

    Ockenga, Wymke; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2015-05-12

    The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimulation requires clathrin. The expression of various dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutants and the use of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function revealed that dynamin expression and membrane localization as such appear to be necessary for M2 endocytosis, whereas dynamin GTPase activity is not required for this process. Based on the data from the present and from previous studies, we propose that M2 endocytosis takes place by means of an atypical clathrin-mediated pathway that may involve a specific subset of clathrin-coated pits/vesicles.

  7. Revisiting the Endocytosis of the M2 Muscarinic Acetylcholine Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Ockenga, Wymke; Tikkanen, Ritva

    2015-01-01

    The agonist-induced endocytosis of the muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M2 is different from that of the other members of the muscarinic receptor family. The uptake of the M2 receptor involves the adapter proteins of the β-arrestin family and the small GTPase ADP-ribosylation factor 6. However, it has remained inconclusive if M2 endocytosis is dependent on clathrin or the large GTPase dynamin. We here show by means of knocking down the clathrin heavy chain that M2 uptake upon agonist stimulation requires clathrin. The expression of various dominant-negative dynamin-2 mutants and the use of chemical inhibitors of dynamin function revealed that dynamin expression and membrane localization as such appear to be necessary for M2 endocytosis, whereas dynamin GTPase activity is not required for this process. Based on the data from the present and from previous studies, we propose that M2 endocytosis takes place by means of an atypical clathrin-mediated pathway that may involve a specific subset of clathrin-coated pits/vesicles. PMID:25985102

  8. Cell adhesion defines the topology of endocytosis and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Grossier, Jean-Philippe; Xouri, Georgia; Goud, Bruno; Schauer, Kristine

    2014-01-01

    Preferred sites of endocytosis have been observed in various cell types, but whether they occur randomly or are linked to cellular cues is debated. Here, we quantified the sites of endocytosis of transferrin (Tfn) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) in cells whose adhesion geometry was defined by micropatterns. 3D probabilistic density maps revealed that Tfn was enriched in adhesive sites during uptake, whereas EGF endocytosis was restricted to the dorsal cellular surface. This spatial separation was not due to distributions of corresponding receptors but was regulated by uptake mechanisms. Asymmetric uptake of Tfn resulted from the enrichment of clathrin and adaptor protein 2 at adhesive areas. Asymmetry in EGF uptake was strongly dependent on the actin cytoskeleton and led to asymmetry in EGF receptor activation. Mild alteration of actin dynamics abolished asymmetry in EGF uptake and decreased EGF-induced downstream signaling, suggesting that cellular adhesion cues influence signal propagation. We propose that restriction of endocytosis at distinct sites allows cells to sense their environment in an “outside-in” mechanism. PMID:24366944

  9. TALEN-Induced Translocations in Human Cells.

    PubMed

    Piganeau, Marion; Renouf, Benjamin; Ghezraoui, Hind; Brunet, Erika

    2016-01-01

    Induction of chromosomal translocations in human cells is of a great interest to study tumorigenesis and genome instability. Here, we explain in detail a method to induce translocations using the transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). We describe how to detect translocation formation by PCR, calculate translocation frequency by 96-well PCR screen, and analyze breakpoint junctions. When inducing cancer translocations, it is also possible to detect the fusion gene by FISH analysis or western blot.

  10. Interaction of /sup 125/I-labeled botulinum neurotoxins with nerve terminals. II. Autoradiographic evidence for its uptake into motor nerves by acceptor-mediated endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Black, J.D.; Dolly, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    Using pharmacological and autoradiographic techniques it has been shown that botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) is translocated across the motor nerve terminal membrane to reach a postulated intraterminal target. In the present study, the nature of this uptake process was investigated using electron microscopic autoradiography. It was found that internalization is acceptor-mediated and that binding to specific cell surface acceptors involves the heavier chain of the toxin. In addition, uptake was shown to be energy and temperature-dependent and to be accelerated by nerve stimulation, a treatment which also shortens the time course of the toxin-induced neuroparalysis. These results, together with the observation that silver grains were often associated with endocytic structures within the nerve terminal, suggested that acceptor-mediated endocytosis is responsible for toxin uptake. Possible recycling of BoNT acceptors (an important aspect of acceptor-mediated endocytosis of toxins) at motor nerve terminals was indicated by comparing the extent of labeling in the presence and absence of metabolic inhibitors. On the basis of these collective results, it is concluded that BoNT is internalized by acceptor-mediated endocytosis and, hence, the data support the proposal that this toxin inhibits release of acetylcholine by interaction with an intracellular target.

  11. Entry of aminoglycosides into renal tubular epithelial cells via endocytosis-dependent and endocytosis-independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Nagai, Junya; Takano, Mikihisa

    2014-08-15

    Aminoglycoside antibiotics such as gentamicin and amikacin are well recognized as a clinically important antibiotic class because of their reliable efficacy and low cost. However, the clinical use of aminoglycosides is limited by their nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity. Nephrotoxicity is induced mainly due to high accumulation of the antibiotics in renal proximal tubular cells. Therefore, a lot of studies on characterization of the renal transport system for aminoglycosides so far reported involved various in-vivo and in-vitro techniques. Early studies revealed that aminoglycosides are taken up through adsorptive endocytosis in renal epithelial cells. Subsequently, it was found that megalin, a multiligand endocytic receptor abundantly expressed on the apical side of renal proximal tubular cells, can bind aminoglycosides and that megalin-mediated endocytosis plays a crucial role in renal accumulation of aminoglycosides. Therefore, megalin has been suggested to be a promising molecular target for the prevention of aminoglycoside-induced nephrotoxicity. On the other hand, recently, some reports have indicated that aminoglycosides are transported via a pathway that does not require endocytosis, such as non-selective cation channel-mediated entry, in cultured renal tubular cells as well as cochlear outer hair cells. In this commentary article, we review the cellular transport of aminoglycosides in renal epithelial cells, focusing on endocytosis-dependent and -independent pathways.

  12. A Bcl-xL-Drp1 complex regulates synaptic vesicle membrane dynamics during endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongmei; Alavian, Kambiz N.; Lazrove, Emma; Mehta, Nabil; Jones, Adrienne; Zhang, Ping; Licznerski, Pawel; Graham, Morven; Uo, Takuma; Guo, Junhua; Rahner, Christoph; Duman, Ronald S.; Morrison, Richard S.; Jonas, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Following exocytosis, the rate of recovery of neurotransmitter release is determined by vesicle retrieval from the plasma membrane and by recruitment of vesicles from reserve pools within the synapse, the latter of which is dependent on mitochondrial ATP. The Bcl-2 family protein Bcl-xL, in addition to its role in cell death, regulates neurotransmitter release and recovery in part by increasing ATP availability from mitochondria. We now find, however, that, Bcl-xL directly regulates endocytotic vesicle retrieval in hippocampal neurons through protein/protein interaction with components of the clathrin complex. Our evidence suggests that, during synaptic stimulation, Bcl-xL translocates to clathrin-coated pits in a calmodulin-dependent manner and forms a complex of proteins with the GTPase Drp1, Mff and clathrin. Depletion of Drp1 produces misformed endocytotic vesicles. Mutagenesis studies suggest that formation of the Bcl-xL-Drp1 complex is necessary for the enhanced rate of vesicle endocytosis produced by Bcl-xL, thus providing a mechanism for presynaptic plasticity. PMID:23792689

  13. Downside risk of wildlife translocation.

    PubMed

    Chipman, R; Slate, D; Rupprecht, C; Mendoza, M

    2008-01-01

    Translocation has been used successfully by wildlife professionals to enhance or reintroduce populations of rare or extirpated wildlife, provide hunting or wildlife viewing opportunities, farm wild game, and reduce local human-wildlife conflicts. However, accidental and intentional translocations may have multiple unintended negative consequences, including increased stress and mortality of relocated animals, negative impacts on resident animals at release sites, increased conflicts with human interests, and the spread of diseases. Many wildlife professionals now question the practice of translocation, particularly in light of the need to contain or eliminate high profile, economically important wildlife diseases and because using this technique may jeopardize international wildlife disease management initiatives to control rabies in raccoons, coyotes, and foxes in North America. Incidents have been documented where specific rabies variants (Texas gray fox, canine variant in coyotes, and raccoon) have been moved well beyond their current range as a result of translocation, including the emergence of raccoon rabies in the eastern United States. Here, we review and discuss the substantial challenges of curtailing translocation in the USA, focusing on movement of animals by the public, nuisance wildlife control operators, and wildlife rehabilitators.

  14. 3D view of chromosomes, DNA damage, and translocations.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Michal; Hakim, Ofir

    2014-04-01

    The cell nucleus is a busy and organized organelle. In this megalopolis made of billions of nucleotides, protein factors find their target loci to exert nuclear functions such as transcription and replication. Remarkably, despite the lack of internal membrane barrier, the interlinked and tightly regulated nuclear processes occur in spatially organized fashion. These processes can lead to double-strand breaks (DSBs) that compromise the integrity of the genome. Moreover, in some cells like lymphocytes, DNA damage is also targeted within the context of immunoglobulin gene recombination. If not repaired correctly, DSBs can cause chromosomal rearrangements, including translocations which are etiological in numerous tumors. Therefore, the chromosomal locations of DSBs, as well as their spatial positioning, are important contributors to formation of chromosomal translocations at specific genomic loci. To obtain a mechanistic understanding of chromosomal translocations these parameters should be accounted for in a global and integrative fashion. In this review we will discuss recent findings addressing how genome architecture, DNA damage, and repair contribute to the genesis of chromosomal translocations.

  15. [Molecular model of anthrax toxin translocation into target-cells].

    PubMed

    Noskov, A N

    2014-01-01

    Anthrax toxin is formed from three components: protective antigen (PA), lethal (LF) and edema (EF) factors. PA83 is cleaved by cell surface protease furin to produce a 63-kDa fragment (PA63). PA63 and LF/EF molecules are assembled to anthrax toxin complexes: oligomer PA63 x 7 + LF/EF x 3. Assembly is occurred during of binding with cellular receptor or near surface of target-cell. This toxin complex forms pore and induces receptor-mediated endocytosis. Formed endosome consists extracellular liquid with LF/EF and membrane-associated ferments (H+ and K+/Na+-ATPases) and proteins (receptors and others). H+ concentration is increased into endosome as result of K/Na-ATPase-dependent- activity of H+-ATPase. Difference of potentials (between endosome and intracellular liquid) is increased and LF/EF molecules are moved to pore and bound with PA63-oligomer to PA63 x 7 + LF/EF x 7 and full block pore (ion-selective channel). Endosome is increased in volume and induces increasing of PA63-oligomer pore to.size of effector complex: LF/EF x 7 + PAl7 x 7 = 750 kDa. Effector complex is translocated from endosome to cytosol by means high difference of potentials (H+) and dissociates from PA47 x 7 complex after cleavage of FFD315-sait by intracellular chymotrypsin-like proteases in all 7 molecules PA63. PA47 x 7 complex (strongly fixed in membrane with debris of hydrophobic loops) return into endosome and pore is destroyed. Endosome pH is decreased rapidly and PA47 x 7 complex is destroyed by endosomal/lysosomal proteases. Receptor-mediated endocytosis is ended by endosome recycling in cell-membrane.

  16. The yin and yang of calcium effects on synaptic vesicle endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-Sheng; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2014-02-12

    A large number of studies suggest that calcium triggers and accelerates vesicle endocytosis at many synapses and non-neuronal secretory cells. However, many studies show that prolonging the duration of the stimulation train, which induces more calcium influx, slows down endocytosis; and several studies suggest that instead of triggering endocytosis, calcium actually inhibits endocytosis. Here we addressed this apparent conflict at a large nerve terminal, the calyx of Held in rat brainstem, in which recent studies suggest that transient calcium increase up to tens of micromolar concentration at the micro/nano domain triggers endocytosis. By dialyzing 0-1 μM calcium into the calyx via a whole-cell pipette, we found that slow endocytosis was inhibited by calcium dialysis in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, prolonged, small, and global calcium increase inhibits endocytosis, whereas transient and large calcium increase at the micro/nano domain triggers endocytosis and facilitates endocytosis. This yin and yang effect of calcium may reconcile apparent conflicts regarding whether calcium accelerates or inhibits endocytosis. Whether endocytosis is fast or slow depends on the net outcome between the yin and yang effect of calcium.

  17. Myosin light chain kinase accelerates vesicle endocytosis at the calyx of Held synapse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hai-Yuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal activity triggers endocytosis at synaptic terminals to retrieve efficiently the exocytosed vesicle membrane, ensuring the membrane homeostasis of active zones and the continuous supply of releasable vesicles. The kinetics of endocytosis depends on Ca(2+) and calmodulin which, as a versatile signal pathway, can activate a broad spectrum of downstream targets, including myosin light chain kinase (MLCK). MLCK is known to regulate vesicle trafficking and synaptic transmission, but whether this kinase regulates vesicle endocytosis at synapses remains elusive. We investigated this issue at the rat calyx of Held synapse, where previous studies using whole-cell membrane capacitance measurement have characterized two common forms of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent endocytosis, i.e., slow clathrin-dependent endocytosis and rapid endocytosis. Acute inhibition of MLCK with pharmacological agents was found to slow down the kinetics of both slow and rapid forms of endocytosis at calyces. Similar impairment of endocytosis occurred when blocking myosin II, a motor protein that can be phosphorylated upon MLCK activation. The inhibition of endocytosis was not accompanied by a change in Ca(2+) channel current. Combined inhibition of MLCK and calmodulin did not induce synergistic inhibition of endocytosis. Together, our results suggest that activation of MLCK accelerates both slow and rapid forms of vesicle endocytosis at nerve terminals, likely by functioning downstream of Ca(2+)/calmodulin.

  18. USP17 is required for clathrin mediated endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor

    PubMed Central

    Jaworski, Jakub; de la Vega, Michelle; Fletcher, Sarah J.; McFarlane, Cheryl; Greene, Michelle K.; Smyth, Andrew W.; Van Schaeybroeck, Sandra; Johnston, James A.; Scott, Christopher J.; Rappoport, Joshua Z.; Burrows, James F.

    2014-01-01

    Previously we have shown that expression of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP17 is required for cell proliferation and motility. More recently we reported that USP17 deubiquitinates RCE1 isoform 2 and thus regulates the processing of ‘CaaX’ motif proteins. Here we now show that USP17 expression is induced by epidermal growth factor and that USP17 expression is required for clathrin mediated endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor. In addition, we show that USP17 is required for the endocytosis of transferrin, an archetypal substrate for clathrin mediated endocytosis, and that USP17 depletion impedes plasma membrane recruitment of the machinery required for clathrin mediated endocytosis. Thus, our data reveal that USP17 is necessary for epidermal growth factor receptor and transferrin endocytosis via clathrin coated pits, indicate this is mediated via the regulation of the recruitment of the components of the endocytosis machinery and suggest USP17 may play a general role in receptor endocytosis. PMID:25026282

  19. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis.

  20. Dysferlin is essential for endocytosis in the sea star oocyte.

    PubMed

    Oulhen, Nathalie; Onorato, Thomas M; Ramos, Isabela; Wessel, Gary M

    2014-04-01

    Dysferlin is a calcium-binding transmembrane protein involved in membrane fusion and membrane repair. In humans, mutations in the dysferlin gene are associated with muscular dystrophy. In this study, we isolated plasma membrane-enriched fractions from full-grown immature oocytes of the sea star, and identified dysferlin by mass spectrometry analysis. The full-length dysferlin sequence is highly conserved between human and the sea star. We learned that in the sea star Patiria miniata, dysferlin RNA and protein are expressed from oogenesis to gastrulation. Interestingly, the protein is highly enriched in the plasma membrane of oocytes. Injection of a morpholino against dysferlin leads to a decrease of endocytosis in oocytes, and to a developmental arrest during gastrulation. These results suggest that dysferlin is critical for normal endocytosis during oogenesis and for embryogenesis in the sea star and that this animal may be a useful model for studying the relationship of dysferlin structure as it relates to its function.

  1. Characterization of Ligand-Induced Endocytosis of EGF-Receptors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    Dili domain of Epsl5. They showed that a GST-protein containing the entire COOH-terminal domain of Epsl5 could efficiently precipitate AP- 2 complexes...from cytosol. A construct lacking amino acids 661-739, GST-DfflAl, could also precipitate AP- 2 complexes albiet less efficiently . In contrast...purified AP- 2 complexes restored highly efficient endocytosis. Furhter confirmation of this hypothesis was obtained in another set of experiments

  2. Signaling-mediated control of ubiquitin ligases in endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Polo, Simona

    2012-03-15

    Ubiquitin-dependent regulation of endocytosis plays an important part in the control of signal transduction, and a critical issue in the understanding of signal transduction therefore relates to regulation of ubiquitination in the endocytic pathway. We discuss here what is known of the mechanisms by which signaling controls the activity of the ubiquitin ligases that specifically recognize the targets of ubiquitination on the endocytic pathway, and suggest alternative mechanisms that deserve experimental investigation.

  3. Spatiotemporal control of endocytosis by phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate.

    PubMed

    Posor, York; Eichhorn-Gruenig, Marielle; Puchkov, Dmytro; Schöneberg, Johannes; Ullrich, Alexander; Lampe, André; Müller, Rainer; Zarbakhsh, Sirus; Gulluni, Federico; Hirsch, Emilio; Krauss, Michael; Schultz, Carsten; Schmoranzer, Jan; Noé, Frank; Haucke, Volker

    2013-07-11

    Phosphoinositides serve crucial roles in cell physiology, ranging from cell signalling to membrane traffic. Among the seven eukaryotic phosphoinositides the best studied species is phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PI(4,5)P2), which is concentrated at the plasma membrane where, among other functions, it is required for the nucleation of endocytic clathrin-coated pits. No phosphatidylinositol other than PI(4,5)P2 has been implicated in clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas the subsequent endosomal stages of the endocytic pathway are dominated by phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphates(PI(3)P). How phosphatidylinositol conversion from PI(4,5)P2-positive endocytic intermediates to PI(3)P-containing endosomes is achieved is unclear. Here we show that formation of phosphatidylinositol-3,4-bisphosphate (PI(3,4)P2) by class II phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase C2α (PI(3)K C2α) spatiotemporally controls clathrin-mediated endocytosis. Depletion of PI(3,4)P2 or PI(3)K C2α impairs the maturation of late-stage clathrin-coated pits before fission. Timed formation of PI(3,4)P2 by PI(3)K C2α is required for selective enrichment of the BAR domain protein SNX9 at late-stage endocytic intermediates. These findings provide a mechanistic framework for the role of PI(3,4)P2 in endocytosis and unravel a novel discrete function of PI(3,4)P2 in a central cell physiological process.

  4. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis of gold nanoparticles in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ng, Cheng Teng; Tang, Florence Mei Ai; Li, Jasmine Jia'en; Ong, Cynthia; Yung, Lanry Lin Yue; Bay, Boon Huat

    2015-02-01

    Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have potential biomedical and scientific applications. In this study, we evaluated the uptake and internalization of FBS-coated 20 nm AuNPs into lung fibroblasts and liver cells by different microscopy techniques. AuNP aggregates were observed inside MRC5 lung fibroblasts and Chang liver cells under light microscopy, especially after enhancement with automegallography. Clusters of AuNPs were observed to be adsorbed on the cell surface by scanning electron microscopy. Ultrathin sections showed that AuNPs were mainly enclosed within cytoplasmic vesicles when viewed under transmission electron microscopy. We also investigated the mechanism of uptake for AuNPs, using endocytosis inhibitors and quantification of Au with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Cells treated with concanavalin A and chlorpromazine showed significant decrease of Au uptake in MRC5 lung fibroblasts and Chang liver cells, respectively, implying that the uptake of AuNPs was facilitated by clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It would therefore appear that uptake of 20 nm AuNPs in both cell types with different tissues of origin, was dependent upon clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  5. Architectural remodeling of the tonoplast during fluid-phase endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Etxeberria, Ed; Gonzalez, Pedro; Pozueta-Romero, Javier

    2013-01-01

    During fluid phase endocytosis (FPE) in plant storage cells, the vacuole receives a considerable amount of membrane and fluid contents. If allowed to accumulate over a period of time, the enlarging tonoplast and increase in fluids would invariably disrupt the structural equilibrium of the mature cells. Therefore, a membrane retrieval process must exist that will guarantee membrane homeostasis in light of tonoplast expansion by membrane addition during FPE. We examined the morphological changes to the vacuolar structure during endocytosis in red beet hypocotyl tissue using scanning laser confocal microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The heavily pigmented storage vacuole allowed us to visualize all architectural transformations during treatment. When red beet tissue was incubated in 200 mM sucrose, a portion of the sucrose accumulated entered the cell by means of FPE. The accumulation process was accompanied by the development of vacuole-derived vesicles which transiently counterbalanced the addition of surplus endocytic membrane during rapid rates of endocytosis. Topographic fluorescent confocal micrographs showed an ensuing reduction in the size of the vacuole-derived vesicles and further suggest their reincorporation into the vacuole to maintain vacuolar unity and solute concentration. PMID:23656870

  6. Signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Americo, Tatiana A.; Chiarini, Luciana B.; Linden, Rafael . E-mail: rlinden@biof.ufrj.br

    2007-06-29

    The co-chaperone hop/STI-1 is a ligand of the cell surface prion protein (PrP{sup C}), and their interaction leads to signaling and biological effects. Among these, hop/STI-1 induces proliferation of A172 glioblastoma cells, dependent on both PrP{sup C} and activation of the Erk pathway. We tested whether clathrin-mediated endocytosis affects signaling induced by hop/STI-1. Both hyperosmolarity induced by sucrose and monodansyl-cadaverine blocked Erk activity induced by hop/STI-1, without affecting the high basal Akt activity typical of A172. The endocytosis inhibitors also affected the sub-cellular distribution of phosphorylated Erk, consistent with blockade of the latter's activity. The data indicate that signaling induced by hop/STI-1 depends on endocytosis. These findings are consistent with a role of sub-cellular trafficking in signal transduction following engagement by PrP{sup C} by ligands such as hop/STI-1, and may help help unravel both the functions of the prion protein, as well as possible loss-of-function components of prion diseases.

  7. Visualization of Receptor-mediated Endocytosis in Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Mulholland, Jon; Konopka, James; Singer-Kruger, Birgit; Zerial, Marino; Botstein, David

    1999-01-01

    We studied the ligand-induced endocytosis of the yeast α-factor receptor Ste2p by immuno-electron microscopy. We observed and quantitated time-dependent loss of Ste2p from the plasma membrane of cells exposed to α-factor. This ligand-induced internalization of Ste2p was blocked in the well-characterized endocytosis-deficient mutant sac6Δ. We provide evidence that implicates furrow-like invaginations of the plasma membrane as the site of receptor internalization. These invaginations are distinct from the finger-like plasma membrane invaginations within actin cortical patches. Consistent with this, we show that Ste2p is not located within the cortical actin patch before and during receptor-mediated endocytosis. In wild-type cells exposed to α-factor we also observed and quantitated a time-dependent accumulation of Ste2p in intracellular, membrane-bound compartments. These compartments have a characteristic electron density but variable shape and size and are often located adjacent to the vacuole. In immuno-electron microscopy experiments these compartments labeled with antibodies directed against the rab5 homologue Ypt51p (Vps21p), the resident vacuolar protease carboxypeptidase Y, and the vacuolar H+-ATPase Vph1p. Using a new double-labeling technique we have colocalized antibodies against Ste2p and carboxypeptidase Y to this compartment, thereby identifying these compartments as prevacuolar late endosomes. PMID:10069819

  8. Endocytosis of cholera toxin by human enterocytes is developmentally regulated.

    PubMed

    Lu, Lei; Khan, Sameer; Lencer, Wayne; Walker, W Allan

    2005-08-01

    Many secretory diarrheas including cholera are more prevalent and fulminant in young infants than in older children and adults. Cholera toxin (CT) elicits a cAMP-dependent chloride secretory response in intestinal epithelia, which accounts for the fundamental pathogenesis of this toxigenic diarrhea. We have previously reported that the action of this bacterial enterotoxin is excessive in immature enterocytes and under developmental regulation. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that enhanced endocytosis by immature human enterocytes may, in part, account for the excessive secretory response to CT noted in the immature intestine and that enterocyte endocytosis of CT is developmentally regulated. To test this hypothesis, we used specific inhibitors to define endocytic pathways in mature and immature cell lines. We showed that internalization of CT in adult enterocytes is less and occurs via the caveolae/raft-mediated pathway in contrast to an enhanced immature human enterocyte CT uptake that occurs via a clathrin pathway. We also present evidence that this clathrin pathway is developmentally regulated as demonstrated by its response to corticosteroids, a known maturation factor that causes a decreased CT endocytosis by this pathway.

  9. Cholesterol regulates multiple forms of vesicle endocytosis at a mammalian central synapse.

    PubMed

    Yue, Hai-Yuan; Xu, Jianhua

    2015-07-01

    Endocytosis in synapses sustains neurotransmission by recycling vesicle membrane and maintaining the homeostasis of synaptic membrane. A role of membrane cholesterol in synaptic endocytosis remains controversial because of conflicting observations, technical limitations in previous studies, and potential interference from non-specific effects after cholesterol manipulation. Furthermore, it remains unclear whether cholesterol participates in distinct forms of endocytosis that function under different activity levels. In this study, applying the whole-cell membrane capacitance measurement to monitor endocytosis in real time at the rat calyx of Held terminals, we found that disrupting cholesterol with dialysis of cholesterol oxidase or methyl-β-cyclodextrin impaired three different forms of endocytosis, including slow endocytosis, rapid endocytosis, and endocytosis of the retrievable membrane that exists at the surface before stimulation. The effects were observed when disruption of cholesterol was mild enough not to change Ca(2+) channel current or vesicle exocytosis, indicative of stringent cholesterol requirement in synaptic endocytosis. Extracting cholesterol with high concentrations of methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced exocytosis, mainly by decreasing the readily releasable pool and the vesicle replenishment after readily releasable pool depletion. Our study suggests that cholesterol is an important, universal regulator in multiple forms of vesicle endocytosis at mammalian central synapses.

  10. Release activity-dependent control of vesicle endocytosis by the synaptic adhesion molecule N-cadherin.

    PubMed

    van Stegen, Bernd; Dagar, Sushma; Gottmann, Kurt

    2017-01-20

    At synapses in the mammalian brain, continuous information transfer requires the long-term maintenance of homeostatic coupling between exo- and endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Because classical endocytosis is orders of magnitude slower than the millisecond-range exocytosis of vesicles, high frequency vesicle fusion could potentially compromise structural stability of synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the tight coupling of exo- and endocytosis are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the transsynaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 in regulating vesicle exo- and endocytosis by using activity-induced FM4-64 staining and by using synaptophysin-pHluorin fluorescence imaging. The synaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 had distinct impacts on exo- and endocytosis at mature cortical synapses. Expression of Neuroligin1 enhanced vesicle release in a N-cadherin-dependent way. Most intriguingly, expression of N-cadherin enhanced both vesicle exo- and endocytosis. Further detailed analysis of N-cadherin knockout neurons revealed that the boosting of endocytosis by N-cadherin was largely dependent on preceding high levels of vesicle release activity. In summary, regulation of vesicle endocytosis was mediated at the molecular level by N-cadherin in a release activity-dependent manner. Because of its endocytosis enhancing function, N-cadherin might play an important role in the coupling of vesicle exo- and endocytosis.

  11. Dimerization drives EGFR endocytosis through two sets of compatible endocytic codes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Xinmei; Wang, Zhixiang

    2015-03-01

    We have shown previously that epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR) endocytosis is controlled by EGFR dimerization. However, it is not clear how the dimerization drives receptor internalization. We propose that EGFR endocytosis is driven by dimerization, bringing two sets of endocytic codes, one contained in each receptor monomer, in close proximity. Here, we tested this hypothesis by generating specific homo- or hetero-dimers of various receptors and their mutants. We show that ErbB2 and ErbB3 homodimers are endocytosis deficient owing to the lack of endocytic codes. Interestingly, EGFR-ErbB2 or EGFR-ErbB3 heterodimers are also endocytosis deficient. Moreover, the heterodimer of EGFR and the endocytosis-deficient mutant EGFRΔ1005-1017 is also impaired in endocytosis. These results indicate that two sets of endocytic codes are required for receptor endocytosis. We found that an EGFR-PDGFRβ heterodimer is endocytosis deficient, although both EGFR and PDGFRβ homodimers are endocytosis-competent, indicating that two compatible sets of endocytic codes are required. Finally, we found that to mediate the endocytosis of the receptor dimer, the two sets of compatible endocytic codes, one contained in each receptor molecule, have to be spatially coordinated.

  12. Release activity-dependent control of vesicle endocytosis by the synaptic adhesion molecule N-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    van Stegen, Bernd; Dagar, Sushma; Gottmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    At synapses in the mammalian brain, continuous information transfer requires the long-term maintenance of homeostatic coupling between exo- and endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Because classical endocytosis is orders of magnitude slower than the millisecond-range exocytosis of vesicles, high frequency vesicle fusion could potentially compromise structural stability of synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the tight coupling of exo- and endocytosis are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the transsynaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 in regulating vesicle exo- and endocytosis by using activity-induced FM4–64 staining and by using synaptophysin-pHluorin fluorescence imaging. The synaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 had distinct impacts on exo- and endocytosis at mature cortical synapses. Expression of Neuroligin1 enhanced vesicle release in a N-cadherin-dependent way. Most intriguingly, expression of N-cadherin enhanced both vesicle exo- and endocytosis. Further detailed analysis of N-cadherin knockout neurons revealed that the boosting of endocytosis by N-cadherin was largely dependent on preceding high levels of vesicle release activity. In summary, regulation of vesicle endocytosis was mediated at the molecular level by N-cadherin in a release activity-dependent manner. Because of its endocytosis enhancing function, N-cadherin might play an important role in the coupling of vesicle exo- and endocytosis. PMID:28106089

  13. Nitrative DNA damage induced by multi-walled carbon nanotube via endocytosis in human lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Feiye; Ma, Ning; Horibe, Yoshiteru; Kawanishi, Shosuke; Murata, Mariko; Hiraku, Yusuke

    2012-04-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has a promising usage in the field of material science for industrial purposes because of its unique physicochemical property. However, intraperitoneal administration of CNT was reported to cause mesothelioma in experimental animals. Chronic inflammation may contribute to carcinogenesis induced by fibrous materials. 8-Nitroguanine is a mutagenic DNA lesion formed during inflammation and may play a role in CNT-induced carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined 8-nitroguanine formation in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells treated with multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) by fluorescent immunocytochemistry. Both MWCNTs with diameter of 20–30 nm (CNT20) and 40–70 nm (CNT40) significantly induced 8-nitroguanine formation at 5 and 10 μg/ml (p < 0.05), which persisted for 24 h, although there was no significant difference in DNA-damaging abilities of these MWCNTs. MWCNTs significantly induced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) for 24 h (p < 0.05). MWCNTs also significantly increased the level of nitrite, a hydrolysis product of oxidized NO, in the culture supernatant at 4 and 8 h (p < 0.05). MWCNT-induced 8-nitroguanine formation and iNOS expression were largely suppressed by inhibitors of iNOS (1400 W), nuclear factor-κB (Bay11-7082), actin polymerization (cytochalasin D), caveolae-mediated endocytosis (methyl-β-cyclodextrin, MBCD) and clathrin-mediated endocytosis (monodansylcadaverine, MDC). Electron microscopy revealed that MWCNT was mainly located in vesicular structures in the cytoplasm, and its cellular internalization was reduced by MBCD and MDC. These results suggest that MWCNT is internalized into cells via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, leading to inflammatory reactions including iNOS expression and resulting nitrative DNA damage, which may contribute to carcinogenesis. Highlights: ►Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) caused DNA damage in A549 cells. ►MWCNT formed 8-nitroguanine, a DNA lesion

  14. Neuropathological staging of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 by semiquantitative 1C2-positive neuron typing. Nuclear translocation of cytoplasmic 1C2 underlies disease progression of spinocerebellar ataxia type 2.

    PubMed

    Koyano, Shigeru; Yagishita, Saburo; Kuroiwa, Yoshiyuki; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Uchihara, Toshiki

    2014-11-01

    Spinocerebellar ataxia type 2 (SCA2) is a hereditary neurodegenerative disorder caused by the expansion of the trinucleotide CAG repeats encoding elongated polyglutamine tract in ataxin-2, the SCA2 gene product. Polyglutamine diseases comprise nine genetic entities, including seven different forms of spinocerebellar ataxias, Huntington's disease, and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. These are pathologically characterized by neuronal loss and intranuclear aggregates or inclusions of mutant proteins including expanded polyglutamine in selected neuronal groups. Previously, we examined immunolocalization of ubiquitin, expanded polyglutamine (probed by 1C2 antibody), and ataxin-2 in genetically confirmed SCA2 patients. In the present study, we expanded this approach by distinguishing different patterns of subcellular 1C2 immunoreactivity ("granular cytoplasmic," "cytoplasmic and nuclear" and "nuclear with inclusions.") and by quantifying their regional frequencies in three autopsied SCA2 brains at different stage of the disease. Comparison with neuronal loss and gliosis revealed that overall 1C2 immunoreactivity was paralleled with their severity. Furthermore, appearance of granular cytoplasmic pattern corresponded to early stage, cytoplasmic and nuclear pattern to active stage, and nuclear with inclusions pattern to final stage. We conclude that this 1C2-immunoreactive typing may be useful for evaluating the overall severity and extent of affected regions and estimating the neuropathological stage of SCA2.

  15. Isolated rat hepatocytes acquire iron from lactoferrin by endocytosis.

    PubMed

    McAbee, D D

    1995-10-15

    The iron-binding protein lactoferrin (Lf) present in blood is metabolized by the liver. Isolated rat hepatocytes vigorously endocytose bovine Lf via recycling Ca2(+)-dependent binding sites, but the uptake of iron from Lf by hepatocytes has not been examined. In this study, isolated rat hepatocytes were incubated with radiolabelled bovine Lf (125I-Lf, 59Fe-Lf or 125I-59Fe-Lf) at 37 degrees C, then washed at 4 degrees C in the presence of dextran sulphate with either Ca2+ or EGTA to distinguish between total bound and internal radioactivity respectively. Cells internalized 125I-Lf protein and Lf-bound 59Fe at maximal endocytic rates of 1700 and 480 mol.cell-1.s-1 respectively. When Lf was normalized for 59Fe content, these endocytic rates were equivalent and reflected an uptake potential of at least 3400 mol of iron.cell-1.s-1. Cells prebound with 125I-59Fe-Lf to Ca2+(-)dependent sites at 4 degrees C internalized more than 80% of both 125I-Lf protein and Lf-bound 59Fe approx. 6 min after warming to 37 degrees C at similar rates (125I-Lf: k(in) = 0.276 min-1, 59Fe: k(in) = 0.303 min-1). Within 4 h at 37 degrees C, cells had released 25% or less internalized Lf protein in the form of acid-soluble 125I-by-products but retained all the Lf-delivered 59Fe. Hyperosmotic disruption of clathrin-dependent endocytosis blocked the uptake of 125I-Lf and Lf-bound 59Fe. Incubation of cells with 125I-59Fe-Lf and a 100 molar excess of diferric transferrin reduced slightly the endocytosis of 125I-Lf protein and 59Fe accumulation. Treatment of cells with the ferric chelator desferrioxamine did not alter uptake of 125I-Lf protein or Lf-bound 59Fe, but the ferrous chelator bathophenanthroline disulphonate slightly elevated endocytosis of 125I-Lf protein and Lf-bound 59Fe. These findings indicate that Lf does not release its bound iron before endocytosis. It was concluded from this study that hepatocytes take up iron from Lf at high rates by a process that requires endocytosis of Lf

  16. How to address CPP and AMP translocation? Methods to detect and quantify peptide internalization in vitro and in vivo (Review).

