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Sample records for endodontic post glass

  1. The influence of cavity design and glass fiber posts on biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated premolars.

    PubMed

    Soares, Carlos Jose; Soares, Paulo Vinicius; de Freitas Santos-Filho, Paulo Cesar; Castro, Carolina Guimaraes; Magalhaes, Denildo; Versluis, Antheunis

    2008-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cavity design and glass fiber posts on stress distributions and fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars. Fifty extracted intact mandibular premolars were divided into 5 groups (n = 10): ST, sound teeth (control); MOD, mesio-occlusal-distal preparation + endodontic treatment (ET) + composite resin restoration (CR); MODP, mesio-occlusal-distal + ET + glass fiber post + CR; MOD2/3, mesio-occlusal-distal + two thirds occlusal-cervical cusp loss + ET + CR; and MODP2/3, mesio-occlusal-distal + two thirds cusp loss + ET + glass fiber post + CR. The specimens were loaded on a cusp slope until fracture. Fracture patterns were classified according to four failure types. Stress distributions were evaluated for each group in a two-dimensional finite element analysis. The fracture resistance of the MODP, MOD2/3, and MODP2/3 groups was significantly lower than the ST and MOD groups (p < 0.05). The loss of dental structure and the presence of fiber post restoration reduced fracture resistance and created higher stress concentrations in the tooth-restoration complex. However, when there was a large loss of dental structure (MODP2/3), the post reduced the incidence of catastrophic fracture types.

  2. Randomized clinical study comparing metallic and glass fiber post in restoration of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Gbadebo, Olaide S; Ajayi, Deborah M; Oyekunle, Oyekunle O Dosumu; Shaba, Peter O

    2014-01-01

    Post-retained crowns are indicated for endodontically treated teeth (ETT) with severely damaged coronal tissue. Metallic custom and prefabricated posts have been used over the years, however, due to unacceptable color, extreme rigidity and corrosion, fiber posts, which are flexible, aesthetically pleasing and have modulus of elasticity comparable with dentin were introduced. To compare clinical performance of metallic and glass fiber posts in restoration of ETT. 40 ETT requiring post retained restorations were included. These teeth were randomly allocated into 2 groups. Twenty teeth were restored using a glass fiber-reinforced post (FRP) and 20 others received stainless steel parapost (PP), each in combination with composite core buildups. Patients were observed at 1 and 6 months after post placement and cementation of porcelain fused to metal (PFM) crown. Marginal gap consideration, post retention, post fracture, root fracture, crown fracture, crown decementation and loss of restoration were part of the data recorded. All teeth were assessed clinically and radiographically. Fisher's exact test was used for categorical values while log-rank test was used for descriptive statistical analysis. One tooth in the PP group failed, secondary to decementation of the PFM crown giving a 2.5% overall failure while none in the FRP group failed. The survival rate of FRP was thus 100% while it was 97.5% in the PP group. This however was not statistically significant (log-rank test, P = 0.32). Glass FRPs performed better than the metallic post based on short-term clinical performance.

  3. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with glass fiber posts of different lengths.

    PubMed

    Franco, Erico Braga; Lins do Valle, Accacio; Pompéia Fraga de Almeida, Ana Lúcia; Rubo, José Henrique; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    Endodontically treated teeth are known to have reduced structural strength. Glass fiber posts may influence fracture resistance and should be evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of glass fiber post length on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Forty intact human maxillary canines were selected and divided into 4 groups, the control group consisting of teeth restored with a custom gold cast post and core, with a length of two-thirds of the root. Other groups received prefabricated glass fiber posts in different lengths: group 1/3, removal of one-third of the sealing material (5 mm); group 1/2, removal of one-half of the sealing material (7.5 mm); and group 2/3, removal of two-thirds of the sealing material (10 mm). All the posts were cemented with resin cement, and the specimens with glass fiber posts received a composite resin core. All the specimens were restored with a metal crown and submitted to a compressive load until failure occurred. The results were evaluated by 1-way ANOVA, and the all pairwise multiple comparison procedures (Tukey honestly significantly difference test) (α=.05). The ANOVA showed significant differences among the groups (P<.002). The Tukey test showed that the control group presented significantly higher resistance to static load than the other groups (control group, 634.94 N; group 1/3, 200.01 N; group 1/2, 212.17 N; and group 2/3, 236.08 N). Although teeth restored with a cast post and core supported a higher compressive load, all of them fractured in a catastrophic manner. For teeth restored with glass fiber posts, the failure occurred at the junction between the composite resin core and the root. The length of glass fiber posts did not influence fracture load, but cast post and cores that extended two-thirds of the root length had significantly greater fracture resistance than glass fiber posts. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published

  4. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with glass fiber reinforced posts and cast gold post and cores cemented with three cements.

    PubMed

    Torres-Sánchez, Carlos; Montoya-Salazar, Vanessa; Córdoba, Paola; Vélez, Claudia; Guzmán-Duran, Andrés; Gutierrez-Pérez, José-Luis; Torres-Lagares, Daniel

    2013-08-01

    Dental fractures can occur in endodontically treated teeth restored with glass fiber reinforced posts and cast gold posts. The objective of this study was to record the fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth restored with glass fiber reinforced or cast gold post and cores cemented with 3 cements. Forty-two single-rooted premolars with standardized weakened roots were endodontically treated and allocated to 6 experimental groups (n=7) defined by the 2 factors investigated: post system and cement. Three groups were restored with glass fiber posts and resin-modified glass ionomer cement, dual-polymerizing resin cement, or chemically active autopolymerizing resin cement. The other 3 groups were restored with cast gold post and cores and the same 3 cements. The cores of the glass fiber post groups were fabricated with composite resin core material. Metal crowns were cemented on the cores in the 6 groups. The entire system was subjected to continuous compression in a universal testing machine, and fracture limit and location (cervical third, middle third, or apical third) were noted. Two-way ANOVA and the Scheffé test were used to analyze the data and compare the groups (α=.05). Two-way ANOVA showed significant differences in the post type (P<.001) and the cements (P<.001). The interaction between them (P<.001) was statistically significant in the fracture resistance of the endodontically treated teeth. The greatest interaction between post and cement was the glass fiber post with resin-modified glass ionomer cement, followed by the cast gold post and core with resin-modified glass ionomer cement. The use of a glass fiber reinforced post and resin-modified glass ionomer cement increased the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The effect of two root canal sealers on the retentive strength of glass fibre endodontic posts.

    PubMed

    Davis, S T; O'Connell, B C

    2007-06-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of eugenol-containing and non-eugenol-containing root canal sealers on the retention strength of glass fibre endodontic posts (ParaPost Fibre White) luted with a resin cement (ParaPost cement). We also examined the mode of failure that occurred visually by using scanning electron microscopy. Seventy-two single rooted, recently extracted, premolar teeth were root canal treated and randomly divided into two groups. Group 1 was obturated with gutta percha and a calcium hydroxide-based sealer (Sealapex, Kerr). Group 2 was obturated with gutta percha and a eugenol-based sealer (Tubli-Seal Kerr). The teeth were stored for 1 week in distilled water at 37 degrees C and then prepared for 9 mm posts with a 1.40-mm drill. The matching glass fibre post was luted with a resin cement following the manufacturer's instructions. The samples were stored for 1 week and thermocycled. The posts were removed from the root canals using a calibrated testing machine in tensile mode. The mean dislodging force for group 1 was 190.46 N and for group 2 was 183.8 N, with standard deviations of 54.9 and 56.0 N respectively. The t-test indicated no significant difference between the two groups. Failure of the posts occurred mainly within the resin layer. This study showed that under experimental conditions there was no statistically significant difference between Sealapex sealer and Tubli-Seal sealer on the retention of glass fibre posts using a resin cement.

  6. Influence of ferrule preparation with or without glass fiber post on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth

    PubMed Central

    de LIMA, Alexandra Furtado; SPAZZIN, Aloísio Oro; GALAFASSI, Daniel; CORRER-SOBRINHO, Lourenço; CARLINI-JÚNIOR, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of ferrule preparation (Fp) on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth, restored with composite resin cores with or without glass fiber posts. Material and Methods Forty-four bovine teeth were sectioned 19 or 17 mm (2 mm ferrule) from the apex, endodontically treated and assigned to four groups (n = 11): Group 1: Fp and post; Group 2: Fp and without post; Group 3: without Fp and with post; Group 4: without Fp and without post. All specimens were restored with composite resin core and metal crown. Specimens were subjected to fracture resistance testing in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey’s tests (α=0.05). Results The mean fracture resistance values were as follows: Group 1: 573.3 N; Group 2: 552.5 N; Group 3: 275.3 N; Group 4: 258.6 N. Significantly higher fracture resistance was found for the groups with Fp (p<0.001). Conclusion There was no statistically significant interaction between the "Fp" and "post" factors (p = 0.954). The ferrule preparation increased the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. However, the use of glass fiber post showed no significant influence on the fracture resistance. PMID:20835570

  7. Influence of ferrule preparation with or without glass fiber post on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Lima, Alexandra Furtado de; Spazzin, Aloísio Oro; Galafassi, Daniel; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Carlini-Júnior, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of ferrule preparation (Fp) on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth, restored with composite resin cores with or without glass fiber posts. Forty-four bovine teeth were sectioned 19 or 17 mm (2 mm ferrule) from the apex, endodontically treated and assigned to four groups (n = 11): Group 1: Fp and post; Group 2: Fp and without post; Group 3: without Fp and with post; Group 4: without Fp and without post. All specimens were restored with composite resin core and metal crown. Specimens were subjected to fracture resistance testing in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α=0.05). The mean fracture resistance values were as follows: Group 1: 573.3 N; Group 2: 552.5 N; Group 3: 275.3 N; Group 4: 258.6 N. Significantly higher fracture resistance was found for the groups with Fp (p<0.001). There was no statistically significant interaction between the "Fp" and "post" factors (p = 0.954). The ferrule preparation increased the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. However, the use of glass fiber post showed no significant influence on the fracture resistance.

  8. In vitro evaluation of the fracture resistance of anterior endodontically treated teeth restored with glass fiber and zircon posts.

    PubMed

    Qing, Hai; Zhu, ZhiMin; Chao, YongLie; Zhang, WeiQun

    2007-02-01

    The published information is equivocal regarding the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber posts. Additionally, little is known about the biomechanical performance of glass fiber and zircon posts. This in vitro study investigated the fracture resistance of anterior endodontically treated teeth prepared with a 2-mm ferrule, restored with glass fiber and zircon posts and composite resin cores or cast posts and cores. Twelve matched pairs of teeth were obtained from 4 cadavers, and all were endodontically treated and prepared with a standardized 2-mm ferrule. According to a random number table, the 2 teeth from each matched pair were randomly divided into 2 groups. The test group consisted of 12 specimens restored with a glass fiber and zircon post (Fibio) and composite resin (Durafil) core. Twelve matching specimens restored with a nickel-chromium (NiCr) cast post and core served as the control. Specimens in both groups were cemented with resin cement (Panavia F). After cementation of cast NiCr complete crowns with zinc polycarboxylate cement (ShangChi), the specimens were loaded with an incremental static force at an angle of 135 degrees to the long axis of the root until failure occurred. A paired sample t test was used to compare the fracture resistance (N) of teeth restored with the 2 post-and-core systems (alpha=.05). The mean failure load of paired differences between the 2 groups was -261.3+/-237.3 N. The test group exhibited significantly lower failure loads than the control group (P=.004). All specimens displayed root fractures, most of which were oblique, with cracks initiating from the palatal cervical margin and propagating in a labial-apical direction. Within the limitations of this study, the teeth restored with glass fiber and zircon posts demonstrated significantly lower failure loads than those with cast NiCr post and cores. All specimens failed via root fractures.

  9. Cyclic loading of endodontically treated teeth restored with glass fibre and titanium alloy posts: fracture resistance and failure modes.

    PubMed

    Abdul Salam, Saridatun Nur; Banerjee, Avijit; Mannocci, Francesco; Pilecki, Peter; Watson, Timothy F

    2006-09-01

    The aims of this in-vitro investigation were to compare the fracture resistance and the failure modes of endodontically treated teeth restored with glass fibre-reinforced posts with those of teeth restored with titanium-alloy posts. A total of 60 single-rooted human mandibular premolars were endodontically treated. The teeth were divided into two experimental and one control group. Post spaces 9mm long were prepared in the roots of the experimental groups in which glass fibre-reinforced posts (Group A) and titanium-alloy posts (Group B) were cemented. In the control group (Group C), no post was inserted. The specimens were stored in normal saline for a period of three weeks before being intermittently loaded at an angle of 30 degrees degrees to the long axis of the tooth at a frequency of two loads of 40N per second. Log-rank test used for the overall analysis revealed that there was no significant difference of fracture resistance between teeth restored with glass fibre-reinforced posts (Group A) and titanium-alloy posts (Group B). The survival of the control group was found to be significantly inferior to that of the experimental groups. There was no significant difference in the number of failures between the two experimental groups. There was significantly more core and post failure for the glass fibre-reinforced posts, root and core failure for the titanium-alloy posts and core failure for the control group. The results suggest that post failures are more frequent in teeth restored with quartz fibre posts and root fractures are more frequent in teeth restored with titanium posts.

  10. Effect of endodontic sealer and resin luting strategies on pull-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to dentin.

    PubMed

    Souza-Junior, Eduardo J; Bueno, Vanessa C P S; Dias, Carlos T S; Paulillo, Luís A M S

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of eugenol-containing endodontic sealers and luting strategy on the pull-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to dentin. Sixty-four bovine incisors were randomly assigned into two groups of 32 specimens each for obturation procedure with gutta-percha only, or with Pulp Canal Sealer EWT Subsequently, the roots were prepared for the fiber post Reforpost and all specimens of each endodontic sealing procedure were allocated to four groups (n = 8), according to the strategies for post cementation: A) Single Bond 2 and RelyX ARC; B) All Bond 2 and C&B cement; C) All Bond 2 and RelyX ARC; D) Single Bond 2 and C&B Cement. The posts were cemented immediately after the endodontic treatment. The pull-out test was performed at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min in a universal testing machine (EMIC). Data (Kgf) were submitted to a two-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p < or = 0.05). The eugenol-based sealer did not influence the pull-out bond strength of fiber posts regardless of the luting strategy. RelyX ARC showed higher bond strength than C&B Cement when used with Single Bond 2 adhesive system, when the eugenol-based sealer was present. All Bond 2, when associated to all cements studied, promoted similar bond strength, regardless of the eugenol-containing endodontic sealer In conclusion, eugenol-containing sealer did not influence the pull-out bond strength values of the resin luting systems for glass fiber post cementation. The bond system and resin cement association from the same manufacturer had similar bond strength values for dentin.

  11. Comparative evaluation of fracture resistance of glass fiber reinforced, carbon, and quartz post in endodontically treated teeth: An in-vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shweta; Attokaran, George; Singh, Kunwar S.; Jerry, Jeethu J.; Ahmed, Naima; Mitra, Nirban

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Use of posts improves the physical properties of endodontically-treated teeth. Different post types are developed such as metal, custom-made, carbon, and quartz. The present study was conducted to evaluate the fracture resistance of glass fiber-reinforced, carbon, and quartz post in endodontically-treated teeth. Materials and Methods: Forty extracted human maxillary incisor teeth were decoronated and endodontically treated and equally divided into 4 groups; control, glass fiber-reinforced, carbon, and quartz posts. No post was used in the control group. Post space was prepared and cemented with different posts and subjected to universal testing machine to check fracture resistance. The data were statistically analyzed using t-test and analysis of variance to compare the mean difference between groups (SPSS version 20, IBM). Results: Quartz type of endodontic post showed good fracture resistance compared to carbon and resin-reinforced post. Least resistance was observed in the control group without post. Conclusion: Quartz, carbon, and glass fiber-reinforced posts show good resistance to fracture, and hence can be used in endodontically-treated teeth to enhance their strength. PMID:27583227

  12. Effect of ferrule height and glass fibre post length on fracture resistance and failure mode of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Abdulrazzak, Shurooq S; Sulaiman, Eshamsul; Atiya, Basim K; Jamaludin, Marhazlinda

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the combined effect of ferrule height and post length on fracture resistance and failure mode of endodontically treated teeth restored with glass fibre posts, composite resin cores and crowns. Ninety human maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated and divided into three groups (n = 30) according to the ferrule heights: 4, 2 and 0 mm, respectively. Post spaces in each group were prepared at 2/3, 1/2 and 1/3 of the root length (n = 10). The specimens were received fibre posts, composite resin core build up and cast metal crowns. After thermocycling, compressive static load was applied at an angle of 135° to the crowns. Two-way analysis of variance showed significant differences in the failure load in the ferrule height groups, no significant differences in post length groups and no significant interaction between ferrule heights and post lengths. More restorable failure modes were observed. © 2013 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  13. An in vitro comparative evaluation of fracture resistance of custom made, metal, glass fiber reinforced and carbon reinforced posts in endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Sonkesriya, Subhash; Olekar, Santosh T; Saravanan, V; Somasunderam, P; Chauhan, Rashmi Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap

    2015-05-01

    Posts are used to enhance crown buildup in pulpless teeth with destructed crown portion. Different types of post are used in endodontically treated teeth. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate fracture resistance of custom made, metal, glass fiber reinforced and carbon reinforced posts in endodontically treated teeth. An in vitro study was carried out on extracted 40 human maxillary central incisor teeth, which was divided into four groups with 10 samples in each group with custom made, metal post, glass fiber reinforced, and carbon reinforced posts. The samples were decoronated at cemento-enamel junction and endodontically treated. Post space was prepared and selected posts were cemented. The composite cores were prepared at the height of 5 mm and samples mounted on acrylic blocks. Later fracture resistance to the compressive force of samples was measured using Universal Testing Machine. The maximum resistance to the compressive force was observed in carbon reinforced and glass fiber reinforced posts compared others which is statistically significant (P > 0.001) and least was seen in custom fabricated post. It is concluded that carbon reinforced fiber post and glass fiber posts showed good fracture resistance compared to custom made and metal posts.

  14. An In Vitro Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Custom Made, Metal, Glass Fiber Reinforced and Carbon Reinforced Posts in Endodontically Treated Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Sonkesriya, Subhash; Olekar, Santosh T; Saravanan, V; Somasunderam, P; Chauhan, Rashmi Singh; Chaurasia, Vishwajit Rampratap

    2015-01-01

    Background: Posts are used to enhance crown buildup in pulpless teeth with destructed crown portion. Different types of post are used in endodontically treated teeth. The aim of the present in vitro study was to evaluate fracture resistance of custom made, metal, glass fiber reinforced and carbon reinforced posts in endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: An in vitro study was carried out on extracted 40 human maxillary central incisor teeth, which was divided into four groups with 10 samples in each group with custom made, metal post, glass fiber reinforced, and carbon reinforced posts. The samples were decoronated at cemento-enamel junction and endodontically treated. Post space was prepared and selected posts were cemented. The composite cores were prepared at the height of 5 mm and samples mounted on acrylic blocks. Later fracture resistance to the compressive force of samples was measured using Universal Testing Machine. Results: The maximum resistance to the compressive force was observed in carbon reinforced and glass fiber reinforced posts compared others which is statistically significant (P > 0.001) and least was seen in custom fabricated post. Conclusion: It is concluded that carbon reinforced fiber post and glass fiber posts showed good fracture resistance compared to custom made and metal posts. PMID:26028904

  15. Fracture Strength of Endodontically Treated Teeth Restored with Casting Post and Core and Glass-Fiber with Composite Core

    PubMed Central

    Saatian, Sedigheh

    2006-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Prefabricated metal and ceramic posts can be used with different kinds of core materials as an alternative to the conventional casting post and cores. It is unclear how these post and core systems can withstand different kind of forces in the mouth. The purpose of this study was to compare the fracture strength of endodontically treated, crowned maxillary incisors restored with casting post and cores and glass- fiber post with composite core and to evaluate their mode of fractures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty caries free, human maxillary central incisors with incisoapical length of 23 ± 1 mm were divided into two groups. After root canal treatment procedures and decronation of teeth 2mm above cementoenamel junction, Grope 1 was restored with glass- fiber posts and composite cores and group 2 received casting post and cores. Teeth were prepared with a circumferential shoulder including a 1-2 mm ferrule and 0.5 mm bevel; all posts were cemented with an adhesive resin and teeth were restored with complete coverage crowns. Loads were applied at an angle of 135 degrees using a universal testing machine. Compression force was applied until the specimens fractured. RESULTS: The median fracture strengths of groups 1 and 2 were 459 and 686 respectively (p<0.5). In group I, all fractures occurred in incisal third of roots. In groups II, 40% of fractures were in apical third and middle of roots. CONCLUSION: Within the limitation of this study, the results suggested that glass fiber with composite cores can be used as an alternative to cast posts and cores in anterior teeth when creating 2mm ferrule effect was possible in normal occlusion. Clinical trial is required to verify these in vitro results. PMID:24470803

  16. Clinical evaluation of carbon fiber reinforced carbon endodontic post, glass fiber reinforced post with cast post and core: A one year comparative clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Preethi, GA; Kala, M

    2008-01-01

    Aim: Restoring endodontically treated teeth is one of the major treatments provided by the dental practitioner. Selection and proper use of restorative materials continues to be a source of frustration for many clinicians. There is controversy surrounding the most suitable choice of restorative material and the placement method that will result in the highest probability of successful treatment. This clinical study compares two different varieties of fiber posts and one cast post and core in terms of mobility of crown margin under finger pressure, recurrent caries detected at the crown margin, fracture of the restoration, fracture of the root and periapical and periodontal pathology requiring crown removal over the period of 12months as evaluated by clinical and radiographical examination. Materials and Methods: 30 root canal treated, single rooted maxillary anterior teeth of 25 patients in the age range of 18–60 years where a post retained crown was indicated were selected for the study between January 2007 and August 2007; and prepared in a standard clinical manner. It was divided into 3 groups of 10 teeth in each group. After post space preparation, the Carbon fiber and Glass fiber reinforced posts were cemented with Scotch bond multipurpose plus bonding agent and RelyX adhesive resin cement in the first and second groups respectively. The Cast post and cores were cemented with Zinc Phosphate cement in the third group. Following post- cementation, the preparation was further refined and a rubber base impression was taken for metal-ceramic crowns which was cemented with Zinc Phosphate cement. A baseline periapical radiograph was taken once each crown was cemented. All patients were evaluated after one week (baseline), 3 months, 6 months and one year for following characteristics mobility of crown margin under finger pressure, recurrent caries detected at the crown margin, fracture of the restoration, fracture of the root and periapical and periodontal pathology

  17. Effect of different onlay systems on fracture resistance and failure pattern of endodontically treated mandibular molars restored with and without glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Salameh, Ziad; Ounsi, Hani F; Aboushelib, Moustafa N; Al-Hamdan, Rana; Sadig, Walid; Ferrari, Marco

    2010-04-01

    To investigate the relationship between post and core build-up materials on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with different onlay restorations. 60 mandibular molars were endodontically treated and divided into three experimental groups that received one of the following onlay restorations: gold onlays, glass ceramic onlays (Empress I), or resin composite onlays (Gradia). Half of the specimens in each group received a fiber post (n=10). Two controls groups (n=10) were included: one group composed of sound mandibular molars, and the second group was composed of endodontically treated unrestored molars. Fracture tests were carried out by applying axial load using a universal loading machine until fracture. All fractured specimens were fractographically examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey multiple comparison tests (alpha=0.05). Statistical analysis showed that restoration of endodontically treated teeth with gold onlays improved fracture resistance when compared to glass ceramic or resin composite onlays. The presence of a fiber post significantly improved (P<0.045) fracture resistance of gold onlays from 2271 to 2874N while it did not influence the performance of the other two groups. Fractographic analyses revealed that the presence of fiber post resulted in more restorable fractures due to better stress distribution of the applied load. All onlay systems resulted in significant improvement of the fracture resistance compared to unrestored teeth (711N) but neither of them resulted in restoring the fracture resistance to match that of sound teeth (3212 N).

  18. Long-term survival of endodontically treated, maxillary anterior teeth restored with either tapered or parallel-sided glass-fiber posts and full-ceramic crown coverage.

    PubMed

    Signore, Antonio; Benedicenti, Stefano; Kaitsas, Vassilios; Barone, Michele; Angiero, Francesca; Ravera, Giambattista

    2009-02-01

    This retrospective study investigated the clinical effectiveness over up to 8 years of parallel-sided and of tapered glass-fiber posts, in combination with either hybrid composite or dual-cure composite resin core material, in endodontically treated, maxillary anterior teeth covered with full-ceramic crowns. The study population comprised 192 patients and 526 endodontically treated teeth, with various degrees of hard-tissue loss, restored by the post-and-core technique. Four groups were defined based on post shape and core build-up materials, and within each group post-and-core restorations were assigned randomly with respect to root morphology. Inclusion criteria were symptom-free endodontic therapy, root-canal treatment with a minimum apical seal of 4mm, application of rubber dam, need for post-and-core complex because of coronal tooth loss, and tooth with at least one residual coronal wall. Survival rate of the post-and-core restorations was determined using Kaplan-Meier statistical analysis. The restorations were examined clinically and radiologically; mean observation period was 5.3 years. The overall survival rate of glass-fiber post-and-core restorations was 98.5%. The survival rate for parallel-sided posts was 98.6% and for tapered posts was 96.8%. Survival rates for core build-up materials were 100% for dual-cure composite and 96.8% for hybrid light-cure composite. For both glass-fiber post designs and for both core build-up materials, clinical performance was satisfactory. Survival was higher for teeth retaining four and three coronal walls.

  19. Effects of endodontic post surface treatment, dentin conditioning, and artificial aging on the retention of glass fiber-reinforced composite resin posts.

    PubMed

    Albashaireh, Zakereyya S; Ghazal, Muhamad; Kern, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Several post surface treatments with or without the application of a bonding agent have been recommended to improve the bond strength of resin cements to posts. A regimen that produces the maximum bond strength of glass fiber-reinforced composite resin posts has not been verified. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of post surface conditioning methods and artificial aging on the retention and microleakage of adhesively luted glass fiber-reinforced composite resin posts. Seventy-two endodontically treated single-rooted teeth were prepared for glass fiber-reinforced composite resin posts. The posts were submitted to 3 different surface treatments (n=24), including no treatment, etching with phosphoric acid, and airborne-particle abrasion. Subgroups of the posts (n=8) were then allocated for 3 different experimental conditions: no artificial aging, no bonding agent; no artificial aging, bonding agent; or artificial aging, bonding agent. The posts were luted with resin cement (Calibra). Post retention was measured in tension at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min. The posts assigned for microleakage investigation were placed in fuchsin dye for 72 hours. The dislodged posts and the post spaces were examined microscopically to evaluate the mode of failure and explore the microleakage. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test (alpha=.05). The mean (SD) retention values for test groups ranged from 269 (63.8) to 349 (52.2) N. The retention values of the airborne-particle-abrasion group were significantly higher than those of the acidic-treatment and no-treatment groups. The application of bonding agent on the post surface produced no significant influence on retention. The mean retention values after artificial aging were significantly higher than without artificial aging. Microscopic evaluation demonstrated that the failure mode was primarily mixed. Treating the surface of the posts with phosphoric acid for 15 seconds before cementation

  20. Influence of glass-fiber posts on the fracture resistance and failure pattern of endodontically treated premolars with varying substance loss: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mangold, Jens T; Kern, Matthias

    2011-06-01

    It is unclear how the amount of substance loss affects whether the fracture strength of endodontically treated and crowned teeth is increased by post placement. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of glass-fiber post placement on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars with varying degrees of substance loss. Sixty-four extracted and endodontically treated mandibular premolars were divided into 4 test groups (n=16) depending on the number of residual coronal dentin walls that ranged from 3 to zero. Teeth in subgroups were either adhesively restored with composite resin without a post (-) or with an adhesively luted glass-fiber post (+). After receiving a 0.8-mm shoulder preparation, providing a ferrule of 0.5 mm, teeth were restored with complete metal crowns, which were cemented with glass ionomer cement. All specimens were subjected to dynamic loading in a masticatory simulator for 1.2 million loading cycles with a nominal load of 49 N at 1.2 Hz combined with thermal cycling (between 5 and 55°C, 30-second dwell time). Then specimens were quasi-statically loaded at 30 degrees in a universal testing machine until fracture. Data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA, followed by multiple comparisons using Tukey HSD test (α=.05). No specimen failed during masticatory simulation. Mean final fracture resistance ranged from 335.6 ± 39.7 N to 1064.9 ± 211.8 N. Two-way ANOVA revealed that both the number of residual coronal walls and post placement had a significant influence on the fracture resistance (P<.001). However, pair-wise comparisons of groups showed that in groups with 2 or 3 cavity walls, the post effect was not statistically significant (P=.378 and P=.175, respectively). The fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars was dependent on the number of residual coronal dentin walls. Placement of a glass-fiber post had a significant influence on the fracture resistance when fewer than 2 cavity walls remained

  1. [PVD-layering for increased retention of glass fibre reinforced endodontic posts].

    PubMed

    Edelhoff, Daniel; Weber, Michael; Spiekermann, Hubertus; Marx, Rudolf

    2006-01-01

    For esthetical and biomechanical reasons root canal posts made of fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) have gained an important role in clinical application. Additionally, in contrast to metal or ceramic posts, FRC-posts offer the option of removal. Prior to adhesive placement of FRC-posts the root canal dentin of the non vital tooth and the post surface have to be preconditioned. Up to now the post preconditioning has to be proceeded in the chair side technique. This leads to an additional time expense in the clinical treatment schedule. Also a certain risk of errors in application during chair side conditioning procedure is of concern. Modern PVD-technologies can help to make the treatment by the manufacturer well in advance of the clinical use more efficient and reliable, as well as saving clinicians valuable chair-time. For this reason the apical surfaces of the posts were intensively cleaned and activated, PVD-layered and coated by a conserving transparent layer. This coating has the meaning to protect the surface against environmental contamination and allows the try-in of the posts without any risk of damage of the preconditioned surface. To prove the stability of the layer system under simulated clinical conditions pull out tests after 180 days'storage in physiological saline solution have been performed.

  2. The impact of endodontic irrigating solutions on the push-out shear bond strength of glass fiber posts luted with resin cements.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Pelegrine, Rina Andrea; Silveira, Cláudia Fernandes de Magalhães; Bueno, Vanessa Castro Pestana da Silveira; Alves, Vanessa de Oliveira; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Pereira, Gisele Damiana da Silveira; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini

    2016-01-01

    Resin-based restorative materials, widely used to cement posts, may be influenced by irrigants used during endodontic chemical-mechanical preparation. This study evaluated the impact of endodontic irrigating solutions and adhesive cement systems on the push-out shear bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin. Ninety-six bovine incisors were divided into 12 groups (4 irrigants × 3 resin cements; n = 8). Prepared canals were irrigated with saline solution, 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 5.25% NaOCl, or 2% chlorhexidine gel, and posts were cemented with RelyX ARC, Panavia F, or RelyX U100. The bond strength was evaluated by means of the push-out test, and results were subjected to analysis of variance. The mean bond strength observed for the combination of 5.25% NaOCl irrigant and RelyX U100 cement was significantly lower (8.82 MPa) than the values found for the other groups (P < 0.05). The other combinations of irrigating solution and resin cement had no adverse effect on the bond strength of the glass fiber posts to dentin.

  3. Mechanical resistance evaluation of a novel anatomical short glass fiber reinforced post in artificial endodontically treated premolar under rotational/lateral fracture fatigue testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Li

    2016-01-01

    This study develops a novel anatomical short glass fiber reinforced (anatomical SGFR) post and evaluates the mechanical performance in artificial endodontically treated premolars. An anatomical SGFR fiber post with an oval shape and slot/notch designs was manufactured using an injection-molding machine. The three-point bending test and crown/core restorations using the anatomical SGFR and commercial cylindrical fiber posts under fatigue test were executed to understand the mechanical resistances. The results showed that static and dynamic rotational resistance were found significantly higher in the anatomical SGFR fiber post than in the commercial post. The endurance limitations at 1.2×10(6) cycles were 66.81 and 64.77 N for the anatomical SGFR and commercial fiber posts, respectively. The anatomical SGFR fiber post presented acceptable value of flexural strength and modulus, better fit adaption in the root canal resist torque more efficiency but was not a key issue in the lateral fracture resistance in an endodontically treated premolar.

  4. Fracture resistances of zirconia, cast Ni-Cr, and fiber-glass composite posts under all-ceramic crowns in endodontically treated premolars.

    PubMed

    Habibzadeh, Sareh; Rajati, Hamid Reza; Hajmiragha, Habib; Esmailzadeh, Shima; Kharazifard, Mohamadjavad

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fracture resistances of zirconia, cast nickel-chromium alloy (Ni-Cr), and fiber-composite post systems under all-ceramic crowns in endodontically treated mandibular first premolars. A total of 36 extracted human mandibular premolars were selected, subjected to standard endodontic treatment, and divided into three groups (n=12) as follows: cast Ni-Cr post-and-core, one-piece custom-milled zirconia post-and-core, and prefabricated fiber-glass post with composite resin core. Each specimen had an all-ceramic crown with zirconia coping and was then loaded to failure using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min, at an angle of 45 degrees to the long axis of the roots. Fracture resistance and modes of failure were analyzed. The significance of the results was assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honest significance difference (HSD) tests (α=.05). Fiber-glass posts with composite cores showed the highest fracture resistance values (915.70±323 N), and the zirconia post system showed the lowest resistance (435.34±220 N). The corresponding mean value for the Ni-Cr casting post and cores was reported as 780.59±270 N. The differences among the groups were statistically significant (P<.05) for the zirconia group, as tested by ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. The fracture resistance of zirconia post-and-core systems was found to be significantly lower than those of fiberglass and cast Ni-Cr post systems. Moreover, catastrophic and non-restorable fractures were more prevalent in teeth restored by zirconia posts.

  5. Fracture resistances of zirconia, cast Ni-Cr, and fiber-glass composite posts under all-ceramic crowns in endodontically treated premolars

    PubMed Central

    Rajati, Hamid Reza; Hajmiragha, Habib; Esmailzadeh, Shima; Kharazifard, Mohamadjavad

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fracture resistances of zirconia, cast nickel-chromium alloy (Ni-Cr), and fiber-composite post systems under all-ceramic crowns in endodontically treated mandibular first premolars. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 36 extracted human mandibular premolars were selected, subjected to standard endodontic treatment, and divided into three groups (n=12) as follows: cast Ni-Cr post-and-core, one-piece custom-milled zirconia post-and-core, and prefabricated fiber-glass post with composite resin core. Each specimen had an all-ceramic crown with zirconia coping and was then loaded to failure using a universal testing machine at a cross-head speed of 0.5 mm/min, at an angle of 45 degrees to the long axis of the roots. Fracture resistance and modes of failure were analyzed. The significance of the results was assessed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey honest significance difference (HSD) tests (α=.05). RESULTS Fiber-glass posts with composite cores showed the highest fracture resistance values (915.70±323 N), and the zirconia post system showed the lowest resistance (435.34±220 N). The corresponding mean value for the Ni-Cr casting post and cores was reported as 780.59±270 N. The differences among the groups were statistically significant (P<.05) for the zirconia group, as tested by ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. CONCLUSION The fracture resistance of zirconia post-and-core systems was found to be significantly lower than those of fiberglass and cast Ni-Cr post systems. Moreover, catastrophic and non-restorable fractures were more prevalent in teeth restored by zirconia posts. PMID:28680547

  6. An up to 3-Year Controlled Clinical Trial Comparing the Outcome of Glass Fiber Posts and Composite Cores with Gold Alloy-Based Posts and Cores for the Restoration of Endodontically Treated Teeth.

    PubMed

    Zicari, Francesca; Van Meerbeek, Bart; Debels, Elke; Lesaffre, Emmanuel; Naert, Ignace

    2011-01-01

    This controlled clinical trial aimed to compare the 3-year outcomes of glass fiber posts and composite cores with gold alloy-based posts and cores for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth. One hundred forty-four patients in need of 205 restorations on endodontically treated teeth were selected and followed for 7 to 37 months (mean: 21 ± 9 months). The teeth were primarily stratified based on the remaining tissue available to restore the tooth core with or without a post. Then, randomization allocated the teeth to either test group 1 (prefabricated glass fiber posts), test group 2 (custom-made glass fiber posts), or test group 3 (composite cores without posts). The control group consisted of gold alloy-based posts and cores. All posts/cores were covered with all-ceramic single crowns. Failures were either absolute, such as root fractures or irreparable fractures of the post/core, or relative, such as loss of post retention or reparable fractures of the core. Success and survival probability lifetime curves, corrected for clustering, were drawn for the entire data set. The recall rate at 3 years was 97.1%. Absolute failures consisted of two root fractures and one endodontic failure, while relative failures included three instances of retention loss of the post/core and one post fracture. Because of the low number of events, no statistical tests were performed. The success and survival probabilities over all groups together at 3 years amounted to 91.7% and 97.2%, respectively. After being followed for up to 3 years, both cast gold and composite post and core systems performed well clinically. Longer follow-up times are needed to detect possible significant differences. Int J Prosthodont 2011;24:363-372.

  7. A novel anatomical short glass fiber reinforced post in an endodontically treated premolar mechanical resistance evaluation using acoustic emission under fatigue testing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hsuan-Wen; Chang, Yen-Hsiang; Lin, Chun-Li

    2017-01-01

    This study evaluates the fracture resistance in an endodontically treated tooth using circular fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) and innovated anatomical short glass fiber reinforced (SGFR) posts under fatigue testing, monitored using the acoustic emission (AE) technique. An anatomical SGFR fiber post with an oval shape and slot/notch design was manufactured using an injection-molding machine. Crown/core maxillary second premolar restorations were executed using the anatomical SGFR and commercial cylindrical fiber posts under fatigue test to understand the mechanical resistances. The load versus AE signals in the fracture and fatigue tests were recorded to evaluate the restored tooth failure resistance. The static fracture resistance results showed that teeth restored using the anatomical SGFR post presented higher resistance than teeth restored using the commercial FRC post. The fatigue test endurance limitation (1.2×10(6) cycles) was 207.1N for the anatomical SGFR fiber post, higher than the 185.3N found with the commercial FRC post. The average accumulated number of AE signals and corresponding micro cracks for the anatomical SGFR fiber post (153.0 hits and 2.44 cracks) were significantly lower than those for the commercial FRC post (194.7 hits and 4.78 cracks) under 40% of the static maximum resistance fatigue test load (pass 1.2×10(6) cycles). This study concluded that the anatomical SGFR fiber post with surface slot/notch design made using precise injection molding presented superior static fracture resistance and fatigue endurance limitation than those for the commercial FRC post in an endodontically treated premolar.

  8. Comparative evaluation of fracture resistance under static and fatigue loading of endodontically treated teeth restored with carbon fiber posts, glass fiber posts, and an experimental dentin post system: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ambica, Khetarpal; Mahendran, Kavitha; Talwar, Sangeeta; Verma, Mahesh; Padmini, Govindaswamy; Periasamy, Ravishankar

    2013-01-01

    This investigation sought to compare the fracture resistance under static and fatigue loading of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber-reinforced composite posts and experimental dentin posts milled from human root dentin by using computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing. Seventy maxillary central incisors were obturated and divided into 4 groups: control group without any post (n = 10), carbon fiber post group (n = 20), glass fiber post group (n = 20), and dentin post group (n = 20). Control group teeth were prepared to a height of 5 mm. In all other teeth, post space was prepared; a post was cemented, and a core build-up was provided. Half the samples from each group were statistically loaded until failure, and the remaining half were subjected to cyclic loading, followed by monostatic load until fracture. One-way analysis of variance and Bonferroni multiple comparisons revealed a significant difference among test groups. The control group demonstrated highest fracture resistance (935.03 ± 33.53 N), followed by the dentin post group (793.12 ± 33.69 N), glass fiber post group (603.44 ± 46.67 N), and carbon fiber post group (497.19 ± 19.27 N) under static loading. These values reduced to 786.69 ± 29.64 N, 646.34 ± 26.56 N, 470 ± 36.34 N, and 379.71 ± 13.95 N, respectively, after cyclic loading. Results suggest that human dentin can serve as post material under static and fatigue loading. Although at an early stage in research, the use of dentin posts in root-filled teeth looks promising. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Survey of dentists to determine contemporary use of endodontic posts.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Sumitha N; Donovan, Terry E; Ghuman, Taneet

    2017-05-01

    Although the scientific literature provides sound decision-making tools for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth, dentists have different opinions on the rationale for the use of endodontic posts (dowels) and selection of post systems. The decision to place a post is at times contrary to the literature. Updated information on the treatment of endodontically treated teeth among general dentists is lacking. The purpose of this survey was to gain insight into the rationale for choice of endodontic posts and the different endodontic post systems currently used by dental practitioners. Post and core restorations distribute stress and replace missing tooth structure in endodontically treated teeth. Guidelines exist to help select post systems. With the advent of new materials, prefabricated posts have gained popularity among dentists. However, cast-metal post-and-core systems are still considered the gold standard. Surveys were distributed to dentists attending continuing education meetings in the United States, Canada, Scotland, Ireland, and Greece. The questions addressed years of practice, specialty training, and brand, type, shape, and material of the endodontic post systems used. Descriptive statistical analysis was used to assess the percentage of respondents. Ninety-two percent of the participants were general practitioners with 25.94 ±13.35 years of experience. The majority agreed upon using endodontic posts when insufficient coronal tooth structure remains and for stress distribution. Passive, parallel posts were the most commonly reported type and shape. With regard to post material, fiber posts were the most frequently used (72.2%), followed by prefabricated alloys (38.6%), cast-metal posts (33.9%), prefabricated titanium posts (30.1%), and stainless-steel posts (21.7%). For cementation, resin-modified glass ionomer (40%) was most frequently used, followed by self-adhesive resin (29.6%). The majority of the practitioners used fiber posts. This may

  10. Three-dimensional finite element analysis of the stress distribution in the endodontically treated maxillary central incisor by glass fiber post and dentin post

    PubMed Central

    Memon, Sarfaraz; Mehta, Sonal; Malik, Salim; Nirmal, Narendra; Sharma, Deeksha; Arora, Himanshu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: From the point of dental practice, the restoration of endodontically treated teeth has become an important aspect as it involves a range of treatment options of variable complexity. Restoring teeth with insufficient coronal tooth structure, it is always indicated to use the post to retain a core for definitive restoration. Fiber post has a modulus of elasticity in analogs to dentin structure, thus reducing the stress areas at the dowel dentin interface. However, the only material that can substantiate all these properties can be none other than dentin itself. Materials and Methodology: Three-dimensional (3D) models of the maxillary central incisor were developed incorporating all the nonlinearities. Continuum 3D elements were used in three dimensions. Maxillary central incisor was laser scanned, duplicated with the help of reverse engineering into STL format, and it was converted into 3D model for finite element analysis (FEA). For the model, fixed boundary conditions were applied at the outer bone, while 100 N static vertical occlusal loads were prescribed at 135° on the loading component of the simulated tooth. The stress distribution was evaluated using dentin and fiber post with prescribed materials, loading and boundary conditions in endontically treated teeth by 3D FEA. Results: The analysis for von Misses stress for dentin post showed that the stress in the dentin post at the cervical area was 127 MPa. The displacement in the dentin post was <0.025 mm. Von Misses stress for the fiber post at the cervical area was approximately 182 MPa and the displacement was <0.035 mm. Conclusion: The FEA results showed that the stress in the cervical area of the dentin was more for fiber post when compared to dentin post, and maximum displacement values were less for dentin post in comparison to fiber post. PMID:27134431

  11. Controlled Clinical Trial on the Outcome of Glass Fiber Composite Cores Versus Wrought Posts and Cast Cores for the Restoration of Endodontically Treated Teeth: A 5-Year Follow-up Study.

    PubMed

    Cloet, Ellen; Debels, Elke; Naert, Ignace

    The aim of this study was to compare the 5-year outcomes of glass fiber composite with cast posts and cores for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth. A total of 143 patients in need of 203 full ceramic restorations on endodontically treated teeth were included. After primary stratification based on the need for post or no post, teeth were randomly allotted to test group 1 (prefabricated glass fiber posts), 2 (custom-made glass fiber posts), or 3 (composite cores without posts). The control group was treated with gold alloy-based wrought posts and cast cores. Success (original present) and survival (present after intervention) probability lifetime curves, corrected for clustering, were drawn over the entire data set. The mean follow-up time was 5.8 years (range: 0.5 to 7.2 years). At 5 years, the success and survival probabilities were 85.2% and 91.5%, respectively. Lifetime curves did not show any significant differences between the test and control groups for success (P = .85) or survival (P = .57). Moreover, no significant differences for success or survival could be found among the four groups (the three test groups and the control group). After 5 years of follow-up, cast gold and composite post-and-core systems on teeth with ceramic full restorations provided with a ferrule performed equally well.

  12. In vitro evaluation of glass fiber post

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Navneet; Singh, Harpal

    2012-01-01

    Statement of problem: Techniques and recommendations for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth have changed from the use of custom cast metal post and core system to glass fiber-reinforced (GFRC) post and composite core system. Has this latest prefabricated glass fiber reinforced post and composite core system increased the fracture resistance of teeth and reduced the incidence of unrestorable root fractures. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of root fracture and mode of failure of endodontically treated teeth restored with two different post and core systems. Material and Methods: Forty maxillary central incisors were randomly divided into two groups. (n=20). All teeth received endodontic treatment. First group was restored with custom cast post and core system. Second group was restored with glass fiber post and composite core system. In Both the groups posts were cemented with adhesive resin cement. Compressive load was applied at an angle of 130 to the long axis of teeth at a cross head speed of 1 mm/min until fracture occurred. Data were analyzed with student “t” test P<.001. Results: The mean value for fracture resistance was (331.4025) N in Group -I Custom cast Ni-Cr post and core and (237.0625) N in Group -II Glass fiber reinforced post and composite core system. Students “t” test shows the significant difference in fracture resistance of two groups. Conclusion: This study showed that the incidence of root fracture was significantly higher in custom cast Ni-Cr post and core system than glass fiber post and composite core system. A more favourable mode of failure was observed in teeth restored with Group II glass fiber post system. Key words:Post-and-core technique, glass fiber post, cast post and-core system, fracture resistance, endodontically treated teeth. PMID:24558556

  13. A comparison of the fracture resistances of endodontically treated mandibular premolars restored with endocrowns and glass fiber post-core retained conventional crowns.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jing; Wang, Zhiming; Li, Xuesheng; Sun, Chaoyang; Gao, Erdong; Li, Hongbo

    2016-12-01

    This in-vitro study aimed to evaluate the fracture resistances and failure modes of endodontically treated mandibular premolars restored with endocrowns and conventional post-core retained crowns. Thirty mandibular premolars were assigned into three groups (n=10): GI, intact teeth; GE, teeth with endocrowns; GC, teeth with conventional post-core supported crowns. Except for the teeth in group GI, all specimens were cut to 1.5 mm above the cementoenamel junction and endodontically treated. Both endocrowns and conventional crowns were fabricated from lithium-disilicate blocks using a CEREC 3D CAD/CAM unit. All specimens were subjected to thermocycling and then to 45° oblique compressive load until fracture occurred. The fracture resistance and failure mode of each specimen were recorded. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and LSD Post Hoc Test (α=.05). The fracture resistances of GE and GC were significantly lower than that of GI (P<.01), while no significant difference was found between GE and GC (P=.702). As of the failure mode, most of the specimens in GE and GC were unfavorable while a higher occurrence of favorable failure mode was presented in GI. For the restoration of mandibular premolar, endocrown shows no advantage in fracture resistance when compared with the conventional method. Both of the two methods cannot rehabilitate endodontically treated teeth with the same fracture resistances that intact mandibular premolars have.

  14. A comparison of the fracture resistances of endodontically treated mandibular premolars restored with endocrowns and glass fiber post-core retained conventional crowns

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jing; Wang, Zhiming; Li, Xuesheng; Sun, Chaoyang; Gao, Erdong

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE This in-vitro study aimed to evaluate the fracture resistances and failure modes of endodontically treated mandibular premolars restored with endocrowns and conventional post-core retained crowns. MATERIALS AND METHODS Thirty mandibular premolars were assigned into three groups (n=10): GI, intact teeth; GE, teeth with endocrowns; GC, teeth with conventional post-core supported crowns. Except for the teeth in group GI, all specimens were cut to 1.5 mm above the cementoenamel junction and endodontically treated. Both endocrowns and conventional crowns were fabricated from lithium-disilicate blocks using a CEREC 3D CAD/CAM unit. All specimens were subjected to thermocycling and then to 45° oblique compressive load until fracture occurred. The fracture resistance and failure mode of each specimen were recorded. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and LSD Post Hoc Test (α=.05). RESULTS The fracture resistances of GE and GC were significantly lower than that of GI (P<.01), while no significant difference was found between GE and GC (P=.702). As of the failure mode, most of the specimens in GE and GC were unfavorable while a higher occurrence of favorable failure mode was presented in GI. CONCLUSION For the restoration of mandibular premolar, endocrown shows no advantage in fracture resistance when compared with the conventional method. Both of the two methods cannot rehabilitate endodontically treated teeth with the same fracture resistances that intact mandibular premolars have. PMID:28018567

  15. Influence of endodontic post type (glass fiber, quartz fiber or gold) and luting material on push-out bond strength to dentin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kremeier, Karin; Fasen, Lutz; Klaiber, Bernd; Hofmann, Norbert

    2008-05-01

    To determine the influence of post type and luting material on bond strength to dentin. The root canals of extracted human upper central incisors were instrumented and post space was prepared using the respective drills for each post system. Glass fiber posts (Luscent Anchor, Dentatus [LA]) were luted using three dual-curing adhesive systems (Excite DSC/Variolink II, Vivadent [VL2]; EnaBond/EnaCem, Micerium [ENA]; Prime & Bond NT/Calibra, DentSply DeTrey [CAL]). A different brand of glass fiber post (EasyPost, DentSply Maillefer [EP]) and quartz fiber post (DT Light Post, VDW [DT]) were luted using CAL. Gold posts (Perma-dor, VDW) were luted either adhesively following tribo-chemical silicate coating (Rocatec, ESPE-Sil, 3M ESPE; CAL) or conventionally using glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem, 3M ESPE). Three slices of 2mm height were cut perpendicular to the post from each restored root. Bond strength was determined by pushing out the post using a universal testing machine (/1449, Zwick). For all experimental groups combined, bond strength increased from the coronal to the apical section (Friedman test: P<0.001). Significant differences were observed among the fiber posts (DT/CAL>LA/CAL; Mann-Whitney U-test with Bonferroni-Holm adjustment: P<0.05; EP/CAL ranging in between) but not among luting materials (LA/VL2, LA/ENA, LA/CAL: n.s.). The gold posts were equivalent to DT/CAL with both luting procedures. Selection of post type may be more important for bond strength than luting material. Bond strength of fiber posts was equivalent but not superior to adhesively or conventionally luted gold posts.

  16. Post-endodontic treatment periodontal surgery: a case report.

    PubMed

    Azaripour, Adriano; Willershausen, Ines; Kämmerer, Philipp; Willershausen, Brita

    2013-02-01

    Two patients were diagnosed with combined endodontic-periodontal lesions. Endodontic treatment was performed, followed by surgery. In addition, the regeneration process was supported by the application of an enamel matrix derivate alone or in combination with guided bone regeneration techniques. At recall visits after 24 months, the teeth were asymptomatic and marked bone regeneration had occurred in both patients. The successful post-endodontic treatment of combined endodontic-periodontal lesions, using periodontal surgery and as adjunct guided tissue regenerative techniques, is presented. Further, the possibility of saving teeth, even with severely apparent pathology, should be highlighted.

  17. Preference for using posts to restore endodontically treated teeth: findings from a survey with dentists.

    PubMed

    Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana; Opdam, Niek Johannes; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if clinical experience, whether in relation to length of practice time and/or level of specialization influences the dentist's preference for using posts to restore endodontically treated teeth. A cross sectional study was carried out using a questionnaire with dentists (n = 276) in Pelotas, southern Brazil. Data were collected regarding clinical experience, post-graduate training, and variables related to restorations (posts/cements and use of rubber dam) for endodontically treated teeth. The data were submitted to a descriptive analysis and associations were tested. The response rate was 68%. Cast metal posts (24.53%), glass fiber posts (20.75%) and resin cement (66.67%) were the most commonly selected materials. In relation to rubber dams, 93.05% of the dentists were found not use them to lute posts. There was a significant association between the level of training of post-graduate dentists and the type of post used (p = 0.027), in that dentists without post-graduate training used cast metal posts more frequently, whereas dentists with post-graduate training reported glass fiber posts as their first choice. The results of the study showed that dentists preferred cast metal posts, glass fiber posts and resin cement. Continuing education influenced the decision of the dentists on their choice of dental posts.

  18. Clinical applications of glass ionomers in endodontics: a review.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Shalavi, Sousan

    2012-10-01

    Glass ionomer cements (GICs) are biocompatible and have capacities to release fluoride and to bond to dentine, and thus are appropriate for use in endodontics. This paper reviews the composition and properties of different GICs, including their biocompatibility and antibacterial activity, their applications as intraorifice barriers and root canal sealers, and their use in the repair of root perforations, root-end fillings and temporary coronal restorations.

  19. Adhesive restoration of anterior endodontically treated teeth: influence of post length on fracture strength.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Sebastià, Anaïs; Bortolotto, Tissiana; Cattani-Lorente, Maria; Giner, Lluis; Roig, Miguel; Krejci, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated anterior teeth restored with crowns made of composite or ceramic and retained without the use of a post (endocrowns) or with posts of 5 mm (short) and 10 mm in length (long). Forty-eight intact maxillary incisors were selected for the study. After endodontic treatment, the crowns were sectioned 2 mm coronally to the cementoenamel junction provided with a ferrule of 2 mm. The roots were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8) according to the post length and type of coronary restoration. The crowns were fabricated with the chairside economical restoration of esthetic ceramics system. Group 1 was restored with a 10-mm glass fiber post, composite core, and a full-coverage ceramic crown (LPCer); group 2, with a 5-mm glass fiber post, composite core, and a full-coverage ceramic crown (SPCer); group 3, with a 10-mm glass fiber post, composite core, and a full-coverage composite crown (LPCpr); group 4, with a 5-mm glass fiber post, composite core, and a full-coverage composite crown (SPCpr); and groups 5 (EndoCer) and 6 (EndoCpr) were restored with ceramic and composite endocrowns, respectively. The teeth were then thermomechanically loaded in a chewing machine. After fatigue, the specimens were loaded to fracture. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and chi-square test. Mode of failure was defined as repairable or non-repairable. Presence of post, post length, and crown material had no significant effect on the fracture resistance. Groups restored with endocrowns presented a higher number of repairable fractures in respect to the other groups. Presence of a post had no effect on the restorations' fracture strength. Although this in vitro study has some limitations in respect to its clinical relevance, the restoration of largely destroyed anterior teeth with the use of an endocrown or a short glass fiber post might have advantages over a large glass fiber post.

  20. Development of new radiopaque glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan; Silaghi-Dumitrescu, Laura

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the radiopacity and filler content of three experimental glass fiber posts (EGFP) in comparison with other glass/carbon fibers and metal posts from the dental market. Three EGFP were obtained by pultrusion of glass fibers in a polymer matrix based on 2,2-bis[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy)-phenyl]propane (bis-GMA) and triethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA) monomers. Using intraoral sensor disks 27 posts, as well as mesiodistal sections of human molar and aluminum step wedges were radiographed for evaluation of radiopacity. The percentage compositions of fillers by weight and volume were investigated by combustion analysis. Two EGFP showed radiopacity higher than enamel. The commercial endodontic posts showed radiopacity as follows: higher than enamel, between enamel and dentin, and lower than dentin. The results showed statistically significant differences (p b 0.05)when evaluatedwith one-way ANOVA statistical analysis. According to combustion analyses, the filler content of the tested posts ranges between 58.84wt.% and 86.02wt.%. The filler content of the tested EGFP ranged between 68.91 wt.% and 79.04 wt.%. EGFP could be an alternative to commercial glass fiber posts. Futureglass fiber posts are recommended to present higher radiopacity than dentin and perhaps ideally similar to or higher than that of enamel, for improved clinical detection. The posts with a lower radiopacity than dentin should be considered insufficiently radiopaque. The radiopacity of some glass fiber posts is not greatly influenced by the amount of filler.

  1. Mechanical and ultrastructural evaluation of quartz post-endodontic reconstructions.

    PubMed

    Majori, M; Bedini, R; Altamura, C; Filippini, P; Caiazza, S

    2004-01-01

    Aesthetics is a very important element in dentistry, but requires the support of good mechanical performance. Quartz fiber used in post-endodontic reconstruction is an aesthetic material, although there is little research concerning its mechanical properties. This study evaluated the retentive property of post-endodontic reconstruction, composed of a quartz fiber post. Different thermal stresses were applied in vitro to post-endodontic reconstructions, in order to simulate oral thermal action on post-system dental structure linkage. We chose 30 human extracted teeth, endodontically treated and restored, and then divided them into three groups of 10 teeth. A different treatment was applied to each group before mechanical testing: in the 1st group no treatment was done (controls); in the 2nd group teeth were subjected, in a climatic chamber, to 10 thermo-cycles between 4 degrees C and 58 degrees C; in the 3rd group teeth were stored in a saline solution at 37 degrees C for 48 hr. The teeth then underwent tensile shear stress tests at break point using a computerized electronic dynamometer. After mechanical testing, two teeth from each group were longitudinally half-sectioned, sputter-coated in gold and observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The extracted quartz fiber post of each tooth also underwent SEM observation. Mechanical test results demonstrated that thermal cyclic variations could affect bond stability between dental structures and posts in quartz fiber reconstructions, whereas their bond strength seemed unaffected by humidity increases. Quartz fiber post SEM observation demonstrated a homogeneous structure and a regular fiber disposition. Dental root canal morphology SEM images always showed a different thickness in the cement layer. (Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Biomechanics 2004; 2: 156-61).