    PubMed

    Henriques, Sónia Troeira; Melo, Manuel Nuno; Castanho, Miguel A R B

    2007-01-01

    Membrane translocation is a crucial issue when addressing the activity of both cell-penetrating and antimicrobial peptides. Translocation is responsible for the therapeutic potential of cell-penetrating peptides as drug carriers and can dictate the killing mechanisms, selectivity and efficiency of antimicrobial peptides. It is essential to evaluate if the internalization of cell-penetrating peptides is mediated by endocytosis and if it is able to internalize attached cargoes. The mode of action of an antimicrobial peptide cannot be fully understood if it is not known whether the peptide acts exclusively at the membrane level or also at the cytoplasm. Therefore, experimental methods to evaluate and quantify translocation processes are of first importance. In this work, over 20 methods described in the literature for the assessment of peptide translocation in vivo and in vitro, with and without attached macromolecular cargoes, are discussed and their applicability, advantages and disadvantages reviewed. In addition, a classification of these methods is proposed, based on common approaches to detect translocation.

  17. Calcineurin is universally involved in vesicle endocytosis at neuronal and nonneuronal secretory cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xin-Sheng; Zhang, Zhen; Zhao, Wei-Dong; Wang, Dongsheng; Luo, Fujun; Wu, Ling-Gang

    2014-05-22

    Calcium influx triggers and accelerates endocytosis in nerve terminals and nonneuronal secretory cells. Whether calcium/calmodulin-activated calcineurin, which dephosphorylates endocytic proteins, mediates this process is highly controversial for different cell types, developmental stages, and endocytic forms. Using three preparations that previously produced discrepant results (i.e., large calyx-type synapses, conventional cerebellar synapses, and neuroendocrine chromaffin cells containing large dense-core vesicles), we found that calcineurin gene knockout consistently slowed down endocytosis, regardless of cell type, developmental stage, or endocytic form (rapid or slow). In contrast, calcineurin and calmodulin blockers slowed down endocytosis at a relatively small calcium influx, but did not inhibit endocytosis at a large calcium influx, resulting in false-negative results. These results suggest that calcineurin is universally involved in endocytosis. They may also help explain the discrepancies among previous pharmacological studies. We therefore suggest that calcineurin should be included as a key player in mediating calcium-triggered and -accelerated vesicle endocytosis.

  18. TFE3-Fusion Variant Analysis Defines Specific Clinicopathologic Associations Among Xp11 Translocation Cancers.

    PubMed

    Argani, Pedram; Zhong, Minghao; Reuter, Victor E; Fallon, John T; Epstein, Jonathan I; Netto, George J; Antonescu, Cristina R

    2016-06-01

    Xp11 translocation cancers include Xp11 translocation renal cell carcinoma (RCC), Xp11 translocation perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa), and melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancer. In Xp11 translocation cancers, oncogenic activation of TFE3 is driven by the fusion of TFE3 with a number of different gene partners; however, the impact of individual fusion variant on specific clinicopathologic features of Xp11 translocation cancers has not been well defined. In this study, we analyze 60 Xp11 translocation cancers by fluorescence in situ hybridization using custom bacterial artificial chromosome probes to establish their TFE3 fusion gene partner. In 5 cases RNA sequencing was also used to further characterize the fusion transcripts. The 60 Xp11 translocation cancers included 47 Xp11 translocation RCC, 8 Xp11 translocation PEComas, and 5 melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers. A fusion partner was identified in 53/60 (88%) cases, including 18 SFPQ (PSF), 16 PRCC, 12 ASPSCR1 (ASPL), 6 NONO, and 1 DVL2. We provide the first morphologic description of the NONO-TFE3 RCC, which frequently demonstrates subnuclear vacuoles leading to distinctive suprabasal nuclear palisading. Similar subnuclear vacuolization was also characteristic of SFPQ-TFE3 RCC, creating overlapping features with clear cell papillary RCC. We also describe the first RCC with a DVL2-TFE3 gene fusion, in addition to an extrarenal pigmented PEComa with a NONO-TFE3 gene fusion. Furthermore, among neoplasms with the SFPQ-TFE3, NONO-TFE3, DVL2-TFE3, and ASPL-TFE3 gene fusions, the RCCs are almost always PAX8 positive, cathepsin K negative by immunohistochemistry, whereas the mesenchymal counterparts (Xp11 translocation PEComas, melanotic Xp11 translocation renal cancers, and alveolar soft part sarcoma) are PAX8 negative, cathepsin K positive. These findings support the concept that despite an identical gene fusion, the RCCs are distinct from the corresponding mesenchymal neoplasms, perhaps due to

  19. A Critical Reassessment of Penetratin Translocation Across Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Bárány-Wallje, Elsa; Keller, Sandro; Serowy, Steffen; Geibel, Sebastian; Pohl, Peter; Bienert, Michael; Dathe, Margitta

    2005-01-01

    Penetratin is a short, basic cell-penetrating peptide able to induce cellular uptake of a vast variety of large, hydrophilic cargos. We have reassessed the highly controversial issue of direct permeation of the strongly cationic peptide across negatively charged lipid membranes. Confocal laser scanning microscopy on rhodamine-labeled giant vesicles incubated with carboxyfluorescein-labeled penetratin yielded no evidence of transbilayer movement, in contradiction to previously reported results. Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy on black lipid membranes confirmed this finding, which was also not affected by application of a transmembrane electric potential difference. A novel dialysis assay based on tryptophan absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy demonstrated that the permeability of small and large unilamellar vesicles to penetratin is <10−13 m/s. Taken together, the results show that penetratin is not capable of overcoming model membrane systems irrespective of the bilayer curvature or the presence of a transmembrane voltage. Thus, direct translocation across the hydrophobic core of the plasma membrane cannot account for the efficient uptake of penetratin into live cells, which is in accord with recent in vitro studies underlining the importance of endocytosis in the internalization process of cationic cell-penetrating peptides. PMID:16040762

  20. Suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation.

    PubMed

    Germano, Jennifer M; Bishop, Phillip J

    2009-02-01

    Translocations are important tools in the field of conservation. Despite increased use over the last few decades, the appropriateness of translocations for amphibians and reptiles has been debated widely over the past 20 years. To provide a comprehensive evaluation of the suitability of amphibians and reptiles for translocation, we reviewed the results of amphibian and reptile translocation projects published between 1991 and 2006. The success rate of amphibian and reptile translocations reported over this period was twice that reported in an earlier review in 1991. Success and failure rates were independent of the taxonomic class (Amphibia or Reptilia) released. Reptile translocations driven by human-wildlife conflict mitigation had a higher failure rate than those motivated by conservation, and more recent projects of reptile translocations had unknown outcomes. The outcomes of amphibian translocations were significantly related to the number of animals released, with projects releasing over 1000 individuals being most successful. The most common reported causes of translocation failure were homing and migration of introduced individuals out of release sites and poor habitat. The increased success of amphibian and reptile translocations reviewed in this study compared with the 1991 review is encouraging for future conservation projects. Nevertheless, more preparation, monitoring, reporting of results, and experimental testing of techniques and reintroduction questions need to occur to improve translocations of amphibians and reptiles as a whole.

  1. Rapid kinetics of endocytosis at rod photoreceptor synapses depends upon endocytic load and calcium.

    PubMed

    Cork, Karlene M; Thoreson, Wallace B

    2014-05-01

    Release from rods is triggered by the opening of L-type Ca2+ channels that lie beneath synaptic ribbons. After exocytosis, vesicles are retrieved by compensatory endocytosis. Previous work showed that endocytosis is dynamin-dependent in rods but dynamin-independent in cones. We hypothesized that fast endocytosis in rods may also differ from cones in its dependence upon the amount of Ca2+ influx and/or endocytic load. We measured exocytosis and endocytosis from membrane capacitance (C m) changes evoked by depolarizing steps in voltage clamped rods from tiger salamander retinal slices. Similar to cones, the time constant for endocytosis in rods was quite fast, averaging <200 ms. We manipulated Ca2+ influx and the amount of vesicle release by altering the duration and voltage of depolarizing steps. Unlike cones, endocytosis kinetics in rods slowed after increasing Ca2+ channel activation with longer step durations or more strongly depolarized voltage steps. Endocytosis kinetics also slowed as Ca2+ buffering was decreased by replacing BAPTA (10 or 1 mM) with the slower Ca2+ buffer EGTA (5 or 0.5 mM) in the pipette solution. These data provide further evidence that endocytosis mechanisms differ in rods and cones and suggest that endocytosis in rods is regulated by both endocytic load and local Ca2+ levels.

  2. Rapid kinetics of endocytosis at rod photoreceptor synapses depends upon endocytic load and calcium

    PubMed Central

    CORK, KARLENE M.; THORESON, WALLACE B.

    2015-01-01

    Release from rods is triggered by the opening of L-type Ca2+ channels that lie beneath synaptic ribbons. After exocytosis, vesicles are retrieved by compensatory endocytosis. Previous work showed that endocytosis is dynamin-dependent in rods but dynamin-independent in cones. We hypothesized that fast endocytosis in rods may also differ from cones in its dependence upon the amount of Ca2+ influx and/or endocytic load. We measured exocytosis and endocytosis from membrane capacitance (Cm) changes evoked by depolarizing steps in voltage clamped rods from tiger salamander retinal slices. Similar to cones, the time constant for endocytosis in rods was quite fast, averaging <200 ms. We manipulated Ca2+ influx and the amount of vesicle release by altering the duration and voltage of depolarizing steps. Unlike cones, endocytosis kinetics in rods slowed after increasing Ca2+ channel activation with longer step durations or more strongly depolarized voltage steps. Endocytosis kinetics also slowed as Ca2+ buffering was decreased by replacing BAPTA (10 or 1 mM) with the slower Ca2+ buffer EGTA (5 or 0.5 mM) in the pipette solution. These data provide further evidence that endocytosis mechanisms differ in rods and cones and suggest that endocytosis in rods is regulated by both endocytic load and local Ca2+ levels. PMID:24735554

  3. Human SCARB2-mediated entry and endocytosis of EV71.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yi-Wen; Lin, Hsiang-Yin; Tsou, Yueh-Liang; Chitra, Ebenezer; Hsiao, Kuang-Nan; Shao, Hsiao-Yun; Liu, Chia-Chyi; Sia, Charles; Chong, Pele; Chow, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    Enterovirus (EV) 71 infection is known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) and in severe cases, induces neurological disorders culminating in fatality. An outbreak of EV71 in South East Asia in 1997 affected over 120,000 people and caused neurological disorders in a few individuals. The control of EV71 infection through public health interventions remains minimal and treatments are only symptomatic. Recently, human scavenger receptor class B, member 2 (SCARB2) has been reported to be a cellular receptor of EV71. We expressed human SCARB2 gene in NIH3T3 cells (3T3-SCARB2) to study the mechanisms of EV71 entry and infection. We demonstrated that human SCARB2 serves as a cellular receptor for EV71 entry. Disruption of expression of SCARB2 using siRNAs can interfere EV71 infection and subsequent inhibit the expression of viral capsid proteins in RD and 3T3-SCARB2 but not Vero cells. SiRNAs specific to clathrin or dynamin or chemical inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis were all capable of interfering with the entry of EV71 into 3T3-SCARB2 cells. On the other hand, caveolin specific siRNA or inhibitors of caveolae-mediated endocytosis had no effect, confirming that only clathrin-mediated pathway was involved in EV71 infection. Endocytosis of EV71 was also found to be pH-dependent requiring endosomal acidification and also required intact membrane cholesterol. In summary, the mechanism of EV71 entry through SCARB2 as the receptor for attachment, and its cellular entry is through a clathrin-mediated and pH-dependent endocytic pathway. This study on the receptor and endocytic mechanisms of EV71 infection is useful for the development of effective medications and prophylactic treatment against the enterovirus.

  4. TRIM72 modulates caveolar endocytosis in repair of lung cells.

    PubMed

    Nagre, Nagaraja; Wang, Shaohua; Kellett, Thomas; Kanagasabai, Ragu; Deng, Jing; Nishi, Miyuki; Shilo, Konstantin; Oeckler, Richard A; Yalowich, Jack C; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Christman, John; Hubmayr, Rolf D; Zhao, Xiaoli

    2016-03-01

    Alveolar epithelial and endothelial cell injury is a major feature of the acute respiratory distress syndrome, in particular when in conjunction with ventilation therapies. Previously we showed [Kim SC, Kellett T, Wang S, Nishi M, Nagre N, Zhou B, Flodby P, Shilo K, Ghadiali SN, Takeshima H, Hubmayr RD, Zhao X. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 307: L449-L459, 2014.] that tripartite motif protein 72 (TRIM72) is essential for amending alveolar epithelial cell injury. Here, we posit that TRIM72 improves cellular integrity through its interaction with caveolin 1 (Cav1). Our data show that, in primary type I alveolar epithelial cells, lack of TRIM72 led to significant reduction of Cav1 at the plasma membrane, accompanied by marked attenuation of caveolar endocytosis. Meanwhile, lentivirus-mediated overexpression of TRIM72 selectively increases caveolar endocytosis in rat lung epithelial cells, suggesting a functional association between these two. Further coimmunoprecipitation assays show that deletion of either functional domain of TRIM72, i.e., RING, B-box, coiled-coil, or PRY-SPRY, abolishes the physical interaction between TRIM72 and Cav1, suggesting that all theoretical domains of TRIM72 are required to forge a strong interaction between these two molecules. Moreover, in vivo studies showed that injurious ventilation-induced lung cell death was significantly increased in knockout (KO) TRIM72(KO) and Cav1(KO) lungs compared with wild-type controls and was particularly pronounced in double KO mutants. Apoptosis was accompanied by accentuation of gross lung injury manifestations in the TRIM72(KO) and Cav1(KO) mice. Our data show that TRIM72 directly and indirectly modulates caveolar endocytosis, an essential process involved in repair of lung epithelial cells through removal of plasma membrane wounds. Given TRIM72's role in endomembrane trafficking and cell repair, we consider this molecule an attractive therapeutic target for patients with injured lungs.

  5. Arf6-Dependent Intracellular Trafficking of Pasteurella multocida Toxin and pH-Dependent Translocation from Late Endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Repella, Tana L.; Ho, Mengfei; Chong, Tracy P. M.; Bannai, Yuka; Wilson, Brenda A.

    2011-01-01

    The potent mitogenic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT) is the major virulence factor associated with a number of epizootic and zoonotic diseases caused by infection with this respiratory pathogen. PMT is a glutamine-specific protein deamidase that acts on its intracellular G-protein targets to increase intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal, and mitogenic signaling. PMT enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and then translocates into the cytosol through a pH-dependent process that is inhibited by NH4Cl or bafilomycin A1. However, the detailed mechanisms that govern cellular entry, trafficking, and translocation of PMT remain unclear. Co-localization studies described herein revealed that while PMT shares an initial entry pathway with transferrin (Tfn) and cholera toxin (CT), the trafficking pathways of Tfn, CT, and PMT subsequently diverge, as Tfn is trafficked to recycling endosomes, CT is trafficked retrograde to the ER, and PMT is trafficked to late endosomes. Our studies implicate the small regulatory GTPase Arf6 in the endocytic trafficking of PMT. Translocation of PMT from the endocytic vesicle occurs through a pH-dependent process that is also dependent on both microtubule and actin dynamics, as evidenced by inhibition of PMT activity in our SRE-based reporter assay, with nocodazole and cytochalasin D, respectively, suggesting that membrane translocation and cytotoxicity of PMT is dependent on its transfer to late endosomal compartments. In contrast, disruption of Golgi-ER trafficking with brefeldin A increased PMT activity, suggesting that inhibiting PMT trafficking to non-productive compartments that do not lead to translocation, while promoting formation of an acidic tubulovesicle system more conducive to translocation, enhances PMT translocation and activity. PMID:22053287

  6. Arf6-dependent intracellular trafficking of Pasteurella multocida toxin and pH-dependent translocation from late endosomes.

    PubMed

    Repella, Tana L; Ho, Mengfei; Chong, Tracy P M; Bannai, Yuka; Wilson, Brenda A

    2011-03-01

    The potent mitogenic toxin from Pasteurella multocida (PMT) is the major virulence factor associated with a number of epizootic and zoonotic diseases caused by infection with this respiratory pathogen. PMT is a glutamine-specific protein deamidase that acts on its intracellular G-protein targets to increase intracellular calcium, cytoskeletal, and mitogenic signaling. PMT enters cells through receptor-mediated endocytosis and then translocates into the cytosol through a pH-dependent process that is inhibited by NH(4)Cl or bafilomycin A1. However, the detailed mechanisms that govern cellular entry, trafficking, and translocation of PMT remain unclear. Co-localization studies described herein revealed that while PMT shares an initial entry pathway with transferrin (Tfn) and cholera toxin (CT), the trafficking pathways of Tfn, CT, and PMT subsequently diverge, as Tfn is trafficked to recycling endosomes, CT is trafficked retrograde to the ER, and PMT is trafficked to late endosomes. Our studies implicate the small regulatory GTPase Arf6 in the endocytic trafficking of PMT. Translocation of PMT from the endocytic vesicle occurs through a pH-dependent process that is also dependent on both microtubule and actin dynamics, as evidenced by inhibition of PMT activity in our SRE-based reporter assay, with nocodazole and cytochalasin D, respectively, suggesting that membrane translocation and cytotoxicity of PMT is dependent on its transfer to late endosomal compartments. In contrast, disruption of Golgi-ER trafficking with brefeldin A increased PMT activity, suggesting that inhibiting PMT trafficking to non-productive compartments that do not lead to translocation, while promoting formation of an acidic tubulovesicle system more conducive to translocation, enhances PMT translocation and activity.

  7. Cargo recognition during clathrin-mediated endocytosis: a team effort.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Alexander

    2004-08-01

    Transmembrane proteins destined to endosomes are selectively accumulated in clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane and rapidly internalized in clathrin-coated vesicles. The recognition of specific sequence motifs in transmembrane cargo by coated-pit proteins confers specificity on the endocytic process. Interaction of membrane cargo with the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2 is the major mechanism of cargo sorting into coated pits in mammalian cells. Recent studies have revealed a variety of alternative mechanisms of cargo recruitment involving additional adaptor proteins. These alternative mechanisms appear to be particularly important during clathrin-mediated endocytosis of signaling receptors.

  8. Actin filaments play a critical role in insulin-induced exocytotic recruitment but not in endocytosis of GLUT4 in isolated rat adipocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Omata, W; Shibata, H; Li, L; Takata, K; Kojima, I

    2000-01-01

    Actin-based cytoskeletons have been implicated in insulin-stimulated glucose transport and translocation of the insulin-regulated glucose transporter, GLUT4, from the intracellular pool to the plasma membrane. However, most previous studies were done using adherent cell systems such as L6 myotubes and 3T3-L1 adipocytes, and very little information is available on the significance of the actin filaments to the insulin action in isolated adipocytes, a widely used experimental system. In the present study, we investigated the physiological role of actin filaments in the subcellular trafficking of GLUT4 in isolated rat adipocytes. We first compared the effects of two actin-disrupting reagents, latrunculin A and cytochalasin D, on the organization of the actin filaments as well as on the insulin action on glucose transport by laser confocal microscopy combined with biochemical analysis of the insulin action. Treatment of the cells with latrunculin A induced dose- and time-dependent disappearance of the filamentous actin, which correlated very well with inhibition of the insulin effect on glucose transport. Although cytochalasin D at 50 microM significantly inhibited insulin-stimulated glucose transport, it was not effective in disassembly of the actin filaments; rather, many intense punctate signals were observed in cytochalasin D-treated cells. In the actin-disrupted adipocytes treated with latrunculin A, insulin-induced GLUT4 translocation was inhibited completely. In addition, latrunculin A remarkably inhibited both insulin-induced glucose transport and GLUT4 translocation in the presense of D(k)-(62-85), a potent inhibitor of GLUT4 endocytosis, suggesting that intactness of the actin filaments was necessary for insulin-induced exocytosis of the GLUT4-containing vesicles. On the other hand, latrunculin A showed little inhibitory effect on either endocytosis of the trypsin-cleaved 35-kDa fragment of GLUT4 or decay of the glucose transport activity after addition of

  9. Tubular proteinuria in patients with HNF1α mutations: HNF1α drives endocytosis in the proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Terryn, Sara; Tanaka, Karo; Lengelé, Jean-Philippe; Olinger, Eric; Dubois-Laforgue, Danièle; Garbay, Serge; Kozyraki, Renata; Van Der Smissen, Patrick; Christensen, Erik I; Courtoy, Pierre J; Bellanné-Chantelot, Christine; Timsit, José; Pontoglio, Marco; Devuyst, Olivier

    2016-05-01

    Hepatocyte nuclear factor 1α (HNF1α) is a transcription factor expressed in the liver, pancreas, and proximal tubule of the kidney. Mutations of HNF1α cause an autosomal dominant form of diabetes mellitus (MODY-HNF1A) and tubular dysfunction. To gain insights into the role of HNF1α in the proximal tubule, we analyzed Hnf1a-deficient mice. Compared with wild-type littermates, Hnf1a knockout mice showed low-molecular-weight proteinuria and a 70% decrease in the uptake of β2-microglobulin, indicating a major endocytic defect due to decreased expression of megalin/cubilin receptors. We identified several binding sites for HNF1α in promoters of Lrp2 and Cubn genes encoding megalin and cubilin, respectively. The functional interaction of HNF1α with these promoters was shown in C33 epithelial cells lacking endogenous HNF1α. Defective receptor-mediated endocytosis was confirmed in proximal tubule cells from these knockout mice and could be rescued by transfection of wild-type but not mutant HNF1α. Transfection of human proximal tubule HK2 cells with HNF1α was able to upregulate megalin and cubilin expression and to increase endocytosis of albumin. Low-molecular-weight proteinuria was consistently detected in individuals with HNF1A mutations compared with healthy controls and patients with non-MODY-HNF1A diabetes mellitus. Thus, HNF1α plays a key role in the constitutive expression of megalin and cubilin, hence regulating endocytosis in the proximal tubule of the kidney. These findings provide new insight into the renal phenotype of individuals with mutations of HNF1A.

  10. Nitrative DNA damage induced by multi-walled carbon nanotube via endocytosis in human lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Guo, Feiye; Ma, Ning; Horibe, Yoshiteru; Kawanishi, Shosuke; Murata, Mariko; Hiraku, Yusuke

    2012-04-15

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) has a promising usage in the field of material science for industrial purposes because of its unique physicochemical property. However, intraperitoneal administration of CNT was reported to cause mesothelioma in experimental animals. Chronic inflammation may contribute to carcinogenesis induced by fibrous materials. 8-Nitroguanine is a mutagenic DNA lesion formed during inflammation and may play a role in CNT-induced carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined 8-nitroguanine formation in A549 human lung alveolar epithelial cells treated with multi-walled CNT (MWCNT) by fluorescent immunocytochemistry. Both MWCNTs with diameter of 20-30 nm (CNT20) and 40-70 nm (CNT40) significantly induced 8-nitroguanine formation at 5 and 10 μg/ml (p<0.05), which persisted for 24h, although there was no significant difference in DNA-damaging abilities of these MWCNTs. MWCNTs significantly induced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) for 24 h (p<0.05). MWCNTs also significantly increased the level of nitrite, a hydrolysis product of oxidized NO, in the culture supernatant at 4 and 8 h (p<0.05). MWCNT-induced 8-nitroguanine formation and iNOS expression were largely suppressed by inhibitors of iNOS (1400 W), nuclear factor-κB (Bay11-7082), actin polymerization (cytochalasin D), caveolae-mediated endocytosis (methyl-β-cyclodextrin, MBCD) and clathrin-mediated endocytosis (monodansylcadaverine, MDC). Electron microscopy revealed that MWCNT was mainly located in vesicular structures in the cytoplasm, and its cellular internalization was reduced by MBCD and MDC. These results suggest that MWCNT is internalized into cells via clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis, leading to inflammatory reactions including iNOS expression and resulting nitrative DNA damage, which may contribute to carcinogenesis.

  11. Problems with mitigation translocation of herpetofauna.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Brian K; Nowak, Erika M; Kwiatkowski, Matthew A

    2015-02-01

    Mitigation translocation of nuisance animals is a commonly used management practice aimed at resolution of human-animal conflict by removal and release of an individual animal. Long considered a reasonable undertaking, especially by the general public, it is now known that translocated subjects are negatively affected by the practice. Mitigation translocation is typically undertaken with individual adult organisms and has a much lower success rate than the more widely practiced conservation translocation of threatened and endangered species. Nonetheless, the public and many conservation practitioners believe that because population-level conservation translocations have been successful that mitigation translocation can be satisfactorily applied to a wide variety of human-wildlife conflict situations. We reviewed mitigation translocations of reptiles, including our own work with 3 long-lived species (Gila monsters [Heloderma suspectum], Sonoran desert tortoises [Gopherus morafkai], and western diamond-backed rattlesnakes [Crotalus atrox]). Overall, mitigation translocation had a low success rate when judged either by effects on individuals (in all studies reviewed they exhibited increased movement or increased mortality) or by the success of the resolution of the human-animal conflict (translocated individuals often returned to the capture site). Careful planning and identification of knowledge gaps are critical to increasing success rates in mitigation translocations in the face of increasing pressure to find solutions for species threatened by diverse anthropogenic factors, including climate change and exurban and energy development.

  12. Inhibitor of p52 NF-κB subunit and androgen receptor (AR) interaction reduces growth of human prostate cancer cells by abrogating nuclear translocation of p52 and phosphorylated AR(ser81).

    PubMed

    Mehraein-Ghomi, Farideh; Church, Dawn R; Schreiber, Cynthia L; Weichmann, Ashley M; Basu, Hirak S; Wilding, George

    2015-09-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that androgen receptor (AR) activation and signaling plays a key role in growth and progression in all stages of prostate cancer, even under low androgen levels or in the absence of androgen in the castration-resistant prostate cancer. Sustained activation of AR under androgen-deprived conditions may be due to its interaction with co-activators, such as p52 NF-κB subunit, and/or an increase in its stability by phosphorylation that delays its degradation. Here we identified a specific inhibitor of AR/p52 interaction, AR/p52-02, via a high throughput screen based on the reconstitution of Gaussia Luciferase. We found that AR/p52-02 markedly inhibited growth of both castration-resistant C4-2 (IC50 ∼6 μM) and parental androgen-dependent LNCaP (IC50 ∼4 μM) human prostate cancer cells under low androgen conditions. Growth inhibition was associated with significantly reduced nuclear p52 levels and DNA binding activity, as well as decreased phosphorylation of AR at serine 81, increased AR ubiquitination, and decreased AR transcriptional activity as indicated by decreased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) mRNA levels in both cell lines. AR/p52-02 also caused a reduction in levels of p21(WAF/CIP1), which is a direct AR targeted gene in that its expression correlates with androgen stimulation and mitogenic proliferation in prostate cancer under physiologic levels of androgen, likely by disrupting the AR signaling axis. The reduced level of cyclinD1 reported previously for this compound may be due to the reduction in nuclear presence and activity of p52, which directly regulates cyclinD1 expression, as well as the reduction in p21(WAF/CIP1), since p21(WAF/CIP1) is reported to stabilize nuclear cyclinD1 in prostate cancer. Overall, the data suggest that specifically inhibiting the interaction of AR with p52 and blocking activity of p52 and pARser81 may be an effective means of reducing castration-resistant prostate cancer cell growth.

  13. Membrane Mechanics of Endocytosis in Cells with Turgor

    PubMed Central

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Nédélec, François

    2015-01-01

    Endocytosis is an essential process by which cells internalize a piece of plasma membrane and material from the outside. In cells with turgor, pressure opposes membrane deformations, and increases the amount of force that has to be generated by the endocytic machinery. To determine this force, and calculate the shape of the membrane, we used physical theory to model an elastic surface under pressure. Accurate fits of experimental profiles are obtained assuming that the coated membrane is highly rigid and preferentially curved at the endocytic site. The forces required from the actin machinery peaks at the onset of deformation, indicating that once invagination has been initiated, endocytosis is unlikely to stall before completion. Coat proteins do not lower the initiation force but may affect the process by the curvature they induce. In the presence of isotropic curvature inducers, pulling the tip of the invagination can trigger the formation of a neck at the base of the invagination. Hence direct neck constriction by actin may not be required, while its pulling role is essential. Finally, the theory shows that anisotropic curvature effectors stabilize membrane invaginations, and the loss of crescent-shaped BAR domain proteins such as Rvs167 could therefore trigger membrane scission. PMID:26517669

  14. Membrane Mechanics of Endocytosis in Cells with Turgor.

    PubMed

    Dmitrieff, Serge; Nédélec, François

    2015-10-01

    Endocytosis is an essential process by which cells internalize a piece of plasma membrane and material from the outside. In cells with turgor, pressure opposes membrane deformations, and increases the amount of force that has to be generated by the endocytic machinery. To determine this force, and calculate the shape of the membrane, we used physical theory to model an elastic surface under pressure. Accurate fits of experimental profiles are obtained assuming that the coated membrane is highly rigid and preferentially curved at the endocytic site. The forces required from the actin machinery peaks at the onset of deformation, indicating that once invagination has been initiated, endocytosis is unlikely to stall before completion. Coat proteins do not lower the initiation force but may affect the process by the curvature they induce. In the presence of isotropic curvature inducers, pulling the tip of the invagination can trigger the formation of a neck at the base of the invagination. Hence direct neck constriction by actin may not be required, while its pulling role is essential. Finally, the theory shows that anisotropic curvature effectors stabilize membrane invaginations, and the loss of crescent-shaped BAR domain proteins such as Rvs167 could therefore trigger membrane scission.

  15. Dynamin, a GTPase involved in the initial stages of endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Vallee, R B; Herskovits, J S; Aghajanian, J G; Burgess, C C; Shpetner, H S

    1993-01-01

    Dynamin is a high molecular mass (100 kDa) GTPase which binds to and co-purifies with microtubules. Molecular cloning of rat brain dynamin has revealed the three well-established consensus sequence elements for GTP binding within the N-terminal third of the protein, as well as sequence similarity within this region to the interferon-inducible antiviral Mx proteins, the product of the yeast membrane sorting gene VPS1, and the product of the yeast mitochondrial replication gene MGM1. More extensive sequence similarity between rat dynamin and the product of the Drosophila gene shibire, which is involved in endocytosis, has also been found. In in vitro assays microtubules strongly stimulate the dynamin GTPase. This effect can be reversed by removal of the dynamin C-terminus using papain, which abolishes microtubule binding. Overexpression of mutant forms of dynamin in vivo using Cos-7 cells inhibits transferrin uptake and alters the distribution of clathrin and of alpha-adaptin, but not gamma-adaptin. Deletion of the C-terminus of mutant forms of dynamin abolishes these effects. Together these results suggest a critical role for dynamin in the early stages of endocytosis. It is uncertain whether microtubules interact with dynamin in vivo or whether the in vitro effects of microtubules mimic the effects of other regulatory elements in vivo.

  16. Spatial encoding of cyclic AMP signalling specificity by GPCR endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Tsvetanova, Nikoleta G.; von Zastrow, Mark

    2014-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are well known to signal via cyclic AMP (cAMP) production at the plasma membrane, but it is now clear that various GPCRs also signal after internalization. Apart from its temporal impact through prolonging the cellular response, does the endosome-initiated signal encode any discrete spatial information? Using the beta2-adrenoceptor (β2-AR) as a model, we show that endocytosis is required for the full repertoire of downstream cAMP-dependent transcriptional control. Next, we describe an orthogonal optogenetic approach to definitively establish that the location of cAMP production is indeed the critical variable determining the transcriptional response. Finally, our results suggest that this spatial encoding scheme helps cells functionally discriminate chemically distinct β2-AR ligands according to differences in their ability to promote receptor endocytosis. These findings reveal a discrete principle for achieving cellular signalling specificity, based on endosome-mediated spatial encoding of intracellular second messenger production and ‘location aware’ downstream transcriptional control. PMID:25362359

  17. Transferrin: Endocytosis and Cell Signaling in Parasitic Protozoa

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Luna, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Iron is the fourth most abundant element on Earth and the most abundant metal in the human body. This element is crucial for life because almost all organisms need iron for several biological activities. This is the case with pathogenic organisms, which are at the vanguard in the battle with the human host for iron. The latest regulates Fe concentration through several iron-containing proteins, such as transferrin. The transferrin receptor transports iron to each cell that needs it and maintains it away from pathogens. Parasites have developed several strategies to obtain iron as the expression of specific transferrin receptors localized on plasma membrane, internalized through endocytosis. Signal transduction pathways related to the activation of the receptor have functional importance in proliferation. The study of transferrin receptors and other proteins with action in the signaling networks is important because these proteins could be used as therapeutic targets due to their specificity or to differences with the human counterpart. In this work, we describe proteins that participate in signal transduction processes, especially those that involve transferrin endocytosis, and we compare these processes with those found in T. brucei, T. cruzi, Leishmania spp., and E. histolytica parasites. PMID:26090431

  18. cDNA sequence of a human skeletal muscle ADP/ATP translocator: lack of a leader peptide, divergence from a fibroblast translocator cDNA, and coevolution with mitochondrial DNA genes

    SciTech Connect

    Neckelmann, N.; Li, K.; Wade, R.P.; Shuster, R.; Wallace, D.C.

    1987-11-01

    The authors have characterized a 1400-nucleotide cDNA for the human skeletal muscle ADP/ATP translocator. The deduced amino acid sequence is 94% homologous to the beef heart ADP/ATP translocator protein and contains only a single additional amino-terminal methionine. This implies that the human translocator lacks an amino-terminal targeting peptide, a conclusion substantiated by measuring the molecular weight of the protein synthesized in vitro. A 1400-nucleotide transcript encoding the skeletal muscle translocator was detected on blots of total RNA from human heart, kidney, skeletal muscle, and HeLa cells by hybridization with oligonucleotide probes homologous to the coding region and 3' noncoding region of the cDNA. However, the level of this mRNA varied substantially among tissues. Comparison of our skeletal muscle translocator sequence with that of a recently published human fibroblast translocator cognate revealed that the two proteins are 88% identical and diverged about 275 million years ago. Hence, tissues vary both in the level of expression of individual translocator genes and in differential expression of cognate translocator genes. Comparison of the base substitution rates of the ADP/ATP translocator and the oxidative phosphorylation genes encoded by mitochondrial DNA revealed that the mitochondrial DNA genes fix 10 times more synonymous substitutions and 12 times more replacement substitutions; yet, these nuclear and cytoplasmic respiration genes experience comparable evolutionary constraints. This suggest that the mitochondrial DNA genes are highly prone to deleterious mutations.

  19. Bile acids reduce endocytosis of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) in HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Röhrl, Clemens; Eigner, Karin; Fruhwürth, Stefanie; Stangl, Herbert

    2014-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) transports lipids to hepatic cells and the majority of HDL-associated cholesterol is destined for biliary excretion. Cholesterol is excreted into the bile directly or after conversion to bile acids, which are also present in the plasma as they are effectively reabsorbed through the enterohepatic cycle. Here, we provide evidence that bile acids affect HDL endocytosis. Using fluorescent and radiolabeled HDL, we show that HDL endocytosis was reduced in the presence of high concentrations of taurocholate, a natural non-cell-permeable bile acid, in human hepatic HepG2 and HuH7 cells. In contrast, selective cholesteryl-ester (CE) uptake was increased. Taurocholate exerted these effects extracellularly and independently of HDL modification, cell membrane perturbation or blocking of endocytic trafficking. Instead, this reduction of endocytosis and increase in selective uptake was dependent on SR-BI. In addition, cell-permeable bile acids reduced HDL endocytosis by farnesoid X receptor (FXR) activation: chenodeoxycholate and the non-steroidal FXR agonist GW4064 reduced HDL endocytosis, whereas selective CE uptake was unaltered. Reduced HDL endocytosis by FXR activation was independent of SR-BI and was likely mediated by impaired expression of the scavenger receptor cluster of differentiation 36 (CD36). Taken together we have shown that bile acids reduce HDL endocytosis by transcriptional and non-transcriptional mechanisms. Further, we suggest that HDL endocytosis and selective lipid uptake are not necessarily tightly linked to each other.

  20. Endocytosis of megalin by visceral endoderm cells requires the Dab2 adaptor protein.

    PubMed

    Maurer, Meghan E; Cooper, Jonathan A

    2005-11-15

    Rapid endocytosis of lipoprotein receptors involves NPxY signals contained in their cytoplasmic tails. Several proteins, including ARH and Dab2, can bind these sequences, but their importance for endocytosis may vary in different cell types. The lipoprotein receptor megalin is expressed in the visceral endoderm (VE), a polarized epithelium that supplies maternal nutrients to the early mammalian embryo. Dab2 is also expressed in the VE, and is required for embryo growth and gastrulation. Here, we show that ARH is absent from the VE, and Dab2 is required for uptake of megalin, its co-receptor cubilin, and a cubilin ligand, transferrin, from the brush border of the VE into intracellular vesicles. By making isoform-specific knock-in mice, we show that the p96 splice form of Dab2, which binds endocytic proteins, can fully rescue endocytosis. The more abundant p67 isoform, which lacks some endocytic protein binding sites, only partly rescues endocytosis. Endocytosis of cubilin is also impaired in VE and in mid-gestation visceral yolk sac when p96 is absent. These studies suggest that Dab2 p96 mediates endocytosis of megalin in the VE. In addition, rescue of embryonic viability correlates with endocytosis, suggesting that endocytosis mediated by Dab2 is important for normal development.

  1. CCN1 Induces β-Catenin Translocation in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Integrin α11.

    PubMed

    Chai, Jianyuan; Modak, Cristina; Ouyang, Yi; Wu, Sing-Yung; Jamal, M Mazen

    2012-01-01

    Aims. Nuclear translocation of β-catenin is common in many cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). As a mediator of Wnt signaling pathway, nuclear β-catenin can activate many growth-related genes including CCN1, which in turn can induce β-catenin translocation. CCN1, a matricellular protein, signals through various integrin receptors in a cell-dependent manner to regulate cell adhesion, proliferation, and survival. Its elevation has been reported in ESCC as well as other esophageal abnormalities such as Barrett's esophagus. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between CCN1 and β-catenin in ESCC. Methods and Results. The expression and correlation between CCN1 and β-catenin in ESCC tissue were examined through immunohistochemistry and further analyzed in both normal esophageal epithelial cells and ESCC cells through microarray, functional blocking and in situ protein ligation. We found that nuclear translocation of β-catenin in ESCC cells required high level of CCN1 as knockdown of CCN1 in ESCC cells reduced β-catenin expression and translocation. Furthermore, we found that integrin α(11) was highly expressed in ESCC tumor tissue and functional blocking integrin α(11) diminished CCN1-induced β-catenin elevation and translocation. Conclusions. Integrin α(11) mediated the effect of CCN1 on β-catenin in esophageal epithelial cells.

  2. Visualizing the endocytosis of phenylephrine in living cells by quantum dot-based tracking.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Wu, Lina; Hou, Zhun; Song, Yao; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Wei

    2014-08-01

    To study the intracellular receptor-drug transportation, a fluorescent probe consisting of phenylephrine-polyethylene glycol-quantum dots conjugate was employed to track endocytosis process of phenylephrine in living cells. This type of movement was studied by continuously filming fluorescent images in the same cell. We also calculated the movement parameters, and divided the endocytosis process into 6 stages. Furthermore, the movement parameters of this probe in different organelles were determined by co-localization of the probe fluorescent images and different cellular organelles. After comparing the parameters in cellular organelles with these in 6 stages, the whole endocytosis pathway was demonstrated. These results verified that this probe successfully tracked the whole intracellular dynamic endocytosis process of phenylephrine. Our method realized the visual tracking the whole receptor-mediated endocytosis, which is a new approach on investigating the molecular mechanisms and kinetic properties of intracellular receptor-drug transportation.

  3. Adapting for endocytosis: roles for endocytic sorting adaptors in directing neural development

    PubMed Central

    Yap, Chan Choo; Winckler, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Proper cortical development depends on the orchestrated actions of a multitude of guidance receptors and adhesion molecules and their downstream signaling. The levels of these receptors on the surface and their precise locations can greatly affect guidance outcomes. Trafficking of receptors to a particular surface locale and removal by endocytosis thus feed crucially into the final guidance outcomes. In addition, endocytosis of receptors can affect downstream signaling (both quantitatively and qualitatively) and regulated endocytosis of guidance receptors is thus an important component of ensuring proper neural development. We will discuss the cell biology of regulated endocytosis and the impact on neural development. We focus our discussion on endocytic accessory proteins (EAPs) (such as numb and disabled) and how they regulate endocytosis and subsequent post-endocytic trafficking of their cognate receptors (such as Notch, TrkB, β-APP, VLDLR, and ApoER2). PMID:25904845

  4. Adapting for endocytosis: roles for endocytic sorting adaptors in directing neural development.

    PubMed

    Yap, Chan Choo; Winckler, Bettina

    2015-01-01

    Proper cortical development depends on the orchestrated actions of a multitude of guidance receptors and adhesion molecules and their downstream signaling. The levels of these receptors on the surface and their precise locations can greatly affect guidance outcomes. Trafficking of receptors to a particular surface locale and removal by endocytosis thus feed crucially into the final guidance outcomes. In addition, endocytosis of receptors can affect downstream signaling (both quantitatively and qualitatively) and regulated endocytosis of guidance receptors is thus an important component of ensuring proper neural development. We will discuss the cell biology of regulated endocytosis and the impact on neural development. We focus our discussion on endocytic accessory proteins (EAPs) (such as numb and disabled) and how they regulate endocytosis and subsequent post-endocytic trafficking of their cognate receptors (such as Notch, TrkB, β-APP, VLDLR, and ApoER2).

  5. Notch Ligand Endocytosis Generates Mechanical Pulling Force Dependent on Dynamin, Epsins and Actin

    PubMed Central

    Meloty-Kapella, Laurence; Shergill, Bhupinder; Kuon, Jane; Botvinick, Elliot; Weinmaster, Gerry

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Notch signaling induced by cell surface ligands is critical to development and maintenance of many eukaryotic organisms. Notch and its ligands are integral membrane proteins that facilitate direct cell-cell interactions to activate Notch proteolysis and release the intracellular domain that directs Notch-specific cellular responses. Genetic studies suggest Notch ligands require endocytosis, ubiquitylation and epsin endocytic adaptors to activate signaling, yet the exact role ligand endocytosis serves remains unresolved. Here we characterize a molecularly distinct mode of clathrin-mediated endocytosis requiring ligand ubiquitylation, epsins and actin for ligand cells to activate signaling in Notch cells. Using a cell-bead optical tweezers system, we obtained evidence for cell-mediated mechanical force dependent on this distinct mode of ligand endocytosis. We propose mechanical pulling force produced by endocytosis of Notch-bound ligand drives conformational changes in Notch that permit activating proteolysis. PMID:22658936

  6. Polymer translocation through nanopore into active bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Mingfeng; Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2016-11-01

    Polymer translocation through nanopores into a crowded environment is of ubiquitous importance in many biological processes. Here we investigate polymer translocation through a nanopore into an active bath of self-propelled particles in two-dimensional space using Langevin dynamics simulations. Interestingly, we find that the mean translocation time <" separators=" τ > can show a bell-shape dependence on the particle activity Fa at a fixed volume fraction ϕ, indicating that the translocation process may become slower for small activity compared to the case of the passive media, and only when the particle activity becomes large enough can the translocation process be accelerated. In addition, we also find that <" separators=" τ > can show a minimum as a function of ϕ if the particle activity is large enough, implying that an intermediate volume fraction of active particles is most favorable for the polymer translocation. Detailed analysis reveals that such nontrivial behaviors result from the two-fold effect of active bath: one that active particles tend to accumulate near the pore, providing an extra pressure hindering the translocation, and the other that they also aggregate along the polymer chain, generating an effective pulling force accelerating the translocation. Such results demonstrate that active bath plays rather subtle roles on the polymer translocation process.

  7. Active Polymer Translocation through Flickering Pores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Jack A.; Chaudhuri, Abhishek; Golestanian, Ramin

    2011-12-01

    Single file translocation of a homopolymer through an active channel under the presence of a driving force is studied using Langevin dynamics simulation. It is shown that a channel with sticky walls and oscillating width could lead to significantly more efficient translocation as compared to a static channel that has a width equal to the mean width of the oscillating pore. The gain in translocation exhibits a strong dependence on the stickiness of the pore, which could allow the polymer translocation process to be highly selective.

  8. Haloarchaeal Protein Translocation via the Twin Arginine Translocation Pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Pohlschroder Mechthild

    2009-02-03

    Protein transport across hydrophobic membranes that partition cellular compartments is essential in all cells. The twin arginine translocation (Tat) pathway transports proteins across the prokaryotic cytoplasmic membranes. Distinct from the universally conserved Sec pathway, which secretes unfolded proteins, the Tat machinery is unique in that it secretes proteins in a folded conformation, making it an attractive pathway for the transport and secretion of heterologously expressed proteins that are Sec-incompatible. During the past 7 years, the DOE-supported project has focused on the characterization of the diversity of bacterial and archaeal Tat substrates as well as on the characterization of the Tat pathway of a model archaeon, Haloferax volcanii, a member of the haloarchaea. We have demonstrated that H. volcanii uses this pathway to transport most of its secretome.

  9. A morphometric study of the endocytosis of wheat germ agglutinin-horseradish peroxidase conjugates by retinal ganglion cells in the rat.

    PubMed

    Trojanowski, J Q; Gonatas, N K

    1983-08-08

    In order to elucidate the sequence for the intraneuronal translocation of ligands after internalization in vivo, the adsorptive endocytosis of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugates of the lectin wheat germ agglutinin (WGHRP) by retinal ganglion cells of the rat was studied by ultrastructural morphometry after intravitreal injections of this probe. Retinas were harvested at post-injection survival times of 15 min to 7 days and processed for the electron microscopic visualization of WGHRP in subcellular organelles. The labeled organelles included vesicles, tubules, lysosomes and the cisterns and coated as well as uncoated vesicles of GERL (Golgi Apparatus-Endoplasmic-Reticulum-Lysosomes). For quantitation, labeled organelles were classed as vesicles, lysosomes and GERL. From 15 min to 3 h the number of labeled GERL and vesicles progressively increased to a maximum at 3 h and then declined to zero by 7 days. In contrast, the number of labeled lysosomes continued to increase beyond 3 h to reach a maximum at 24 h before declining to near zero by 7 days. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that the adsorptive endocytosis of WGHRP entails the passage of the ligand through GERL prior to being deposited in lysosomes. They do not exclude the possibility that other endocytic pathways for WGHRP and possible WGHRP-membrane complexes may exist in retinal ganglion cells including a plasma membrane to lysosome route.

  10. DNA ligase III promotes alternative nonhomologous end-joining during chromosomal translocation formation.

    PubMed

    Simsek, Deniz; Brunet, Erika; Wong, Sunnie Yan-Wai; Katyal, Sachin; Gao, Yankun; McKinnon, Peter J; Lou, Jacqueline; Zhang, Lei; Li, James; Rebar, Edward J; Gregory, Philip D; Holmes, Michael C; Jasin, Maria

    2011-06-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the primary DNA repair pathway thought to underlie chromosomal translocations and other genomic rearrangements in somatic cells. The canonical NHEJ pathway, including DNA ligase IV (Lig4), suppresses genomic instability and chromosomal translocations, leading to the notion that a poorly defined, alternative NHEJ (alt-NHEJ) pathway generates these rearrangements. Here, we investigate the DNA ligase requirement of chromosomal translocation formation in mouse cells. Mammals have two other DNA ligases, Lig1 and Lig3, in addition to Lig4. As deletion of Lig3 results in cellular lethality due to its requirement in mitochondria, we used recently developed cell lines deficient in nuclear Lig3 but rescued for mitochondrial DNA ligase activity. Further, zinc finger endonucleases were used to generate DNA breaks at endogenous loci to induce translocations. Unlike with Lig4 deficiency, which causes an increase in translocation frequency, translocations are reduced in frequency in the absence of Lig3. Residual translocations in Lig3-deficient cells do not show a bias toward use of pre-existing microhomology at the breakpoint junctions, unlike either wild-type or Lig4-deficient cells, consistent with the notion that alt-NHEJ is impaired with Lig3 loss. By contrast, Lig1 depletion in otherwise wild-type cells does not reduce translocations or affect microhomology use. However, translocations are further reduced in Lig3-deficient cells upon Lig1 knockdown, suggesting the existence of two alt-NHEJ pathways, one that is biased toward microhomology use and requires Lig3 and a back-up pathway which does not depend on microhomology and utilizes Lig1.

  11. DNA Ligase III Promotes Alternative Nonhomologous End-Joining during Chromosomal Translocation Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sunnie Yan-Wai; Katyal, Sachin; Gao, Yankun; McKinnon, Peter J.; Lou, Jacqueline; Zhang, Lei; Li, James; Rebar, Edward J.; Gregory, Philip D.; Holmes, Michael C.; Jasin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) is the primary DNA repair pathway thought to underlie chromosomal translocations and other genomic rearrangements in somatic cells. The canonical NHEJ pathway, including DNA ligase IV (Lig4), suppresses genomic instability and chromosomal translocations, leading to the notion that a poorly defined, alternative NHEJ (alt-NHEJ) pathway generates these rearrangements. Here, we investigate the DNA ligase requirement of chromosomal translocation formation in mouse cells. Mammals have two other DNA ligases, Lig1 and Lig3, in addition to Lig4. As deletion of Lig3 results in cellular lethality due to its requirement in mitochondria, we used recently developed cell lines deficient in nuclear Lig3 but rescued for mitochondrial DNA ligase activity. Further, zinc finger endonucleases were used to generate DNA breaks at endogenous loci to induce translocations. Unlike with Lig4 deficiency, which causes an increase in translocation frequency, translocations are reduced in frequency in the absence of Lig3. Residual translocations in Lig3-deficient cells do not show a bias toward use of pre-existing microhomology at the breakpoint junctions, unlike either wild-type or Lig4-deficient cells, consistent with the notion that alt-NHEJ is impaired with Lig3 loss. By contrast, Lig1 depletion in otherwise wild-type cells does not reduce translocations or affect microhomology use. However, translocations are further reduced in Lig3-deficient cells upon Lig1 knockdown, suggesting the existence of two alt-NHEJ pathways, one that is biased toward microhomology use and requires Lig3 and a back-up pathway which does not depend on microhomology and utilizes Lig1. PMID:21655080

  12. Nuclear translocation and DNA-binding activity of NFKB (NF-kappaB) after exposure of human monocytes to pulsed ultra-wideband electromagnetic fields (1 kV/cm) fails to transactivate kappaB-dependent gene expression.

    PubMed

    Natarajan, M; Nayak, B K; Galindo, C; Mathur, S P; Roldan, F N; Meltz, M L

    2006-06-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether exposure of human monocytes to a pulsed ultra-wideband electromagnetic field (EMF) of 1 kV/cm average peak power triggers a signaling pathway responsible for the transcriptional regulation of NFKB (NF-kappaB)-dependent gene expression. Human Mono Mac 6 (MM6) cells were exposed intermittently to EMF pulses for a total of 90 min. The pulse width was 0.79+/-0.01 ns and the pulse repetition rate was 250 pps. The temperature of the medium was maintained at 37 degrees C in both sham- and EMF-exposed flasks. Total NFKB DNA-binding activity was measured in the nuclear extracts by the electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Cells exposed to the EMFs and incubated for 24 h postexposure showed a 3.5+/-0.2-fold increase in the NFKB DNA-binding activity. Since activation of NFKB was observed, the possibility of kappaB-dependent gene expression in response to exposure to the EMFs was investigated using NFKB signal-specific gene arrays. The results revealed no difference in the NFKB-dependent gene expression profiles at 8 or 24 h postexposure, indicating that activated NFKB does not lead to the differential expression of kappaB-dependent target genes. To determine whether the absence of the kappaB-dependent gene expression was due to compromised transcriptional regulation of NFKB, the functional activity of NFKB was examined in cells transiently transfected with Mercury Pathway constructs containing 4x NFKB binding sites associated either with the luciferase reporter system or a control vector. Pulsed EMF exposure did not induce NFKB-driven luciferase activity in these cells, indicating that the activation of NFKB at 24 h after the 1 kV/cm EMF exposure is functionally inactive. From these results, it is clear that the EMF-induced NFKB activation is only a transient response, with minimal or no downstream effect.

  13. Growth factor deprivation induces cytosolic translocation of SIRT1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Chengbo; Xing, Da; Wu, Shengnan; Huang, Lei

    2010-02-01

    Sirtuin type 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+-dependent histone deacetylases, plays a critical role in cellular senescence, aging and longevity. In general, SIRT1 is localized in nucleus and is believed as a nuclear protein. Though overexpression of SIRT1 delays senescence, SIRT1-protein levels decline naturally in thymus and heart during aging. In the present studies, we investigated the subcellular localization of SIRT1 in response to growth factor deprivation in African green monkey SV40-transformed kidney fibroblast cells (COS-7). Using SIRT1-EGFP fluorescence reporter, we found that SIRT1 localized to nucleus in physiological conditions. We devised a model enabling cell senescence via growth factor deprivation, and we found that SIRT1 partially translocated to cytosol under the treatment, suggesting a reduced level of SIRT1's activity. We found PI3K/Akt pathway was involved in the inhibition of SIRT1's cytosolic translocation, because inhibition of these kinases significantly decreased the amount of SIRT1 maintained in nucleus. Taken together, we demonstrated that growth factor deprivation induces cytosolic translocation of SIRT1, which suggesting a possible connection between cytoplasm-localized SIRT1 and the aging process.

  14. Phosphorus Compounds in Translocating Phloem

    PubMed Central

    Bieleski, R. L.

    1969-01-01

    Phosphate-32P was introduced into a turnip leaf, and 3 hr later, the vascular bundles were stripped from the petiole and their phosphate ester pattern was studied. The pattern did not alter along their length and was like that of other tissues. Pumpkin leaves were painted with phosphate-32P; and later, the petioles were cut, the sieve tube exudates were collected and their phosphate ester patterns were studied. Exudates collected after 10 min had a high proportion of their 32P present in Pi and nucleoside triphosphates, while exudates collected after long translocation times (4-22 hr) had a lower proportion in these, and a higher proportion in hexose monophosphates and UDP glucose. In general, the ester patterns were like those of other tissues. The results indicate that sieve tubes are metabolically active, and that Pi is the primary form in which phosphorus moves in the phloem. Images PMID:16657091

  15. Ikarugamycin: A Natural Product Inhibitor of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Elkin, Sarah R.; Oswald, Nathaniel W.; Reed, Dana K.; Mettlen, Marcel; MacMillan, John B.; Schmid, Sandra L.

    2017-01-01

    Ikarugamycin (IKA) is a previously discovered antibiotic, which has been shown to inhibit the uptake of oxidized low-density lipoproteins in macrophages. Furthermore, several groups have previously used IKA to inhibit clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) in plant cell lines. However, detailed characterization of IKA has yet to be performed. Consequently, we performed biochemistry and microscopy experiments to further characterize the effects of IKA on CME. We show that IKA has an IC50 of 2.7 µm in H1299 cells and acutely inhibits CME, but not other endocytic pathways, in a panel of cell lines. Although long-term incubation with IKA has cytotoxic effects, the short-term inhibitory effects on CME are reversible. Thus, IKA can be a useful tool for probing routes of endocytic trafficking. PMID:27392092

  16. Endocytosis and Recycling of Tight Junction Proteins in Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Utech, Markus; Mennigen, Rudolf; Bruewer, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    A critical function of the epithelial lining is to form a barrier that separates luminal contents from the underlying interstitium. This barrier function is primarily regulated by the apical junctional complex (AJC) consisting of tight junctions (TJs) and adherens junctions (AJs) and is compromised under inflammatory conditions. In intestinal epithelial cells, proinflammatory cytokines, for example, interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), induce internalization of TJ proteins by endocytosis. Endocytosed TJ proteins are passed into early and recycling endosomes, suggesting the involvement of recycling of internalized TJ proteins. This review summarizes mechanisms by which TJ proteins under inflammatory conditions are internalized in intestinal epithelial cells and point out comparable mechanism in nonintestinal epithelial cells. PMID:20011071

  17. Imaging and Modeling the Dynamics of Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Mettlen, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) plays a central role in cellular homeostasis and is mediated by clathrin-coated pits (CCPs). Live-cell imaging has revealed a remarkable heterogeneity in CCP assembly kinetics, which can be used as an intrinsic source of mechanistic information on CCP regulation but also poses several major problems for unbiased analysis of CME dynamics. The backbone of unveiling the molecular control of CME is an imaging-based inventory of the full diversity of individual CCP behaviors, which requires detection and tracking of structural fiduciaries and regulatory proteins with an accuracy of >99.9%, despite very low signals. This level of confidence can only be achieved by combining appropriate imaging modalities with self-diagnostic computational algorithms for image analysis and data mining. PMID:25167858

  18. Endocytosis of simian virus 40 into the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    The endocytosis of SV-40 into CV-1 cells we studied using biochemical and ultrastructural techniques. The half-time of binding of [35S]methionine-radiolabeled SV-40 to CV-1 cells was 25 min. Most of the incoming virus particles remained undegraded for several hours. Electron microscopy showed that some virus entered the endosomal/lysosomal pathway via coated vesicles, while the majority were endocytosed via small uncoated vesicles. After infection at high multiplicity, one third of total cell-associated virus was observed to enter the ER, starting 1-2 h after virus application. The viruses were present in large, tubular, smooth membrane networks generated as extentions of the ER. The results describe a novel and unique membrane transport pathway that allows endocytosed viral particles to be targeted from the plasma membrane to the ER. PMID:2556405

  19. Temperature effect on endocytosis and exocytosis by rabbit alveolar macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Tomoda, H.; Kishimoto, Y.; Lee, Y.C. )

    1989-09-15

    Endocytosis of 125I-mannose-bovine serum albumin (BSA) and exocytosis of {sup 125}I-mannose-poly-D-lysine by rabbit alveolar macrophages were examined as a function of temperature. A plot for total ligand uptake (cell-associated ligand plus degraded ligand) versus time shows a single inflection point at 20{degrees}C. Ligand degradation does not occur below 20{degrees}C. Internalization of surface-bound {sup 125}I-mannose-BSA is negligible below 10{degrees}C. The rate constant for internalization increases dramatically above 20{degrees}C: 0.02 min-1 at 20{degrees}C, 0.05 min-1 at 25 degrees C, 0.13 min-1 at 30{degrees}C, and 0.29 min-1 at 35{degrees}C. {sup 125}I-Mannose-N-acetyl-poly-D-lysine preloaded in lysosomes is exocytosed in a temperature and time-dependent fashion. Even at lower temperatures (2-10{degrees}C), secretion of {sup 125}I-mannose-N-acetyl-poly-D-lysine was detected, indicating that movement of lysosomal content to plasma membrane and beyond cannot be suppressed at these temperatures. Thus, the temperature dependence of exocytosis of an {sup 125}I-labeled ligand is quite different from that of endocytosis, suggesting that the two processes are controlled by different mechanisms. Stimulation of secretion of preloaded {sup 125}I-mannose-N-acetyl-poly-D-lysine by mannose-BSA was more pronounced at lower temperatures with a sharp inflection point at 10{degrees}C. These findings suggest that endosomes containing newly internalized mannose-BSA interact with the exocytosis pathway and enhance secretion of {sup 125}I-mannose-N-acetyl-poly-D-lysine from lysosomes.

  20. Hepatitis C virus infection impairs IRF-7 translocation and Alpha interferon synthesis in immortalized human hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Raychoudhuri, Amit; Shrivastava, Shubham; Steele, Robert; Dash, Srikanta; Kanda, Tatsuo; Ray, Ranjit; Ray, Ratna B

    2010-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) establishes chronic infection in a significant number of infected humans, although the mechanisms for chronicity remain largely unknown. We have previously shown that HCV infection in immortalized human hepatocytes (IHH) induces beta interferon (IFN-β) expression (T. Kanda, R. Steele, R. Ray, and R. B. Ray, J. Virol. 81:12375-12381, 2007). However, the regulation of the downstream signaling pathway for IFN-α production by HCV is not clearly understood. In this study, the regulation of the IFN signaling pathway following HCV genotype 1a (clone H77) or genotype 2a (clone JFH1) infection of IHH was examined. HCV infection upregulated expression of total STAT1 but failed to induce phosphorylation and efficient nuclear translocation. Subsequent study revealed that HCV infection induces IFN-stimulated response element activation, as evidenced by upregulation of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1. However, nuclear translocation of IRF-7 was impaired following HCV infection. In HCV-infected IHH, IFN-α expression initially increased (up to 24 h) and then decreased at later time points, and IFN-α-inducible protein 27 was not induced. Interestingly, HCV infection blocked IRF-7 nuclear translocation upon poly(I-C) or IFN-α treatment of IHH. Together, our data suggest that HCV infection enhances STAT1 expression but impairs nuclear translocation of IRF-7 and its downstream molecules. These impairments in the IFN-α signaling pathway may, in part, be responsible for establishment of chronic HCV infection.

  1. Cooperative endocytosis of the endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1.

    PubMed

    Renigunta, Vijay; Fischer, Thomas; Zuzarte, Marylou; Kling, Stefan; Zou, Xinle; Siebert, Kai; Limberg, Maren M; Rinné, Susanne; Decher, Niels; Schlichthörl, Günter; Daut, Jürgen

    2014-06-15

    The endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 interacts with the acid-sensitive potassium channel TASK-1. The functional relevance of this interaction was studied by heterologous expression of these proteins (and mutants thereof) in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cell lines. Coexpression of syntaxin-8 caused a fourfold reduction in TASK-1 current, a corresponding reduction in the expression of TASK-1 at the cell surface, and a marked increase in the rate of endocytosis of the channel. TASK-1 and syntaxin-8 colocalized in the early endosomal compartment, as indicated by the endosomal markers 2xFYVE and rab5. The stimulatory effect of the SNARE protein on the endocytosis of the channel was abolished when both an endocytosis signal in TASK-1 and an endocytosis signal in syntaxin-8 were mutated. A syntaxin-8 mutant that cannot assemble with other SNARE proteins had virtually the same effect as wild-type syntaxin-8. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed formation and endocytosis of vesicles containing fluorescence-tagged clathrin, TASK-1, and/or syntaxin-8. Our results suggest that the unassembled form of syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1 are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a cooperative manner. This implies that syntaxin-8 regulates the endocytosis of TASK-1. Our study supports the idea that endosomal SNARE proteins can have functions unrelated to membrane fusion.

  2. Isoform-specific monoubiquitination, endocytosis, and degradation of alternatively spliced ErbB4 isoforms.

    PubMed

    Sundvall, Maria; Korhonen, Anna; Paatero, Ilkka; Gaudio, Eugenio; Melino, Gerry; Croce, Carlo M; Aqeilan, Rami I; Elenius, Klaus

    2008-03-18

    Endocytosis and subsequent lysosomal degradation serve as a well characterized mechanism to fine-tune and down-regulate EGFR signaling. However, other members of the EGFR/ErbB receptor family have been reported to be endocytosis-impaired. Here we demonstrate that endocytosis of ErbB4 is regulated in an isoform-specific manner: CYT-1 isoforms were efficiently endocytosed whereas CYT-2 isoforms were endocytosis-impaired. CYT-1 isoforms in endocytic vesicles colocalized with Rab5 and Rab7 indicating trafficking via early endosomes to late endosomal/lysosomal structures. A PPXY motif within the CYT-1-specific sequence that lacks from CYT-2 was necessary both for ubiquitination and endocytosis of CYT-1 isoforms and provided a binding site for a WW domain-containing ubiquitin ligase Itch. Itch catalyzed ubiquitination of ErbB4 CYT-1, promoted its localization into intracellular vesicles, and stimulated degradation of ErbB4 CYT-1. Dominant negative Itch suppressed ErbB4 CYT-1 endocytosis and degradation. These data indicate that ErbB4 isoforms differ in endocytosis and degradation by a mechanism mediated by CYT-1-specific PPXY motif interacting with a WW domain-containing E3 ubiquitin ligase.

  3. Ezetimibe-sensitive cholesterol uptake by NPC1L1 protein does not require endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tory A.; Pfeffer, Suzanne R.

    2016-01-01

    Human NPC1L1 protein mediates cholesterol absorption in the intestine and liver and is the target of the drug ezetimibe, which is used to treat hypercholesterolemia. Previous studies concluded that NPC1L1-GFP protein trafficking is regulated by cholesterol binding and that ezetimibe blocks NPC1L1-GFP function by inhibiting its endocytosis. We used cell surface biotinylation to monitor NPC1L1-GFP endocytosis and show that ezetimibe does not alter the rate of NPC1L1-GFP endocytosis in cultured rat hepatocytes grown under normal growth conditions. As expected, NPC1L1-GFP endocytosis depends in part on C-terminal, cytoplasmically oriented sequences, but endocytosis does not require cholesterol binding to NPC1L1’s N-terminal domain. In addition, two small- molecule inhibitors of general (and NPC1L1-GFP) endocytosis failed to inhibit the ezetimibe-sensitive uptake of [3H]cholesterol from taurocholate micelles. These experiments demonstrate that cholesterol uptake by NPC1L1 does not require endocytosis; moreover, ezetimibe interferes with NPC1L1’s cholesterol adsorption activity without blocking NPC1L1 internalization in RH7777 cells. PMID:27075173

  4. Endocytosis and membrane receptor internalization: implication of F-BAR protein Carom.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yanjie; Xia, Jixiang; Liu, Suxuan; Stein, Sam; Ramon, Cueto; Xi, Hang; Wang, Luqiao; Xiong, Xinyu; Zhang, Lixiao; He, Dingwen; Yang, William; Zhao, Xianxian; Cheng, Xiaoshu; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Hong

    2017-03-01

    Endocytosis is a cellular process mostly responsible for membrane receptor internalization. Cell membrane receptors bind to their ligands and form a complex which can be internalized. We previously proposed that F-BAR protein initiates membrane curvature and mediates endocytosis via its binding partners. However, F-BAR protein partners involved in membrane receptor endocytosis and the regulatory mechanism remain unknown. In this study, we established database mining strategies to explore mechanisms underlying receptor-related endocytosis. We identified 34 endocytic membrane receptors and 10 regulating proteins in clathrin-dependent endocytosis (CDE), a major process of membrane receptor internalization. We found that F-BAR protein FCHSD2 (Carom) may facilitate endocytosis via 9 endocytic partners. Carom is highly expressed, along with highly expressed endocytic membrane receptors and partners, in endothelial cells and macrophages. We established 3 models of Carom-receptor complexes and their intracellular trafficking based on protein interaction and subcellular localization. We conclude that Carom may mediate receptor endocytosis and transport endocytic receptors to the cytoplasm for receptor signaling and lysosome/proteasome degradation, or to the nucleus for RNA processing, gene transcription and DNA repair.

  5. Cooperative endocytosis of the endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1

    PubMed Central

    Renigunta, Vijay; Fischer, Thomas; Zuzarte, Marylou; Kling, Stefan; Zou, Xinle; Siebert, Kai; Limberg, Maren M.; Rinné, Susanne; Decher, Niels; Schlichthörl, Günter; Daut, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    The endosomal SNARE protein syntaxin-8 interacts with the acid-sensitive potassium channel TASK-1. The functional relevance of this interaction was studied by heterologous expression of these proteins (and mutants thereof) in Xenopus oocytes and in mammalian cell lines. Coexpression of syntaxin-8 caused a fourfold reduction in TASK-1 current, a corresponding reduction in the expression of TASK-1 at the cell surface, and a marked increase in the rate of endocytosis of the channel. TASK-1 and syntaxin-8 colocalized in the early endosomal compartment, as indicated by the endosomal markers 2xFYVE and rab5. The stimulatory effect of the SNARE protein on the endocytosis of the channel was abolished when both an endocytosis signal in TASK-1 and an endocytosis signal in syntaxin-8 were mutated. A syntaxin-8 mutant that cannot assemble with other SNARE proteins had virtually the same effect as wild-type syntaxin-8. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy showed formation and endocytosis of vesicles containing fluorescence-tagged clathrin, TASK-1, and/or syntaxin-8. Our results suggest that the unassembled form of syntaxin-8 and the potassium channel TASK-1 are internalized via clathrin-mediated endocytosis in a cooperative manner. This implies that syntaxin-8 regulates the endocytosis of TASK-1. Our study supports the idea that endosomal SNARE proteins can have functions unrelated to membrane fusion. PMID:24743596

  6. A role for the dynamin-like protein Vps1 during endocytosis in yeast.

    PubMed

    Smaczynska-de Rooij, Iwona I; Allwood, Ellen G; Aghamohammadzadeh, Soheil; Hettema, Ewald H; Goldberg, Martin W; Ayscough, Kathryn R

    2010-10-15

    Dynamins are a conserved family of proteins involved in membrane fusion and fission. Although mammalian dynamins are known to be involved in several membrane-trafficking events, the role of dynamin-1 in endocytosis is the best-characterised role of this protein family. Despite many similarities between endocytosis in yeast and mammalian cells, a comparable role for dynamins in yeast has not previously been demonstrated. The reported lack of involvement of dynamins in yeast endocytosis has raised questions over the general applicability of the current yeast model of endocytosis, and has also precluded studies using well-developed methods in yeast, to further our understanding of the mechanism of dynamin function during endocytosis. Here, we investigate the yeast dynamin-like protein Vps1 and demonstrate a transient burst of localisation to sites of endocytosis. Using live-cell imaging of endocytic reporters in strains lacking vps1, and also electron microscopy and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate a role for Vps1 in facilitating endocytic invagination. Vps1 mutants were generated, and analysis in several assays reveals a role for the C-terminal self-assembly domain in endocytosis but not in other membrane fission events with which Vps1 has previously been associated.

  7. Developmental changes in Ca2+ channel subtypes regulating endocytosis at the calyx of Held.

    PubMed

    Midorikawa, Mitsuharu; Okamoto, Yuji; Sakaba, Takeshi

    2014-08-15

    At the mammalian central synapse, Ca(2+) influx through Ca(2+) channels triggers neurotransmitter release by exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, which fuse with the presynaptic membrane and are subsequently retrieved by endocytosis. At the calyx of Held terminal, P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels mainly mediate exocytosis, while N- and R-type channels have a minor role in young terminals (postnatal days 8-11). The role of each Ca(2+) channel subtype in endocytosis remains to be elucidated; therefore, we examined the role of each type of Ca(2+) channel in endocytosis, by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in conjunction with capacitance measurement techniques. We found that at the young calyx terminal, when R-type Ca(2+) channels were blocked, the slow mode of endocytosis was further slowed, while blocking of either P/Q- or N-type Ca(2+) channels had no major effect. In more mature terminals (postnatal days 14-17), the slow mode of endocytosis was mainly triggered by P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels, suggesting developmental changes in the regulation of the slow mode of endocytosis by different Ca(2+) channel subtypes. In contrast, a fast mode of endocytosis was observed after strong stimulation in young terminals that was mediated mainly by P/Q-type, but not R- or N-type Ca(2+) channels. These results suggest that different types of Ca(2+) channels regulate the two different modes of endocytosis. The results may also suggest that exo- and endocytosis are regulated independently at different sites in young animals but are more tightly coupled in older animals, allowing more efficient synaptic vesicle cycling adapted for fast signalling.

  8. Akt recruits Dab2 to albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Koral, Kelly; Li, Hui; Ganesh, Nandita; Birnbaum, Morris J; Hallows, Kenneth R; Erkan, Elif

    2014-12-15

    Proximal tubule epithelial cells have a highly sophisticated endocytic machinery to retrieve the albumin in the glomerular filtrate. The megalin-cubilin complex and the endocytic adaptor disabled-2 (Dab2) play a pivotal role in albumin endocytosis. We previously demonstrated that protein kinase B (Akt) regulates albumin endocytosis in the proximal tubule through an interaction with Dab2. Here, we examined the nature of Akt-Dab2 interaction. The pleckstrin homology (PH) and catalytic domains (CD) of Akt interacted with the proline-rich domain (PRD) of Dab2 based on yeast-two hybrid (Y2H) experiments. Pull-down experiments utilizing the truncated constructs of Dab2 demonstrated that the initial 11 amino acids of Dab2-PRD were sufficient to mediate the interaction between Akt and Dab2. Endocytosis experiments utilizing Akt1- and Akt2-silencing RNA revealed that both Akt1 and Akt2 mediate albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells; therefore, Akt1 and Akt2 may play a compensatory role in albumin endocytosis. Furthermore, both Akt isoforms phosphorylated Dab2 at Ser residues 448 and 449. Ser-to-Ala mutations of these Dab2 residues inhibited albumin endocytosis and resulted in a shift in location of Dab2 from the peripheral to the perinuclear area, suggesting the physiological relevance of these phosphorylation sites in albumin endocytosis. We conclude that both Akt1 and Akt2 are involved in albumin endocytosis, and phosphorylation of Dab2 by Akt induces albumin endocytosis in proximal tubule epithelial cells. Further delineation of how Akt affects expression/phosphorylation of endocytic adaptors and receptors will enhance our understanding of the molecular network triggered by albumin overload in the proximal tubule.