  2. Three-Year Follow Up of Customized Glass Fiber Esthetic Posts

    PubMed Central

    da Costa, Rogério Goulart; de Morais, Eduardo Christiano Caregnatto; Leão, Moira Pedroso; Bindo, Márcio José Fraxino; Campos, Edson Alves; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2011-01-01

    Customized glass fiber posts that is well adjusted into the root canal and have mechanical properties similar to those of dentin may be a suitable treatment for severely compromised endodontically treated teeth. This article reports a 3-year follow up of severely damaged endodontically treated teeth restored with unidirectional fiber glass customized post and core system instead of a conventional fiber post. The fabrication of this glass fiber customized post is a simple technique, providing an increased volume of fibers into the root canal, and an adequate polymerization of the post-core system. Over a three-year period, the treatments demonstrated good clinical and radiographic characteristics, with no fracture or loss of the post and/or crown. This technique can be considered effective, less invasive, and suitable for restore endodontically treated teeth. PMID:21228960

  3. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth: effect of tooth coloured post material and surface conditioning.

    PubMed

    Toman, Muhittin; Toksavul, Suna; Sarikanat, Mehmet; Nergiz, Ibrahim; Schmage, Petra

    2010-03-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the effects of the different endodontic posts and surface conditioning on the fracture resistance and fracture modes of endodontically treated teeth. The experimental groups consisted of zirconia ceramic post with a glasss-ceramic core [A], zirconia ceramic post with a composite core [B], glass fiber composite post (FRC) with a composite core [C], and titanium post with a composite core [D]. All posts in these groups were cemented with self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X Unicem Aplicap) combination with tribochemical silica coating (TSC). Groups E, F, G and H comprised the same post-and-core materials as the first 4 groups but cemented with the same resin cement without TSC. Specimens were subjected to thermal cycling between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C for a total of 5000 cycles with 30s per cycle. Static load was applied to the palatal surface of each specimen until they were fractured. Statistical analysis was conducted using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post-hoc comparisons (Tukey). The fracture resistance was significantly affected by the post material (P < 0.001) and surface conditioning (P < 0.001; two-way ANOVA). The application of TSC to post surface decreased the fracture resistance of zirconia ceramic post with composite core (p=0.002; Tukey) and glass FRC post with composite core (p=0.029; Tukey). No catastrophic failure was observed for groups B, C, D, E, F and G. Under the testing conditions used, the titanium post/composite core that had been silicoated exhibited the highest fracture resistance.

  4. Effects of auxiliary fiber posts on endodontically treated teeth with flared canals.

    PubMed

    Li, Q; Xu, B; Wang, Y; Cai, Y

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the fracture resistance and retention of endodontically treated roots with over-flared canals restored with different post systems, including one cast metal post and four fiber posts with/without auxiliary fiber posts. One hundred endodontically treated incisor roots were experimentally flared using a tapered diamond bur. The roots were restored using one of the five post systems: Ni-Cr cast metal post (CM), D.T. Light glass fiber post (DT), Macro-Lock glass fiber post (ML), ML+2 Fibercone auxiliary fiber posts (2FC), and ML+5 Fibercone auxiliary fiber posts (5FC). After fabrication of the crowns, half of the specimens (n=50) were subjected to a fracture failure test--loading with an incremental static force at an angle of 45 degrees to the long axis of the root. The other 50 samples underwent a pull-out test. Fracture failure strength and pull-out strength were measured and analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Tukey's post hoc test (α=0.05). After the tests were completed, all specimens displayed oblique root fractures or cracks, initiating from the palatal cervical margin and propagating in a labial-apical direction. The order of the fracture failure strength was as follows: 5FC=CM=2FC>ML>DT. Cast metal posts demonstrated the highest pull-out strength (p<0.05). No significant differences in pull-out strength were found in the ML, 2FC, and 5FC groups. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the application of an auxiliary fiber post could significantly increase the fracture resistance of over-flared roots; however, no beneficial effects in enhancing retention were observed.

  5. Effects of post placement on endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Hunter, A J; Feiglin, B; Williams, J F

    1989-08-01

    The effect of endodontic therapy, post-hole preparation, and post placement on tooth models of maxillary central incisors was investigated. Two-dimensional photoelastic analysis of birefringent models, under load in a polariscope, indicated the relative stress magnitudes and concentrations at the cervical and apical regions. Within the limits of the method, the results suggest that enlargement of the canal increases cervical stresses and that post placement will decrease stresses in this region. Nevertheless, conservative enlargement of the root canal may render post placement unnecessary for largely intact teeth. Post length appeared more important than post diameter in determining relative stresses at the cervical region. However, short wide posts led to elevated stress concentrations in this region. Post placement beyond two thirds of the root depth did not further decrease cervical stresses but usually increased stresses in the apical region.

  6. An In Vitro Study on the Effects of Post-Core Design and Ferrule on the Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Central Incisors.

    PubMed

    Sreedevi, S; Sanjeev, R; Raghavan, Rekha; Abraham, Anna; Rajamani, T; Govind, Girish Kumar

    2015-08-01

    Endodontically treated teeth have significantly different physical and mechanical properties compared to vital teeth and are more prone to fracture. The study aims to compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without post reinforcement, custom cast post-core and prefabricated post with glass ionomer core and to evaluate the ferrule effect on endodontically treated teeth restored with custom cast post-core. A total of 40 human maxillary central incisors with similar dimensions devoid of any root caries, restorations, previous endodontic treatment or cracks were selected from a collection of stored extracted teeth. An initial silicone index of each tooth was made. They were treated endodontically and divided into four groups of ten specimens each. Their apical seal was maintained with 4 mm of gutta-percha. Root canal preparation was done and then post core fabrication was done. The prepared specimens were subjected to load testing using a computer coordinated UTM. The fracture load results were then statistically analyzed. One-way ANOVA was followed by paired t-test. 1. Reinforcement of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with post and core, improved their fracture resistance to be at par with that of endodontically treated maxillary central incisor, with natural crown. 2. The fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors is significantly increased when restored with custom cast post-core and 2 mm ferrule. With 2 mm ferrule, teeth restored with custom cast post-core had a significantly higher fracture resistance than teeth restored with custom cast post-core or prefabricated post and glass ionomer core without ferrule.

  7. An In Vitro Study on the Effects of Post-Core Design and Ferrule on the Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Maxillary Central Incisors

    PubMed Central

    Sreedevi, S; Sanjeev, R; Raghavan, Rekha; Abraham, Anna; Rajamani, T; Govind, Girish Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endodontically treated teeth have significantly different physical and mechanical properties compared to vital teeth and are more prone to fracture. The study aims to compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with and without post reinforcement, custom cast post-core and prefabricated post with glass ionomer core and to evaluate the ferrule effect on endodontically treated teeth restored with custom cast post-core. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 human maxillary central incisors with similar dimensions devoid of any root caries, restorations, previous endodontic treatment or cracks were selected from a collection of stored extracted teeth. An initial silicone index of each tooth was made. They were treated endodontically and divided into four groups of ten specimens each. Their apical seal was maintained with 4 mm of gutta-percha. Root canal preparation was done and then post core fabrication was done. The prepared specimens were subjected to load testing using a computer coordinated UTM. The fracture load results were then statistically analyzed. One-way ANOVA was followed by paired t-test. Results: 1. Reinforcement of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with post and core, improved their fracture resistance to be at par with that of endodontically treated maxillary central incisor, with natural crown. 2. The fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors is significantly increased when restored with custom cast post-core and 2 mm ferrule. Conclusion: With 2 mm ferrule, teeth restored with custom cast post-core had a significantly higher fracture resistance than teeth restored with custom cast post-core or prefabricated post and glass ionomer core without ferrule. PMID:26464537

  8. Mechanical behaviour of endodontic restorations with multiple prefabricated posts: a finite-element approach.

    PubMed

    Maceri, Franco; Martignoni, Marco; Vairo, Giuseppe

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates some mechanical aspects of a new endodontic restoration technique, based on the idea that the root cavity can be more efficiently filled if multiple prefabricated composite posts (PCP) are employed. Multi-post technique increases bearing capacity and durability of endodontically treated teeth, as shown by numerical simulations performed through three-dimensional elastic finite-element static analyses of a lower premolar, constrained by a non-linearly elastic spring system representing the periodontal ligament, under several parafunctional loads. The influence of PCPs' number, material and dimensions is investigated by comparison of the resulting stress fields with those obtained in cases of traditional restorations (cast metal post and cemented single-PCP) and natural tooth, highlighting the advantages of the proposed technique when standard restorative materials are considered. A risk-analysis of root-fracture and interface-failure shows that cast gold-alloy post produces high stress concentrations at post-dentin interface, whereas multi-post solution leads to a behaviour closer to the natural tooth's, exhibiting some advantages with respect to single-PCP restorations. As a matter of fact, whenever PCPs' overall cross-section area increases, multi-post solution induces a significant reduction of stress levels into the residual dentin (and therefore the root-fracture-risk decreases) as well as of the expected polymerization shrinkage effects. Moreover, interfacial stress values in multi-post restorations can be higher than the single-PCP ones when carbon-fibre posts are considered. Nevertheless, the interfacial adhesive/cohesive failure-risk is certainly acceptable if glass-fibre posts are employed.

  9. Effects of fiber-glass-reinforced composite restorations on fracture resistance and failure mode of endodontically treated molars.

    PubMed

    Nicola, Scotti; Alberto, Forniglia; Riccardo, Michelotto Tempesta; Allegra, Comba; Massimo, Saratti Carlo; Damiano, Pasqualini; Mario, Alovisi; Elio, Berutti

    2016-10-01

    The study evaluated the fracture resistance and fracture patterns of endodontically treated mandibular first molars restored with glass-fiber-reinforced direct composite restorations. In total, 60 extracted intact first molars were treated endodontically; a mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavity was prepared and specimens were then divided into six groups: sound teeth (G1), no restoration (G2), direct composite restoration (G3), fiber-post-supported direct composite restoration (G4), direct composite reinforced with horizontal mesio-distal glass-fibers (G5), and buccal-palatal glass-fibers (G6). Specimens were subjected to 5000 thermocycles and 20,000 cycles of 45° oblique loading force at 1.3Hz and 50N; they were then loaded until fracture. The maximum fracture loads were recorded in Newtons (N) and data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests (p<0.05). Fractured specimens were analyzed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The mean static loads (in Newtons) were: G1, 831.83; G2, 282.86; G3, 364.18; G4, 502.93; G5, 499.26; and G6, 582.22. Fracture resistance did not differ among G4, G5, and G6, but was significantly higher than G3 (p=0.001). All specimens fractured in a catastrophic way. In G6, glass fibers inducted a partial deflection of the fracture, although they were not able to stop crack propagation. For the direct restoration of endodontically treated molars, reinforcement of composite resins with glass-fibers or fiber posts can enhance fracture resistance. The SEM analysis showed a low ability of horizontal glass-fibers to deviate the fracture, but this effect was not sufficient to lead to more favorable fracture patterns above the cement-enamel junction (CEJ). The fracture resistance of endodontically treated molars restored with direct composite restorations seems to be increased by reinforcement with fibers, even if it is insufficient to restore sound molar fracture resistance and cannot avoid vertical fractures. Copyright © 2016

  10. Flexural properties of endodontic posts and human root dentin.

    PubMed

    Plotino, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola M; Bedini, Rossella; Pameijer, Cornelis H; Somma, Francesco

    2007-09-01

    To evaluate the flexural modulus and flexural strength of different types of endodontic post in comparison with human root dentin. Three different types of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and three metal posts each comprising 10 specimens (n=10) and 20 dentin bars were loaded to failure in a three-point bending test to determine the flexural modulus (GPa) and the flexural strength (MPa). Three randomly selected fiber posts of each group were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to illustrate the differences in mode of fracture. Data were subjected to a one-way ANOVA to determine significant differences between groups and the Bonferroni t-test multiple comparison was applied to investigate which mean values differed from one another with significance levels of P<0.05. The flexural modulus recorded for the dentin bars was 17.5+/-3.8 GPa. The values for posts ranged from 24.4+/-3.8 GPa for silica fiber posts to 108.6+/-10.7 GPa for stainless steel posts. The flexural strength for dentin was 212.9+/-41.9 MPa, while the posts ranged from 879.1+/-66.2 MPa for silica fiber posts to 1545.3+/-135.9 MPa for cast gold posts. The ANOVA test analysis revealed significant differences between groups (P<0.05) for flexural modulus and flexural strength mean values. FRC posts have an elastic modulus that more closely approaches that of dentin while that for metal posts was much higher. The flexural strength of fiber and metal posts was respectively four and seven times higher than root dentin.

  11. Compressive and flexural behaviour of fibre reinforced endodontic posts.

    PubMed

    Chieruzzi, Manila; Pagano, Stefano; Pennacchi, Manuela; Lombardo, Guido; D'Errico, Potito; Kenny, Josè M

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of five types of fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and compare them with traditional metal post. Five FRC posts and a metallic post having different geometry and type of fibre (glass, carbon or quartz fibre) were loaded to failure in compression and bending. The transverse sections of FRC posts were observed using SEM to evaluate the fracture mode and the percentage of fibres (compared with burn-off test). Densities and voids content were also evaluated. Mechanical results were subjected to a one-way ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). In compression, quartz fibre posts exhibited the greater maximum load and ultimate strength, carbon fibre posts showed a poor compressive behaviour. All posts had similar compressive moduli. Carbon posts showed the highest flexural properties (p<0.0001) while glass posts the greater maximum load. The fracture load values correlated to the diameters of posts showed a parabolic behaviour. The flexural strengths of all posts were four and seven times higher than dentine. The elastic moduli of almost all posts were similar to dentine. The compressive strengths were lower than flexural strengths. The fibre diameters ranged from 5.2 to 26 μm, the volume percentage of fibres was about 64%. The content of voids of some posts lower their mechanical behaviour. Compressive properties of FRC posts were lower than in bending. The flexural properties of FRC posts were higher than the metal post and similar to dentine. The mechanical behaviour is influenced by voids. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanical effect of static loading on endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber-reinforced posts.

    PubMed

    Chieruzzi, Manila; Rallini, Marco; Pagano, Stefano; Eramo, Stefano; D'Errico, Potito; Torre, Luigi; Kenny, José M

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanical behavior of a dental system built up with fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) endodontic posts with different types of fibers and two cements (the first one used with a primer, the second one without it). Six FRC posts were used. Each system was characterized in terms of structural efficiency under external applied loads similar to masticatory forces. An oblique force was applied and stiffness and maximum load data were obtained. The same test was used for the dentine. The systems were analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) to investigate the surface of the post and inner surface of root canal after failure. The mechanical tests showed that load values in dental systems depend on the post material and used cement. The highest load (281 ± 59 N) was observed for the conical glass fiber posts in the cement without primer. There was a 50 and 85% increase in the maximum load for two of the conical posts with glass fibers and a 229% increase for the carbon fiber posts in the cement without primer as compared with the cement with primer. Moreover, almost all the studied systems showed fracture resistances higher than the typical masticatory loads. The microscopic analysis underlined the good adhesion of the second cement at the interfaces between dentine and post. The mechanical tests confirmed that the strength of the dental systems subjected to masticatory loads was strictly related to the bond at the interface post/cement and cement/dentine.

  13. Effect of Post Material and Length on Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Premolars: An In-Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Amarnath, G S; Swetha, M U; Muddugangadhar, B C; Sonika, Radhika; Garg, Ashu; Rao, T R Poonam

    2015-07-01

    Endodontically treated teeth with posts are more prone to fracture. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the in-vitro fracture resistance of devitalized teeth and mode of failure restored with posts of different materials and different lengths. Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular premolars were endodontically treated and then restored with 1 of 2 prefabricated posts: Stainless-steel (SS) and glass-fiber (fiber posts [FP]) with intraradicular lengths of 4, 5 or 10 mm (n = 10). Following core restoration, a static compressive load was applied perpendicular to the long-axis of the teeth. Initial failure of each specimen was recorded in Newton. The mode of failure was also determined radiographically. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment. Analysis indicated significant differences (P < 0.001) among the groups. Among the SS posts, SS/7 (246 N) exhibited the highest failure load and SS/4 (122 N) the lowest. FP/10 (140.5 N) exhibited the highest failure load among the FP and FP/4 (68.5 N) the lowest. SS posts showed post pull out, followed by core fracture while FP showed core debonding, followed by core fracture as the primary mode of failure. Fracture resistance of the teeth proportionately increased with increase in the length of FP while it decreased with that of metal post. SS posts showed greater fracture resistance than FP when 90° load was applied.

  14. Microleakage of endodontically treated teeth restored with 3 different adhesive systems and 4 different fiber-reinforced posts.

    PubMed

    Başaran, Emine Göncü; Ayna, Emrah; Halifeoğlu, Meral

    2012-04-01

    Despite recent advances in adhesive dentistry, fiber-reinforced post/resin cement/dentin adhesive combinations are not able to prevent microleakage. While studies have examined microleakage in endodontically treated teeth restored with posts and cores, microleakage among post and adhesive systems remains a concern. This study compared the sealing properties of 4 adhesively luted post systems: glass fiber, quartz-glass fiber, zirconia-glass fiber and polyethylene fiber posts. Forty-eight permanent maxillary central incisors were divided into 4 groups (n=12). Post space was prepared and each post was adhesively luted with 1 of 3 systems: a 1-stage self-etch, a 2-stage total-etch, and a 3-stage total-etch adhesive. The specimens were separately immersed in freshly prepared 2% methylene blue solution for 1 week. The cleaned specimens were then embedded in autopolymerizing acrylic resin. The teeth were horizontally sectioned into apical, middle, and coronal portions. An occlusal view of each section was digitally photographed with a stereomicroscope. The methylene blue-infiltrated surface for each specimen was measured and data were collected with software. Dye penetration was estimated as the ratio of the methylene blue-infiltrated surface to the total dentin surface. Nonparametric data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis test (α=.05). The Mann-Whitney U-test was used to compute multiple pairwise comparisons that identified differences among groups. Dentin-luting agent and post interfaces were evaluated with a scanning electron microscope. Significant differences in adhesive and post systems were observed in all sectioned regions (P<.05). There were significant differences between the apical and coronal sections of each post type, and between the following pairs: middle versus coronal sections of zirconia-glass fiber and glass fiber posts and apical versus middle sections of quartz-glass fiber and polyethylene fiber posts (P<.05). No significant differences were

  15. Cast metal vs. glass fibre posts: a randomized controlled trial with up to 3 years of follow up.

    PubMed

    Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Jacinto, Rogério de Castilho; Boscato, Noéli; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana

    2014-05-01

    This randomized controlled trial compared the survival of glass fibre and cast metal dental posts used to restore endodontically treated teeth with no remaining coronal wall. Fifty-four participants (45 women) and 72 teeth were evaluated during a follow-up period of up to 3 years. Teeth were randomly allocated to the glass-fibre and cast-metal post groups. All teeth were restored with single metal-ceramic crowns. Survival probabilities were analyzed using Kaplan-Meier statistics (p≤0.05). The 3-year recall rate was 92.3% and the survival rates of glass fibre and cast metal posts were similar (97.1% and 91.9%, respectively; p=0.682). Four failures were observed: two glass fibre posts in a premolar and anterior tooth debonded, one glass fibre post in a premolar debonded in association with root fracture, and one root fracture occurred in a molar with a cast metal post. Glass fibre and cast metal posts showed similar clinical performance in teeth with no remaining coronal wall after 3 years. Posts are used to restore most endodontically treated teeth with no remaining coronal wall. This randomized controlled trial, one of few to compare glass fibre and cast metal posts in such teeth, showed that post type did not significantly influence the survival of restorations. These results can help dentists respond to the important question of how best to rehabilitate endodontically treated teeth with no remaining coronal wall. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Survival of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors restored with different types of posts-and-core foundation restoration material.

    PubMed

    Lazari, Priscilla Cardoso; de Carvalho, Marco Aurélio; Del Bel Cury, Altair A; Magne, Pascal

    2017-09-16

    Which post-and-core combination will best improve the performance of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule is still unclear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the restoration of extensively damaged endodontically treated incisors without a ferrule using glass-ceramic crowns bonded to various composite resin foundation restorations and 2 types of posts. Sixty decoronated endodontically treated bovine incisors without a ferrule were divided into 4 groups and restored with various post-and-core foundation restorations. NfPfB=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and bulk-fill resin foundation restoration (B); NfPfP=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and dual-polymerized composite resin core foundation restoration (P); NfPt=no-ferrule (Nf) with titanium post (Pt) and resin core foundation restoration; and NfPtB=no-ferrule (Nf) with titanium post (Pt) and bulk-fill resin core foundation restoration (B). Two additional groups from previously published data from the same authors (FPf=2mm of ferrule (F) and glass-fiber post (Pf) and composite resin core foundation restoration; and NfPf=no-ferrule (Nf) with glass-fiber post (Pf) and composite resin core foundation restoration), which were tested concomitantly and using the same experimental arrangement, were included for comparison. All teeth were prepared to receive bonded glass-ceramic crowns luted with dual-polymerized resin cement and were subjected to accelerated fatigue testing under submerged conditions at room temperature. Cyclic isometric loading was applied to the incisal edge at an angle of 30 degrees with a frequency of 5 Hz, beginning with a load of 100 N (5000 cycles). A 100-N load increase was applied every 15000 cycles. The specimens were loaded until failure or to a maximum of 1000 N (140000 cycles). The 6 groups (4 groups from the present study and 2 groups from the previously published study) were compared using the Kaplan-Meier survival

  17. Dentin-like versus Rigid Endodontic Post: Eleven-year Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial on No-wall to Two-wall Defects.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Michael; Sterzenbach, Guido; Dietrich, Thomas; Bitter, Kerstin; Frankenberger, Roland; von Stein-Lausnitz, Manja

    2017-09-23

    This is the first long-term randomized controlled trial to evaluate dentin-like glass fiber posts (GFPs) compared with rather rigid titanium posts (TPs) for post-endodontic restoration of severely damaged endodontically treated teeth with 2 or fewer remaining cavity walls. Ninety-one subjects in need of post-endodontic restorations were randomly assigned to receive either a tapered GFP (n = 45) or TP (n = 46). Posts were adhesively luted by using self-adhesive resin cement, followed by composite core build-up and preparation of 2-mm ferrule design. Primary end point was loss of restoration for any reason. Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed, and log-rank test was calculated (P < .05). After a follow-up of 132 months, 17 GFP and 20 TP restorations survived, and 19 failed (12 GFP, 7 TP). Failure modes for GFP were root fracture (n = 4), core fracture (n = 1), secondary caries (n = 1), endodontic failure (n = 2), extraction because of tooth mobility grade III associated with insufficient design of removable partial denture (n = 1), tooth fracture (n = 1), and changes in treatment plan (n = 2); failure modes for TP were endodontic failure (n = 5), root fracture (n = 1), and 1 extraction for other reasons. Cumulative survival probability was 58.7% for GFP and 74.2% for TP. When using self-adhesively luted prefabricated posts, resin composite core build-up, and 2-mm ferrule to reconstruct severely damaged endodontically treated teeth, tooth survival is not influenced by post rigidity. Survival decreased rapidly after 8 years of observation in both groups. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Orthograde endodontic retreatment of teeth with individual cast posts: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ramić, Bojana; Stojanac, Igor; Premović, Milica; Drobac, Milan; Petrović, Ljubomir

    2012-01-01

    The failure of primary endodontic treatment is manifested by various clinical symptoms following endodontic therapy or, more frequently, by the development of chronic inflammatory process in the apex region without any subjective symptoms. In case of unfavorable outcome of the primary endodontic treatment, orthograde endodontic retreatment is the method of choice for a prolonged therapy. Two female patients, 47 and 44 years old, were presented at the Dental Clinic of Vojvodina for endodontic retreatment of teeth 22, 23 and 13, within the repeated prosthetic restoration. Intraradicular individual cast posts were removed using ultrasonic instruments. Remains of gutta-percha were removed by engine driven rotary re-treatment files, root canals were shaped and cleaned using the crown-down technique, and obturated with gutta-percha and epoxy-resin-based sealer using the lateral compaction technique. When there are metal posts or broken instruments in the root canal, the use of ultrasonic instruments is considered a safe method characterized by negligible tooth substance loss and minimal root damage causing fractures and perforations, and the entire procedure is effective and predictable. Non-surgical orthograde endodontic retreatment, when properly performed in accessible and penetrable root canals, achieves a high cure rate, good and lasting results and eliminates the need for radical procedures, such as apical surgery or tooth extraction. When nonsurgical endodontic retreatment is done, treated teeth must be restored by full coronal coverage as soon as possible, to prevent coronal leakage or fracture.

  19. A Comparative Evaluation of the Retention of Tooth Coloured and Stainless Steel Endodontic Posts: An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Rahul; Punga, Rohit

    2014-01-01

    Aims: This in vitro study evaluated: a) the retention of stainless steel posts of 1.5 mm diameter which were cemented with Zinc Phosphate cement versus Glass fiber posts with 1.1 mm, 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm diameters which were cemented with resin cement and b) the effect of change in diameter on the retention of Glass fiber posts with 1.1 mm, 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm diameters. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted mandibular premolar teeth were endodontically treated and randomly assigned to four groups of fifteen teeth each. In Groups I, II and III glass fibre posts with diameters 1.1 mm, 1.3 mm and 1.5 mm were cemented by using resin cement. In Group IV, stainless steel posts with diameter 1.5 mm were cemented by using zinc phosphate cement. The specimens were tested for tensile loading at a cross head speed of 2.0 mm/min, on a universal testing machine. Statistical Analysis Used: One way analysis of variance and Tukey’s (post-hoc) test. Results: Mean tensile strength from highest to lowest was in the order of Group IV, Group II, Group III, Group I. Statistically significant differences were observed between the mean tensile strengths between Groups I and II, Groups I and III, Groups I and IV, Groups II and IV, Groups III and IV, while non significant differences were observed between Groups II and III. Conclusion: Stainless steel posts were more retentive than glass fibre posts. Glass fibre posts with 1.3 mm or 1.5 mm diameters provided significantly greater retention as compared to 1.1 mm diameter posts. PMID:24959506

  20. Restoration of fractured endodontically treated mandibular first molar using custom made cast post and core.

    PubMed

    Guruprasada

    2015-07-01

    The successful treatment of posterior tooth with substantial damage to the tooth structure not only depends on root canal treatment but also by prompt restoration of lost coronal tooth structure. Endodontically treated teeth undergo loss of tooth substance due to dental caries, endodontic therapy or previous restoration and changes in physical characteristics, such as a reduced modulus of elasticity, which often leads to increased fracture susceptibility when compared to unrestored vital teeth.(1) Restoration of endodontically treated posterior teeth is more challenging because of their additional functional requirements. The restorative treatment of such teeth includes the decision of whether or not a post should be used. Post is a dental material placed in the root of structurally insufficient tooth when additional retention is needed to retain the core and coronal restoration.(2,3) However, preparation of a post space adds a certain degree of risk to restorative procedure like perforations and root fracture, especially if an over sized post channel is prepared.

  1. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN INTRA-RADICULAR POSTS AND PERIAPICAL LESIONS IN ENDODONTICALLY TREATED TEETH*

    PubMed Central

    Rosalem, Cíntia Gonçalves Carvalho; Mattos, Claudia Machado de Almeida; Guerra, Selva Maria Gonçalves

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: A significant number of endodontically treated teeth restored with posts have associated periapical lesions, and several authors have discussed the probable causes of the development of these. Attention has been focused on restorative procedures performed after endodontic treatment and their association with the prognosis of endodontic therapy because a number of root-filled teeth will require post- and core-retained restorations. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate, by examination of periapical radiographs, whether the placement of intra-radicular posts in endodontically treated teeth may act as a risk factor for development of periapical lesions. Material and Methods: This case-control study analyzed periapical radiographs of 72 endodontically treated teeth with coronal restorations. All radiographs were obtained from a single private practice. Specimens were assigned to 2 groups: Group 1 (control) was composed of teeth without periapical lesions and Group 2 (case) was composed of teeth with periapical lesions. The number of teeth with and without posts in each group was recorded. Three calibrated examiners analyzed the radiographs visually under X4 magnification. Results: In Group 1, 28 (65.1%) out of 43 teeth were restored with posts. In Group 2, 24 (82.8%) out of 29 teeth had intra-radicular posts. The interpretation of chi-square test showed that these percentages were not significantly different (x2=2.687; p=0.101). Odds ratio was 2.571 (0.8158.118), which indicates that there was no statistically significant association between periapical lesions and posts. Conclusion: Intra-radicular posts placed in endodontically treated teeth were not a significant risk factor for development of periapical lesions in the practice where the cohort of patients was treated. PMID:19089134

  2. Effect of Post Material and Length on Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Premolars: An In-Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Amarnath, G S; Swetha, M U; Muddugangadhar, B C; Sonika, Radhika; Garg, Ashu; Rao, T R Poonam

    2015-01-01

    Background: Endodontically treated teeth with posts are more prone to fracture. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the in-vitro fracture resistance of devitalized teeth and mode of failure restored with posts of different materials and different lengths. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular premolars were endodontically treated and then restored with 1 of 2 prefabricated posts: Stainless-steel (SS) and glass-fiber (fiber posts [FP]) with intraradicular lengths of 4, 5 or 10 mm (n = 10). Following core restoration, a static compressive load was applied perpendicular to the long-axis of the teeth. Initial failure of each specimen was recorded in Newton. The mode of failure was also determined radiographically. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc analysis with Bonferroni adjustment. Results: Analysis indicated significant differences (P < 0.001) among the groups. Among the SS posts, SS/7 (246 N) exhibited the highest failure load and SS/4 (122 N) the lowest. FP/10 (140.5 N) exhibited the highest failure load among the FP and FP/4 (68.5 N) the lowest. SS posts showed post pull out, followed by core fracture while FP showed core debonding, followed by core fracture as the primary mode of failure. Conclusion: Fracture resistance of the teeth proportionately increased with increase in the length of FP while it decreased with that of metal post. SS posts showed greater fracture resistance than FP when 90° load was applied. PMID:26229366

  3. Endodontic Management of a Mandibular First Molar with Radix Entomolaris and Conservative Post-endodontic Restoration with CAD/CAM Onlay: A Novel Clinical Technique

    PubMed Central

    De Ataide, Ida De Noronha; Fernandes, Marina; Lambor, Rajan; Alreja, Dalip

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a novel technique of restoring endodontically treated teeth. Hidden caries causing irreversible pulpitis in a mandibular molar with Radix Entomolaris (RE) was evident. The intact occlusal surface anatomy was duplicated before preparing an access cavity to replicate the original occlusal surface in the post endodontic restoration using (Computer-Aided Design and Computer-Aided Manufacturing) CAD/CAM technique. This report highlights uniquely designed onlay utilizing the benefits of contemporary materials and advanced technology. PMID:28050515

  4. Fracture resistance and failure mode of endodontically treated teeth restored using ceramic onlays with or without fiber posts-an ex vivo study.

    PubMed

    Keçeci, Ayşe Diljin; Heidemann, Detlef; Kurnaz, Safa

    2016-08-01

    This study aimed to compare the fracture resistance and fracture modes of ceramic onlay restorations with or without fiber posts in endodontically treated premolars. Fifty extracted human premolars with similar anatomic features were used in this study. Four groups (n = 10) were treated endodontically. Onlay cavities extended to the buccal and palatal cusps and reached out the endodontic accesses were prepared. Ceramic onlay restorations with or without fiber posts were categorized as Group CO (ceramic onlays without posts), Group COQF (ceramic onlays and quartz fiber posts), and Group COGF (ceramic onlays and glass fiber posts). Positive control group was left as non-restored (Group NR). Ten intact teeth were stored as negative control group (Group IT). Fracture resistance was measured using a universal load-testing machine applying compressive load at a crosshead speed of 1 mm min(-1) until fracture. Fracture resistance and modes were evaluated statistically. Ceramic onlay restorations (Groups CO, COQF, COGF) increased the fracture resistance significantly, when compared with non-restored teeth (P < 0.05). However, no significant differences were found in the groups with fiber posts in terms of fracture resistance (P > 0.05). Negative control group (IT) had significantly higher fracture resistance than all others (P < 0.05). Fracture types had significant differences among the groups (P < 0.01). Within the limitations of this ex-vivo study, partial coverage with ceramic onlays resulted in a significant improvement of the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars. However, insertion of glass or quartz fibers did not increase the fracture resistance significantly. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Customized fiber glass posts. Fatigue and fracture resistance.

    PubMed

    Costa, Rogério Goulart; De Morais, Eduardo Christiano Caregnatto; Campos, Edson Alves; Michel, Milton Domingos; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia; Correr, Gisele Maria

    2012-02-01

    To evaluate the root fracture strength of human single-rooted premolars restored with customized fiberglass post-core systems after fatigue simulation. 40 human premolars had their crowns cut and the root length was standardized to 13 mm. The teeth were endodontically treated and embedded in acrylic resin. The specimens were distributed into four groups (n=10) according to the restorative material used: prefabricated fiber post (PFP), PFP+accessory fiber posts (PFPa), PFP+unidirectional fiberglass (PFPf), and unidirectional fiberglass customized post (CP). All posts were luted using resin cement and the cores were built up with a resin composite. The samples were stored for 24 hours at 37 degrees C and 100% relative humidity and then submitted to mechanical cycling. The specimens were then compressive-loaded in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute until fracture. The failure patterns were analyzed and classified. Data was submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha = 0.05). The mean values of maximum load (N) were: PFP - 811.4 +/- 124.3; PFPa - 729.2 +/- 157.2; PFPf- 747.5 +/- 204.7; CP - 762.4 +/- 110. Statistical differences were not observed among the groups. All groups showed favorable restorable failures. Fiberglass customized post did not show improved fracture resistance or differences in failure patterns when compared to prefabricated glass fiber posts.

  6. Removal resistance of glass-fiber and metallic cast posts with different lengths.

    PubMed

    Braga, Neilor Mateus Antunes; Paulino, Silvana Maria; Alfredo, Edson; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal

    2006-03-01

    This study evaluated the strength required to remove glass-fiber and metallic cast posts with different lengths. Sixty endodontically treated canines were included and their roots were embedded in acrylic resin after discarding the crowns. Samples were randomly assigned to 3 groups according to the post length (n = 20): I- 6 mm, II - 8 mm and III- 10 mm. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups based on the post material (n = 10): A- glass fiber or B- metallic cast. Post-space was prepared with Fibrekor Post Kit attached to a parallelometer. In subgroup A, prefabricated glass fiber posts from Fibrekor Post Kit were utilized. In metallic post group (subgroup B), an impression of post space was obtained, followed by casting. All posts were luted with Panavia F cement. A universal testing machine determined the force required to dislodge each post. ANOVA analysis indicated significant differences (P < 0.01) among post length. Tukey test showed that posts with 10 mm-length showed higher resistance on removal than posts with 6 mm-length. Posts with 8 mm-length did not exhibit difference when compared to 6 and 10 mm posts. No significant differences (P > 0.05) were observed between the tested post materials. It was concluded that the type of post did not influence the removal resistance and that posts with 10 mm-length required greater force to be dislodged.

  7. Composite Resin Core Buildups With and Without Post for the Restoration of Endodontically Treated Molars Without Ferrule.

    PubMed

    Magne, P; Goldberg, J; Edelhoff, D; Güth, J-F

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the restoration of highly damaged, broken-down endodontically treated molars without the ferrule effect using glass ceramic crowns on different dual-cure composite resin core buildups. Thirty (N=30, n=15) decoronated, endodontically treated teeth (no ferrule) were restored without a ferrule with a direct buildup using the dual-curing composite Multicore HB (group MHB) or the dual-curing composite core buildup Multicore Flow in combination with glass-fiber-reinforced composite post (FRC post; group MFP). All teeth were prepared to receive bonded glass ceramic crowns (Empress CAD luted with Variolink II) and were subjected to accelerated fatigue testing. Cyclic isometric loading was applied to the palatal cusp at an angle of 30 degrees and a frequency of 5 Hz, beginning with a load of 200 N (×5000 cycles), followed by stages of 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, and 1400 N at a maximum of 30,000 cycles each. Specimens were loaded until failure or to a maximum of 185,000 cycles. Groups were compared using the life table survival analysis (log rank test at p=0.05). Average fracture loads and number of survived cycles were compared with one-way analysis of variance (Scheffé post hoc at p=0.05). Previously published data from the same authors about core buildups made of high-performance polymers (group HPP, n=15) and light-curing composite resin without FRC posts (group TEC, n=15) and with FRC posts (group TECP, n=15) using the same experimental setup were included for comparison. None of the tested specimen withstood all 185,000 load cycles. There was no significant difference in mean fracture load (p=0.376), survived cycles (p=0.422), and survival (p=0.613) between MHB (facture load 859.4 N±194.92) and MFP (796.13 N±156.34). Group HPP from a previous study appeared to have significantly higher performance than all other groups except MHB. All groups with posts were affected by an initial failure phenomenon (wide gap at the margin

  8. Fracture strength of teeth with flared root canals restored with glass fibre posts.

    PubMed

    Bonfante, Gerson; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Pegoraro, Luiz Fernando; do Valle, Accácio Lins

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the fracture strength and pattern of failure of teeth with weakened roots reconstructed by different procedures. In an in vitro study root posts were placed in 50 endodontically treated canines, divided into 5 groups (n=10) as follows: cast metallic post; glass fibre post with smaller diameter than the root canal; glass fibre post with smaller diameter than the root canal + glass fibre strips; glass fibre post with smaller diameter than the root canal + accessory glass fibre posts; anatomical post (glass fibre post with smaller diameter than the root canal, relined with low viscosity composite resin). Posts were luted with resin cement and the coronal portion of posts was constructed with composite resin. Metallic crowns were cemented on the posts. Specimens were submitted to compressive load in a universal testing machine. Fracture strength values of each group were compared. Fracture strength values were for Groups 1-5 respectively: 1087.06; 745.69; 775.41; 920.64; 876.12kgf, with significant differences between Groups 1 and 2 and between Groups 1 and 3 (p<0.05). Observed patterns of fracture were: Group 1 - 100% of roots fractured; Groups 2 and 4 - variable fracture modes; Group 3 - 60% of fractures occurred in the cervical root third; Group 5 - 50% of failures occurred in the coronal portion of the post. The fracture strength of teeth with cast metallic posts, teeth with anatomical posts or teeth with glass fibre posts combined with accessory posts was similar. All teeth restored with cast metallic posts presented fractures and were unfavourable to maintenance of the remaining tooth structure. Teeth with fibre posts (Groups 2 to 5) presented variable fracture modes; however, the maximum percentage of unfavourable fractures was 30%.

  9. The reinforcement effect of polyethylene fibre and composite impregnated glass fibre on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Luthria, Archana; Srirekha, A; Hegde, Jayshree; Karale, Rupali; Tyagi, Sanjana; Bhaskaran, Sajeev

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars with wide mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities restored with either composite resin, or composite resin reinforced with different types of fibres. Materials and Methods: Fifty human maxillary premolars were selected. Five intact teeth served as positive controls. Endodontic therapy was carried out in the remaining forty-five teeth. Standardized MOD cavities were prepared in all the teeth. The teeth were restored with a nanocomposite using an incremental technique. These forty five teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (Group A, B and C) (n = 15). The teeth in Group A did not undergo any further procedures. The teeth in Group B and C were reinforced with composite impregnated glass fibre and polyethylene fibre, respectively. Fracture resistance was measured in Newtons (N). Results: The positive controls showed the highest mean fracture resistance (811.90 N), followed by Group B (600.49N), Group A (516.96N) and Group C (514.64N), respectively. One Way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test revealed a statistically significant difference between all the groups (P = 0.001). Post-hoc Tukey test revealed a moderately significant difference (P = 0.034) between Control and Group B, and a strongly significant difference between Control and Group A (P = 0.002), and Control and Group C (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Endodontic therapy and MOD cavity preparation significantly reduced the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars (P = 0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between the experimental groups (Group A, B and C) (P > 0.1). However, the fracture resistance of the composite impregnated glass fibre reinforced group was much higher than the others. PMID:23112487

  10. The reinforcement effect of polyethylene fibre and composite impregnated glass fibre on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Luthria, Archana; Srirekha, A; Hegde, Jayshree; Karale, Rupali; Tyagi, Sanjana; Bhaskaran, Sajeev

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars with wide mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities restored with either composite resin, or composite resin reinforced with different types of fibres. Fifty human maxillary premolars were selected. Five intact teeth served as positive controls. Endodontic therapy was carried out in the remaining forty-five teeth. Standardized MOD cavities were prepared in all the teeth. The teeth were restored with a nanocomposite using an incremental technique. These forty five teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (Group A, B and C) (n = 15). The teeth in Group A did not undergo any further procedures. The teeth in Group B and C were reinforced with composite impregnated glass fibre and polyethylene fibre, respectively. Fracture resistance was measured in Newtons (N). The positive controls showed the highest mean fracture resistance (811.90 N), followed by Group B (600.49N), Group A (516.96N) and Group C (514.64N), respectively. One Way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test revealed a statistically significant difference between all the groups (P = 0.001). Post-hoc Tukey test revealed a moderately significant difference (P = 0.034) between Control and Group B, and a strongly significant difference between Control and Group A (P = 0.002), and Control and Group C (P = 0.001). Endodontic therapy and MOD cavity preparation significantly reduced the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars (P = 0.001). No statistically significant difference was found between the experimental groups (Group A, B and C) (P > 0.1). However, the fracture resistance of the composite impregnated glass fibre reinforced group was much higher than the others.

  11. Effect of fiber posts on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated anterior teeth with cervical cavities: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Abduljawad, Mohammed; Samran, Abdulaziz; Kadour, Jadalkareem; Al-Afandi, Mahmoud; Ghazal, Mohamad; Kern, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    How the placement of fiber posts affects the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with cervical cavities is not well documented. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of fiber posts on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with cervical cavities. Fifty extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into 5 test groups (n=10) according to the restoration strategy: GHT, control group; endodontically treated teeth (ETT) without endodontic posts; GCV, ETT with cervical cavities simulating coronal destruction; GCF, ETT with cervical cavities and carbon fiber posts; GGF, ETT with cervical cavities and glass fiber posts; and GCP, ETT with cervical cavities and composite resin posts. After the fiber posts had been cemented with a resin cement and the foundations had been placed, all specimens were quasi statically loaded at 45 degrees in a universal testing machine until fracture. All specimens were evaluated for fracture modes. The data were then analyzed by 1-way ANOVA, followed by multiple comparisons with the Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The mode of failure was determined by visual inspection. The mean ±SD failure loads for the groups ranged from 718.2 ±89.8 N to 943.8 ±93.1 N. In a 1-way ANOVA followed by post hoc testing, GGFs had a higher fracture strength than all other groups (P≤.05). However, GCPs had a lower fracture strength than all other groups. Statistically significant differences were observed among groups (P≤.05), except between the GHT group and the GCF and GGF groups (P=.075, P=.226). All groups except GHT showed complete favorable fracture mode within the cervical third of the roots. Within the limitations of this in vitro study, placement of glass fiber posts significantly improved the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with cervical cavities. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the

  12. Restoration and reinforcement of endodontically treated teeth with a polyethylene ribbon and prefabricated fiberglass post.

    PubMed

    Kimmel, S S

    2000-01-01

    In the past it was considered appropriate to place a cast post and core in every pulpless tooth without regard to the remaining supportive tooth structure present. Recent research and the advent of adhesive bonding techniques have caused clinicians to reevaluate their restorative protocol. This article reviews the current literature with regard to restoration of the endodontically treated tooth and presents a method for restoration and reinforcement utilizing a combination of polyethylene ribbon and a prefabricated fiberglass post.

  13. Genetic Variants in Cyclooxygenase-2 Contribute to Post-treatment Pain among Endodontic Patients.

    PubMed

    Applebaum, Elizabeth; Nackley, Andrea G; Bair, Eric; Maixner, William; Khan, Asma A

    2015-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have a well-established analgesic efficacy for inflammatory pain. These drugs exert their effect by inhibiting the enzyme cyclooxygenase (COX) and are commonly used for the management of pain after endodontic treatment. There are 2 distinct isoforms of COX: COX-1, which is constitutively expressed, and COX-2, which is primarily induced by inflammation. Previous studies have shown that functional human genetic variants of the COX-2 gene may explain individual variations in acute pain. The present study extends this work by examining the potential contribution of the 2 COX isoforms to pain after endodontic treatment. Ninety-four patients treated by endodontic residents at the University of North Carolina School of Dentistry were enrolled into a prospective cohort study. Data on potential predictors of post-treatment pain were collected, and all patients submitted saliva samples for genetic analysis. Nonsurgical root canal therapy was performed, and participants recorded pain levels for 5 days after. In this study, 63% of patients experienced at least mild pain after root canal therapy, and 24% experienced moderate to severe pain. The presence of pretreatment pain was correlated with higher post-treatment pain (P = .01). Elevated heart rate (P = .02) and higher diastolic blood pressure (P = .024) were also correlated with decreased post-treatment pain. Finally, we identified genetic variants in COX-2 (haplotype composed of rs2383515 G, rs5277 G, rs5275 T, and rs2206593 A) associated with post-treatment pain after endodontic treatment (P = .025). Understanding the genetic basis of pain after endodontic treatment will advance its prevention and management. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. The effect of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy resin dowel diameter on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Tey, Kuan Chuan; Lui, Joo Loon

    2014-10-01

    To determine the effect of glass fiber-reinforced epoxy resin (FRC) dowels of different diameters on the failure load of endodontically treated teeth with different remaining dentine and reinforcing resin composite (RRC) thicknesses and the mode of failure in each group. Fifty extracted intact human maxillary central incisors were decoronated 2 mm incisal to the buccal cementoenamel junction and endodontically treated. The teeth were randomly assigned to one of five groups (n = 10): group B, dowel space prepared with size 0 dowel drill/size 0 FRC dowel/no RRC; group W, size 1 dowel space/size 1 FRC dowel/no RRC; group R, size 3 dowel space/size 3 FRC dowel/no RRC; group WR, size 3 dowel space/size 1 FRC dowel/RRC; group BR, size 3 dowel space/size 0 FRC dowel/RRC. Ferrules of 2 and 0.5 mm were prepared at the facio-lingual and proximal margin respectively. All specimens were restored with a Ni-Cr crown, thermocycled and loaded at 135° from the long axis in a universal testing machine at a 0.5 mm/min crosshead speed until fracture. Data were analyzed using ANOVA followed by post hoc comparisons (Bonferroni) with α = 0.05. Mean failure loads (N) for groups B, W, R, WR, and BR were as follows: 1406 (SD = 376), 1259 (379), 1085 (528), 959 (200), and 816 (298). Significant differences were found between groups B and BR. Group B had the highest favorable failure mode. Within the limitations of this study, the use of a smaller FRC dowel and RRC is recommended rather than enlargement of dowel spaces to accurately fit larger FRC dowels, as the enlargement of dowel space may increase the risk of unfavorable failure. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  15. Influence of endodontic treatment, post insertion, and ceramic restoration on the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars.

    PubMed

    Bitter, K; Meyer-Lueckel, H; Fotiadis, N; Blunck, U; Neumann, K; Kielbassa, A M; Paris, S

    2010-06-01

    To investigate the effects of endodontic treatment, post placement and ceramic restoration type on the fracture resistance of premolars. One hundred and twenty teeth maxillary premolars were allocated to four groups (A-D; n = 30). In group A, mesio-occlusal-distal-inlays with a buccal and palatal wall of 2 mm (MOD), in group B partial onlays with palatal cusp coverage and in group C total onlays with buccal and palatal cusp coverage were prepared. Group D served as untreated controls. Groups A-C were divided into three subgroups (n = 10): (i) teeth received solely the described preparations, (ii) teeth were root filled, (iii) teeth were root filled and quartz fibre posts were placed. Teeth were restored using Computer-assisted design/computer-assisted machining-ceramic-restorations and subjected to thermo-mechanical-loading; subsequently, the buccal cusp was loaded until fracture. Group D revealed significantly higher fracture resistance [mean (standard deviation)] [738 (272) N] compared to all other groups (P < 0.05; post hoc test Dunnett). For groups A-C, fracture resistance was significantly affected by the restoration type (P = 0.043) and endodontic treatment/post placement (P = 0.039; 2-way anova). Group A [380 (146) N] showed significantly lower fracture resistance compared to group B [470 (158) N] (P = 0.048; post hoc test Tukey). Compared to non-endodontically treated teeth [487 (120) N], root filled teeth revealed significantly lower fracture resistance [389 (171) N] (P = 0.031). The restoration of cavities with a remaining wall thickness of 2 mm using ceramic MOD-inlays is inferior with respect to the fracture resistance compared to partial onlay restorations. Root filled teeth without post placement show lower fracture resistance compared to non-endodontically treated teeth.

  16. In vitro fracture resistance of glass-fiber and cast metal posts with different lengths.

    PubMed

    Giovani, Alessandro Rogério; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal; de Sousa Neto, Manoel Damião; Paulino, Silvana Maria

    2009-03-01

    Dental fractures can occur in endodontically treated teeth restored with posts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the in vitro fracture resistance of roots with glass-fiber and metal posts of different lengths. Sixty endodontically treated maxillary canines were embedded in acrylic resin, except for 4 mm of the cervical area, after removing the clinical crowns. The post spaces were opened with a cylindrical bur at low speed attached to a surveyor, resulting in preparations with lengths of 6 mm (group 6 mm), 8 mm (group 8 mm), or 10 mm (group 10 mm). Each group was divided into 2 subgroups according to the post material: cast post and core or glass-fiber post (n=30). The posts were luted with dual-polymerizing resin cement (Panavia F). Cast posts and cores of Co-Cr (Resilient Plus) crowns were made and cemented with zinc phosphate. Specimens were subjected to increasing compressive load (N) until fracture. Data were analyzed with 2-way ANOVA and the Tukey-Kramer test (alpha =.05). The ANOVA analysis indicated significant differences (P<.05) among the groups, and the Tukey test revealed no significant difference among the metal posts of 6-mm length (26.5 N +/-13.4), 8-mm length (25.2 N +/-13.9), and 10-mm length (17.1 N +/-5.2). Also, in the glass-fiber post group, there was no significant difference when posts of 8-mm length (13.4 N +/-11.0) were compared with the 6-mm (6.9 N +/-4.6) and 10-mm (31.7 N +/-13.1) groups. The 10-mm-long post displayed superior fracture resistance, and the 6-mm-long post showed significantly lower mean values (P<.001). Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the glass-fiber post represents a viable alternative to the cast metal post, increasing the resistance to fracture of endodontically treated canines.

  17. Microsurgical endodontic retreatment of post restored posterior teeth: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kahler, Bill

    2010-12-01

    Post-treatment apical periodontitis may persist due to biological factors as outlined by Nair or when treatment procedures have been ineffective in eliminating the intraradicular infection. This case series reports on the management of five posterior teeth restored with posts where microsurgical techniques were employed utilising the operating microscope, ultrasonics, micro-instrumentation and mineral trioxide aggregate as a root-end filling material. Healing was evident at 12-month review appointments. Microsurgical techniques have significantly improved the outcomes for healing of periapical lesions when compared to traditional approaches to endodontic surgery. Success rates have been shown to be comparable with conventional orthograde treatment. © 2010 The Author. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  18. Prophylactic intraligamentary injection of piroxicam (feldene) for the management of post-endodontic pain in molar teeth with irreversible pulpitis.

    PubMed

    Atbaei, Adnan; Mortazavi, Nazanin

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this prospective research was to evaluate the post-endodontic pain-reducing effect of piroxicam (feldene), a non-selective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug. Pain following endodontic treatment is often linked to the inflammatory process as well as additional central mechanisms. The effects of intraligamentary injection of piroxicam have not previously been studied. Sixty-five patients with irreversible pulpitis were randomly divided into two groups. The active group received intraligamentary injections totalling 0.4 mL of piroxicam, while the placebo group received the same amount of lidocaine. One-appointment endodontic therapy was performed by a single endodontist. Visual Analogue Scale was used to record pain before treatment and 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h postoperatively. The decrease in the intensity of post-treatment pain between the two groups was very significant. Intraligamentary injection of piroxicam can be considered an effective method for reducing post-endodontic pain.

  19. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated molars restored with horizontal fiberglass posts or indirect techniques.

    PubMed

    Bromberg, Carolina Ritter; Alves, Caroline Beatriz; Stona, Deborah; Spohr, Ana Maria; Rodrigues-Junior, Sinval Adalberto; Melara, Rafael; Burnett, Luiz Henrique

    2016-12-01

    Because of the many possibilities for endodontically restoring the posterior teeth and the high prevalence of restoration failures, this topic continues to be of major concern. A composite resin (CR) restoration reinforced by a horizontal fiberglass post may improve the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. The authors investigated this possibility by comparing the fracture resistance of molars restored with direct techniques with that of molars restored with indirect techniques. The authors divided 50 extracted sound third molars into 5 groups: sound teeth, onlay (ON), inlay (IN), direct CR, and transfixed fiberglass post (TFP) plus direct CR. The authors performed standardized mesio-occlusodistal cavity preparations and endodontic treatments. The authors cemented indirect restorations of Lava Ultimate (3M ESPE) adhesively in the ON and IN groups. The authors restored CR group teeth directly with Filtek Z230 XT (3M ESPE). In the TFP group, the authors transfixed 2 fiberglass posts horizontally and restored the teeth directly with CR. Thereafter, the authors submitted the teeth to cyclic fatigue loading with 500,000 cycles at 200 newtons. The authors tested fracture resistance in newtons in a universal testing machine. The authors analyzed data with 1-way analysis of variance and a Tukey test (P < .05). Sound teeth had the highest fracture resistance. ON had the highest recovery of resistance, followed by TFP. CR had the lowest recovery, which was similar to that of IN. Endodontically treated molars restored with TFP plus CR had fracture resistance similar to those restored with ON, which was higher than that for IN or CR only. Horizontal TFPs placed inside a composite restoration had the same performance as did ON restorations. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A systematic review of factors associated with the retention of glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Skupien, Jovito Adiel; Sarkis-Onofre, Rafael; Cenci, Maximiliano Sérgio; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de; Pereira-Cenci, Tatiana

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify factors that can affect the retention of glass fiber posts to intra-radicular dentin based on in vitro studies that compared the bond strength (BS) of GFPs cemented with resin cements. Searches were carried out in PubMed and Scopus until December 2013. Bond strength values and variables as type of tooth, presence of endodontic treatment, pretreatment of the post, type of bonding agent (if present), type of cement and mode of cement application were extracted from the 34 included studies. A linear regression model was used to evaluate the influence of these parameters on BS. The presence of endodontic treatment decreased the BS values in 22.7% considering the pooled data (p = 0.013). For regular cement, cleaning the post increased BS when compared to silane application without cleaning (p = 0.032), considering cleaning as ethanol, air abrasion, or phosphoric acid application. Applying the cement around the post and into root canal decreased the resistance compared to only around the post (p = 0.02) or only into root canal (p = 0.041), on the other hand, no difference was found for self-adhesive resin cement for the same comparisons (p = 0.858 and p = 0.067). Endodontic treatment, method of cement application, and post pretreatment are factors that might significantly affect the retention of glass-fiber posts into root canals mainly when cemented with regular resin cement. Self-adhesive resin cements were found to be less technique-sensitive to luting procedures as compared with regular resin cements.

  1. Restoration of endodontically treated anterior teeth: an evaluation of coronal microleakage of glass ionomer and composite resin materials.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Arnold, A M; Wilcox, L R

    1990-12-01

    A glass ionomer material was evaluated for coronal microleakage in permanent lingual access restorations of endodontically treated anterior teeth. The material was tested as a restoration, placed over a zinc oxide-eugenol base, and as a base with an acid-etched composite resin veneer and a dentinal bonding agent. Restored teeth were thermocycled, immersed in silver nitrate, developed, and sectioned to assess microleakage. Significant coronal leakage was observed with all materials used.

  2. Evaluation of push-out bond strength of two endodontic post systems.

    PubMed

    Mastoras, Konstantinos; Vasiliadis, Leonidas; Koulaouzidou, Elizabeth; Gogos, Christos

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the push-out bond strengths of a new polyfiber post system and a fiber post that were adhesively luted with a dual-cure resin cement. Forty single-rooted human maxillary teeth were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction, and the roots were endodontically treated. The roots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 20 specimens each according to the post type used: SpiraPost (group A; DMG, Englewood, NJ) and DT Light-Post Illusion X-RO (group B; Bisco Inc, Schaumburg, IL). All posts were cemented with dual-cure resin cement. Bonded specimens were cut into 1-mm-thick sections, and push-out tests were performed using a universal testing machine. All specimens were loaded until fracture, and the failure modes were evaluated with a stereomicroscope at 50× magnification. Representative specimens were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy. Push-out bond strength was significantly affected by the type of post (P < .05). In all root sections, the SpiraPost push-out bond strength values were significantly higher than that those of DT Light-Post Illusion X-RO (P < .05). Cohesive failure within the post was the most frequent type of failure for the SpiraPost system. In all root segments, the SpiraPost system provided significantly increased post retention compared with the fiber post. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of fibre posts, bone losses and fibre content on the biomechanical behaviour of endodontically treated teeth: 3D-finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Chieruzzi, Manila; Pagano, Stefano; Cianetti, Stefano; Lombardo, Guido; Kenny, José M; Torre, Luigi

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the stress distribution inside endodontically treated teeth restored with different posts (glass fibre, carbon fibre and steel posts) under different loading conditions by using a 3D-finite element analysis. The effect of masticatory and impact forces on teeth with different degrees of bone loss was analysed. The model consists of: dentine, post, cement, gutta-percha, core and crown. Four simulations were conducted with two static forces (170N horizontal and 100N oblique) and two sections constrained: 1mm (alveolar bone position in a normal periodontium) and 6mm (middle of root) below the crown. Von Mises and the principal stresses were evaluated and analysed with a 3-way ANOVA and Tukey test (α=0.05) and the effect of fibre percentage analysed. Significant differences were found among the stress values for all conditions (p<0.05). Impact load was always responsible for the most critical situation especially when the bone loss was more evident. The system with steel posts showed the highest principal stresses at the post-cement interface with horizontal load and top constraints (compressive stress of 121MPa and tensile stress of 115MPa). The use of glass posts provides a more homogeneous behaviour of the system with lower stresses. Higher fibre percentages gave higher stress in the posts. Moreover, larger bone losses are responsible for important increase in stress. Thus, this work demonstrated that periodontal disease has an important role in the success of tooth restoration after endodontic therapy, influencing the choice of post material and depth.