  9. Ultrasound Microbubble Treatment Enhances Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis and Fluid-Phase Uptake through Distinct Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Fekri, Farnaz; Delos Santos, Ralph Christian; Karshafian, Raffi

    2016-01-01

    Drug delivery to tumors is limited by several factors, including drug permeability of the target cell plasma membrane. Ultrasound in combination with microbubbles (USMB) is a promising strategy to overcome these limitations. USMB treatment elicits enhanced cellular uptake of materials such as drugs, in part as a result of sheer stress and formation of transient membrane pores. Pores formed upon USMB treatment are rapidly resealed, suggesting that other processes such as enhanced endocytosis may contribute to the enhanced material uptake by cells upon USMB treatment. How USMB regulates endocytic processes remains incompletely understood. Cells constitutively utilize several distinct mechanisms of endocytosis, including clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) for the internalization of receptor-bound macromolecules such as Transferrin Receptor (TfR), and distinct mechanism(s) that mediate the majority of fluid-phase endocytosis. Tracking the abundance of TfR on the cell surface and the internalization of its ligand transferrin revealed that USMB acutely enhances the rate of CME. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy experiments revealed that USMB treatment altered the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, the basic structural units of CME. In addition, the rate of fluid-phase endocytosis was enhanced, but with delayed onset upon USMB treatment relative to the enhancement of CME, suggesting that the two processes are distinctly regulated by USMB. Indeed, vacuolin-1 or desipramine treatment prevented the enhancement of CME but not of fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB, suggesting that lysosome exocytosis and acid sphingomyelinase, respectively, are required for the regulation of CME but not fluid phase endocytosis upon USMB treatment. These results indicate that USMB enhances both CME and fluid phase endocytosis through distinct signaling mechanisms, and suggest that strategies for potentiating the enhancement of endocytosis upon USMB treatment may improve targeted

  10. Developmental changes in Ca2+ channel subtypes regulating endocytosis at the calyx of Held

    PubMed Central

    Midorikawa, Mitsuharu; Okamoto, Yuji; Sakaba, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    At the mammalian central synapse, Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ channels triggers neurotransmitter release by exocytosis of synaptic vesicles, which fuse with the presynaptic membrane and are subsequently retrieved by endocytosis. At the calyx of Held terminal, P/Q-type Ca2+ channels mainly mediate exocytosis, while N- and R-type channels have a minor role in young terminals (postnatal days 8–11). The role of each Ca2+ channel subtype in endocytosis remains to be elucidated; therefore, we examined the role of each type of Ca2+ channel in endocytosis, by using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings in conjunction with capacitance measurement techniques. We found that at the young calyx terminal, when R-type Ca2+ channels were blocked, the slow mode of endocytosis was further slowed, while blocking of either P/Q- or N-type Ca2+ channels had no major effect. In more mature terminals (postnatal days 14–17), the slow mode of endocytosis was mainly triggered by P/Q-type Ca2+ channels, suggesting developmental changes in the regulation of the slow mode of endocytosis by different Ca2+ channel subtypes. In contrast, a fast mode of endocytosis was observed after strong stimulation in young terminals that was mediated mainly by P/Q-type, but not R- or N-type Ca2+ channels. These results suggest that different types of Ca2+ channels regulate the two different modes of endocytosis. The results may also suggest that exo- and endocytosis are regulated independently at different sites in young animals but are more tightly coupled in older animals, allowing more efficient synaptic vesicle cycling adapted for fast signalling. PMID:24907302

  11. Intergenomic translocations in unisexual salamanders of the genus Ambystoma (Amphibia, Caudata).

    PubMed

    Bi, K; Bogart, J P; Fu, J

    2007-01-01

    Intergenomic interactions that include homoeologous recombinations and intergenomic translocations are commonly observed in plant allopolyploids. Homoeologous recombinations have recently been documented in unisexual salamanders in the genus Ambystoma and revealed exchanged chromosomal segments between A. laterale and A.jeffersonianum genomes in individual unisexuals. We discovered intergenomic translocations in two widespread unisexual triploids A.laterale--2 jeffersonianum (or LJJ) and its tetraploid derivative A.laterale--3 jeffersonianum (or LJJJ) by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). Two different types of intergenomic translocations were observed in two unisexual populations and one contained novel chromosomes generated by an intergenomic reciprocal translocation. We also observed chromosome deletions in several individuals and these chromosome fragmentations were all derived from the A. jeffersonianum genome. These observed intergenomic reciprocal translocations are believed to be caused by non-homologous pairing during meiosis followed by breakage-rejoining events. Genomes of unisexual Ambystoma undergo complicated structural changes that include various intergenomic exchanges that offer unisexuals genetic and phenotypic complexity to escape their evolutionary demise. Unisexual Ambystoma have persisted as natural nuclear genomic hybrids for about four million years. These unisexuals provide a vertebrate model system to examine the interaction of distinct genomes and to evaluate the corresponding genetic, developmental and evolutionary implications of intergenomic exchanges. Intergenomic translocations and homoeologous recombinations appear to be frequent chromosome reconstruction events among unisexual Ambystoma.

  12. A luminescent assay for real-time measurements of receptor endocytosis in living cells.

    PubMed

    Robers, Matthew B; Binkowski, Brock F; Cong, Mei; Zimprich, Chad; Corona, Cesear; McDougall, Mark; Otto, George; Eggers, Christopher T; Hartnett, Jim; Machleidt, Thomas; Fan, Frank; Wood, Keith V

    2015-11-15

    Ligand-mediated endocytosis is a key autoregulatory mechanism governing the duration and intensity of signals emanating from cell surface receptors. Due to the mechanistic complexity of endocytosis and its emerging relevance in disease, simple methods capable of tracking this dynamic process in cells have become increasingly desirable. We have developed a bioluminescent reporter technology for real-time analysis of ligand-mediated receptor endocytosis using genetic fusions of NanoLuc luciferase with various G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). This method is compatible with standard microplate formats, which should decrease work flows for high-throughput screens. This article also describes the application of this technology to endocytosis of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), demonstrating potential applicability of the method beyond GPCRs.

  13. Recording the dynamic endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles by AFM-based force tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Bohua; Tian, Yongmei; Pan, Yangang; Shan, Yuping; Cai, Mingjun; Xu, Haijiao; Sun, Yingchun; Wang, Hongda

    2015-04-01

    We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly.We utilized force tracing to directly record the endocytosis of single gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) with different sizes, revealing the size-dependent endocytosis dynamics and the crucial role of membrane cholesterol. The force, duration and velocity of Au NP invagination are accurately determined at the single-particle and microsecond level unprecedentedly. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details of the experimental procedures and the results of the control experiments. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr01020a

  14. VAMP4 Is an Essential Cargo Molecule for Activity-Dependent Bulk Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Nicholson-Fish, Jessica C; Kokotos, Alexandros C; Gillingwater, Thomas H; Smillie, Karen J; Cousin, Michael A

    2015-12-02

    The accurate formation of synaptic vesicles (SVs) and incorporation of their protein cargo during endocytosis is critical for the maintenance of neurotransmission. During intense neuronal activity, a transient and acute accumulation of SV cargo occurs at the plasma membrane. Activity-dependent bulk endocytosis (ADBE) is the dominant SV endocytosis mode under these conditions; however, it is currently unknown how ADBE mediates cargo retrieval. We examined the retrieval of different SV cargo molecules during intense stimulation using a series of genetically encoded pH-sensitive reporters in neuronal cultures. The retrieval of only one reporter, VAMP4-pHluorin, was perturbed by inhibiting ADBE. This selective recovery was confirmed by the enrichment of endogenous VAMP4 in purified bulk endosomes formed by ADBE. VAMP4 was also essential for ADBE, with a cytoplasmic di-leucine motif being critical for this role. Therefore, VAMP4 is the first identified ADBE cargo and is essential for this endocytosis mode to proceed.

  15. A cell-free biochemical complementation assay reveals complex and redundant cytosolic requirements for LRP endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Miwako, Ishido; Schmid, Sandra L

    2006-05-01

    The low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) binds multiple, distinct ligands and participates in constitutive endocytosis and signal transduction. Using an in vitro reconstitution system and a new biochemical complementation assay, we have explored the limiting cytosolic requirements for endocytosis of LRP from isolated plasma membranes. We find that clathrin, AP2 and dynamin do not support efficient LRP uptake and that additional factors present in a 30% ammonium sulfate supernatant fraction of bovine brain cytosol (AS supt) are required. Fractionation of the AS supt revealed that multiple and redundant factors are required to support LRP endocytosis. Among these, we identified Hsc70, synaptojanin1 and CRMP-2 by mass spectrometry. Our data suggest that LRP, which bears several distinct endocytic motifs in its cytoplasmic domain, may use multiple pathways for endocytosis in vitro.

  16. Sensing the delivery and endocytosis of nanoparticles using magneto-photo-acoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Qu, M.; Mehrmohammadi, M.; Emelianov, S.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Many biomedical applications necessitate a targeted intracellular delivery of the nanomaterial to specific cells. Therefore, a non-invasive and reliable imaging tool is required to detect both the delivery and cellular endocytosis of the nanoparticles. Herein, we demonstrate that magneto-photo-acoustic (MPA) imaging can be used to monitor the delivery and to identify endocytosis of magnetic and optically absorbing nanoparticles. The relationship between photoacoustic (PA) and magneto-motive ultrasound (MMUS) signals from the in vitro samples were analyzed to identify the delivery and endocytosis of nanoparticles. The results indicated that during the delivery of nanoparticles to the vicinity of the cells, both PA and MMUS signals are almost linearly proportional. However, accumulation of nanoparticles within the cells leads to nonlinear MMUS-PA relationship, due to non-linear MMUS signal amplification. Therefore, through longitudinal MPA imaging, it is possible to monitor the delivery of nanoparticles and identify the endocytosis of the nanoparticles by living cells. PMID:26640773

  17. ALG-2 interacting protein-X (Alix) is essential for clathrin-independent endocytosis and signaling

    PubMed Central

    Mercier, Vincent; Laporte, Marine H.; Destaing, Olivier; Blot, Béatrice; Blouin, Cédric M.; Pernet-Gallay, Karin; Chatellard, Christine; Saoudi, Yasmina; Albiges-Rizo, Corinne; Lamaze, Christophe; Fraboulet, Sandrine; Petiot, Anne; Sadoul, Rémy

    2016-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms and the biological functions of clathrin independent endocytosis (CIE) remain largely elusive. Alix (ALG-2 interacting protein X), has been assigned roles in membrane deformation and fission both in endosomes and at the plasma membrane. Using Alix ko cells, we show for the first time that Alix regulates fluid phase endocytosis and internalization of cargoes entering cells via CIE, but has no apparent effect on clathrin mediated endocytosis or downstream endosomal trafficking. We show that Alix acts with endophilin-A to promote CIE of cholera toxin and to regulate cell migration. We also found that Alix is required for fast endocytosis and downstream signaling of the interleukin-2 receptor giving a first indication that CIE is necessary for activation of at least some surface receptors. In addition to characterizing a new function for Alix, our results highlight Alix ko cells as a unique tool to unravel the biological consequences of CIE. PMID:27244115

  18. Molecular Mechanisms for the Coupling of Endocytosis to Exocytosis in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhenli; Long, Jiangang; Liu, Jiankang; Chai, Zuying; Kang, Xinjiang; Wang, Changhe

    2017-01-01

    Neuronal communication and brain function mainly depend on the fundamental biological events of neurotransmission, including the exocytosis of presynaptic vesicles (SVs) for neurotransmitter release and the subsequent endocytosis for SV retrieval. Neurotransmitters are released through the Ca2+- and SNARE-dependent fusion of SVs with the presynaptic plasma membrane. Following exocytosis, endocytosis occurs immediately to retrieve SV membrane and fusion machinery for local recycling and thus maintain the homeostasis of synaptic structure and sustained neurotransmission. Apart from the general endocytic machinery, recent studies have also revealed the involvement of SNARE proteins (synaptobrevin, SNAP25 and syntaxin), synaptophysin, Ca2+/calmodulin, and members of the synaptotagmin protein family (Syt1, Syt4, Syt7 and Syt11) in the balance and tight coupling of exo-endocytosis in neurons. Here, we provide an overview of recent progress in understanding how these neuron-specific adaptors coordinate to ensure precise and efficient endocytosis during neurotransmission. PMID:28348516

  19. Bradykinin Release Avoids High Molecular Weight Kininogen Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Fabio D.; Souza, Daianne S. P.; Araujo, Mariana S.; Souza, Sinval E. G.; Sampaio, Misako U.; Nader, Helena B.; Tersariol, Ivarne L. S.; Motta, Guacyara

    2015-01-01

    Human H-kininogen (120 kDa) plays a role in many pathophysiological processes and interacts with the cell surface through protein receptors and proteoglycans, which mediate H-kininogen endocytosis. In the present work we demonstrate that H-kininogen containing bradykinin domain is internalized and different endogenous kininogenases are present in CHO-K1 cells. We used CHO-K1 (wild type) and CHO-745 (mutant deficient in proteoglycans biosynthesis) cell lines. H-kininogen endocytosis was studied using confocal microscopy, and its hydrolysis by cell lysate fraction was determined by immunoblotting. Bradykinin release was also measured by radioimmunoassay. H-kininogen interaction with the cell surface of CHO-745 cells resulted in bradykinin release by serine proteases. In CHO-K1 cells, which produce heparan and chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, internalization of H-kininogen through its bradykinin domain can occur on lipid raft domains/caveolae. Nevertheless bradykinin-free H-kininogen was not internalized by CHO-K1 cells. The H-kininogen present in acidic endosomal vesicles in CHO-K1 was approximately 10-fold higher than the levels in CHO-745. CHO-K1 lysate fractions were assayed at pH 5.5 and intact H-kininogen was totally hydrolyzed into a 62 kDa fragment. By contrast, at an assay pH 7.4, the remained fragments were 115 kDa, 83 kDa, 62 kDa and 48 kDa in size. The antipain-Sepharose chromatography separated endogenous kininogenases from CHO-K1 lysate fraction. No difference was detected in the assays at pH 5.5 or 7.4, but the proteins in the fraction bound to the resin released bradykinin from H-kininogen. However, the proteins in the unbound fraction cleaved intact H-kininogen at other sites but did not release bradykinin. H-kininogen can interact with extravascular cells, and is internalized dependent on its bradykinin domain and cell surface proteoglycans. After internalization, H-kininogen is proteolytically processed by intracellular kininogenases. The present

  20. Actin-Based Feedback Circuits in Cell Migration and Endocytosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xinxin

    In this thesis, we study the switch and pulse functions of actin during two important cellular processes, cell migration and endocytosis. Actin is an abundant protein that can polymerize to form a dendritic network. The actin network can exert force to push or bend the cell membrane. During cell migration, the actin network behaves like a switch, assembling mostly at one end or at the other end. The end with the majority of the actin network is the leading edge, following which the cell can persistently move in the same direction. The other end, with the minority of the actin network, is the trailing edge, which is dragged by the cell as it moves forward. When subjected to large fluctuations or external stimuli, the leading edge and the trailing edge can interchange and change the direction of motion, like a motion switch. Our model of the actin network in a cell reveals that mechanical force is crucial for forming the motion switch. We find a transition from single state symmetric behavior to switch behavior, when tuning parameters such as the force. The model is studied by both stochastic simulations, and a set of rate equations that are consistent with the simulations. Endocytosis is a process by which cells engulf extracellular substances and recycle the cell membrane. In yeast cells, the actin network is transiently needed to overcome the pressure difference across the cell membrane caused by turgor pressure. The actin network behaves like a pulse, which assembles and then disassembles within about 30 seconds. Using a stochastic model, we reproduce the pulse behaviors of the actin network and one of its regulatory proteins, Las17. The model matches green fluorescence protein (GFP) experiments for wild-type cells. The model also predicts some phenotypes that modify or diminish the pulse behavior. The phenotypes are verified with both experiments performed at Washington University and with other groups' experiments. We find that several feedback mechanisms are

  1. The Measles Virus Receptor SLAMF1 Can Mediate Particle Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Gonçalves-Carneiro, Daniel; McKeating, Jane A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The signaling lymphocyte activation molecule F1 (SLAMF1) is both a microbial sensor and entry receptor for measles virus (MeV). Herein, we describe a new role for SLAMF1 to mediate MeV endocytosis that is in contrast with the alternative, and generally accepted, model that MeV genome enters cells only after fusion at the cell surface. We demonstrated that MeV engagement of SLAMF1 induces dramatic but transient morphological changes, most prominently in the formation of membrane blebs, which were shown to colocalize with incoming viral particles, and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton in infected cells. MeV infection was dependent on these dynamic cytoskeletal changes as well as fluid uptake through a macropinocytosis-like pathway as chemical inhibition of these processes inhibited entry. Moreover, we identified a role for the RhoA-ROCK-myosin II signaling axis in this MeV internalization process, highlighting a novel role for this recently characterized pathway in virus entry. Our study shows that MeV can hijack a microbial sensor normally involved in bacterial phagocytosis to drive endocytosis using a complex pathway that shares features with canonical viral macropinocytosis, phagocytosis, and mechanotransduction. This uptake pathway is specific to SLAMF1-positive cells and occurs within 60 min of viral attachment. Measles virus remains a significant cause of mortality in human populations, and this research sheds new light on the very first steps of infection of this important pathogen. IMPORTANCE Measles is a significant disease in humans and is estimated to have killed over 200 million people since records began. According to current World Health Organization statistics, it still kills over 100,000 people a year, mostly children in the developing world. The causative agent, measles virus, is a small enveloped RNA virus that infects a broad range of cells during infection. In particular, immune cells are infected via interactions between

  2. Different dynamin blockers interfere with distinct phases of synaptic endocytosis during stimulation in motoneurones

    PubMed Central

    Linares-Clemente, Pedro; Rozas, José L; Mircheski, Josif; García-Junco-Clemente, Pablo; Martínez-López, José A; Nieto-González, José L; Vázquez, M Eugenio; Pintado, C Oscar; Fernández-Chacón, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Key points Neurotransmitter release requires a tight coupling between synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis with dynamin being a key protein in that process. We used imaging techniques to examine the time course of endocytosis at mouse motor nerve terminals expressing synaptopHluorin, a genetically encoded reporter of the synaptic vesicle cycle. We separated two sequential phases of endocytosis taking place during the stimulation train: early and late endocytosis. Freshly released synaptic vesicle proteins are preferentially retrieved during the early phase, which is very sensitive to dynasore, an inhibitor of dynamin GTPase activity. Synaptic vesicle proteins pre-existing at the plasma membrane before the stimulation are preferentially retrieved during the late phase, which is very sensitive to myristyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (MitMAB), an inhibitor of the dynamin–phospholipid interaction. Abstract Synaptic endocytosis is essential at nerve terminals to maintain neurotransmitter release by exocytosis. Here, at the neuromuscular junction of synaptopHluorin (spH) transgenic mice, we have used imaging to study exo- and endocytosis occurring simultaneously during nerve stimulation. We observed two endocytosis components, which occur sequentially during stimulation. The early component of endocytosis apparently internalizes spH molecules freshly exocytosed. This component was sensitive to dynasore, a blocker of dynamin 1 GTPase activity. In contrast, this early component was resistant to myristyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (MiTMAB), a competitive agent that blocks dynamin binding to phospholipid membranes. The late component of endocytosis is likely to internalize spH molecules that pre-exist at the plasma membrane before stimulation starts. This component was blocked by MiTMAB, perhaps by impairing the binding of dynamin or other key endocytic proteins to phospholipid membranes. Our study suggests the co-existence of two sequential synaptic endocytosis

  3. Characterization of Parameters Influencing Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis in Cultured Soybean Cells 1

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Mark A.; Heinstein, Peter F.; Low, Philip S.

    1992-01-01

    In a recent publication, we were able to demonstrate that biotin enters plant cells by receptor-mediated endocytosis and that impermeable macromolecules can be cotransported into cells by the same pathway if they are first covalently linked to biotin. In the present study, we have exploited the biotin endocytosis pathway to evaluate the variables in the cell wall and surrounding growth medium that influence the efficiency of endocytosis in plants. Under normal growth conditions, the major constraint limiting macromolecule endocytosis was found to be the size of the internalized macromolecule. Thus, a log-linear relationship with a negative slope exists between the molecular weight of the biotin-conjugated macromolecule and its rate of internalization by cultured soybean cells. This relationship, which extends from insulin (Mr approximately 5700) to immunoglobulin G (Mr approximately 160,000), is characterized by a slope of −1.04 × 105 molecules/cell/min per log Mr unit and an x intercept (no endocytosis detectable) of approximately log 160,000 daltons. Unfortunately, mild digestion with cell wall-degrading enzymes is unable to increase significantly the upper size limit of molecules that can be internalized, but uptake of lower molecular weight proteins can be enhanced by mild cell wall digestion. The optimal extracellular pH for endocytosis was found to be 4.6, i.e. near the normal pH of the cell culture medium. Furthermore, the osmotic strength at which endocytosis occurs most rapidly was observed to be isotonic to slightly hypotonic, suggesting that turgor pressure within the plant cell must not be a major determinant of endocytosis rates by cultured soybean (Glycine max) cells. Finally, cell age was found to impact significantly on the rate of macromolecule internalization, with maximal uptake rates occurring during early exponential growth and decreasing by a factor of 2 when the cells reach stationary growth phase. PMID:16668694

  4. Inhibitor of endocytosis impairs gene electrotransfer to mouse muscle in vivo.

    PubMed

    Markelc, Bostjan; Skvarca, Eva; Dolinsek, Tanja; Kloboves, Veronika Prevodnik; Coer, Andrej; Sersa, Gregor; Cemazar, Maja

    2015-06-01

    Application of electric pulses (electroporation/electropermeabilization) is an effective method for gene transfer (i.e. gene electrotransfer (GET)) in vitro and in vivo. Currently, the mechanisms by which the DNA enters the cell are not yet fully understood. Experimental evidence is building up that endocytosis is the main mechanism by which the DNA, which is later expressed, enters the cell. Therefore the aim of our study was to elucidate whether inhibitors of endocytosis, methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MβCD), Concanavalin A (ConA) and Dynasore, can impair the transfection efficacy of GET in vitro in B16F1 murine melanoma and in vivo in m. tibialis cranialis in mice. We show that MβCD--general inhibitor of endocytosis--can almost prevent GET of EGFP-N1 plasmid in vitro, that ConA--inhibitor of clathrin mediated endocytosis--also abrogates GET but to a lesser extent, and when using Dynasore--reversible inhibitor of dynamin--there is no effect on GET efficacy, if endocytosis is blocked for only 5 min after GET. Moreover, MβCD also reduced GET efficacy in vivo in m. tibialis cranialis and this effect was long lasting. The results of this study show that endocytosis is probably the main mechanism of entrance of DNA after GET in vitro and also in vivo.

  5. Molecular mediators for raft-dependent endocytosis of syndecan-1, a highly conserved, multifunctional receptor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Keyang; Williams, Kevin Jon

    2013-05-17

    Endocytosis via rafts has attracted considerable recent interest, but the molecular mediators remain incompletely characterized. Here, we focused on the syndecan-1 heparan sulfate proteoglycan, a highly conserved, multifunctional receptor that we previously showed to undergo raft-dependent endocytosis upon clustering. Alanine scanning mutagenesis of three to five consecutive cytoplasmic residues at a time revealed that a conserved juxtamembrane motif, MKKK, was the only region required for efficient endocytosis after clustering. Endocytosis of clustered syndecan-1 occurs in two phases, each requiring a kinase and a corresponding cytoskeletal partner. In the initial phase, ligands trigger rapid MKKK-dependent activation of ERK and the localization of syndecan-1 into rafts. Activation of ERK drives the dissociation of syndecan-1 from α-tubulin, a molecule that may act as an anchor for syndecan-1 at the plasma membrane in the basal state. In the second phase, Src family kinases phosphorylate tyrosyl residues within the transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions of syndecan-1, a process that also requires MKKK. Tyrosine phosphorylation of syndecan-1 triggers the robust recruitment of cortactin, which we found to be an essential mediator of efficient actin-dependent endocytosis. These findings represent the first detailed characterization of the molecular events that drive endocytosis of a raft-dependent receptor and identify a novel endocytic motif, MKKK. Moreover, the results provide new tools to study syndecan function and regulation during uptake of its biologically and medically important ligands, such as HIV-1, atherogenic postprandial remnant lipoproteins, and molecules implicated in Alzheimer disease.

  6. Endocytosis contributes to BMP2-induced Smad signalling and neuronal growth.

    PubMed

    Hegarty, Shane V; Sullivan, Aideen M; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2017-02-08

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) is a neurotrophic factor which induces the growth of midbrain dopaminergic (DA) neurons in vitro and in vivo, and its neurotrophic effects have been shown to be dependent on activation of BMP receptors (BMPRs) and Smad 1/5/8 signalling. However, the precise intracellular cascades that regulate BMP2-BMPR-Smad-signalling-induced neurite growth remain unknown. Endocytosis has been shown to regulate Smad 1/5/8 signalling and differentiation induced by BMPs. However, these studies were carried out in non-neural cells. Indeed, there are scant reports regarding the role of endocytosis in BMP-Smad signalling in neurons. To address this, and to further characterise the mechanisms regulating the neurotrophic effects of BMP2, the present study examined the role of dynamin-dependent endocytosis in BMP2-induced Smad signalling and neurite growth in the SH-SY5Y neuronal cell line. The activation, temporal kinetics and magnitude of Smad 1/5/8 signalling induced by BMP2 were significantly attenuated by dynasore-mediated inhibition of endocytosis in SH-SY5Y cells. Furthermore, BMP2-induced increases in neurite length and neurite branching in SH-SY5Y cells were significantly reduced following inhibition of dynamin-dependent endocytosis using dynasore. This study demonstrates that BMP2-induced Smad signalling and neurite growth is regulated by dynamin-dependent endocytosis in a model of human midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

  7. Optical Tweezers Studies on Notch: Single-molecule Interaction Strength is Independent of Ligand Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Shergill, Bhupinder; Meloty-Kapella, Laurence; Musse, Abdiwahab A.; Weinmaster, Gerry; Botvinick, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Notch signaling controls diverse cellular processes critical to development and disease. Cell surface ligands bind Notch on neighboring cells yet require endocytosis to activate signaling. The role ligand endocytosis plays in Notch activation has not been established. Here we integrate optical tweezers with cell biological and biochemical methods to test the prevailing model that ligand endocytosis facilitates recycling to enhance ligand interactions with Notch necessary to trigger signaling. Specifically, single-molecule measurements indicate that interference of ligand endocytosis and/or recycling does not alter the force required to rupture bonds formed between cells expressing the Notch ligand Delta-like1 (Dll1) and laser-trapped Notch1-beads. Together, our analyses eliminate roles for ligand endocytosis and recycling in Dll1-Notch1 interactions, and indicate that recycling indirectly affects signaling by regulating the accumulation of cell-surface ligand. Importantly, our study demonstrates the utility of optical tweezers to test a role for ligand endocytosis in generating cell-mediated mechanical force. PMID:22658935

  8. Quantification of endocytosis using a folate functionalized silica hollow nanoshell platform.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Sergio; Mendez, Natalie; Alfaro, Jesus G; Yang, Jian; Aschemeyer, Sharraya; Liberman, Alex; Trogler, William C; Kummel, Andrew C

    2015-08-01

    A quantification method to measure endocytosis was designed to assess cellular uptake and specificity of a targeting nanoparticle platform. A simple N -hydroxysuccinimide ester conjugation technique to functionalize 100-nm hollow silica nanoshell particles with fluorescent reporter fluorescein isothiocyanate and folate or polyethylene glycol (PEG) was developed. Functionalized nanoshells were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy and the maximum amount of folate functionalized on nanoshell surfaces was quantified with UV-Vis spectroscopy. The extent of endocytosis by HeLa cervical cancer cells and human foreskin fibroblast (HFF-1) cells was investigated in vitro using fluorescence and confocal microscopy. A simple fluorescence ratio analysis was developed to quantify endocytosis versus surface adhesion. Nanoshells functionalized with folate showed enhanced endocytosis by cancer cells when compared to PEG functionalized nanoshells. Fluorescence ratio analyses showed that 95% of folate functionalized silica nanoshells which adhered to cancer cells were endocytosed, while only 27% of PEG functionalized nanoshells adhered to the cell surface and underwent endocytosis when functionalized with 200 and 900  μg , respectively. Additionally, the endocytosis of folate functionalized nanoshells proved to be cancer cell selective while sparing normal cells. The developed fluorescence ratio analysis is a simple and rapid verification/validation method to quantify cellular uptake between datasets by using an internal control for normalization.

  9. Actin- and Dynamin-Dependent Maturation of Bulk Endocytosis Restores Neurotransmission following Synaptic Depletion

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tam H.; Maucort, Guillaume; Sullivan, Robert K. P.; Schenning, Mitja; Lavidis, Nickolas A.; McCluskey, Adam; Robinson, Phillip J.; Meunier, Frederic A.

    2012-01-01

    Bulk endocytosis contributes to the maintenance of neurotransmission at the amphibian neuromuscular junction by regenerating synaptic vesicles. How nerve terminals internalize adequate portions of the presynaptic membrane when bulk endocytosis is initiated before the end of a sustained stimulation is unknown. A maturation process, occurring at the end of the stimulation, is hypothesised to precisely restore the pools of synaptic vesicles. Using confocal time-lapse microscopy of FM1-43-labeled nerve terminals at the amphibian neuromuscular junction, we confirm that bulk endocytosis is initiated during a sustained tetanic stimulation and reveal that shortly after the end of the stimulation, nerve terminals undergo a maturation process. This includes a transient bulging of the plasma membrane, followed by the development of large intraterminal FM1-43-positive donut-like structures comprising large bulk membrane cisternae surrounded by recycling vesicles. The degree of bulging increased with stimulation frequency and the plasmalemma surface retrieved following the transient bulging correlated with the surface membrane internalized in bulk cisternae and recycling vesicles. Dyngo-4a, a potent dynamin inhibitor, did not block the initiation, but prevented the maturation of bulk endocytosis. In contrast, cytochalasin D, an inhibitor of actin polymerization, hindered both the initiation and maturation processes. Both inhibitors hampered the functional recovery of neurotransmission after synaptic depletion. Our data confirm that initiation of bulk endocytosis occurs during stimulation and demonstrates that a delayed maturation process controlled by actin and dynamin underpins the coupling between exocytosis and bulk endocytosis. PMID:22629340

  10. A Yeast t-SNARE Involved in Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Séron, Karin; Tieaho, Ville; Prescianotto-Baschong, Cristina; Aust, Thomas; Blondel, Marie-Odile; Guillaud, Philippe; Devilliers, Ginette; Rossanese, Olivia W.; Glick, Benjamin S.; Riezman, Howard; Keränen, Sirkka; Haguenauer-Tsapis, Rosine

    1998-01-01

    The ORF YOL018c (TLG2) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a protein that belongs to the syntaxin protein family. The proteins of this family, t-SNAREs, are present on target organelles and are thought to participate in the specific interaction between vesicles and acceptor membranes in intracellular membrane trafficking. TLG2 is not an essential gene, and its deletion does not cause defects in the secretory pathway. However, its deletion in cells lacking the vacuolar ATPase subunit Vma2p leads to loss of viability, suggesting that Tlg2p is involved in endocytosis. In tlg2Δ cells, internalization was normal for two endocytic markers, the pheromone α-factor and the plasma membrane uracil permease. In contrast, degradation of α-factor and uracil permease was delayed in tlg2Δ cells. Internalization of positively charged Nanogold shows that the endocytic pathway is perturbed in the mutant, which accumulates Nanogold in primary endocytic vesicles and shows a greatly reduced complement of early endosomes. These results strongly suggest that Tlg2p is a t-SNARE involved in early endosome biogenesis. PMID:9763449

  11. Clathrin- and caveolin-1–independent endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Damm, Eva-Maria; Pelkmans, Lucas; Kartenbeck, Jürgen; Mezzacasa, Anna; Kurzchalia, Teymuras; Helenius, Ari

    2005-01-01

    Simian Virus 40 (SV40) has been shown to enter host cells by caveolar endocytosis followed by transport via caveosomes to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Using a caveolin-1 (cav-1)–deficient cell line (human hepatoma 7) and embryonic fibroblasts from a cav-1 knockout mouse, we found that in the absence of caveolae, but also in wild-type embryonic fibroblasts, the virus exploits an alternative, cav-1–independent pathway. Internalization was rapid (t1/2 = 20 min) and cholesterol and tyrosine kinase dependent but independent of clathrin, dynamin II, and ARF6. The viruses were internalized in small, tight-fitting vesicles and transported to membrane-bounded, pH-neutral organelles similar to caveosomes but devoid of cav-1 and -2. The viruses were next transferred by microtubule-dependent vesicular transport to the ER, a step that was required for infectivity. Our results revealed the existence of a virus-activated endocytic pathway from the plasma membrane to the ER that involves neither clathrin nor caveolae and that can be activated also in the presence of cav-1. PMID:15668298

  12. Translocation of DNA across bacterial membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Dreiseikelmann, B

    1994-01-01

    DNA translocation across bacterial membranes occurs during the biological processes of infection by bacteriophages, conjugative DNA transfer of plasmids, T-DNA transfer, and genetic transformation. The mechanism of DNA translocation in these systems is not fully understood, but during the last few years extensive data about genes and gene products involved in the translocation processes have accumulated. One reason for the increasing interest in this topic is the discussion about horizontal gene transfer and transkingdom sex. Analyses of genes and gene products involved in DNA transfer suggest that DNA is transferred through a protein channel spanning the bacterial envelope. No common model exists for DNA translocation during phage infection. Perhaps various mechanisms are necessary as a result of the different morphologies of bacteriophages. The DNA translocation processes during conjugation, T-DNA transfer, and transformation are more consistent and may even be compared to the excretion of some proteins. On the basis of analogies and homologies between the proteins involved in DNA translocation and protein secretion, a common basic model for these processes is presented. PMID:7968916

  13. Defining chromosomal translocation risks in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hogenbirk, Marc A.; Heideman, Marinus R.; de Rink, Iris; Velds, Arno; Kerkhoven, Ron M.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.; Jacobs, Heinz

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are a hallmark of cancer. Unraveling the molecular mechanism of these rare genetic events requires a clear distinction between correlative and causative risk-determinants, where technical and analytical issues can be excluded. To meet this goal, we performed in-depth analyses of publicly available genome-wide datasets. In contrast to several recent reports, we demonstrate that chromosomal translocation risk is causally unrelated to promoter stalling (Spt5), transcriptional activity, or off-targeting activity of the activation-induced cytidine deaminase. Rather, an open chromatin configuration, which is not promoter-specific, explained the elevated translocation risk of promoter regions. Furthermore, the fact that gene size directly correlates with the translocation risk in mice and human cancers further demonstrated the general irrelevance of promoter-specific activities. Interestingly, a subset of translocations observed in cancer patients likely initiates from double-strand breaks induced by an access-independent process. Together, these unexpected and novel insights are fundamental in understanding the origin of chromosome translocations and, consequently, cancer. PMID:27303044

  14. Ratcheting up protein translocation with anthrax toxin

    PubMed Central

    Feld, Geoffrey K; Brown, Michael J; Krantz, Bryan A

    2012-01-01

    Energy-consuming nanomachines catalyze the directed movement of biopolymers in the cell. They are found both dissolved in the aqueous cytosol as well as embedded in lipid bilayers. Inquiries into the molecular mechanism of nanomachine-catalyzed biopolymer transport have revealed that these machines are equipped with molecular parts, including adjustable clamps, levers, and adaptors, which interact favorably with substrate polypeptides. Biological nanomachines that catalyze protein transport, known as translocases, often require that their substrate proteins unfold before translocation. An unstructured protein chain is likely entropically challenging to bind, push, or pull in a directional manner, especially in a way that produces an unfolding force. A number of ingenious solutions to this problem are now evident in the anthrax toxin system, a model used to study protein translocation. Here we highlight molecular ratchets and current research on anthrax toxin translocation. A picture is emerging of proton-gradient-driven anthrax toxin translocation, and its associated ratchet mechanism likely applies broadly to other systems. We suggest a cyclical thermodynamic order-to-disorder mechanism (akin to a heat-engine cycle) is central to underlying protein translocation: peptide substrates nonspecifically bind to molecular clamps, which possess adjustable affinities; polypeptide substrates compress into helical structures; these clamps undergo proton-gated switching; and the substrate subsequently expands regaining its unfolded state conformational entropy upon translocation. PMID:22374876

  15. Phosphorylation of Synaptojanin Differentially Regulates Endocytosis of Functionally Distinct Synaptic Vesicle Pools

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Junhua; Wang, Liping; Lee, Joo Yeun; Chen, Chun-Kan

    2016-01-01

    The rapid replenishment of synaptic vesicles through endocytosis is crucial for sustaining synaptic transmission during intense neuronal activity. Synaptojanin (Synj), a phosphoinositide phosphatase, is known to play an important role in vesicle recycling by promoting the uncoating of clathrin following synaptic vesicle uptake. Synj has been shown to be a substrate of the minibrain (Mnb) kinase, a fly homolog of the dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A); however, the functional impacts of Synj phosphorylation by Mnb are not well understood. Here we identify that Mnb phosphorylates Synj at S1029 in Drosophila. We find that phosphorylation of Synj at S1029 enhances Synj phosphatase activity, alters interaction between Synj and endophilin, and promotes efficient endocytosis of the active cycling vesicle pool (also referred to as exo-endo cycling pool) at the expense of reserve pool vesicle endocytosis. Dephosphorylated Synj, on the other hand, is deficient in the endocytosis of the active recycling pool vesicles but maintains reserve pool vesicle endocytosis to restore total vesicle pool size and sustain synaptic transmission. Together, our findings reveal a novel role for Synj in modulating reserve pool vesicle endocytosis and further indicate that dynamic phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of Synj differentially maintain endocytosis of distinct functional synaptic vesicle pools. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Synaptic vesicle endocytosis sustains communication between neurons during a wide range of neuronal activities by recycling used vesicle membrane and protein components. Here we identify that Synaptojanin, a protein with a known role in synaptic vesicle endocytosis, is phosphorylated at S1029 in vivo by the Minibrain kinase. We further demonstrate that the phosphorylation status of Synaptojanin at S1029 differentially regulates its participation in the recycling of distinct synaptic vesicle pools. Our results reveal a new role for

  16. Effects of cholesterol and lipoproteins on endocytosis by a monocyte-like cell line.

    PubMed

    Esfahani, M; Scerbo, L; Lund-Katz, S; DePace, D M; Maniglia, R; Alexander, J K; Phillips, M C

    1986-12-19

    The human monocyte/macrophage-like cell line U937 is a cholesterol auxotroph. Incubation of these cells in the growth medium in which delipidated fetal calf serum has been substituted for fetal calf serum depletes cellular cholesterol and inhibits growth. The cholesterol requirement of these cells for growth can be satisfied by human low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), but not by high-density lipoprotein (HDL). U937 cells can bind and degrade LDL via a high-affinity site and this recognition is altered by acetylation of LDL. This indicates that these cells express relatively high LDL receptor activity and low levels of the acetyl-LDL receptor. The cells were used to study the role of cholesterol in lectin-mediated and fluid-phase endocytosis. Growth of the cells in the medium containing delipidated fetal calf serum results in impairment of both concanavalin A-mediated endocytosis of horseradish peroxidase and concanavalin A-independent endocytosis of Lucifer Yellow. Supplementation of the medium with cholesterol prevents cellular cholesterol depletion, supports growth and stimulates Lucifer Yellow endocytosis but fails to restore horseradish peroxidase endocytosis. However, if the cells are incubated in the presence of no less than 40 micrograms LDL protein/ml to maintain normal cell cholesterol levels, concanavalin A-mediated endocytosis of horseradish peroxidase is activated. The effect of LDL is specific since neither VLDL nor HDL3 at the same protein concentration activates horseradish peroxidase uptake by the cells. Furthermore, the activation of endocytosis by LDL is not inhibited by the inclusion of heparin or acetylation of the LDL indicating that binding of LDL to the LDL receptor is not required for these effects. The mediation of activation of horseradish peroxidase endocytosis by the lectin is presumed to involve binding of LDL to concanavalin A associated with the cell surface which in turn stimulates horseradish

  17. Spatial dynamics of chromosome translocations in living cells.

    PubMed

    Roukos, Vassilis; Voss, Ty C; Schmidt, Christine K; Lee, Seungtaek; Wangsa, Darawalee; Misteli, Tom

    2013-08-09

    Chromosome translocations are a hallmark of cancer cells. We have developed an experimental system to visualize the formation of translocations in living cells and apply it to characterize the spatial and dynamic properties of translocation formation. We demonstrate that translocations form within hours of the occurrence of double-strand breaks (DSBs) and that their formation is cell cycle-independent. Translocations form preferentially between prepositioned genome elements, and perturbation of key factors of the DNA repair machinery uncouples DSB pairing from translocation formation. These observations generate a spatiotemporal framework for the formation of translocations in living cells.

  18. Steering neuronal growth cones by shifting the imbalance between exocytosis and endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Tojima, Takuro; Itofusa, Rurika; Kamiguchi, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-21

    Extracellular molecular cues guide migrating growth cones along specific routes during development of axon tracts. Such processes rely on asymmetric elevation of cytosolic Ca(2+) concentrations across the growth cone that mediates its attractive or repulsive turning toward or away from the side with Ca(2+) elevation, respectively. Downstream of these Ca(2+) signals, localized activation of membrane trafficking steers the growth cone bidirectionally, with endocytosis driving repulsion and exocytosis causing attraction. However, it remains unclear how Ca(2+) can differentially regulate these opposite membrane-trafficking events. Here, we show that growth cone turning depends on localized imbalance between exocytosis and endocytosis and identify Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways mediating such imbalance. In embryonic chicken dorsal root ganglion neurons, repulsive Ca(2+) signals promote clathrin-mediated endocytosis through a 90 kDa splice variant of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase type-1γ (PIPKIγ90). In contrast, attractive Ca(2+) signals facilitate exocytosis but suppress endocytosis via Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) that can inactivate PIPKIγ90. Blocking CaMKII or Cdk5 leads to balanced activation of both exocytosis and endocytosis that causes straight growth cone migration even in the presence of guidance signals, whereas experimentally perturbing the balance restores the growth cone's turning response. Remarkably, the direction of this resumed turning depends on relative activities of exocytosis and endocytosis, but not on the type of guidance signals. Our results suggest that navigating growth cones can be redirected by shifting the imbalance between exocytosis and endocytosis, highlighting the importance of membrane-trafficking imbalance for axon guidance and, possibly, for polarized cell migration in general.

  19. Recruitment of endocytosis in sonopermeabilization-mediated drug delivery: a real-time study.

    PubMed

    Derieppe, Marc; Rojek, Katarzyna; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Moonen, Chrit; Bos, Clemens

    2015-06-29

    Microbubbles (MBs) in combination with ultrasound (US) can enhance cell membrane permeability, and have the potential to facilitate the cellular uptake of hydrophilic molecules. However, the exact mechanism behind US- and MB-mediated intracellular delivery still remains to be fully understood. Among the proposed mechanisms are formation of transient pores and endocytosis stimulation. In our study, we investigated whether endocytosis is involved in US- and MB-mediated delivery of small molecules. Dynamic fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the effects of endocytosis inhibitors on the pharmacokinetic parameters of US- and MB-mediated uptake of SYTOX Green, a 600 Da hydrophilic model drug. C6 rat glioma cells, together with SonoVue(®) MBs, were exposed to 1.4 MHz US waves at 0.2 MPa peak-negative pressure. Collection of the signal intensity in each individual nucleus was monitored during and after US exposure by a fibered confocal fluorescence microscope designed for real-time imaging. Exposed to US waves, C6 cells pretreated with chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, showed up to a 2.5-fold significant increase of the uptake time constant, and a 1.1-fold increase with genistein, an inhibitor of caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Both inhibitors slowed down the US-mediated uptake of SYTOX Green. With C6 cells and our experimental settings, these quantitative data indicate that endocytosis plays a role in sonopermeabilization-mediated delivery of small molecules with a more predominant contribution of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  20. β-Hydroxybutyrate supports synaptic vesicle cycling but reduces endocytosis and exocytosis in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Hrynevich, Sviatlana V; Waseem, Tatyana V; Hébert, Audrey; Pellerin, Luc; Fedorovich, Sergei V

    2016-02-01

    The ketogenic diet is used as a prophylactic treatment for different types of brain diseases, such as epilepsy or Alzheimer's disease. In such a diet, carbohydrates are replaced by fats in everyday food, resulting in an elevation of blood-borne ketone bodies levels. Despite clinical applications of this treatment, the molecular mechanisms by which the ketogenic diet exerts its beneficial effects are still uncertain. In this study, we investigated the effect of replacing glucose by the ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate as the main energy substrate on synaptic vesicle recycling in rat brain synaptosomes. First, we observed that exposing presynaptic terminals to nonglycolytic energy substrates instead of glucose did not alter the plasma membrane potential. Next, we found that synaptosomes were able to maintain the synaptic vesicle cycle monitored with the fluorescent dye acridine orange when glucose was replaced by β-hydroxybutyrate. However, in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate, synaptic vesicle recycling was modified with reduced endocytosis. Replacing glucose by pyruvate also led to a reduced endocytosis. Addition of β-hydroxybutyrate to glucose-containing incubation medium was without effect. Reduced endocytosis in presence of β-hydroxybutyrate as sole energy substrate was confirmed using the fluorescent dye FM2-10. Also we found that replacement of glucose by ketone bodies leads to inhibition of exocytosis, monitored by FM2-10. However this reduction was smaller than the effect on endocytosis under the same conditions. Using both acridine orange in synaptosomes and the genetically encoded sensor synaptopHluorin in cortical neurons, we observed that replacing glucose by β-hydroxybutyrate did not modify the pH gradient of synaptic vesicles. In conclusion, the nonglycolytic energy substrates β-hydroxybutyrate and pyruvate are able to support synaptic vesicle recycling. However, they both reduce endocytosis. Reduction of both endocytosis and exocytosis together with

  1. The effect of substrate elasticity and actomyosin contractility on different forms of endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Missirlis, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Substrate mechanical properties have emerged as potent determinants of cell functions and fate. We here tested the hypothesis that different forms of endocytosis are regulated by the elasticity of the synthetic hydrogels cells are cultured on. Towards this objective, we quantified cell-associated fluorescence of the established endocytosis markers transferrin (Tf) and cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) using a flow-cytometry based protocol, and imaged marker internalization using microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrated that clathrin-mediated endocytosis of Tf following a 10-minute incubation with a fibroblast cell line was lower on the softer substrates studied (5 kPa) compared to those with elasticities of 40 and 85 kPa. This effect was cancelled after 1-hour incubation revealing that intracellular accumulation of Tf at this time point did not depend on substrate elasticity. Lipid-raft mediated endocytosis of CTb, on the other hand, was not affected by substrate elasticity in the studied range of time and substrate elasticity. The use of pharmacologic contractility inhibitors revealed inhibition of endocytosis for both Tf and CTb after a 10-minute incubation and a dissimilar effect after 1 hour depending on the inhibitor type. Further, the internalization of fluorescent NPs, used as model drug delivery systems, showed a dependence on substrate elasticity, while transfection efficiency was unaffected by it. Finally, an independence on substrate elasticity of Tf and CTb association with HeLa cells indicated that there are cell-type differences in this respect. Overall, our results suggest that clathrin-mediated but not lipid-raft mediated endocytosis is potentially influenced by substrate mechanics at the cellular level, while intracellular trafficking and accumulation show a more complex dependence. Our findings are discussed in the context of previous work on how substrate mechanics affect the fundamental process of endocytosis and highlight important

  2. The Effect of Substrate Elasticity and Actomyosin Contractility on Different Forms of Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Missirlis, Dimitris

    2014-01-01

    Substrate mechanical properties have emerged as potent determinants of cell functions and fate. We here tested the hypothesis that different forms of endocytosis are regulated by the elasticity of the synthetic hydrogels cells are cultured on. Towards this objective, we quantified cell-associated fluorescence of the established endocytosis markers transferrin (Tf) and cholera toxin subunit B (CTb) using a flow-cytometry based protocol, and imaged marker internalization using microscopy techniques. Our results demonstrated that clathrin-mediated endocytosis of Tf following a 10-minute incubation with a fibroblast cell line was lower on the softer substrates studied (5 kPa) compared to those with elasticities of 40 and 85 kPa. This effect was cancelled after 1-hour incubation revealing that intracellular accumulation of Tf at this time point did not depend on substrate elasticity. Lipid-raft mediated endocytosis of CTb, on the other hand, was not affected by substrate elasticity in the studied range of time and substrate elasticity. The use of pharmacologic contractility inhibitors revealed inhibition of endocytosis for both Tf and CTb after a 10-minute incubation and a dissimilar effect after 1 hour depending on the inhibitor type. Further, the internalization of fluorescent NPs, used as model drug delivery systems, showed a dependence on substrate elasticity, while transfection efficiency was unaffected by it. Finally, an independence on substrate elasticity of Tf and CTb association with HeLa cells indicated that there are cell-type differences in this respect. Overall, our results suggest that clathrin-mediated but not lipid-raft mediated endocytosis is potentially influenced by substrate mechanics at the cellular level, while intracellular trafficking and accumulation show a more complex dependence. Our findings are discussed in the context of previous work on how substrate mechanics affect the fundamental process of endocytosis and highlight important

  3. Recruitment of endocytosis in sonopermeabilization-mediated drug delivery: a real-time study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derieppe, Marc; Rojek, Katarzyna; Escoffre, Jean-Michel; de Senneville, Baudouin Denis; Moonen, Chrit; Bos, Clemens

    2015-07-01

    Microbubbles (MBs) in combination with ultrasound (US) can enhance cell membrane permeability, and have the potential to facilitate the cellular uptake of hydrophilic molecules. However, the exact mechanism behind US- and MB-mediated intracellular delivery still remains to be fully understood. Among the proposed mechanisms are formation of transient pores and endocytosis stimulation. In our study, we investigated whether endocytosis is involved in US- and MB-mediated delivery of small molecules. Dynamic fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the effects of endocytosis inhibitors on the pharmacokinetic parameters of US- and MB-mediated uptake of SYTOX Green, a 600 Da hydrophilic model drug. C6 rat glioma cells, together with SonoVue® MBs, were exposed to 1.4 MHz US waves at 0.2 MPa peak-negative pressure. Collection of the signal intensity in each individual nucleus was monitored during and after US exposure by a fibered confocal fluorescence microscope designed for real-time imaging. Exposed to US waves, C6 cells pretreated with chlorpromazine, an inhibitor of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, showed up to a 2.5-fold significant increase of the uptake time constant, and a 1.1-fold increase with genistein, an inhibitor of caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Both inhibitors slowed down the US-mediated uptake of SYTOX Green. With C6 cells and our experimental settings, these quantitative data indicate that endocytosis plays a role in sonopermeabilization-mediated delivery of small molecules with a more predominant contribution of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  4. Particulate endocytosis mediates biological responses of human mesenchymal stem cells to titanium wear debris.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Chukwuka C; Haleem-Smith, Hana; Laqueriere, Patrice; Manner, Paul A; Tuan, Rocky S

    2006-03-01

    Continual loading and articulation cycles undergone by metallic (e.g., titanium) alloy arthroplasty prostheses lead to liberation of a large number of metallic debris particulates, which have long been implicated as a primary cause of periprosthetic osteolysis and postarthroplasty aseptic implant loosening. Long-term stability of total joint replacement prostheses relies on proper integration between implant biomaterial and osseous tissue, and factors that interfere with this integration are likely to cause osteolysis. Because multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) located adjacent to the implant have an osteoprogenitor function and are critical contributors to osseous tissue integrity, when their functions or activities are compromised, osteolysis will most likely occur. To date, it is not certain or sufficiently confirmed whether MSCs endocytose titanium particles, and if so, whether particulate endocytosis has any effect on cellular responses to wear debris. This study seeks to clarify the phenomenon of titanium endocytosis by human MSCs (hMSCs), and investigates the influence of endocytosis on their activities. hMSCs incubated with commercially pure titanium particles exhibited internalized particles, as observed by scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy, with time-dependent reduction in the number of extracellular particles. Particulate endocytosis was associated with reduced rates of cellular proliferation and cell-substrate adhesion, suppressed osteogenic differentiation, and increased rate of apoptosis. These cellular effects of exposure to titanium particles were reduced when endocytosis was inhibited by treatment with cytochalasin D, and no significant effect was seen when hMSCs were treated only with conditioned medium obtained from particulate-treated cells. These findings strongly suggest that the biological responses of hMSCs to wear debris are triggered primarily by the direct endocytosis of titanium particulates, and

  5. Endocytosis and Physiology: Insights from Disabled-2 Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Wensi; Moore, Robert; Smith, Elizabeth R.; Xu, Xiang-Xi

    2016-01-01

    Disabled-2 (Dab2) is a clathrin and cargo binding endocytic adaptor protein, and cell biology studies revealed that Dab2 plays a role in cellular trafficking of a number of transmembrane receptors and signaling proteins. A PTB/PID domain located in the N-terminus of Dab2 binds the NPXY motif(s) present at the cytoplasmic tails of certain transmembrane proteins/receptors. The membrane receptors reported to bind directly to Dab2 include LDL receptor and its family members LRP1 and LRP2 (megalin), growth factor receptors EGFR and FGFR, and the cell adhesion receptor beta1 integrin. Dab2 also serves as an adaptor in signaling pathways. Particularly, Dab2 facilitates the endocytosis of the Ras activating Grb2/Sos1 signaling complex, controls its disassembly, and thereby regulates the Ras/MAPK signaling pathway. Cellular analyses have suggested several diverse functions for the widely expressed proteins, and Dab2 is also considered a tumor suppressor, as loss or reduced expression is found in several cancer types. Dab2 null mutant mice were generated and investigated to determine if the findings from cellular studies might be important and relevant in intact animals. Dab2 conditional knockout mice mediated through a Sox2-Cre transgene have no obvious developmental defects and have a normal life span despite that the Dab2 protein is essentially absent in the mutant mice. The conditional knockout mice were grossly normal, though more recent investigation of the Dab2-deficient mice revealed several phenotypes, which can be accounted for by several previously suggested mechanisms. The studies of mutant mice established that Dab2 plays multiple physiological roles through its endocytic functions and modulation of signal pathways. PMID:27933291

  6. Translocation (9;17) a novel translocation in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Brown, S A; Czepulkowski, B; Ireland, R

    1996-01-01

    We report a case of AML, acute myeloid leukaemia, with a novel translocation involving the short arms of chromosomes 9 and 17. The acute myeloid leukaemia was morphologically classified as FAB subtype M2. A prolonged remission was induced with chemotherapy, followed by a relapse which was associated with the finding of the same translocation.

  7. Translocation and Accumulation of Translocate in the Sugar Beet Petiole 1

    PubMed Central

    Geiger, D. R.; Saunders, M. A.; Cataldo, D. A.

    1969-01-01

    Accumulation of translocate during steady-state labeling of photosynthate was measured in the source leaf petioles of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. monogerm hybrid). During an 8-hr period, 2.7% of the translocate or 0.38 μg carbon/min was accumulated per cm petiole. Material was stored mainly as sucrose and as compounds insoluble in 80% ethanol. The minimum peak velocity of translocation approached an average of 54 cm/hr as the specific activity of the 14CO2 pulse was progressively increased. The ratio of cross sectional area required for translocation to actual sieve tube area in the petiole was 1.2. A regression analysis of translocation rate versus sieve tube cross sectional area yielded a coefficient of 0.76. The specific mass transfer rate in the petiole was 1.4 g/hr cm2 phloem or 4.8 g/hr cm2 sieve tube. Histoautoradiographic studies indicated that translocation occurs through the area of phloem occupied by sieve tubes and companion cells while storage occurs in these cells plus cambium and phloem parenchyma cells. The ability of the petiole to act as a sink for translocate is consistent with the concept that storage along path tissue serves to buffer sucrose concentration in the translocate during periods of fluctuating assimilation. Images PMID:16657254

  8. Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.

  9. Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, M

    2016-04-14

    We have studied the occurrence of stochastic resonance when a flexible polymer chain undergoes a single-file translocation through a nano-pore separating two spherical cavities, under a time-periodic external driving force. The translocation of the chain is controlled by a free energy barrier determined by chain length, pore length, pore-polymer interaction, and confinement inside the donor and receiver cavities. The external driving force is characterized by a frequency and amplitude. By combining the Fokker-Planck formalism for polymer translocation and a two-state model for stochastic resonance, we have derived analytical formulas for criteria for emergence of stochastic resonance during polymer translocation. We show that no stochastic resonance is possible if the free energy barrier for polymer translocation is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain exhibits stochastic resonance only in the presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interactions. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.

  10. Molecular determinants of nucleolar translocation of RNA helicase A

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Zhe; Kenworthy, Rachael; Green, Christopher; Tang, Hengli

    2007-10-15

    RNA helicase A (RHA) is a member of the DEAH-box family of DNA/RNA helicases involved in multiple cellular processes and the life cycles of many viruses. The subcellular localization of RHA is dynamic despite its steady-state concentration in the nucleoplasm. We have previously shown that it shuttles rapidly between the nucleus and the cytoplasm by virtue of a bidirectional nuclear transport domain (NTD) located in its carboxyl terminus. Here, we investigate the molecular determinants for its translocation within the nucleus and, more specifically, its redistribution from the nucleoplasm to nucleolus or the perinucleolar region. We found that low temperature treatment, transcription inhibition or replication of hepatitis C virus caused the intranuclear redistribution of the protein, suggesting that RHA shuttles between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm and becomes trapped in the nucleolus or the perinucleolar region upon blockade of transport to the nucleoplasm. Both the NTD and ATPase activity were essential for RHA's transport to the nucleolus or perinucleolar region. One of the double-stranded RNA binding domains (dsRBD II) was also required for this nucleolar translocation (NoT) phenotype. RNA interference studies revealed that RHA is essential for survival of cultured hepatoma cells and the ATPase activity appears to be important for this critical role.

  11. Novel class of potential therapeutics that target ricin retrograde translocation.

    PubMed

    Redmann, Veronika; Gardner, Thomas; Lau, Zerlina; Morohashi, Keita; Felsenfeld, Dan; Tortorella, Domenico

    2013-12-23

    Ricin toxin, an A-B toxin from Ricinus communis, induces cell death through the inhibition of protein synthesis. The toxin binds to the cell surface via its B chain (RTB) followed by its retrograde trafficking through intracellular compartments to the ER where the A chain (RTA) is transported across the membrane and into the cytosol. Ricin A chain is transported across the ER membrane utilizing cellular proteins involved in the disposal of aberrant ER proteins by a process referred to as retrograde translocation. Given the current lack of therapeutics against ricin intoxication, we developed a high-content screen using an enzymatically attenuated RTA chimera engineered with a carboxy-terminal enhanced green fluorescent protein (RTA(E177Q)egfp) to identify compounds that target RTA retrograde translocation. Stabilizing RTA(E177Q)egfp through the inclusion of proteasome inhibitor produced fluorescent peri-nuclear granules. Quantitative analysis of the fluorescent granules provided the basis to discover compounds from a small chemical library (2080 compounds) with known bioactive properties. Strikingly, the screen found compounds that stabilized RTA molecules within the cell and several compounds limited the ability of wild type RTA to suppress protein synthesis. Collectively, a robust high-content screen was developed to discover novel compounds that stabilize intracellular ricin and limit ricin intoxication.

  12. Increased translocation of antigens to endosomes and TLR4 mediated endosomal recruitment of TAP contribute to nicotine augmented cross-presentation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan Yan; Hu, Chun Fang; Li, Juan; You, Xiang; Gao, Feng Guang

    2016-06-21

    Cross-presentation by dendritic cells (DCs) requires surface molecules such as lectin, CD40, langerin, heat shock protein, mannose receptor, mediated endocytosis, the endosomal translocation of internalized antigen, and the relocation of transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). Although the activation of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAchR) up-regulate surface molecule expression, augment endocytosis, and enhance cross-presentation, the molecular mechanism of α7 nAchR activation-increased cross-presentation is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the role of mannose receptor in nicotine-increased cross-presentation and the mechanism that endotoxins orchestrating the recruitment of TAP toward endosomes. We demonstrated that nicotine increase the expressiones of mannose receptor and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) via PI3K-Akt-mTOR-p70S6 pathway. Both endosomal translocation of mannose receptor-internalized antigens and TLR4 sig- naling are necessary for nicotine-augmented cross-presentation and cross-priming. Importantly, the recruitment of TAP toward endosomes via TLR4-MyD88-IRAK4 signaling contributes to nicotine-increased cross-presentation and cross-activation of T cells. Thus, these data suggest that increased recruitment of TAP to Ag-containing vesicles contributes to the superior cross-presentation efficacy of α7 nAchR activated DCs.

  13. Delayed translocation of NGFI-B/RXR in glutamate stimulated neurons allows late protection by 9-cis retinoic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Mathisen, Gro H.; Fallgren, Asa B.; Strom, Bjorn O.; Boldingh Debernard, Karen A.; Mohebi, Beata U.; Paulsen, Ragnhild E.

    2011-10-14

    Highlights: {yields} NGFI-B and RXR translocate out of the nucleus after glutamate treatment. {yields} Arresting NGFI-B/RXR in the nucleus protects neurons from excitotoxicity. {yields} Late protection by 9-cis RA is possible due to a delayed translocation of NGFI-B/RXR. -- Abstract: Nuclear receptor and apoptosis inducer NGFI-B translocates out of the nucleus as a heterodimer with RXR in response to different apoptosis stimuli, and therefore represents a potential pharmacological target. We found that the cytosolic levels of NGFI-B and RXR{alpha} were increased in cultures of cerebellar granule neurons 2 h after treatment with glutamate (excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain, involved in stroke). To find a time-window for potential intervention the neurons were transfected with gfp-tagged expressor plasmids for NGFI-B and RXR. The default localization of NGFI-Bgfp and RXRgfp was nuclear, however, translocation out of the nucleus was observed 2-3 h after glutamate treatment. We therefore hypothesized that the time-window between treatment and translocation would allow late protection against neuronal death. The RXR ligand 9-cis retinoic acid was used to arrest NGFI-B and RXR in the nucleus. Addition of 9-cis retinoic acid 1 h after treatment with glutamate reduced the cytosolic translocation of NGFI-B and RXR{alpha}, the cytosolic translocation of NGFI-Bgfp observed in live neurons, as well as the neuronal death. However, the reduced translocation and the reduced cell death were not observed when 9-cis retinoic acid was added after 3 h. Thus, late protection from glutamate induced death by addition of 9-cis retinoic acid is possible in a time-window after apoptosis induction.

  14. EphA2 signaling following endocytosis: role of Tiam1.

    PubMed

    Boissier, Pomme; Chen, Jin; Huynh-Do, Uyen

    2013-12-01

    Eph receptors and their membrane-bound ligands, the ephrins, represent a complex subfamily of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Eph/ephrin binding can lead to various and opposite cellular behaviors such as adhesion versus repulsion, or cell migration versus cell-adhesion. Recently, Eph endocytosis has been identified as one of the critical steps responsible for such diversity. Eph receptors, as many RTKs, are rapidly endocytosed following ligand-mediated activation and traffic through endocytic compartments prior to degradation. However, it is becoming obvious that endocytosis controls signaling in many different manners. Here we showed that activated EphA2 are degraded in the lysosomes and that about 35% of internalized receptors are recycled back to the plasma membrane. Our study is also the first to demonstrate that EphA2 retains the capacity to signal in endosomes. In particular, activated EphA2 interacted with the Rho family GEF Tiam1 in endosomes. This association led to Tiam1 activation, which in turn increased Rac1 activity and facilitated Eph/ephrin endocytosis. Disrupting Tiam1 function with RNA interference impaired both ephrinA1-dependent Rac1 activation and ephrinA1-induced EphA2 endocytosis. In summary, our findings shed new light on the regulation of EphA2 endocytosis, intracellular trafficking and signal termination and establish Tiam1 as an important modulator of EphA2 signaling.

  15. Clathrin to Lipid Raft-Endocytosis via Controlled Surface Chemistry and Efficient Perinuclear Targeting of Nanoparticle.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Atanu; Jana, Nikhil R

    2015-09-17

    Nanoparticle interacts with live cells depending on their surface chemistry, enters into cell via endocytosis, and is commonly trafficked to an endosome/lysozome that restricts subcellular targeting options. Here we show that nanoparticle surface chemistry can be tuned to alter their cell uptake mechanism and subcellular trafficking. Quantum dot based nanoprobes of 20-30 nm hydrodynamic diameters have been synthesized with tunable surface charge (between +15 mV to -25 mV) and lipophilicity to influence their cellular uptake processes and subcellular trafficking. It is observed that cationic nanoprobe electrostatically interacts with cell membrane and enters into cell via clathrin-mediated endocytosis. At lower surface charge (between +10 mV to -10 mV), the electrostatic interaction with cell membrane becomes weaker, and additional lipid raft endocytosis is initiated. If a lipophilic functional group is introduced on a weakly anionic nanoparticle surface, the uptake mechanism shifts to predominant lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. In particular, the zwitterionic-lipophilic nanoprobe has the unique advantage as it weakly interacts with anionic cell membrane, migrates toward lipid rafts for interaction through lipophilic functional group, and induces lipid raft-mediated endocytosis. While predominate or partial clathrin-mediated entry traffics most of the nanoprobes to lysozome, predominate lipid raft-mediated entry traffics them to perinuclear region, particularly to the Golgi apparatus. This finding would guide in designing appropriate nanoprobe for subcellular targeting and delivery.

  16. A Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein is involved in endocytosis in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Hoshi, Hiro-Omi; Zheng, Lu; Ohta, Akinori; Horiuchi, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Endocytosis is vital for hyphal tip growth in filamentous fungi and is involved in the tip localization of various membrane proteins. To investigate the function of a Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein (WASP) in endocytosis of filamentous fungi, we identified a WASP ortholog-encoding gene, wspA, in Aspergillus nidulans and characterized it. The wspA product, WspA, localized to the tips of germ tubes during germination and actin rings in the subapical regions of mature hyphae. wspA is essential for the growth and functioned in the polarity establishment and maintenance during germination of conidia. We also investigated its function in endocytosis and revealed that endocytosis of SynA, a synaptobrevin ortholog that is known to be endocytosed at the subapical regions of hyphal tips in A. nidulans, did not occur when wspA expression was repressed. These results suggest that WspA plays roles in endocytosis at hyphal tips and polarity establishment during germination.

  17. Pan1 regulates transitions between stages of clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Bradford, Mary Katherine; Whitworth, Karen; Wendland, Beverly

    2015-04-01

    Endocytosis is a well-conserved process by which cells invaginate small portions of the plasma membrane to create vesicles containing extracellular and transmembrane cargo proteins. Dozens of proteins and hundreds of specific binding interactions are needed to coordinate and regulate these events. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a powerful model system with which to study clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME). Pan1 is believed to be a scaffolding protein due to its interactions with numerous proteins that act throughout the endocytic process. Previous research characterized many Pan1 binding interactions, but due to Pan1's essential nature, the exact mechanisms of Pan1's function in endocytosis have been difficult to define. We created a novel Pan1-degron allele, Pan1-AID, in which Pan1 can be specifically and efficiently degraded in <1 h upon addition of the plant hormone auxin. The loss of Pan1 caused a delay in endocytic progression and weakened connections between the coat/actin machinery and the membrane, leading to arrest in CME. In addition, we determined a critical role for the central region of Pan1 in endocytosis and viability. The regions important for endocytosis and viability can be separated, suggesting that Pan1 may have a distinct role in the cell that is essential for viability.

  18. The miR-199-dynamin regulatory axis controls receptor-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Aranda, Juan F; Canfrán-Duque, Alberto; Goedeke, Leigh; Suárez, Yajaira; Fernández-Hernando, Carlos

    2015-09-01

    Small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) are important regulators of gene expression that modulate many physiological processes; however, their role in regulating intracellular transport remains largely unknown. Intriguingly, we found that the dynamin (DNM) genes, a GTPase family of proteins responsible for endocytosis in eukaryotic cells, encode the conserved miR-199a and miR-199b family of miRNAs within their intronic sequences. Here, we demonstrate that miR-199a and miR-199b regulate endocytic transport by controlling the expression of important mediators of endocytosis such as clathrin heavy chain (CLTC), Rab5A, low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1). Importantly, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p overexpression markedly inhibits CLTC, Rab5A, LDLR and Cav-1 expression, thus preventing receptor-mediated endocytosis in human cell lines (Huh7 and HeLa). Of note, miR-199a-5p inhibition increases target gene expression and receptor-mediated endocytosis. Taken together, our work identifies a new mechanism by which microRNAs regulate intracellular trafficking. In particular, we demonstrate that the DNM, miR-199a-5p and miR-199b-5p genes act as a bifunctional locus that regulates endocytosis, thus adding an unexpected layer of complexity in the regulation of intracellular trafficking.

  19. An organized co-assembly of clathrin adaptors is essential for endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Skruzny, Michal; Desfosses, Ambroise; Prinz, Simone; Dodonova, Svetlana O; Gieras, Anna; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Jakobi, Arjen J; Abella, Marc; Hagen, Wim J H; Schulz, Joachim; Meijers, Rob; Rybin, Vladimir; Briggs, John A G; Sachse, Carsten; Kaksonen, Marko

    2015-04-20

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the main trafficking route from the plasma membrane to the cytoplasm, is critical to many fundamental cellular processes. Clathrin, coupled to the membrane by adaptor proteins, is thought to play a major structural role in endocytosis by self-assembling into a cage-like lattice around the forming vesicle. Although clathrin adaptors are essential for endocytosis, little is known about their structural role in this process. Here we show that the membrane-binding domains of two conserved clathrin adaptors, Sla2 and Ent1, co-assemble in a PI(4,5)P2-dependent manner to form organized lattices on membranes. We determined the structure of the co-assembled lattice by electron cryo-microscopy and designed mutations that specifically impair the lattice formation in vitro. We show that these mutations block endocytosis in vivo. We suggest that clathrin adaptors not only link the polymerized clathrin to the membrane but also form an oligomeric structure, which is essential for membrane remodeling during endocytosis.

  20. HSV-1 Glycoproteins Are Delivered to Virus Assembly Sites Through Dynamin-Dependent Endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Albecka, Anna; Laine, Romain F; Janssen, Anne F J; Kaminski, Clemens F; Crump, Colin M

    2016-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a large enveloped DNA virus that belongs to the family of Herpesviridae. It has been recently shown that the cytoplasmic membranes that wrap the newly assembled capsids are endocytic compartments derived from the plasma membrane. Here, we show that dynamin-dependent endocytosis plays a major role in this process. Dominant-negative dynamin and clathrin adaptor AP180 significantly decrease virus production. Moreover, inhibitors targeting dynamin and clathrin lead to a decreased transport of glycoproteins to cytoplasmic capsids, confirming that glycoproteins are delivered to assembly sites via endocytosis. We also show that certain combinations of glycoproteins colocalize with each other and with the components of clathrin-dependent and -independent endocytosis pathways. Importantly, we demonstrate that the uptake of neutralizing antibodies that bind to glycoproteins when they become exposed on the cell surface during virus particle assembly leads to the production of non-infectious HSV-1. Our results demonstrate that transport of viral glycoproteins to the plasma membrane prior to endocytosis is the major route by which these proteins are localized to the cytoplasmic virus assembly compartments. This highlights the importance of endocytosis as a major protein-sorting event during HSV-1 envelopment.