  4. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Hydraulic Fluid Buildings, Northeast of Looking Glass Avenue at southwest side of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  5. Randomized controlled clinical pilot trial of titanium vs. glass fiber prefabricated posts: preliminary results after up to 3 years.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Michael; Sterzenbac, Guido; Alexandra, Franke; Dietrich, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This randomized parallel-group clinical pilot study aimed to compare the clinical outcome of prefabricated rigid titanium to glass fiber endodontic posts when luted with self-adhesive universal resin cement. Ninety-eight patients in need of postendodontic restoration were assessed for eligibility. Ninety-one patients met the selection criteria and were randomized and allocated to 2 intervention groups. Forty-five participants were treated using a titanium post and 46 participants received a glass fiber post, each in combination with composite core buildups for postendodontic restoration. All posts had a diameter of 1.4 mm and a length of 13 mm and were cemented 8 mm within the root canal with self-adhesive universal resin cement. A circumferential ferrule of 2 mm was always provided. Surgical crown lengthening was necessary in 13 cases. Patients were observed in intervals of 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after post placement. After 24 to 36 months (mean +/- SD: 27.9 +/- 5.6) of observation following post placement, 1 tooth was extracted because of changes of the prosthetic treatment plan. No failures were observed among the 88 patients with follow-up data. Both titanium and glass fiber reinforced composite posts result in successful treatment outcomes after 2 years. The material combination used seems to be appropriate in the short term for cementing endodontic posts, irrespective of the post material.

  6. Effect of post-space treatments on the push-out bond strength and failure modes of glass fibre posts.

    PubMed

    Arisu, Hacer Deniz; Kivanç, Bağdagül Helvacioğlu; Sağlam, Baran C; Şimşek, Eser; Görgül, Güliz

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different post-space treatments on the push-out bond strength and failure modes of glass fibre posts. Forty mandibular premolar roots were cut and endodontically treated. Post spaces were prepared and roots were divided into four groups. In group 1 distilled water irrigation (control), in group 2 2.25% NaOCl irrigation, in group 3 2.25% NaOCl + 17% EDTA irrigation were done and in group 4 diode laser was applied to the prepared post spaces. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was made for each group. Fibre posts were then luted with resin cement. Each root was prepared for push-out test. Data were statistically analysed with anova (P = 0.05). After push-out test, the failure modes were observed but not statistically analysed. There were statistically significant differences between Group 3 and Group 2 in both regions (P < 0.05), also in the middle region of Group 4 and Group 2 (P < 0.05). Cervical root segments showed higher bond strengths than middle ones in all groups (P < 0.05). The highest bond strength values were obtained from NaOCl/EDTA and the lowest bond strength values were obtained from NaOCl for both regions. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  7. Effect of different ferrule designs on the fracture resistance and failure pattern of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber posts and allceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    SHERFUDHIN, Haneef; HOBEICH, Joseph; CARVALHO, Carlos Augusto; N. ABOUSHELIB, Moustafa; SADIG, Walid; SALAMEH, Ziad

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the effect of different ferrule heights on endodontically treated premolars. Materials and Methods Fifty sound mandibular first premolars were endodontically treated and then restored with 7-mm fiber post (FRC Postec Plus #1 Ivoclar-Vivadent) luted with self-polymerized resin cement (Multilink, Ivoclar Vivadent) while the coronal section was restored with hybrid composite core build-up material (Tetric Ceram, Ivoclar-Vivadent), which received all-ceramic crown. Different ferrule heights were investigated: 1-mm circumferential ferrule without post and core (group 1 used as control), a circumferential 1-mm ferrule (group 2), non-uniform ferrule 2-mm buccally and 1-mm lingually (group 3), non-uniform ferrule 3-mm buccally and 2-mm lingually (group 4), and finally no ferrule preparation (group 5). The fracture load and failure pattern of the tested groups were investigated by applying axial load to the ceramic crowns (n=10). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post-hoc test was used for pair-wise comparisons (α=0.05). Results There were no significant differences among the failure load of all tested groups (P<0.780). The control group had the lowest fracture resistance (891.43±202.22 N) and the highest catastrophic failure rate (P<0.05). Compared to the control group, the use of fiber post reduced the percentage of catastrophic failure while increasing the ferrule height did not influence the fracture resistance of the restored specimens. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, increasing the ferrule length did not influence the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with glass ceramic crowns. Insertion of a fiber post could reduce the percentage of catastrophic failure of these restorations under function. PMID:21437466

  8. Esthetic and biologic mode of reattaching incisor fracture fragment utilizing glass fiber post

    PubMed Central

    Manju, M.; Shanthraj, Srinivas L.; Savitha, K. C.; Sethi, Ntasha

    2015-01-01

    Trauma to the anterior teeth affects the esthetic and psychological well-being of the patient. Advancement in the adhesive dentistry has facilitated the restoration of the coronal tooth fractures by minimally invasive procedures when the original tooth fragment is available. Reattachment of fractured fragment offers immediate treatment with improved preponderant aesthetics and restoration of function. Here, we describe a case of complicated fracture of the maxillary left immature permanent central incisor, which was treated endodontically followed by esthetic reattachment of the fractured fragment using the glass fiber post. Functional demands and esthetic considerations of the patient were fully met with this biologic mode of fragment reattachment. PMID:26283849

  9. Finite element analysis of stress distribution in four different endodontic post systems in a model canine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aijie; Feng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Ruoyu; Shao, Longquan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the stress distribution in a maxillary canine restored with each of four different post systems at different levels of alveolar bone loss. Two-dimensional finite element analysis (FEA) was performed by modeling a severely damaged canine with four different post systems: CAD/CAM zirconia, CAD/CAM glass fiber, cast titanium, and cast gold. A force of 100 N was applied to the crown, and the von Mises stresses were obtained. FEA revealed that the CAD/CAM zirconia post system produced the lowest maximum von Mises stress in the dentin layer at 115.8 MPa, while the CAD/CAM glass fiber post produced the highest stress in the dentin at 518.2 MPa. For a severely damaged anterior tooth, a zirconia post system is the best choice while a cast gold post ranks second. The CAD/CAM glass fiber post is least recommended in terms of stress level in the dentin.

  10. Influence of endodontic sealer composition and time of fiber post cementation on sealer adhesiveness to bovine root dentin.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; Moraes, Rafael do Amaral; Broch, Juliana; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the influence of the type of endodontic sealer (salicylate resin-based sealer vs. two endodontic sealers) and the time of fiber post cementation after root filling on the post adhesion to bovine root dentin. Sixty bovine roots were assigned to six groups (n=10), considering an experimental design with two factors (factorial 3x2): endodontic sealer factor in three levels [epoxy resin-based sealer (AH Plus), eugenol-based sealer (Endofill), and salicylate resin-based sealer plus mineral trioxide aggregate - MTA (MTA Fillapex)] and time for post cementation factor in two levels (immediate post cementation or 15 days after root canal filling). After post cementation, 2-mm-thick slices were produced and submitted to push-out test. The failure modes were analyzed under a 40× stereomicroscope and scored as: adhesive at cement/dentin interface; adhesive at cement/post interface; cement cohesive; post cohesive; dentin cohesive; or mixed. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc tests (α=0.05). When the fiber posts were cemented immediately after the root canal filling, the bond strengths were similar, independent of the endodontic sealer type. However, after 15 days, the epoxy resin-based sealer presented higher bond strength than the other sealers (p<0.05). Comparison between each sealer in different experimental times did not reveal any differences. The main failure type was adhesive at dentin/cement interface (89.4%). The time elapsed between the root canal filling and post cementation has no influence on post/root dentin adhesion. On the contrary, the type of endodontic sealer can influence the adhesion between fiber posts and root dentin.

  11. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated canines restored with different sizes of fiber post and all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Turker, Sebnem Begum; Alkumru, Hasan Necdet; Akalin, Buket

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the fracture resistance and the mode of fracture of endodontically treated teeth restored with different fiber posts and all-ceramic crowns. Two glass fiber reinforced post systems in two different sizes and polyethylene fiber ribbon in two different thicknesses (n=10) were used. The specimens, restored with all-ceramic crowns, were subjected to a compressive load (in N) delivered at a 130-degree angle to the long axis until a fracture could be noted. The results were analyzed statistically with a One-Way ANOVA test (P<.05). Statistically significant differences were observed between the mean fracture resistance values of Postec, Snowlight, and Kerr Connect thin specimens (P<.0095). The Postec results (395.70 N) were found to be significantly higher than the others. No statistical difference was observed among the thick specimens (P<.2657). The mean fracture resistance values of the Snowlight thick samples were found to be higher than those of the Snowlight thin samples. The specimens were always fractured around the cemento-enamel junction at the palatinal side. No post fracture was observed for the thin Snowlight and Kerr Connect specimens or for the thick Postec and Kerr Connect specimens. Among the common failure types of the specimens, the worst was observed to be the root fracture failure. The highest post dislodgement failure result (80%) was obtained from the thin Kerr Connect specimen. In terms of optimizing fracture resistance, the fiber post size selection should be done according to the forces applied to the restored teeth.

  12. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated canines restored with different sizes of fiber post and all-ceramic crowns

    PubMed Central

    Alkumru, Hasan Necdet; Akalin, Buket

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to determine the fracture resistance and the mode of fracture of endodontically treated teeth restored with different fiber posts and all-ceramic crowns. MATERIALS AND METHODS Two glass fiber reinforced post systems in two different sizes and polyethylene fiber ribbon in two different thicknesses (n=10) were used. The specimens, restored with all-ceramic crowns, were subjected to a compressive load (in N) delivered at a 130-degree angle to the long axis until a fracture could be noted. The results were analyzed statistically with a One-Way ANOVA test (P<.05). RESULTS Statistically significant differences were observed between the mean fracture resistance values of Postec, Snowlight, and Kerr Connect thin specimens (P<.0095). The Postec results (395.70 N) were found to be significantly higher than the others. No statistical difference was observed among the thick specimens (P<.2657). The mean fracture resistance values of the Snowlight thick samples were found to be higher than those of the Snowlight thin samples. The specimens were always fractured around the cemento-enamel junction at the palatinal side. No post fracture was observed for the thin Snowlight and Kerr Connect specimens or for the thick Postec and Kerr Connect specimens. Among the common failure types of the specimens, the worst was observed to be the root fracture failure. The highest post dislodgement failure result (80%) was obtained from the thin Kerr Connect specimen. CONCLUSION In terms of optimizing fracture resistance, the fiber post size selection should be done according to the forces applied to the restored teeth. PMID:27141261

  13. Stress generated by customized glass fiber posts and other types by photoelastic analysis.

    PubMed

    Bosso, Kátia; Gonini Júnior, Alcides; Guiraldo, Ricardo Danil; Berger, Sandrine Bittencourt; Lopes, Murilo Baena

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic posts are necessary to provide adequate retention and support when no sufficient remaining structure is available to retain the core. There are different materials and techniques to construct post-and-core, but there is no consensus about which one promotes better stress distribution on the remaining tooth structure. This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the distribution of stress in the root produced by customized glass fiber posts compared to different endodontic posts. Twenty-five simulated roots from photoelastic resin were made and divided into 5 groups: CPC, cast post-and-core; SP, screw post; CF, carbon fiber post; GF, glass fiber post; and CGF, customized glass fiber post. After cementing CPC and SP posts with zinc phosphate cement, and CF, GF and CGF posts with resin cement, resin cores were made for groups 2-5. Specimens were evaluated with vertical or 45° oblique loading. To analyze the fringes, the root was divided into 6 parts: palatal cervical, palatal middle, palatal apical, vestibular cervical, vestibular middle, and vestibular apical. The formed fringes were photographed and quantified. Data were recorded and subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (5%). SP (1.95±0.60) showed higher stress (p<0.05) compared to the others (CPC-0.52±0.74; CF-0.50±0.75, GF-0.23±0.48 and CGF-0.45±0.83). All posts showed high stress in apical third (CPC-1.40±0.65; SP-2.30±0.44, CF-1.80±0.45, GF-1.20±0.45, CGF-1.70±1.03) Low stress was found in cervical third (CPC-0.20±0.45; CF-0.00±0.00, GF-0.00±0.00, CGF-0.00±0.00), except by SP (1.90±0.65), which showed statistical difference (p<0.05). Customized post showed high stress concentration at the root and conventional glass fiber posts showed more favorable biomechanical behavior.

  14. Endodontic surgery with and without inserts of bioactive glass PerioGlas--a clinical and radiographic follow-up.

    PubMed

    Pantchev, Alexander; Nohlert, Eva; Tegelberg, Ake

    2009-03-01

    This study evaluated the use of bioactive glass, PerioGlas, after retrograde filling with Super EBA cement in the treatment of periapical bone destruction. Healing outcomes were followed up after endodontic surgery in 186 teeth. Outcomes were divided into two groups according to follow-up time: short- and long-term. The EBA group (n = 110) underwent endodontic surgery and retrograde filling with EBA cement. In the EBA + PerioGlas group (n = 76), PerioGlas was embedded in the bone cavity after retrograde filling. The success rate in the EBA + PerioGlas group was 72% compared with 56% in the Super EBA group at the short-term follow-up and 74% and 84%, respectively, at the long-term follow-up. Healing of periapical bone destruction classified as uncertain at the short-term follow-up was considered successful in two out of three cases at the long-term follow-up. This study found that PerioGlas as bone substitute did not significantly improve endodontic healing outcome.

  15. The effect of the post length and cusp coverage on the cycling and static load of endodontically treated maxillary premolars.

    PubMed

    Scotti, Nicola; Scansetti, Marco; Rota, Riccardo; Pera, Francesco; Pasqualini, Damiano; Berutti, Elio

    2011-12-01

    In endodontically treated teeth, cuspal coverage plays a fundamental role in reducing the risk of fracture. However, the adhesive techniques with or without fiber post increased the possibilities in restoring root-filled teeth. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of the fiber post and/or post length and/or cuspal coverage on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary premolars. Seventy intact single-rooted maxillary premolars were selected and divided in seven groups of ten each: "intact teeth" (control), "inlay without fiber post" (G1), "inlay with long fiber post" (G2), "inlay with short fiber post" (G3), "onlay without fiber post" (G4), "onlay with long fiber post" (G5), and "onlay with short fiber post" (G6). Except for intact teeth, all specimens were prepared with a mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavity, endodontically treated and restored with or without long or short post, with or without cusp coverage. All specimens were thermal-cycled, exposed to a cyclic loading, and then submitted to the static fracture resistance test. Fracture loads and mode of failure were evaluated. A statistically significant difference in fracture resistance was found between group 1 and the other groups (p < 0.001). χ2 test showed statistically significant differences in the patterns of fractures between the groups (p < 0.001). The highest number of favorable fractures was observed in groups 3 and 4. Similar fracture resistance was detected in maxillary premolars endodontically treated with MOD cavity preparations, restored with either direct resin composite with fiber post or cusp capping. The "short post" direct restoration may be a valid alternative in the restoration of root-filled premolars.

  16. Effect of thermally deposited siloxane-methacrylate coating on bonding to glass fibre posts.

    PubMed

    Silva, F P; Faria-E-Silva, A L; Moraes, R R; Ogliari, A O; Reis, G R; Oliveira, A R F; Menezes, M S

    2017-04-25

    To evaluate the alterations promoted by a thermally deposited siloxane-methacrylate coating on the surface of glass fibre posts and their effect on the bond strength of resin-core materials to the posts. Fibre post surfaces were treated with experimental thermally deposited siloxane-methacrylate coatings or clinically available treatments (i.e. hydrogen peroxide and methylene chloride); nontreated posts were used as controls. The contact angles formed between the post surface and the water/adhesive were measured with a tensiometer. Scanning electron microscopy and electron dispersive spectroscopy were used to examine the topographies and chemical changes in the post surfaces following treatment. Surface roughness was evaluated with laser interferometry. Core resin was bonded to the fibre posts, and microtensile bond strength testing was subsequently performed. The data were individually submitted to anova and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). The water contact angle was reduced significantly (P < 0.05) by the thermally deposited siloxane-methacrylate coating. All treatments significantly increased the adhesive contact angle (P ≤ 0.016) compared to the control as well as the surface roughness (P ≤ 0.006) and the amount of Si on post surfaces. Greater percentages of Si were observed for the thermally deposited coating. The bond strength to the posts was significantly improved by the thermally deposited coating (P < 0.05), whereas the other treatments did not differ from the control. Treating the surface of glass fibre posts with a thermally deposited siloxane-methacrylate coating improved the bond strength to resin-based materials. The coating could be performed by manufacturers of glass fibre posts in order to reduce the number of clinical steps required for luting posts into root canals. © 2017 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. The effect of glass fiber posts and ribbons on the fracture strength of teeth with flared root canals restored using composite resin post and cores.

    PubMed

    Komada, Wataru; Kubo, Mariko; Otake, Shiho; Inagaki, Tasuku; Omori, Satoshi; Miura, Hiroyuki

    2017-08-23

    This study evaluated the fracture strength and mode of failure of structurally compromised teeth with flared root canals restored using composite resin with four different systems. Sixty endodontically treated bovine teeth were uniformly shaped to simulate human mandibular premolars with flared root canals. The roots were divided into four groups of 15 specimens each based on the type of restoration: composite resin core only (control), glass fiber post, cylindroid glass fiber ribbons, and glass fiber post and ribbons. All specimens were loaded until fracture occurred using a universal testing machine. Average fracture loads were compared with a one-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD test (α=.05). The modes of failure were observed and the Fisher exact test and Bonferroni correction were used for statistical analysis. The fiber post and ribbon group (1035.70N) and the fiber ribbon group (881.77N) showed significantly higher fracture strength than the controls (567.97N) (p<.05). The fiber post and ribbon group also showed significantly higher fracture strength than the fiber post group (769.40N). Almost all specimens showed unrestorable root fractures (p<.008). The control group had a significantly higher ratio of core sectional fractures (p<.017). Cylindroid glass fiber ribbons significantly increased the fracture strength of the composite resin post and cores in the case of the dentin within the thin root canal wall. Based on the results, this study recommends the combined use of glass fiber post and ribbons. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Vehicle Refueling Station, Northeast of AGE Storage Facility at far northwest end of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. Bonding self-adhesive resin cements to glass fibre posts: to silanate or not silanate?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, A S; Ramalho, E S; Ogliari, F A; Moraes, R R

    2011-08-01

    To evaluate the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs) to glass fibre posts with or without a silane coupling agent. The SARCs tested were: Maxcem Elite (MXE; Kerr), RelyX Unicem clicker (UNI; 3M ESPE), seT capsule (SET; SDI), and SmartCem 2 (SC2; Dentsply Caulk). The conventional cement RelyX ARC (ARC; 3M ESPE) was evaluated as a reference. Rectangular-shaped flat posts were obtained (Angelus). After silanizing or not the posts, resin cement cylinders were built on the post surfaces. The cylinders were tested in shear after 24 h. Bond strength data were submitted to two-way anova and Student-Newman-Keuls' test (5%). Failure modes were classified under magnification as adhesive failure, mixed failure involving the cement or mixed failure involving the post. For ARC, MXE and SET, the silanated groups had higher bond strengths. For SC2 the silane had no influence, while for UNI silanization decreased the bond strength. The conventional ARC had the lowest bond strength when the posts were not silanated; UNI showed the highest values. When the posts were silanated, SET had the highest values, followed by MXE, ARC and SC2; UNI had the lowest values. A predominance of adhesive failures was detected for all groups, with higher number of mixed failures when the posts were silanated. As the silane impaired or generally had no effect on the bond strength of SARCs to the glass fibre posts, and also as the bond strength of all SARCs was higher than the conventional cement when the posts were not silanated, it seems that silanization of glass fibre posts is not necessary when SARCs are used. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  20. Yield strength of zirconia and glass fibre-reinforced posts.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, P; Schulz, A; Nergiz, I; Schmage, P

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the yield strengths of glass fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) posts and zirconia dioxide ceramic (ZDC) posts. Tapered glass FRC posts (DentinPost) and ZDC posts (Cerapost) of three sizes in diameter (ISO 50, 90, 110) were used for bending tests. Conventional prefabricated titanium posts of the same sizes served as control groups. The 0.2% yield strengths (R(0.2)) were tested on a universal testing machine. As zirconia posts fractured before they were yielded 0.2%, the fracture strength instead of the yield strength was recorded for these posts. One-way and two-way anova and Bonferroni-Dunn's multiple comparison tests were performed for the statistical analysis. The mean 0.2% yield strengths of the posts were 27 +/- 1 N for glass fibre-reinforced posts and 58 +/- 4 N for zirconia posts of ISO 50 (control group: 54 +/- 3 N). For ISO 90 yield strengths of 52 +/- 4 N for glass fibre-reinforced posts, 117 +/- 20 N for zirconia posts and 117 +/- 11 N for the control group were obtained. For ISO 110 mean yield strengths amounted to 73 +/- 5 N for glass fibre-reinforced posts, 166 +/- 23 N for zirconia posts and 141 +/- 12 N for the control group. Significantly higher yield strength was recorded for the zirconia and the titanium posts compared with the glass fibre-reinforced posts for the tested ISO sizes.

  1. Comparison of Single Visit Post Endodontic Pain Using Mtwo Rotary and Hand K-File Instruments: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kashefinejad, Mohamad; Harandi, Azade; Bijani, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Pain is an unpleasant outcome of endodontic treatment that can be unbearable to patients. Instrumentation techniques may affect the frequency and intensity of post-endodontic pain. This study aimed to compare single visit post endodontic pain using Mtwo (NiTi) rotary and hand K-file instruments. Materials and Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 60 teeth with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis in 53 patients were selected and randomly assigned into two groups of 30 teeth. In group A, the root canals were prepared with Mtwo (NiTi) rotary instruments. In group B, the root canals were prepared with hand K-file instruments. Pain assessment was implemented using visual analog scale (VAS) at four, eight, 12 and 24 hours after treatment. The acquired data were analyzed using chi-square, Mann-Whitney U and Student’s t-test (P<0.05). Results: Patients treated with rotary instruments experienced significantly less post-endodontic pain than those treated with hand instruments (P<0.001). Conclusions: The use of Mtwo (NiTi) rotary instruments in root canal preparation contributed to lower incidence of postoperative pain than hand K-files. PMID:27536323

  2. Effect of calcium hydroxide and endodontic irrigants on fibre post bond strength to root canal dentine.

    PubMed

    Renovato, S R; Santana, F R; Ferreira, J M; Souza, J B; Soares, C J; Estrela, C

    2013-08-01

    To analyse the effect of calcium hydroxide paste, endodontic irrigants and time of application on the bond strength of fibre posts to root canal dentine. Seventy bovine incisors were divided into 7 groups according to removal of calcium hydroxide and distilled water (CHW) (immediate - I; 21 days - 21 days; 6 months - 6 months) and endodontic irrigant (1% sodium hypochlorite - SH; 1% sodium hypochlorite + 17% EDTA - SHE). Fibre posts were cemented (RelyX U100), after which the roots were serially sectioned and submitted to a micro-push-out test. Data were analysed using two-way anova followed by the Tukey's and the Dunnett's tests (α = 0.05). The CHW groups were not significantly different from the control group in 13 of the 18 associated factors (P > 0.05). There were significant reductions in bond strength in the cervical (P = 0.0216) and middle (P = 0.0017) thirds of the root at 6 months in groups irrigated with SH. Irrigation with SHE reduced the bond strength significantly in the middle (P = 0.0488) and apical (P = 0.0252) thirds of the roots in the immediate groups and in the middle third (P = 0.0287) in the 21-day group. Bond strength was greater in the cervical than in the apical thirds of all immediate and 21-day groups (P < 0.05). Bond strength of groups that received CH paste was similar to that found in the control group in 13 of the 18 associated factors. EDTA and SH reduced bond strength in specimens in the immediate (middle and apical thirds) and 21-day (middle third) groups. There was a significant reduction in bond strength in the groups irrigated with SH and tested at 6 months (cervical and middle thirds). There was a predominance of adhesive failures between resin cement and dentine in all groups. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Is fracture resistance of endodontically treated mandibular molars restored with indirect onlay composite restorations influenced by fibre post insertion?

    PubMed

    Scotti, Nicola; Coero Borga, Francesco Andrea; Alovisi, Mario; Rota, Riccardo; Pasqualini, Damiano; Berutti, Elio

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of post placement on fracture resistance of endodontically treated mandibular molars restored with adhesive overlay restorations. Endodontically treated human molars with two- and one-wall cavities either underwent or did not undergo fibre post insertion within composite build-up before cementation of indirect composite onlay restorations. The specimens were thermocycled, exposed to cyclic loading, and submitted to the static fracture resistance test. Fracture loads and mode of failure were evaluated. Statistical analysis revealed that specimens with fibre posts demonstrated similar failure loads (p=0.065) but more favourable fracture patterns compared with specimens without fibre posts. No difference was found between two- and one-wall cavities. Within the limitations of this study, the insertion of fibre posts did not improve support under indirect composite overlays. When restoring heavily broken down endodontically treated mandibular molars with an indirect overlay composite restoration, the fibre post inserted within the composite build-up do not provide any increase in fracture resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of eugenol-based endodontic cement on the adhesion of intraradicular posts.

    PubMed

    Alfredo, Edson; de Souza, Emanuel Soares; Marchesan, Melissa Andréia; Paulino, Silvana Maria; Gariba-Silva, Ricardo; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2006-01-01

    The present study evaluated, in vitro, the influence of an eugenol-based endodontic sealer (EndoFill) on the adhesion of intra-radicular posts cemented with a resin-based cement (Enforce) ou a zinc phosphate cement. Twenty-four single-rooted maxillary canines were divided into 2 groups (n=12) and obturated with either gutta-percha points plus EndoFill or gutta-percha points alone (no cement). In each group, half of intracanal posts (n=6) were cemented with Enforce resin-based cement and half with zinc phosphate cement. Specimens were submitted to pull-out test in an Instron machine and tensile force was applied at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until post dislodgement. The maximum forces required for post removal was recorded (N) and means were submitted to statistical analysis by Kruskal-Wallis test (p<0.01). Posts cemented with zinc phosphate cement were significantly more retentive (353.4 N) than those cemented with Enforce (134.9 N) (p<0.01). Regarding the influence of the eugenol-based cement (EndoFill) on post retention, there was statistically significant difference (p<0.01) only between the groups cemented with Enforce, i.e., in the canals filled with EndoFill + guta-percha there was lower bond strength than in the canals filled with gutta-percha points alone (101.5 and 168.2 N, respectively). In conclusion, the zinc-phosphate-based cement showed greater post retention than the resin-based cement. The findings of this study suggest that the eugenol-containing sealer interfered with the adhesive properties of the resin-based cement.

  5. Effect of noble metal alloy post and core material on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Toksavul, Suna; Toman, Muhittin; Sarikanat, Mehmet; Nergiz, Ibrahim; Schmage, Petra

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of one particular brand of post and core system (ER Post) consisted of different post and core materials on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Fifty caries-free maxillary central incisors were randomly assigned to five groups (n=10). All teeth were sectioned at the cemento-enamel junction except for the teeth in the control group. Four experimental groups consisted of cast gold post-and-core group (GG), Heraplat post/cast gold core group (HG), titanium post/composite core (TC), and titanium post/cast gold core (TG). The control group (ETT) consisted of endodontically treated teeth without posts. All posts were cemented in the roots with zinc phosphate cement. Following thermal cycling (5000 cycles between 5 degrees C and 55 degrees C with a dwell time of 30 seconds) a static load was applied to 2 mm below the incisal edge on the palatal surface of each specimen until they were fractured. Fracture data obtained and statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA and a Tukey's test (p<0.05). Means of the fracture resistance during static loading were: 423.76 N (GG), 529.46 N (HG), 389.08 N (TC), 408.7 N (TG), 404.4 N (ETT, control). Heraplat post with cast gold core exhibited the highest fracture load than the other groups (p<0.05). Specimens in groups HG and ETT (control) showed the most repairable failure. Heraplat post with cast gold core had the highest fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

  6. The effect of the application of gaseous ozone and ND:YAG laser on glass-fibre post bond strength.

    PubMed

    Kıvanç, Bağdagül H; Arısu, Hacer D; Ozcan, Suat; Görgül, Güliz; Alaçam, Tayfun

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the application of gaseous ozone and Nd:YAG laser on glass-fibre post bond strength. Forty-two madibular premolar roots were cut, endodontically instrumented and irrigated with 2.5% NaOCl. Post spaces were prepared and roots were divided into three groups (n = 14). The antimicrobial pretreatment was conducted as follows: gaseous ozone, Nd:YAG laser and control (no additional disinfection methods). Scanning electron microscope analysis was made for each group (n = 2). A resin cement was used for luting the posts. For push-out test, each root was cut horizontally (two cervical, two middle and two apical). Statistical analyses were performed with one-way anova (α = 0.05). Fracture types were observed. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups (P > 0.05). There were statistically significant differences in cervical and apical segments of laser and control groups (P < 0.05). The disinfection of the post spaces with Nd:YAG laser and ozone had no adverse effects on bond strength of glass-fibre post. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  7. Coronal microleakage of endodontically treated teeth with intracanal post exposed to fresh human saliva

    PubMed Central

    de OLIVEIRA, Simone Gomes dias; GOMES, Denise Jornada; COSTA, Marcelo Hissé das Neves; de SOUSA, Ezilmara Rolim; LUND, Rafael Guerra

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the coronal microleakage of endodontically treated teeth prepared to receive an intracanal post and teeth with an intracanal post but without a prosthetic crown and exposed to contamination by fresh human saliva. Material and Methods A mechanical-chemical preparation following the step-back technique was carried out in 35 extracted single-rooted human teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups: G1=root canals instrumented, obturated, and prepared to receive an intracanal post (N=10); G2=root canals with cemented posts but without coronal sealing (N=10); PC1=positive control root canals instrumented and open (N=5); PC2=positive control 2 root canals without instrumentation and open (N=5); and NC=negative control healthy teeth (N=5). The crowns were removed except for the control group of intact teeth. The root canals were obturated and sterilized with cobalt 60 gamma irradiation and were then adapted in an apparatus using a Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) medium and fresh human saliva for contamination. Microbial growth was indicated by the presence of turbidity in the BHI liquid medium. Results Data were submitted to the Kaplan-Meier Survival Analysis and the Holm-Sidak statistic method, which observed an index of 90% of microleakage in root canals after 24 hours for G1 and 70% of microleakage in samples at the end of 40 days for G2. Conclusion The results show that root canals with an intracanal post but without a prosthetic crown can be recontaminated when exposed to fresh human saliva in a short period. PMID:24212985

  8. Influence of calcium hydroxide on the post-treatment pain in Endodontics: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Anjaneyulu, K.; Nivedhitha, Malli Sureshbabu

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Pain of endodontic origin has been a major concern to the patients and the clinicians for many years. Post-operative pain is associated with inflammation in the periradicular tissues caused by irritants egressing from root canal during treatment. It has been suggested that calcium hydroxide intra-canal medicament has pain-preventive properties because of its anti-microbial or tissue altering effects. Some dispute this and reasoned that calcium hydroxide may initiate or increase pain by inducing or increasing inflammation. Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of calcium hydroxide in reducing the post-treatment pain when used as an intra-canal medicament Materials and Methods: The following databases were searched: PubMed CENTRAL (until July 2013), MEDLINE, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. Bibliographies of clinical studies and reviews identified in the electronic search were analyzed for studies published outside the electronically searched journals. The primary outcome measure was to evaluate the post-treatment pain reduction when calcium hydroxide is used as an intra-canal medicament in patients undergoing root canal therapy. Results: The reviews found some clinical evidence that calcium hydroxide is not very effective in reducing post-treatment pain when it is used alone, but its effectiveness can be increased when used in combination with other medicaments like chlorhexidine and camphorated monochlorophenol (CMCP). Conclusion: Even though calcium hydroxide is one of the most widely used intra-canal medicament due to its anti-microbial properties, there is no clear evidence of its effect on the post-treatment pain after the chemo-mechanical root canal preparation. PMID:24944439

  9. Effect of luting cement and thermomechanical loading on retention of glass fibre posts in root canals.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-jing; Zhao, San-jun; Niu, Li-na; Tay, Franklin R; Jiao, Kai; Gao, Yu; Chen, Ji-hua

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of luting cement and thermomechanical loading on the retention of glass fibre posts in root canals. One hundred and forty-four single-rooted human premolars were endodontically treated and restored with RelyX Fibre Posts. The teeth were divided into four groups according to the cements used (Fuji I, Fuji CEM, RelyX Unicem and RelyX ARC). Each group was further divided into two subgroups according to the method of ageing (immediately tested and after thermomechanical loading). Bond strength was evaluated using a pull-out test. Microleakage was examined quantitatively with dye penetration. The dentine-cement-post bonding interface was assessed using scanning electron microscopy. Data were analysed with two-way ANOVA (pull-out test) and Kruskal-Wallis analysis (microleakage). The pull-out bond strength and microleakage were significantly affected by the type of cement and ageing. Although RelyX ARC showed the highest bond strength before thermomechanical loading (p<0.05), the sealing ability of this cement was worse than those exhibited in Fuji CEM and RelyX Unicem (p<0.05). After thermomechanical loading, pull-out strengths of Fuji I and Fuji CEM were significantly increased, whereas that of RelyX ARC group significantly decreased (p<0.05). The sealing ability of Fuji CEM was significantly better than the two resin cement groups (p<0.05) after ageing. Fuji CEM demonstrates increased pull-out strength after thermomechanical loading and favourable sealing ability compared with the other cements. Resin-modified glass ionomer cements have the potential benefit of achieving long-term retention when used for luting glass fibre post to root canal dentine. So it may be recommended for the cementation of glass fibre post in clinics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Four-year Survival of Endodontically Treated Premolars Restored with Fiber Posts

    PubMed Central

    Juloski, J.; Fadda, G.M.; Monticelli, F.; Fajó-Pascual, M.; Goracci, C.; Ferrari, M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this prospective clinical trial was to investigate the influence of the residual coronal structure of endodontically treated teeth and the type of cement used for luting fiber posts on four-year clinical survival. Two groups (n = 60) were defined, depending on the amount of residual coronal dentin after abutment build-up and final preparation: (1) more than 50% of coronal residual structure; and (2) equal to or less than 50% of coronal residual structure. Within each group, teeth were randomly divided into 2 subgroups (n = 30) according to the material used for luting fiber posts: (A) resin core build-up material, Gradia Core; or (B) self-adhesive universal cement GCem Automix. The rate of success was assessed based on clinical and intra-oral radiographic examinations at the follow-up after 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 months. The highest 48-month success and survival rates were recorded in group 1A (90% and 100%, respectively), whereas teeth in group 2B exhibited the lowest performance (63.3% success rate, 86.6% survival rate). Cox regression analysis revealed that neither the amount of coronal residual structure nor the luting material significantly influenced the failure risk (p > .05) (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01532947). PMID:24646637

  11. Bond strength of fibre glass and carbon fibre posts to the root canal walls using different resin cements.

    PubMed

    Farina, Ana Paula; Cecchin, Doglas; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; Naves, Lucas Zago; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the bond strength of fibre glass and carbon fibre posts in the root canal walls cemented with self-adhesive (RelyX-Unicem) and chemical (Cement-Post) resin cements. Forty maxillary canines were divided into four groups according to the cement and post used and submitted to the push-out test (0.5 mm min(-1)). The data were submitted to statistical analysis (2-way ANOVA, Bonferroni--P<0.05) and fracture analysis by Scanning Electronic Microscopy. Fibre glass presented the best results when cemented with RelyX-Unicem and Cement-Post (P<0.05). RelyX-Unicem presented the highest bond strength values for both posts (P<0.05). Fracture analysis showed predominance of cohesive fracture of post for RelyX-Unicem and adhesive fracture between dentin/cement and mixed for Cement-Post. The bond strength values were significantly affected by the type of post and cement used and the highest values were found for fibre glass posts and RelyX-Unicem. © 2010 The Authors. Australian Endodontic Journal © 2010 Australian Society of Endodontology.

  12. Mechanical performance of endodontic restorations with prefabricated posts: sensitivity analysis of parameters with a 3D finite element model.

    PubMed

    González-Lluch, Carmen; Pérez-González, Antonio; Sancho-Bru, Joaquín L; Rodríguez-Cervantes, Pablo-Jesús

    2014-08-01

    Many studies have investigated the effect of different parameters of the endodontically restored tooth on its final strength, using in vitro tests and model simulations. However, the differences in the experimental set-up or modelling conditions and the limited number of parameters studied in each case prevent us from obtaining clear conclusions about the relative importance of each parameter. In this study, a validated 3D biomechanical model of the restored tooth was used for an exhaustive sensitivity analysis. The individual influence of 20 different parameters on the mechanical performance of an endodontic restoration with prefabricated posts was studied. The results bring up the remarkable importance of the loading angle on the final restoration strength. Flexural loads are more critical than compressive or tensile loads. Young's modulus of the post and its length and diameter are the most influential parameters for strength, whereas other parameters such as ferrule geometry or core and crown characteristics are less significant.

  13. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with Zirconia filler containing composite core material and fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Jeaidi, Zaid Al

    2016-01-01

    To assess the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with a novel Zirconia (Zr) nano-particle filler containing bulk fill resin composite. Forty-five freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated using conventional step back preparation and warm lateral condensation filling. Post space preparation was performed using drills compatible for fiber posts (Rely X Fiber Post) on all teeth (n=45), and posts were cemented using self etch resin cement (Rely X Unicem). Samples were equally divided into three groups (n=15) based on the type of core materials, ZirconCore (ZC) MulticCore Flow (MC) and Luxacore Dual (LC). All specimens were mounted in acrylic resin and loads were applied (Universal testing machine) at 130° to the long axis of teeth, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. The loads and the site at which the failures occurred were recorded. Data obtained was tabulated and analyzed using a statistical program. The means and standard deviations were compared using ANOVA and Multiple comparisons test. The lowest and highest failure loads were shown by groups LC (18.741±3.02) and MC (25.16±3.30) respectively. Group LC (18.741±3.02) showed significantly lower failure loads compared to groups ZC (23.02±4.21) and MC (25.16±3.30) (p<0.01). However groups ZC (23.02±4.21) and MC (25.16±3.30) showed comparable failure loads (p=0.23). Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with Zr filler containing bulk fill composite cores was comparable to teeth restored with conventional Zr free bulk fill composites. Zr filled bulk fill composites are recommended for restoration of endodontically treated teeth as they show comparable fracture resistance to conventional composite materials with less catastrophic failures.

  14. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with Zirconia filler containing composite core material and fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Jeaidi, Zaid Al

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with a novel Zirconia (Zr) nano-particle filler containing bulk fill resin composite. Methods: Forty-five freshly extracted maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated using conventional step back preparation and warm lateral condensation filling. Post space preparation was performed using drills compatible for fiber posts (Rely X Fiber Post) on all teeth (n=45), and posts were cemented using self etch resin cement (Rely X Unicem). Samples were equally divided into three groups (n=15) based on the type of core materials, ZirconCore (ZC) MulticCore Flow (MC) and Luxacore Dual (LC). All specimens were mounted in acrylic resin and loads were applied (Universal testing machine) at 130° to the long axis of teeth, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. The loads and the site at which the failures occurred were recorded. Data obtained was tabulated and analyzed using a statistical program. The means and standard deviations were compared using ANOVA and Multiple comparisons test. Results: The lowest and highest failure loads were shown by groups LC (18.741±3.02) and MC (25.16±3.30) respectively. Group LC (18.741±3.02) showed significantly lower failure loads compared to groups ZC (23.02±4.21) and MC (25.16±3.30) (p<0.01). However groups ZC (23.02±4.21) and MC (25.16±3.30) showed comparable failure loads (p=0.23). Conclusions: Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with Zr filler containing bulk fill composite cores was comparable to teeth restored with conventional Zr free bulk fill composites. Zr filled bulk fill composites are recommended for restoration of endodontically treated teeth as they show comparable fracture resistance to conventional composite materials with less catastrophic failures. PMID:28083048

  15. Stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth with titanium alloy post and carbon fiber post with different alveolar bone height: A three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Singh, S Vijay; Bhat, Manohar; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Deepak; Satija, Harsha; Sharma, Sumeet

    2015-01-01

    A three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) on the stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth with titanium alloy post and carbon fiber post with different alveolar bone height. The 3D model was fabricated using software to represent an endodontically treated mandibular second premolar with post and restored with a full ceramic crown restoration, which was then analyzed using FEA using FEA ANSYS Workbench V13.0 (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A) software. The FEA showed the maximum stresses of 137.43 Mpa in dentin with alveolar bone height of 4 mm when the titanium post was used, 138.48 Mpa when carbon fiber post was used as compared to 105.91 Mpa in the model with alveolar bone height of 2 mm from the cement enamel junction (CEJ) when the titanium post was used and 107.37 Mpa when the carbon fiber post was used. Stress was observed more in alveolar bone height level of 4 mm from CEJ than 2 mm from CEJ. Stresses in the dentin were almost similar when the carbon fiber post was compared to titanium post. However, stresses in the post and the cement were much higher when titanium post was used as compared to carbon fiber post.

  16. Stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth with titanium alloy post and carbon fiber post with different alveolar bone height: A three-dimensional finite element analysis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, S. Vijay; Bhat, Manohar; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Deepak; Satija, Harsha; Sharma, Sumeet

    2015-01-01

    Objective: A three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) on the stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth with titanium alloy post and carbon fiber post with different alveolar bone height. Materials and Methods: The 3D model was fabricated using software to represent an endodontically treated mandibular second premolar with post and restored with a full ceramic crown restoration, which was then analyzed using FEA using FEA ANSYS Workbench V13.0 (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A) software. Results: The FEA showed the maximum stresses of 137.43 Mpa in dentin with alveolar bone height of 4 mm when the titanium post was used, 138.48 Mpa when carbon fiber post was used as compared to 105.91 Mpa in the model with alveolar bone height of 2 mm from the cement enamel junction (CEJ) when the titanium post was used and 107.37 Mpa when the carbon fiber post was used. Conclusions: Stress was observed more in alveolar bone height level of 4 mm from CEJ than 2 mm from CEJ. Stresses in the dentin were almost similar when the carbon fiber post was compared to titanium post. However, stresses in the post and the cement were much higher when titanium post was used as compared to carbon fiber post. PMID:26430375

  17. Effect of the Type of Endodontic Sealer on the Bond Strength Between Fiber Post and Root Wall Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Mosharraf, Ramin; Zare, Sepideh

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: An important factor that interferes with the bonding between the root canal wall and resin cement is the root canal sealer remnant. There is controversy about the effect of eugenol-containing sealers on the bond strength between resin cements and fiber post. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the type of endodontic sealer on the bond strength of FRC posts cemented with resin cement to the root canal wall. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 20 extracted mandibular first premolars were endodontically treated and divided into two groups according to the endodontic sealer used (n=10): G1: AH26 (Resin based); and G2: Endofill (Eugenol-based). After preparing post space, adhesive resin cement (Panavia F 2.0) was used for cementation of the fiber post to the root canal dentin. Three 3 mm thick slices were obtained from each root. The push-out test was performed with a cross-head speed of 1 mm/minute. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for analyzing data (α=0.05). Results: The two-way ANOVA showed that different root canal sealers (P=0.037) had significant effects on bond strength (BS), but root canal regions (P=0.811) and interaction between root canal sealers and root canal regions (P=0.258) had no significant effects on BS. Maximum and minimum mean values were observed in the AH26 group, the apical region and the Endofill group in the apical region, respectively. Post Hoc Tukey test revealed that there were no significant differences between different root canal regions in both cements (P>0.05). Conclusion: The region of root canal had no effect on the bond strength of cemented fiber posts to the root canal. Eugenol-based sealers (Endofill) significantly reduced the bond strength between fiber posts luted with resin cement to the root canal. PMID:25584058

  18. Surface debris of canal walls after post space preparation in endodontically treated teeth: a scanning electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Serafino, Cinzia; Gallina, Giuseppe; Cumbo, Enzo; Ferrari, Marco

    2004-03-01

    To evaluate surface cleanliness of root canal walls along post space after endodontic treatment using 2 different irrigant regimens, obturation techniques, and post space preparation for adhesive bonding. Forty teeth, divided into 4 groups, were instrumented, using Ni-Ti rotary files, irrigated with NaOCl or NaOCl+EDTA and obturated with cold lateral condensation (CLC) or warm vertical condensation (WVC) of gutta-percha. After post space preparation, etching, and washing procedure, canal walls were observed using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Amount of debris, smear layer, sealer/gutta-percha remnants, and visibility of open tubules were rated. Higher amounts of rough debris, large sealer/gutta-percha remnants, thick smear layer, and no visibility of tubule orifices were recorded in all the groups at apical level of post space. At middle and coronal levels areas of clean dentin, alternating with areas covered by thin smear layer, smaller debris, gutta-percha remnants, and orifices of tubules partially or totally occluded by plugs were frequently observed. After endodontic treatment, obturation, and post space preparation SEM analysis of canal walls along post space shows large areas (covered by smear layer, debris, and sealer/gutta-percha remnants) not available for adhesive bonding and resin cementation of fiber posts.

  19. Tensile strength of glass fiber posts submitted to different surface treatments.

    PubMed

    Faria, Maria Isabel A; Gomes, Érica Alves; Messias, Danielle Cristine; Silva Filho, João Manoel; Souza Filho, Celso Bernardo; Paulino, Silvana Maria

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the tensile strength of glass fiber posts submitted to different surface treatments. Forty-eight maxillary canines had their crowns sectioned and root canals endodontically treated. The roots were embedded in acrylic resin and distributed into 3 groups according to the surface treatment: Group I: the posts were treated with silane agent for 30 s and adhesive; Group II: the posts were cleaned with alcohol before treatment with silane agent and adhesive; Group III: the posts were submitted to conditioning with 37% phosphoric acid for 30 s before treatment with silane agent and adhesive. Each group was divided into 2 subgroups for adhesive polymerization or not before insertion into the canal: A - adhesive was not light cured and B - adhesive was light cured. All posts were cemented with Panavia F and the samples were subjected to tensile strength test in a universal testing machine at crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. There was statistically significant difference (p<0.01) only between group GIII-B and groups GI-A and GI-B. No significant difference was found among the other groups (p>0.05). It was concluded that the products used for cleaning the posts influenced the retention regardless of adhesive light curing.

  20. The effect of pressure changes during simulated diving on the pull out strength of glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Gulve, Meenal Nitin; Gulve, Nitin Dilip

    2013-11-01

    Scuba diving is one of the fastest growing sports in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressure variations to which divers are exposed on the pull out strength of glass fiber post luted with different cements. In this in vitro study, 120 extracted, single-rooted lower premolars were endodontically treated. They were randomly divided into six groups and restored using the glass fiber post (Ivoclar Vivadent AG) and the following luting agents: Zinc phosphate, conventional glass ionomer, resin reinforced glass ionomer, resin cement with etch-and-rinse adhesive, resin cement with self-etching adhesive, and self-adhesive resin cement. Each group was randomly divided into two equal subgroups, one as a control, and the other to be used experimentally. After 7 days of storage, experimental groups were pressure cycled. The force required to dislodge each post was recorded in Newton (N) on Universal testing machine (Star Testing System) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were statistically analyzed using the ANOVA and Student's t-test (P < 0.001). The pull out strength of posts cemented with zinc phosphate and conventional glass ionomer in pressure cycle group was significantly less than their control group. Although, no significant difference was found between pressure cycle and control group using resin reinforced glass ionomer cement and resin cements. Dentist should consider using resin reinforced glass ionomer or resin cement, for the cementation of glass fiber post, for the patients such as divers, who are likely to be exposed to pressure cycling.

  1. The effect of pressure changes during simulated diving on the pull out strength of glass fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Gulve, Meenal Nitin; Gulve, Nitin Dilip

    2013-01-01

    Background: Scuba diving is one of the fastest growing sports in the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of pressure variations to which divers are exposed on the pull out strength of glass fiber post luted with different cements. Materials and Methods: In this in vitro study, 120 extracted, single-rooted lower premolars were endodontically treated. They were randomly divided into six groups and restored using the glass fiber post (Ivoclar Vivadent AG) and the following luting agents: Zinc phosphate, conventional glass ionomer, resin reinforced glass ionomer, resin cement with etch-and-rinse adhesive, resin cement with self-etching adhesive, and self-adhesive resin cement. Each group was randomly divided into two equal subgroups, one as a control, and the other to be used experimentally. After 7 days of storage, experimental groups were pressure cycled. The force required to dislodge each post was recorded in Newton (N) on Universal testing machine (Star Testing System) at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were statistically analyzed using the ANOVA and Student's t-test (P < 0.001). Results: The pull out strength of posts cemented with zinc phosphate and conventional glass ionomer in pressure cycle group was significantly less than their control group. Although, no significant difference was found between pressure cycle and control group using resin reinforced glass ionomer cement and resin cements. Conclusion: Dentist should consider using resin reinforced glass ionomer or resin cement, for the cementation of glass fiber post, for the patients such as divers, who are likely to be exposed to pressure cycling. PMID:24379861

  2. Effect of root canal preparation, type of endodontic post and mechanical cycling on root fracture strength

    PubMed Central

    RIPPE, Marília Pivetta; SANTINI, Manuela Favarin; BIER, Carlos Alexandre Souza; BALDISSARA, Paolo; VALANDRO, Luiz Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the type of root canal preparation, intraradicular post and mechanical cycling on the fracture strength of roots. Material and Methods eighty human single rooted teeth were divided into 8 groups according to the instruments used for root canal preparation (manual or rotary instruments), the type of intraradicular post (fiber posts- FRC and cast post and core- CPC) and the use of mechanical cycling (MC) as follows: Manual and FRC; Manual, FRC and MC; Manual and CPC; Manual, CPC and MC; Rotary and FRC; Rotary, FRC and MC; Rotary and CPC; Rotary, CPC and MC. The filling was performed by lateral compactation. All root canals were prepared for a post with a 10 mm length, using the custom #2 bur of the glass fiber post system. For mechanical cycling, the protocol was applied as follows: an angle of incidence of 45°, 37°C, 88 N, 4 Hz, 2 million pulses. All groups were submitted to fracture strength test in a 45° device with 1 mm/ min cross-head speed until failure occurred. Results The 3-way ANOVA showed that the root canal preparation strategy (p<0.03) and post type (p<0.0001) affected the fracture strength results, while mechanical cycling (p=0.29) did not. Conclusion The root canal preparation strategy only influenced the root fracture strength when restoring with a fiber post and mechanical cycling, so it does not seem to be an important factor in this scenario. PMID:25025556

  3. Glass Fibre-Reinforced Composite Post and Core Used in Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Leena; Passi, Sidhi

    2011-01-01

    Aesthetic requirement of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries has been a challenge to pediatric dentist. Among restorative treatment options, prefabricated crown and biological and resin composite restoration either by means of direct or indirect technique are mentioned in the literature. This paper presents the clinical sequence of rehabilitation of maxillary anterior primary teeth. Endodontic treatment was followed by the placement of a glass fibre-reinforced composite resin post. The crown reconstruction was done with composite restoration. Resin glass fibre post has best properties in elasticity, translucency, adaptability, tenaciousness, and resistance to traction and to impact. Along with ease of application, fiber can be used as an alternative to traditionally used materials in the management of early childhood caries. PMID:22567447

  4. Effect of Endodontic Irrigating Solutions on the Micro Push-out Bond Strength of a Fibre Glass Dowel

    PubMed Central

    Crispim da Silveira, Olimpia; Bras da Silva, Rodivan; Dametto, Fabio Roberto; Machado, Claudia Tavares; Souza dos Santos, Alex Jose

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of different endodontic irrigating solutions on the micro push-out bond strength of a fiber glass dowel. Material and Methods Seventy 16-mm long root segments of bovine incisors were prepared and randomly assigned to 7 groups (n=10) according to the type of irrigating solution used prior to the cementation of the intra-radicular fiber glass dowels: G1: 5.25% NaOCl + 17% EDTA; G2: 5.25% NaOCl; G3: 17% EDTA; G4: 2% chlorhexidine gel; G5: 70% alcohol; G6: 11.5% polyacrylic acid; and G7: saline (control). After treatment of intracanal dentin, the glass fibre dowels were cemented with self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem). Six slices with the thickness of 1.00 ± 0.05 mm were obtained from each tooth at the coronal, middle and apical root thirds (2 slices per third) using a low-speed saw. Micro push-out tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min and the data (MPa) were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey’s and Dunnett’s tests. Results There were statistically significant differences (p<0.0001) among the irrigating solutions, but no significant difference (p=0.0591) was found among the root thirds. G5 presented the highest bond strength mean of all groups (p<0.0001). The use of 70% alcohol increased the adhesion values by 53% compared to the group control. Conclusion The use of 70% alcohol increased the bond strength of the fiber glass dowel to the dentin walls. However, the push-out bond strength between the dowel and the root dentin was not affected by the root third (coronal, middle and apical). PMID:27688347

  5. Effect of Endodontic Irrigating Solutions on the Micro Push-out Bond Strength of a Fibre Glass Dowel.

    PubMed

    Crispim da Silveira, Olimpia; Bras da Silva, Rodivan; Dametto, Fabio Roberto; Machado, Claudia Tavares; Souza Dos Santos, Alex Jose; Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite

    2014-03-01

    To evaluate the effect of different endodontic irrigating solutions on the micro push-out bond strength of a fiber glass dowel. Seventy 16-mm long root segments of bovine incisors were prepared and randomly assigned to 7 groups (n=10) according to the type of irrigating solution used prior to the cementation of the intra-radicular fiber glass dowels: G1: 5.25% NaOCl + 17% EDTA; G2: 5.25% NaOCl; G3: 17% EDTA; G4: 2% chlorhexidine gel; G5: 70% alcohol; G6: 11.5% polyacrylic acid; and G7: saline (control). After treatment of intracanal dentin, the glass fibre dowels were cemented with self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem). Six slices with the thickness of 1.00 ± 0.05 mm were obtained from each tooth at the coronal, middle and apical root thirds (2 slices per third) using a low-speed saw. Micro push-out tests were performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5mm/min and the data (MPa) were analyzed statistically by ANOVA and Tukey's and Dunnett's tests. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.0001) among the irrigating solutions, but no significant difference (p=0.0591) was found among the root thirds. G5 presented the highest bond strength mean of all groups (p<0.0001). The use of 70% alcohol increased the adhesion values by 53% compared to the group control. The use of 70% alcohol increased the bond strength of the fiber glass dowel to the dentin walls. However, the push-out bond strength between the dowel and the root dentin was not affected by the root third (coronal, middle and apical).

  6. Effect of QMix irrigant on bond strength of glass fibre posts to root dentine.

    PubMed

    Elnaghy, A M

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effect of QMix irrigant compared with several other irrigating solutions on the bond strength of glass fibre posts to root dentine and on smear layer removal after post space preparation. One hundred and fifty single-rooted teeth were used. The specimens were divided into six groups in each test according to the irrigation regimen used: group 1, distilled water; group 2, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); group 3, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX); group 4, 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); group 5, 17% EDTA followed by 2% CHX; and group 6, QMix. Dual-cure self-adhesive resin cement (i CEM; Heraeus Kulzer, Hanau, Germany) was used for testing the adhesion of glass fibre post (Reblida; VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany) to root dentine using a micropush-out test. Debonding specimens were examined with a scanning electron microscope. Scanning electron microscopy was also used to examine and score the treated specimens for debris removal and dentinal tubule opening. Micropush-out data were analysed using anova and Tukey's test. Debris and dentinal tubule opening scores were analysed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. QMix and 17% EDTA/2% CHX demonstrated the highest mean bond strength values in all root levels amongst the groups. Most failure modes were adhesive type of failures between post and luting material (42.6%). QMix, 17% EDTA and 17% EDTA/2% CHX performed significantly better than the other groups on smear layer removal and dentinal tubule opening. QMix is an effective irrigant that can remove smear layer, open dentinal tubules and simplify the irrigation protocol, without compromising the bonding strength of glass fibre posts cemented with a self-adhesive resin cement to root dentine. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Comparison of Endodontic Medicaments on Bond Strength of Fiber Post to Root Dentin Using Resin Cement

    PubMed Central

    Zare Jahromi, Maryam; Barekatain, Mehrdad; Ravanbod, Shirin; Ranjbarian, Parisa; Kousehlar, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Endodontic irrigants and medicaments may affect the bond strength of intracanal posts to root dentin. Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX) on bond strength of fiber post cemented with resin cement to root dentin. Materials and Method: This in vitro experimental study was conducted on 36 mandibular premolars. Canals were prepared using the step back technique. After root canal irrigation, the teeth were divided into three groups of 12. Ca(OH)2 paste and CHX gel were used as intracanal medicaments in the first and second groups respectively. No intracanal medicament was used in the third group (control group). Access cavities were then sealed and the teeth were incubated for one week. The root canals were then filled using gutta percha and AH26 sealer and the teeth were incubated for 72 hours. Tooth crowns were then cut at the level of the cementoenamel junction and intracanal posts were placed. The teeth were mounted in auto-polymerizing acrylic resin, and incubated for one week .They were then sectioned into 1.5mm thick slices from their coronal surface using a fully automated cutting machine, and subjected to push-out test until failure. The load at debonding was recorded and data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, post-hoc test and t-test. The coronal margin of the root was at the level of the surface of acrylic resin in the mold. Results: The mean bond strength was 4.45 MPa in the Ca(OH)2, 2.45 MPa in the CHX and 2.48 MPa in the control group. The difference in this regard was statistically significant among groups (p= 0.04). The Ca(OH)2 group had significant differences with the CHX and control groups (p= 0.03 and p= 0.02, respectively). The difference between the CHX and control groups was not significant (p= 0.974). Conclusion: Based on the results, Ca(OH)2 increased the bond strength of fiber post to root dentin but 2% CHX had no effect on bond

  8. Effect of the length of glass fiber posts on the fracture resistance of restored maxillary central incisors.

    PubMed

    Borelli, Bruna; Sorrentino, Roberto; Zarone, Fernando; Ferrari, Marco

    2012-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of post length insertion on the fracture resistance of directly restored endodontically treated teeth. 30 maxillary central incisors were restored with glass fiber posts and composite cores to produce groups with post lengths of (1) 5 mm, (2) 7 mm, and (3) 9 m. Specimens were loaded at 130 degrees (Instron). Fracture strengths were analyzed with the Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test to verify the normality of the data distribution and with ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at P < 0.05. Fracture patterns (restorable or unrestorable) were analyzed (Pearson's Chi-square test). The average fracture resistance was: Group 1 = 366.4 N, Group 2 = 507.4 N and Group 3 = 509.9 N. No significant difference was found among the three groups for fracture resistance or for failure mode. The insertion length did not influence the fracture pattern; more restorable fractures were detected.

  9. The effect of endodontic access preparation on the failure load of lithium disilicate glass-ceramic restorations.

    PubMed

    Qeblawi, Dana; Hill, Thomas; Chlosta, Kelly

    2011-11-01

    Endodontic access preparation through lithium disilicate ceramic restorations may damage the restoration and compromise its load-bearing capability. The purpose of this in vitro research was to investigate the effect of simulated endodontic access preparation through lithium disilicate glass-ceramic restorations on their load to failure. Sixty lithium disilicate glass-ceramic (IPS e.max CAD) complete-coverage restorations were milled and crystallized. Five coats of die relief were applied internally in the crown to provide a cement space approximately 60 μm in thickness. Composite resin dies were fabricated by backfilling each crown. The specimens were then stored at 37°C and 100% humidity for 30 days. The crowns with their respective dies were divided into 6 groups: Groups M-C, M-ZR, M-SC, and M-CRF were adhesively bonded with a resin cement (Multilink Implant), and Groups F-C and F-ZR were conventionally cemented with zinc phosphate cement (Fleck's). After storing all groups for 1 week, Groups M-C and F-C served as the intact controls for the 2 cementation techniques, while Groups M-ZR and F-ZR had an access prepared with a 126 μm grit-size diamond rotary instrument. For Groups M-SC and M-CRF, the endodontic access was prepared with 150 μm and 180 μm grit-size diamond rotary instruments, respectively. Access preparations were restored with composite resin. All specimens were stored at 37°C and 100% humidity for 1 week before they were loaded to failure with a universal loading apparatus (crosshead speed=1mm/min). The results were analyzed with a 1-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD test (α=.05). The highest failure loads were achieved with Groups M-C (3316 N ±483) and M-ZR (3464 N ±645) Larger grit rotary instruments resulted in lower failure-loads in Groups M-SC (2915 N ±569) and M-CRF (2354 N ±476). Groups F-C (2242 N ±369) and F-ZR(1998 N ±448) had significantly lower failure loads than their adhesively bonded counterparts (P<.05). The use of 126

  10. Evaluation of microsurgery with SuperEBA as root-end filling material for treating post-treatment endodontic disease: a 2-year retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Zhai, Fei; Zhang, Ru; Hou, Benxiang

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study assessed the effects of microsurgical treatment of post-treatment endodontic disease using SuperEBA (Bosworth, Skokie, IL) as the root-end filling material and evaluated the potential prognostic factors in relation to outcome. Data were collected from patients diagnosed with post-treatment endodontic disease who then underwent endodontic microsurgery between April 2007 and October 2010. The effect was evaluated 2 years after the operation. Surgical procedures were performed by a single endodontic specialist. After surgery, operation records were recorded including preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative factors from the clinical and radiographic measures. For statistical analysis of the predisposing factors, the dependent variable was the dichotomous outcome (ie, success vs failure). Eighty-two patients with 101 treated teeth met the inclusion criteria. The recall rate was 87.2%. Of these microsurgically treated cases, the overall healing rate was 93.1%. At the 0.05 significance level, age, sex, tooth position, size of periapical radiolucency, biopsy result of periapical lesion, and presence of a sinus tract appeared to have no significant effects on the outcome (P > .05). Microsurgical endodontic treatment using SuperEBA as the root-end filling material is a favorable option for post-treatment endodontic disease. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Clinical evaluation of residual crowns and roots restored by glass fiber post and core, cast metal post and core or directly].

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongxue; Shen, Lili; Liu, Kun; Su, Linwang

    2013-02-01

    To evaluate the survival rate and complications of endodontically treated residual crowns and roots restored directly or by glass fiber post and core or cast metal post and core. In this study, 96 patients with a total of 142 teeth were selected. All the teeth were undergone root canal therapy. And then, according to different situations, some of them were restored with glass fiber post and core, another with cast metal post and core, the rest were restored directly in the strict controlled indications. The teeth (135) in 89 patients were divided into three groups. The first group contained 73 (54.1%) teeth restored with glass fiber post and composite resin core. The survival rate reached 97.3% in the average observation period of (5.7 +/- 1.9) years. The second group contained 40 teeth, restored with pure titanium casting post and core. The survival rate reached 87.5% in the average observation period of (6.2 +/- 2.2) years. The last group contained 22 teeth received no treatment. The survival rate reached 90.9% in the average observation period of (5.4 +/- 1.8) years. The success rate had no significant difference among the three groups. The most common complications after restored included root fracture (6.7%), retention loss (2.2%), secondary caries (1.5%) and periapical periodontitis (0.7%). Under the premise of high quality root canal treatment and standard restoration treatment, the abutment teeth, whether are restored by glass fiber post and core, cast metal post and core or without post, have a higher survival rate over 5 years of observation period and complications especially root fracture still should attract the necessary attention.

  12. Evaluation of over-etching technique in the endodontically treated tooth restoration

    PubMed Central

    Migliau, Guido; Piccoli, Luca; Besharat, Laith Konstantinos; Di Carlo, Stefano; Pompa, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Summary The main purpose of a post-endodontic restoration with posts is to guarantee the retention of the restorative material. The aim of the study was to examine, through the push-out test, how bond strength between the post and the dentin varied with etching time with 37% orthophosphoric acid, before cementation of a glass fiber post. Moreover, it has been examined if over-etching (application time of the acid: 2 minutes) was an effective technique to improve the adhesion to the endodontic substrate, after highlighting the problems of adhesion concerning its anatomical characteristics and the changes after the endodontic treatment. Highest bond strength values were found by etching the substrate for 30 sec., while over-etching didn’t improve bond strength to the endodontic substrate. PMID:26161247

  13. In vitro fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots filled with a bonded filling material or different types of posts.

    PubMed

    Sagsen, Burak; Zortuk, Mustafa; Ertas, Huseyin; Er, Ozgur; Demirbuga, Sezer; Arslan, Hakan

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to compare the fracture resistance of roots filled with a bonded material, fiber posts, or titanium post systems. Canals in the first group were filled with AH Plus and gutta-percha cones, and roots in the second group were filled with Epiphany sealer and Resilon cones. The root fillings (60 roots) were removed up to 4 mm from the canal apex to obtain 10-mm-deep post spaces, and posts were cemented. The groups were as follows: AH Plus control group, Epiphany control group, AH Plus fiber post group, AH Plus titanium post group, Epiphany fiber post group, and Epiphany titanium post group. Fracture tests were performed by using an Instron testing machine. The force was applied at a 45° axial angle with a constant speed of 1 mm/min. For each sample, the force at which fracture occurred was recorded in units of newtons. Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance test. There was no statistically significant difference between all groups (P > .05). Titanium posts, fiber posts, and Epiphany root canal filling systems were found to have no reinforcing effect on endodontically treated roots. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of the Resin Cement Thickness on the Push-Out Bond Strength of Glass Fiber Posts.

    PubMed

    Marcos, Regina Maria Helen-Cot; Kinder, Gustavo Ross; Alfredo, Edson; Quaranta, Tarcisio; Correr, Gisele Maria; Cunha, Leonardo Fernandes da; Gonzaga, Carla Castiglia

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the influence of resin cement thickness on the bond strength of prefabricated and customized glass fiber posts after storage in distilled water. Thirty human uniradicular roots were treated endodontically. The roots were divided into 3 groups: THIN (thin cement layer) - post space preparation with #0.5 drill and cementation of #0.5 post; THICK (thick cement layer) - post space preparation with #1 drill and cementation of #0.5 post; and CUSTOM (customized cement layer) - post space preparation with #1 drill and cementation of a customized post (#0.5 glass fiber posts customized with resin composite). All posts were luted with self-adhesive resin cement. The push-out test was carried out after storage for 24 h and 90 days in distilled water at 37 °C. The data were analyzed with three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (a=0.05). Bond strengths were significantly higher for CUSTOM (9.37 MPa), than for THIN (7.85 MPa) and THICK (7.07 MPa), which were statistically similar. Considering the thirds, the bond strength varied in the sequence: apical (7.13 MPa) < middle (8.22 MPa) = coronal (8.94 MPa). Bond strength for 24 h storage was significantly higher (8.80 MPa) than for 90-day storage (7.40 MPa). It may be concluded that the thickness of resin cement influenced the bond strength of glass fiber posts. The customized posts presented higher bond strength. Storage in water for 90 days affected negatively the values of bond strength, especially for thick cement layers in the apical third.

  15. Fracture Resistance of Endodontically-treated Maxillary Premolars Restored with Composite Resin along with Glass Fiber Insertion in Different Positions

    PubMed Central

    Jafari Navimipour, Elmira; Ebrahimi Chaharom, Mohammad Esmaeel; Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Mohammadi, Narmin; Bahari, Mahmoud; Firouzmandi, Maryam

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The aim was to evaluate the effect of three methods of fiber insertion on fracture resistance of root-filled maxillary premolars in vitro. Materials and methods Sixty extracted human maxillary premolars received endodontic treatment followed by preparation of mesioocclusodistal (MOD) cavities, with gingival cavosurface margin 1.5 mm coronal to the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Subsequently, the samples were randomly divided into four groups: no-fiber group; occlusal fiber group (fiber was placed in the occlusal third); circumferential fiber group (fiber was placed circumferentially in the cervical third); and dual-fiber group (occlusal and circumferential fibers). Subsequent to restoring with composite resin and thermocycling, a compressive force was applied until fracture. Data was analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey test at significance levels of P < 0.05 and P < 0.02, respectively. Results Fiber placement significantly increased fracture resistance. Fracture resistance in the dual-fiber group was significantly higher than that in the circumferential fiber group (P < 0.007); however, there were no significant differences between the dual-fiber and occlusal fiber groups (P = 0.706). The highest favorable fracture rate was observed in the circumferential fiber group (60%). Conclusion Composite resin restoration along with glass fiber in the occlusal and gingival thirds can be an acceptable treatment option for restoring root-filled upper premolars. PMID:23277858

  16. Fracture patterns of glass-ionomer cement overlays versus stainless steel bands during endodontic treatment: an ex-vivo study.

    PubMed

    Pakdeethai, S; Abuzar, M; Parashos, P

    2013-12-01

    To compare fracture patterns of posterior teeth temporized with: mesio-occlusal-distal (MOD) glass-ionomer cement (GIC) interim restorations, stainless steel (SS) bands, GIC dome overlays and GIC dome overlays with occlusal temporary restorations. The root canals of 92 extracted human premolars and molars were prepared with rotary NiTi instruments and dressed with calcium hydroxide paste prior to cavity preparation for standardized MOD restorations. Teeth were divided into four groups (n = 23) and temporarily restored with: GIC interim restorations (GIC group), stainless steel bands (SS group), GIC dome overlays (GIC-O group) or GIC dome overlays with intermediate restorative material (IRM) in the access cavities (GIC-IRM group). Teeth were subjected to compressive axial load until fracture; fracture forces and fracture modes were recorded. Statistical analysis included Kaplan-Meier plots, Cox proportional hazards model, one-way analysis of variance, chi-square and Fisher's exact tests. There was a significantly higher risk of failure in the GIC group compared with the SS (P < 0.001), GIC-O (P < 0.001) and GIC-IRM (P = 0.001) groups. The mean fracture force for SS was significantly higher than GIC-O (P = 0.03) and GIC-IRM (P < 0.001). GIC fracture force was significantly lower than all other groups (P < 0.001). Significantly fewer unfavourable fractures were observed in SS compared with GIC (P = 0.001), GIC-O (P = 0.007) and GIC-IRM (P < 0.001). Glass-ionomer cement dome overlays with reduced cuspal height and occlusal inclines may be recommended for broken-down posterior teeth, without any risk of poor aesthetics, gingival irritation or further proximal tooth structure loss. Stainless steel bands may only need to be used in extensively broken-down teeth or in the presence of parafunctional habits. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Strengthening effect of horizontally placed fiberglass posts in endodontically-treated teeth restored with direct resin composite.

    PubMed

    Favero, Fernando José; De Melo, Tiago André Fontoura; Stona, Deborah; Mota, Eduardo Gonçalves; Spohr, Ana Maria; Burnett, Luiz Henrique

    2015-06-01

    To assess the fracture strength of cavity preparations, directly restored with resin composite, with and without the presence of fiberglass posts with different diameters. 84 extracted third molars were embedded in acrylic resin and divided into six groups (n = 14 per group): healthy (H); cavity preparation (P); cavity preparation + endodontic treatment (PE); PE + resin composite (R); PE + R + 2 horizontally transfixed fiberglass posts 1.1 mm in diameter (PERP1); PE + R + 2 fiberglass posts 1.5 mm in diameter (PERP2). The MOD cavity preparations were standardized with their width corresponding to 2/3 of the buccolingual distance and occlusogingival depth of 4 mm, with 2 mm remaining above the cemento-enamel junction. Endodontic treatments were performed in the PE, R, PERP1 and PERP2 groups. The buccal surface received two demarcations to create orifices for placement of the PERP1 and PERP2 posts. Once the fiberglass posts were placed, the teeth were restored with resin composite. In group R, only resin composite was used. After 24 hours, the teeth were subjected to the fracture toughness test on a universal testing machine. A 10 KN load cell and crosshead speed of 1 mm/minute was used until fracture occurred. After testing, the teeth were inspected for the type of fracture classified as: pulpal floor fracture (AP) or cuspal fracture (CP). The data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's test (P < 0.05%), demonstrating a statistical difference between groups: H 3830NA; P 778ND; PE 572.93ND; R 1782NC; PERP1 2988NB; PERP2 3100NAB. The fracture pattern was similar between the tested groups, showing 50% of fracture for cusps and pulpal floor.

  18. Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Roots Restored with Fiber Posts Using Different Resin Cements- An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Irodi, Sujatha; Mehta, Deepak; Subramanya, Shankar; Govindaraju, Vinay Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The influence of the remaining coronal tooth structure along with intra-radicular esthetic posts increases fracture resistance of fractured teeth especially in the anterior region. The advent of resin based luting cements improves the adhesion of fiber posts. Aim To evaluate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated roots restored with fiber posts using different resin cements – Calibra (etch and rinse), PermaFlo® DC (self-etch primer) and SmartCem2 (self-adhesive). Materials and Methods Extracted human maxillary central incisors having similar dimensions were decoronated at the Cemento-Enamel Junction (CEJ) to create 16mm long specimens and endodontically treated. A total of 45 teeth were divided into three groups with 15 teeth each for cementation of easy fiber posts (size1, 0.8mm diameter). Post spaces were prepared to a depth of 10mm. Group 1 – Caulk 34% phosphoric acid gel, dual cure adhesive Prime and Bond NT followed by luting of post with Calibra cement. Group 2 – Ultra – etch then Primer A and Primer B, and PermaFlo® DC was used to cement the post. Group 3 – SmartCem2 [1:1 ratio] was used to cement the post. The excess lengths of posts were seared and teeth were mounted on acrylic blocks and loaded under compressive force to the long axis of the tooth which increased in periodic pattern of 1mm/min. The value of the force at which each root section gets fractured was noted. The data were statistically analysed using ANOVA and Tukey’s Test. Results The mean fracture load (and SD) were as follows Group 1 – 762.400 (251.490); Group 2 – 662.933 (206.709); Group 3 – 657.800 (57.372). No statistically significant differences were seen among all three Groups, p-value (0.228). Conclusion Posts cemented using self -adhesive resin cement SmartCem2 have highest fracture resistance and bonding efficacy of self-adhesive technique showed reliably better results but was comparable to total–etch and self–etch techniques. PMID

  19. Endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Chong, B S; Rhodes, J S

    2014-03-01

    A better understanding of endodontic disease and the causes of treatment failure has refined the role of surgery in endodontics. The advent of newer materials, advances in surgical armamentarium and techniques have also led to an improved endodontic surgical outcome. The aim of this article is to provide a contemporary and up-to-date overview of endodontic surgery. It will focus primarily on the procedures most commonly performed in endodontic surgery.

  20. Effect of different composite core materials on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with FRC posts

    PubMed Central

    PANITIWAT, Prapaporn; SALIMEE, Prarom

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study evaluated the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber reinforced composite posts, using three resin composite core build-up materials, (Clearfil Photo Core (CPC), MultiCore Flow (MCF), and LuxaCore Z-Dual (LCZ)), and a nanohybrid composite, (Tetric N-Ceram (TNC)). Material and Methods Forty endodontically treated lower first premolars were restored with quartz fiber posts (D.T. Light-Post) cemented with resin cement (Panavia F2.0). Samples were randomly divided into four groups (n=10). Each group was built-up with one of the four core materials following its manufacturers’ instructions. The teeth were embedded in acrylic resin blocks. Nickel-Chromium crowns were fixed on the specimens with resin cement. The fracture resistance was determined using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min at 1350 to the tooth axis until failure occurred. All core materials used in the study were subjected to test for the flexural modulus according to ISO 4049:2009. Results One-way ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparisons test indicated that the fracture resistance was higher in the groups with CPC and MCF, which presented no statistically significant difference (p>0.05), but was significantly higher than in those with LCZ and TNC (p<0.05). In terms of the flexural modulus, the ranking from the highest values of the materials was aligned with the same tendency of fracture loads. Conclusion Among the cores used in this study, the composite core with high filler content tended to enhance fracture thresholds of teeth restored with fiber posts more than others. PMID:28403361

  1. Fracture resistance of tooth restored with four glass fiber post systems of varying surface geometries-An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Solomon-Sathish, Emmanuel; Venkatalakshmi-Aparna, Potluri; Balagopal, Sunderasan

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to relate the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth in relation to post geometry. Material and Methods Forty single rooted mandibular premolars were instrumented by step - back technique and obturated by lateral condensation. Forty teeth were randomly divided into four groups: Reforpost glass fiber X-ray®, RelyX®, Exacto conical® and Parapost Fiber Lux®. The post spaces were prepared using respective drills and luted. The core build up was done and metal crowns were luted. Fracture resistance was determined in universal testing machine. The statistical analysis was done using one way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey Kramer test. Results The teeth restored with Reforpost showed highest fracture resistance followed by Parapost and Exacto conical. The teeth restored with RelyX showed least fracture resistance. The teeth restored with Parapost had less unfavourable fracture followed by exacto conical. Conclusions Parallel design had less number of catastrophic failure and had better fracture resistance. Key words:Fracture resistance, glass fiber post, post geometry, stress. PMID:26855705

  2. The Prophylactic Effects of Zintoma and Ibuprofen on Post-endodontic Pain of Molars with Irreversible Pulpitis: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ramazani, Mohsen; Hamidi, Mahmoud Reza; Moghaddamnia, Ali Akbar; Ramazani, Nahid; Zarenejad, Nafiseh

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Post endodontic pain is often linked to the inflammatory process as well as additional central mechanisms. The purpose of the present double-blind randomized clinical trial study was to compare the prophylactic effects of a derivative of Zingiber Officinale, Zintoma, and Ibuprofen on post endodontic pain of molars with irreversible pulpitis. Materials and Methods The post endodontic pain of 72 enrolled patients suffering from irreversible pulpitis was assessed after prophylactic use of 400 mg Ibuprofen, 2 gr Zintoma and placebo. Using the Heft-Parker Visual Analogue Scale, the patients recorded their perceived pain before taking the medicament (baseline), immediately after and also at 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h post one-visit endodontic treatment. The statistical analysis was done using Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney, and Freedman tests (P<0.05). Results At all times, there was significant difference between the Ibuprofen and Zintoma (P<0.05) and also between the Ibuprofen and placebo (P<0.05). However, there was no significant difference between Zintoma and the placebo in any of time intervals (P>0.05). No side effects were observed. Conclusion The obtained results of the trial revealed that prophylactic use of 2 gr Zintoma is not an effective pain relieving agent. PMID:23922575

  3. Factors affecting on bond strength of glass fiber post cemented with different resin cements to root canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clavijo, V. R. G.; Bandéca, M. C.; Calixto, L. R.; Nadalin, M. R.; Saade, E. G.; Oliveira-Junior, O. B.; Andrade, M. F.

    2009-09-01

    Luting materials provides the retention of endodontic post. However, the failures of endodontic posts predominantly occurred are the losses of retention. Thus, the alternating use to remove the smear layer, open the dentine tubules, and/or etch the inter-tubular dentine can be provided by EDTA. This study was performed to evaluate effect of EDTA on bond strength of glass fiber post cemented with different resin cements to root canal. Fifty bovine incisors were selected and the crowns were removed to obtain a remaining 14-mm-height root. The roots were randomly distributed into five groups: GI: RelyX™ ARC/LED; GII: RelyX™ U100/LED; GIII EDTA/RelyX™ U100/LED; GIV: Multilink™; and GV: EDTA/Multlink™. After endodontic treatment, the post space was prepared with the drills designated for the quartz-coated-carbon-fiber post Aestheti-Post®. Before application of resin cements, root canals were irrigated with 17% EDTA (GIII and GV) during 1 min, rinsed with distilled water and dried using paper points. The light-cured materials were light-activated with UltraLume LED 5 (Ultradent, South Jordan, Utah) with power density of 1315 mW/cm2. Specimens were perpendicularly sectioned into approximately 1 mm thick sections and the stubs were performed on Universal Testing Machine. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post-hoc tests showed significant statistical different between RelyX™ ARC (GI) and RelyX™ U100 independent of the pre-treatment (GII to GIII) ( P < 0.05). The Multlink™ showed between RelyX™ ARC and RelyX™ U100 (GI to GIII; GII to GV) ( P < 0.05). The ANOVA showed significant statistical similar ( P > 0.05) to all resin cements between the Cervical to Apical regions (GI to GV). The use of 17% EDTA showed no difference significant between the resin cements evaluated (GII to GIII; GIV to GV). Within the limitations of the current study, it can be concluded that the use of EDTA did not provide efficiency on bond strength. The RelyX™ ARC

  4. Chemical cleaning agents and bonding to glass-fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Ogliari, Aline de Oliveira; Jardim, Patrícia dos Santos; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de

    2013-01-01

    The influence of chemical cleaning agents on the bond strength between resin cement and glass-fiber posts was investigated. The treatments included 10% hydrofluoric acid, 35% phosphoric acid, 50% hydrogen peroxide, acetone, dichloromethane, ethanol, isopropanol, and tetrahydrofuran. Flat glass-fiber epoxy substrates were exposed to the cleaners for 60 s. Resin cement cylinders were formed on the surfaces and tested in shear. All treatments provided increased bond strength compared to untreated control specimens. All failures were interfacial. Although all agents improved the bond strength, dichloromethane and isopropanol were particularly effective.

  5. Morphology of root canal surface: A reflection on the process of cementation of the composite relined glass fiber post.

    PubMed

    Pupo, Yasmine Mendes; Casacqui, Elaine; de Lima, Paola Andressa Barbosa; Michél, Milton Domingos; Bueno, Albano Luis Novaes; Michelotto, André Luiz da Costa

    2017-01-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the bond strength in the different root thirds (premolars and maxillary central incisors) of composite relined glass fiber posts compared to untreated glass fiber posts cemented with dual- or chemical-cure cements. Sixty human single-rooted premolars (flat canal) (n = 15) and 12 maxillary central incisors were used (round canal) (n = 3). The teeth were sectioned, and the roots received endodontic treatment. The standardized preparation of the canals was carried out, and the roots were randomly divided into four groups according to the cementation systems: G1: cemented posts (dual: Ambar/Allcem); G2: relined posts (dual: Ambar/Allcem); G3: cemented posts (chemical: Fusion Duralink/Cement Post); and G4: relined posts (chemical: Fusion Duralink/Cement Post). The roots were cut to give two slices of each third of the root canal per specimen. Push-out test was conducted at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between groups for the premolars (flat canal) (P = 0.959). There was a significant difference in the central incisors between the middle and apical thirds in the cemented group when using the dual system (P = 0.04) and between the middle and apical thirds (P = 0.003) and cervical and apical thirds (P = 0.033) when using the chemical system. Due to the anatomy of the root canal, flat canal of the premolars does not require relining, but round canal of the maxillary central incisors demands it for more secure in the bond strength.

  6. Effects of Internal Bleaching on the Adhesion of Glass-Fiber Posts

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Moreira, Paulo E.; Pamplona, Lucianne S.; Nascimento, Gláucia C. R.; Esteves, Renata A.; Pessoa, Oscar F.; Silva, Cecy M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effects of internal bleaching on the adhesion of glass-fiber posts (GFPs) luted with different resin cements. Methods: Forty extracted human single-root teeth were endodontically treated and divided into four groups (n=10): G1- conventional resin cement (CRC); G2- self-adhesive resin cement (SARC); G3- bleaching + CRC; and G4- bleaching + SARC. Specimens were sectioned transversally into three slices to perform the push-out test at the coronal, middle and apical regions of the root canals. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Tukey's test (p<0.05). Results: The push-out bond strength of GFPs luted with SARC after bleaching (G4) was significantly lower than that of the other groups (p<0.001). We found no statistically significant differences in push-out bond strength among the other groups. Significance: Internal bleaching reduced the adhesion of GFPs luted with SARC. The adhesion of GFPs luted with CRC was not decreased after bleaching. PMID:26962369

  7. The effect of proanthocyanidins and chlorhexidine on the bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin.

    PubMed

    Alandia-Román, Carla Cecilia; Vincenti, Sergio Augusto Freitas; Silami, Francisca Daniele Jardilino; Silveira, Renata Espíndola; Pinto, Gustavo Col Dos Santos; Pires-de-Souza, Fernanda de Carvalho Panzeri

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the influence of different irrigant solutions applied before cementation on the bond strength (BS) of glass fiber posts to root dentin was evaluated. Thirty endodontically treated maxillary canines of similar length were selected and divided into 3 groups (n = 10) according to the irrigant solution used before post cementation: 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; control), 2% chlorhexidine (CHX), or a 6.5% grape seed extract (GSE) cross-linking agent. After cementation of the posts, the roots were transversely sectioned to create 2 discs (2 mm) for each of the root thirds: coronal, middle, and apical. These discs were submitted to push-out tests (0.5 mm/min) to evaluate the BS between the glass fiber posts and the root dentin. Statistical analysis was performed by a 2-way analysis of variance and a Tukey test (P < 0.05). The failure mode was evaluated in all specimens. Both the CHX and GSE groups presented significantly higher BS values than the control group in all root thirds (P < 0.05). The values of the GSE group were significantly higher than those of the CHX group in all thirds except the apical third (P < 0.05). In the control group, the BS value was highest in the cervical third. There was no significant difference in the BS values between the cervical and middle thirds when CHX was used (P > 0.05); however, the BS value diminished significantly in the apical third (P < 0.05). The highest BS value in the GSE group was found in the middle third. The results showed that the use of either GSE or CHX before adhesive cementation improved the BS of glass fiber posts to root dentin.

  8. Effect on the bond strengths of glass fiber posts functionalized with polydopamine after etching with hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Wei, Xu-Yi; Yi, Mi; Bai, Yun-Yang; Cai, Qing; Wang, Xin-Zhi

    2015-01-01

    This paper evaluated the push-out bond strengths of glass fiber posts with poly-dopamine (poly-dopa) functionalized after etching with H2O2. Forty extracted human, single-rooted teeth were endodontically treated and a 9-mm post space was prepared in each tooth with post drills provided by the manufacturer. Specimens were randomly assigned into four groups (n=10 per group), depending on post surface treatment used: group C (control); group D (poly-dopa); group H (H2O2); and group HD (H2O2+poly-dopa). The push-out test was performed using a universal testing machine. Bond strengths (MPa) were as follows: 4.678±0.911 (group C); 7.909±1.987 (group D); 6.519±0.893 (group H); and 9.043±1.596 (group HD). The bond strength of the resin cement to posts functionalized with poly-dopa was not affected by H2O2 pre-treatment, while conditioning using H2O2+poly-dopa resulted in higher bond strengths than H2O2 treatment only. Compared to H2O2 treatment, the bond strength of poly-dopa conditioning was superior.

  9. Immediate and delayed photoactivation of self-adhesive resin cements and retention of glass-fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Faria-e-Silva, André Luis; Peixoto, Aline Carvalho; Borges, Marcela Gonçalves; Menezes, Murilo de Sousa; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immediate and delayed photoactivation of self-adhesive resin cements (SARCs) on the retention of glass-fiber posts luted into root canals. Bovine incisors were endodontically treated, and post holes of 9 mm in depth were prepared. Fiber posts were luted using one of two SARCs, BisCem (Bisco Inc., Schaumburg, USA) or RelyX Unicem clicker (3M ESPE, Saint Paul, USA), or a regular (etch-and-rinse) resin cement (AllCem; FGM, Joinvile, Brazil). Photoactivation was performed immediately, or at 5 or 10 min after cementation. Root/post specimens were transversely sectioned 7 days after luting into 1-mm-thick slices, which were submitted to push-out testing in a mechanical testing machine. Bond strength data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls' method (α = 0.05). Immediate photoactivation resulted in the highest bond strength for Unicem. BisCem demonstrated higher bond strength values when photoactivated after a 10-min delay. Immediate photoactivation yielded the lowest bond strengths for AllCem, although no differences in bond strength were observed between photoactivation delayed by 5 and 10 min. In conclusion, the moment of resin cement photoactivation may affect the intraradicular retention of fiber posts, depending upon the resin cement used for luting.

  10. The effect of glass ionomer cement or composite resin bases on restoration of cuspal stiffness of endodontically treated premolars in vitro.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, N; Just, N; Haller, B; Hugo, B; Klaiber, B

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to decide whether composite resin or conventional glass ionomer cement should be preferred as a base material in endodontically treated premolars. Twelve extracted human maxillary premolars were mounted in a universal testing machine at a 35 degrees angle. Cuspal stiffness was determined by applying a load of 75 N to the buccal cusp and recording the displacement of the cusp using inductive displacement transducers. In the same teeth, different cavity preparations and restorations were performed sequentially. Standard MOD cavities were enlarged to allow endodontic access. In addition, the cusps were undermined. Half of the teeth were restored to the level of the previous shallow cavities using conventional glass ionomer cement (Ketac Fil), in the rest of the teeth dentine bonding agent (Syntac) and composite resin (Tetric) were used instead. Finally, composite resin fillings (Tetric) were placed. All restorations were removed and the experiments were repeated twice. For each replication, the assignment of the base materials to the experimental groups was reversed, and ceramic inlays (Empress) were used as final restorations for the last replication. Improvement of cuspal stiffness achieved by conventional glass ionomer bases was very small, whereas composite resin bases increased cuspal stability by more than a factor of two. After placement of the final restorations, however, there was no longer a difference between teeth with different base materials. Nevertheless, composite resin bases might be preferred for two reasons. Firstly, deterioration of adhesive restorations will probably start at the cavosurface margins. The incidence of margin gaps, however, will not only compromise marginal seal but also the stabilizing effect of the restoration. In this situation, the resin base may still stabilize the tooth. Moreover, resin bases may reduce the risk of cusp fracture during the time between cavity preparation and the insertion

  11. Influence of instrumentation techniques and irrigating solutions on bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin.

    PubMed

    Marques, Eduardo Fernandes; Bueno, Carlos Eduardo da Silveira; Veloso, Heloisa Helena Pinho; Almeida, Gustavo; Pinheiro, Sergio Luiz

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to evaluate how instrumentation techniques and irrigating solutions affected the bond strength of glass fiber posts. For this study, 80 human maxillary central incisors were selected. Endodontic access was obtained, root canal length was measured, and the coronal third was prepared using Gates-Glidden drills. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and randomly assigned to 8 groups (n = 10): manual instrumentation only (Group 1), rotary instrumentation only (Group 2), irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (Group 3), irrigation with 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) (Group 4), manual instrumentation and irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl (Group 5), manual instrumentation and irrigation with 2% CHX (Group 6), rotary instrumentation and irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl (Group 7), and rotary instrumentation and irrigation with 2% CHX (Group 8). Specimens in Groups 5-8 also received a 1 minute final rinse with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. Canals were filled and the specimens stored for 30 days in distilled water. The restoration material was removed down to the apical 4 mm of the root canal. The glass fiber posts were luted with resin cement and stored for 24 hours at 37°C. Specimens were subjected to a tensile strength test at a constant speed of 1.0 mm/minute and a load of 2,000 kgf. The results were analyzed by analysis of variance and Tukey's test. Irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl reduced the bond strength of fiber posts significantly (P < 0.01), while CHX showed no effect (P > 0.05). It was concluded that irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl has a negative effect on micromechanical retention of glass fiber posts, whether manual or rotary instrumentation is used.

  12. Influence of antimicrobial solutions in the decontamination and adhesion of glass-fiber posts to root canals

    PubMed Central

    HARAGUSHIKU, Gisele Aihara; BACK, Eduardo Donato Eing Engelke; TOMAZINHO, Paulo Henrique; BARATTO, Flares; FURUSE, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of root canal disinfectants on the elimination of bacteria from the root canals, as well as their effect on glass-fiber posts bond strength. Material and Methods Fifty-three endodontically treated root canals had post spaces of 11 mm in length prepared and contaminated with E. faecalis. For CFU/ml analysis, eight teeth were contaminated for 1 h or 30 days (n=4). Teeth were decontaminated with 5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or distilled water. As control, no decontamination was conducted. After decontamination, sterile paper points were used to collect samples, and CFU/ml were counted. For push-out, three groups were evaluated (n=15): irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or sterile distilled water. A bonding agent was applied to root canal dentin, and a glass-fiber post was cemented with a dual-cured cement. After 24 h, 1-mm-thick slices of the middle portion of root canals were obtained and submitted to the push-out evaluation. Three specimens of each group were evaluated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s T3 test (α=0.05). Results The number of CFU/ml increased from 1 h to 30 days of contamination in control and sterile distilled water groups. Decontamination with NaOCl was effective only when teeth were contaminated for 1 h. CHX was effective at both contamination times. NaOCl did not influence the bond strength (p>0.05). Higher values were observed with CHX (p<0.05). SEM showed formation of resin tags in all groups. Conclusion CHX showed better results for the irrigation of contaminated root canals both in reducing the bacterial contamination and in improving the glass-fiber post bonding. PMID:26398518

  13. Influence of antimicrobial solutions in the decontamination and adhesion of glass-fiber posts to root canals.

    PubMed

    Haragushiku, Gisele Aihara; Back, Eduardo Donato Eing Engelke; Tomazinho, Paulo Henrique; Baratto Filho, Flares; Furuse, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of root canal disinfectants on the elimination of bacteria from the root canals, as well as their effect on glass-fiber posts bond strength. Fifty-three endodontically treated root canals had post spaces of 11 mm in length prepared and contaminated with E. faecalis. For CFU/ml analysis, eight teeth were contaminated for 1 h or 30 days (n=4). Teeth were decontaminated with 5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or distilled water. As control, no decontamination was conducted. After decontamination, sterile paper points were used to collect samples, and CFU/ml were counted. For push-out, three groups were evaluated (n=15): irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or sterile distilled water. A bonding agent was applied to root canal dentin, and a glass-fiber post was cemented with a dual-cured cement. After 24 h, 1-mm-thick slices of the middle portion of root canals were obtained and submitted to the push-out evaluation. Three specimens of each group were evaluated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Dunnett's T3 test (α=0.05). The number of CFU/ml increased from 1 h to 30 days of contamination in control and sterile distilled water groups. Decontamination with NaOCl was effective only when teeth were contaminated for 1 h. CHX was effective at both contamination times. NaOCl did not influence the bond strength (p>0.05). Higher values were observed with CHX (p<0.05). SEM showed formation of resin tags in all groups. CHX showed better results for the irrigation of contaminated root canals both in reducing the bacterial contamination and in improving the glass-fiber post bonding.

  14. Influence of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate on bond strength of a glass-fibre post luted with resin or glass-ionomer based cement.

    PubMed

    de Araújo, Diana Ferreira Gadelha; Chaves, Larissa Pinceli; Bim, Odair; Pimentel Garcia, Fernanda Cristina; Ishikiriama, Sérgio Kiyoshi; Honório, Heitor Marques; Wang, Linda

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the influence of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) on the bond strength (BS) of a glass-fibre post to the root canal, regarding the cements (dual-cured resin or resin-modified glass-ionomer cement), the root thirds and the time of storage. Eighty bovine roots were selected and endodontically treated, before being randomly assigned to the following groups according to the luting protocol: ARC (RelyX ARC); ARC+CHX; RL (RelyX Luting 2); and RL+CHX. After 24 h of luting, the roots were sliced to obtain 1 mm-thick slices. Half of each group was submitted to either 7-day or 6-month storage in artificial saliva (n=10). The specimens were subjected to push-out tests with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were analysed with four-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (P≤0.05). The failure modes were analysed with a digital microscope (50× and 200×). ARC yielded a significantly higher BS compared to RL (P<0.001). Despite CHX exerted a significant effect; it depends on the interaction with the luting cement and time (P<0.001). Thus, CHX decreased the values of BS to those of ARC after 6 months (P<0.001). On the 7th day of storage, the ARC+CHX presented higher BS to the cervical and middle thirds compared to RL+CHX (P=0.012). Time solely was not a significant factor (P=0.081). Adhesive cement-dentine type and mixed failures were predominant modes for the ARC groups. For the RL groups, the main failures were adhesive cement-post and mixed modes. Glass-fibre posts luted with RelyX ARC dual-cure resin cement exhibited higher BS than those luted with RelyX Luting 2 resin-modified glass-ionomer cement. Furthermore, CHX was not effective to improve the BS and negatively affected the BS of RelyX ARC after 6 months of storage. The use of chlorhexidine solution seems not to improve the bond strength of fibre posts to root canals, disregarding the composition of the luting cement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Does hybridization of intraradicular dentin really improve fiber post retention in endodontically treated teeth?

    PubMed

    Pirani, Chiara; Chersoni, Stefano; Foschi, Federico; Piana, Gabriela; Loushine, Robert J; Tay, Franklin R; Prati, Carlo

    2005-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that hybridization of intraradicular dentin eliminates interfacial gaps, thereby improving the coronal seal and retention of teeth restored with fiber posts. Post spaces were bonded with two types of fiber posts, using the corresponding etch-and-rinse adhesives and dual-cured resin cements. Longitudinal sections of the interfaces were examined for dentin hybridization in the coronal- and middle-thirds of the root canals. Resin replicas of these sections were evaluated for interfacial gap formation. Although intraradicular dentin hybridization was not compromised irrespective of whether the adhesives were light-cured before cementation, the universal occurrence of interfacial gaps along the hybrid layer surface or the post-cement interface reflects the challenge in bonding to post spaces with low compliance and high C-factors. The clinical success associated with bonded fiber posts is probably due predominantly to frictional retention.

  16. Effect of Different Irrigating Solutions and Endodontic Sealers on Bond Strength of the Dentin - Post Interface with and without Defects

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Felice R.; Pappalettere, Carmine; Di Comite, Mariasevera; Corsalini, Massimo; Mori, Giorgio; Ballini, Andrea; Crincoli, Vito; Pettini, Francesco; Rapone, Biagio; Boccaccio, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To investigate how the interfacial shear strength of the dentin - post interface with and without defects changes for different combinations irrigant/sealer. Methods. In forty human decoronated and instrumented teeth, fibreglass posts were inserted. The obtained root segments were randomly assigned to four different groups according to the irrigant adopted and the cement used to seal the root canal. The root segments were processed for metyl-methacrylate embedding. Serial sections were obtained and submitted to histomorphometric analyses in order to observe any defect of adhesion at the dentin - post interface and to measure the defects' dimension. The serial sections were also submitted to micro-push-out test. The measured shear strength values were subjected to statistical analysis by one-way ANOVA. The values of bond strength determined for the defective samples were correlated with the dimension of the defects. Finite element models were built to interpret and corroborate the experimental findings. Results. ANOVA showed that the generic combination irrigant/sealer does not affect the interfacial shear strength values. The bond strength of the samples without defects was averagely twice as large as that of the defective samples. The defects occupying more than 12 % of the total transverse section area of the endodontic cement layer led to a reduction of the bond strength of about 70 %. The predictions of the finite element models were in agreement with the experimental results. Conclusion. Defects occupying less than 2 % of the total transverse section area of the cement layer were shown to be acceptable as they have rather negligible effects on the shear strength values. Technologies/protocols should be developed to minimize the number and the size of the defects. PMID:23055816

  17. Influence of post pattern and resin cement curing mode on the retention of glass fibre posts.

    PubMed

    Poskus, L T; Sgura, R; Paragó, F E M; Silva, E M; Guimarães, J G A

    2010-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of post design and roughness and cement system (dual- or self-cured) on the retention of glass fibre posts. Two tapered and smooth posts (Exacto Cônico No. 2 and White Post No. 1) and two parallel-sided and serrated posts (Fibrekor 1.25 mm and Reforpost No. 2) were adhesively luted with two different resin cements--a dual-cured (Rely-X ARC) and a self-cured (Cement Post)--in 40 single-rooted teeth. The teeth were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 5): PFD--Parallel-serrated-Fibrekor/dual-cured; PRD--Parallel-serrated-Reforpost/dual-cured; TED--Tapered-smooth-Exacto Cônico/dual-cured; TWD--Tapered-smooth-White Post/dual-cured; PFS--Parallel-serrated-Fibrekor/self-cured; PRS--Parallel-serrated-Reforpost/self-cured; TES--Tapered-smooth-Exacto Cônico/self-cured; TWS--Tapered-smooth-White Post/self-cured. The specimens were submitted to a pull-out test at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). Data were analysed using analysis of variance and Bonferroni's multiple comparison test (alpha = 0.05). Pull-out results (MPa) were: PFD = 8.13 (+/-1.71); PRD = 8.30 (+/-0.46); TED = 8.68 (+/-1.71); TWD = 9.35 (+/-1.99); PFS = 8.54 (+/-2.23); PRS = 7.09 (+/-1.96); TES = 8.27 (+/-3.92); TWS = 7.57 (+/-2.35). No statistical significant difference was detected for posts and cement factors and their interaction. The retention of glass fibre posts was not affected by post design or surface roughness nor by resin cement-curing mode. These results imply that the choice for serrated posts and self-cured cements is not related to an improvement in retention.

  18. Effect of dentin conditioning on retention of airborne-particle-abraded, adhesively luted glass fiber-reinforced resin posts.

    PubMed

    Albashaireh, Zakereyya S M; Ghazal, Muhamad; Kern, Matthias

    2008-11-01

    The smear layer covering root canal dentin as a result of post space preparation procedures may negatively affect the retention of adhesively cemented glass fiber-reinforced resin posts. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the retention of airborne-particle-abraded glass fiber posts luted with 3 different bonding systems after conditioning the canal dentin with acidic conditioning methods. Post spaces were prepared in 6 groups of 8 endodontically treated single-rooted teeth. Glass fiber-reinforced resin posts were airborne-particle abraded and luted after etching the canal dentin with phosphoric acid and/or applying XP Bond, Clearfil New Bond, or ED Primer. The groups with their respective etching time, primer, and cement combinations were as follows: XP15: 15 seconds of phosphoric acid treatment, XP Bond and Calibra; XP30: 30 seconds of phosphoric acid treatment, XP Bond and Calibra; NB15: 15 seconds of phosphoric acid treatment, Clearfil New Bond and Panavia 21; NB30: 30 seconds of phosphoric acid treatment, Clearfil New Bond and Panavia 21; ED: ED Primer only and Panavia 21; ED15: 15 seconds phosphoric acid treatment, ED Primer and Panavia 21. Specimens were stored in water for 30 days and subjected to simulated aging conditions. Post retention was measured in tension at a crosshead speed of 2 mm/min. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by post hoc comparisons using Langley method (alpha =.05). The dislodged posts and canals were examined microscopically at x8 and x20 magnification to evaluate the mode of failure. For each group, the mean (SD) retention in N was: XP15: 376.8 (39); XP30: 305.5 (27); NB15: 370.3 (31); NB30: 297.6 (52); ED: 301.6 (43); ED15: 373.8 (46). The retention values of ED15, NB15, and XP15 were significantly higher than those of ED, NB30, and XP30 groups, respectively. Microscopic evaluation demonstrated that the failure mode was primarily mixed. Luting posts with Panavia 21 or Calibra after etching

  19. Double-blind Randomized Placebo-controlled Clinical Trial of Efficiency of Nonsteroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs in the Control of Post-endodontic Pain.

    PubMed

    Elzaki, Wail M; Abubakr, Neamat H; Ziada, Hassan M; Ibrahim, Yahia E

    2016-06-01

    The present clinical trial aimed to evaluate the efficiency of paracetamol alone and in combination with 3 different nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for control of post-endodontic pain. The inclusion criteria were moderate to severe pain of irreversible pulpitis, by using the Verbal Rating Scale and a 4-10 score on the Numerical Rating Scale, on anterior or premolar teeth, as well as the absence of signs and symptoms of apical periodontitis. One hundred eighty-five trial medications with placebo were prepared, and 170 participants completed the trial. There were 5 groups. P-group received 4 gelatinous capsules of a single dose of paracetamol alone. The IP-group received similar capsules of a single dose of combined ibuprofen/paracetamol. MP-group received combined mefenamic acid/paracetamol, and DP-group received combined diclofenac K/paracetamol. A Plb-group received doubled gelatinous capsules with no medications as a single dose, which had the same weight and appearance as the medicated capsules, to be the placebo. Pain intensity was measured after initial endodontic therapy and instrumentation by using the Verbal Rating Scale and Numerical Rating Scale. IP-group (ibuprofen/paracetamol) had the most pain reduction, followed by DP-group (combined diclofenac K/paracetamol), then MP-group, followed by P-group, whereas Plb-group had the least pain reduction (P < .05). The combination of ibuprofen/paracetamol, taken immediately after initial endodontic therapy and root canal preparation in teeth with irreversible pulpitis, reduced post-endodontic pain (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT02417337). Copyright © 2016 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Fracture resistance of weakened teeth restored using accessory glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    da Rosa, Ricardo Abreu; Barreto, Mirela Sangoi; da Rosa, Tiago Abreu; Reis, Katia Rodrigues; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan

    2013-01-01

    This study used differential root weakening to evaluate the fracture resistance of bovine teeth restored using glass fiber posts (with or without accessory glass fiber posts). Fifty bovine mandibular incisors were sectioned 14 mm from the apex, fixed in acrylic resin blocks, and divided into 5 groups: healthy roots with a glass fiber post (Group 1), partially weakened teeth with a glass fiber post (Group 2), partially weakened teeth with a glass fiber post and 2 accessory glass fiber posts (Group 3), extensively weakened teeth with a glass fiber post (Group 4), and extensively weakened teeth with a glass fiber post and 5 accessory glass fiber posts (Group 5). Posts were luted with resin cement, cores were prepared using composite resin, and metallic crowns were cemented. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for more than 72 hours until the fracture resistance test. Specimens were loaded at 135 degrees relative to the long axis of the tooth at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute in a universal testing machine. All groups predominantly exhibited favorable failure patterns and there were no statistically significant differences between groups (two-way ANOVA, α = 0.05).

  1. Effect on push-out bond strength of glass-fiber posts functionalized with polydopamine using different adhesives.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Cai, Qing; Li, Yan; Wei, Xu-Yi; Huang, Zhi; Wang, Xin-Zhi

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate the push-out bond strengths of prefabricated glass-fiber posts (Beijing Oya Biomaterials) with polydopamine functionalized to root dentin using two different resin cements (Paracore and RelyX Unicem) in different root regions (cervical, middle, and apical). Forty extracted human, single-rooted teeth were endodontically treated and a 9-mm post space was prepared in each tooth with post drills provided by the manufacturer. Specimens were then randomly assigned into four groups (n = 10 per group), depending on the adhesive system and post surface treatment used: group IA (Paracore + polydopamine); group IB (Paracore + control); group IIA (RelyX Unicem + polydopamine); group IIB (RelyX Unicem + control). Following post cementation, the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days. The push-out test was performed using a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/ min), and the failure modes were examined with a stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed using twoway ANOVA (p = 0.05). Bond strengths (mean ± SD) were: 7.909 ± 3.166 MPa (group IA), 4.675 ± 2.170 MPa (group IB), 8.186 ± 2.766 MPa (group IIA), 4.723 ± 2.084 MPa (group IIB). The bond strength of polydopamine groups was significantly higher than one of the control groups (p < 0.0001). No significant difference was found in the micro push-out bond strengths between the two resin cement groups or the root regions (p > 0.05). Stereomicroscopic analysis showed a higher percentage of adhesive than cohesive failures in all groups. Surface polydopamine functionalization was confirmed to be a reliable method for improving the bond strength of resin luting agents to fiber posts. The bond strength of Paracore to fiber posts was not significantly different from that of RelyX Unicem, and considering its convenient application, Paracore can be recommended.

  2. Cross-sectional evaluation of post-operative pain and flare-ups in endodontic treatments using a type of rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Tanalp, Jale; Sunay, Hakki; Bayirli, Gündüz

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this clinical study was to evaluate the general incidence of post-operative pain and flare-ups in patients who were endodontically treated by two endodontics specialists using rotary instruments (Hero 642, Micro Mega, France) with the same treatment protocol. Records of 382 teeth belonging to 268 patients treated by two endodontics specialists during a 6-month period were kept and evaluated. Post-operative pain between treatment visits was categorized using a pre-established scoring system. Ninety-five patients were males, whereas 173 were females. Pulpal necrosis without periapical pathosis was determined as the most common indication for endodontic treatment (21.7%) followed by irreversible pulpitis and re-treatment without periapical lesions (18.3%, 18.3%, respectively). The general prevalence of post-operative pain and flare-ups was determined as 8.1%, whereas cases that could be classified as real flare-ups which were severe and required an unscheduled visit (scores 2 and 3) comprised 3.4% of the cases. No statistically significant correlation was determined between gender and post-operative pain and flare-up (p = 0.05). There was a significant correlation between number of appointments and the presence of pain and flare-ups. Teeth undergoing multiple visits had a higher risk of developing post-operative pain and flare-ups compared to those with single appointments with a statistical significance (p = 0.03). Teeth with pre-operative pain were more prone to developing post-operative pain and discomfort with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.02). While no significant correlation was determined between tooth vitality and pain and flare-ups (p = 0.5), a statistically significant relationship existed between the presence of a periapical pathosis and post-operative pain and flare-ups. Cases with a periapical lesion had a higher risk of developing pain and flare-ups compared to those with no periapical involvement (p = 0.0001). Future

  3. Effect of Different Endodontic Sealers on the Push-out Bond Strength of Fiber Posts

    PubMed Central

    Forough Reyhani, Mohammad; Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Milani, Amin Salem; Omrani, Elnaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of MTA-based sealer (MTA Fillapex), eugenol-based sealer (Dorifill) and an epoxy resin sealer (AH Plus) on the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with a self-etch adhesive. Materials and Methods: The root canals of 72 maxillary incisors were prepared using the step-back technique after removing/cutting off the crowns. The samples were randomly divided to 4 groups (n=18). In group 1 (the controls) gutta-percha was used without sealer. In groups 2, 3 and 4, the canals were filled with gutta-percha using AH Plus, Dorifill and MTA Fillapex sealers, respectively, by cold lateral compaction technique. After post space preparation, the fiber posts were cemented in the root canals using self-etch adhesive. Then 1-mm-thick disks were prepared from the coronal thirds of all the root canals and subjected to a push-out test. Data were analyzed using the one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey’s tests. Results: The maximum (4.45±0.09 MPa) and minimum (1.02±0.03 MPa) bond strength values were recorded in the control and Dorifill groups, respectively. The mean push-out bond strength values were similar for MTA Fillapex and AH Plus sealers (P>0.05). However these values were significantly higher than that of the Dorifill sealer (P<0.05). Conclusion: Sealer type affected the bond strength of the fiber posts and MTA Fillapex decreased the dislodgment resistant of the fiber post. PMID:27141220

  4. Post space cleaning using a new nickel titanium endodontic drill combined with different cleaning regimens.

    PubMed

    Coniglio, Ivanovic; Magni, Elisa; Goracci, Cecilia; Radovic, Ivana; Carvalho, Carlos Augusto; Grandini, Simone; Ferrari, Marco

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the effect of two drills and five cleaning regimens on post space debridement. One hundred extracted premolars were instrumented and obturated with warm vertical compaction of gutta percha. The teeth were divided into two groups according to the drill used to remove gutta percha/sealer and for post space preparation: a Largo drill (Largo; Dentsply, St Quentin en Yvelines, France) or a MTwo-PF drill (Sweden&Martina, Due Carrare, Padova, Italy). The following cleaning regimens were used: EDTA, ultrasonics, ultrasonics + EDTA, phosphoric acid, and distilled water. Scanning electron microscopic images of the post spaces were taken, and the presence of debris and of open dentin tubules were evaluated. The ultrasonics + EDTA, phosphoric acid, and EDTA groups were comparable in open tubules scores for both drills and in debris scores after the use of MTwo-PF (p > 0.05). The ultrasonics and control groups performed significantly worse (p < 0.05). The MTwo-PF drill resulted as effective as the Largo drill in obtaining a good post space cleaning, especially when followed by ultrasonics + EDTA irrigant regimen.

  5. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber-reinforced composite posts and composite core with varying remaining coronal tooth structure.

    PubMed

    Ananviriyaporn, Sirirat; Jitarmat, Piyabhorn; Chairat, Surachara; Ranchan, Atchariyaporn

    2012-01-01

    Endodontically treated teeth often have a varying remaining coronal tooth structure, is an important factor in the successful of post-core with crown restoration. This study compared the fracture resistance of pulpless teeth with variable amounts of remaining coronal tooth structure restored with fiber-reinforced composite posts and composite core. Fifty extracted human premolars were endodontically treated and divided into 5 groups of 10 teeth each. Four groups were prepared having axial wall heights of 4 mm around the preparation circumferences. In 3 of the groups with axial tooth structure, mesial axial tooth structure was removed, mesial and lingual axial tooth structure were removed, mesial-lingual and distal axial tooth structure were removed. For the fifth group, all axial tooth structure was removed to the level of the prepared finish line. All 50 prepared teeth were restored with fiber-reinforced composite posts (FRC Postec Plus) and composite resin cores (Multicore Flow). Testing was conducted with a universal testing machine with the application of a static load to the lingual incline plane of buccal cusp at a crosshead speed of 5 mm/min at 45 degrees to the long axis of the tooth. The load at failure was recorded. The data were subjected to 1-way analysis of variance. The mean value + standard deviation for the failure load of group 1 to 5 were 237.48 +/- 81.87, 242.97 +/- 66.80, 257.67 +/- 70.42, 239.56 +/- 70.42 and 297.70 +/- 99.42 (N), respectively There were no significant differences in the fracture resistance (p < 0.01). No root fractures occurred in any of the groups. The varying remaining coronal tooth structure of endodontically treated tooth had no influenced on the fracture resistance when restored with fiber-reinforced composite posts and composite core.

  6. Post-processing open-source software for the CBCT monitoring of periapical lesions healing following endodontic treatment: technical report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Villoria, Eduardo M; Lenzi, Antônio R; Soares, Rodrigo V; Souki, Bernardo Q; Sigurdsson, Asgeir; Marques, Alexandre P; Fidel, Sandra R

    2017-01-01

    To describe the use of open-source software for the post-processing of CBCT imaging for the assessment of periapical lesions development after endodontic treatment. CBCT scans were retrieved from endodontic records of two patients. Three-dimensional virtual models, voxel counting, volumetric measurement (mm(3)) and mean intensity of the periapical lesion were performed with ITK-SNAP v. 3.0 software. Three-dimensional models of the lesions were aligned and overlapped through the MeshLab software, which performed an automatic recording of the anatomical structures, based on the best fit. Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the changes in lesions size after treatment were performed with the 3DMeshMetric software. The ITK-SNAP v. 3.0 showed the smaller value corresponding to the voxel count and the volume of the lesion segmented in yellow, indicating reduction in volume of the lesion after the treatment. A higher value of the mean intensity of the segmented image in yellow was also observed, which suggested new bone formation. Colour mapping and "point value" tool allowed the visualization of the reduction of periapical lesions in several regions. Researchers and clinicians in the monitoring of endodontic periapical lesions have the opportunity to use open-source software.