  1. ER network homeostasis is critical for plant endosome streaming and endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Stefano, Giovanni; Renna, Luciana; Lai, YaShiuan; Slabaugh, Erin; Mannino, Nicole; Buono, Rafael A; Otegui, Marisa S; Brandizzi, Federica

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells internalize cargo at the plasma membrane via endocytosis, a vital process that is accomplished through a complex network of endosomal organelles. In mammalian cells, the ER is in close association with endosomes and regulates their fission. Nonetheless, the physiological role of such interaction on endocytosis is yet unexplored. Here, we probed the existence of ER–endosome association in plant cells and assayed its physiological role in endocytosis. Through live-cell imaging and electron microscopy studies, we established that endosomes are extensively associated with the plant ER, supporting conservation of interaction between heterotypic organelles in evolutionarily distant kingdoms. Furthermore, by analyzing ER–endosome dynamics in genetic backgrounds with defects in ER structure and movement, we also established that the ER network integrity is necessary for homeostasis of the distribution and streaming of various endosome populations as well as for efficient endocytosis. These results support a novel model that endocytosis homeostasis depends on a spatiotemporal control of the endosome dynamics dictated by the ER membrane network. PMID:27462431

  2. Counterintuitive cooperative endocytosis of like-charged nanoparticles in cellular internalization: computer simulation and experiment.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Yuan, Bing; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Xianren; Yan, Bing; Cao, Dapeng

    2017-02-24

    The nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with charged ligands are of particular significance due to their potential drug/gene delivery and biomedical applications. However, the molecular mechanism of endocytosis of the charged NPs by cells, especially the effect of the NP-NP and NP-biomembrane interactions on the internalization pathways is still poorly understood. In this work, we systematically investigate the internalization behaviors of the positively charged NPs by combining experiment technology and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation. We experimentally find an interesting but highly counterintuitive phenomenon, i.e. the multiple positively charged NPs prefer to enter cells cooperatively although the like-charged NPs have obvious electrostatic repulsion. Furthermore, we adopt the DPD simulation to confirm the experimental findings, and reveal that the mechanism of the cooperative endocytosis between like-charged NPs is definitely caused by the interplay of particle size, the charged ligand density on particle surface and local concentration of NPs. Importantly, we not only observe the normal cooperative endocytosis of like-charged NPs in cell biomembrane like neutral NP case, but also predict the 'bud' cooperative endocytosis of like-charged NPs which is absence in the neutral NP case. The results indicate that electrostatic repulsion between the positively charged nanoparticles plays an important role in the 'bud' cooperative endocytosis of like-charged NPs.

  3. Initiation of clathrin-mediated endocytosis: all you need is two?

    PubMed

    Swan, Laura E

    2013-05-01

    Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is a major route for the retrieval of plasma-membrane cargoes, and defects of this process can cause catastrophic human dysfunctions. However, the processes governing how a clathrin-coated profile (ccp) is initiated are still murky. Despite an ever-growing cast of molecules proposed as triggers of ccp nucleation and increasingly sophisticated bioimaging techniques examining clathrin-mediated endocytosis, it is yet unknown if ccp formation is governed by a universal mechanism. A recent paper by Cocucci et al. has tracked single-molecule events to identify that stable accumulation of ccps requires the near-simultaneous arrival of two AP2 adaptors bridged by one clathrin triskelion. This commentary examines the role of AP2 in cargo-mediated endocytosis in the light of recent advances in biophotonics, chemical inhibitors and genetics, examines the claims of other molecules to be the initiators of ccp formation and proposes future directions in research into this topic. Editor's suggested further reading in BioEssays: The evolution of dynamin to regulate clathrin-mediated endocytosis Abstract Clathrin-mediated endocytosis: What works for small, also works for big Abstract.

  4. Mutation of the YXXL Endocytosis Motif in the Cytoplasmic Tail of Pseudorabies Virus gE

    PubMed Central

    Tirabassi, R. S.; Enquist, L. W.

    1999-01-01

    The role of alphaherpesvirus membrane protein internalization during the course of viral infection remains a matter of speculation. To determine the role of internalization of the pseudorabies virus (PRV) gE and gI proteins, we constructed viral mutants encoding specific mutations in the cytoplasmic tail of the gE gene that inhibited internalization of the gE-gI complex. We used these mutants to assess the role of gE-gI endocytosis in incorporation of the proteins into the viral envelope and in gE-mediated spread or gE-promoted virulence. In addition, we report that another viral mutant, PRV 25, which encodes a gE protein defective in endocytosis, contains an additional, previously uncharacterized mutation in the gE gene. We compared PRV 25 to another viral mutant, PRV 107, that does not express the cytoplasmic tail of the gE protein. The gE protein encoded by PRV 107 is also defective in endocytosis. We conclude that efficient endocytosis of gE is not required for gE incorporation into virions, gE-mediated virulence, or spread of virus in the rat central nervous system. However, we do correlate the defect in endocytosis to a small-plaque phenotype in cultured cells. PMID:10074118

  5. A critical role for PSD-95/AKAP interactions in endocytosis of synaptic AMPA receptors.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, Samarjit; Biou, Virginie; Xu, Weifeng; Schlüter, Oliver; Malenka, Robert C

    2009-02-01

    The endocytosis of AMPA receptors (AMPARs) underlies several forms of synaptic plasticity, including NMDA receptor (NMDAR)-dependent long-term depression (LTD), but the molecular mechanisms responsible for this trafficking remain unknown. We found that PSD-95, a major postsynaptic density protein, is important for NMDAR-triggered endocytosis of synaptic AMPARs in rat neuron cultures because of its binding to A kinase-anchoring protein 150 (AKAP150), a scaffold for specific protein kinases and phosphatases. Knockdown of PSD-95 with shRNA blocked NMDAR-triggered, but not constitutive or mGluR-triggered, endocytosis of AMPARs. Deletion of PSD-95's Src homology 3 and guanylate kinase-like domains, as well as a point mutation (L460P), both of which inhibit binding of PSD-95 to AKAP150, also blocked NMDAR-triggered AMPAR endocytosis. Furthermore, expression of a mutant AKAP150 that does not bind calcineurin inhibited this NMDAR-triggered trafficking event. Our results suggest that PSD-95's interaction with AKAP150 is critical for NMDAR-triggered AMPAR endocytosis and LTD, possibly because these scaffolds position calcineurin in the appropriate subsynaptic domain.

  6. Counterintuitive cooperative endocytosis of like-charged nanoparticles in cellular internalization: computer simulation and experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ye; Yuan, Bing; Yang, Kai; Zhang, Xianren; Yan, Bing; Cao, Dapeng

    2017-02-01

    The nanoparticles (NPs) functionalized with charged ligands are of particular significance due to their potential drug/gene delivery and biomedical applications. However, the molecular mechanism of endocytosis of the charged NPs by cells, especially the effect of the NP–NP and NP–biomembrane interactions on the internalization pathways is still poorly understood. In this work, we systematically investigate the internalization behaviors of the positively charged NPs by combining experiment technology and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulation. We experimentally find an interesting but highly counterintuitive phenomenon, i.e. the multiple positively charged NPs prefer to enter cells cooperatively although the like-charged NPs have obvious electrostatic repulsion. Furthermore, we adopt the DPD simulation to confirm the experimental findings, and reveal that the mechanism of the cooperative endocytosis between like-charged NPs is definitely caused by the interplay of particle size, the charged ligand density on particle surface and local concentration of NPs. Importantly, we not only observe the normal cooperative endocytosis of like-charged NPs in cell biomembrane like neutral NP case, but also predict the ‘bud’ cooperative endocytosis of like-charged NPs which is absence in the neutral NP case. The results indicate that electrostatic repulsion between the positively charged nanoparticles plays an important role in the ‘bud’ cooperative endocytosis of like-charged NPs.

  7. Characterization of endocytosis and exocytosis of cationic nanoparticles in airway epithelium cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Youta Dombu, Christophe; Kroubi, Maya; Zibouche, Rima; Matran, Regis; Betbeder, Didier

    2010-09-01

    A major challenge of drug delivery using colloids via the airway is to understand the mechanism implied in their interactions with epithelial cells. The purpose of this work was to characterize the process of endocytosis and exocytosis of cationic nanoparticles (NPs) made of maltodextrin which were developed as a delivery system for antigens in vaccine applications. Confocal microscopy demonstrated that these NP are rapidly endocytosed after as little as 3 min incubation, and that the endocytosis was also faster than NP binding since most of the NPs were found in the middle of the cells around the nuclei. A saturation limit was observed after a 40 min incubation, probably due to an equilibrium becoming established between endocytosis and exocytosis. Endocytosis was dramatically reduced at 4 °C compared with 37 °C, or by NaN3 treatment, both results suggesting an energy dependent process. Protamine pretreatment of the cells inhibited NPs uptake and we found that clathrin pathway is implied in their endocytosis. Cholesterol depletion increased NP uptake by 300% and this phenomenon was explained by the fact that cholesterol depletion totally blocked NP exocytosis. These results suggest that these cationic NPs interact with anionic sites, are quickly endocytosed via the clathrin pathway and that their exocytosis is cholesterol dependent, and are similar to those obtained in other studies with viruses such as influenza.

  8. Endophilin, Lamellipodin, and Mena cooperate to regulate F-actin-dependent EGF-receptor endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Vehlow, Anne; Soong, Daniel; Vizcay-Barrena, Gema; Bodo, Cristian; Law, Ah-Lai; Perera, Upamali; Krause, Matthias

    2013-10-16

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays an essential role during development and diseases including cancer. Lamellipodin (Lpd) is known to control lamellipodia protrusion by regulating actin filament elongation via Ena/VASP proteins. However, it is unknown whether this mechanism supports endocytosis of the EGFR. Here, we have identified a novel role for Lpd and Mena in clathrin-mediated endocytosis (CME) of the EGFR. We have discovered that endogenous Lpd is in a complex with the EGFR and Lpd and Mena knockdown impairs EGFR endocytosis. Conversely, overexpressing Lpd substantially increases the EGFR uptake in an F-actin-dependent manner, suggesting that F-actin polymerization is limiting for EGFR uptake. Furthermore, we found that Lpd directly interacts with endophilin, a BAR domain containing protein implicated in vesicle fission. We identified a role for endophilin in EGFR endocytosis, which is mediated by Lpd. Consistently, Lpd localizes to clathrin-coated pits (CCPs) just before vesicle scission and regulates vesicle scission. Our findings suggest a novel mechanism in which Lpd mediates EGFR endocytosis via Mena downstream of endophilin.

  9. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2

    PubMed Central

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I. B.; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Bozkurt, Tolga O.; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways. PMID:26348328

  10. Phytophthora infestans RXLR-WY Effector AVR3a Associates with Dynamin-Related Protein 2 Required for Endocytosis of the Plant Pattern Recognition Receptor FLS2.

    PubMed

    Chaparro-Garcia, Angela; Schwizer, Simon; Sklenar, Jan; Yoshida, Kentaro; Petre, Benjamin; Bos, Jorunn I B; Schornack, Sebastian; Jones, Alexandra M E; Bozkurt, Tolga O; Kamoun, Sophien

    2015-01-01

    Pathogens utilize effectors to suppress basal plant defense known as PTI (Pathogen-associated molecular pattern-triggered immunity). However, our knowledge of PTI suppression by filamentous plant pathogens, i.e. fungi and oomycetes, remains fragmentary. Previous work revealed that the co-receptor BAK1/SERK3 contributes to basal immunity against the potato pathogen Phytophthora infestans. Moreover BAK1/SERK3 is required for the cell death induced by P. infestans elicitin INF1, a protein with characteristics of PAMPs. The P. infestans host-translocated RXLR-WY effector AVR3a is known to supress INF1-mediated cell death by binding the plant E3 ligase CMPG1. In contrast, AVR3aKI-Y147del, a deletion mutant of the C-terminal tyrosine of AVR3a, fails to bind CMPG1 and does not suppress INF1-mediated cell death. Here, we studied the extent to which AVR3a and its variants perturb additional BAK1/SERK3-dependent PTI responses in N. benthamiana using the elicitor/receptor pair flg22/FLS2 as a model. We found that all tested variants of AVR3a suppress defense responses triggered by flg22 and reduce internalization of activated FLS2. Moreover, we discovered that AVR3a associates with the Dynamin-Related Protein 2 (DRP2), a plant GTPase implicated in receptor-mediated endocytosis. Interestingly, silencing of DRP2 impaired ligand-induced FLS2 internalization but did not affect internalization of the growth receptor BRI1. Our results suggest that AVR3a associates with a key cellular trafficking and membrane-remodeling complex involved in immune receptor-mediated endocytosis. We conclude that AVR3a is a multifunctional effector that can suppress BAK1/SERK3-mediated immunity through at least two different pathways.

  11. Attachment of cell-binding ligands to arginine-rich cell penetrating peptides enables cytosolic translocation of complexed siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Skye; Choi, Changseon; Uchil, Pradeep D.; Ban, Hongseok; Siefert, Alyssa; Fahmy, Tarek M.; Mothes, Walther; Lee, Sang Kyung; Kumar, Priti

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) like nona-arginine (9R) poorly translocate siRNA into cells. Our studies demonstrate that attaching 9R to ligands that bind cell-surface receptors quantitatively increases siRNA uptake and importantly, allows functional delivery of complexed siRNA. The mechanism involved accumulation of ligand-9R:siRNA microparticles on the cell membrane, which induced transient membrane inversion at the site of ligand-9R binding and rapid siRNA translocation into the cytoplasm. siRNA release also occurred late after endocytosis when the ligand was attached to the L isoform of 9R, but not the protease-resistant 9DR, prolonging mRNA knockdown. This critically depended on endosomal proteolytic activity implying partial CPP degradation is required for endosome to cytosol translocation. The data demonstrate that ligand attachment renders simple polycationic CPPs effective for siRNA delivery by restoring their intrinsic property of translocation. PMID:25544044

  12. DNA nanopore translocation in glutamate solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plesa, C.; van Loo, N.; Dekker, C.

    2015-08-01

    Nanopore experiments have traditionally been carried out with chloride-based solutions. Here we introduce silver/silver-glutamate-based electrochemistry as an alternative, and study the viscosity, conductivity, and nanopore translocation characteristics of potassium-, sodium-, and lithium-glutamate solutions. We show that it has a linear response at typical voltages and can be used to detect DNA translocations through a nanopore. The glutamate anion also acts as a redox-capable thickening agent, with high-viscosity solutions capable of slowing down the DNA translocation process by up to 11 times, with a corresponding 7 time reduction in signal. These results demonstrate that glutamate can replace chloride as the primary anion in nanopore resistive pulse sensing.

  13. DNA nanopore translocation in glutamate solutions.

    PubMed

    Plesa, C; van Loo, N; Dekker, C

    2015-08-28

    Nanopore experiments have traditionally been carried out with chloride-based solutions. Here we introduce silver/silver-glutamate-based electrochemistry as an alternative, and study the viscosity, conductivity, and nanopore translocation characteristics of potassium-, sodium-, and lithium-glutamate solutions. We show that it has a linear response at typical voltages and can be used to detect DNA translocations through a nanopore. The glutamate anion also acts as a redox-capable thickening agent, with high-viscosity solutions capable of slowing down the DNA translocation process by up to 11 times, with a corresponding 7 time reduction in signal. These results demonstrate that glutamate can replace chloride as the primary anion in nanopore resistive pulse sensing.

  14. Stochastic resonance during a polymer translocation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondal, Debasish; Muthukumar, Murugappan

    We study the translocation of a flexible polymer in a confined geometry subjected to a time-periodic external drive to explore stochastic resonance. We describe the equilibrium translocation process in terms of a Fokker-Planck description and use a discrete two-state model to describe the effect of the external driving force on the translocation dynamics. We observe that no stochastic resonance is possible if the associated free-energy barrier is purely entropic in nature. The polymer chain experiences a stochastic resonance effect only in presence of an energy threshold in terms of polymer-pore interaction. Once stochastic resonance is feasible, the chain entropy controls the optimal synchronization conditions significantly.

  15. Sorting by reciprocal translocations via reversals theory.

    PubMed

    Ozery-Flato, Michal; Shamir, Ron

    2007-05-01

    The understanding of genome rearrangements is an important endeavor in comparative genomics. A major computational problem in this field is finding a shortest sequence of genome rearrangements that transforms, or sorts, one genome into another. In this paper we focus on sorting a multi-chromosomal genome by translocations. We reveal new relationships between this problem and the well studied problem of sorting by reversals. Based on these relationships, we develop two new algorithms for sorting by reciprocal translocations, which mimic known algorithms for sorting by reversals: a score-based method building on Bergeron's algorithm, and a recursive procedure similar to the Berman-Hannenhalli method. Though their proofs are more involved, our procedures for reciprocal translocations match the complexities of the original ones for reversals.

  16. Computational analysis of maltose binding protein translocation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinappi, Mauro; Cecconi, Fabio; Massimo Casciola, Carlo

    2011-05-01

    We propose a computational model for the study of maltose binding protein translocation across α-hemolysin nanopores. The phenomenological approach simplifies both the pore and the polypeptide chain; however it retains the basic structural protein-like properties of the maltose binding protein by promoting the correct formation of its native key interactions. By considering different observables characterising the channel blockade and molecule transport, we verified that MD simulations reproduce qualitatively the behaviour observed in a recent experiment. Simulations reveal that blockade events consist of a capture stage, to some extent related to the unfolding kinetics, and a single file translocation process in the channel. A threshold mechanics underlies the process activation with a critical force depending on the protein denaturation state. Finally, our results support the simple interpretation of translocation via first-passage statistics of a driven diffusion process of a single reaction coordinate.

  17. Polymer translocation through a nanopore: DPD study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kan; Vishnyakov, Aleksey; Neimark, Alexander V

    2013-04-04

    Translocation of a polymer chain through a narrow pore is explored using 3D explicit solvent dissipative particle dynamics simulation. We study the dependence of the translocation dynamics and translocation time τ on the chain length N, driving force magnitude E, and solvent quality. Two types of driving forces are considered: uniform hydrostatic force, which is applied equally to the chain and solvent particles, and uniform electrostatic force, which is applied selectively to the charged particles in the chain and oppositely charged counterions in the solvent. We concluded that the scaling correlations τ ~ E(-ξ) and τ ~ N(β) are valid only for coil-like chains. For globular chains, the exponents ξ and β could not be identified with a reasonable accuracy. While the found value of ξ agrees with published experimental results and does not depend on the driving force type, the exponent β depends on the driving force and solvent quality. This is explained by nonequilibrium effects, as in the systems considered, the time of translocation is comparable with the time of chain relaxation. These effects, manifested in the changes of chain conformation in the process of translocation, were analyzed on the basis of the variation of the gyration radii of cis and trans segments of the chain in normal and lateral directions. A prominent chain expansion was observed for coils and was insignificant for globules. This work demonstrates the feasibility of the 3D dissipative particle dynamics modeling of translocation phenomena and accounting for the electrostatic interactions with explicit counterions, as well as for the solvent quality, in a computationally efficient manner.

  18. What drives the translocation of proteins?

    PubMed Central

    Simon, S M; Peskin, C S; Oster, G F

    1992-01-01

    We propose that protein translocation across membranes is driven by biased random thermal motion. This "Brownian ratchet" mechanism depends on chemical asymmetries between the cis and trans sides of the membrane. Several mechanisms could contribute to rectifying the thermal motion of the protein, such as binding and dissociation of chaperonins to the translocating chain, chain coiling induced by pH and/or ionic gradients, glycosylation, and disulfide bond formation. This helps explain the robustness and promiscuity of these transport systems. Images PMID:1349170

  19. Familial translocation t(9;16).

    PubMed Central

    Dowman, C; Lockwood, D; Allanson, J

    1989-01-01

    We report a female with a deletion of 9p and concomitant duplication of 16q [46,XX,-9,+der(9),t(9;16)(p24;q13)]. Parental chromosome analysis showed a balanced maternal translocation [46,XX,t(9;16)(p24;q13)]. Three other cases of translocations involving chromosomes 9 and 16 have been reported, one of them with identical breakpoints. A review of published reports of deletion 9p and duplication 16q is presented, and a comparison is made with previously described cases. Images PMID:2671373

  20. Protein Translocation across the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Mandon, Elisabet C.; Trueman, Steven F.; Gilmore, Reid

    2013-01-01

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum is a major site of protein biosynthesis in all eukaryotic cells, serving as the entry point for the secretory pathway and as the initial integration site for the majority of cellular integral membrane proteins. The core components of the protein translocation machinery have been identified, and high-resolution structures of the targeting components and the transport channel have been obtained. Research in this area is now focused on obtaining a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of protein translocation and membrane protein integration. PMID:23251026

  1. Specific analogues uncouple transport, signalling, oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis in the yeast Gap1 amino acid transceptor.

    PubMed

    Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Rubio-Texeira, Marta; Schothorst, Joep; Thevelein, Johan M

    2014-07-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid transceptor Gap1 functions as receptor for signalling to the PKA pathway and concomitantly undergoes substrate-induced oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis. We have identified specific amino acids and analogues that uncouple to certain extent signalling, transport, oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis. L-lysine, L-histidine and L-tryptophan are transported by Gap1 but do not trigger signalling. Unlike L-histidine, L-lysine triggers Gap1 oligo-ubiquitination without substantial induction of endocytosis. Two transported, non-metabolizable signalling agonists, β-alanine and D-histidine, are strong and weak inducers of Gap1 endocytosis, respectively, but both causing Gap1 oligo-ubiquitination. The non-signalling agonist, non-transported competitive inhibitor of Gap1 transport, L-Asp-γ-L-Phe, induces oligo-ubiquitination but no discernible endocytosis. The Km of L-citrulline transport is much lower than the threshold concentration for signalling and endocytosis. These results show that molecules can be transported without triggering signalling or substantial endocytosis, and that oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis do not require signalling nor metabolism. Oligo-ubiquitination is required, but apparently not sufficient to trigger endocytosis. In addition, we demonstrate intracellular cross-induction of endocytosis of transport-defective Gap1(Y395C) by ubiquitination- and endocytosis-deficient Gap1(K9R,K16R). Our results support the concept that different substrates bind to partially overlapping binding sites in the same general substrate-binding pocket of Gap1, triggering divergent conformations, resulting in different conformation-induced downstream processes.

  2. Specific analogues uncouple transport, signalling, oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis in the yeast Gap1 amino acid transceptor

    PubMed Central

    Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Rubio-Texeira, Marta; Schothorst, Joep; Thevelein, Johan M

    2014-01-01

    The Saccharomyces cerevisiae amino acid transceptor Gap1 functions as receptor for signalling to the PKA pathway and concomitantly undergoes substrate-induced oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis. We have identified specific amino acids and analogues that uncouple to certain extent signalling, transport, oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis. l-lysine, l-histidine and l-tryptophan are transported by Gap1 but do not trigger signalling. Unlike l-histidine, l-lysine triggers Gap1 oligo-ubiquitination without substantial induction of endocytosis. Two transported, non-metabolizable signalling agonists, β-alanine and d-histidine, are strong and weak inducers of Gap1 endocytosis, respectively, but both causing Gap1 oligo-ubiquitination. The non-signalling agonist, non-transported competitive inhibitor of Gap1 transport, l-Asp-γ-l-Phe, induces oligo-ubiquitination but no discernible endocytosis. The Km of l-citrulline transport is much lower than the threshold concentration for signalling and endocytosis. These results show that molecules can be transported without triggering signalling or substantial endocytosis, and that oligo-ubiquitination and endocytosis do not require signalling nor metabolism. Oligo-ubiquitination is required, but apparently not sufficient to trigger endocytosis. In addition, we demonstrate intracellular cross-induction of endocytosis of transport-defective Gap1Y395C by ubiquitination- and endocytosis-deficient Gap1K9R,K16R. Our results support the concept that different substrates bind to partially overlapping binding sites in the same general substrate-binding pocket of Gap1, triggering divergent conformations, resulting in different conformation-induced downstream processes. PMID:24852066

  3. X-autosome translocations in amenorrhoea: a report of a three way translocation from Indian population.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Dhanlaxmi L; Kadam, Akshay P; Koppaka, Neeraja T; Dalvi, Rupa C; Chavan, Deepak S; Das, Bibu R; Mandava, Swarna

    2014-04-01

    Chromosomal translocations have been reported in a number of women undergoing cytogenetic studies for amenorrhoea and gonadal dysgenesis. This study was taken up to emphasize the role of X chromosome and to know the frequency of X-autosomal translocations in women with amenorrhoea in Indian population. Cytogenetic analysis was carried out in 1567 subjects referred for amenorrhoea during the period 2002-2012. GTG-banding was performed from peripheral blood lymphocyte cultures to detect the chromosome abnormalities in all the cases. The karyotype results revealed 43.6% cases with chromosomal abnormalities (n = 683 of 1567 cases). The X-autosomal translocations was found in 2.64% (n = 18 of 683 cases). The common chromosomes involved with X were chromosomes 2, 4, 14 and 20. The translocations involved both p and q arms of the X chromosome.The break point "q26" of X was observed in the majority of the cases. Two interesting cases are discussed: one with three way translocation and another with two translocations. A high number of primary amenorrhoea (PA) and secondary amenorrhoea (SA) cases were involved in X-auto translocation which clearly reveals that chromosomal analysis plays an important role in the evaluation of amenorrhoea.

  4. Enterocyte cytoskeleton changes are crucial for enhanced translocation of nonpathogenic Escherichia coli across metabolically stressed gut epithelia.

    PubMed

    Nazli, Aisha; Wang, Arthur; Steen, Oren; Prescott, David; Lu, Jun; Perdue, Mary H; Söderholm, Johan D; Sherman, Philip M; McKay, Derek M

    2006-01-01

    Substantial data implicate the commensal flora as triggers for the initiation of enteric inflammation or inflammatory disease relapse. We have shown that enteric epithelia under metabolic stress respond to nonpathogenic bacteria by increases in epithelial paracellular permeability and bacterial translocation. Here we assessed the structural basis of these findings. Confluent filter-grown monolayers of the human colonic T84 epithelial cell line were treated with 0.1 mM dinitrophenol (which uncouples oxidative phosphorylation) and noninvasive, nonpathogenic Escherichia coli (strain HB101, 10(6) CFU) with or without pretreatment with various pharmacological agents. At 24 h later, apoptosis, tight-junction protein expression, transepithelial resistance (TER; a marker of paracellular permeability), and bacterial internalization and translocation were assessed. Treatment with stabilizers of microtubules (i.e., colchicine), microfilaments (i.e., jasplakinolide) and clathrin-coated pit endocytosis (i.e., phenylarsine oxide) all failed to block DNP+E. coli HB101-induced reductions in TER but effectively prevented bacterial internalization and translocation. Neither the TER defect nor the enhanced bacterial translocations were a consequence of increased apoptosis. These data show that epithelial paracellular and transcellular (i.e., bacterial internalization) permeation pathways are controlled by different mechanisms. Thus, epithelia under metabolic stress increase their endocytotic activity that can result in a microtubule-, microfilament-dependent internalization and transcytosis of bacteria. We speculate that similar events in vivo would allow excess unprocessed antigen and bacteria into the mucosa and could evoke an inflammatory response by, for example, the activation of resident or recruited immune cells.

  5. Flow cytometric determination of endocytosis of viable labelled Legionella pneumophila by Acanthamoeba palestinensis.

    PubMed

    Harf, C; Goffinet, S; Meunier, O; Monteil, H; Colin, D A

    1997-03-01

    Endocytosis of fluorescently labelled cells of Legionella pneumophila (L. pneumophila) by free-living Acanthamoeba palestinensis (A. palestinensis) has been studied using flow cytometry. L. pneumophila cells were labelled with CM-DiI, a lipophilic fluorescent probe under conditions that did not modify viability. Coculturing the bacteria with amoebae was accompanied by rapid endocytosis; after 5 min, 90% of the amoebae had internalized bacteria. This percentage remained unchanged during further coculture, but the number of bacteria ingested per amoeba increased. Moreover, the number of ingested bacteria was found to be dependent on the size of the amoeba. The validity of the internalization analyzed by flow cytometry was confirmed by observation using epifluorescence and phase contrast microscopy. CM-DiI labelling associated with flow cytometry provides a very valuable technique for the determination of bacteria endocytosis by free-living amoeba.

  6. Capacitance-based assay for real-time monitoring of endocytosis and cell viability.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rimi; Kim, Jihun; Kim, Sook Young; Jang, Seon Mi; Lee, Sun-Mi; Choi, In-Hong; Park, Seung Woo; Shin, Jeon-Soo; Yoo, Kyung-Hwa

    2012-07-07

    Label-free cell-based assays have emerged as a promising means for high-throughput screening. Most label-free sensors are based on impedance measurements that reflect the passive electrical properties of cells. Here we introduce a capacitance-based assay that measures the dielectric constant (capacitance) of biological cells, and demonstrate the feasibility of analyzing endocytosis and screening chemotherapeutic agents with this assay. Endocytosis induces a change in the zeta potential, leading to a change in the dielectric constant which enables real-time endocytosis monitoring using the capacitance sensor. Additionally, since the dielectric constant is proportional to cell radius and cell volume, cell viability can be estimated from the change in capacitance. Therefore, the capacitance sensor array can also be used for cytotoxicity testing for large-scale chemotherapeutic screening.

  7. Imaging Synaptic Vesicle Exocytosis-Endocytosis with pH-Sensitive Fluorescent Proteins.

    PubMed

    Afuwape, Olusoji A T; Kavalali, Ege T

    2016-01-01

    The introduction of pHluorin, a pH-sensitive GFP, by Miesenbock and colleagues provided a versatile tool to studies of vesicle trafficking, in particular synaptic vesicle exocytosis and endocytosis. By tagging pHluorin to the luminal region of the synaptic vesicular protein synaptobrevin (also called VAMP, vesicle-associated membrane protein) or other synaptic vesicle-specific proteins such as the vesicular glutamate transporter-1, we are able to directly track synaptic vesicle endocytosis in response to stimuli in a molecularly specific manner. Here, we describe the process of imaging synaptic vesicle endocytosis in response to extracellular stimulation in dissociated neuronal cultures of hippocampal neurons obtained from rats-also applicable to mice-using pHluorin-tagged vesicular glutamate transporter-1 as a reporter.

  8. The Wurst protein: a novel endocytosis regulator involved in airway clearance and respiratory tube size control.

    PubMed

    Wingen, Christian; Aschenbrenner, Anna C; Stümpges, Birgit; Hoch, Michael; Behr, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The mammalian lung and the Drosophila airways are composed of an intricate network of epithelial tubes that transports fluids or gases and converts during late embryogenesis from liquid- to air-filling. Conserved growth factor pathways have been characterized in model organisms such as Drosophila or the mouse that control patterning and branching of tubular networks. In contrast, knowledge of the coordination of respiratory tube size and physiology is still limited. Latest studies have shown that endocytosis plays a major role in size determination and liquid clearance of the respiratory tubes and a new key regulator of these processes was identified, the Drosophila Wurst protein. wurst encodes a J-domain transmembrane protein which is essential for Clathrin-mediated endocytosis. It is evolutionary conserved and single Wurst orthologs are found in mammals (termed DNAJC22). In this commentary, we discuss the role of Wurst/DNAJC22 and address whether these proteins may be general regulators of Clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  9. Building a better dynasore: the dyngo compounds potently inhibit dynamin and endocytosis.

    PubMed

    McCluskey, Adam; Daniel, James A; Hadzic, Gordana; Chau, Ngoc; Clayton, Emma L; Mariana, Anna; Whiting, Ainslie; Gorgani, Nick N; Lloyd, Jonathan; Quan, Annie; Moshkanbaryans, Lia; Krishnan, Sai; Perera, Swetha; Chircop, Megan; von Kleist, Lisa; McGeachie, Andrew B; Howes, Mark T; Parton, Robert G; Campbell, Michael; Sakoff, Jennette A; Wang, Xuefeng; Sun, Jian-Yuan; Robertson, Mark J; Deane, Fiona M; Nguyen, Tam H; Meunier, Frederic A; Cousin, Michael A; Robinson, Phillip J

    2013-12-01

    Dynamin GTPase activity increases when it oligomerizes either into helices in the presence of lipid templates or into rings in the presence of SH3 domain proteins. Dynasore is a dynamin inhibitor of moderate potency (IC₅₀ ~ 15 μM in vitro). We show that dynasore binds stoichiometrically to detergents used for in vitro drug screening, drastically reducing its potency (IC₅₀ = 479 μM) and research tool utility. We synthesized a focused set of dihydroxyl and trihydroxyl dynasore analogs called the Dyngo™ compounds, five of which had improved potency, reduced detergent binding and reduced cytotoxicity, conferred by changes in the position and/or number of hydroxyl substituents. The Dyngo compound 4a was the most potent compound, exhibiting a 37-fold improvement in potency over dynasore for liposome-stimulated helical dynamin activity. In contrast, while dynasore about equally inhibited dynamin assembled in its helical or ring states, 4a and 6a exhibited >36-fold reduced activity against rings, suggesting that they can discriminate between helical or ring oligomerization states. 4a and 6a inhibited dynamin-dependent endocytosis of transferrin in multiple cell types (IC₅₀ of 5.7 and 5.8 μM, respectively), at least sixfold more potently than dynasore, but had no effect on dynamin-independent endocytosis of cholera toxin. 4a also reduced synaptic vesicle endocytosis and activity-dependent bulk endocytosis in cultured neurons and synaptosomes. Overall, 4a and 6a are improved and versatile helical dynamin and endocytosis inhibitors in terms of potency, non-specific binding and cytotoxicity. The data further suggest that the ring oligomerization state of dynamin is not required for clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

  10. Fc receptor endocytosis is controlled by a cytoplasmic domain determinant that actively prevents coated pit localization

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Macrophages and B-lymphocytes express two major isoforms of Fc receptor (FcRII-B2 and FcRII-B1) that exhibit distinct capacities for endocytosis. This difference in function reflects the presence of an in- frame insertion of 47 amino acids in the cytoplasmic domain of the lymphocyte isoform (FcRII-B1) due to alternative mRNA splicing. By expressing wild type and mutant FcRII cDNAs in fibroblasts, we have now examined the mechanism by which the insertion acts to prevent coated pit localization and endocytosis. We first identified the region of the FcRII-B2 cytoplasmic domain that is required for rapid internalization. Using a biochemical assay for endocytosis and an immuno-EM assay to determine coated pit localization directly, we found that the distal half of the cytoplasmic domain, particularly a region including residues 18-31, as needed for coated pit-mediated endocytosis. Elimination of the tyrosine residues at position 26 and 43, separately or together, had little effect on coated pit localization and a partial effect on endocytosis of ligand. Since the FcRII-B1 insertion occurs in the membrane-proximal region of the cytoplasmic domain (residue 6) not required for internalization, it is unlikely to act by physically disrupting the coated pit localization determinant. In fact, the insertion was found to prevent endocytosis irrespective of its position in the cytoplasmic tail and appeared to selectively exclude the receptor from coated regions. Moreover, receptors bearing the insertion exhibited a temperature- and ligand-dependent association with a detergent-insoluble fraction and with actin filaments, perhaps in part explaining the inability of FcRII-B1 to enter coated pits. PMID:1734021

  11. Clathrin in Chara australis: Molecular Analysis and Involvement in Charasome Degradation and Constitutive Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hoepflinger, Marion C.; Hoeftberger, Margit; Sommer, Aniela; Hametner, Christina; Foissner, Ilse

    2017-01-01

    Charasomes are convoluted plasma membrane domains in characean green algae. They are known to form in response to light via secretion of trans-Golgi network (TGN) vesicles and local inhibition of endocytosis. Charasomes are involved in the acidification of their aqueous environment, thereby facilitating photosynthesis-dependent carbon uptake. Charasome formation is reversible to allow cells to adapt to different light conditions. Here, we show that darkness-induced degradation of charasomes involves the formation of coated pits and coated vesicles. The darkness-induced degradation of charasomes can be inhibited by 1–2 μM ikarugamycin (IKA), which is considered to be a specific inhibitor of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. At a much higher concentration (100 μM), IKA also significantly reduces the internalization of styryl dyes, indicating uptake via clathrin-coated vesicles (CV). We are the first to present evidence, based on fine structure investigation, that IKA does not interfere with the formation of clathrin coat, but inhibits the detachment and/or further processing of coated vesicles. Both charasome degradation and constitutive endocytosis are also significantly inhibited by sterol complexing agents (methyl-ß-cyclodextrin and filipin). The absence of an additive effect, when applied together with IKA, suggests that charasome degradation and constitutive endocytosis (measured via styryl dye uptake) is not inhibited due to membrane retrieval via lipid rafts, but due to clathrin coat formation requirement of a specific set of sterols. Analysis of Chara australis clathrin proteins revealed two heavy chains and several light chains with sequence peculiarities, suggesting functional and/or species specific differences. The data obtained indicate that clathrin plays a central role not only in constitutive endocytosis but also in the degradation of charasomes, thereby representing a valuable system for studying targeted exo- and endocytosis. PMID:28184226

  12. Rab5 Isoforms Specifically Regulate Different Modes of Endocytosis in Leishmania.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, Ruchir; Verma, Jitender Kumar; Kapoor, Anjali; Langsley, Gordon; Mukhopadhyay, Amitabha

    2016-07-08

    Differential functions of Rab5 isoforms in endocytosis are not well characterized. Here, we cloned, expressed, and characterized Rab5a and Rab5b from Leishmania and found that both of them are localized in the early endosome. To understand the role of LdRab5 isoforms in different modes of endocytosis in Leishmania, we generated transgenic parasites overexpressing LdRab5a, LdRab5b, or their dominant-positive (LdRab5a:Q93L and LdRab5b:Q80L) or dominant-negative mutants (LdRab5a:N146I and LdRab5b:N133I). Using LdRab5a or its mutants overexpressing parasites, we found that LdRab5a specifically regulates the fluid-phase endocytosis of horseradish peroxidase and also specifically induced the transport of dextran-Texas Red to the lysosomes. In contrast, cells overexpressing LdRab5b or its mutants showed that LdRab5b explicitly controls receptor-mediated endocytosis of hemoglobin, and overexpression of LdRab5b:WT enhanced the transport of internalized Hb to the lysosomes in comparison with control cells. To unequivocally demonstrate the role of Rab5 isoforms in endocytosis in Leishmania, we tried to generate null-mutants of LdRab5a and LdRab5b parasites, but both were lethal indicating their essential functions in parasites. Therefore, we used heterozygous LdRab5a(+/-) and LdRab5b(+/-) cells. LdRab5a(+/-) Leishmania showed 50% inhibition of HRP uptake, but hemoglobin endocytosis was uninterrupted. In contrast, about 50% inhibition of Hb endocytosis was observed in LdRab5b(+/-) cells without any significant effect on HRP uptake. Finally, we tried to identify putative LdRab5a and LdRab5b effectors. We found that LdRab5b interacts with clathrin heavy chain and hemoglobin receptor. However, LdRab5a failed to interact with the clathrin heavy chain, and interaction with hemoglobin receptor was significantly less. Thus, our results showed that LdRab5a and LdRab5b differentially regulate fluid phase and receptor-mediated endocytosis in Leishmania.