  7. Finite element analysis and bond strength of a glass post to intraradicular dentin: comparison between microtensile and push-out tests.

    PubMed

    Soares, Carlos J; Santana, Fernanda R; Castro, Carolina G; Santos-Filho, Paulo C F; Soares, Paulo V; Qian, Fang; Armstrong, Steven R

    2008-10-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that the stress distribution and bond strength of glass posts to intraradicular dentin is influenced by the mechanical testing methodology. Thirty single rooted endodontically treated teeth were prepared for luting of tapered fiber-glass posts (Reforpost, Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil) with a conventional adhesive system and resin luting cement (Adper Scotchbond Multi-purpose, Rely X ARC, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA). The teeth were randomly divided (n=10 per group) into micro-push-out (Mpo), hourglass- (Mh) and rectangular stick-shaped (Ms) microtensile testing groups before sectioning each root into five 1-mm-thick specimens. During specimen preparation for microTBS testing 46/50 stick and 4/50 hourglass specimens prematurely failed; therefore, the Ms group could not be included in the mechanical testing. The remaining specimens were tested at 0.5 mm/min until bond failure. Stress distribution within each specimen type for the three mechanical test methods was analyzed by finite element analysis (FEA). Qualitative analyses were carried out through Von Mises, XY and Sy criterion. Mpo and Mh had a mean microTBS of 11.89+/-6.55 and 14.98+/-12.72 MPa, respectively, which was not significantly different (p=0.1311). The push-out test demonstrated a more homogenous stress distribution by FEA and less variability in mechanical testing. Therefore, the recommended testing method for determining the bond strength of glass posts to intraradicular dentin is by Mpo.

  8. Influence of chemical irrigants on the tensile bond strength of an adhesive system used to cement glass fiber posts to root dentin.

    PubMed

    Pelegrine, Rina Andréa; De Martin, Alexandre Sigrist; Cunha, Rodrigo Sanches; Pelegrine, André Antonio; da Silveira Bueno, Carlos Eduardo

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of endodontic irrigants on the tensile bond strength of an adhesive system used to cement glass fiber posts to dentin. Fifty bovine roots were divided into 5 groups according to the solution used during instrumentation: G1, 0.9% NaCl (control); G2, 1.0% NaOCl; G3, 2.5% NaOCl; G4, 5.25% NaOCl; G5, 2% chlorhexidine gel + 0.9% NaCl. The root canals were obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer, and the glass fiber posts were cemented with Clearfil SE Bond/RelyX ARC. The specimens were submitted to tensile strength testing and the results were analyzed by analysis of variance. There were no statistically significant differences regarding the irrigant solution factor (P > .70). It was concluded that the different irrigant solutions did not affect the tensile bond strength of the fixation system used to cement the intraradicular glass fiber posts to dentin. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Combined technique with glass-fibre-reinforced composite post and original fragment in restoration of traumatized anterior teeth--a case report.

    PubMed

    Altun, Ceyhan; Guven, Gunseli

    2008-12-01

    Dentoalveolar trauma is frequently encountered by dental practitioners. In some instances, saving a child's traumatized permanent teeth can create difficulties for the child, the parents and the dentist. Reattachment of a crown fragment is a conservative treatment that should be considered for crown fractures of anterior teeth. This case describes the clinical reattachment of an original tooth fragment. A 10-year-old male presented at the Department of Pediatric Dentistry with a complex crown fracture of the left maxillary central incisor 1 day after the trauma occurred. Following endodontic treatment, a glass-fibre-reinforced composite root canal post (FRC Postec; Ivoclar Vivadent AG, Schaan, Liechtenstein) was inserted to increase retention and distribute stress along the root. The dental restoration was completed using the original fragment and a dual-cured resin composite (Variolink II; Ivoclar Vivadent AG). Clinical and radiographic examinations at 1-year recall showed the glass-fibre-reinforced composite root canal post and restoration to be in place, indicating the success of the treatment in maintaining the fractured tooth. Thus, we conclude that reattachment of a tooth fragment using a dual-cured resin composite and a glass-fibre-reinforced composite root canal post is an alternative method for the rehabilitation of fractured teeth that offers satisfactory aesthetic and functional outcomes.

  10. Evaluation of the flexural strength of carbon fiber-, quartz fiber-, and glass fiber-based posts.

    PubMed

    Galhano, Graziela Avila; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; de Melo, Renata Marques; Scotti, Roberto; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    2005-03-01

    This study investigated the flexural strength of eight fiber posts (one carbon fiber, one carbon/quartz fiber, one opaque quartz fiber, two translucent quartz fiber, and three glass fiber posts). Eighty fiber posts were used and divided into eight groups (n = 10): G1: C-POST (Bisco); G2: AESTHETI-POST (Bisco); G3: AESTHETI-PLUS (Bisco); G4: LIGHT-POST (Bisco); G5: D.T. LIGHT-POST (Bisco); G6: PARAPOST WHITE (Coltene); G7: FIBERKOR (Pentron); G8: REFORPOST (Angelus). All of the samples were tested using the three-point bending test. The averages obtained were submitted to the ANOVA and to Tukey's test (p < 0.05). The mean values (MPa) of the groups AESTHETI-POST-carbon/quartz fiber post (Bisco) and AESTHETI-PLUS-quartz fiber post (Bisco) were statistically similar and higher than the mean values of the other groups. The mean values of the groups C-POST-carbon fiber post (Bisco), LIGHT-POST-translucent quartz fiber post (Bisco), D.T. LIGHT-POST-double tapered translucent quartz fiber post (Bisco), PARAPOST WHITE-glass fiber post (Coltene) and FIBREKOR--glass fiber post (Pentron) were similar and higher than the group REFORPOST-glass fiber post (Angelus).

  11. Endodontic implants

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Rakesh K.; Tikku, A. P.; Chandra, Anil; Wadhwani, K. K.; Ashutosh kr; Singh, Mayank

    2014-01-01

    Endodontic implants were introduced back in 1960. Endodontic implants enjoyed few successes and many failures. Various reasons for failures include improper case selection, improper use of materials and sealers and poor preparation for implants. Proper case selection had given remarkable long-term success. Two different cases are being presented here, which have been treated successfully with endodontic implants and mineral trioxide aggregate Fillapex (Andreaus, Brazil), an MTA based sealer. We suggest that carefully selected cases can give a higher success rate and this method should be considered as one of the treatment modalities. PMID:25298723

  12. Effect of irrigating solutions used for postspace treatment on the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Vangala, Amulya; Hegde, Vivek; Sathe, Sucheta; Dixit, Manisha; Jain, Paresh

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of different irrigating solutions on postspace treatments on the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts. Thirty mandibular premolar roots were decoronated and endodontically treated. Postspaces were prepared and roots were divided into three groups: In group 1: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation (control), group 2: 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with hand activation, group 3: 17% EDTA irrigation with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) has been done to the postspaces. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis has been made for two samples of each group. Fiber posts were then luted with resin cement. Each root was prepared for push-out test. Data have been statistically analyzed. SEM results showed clean postwalls with both group 2 and group 3, whereas group 1 showed adhesion of resin cement to intraradicular dentine. When all groups were compared, the bond strength values are higher with group 2 followed by group 3. Within the limitations of the study, clean postwalls and the highest bond strength values were obtained from 17% EDTA with hand activation and 17% EDTA with PIPS.

  13. Effect of irrigating solutions used for postspace treatment on the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Vangala, Amulya; Hegde, Vivek; Sathe, Sucheta; Dixit, Manisha; Jain, Paresh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of different irrigating solutions on postspace treatments on the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts. Materials and Methods: Thirty mandibular premolar roots were decoronated and endodontically treated. Postspaces were prepared and roots were divided into three groups: In group 1: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite irrigation (control), group 2: 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) with hand activation, group 3: 17% EDTA irrigation with photon-induced photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) has been done to the postspaces. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis has been made for two samples of each group. Fiber posts were then luted with resin cement. Each root was prepared for push-out test. Data have been statistically analyzed. Results: SEM results showed clean postwalls with both group 2 and group 3, whereas group 1 showed adhesion of resin cement to intraradicular dentine. When all groups were compared, the bond strength values are higher with group 2 followed by group 3. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, clean postwalls and the highest bond strength values were obtained from 17% EDTA with hand activation and 17% EDTA with PIPS. PMID:26957800

  14. Microtensile bond strength of glass fiber posts cemented with self-adhesive and self-etching resin cements.

    PubMed

    Zaitter, Suellen; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D; Roperto, Renato C; Silva-Sousa, Yara T; El-Mowafy, Omar

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the bond strength of glass fiber posts to intraradicular dentin when cemented with self-etching and self-adhesive resin cements. Forty-eight single-rooted human teeth were decoronated, endodontically treated, post-space prepared and divided into 8 groups (n = 6). The glass fiber posts used were: Exacto (EA) (Angelus) and everStick (ES) (StichTeck), which were cemented with two self-adhesive resin cements: BisCem (BIS) (Bisco) and Rely-X Unicem (UNI) (3M/ESPE), and two self-etching resin cements: Esthetic Cementing System NAC100 (NAC) (Kuraray) and Panavia-F (PAN) (Kuraray). Specimens were thermocycled between 5°C and 55 °C for 1000 cycles and stored in water at 37°C for 1 month. Four 1-mm-thick (in cross section) rods were obtained from the cervical region of the roots. Specimens were then subjected to microtensile testing in a special machine (BISCO; Schaumburg, IL, USA) or a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. Means (and SD) of μTBS (MPa) were: EA/PAN: 10.3 (4.1), EA/NAC: 14 (5.1) EA/BIS: 16.4 (4.8), EA/UNI: 19.8 (5.1), ES/PAN: 25.9 (6.1), ES/NAC: 29.1 (7), ES/BIS: 28.9 (6), ES/UNI: 30.5 (6.6). ANOVA indicated significant differences among the groups (p < 0.001). Mean μTBS values obtained with ES post were significantly higher than those obtained with EA (p < 0.001). For EA, Tukey's test indicated that higher μTBS means were obtained with the self-adhesive resin cements (BIS and UNI), which were statistically significantly different (p < 0.05) from values obtained with the self-etching resin cements (PAN and NAC). Different cements had no significant effects on the bond strength values of ES post (p > 0.05). μTBS values obtained with ES post were significantly higher than those obtained with EA post irrespective of the resin cement used. everStick posts resulted in the highest mean μTBS values with all cements. Self-adhesive cements performed well in terms

  15. Influence of glass fibre post length and remaining dentine thickness on the fracture resistance of root filled teeth.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, R B; de Carvalho, R F; Marinho, C C; Valera, M C; Carvalho, C A T

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate, ex vivo, the influence of glass fibre post length and remaining thickness of dentine on the fracture resistance of bovine roots, after thermomechanical ageing. Ninety bovine roots of the same size were root filled and randomly distributed into nine groups (n = 10), according to the root weakening protocol (NW - nonweakened; MW - medium weakened; HW - highly weakened) and post length (7 mm; 9 mm and 12 mm). The weakening of roots was performed using diamond burs, resulting in different thicknesses of remaining dentine. The post spaces were prepared, and in the weakened roots, the glass fibre posts were customized with composite resin, to create posts matching the canal size. Chemically activated resin cement was used to lute the posts. After luting, full crowns made of composite resin were attached to a silicon matrix. To reproduce physiological mobility, the roots were covered with polyether and embedded in polyurethane. The thermomechanical cycling was performed (1 200 000 cycles; 88N; 3,8 Hz; 5 ± 1 °C to 55 ± 1 °C). Then, the specimens were subjected to compressive force in a universal testing machine (1 mm min(-1) ; 100 kgf) to analyse the fracture resistance. The specimens were analysed through a stereomicroscope to classify the failure mode (repairable/catastrophic). The values were subjected to statistical analysis (two-way anova and Tukey's test at 5%). The frequencies of failure mode were compared using chi-square test. The association between length and dentine thickness was significant (P > 0.05). The difference was between NW and HW roots for posts of 12 mm in length. There was an association between failure mode and the length and remaining dentine thickness. Reduced dentine thickness in roots with longer posts had lower fracture resistance values, as catastrophic failure was more predominant. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Regenerative Endodontics.

    PubMed

    Feigin, Kristina; Shope, Bonnie

    2017-09-01

    Regenerative endodontics has been defined as "biologically based procedure designed to replace damaged structures, including dentin and root structures, as well as cells of the pulp-dentin complex." This is an exciting and rapidly evolving field of human endodontics for the treatment of immature permanent teeth with infected root canal systems. These procedures have shown to be able not only to resolve pain and apical periodontitis but continued root development, thus increasing the thickness and strength of the previously thin and fracture-prone roots. In the last decade, over 80 case reports, numerous animal studies, and series of regenerative endodontic cases have been published. However, even with multiple successful case reports, there are still some remaining questions regarding terminology, patient selection, and procedural details. Regenerative endodontics provides the hope of converting a nonvital tooth into vital one once again.

  17. Randomized clinical comparison of endodontically treated teeth restored with amalgam or with fiber posts and resin composite: five-year results.

    PubMed

    Mannocci, Francesco; Qualtrough, Alison J E; Worthington, Helen V; Watson, Timothy F; Pitt Ford, Thomas R

    2005-01-01

    Prospective clinical studies comparing the results of different types of restorations of endodontically treated teeth are lacking. This study compared the clinical success rate of endodontically treated premolars restored with fiber posts and direct composite to the restorations of premolars using amalgam. Premolars with Class II carious lesions were selected and randomly assigned to one of two experimental groups: (1) restoration with amalgam or (2) restoration with fiber posts and composite. One hundred and nine teeth were included in Group 1 and 110 in Group 2. Patients were recalled after 1, 3 and 5 years. No statistically significant difference was found between the proportion of failed teeth in the two experimental groups. Significant differences were observed between the proportion of root fractures (p=0.029) and caries (p=0.047), with more root fractures and less caries observed in the teeth restored with amalgam at the five-year recall. Within the limits of this study, it can be concluded that restorations with fiber posts and composite were found to be more effective than amalgam in preventing root fractures but less effective in preventing secondary caries.

  18. New functional and aesthetic composite materials used as an alternative to traditional post materials for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Almaroof, A; Alhashimi, R; Mannocci, F; Deb, S

    2015-11-01

    To tailor composites of polyethylene-hydroxyapatite to function as a new intracanal post for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth (ETT). Silanated hydroxyapatite (HA) and zirconium dioxide (ZrO2) filled low-density polyethylene (LDPE) composites were fabricated by a melt extrusion process and characterised using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). The flexural strength and modulus were determined in dry state and post ageing in simulated body fluid and fractured surfaces analysed by SEM. The water uptake and radiographic appearance of the experimental composites were also measured and compared with a commercially known endodontic fibre post. Data were submitted to one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post hoc Tukey multiple comparison tests at a level of significance P<0.05. The LDPE/HA composites were structurally flexible and the HA content had a significant effect on the flexural strength and modulus. A univariate analysis of variance showed no significant differences in modulus and strength (P<0.05) post accelerated ageing in simulated body fluid with very low water uptake. The melting point of the LDPE/HA composites ranged between 135 and 136°C, which would facilitate removal in case of retreatment using conventional dental heating devices. The inclusion of HA reduced the damping thereby enhancing dimensional stability, whilst the addition of zirconia yielded a semi-translucent material that was sufficiently radiopaque, comparable to commercial posts, thus yielding aesthetic materials. Innovative materials for restoration of ETT were developed; offering considerable benefits over the currently available material in terms of biomechanical and thermal properties. This study provided a new option for the development of a new intracanal post made up of functional and aesthetic composites. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Endodontic Epidemiology

    PubMed Central

    Shahravan, Arash; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2014-01-01

    Epidemiology is the study of disease distribution and factors determining or affecting it. Likewise, endodontic epidemiology can be defined as the science of studying the distribution pattern and determinants of pulp and periapical diseases; specially apical periodontitis. Although different study designs have been used in endodontics, researchers must pay more attention to study designs with higher level of evidence such as randomized clinical trials. PMID:24688577

  20. Effect of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate on bond strength of a glass-fibre post to root dentine.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Pinto, T A; Silva, L M; Araújo, D F G; Martins, L M; Hannas, A R; Pedreira, A P R V; Francisconi, P A S; Honório, H M

    2013-09-01

    To assess the immediate influence of dentine bonding systems (DBS) associated with 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) on glass-fibre post-bond strength to root dentine, in terms of coronal, middle and apical thirds. Sixty bovine roots were root filled and randomly assigned to 1 of 6 groups (n = 10): SBMP (3-step etch-and-rinse system, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose), SB (2-step etch-and-rinse system, Single Bond 2), SE (2-step self-etching system, Clearfil SE Bond) and SBMP-CHX, SB-CHX and SE-CHX, respectively, associated with CHX. For all groups, a glass-fibre post was luted with a dual-cure resin cement, RelyX ARC. After 7-day storage, specimens were subjected to the push-out test. Failure modes were analysed under optical microscopy (40x). Bond strength values were statistically analysed by two-way anova and Bonferroni tests (P < 0.05). The effect of DBS was significant (P < 0.05), and SE reached higher bond strength in comparison with the other DBS tested. CHX association did not show improvement with any DBS (P > 0.05); rather, it negatively affected SE, which was detected for all thirds. There was no difference between thirds (P > 0.05), except for the SE-CHX, which presented lower values for the apical third (P < 0.05). Adhesive cement/dentine adhesive failure was predominant for all groups. CHX did not influence the failure mode for any DBS (P > 0.05). The performance of the dentine bonding systems was material dependent. CHX did not improve immediate bond strength; however, CHX negatively affected the bond strength of the self-etching system, especially in the third apical. © 2013 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Evaluation of Different Post Lengths’ Effect on Fracture Resistance of a Glass Fiber Post System

    PubMed Central

    Adanir, Necdet; Belli, Sema

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different post lengths upon root fracture resistance. Methods 78 maxillary central teeth with similar dimensions were mounted in acrylic blocks with artificial silicone periodontal ligaments. Combinations of post lengths of 6 mm (shorter than 1/1 clinical crown length), 9 mm (1/1 clinical crown length), and 12 mm (longer than 1/1 clinical crown length) made up 6 different groups consisting of 13 teeth each. The glass fiber posts (Snowpost) were cemented with Super-Bond C&B and Panavia F luting cement. Composite-resin cores were made with Clearfil PhotoCore. The specimens were tested in a universal test machine. The testing machine applied controlled loads to the core, 2 mm from its incisal edge, on the palatal side at an angle 135 degrees to the long axis of the root. The testing machine was set at a crosshead speed of 5mm per minute. All samples were loaded until failure. Results There was no statistically significant difference between cements (P>.05). Posts shorter than clinical crown length, demonstrated root fracture under significantly lower loading forces (P<.05). Conclusion Usage of posts shorter than clinical crowns should be avoided to eliminate clinical failure. PMID:19212505

  2. Fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth with different heights of crown ferrule restored with prefabricated carbon fiber post and composite resin core by intermittent loading.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Jonas Alves; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Lins do Valle, Accácio; Zogheib, Lucas Villaça

    2008-11-01

    This study evaluated the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated carbon fiber posts and varying quantities of coronal dentin. Sixty freshly extracted upper canines were randomly divided into groups of 10 teeth each. The specimens were exposed to 250,000 cycles in a controlled chewing simulator. All intact specimens were subjected to a static load (N) in a universal testing machine at 45 degrees to the long axis. Data were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (alpha = .05). Significant differences (P < .001) were found among the mean fracture forces of the test groups (positive control, 0 mm,1 mm, 2 mm, 3 mm, and negative control groups: 1022.82 N, 1008.22 N, 1292.52 N, 1289.19 N, 1255.38 N, and 1582.11, respectively). These results suggested that the amount of coronal dentin did not significantly increase the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with prefabricated carbon fiber post and composite resin core.

  3. The effect of incomplete crown ferrules on fracture resistance and failure modes of endodontically treated maxillary incisors restored with quartz fiber post, composite core, and crowns

    PubMed Central

    Muangamphan, Panorjit; Sattapan, Boonrat; Kukiattrakoon, Boonlert; Thammasitboon, Kewalin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the fracture resistance of restored endodontically treated teeth (RETT) with fiber posts, cores, and crowns with limited ferrules. Materials and Methods: Sixty maxillary anterior teeth were endodontically treated and decoronated 2 mm above the cemento-enamel junction, and then divided into 6 groups of 10 teeth each; Group circumferential ferrule (2FR), Group ferrule in the labial, mesial, and palatal region (2FR-LaMPa), Group ferrule in the labial, and palatal region (2FR-LaPa), Group 2FR-Pa and 2FR-La respectively, and Group 0FR (no ferrule). All 60 prepared teeth were then restored with quartz fiber posts, resin composite cores, and metal crowns. The specimens were subjected to load until failure occurred. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). The mode of failure was determined under a stereoscope. Results: A statistical significant difference was found among groups 2FR-LaMPa, 2FR-Pa, 2FR-LaPa, and 2FR from the group 2FR-La, and from the group 0FR (P < 0.01). The predominant mode of failure was an oblique palatal to labial root fracture for the groups with remaining ferrules. Conclusion: For RETT that have incomplete crown ferrules, the location of the ferrules may affect their fracture resistance. PMID:26069401

  4. Analysis of Resin-Dentin Interface Morphology and Bond Strength Evaluation of Core Materials for One Stage Post-Endodontic Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Bitter, Kerstin; Gläser, Christin; Neumann, Konrad; Blunck, Uwe; Frankenberger, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Restoration of endodontically treated teeth using fiber posts in a one-stage procedure gains more popularity and aims to create a secondary monoblock. Data of detailed analyses of so called “post-and-core-systems” with respect to morphological characteristics of the resin-dentin interface in combination with bond strength measurements of fiber posts luted with these materials are scarce. The present study aimed to analyze four different post-and-core-systems with two different adhesive approaches (self-etch and etch-and-rinse). Materials and Methods Human anterior teeth (n = 80) were endodontically treated and post space preparations and post placement were performed using the following systems: Rebilda Post/Rebilda DC/Futurabond DC (Voco) (RB), Luxapost/Luxacore Z/Luxabond Prebond and Luxabond A+B (DMG) (LC), X Post/Core X Flow/XP Bond and Self Cure Activator (Dentsply DeTrey) (CX), FRC Postec/MultiCore Flow/AdheSE DC (Ivoclar Vivadent) (MC). Adhesive systems and core materials of 10 specimens per group were labeled using fluorescent dyes and resin-dentin interfaces were analyzed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). Bond strengths were evaluated using a push-out test. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement ANOVA and following post-hoc test. Results CLSM analyses revealed significant differences between groups with respect to the factors hybrid layer thickness (p<0.0005) and number of resin tags (p = 0.02; ANOVA). Bond strength was significantly affected by core material (p = 0.001), location inside the root canal (p<0.0005) and incorporation of fluorescent dyes (p = 0.036; ANOVA). CX [7.7 (4.4) MPa] demonstrated significantly lower bond strength compared to LC [14.2 (8.7) MPa] and RB [13.3 (3.7) MPa] (p<0.05; Tukey HSD) but did not differ significantly from MC [11.5 (3.5) MPa]. Conclusion It can be concluded that bond strengths inside the root canal were not affected by the adhesive approach of the post

  5. Analysis of resin-dentin interface morphology and bond strength evaluation of core materials for one stage post-endodontic restorations.

    PubMed

    Bitter, Kerstin; Gläser, Christin; Neumann, Konrad; Blunck, Uwe; Frankenberger, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Restoration of endodontically treated teeth using fiber posts in a one-stage procedure gains more popularity and aims to create a secondary monoblock. Data of detailed analyses of so called "post-and-core-systems" with respect to morphological characteristics of the resin-dentin interface in combination with bond strength measurements of fiber posts luted with these materials are scarce. The present study aimed to analyze four different post-and-core-systems with two different adhesive approaches (self-etch and etch-and-rinse). Human anterior teeth (n = 80) were endodontically treated and post space preparations and post placement were performed using the following systems: Rebilda Post/Rebilda DC/Futurabond DC (Voco) (RB), Luxapost/Luxacore Z/Luxabond Prebond and Luxabond A+B (DMG) (LC), X Post/Core X Flow/XP Bond and Self Cure Activator (Dentsply DeTrey) (CX), FRC Postec/MultiCore Flow/AdheSE DC (Ivoclar Vivadent) (MC). Adhesive systems and core materials of 10 specimens per group were labeled using fluorescent dyes and resin-dentin interfaces were analyzed using Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM). Bond strengths were evaluated using a push-out test. Data were analyzed using repeated measurement ANOVA and following post-hoc test. CLSM analyses revealed significant differences between groups with respect to the factors hybrid layer thickness (p<0.0005) and number of resin tags (p = 0.02; ANOVA). Bond strength was significantly affected by core material (p = 0.001), location inside the root canal (p<0.0005) and incorporation of fluorescent dyes (p = 0.036; ANOVA). CX [7.7 (4.4) MPa] demonstrated significantly lower bond strength compared to LC [14.2 (8.7) MPa] and RB [13.3 (3.7) MPa] (p<0.05; Tukey HSD) but did not differ significantly from MC [11.5 (3.5) MPa]. It can be concluded that bond strengths inside the root canal were not affected by the adhesive approach of the post-and-core-system. All systems demonstrated homogenous hybrid layer formation and

  6. Microhardness of composites in simulated root canals cured with light transmitting posts and glass-fiber reinforced composite posts.

    PubMed

    Yoldas, Oguz; Alaçam, Tayfun

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the depth of cure of composite resin cured within simulated root canals by means of light-transmitting plastic posts, glass-fiber-reinforced composite posts, and conventional light curing method. Thirty black plastic cylinders measuring 15 mm in length and 4 mm in internal diameter were divided into three groups. The composite resin was packed into simulated canals. The light-transmitting plastic posts and glass-fiber-reinforced composite posts were inserted into simulated canals and light cured for 90 seconds. The control group was light cured directly. To ensure continual change of material properties by increasing the length of material, a surface microhardness test was done 2 mm, 4 mm, 6 mm, 8 mm, 10 mm, 12 mm, and 14 mm from the light exposure surface. The results showed a significant increase in microhardness of composite resin (depth of cure) for both light-transmitting plastic posts and glass-fiber-reinforced composite posts compared with the control group. The microhardness of composite resin was also significantly higher with light-transmitting plastic posts than glass-fiber-reinforced composite posts after 8 mm.

  7. Ions Release and pH of Calcium Hydroxide-, Chlorhexidine- and Bioactive Glass-Based Endodontic Medicaments.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Ceci Nunes; Freire, Laila Gonzales; Carvalho, Alexandre Pinheiro Lima de; Duarte, Marco Antonio Húngaro; Bauer, José; Gavini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated pH and release of calcium, sodium and phosphate ions from different medications in human dentin. Fifty premolars were prepared and randomly divided into groups: (CHX) - 2% chlorhexidine gel; (CHX + CH) - CHX + calcium hydroxide PA; (CH) - CH + propylene glycol 600; (NPBG) - experimental niobium phosphate bioactive glass + distilled water; (BG) - bioactive glass (Bio-Gran) + distilled water. The specimens were immersed in deionized water and the pH variations were measured. The quantification of ions in the solutions was made by inductively coupled plasma - atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES) at 10 min, 24 h, 7, 14, 21 and 30 days. The results were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey`s test, with a significance level of 5%. CH had the highest level of calcium ions release at 30 days, while CHX and BG released more sodium ions. BG, NPBG and CHX released a higher amount of phosphate ions. The pH of CH was significantly higher compared with the other groups. CH favored the greatest increase of pH and calcium ions release. The bioactive glasses released more sodium and phosphate ions and presented an alkaline pH immediately and after 30 days.

  8. Influence of irrigation protocols on the bond strength of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive luting agent 24 hours after endodontic treatment.

    PubMed

    Lima, Jessica Ferraz Carvalho; Lima, Adriano Fonseca; Humel, Maria Malerba Colombi; Paulillo, Luis Alexandre Maffei Sartini; Marchi, Giselle Maria; Ferraz, Caio Cezar Randi

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of different irrigation protocols on the bond strength, at different root depths, of fiber posts cemented with a self-adhesive cement 24 hours after endodontic treatment. Fifty-six bovine incisor roots were endodontically prepared and separated into 7 groups (n = 8) according to irrigation protocols: group 1, sterile saline (control); group 2, chlorhexidine (CHX) gel 2% and saline; group 3, sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) 5.25% and saline; group 4, CHX and saline (final irrigation with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA] 17%); group 5, NaOCl and saline (final irrigation with EDTA); group 6, CHX and saline (final irrigation with NaOCl and EDTA); and group 7, NaOCl (final irrigation with CHX and EDTA). No statistically significant difference was found among the groups. Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that the different irrigation protocols did not influence the bond strength of self-adhesive resin cement, which presented similar behaviors at the 3 root depths studied.

  9. [Comparative research for micro-push-out bond strengths of glass fiber posts treated by poly-dopamine or silane coupling agent].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qian; Su, Yong-liang; Cai, Qing; Bai, Yun-yang; Su, Jing; Wang, Xin-zhi

    2015-12-18

    To evaluate the micro-push-out bond strengths of prefabricated glass fiber posts with poly-dopamine functionalized to root dentin using resin cements, contrasted with silane treatment. In the study, 30 glass fiber posts were randomly divided into 3 groups (10 posts in each group) for different surface treatments. Group 1, treated with poly-dopa; Group 2, treated with silane coupling agent for 60s; Group 3, no surface treatment (Control group). The 30 extracted human, single-rooted teeth were endodontically treated and a 9 mm post space was prepared in each tooth with post drills provided by the manufacturer. Following post cementation, the specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 7 days. The micro-push-out bond strengths were tested using a universal testing machine (0.5 mm/min), and the failure modes were examined with a stereomicroscope. The data of the three groups were statistically analyzed using the one-way ANOVA test(α= 0.05). The bond strengths were (7.909 ± 1.987) MPa for Group 1, (5.906 ± 0.620) MPa for Group 2, and 4.678 ± 0.910 MPa for Group 3. The bond strength of poly-dopamine group was significantly higher than that of the silane group (P<0.05). Contrasted with silane treatment, surface poly-dopamine functionalization was confirmed to be a more reliable method for improving the bond strength of resin luting agents to fiber posts.

  10. Analysis of bond strength by pull out test on fiber glass posts cemented in different lengths.

    PubMed

    Webber, Mariana Benedetti Ferreira; Michida, Silvia Masae de Araújo; Marson, Fabiano Carlos; de Oliveira, Giovani Corrêa; Silva, Cleverson de Oliveira E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, by means of pull-out test, the bond strength of fiberglass posts when cemented with different lengths in endodontically treated teeth. Sixty single-rooted bovine roots were cut in the cementoenamel junction with 21 mm length. They were endodontically treated and randomly divided into three groups (n = 20). Group 1 - Preparation of 2/3 of the remaining roots; Group 2 - Preparation of ½ of the remaining roots and Group 3 - Preparation of ¼ of remaining roots. For all groups it were used posts n = 3 (Exacto, Angelus, Brazil), and cemented with self-etching resin cement (RelyXU200). After cementing posts, the samples were thermocycled (10.000 cycles/5°C and 55°C). The pull-out test was performed on a universal testing machine (EMIC - DL500) and the values obtained were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (one-factor ANOVA) and multiple comparison test of Tukey, with level of significance of 5%. The mean values ± standard deviation in Newtons (N) were: Group 1 = 120.5 (±42.8) A, Group 2 = 103.1 (±31.2) AB, Group 3 = 41.2 (±22.4) C, P < 0.005. The preparation of ½ of remaining root appears to be a viable alternative when 2/3 of the preparation of the remaining root is not possible, but more results are needed for clinical validation.

  11. Push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin using glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cements

    PubMed Central

    PEREIRA, Jefferson Ricardo; da ROSA, Ricardo Abreu; SÓ, Marcus Vinícius Reis; AFONSO, Daniele; KUGA, Milton Carlos; HONÓRIO, Heitor Marques; do VALLE, Accácio Lins; VIDOTTI, Hugo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs) and resin-modified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs). Material and Methods Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa) were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. Results Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05). The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148). The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. Conclusions Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values. PMID:25004052

  12. Push-out bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin using glass ionomer and resin modified glass ionomer cements.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Rosa, Ricardo Abreu da; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Afonso, Daniele; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Honório, Heitor Marques; Valle, Accácio Lins do; Vidotti, Hugo Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts to root dentin after cementation with glass ionomer (GICs) and resinmodified glass ionomer cements (RMGICs). Fifty human maxillary canines were transversally sectioned at 15 mm from the apex. Canals were prepared with a step back technique until the application of a #55 K-file and filled. Post spaces were prepared and specimens were divided into five groups according to the cement used for post cementation: Luting & Lining Cement; Fuji II LC Improved; RelyX Luting; Ketac Cem; and Ionoseal. After cementation of the glass fiber posts, all roots were stored at 100% humidity until testing. For push-out test, 1-mm thick slices were produced. The push-out test was performed in a universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/minute and the values (MPa) were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene's tests and by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test at a significance level of 5%. Fiber posts cemented using Luting & Lining Cement, Fuji II LC Improved, and Ketac Cem presented the highest bond strength to root dentin, followed by RelyX Luting. Ionoseal presented the lowest bond strength values (P>0.05). The post level did not influence the bond strength of fiber posts to root dentin (P=0.148). The major cause of failure was cohesive at the cement for all GICs and RMGICs. Except for Ionoseal, all cements provided satisfactory bond strength values.

  13. Flexural strength of glass fibre-reinforced posts bonded to dual-cure composite resin cements.

    PubMed

    Davis, Peter; Melo, Luciana S D; Foxton, Richard M; Sherriff, Martyn; Pilecki, Peter; Mannocci, Francesco; Watson, Timothy F

    2010-04-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the flexural strength of two different types of glass fibre-reinforced posts bonded to dual-cure composite resin cements. Forty glass methacrylate-based fibre posts (GC Fiber Post) and 20 glass fibre inter-polymerizing network posts (everStick POST) were divided into three groups. Group 1 contained 20 GC posts that were bonded to a dual-cure composite cement (UnifilCore). Group 2 contained 20 Stick Tech posts that had adhesive applied (Scotchbond Multipurpose resin) and were bonded to a dual-cure composite resin cement (RelyX Unicem). Group 3 contained 20 GC posts that were pretreated with a silane-coupling agent before being treated with resin and composite, as in group 1. A 4-point bend test was carried out to failure on all of the groups. Failure modes were determined using scanning electron microscopy. Pretreatment of the post surface with the silane-coupling agent did not increase the flexural strength. The flexural strength of the Stick Tech post was significantly lower than the flexural strength of the GC post. The mode of failure for the GC Posts was adhesive, whereas the Stick Tech posts failed cohesively. Different flexural strengths and failure modes were observed among the two fibre post-resin systems.

  14. Use of glass fiber post and composite resin in restoration of a vertical fractured tooth.

    PubMed

    Fidel, Sandra Rivera; Sassone, Luciana; Alvares, Gustavo Ribeiro; Guimarães, Rodrigo Prada Sant'anna; Fidel, Rivail Antônio Sérgio

    2006-12-01

    Combined coronal and vertical root fractures are difficult to treat and extraction of the affected tooth is quite often indicated. In anterior teeth, esthetics and function must be reestablished immediately. This case describes the restoration of a fractured upper right central incisor using a glass fiber post and adhesive composite. At the follow-up appointment, 13 months later, clinical and radiographical examinations revealed the glass fiber post and restoration in place, suggesting the efficacy of the treatment in maintaining fractured tooth.

  15. Discolouration potential of endodontic procedures and materials: a review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, H M A; Abbott, P V

    2012-10-01

    Advances in endodontic materials and techniques are at the forefront of endodontic research. Despite continuous improvements, tooth discolouration, especially in anterior teeth, is considered an undesirable consequence following endodontic treatment as it creates a range of aesthetic problems. This article aims to discuss the intrinsic and internalized tooth discolouration caused by endodontic procedures, and to address the discolouration potential of materials used during root canal treatment, including root canal irrigants, intra-canal medicaments, endodontic and post-endodontic filling materials. In addition, the discolouration patterns caused by combined endodontic and nonendodontic aetiological factors are discussed. The recommended guidelines that should be followed by dental practitioners to prevent and manage tooth discolouration are also outlined. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  16. Effect of Dexamethasone Intraligamentary Injection on Post-Endodontic Pain in Patients with Symptomatic Irreversible Pulpitis: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Esnashari, Ehsan; Salmanzadeh, Reyhaneh; Fazlyab, Mahta; Fazlyab, Mahyar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this randomized-controlled clinical trial was to assess the effect of intraligamentary (PDL) injection of dexamethasone on onset and severity of post-treatment pain in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. Methods and Materials: A total number of 60 volunteers were included according to the inclusion criteria and were assigned to three groups (n=20). After administration of local anesthesia and before treatment, group 1 (control) PDL injection was done with syringe containing empty cartridge, while in groups 2 and 3 the PDL injection was done with 0.2 mL of 2% lidocaine or dexamethasone (8 mg/2 mL), respectively. Immediately after endodontic treatment patients were requested to mark their level of pain on a visual analogue scale (VAS) during the next 48 h (on 6, 12, 24 and 48-h intervals). They were also asked to mention whether analgesics were taken and its dosage. Considering the 0-170 markings on the VAS ruler, the level of pain was scored as follows: score 0 (mild pain; 0-56), score 1 (moderate pain; 57-113) and score 3 (severe pain; 114-170). The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and the Chi-square tests and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: After 6 and 12 h, group 1 and group 3 had the highest and lowest pain values, respectively (P<0.01 and P<0.001 for 6 and 12 h, respectively). However, after 24 and 48 h the difference in the pain was not significant between groups 1 and 2 (P<0.6) but group 3 had lower pain levels (P<0.01 and P<0.8 for 24 and 48 h, respectively). Conclusion: Pretreatment PDL injection of dexamethasone can significantly reduce the post-treatment endodontic pain in patients with symptomatic irreversible pulpitis. PMID:27790253

  17. Fracture resistance of structurally compromised root filled bovine teeth restored with accessory glass fibre posts.

    PubMed

    Martelli, H; Pellizzer, E P; Rosa, B T; Lopes, M B; Gonini, A

    2008-08-01

    To evaluate the mechanical behaviour of structurally compromised root filled bovine roots after restoration with accessory glass fibre posts. Fifty roots of bovine teeth received conventional post preparations with a cervical diameter of 3.5 mm. The roots were assigned to five groups (n = 10): group MP - cast metal post, group GP - glass fibre post and group AGP - glass fibre post plus accessory glass fibre posts. In groups GP-R and AGP-R (similar to groups GP and AGP), 2 mm of coronal tooth structure were left intact. All groups were subjected to an elastic limit assay and tested in an universal machine for fracture resistance. Repeated measures anova were performed to examine differences in fracture resistance; fracture modes were analysed by Fischer's exact test. The mean fracture resistance values (kgf) were 61.8 (MP), 63.1 (GP), 55.5 (AGP), 56 (GP-R) and (53.1) AGP-R. No statistically significant difference was found between groups. The Fisher's exact test indicated significant differences (P < 0.05) in the fracture mode amongst groups MP, GP and AGP, indicating 100%, 50% and 10% of catastrophic fractures, respectively. The use of accessory glass fibre posts affected the fracture mode favorably: 90% of fractures in group AGP were in the coronal third.

  18. Stress Distribution, Tooth Remaining Strain, and Fracture Resistance of Endodontically Treated Molars Restored Without or With One or Two Fiberglass Posts And Direct Composite Resin.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, L M; Bicalho, A A; Veríssimo, C; Rodrigues, M P; Soares, C J

    2017-10-04

    To evaluate the effects of direct composite resin without a post or with one or two fiberglass posts on the restoration of severely compromised endodontically treated molars. Forty-five molars with 2 mm of "remaining tooth structure" were divided into three groups: Wfgp, restored with Filtek Z350XT without a fiberglass post; 1fgp, restored with Z350XT with one fiberglass post in the distal root canal; and 2fgp, restored with Z350XT with two fiberglass posts, one in the distal root canal and the other in the mesial-buccal root canal. The teeth were load cycled. Tooth remaining strain was measured using strain gauges (n=10) at two moments: TrSt-100 N, during 100 N occlusal loading, and TrSt-Fr, at fracture load. Fracture resistance was calculated, and fracture mode was classified. The elastic modulus and Vickers hardness were calculated using dynamic indentation (n=5). Stress distribution was analyzed by three-dimensional finite element analysis. The use of two fiberglass posts resulted in lower fracture resistance than was noted in the groups with one fiberglass post and without fiberglass posts. The lingual surface of the remaining tooth had higher strain values than the buccal surface, regardless of the restorative technique and moment of evaluation. The absence of a fiberglass post resulted in significantly higher strain values and more irreparable fracture modes than were noted in the other groups. The use of one fiberglass post had a better strain/fracture resistance ratio. Stresses were concentrated in the occlusal portion of the post and in the furcation region. The presence of one fiberglass post resulted in better stress distribution in the entire distal root dentin, reducing stress on the critical areas. The use of one fiberglass post for restoring molars with direct composite resin resulted in higher fracture resistance than did the use of two fiberglass posts; it also resulted in better tooth remaining strain and stress distribution and more reparable

  19. Regenerative endodontics.

    PubMed

    Simon, S; Smith, A J

    2014-03-01

    Significant advances in our understanding of the biological processes involved in tooth development and repair at the cellular and molecular levels have underpinned the newly emerging area of regenerative endodontics. Development of treatment protocols based on exploiting the natural wound healing properties of the dental pulp and applying tissue engineering principles has allowed reporting of case series showing preservation of tissue vitality and apexogenesis. To review current case series reporting regenerative endodontics. Current treatment approaches tend to stimulate more reparative than regenerative responses in respect of the new tissue generated, which often does not closely resemble the physiological structure of dentine-pulp. However, despite these biological limitations, such techniques appear to offer significant promise for improved treatment outcomes. Improved biological outcomes will likely emerge from the many experimental studies being reported and will further contribute to improvements in clinical treatment protocols.

  20. Single versus two visits with 1-week intracanal calcium hydroxide medication for endodontic treatment: One-year post-treatment results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fonzar, Federica; Mollo, Aniello; Venturi, Mauro; Pini, Pierpaolo; Fabian Fonzar, Riccardo; Trullenque-Eriksson, Anna; Esposito, Marco

    To evaluate whether it is more effective to complete endodontic treatment in a single visit or in two visits with 1-week intracanal calcium hydroxide medication in symptomatic teeth and teeth with periapical lesions. One hundred and ninety-nine patients, with one symptomatic tooth or a tooth with a periapical lesion, were randomised, according to a parallel group design, to receive a complete endodontic treatment in a single visit (99 patients) or in two visits with 1-week intracanal calcium hydroxide medication (100 patients), at two centres. Patients were followed for up to 1 year post-treatment and the outcome measures were tooth loss, radiographic healing, any complication, post-treatment pain and amount of painkillers used. Seven patients dropped out from the single-visit and ten patients from the two-visit group (all patients from one centre only). One patient lost his tooth from the single-visit and two patients from the two-visit group (difference in proportion = -0.01; 95% CI: -0.05 to 0.03; P = 0.619). Five single-visit patients and nine two-visit patients experienced one complication each (difference in proportion = -0.05; 95% CI: -0.12 to 0.03; P = 0.278). There were no statistically significant differences in tooth loss and complications. One year after treatment, complete radiographic healing was observed in 22 patients of the single-visit group and in 19 patients of the two-visit group; improvement in 43 patients of the single-visit group and in 54 patients of the two-visit group; and no changes/worsening in 24 patients of the single-visit group and in 15 patients of the two-visit group. There were no statistically significant differences in radiographic healing between the two groups (P = 0.509). Pre-treatment pain was reported by 68 single-visit patients and by 68 two-visit patients; 1-week post-treatment pain was reported by 27 single-visit patients and by 46 two-visit patients, and 2-week post-treatment pain was reported by 2

  1. Analysis of Bond Strength by Pull Out Test on Fiber Glass Posts Cemented in Different Lengths

    PubMed Central

    Webber, Mariana Benedetti Ferreira; Michida, Silvia Masae de Araújo; Marson, Fabiano Carlos; de Oliveira, Giovani Corrêa; Silva, Cleverson de Oliveira e

    2015-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate, by means of pull-out test, the bond strength of fiberglass posts when cemented with different lengths in endodontically treated teeth. Materials and Methods: Sixty single-rooted bovine roots were cut in the cementoenamel junction with 21 mm length. They were endodontically treated and randomly divided into three groups (n = 20). Group 1 - Preparation of 2/3 of the remaining roots; Group 2 - Preparation of ½ of the remaining roots and Group 3 - Preparation of ¼ of remaining roots. For all groups it were used posts n = 3 (Exacto, Angelus, Brazil), and cemented with self-etching resin cement (RelyXU200). After cementing posts, the samples were thermocycled (10.000 cycles/5°C and 55°C). The pull-out test was performed on a universal testing machine (EMIC - DL500) and the values obtained were statistically analyzed by analysis of variance (one-factor ANOVA) and multiple comparison test of Tukey, with level of significance of 5%. Results: The mean values ± standard deviation in Newtons (N) were: Group 1 = 120.5 (±42.8) A, Group 2 = 103.1 (±31.2) AB, Group 3 = 41.2 (±22.4) C, P < 0.005. Conclusion: The preparation of ½ of remaining root appears to be a viable alternative when 2/3 of the preparation of the remaining root is not possible, but more results are needed for clinical validation. PMID:25954063

  2. [An endodontic ultrasonic system for apical endodontic surgery].

    PubMed

    de Lange, I; Putters, T; Baas, E M; van Ingen, J M

    2009-09-01

    Apical endodontic surgery is applied frequently following a failed conventional endodontic treatment. The apical preparation can be carried out conventionally using a round bur or using an endodontic ultrasonic system. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of the 2 treatment options by a randomized prospective clinical study. Patients (n=399) were at random allocated to treatment using a conventional round bur or using an ultrasonic system (P-max Newtron) according to a for the rest similar treatment protocol. One year post treatment, the treatment outcomes were determined by 2 oral and maxillofacial surgeons, blinded for the treatment option. Adequate follow-up data were obtained from 290 patients. The overall success rate was 71% in the patients treated conventionally and 81% in the patients treated using the ultrasonic system. In molar teeth, the difference in success rate was statistically significant.

  3. Fabricating fiber-reinforced composite posts.

    PubMed

    Manhart, Jürgen

    2011-03-01

    Endodontic posts do not increase the strength of the remaining tooth structure in endodontically treated teeth. On the contrary, depending on the post design employed (tapered versus parallel-sided), the root can be weakened relative to the amount of tooth removed during preparation. In many cases, if there has been a high degree of damage to the clinical crown, conservative preparation for an anatomic tapered (biomimetic) post with the incorporation of a ferrule on solid tooth structure is necessary to protect the reaming root structure as well as for the long-term retention of the composite resin core and the definitive restoration. Adhesively luted endodontic posts reinforced with glass or quartz fiber lead to better homogeneous tension distribution when loaded than rigid metal or zirconium oxide ceramic posts. Fiber-reinforced posts also possess advantageous optical properties over metal or metal oxide post systems. The clinician should realize that there are admittedly substantial differences in the mechanical loading capacity of the different fiber-reinforced endodontic posts and should be aware of such differences in order to research and select a suitable post system for use.

  4. Micro-surgical endodontics.

    PubMed

    Eliyas, S; Vere, J; Ali, Z; Harris, I

    2014-02-01

    Non-surgical endodontic retreatment is the treatment of choice for endodontically treated teeth with recurrent or residual disease in the majority of cases. In some cases, surgical endodontic treatment is indicated. Successful micro-surgical endodontic treatment depends on the accuracy of diagnosis, appropriate case selection, the quality of the surgical skills, and the application of the most appropriate haemostatic agents and biomaterials. This article describes the armamentarium and technical procedures involved in performing micro-surgical endodontics to a high standard.

  5. Comparison of fracture resistance of bonded glass fiber posts at different lengths.

    PubMed

    Schiavetti, Remo; García-Godoy, Franklin; Toledano, Manuel; Mazzitelli, Claudia; Barlattani, Alberto; Ferrari, Marco; Osorio, Raquel

    2010-08-01

    To evaluate in vitro the fracture resistance of quartz fiber posts for three different dowel lengths. 30 single-rooted human premolars with similar root length and diameter were endodontically treated and randomly divided into three experimental groups (n = 10) according to the post space depth created: (1) 5 mm; (2) 7 mm; (3) 9 mm. Quartz fiber posts (Endo Light post) were cemented using a dual cured resin cement with its adhesive system (Prime & Bond NT + Fluorocore 2). After 24 hours, specimens were embedded in acrylic resin and loaded under continuous compressive force at the extruding coronal part of the post (45-degree angle) to the long tooth axis (crosshead speed: 0.75 mm/minute). Forces at fracture (Newtons) were recorded. One-way ANOVA and Tukey tests were used for the statistical analysis (P < 0.05). Mean strength values (SD) were: (1) 40.52 (3.14); (2) 41.68 (5.31); (3) 44.88 (6.77), respectively. No statistically significant differences were found among the groups.

  6. Effect of chlorhexidine on bond strength between glass-fiber post and root canal dentine after six month of water storage.

    PubMed

    Toman, M; Toksavul, S; Tamaç, E; Sarikanat, M; Karagözoğlu, I

    2014-03-01

    Aim of this study was to assess the influence of chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) application on bond strength of glass fibre reinforced composite (FRC) posts to root dentine using adhesive luting systems. Forty extracted human mandibular premolars were endodontically treated and root canals were prepared. Teeth were divided into 2 groups according to luting system as SuperBond C&B (etch-and-rinse/chemical cure) and FuturaBond DC (self-etch/ dual cure). Each group was further divided in 2 subgroups (n=10) according to whether CHX was applied or not. Group Futura/CHX: FuturaBond DC + CHX; group Futura: FuturaBond DC; group Super/CHX: Super Bond C&B + CHX; group Super: SuperBond C&B + CHX. Mean and standard deviation (in parenthesis) values of bond strength in MPa were: group Futura/CHX: 8.86 (1.96), group Futura: 7.65 (1.01), group Super/CHX: 17.47(2.93), group Super: 12.41 (3.83). Bond strength values were affected by the type of luting agent and CHX irrigation (p=0.001, two-way ANOVA). There were statistically significant differences among the groups according to one-way ANOVA (p<0.001). Significant differences were observed in bond strength between groups Super/CHX and Super (p=0.023), between groups Futura/CHX and Super/CHX (p<0.001). Application of CHX before luting procedure with etch-and-rinse/chemical cure luting agent of glass FRC post improved long-term bond strength between glass FRC and root dentine.

  7. [Investigation on the short-term clinical application of two types of glass fiber posts].

    PubMed

    Song, Hui; Wang, Jingwen; Deng, Xuliang; Wei, Yan

    2014-08-01

    The clinical results of restoring defective teeth with two types of glass fiber prothetic systems is investigated to acquire clinical experience for further application of glass fiber posts with independent intellectual property rights. A total of 120 out-patients with restored defective teeth were selected from the Department of Stomatology, Beijing Xuanwu Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine and Peking University School and Hospital of Stomatology and randomly divided into two groups. OUYA FIBER posts and Tenax Fiber White posts were used to restore defective teeth in the experimental group and the control group, respectively. Clinical evaluation was conducted one week and three months post-restoration. Both clinical satisfactory rates of OUYA FIBER posts and Tenax Fiber White posts were higher than 98% one week post-restoration and higher than 96% three months post-restoration. No significant differences were observed between the clinical results of restoring defective teeth with the two types of fiber posts. Throughout the healing process, no root canal fracture or marginal staining were observed. OUYA FIBER post and Tenax Fiber White post showed similar clinical outcomes during the period of observation in this study. However, the long-term effects should be observed in future studies.

  8. [Prevention of root fracture using posts reinforced with fiberglass].

    PubMed

    Viţalariu, Anca-Mihaela; Comăneci, R; Tatarciuc, Monica Silvia

    2005-01-01

    (The aim of this study was to evaluate the fracture strength and mode of failure of endodontically treated teeth reconstructed with glass fiber reinforced posts. Twenty maxillary central incisors, extracted for periodontal reasons, were divided in 2 groups: gr. 1 - glass fiber posts, and gr.2 - control (endodontically treated but without posts). All samples were embedded in resin bloks and mounted in stainless steel cylinders for the compressive test. The force was applied on oral surface of the crown, until the failure occurred. The compressive loads at failure were recorded and compared with the statistical method Student t. The mode of failure of the specimens were also evaluated. The statistical analysis of the force values showed no significant difference between the groups. In conclusion, because of their low Young's modulus, the non-metallic posts made of resin composite reinforced with glass fibers have a protective effect on the dental tissues, the recorded mode of failure being very similar with the control group.

  9. Discoloration Potential of Endodontic Sealers: A Brief Review.

    PubMed

    Tour Savadkouhi, Sohrab; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2016-01-01

    Tooth discoloration induced by endodontic sealers, is a common finding that impairs aesthetic outcome of endodontic treatment. The aim of the present mini literature review, was to summarize the existing data on discoloration potential of different endodontic sealers. The research covered the article published in PubMed and Google Scholar from 2000 to 2015. The searched keywords included 'tooth discoloration AND endodontic', 'tooth discoloration AND sealer, 'tooth discoloration AND zinc-oxide eugenol sealer', 'tooth discoloration AND Calcium Hydroxide Sealer', 'tooth discoloration AND Glass Ionomer Sealer', 'tooth discoloration AND epoxy-resin Sealer', 'tooth discoloration AND Silicon Based Sealer', 'tooth discoloration AND Bioceramic Sealer' and 'Spectrophotometry'.

  10. Adhesion strategy and early bond strengths of glass-fiber posts luted into root canals.

    PubMed

    Faria-e-Silva, André Luis; Mendonça, Adriano Augusto Melo; Garcez, Rosa Maria Viana de Bragança; Oliveira, Aline da Silva de; Moreira, Andressa Goicochea; Moraes, Rafael Ratto de

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of coinitiator solutions and self-adhesive resin cement on the early retention of glass-fiber posts. Cylindrical glass-fiber posts were luted into 40 incisor roots with different adhesion strategies (n = 10): SB2, Single Bond 2 + conventional resin cement (RelyX ARC); AP, Scotchbond Multipurpose Plus (SBMP) activator + primer + ARC; APC, SBMP activator + primer + catalyst + ARC; and UNI, self-adhesive cement (RelyX Unicem). Pull-out bond strength results at 10 min after cementation showed APC > UNI > SB2 = AP (P < 0.05). The adhesion strategy significantly affected early bonding to root canals.

  11. Fracture strength and stress distributions of pulpless premolars restored with fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Yu; Huang, Shih-Hao; Takeda, Yuko; Fok, Alex; Hayashi, Mikako

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of glass fiber posts on increasing the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth. Extracted upper premolars with two canals in a root were divided into three groups according to the number of posts they were restored with: none, one, or two. All teeth were endodontically treated, crown-sectioned, and restored with a composite core and a metallic crown. A static oblique load was applied to the restored tooth until fracture, and the fracture pattern was recorded. Stress distributions were examined by finite element analysis (FEA). Teeth with glass fiber post(s) showed significantly higher fracture loads compared with those without posts. In the premolars without posts, von Mises and maximum principal stresses were found on the root surface alone; in premolars restored with posts, stresses were distributed on both root and post surfaces. Risk of root dentin fracture was significantly lowest in teeth restored with two posts.

  12. Effect of thermomechanical aging on bond strength and interface morphology of glass fiber and zirconia posts bonded with a self-etch adhesive and a self-adhesive resin cement to natural teeth.

    PubMed

    Yaman, Batu Can; Ozer, Fusun; Takeichi, Takuro; Karabucak, Bekir; Koray, Fatma; Blatz, Markus B

    2014-09-01

    Information regarding the effect of thermomechanical aging (TMA) on the bond strength of luting cements to root canal dentin and endodontic posts is limited. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of TMA on the bond strength of fiber and zirconia posts bonded to root canal dentin with 2 different resin cements with microtensile and scanning electron microscopic evaluation. Eighty extracted single-rooted human premolars were endodontically treated and restored with either a glass fiber post (FP) or a zirconia post (ZP) with 2 commercially available resin luting cements. The teeth were divided into 2 main groups. In the first group, posts (n=40) were bonded with a self-etch adhesive cement (SEAC). In the second group (n=40), posts were bonded using a self-adhesive cement (SAC). During the first aging phase, all specimens in each group were stored in distilled water for 30 days at 37°C. During the second phase, half of the specimens in each group were subjected to the TMA. The test groups were as follows: FP/SEAC, FP/SEAC+TMA, ZP/SEAC, ZP/SEAC+TMA, FP/SAC, FP/SAC+TMA, ZP/SAC, and ZP/SAC+TMA. The bond strength was measured with a microtensile test. Data were analyzed by 3-way analysis of variance and the Tukey honest significant different test (α=.05). FP/SEAC at 30 days was higher than in the other groups. However, bond strength values were significantly reduced in this group after TMA (P<.001). Bond strength values and physical properties of SEAC with higher filler content were more affected by the TMA than those of SALC. According to scanning electron microscopic observation, TMA also affected the micromorphologic interface between the posts and the resin cements as well as between the resin cements and the root canal dentin. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of hygroscopic expansion on the push-out resistance of glass ionomer-based cements used for the luting of glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Cury, Alvaro H; Goracci, Cecilia; de Lima Navarro, Maria Fidela; Carvalho, Ricardo M; Sadek, Fernanda T; Tay, Franklin R; Ferrari, Marco

    2006-06-01

    This study examined the contribution of hygroscopic expansion of glass-ionomer (GIC) and resin modified glass-ionomer (RMGIC) luting cements to the push-out resistance of fiber posts. Glass fiber posts were luted to post spaces using different cements. Experimental specimens were stored in water, while control specimens were desiccated and stored in mineral oil to eliminate water from intraradicular dentinal tubules and/or the external environment that could have contributed to hygroscopic expansion of the cements. Thin slice push-out tests revealed no difference in retention strengths of resin composite cements that were stored in water or oil. Conversely, GIC and RMGIC cements exhibited increased retention strengths after water sorption. As unfavorable cavity geometry is taxing to dentin bond integrity in root canals, a strategy that relies on increasing the frictional resistance to post dislodgement via delayed hygroscopic expansion of glass-ionomer based materials may be a more pragmatic approach to fiber post retention.

  14. Fracture characteristics of carbon fibre, ceramic and non-palladium endodontic post systems at monotonously increasing loads.

    PubMed

    Ottl, P; Hahn, L; Lauer, H Ch; Fay, M

    2002-02-01

    A carbon fibre post system, three non-palladium and one palladium metal post systems, two ceramic post systems, and a metal post system with a ceramic core were studied in vitro. The control group consisted of root-filled test teeth without posts. The test teeth were identical artificial roots of an upper central incisor made from a posterior composite whose module of elasticity was similar to that of natural dentine. All posts were cemented in the roots using Panavia 21 TC. Subsequently, standardized full crowns were cemented onto all roots. On a universal testing machine, the test teeth were loaded palatally at monotonously increasing loads until root fracture. The highest mean fracture loads were found for the carbon fibre post system (312.5 +/- 58.8 N). The fracture load of non-palladium metal posts (242.3-300.4 N) did not differ significantly from that of the Perma-dor post (265.9 N), which does contain palladium. Values of 300.3 +/- 89.3 N (aluminium oxide ceramics) and 193.5 +/-57.0 N (zirconia ceramics) were found for the ceramic posts. The control group exhibited a fracture load of 228.8 +/- 35.7 N. The mean distance between the vestibular end of the fracture gap and the point of force application was between 10.1 +/- 2.3 and 14.7 +/- 1.2 mm.

  15. [Nonsurgical micro-endodontics and its outcome].

    PubMed

    Ling, Jun-qi; Wei, Xi

    2006-02-01

    The introduction of dental operating microscope and microscopic instruments including ultrasonic tips has revealed the endodontic therapy. Dental operating microscope provides magnification and illumination for the operational area. Cases which should be treated by surgical approach in the past can be managed predictably by nonsurgical micro-endodontics. The use of dental operating microscope and ultrasonics in non-surgical endodontics includes location of missed canal, removal of intracanal post and separated instruments, negotiation of ledged canals, management of apical transportation and perforation repair.

  16. Endodontic retreatment: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover retreatment rationale, corrosion of silver points, retreatment techniques, removal of posts, and possible complications during retreatment.

  17. Interleukin 1 gene cluster SNPs (rs1800587, rs1143634) influences post-orthodontic root resorption in endodontic and their contralateral vital control teeth differently.

    PubMed

    Iglesias-Linares, A; Yañez-Vico, R M; Ballesta, S; Ortiz-Ariza, E; Mendoza-Mendoza, A; Perea, E; Solano-Reina, E

    2012-11-01

    To investigate whether the genetic variants of the interleukin-1 gene cluster (IL1) are associated with a possible genetically induced variability in post-orthodontic external apical root resorption (EARR) in root filled teeth and their control counterparts with vital pulps. One hundred and forty-six maxillary premolars were evaluated radiographically following orthodontic treatment. Genetic screening was performed on orthodontic patients for two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs: rs1800587 and rs1143634) in the IL1 gene cluster. Subjects were divided into two groups according to the presence or absence of radiographic post-orthodontic EARR (>2 mm) in root filled teeth and their controls with vital pulps. Logistic regression analysis was performed to obtain an adjusted estimation between EARR and IL1 polymorphisms. Allelic frequencies, genotype distributions, and adjusted odds ratio (OR), at 95% confidence interval, were also calculated. Whilst no clear statistical association was found for gene variations in IL1A, a sound association was found in the comparative analysis of subjects homozygous [2/2(TT)] for the IL1B gene, which resulted in a two times increased risk of suffering post-orthodontic EARR in root filled teeth [OR, 2.032 (P = 0.031); CI,1.99-14.77] when compared with their controls with vital pulps. There was, however, a shared predisposition to EARR in controls with vital pulps and root filled teeth of subjects homozygous for allele 1 [OR, 5.05 (P = 0.002)] and [OR, 2.77 (P = 0.037)], respectively. Genetic variations in the interleukin-1β gene (rs1143634) predispose root filled teeth to EARR for matched pairs secondary to orthodontic treatment in a different way from their control teeth with vital pulps in subjects homozygous for allele 2 [2/2(TT)]. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  18. Surface treatment of glass fiber and carbon fiber posts: SEM characterization.

    PubMed

    Naves, Lucas Zago; Santana, Fernanda Ribeiro; Castro, Carolina Guimarães; Valdivia, Andréa Dolores Correia Miranda; Da Mota, Adérito Soares; Estrela, Carlos; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Soares, Carlos José

    2011-12-01

    Morphology, etching patterns, surface modification, and characterization of 2 different fiber posts: Gfp, Glass fiber post; and Cfp, carbon fiber were investigated by SEM analysis, after different surface treatments. Thirty fiber posts, being 15 Gfp and 15 Cfp were divided into a 5 surface treatments (n = 3): C-alcohol 70% (control); HF 4%-immersion in 4% hydrofluoric acid for 1min; H(3) PO(4) 37%-immersion in 37% phosphoric acid for 30s; H(2) O(2) 10%-immersion in 10% hydrogen peroxide for 20 min; H(2) O(2) 24%-immersion in 24% hydrogen peroxide for 10 min. Morphology, etching patterns, surface modification and surface characterization were acessed by SEM analysis. SEM evaluation revealed that the post surface morphology was modified following all treatment when compared with a control group, for both type of reinforced posts. HF seems to penetrate around the fibers of Gfp and promoted surface alterations. The Cfp surface seems to be inert to treatment with HF 4%. Dissolution of epoxy resin and exposure of the superficial fiber was observed in both post groups, regardless the type of reinforcing fiber, H(2) O(2) in both concentrations. Relative smooth surface area was produced by H(3) PO(4) 37% treatment, but with similar features to untreated group. Surface treatment of fiber post is a determinant factor on micromechanical entanglement to resin composite core. Post treatment with hydrogen peroxide resulted strength of carbon and glass/epoxy resin fiber posts to resin composite core. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. An in vitro Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of endodontically treated Teeth with Different Restorative Materials.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Babita; Rishi, Rahul; Seal, Mukut; Jain, Kanav; Dutt, Pranjali; Talukdar, Pratim

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study is to compare and assess the fracture resistance of root canal treated teeth with different restorative materials. The present in vitro study was carried out on seventy-five freshly extracted, noncarious, single-canal human lower-first premolars with similar anatomic characteristics. Teeth were randomly assigned to five groups with 15 teeth being present in each group. Group I is control group (no alteration done), group II is restored with silver amalgam after endodontic therapy, group III is restored with posterior composite after end-odontic therapy, group IV is restored with posterior glass ionomer cement (GIC) after endodontic therapy, and group V is restored with miracle mix after endodontic therapy. Universal testing machine was used to assess the fracture strength. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test followed by Tukey's post hoc test were used to determine the significant difference between each group. A p-value of < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. The mean fracture resistance of control group showed highest fracture resistance with a mean Newton of 1083.33 ± 136.78. Among the restorative material, the highest fracture resistance was shown by teeth restored by composite (845.46 ± 47.36), followed by silver amalgam (845.46 ± 47.36). There was statistically significant difference among all the restorative materials compared with the control group (p < 0.05). However, among the teeth restored with silver amalgam and miracle mix, there was no statistical significance (p > 0.05). The present study concludes that composites are found to be having more fracture resistance followed by silver amalgam on endodontically treated premolar teeth. Restoring nonvital teeth represents a major challenge for clinicians as they are extensively damaged due to caries and endodontic access preparations. With various restorative materials in the market, it becomes difficult for the clinician to choose the better restorative material

  20. An assessment of fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in endodontically treated teeth: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Bhupinder; Pujari, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure would require to be restored with post and core to enhance the strength and durability of the tooth and to achieve retention for the restoration. The non-metallic posts have a superior aesthetic quality. Various core build-up materials can be used to build-up cores on the posts placed in endodontically treated teeth. These materials would show variation in their bonding with the non-metallic posts thus affecting the strength and resistance to fracture of the remaining tooth structure. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in extracted endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods. Forty-five freshly extracted maxillary central incisors of approximately of the same size and shape were selected for the study. They were divided randomly into 3 groups of 15 each, depending on the types of non-metallic posts used. Each group was further divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) of 5 samples each depending on three core build-up material used. Student’s unpaired ‘t’ test was also used to analyse and compare each group with the other groups individually, and decide whether their comparisons were statistically significant. Results. Luxacore showed the highest fracture resistance among the three core build-up materials with all the three posts systems. Ti-core had intermediate values of fracture resistance and Lumiglass had the least values of fracture resistance. PMID:25755926

  1. An assessment of fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in endodontically treated teeth: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Lalit; Pal, Bhupinder; Pujari, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Endodontically treated teeth with excessive loss of tooth structure would require to be restored with post and core to enhance the strength and durability of the tooth and to achieve retention for the restoration. The non-metallic posts have a superior aesthetic quality. Various core build-up materials can be used to build-up cores on the posts placed in endodontically treated teeth. These materials would show variation in their bonding with the non-metallic posts thus affecting the strength and resistance to fracture of the remaining tooth structure. Aims. The aim of the study was to assess the fracture resistance of three composite resin core build-up materials on three prefabricated non-metallic posts, cemented in extracted endodontically treated teeth. Material and Methods. Forty-five freshly extracted maxillary central incisors of approximately of the same size and shape were selected for the study. They were divided randomly into 3 groups of 15 each, depending on the types of non-metallic posts used. Each group was further divided into 3 groups (A, B and C) of 5 samples each depending on three core build-up material used. Student's unpaired 't' test was also used to analyse and compare each group with the other groups individually, and decide whether their comparisons were statistically significant. Results. Luxacore showed the highest fracture resistance among the three core build-up materials with all the three posts systems. Ti-core had intermediate values of fracture resistance and Lumiglass had the least values of fracture resistance.

  2. Endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Lieblich, Stuart E

    2012-01-01

    Conventional endodontic therapy is successful approximately 80-85% of the time. Many of these failures will occur after one year. The presence of continued pain, drainage, mobility or an increasing size of a radiolucent area are some of the indications to treat the case surgically. Since many of these cases may have had final restorations placed by the dentist, the salvage of these cases is of importance to the patient. Advances in periapical surgery have included the use of ultrasonic root end preparation. With the use of these piezoelectric devices, a more controlled apical preparation can be achieved. Additionally, isthmus areas between canals can be appropriately prepared and sealed. The precision afforded with these devices reduces the chances for a malpositioned fill and a more successful outcome.

  3. EFFECT OF EUGENOL-BASED ENDODONTIC SEALER ON THE ADHESION OF INTRARADICULAR POSTS CEMENTED AFTER DIFFERENT PERIODS

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Larissa Lustosa Lima; Giovani, Alessandro Rogério; Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa Silva; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal; Alfredo, Edson; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Paulino, Silvana Maria

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This study evaluated in vitro the influence of an eugenol-based sealer (EndoFill) on the retention of stainless steel prefabricated posts cemented with zinc phosphate and resin-based (Panavia F) cements after different periods of root canal obturation, using the pull-out test. Material and methods: Sixty upper canines were decoronated and the roots were embedded in resin blocks. The specimens were distributed into 3 groups, according to the period elapsed between canal obturation and post cementation: Group I - immediately; Group II - 72 h and Group III - 4 months. The groups were subdivided according to the type of cement used for post cementation: A - zinc phosphate and B - Panavia F. Following the experimental periods, specimens were subjected to pull- out test in an Instron machine with application of tensile force at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until post dislodgement. The maximum forces required for post removal were recorded (kN) and means were subjected to statistical analysis by 2-way ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer test (α=0.001) Results: There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01) between the posts cemented with zinc phosphate cement (0.2112 kN) and Panavia F (0.0501 kN). However, no statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found between the three post cementation periods, regardless of the cement. Conclusions: It was concluded that the eugenol-based sealer influenced the tensile strength of the posts cemented with the resin cement, but had no influence on the time waited between root canal obturation and post space preparation/post cementation. PMID:20027430

  4. [H(2)O(2) treatment improves the bond strength between glass fiber posts and resin cement].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Zhong, Bo; Tan, Jian guo; Zhou, Jian feng; Chen, Li

    2011-02-18

    To evaluate the effect of etching with H2O2 on the bond strength between epoxy-based glass fiber posts and resin cement. Sixteen epoxy-based glass fiber posts were randomly divided into 4 groups (4 posts in each group) for different surface treatments. Group 1, no surface treatment (Control group); Group 2, treated with silane coupling agent for 60 s; Group 3, immersed in 10% H2O2 for 10 min then treated with silane coupling agent for 60 s; Group 4, immersed in 30% H2O2 for 10 min then treated with silane coupling agent for 60 s. Resin cement was used for the post cementation to form resin slabs which were then sectioned and trimmed into dumbbell shape to obtain microtensile specimens. Microtensile bond strengths were tested and the failure modes were examined with a stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis of microtensile bond strengths was performed with Kruskal-Wallis test. The microtensile bond strengths (standard deviation) were 18.81 (4.04) MPa for Group 1, 26.70 (9.63) MPa for Group 2, 39.07 (6.47) MPa for Group 3, 46.05 (5.97) MPa for Group 4. Etching with H2O2 followed by silanization could significantly improve the bond strength between epoxy-based glass fiber posts and resin cement.

  5. Comparison of fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with nanohybrid, silorane, and fiber reinforced composite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Bilgi, Priyanka Shripad; Shah, Nimisha Chinmay; Patel, Parth Pinakinbhai; Vaid, Deepa S

    2016-01-01

    Background: The present study was undertaken to evaluate the most suitable restorative for badly mutilated endodontically treated teeth. Aims: To evaluate and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated premolars restored with conventional nanohybrid, silorane composite with glass fibers and newer fiber-reinforced composite in mesio-occluso-distal (MOD) cavities. Materials and Methods: Sixty extracted human maxillary premolars were selected. Fifteen intact teeth served as positive controls (Group 1). Endodontic therapy was done in the remaining 45 teeth. MOD cavities were prepared in all the teeth with standardized dimensions and were randomly divided into three groups (Group 2 - nanohybrid + glass fibers, Group 3 - silorane + glass fibers, and Group 4 – fiber-reinforced composite). Restorations were done for all groups. Fracture resistance was measured by Instron universal testing machine. Statistical Analysis Used: One-way anova test and Tukey's post hoc test. Results: Highest fracture resistance was shown by intact teeth group followed by fiber-reinforced composite, nanohybrid, and silorane, respectively. Statistically Significant difference was revealed by anova test (P < 0.0001) and Tukey's post hoc test (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Among the experimental groups, fiber-reinforced composite showed the highest fracture resistance. Statistically significant difference was observed for all the groups. PMID:27563188

  6. The endodontic diagnostic puzzle.

    PubMed

    Schweitzer, Jordan L

    2009-01-01

    Endodontic diagnosis is the cornerstone of endodontic treatment. Endodontic diagnosis can be likened to a puzzle, where the pieces must be gathered and pieced together before a clinician can see the complete picture. This article discusses how to collect the pieces and fit them together to see the pulpal and periapical diagnosis emerge.

  7. Contemporary endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Richard; Torabinejad, Mahmoud

    2004-06-01

    During the past decade, endodontics has seen a dramatic shift in the application of periradicular surgery and the role it plays in endodontic treatment. With the introduction of enhanced magnification, periradicular ultrasonics and other associative technologies, teeth that might otherwise be extracted now have a chance for retention. This article describes the role of these advances in contemporary endodontic surgery.

  8. Effect of fiber posts on the fracture resistance of maxillary central incisors with Class III restorations: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Abduljawad, Mohammed; Samran, Abdulaziz; Kadour, Jadalkareem; Karzoun, Wassim; Kern, Matthias

    2017-07-01

    Endodontically treated teeth with Class III restorations show reduced fracture resistance. The placement of glass fiber posts may affect fracture resistance and should be further evaluated. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of fiber posts on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with Class III restorations. Forty extracted human maxillary central incisors were selected and divided into 4 test groups (n=10 each) according to the restoration strategy: control group; endodontically treated teeth without endodontic posts (GHT); endodontically treated teeth with 2 Class III restorations simulating coronal destruction (GCT); endodontically treated teeth with 2 Class III restorations and a carbon fiber post (GCF); and endodontically treated teeth with 2 Class III restorations and a glass-fiber post (GGF). The fiber posts were adhesively cemented with composite resin cement, and the cavities were restored with composite resin. After 3 months of water storage, all specimens were loaded at 45 degrees in a universal testing machine until fracture and evaluated for fracture mode. The data were analyzed using 1-way ANOVA, followed by the Tukey honest significant difference multiple comparisons test (α=.05). Mean ±SD failure loads ranged from 687.5 ±84.0 N to 943.8 ±93.1 N. One-way ANOVA revealed a statistically significant difference among the groups (P≤.05). The control group (GHT) had significantly higher resistance to fracture than the other groups (P≤.05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, placement of a fiber post did not affect the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors with 2 Class III restorations. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Incidence of post-operative pain following single visit endodontics in vital and non-vital teeth: An in vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Bhagwat, Sumita; Mehta, Deepil

    2013-01-01

    This clinical study was conducted to compare the post-operative pain following single visit endodontics in vital and non-vital teeth, with and without periapical radiolucency. A total of 60 adult patients requiring root canal therapy in anterior and premolar teeth were selected for this study. Single sitting root canal treatment was carried out and the subjects were recalled after 2 weeks and instructed to fill out a series of self-report questionnaires for responses about pain in the interim after 1 day, 2 day, 3 day, 1 week and 2 weeks. In vital teeth (Group I) 60% of the treated cases had pain, of which 36% had mild pain (non-significant) and 24% had moderate pain (significant). In non-vital teeth without periapical radiolucency (Group II) 64% of cases had pain, of which 48% had mild pain (non-significant) and 16% had moderate pain (significant). In non-vital teeth with periapical radiolucency (Group III) 32% of the cases had pain of which 24% had mild pain (non-significant) and 8% had moderate pain (significant). None of the teeth in any of the groups had severe pain. There was no statistical difference between incidence of pain in vital and non-vital teeth without periapical radiolucency. Non-vital teeth with periapical radiolucency exhibited relatively less pain as compared with non-vital teeth without periapical radiolucency, but the pain continued in a significant percent of teeth even after 2 weeks. Pain incidence dropped significantly within a period of 1 day to 2 weeks in vital teeth and non-vital teeth without periapical radiolucency. There was a tendency for less incidence of significant pain after a single visit root canal treatment in these groups. Results obtained were comparable with those obtained by several investigators. PMID:24124293

  10. Comparative evaluation of strength of various core restorative materials for endodontically treated anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Dabas, V K

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, four restorative materials were used for the restoration of endodontically treated anterior teeth and their strength were compared with that of natural teeth. 100 freshly extracted Maxillary Central Incisors were used. The teeth were restored with Pin-retained amalgam-core buildups, Dowel-post with Glass ionomer-Amalgam alloy combination Cast Core build up. The natural tooth showed the maximum strength. Though some of the restorative materials showed promising results, none of them is able to show strength anywhere near to that of natural tooth.

  11. Comparative evaluation of the effect of different crown ferrule designs on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated mandibular premolars restored with fiber posts, composite cores, and crowns: An ex-vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Nikita; Kumar, Bhupendra; Arunagiri, D.; Iqbal, Mohammad; Pushpa, S.; Hussain, Juhi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: In cases of severe hard tissue loss, 2 mm circumferential ferrule is difficult to achieve which leads to incorporation of different ferrule designs. Aim: To compare and evaluate the effect of different crown ferrule designs on the fracture resistance of mandibular premolars restored with fiber posts, composite cores, and crowns. Materials and Methods: Fifty freshly extracted mandibular premolars were endodontically treated and divided into five groups: Group I - 2 mm circumferential ferrule above the cementoenamel junction (CEJ); Group II - 2 mm ferrule on the facial aspect above CEJ; Group III - 2 mm ferrule on the lingual aspect above CEJ; Group IV - 2 mm ferrule on the facial and lingual aspects above CEJ with interproximal concavities, and Group V - no ferrule (control group) and were later restored with fiber posts, composite cores, and crowns. Specimens were mounted on a universal testing machine, and compressive load was applied at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min until fracture occurred. Results: The results showed that circumferential ferrule produced the highest mean fracture resistance and the least fracture resistance was found in the control group. Conclusion: Circumferential ferrule increases the fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth restored with bonded post, core, and crown. PMID:27217642

  12. Comparison of Two Techniques for Evaluation of Coronal Leakage Along of a Glass Fiber Post

    PubMed Central

    Sadighpour, L.; Rezaei, S.; Geramipanah, F.; Mohammadi, M.; Choubchian, S.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Contradictory results have been reported over microleakage studies of restorative materials and methods. Despite the number of publications on leakage there are few evidences comparing the different microleakage evaluation methods. The purpose of the present study was to compare the clearing technique and longitudinal sectioning in the evaluation of dye penetration along a glass fiber post. Materials and Methods: Fifteen single-rooted human teeth were endontically prepared and obturated with gutta percha points and a resin based sealer (AH26). A glass fiber post (Glassix) was cemented into each post space with a dual polymerizing resin cement (Varilink II) and the composite core (Tetric Ceram) was fabricated. Specimens were immersed in Indian ink solution for 72 hours after completion of 1500 cycles of thermal cycling. Then demineralized, cleared and evaluated for the deepest length of dye penetration using a stereomicroscope. Specimens were then cut longitudinally and the length of penetration was measured again by the same instrument. The mean difference of the penetrated length was analyzed by two methods using the paired t test and an analysis of correlation (α = 0.05). Results: No significant difference was found in the mean microleakage measured by the two methods (P= 0.07). Significant correlation was found between them (P=0.0001, r= 0.9) Conclusion: The clearing technique and longitudinal sectioning showed the same results in microleakage of Glassix post and composite core within the limitation of the present study. PMID:21998786

  13. Survival of Composite Resin Restorations of severely Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth retained by Glass Fiber Posts or Reversed-orientated Metal Posts.

    PubMed

    Vafaei, Ali; Ranjkesh, Bahram; Lovschall, Henrik; Erfanparast, Leila; Jafarabadi, Mohammad A; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi; Isidor, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the survival of composite resin restorations retained by glass fiber posts or reversed-orientated (upside-down) metal posts in severely decayed primary anterior teeth after 6, 12, and 18 months. A total of forty-four 3- to 5-year-old children with bilateral severely decayed primary maxillary canines were included. Patients were treated under general anesthesia. After pulpectomy, an intracanal post was seated in the primary maxillary canine on each side: either a glass fiber post or a metallic post in reversed orientation and teeth restored with light-cured composite. Survival rate of each technique was evaluated at predetermined follow-ups and data were analyzed with McNemar's test (α = 0.05). The difference in survival of restorations retained by two types of posts was not statistically significant in clinical and radiographical evaluations after 6, 12, and 18 months. The survival rate of reversed-orientated metal and glass fiber posts after 18 months was 81.1 and 67.6% respectively (p = 0.14). Reversed-orientated metal post did not show lower clinical survival compared with glass fiber posts in 18-month follow-up. Hence, reversed-orientated metal post can be considered as a potential method to obtain retention for composite restorations in severely decayed primary anterior teeth. How to cite this article: Vafaei A, Ranjkesh B, L0vschall H, Erfanparast L, Jafarabadi MA, Oskouei SG, Isidor F. Survival of Composite Resin Restorations of severely Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth retained by Glass Fiber Posts or Reversed-orientated Metal Posts. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):109-113.

  14. Survival of Composite Resin Restorations of severely Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth retained by Glass Fiber Posts or Reversed-orientated Metal Posts

    PubMed Central

    Ranjkesh, Bahram; Lovschall, Henrik; Erfanparast, Leila; Jafarabadi, Mohammad A; Oskouei, Sina Ghertasi; Isidor, Flemming

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the survival of composite resin restorations retained by glass fiber posts or reversed-orientated (upside-down) metal posts in severely decayed primary anterior teeth after 6, 12, and 18 months. Materials and methods: A total of forty-four 3- to 5-year-old children with bilateral severely decayed primary maxillary canines were included. Patients were treated under general anesthesia. After pulpectomy, an intracanal post was seated in the primary maxillary canine on each side: either a glass fiber post or a metallic post in reversed orientation and teeth restored with light-cured composite. Survival rate of each technique was evaluated at predetermined follow-ups and data were analyzed with McNemar’s test (α = 0.05). Results: The difference in survival of restorations retained by two types of posts was not statistically significant in clinical and radiographical evaluations after 6, 12, and 18 months. The survival rate of reversed-orientated metal and glass fiber posts after 18 months was 81.1 and 67.6% respectively (p = 0.14). Conclusion: Reversed-orientated metal post did not show lower clinical survival compared with glass fiber posts in 18-month follow-up. Hence, reversed-orientated metal post can be considered as a potential method to obtain retention for composite restorations in severely decayed primary anterior teeth. How to cite this article: Vafaei A, Ranjkesh B, L0vschall H, Erfanparast L, Jafarabadi MA, Oskouei SG, Isidor F. Survival of Composite Resin Restorations of severely Decayed Primary Anterior Teeth retained by Glass Fiber Posts or Reversed-orientated Metal Posts. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):109-113. PMID:27365929

  15. 3D FEA of cemented glass fiber and cast posts with various dental cements in a maxillary central incisor.

    PubMed

    Madfa, Ahmed A; Al-Hamzi, Mohsen A; Al-Sanabani, Fadhel A; Al-Qudaimi, Nasr H; Yue, Xiao-Guang

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to analyse and compare the stability of two dental posts cemented with four different luting agents by examining their shear stress transfer through the FEM. Eight three-dimensional finite element models of a maxillary central incisor restored with glass fiber and Ni-Cr alloy cast dental posts. Each dental post was luted with zinc phosphate, Panavia resin, super bond C&B resin and glass ionomer materials. Finite element models were constructed and oblique loading of 100 N was applied. The distribution of shear stress was investigated at posts and cement/dentine interfaces using ABAQUS/CAE software. The peak shear stress for glass fiber post models minimized approximately three to four times of those for Ni-Cr alloy cast post models. There was negligible difference in peak of shear stress when various cements were compared, irrespective of post materials. The shear stress had same trend for all cement materials. This study found that the glass fiber dental post reduced the shear stress concentration at interfacial of post and cement/dentine compared to Ni-Cr alloy cast dental post.

  16. Prevalence of referral reasons and clinical symptoms for endodontic referrals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the prevalence of different primary reasons for endodontic referrals and the clinical symptoms of the referred cases. Materials and Methods Clinical data of total endodontic treatment cases (1,014 teeth) including endodontic referral cases (224 teeth) between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2012, at Kangdong Sacred Heart Hospital, were investigated retrospectively. The one major reason for referral, the clinical symptoms, and the resulting treatment procedures of referral cases were recorded. The percentages of clinical symptoms of the endodontic referral cases and the total endodontic treatment cases were compared by χ2 test for each symptom. Results Persistent pain was the most frequent reason for endodontic referral (29.5%), followed by presence of gingival swelling and sinus tract (24.1%), and apical radiolucency (12.9%). Referrals in cases involving endodontic difficulties such as canal calcification, broken instruments, post, perforation, and resorption were less than 5.0%, respectively. The percentages of four major clinical symptoms of pain, apical radiolucency, previous endodontic treatment, and gingival swelling and sinus tract were significantly higher in the endodontic referral cases than those in the total endodontic cases (p = 0.001). Among the included referral cases, 72.8% were treated with nonsurgical endodontic treatment only. Teeth other than the referred teeth were diagnosed as the origin of the problem in 5.8% of the referrals. Conclusions The high prevalence of pain, apical radiolucency, previous treatment, and gingival swelling and sinus tract in endodontic referral cases suggest that these symptoms may be what general practitioners consider to be difficult and refer to endodontists. PMID:25110645

  17. An Experimental Thermally Deposited Coating for Improved Bonding to Glass-fiber Posts.

    PubMed

    Reis, Giselle Rodrigues; Silva, Fernanda Pereira; Oliveira-Ogliari, Aline; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Moraes, Rafael R; Novais, Veridiana Resende; Menezes, Murilo de Sousa

    To determine whether an experimental thermally deposited siloxane-methacrylate coating for use in industrial scale applications would improve the bond strength of resin-based materials to glass fiber posts (GFPs) without affecting their mechanical properties. An experimental 5% (w/v) solution of methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane was prepared. Two types of GFPs (Exacto, Angelus; White Post DC, FGM) were divided into the following groups: S: silane; SA: silane and adhesive; HS: 35% H₂O₂ and silane; HSA: 35% H₂O₂, silane and adhesive; Exp: siloxane-methacrylate coating (Si-O) via post immersion in experimental solution followed by heating; Exp-S: silane after Si-O treatment; Exp-A: adhesive after Si-O treatment; and Exp-SA: silane and adhesive after Si-O treatment. The posts were positioned in a mold to allow insertion of a dual-curing resin core, serially sectioned into beams, and subjected to microtensile bond strength (μTSB) testing. The three-point bending test and SEM/EDX analysis were used to assess the mechanical and surface properties of untreated GFPs that were etched with H₂O₂ or treated with Si-O. Surface treatments affected the μTSB only for the Exacto GFPs. The highest μTBS (MPa) was observed in Exp-S and Exp-SA groups, whereas H₂O₂ etching resulted in intermediate values. The mechanical properties were not affected by surface treatments. Exacto GFPs had significantly higher flexural strength (σf) and flexural modulus (Ef) than did the White Post DC GFPs, but the latter were significantly stiffer (S) than Exacto, regardless of the surface treatment tested. H₂O₂ promoted morphological changes in post surfaces. The experimental treatment promoted deposition of Si onto the post surface, improving bond strengths of Exacto posts. The proposed novel coating technique is a viable procedure for fiber post manufacturers to improve the μTSB of resin-based materials.

  18. Management of Horizontal Root Fracture in the Middle Third via Intraradicular Splinting Using a Fiber Post

    PubMed Central

    Gulve, Meenal N.

    2016-01-01

    Radicular fractures in permanent teeth are uncommon injuries and account for only 0.5–7% of dental traumas. These fractures commonly result from a horizontal impact and are transverse to oblique in direction. Their incidence is more in the middle third of the root than at the apical and cervical thirds. This paper describes a case of complicated crown fracture of maxillary incisors along with horizontal root fracture at the middle third of maxillary right central and lateral incisor. The fractured root fragments of the upper right central and lateral incisor were united with the help of a glass fiber post after receiving an endodontic treatment. The other two incisors were treated endodontically followed by post endodontic restorations. Eventually the four incisors were restored with porcelain fused to metal crowns. A one-year follow-up revealed a well stabilized assembly of the root fragments and the post. PMID:26904313

  19. Push-out bond strengths of different dental cements used to cement glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Lins do Valle, Accácio; Ghizoni, Janaina Salomon; Lorenzoni, Fábio César; Ramos, Marcelo Barbosa; Barbosa, Marcelo Ramos; Dos Reis Só, Marcus Vinícius

    2013-08-01

    Since the introduction of glass fiber posts, irreversible vertical root fractures have become a rare occurrence; however, adhesive failure has become the primary failure mode. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the push-out bond strength of glass fiber posts cemented with different luting agents on 3 segments of the root. Eighty human maxillary canines with similar root lengths were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=10) according to the cement assessed (Rely X luting, Luting and Lining, Ketac Cem, Rely X ARC, Biscem, Duo-link, Rely X U100, and Variolink II). After standardized post space preparation, the root dentin was pretreated for dual-polymerizing resin cements and untreated for the other cements. The mixed luting cement paste was inserted into post spaces with a spiral file and applied to the post surface that was seated into the canal. After 7 days, the teeth were sectioned perpendicular to their long axis into 1-mm-thick sections. The push-out test was performed at a speed of 0.5 mm/min until extrusion of the post occurred. The results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and the all pairwise multiple comparison procedures (Tukey test) (α=.05). ANOVA showed that the type of interaction between cement and root location significantly influenced the push-out strength (P<.05). The highest push-out strength results with root location were obtained with Luting and Lining (S3) (19.5 ±4.9 MPa), Ketac Cem (S2) (18.6 ±5.5 MPa), and Luting and Lining (S1) (18.0 ±7.6 MPa). The lowest mean values were recorded with Variolink II (S1) (4.6 ±4.0 MPa), Variolink II (S2) (1.6 ±1.5 MPa), and Rely X ARC (S3) (0.9 ±1.1 MPa). Self-adhesive cements and glass ionomer cements showed significantly higher values compared to dual-polymerizing resin cements. In all root segments, dual-polymerizing resin cements provided significantly lower bond strength. Significant differences among root segments were found only for Duo-link cement. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of

  20. [Raman spectroscopic analysis of post-cement-root canal dentin interface].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Chun; Wu, Xuan; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Ma, Hong-Mei; Hao, Feng-Yu

    2007-06-01

    To examine the compositions of those adhesion modes between luting cements and canal dentin, and to evaluate the dentin-cement-post interface by Laser-Ranian spectroscopy. Three representative luting cements (zinc phosphate, glass ionomer and resin cements), two kinds of prefabricated posts (titanium and fiber-glass), six extracted intact human maxillary anterior teeth were used canal dentin after endodontic treatment. Laser-Raman spectroscopy measure of cement, post and canal dentin before and after luting together. There are no evident Raman spectra change cross the ZPC/dentin interface and glass ionomer/dentin interface, while cross the resin/dentin interface and resin/glass fiber post interface can be seen special Raman spectra. Laser-Raman microspectroscopy is a useful analytical technique for evaluation interface between dentin and luting cements. Resin cement may interact with dentin and glass fiber post.

  1. Fracture resistance of structurally compromised premolar roots restored with single and accessory glass or quartz fiber posts

    PubMed Central

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Alavi, Ali Asghar; Zare, Samira

    2014-01-01

    Background: Glass and quartz fiber posts are used in restoration of structurally compromised roots. Accessory fiber posts are recently introduced to enhance the fiber post adaptation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of glass versus quartz accessory fiber posts. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 40 mandibular premolar roots with similar dimension (radius of 3.5 ± 0.2 mm and length of 13 ± 0.5 mm) were selected and their root canals were flared until 1.5 mm of dentin wall remained. They were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10) and restored as follows: Exacto glass fiber post (EX), Exacto glass fiber post + 2 Reforpin accessories (EXR), D. T. Light quartz fiber post (DT), and D. T. Light quartz fiber post + 2 Fibercone accessories (DTF). All posts were cemented with Duo-Link resin cement and the cores were built with the particulate filler composite. Following 1-week water storage, specimens were subjected to fracture loads in a universal testing machine. The maximum loads and failure modes were recorded and analyzed with the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact tests (α = 0.05). Results: The mean fracture resistance values (N) were 402.8 (EX), 378.4 (EXR), 400.1 (DT), and 348.5 (DTF). Two-way ANOVA test showed neither reinforcing method (P = 0.094), nor post composition (P = 0.462) had statistically significant differences on fracture resistance of the structurally compromised premolar teeth. Fisher's exact test also demonstrated no statistically significant difference regarding two variables (P = 0.695). Core fracture was the most common failure mode (62.5%). Conclusion: Glass and quartz fiber posts with or without accessories restored the weakened premolar roots equally. PMID:24932200

  2. Fracture resistance of structurally compromised premolar roots restored with single and accessory glass or quartz fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Sharafeddin, Farahnaz; Alavi, Ali Asghar; Zare, Samira

    2014-03-01

    Glass and quartz fiber posts are used in restoration of structurally compromised roots. Accessory fiber posts are recently introduced to enhance the fiber post adaptation. This study evaluated the effectiveness of glass versus quartz accessory fiber posts. In this experimental study, 40 mandibular premolar roots with similar dimension (radius of 3.5 ± 0.2 mm and length of 13 ± 0.5 mm) were selected and their root canals were flared until 1.5 mm of dentin wall remained. They were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 10) and restored as follows: Exacto glass fiber post (EX), Exacto glass fiber post + 2 Reforpin accessories (EXR), D. T. Light quartz fiber post (DT), and D. T. Light quartz fiber post + 2 Fibercone accessories (DTF). All posts were cemented with Duo-Link resin cement and the cores were built with the particulate filler composite. Following 1-week water storage, specimens were subjected to fracture loads in a universal testing machine. The maximum loads and failure modes were recorded and analyzed with the two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Fisher's exact tests (α = 0.05). The mean fracture resistance values (N) were 402.8 (EX), 378.4 (EXR), 400.1 (DT), and 348.5 (DTF). Two-way ANOVA test showed neither reinforcing method (P = 0.094), nor post composition (P = 0.462) had statistically significant differences on fracture resistance of the structurally compromised premolar teeth. Fisher's exact test also demonstrated no statistically significant difference regarding two variables (P = 0.695). Core fracture was the most common failure mode (62.5%). Glass and quartz fiber posts with or without accessories restored the weakened premolar roots equally.

  3. Curricular Guidelines for Endodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Endodontics of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. Endodontics is that branch of dentistry dealing with diagnosis and treatment of oral conditions that arise as a result of pathoses of dental pulp. (MLW)

  4. Curricular Guidelines for Endodontics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    Guidelines developed by the Section on Endodontics of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. Endodontics is that branch of dentistry dealing with diagnosis and treatment of oral conditions that arise as a result of pathoses of dental pulp. (MLW)

  5. Morphological analysis of glass, carbon and glass/carbon fiber posts and bonding to self or dual-cured resin luting agents.

    PubMed

    Spazzin, Aloísio Oro; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto; Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; Carlini-Júnior, Bruno; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology of glass (GF), carbon (CF) and glass/carbon (G/CF) fiber posts and their bond strength to self or dual-cured resin luting agents. Morphological analysis of each post type was conducted under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bond strength was evaluated by microtensile test after bisecting the posts and re-bonding the two halves with the luting agents. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (alpha=0.05). Failure modes were evaluated under optical microscopy and SEM. GF presented wider fibers and higher amount of matrix than CF, and G/CF presented carbon fibers surrounded by glass fibers, and both involved by matrix. For CF and GF, the dual-cured material presented significantly higher (p<0.05) bond strength than the self-cured agent. For the dual agent, CF presented similar bond strength to GF (p>0.05), but higher than that of G/CF (p<0.05). For the self-cured agent, no significant differences (p>0.05) were detected, irrespective of the post type. For GF and G/CF, all failures were considered mixed, while a predominance of adhesive failures was detected for CF. The bonding between fiber posts and luting agents was affected by the type of fibers and polymerization mode of the cement. When no surface treatment of the post is performed, the bonding between glass fiber post and dual-cured agent seems to be more reliable.

  6. MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF GLASS, CARBON AND GLASS/CARBON FIBER POSTS AND BONDING TO SELF OR DUAL-CURED RESIN LUTING AGENTS

    PubMed Central

    Spazzin, Aloísio Oro; de Moraes, Rafael Ratto; Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; Carlini, Bruno; Correr, Lourenço

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphology of glass (GF), carbon (CF) and glass/carbon (G/CF) fiber posts and their bond strength to self or dual-cured resin luting agents. Material and Methods: Morphological analysis of each post type was conducted under scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Bond strength was evaluated by microtensile test after bisecting the posts and re-bonding the two halves with the luting agents. Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α=0.05). Failure modes were evaluated under optical microscopy and SEM. Results: GF presented wider fibers and higher amount of matrix than CF, and G/CF presented carbon fibers surrounded by glass fibers, and both involved by matrix. For CF and GF, the dual-cured material presented significantly higher (p<0.05) bond strength than the self-cured agent. For the dual agent, CF presented similar bond strength to GF (p>0.05), but higher than that of G/CF (p<0.05). For the self-cured agent, no significant differences (p>0.05) were detected, irrespective of the post type. For GF and G/CF, all failures were considered mixed, while a predominance of adhesive failures was detected for CF. Conclusion: The bonding between fiber posts and luting agents was affected by the type of fibers and polymerization mode of the cement. When no surface treatment of the post is performed, the bonding between glass fiber post and dual-cured agent seems to be more reliable. PMID:19936529

  7. INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT ADHESIVE SYSTEMS ON THE PULL-OUT BOND STRENGTH OF GLASS FIBER POSTS

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Luciana Mendonça; de Andrade, Andréa Mello; Machuca, Melissa Fernanda Garcia; da Silva, Paulo Maurício Batista; da Silva, Ricardo Virgolino C.; Veronezi, Maria Cecília

    2008-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts (Reforpost – Angelus-Brazil) cemented to root dentin with a resin cement (RelyX ARC – 3M/ESPE) associated with two different adhesive systems (Adper Single Bond - 3M/ESPE and Adper Scotchbond Multi Purpose (MP) Plus – 3M/ESPE), using the pull-out test. Twenty single-rooted human teeth with standardized root canals were randomly assigned to 2 groups (n=10): G1- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel (3M/ESPE) + Adper Single Bond + #1 post (Reforpost – Angelus) + four #1 accessory posts (Reforpin – Angelus) + resin cement; G2- etching with 37% phosphoric acid gel + Adper Scotchbond MP Plus + #1 post + four #1 accessory posts + resin cement. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C for 7 days and submitted to the pull-out test in a universal testing machine (EMIC) at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. The mean values of bond strength (kgf) and standard deviation were: G1- 29.163 ± 7.123; G2- 37.752 ±13.054. Statistical analysis (Student's t-test; α=0.05 showed no statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the groups. Adhesive bonding failures between resin cement and root canal dentin surface were observed in both groups, with non-polymerized resin cement in the apical portion of the post space when Single Bond was used (G1). The type of adhesive system employed on the fiber post cementation did not influence the pull-out bond strength. PMID:19089224

  8. Bonding effectiveness of two adhesive luting cements to glass fiber posts: pull-out evaluation of three different post surface conditioning methods.

    PubMed

    Graiff, Lorenzo; Rasera, Laura; Calabrese, Marco; Vigolo, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength at the post/resin-cement interface with 3 different surface treatments of glass fiber posts and with 2 different luting resin cements. Sixty glass fiber posts (RelyX Fiber Post) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20) and were luted with a dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and with a dual-polymerizing resin cement (RelyX ARC). This was carried out in association with a dual-polymerizing adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus) in simulated plexiglass root canals after receiving three different pretreatment procedures. A pull-out test was performed on each sample to measure bond strengths. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Two samples from each group were processed for SEM observations in order to investigate the morphologic aspect of the post/cement interface. Both resin cements demonstrated significant different bond strength values (P < 0.0001). The surface treatment result was also statistically significant (P = 0.0465). SEM examination showed a modification of the post surface after pretreatment with methyl methacrylate. The dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement achieved higher MPa bond strength values. The use of methyl methacrylate as a surface treatment of glass fiber posts provided a significant increase in bond strengths between the posts and both luting materials.

  9. Bonding Effectiveness of Two Adhesive Luting Cements to Glass Fiber Posts: Pull-Out Evaluation of Three Different Post Surface Conditioning Methods

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bond strength at the post/resin-cement interface with 3 different surface treatments of glass fiber posts and with 2 different luting resin cements. Sixty glass fiber posts (RelyX Fiber Post) were randomly divided into 3 groups (n = 20) and were luted with a dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and with a dual-polymerizing resin cement (RelyX ARC). This was carried out in association with a dual-polymerizing adhesive (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose Plus) in simulated plexiglass root canals after receiving three different pretreatment procedures. A pull-out test was performed on each sample to measure bond strengths. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA. Two samples from each group were processed for SEM observations in order to investigate the morphologic aspect of the post/cement interface. Both resin cements demonstrated significant different bond strength values (P < 0.0001). The surface treatment result was also statistically significant (P = 0.0465). SEM examination showed a modification of the post surface after pretreatment with methyl methacrylate. The dual-polymerizing self-adhesive universal resin cement achieved higher MPa bond strength values. The use of methyl methacrylate as a surface treatment of glass fiber posts provided a significant increase in bond strengths between the posts and both luting materials. PMID:24987418

  10. Change in silica sources in Roman and post-Roman glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aerts, A.; Velde, B.; Janssens, K.; Dijkman, W.

    2003-04-01

    Although Roman and post-Empire glasses found in Europe are reputed to have a very constant composition and hence source of components, it appears that some 4-5th century and later specimens show evidence of a different source of silica (sand) component. Zirconium and titanium are the discriminating elements. Data presented here for 278 specimens from 1st to 4th century German and Belgian samples indicate a strongly homogeneous Zr and Ti content; N: number of analyzed samples while 62 samples from Maastricht show low Zr-Ti contents from 1st to 3rd century samples while 4-5th century samples show a strong trend of concomitant Ti and Zr increase. If the high values of Zr-Ti represent a new source of silica (sand) the trend from low to high content suggests that a significant amount of low Zr-Ti glass was recycled to form these glass objects. Similar high Ti content can be seen in analysis results reported for other but not all 4-5th century samples found in northern Europe while earlier productions show typical low Ti contents. Although the fusing agent for these glasses seems to have always been natron (a mineral deposit in the Nile delta) from Hellenistic times to the 9th century, a change in the silica source, indicated by variation of the Ti and Zr content, could very well reflect the results of political instability of the 4-5th century exemplified by the fragmentation of the Roman Empire into two parts.

  11. Is endodontic treatment performed under general anaesthesia technically acceptable?

    PubMed

    Alsaleh, Iyad; Cousson, Pierre-Yves; Nicolas, Emmanuel; Hennequin, Martine

    2012-12-01

    Undertaking endodontic treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) is often described as difficult and hazardous, but no study reports on safe and efficacious conditions for endodontic treatment under GA. This study aims to evaluate whether compromises made for the endodontic treatment of permanent teeth under GA are acceptable. It describes the quality of endodontic treatment undertaken in two series of consecutive patients treated either under GA or local anaesthesia (LA). Post-operative data sheets and periapical radiographs were collected for 255 permanent teeth treated under GA during a 4-year period (GA group, 125 patients with special needs) and for 246 permanent teeth treated under local anaesthesia over 7 months (LA group, 180 healthy patients). The radiographic criteria for quality of endodontic treatment (RCQET) were considered satisfactory when (1) the root filling was within 2 mm of the apex; (2) the filling displayed no voids or defects; and (3) all the visible canals had been obturated. The type of tooth, pulpal status and periapical status were considered independent variables for RCQET. The proportion of satisfactory RCQET reached 63% in both groups and differed by type of tooth, being significantly lower for molars than for other teeth. From a technical point of view, compromises made for the endodontic treatment of permanent teeth under GA are acceptable. Further studies should be conducted to evaluate the long-term success of endodontic treatment performed under GA. This study supports the feasibility of endodontic treatment for patients treated under GA.

  12. Finite Element Analysis of the Endodontically-treated Maxillary Premolars restored with Composite Resin along with Glass Fiber Insertion in Various Positions.

    PubMed

    Navimipour, Elmira Jafari; Firouzmandi, Maryam; Mirhashemi, Fatemeh Sadat

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of three methods of glass fiber insertion on stress distribution pattern and cusp movement of the root-filled maxillary premolars using finite element method (FEM) analysis. A three-dimensional (3 D) FEM model of a sound upper premolar tooth and four models of root-filled upper premolars with mesiocclusodistal (MOD) cavities were molded and restored with: (1) Composite resin only (NF); (2) Composite resin along with a ribbon of glass fiber placed in the occlusal third (OF); (3) Composite resin along with a ribbon of glass fiber placed circumferentially in the cervical third (CF), and (4) Composite resin along with occlusal and circumferential fibers (OCF). A static vertical load was applied to calculate the stress distributions. Structural analysis program by Solidworks were used for FEM analysis. Von-Mises stress values and cusp movements induced by occlusal loading were evaluated. Maximum Von-Mises stress of enamel occurred in sound tooth, followed by NF, CF, OF and OCF. Maximum Von-Mises stress of dentin occurred in sound tooth, followed by OF, OCF, CF and NF. Stress distribution patterns of OF and OCF were similar. Maximum overall stress values were concentrated in NF. Although stress distribution patterns of NF and CF were found as similar, CF showed lower stress values. Palatal cusp movement was more than buccal cusp in all of the models. The results of our study indicated that while the circumferential fiber had little effect on overall stress concentration, it provided a more favorable stress distribution pattern in cervical region. The occlusal fiber reduced the average stress in the entire structure but did not reduce cuspal movement. Incorporating glass fiber in composite restorations may alter the stress state within the structure depending on fiber position.

  13. Influence of silane and solvated bonding agents on the bond strength to glass-fibre posts.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Aline S; Ramalho, Elisa S; Spazzin, Aloísio O; Naves, Lucas Z; Moraes, Rafael R

    2013-12-01

    The combined use of silane and solvated bonding agents on the bond strength to glass-fibre posts was investigated. A model Bis-GMA/HEMA adhesive was formulated with no solvent, 30% of ethanol or 80% of acetone. The surfaces of rectangular-shaped posts were silanated or not and one of the agents was applied, except for the control group. Cylinders of resin cement (RelyX ARC, 3M ESPE, Saint Paul, MN, USA) were built-up on the surfaces (n = 20) and submitted to shear testing. All groups showed higher bond strengths when the surfaces were silanated. When no silanization was carried out, the use of bonding agents, either solvated or non-solvated, increased the bond strengths. All groups treated with both silane and bonding agent showed higher bond strengths than the group that was only silanated. Control and ethanol-based adhesives were similar, whereas the acetone-based agent yielded higher bond strengths. Adhesive failures were predominant. Combination of silane and adhesive enhanced the bond to fibre posts.

  14. Treatment of endodontic perforations using guided tissue regeneration and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft: two case reports with 2-4 year post-surgical evaluations.

    PubMed

    Zenobio, Elton Golçalves; Shibli, Jamil Awad

    2004-08-15

    Clinicians often have difficulty with the diagnosis and treatment of root perforation. This paper reports two patients with root perforation treated with periodontal surgery associated with guided tissue regeneration (GTR) and demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA). This combined treatment resulted in minimal probing depths, minimal attachment loss, and radiographic evidence of bone gain after follow-up evaluations that ranged from 2 to 4 years. These case reports show a correct diagnosis and removal of etiologic factors can restore both periodontal and endodontic health.

  15. Effects of chemical surface treatments of quartz and glass fiber posts on the retention of a composite resin.

    PubMed

    Yenisey, Murat; Kulunk, Safak

    2008-01-01

    Failure of a fiber post and composite resin core often occurs at the junction between the 2 materials. This failure process requires better characterization. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2 chemical solvents, hydrogen peroxide and methylene chloride, on the shear bond strength of quartz and glass fiber posts to a composite resin. Twenty-four posts (3 +/-0.1 mm in length) were prepared for each quartz (LIGHT-POST (LP)) and glass fiber (Cytec blanco (CB)) post. Posts were horizontally embedded in acrylic resin with half of the post diameter exposed. The exposed surfaces were successively ground with 400-, 800-, and 1200-grit silicon carbide papers, to ensure uniform smoothness. The specimens were divided into 3 subgroups (n=8) representing different surface treatment techniques, including application of silane for 60 seconds (S), etching with hydrogen peroxide for 20 minutes (H), and etching with methylene chloride for 5 seconds (M). Silane-treated specimens served as controls. A dual-polymerized composite resin (Tetric EvoCeram) was placed in a polytetrafluoroethylene mold (30 x 2 mm) positioned upon the post specimens and polymerized for 20 seconds with a light-emitting diode (LED) polymerization unit. The specimens were stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 hours. Shear bond strength values (MPa) of posts and composite resin cores were measured using a universal testing machine with a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Post hoc Tukey intervals for comparison among the 2 post materials and 3 surface treatment techniques were calculated (alpha =.05). The effect of the chemical surface treatments on glass and quartz fiber post surfaces were examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). There were significant differences between the shear bond strength for LP and CB (P<.001). For all groups, the application of H showed the highest bond strength values. There was no significant

  16. Adhesion between glass fiber posts and resin cement: evaluation of bond strength after various pre-treatments.

    PubMed

    Sipahi, Cumhur; Piskin, Bulent; Akin, Gulsah E; Bektas, Ozden Ozel; Akin, Hakan

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate surface roughness and bond strength of glass fiber posts to a resin cement after various surface treatments. Sixty individually formed glass fiber posts with a diameter of 1.5 mm and a length of 20 mm were used for this study. They were randomly assigned to six groups of pre-treatment (n = 10/group): Group C, untreated (control); Group SB, sandblasted; Group SC, silica coated; Group HF, hydrofluoric acid-etched; Group N, Nd:YAG laser irradiated; Group E, Er:YAG laser irradiated. Surface roughness of the posts was measured before and after pre-treatment. The posts were then bonded to resin cement and tensile bond strengths were determined in a universal testing machine. For statistical analysis, two-way ANOVA and post-hoc comparison tests (α = 0.05) were performed. The highest bond strength value was observed in group HF, followed by group SC. There was a statistically significant difference in bond strength between group C and groups HF, SC and E (p < 0.001, p = 0.002 and p = 0.041, respectively). Posts of group SB and group N showed the highest surface roughness. The findings of the present study reveal that hydrofluoric acid-etching, silica coating and Er:YAG laser irradiation provided a significant increase in bond strength between glass fiber posts and resin cement.

  17. Comparison of Stress Distribution in a Maxillary Central Incisor Restored with Two Prefabricated Post Systems with and without Ferrule Using Finite Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Arun; Sabarinathan; Raja, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction When restoring an endodontically treated tooth with deficient coronal tooth structure, posts can be used to strengthen the tooth. Recently prefabricated posts are widely used as they exclude the need for complex laboratory procedures making the procedure time saving. But the post-placement can produce stresses that cause root fracture. Different techniques can be used to study the stress distribution due to different posts, but most of them are two-dimensional and difficult to reproduce. Aim The aim of the study was to compare the stress distribution in a maxillary central incisor with Titanium and Glass fiber posts with and without ferrule using the three dimensional finite element analysis. Materials and Methods In this study 3D finite element analysis was used. Four models P1(Endodontically treated maxillary central incisor with a ferrule of coronal dentin and restored with parallel sided prefabricated titanium post and composite resin core), P2 (Endodontically treated maxillary central incisor restored with parallel sided prefabricated Titanium post and composite resin core without a ferrule of coronal dentin), P3 (Endodontically treated maxillary central incisor with a ferrule of coronal dentin and restored with parallel sided prefabricated glass fiber reinforced composite post and composite core), P4 (Endodontically treated maxillary central incisor restored with parallel sided prefabricated glass fiber reinforced composite post and composite core without a ferrule of coronal dentin), were modeled using PRO E software. Then stress analysis was done using ANSYS WORKBENCH 10.0software. A load of 100 N was applied to the models at 2mm from the incisal edge on the palatal surface with an angle of 45o to the long axis of the tooth. Results The results suggested that maximum stresses were seen around posts in order of Titanium post without ferrule followed by Titanium post with ferrule next Glass fiber post without ferrule followed by Glass fiber post

  18. [Apical endodontic surgery].

    PubMed

    Lindeboom, J A

    2004-04-01

    If (a revision of) a conventional endodontic treatment is not possible or not successful, apical endodontic surgery can be indicated. The contemporary indications, the better retrograde preparation techniques with ultrasonic retro-tips, and the better visualisation of the operation area with an operation microscope can lead to higher success percentages. Moreover, the current developments in the field of compatible filling materials are promising. Also the application of lasers is promising, but has still to prove its clinical usefulness.

  19. Post cementation sensitivity evaluation of glass Ionomer, zinc phosphate and resin modified glass Ionomer luting cements under class II inlays: An in vivo comparative study

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhar, V

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This study aims to compare the patient-perceived post-cementation sensitivity of class II metal restorations preoperatively, immediately after cementation, one week after cementation and one month after cementation with (1) Glass Ionomer luting cement (2) Zinc Phosphate cement and (3) Resin-modified Glass Ionomer luting cement. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients, irrespective of sex, in the age group of 15-50 years were selected and the teeth were randomly divided into three groups of 20 each. Twenty inlay cast restorations were cemented with three different luting cements. The criteria adapted to measure tooth sensitivity in the present study were objective examination for sensitivity. (1) Cold water test (2) Compressed air test and (3) Biting pressure test. Results: The patients with restorations cemented with Resin-modified Glass ionomer demonstrated the least postoperative sensitivity when compared with Glass Ionomer and zinc phosphate cement at all different intervals of time evaluated by different tests. Conclusion: The patients with restorations cemented with resin-modified Glass ionomer demonstrated the least postoperative sensitivity. PMID:20582215

  20. Restoration of endodontically treated teeth: criteria and technique considerations.

    PubMed

    Trushkowsky, Richard D

    2014-01-01

    The restoration of endodontically treated teeth is often required and may represent a challenge as there is no consensus on ideal treatment. The failure of endodontically treated teeth is usually not a consequence of endodontic treatment, but inadequate restorative therapy or periodontal reasons. Prior to the initiation of endodontic treatment the restorability, occlusal function, periodontal health, biologic width, and crown-to-root ratio need to be assessed. If acceptable, the appropriate technique, material, and type of restoration to restore function need to be considered. Posts are used to provide retention for the core material and to replace missing tooth structure. The residual amount of tooth structure will determine its stability for restoration. The creation of adequate ferrule (approaching 2 mm circumferentially is ideal) minimizes the damaging effects of lateral and rotational forces on the restoration and post.