  13. Water Soluble Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes Inhibit Stimulated Endocytosis in Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Malarkey, Erik B.; Reyes, Reno C.; Zhao, Bin; Haddon, Robert C.; Parpura, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    We report the use of chemically-functionalized water soluble single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) graft copolymers to inhibit endocytosis. The graft copolymers were prepared by the functionalization of SWNTs with poly-ethylene glycol. When added to the culturing medium, these functionalized water soluble SWNTs were able to increase the length of various neuronal processes, neurites, as previously reported. Here we have determined that SWNTs are able to block stimulated membrane endocytosis in neurons, which could then explain the previously noted extended neurite length. PMID:18759491

  14. Receptor-mediated endocytosis for drug delivery in African trypanosomes: fulfilling Paul Ehrlich's vision of chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Alsford, Sam; Field, Mark C; Horn, David

    2013-05-01

    Bloodstream-form cells of Trypanosoma brucei exhibit massively increased endocytic activity relative to the insect midgut stage, enabling rapid recycling of variant surface glycoprotein and antibody clearance from the surface. In addition, recent advances have identified a role for receptor-mediated endocytosis in the uptake of the antitrypanosomal drug, suramin, via invariant surface glycoprotein 75, and in the uptake of trypanosome lytic factor 1 via haptoglobin-haemoglobin receptor. Here, we argue that receptor-mediated endocytosis represents both a validated drug target and a promising route for the delivery of novel therapeutics into trypanosomes.

  15. Prominin-2 expression increases protrusions, decreases caveolae and inhibits Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Raman Deep Schroeder, Andreas S.; Scheffer, Luana; Holicky, Eileen L.; Wheatley, Christine L.; Marks, David L. Pagano, Richard E.

    2013-05-10

    Highlights: •Prominin-2 expression induced protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. •Prominin-2 expression decreased caveolae, caveolar endocytosis and increased pCav1. •Prominin-2 expression inhibited fluid phase endocytosis by inactivation of Cdc42. •These endocytic effects can be reversed by adding exogenous cholesterol. •Caveolin1 knockdown restored fluid phase endocytosis in Prominin2 expressing cells. -- Abstract: Background: Membrane protrusions play important roles in biological processes such as cell adhesion, wound healing, migration, and sensing of the external environment. Cell protrusions are a subtype of membrane microdomains composed of cholesterol and sphingolipids, and can be disrupted by cholesterol depletion. Prominins are pentaspan membrane proteins that bind cholesterol and localize to plasma membrane (PM) protrusions. Prominin-1 is of great interest as a marker for stem and cancer cells, while Prominin-2 (Prom2) is reportedly restricted to epithelial cells. Aim: To characterize the effects of Prom-2 expression on PM microdomain organization. Methods: Prom2-fluorescent protein was transfected in human skin fibroblasts (HSF) and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells for PM raft and endocytic studies. Caveolae at PM were visualized using transmission electron microscopy. Cdc42 activation was measured and caveolin-1 knockdown was performed using siRNAs. Results: Prom2 expression in HSF and CHO cells caused extensive Prom2-positive protrusions that co-localized with lipid raft markers. Prom2 expression significantly decreased caveolae at the PM, reduced caveolar endocytosis and increased caveolin-1 phosphorylation. Prom2 expression also inhibited Cdc42-dependent fluid phase endocytosis via decreased Cdc42 activation. Effects on endocytosis were reversed by addition of cholesterol. Knockdown of caveolin-1 by siRNA restored Cdc42 dependent fluid phase endocytosis in Prom2-expressing cells. Conclusions: Prom2 protrusions primarily

  16. The mystery of chromosomal translocations in cancer.

    PubMed

    Koss, L G

    2007-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations in human cancer may result in products that can be suppressed by targeting drugs. An example is bcr-abl tyrosine kinase in chronic myelogenous leukemia that can be treated with imatinib mesylate. However, the mechanisms of translocations or exchanges of chromosomal segments are virtually unknown. In this summary, chromosomal translocations in human cancer are compared with 'crossing over' of chromosomal segments occurring during the first meiotic division. Several proposed mechanisms of the exchange of DNA between and among chromosomes are discussed. The conditions that appear essential for these events to occur are listed. Among them are proximity of the involved DNA segments, mechanisms of excising the target DNA, its transport to the new location, and integration into the pre-existing chromosome. The conclusion based on extensive review of the literature is that practically nothing is known about the mechanism of 'crossing over' or translocation. Based on prior work on normal human cells, it is suggested that only one of the two autosomes participates in these events that may include loss of heterozygozity, another common abnormality in human cancer.

  17. Familial cryptic translocation in Angelman syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Weyerts, L.K.; Wiley, J.E.; Loud, K.M.

    1994-09-01

    The majority of patients with Angelman syndrome have been shown to have a cytogenetic or molecular deletion on the maternally derived chromosome 15. We report on a case of Angelman syndrome in which this deletion occurs as an unbalanced cryptic translocation involving chromosomes 14 and 15. The proband was diagnosed clinically as having Angelman syndrome. Multiple cytogenetic studies were done without detecting any deletion. When DNA probes (Oncor) specific for the Prader Willi/Angelman locus became available, the patient was restudied and found to be deleted for {open_quotes}region A{close_quotes} (D15S11) but not for {open_quotes}region B{close_quotes} (GABRB3). No other abnormality was detected. The proband`s mother was then studied. The chromosome 15 marker probe and D15S11 were detected on different chromosomes. Using alpha-satellite probes, a cryptic 14;15 translocation was uncovered. This balanced translocation was also found to be carried by the sister of the proband. This case, along with a case presented at the 1993 ASHG meeting, illustrates the need for using acrocentric probes when studying Angelman syndrome patients. The proband was studied using additional probes specific for this region and found to be deleted for SNRPN but not for D15S10. The breakpoint of the translocation in this patient delineates the smallest deletion of the Angelman syndrome region reported to date and therefore may represent the specific gene involved.

  18. PI3K regulates endocytosis after insulin secretion by mediating signaling crosstalk between Arf6 and Rab27a.

    PubMed

    Yamaoka, Mami; Ando, Tomomi; Terabayashi, Takeshi; Okamoto, Mitsuhiro; Takei, Masahiro; Nishioka, Tomoki; Kaibuchi, Kozo; Matsunaga, Kohichi; Ishizaki, Ray; Izumi, Tetsuro; Niki, Ichiro; Ishizaki, Toshimasa; Kimura, Toshihide

    2016-02-01

    In secretory cells, endocytosis is coupled to exocytosis to enable proper secretion. Although endocytosis is crucial to maintain cellular homeostasis before and after secretion, knowledge about secretagogue-induced endocytosis in secretory cells is still limited. Here, we searched for proteins that interacted with the Rab27a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) EPI64 (also known as TBC1D10A) and identified the Arf6 guanine-nucleotide-exchange factor (GEF) ARNO (also known as CYTH2) in pancreatic β-cells. We found that the insulin secretagogue glucose promotes phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) generation through phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), thereby recruiting ARNO to the intracellular side of the plasma membrane. Peripheral ARNO promotes clathrin assembly through its GEF activity for Arf6 and regulates the early stage of endocytosis. We also found that peripheral ARNO recruits EPI64 to the same area and that the interaction requires glucose-induced endocytosis in pancreatic β-cells. Given that GTP- and GDP-bound Rab27a regulate exocytosis and the late stage of endocytosis, our results indicate that the glucose-induced activation of PI3K plays a pivotal role in exocytosis-endocytosis coupling, and that ARNO and EPI64 regulate endocytosis at distinct stages.

  19. Different contributions of clathrin- and caveolae-mediated endocytosis of vascular endothelial cadherin to lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular hyperpermeability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Lianyang; Li, Yang; Sun, Shijin; Tan, Hao

    2014-01-01

    Vascular hyperpermeability induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a common pathogenic process in cases of severe trauma and sepsis. Vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cad) is a key regulatory molecule involved in this process, although the detailed mechanism through which this molecule acts remains unclear. We assessed the role of clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis of VE-cad in LPS-induced vascular hyperpermeability in the human vascular endothelial cell line CRL-2922 and determined that vascular permeability and VE-cad localization at the plasma membrane were negatively correlated after LPS treatment. Additionally, the loss of VE-cad at the plasma membrane was caused by both clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis. Clathrin-mediated endocytosis was dominant early after LPS treatment, and caveolae-mediated endocytosis was dominant hours after LPS treatment. The caveolae-mediated endocytosis of VE-cad was activated through the LPS-Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-Src signaling pathway. Structural changes in the actin cytoskeleton, specifically from polymerization to depolymerization, were important reasons for the switching of the VE-cad endocytosis pathway from clathrin-mediated to caveolae-mediated. Our findings suggest that clathrin-mediated and caveolae-mediated endocytosis of VE-cad contribute to LPS-induced vascular hyperpermeability, although they contribute via different mechanism. The predominant means of endocytosis depends on the time since LPS treatment.

  20. Somatic Rearrangement in B Cells: It's (Mostly) Nuclear Physics.

    PubMed

    Aiden, Erez Lieberman; Casellas, Rafael

    2015-08-13

    We discuss how principles of nuclear architecture drive typical gene rearrangements in B lymphocytes, whereas translocation hot spots and recurrent lesions reflect the extent of AID-mediated DNA damage and selection.

  1. Specific Endocytosis Blockade of Trypanosoma cruzi Exposed to a Poly-LAcNAc Binding Lectin Suggests that Lectin-Sugar Interactions Participate to Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Brosson, Sébastien; Fontaine, Frédéric; Vermeersch, Marjorie; Perez-Morga, David; Pays, Etienne; Bousbata, Sabrina; Salmon, Didier

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan parasite transmitted by a triatomine insect, and causing human Chagas disease in South America. This parasite undergoes a complex life cycle alternating between non-proliferative and dividing forms. Owing to their high energy requirement, replicative epimastigotes of the insect midgut display high endocytic activity. This activity is mainly restricted to the cytostome, by which the cargo is taken up and sorted through the endosomal vesicular network to be delivered to reservosomes, the final lysosomal-like compartments. In African trypanosomes tomato lectin (TL) and ricin, respectively specific to poly-N-acetyllactosamine (poly-LacNAc) and β-D-galactose, allowed the identification of giant chains of poly-LacNAc in N-glycoproteins of the endocytic pathway. We show that in T. cruzi epimastigote forms also, glycoproteins of the endocytic pathway are characterized by the presence of N-linked glycans binding to both ricin and TL. Affinity chromatography using both TL and Griffonia simplicifolia lectin II (GSLII), specific to non-reducing terminal residue of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), led to an enrichment of glycoproteins of the trypanosomal endocytic pathway. Incubation of live parasites with TL, which selectively bound to the cytostome/cytopharynx, specifically inhibited endocytosis of transferrin (Tf) but not dextran, a marker of fluid endocytosis. Taken together, our data suggest that N-glycan modification of endocytic components plays a crucial role in receptor-mediated endocytosis of T. cruzi. PMID:27685262

  2. The kinetics of exocytosis and endocytosis in the synaptic terminal of goldfish retinal bipolar cells

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Guilherme; Lagnado, Leon

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of exocytosis and endocytosis were studied in the giant synaptic terminal of depolarizing bipolar cells from the goldfish retina. Two techniques were applied: capacitance measurements of changes in membrane surface area, and fluorescence measurements of exocytosis using the membrane dye FM1-43. Three phases of exocytosis occurred during maintained depolarization to 0 mV. The first component was complete within about 10 ms and involved a pool of 1200–1800 vesicles (with a total membrane area equivalent to about 1.6% of the surface of the terminal). The second component of exocytosis involved the release of about 4400 vesicles over 1 s. The third component of exocytosis was stimulated continuously at a rate of about 1000 vesicles s−1. After short depolarizations (< 200 ms), neither the FM1-43 signal nor the capacitance signal continued to rise, indicating that exocytosis stopped rapidly after closure of Ca2+ channels. The fall in capacitance could therefore be used to monitor endocytosis independently of exocytosis. The capacitance measured after brief stimuli began to fall immediately, recovering to the pre-stimulus baseline with a rate constant of 0.8 s−1. The amount of exocytosis measured using the capacitance and FM1-43 techniques was similar during the first 200 ms of depolarization, suggesting that the most rapidly released vesicles could be detected by either method. After a few seconds of continuous stimulation, the net increase in membrane surface area reached a plateau at about 5%, even though continuous exocytosis occurred at a rate of 0.9% s−1. Under these conditions of balanced exocytosis and endocytosis, the rate constant of endocytosis was about 0.2 s−1. The average rate of endocytosis during maintained depolarization was therefore considerably slower than the rate observed after a brief stimulus. After longer depolarizations (> 500 ms), both the capacitance and FM1-43 signals continued to rise for periods of seconds after

  3. An α-Helical Signal in the Cytosolic Domain of the Interleukin 2 Receptor β Chain Mediates Sorting Towards Degradation after Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Subtil, Agathe; Delepierre, Muriel; Dautry-Varsat, Alice

    1997-01-01

    High-affinity IL2 receptors consist of three components, the α, β, and γ chains that are associated in a noncovalent manner. Both the β and γ chains belong to the cytokine receptor superfamily. Interleukin 2 (IL2) binds to high-affinity receptors on the cell surface and IL2-receptor complexes are internalized. After endocytosis, the components of this multimolecular receptor have different intracellular fates: one of the chains, α, recycles to the plasma membrane, while the others, β and γ, are routed towards late endocytic compartments and are degraded. We show here that the cytosolic domain of the β chain contains a 10–amino acid sequence which codes for a sorting signal. When transferred to a normally recycling receptor, this sequence diverts it from recycling. The structure of a 17–amino acid segment of the β chain including this sequence has been studied by nuclear magnetic resonance and circular dichroism spectroscopy, which revealed that the 10 amino acids corresponding to the sorting signal form an amphipathic α helix. This work thus describes a novel, highly structured signal, which is sufficient for sorting towards degradation compartments after endocytosis. PMID:9024689

  4. Endocytosis and serpentine filopodia drive blebbishield-mediated resurrection of apoptotic cancer stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Jinesh, G G; Kamat, A M

    2016-01-01

    The blebbishield emergency program helps to resurrect apoptotic cancer stem cells (CSCs) themselves. Understanding the mechanisms behind this program is essential to block resurrection of CSCs during cancer therapy. Here we demonstrate that endocytosis drives serpentine filopodia to construct blebbishields from apoptotic bodies and that a VEGF-VEGFR2-endocytosis-p70S6K axis governs subsequent transformation. Disengagement of RalGDS from E-cadherin initiates endocytosis of RalGDS and its novel interaction partners cdc42, VEGFR2, cleaved β-catenin, and PKC-ζ as well as its known interaction partner K-Ras. We also report novel interactions of p45S6K (cleaved p70S6K) and PKM-ζ with PAK-1 filopodia-forming machinery specifically in blebbishields. Thus, a RalGDS-endocytosis-filopodia-VEGFR2-K-Ras-p70S6K axis drives the blebbishield emergency program, and therapeutic targeting of this axis might prevent resurrection of CSCs during cancer therapy. PMID:27226900

  5. Scavenger receptor-mediated endocytosis by sinusoidal cells in rat bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Geoffroy, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Endocytosis of serum albumin by sinusoidal endothelial cells in rat bone marrow was investigated initially at the ultrastructural level with subsequent biochemical investigation of the specificity mediating this event. Bovine serum albumin adsorbed to 20nm colloidal gold particles (AuBSA) was chosen as the electron microscopic probe. Morphological data strongly suggested that a receptor was involved in uptake of AuBSA. Confirmation of receptor involvement in the uptake of AuBSA by marrow sinusoidal endothelial cells was achieved utilizing an in situ isolated hind limb perfusion protocol in conjunction with unlabeled, radiolabeled, and radio-/colloidal gold labeled probes. The major findings of competition and saturation experiments were: (1) endocytosis of AuBSA was mediated by a receptor for modified/treated serum albumin; (2) endocytosis of formaldehyde-treated serum albumin was mediated by a binding site which may be the same or closely related to the site responsible for the uptake of AuBSA; and (3) endocytosis of native untreated albumin was not mediated by receptor and probably represents fluid-phase pinocitosis.

  6. Osmotic Stress Modulates the Balance between Exocytosis and Clathrin-Mediated Endocytosis in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Zwiewka, Marta; Nodzyński, Tomasz; Robert, Stéphanie; Vanneste, Steffen; Friml, Jiří

    2015-08-01

    The sessile life style of plants creates the need to deal with an often adverse environment, in which water availability can change on a daily basis, challenging the cellular physiology and integrity. Changes in osmotic conditions disrupt the equilibrium of the plasma membrane: hypoosmotic conditions increase and hyperosmotic environment decrease the cell volume. Here, we show that short-term extracellular osmotic treatments are closely followed by a shift in the balance between endocytosis and exocytosis in root meristem cells. Acute hyperosmotic treatments (ionic and nonionic) enhance clathrin-mediated endocytosis simultaneously attenuating exocytosis, whereas hypoosmotic treatments have the opposite effects. In addition to clathrin recruitment to the plasma membrane, components of early endocytic trafficking are essential during hyperosmotic stress responses. Consequently, growth of seedlings defective in elements of clathrin or early endocytic machinery is more sensitive to hyperosmotic treatments. We also found that the endocytotic response to a change of osmotic status in the environment is dominant over the presumably evolutionary more recent regulatory effect of plant hormones, such as auxin. These results imply that osmotic perturbation influences the balance between endocytosis and exocytosis acting through clathrin-mediated endocytosis. We propose that tension on the plasma membrane determines the addition or removal of membranes at the cell surface, thus preserving cell integrity.

  7. Silence of synaptotagmin I in INS-1 cells inhibits fast exocytosis and fast endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong Xiong; Zhou Keming; Wu Zhengxing . E-mail: xutao@ibp.ac.cn; Xu Tao . E-mail: ibbwuzx@mail.hust.edu.cn

    2006-08-18

    Synaptotagmin I (Syt I) is a Ca{sup 2+} sensor for triggering fast synchronized release of neurotransmitters. However, controversy remains whether Syt I is also obligatory for the exocytosis and endocytosis of larger dense core vesicles (LDCVs) in endocrine cells. In this study, we used a short hairpin RNA (shRNA) to silence the expression of Syt I and investigated the roles of Syt I on exocytosis and endocytosis in INS-1 cells. Our results demonstrated that expression of Syt I is remarkably reduced by the Syt I gene targeting shRNA. Using high-time resolution capacitance measurement, we found that the silence of Syt I decreased the calcium sensitivity of fusion of insulin granules and therefore reduced the exocytotic burst triggered by step-like [Ca{sup 2+}] {sub i} elevation. In addition, the occurrence frequency and amplitude of fast endocytosis were remarkably reduced in the silenced cells. We conclude that Syt I not only participates in the Ca{sup 2+}-sensing of LDCV fusion with plasmalemma, but also plays a crucial role in fast endocytosis in INS-1 cells.

  8. Live Cell Imaging of the Endocytosis and the Intracellular Trafficking of Multifunctional Lipid Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Tieqiao; Danthi, S. N.; Xie, Jianwu; Hu, Dehong; Lu, H. Peter; Li, King H.

    2006-12-01

    Artificial lipid nanoparticles have drawn great attention due to their potential in medicine. Linked with targeting ligands, they can be used as probes and/or gene delivery vectors for specific types of target cells. Therefore, they are very promising agents in early detection, diagnosis and treatment of cancers and other genetic diseases. However, there are several barriers blocking the applications. Controlling the cellular uptake of the lipid nanoparticles is an important technical challenge to overcome. Understanding the mechanism of the endocytosis and the following intracellular trafficking is very important for improving the design and therefore the efficiency as a drug delivery system. By using fluorescence microscopy methods, we studied the endocytosis of lipid nanoparticles by live M21 cells. The movements of the nanoparticles inside the cell were quantitatively characterized and classified based on the diffusion behavior. The trajectories of nanoparticles movement over the cell membrane revealed hop-diffusion behavior prior to the endocytosis. Fast movement in large steps is observed in intracellular trafficking and is attributed to active movement along microtubule. These observations help to understand the mechanism of the endocytosis and the pathway of the particles in cells.

  9. Endocytosis of Ubiquitylation-Deficient EGFR Mutants via Clathrin-Coated Pits is Mediated by Ubiquitylation.

    PubMed

    Fortian, Arola; Dionne, Lai K; Hong, Sun H; Kim, Woong; Gygi, Steven P; Watkins, Simon C; Sorkin, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Signaling by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is controlled by endocytosis. However, mechanisms of EGFR endocytosis remain poorly understood. Here, we found that the EGFR mutant lacking known ubiquitylation, acetylation and clathrin adaptor AP-2-binding sites (21KRΔAP2) was internalized at relatively high rates via the clathrin-dependent pathway in human duodenal adenocarcinoma HuTu-80 cells. RNA interference analysis revealed that this residual internalization is strongly inhibited by depletion of Grb2 and the E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme UbcH5b/c, and partially affected by depletion of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl and ubiquitin-binding adaptors, indicating that an ubiquitylation process is involved. Several new ubiquitin conjugation sites were identified by mass spectrometry in the 21KRΔAP2 mutant, suggesting that cryptic ubiquitylation may mediate endocytosis of this mutant. Total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy imaging of HuTu-80 cells transfected with labeled ubiquitin adaptor epsin1 demonstrated that the ubiquitylation-deficient EGFR mutant was endocytosed through a limited population of epsin-enriched clathrin-coated pits (CCPs), although with a prolonged CCP lifetime. Native EGFR was recruited with the same efficiency into CCPs containing either AP-2 or epsin1 that were tagged with fluorescent proteins by genome editing of MDA-MD-231 cells. We propose that two redundant mechanisms, ubiquitylation and interaction with AP-2, contribute to EGFR endocytosis via CCPs in a stochastic fashion.

  10. AMPA Receptor Endocytosis in Rat Perirhinal Cortex Underlies Retrieval of Object Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cazakoff, Brittany N.; Howland, John G.

    2011-01-01

    Mechanisms consistent with long-term depression in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) play a fundamental role in object recognition memory; however, whether AMPA receptor endocytosis is involved in distinct phases of recognition memory is not known. To address this question, we used local PRh infusions of the cell membrane-permeable Tat-GluA2[subscript…

  11. Polarized Exocytosis Induces Compensatory Endocytosis by Sec4p-Regulated Cortical Actin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Jesper; Alfaro, Gabriel; Beh, Christopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Polarized growth is maintained by both polarized exocytosis, which transports membrane components to specific locations on the cell cortex, and endocytosis, which retrieves these components before they can diffuse away. Despite functional links between these two transport pathways, they are generally considered to be separate events. Using live cell imaging, in vivo and in vitro protein binding assays, and in vitro pyrene-actin polymerization assays, we show that the yeast Rab GTPase Sec4p couples polarized exocytosis with cortical actin polymerization, which induces endocytosis. After polarized exocytosis to the plasma membrane, Sec4p binds Las17/Bee1p (yeast Wiskott—Aldrich Syndrome protein [WASp]) in a complex with Sla1p and Sla2p during actin patch assembly. Mutations that inactivate Sec4p, or its guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) Sec2p, inhibit actin patch formation, whereas the activating sec4-Q79L mutation accelerates patch assembly. In vitro assays of Arp2/3-dependent actin polymerization established that GTPγS-Sec4p overrides Sla1p inhibition of Las17p-dependent actin nucleation. These results support a model in which Sec4p relocates along the plasma membrane from polarized sites of exocytic vesicle fusion to nascent sites of endocytosis. Activated Sec4p then promotes actin polymerization and triggers compensatory endocytosis, which controls surface expansion and kinetically refines cell polarization. PMID:27526190

  12. Suppression of dynamin GTPase activity by sertraline leads to inhibition of dynamin-dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kiyofumi; Miyoshi, Hiroshi; Otomo, Masahiro; Osada, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Noboru; Nakashima, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    Dynamin (Dyn) 1 plays a role in recycling of synaptic vesicles, and thus in nervous system function. We previously showed that sertraline, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is a mixed-type inhibitor of Dyn 1 with respect to both GTP and L-alpha-phosphatidyl-L-serine (PS) in vitro, and we suggested that it may regulate the neurotransmitter transport by modulating synaptic vesicle endocytosis via inhibition of Dyn 1 GTPase. Here, we investigated the effect of sertraline on endocytosis of marker proteins in human neuroblastoma SH-Sy5Y cells and HeLa cells. Sertraline inhibited endocytosis in both cell lines. Western blotting showed that SH-Sy5Y expresses Dyn 1 and Dyn 2, while HeLa expresses only Dyn 2. GTPase assay showed that sertraline inhibited Dyn 2 as well as Dyn 1. Therefore, the effect of sertraline on endocytosis was mediated by Dyn 2, at least in HeLa cells, as well as by Dyn 1 in cell lines that express it. Moreover, the inhibition mechanism of transferrin (Tf) uptake by sertraline differed from that in cells expressing Dyn 1 K44A, a GTP binding-defective variant, and sertraline did not interfere with the interaction between Dyn 1 and PS-liposomes.

  13. Timely Endocytosis of Cytokinetic Enzymes Prevents Premature Spindle Breakage during Mitotic Exit

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, Masayuki; Yeong, Foong May

    2016-01-01

    Cytokinesis requires the spatio-temporal coordination of membrane deposition and primary septum (PS) formation at the division site to drive acto-myosin ring (AMR) constriction. It has been demonstrated that AMR constriction invariably occurs only after the mitotic spindle disassembly. It has also been established that Chitin Synthase II (Chs2p) neck localization precedes mitotic spindle disassembly during mitotic exit. As AMR constriction depends upon PS formation, the question arises as to how chitin deposition is regulated so as to prevent premature AMR constriction and mitotic spindle breakage. In this study, we propose that cells regulate the coordination between spindle disassembly and AMR constriction via timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes, Chs2p, Chs3p, and Fks1p. Inhibition of endocytosis leads to over accumulation of cytokinetic enzymes during mitotic exit, which accelerates the constriction of the AMR, and causes spindle breakage that eventually could contribute to monopolar spindle formation in the subsequent round of cell division. Intriguingly, the mitotic spindle breakage observed in endocytosis mutants can be rescued either by deleting or inhibiting the activities of, CHS2, CHS3 and FKS1, which are involved in septum formation. The findings from our study highlight the importance of timely endocytosis of cytokinetic enzymes at the division site in safeguarding mitotic spindle integrity during mitotic exit. PMID:27447488

  14. Endocytosis of PEGylated nanoparticles accompanied by structural and free energy changes of the grafted polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying; Kröger, Martin; Liu, Wing Kam

    2014-10-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are in use to efficiently deliver drug molecules into diseased cells. The surfaces of NPs are usually grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) polymers, during so-called PEGylation, to improve water solubility, avoid aggregation, and prevent opsonization during blood circulation. The interplay between grafting density σp and grafted PEG polymerization degree N makes cellular uptake of PEGylated NPs distinct from that of bare NPs. To understand the role played by grafted PEG polymers, we study the endocytosis of 8 nm sized PEGylated NPs with different σp and N through large scale dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations. The free energy change Fpolymer of grafted PEG polymers, before and after endocytosis, is identified to have an effect which is comparable to, or even larger than, the bending energy of the membrane during endocytosis. Based on self-consistent field theory Fpolymer is found to be dependent on both σp and N. By incorporating Fpolymer, the critical ligand-receptor binding strength for PEGylated NPs to be internalized can be correctly predicted by a simple analytical equation. Without considering Fpolymer, it turns out impossible to predict whether the PEGylated NPs will be delivered into the diseased cells. These simulation results and theoretical analysis not only provide new insights into the endocytosis process of PEGylated NPs, but also shed light on the underlying physical mechanisms, which can be utilized for designing efficient PEGylated NP-based therapeutic carriers with improved cellular targeting and uptake.

  15. Dynasore impairs VEGFR2 signalling in an endocytosis-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Basagiannis, Dimitris; Zografou, Sofia; Galanopoulou, Katerina; Christoforidis, Savvas

    2017-01-01

    VEGFR2 is a critical angiogenic receptor playing a key role in vascular homeostasis. Upon activation by VEGF, VEGFR2 becomes endocytosed. Internalisation of VEGFR2 is facilitated, in part, through clathrin mediated endocytosis (CME), the role of which in VEGFR2 function is debated. Here, we confirm the contribution of CME in VEGFR2 uptake. However, curiously, we find that different approaches of inhibition of CME exert contradictory effects on VEGF signalling; knockdown of clathrin, or of dynamin, or overexpression of dynamin K44A, do not affect VEGF-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, while dynasore causes strong inhibition. We resolve this discrepancy by showing that although dynasore inhibits CME of VEGFR2, its inhibitory action in ERK1/2 phosphorylation is not related to attenuation of VEGFR2 endocytosis; it is rather due to an off-target effect of the drug. Dynasore inhibits VEGF-induced calcium release, a signalling event that lies upstream of ERK1/2, which implies that this effect could be responsible, at least in part, for the inhibitory action of the drug on VEGF-to-ERK1/2 signalling. These results raise caution that although dynasore is specific in inhibiting clathrin- and dynamin-mediated endocytosis, it may also exert off-target effects on signalling molecules, hence influencing the interpretation of the role of endocytosis in signalling. PMID:28327657

  16. Polarized E-cadherin endocytosis directs actomyosin remodeling during embryonic wound repair.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Miranda V; Lee, Donghoon M; Harris, Tony J C; Fernandez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo

    2015-08-31

    Embryonic epithelia have a remarkable ability to rapidly repair wounds. A supracellular actomyosin cable around the wound coordinates cellular movements and promotes wound closure. Actomyosin cable formation is accompanied by junctional rearrangements at the wound margin. We used in vivo time-lapse quantitative microscopy to show that clathrin, dynamin, and the ADP-ribosylation factor 6, three components of the endocytic machinery, accumulate around wounds in Drosophila melanogaster embryos in a process that requires calcium signaling and actomyosin contractility. Blocking endocytosis with pharmacological or genetic approaches disrupted wound repair. The defect in wound closure was accompanied by impaired removal of E-cadherin from the wound edge and defective actomyosin cable assembly. E-cadherin overexpression also resulted in reduced actin accumulation around wounds and slower wound closure. Reducing E-cadherin levels in embryos in which endocytosis was blocked rescued actin localization to the wound margin. Our results demonstrate a central role for endocytosis in wound healing and indicate that polarized E-cadherin endocytosis is necessary for actomyosin remodeling during embryonic wound repair.

  17. Polarized E-cadherin endocytosis directs actomyosin remodeling during embryonic wound repair

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Miranda V.; Lee, Donghoon M.; Harris, Tony J.C.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic epithelia have a remarkable ability to rapidly repair wounds. A supracellular actomyosin cable around the wound coordinates cellular movements and promotes wound closure. Actomyosin cable formation is accompanied by junctional rearrangements at the wound margin. We used in vivo time-lapse quantitative microscopy to show that clathrin, dynamin, and the ADP-ribosylation factor 6, three components of the endocytic machinery, accumulate around wounds in Drosophila melanogaster embryos in a process that requires calcium signaling and actomyosin contractility. Blocking endocytosis with pharmacological or genetic approaches disrupted wound repair. The defect in wound closure was accompanied by impaired removal of E-cadherin from the wound edge and defective actomyosin cable assembly. E-cadherin overexpression also resulted in reduced actin accumulation around wounds and slower wound closure. Reducing E-cadherin levels in embryos in which endocytosis was blocked rescued actin localization to the wound margin. Our results demonstrate a central role for endocytosis in wound healing and indicate that polarized E-cadherin endocytosis is necessary for actomyosin remodeling during embryonic wound repair. PMID:26304727

  18. Defective calmodulin-dependent rapid apical endocytosis in zebrafish sensory hair cell mutants.

    PubMed

    Seiler, C; Nicolson, T

    1999-11-15

    Vertebrate mechanosensory hair cells contain a narrow "pericuticular" zone which is densely populated with small vesicles between the cuticular plate and cellular junctions near the apical surface. The presence of many cytoplasmic vesicles suggests that the apical surface of hair cells has a high turnover rate. The significance of intense membrane trafficking at the apical surface is not known. Using a marker of endocytosis, the styryl dye FM1-43, this report shows that rapid apical endocytosis in zebrafish lateral line sensory hair cells is calcium and calmodulin dependent and is partially blocked by the presence of amiloride and dihydrostreptomycin, known inhibitors of mechanotransduction channels. As seen in lateral line hair cells, sensory hair cells within the larval otic capsule also exhibit rapid apical endocytosis. Defects in internalization of the dye in both lateral line and inner ear hair cells were found in five zebrafish auditory/vestibular mutants: sputnik, mariner, orbiter, mercury, and skylab. In addition, lateral line hair cells in these mutants were not sensitive to prolonged exposure to streptomycin, which is toxic to hair cells. The presence of endocytic defects in the majority of zebrafish mechanosensory mutants points to a important role of apical endocytosis in hair cell function.

  19. Receptor-mediated endocytosis of carcinoembryonic antigen by rat liver Kupffer cells.

    PubMed

    Toth, C A; Thomas, P; Broitman, S A; Zamcheck, N

    1985-01-01

    In vivo, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is removed from the circulation by the liver Kupffer cells. Immunologically identifiable CEA is transferred from these macrophages to the hepatocytes, where degradation is completed. Circulatory clearance of CEA is specific, rapid [t1/2 = 3.7 +/- 0.9 (S.D.) min], and saturable. In vitro, Kupffer cells take up CEA by a saturable process which is time/temperature dependent and colchicine sensitive. Isolated Kupffer cells endocytose CEA with an apparent Km of 6 X 10(-8) M. There are approximately 16,000 CEA binding sites per cell. Nonspecific cross-reacting antigen (NCA), a glycoprotein structurally similar to CEA, is recognized with lower affinity by the same receptor. Endocytosis is independent of the nonreducing terminal sugars on the molecule: CEA modified by Smith degradation inhibits Kupffer cell recognition of native CEA. Since performic acid oxidized CEA also inhibits endocytosis, receptor binding is similarly independent of intact protein conformation. Isolated Kupffer cells have mannose and/or N-acetyl glucosamine receptor activity but do not internalize CEA by that mechanism. Galactose-terminated glycoproteins impede CEA and NCA clearance in vivo but not Kupffer cell endocytosis in vitro. Radiolabeled CEA released from isolated Kupffer cells following endocytosis shows no apparent molecular weight change. However, the released CEA contains species with higher isoelectric points, suggesting that perhaps the removal of sialic acid and the resulting exposure of galactose residues mediate the subsequent transfer to the hepatocyte.