  1. Transition and post-transition metal ions in borate glasses: Borate ligand speciation, cluster formation, and their effect on glass transition and mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Möncke, D; Kamitsos, E I; Palles, D; Limbach, R; Winterstein-Beckmann, A; Honma, T; Yao, Z; Rouxel, T; Wondraczek, L

    2016-09-28

    A series of transition and post-transition metal ion (Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Bi) binary borate glasses was studied with special consideration of the cations impact on the borate structure, the cations cross-linking capacity, and more generally, structure-property correlations. Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies were used for the structural characterization. These complementary techniques are sensitive to the short-range order as in the differentiation of tetrahedral and trigonal borate units or regarding the number of non-bridging oxygen ions per unit. Moreover, vibrational spectroscopy is also sensitive to the intermediate-range order and to the presence of superstructural units, such as rings and chains, or the combination of rings. In order to clarify band assignments for the various borate entities, examples are given from pure vitreous B2O3 to meta-, pyro-, ortho-, and even overmodified borate glass compositions. For binary metaborate glasses, the impact of the modifier cation on the borate speciation is shown. High field strength cations such as Zn(2+) enhance the disproportionation of metaborate to polyborate and pyroborate units. Pb(2+) and Bi(3+) induce cluster formation, resulting in PbOn- and BiOn-pseudophases. Both lead and bismuth borate glasses show also a tendency to stabilize very large superstructural units in the form of diborate polyanions. Far-IR spectra reflect on the bonding states of modifier cations in glasses. The frequency of the measured cation-site vibration band was used to obtain the average force constant for the metal-oxygen bonding, FM-O. A linear correlation between glass transition temperature (Tg) and FM-O was shown for the metaborate glass series. The mechanical properties of the glasses also correlate with the force constant FM-O, though for cations of similar force constant the fraction of tetrahedral borate units (N4) strongly affects the thermal and mechanical properties. For paramagnetic Cu- and Mn-borate glasses, N4 was

  2. Transition and post-transition metal ions in borate glasses: Borate ligand speciation, cluster formation, and their effect on glass transition and mechanical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Möncke, D.; Kamitsos, E. I.; Palles, D.; Limbach, R.; Winterstein-Beckmann, A.; Honma, T.; Yao, Z.; Rouxel, T.; Wondraczek, L.

    2016-09-01

    A series of transition and post-transition metal ion (Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, Bi) binary borate glasses was studied with special consideration of the cations impact on the borate structure, the cations cross-linking capacity, and more generally, structure-property correlations. Infrared (IR) and Raman spectroscopies were used for the structural characterization. These complementary techniques are sensitive to the short-range order as in the differentiation of tetrahedral and trigonal borate units or regarding the number of non-bridging oxygen ions per unit. Moreover, vibrational spectroscopy is also sensitive to the intermediate-range order and to the presence of superstructural units, such as rings and chains, or the combination of rings. In order to clarify band assignments for the various borate entities, examples are given from pure vitreous B2O3 to meta-, pyro-, ortho-, and even overmodified borate glass compositions. For binary metaborate glasses, the impact of the modifier cation on the borate speciation is shown. High field strength cations such as Zn2+ enhance the disproportionation of metaborate to polyborate and pyroborate units. Pb2+ and Bi3+ induce cluster formation, resulting in PbOn- and BiOn-pseudophases. Both lead and bismuth borate glasses show also a tendency to stabilize very large superstructural units in the form of diborate polyanions. Far-IR spectra reflect on the bonding states of modifier cations in glasses. The frequency of the measured cation-site vibration band was used to obtain the average force constant for the metal-oxygen bonding, FM-O. A linear correlation between glass transition temperature (Tg) and FM-O was shown for the metaborate glass series. The mechanical properties of the glasses also correlate with the force constant FM-O, though for cations of similar force constant the fraction of tetrahedral borate units (N4) strongly affects the thermal and mechanical properties. For paramagnetic Cu- and Mn-borate glasses, N4 was determined

  3. Energy Transfer between Post-Transition Elements & Rare Earths in Oxide & Chalcogenide Glasses.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-08-27

    narrow- 37 line excitation F. Optical transitions of Sm3+ in oxide glasses 41 G. Energy transfer from U i+ to Sm3+ in phosphate glass 45 H. Transition...probabilities of europium(III) in zirconium 50 and beryllium fluoride glasses, phosphate glass and pentaphosphate crystals I. Multiphonon relaxation in...in phosphate , borate, germa- nate and tellurite glasses. The level fluorescent lifetime was derived from these rates and from the calculated radiative

  4. [Fatigue and fracture resistance of the flared roots restored with computer aided design and computer aided manufacturing glass fiber posts].

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Wang, Xin-zhi; Gao, Cheng-zhi; Ivo, Krejci

    2013-02-18

    To evaluate the fatigue and fracture resistance of the flared roots restored with computer aided design (CAD) and computer aided manufacturing (CAM) glass fiber posts. In the study, 32 maxillary central incisors with roots longer than 13 mm were selected and their canals were flared, and the roots were allocated into 4 groups (n=8) by a random number chart: CAD/CAM glass fiber posts, prefabricated quartz fiber posts, cast gold alloy posts, and CAD/CAM zirconia posts. The posts were luted to the roots by resin cement and fabricate zirconia crown for every specimen. An addition-type silicone impression material was used to simulate the periodontal ligament. All the specimens were submitted to 1.2×10(6) cycles loaded with a 49 N force, at 45 degree to the long axis of the teeth simultaneously with 3 000 thermal cycles (5 °C-50 °C-5 °C). After that, the specimens were subjected to a load at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min in a servo-hydraulic testing machine applied at 45 degree to the long axis of the tooth until fracture. The data were subjected to ANOVA test and the patterns of the failure were examined. After the cycling loading, 4 crowns from prefabricated quartz fiber posts groups were deboned, and no other failure was found after the cycling loading; the fracture strengths of CAD/CAM glass fiber posts group [(441.5± 103.2) N] and cast gold alloy posts group [(462.9±170.0) N] were higher (F=4.613, P<0.05) than those of CAD/CAM zirconia posts group [(284.1±99.0) N] and prefabricated quartz fiber posts group [(315.4±112.3) N]; the entire specimens presented unfavorable failures. Although further in vitro and in vivo studies are necessary, the results of this study show that the use of CAD/CAM glass fiber posts and cast gold alloy posts may achieve better outcomes in flared roots than that of CAD/CAM zirconia posts and prefabricated quartz fiber posts.

  5. Fracture resistance of teeth restored with different post systems using new-generation adhesives.

    PubMed

    Kivanç, Bagdagül Helvacioglu; Görgül, Güliz

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the fracture strength of three post systems cemented with a dual cure composite resin luting cement by using different adhesive systems. In this study 63 extracted anterior teeth with single roots were endodontically prepared and filled. Teeth were randomly assigned to one of three post systems placed into the prepared canals: Group I - titanium posts (n=21) (Filpost); Group II - glass fiber posts (n=21) (Mirafit White); and Group III zirconia posts (n=21) (CosmoPost). Each group was again randomly divided into three subgroups according to the bonding materials used [Single Bond (n=7), Clearfil SE Bond (n=7), and Prompt L Pop (n=7)]. A dual cured resin cement (Rely X ARC) was used for bonding the posts into the root canals. Standard cores were made by a composite resin (Clearfil Photocore) using core build-ups. The samples were tested in the compression test machine for 1 mm/min and fracture resistance of the teeth were recorded. The data was analyzed by using two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's New Multiple Range Tests. A significance level of p<.05 was used for all comparisons. There was a significant difference in fracture resistance between the post systems (p<0.05) and the interaction of adhesive resins and post systems (p<0.05). Mirafit White was more resistant to fracture than other groups; Filpost showed the least resistance to fracture. CosmoPost post system bonded with Single Bond recorded the lowest fracture resistance (p<0.05). Endodontically treated anterior teeth restored with glass fiber posts exhibited higher failure loads than teeth restored with zirconia and titanium posts. Self-etching adhesives are better alternatives to etch-and-rinse adhesive systems for luting post systems. Under the condition of this study, glass fiber posts are preferable to restore endodontically treated anterior teeth.

  6. [The effect of H2O2 surface treatment of posts on the bond strength between glass fiber posts and the resin cement].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Wang, Jian-hong; Guo, Jing; Zhu, Hong-shui

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of H2O2 on the push-out bond strength between glass fiber posts and the resin cement. Eighteen Tenax glass fiber posts and 18 Macthpost glass fiber posts were randomly assigned to 6 groups according to the surface treatments. Group A, no surface treatment (control group); Group B, treated with silane agent; Group C, treated with 3% H2O2, then with silane agent; Group D, treated with10% H2O2, then with silane agent; Group E, treated with20% H2O2, then with silane agent; Group F, treated with 30% H2O2, then with silane agent. The posts were adhered using the resin cement to form cylindrical resin block. Each resin block was sectioned to 7 sections of 1 mm thick. A push-out test was performed on other sections of each post to measure bond strengths. The date was recorded and analyzed with SPSS13.0 software package. The failure modes were examined with stereomicroscope. The bond strengths of Tenax post from A1 to F1 were (22.35±3.43) MPa, (22.75±1.92) MPa, (27.21±3.60) MPa, (32.32±2.19) MPa, (36.15±2.32) MPa and (40.51±2.37) MPa, respectively. The bond strengths of Macthpost post from A2 to F2 were (17.29±3.23) MPa, (17.01±3.18) MPa, (20.48±2.11) MPa, (23.60±2.60) MPa, (27.65±3.77) MPa and (30.52±2.99) MPa, respectively. No significantly difference (P>0.05) was found between Group A and Group B, except other groups. Treatment with H2O2 followed with silane agent can significantly improve the bond strength between Tenax and Macthpost glass fiber posts and resin cement. The group treated with 30% H2O2 has the highest bond strength, and the treatment procedure is more useful to improve the adhesion of the glass fiber post. Supported by Science and Technology Plan Project of Department of Health of Jiangxi Province (20131084).

  7. Effect of Dentin Moisture and Application Mode of Universal Adhesives on the Adhesion of Glass Fiber Posts to Root Canal.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Yançanã Luizy; Bakaus, Thaís Emanuelle; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel; Reis, Alessandra; Gomes, Giovana Mongruel

    2017-09-21

    To evaluate the effect of dentin moisture and application mode of universal adhesives on bond strength (BS) and nanoleakage (NL) of fiber posts bonded to root dentin. The roots of 96 extracted human canines were treated endodontically, and the fiber posts were cemented according to the combination of the following factors: dentin moisture (dry and wet), cementation system [Single Bond Universal/RelyX ARC (SBU) and Prime&Bond elect/Enforce (PBE)], and adhesive application [active (A) and passive (P)] in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions. After one week, the specimens were transversely sectioned into six 1-mm-thick disks. From each group, 8 specimens were subjected to the pushout BS test and the other 4 specimens underwent NL analysis. For both tests, the data were subjected to 3-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). For BS and NL, the cross-product interaction of all factors was significant (p < 0.05). Lower BS was observed under P application independent of the dentin moisture; for A application, SBU showed higher BS than did PBE in both moisture conditions. Nanoleakage was present in all groups and ranged from 22.9% to 36%. The active application of universal adhesives improves the adhesion in fiber post cementation, independent of dentin moisture condition.

  8. Influence of no-ferrule and no-post buildup design on the fatigue resistance of endodontically treated molars restored with resin nanoceramic CAD/CAM crowns.

    PubMed

    Magne, P; Carvalho, A O; Bruzi, G; Anderson, R E; Maia, H P; Giannini, M

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the influence of adhesive core buildup designs-4-mm buildup, 2-mm buildup, and no buildup (endocrown)-on the fatigue resistance and failure mode of endodontically treated molar teeth restored with resin nanoceramic (RNC) CAD/CAM complete crowns placed with self-adhesive resin cement. Forty-five extracted molars were decoronated at the level of the cementoenamel junction, and the roots were endodontically treated. Specimens received different Filtek Z100 adhesive core buildups (4-mm buildup, 2-mm buildup, and no buildup, endocrown preparation) and were restored with Cerec 3 CAD/CAM RNC crowns (Lava Ultimate). Restorations (n=15) and prepared teeth were treated with airborne-particle abrasion, followed by cementation with RelyX Unicem 2 Automix. Specimens were then subjected to cyclic isometric loading at 10 Hz, beginning with a load of 200 N (for 5000 cycles), followed by stages of 400, 600, 800, 1000, 1200, and 1400 N at a maximum of 30,000 cycles each. Specimens were loaded until failure or to a maximum of 185,000 cycles (10-mm-diameter composite resin sphere antagonist). The failure mode was assessed: "catastrophic" (tooth/root fracture that would require tooth extraction), "possibly reparable" (cohesive/adhesive failure with fragment and minor damage, chip or crack, of underlying tooth structure), or "reparable" fracture (cohesive or cohesive/adhesive fracture of restoration only). Groups were compared using the life table survival analysis. Intact specimens were loaded to failure and compared with one-way analysis of variance. All specimens survived the fatigue test until the 800 N-step. The survival rates for 4-mm, 2-mm, and no buildup (endocrown) were 53%, 87%, and 87%, respectively, and were not statistically different even though crowns with 2-mm buildups only started to fail at 1200 N. Minor cohesive chips were detected in many samples despite having survived all 185,000 cycles. Postfatigue load-to-failure ranged from 2969 N with 4-mm buildup

  9. Stress analysis of different post-luting systems: a three-dimensional finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Romeed, S A; Dunne, S M

    2013-03-01

    The longevity of endodontically treated teeth is usually determined by the adequacy of root canal treatments, coronal seal and favourable stress distribution within the remaining tooth tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of post material and luting cement on the biomechanics of endodontically treated teeth using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3-D FEA). A 3 mm section of endodontically treated canine tooth was scanned and reconstructed for 3-D modelling and FE analyses. A metal post (MP) and a glass fibre post (GFP) were tested individually with four luting cements [zinc phosphate (ZPH), glass ionomer (GI), resin modified glass ionomer (RMGI) and resin based cements (RC)]. A push-out test was conducted by subjecting all models to 100 N perpendicular loading at the post. The maximum stresses generated along the MP-cement interface were significantly higher than corresponding stresses in the GFP-cement interface regardless of the cement type. GFP generated seven times higher stresses within the root dentine than metal posts when ZPH and GI were used, and three times higher when RMGI and RC were used. The displacement of GFP was double (50 μ) the displacement of MP (20 μ) in all groups. The low elastic modulus of GFP generated lower stresses along its interface and higher stresses within the root dentine, therefore the probability of debonding and root fracture in the GFP group was lower. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  10. Endodontic treatment of molars

    PubMed Central

    Habl, Claudia; Bodenwinkler, Andrea; Stürzlinger, Heidi

    2006-01-01

    Objective Commissioned by the German Institute of Medical Documentation and Information (DIMDI) the Austrian Health Institute (ÖBIG) prepared a HTA report on the long-term effectiveness of endodontic treatment (root canal treatment, RCT) of molars. The focus is to examine factors influencing the outcome of endodontic treatment and showing their impact on long-term results. Additionally, economic aspects of root canal treatment in Germany are discussed. Methodology By performing a systematic literature search in 29 databases (e.g. MEDLINE), the Cochrane Library and by hand searching two peer-reviewed endodontic journals the authors could identify 750 relevant articles, of which finally 18 qualified for assessment. Results The findings show that the most relevant factor influencing the long-term outcome of endodontic treatment is the preoperative status of a tooth. The lowest success rates are reported for molars with a preoperative devital or necrotic pulp and persisting periapical lesions (so called periapical disease). Discussion Even if there is no positive selection of patients and the RCT is performed by a normal dentist rather than an endodontist - a fact which is very common - long-term success rates of more then 90% are possible. The overall success rates for endodontic treatment of molars therefore seem to be similar to those of other tooth-types. Conclusions Especially primary, conventional (i.e. non-surgical) root canal treatment is an effective and efficient therapy for endodontically ill molars, especially if no large periapical lesion persists. Nonetheless, a long term successful endodontic therapy requires a thorough assessment of the pre-operative status of the molar and treatment according to established guidelines. PMID:21289954

  11. Different scanning electron microscopic evaluation methods of cement interface homogeneity of adhesively luted glass fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Watzke, Ronny; Frankenberger, Roland; Naumann, Michael

    2011-03-01

    To compare two methods used to examine the cement interface homogeneity of adhesively luted glass fiber posts (GFPs). GFPs were divided into four groups (n = 5 in each) and inserted into artificial root canals under standardized conditions: Group I = RelyX Unicem, application with application aid; Group II = RelyX Unicem; Group III = Panavia F 2.0; and Group IV = Variolink II. Posts in Groups II-IV were cemented without using an appliance. All specimens were sectioned at three levels (cervical, middle and apical) perpendicularly to the post's long axis and examined and photographed (n = 60) using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cement interface inhomogeneities were (A) measured by means of SEM software and (B) estimated using a graphics program with SEM images being divided into 72 equal circle segments to calculate a percentage value of inhomogeneities of the 360° circumference. Median values of inhomogeneities (A/B; %) within the cement interface for the cervical, middle and apical levels of analysis, respectively were 1.4/2.1, 2.2/4.2 and 1.9/2.1 for Group I; 21.0/20.1, 24.8/23.6 and 27.0/24.3 for Group II; 1.5/1.7, 5.5/6.3 and 19.4/20.8 for Group III; and 18.1/16.7, 16.1/15.3 and 27.2/25.7 for Group IV. The two methods correlated very well (0.994), with a value of one indicating a 100% correlation. Both evaluation methods were found to be equally appropriate for quantifying the cement interface homogeneity of SEM cross-sections of adhesively luted GFPs.

  12. Effect of carbon and glass fiber posts on the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of a composite resin.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; de Oliveira, Jonas Alves; do Valle, Accacio Lins; Zogheib, Lucas Villaca; Ferreira, Paulo Martins; Bastos, Luiz Gustavo Cavalcanti

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prefabricated fiber posts on the flexural strength and modulus of elasticity of a composite resin. Thirty bar-shaped specimens measuring 25 x 2.0 x 2.0 mm were made, containing posts that were 1.3 mm in diameter and 20 mm long. Each group contained 10 specimens: Group 1, resin without post; Group 2, resin with carbon fiber post; Group 3, resin with glass fiber post. The samples were immersed in water at 37 degrees C until the three-point loading test was performed at a speed of 1.0 mm/minute. The results were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's test (P = 0.05). Both fiber posts were similar in strength and both were stronger than the control. Group 3 obtained a higher mean modulus of elasticity than Groups 1 and 2, which were similar. The results of this study demonstrated that the presence of a fiber post significantly raised flexural strength values and the glass fiber post significantly increased the modulus of elasticity of the evaluated composite resin.

  13. Preclinical endodontic teaching

    PubMed Central

    Narayanaraopeta, Udaya; AlShwaimi, Emad

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To provide an overview of the general curricula in preclinical endodontic training from 6 established dental schools in Saudi Arabia. Methods: This study was conducted in January 2014 including only schools that had more than 2 groups of student graduates prior to the study. We included 2 dental schools from the Central region, one from Qassim region, one from the Makkah region (west), one from Abha region (south west), and one from the eastern region. An internet-based questionnaire was sent to the course directors of preclinical endodontics department of the 6 schools. The survey comprised 20 questions that examined various aspects of preclinical endodontics. Results: It was demonstrated that a significant number of faculty members had Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degrees (n=21), Master’s degrees (n=15), and Saudi board certifications (n=8). We determined that the faculty to student ratio varied from 2:1 to 8: 1 among the colleges. The participating dental schools were found to teach the Step Back, as well as the Step Down techniques for root canal preparation. Five of the 6 schools implemented the use of nickel titanium rotary instruments. All dental schools predominantly used radiographs as the means of the working length determination. Conclusion: The curriculum for preclinical endodontics in Saudi Arabia is comparable to that followed in most European countries. A more comprehensive survey is needed that would involve more schools to formulate generalized guidelines for preclinical endodontic training in Saudi Arabia. PMID:25630011

  14. Effect of cement type and water storage time on the push-out bond strength of a glass fiber post.

    PubMed

    Reis, Kátia Rodrigues; Spyrides, George Miguel; Oliveira, Jonas Alves de; Jnoub, Alexandre Abrão; Dias, Kátia Regina Hostilio Cervantes; Bonfantes, Gerson

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of the cement type and the water storage time on the push-out bond strength of a glass fiber post. Glass fiber posts (Fibrekor, Jeneric Pentron) were luted to post spaces using a self-cured resin cement (C&B Cement [CB]), a glass ionomer cement (Ketac Cem [KC]) or a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (GC FujiCEM [FC]) according to the manufacturers' instructions. For each luting agent, the specimens were exposed to one of the following water storage times (n=5): 1 day (T1), 7 days (T7), 90 days (T90) and 180 days (T180). Push-out tests were performed after the storage times. Control specimens were not exposed to water storage, but subjected to the push-out test 10 min after post cementation. Data (in MPa) were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn`s test (α=0.05). Cement type and water storage time had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the push-out bond strength. CB showed significantly higher values of retention (p<0.05) than KC and FC, irrespective of the water storage time. Water storage increased significantly the push-out bond strength in T7 and T90, regardless of the cement type (p<0.05). The results showed that fiber posts luted to post spaces with the self-cured resin cement exhibited the best bonding performance throughout the 180-day water storage period. All cements exhibited a tendency to increase the bond strength after 7 and 90 days of water storage, decreasing thereafter.

  15. Bioactive materials in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Enkel, Bénédicte; Dupas, Cécile; Armengol, Valérie; Akpe Adou, Jonas; Bosco, Julia; Daculsi, Guy; Jean, Alain; Laboux, Olivier; LeGeros, Racquel Z; Weiss, Pierre

    2008-07-01

    Endodontic treatment in dentistry is a delicate procedure and many treatment attempts fail. Despite constant development of new root canal filling techniques, the clinician is confronted with both a complex root canal system and the use of filling materials that are harmful for periapical tissues. This paper evaluates reported studies on biomaterials used in endodontics, including calcium hydroxide, mineral trioxide aggregate, calcium phosphate ceramics and calcium phosphate cements. Special emphasis is made on promising new biomaterials, such as injectable bone substitute and injectable calcium phosphate cements. These materials, which combine biocompatibility, bioactivity and rheological properties, could be good alternatives in endodontics as root canal fillers. They could also be used as drug-delivery vehicles (e.g., for antibiotics and growth factors) or as scaffolds in pulp tissue engineering.

  16. Technologic advances in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Mortman, Rory E

    2011-07-01

    This article addresses technologic advances in endodontics pertaining to new and emerging technology. Cone-beam computed tomography and optical occurrence tomography are 2 new imaging technologies that can assist the practitioner in the diagnosis of pulpal disease. The self-adjusting file and the Apexum device can be used for instrumentation and bulk debridement of an apical lesion, respectively. Neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser, erbium:chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet laser, EndoActivator, EndoVac, and light-activated disinfection may assist the practitioner in cleaning the root canal system. Computed tomography-guided surgery shows promise in making endodontic surgery easier, as does mineral trioxide aggregate cement for regenerative endodontic procedures.

  17. Thermal sensitivity of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Tidwell, E; Witherspoon, D E; Gutmann, J L; Vreeland, D L; Sweet, P M

    1999-03-01

    The problem of thermal sensitivity following non-surgical root-canal treatment is explored and case reports are presented. Possible causes for post-treatment discomfort from endodontic and restorative aetiologies are discussed, as are the mechanisms to explain the patients' painful experiences. Treatment of this problem may vary from the simple replacement of a defective restoration to a more extensive non-surgical retreatment of the case, despite radiographic evidence of an acceptable root filling and normal periradicular tissues.

  18. Post Magnetron Sputter And Reactive Sputter Coating Of Contoured Glass, Acrylic And Polycarbonate Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, Michael P.

    1985-12-01

    A Post Magnetron Sputter concept employing a cylindrical internally cooled target (cathode) is described. The use of an internal, rotating, permanent magnetic field resulting in 360° utilisation of the target material is outlined. Computer controlled horizontal and vertical movement of the cathode assembly facilitates the coating of contoured substrates which may be glass, acrylic or polycarbonate. Deposition of different metals is easily achieved by changing the cathode or covering it with a suitable sheath material. The design of the cathode results in economic utilisation of the target material, which is particularly important when sputtering expensive metals such as gold. In addition to the deposition of metallic films, such as stainless steel or chrome, reactive sputtering may be undertaken by the introduction of a reactive gas into the vacuum chamber. In this way metal oxide, sulphide or nitride layers may be deposited according to the requirements of the layer structure. Specific optically-active oxides such as indium tin oxide are easily deposited in a uniform film and the formation of multilayer coatings for sun protective and heat rejecting applications is practicable. Indeed, a complete process may be undertaken without removing the substrate from the chamber; merely by adding or changing the reactive gas present.

  19. Push-out Bond Strength of Glass Fiber Posts Cemented in Weakened Roots with Different Luting Agents.

    PubMed

    da Silveira-Pedrosa, Daniele M; Martins, Luis Rm; Sinhoreti, Mário Ac; Correr-Sobrinho, Lourenço; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D; Costa, Edson D; de F Pedrosa-Filho, Celso; de Carvalho, Jacy Ribeiro

    2016-02-01

    To evaluate the push-out bond strength (BS) of direct anatomic posts (DAPs) and conventional fiber posts (CFPs) cemented with different luting agents in different thirds of flared root canals. A total of 60 human single-rooted canine teeth were transversally sectioned 16 mm from the radicular apex. After endodontic treatment, canals were flared with diamond burs. Samples were divided into six groups according to post type and luting agent: DAP and RelyX U100 (RXU); DAP and RelyX ARC (RXA); DAP and RelyX Luting 2 (RXL); CFP and RXU; CFP and RXA; CFP and RXL. Roots were sectioned transversely into six 1-mm-thick slices. The push-out test was performed and failure modes were observed. The DAP groups (7.23 ± 2.05) showed highest BS values (p < 0.05) when compared with CFP (5.93 ± 1.76). RelyX U100 (8.17 ± 1.70) showed higher BS values (p < 0.05) than RXA (6.46 ± 1.38), and RXL (5.10 ± 1.65) showed the lowest values. Bond strength on the apical third was statistically lower (p < 0.05) than that on the other thirds of the root canals. There was a predominance of adhesive failure for all groups. The DAPs improved retention in flared root canals, and RXU was the most effective luting agent. The apical third showed the lowest BS values. The relining procedure of fiber posts with composite and the proper selection of luting resin cement are important for increasing bonding effectiveness in flared root canals.

  20. Fatigue surviving, fracture resistance, shear stress and finite element analysis of glass fiber posts with different diameters.

    PubMed

    Wandscher, Vinícius Felipe; Bergoli, César Dalmolin; de Oliveira, Ariele Freitas; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Souto Borges, Alexandre Luiz; Limberguer, Inácio da Fontoura; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the shear stress presented in glass fiber posts with parallel fiber (0°) and different coronal diameters under fatigue, fracture resistance and FEA. 160 glass-fiber posts (N=160) with eight different coronal diameters were used (DT=double tapered, number of the post=coronal diameter and W=Wider - fiber post with coronal diameter wider than the conventional): DT1.4; DT1.8W; DT1.6; DT2W; DT1.8; DT2.2W; DT2; DT2.2. Eighty posts were submitted to mechanical cycling (3×10(6) cycles; inclination: 45°; load: 50N; frequency: 4Hz; temperature: 37°C) to assess the surviving under intermittent loading and other eighty posts were submitted to fracture resistance testing (resistance [N] and shear-stress [MPa] values were obtained). The eight posts types were 3D modeled (Rhinoceros 4.0) and the shear-stress (MPa) evaluated using FEA (Ansys 13.0). One-way ANOVA showed statistically differences to fracture resistance (DT2.2W and DT2.2 showed higher values) and shear stress values (DT1.4 showed lower values). Only the DT1.4 fiber posts failed after mechanical cycling. FEA showed similar values of shear stress between the groups and these values were similar to those obtained by shear stress testing. The failure analysis showed that 95% of specimens failed by shear. Posts with parallel fiber (0°) may suffer fractures when an oblique shear load is applied on the structure; except the thinner group, greater coronal diameters promoted the same shear stresses.

  1. Fiber-matrix integrity, micromorphology and flexural strength of glass fiber posts: Evaluation of the impact of rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Gabriel Kalil Rocha; Lançanova, Mateus; Wandscher, Vinicius Felipe; Kaizer, Osvaldo Bazzan; Limberger, Inácio; Özcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2015-08-01

    Several rotary instruments have been daily employed on clinic to promote cut aiming to adjust the length of fiber posts to the radicular conduct, but there is no information on the literature about the effects of the different rotary instruments and its impact on the micromorphology of surface and mechanical properties of the glass fiber post. This study aimed the impact of rotary instruments upon fiber-matrix integrity, micromorphology and flexural-strength of glass-fiber posts (GFP). GFP (N=110) were divided into 5 groups: Ctrl: as-received posts, DBc: coarse diamond-bur, DBff: extra-fine diamond-bur, CB: carbide-bur, DD: diamond-disc. Cutting procedures were performed under abundant irrigation. Posts exposed to rotary instruments were then subjected to 2-point inclined loading test (compression 45°) (n=10/group) and 3-point flexural-strength test (n=10/group). Fiber-matrix integrity and micromorphology at the cut surface were analyzed using a SEM (n=2/group). Cutting procedures did not significantly affect the 2-point (51.7±4.3-56.7±5.1 MPa) (p=0.0233) and 3-point flexural-strength (671.5±35.3-709.1±33.1 MPa) (p=0.0968) of the posts (One-way ANOVA and Tukey׳s test). Fiber detachment was observed only at the end point of the cut at the margins of the post. Cut surfaces of the CB group were smoother than those of the other groups. After 3-point flexural strength test, fiber-matrix separation was evident at the tensile side of the post. Rotary instruments tested with simultaneous water-cooling did not affect the resistance of the tested fiber posts but caused disintegration of the fibers from the matrix at the end of the cut, located at the margins.

  2. Finite element analysis of strength and adhesion of cast posts compared to glass fiber-reinforced composite resin posts in anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Dejak, Beata; Młotkowski, Andrzej

    2011-02-01

    Previous studies on the strength of teeth restored with posts have not resolved the controversy as to which post systems provide the greatest strength and longevity. The purpose of this study was to compare the strength of teeth restored using cast posts with those restored using glass fiber-reinforced composite resin posts and to evaluate the bond strength of the posts to dentin. The investigation was conducted by using finite element analysis, combined with the application of contact elements. Three-dimensional (3-D) models of the maxillary central incisors were generated: IT, an intact tooth; CC, a tooth with a ceramic crown; FP, a tooth restored with an FRC (glass fiber-reinforced composite resin) post; CPAu, a tooth restored with a gold alloy cast post; and CPNi, a tooth restored with an NiCr (nickel chromium alloy) cast post. Each model was subjected to vertical and oblique loads with a force of 100 N. To evaluate the strength of the restored tooth, ceramics, and composite resin, the modified von Mises failure criterion was used, the Tsai-Wu criterion for FRC, and the von Mises criterion for gold and NiCr alloy. The equivalent stresses found in the tested models were compared with the tensile strength of the respective materials. Contact stresses in the luting cement-dentin interface were calculated. The maximum mvM (modified von Mises failure criterion) stresses in the dentin of the teeth restored with FRC posts were reduced by 21%, and in those restored with cast NiCr posts, stresses were reduced by 25% when compared to the stresses in the intact tooth. The equivalent stresses in metal posts were several times higher than in FRC posts, but did not exceed the tensile strength of the materials. The highest mvM stress in the luting resin cement around the FRC post was 55% higher than in the luting resin cement around the metal post, under an oblique load. In the ceramic crown, which covered the composite resin post and core, the highest mvM stress was 30.7 MPa

  3. [Fiber reinforced composite posts: literature review].

    PubMed

    Frydman, G; Levatovsky, S; Pilo, R

    2013-07-01

    FRC (Fiber-reinforced composite) posts have been used since the beginning of the 90s with the introduction of carbon fiber posts. Fiber posts are widely used to restore endodontically treated teeth that have insufficient coronal tooth structure. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the advantage of using FRC over prefabricated and cast metal post especially indicated in narrow root canals which are prone to vertically root fracture. The most frequent failure of FRC is debonding of a post at the resin cement/dentin interface. Bonding to dentin may be achieved by using etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives. The bond strength formed by self-adhesive cements is noticeably lower in comparison to the bond strength formed with resin cements applied in combination with etch-and-rinse adhesives. In an attempt to maximize resin bonding to fiber posts, several surface treatments have been suggested. Sandblasting with alumina particles results in an increased surface roughness and surface area without affecting the integrity of the post as long as it is applied by 50 microm alumina particles at 2.5 bars for maximally 5 seconds at a distance of 30 mm. The efficiency of post salinization is controversial and its contribution to the retention is of minor importance. Hydrofluoric acid has recently been proposed for etching glass fiber posts but this technique produced substantial damage to the glass fibers and affected the integrity of the post. Delayed cementation of fiber post (at least 24h post endodontic treatment) resulted in higher retentive strengths in comparison to immediate cementation and the best results were obtained when the luting agent was brought into the post space with lentulo spirals or specific syringes. The resin cement film thickness also influences the pullout strengths of fiber-reinforced posts .The highest bond strength values were obtained when the cement layer oversized the post spaces but not larger than 0.3 mm. The use of core build

  4. Microleakage along glass-fibre posts cemented with three different materials after cyclic loading: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Barbić, Marija Rogić; Segović, Sanja; Baraba, Anja; Ribarić, Sonja Pezelj; Katunarić, Marina; Anić, Ivica

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate microleakage along glass-fibre posts cemented with three different cements after cyclic loading. After post-space preparation, fifty obturated root canals were randomly divided into three experimental groups and two control groups. In group 1, Glassix posts were cemented using Harvard cement, in group 2, Fuji PLUS cement was used and in group 3, Variolink II was used for post cementation. The specimens were artificially aged by loading in a special testing machine. Coronal leakage was evaluated using a fluid transport system. Posts cemented with Variolink II, showed significantly higher failure rate after loading, compared to group 1 and 2 (p = 0.009). Comparing microleakage in samples that have not failed, specimens cemented with Variolink II showed significantly less fluid transport than specimens cemented with zinc phosphate and glass ionomer cements (p = 0.04 and p = 0.006, respectively). Variolink II cement exibited significantly less fluid movement compared with Harvard and Fuji PLUS cement.

  5. Acid Etching and Surface Coating of Glass-Fiber Posts: Bond Strength and Interface Analysis.

    PubMed

    Cecchin, Doglas; Farina, Ana Paula; Vitti, Rafael Pino; Moraes, Rafael Ratto; Bacchi, Ataís; Spazzin, Aloísio Oro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of a composite resin to glass-fiber post (GFP) treated or not with phosphoric acid, silane coupling agent, and unfilled resin. GFPs were etched or not with 37% phosphoric acid and different surface coating applied: silane coupling agent, unfilled resin, or both. Composite resin blocks were built around a 4-mm height on the GFP. Unfilled resin (20 s) and composite resin (40 s) were light activated by a light-emitting diode unit. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37 °C for 24 h. Microtensile bond test was performed using a mechanical testing machine until failure (n=10). The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Student-Newman-Keuls' test (p<0.05). Failure modes were classified as adhesive, mixed, or cohesive failures. Additional specimens (n=3) were made to analyze the bonded interfaces by scanning electron microscopy. The statistical analysis showed the factor 'surface coating' was significant (p<0.05), whereas the factor 'HP etching' (p=0.131) and interaction between the factors (p=0.171) were not significant. The highest bond strength was found for the silane and unfilled resin group (p<0.05). A predominance of adhesive and cohesive failures was found. Differences regarding the homogeneity and thickness of the unfilled resin layer formed by different GFP surface treatments were observed. The application of silane and unfilled resin can improve the bond strength between GFP and resin composite.

  6. The Effect of Post-Cure and Antimony Trioxide Addition on the Glass Transition of Polyester and Vinyl Ester Resin Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    Modulus GPa Gigapascal GRP Glass Reinforced Plastic HPSEC High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography min Minute mcal Millicalories mL Milliliter MW...Tpost-cure Post-Cure Temperature Cross-Link Density -iv- 1. INTRODUCTION Reinforced polymeric materials, in particular glass reinforced plastics (GRP’s...properties of glass reinforced plastics , requires that the resin, the reinforcing fibre, the additives (such as fire retardants), and their interaction

  7. A Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Different Chemical Solvents on the Shear Bond Strength of Glass Fiber reinforced Post to Core Material.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashish; Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, Jn; Saha, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    To compare the effect of different chemical solvents on glass fiber reinforced posts and to study the effect of these solvents on the shear bond strength of glass fiber reinforced post to core material. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three chemical solvents, i.e. silane coupling agent, 6% H2O2 and 37% phosphoric acid on the shear bond strength of glass fiber post to a composite resin restorative material. The changes in post surface characteristics after different treatments were also observed, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and shear bond strength was analyzed using universal testing machine (UTM). Surface treatment with hydrogen peroxide had greatest impact on the post surface followed by 37% phosphoric acid and silane. On evaluation of the shear bond strength, 6% H2O2 exhibited the maximum shear bond strength followed in descending order by 37% phosphoric acid and silane respectively. The surface treatment of glass fiber post enhances the adhesion between the post and composite resin which is used as core material. Failure of a fiber post and composite resin core often occurs at the junction between the two materials. This failure process requires better characterization. How to cite this article: Sharma A, Samadi F, Jaiswal JN, Saha S. A Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Different Chemical Solvents on the Shear Bond Strength of Glass Fiber Reinforced Post to Core Material. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):192-196.

  8. A Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Different Chemical Solvents on the Shear Bond Strength of Glass Fiber reinforced Post to Core Material

    PubMed Central

    Samadi, Firoza; Jaiswal, JN; Saha, Sonali

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT% Aim: To compare the effect of different chemical solvents on glass fiber reinforced posts and to study the effect of these solvents on the shear bond strength of glass fiber reinforced post to core material. Materials and methods: This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of three chemical solvents, i.e. silane coupling agent, 6% H2O2 and 37% phosphoric acid on the shear bond strength of glass fiber post to a composite resin restorative material. The changes in post surface characteristics after different treatments were also observed, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and shear bond strength was analyzed using universal testing machine (UTM). Results: Surface treatment with hydrogen peroxide had greatest impact on the post surface followed by 37% phosphoric acid and silane. On evaluation of the shear bond strength, 6% H2O2 exhibited the maximum shear bond strength followed in descending order by 37% phosphoric acid and silane respectively. Conclusion: The surface treatment of glass fiber post enhances the adhesion between the post and composite resin which is used as core material. Failure of a fiber post and composite resin core often occurs at the junction between the two materials. This failure process requires better characterization. How to cite this article: Sharma A, Samadi F, Jaiswal JN, Saha S. A Comparative Evaluation of Effect of Different Chemical Solvents on the Shear Bond Strength of Glass Fiber Reinforced Post to Core Material. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2014;7(3):192-196. PMID:25709300

  9. Mechanical fatigue cycling on teeth restored with fiber posts: impact of coronal grooves and diameter of glass fiber post on fracture resistance.

    PubMed

    Santini, M F; Wandscher, V; Amaral, M; Baldissara, P; Valandro, L F

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this paper was to evaluate the effect of different diameters and surface characteristics of a glass fiber post on the fracture resistance of teeth restored with fiber posts. Eighty single-rooted bovine teeth were prepared, embedded in a PVC cylinder using acrylic resin, and allocated into 8 groups (N.=10) according to post diameter and shape: (smooth double-tapered fiber post) G1, G2, G3, and G4 with cervical diameters of 1.4 mm, 1.6 mm, 1.8 mm, and 2 mm, respectively; (double-tapered fiber posts with coronal grooves) G5, G6, G7, and G8 with cervical diameters of 1.4 mm, 1.6 mm, 1.8 mm, and 2 mm, respectively. A self-adhesive cement was used for post cementation, and the core build-up was standardized and made with composite resin. Specimens were stored for 7 days and then submitted to the mechanical fatigue testing (load=50 N., angle= 45°, frequency=1 Hz, temperature=37 ± 1 °C, number of cycles=1000000); the specimens that survived were submitted to static resistance testing (1 mm/min, 45°). The fracture loads and fracture modes was recorded. Data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey test and Pearson Correlation analysis. The cervical diameter of the post (P<0.0001) and surface characteristics (P=0.01013) significantly affected the fracture resistance (2-way ANOVA). Grooves reduced the fracture resistance when post diameter was 1.4 mm (G1 and G5). A moderate positive correlation was found between the fracture resistance and the fiber post diameter (r2=0.4445; P<0.0001) (Pearson correlation test). It appears that there is a direct relation between the diameter of the fiber post and the fracture strength of roots restored with fiber posts. But other factors may have influenced the fracture strength such as the reduction of intracanal dentin by the preparation for placement of wider fiber posts, since no difference was found for smooth fiber posts with different diameter. Otherwise, grooves at coronal part of the fiber post can damage the

  10. Discoloration Potential of Endodontic Sealers: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Tour Savadkouhi, Sohrab; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2016-01-01

    Tooth discoloration induced by endodontic sealers, is a common finding that impairs aesthetic outcome of endodontic treatment. The aim of the present mini literature review, was to summarize the existing data on discoloration potential of different endodontic sealers. The research covered the article published in PubMed and Google Scholar from 2000 to 2015. The searched keywords included ‘tooth discoloration AND endodontic’, ‘tooth discoloration AND sealer, ‘tooth discoloration AND zinc-oxide eugenol sealer’, ‘tooth discoloration AND Calcium Hydroxide Sealer’, ‘tooth discoloration AND Glass Ionomer Sealer’, ‘tooth discoloration AND epoxy-resin Sealer’, ‘tooth discoloration AND Silicon Based Sealer’, ‘tooth discoloration AND Bioceramic Sealer’ and ‘Spectrophotometry’. Conclusion: A total number of 44 articles were gained which reduced to 11 after excluding the repetitive items. The available evidence for discoloration potential of endodontic sealers currently available on the market is scarce. However, it can be concluded that all endodontic sealers can potentially stain the tooth structure to different degrees. PMID:27790251

  11. Fracture resistance of bovine incisors restored with different glass fiber posts: effect of the diameter of fiber post.

    PubMed

    Zogheib, Lucas Villaça; Vasconcellos, Luis Gustavo Oliveira; Salvia, Ana Carolina Rodrigues Danzi; Balducci, Ivan; Pagani, Clovis; Bottino, Marco Antonio; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Compare the effect of three post designs on the fracture resistance and failure modes of composite core - fiber post - crownless tooth sets. Ninety bovine incisors were selected and divided into nine groups of 10 specimens. The teeth were assigned to three groups based on the post design: Cylindrical, tapered, and double-tapered. Each group was subdivided into three subgroups in accordance with the diameter of the post: Small (No.1), medium (No.2), and large (No.3). The Panavia F system was used for post cementation. The specimens were mounted in acrylic resin blocks with a layer of silicone rubber covering the roots. A universal testing machine compressively loaded the specimens from the palatal side at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min and at an angle of 135Ί to the long axis of the teeth, until failure occurred. The failure mode was determined by a stereomicroscope inspection of all the specimens. Data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the Tukey test (P < 0.05). The fracture resistance was affected by the type of post (P < 0.0001). A narrower diameter for all of the post systems allowed for higher resistance. The main failure mode in the large cylindrical group was catastrophic fractures, while the main failures in the other eight groups were favorable. Narrower diameter posts showed higher fracture resistance. The dominant failure pattern was repairable fracture, except for those with large cylindrical groups.

  12. Regenerative Endodontics for Adult Patients.

    PubMed

    He, Ling; Kim, Sahng G; Gong, Qimei; Zhong, Juan; Wang, Sainan; Zhou, Xuedong; Ye, Ling; Ling, Junqi; Mao, Jeremy J

    2017-09-01

    The goal of endodontics is to save teeth. Since inception, endodontic treatments are performed to obturate disinfected root canals with inert materials such as gutta-percha. Although teeth can be saved after successful endodontic treatments, they are devitalized and therefore susceptible to reinfections and fractures. The American Association of Endodontists (AAE) has made a tremendous effort to revitalize disinfected immature permanent teeth in children and adolescents with diagnoses including pulp necrosis or apical periodontitis. The American Dental Association (ADA) in 2011 issued several clinical codes for regenerative endodontic procedures or apical revascularization in necrotic immature permanent teeth in children and adolescents. These AAE and ADA initiatives have stimulated robust interest in devising a multitude of tissue engineering approaches for dental pulp and dentin regeneration. Can the concept of regenerative endodontics be extended to revitalize mature permanent teeth with diagnoses including irreversible pulpitis and/or pulp necrosis in adults? The present article was written not only to summarize emerging findings to revitalize mature permanent teeth in adult patients but also to identify challenges and strategies that focus on realizing the goal of regenerative endodontics in adults. We further present clinical cases and describe the biological basis of potential regenerative endodontic procedures in adults. This article explores the frequently asked question if regenerative endodontic therapies should be developed for dental pulp and/or dentin regeneration in adults, who consist of the great majority of endodontic patients. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Repair and regeneration in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Lin, L M; Rosenberg, P A

    2011-10-01

    The ideal objective of treatment of established diseases, including irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis, is to achieve wound healing. Wound healing can result in repair or regeneration. The ultimate goal of wound healing is to restore the original architecture and biological function of the injured tissue or organ. Although humans are equipped with powerful innate and adaptive immune defence mechanisms, many intrinsic and extrinsic factors can affect wound healing. Complete regeneration following injury in humans can occur only in the pre-natal foetus within 24 weeks of gestation. Post-natal wounds including irreversible pulpitis or apical periodontitis always heal by repair or by a combination of repair and regeneration. Somatic cells, such as fibroblasts, macrophages, cementoblasts and osteoblasts, in the pulp and periapical tissues have limited potential for regeneration following injury and lack of telomerase. Wound healing of irreversible pulpitis and apical periodontitis requires recruitment and differentiation of progenitor/stem cells into tissue-committed somatic cells. Stem cell differentiation is regulated by intrinsic factors and extrinsic micro-environmental cues. Functionality of stem cells appears to show an age-related decline because of the change in intrinsic properties and diminished signals within the extrinsic local and systemic environment that modulate the function of stem cells or their progeny. Infection induces an immuno-inflammatory response and tissue destruction, which hinders the potential of tissue regeneration. Therefore, prevention, early detection and treatment of inflammation/infection of pulpal and periapical disease can enhance regeneration and minimize the repair of pulpal and periapical tissues after endodontic therapy. © 2011 International Endodontic Journal.

  14. Regenerative Endodontics: Burning Questions.

    PubMed

    Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2017-09-01

    Pulp regeneration and its clinical translation into regenerative endodontic procedures are receiving increasing research attention, leading to significant growth of the published scientific and clinical literature within these areas. Development of research strategies, which consider patient-, clinician-, and scientist-based outcomes, will allow greater focus on key research questions driving more rapid clinical translation. Three key areas of focus for these research questions should include cells, signaling, and infection/inflammation. A translational pathway is envisaged in which clinical approaches are increasingly refined to provide regenerative endodontic protocols that are based on a robust understanding of the physiological processes and events responsible for the normal secretion, structure, and biological behavior of pulpal tissue. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Summary of: Regenerative endodontics.

    PubMed

    Clark, Stephen J

    2014-03-01

    Significant advances in our understanding of the biological processes involved in tooth development and repair at the cellular and molecular levels have underpinned the newly emerging area of regenerative endodontics. Development of treatment protocols based on exploiting the natural wound healing properties of the dental pulp and applying tissue engineering principles has allowed reporting of case series showing preservation of tissue vitality and apexogenesis. To review current case series reporting regenerative endodontics. Current treatment approaches tend to stimulate more reparative than regenerative responses in respect of the new tissue generated, which often does not closely resemble the physiological structure of dentine-pulp. However, despite these biological limitations, such techniques appear to offer significant promise for improved treatment outcomes. Improved biological outcomes will likely emerge from the many experimental studies being reported and will further contribute to improvements in clinical treatment protocols.

  16. Preparation and characterisation of poly p-phenylene-2,6-benzobisoxazole fibre-reinforced resin matrix composite for endodontic post material: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chen; Wang, Feng; Yang, Huiyong; Ai, Jun; Wang, Linlin; Jing, Dongdong; Shao, Longquan; Zhou, Xingui

    2014-12-01

    Currently used fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) intracanal posts possess low flexural strength which usually causes post fracture when restoring teeth with extensive loss. To improve the flexural strength of FRC, we aimed to apply a high-performance fibre, poly p-phenylene-2, 6-benzobisoxazole (PBO), to FRCs to develop a new intracanal post material. To improve the interfacial adhesion strength, the PBO fibre was treated with coupling agent (Z-6040), argon plasma, or a combination of above two methods. The effects of the surface modifications on PBO fibre were characterised by determining the single fibre tensile strength and interfacial shear strength (IFSS). The mechanical properties of PBO FRCs were characterised by flexural strength and flexural modulus. The cytotoxicity of PBO FRC was evaluated by the MTT assay. Fibres treated with a combination of Z-6040 and argon plasma possessed a significantly higher IFSS than untreated fibres. Fibre treated with the combination of Z-6040-argon-plasma FRC had the best flexural strength (531.51 ± 26.43MPa) among all treated fibre FRCs and had sufficient flexural strength and appropriate flexural moduli to be used as intracanal post material. Furthermore, an in vitro cytotoxicity assay confirmed that PBO FRCs possessed an acceptable level of cytotoxicity. In summary, our study verified the feasibility of using PBO FRC composites as new intracanal post material. Although the mechanical property of PBO FRC still has room for improvement, our study provides a new avenue for intracanal post material development in the future. To our knowledge, this is the first study to verify the feasibility of using PBO FRC composites as new intracanal post material. Our study provided a new option for intracanal post material development. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Glass Fiber Posts Subjected to Laser Surface Treatments.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Siqueira, Carolina; Spadini de Faria, Natália; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Colucci, Vivian; Alves Gomes, Erica

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of laser irradiation on flexural strength, elastic modulus, and surface roughness and morphology of glass fiber posts (GFPs). Laser treatment of GFPs has been introduced to improve its adhesion properties. A total of 40 GFPs were divided into 4 groups according to the irradiation protocol: GC-no irradiation, GYAG-irradiation with erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet [Er:YAG], GCR-irradiation with erbium, chromium:yttrium-scandium-gallium-garnet (Er,Cr:YSGG), and GDI-irradiation with diode laser. The GFP roughness and morphology were evaluated through laser confocal microscopy before and after surface treatment. Three-point bending flexural test measured flexural strength and elastic modulus. Data about elastic modulus and flexural strength were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Bonferroni test (p < 0.05). The effect of roughness was evaluated using the linear mixed effects model and Bonferroni test (p < 0.05). Laser treatment changed surface roughness in the groups GCR (p = 0.000) and GDI (p = 0.007). The mean flexural strength in GYAG (995.22 MPa) was similar to that in GC (980.48 MPa) (p = 1.000) but different from that in GCR (746.83 MPa) and that in GDI (691.34 MPa) (p = 0.000). No difference was found between the groups GCR and GDI (p = 0.86). For elastic modulus: GYAG (24.47 GPa) was similar to GC (25.92 GPa) (p = 1.000) but different from GCR (19.88 GPa) (p = 0.002) and GDI (17.20 GPa) (p = 0.000). The different types of lasers, especially Er,Cr:YSGG and 980 ηm diode, influenced the mechanical properties of GFPs.

  18. The evaluation of displacement resistance of glass FRC posts to root dentine using a thin slice push-out test.

    PubMed

    Toman, M; Toksavul, S; Sarikanat, M; Firidinoğlu, K; Akin, A

    2009-09-01

    To investigate and compare the displacement resistance of glass fibre reinforced composite (FRC) posts to root dentine after luting with different adhesive systems. A total of 32 noncarious extracted human mandibular premolars were prepared for post-cementation using the FRC Postec system (Ivoclar Vivadent, Schaan, Liechtenstein) and divided into four groups (n = 8). The posts in each group were luted with one or other of the following materials. Group 1: Variolink II/Excite DSC (etch-and-rinse, dual-curing), group 2: Clearfil Esthetic Cement/ED Primer II (self-etch, dual-curing), group 3: Multilink/Multilink Primer (self-etch, chemical-curing) and group 4: Multilink Sprint (self-adhesive, dual-curing). Specimens were sectioned to obtain slices with the post in the centre and with the root dentine overlaid by the autopolymerizing acrylic resin on each side. The displacement resistance was measured using a Universal Testing Machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). The displacement resistance of the specimens were calculated and expressed in MPa. Data were analysed with one-way ANOVA and post hoc Tukey's test (P < 0.05). Mean (SD) values of displacement resistance data in MPa are as follows: group 1, 12.08 (2.13); group 2, 12.39 (2); group 3, 11.3 (1.23); group 4, 14.29 (1.84). There were statistically significant differences amongst the groups (P = 0.021). A statistically significant difference was observed for the displacement resistance values between groups 3 and 4 (P = 0.015), that is between Multilink/Multilink Primer and Multilink Sprint. Glass FRC posts luted with self-adhesive luting system exhibited higher displacement resistance than when luted with chemical-curing self-etch luting system.

  19. [Today's trends in endodontics].

    PubMed

    Malagnino, V A; Gatto, R

    2003-01-01

    Some new means and innovative operative techniques in the field of endodontics are presented that have been developed and perfected over time. Instruments such as the operative microscope, ultrasonography, miniaturised tools for surgery, new materials such as mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) should become part of the daily routine of the endodontist. For example, the operative microscope plays a role in diagnosing pulp damage after removal of deep caries; in orthograde endodontics in diagnosing perforations; alongside ultrasonography in the search for calcified canals, removal of pins (screw-type, fibre, etc.) and also in positioning MTA. In all these cases, the operative microscope is used discontinuously, alternating working and observation phases. In endodontic surgery, the operative microscope is on the contrary used continuously, enabling the surgeon to observe details of anatomy of the root apex at high magnification, and above all enabling positioning of canal obturation with perfect seal. It is clear that the operative microscope used in all surgical phases will enable complete management of the operation and facilitate the endodontist in observing the operative field, otherwise very difficult to control.

  20. Chlorhexidine in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Brenda P F A; Vianna, Morgana E; Zaia, Alexandre A; Almeida, José Flávio A; Souza-Filho, Francisco J; Ferraz, Caio C R

    2013-01-01

    Chemical auxiliary substances (CAS) are essential for a successful disinfection and cleanness of the root canals, being used during the instrumentation and if necessary, as antimicrobial intracanal medicaments. Different CAS have been proposed and used, among which sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine (CHX), 17% EDTA, citric acid, MTAD and 37% phosphoric acid solution. CHX has been used in Endodontics as an irrigating substance or intracanal medicament, as it possesses a wide range of antimicrobial activity, substantivity (residual antimicrobial activity), lower cytotoxicity than NaOCl whilst demonstrating efficient clinical performance, lubricating properties, rheological action (present in the gel presentation, keeping the debris in suspension); it inhibits metalloproteinase, is chemically stable, does not stain cloths, it is odorless, water soluble, among other properties. CHX has been recommended as an alternative to NaOCl, especially in cases of open apex, root resorption, foramen enlargement and root perforation, due to its biocompatibility, or in cases of allergy related to bleaching solutions. The aim of this paper is to review CHX's general use in the medical field and in dentistry; its chemical structure, presentation form and storage; mechanism of action; antimicrobial activity including substantivity, effects on biofilms and endotoxins, effects on coronal and apical microbial microleakage; tissue dissolution ability; interaction with endodontic irrigants; effects on dentin bonding, metalloproteinases and collagen fibrils; its use as intracanal medicament and diffusion into the dentinal tubules; its use as disinfectant agent of obturation cones; other uses in the endodontic therapy; and possible adverse effects, cytotoxicity and genotoxicity.

  1. Modern Endodontic Principles. Part 8: The Future of Endodontics.

    PubMed

    Roudsari, Reza Vahid; Jawad, Sarra; Taylor, Carly; Darcey, James; Qualtrough, Alison

    2016-06-01

    Although the principles of endodontics have remained unchanged for many decades, root canal treatment has been subject to major changes in the past few years. This paper outlines the cutting-edge advances including the materials and techniques used. CPD/Clinical Relevance: This article provides an overview of bioactive materials and insight into regenerative endodontics, vital pulp therapy and intentional replantation.