  20. Kainate receptor activation induces glycine receptor endocytosis through PKC deSUMOylation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Lu, Li; Zuo, Yong; Wang, Yan; Jiao, Yingfu; Zeng, Wei-Zheng; Huang, Chao; Zhu, Michael X.; Zamponi, Gerald W.; Zhou, Tong; Xu, Tian-Le; Cheng, Jinke; Li, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Surface expression and regulated endocytosis of glycine receptors (GlyRs) play a critical function in balancing neuronal excitability. SUMOylation (SUMO modification) is of critical importance for maintaining neuronal function in the central nervous system. Here we show that activation of kainate receptors (KARs) causes GlyR endocytosis in a calcium- and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent manner, leading to reduced GlyR-mediated synaptic activity in cultured spinal cord neurons and the superficial dorsal horn of rat spinal cord slices. This effect requires SUMO1/sentrin-specific peptidase 1 (SENP1)-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC, indicating that the crosstalk between KARs and GlyRs relies on the SUMOylation status of PKC. SENP1-mediated deSUMOylation of PKC is involved in the kainate-induced GlyR endocytosis and thus plays an important role in the anti-homeostatic regulation between excitatory and inhibitory ligand-gated ion channels. Altogether, we have identified a SUMOylation-dependent regulatory pathway for GlyR endocytosis, which may have important physiological implications for proper neuronal excitability. PMID:25236484

  1. Molecular components required for resting and stimulated endocytosis of botulinum neurotoxins by glutamatergic and peptidergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jianghui; Wang, Jiafu; Lawrence, Gary W; Dolly, J Oliver

    2013-08-01

    Proteins responsible for basal and stimulated endocytosis in nerves containing small clear synaptic vesicles (SCSVs) or large dense-core vesicles (LDCVs) are revealed herein, using probes that exploit surface-exposed vesicle proteins as acceptors for internalization. Basal uptake of botulinum neurotoxins (BoNTs) by both SCSV-releasing cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) and LDCV-enriched trigeminal ganglionic neurons (TGNs) was found to require protein acceptors and acidic compartments. In addition, dynamin, clathrin, adaptor protein complex-2 (AP2), and amphiphysin contribute to the depolarization-evoked entry. For fast recycling of SCSVs, knockdown and knockout strategies demonstrated that CGNs use predominantly dynamin 1, whereas isoform 2 and, to a smaller extent, isoform 3 support a less rapid mode of stimulated endocytosis. Accordingly, proximity ligation assay confirmed that dynamin 1 and 2 colocalize with amphiphysin 1 in CGNs, and the latter copurified with both dynamins from cell extracts. In contrast, LDCV-releasing TGNs preferentially employ dynamins 2 and 3 and amphiphysin 1 for evoked endocytosis and lack the fast phase. Hence, stimulation recruits dynamin, clathrin, AP2, and amphiphysin to augment BoNT internalization, and neurons match endocytosis mediators to the different demands for locally recycling SCSVs or replenishing distally synthesized LDCVs.

  2. An endocytosis pathway initiated through neuropilin-1 and regulated by nutrient availability

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Hong-Bo; Braun, Gary B.; Friman, Tomas; Aza-Blanc, Pedro; Ruidiaz, Manuel E.; Sugahara, Kazuki N.; Teesalu, Tambet; Ruoslahti, Erkki

    2014-01-01

    Neuropilins (NRPs) are trans-membrane receptors involved in axon guidance and vascular development. Many growth factors and other signaling molecules bind to NRPs through a C-terminal, basic sequence motif (C-end Rule or CendR motif). Peptides with this motif (CendR peptides) are taken up into cells by endocytosis. Tumor-homing CendR peptides penetrate through tumor tissue and have shown utility in enhancing drug delivery into tumors. Here we show, using RNAi screening and subsequent validation studies, that NRP1-mediated endocytosis of CendR peptides is distinct from known endocytic pathways. Ultrastructurally, CendR endocytosis resembles macropinocytosis, but is mechanistically different. We also show that nutrient-sensing networks such as mTOR signaling regulate CendR endocytosis and subsequent intercellular transport of CendR cargo, both of which are stimulated by nutrient depletion. As CendR is a bulk transport pathway, our results suggest a role for it in nutrient transport; CendR-enhanced drug delivery then makes use of this natural pathway. PMID:25277522

  3. Otoferlin couples to clathrin-mediated endocytosis in mature cochlear inner hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Duncker, Susanne V.; Franz, Christoph; Kuhn, Stephanie; Schulte, Uwe; Campanelli, Dario; Brandt, Niels; Hirt, Bernhard; Fakler, Bernd; Blin, Nikolaus; Ruth, Peter; Engel, Jutta; Marcotti, Walter; Zimmermann, Ulrike; Knipper, Marlies

    2013-01-01

    The encoding of auditory information with indefatigable precision requires efficient re-supply of vesicles at inner hair cell (IHC) ribbon synapses. Otoferlin, a transmembrane protein responsible for deafness in DFNB9 families, has been postulated to act as a calcium sensor for exocytosis as well as to be involved in rapid vesicle replenishment of IHCs. However, the molecular basis of vesicle recycling in IHCs is largely unknown. In the present study, we used high-resolution liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry to co-purify otoferlin interaction partners in the mammalian cochlea. We identified multiple subunits of the adaptor protein complex AP-2 (CLAP), an essential component of clathrin-mediated endocytosis, as binding partners of otoferlin in rats and mice. The interaction between otoferlin and AP-2 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation. We also found that AP-2 interacts with myosin VI, another otoferlin binding partner important for clathrin-mediated endocytosis. The expression of AP-2 in IHCs was verified by RT-PCR. Confocal microscopy experiments revealed that the expression of AP-2 and its co-localization with otoferlin is confined to mature IHCs. When clathrin-mediated endocytosis was inhibited by blocking dynamin action, real-time changes in membrane capacitance showed impaired synaptic vesicle replenishment in mature but not immature IHCs. We suggest that an otoferlin–AP-2 interaction drives Ca2+- and stimulus-dependent compensating clathrin-mediated endocytosis in mature IHCs. PMID:23719817

  4. Endocytosis restricts Arabidopsis KNOLLE syntaxin to the cell division plane during late cytokinesis.

    PubMed

    Boutté, Yohann; Frescatada-Rosa, Márcia; Men, Shuzhen; Chow, Cheung-Ming; Ebine, Kazuo; Gustavsson, Anna; Johansson, Lenore; Ueda, Takashi; Moore, Ian; Jürgens, Gerd; Grebe, Markus

    2010-02-03

    Cytokinesis represents the final stage of eukaryotic cell division during which the cytoplasm becomes partitioned between daughter cells. The process differs to some extent between animal and plant cells, but proteins of the syntaxin family mediate membrane fusion in the plane of cell division in diverse organisms. How syntaxin localization is kept in check remains elusive. Here, we report that localization of the Arabidopsis KNOLLE syntaxin in the plane of cell division is maintained by sterol-dependent endocytosis involving a clathrin- and DYNAMIN-RELATED PROTEIN1A-dependent mechanism. On genetic or pharmacological interference with endocytosis, KNOLLE mis-localizes to lateral plasma membranes after cell-plate fusion. Fluorescence-loss-in-photo-bleaching and fluorescence-recovery-after-photo-bleaching experiments reveal lateral diffusion of GFP-KNOLLE from the plane of division to lateral membranes. In an endocytosis-defective sterol biosynthesis mutant displaying lateral KNOLLE diffusion, KNOLLE secretory trafficking remains unaffected. Thus, restriction of lateral diffusion by endocytosis may serve to maintain specificity of syntaxin localization during late cytokinesis.

  5. A morphological and functional study on antigen binding and endocytosis by immunocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Goud, B; Antoine, J C; Gonatas, N K; Stieber, A; Avrameas, S

    1980-01-01

    Immunoenzymatic techniques were used to study antigen binding and endocytosis by lymph node cells of rats immunized against horseradish peroxidase, hen ovalbumin and rabbit IgG. The number of antigen-binding cells varied and depended on the type of antigen used, the time after immunization, and was higher after a booster injection. In secondary responses (4 days after booster), about 80% of antigen-binding cells were proplasmocytes and plasmocytes; by a double staining procedure it was found that 82% of these cells bore in addition to surface antigen, specific intracytoplasmic antibody as well. About 20% of antigen-binding cells were small and medium lymphocytes which did not contain detectable intracytoplasmic antibody. For ultrastructural studies of the endocytosis, peroxidase was used as the antigen. This antigen was found in cytoplasmic compartments which consisted of vesicles, cisternae and large round bodies (lysosomes?) often located near the Golgi apparatus. However, the cisternae of the Golgi apparatus, involved in the synthesis of specific antibody were not sites of retrieval of endocytosed antigen. The effect of endocytosis of antigen on the secretion and synthesis of antibody was studied by the local haemolysis plaque assay and biosynthetic labelling. No change was detected in antibody secretion and synthesis as a result of antigen endocytosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7007216

  6. Angiotensin II increases glomerular permeability by β-arrestin mediated nephrin endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Königshausen, Eva; Zierhut, Ulf M.; Ruetze, Martin; Potthoff, Sebastian A.; Stegbauer, Johannes; Woznowski, Magdalena; Quack, Ivo; Rump, Lars C.; Sellin, Lorenz

    2016-01-01

    Glomerular permeability and subsequent albuminuria are early clinical markers for glomerular injury in hypertensive nephropathy. Albuminuria predicts mortality and cardiovascular morbidity. AT1 receptor blockers protect from albuminuria, cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. A blood pressure independent, molecular mechanism for angiotensin II (Ang II) dependent albuminuria has long been postulated. Albuminuria results from a defective glomerular filter. Nephrin is a major structural component of the glomerular slit diaphragm and its endocytosis is mediated by β-arrestin2. Ang II stimulation increases nephrin-β-arrestin2 binding, nephrin endocytosis and glomerular permeability in mice. This Ang II effect is mediated by AT1-receptors. AT1-receptor mutants identified G-protein signaling to be essential for this Ang II effect. Gαq knockdown and phospholipase C inhibition block Ang II mediated enhanced nephrin endocytosis. Nephrin Y1217 is the critical residue controlling nephrin binding to β-arrestin under Ang II stimulation. Nephrin Y1217 also mediates cytoskeletal anchoring to actin via nck2. Ang II stimulation decreases nephrin nck2 binding. We conclude that Ang II weakens the structural integrity of the slit diaphragm by increased nephrin endocytosis and decreased nephrin binding to nck2, which leads to increased glomerular permeability. This novel molecular mechanism of Ang II supports the use of AT1-receptor blockers to prevent albuminuria even in normotensives. PMID:28004760

  7. Megalin acts in concert with cubilin to mediate endocytosis of high density lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Hammad, S M; Barth, J L; Knaak, C; Argraves, W S

    2000-04-21

    Cubilin has recently been shown to function as an endocytic receptor for high density lipoproteins (HDL). The lack of apparent transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains in cubilin raises questions as to the means by which it can mediate endocytosis. Since cubilin has been reported to bind the endocytic receptor megalin, we explored the possibility that megalin acts in conjunction with cubilin to mediate HDL endocytosis. While megalin did not bind to HDL, delipidated HDL, or apoA-I, it was found to copurify with cubilin isolated by HDL-Sepharose affinity chromatography. Cubilin and megalin exhibited coincident patterns of mRNA expression in mouse tissues including the kidney, ileum, thymus, placenta, and yolk sac endoderm. The expression of both receptors in yolk sac endoderm-like cells was inducible by retinoic acid treatment but not by conditions of sterol depletion. Suppression of megalin activity or expression by treatment with either megalin antibodies or megalin antisense oligodeoxynucleotides resulted in inhibition of cubilin-mediated endocytosis of HDL. Furthermore, megalin antisense oligodeoxynucleotide treatment resulted in reduced cell surface expression of cubilin. These data demonstrate that megalin acts together with cubilin to mediate HDL endocytosis and further suggest that megalin may play a role in the intracellular trafficking of cubilin.

  8. Immunocytochemical analysis of cubilin-mediated endocytosis of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in epithelial cells of the rat visceral yolk sac.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Tetsuya; Hatae, Tanenori; Nishi, Nozomu; Araki, Nobukazu; Hamasaki, Masao

    2004-12-01

    Cubilin was recently shown to function as an endocytic receptor for high density lipoprotein (HDL) holoparticles and apolipoprotein A-I (apo A-I), the main protein constituent of HDL. In the present study, we analyzed the distribution and intracellular trafficking of cubilin and HDL in rat visceral yolk sac epithelial cells. After epithelial cells were loaded with apolipoprotein E-free HDL for 30 min in vitro, double immunofluorescence showed that the apical cytoplasm of the cells was strongly stained with anti-cubilin antibodies and anti-apo A-I/HDL. Furthermore, double immunogold electron-microscopic observations revealed the distinct localization of cubilin and HDL in endocytic vacuoles. In early endosomes, both were colocalized on the membrane. Although, in late endosomes, cubilin was also localized on the membrane, HDL was mainly located in the matrix. Both were found in the matrix in lysosomes. In addition, cubilin was markedly localized in apical tubules (ATs), which are generally accepted as being receptor recycling compartments. Thus, HDL is internalized through cubilin-mediated endocytosis and is finally transported to lysosomes. By contrast, cubilin is mainly translocated to ATs for recycling, although some of the cubilin is degraded in lysosomes. Quantitative analysis further revealed that cubilin was not concentrated on the membranes of ATs, although it accumulated in the AT area. Some HDL were also observed in the AT area. These findings suggest that the translocation of cubilin and HDL to ATs from early endosomes occurs through a simple sorting mechanism based on the geometry of these compartments and the bulk membrane and volume flow.

  9. Wogonin inhibits osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting NFATc1 translocation into the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    GENG, XIAOLIN; YANG, LIBIN; ZHANG, CHAO; QIN, HUA; LIANG, QIUDONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a natural product with the ability to inhibit nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus by high-throughput screening, and to investigate the effect of the natural product upon osteoclast differentiation and its underlying mechanism. An NFATc1 antagonist redistribution assay was performed in U2OS-NFATc1 cells against a natural product library, and Wogonin was found to have the ability to inhibit the NFATc1 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The effect of Wogonin on NFATc1 transcription activation was further determined by luciferase assay. An osteoclast differentiation assay was executed to evaluate the effect of Wogonin on osteoclast differentiation. The effect of Wogonin upon the vital genes in osteoclast differentiation was investigated using fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The natural product Wogonin significantly inhibited the translocation of NFATc1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and its transcriptional activation activity. Wogonin also significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation and decreased the transcription of osteoclast-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and calcitonin receptor. In conclusion, the natural product Wogonin inhibited osteoclast differentiation through the inhibition of NFATc1 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and thus the downregulation of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, which marked Wogonin as a potential treatment for osteoporosis. PMID:26622440

  10. Loss of PiT-1 results in abnormal endocytosis in the yolk sac visceral endoderm.

    PubMed

    Wallingford, Mary C; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2014-08-01

    PiT-1 protein is a transmembrane sodium-dependent phosphate (Pi) transporter. PiT-1 knock out (KO) embryos die from largely unknown causes by embryonic day (E) 12.5. We tested the hypothesis that PiT-1 is required for endocytosis in the embryonic yolk sac (YS) visceral endoderm (VE). Here we present data supporting that PiT-1 KO results in a YS remodeling defect and decreased endocytosis in the YS VE. The remodeling defect is not due to an upstream cardiomyocyte requirement for PiT-1, as SM22αCre-specific KO of PiT-1 in the developing heart and the YS mesodermal layer (ME) does not recapitulate the PiT-1 global KO phenotype. Furthermore, we find that high levels of PiT-1 protein localize to the YS VE apical membrane. Together these data support that PiT-1 is likely required in YS VE. During normal development maternal immunoglobulin (IgG) is endocytosed into YS VE and accumulates in the apical side of the VE in a specialized lysosome termed the apical vacuole (AV). We have identified a reduction in PiT-1 KO VE cell height and a striking loss of IgG accumulation in the PiT-1 KO VE. The endocytosis genes Tfeb, Lamtor2 and Snx2 are increased at the RNA level. Lysotracker Red staining reveals a loss of distinct AVs, and yolk sacs incubated ex vivo with phRODO Green Dextran for Endocytosis demonstrate a functional loss of endocytosis. As yolk sac endocytosis is controlled in part by microautophagy, but expression of LC3 had not been examined, we investigated LC3 expression during yolk sac development and found stage-specific LC3 RNA expression that is predominantly from the YS VE layer at E9.5. Normalized LC3-II protein levels are decreased in the PiT-1 KO YS, supporting a requirement for PiT-1 in autophagy in the YS. Therefore, we propose the novel idea that PiT-1 is central to the regulation of endocytosis and autophagy in the YS VE.

  11. Dual single-scission event analysis of constitutive transferrin receptor (TfR) endocytosis and ligand-triggered β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) or Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Marko; Pierre, Fabienne; Al-Sabah, Suleiman; Krasel, Cornelius; Merrifield, Christien J

    2014-10-01

    The dynamic relationship between constitutive and ligand-triggered clathrin-mediated endocytosis is only poorly characterized, and it remains controversial whether clathrin-coated pits specialize to internalize particular receptor cargo. Here we analyzed the ligand-triggered endocytosis of the model G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) at the level of individual endocytic events using a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM)-based assay. Similar to the constitutive endocytosis of transferrin receptor (TfR), ligand- triggered endocytosis of β2AR occurs via quantized scission events hosted by clathrin spots and plaques of variable size and persistence. To address whether clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) specialize to internalize particular GPCRs, we adapted the TIRFM imaging assay to simultaneously quantify the internalization of TfR and the ligand- triggered endocytosis of the β2AR or MOR. Agonist-triggered β2AR or MOR endocytosis extended the maturation time of CCSs, as shown previously, but did not affect the rate of constitutive TfR endocytosis or loading of TfR into individual endocytic vesicles. Both the β2AR and the MOR receptors entered cells in the same vesicles as TfR, and the overall evidence for CCS specialization was weak. These data support a simple model in which different cargoes internalize through common CCSs.

  12. Dual single-scission event analysis of constitutive transferrin receptor (TfR) endocytosis and ligand-triggered β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) or Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Lampe, Marko; Pierre, Fabienne; Al-Sabah, Suleiman; Krasel, Cornelius; Merrifield, Christien J.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamic relationship between constitutive and ligand-triggered clathrin-mediated endocytosis is only poorly characterized, and it remains controversial whether clathrin-coated pits specialize to internalize particular receptor cargo. Here we analyzed the ligand-triggered endocytosis of the model G-protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) β2-adrenergic receptor (β2AR) and Mu-opioid receptor (MOR) at the level of individual endocytic events using a total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (TIRFM)–based assay. Similar to the constitutive endocytosis of transferrin receptor (TfR), ligand- triggered endocytosis of β2AR occurs via quantized scission events hosted by clathrin spots and plaques of variable size and persistence. To address whether clathrin-coated structures (CCSs) specialize to internalize particular GPCRs, we adapted the TIRFM imaging assay to simultaneously quantify the internalization of TfR and the ligand- triggered endocytosis of the β2AR or MOR. Agonist-triggered β2AR or MOR endocytosis extended the maturation time of CCSs, as shown previously, but did not affect the rate of constitutive TfR endocytosis or loading of TfR into individual endocytic vesicles. Both the β2AR and the MOR receptors entered cells in the same vesicles as TfR, and the overall evidence for CCS specialization was weak. These data support a simple model in which different cargoes internalize through common CCSs. PMID:25079691

  13. ARF6-Regulated Endocytosis of Growth Factor Receptors Links Cadherin-Based Adhesion to Canonical Wnt Signaling in Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Pellon-Cardenas, Oscar; Clancy, James; Uwimpuhwe, Henriette

    2013-01-01

    Wnt signaling has an essential role in embryonic development as well as stem/progenitor cell renewal, and its aberrant activation is implicated in many diseases, including several cancers. β-Catenin is a critical component of Wnt-mediated transcriptional activation. Here we show that ARF6 activation during canonical Wnt signaling promotes the intracellular accumulation of β-catenin via a mechanism that involves the endocytosis of growth factor receptors and robust activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). ERK promotes casein kinase 2-mediated phosphorylation of α-catenin, leading to destabilization of the adherens junctions and a subsequent increase in cytoplasmic pools of active β-catenin and E-cadherin. ERK also phosphorylates LRP6 to amplify the Wnt transduction pathway. The aforementioned Wnt-ERK signaling pathway initiates lumen filling of epithelial cysts by promoting cell proliferation in three-dimensional cell cultures. This study elucidates a mechanism responsible for the switch in β-catenin functions in cell adhesion at the adherens junctions and Wnt-induced nuclear signaling. PMID:23716594

  14. ARF6-regulated endocytosis of growth factor receptors links cadherin-based adhesion to canonical Wnt signaling in epithelia.

    PubMed

    Pellon-Cardenas, Oscar; Clancy, James; Uwimpuhwe, Henriette; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2013-08-01

    Wnt signaling has an essential role in embryonic development as well as stem/progenitor cell renewal, and its aberrant activation is implicated in many diseases, including several cancers. β-Catenin is a critical component of Wnt-mediated transcriptional activation. Here we show that ARF6 activation during canonical Wnt signaling promotes the intracellular accumulation of β-catenin via a mechanism that involves the endocytosis of growth factor receptors and robust activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). ERK promotes casein kinase 2-mediated phosphorylation of α-catenin, leading to destabilization of the adherens junctions and a subsequent increase in cytoplasmic pools of active β-catenin and E-cadherin. ERK also phosphorylates LRP6 to amplify the Wnt transduction pathway. The aforementioned Wnt-ERK signaling pathway initiates lumen filling of epithelial cysts by promoting cell proliferation in three-dimensional cell cultures. This study elucidates a mechanism responsible for the switch in β-catenin functions in cell adhesion at the adherens junctions and Wnt-induced nuclear signaling.

  15. Clathrin-dependent endocytosis of claudin-2 by DFYSP peptide causes lysosomal damage in lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Ikari, Akira; Taga, Saeko; Watanabe, Ryo; Sato, Tomonari; Shimobaba, Shun; Sonoki, Hiroyuki; Endo, Satoshi; Matsunaga, Toshiyuki; Sakai, Hideki; Yamaguchi, Masahiko; Yamazaki, Yasuhiro; Sugatani, Junko

    2015-10-01

    Claudins are tight junctional proteins and comprise a family of over 20 members. Abnormal expression of claudins is reported to be involved in tumor progression. Claudin-2 is highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues and increases cell proliferation, whereas it is not expressed in normal tissues. Claudin-2-targeting molecules such as peptides and small molecules may be novel anti-cancer drugs. The short peptide with the sequence DFYSP, which mimics the second extracellular loop of claudin-2, decreased claudin-2 content in the cytoplasmic fraction of A549 cells. In contrast, it did not affect the content in the nuclear fraction. The decrease in claudin-2 content was inhibited by chloroquine (CQ), a lysosomal inhibitor, but not by MG-132, a proteasome inhibitor. In the presence of DFYSP peptide and CQ, claudin-2 was co-localized with LAMP-1, a lysosomal marker. The DFYSP peptide-induced decrease in claudin-2 content was inhibited by monodancylcadaverine (MDC), an inhibitor of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. DFYSP peptide increased lysosome content and cathepsin B release, and induced cellular injury, which were inhibited by MDC. Cellular injury induced by DFYSP peptide was inhibited by necrostatin-1, an inhibitor of necrotic cell death, but not by Z-VAD-FMK, an inhibitor of apoptotic cell death. Our data indicate that DFYSP peptide increases the accumulation of the peptide and claudin-2 into the lysosome, resulting in lysosomal damage. Claudin-2 may be a new target for lung cancer therapy.

  16. Translocation in the nonpolytrichaceous moss grimmia laevigata

    SciTech Connect

    Alpert, P. )

    1989-10-01

    A superficially rhizomatous habit suggested that the moss Grimmia laevigata might function as a clonal, rhizomatous plant and translocate photoassimilates to below ground organs, even though the species is outside the order Polytrichales, which includes the only mosses known to posses sieve cells. Labelling with {sup 14}CO{sub 2} indicated that at least 10% of newly assimilated carbon was translocated out of leafy shoot portions within 26 hr. Of this carbon, approximately 75% was apparently moved into leafless, basal shoot portions and 25% into below ground stems. Infrared gas analysis of net CO{sup 2} flux was used to check that labelling gave a realistic measure of photosynthesis. Physiological integration and clonal spread may account for the unusual ability of this moss to colonize extremely xeric microsites.

  17. Simulation of polymer translocation through protein channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muthukumar, M.; Kong, C. Y.

    2006-04-01

    A modeling algorithm is presented to compute simultaneously polymer conformations and ionic current, as single polymer molecules undergo translocation through protein channels. The method is based on a combination of Langevin dynamics for coarse-grained models of polymers and the Poisson-Nernst-Planck formalism for ionic current. For the illustrative example of ssDNA passing through the -hemolysin pore, vivid details of conformational fluctuations of the polymer inside the vestibule and -barrel compartments of the protein pore, and their consequent effects on the translocation time and extent of blocked ionic current are presented. In addition to yielding insights into several experimentally reported puzzles, our simulations offer experimental strategies to sequence polymers more efficiently.

  18. Facial Translocation Approach to the Cranial Base

    PubMed Central

    Arriaga, Moises A.; Janecka, Ivo P.

    1991-01-01

    Surgical exposure of the nasopharyngeal region of the cranial base is difficult because of its proximity to key anatomic structures. Our laboratory study outlines the anatomic basis for a new approach to this complex topography. Dissections were performed on eight cadaver halves and two fresh specimens injected with intravascular silicone rubber compound. By utilizing facial soft tissue translocation combined with craniofacial osteotomies; a wide surgical field can be obtained at the skull base. The accessible surgical field extends from the contralateral custachian tube to the ipsilateral geniculate ganglion, including the nasopharyax; clivus, sphonoid, and cavernous sinuses, the entire infratemporal fossa, and superior orbital fissure. The facial translocation approach offers previously unavailable wide and direct exposure, with a potential for immediate reconstruction, of this complex region of the cranial base. ImagesFigure 4Figure 5Figure 7Figure 8Figure 9 PMID:17170817

  19. Rift Valley fever virus strain MP-12 enters mammalian host cells via caveola-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Harmon, Brooke; Schudel, Benjamin R; Maar, Dianna; Kozina, Carol; Ikegami, Tetsuro; Tseng, Chien-Te Kent; Negrete, Oscar A

    2012-12-01

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a zoonotic pathogen capable of causing serious morbidity and mortality in both humans and livestock. The lack of efficient countermeasure strategies, the potential for dispersion into new regions, and the pathogenesis in humans and livestock make RVFV a serious public health concern. The receptors, cellular factors, and entry pathways used by RVFV and other members of the family Bunyaviridae remain largely uncharacterized. Here we provide evidence that RVFV strain MP-12 uses dynamin-dependent caveola-mediated endocytosis for cell entry. Caveolae are lipid raft domains composed of caveolin (the main structural component), cholesterol, and sphingolipids. Caveola-mediated endocytosis is responsible for the uptake of a wide variety of host ligands, as well as bacteria, bacterial toxins, and a number of viruses. To determine the cellular entry mechanism of RVFV, we used small-molecule inhibitors, RNA interference (RNAi), and dominant negative (DN) protein expression to inhibit the major mammalian cell endocytic pathways. Inhibitors and RNAi specific for macropinocytosis and clathrin-mediated endocytosis had no effect on RVFV infection. In contrast, inhibitors of caveola-mediated endocytosis, and RNAi targeted to caveolin-1 and dynamin, drastically reduced RVFV infection in multiple cell lines. Expression of DN caveolin-1 also reduced RVFV infection significantly, while expression of DN EPS15, a protein required for the assembly of clathrin-coated pits, and DN PAK-1, an obligate mediator of macropinocytosis, had no significant impact on RVFV infection. These results together suggest that the primary mechanism of RVFV MP-12 uptake is dynamin-dependent, caveolin-1-mediated endocytosis.

  20. Effect of sulfur dioxide on pulmonary macrophage endocytosis at rest and during exercise

    SciTech Connect

    Skornik, W.A.; Brain, J.D. )

    1990-09-01

    Inhaled SO2 may cause damage by injuring upper airways. To what extent can SO2 also alter pulmonary macrophage function in the parenchyma and what is the impact of exercise We studied the effect of SO2 on pulmonary macrophage endocytosis in resting and in exercising animals by measuring the rates of macrophage endocytosis in situ for 1 h of a test particle of insoluble radioactive colloidal gold (198Au), 1, 24, or 48 h after inhalation exposure to SO2. Resting hamsters exposed for 4 h to 50 ppm SO2 had no significant reduction in macrophage endocytosis compared with air-breathing control hamsters. However, if hamsters were exposed to the same concentration of SO2 while continuously running (40 min at 0.9 km/h), macrophage endocytosis was significantly reduced 1 h after exposure even though the exposure time was only one-sixth as long. Twenty-four hours later, the percentage of gold ingested by pulmonary macrophages remained significantly depressed. By 48 h, the rate had returned to control values. Exercise alone did not affect endocytosis. Hamsters exposed to 50 ppm SO2, with or without exercise, also showed significant reductions in the number of lavaged macrophages. This decrease was greatest and most persistent in the SO2 plus exercise group. These data indicate that even when animals are exposed to water-soluble gases, which are normally removed by the upper airways, exercise can potentiate damage to more peripheral components of the pulmonary defense system such as the macrophage.

  1. Phosphorylation decreases ubiquitylation of the thiazide-sensitive cotransporter NCC and subsequent clathrin-mediated endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaek, Lena L; Kortenoeven, Marleen L A; Aroankins, Takwa S; Fenton, Robert A

    2014-05-09

    The thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter, NCC, is the major NaCl transport protein in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT). The transport activity of NCC can be regulated by phosphorylation, but knowledge of modulation of NCC trafficking by phosphorylation is limited. In this study, we generated novel tetracycline-inducible Madin-Darby canine kidney type I (MDCKI) cell lines expressing NCC to examine the role of NCC phosphorylation and ubiquitylation on NCC endocytosis. In MDCKI-NCC cells, NCC was highly glycosylated at molecular weights consistent with NCC monomers and dimers. NCC constitutively cycles to the apical plasma membrane of MDCKI-NCC cells, with 20-30% of the membrane pool of NCC internalized within 30 min. The use of dynasore, PitStop2, methyl-β-cyclodextrin, nystatin, and filipin (specific inhibitors of either clathrin-dependent or -independent endocytosis) demonstrated that NCC is internalized via a clathrin-mediated pathway. Reduction of endocytosis resulted in greater levels of NCC in the plasma membrane. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed the association of NCC with the clathrin-mediated internalization pathway in rat DCT cells. Compared with controls, inducing phosphorylation of NCC via low chloride treatment or mimicking phosphorylation by replacing Thr-53, Thr-58, and Ser-71 residues with Asp resulted in increased membrane abundance and reduced rates of NCC internalization. NCC ubiquitylation was lowest in the conditions with greatest NCC phosphorylation, thus providing a mechanism for the reduced endocytosis. In conclusion, our data support a model where NCC is constitutively cycled to the plasma membrane, and upon stimulation, it can be phosphorylated to both increase NCC activity and decrease NCC endocytosis, together increasing NaCl transport in the DCT.

  2. Rab5-regulated endocytosis plays a crucial role in apical extrusion of transformed cells.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, Sayaka; Maruyama, Takeshi; Yako, Yuta; Kajita, Mihoko; Fujioka, Yoichiro; Ohba, Yusuke; Kasai, Nobuhiro; Sugama, Natsu; Kon, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Susumu; Hayashi, Takashi; Yamazaki, Tomohiro; Tada, Masazumi; Fujita, Yasuyuki

    2017-03-21

    Newly emerging transformed cells are often eliminated from epithelial tissues. Recent studies have revealed that this cancer-preventive process involves the interaction with the surrounding normal epithelial cells; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain largely unknown. In this study, using mammalian cell culture and zebrafish embryo systems, we have elucidated the functional involvement of endocytosis in the elimination of RasV12-transformed cells. First, we show that Rab5, a crucial regulator of endocytosis, is accumulated in RasV12-transformed cells that are surrounded by normal epithelial cells, which is accompanied by up-regulation of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Addition of chlorpromazine or coexpression of a dominant-negative mutant of Rab5 suppresses apical extrusion of RasV12 cells from the epithelium. We also show in zebrafish embryos that Rab5 plays an important role in the elimination of transformed cells from the enveloping layer epithelium. In addition, Rab5-mediated endocytosis of E-cadherin is enhanced at the boundary between normal and RasV12 cells. Rab5 functions upstream of epithelial protein lost in neoplasm (EPLIN), which plays a positive role in apical extrusion of RasV12 cells by regulating protein kinase A. Furthermore, we have revealed that epithelial defense against cancer (EDAC) from normal epithelial cells substantially impacts on Rab5 accumulation in the neighboring transformed cells. This report demonstrates that Rab5-mediated endocytosis is a crucial regulator for the competitive interaction between normal and transformed epithelial cells in mammals.

  3. Real-time monitoring of NKCC2 endocytosis by total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jaykumar, Ankita Bachhawat; Caceres, Paulo S; Sablaban, Ibrahim; Tannous, Bakhos A; Ortiz, Pablo A

    2016-01-15

    The apical Na-K-2Cl cotransporter (NKCC2) mediates NaCl reabsorption by the thick ascending limb (TAL). The amount of NKCC2 at the apical membrane of TAL cells is determined by exocytic delivery, recycling, and endocytosis. Surface biotinylation allows measurement of NKCC2 endocytosis, but it has low time resolution and does not allow imaging of the dynamic process of endocytosis. We hypothesized that total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy imaging of labeled NKCC2 would allow monitoring of NKCC2 endocytosis in polarized Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) and TAL cells. Thus we generated a NKCC2 construct containing a biotin acceptor domain (BAD) sequence between the transmembrane domains 5 and 6. Once expressed in polarized MDCK or TAL cells, surface NKCC2 was specifically biotinylated by exogenous biotin ligase (BirA). We also demonstrate that expression of a secretory form of BirA in TAL cells induces metabolic biotinylation of NKCC2. Labeling biotinylated surface NKCC2 with fluorescent streptavidin showed that most apical NKCC2 was located within small discrete domains or clusters referred to as "puncta" on the TIRF field. NKCC2 puncta were observed to disappear from the TIRF field, indicating an endocytic event which led to a decrease in the number of surface puncta at a rate of 1.18 ± 0.16%/min in MDCK cells, and a rate 1.09 ± 0.08%/min in TAL cells (n = 5). Treating cells with a cholesterol-chelating agent (methyl-β-cyclodextrin) completely blocked NKCC2 endocytosis. We conclude that TIRF microscopy of labeled NKCC2 allows the dynamic imaging of individual endocytic events at the apical membrane of TAL cells.

  4. Mouse early extra-embryonic lineages activate compensatory endocytosis in response to poor maternal nutrition.

    PubMed

    Sun, Congshan; Velazquez, Miguel A; Marfy-Smith, Stephanie; Sheth, Bhavwanti; Cox, Andy; Johnston, David A; Smyth, Neil; Fleming, Tom P

    2014-03-01

    Mammalian extra-embryonic lineages perform the crucial role of nutrient provision during gestation to support embryonic and fetal growth. These lineages derive from outer trophectoderm (TE) and internal primitive endoderm (PE) in the blastocyst and subsequently give rise to chorio-allantoic and visceral yolk sac placentae, respectively. We have shown maternal low