  2. An in vitro comparison of different cementation strategies on the pull-out strength of a glass fiber post.

    PubMed

    Amaral, M; Santini, M F; Wandscher, V; Amaral, R; Valandro, L F

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of different strategies for post cementation on the pullout bond strength of a double-tapered glass fiber post cemented into a root canal. The root canals of 70 single-rooted bovine teeth (16 mm-length) were prepared to 9 mm using the preparation drill of a double-tapered glass fiber post system (White Post DC, FGM). Each specimen was embedded in a plastic cylinder using acrylic resin up to 3 mm of the most coronal portion of the specimen and allocated into one of seven groups (n=10) based on strategies for cementation: Gr1-ScotchBond Multi Purpose plus (SBMP) + Relyx ARC resin cement; Gr2-Single Bond + Relyx ARC; Gr3-ED Primer + Panavia F resin cement; Gr4-SBMP + AllCem resin cement; Gr5-Relyx ARC; Gr6-Relyx Unicem resin cement; Gr7-Relyx Luting 2 glass ionomer cement. After cementation, the specimens were stored for seven days (in a humid environment at 37 degrees C) and submitted to pullout bond strength testing (the inferior part of each specimen was fixed and the fiber post was pulled out). The data (Kgf) were submitted to statistical analysis (one-way ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey tests, alpha=.05). The tested specimens were analyzed under the microscope and SEM for fracture analysis. The strategy for post cementation affected the pullout retentive strength (Kgf) (p<0.0001) significantly. Gr6 (37.7 +/- 8a), Gr1 (37.4 +/- 5.7a) and Gr4 (31.6 +/- 6.6ab) presented the highest pullout bond strengths. Gr2 (12.2 +/- 5.6c), Gr3 (6.5 +/- 5.2c) and Gr7 (5.1 +/- 2.8c) presented the lowest pullout bond strengths. Gr5 (24.2 +/- 7.4b) was similar to Gr4 and inferior to Gr6 and Gr1. The use of a three-step etch-&-rinse adhesive system appears to be effective. The application of other adhesive systems (single-bottle etch-&-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems) did not present high pullout strength values. The simplified self-adhesive resin cement (without adhesive application) presented good retentive performance. Further studies should be conducted.

  3. Optical spectroscopy applied to the analysis of medieval and post-medieval plain flat glass fragments excavated in Belgium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulebroeck, W.; Wouters, H.; Baert, K.; Ceglia, A.; Terryn, H.; Nys, K.; Thienpont, H.

    2010-04-01

    Window glass fragments from four Belgian sites were studied and for a set of eighty-five samples the UV-VIS-NIR transmission spectra were analyzed. This collection contains historical and archaeological finds originating from religious buildings namely the Basilica of Our Lady of Hanswijk in Mechelen (17th-20thc) and the Church of Our Lady in Bruges (16th-20thc) as well as from secular buildings as a private house/Antwerp (18th-1948) and the castle of Middelburg-in-Flanders (1448-17thc). All sites contain material on the hinge point between the medieval and the industrial tradition. The variation in composition of the analyzed samples can be explained by the use of different glassmaking recipes, more specifically the use of different raw materials. The composition of window glass differs essentially in the type of flux, using a potash rich fluxing agent until the post-medieval times and industrial soda from the 19th century onwards. A second difference concerns the iron impurities in the glass. For all fragments a clear compositional classification could be made based on the iron concentration. These conclusions were based on archaeological research and drawn after submitting samples to expensive, complex, time-consuming and destructive chemical analyzing methods. Our study indicates that similar conclusions could be made applying the proposed optical based methodology for plain window glass. As a whole, the obtained results make it possible to cluster the fragments for a particular site based on three different sensing parameters: the UV absorption edge, the color and the presence of characteristic absorption bands. This information helps in identifying trends to date window glass collections and indicating the use of different raw materials, production technologies and/or provenance.

  4. Reductions in the effects of damping on stress concentration in premolars by post-endodontic restorations: a non-linear finite element study.

    PubMed

    Lo, Y J; Chang, W J; Lee, S Y; Chang, K J; Lin, C T; Huang, H M

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the structural damping constants of premolars after treatment with a cast Co-Cr post-core system or permanent root filling, and to evaluate the stress damping effects of these restored premolars. Both the damping ratio and the natural frequency (NF) of the cast Co-Cr post-core restored premolars and the permanent root-filled premolars were detected by in-vitro NF testing experiments. Unprepared premolars served as the control. The damping constants beta of the samples were calculated from the measured damping ratios and natural frequencies. The measured damping constants beta of the test premolars were then used for dynamic finite element (FE) analyses. Stress contours and damping effects of stresses in each treated type of premolar were computed and compared using ANSYS. The measured damping constants beta were 0.75 x 10(-5) for the unprepared premolars, 0.69 x 10(-5) for the root-filled premolars with coronal restoration, and 0.72 x 10(-5) for the cast Co-Cr post-core restored premolars. The unprepared intact premolars demonstrated the highest stress dissipation effects with a ratio of 29.3 per cent at the middle root opposite to the loading side. However, no stress dissipation effects were found in the premolars that had been restored with the cast Co-Cr post-core system. The FE analysis showed that metallic post treatment attenuated the damping properties of the premolar. The effects of damping on stress concentration were significantly lower in restored premolars than in untreated vital premolars. These findings suggest that future research on post material should take the damping property into consideration.

  5. Structural behaviour of endodontically treated teeth under thermomechanical loading.

    PubMed

    Genovese, K; Lamberti, L; Pappalettere, C

    2006-11-01

    Choosing the optimal combination of post construction and restorative materials to minimize thermomechanical stresses in endodontically post-restored teeth is a very challenging task. In fact, while thermal properties of metallic alloys used for endodontic posts are rather similar to those of natural dental tissues, composite restorative materials used for constructing post and postcore usually possess better mechanical properties than metallic alloys. This may make it very difficult to evaluate directly thermomechanical stresses in the restored tooth. Therefore, this paper presents a detailed analysis of the structural behaviour of several post-endodontic restorations submitted to different combinations of thermomechanical load. The aim of the study is to compare the relative merits of different restoration concepts. Three-dimensional finite element method (FE) analysis is carried out for an upper incisor restored with composite as well as metallic post systems. Furthermore, customized and standard post constructions are compared. Two loading cases are considered: (a) exposure to cold irritants in absence of mastication; (b) mastication of cold or hot foods. Effects of thermal field inhomogeneity and occlusal force magnitude are also included in the analysis. Because of the transient nature of thermal loads, relative performance of different restorations is investigated as the thermal perturbation spreads through the restored tooth. Results indicate that composite post systems are globally more efficient than restorations including a metallic alloy post when thermal cycles and mastication act together. However, relative performance of different restoration concepts in the absence of mastication may depend strongly on the time of exposure to thermal irritants.

  6. Comparison of different dentin pretreatment protocols on the bond strength of glass fiber post using self-etching adhesive.

    PubMed

    Martinho, Frederico C; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Oliveira, Luciane D; de Lacerda, Ana Júlia Farias; Xavier, Ana Cláudia Carvalho; Augusto, Marina Gullo; Zanatta, Rayssa Ferreira; Pucci, Cesar Rogerio

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the influence of different irrigants with and without ultrasound or laser irradiation on the bond strength of glass fiber posts using a self-etching adhesive in a supplementary dentin pretreatment. Ninety bovine incisor roots were divided into 3 groups according to the irrigant tested: 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) (n = 30); 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (n = 30), and saline solution (control) (n = 30). Each group was randomly divided into 3 subgroups according to the supplementary dentin pretreatment: ultrasound, Nd:YAG laser, and nonsupplemented (control). A self-etching adhesive system (Futurabond DC; VOCO GmbH, Cuxhaven, Germany) was used, and the glass fiber posts were cemented with dual-cure epoxy-based luting agent (Bifix QM, VOCO GmbH). All roots were sectioned transversely, and the push-out test was performed. Failure mode analysis was also evaluated. Bond strength decreased significantly after the use of 2.5% NaOCl in all root thirds (P < .05). CHX showed no difference in the mean bond strength value compared with saline solution (P > .05). The supplementary dentin pretreatment using the Nd:YAG laser or ultrasound did not improve the bond strength values for both NaOCl and CHX (P > .05). Moreover, the apical third exhibited the lowest mean bond strength values (P < .05). Analysis indicated that the predominant failure mode was the mixed type. Regardless of the irrigant used, the supplementary dentin pretreatment with ultrasound or laser irradiation showed no improvement in bond strength. Also, the use of NaOCl decreased the bond strength of glass fiber posts using a self-etching adhesive system, whereas CHX preserved it. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Magnification in modern endodontic practice.

    PubMed

    Taschieri, S; Del Fabbro, M; Weinstein, T; Rosen, E; Tsesis, I

    2010-07-01

    The use of magnification devices in endodontics is becoming more and more common, with the aim of improving the quality of treatment. The common magnification systems used in modern endodontics are the surgical operation microscope, fiber-optic endoscope, and surgical loupes. The benefits of using magnification devices for conventional endodontic treatment include the increased visualization of the treatment field, enhanced possibilities in locating canals, aid in the removal of separated instruments, diagnosis of root and tooth fractures, perforation repair, and case documentation. In endodontic surgery, the use of magnification improves the ability to locate, clean, and fill the root canal system, thus achieving a predictable outcome. Further evidence-based research might better clarify the advantages and limitations of using magnification in endodontic practice.

  8. Post-traumatic inoculation tuberculoid leprosy after injury with a glass bangle.

    PubMed

    Ghorpade, Ashok

    2009-06-01

    A lesion of tuberculoid leprosy in an Indian lady presenting at the site of injury from a broken glass bangle is reported. The diagnosis was by classical clinical features and histopathology. The importance of the skin in leprosy transmission is emphasised.

  9. 6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Looking glass aircraft in the project looking glass historic district. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Avenue between Comstat Drive & Nightwatch Avenue, Offutt Air Force Base, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  10. Management of endodontic perforations.

    PubMed

    Martin, L R; Gilbert, B; Dickerson, A W

    1982-12-01

    1. Perforations in the floor of the pulp chambers of molars offer an improved prognosis when treated aseptically and quickly. 2. Perforations in the apical third of the root canal, when made with a reamer or file that leaves 2 mm. or less of unfilled root canal space, have a good prognosis. 3. If a perforation, either mechanical or resorptive in etiology, occurs on the lingual surface and requires surgical management, prognosis is poor. 4. Recent advances in the use of calcium hydroxide to treat endodontic perforations show promise.

  11. Endodontic surgery prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Azarpazhooh, Amir; Shah, Prakesh S

    2011-01-01

    Medline, (PubMed) and the Cochrane databases together with hand searching of the following journals: Journal of Endodontics, International Endodontic Journal, Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology (name changed to Oral Surgery Oral Medicine Oral Pathology Oral Radiology and Endodontics in 1995), Endodontics and Dental Traumatology (name changed to Dental Traumatology in 2001), Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, and International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Clinical studies evaluating apical surgery with placement of a root-end filling were included. Studies on apical surgery with orthograde root canal filling or about apicectomy alone without root-end filling were excluded, as were experimental and animal studies. Only studies with ≥ ten patients with a minimum six month follow-up period and clearly defined radiographic and clinical healing criteria, with healing reported for at least two categories of a specific prognostic factor were accepted. Studies reporting in English, German, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese and Scandinavian languages were included. All studies were assessed separately by two of the three authors, with disagreements resolved by discussion. Prognostic factors were divided into patient related, tooth-related or treatment-related factors. The reported percentages of healed teeth were pooled per category. The statistical method of Mantel-Haenszel was applied to estimate the odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. Homogeneity was assessed using Woolf's test. With regard to tooth-related factors, the following were identified as predictors of healing: absence of preoperative pain or signs, good density of the root canal filling and a periapical lesion size of ≤ 5 mm. With regard to treatment-related factors, teeth treated with the use of an endoscope tended to have higher healed rates than teeth treated without the use of an endoscope. Although the clinician may be able to control treatment

  12. Dental Identification Through Endodontic Radiographic Records: a Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Ademir; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Objective of work The present study aims to report a case of successful human identification based on the comparison of ante-mortem and post-mortem records of endodontic treatment. Based on these, the legal value of storing and updating clinical records is highlighted throughout the text. Case report An unknown body was recovered from a traffic accident site. Forensic examination was conducted in order to establish the identity of the victim. Based on the absence of ante-mortem fingerprint registration in the national database, the search for AM data was performed using periapical radiographic records from private dental clinics. A positive dental identification was achieved analyzing evidence of endodontic treatment. Conclusion Dental radiographs play a valuable role as legal tools supporting the criminal demands on the daily forensic practice. Specifically in endodontics, periapical radiographs are essential for a proper treatment. In forensics, these radiographs represent a solid source of ante-mortem data for human identifications. PMID:27688359

  13. Endodontic retreatment strategies used by general dental practitioners.

    PubMed

    Kvist, Thomas; Heden, Gunnar; Reit, Claes

    2004-04-01

    Root-filled teeth with persistant periapical radiolucencies are often classified as endodontic failures. Studies have shown that general dental practitioners (GDP) do not consistantly suggest retreatment of "failures." The "Praxis Concept" (PC) theory hypothesizes that dentists conceive periapical health and disease as different states on a continuum. This study examined endodontic retreatment concepts among 157 GDPs from Värmland, Sweden. In 6 simulated cases the periapical condition, quality of root filling and presence of a root canal-retained post were systematically varied. Five options were offered: no therapy, wait and see, nonsurgical retreatment, surgical retreatment, and extraction. The investigation showed large interindividual variation in retreatment behavior among the GDPs. Only 9 dentists (6%) where found to repeatedly suggest retreatment of endodontic failures. A majority of GDPs (79%) performed in accordance with PC. The data indicate that several retreatment decision rules are used by Swedish GDPs, but PC-derived strategies attract the majority.

  14. CBCT: a revolutionary diagnostic aid for endodontic dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Gurtu, A; Aggarwal, A; Mohan, S; Singhal, A; Bansal, R; Agnihotri, K

    2014-09-01

    Successful management of endodontic problems is reliant on diagnostic imaging techniques to provide critical information about the teeth under investigation, and their surrounding anatomy. Until recently, most of this core information was obtained from conventional radiographs. The introduction of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) specifically dedicated to imaging the maxillofacial region heralds a true paradigm shift from a two dimensional (2D) to a three dimensional (3D) approach to data acquisition and image reconstruction. CBCT systems provide small field of view images at low dose with sufficient spatial resolution for applications in endodontic diagnosis, treatment guidance, and post treatment evaluation. CBCT has been the subject of unparalleled levels of independent research in dental imaging in the area of endodontics. It gives the edge of 3D imaging at lower radiation level in comparison to conventional CT and has helped to treat endodontic cases with external resoption, root canal variations and apical periodontitis providing the size, site and extent accurately. This paper reviews the fundamentals of CBCT and presents the applications of this imaging system in contemporary endodontic practice.

  15. Biomimetic microenvironments for regenerative endodontics.

    PubMed

    Kaushik, Sagar N; Kim, Bogeun; Walma, Alexander M Cruz; Choi, Sung Chul; Wu, Hui; Mao, Jeremy J; Jun, Ho-Wook; Cheon, Kyounga

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative endodontics has been proposed to replace damaged and underdeveloped tooth structures with normal pulp-dentin tissue by providing a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) mimicking environment; stem cells, signaling molecules, and scaffolds. In addition, clinical success of the regenerative endodontic treatments can be evidenced by absence of signs and symptoms; no bony pathology, a disinfected pulp, and the maturation of root dentin in length and thickness. In spite of the various approaches of regenerative endodontics, there are several major challenges that remain to be improved: a) the endodontic root canal is a strong harbor of the endodontic bacterial biofilm and the fundamental etiologic factors of recurrent endodontic diseases, (b) tooth discolorations are caused by antibiotics and filling materials, (c) cervical root fractures are caused by endodontic medicaments, (d) pulp tissue is not vascularized nor innervated, and (e) the dentin matrix is not developed with adequate root thickness and length. Generally, current clinical protocols and recent studies have shown a limited success of the pulp-dentin tissue regeneration. Throughout the various approaches, the construction of biomimetic microenvironments of pulp-dentin tissue is a key concept of the tissue engineering based regenerative endodontics. The biomimetic microenvironments are composed of a synthetic nano-scaled polymeric fiber structure that mimics native pulp ECM and functions as a scaffold of the pulp-dentin tissue complex. They will provide a framework of the pulp ECM, can deliver selective bioactive molecules, and may recruit pluripotent stem cells from the vicinity of the pulp apex. The polymeric nanofibers are produced by methods of self-assembly, electrospinning, and phase separation. In order to be applied to biomedical use, the polymeric nanofibers require biocompatibility, stability, and biodegradability. Therefore, this review focuses on the development and application of the

  16. An Optical System to Monitor the Displacement Field of Glass-fibre Posts Subjected to Thermal Loading

    PubMed Central

    Corsalini, Massimo; Pettini, Francesco; Di Venere, Daniela; Ballini, Andrea; Chiatante, Giuseppe; Lamberti, Luciano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Fiorentino, Michele; Uva, Antonio E.; Monno, Giuseppe; Boccaccio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Endocanalar posts are necessary to build up and retain coronal restorations but they do not reinforce dental roots. It was observed that the dislodgement of post-retained restorations commonly occurs after several years of function and long-term retention may be influenced by various factors such as temperature changes. Temperature changes, in fact, produce micrometric deformations of post and surrounding tissues/materials that may generate high stress concentrations at the interface thus leading to failure. In this study we present an optical system based on the projection moiré technique that has been utilized to monitor the displacement field of endocanalar glass-fibre posts subjected to temperature changes. Measurements were performed on forty samples and the average displacement values registered at the apical and middle region were determined for six different temperature levels. A total of 480 displacement measurements was hence performed. The values of the standard deviation computed for each of the tested temperatures over the forty samples appear reasonably small which proves the robustness and the reliability of the proposed optical technique. The possible implications for the use of the system in the applicative context were discussed. PMID:27990186

  17. An Optical System to Monitor the Displacement Field of Glass-fibre Posts Subjected to Thermal Loading.

    PubMed

    Corsalini, Massimo; Pettini, Francesco; Di Venere, Daniela; Ballini, Andrea; Chiatante, Giuseppe; Lamberti, Luciano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Fiorentino, Michele; Uva, Antonio E; Monno, Giuseppe; Boccaccio, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Endocanalar posts are necessary to build up and retain coronal restorations but they do not reinforce dental roots. It was observed that the dislodgement of post-retained restorations commonly occurs after several years of function and long-term retention may be influenced by various factors such as temperature changes. Temperature changes, in fact, produce micrometric deformations of post and surrounding tissues/materials that may generate high stress concentrations at the interface thus leading to failure. In this study we present an optical system based on the projection moiré technique that has been utilized to monitor the displacement field of endocanalar glass-fibre posts subjected to temperature changes. Measurements were performed on forty samples and the average displacement values registered at the apical and middle region were determined for six different temperature levels. A total of 480 displacement measurements was hence performed. The values of the standard deviation computed for each of the tested temperatures over the forty samples appear reasonably small which proves the robustness and the reliability of the proposed optical technique. The possible implications for the use of the system in the applicative context were discussed.

  18. Microleakage along Glassix glass fibre posts cemented with three different materials assessed using a fluid transport system.

    PubMed

    Rogić-Barbić, M; Segović, S; Pezelj-Ribarić, S; Borcić, J; Jukić, S; Anić, I

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate the microleakage along Glassix fibre posts cemented with three different materials. The root canals of maxillary central incisor teeth were filled and restored with Glassix posts (Harald Nordin sa, Chailly/Montreux, Switzerland) cemented with either a zinc-phosphate Harvard cement (Richter & Hoffmann, Harvard Dental GmbH, Berlin, Germany), Fuji PLUS cement (GC Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) or Variolink II cement (Vivadent, Schaan, Lichtenstein) in three groups of 15 canals each. Twenty unrestored canals served as a control group, 10 filled with gutta-percha and sealer (negative control group), the remaining 10 with gutta-percha only (positive control group). Coronal microleakage was evaluated using a fluid transport system. The movement of an air bubble in a capillary glass tube connected to the apex of the experimental root section was measured over 5-min periods. Measurements were performed four times for each specimen and the mean values recorded. ANOVA and Duncan's test were performed. The positive control group had the highest values of microleakage. Amongst experimental groups, the highest values of microleakage occurred in the group with the posts cemented with Harvard cement, followed by Fuji PLUS and Variolink II cements. Groups with Fuji PLUS, Variolink II and the negative control group had significantly (P < 0.00001) less microleakage compared with the Harvard cement group and the positive control group. Canals with Glassix posts cemented with Variolink II and Fuji PLUS cement had the least leakage when assessed using a fluid transport system.

  19. Postextraction implant in sites with endodontic infection as an alternative to endodontic retreatment: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Corbella, Stefano; Taschieri, Silvio; Tsesis, Igor; Del Fabbro, Massimo

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this literature review is to evaluate the outcomes of implants placed after extraction of teeth with infections of endodontic origin. An electronic search was performed through electronic databases (Medline and Embase) using the terms "immediate implant," "post-extractive implants," "endodontic infection," "infected site," and "extraction socket" combined with the use of Boolean operators ("AND" and "OR"). Only articles on human subjects were considered. At least 12 month of mean follow-up was required for inclusion. No restriction was placed regarding study design. Ten studies were included in this review. Survival rates ranged from 92% to 100%. A total of 497 implants were placed in sites with endodontic infection. In nine studies the use of bone substitutes was associated with immediate implant placement. Because of the low number of included studies and the heterogeneity of study design, more well-designed studies are required to assess the relevance of this treatment alternative.

  20. The 'E' factor -- evolving endodontics.

    PubMed

    Hunter, M J

    2013-03-01

    Endodontics is a constantly developing field, with new instruments, preparation techniques and sealants competing with trusted and traditional approaches to tooth restoration. Thus general dental practitioners must question and understand the significance of these developments before adopting new practices. In view of this, the aim of this article, and the associated presentation at the 2013 British Dental Conference & Exhibition, is to provide an overview of endodontic methods and constantly evolving best practice. The presentation will review current preparation techniques, comparing rotary versus reciprocation, and question current trends in restoration of the endodontically treated tooth.

  1. Effect of the color of intraradicular posts on the color of buccal gingiva: a clinical spectophotometric evaluation.

    PubMed

    Benic, Goran I; Wolleb, Karin; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Sailer, Irena

    2013-01-01

    The primary aim of this study was to test whether intraradicular posts of different colors induce different amounts of color change of the buccal gingiva. Twentythree patients in need of a post-and-core buildup at one endodontically treated incisor, canine, or premolar were included. Titanium (Ti), zirconia (Zi), and glass fiber (Gf) posts were consecutively inserted in each test tooth. Spectrophotometric color measurement of the buccal gingiva was performed prior to post bed preparation and after insertion of Ti, Zi, and Gf posts. For control purposes, the gingival color at the contralateral vital tooth was assessed. The differences of color components ΔL, Δa, and Δb and the total color difference (ΔE) between different experimental conditions were obtained. ΔE value of 3.7 was considered the threshold value for intraoral color distinction. The gingival thickness at test teeth was measured. No difference occurred with regard to the amount of gingival discoloration induced by different posts. In the majority of cases, posts did not exhibit a visible influence on the color of buccal gingiva. The gingiva at endodontically treated teeth presented a visible discoloration compared to the gingiva at vital teeth. The degree of gingival discoloration at endodontically treated teeth was correlated with the gingival thickness, with more pronounced discolorations in cases of thinner soft tissue.

  2. Biomechanical behavior of endodontically treated premolars using different preparation designs and CAD/CAM materials.

    PubMed

    Pedrollo Lise, Diogo; Van Ende, Annelies; De Munck, Jan; Umeda Suzuki, Thaís Yumi; Cardoso Vieira, Luiz Clovis; Van Meerbeek, Bart

    2017-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of restoration design ('2.5-mm deep endocrown', '5-mm deep endocrown' or '5-mm deep post&crown') and CAD/CAM material type (composite or lithium disilicate glass-ceramic) on the load-to-failure of endodontically treated premolars in absence of any ferrule. The crowns of 48 single-rooted premolars were cut and the roots were endodontically treated. Teeth were randomly divided into six groups (n=8); teeth in each group were restored using one of the two tested materials with standardized CAD/CAM fabricated endocrowns (with either 2.5-mm or 5-mm deep intra-radicular extension) or conventional crowns (5-mm deep post&crown). After cementation using luting composite, the specimens were immersed in distilled water and subjected to 1,200,000 chewing cycles with a load of 50N applied parallel to the long axis of the tooth (0°). After cyclic loading, a compressive load was applied at 45° to the tooth's long axis using a universal testing machine until failure. Load-to-failure was recorded (N) and the specimens were examined under a stereomicroscope with 3.5x magnification to determine the mode of failure. All specimens survived the 1,200,000 chewing cycles. A significant interaction between restoration design and CAD/CAM material was found using two-way ANOVA. In the '2.5-mm deep endocrown' groups, the composite achieved a significantly higher load-to-failure than the lithium disilicate glass-ceramic, while no differences between materials were found in the '5-mm deep endocrown' and '5-mm deep post&crown' groups. More unfavorable failures (root fractures) were observed for higher load-to-failure values. Only following a '2.5-mm deep endocrown' design, composite appeared more favorable than lithium disilicate glass-ceramic as crown material; this may be explained by their difference in elastic modulus. Shallow endocrown preparations on premolars present less surface for adhesive luting and a difference in crown material becomes apparent in terms of

  3. Retentive strength of different intracanal posts in restorations of anterior primary teeth: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Memarpour, Mahtab; Abbaszadeh, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To determine the retentive strength and failure mode of undercut composite post, glass fiber post and polyethylene fiber post luted with flowable composite resin and resin-cement. Materials and Methods Coronal parts of 120 primary canine teeth were sectioned and specimens were treated endodontically. The teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 20). Prepared root canals received intracanal retainers with a short composite post, undercut composite post, glass fiber post luted with flowable resin or resin-cement, and polyethylene fiber post luted with flowable resin or resin-cement. After crown reconstruction, samples were tested for retentive strength and failure mode. Statistical analysis was done with one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests (p < 0.05). Results There were statistically significant differences between groups (p = 0.001). Mean bond strength in the undercut group was significantly greater than in the short composite post (p = 0.030), and the glass fiber post (p = 0.001) and the polyethylene fiber post group luted with resin-cement (p = 0.008). However, the differences between the undercut group and the groups with flowable composite as the luting agent were not significant (p = 0.068, p = 0.557). Adhesive failure was more frequent in the fiber post groups. Conclusions Although the composite post with undercutting showed the greatest resistance to dislodgement, fiber posts cemented with flowable composite resin provided acceptable results in terms of retentive strength and fracture mode. PMID:24303356

  4. Effect of luting agents on the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Aleisa, Khalil; Al-Dwairi, Ziad N; Alghabban, Rawda; Goodacre, Charles J

    2013-09-01

    Fiber posts can fail because of loss of retention; and it is unknown which luting agent provides the highest bond strength. The purpose of this study was to investigate the tensile bond strength of glass fiber posts luted to premolar teeth with 6 resin composite luting agents. Ninety-six single-rooted extracted human mandibular premolars were sectioned 2 mm coronal to the most incisal point of the cementoenamel junction. Root canals were instrumented and obturated with laterally condensed gutta percha and root canal sealer (AH26). Gutta percha was removed from the canals to a depth of 8 mm and diameter post spaces with a 1.5 mm were prepared. The specimens were divided into the following 6 groups according to the luting agent used (n=16): Group V, Variolink II; Group A, RelyX ARC; Group N, Multilink N; Group U, RelyX Unicem; Group P, ParaCore; Group F, MultiCore Flow. Each specimen was secured in a universal testing machine and a separating load was applied at a rate of 0.5 mm/min. The forces required to dislodge the posts were recorded. A 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied to the mean retentive strengths of various cement materials (α=.05). Significant differences were recorded among the 6 cement types (P<.001). Three materials provided statistically equivalent mean bond strengths (RelyX Unicem, Paracore, and MultiCore Flow) that were significantly greater than for the other 3 materials. Fiber posts luted with RelyX Unicem, Paracore, and MultiCore Flow demonstrated significantly higher bond strengths. Copyright © 2013 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Regenerative endodontics: A way forward.

    PubMed

    Diogenes, Anibal; Ruparel, Nikita B; Shiloah, Yoav; Hargreaves, Kenneth M

    2016-05-01

    Immature teeth are susceptible to infections due to trauma, anatomic anomalies, and caries. Traditional endodontic therapies for immature teeth, such as apexification procedures, promote resolution of the disease and prevent future infections. However, these procedures fail to promote continued root development, leaving teeth susceptible to fractures. Regenerative endodontic procedures (REPs) have evolved in the past decade, being incorporated into endodontic practice and becoming a viable treatment alternative for immature teeth. The authors have summarized the status of regenerative endodontics on the basis of the available published studies and provide insight into the different levels of clinical outcomes expected from these procedures. Substantial advances in regenerative endodontics are allowing a better understanding of a multitude of factors that govern stem cell-mediated regeneration and repair of the damaged pulp-dentin complex. REPs promote healing of apical periodontitis, continued radiographic root development, and, in certain cases, vitality responses. Despite the clinical success of these procedures, they appear to promote a guided endodontic repair process rather than a true regeneration of physiological-like tissue. Immature teeth with pulpal necrosis with otherwise poor prognosis can be treated with REPs. These procedures do not preclude the possibility of apexification procedures if attempts are unsuccessful. Therefore, REPs may be considered first treatment options for immature teeth with pulpal necrosis. Copyright © 2016 American Dental Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lasers in endodontics: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frentzen, Matthias; Braun, Andreas; Koort, Hans J.

    2002-06-01

    The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems is increasing. Developing laser technology and a better understanding of laser effects widened the spectrum of possible endodontic indications. Various laser systems including excimer-, argon+-, diode-, Nd:YAG-, Er:YAG- and CO2-lasers are used in pulp diagnosis, treatment of hypersensitivity, pulp capping, sterilization of root canals, root canal shaping and obturation or apicoectomy. With the development of new delivery systems - thin and flexible fibers - for many different wavelengths laser applications in endodontics may increase. Since laser devices are still relatively costly, access to them is limited. Most of the clinical applications are laser assisted procedures such as the removing of pulp remnants and debris or disinfection of infected root canals. The essential question is whether a laser can provide improved treatment over conventional care. To perform laser therapy in endodontics today different laser types with adopted wavelengths and pulse widths are needed, each specific to a particular application. Looking into the future we will need endodontic laser equipment providing optimal laser parameters for different treatment modalities. Nevertheless, the quantity of research reports from the last decade promises a genuine future for lasers in endodontics.

  7. Irrigation in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Haapasalo, Markus; Shen, Ya; Qian, Wei; Gao, Yuan

    2010-04-01

    The success of endodontic treatment depends on the eradication of microbes from the root-canal system and prevention of reinfection. The root canal is shaped with hand and rotary instruments under constant irrigation to remove the inflamed and necrotic tissue, microbes/biofilms, and other debris from the root-canal space. Irrigants have traditionally been delivered into the root-canal space using syringes and metal needles of different size and tip design. Clinical experience and research have shown, however, that this classic approach typically results in ineffective irrigation. Many of the compounds used for irrigation have been chemically modified and several mechanical devices have been developed to improve the penetration and effectiveness of irrigation. This article summarizes the chemistry, biology, and procedures for safe and efficient irrigation and provides cutting-edge information on the most recent developments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Microleakage in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Muliyar, Sabir; Shameem, K Abdul; Thankachan, Rekha P; Francis, P G; Jayapalan, C S; Hafiz, K A Abdul

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional obturation and complete coronal and apical seal is one the important aims of root canal treatment. Since microorganisms may remain in the root canal system after instrumentation, a tight apical seal is desired to prevent bacteria and their by-products from invading the apex. A perfect apical seal is also desired to prevent apical percolation. One of the major objectives of tooth restoration is the protection of exposed dentine against bacteria and their toxins. The interface between the restoration and dental hard tissue is an area of clinical concern as insufficient sealing can result in marginal discoloration, secondary caries, and pulpitis. For that reason, adequate sealing is essential for the optimal clinical performance Prevention of microleakage in endodontically treated teeth is most important for patients who rely on the combined expertise and quality care of dentist/endodontist colleagues. Microleakage is arguably the single most important risk factor for apical periodontitis. PMID:25628496

  9. Comparative evaluation of fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth restored with glass fiber posts, intracanal composite resin, and experimental dentine posts.

    PubMed

    Nikhil, Vineeta; Jha, Padmanabh; Aggarwal, Akarshak

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth restored with gutta-percha, glass fiber posts (GFP), experimental dentine posts (DP) or Intracanal composite Resin (ICR). Fifty maxillary canines were decoronated, standardized and enlarged until, number 5 Peeso reamers were allowed to simulate immature teeth. After placement of 5 mm of MTA, the canals were divided into 5 groups and filled as follows: Group 1: AH Plus + gutta-percha, lateral compaction; Group 2: GFP luted with PARACORE dual cure resin; Group 3: DP luted with PARACORE dual cure resin; Group 4: PARACORE dual cure resin. A standardized core was built in all groups except in Group 5. Each of the specimens was tested for fracture resistance by universal testing machine. The mean fracture resistance were 817 ± 27.753, 1164.6 ± 21.624, 994.4 ± 96.8747, 873.8 ± 105.446 and 493.7 ± 6.945 newtons for Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively. Independent "t" test revealed statistically significant discrepancies, in the fracture resistance among the 4 groups except Group 1 and Group 4 (P < 0.05). This study suggests that GFP and DP may be preferred for additional reinforcement of immature teeth.

  10. Comparative Evaluation of Fracture Resistance of Simulated Immature Teeth Restored with Glass Fiber Posts, Intracanal Composite Resin, and Experimental Dentine Posts

    PubMed Central

    Jha, Padmanabh; Aggarwal, Akarshak

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this study was to compare the fracture resistance of simulated immature teeth restored with gutta-percha, glass fiber posts (GFP), experimental dentine posts (DP) or Intracanal composite Resin (ICR). Materials and Methods. Fifty maxillary canines were decoronated, standardized and enlarged until, number 5 Peeso reamers were allowed to simulate immature teeth. After placement of 5 mm of MTA, the canals were divided into 5 groups and filled as follows: Group 1: AH Plus + gutta-percha, lateral compaction; Group 2: GFP luted with PARACORE dual cure resin; Group 3: DP luted with PARACORE dual cure resin; Group 4: PARACORE dual cure resin. A standardized core was built in all groups except in Group 5. Each of the specimens was tested for fracture resistance by universal testing machine. Results. The mean fracture resistance were 817 ± 27.753, 1164.6 ± 21.624, 994.4 ± 96.8747, 873.8 ± 105.446 and 493.7 ± 6.945 newtons for Groups 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 respectively. Independent “t” test revealed statistically significant discrepancies, in the fracture resistance among the 4 groups except Group 1 and Group 4 (P < 0.05). Conclusions. This study suggests that GFP and DP may be preferred for additional reinforcement of immature teeth. PMID:25629086

  11. [The place of radiography in endodontic treatment carried out in general practice in Dakar].

    PubMed

    Gaye, F; Mbaye, M; Faye, B; Diallo, B

    2002-03-01

    An investigation conducted over dental surgeons of 52 dental offices in Dakar and it's near suburb (40 from private sector and 12 from public and quasi-public) has shown that the use of retro-alveolar radiography during endodontic treatment was not systematic, due to the price of retro-alveolar film, waste of time and relative facility of the endodontic treatment of monoradicular teeth. The preparatory negative is favored (32.70%) particularly by private dental surgeons, who use two retro-alveolar films for endodontic treatment: pre and post operative radiography (30%). The immediate post operator control is executed only in case of post-operator pains by public and quasi-public dental surgeons (16.67%) with one retro-alveolar film on average for the endodontic treatment; at term any radiographic control is done. Three retro-alveolar films per endodontic treatment were exceptionally used (9.61%) and offset incidences (15%) are not much used as well as support-films (angulators). The retro-alveolar radiography is still a reliable guide for a clinical success in endodontic treatment with a minimum of three retro-alveolar films and offset incidences.

  12. Glucocorticoids in endodontics: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover the use of glucocorticoids in endodontics.

  13. Lasers in endodontics: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will focus on the use of lasers in endodontics.

  14. Veterinary endodontics: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover veterinary endodontics.

  15. Prognostic factors of clinical outcomes in endodontic microsurgery: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Song, Minju; Kim, Sahng Gyoon; Lee, Seung-Jong; Kim, Baekil; Kim, Euiseong

    2013-12-01

    This prospective study examined the potential prognostic factors of endodontic microsurgery and compared the predictors of an isolated endodontic lesion with those of both an isolated endodontic lesion and an endodontic-periodontal lesion. Data were collected from the Microscope Center of the Department of Conservative Dentistry at the Dental College of Yonsei University, Seoul, Korea, between March 2001 and March 2011. A total number of 584 teeth were included, and all clinical procedures were performed by a single operator (E.K.). The evaluation was performed at least 1 year after surgery. For statistical analysis of the predisposing factors, the chi-square test and logistic regression were performed. Of the 584 cases treated, 431 cases came for recall after a period of at least 12 months. Sex (female), tooth position (anterior), arch type (maxilla), and lesion type (isolated endodontic lesion) were found to have a positive effect on surgical outcome. With regards to isolated endodontic lesions, the tooth position (anterior), arch type (maxilla), and type of restoration (single/splinted crown, short bridge, and removable partial denture abutment) were found to be pure positive predictors. In endodontic microsurgery, it is likely that preoperative factors, particularly the tooth position and arch type, have a greater influence on the healing outcome than intra- and post-operative factors. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Bonding properties of four different cements to glass fiber posts after different treatments].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojing; Zhao, Sanjun; Shen, Lijuan; Xu, Shuai; Sun, Jiaqi; Chen, Jihua

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the effect of four different cements on the bonding effectiveness of root canal dentine and fiber post before and after different treatments. A total of 216 freshly extracted sound single-root-canal mandibular premolars were randomly divided into four groups. After root canal treatment and post space preparation being conducted on the premolars, Fuji I, Fuji Cem, RelyX Unicem, RelyX ARC were used respectively to bond fiber posts and were marked with group A, B, C, and D. Microleakage, micromorphology of the bonded interfaces, and pull-out bond strength were evaluated in the immediate group, thermocycling group and thermomechanical loading group. In the immediate group, samples in group D showed the highest bond strength [(278 ± 26)N], followed by group C[ (219 ± 12) N], B[ (104 ± 23) N] and A[(73 ± 8) N]. Significant differences were found among all groups (P < 0.05) . A significant increase in bond strength was found in group A and B, whereas a decrease tendency was detected in group C and D after different treatments.Scanning electron microscope indicated that some little gaps were observed in group D after treatment, while a more intense bonding interface was found in group A and B. Microleakage scores in group A and B were lower than those in group C and D after aging treatments. Resin cement can achieve a better immediate bond strength, while resin-modified resin cement may acquire a better long-term retention.

  17. Why, when, and how general practitioners restore endodontically treated teeth: a representative survey in Germany.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Michael; Neuhaus, Klaus W; Kölpin, Manja; Seemann, Rainer

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess current opinions, applied techniques, and materials for the restoration of endodontically treated teeth (ETT) in a nationwide survey in Germany. Completed questionnaires from 1,648 dentists were returned (response rate 63%). In general, posts were reported to be used more frequently (51%) for indirect restorations than for direct restorations (21%). Dentists restored anterior teeth (65%) more frequently with direct restorations than posterior teeth (48%). Compared to an earlier survey, fewer dentists stated that posttreatment stabilizes the remaining tooth structure. The ferrule effect as a key success factor was held by the vast majority of dentists (88%). A trend towards adhesive techniques both for post placement and core build-up was observed. Composite resins (49%) were reported to be used twice as much as zinc phosphate cement (24%) for the luting of posts; composite resins were the core build-up material of choice (75%). Amalgam was rarely used (0.2%). Irrespective of the final restoration, fiber posts were the most popular post material (46% for telescopic crowns vs. 69% for single crowns). Adhesive composite core build-ups with and without fiber posts were the predominant treatment approach to restore ETT in Germany. There was widespread agreement with the ferrule effect as a key restorative success factor for indirect restorations. Today, it is general accepted that ferrule preparation is key. Glass-fiber posts appear to be most popular. Still different systems are used depending on type of final restoration, while the reasons to do so remain unclear.

  18. Chromium-Silicates, Feldspars and Highly Silicic Glasses Formed from Felsic Melts in Post-Depressurization Ferroan Ureilites, Especially LEW 88774

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, P. H.; Huber, H.

    2006-03-01

    We describe the diverse suite of post-depressurization redox phases in the LEW 88774 ureilite, and discuss the origin of these materials, including the highly silicic (typically ~70 wt% SiO2) glasses that are associated with Cr-spinels.

  19. Regenerative endodontic treatment of permanent teeth after completion of root development: a report of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Paryani, Khimiya; Kim, Sahng G

    2013-07-01

    Clinical regenerative endodontic treatment has been focused on immature necrotic teeth, but it should be extended to mature teeth as an alternative to conventional endodontic treatment. There have been no clinical reports to attempt to revascularize pulp in the entire root canals of mature necrotic teeth. The present report describes the treatment of mature, necrotic, permanent incisors with apical periodontitis by using regenerative endodontic therapy. In this case report, modified regenerative endodontic procedures were used to enhance the probability of pulp revasuclarization in mature necrotic teeth. At the first appointment, the root canals were mechanically instrumented to the apices with a large apical size by using the step-back technique and irrigated copiously with antimicrobial solution. Intracanal medicaments (calcium hydroxide or ciprofloxacin) were placed in the root canals. At the following appointment, the root canals were irrigated with antimicrobial solution, and bleeding was induced into the root canals by passing hand files beyond apices. Collagen membranes were placed in the canals as a matrix against which mineral trioxide aggregate was placed. Glass ionomer was used to restore the teeth. The resolution of apical radiolucency and regression of clinical signs and symptoms were observed at recall appointments. The present report presents modified regenerative endodontic procedures for mature necrotic permanent teeth. Further clinical studies with a large number of cases are needed to investigate the outcome of regenerative endodontic therapy for mature necrotic teeth. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Multidisciplinary approach to the rehabilitation of a crown fracture with glass-fibre-reinforced composite: a case report.

    PubMed

    Altun, Ceyhan; Tözüm, Tolga Fikret; Güven, Günseli

    2008-05-01

    Traumatic tooth injuries are common in children. When permanent teeth are involved, it can be a challenge to save these teeth. This clinical case study describes the multidisciplinary treatment of a complex crown fracture and luxation of a right maxillary incisor along with esthetic management. After periodontal surgery including guided bone regeneration and endodontic treatment, we used a glass-fibre-reinforced composite post to increase retention and distribute stress along the root. The restoration was completed using composite in an incremental technique. During follow-up appointments, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed no root canal or periodontal problems, suggesting the efficacy of the treatment in retaining the fractured tooth. Periodontal surgery with endodontic treatment is an alternative treatment for severe trauma in permanent teeth.

  1. [Clinical evaluation of periapical endodontic surgery for endodontic failure].

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiong; Chen, Yi-yang; Ling, Jun-qi; Gu, Hai-jing; Liu, Jian-wei

    2009-02-01

    To evaluate the clinical outcome of periapical endodontic surgery for teeth that can't be treated by nonsurgical endodontic methods. Sixty-two affected teeth were chosen for surgical endodontic treatment, of which 31 teeth underwent periapical curettage and the others were treated by root-end resection, retrograde preparation and filling. A radiography was taken immediately after surgery and was compared with those taken at 12 and 24 months. The results of two groups were analyzed using the chi2 test. The success rate for retrograde filling was higher (85% after 12 months, 88% after 24 months) compared with that of periapical curettage (52% after 12 months, 45% after 24 months). The difference in success rate between the two groups was statistically significant. Ultrasonic root-end preparation and retrograde filling is a good choice of treatment when the teeth can't be treated appropriately by nonsurgical treatment.

  2. Pathological evaluation for sterilization of routinely used prosthodontic and endodontic instruments.

    PubMed

    Kumar, K Vinay; Kiran Kumar, K S; Supreetha, S; Raghu, K N; Veerabhadrappa, Anusha Channabasappa; Deepthi, S

    2015-01-01

    In daily practice of dentistry, we use same instruments on many patients. Before use, all instruments must be cleaned, disinfected, and sterilized to prevent any contamination. Pre-cleaning and sterilization of some devices can be difficult because of their small size and complex architecture. Dental burs and endodontic files are such instruments. Dental burs come in a variety of shapes and sizes, all with highly complex and detailed surface features. To determine the effectiveness of various disinfectants and sterilization techniques for disinfection and resterilization of dental burs and endodontic files. The materials used for the study were dental burs and endodontic files. Disinfectants used were Quitanet plus, glutaraldehyde, glass-bead sterilizer, and autoclave. The sterility of used dental burs and endodontic files was analyzed. Burs and files that had been used were pre-cleaned, resterilized, and then tested for various pathogens. Each item was transferred by sterile technique into Todd-Hewitt broth, incubated at 37°C for 72 h, and observed for bacterial growth. The present study shows that the endodontic files and burs sterilized by autoclaving and glutaraldehyde showed complete sterilization. Burs and files immersed in glutaraldehyde (2.4%) for 12 h showed complete sterilization, whereas Quitanet plus solution and glass-bead sterilizer showed incomplete sterilization. The present study results indicate that autoclaving and glutaraldehyde (2.4%) showed complete sterilization. Other methods cannot be relied upon for sterilization.

  3. Pathological evaluation for sterilization of routinely used prosthodontic and endodontic instruments

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. Vinay; Kiran Kumar, K.S.; Supreetha, S.; Raghu, K.N.; Veerabhadrappa, Anusha Channabasappa; Deepthi, S

    2015-01-01

    Background: In daily practice of dentistry, we use same instruments on many patients. Before use, all instruments must be cleaned, disinfected, and sterilized to prevent any contamination. Pre-cleaning and sterilization of some devices can be difficult because of their small size and complex architecture. Dental burs and endodontic files are such instruments. Dental burs come in a variety of shapes and sizes, all with highly complex and detailed surface features. Aim: To determine the effectiveness of various disinfectants and sterilization techniques for disinfection and resterilization of dental burs and endodontic files. Materials and Methods: The materials used for the study were dental burs and endodontic files. Disinfectants used were Quitanet plus, glutaraldehyde, glass-bead sterilizer, and autoclave. The sterility of used dental burs and endodontic files was analyzed. Burs and files that had been used were pre-cleaned, resterilized, and then tested for various pathogens. Each item was transferred by sterile technique into Todd-Hewitt broth, incubated at 37°C for 72 h, and observed for bacterial growth. Results: The present study shows that the endodontic files and burs sterilized by autoclaving and glutaraldehyde showed complete sterilization. Burs and files immersed in glutaraldehyde (2.4%) for 12 h showed complete sterilization, whereas Quitanet plus solution and glass-bead sterilizer showed incomplete sterilization. Conclusion: The present study results indicate that autoclaving and glutaraldehyde (2.4%) showed complete sterilization. Other methods cannot be relied upon for sterilization. PMID:26236684

  4. Understanding the creation of & reducing surface microroughness during polishing & post-processing of glass optics

    SciTech Connect

    Suratwala, Tayyab

    2016-09-22

    In the follow study, we have developed a detailed understanding of the chemical and mechanical microscopic interactions that occur during polishing affecting the resulting surface microroughness of the workpiece. Through targeted experiments and modeling, the quantitative relationships of many important polishing parameters & characteristics affecting surface microroughness have been determined. These behaviors and phenomena have been described by a number of models including: (a) the Ensemble Hertzian Multi Gap (EHMG) model used to predict the removal rate and roughness at atomic force microscope (AFM) scale lengths as a function of various polishing parameters, (b) the Island Distribution Gap (IDG) model used to predict the roughness at larger scale lengths, (c) the Deraguin-Verwey-Landau-Overbeek (DLVO) 3-body electrostatic colloidal model used to predict the interaction of slurry particles at the interface and roughness behavior as a function of pH, and (d) a diffusion/chemical reaction rate model of the incorporation of impurities species into the polishing surface layer (called the Bielby layer). Based on this improved understanding, novel strategies to polish the workpiece have been developed simultaneously leading to both ultrasmooth surfaces and high material removal rates. Some of these strategies include: (a) use of narrow PSD slurries, (b) a novel diamond conditioning recipe of the lap to increase the active contact area between the workpiece and lap without destroying its surface figure, (c) proper control of pH for a given glass type to allow for a uniform distribution of slurry particles at the interface, and (d) increase in applied load just up to the transition between molecular to plastic removal regime for a single slurry particle. These techniques have been incorporated into a previously developed finishing process called Convergent Polishing leading to not just economical finishing process with improved surface figure control, but also

  5. Interpreting finite element results for brittle materials in endodontic restorations

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Finite element simulation has been used in last years for analysing the biomechanical performance of post-core restorations in endodontics, but results of these simulations have been interpreted in most of the works using von Mises stress criterion. However, the validity of this failure criterion for brittle materials, which are present in these restorations, is questionable. The objective of the paper is to analyse how finite element results for brittle materials of endodontic restorations should be interpreted to obtain correct conclusions about the possible failure in the restoration. Methods Different failure criteria (Von Mises, Rankine, Coulomb-Mohr, Modified Mohr and Christensen) and material strength data (diametral tensile strength and flexural strength) were considered in the study. Three finite element models (FEM) were developed to simulate an endodontic restoration and two typical material tests: diametral tensile test and flexural test. Results Results showed that the Christensen criterion predicts similar results as the Von Mises criterion for ductile components, while it predicts similar results to all other criteria for brittle components. The different criteria predict different failure points for the diametral tensile test, all of them under multi-axial stress states. All criteria except Von Mises predict failure for flexural test at the same point of the specimen, with this point under uniaxial tensile stress. Conclusions From the results it is concluded that the Christensen criterion is recommended for FEM result interpretation in endodontic restorations and that the flexural test is recommended to estimate tensile strength instead of the diametral tensile test. PMID:21635759

  6. Interpreting finite element results for brittle materials in endodontic restorations.

    PubMed

    Pérez-González, Antonio; Iserte-Vilar, José L; González-Lluch, Carmen

    2011-06-02

    Finite element simulation has been used in last years for analysing the biomechanical performance of post-core restorations in endodontics, but results of these simulations have been interpreted in most of the works using von Mises stress criterion. However, the validity of this failure criterion for brittle materials, which are present in these restorations, is questionable. The objective of the paper is to analyse how finite element results for brittle materials of endodontic restorations should be interpreted to obtain correct conclusions about the possible failure in the restoration. Different failure criteria (Von Mises, Rankine, Coulomb-Mohr, Modified Mohr and Christensen) and material strength data (diametral tensile strength and flexural strength) were considered in the study. Three finite element models (FEM) were developed to simulate an endodontic restoration and two typical material tests: diametral tensile test and flexural test. Results showed that the Christensen criterion predicts similar results as the Von Mises criterion for ductile components, while it predicts similar results to all other criteria for brittle components. The different criteria predict different failure points for the diametral tensile test, all of them under multi-axial stress states. All criteria except Von Mises predict failure for flexural test at the same point of the specimen, with this point under uniaxial tensile stress. From the results it is concluded that the Christensen criterion is recommended for FEM result interpretation in endodontic restorations and that the flexural test is recommended to estimate tensile strength instead of the diametral tensile test.

  7. Tissue engineering in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Misako

    2005-12-01

    The key elements of the regeneration of dentine-pulp complex are stem cells, morphogens and a scaffold of extracellular matrix. The pulp stem cells have the potential to differentiate into odontoblasts in response to bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs). However, the use of BMPs in vivo has been restrained by lack of a suitable scaffold. Therefore, two alternative approaches, in vivo and ex vivo gene therapy were performed. Bmp I I/Gdf I I gene was directly transferred into amputated pulp by sonoporation and the reparative dentine formation was stimulated in vivo. However, there should be enough responsive stem cells in the pulp. Therefore, the isolated progenitor stem cells from pulp were transfected with Bmp I I/Gdf I I by electroporation and implanted onto the amputated pulp. This ex vivo gene therapy stimulated reparative dentine formation more optimally and rapidly compared with the in vivo gene therapy. These results suggest the possible clinical use of gene therapy of BMPs for endodontics.

  8. Post space preparation: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will focus on post space preparation.

  9. Microbiology in endodontics: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will present the topical areas of microorganisms involved in primary infection; microorganisms involved with failing endodontics, culturing, bacteremia, and endodontics; leaving teeth open; antibiotics; actinomycosis; sterilization of instruments and sterilization of gutta-percha, microorganisms in periradicular lesions; biofilms; and fungi, viruses, and prions.

  10. Interaction between endodontics and periodontics.

    PubMed

    Rotstein, Ilan

    2017-06-01

    Endodontic-periodontal lesions present challenges to the clinician regarding diagnosis, treatment planning and prognosis. Etiologic factors, such as bacteria and viruses, as well as contributing factors, such as trauma, root resorptions, perforations, cracks and dental malformations, play an important role in the development and progression of such lesions. Treatment and prognosis of endodontic-periodontal lesions vary, depending on the etiology, pathogenesis and correct diagnosis of each specific condition. This chapter will appraise the interrelationship between endodontic and periodontal lesions and provide biological and clinical evidence for diagnosis, prognosis and decision-making in the treatment of these conditions. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Endodontics and the ageing patient.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, M; Parashos, P

    2015-03-01

    Patients are living longer and the rate of edentulism is decreasing. Endodontic treatment is an essential part of maintaining the health and well-being of the elderly. Retention of natural teeth improves the quality of life and the overall health and longevity of ageing patients. Also, teeth that might be otherwise extracted may be strategically valuable to retain a prosthesis, and elderly patients are more likely to have medical complications that may prevent dental extractions from being safely performed. The technical goals of endodontic treatment in the elderly are the same as those for younger patients. However, the pulpo-dentinal complex undergoes calcific changes over time, which may pose challenges for the clinician. The purposes of this review are to discuss age changes in the pulp and the challenges posed by diagnosing, treatment planning and treating the elderly endodontic patient.

  12. Effect of Resin Cement Porosity on Retention of Glass-Fiber Posts to Root Dentin: An Experimental and Finite Element Analysis.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Natércia Rezende; Aguiar, Grazielle Crystine Rodrigues; Rodrigues, Monise de Paula; Bicalho, Aline Aredes; Soares, Priscilla Barbosa Ferreira; Veríssimo, Crisnicaw; Soares, Carlos José

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of porosity of self-adhesive resin on the stress distribution, post retention and failure mode of fiber post cemented to human root dentin. Ten human central upper incisors with circular root canal were selected. They were sectioned with 15 mm and were endodontically filled. The roots were scanned using micro-CT after post space preparation for root filling remaining evaluation. Fiber posts were cemented using self-adhesive resin cement (Rely X U200, 3M-ESPE). Two 1-mm-thick slices from the cervical, medium and apical thirds were scanned for resin cement bubbles volume measurements and submitted to a push-out test (PBS). Three operators using stereomicroscopy and confocal laser microscopy classified the failure mode. Stress distributions during the push-out test were analyzed using 3D finite element analysis. PBS values (MPa) were submitted to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc tests and the failure modes using the Kappa coefficient to assess inter-operator agreement. Chi-square test was used to determine significant differences between the methods ( = 0.05). Push-out bond strength was significantly affected by the bubbles presence in all root depth (p<0.05). The stress concentration was higher when the bubbles were present. Adhesive dentin/resin cement interface failure was the most frequent type of failure. Confocal microscopy was better than stereomicroscopy for failure analysis. Bubbles generated during resin cement insertion into the root canal negatively affect the stress distribution and the bond strength. The use of confocal microscopy is recommended for failure analysis.

  13. Stress distribution on dentin-cement-post interface varying root canal and glass fiber post diameters. A three-dimensional finite element analysis based on micro-CT data

    PubMed Central

    LAZARI, Priscilla Cardoso; de OLIVEIRA, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes; ANCHIETA, Rodolfo Bruniera; de ALMEIDA, Erika Oliveira; FREITAS JUNIOR, Amilcar Chagas; KINA, Sidney; ROCHA, Eduardo Passos

    2013-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of root canal and glass fiber post diameters on the biomechanical behavior of the dentin/cement/post interface of a root-filled tooth using 3D finite element analysis. Material and Methods Six models were built using micro-CT imaging data and SolidWorks 2007 software, varying the root canal (C) and the glass fiber post (P) diameters: C1P1-C=1 mm and P=1 mm; C2P1-C=2 mm and P=1 mm; C2P2-C=2 mm and P=2 mm; C3P1-C=3 mm and P=1 mm; C3P2-C=3 mm and P=2 mm; and C3P3-C=3 mm and P=3 mm. The numerical analysis was conducted with ANSYS Workbench 10.0. An oblique force (180 N at 45º) was applied to the palatal surface of the central incisor. The periodontal ligament surface was constrained on the three axes (x=y=z=0). Maximum principal stress (σmax) values were evaluated for the root dentin, cement layer, and glass fiber post. Results: The most evident stress was observed in the glass fiber post at C3P1 (323 MPa), and the maximum stress in the cement layer occurred at C1P1 (43.2 MPa). The stress on the root dentin was almost constant in all models with a peak in tension at C2P1 (64.5 MPa). Conclusion The greatest discrepancy between root canal and post diameters is favorable for stress concentration at the post surface. The dentin remaining after the various root canal preparations did not increase the stress levels on the root. PMID:24473716

  14. Stress distribution on dentin-cement-post interface varying root canal and glass fiber post diameters. A three-dimensional finite element analysis based on micro-CT data.

    PubMed

    Lazari, Priscilla Cardoso; Oliveira, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes de; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Almeida, Erika Oliveira de; Freitas Junior, Amilcar Chagas; Kina, Sidney; Rocha, Eduardo Passos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of root canal and glass fiber post diameters on the biomechanical behavior of the dentin/cement/post interface of a root-filled tooth using 3D finite element analysis. Six models were built using micro-CT imaging data and SolidWorks 2007 software, varying the root canal (C) and the glass fiber post (P) diameters: C1P1-C=1 mm and P=1 mm; C2P1-C=2 mm and P=1 mm; C2P2-C=2 mm and P=2 mm; C3P1-C=3 mm and P=1 mm; C3P2-C=3 mm and P=2 mm; and C3P3-C=3 mm and P=3 mm. The numerical analysis was conducted with ANSYS Workbench 10.0. An oblique force (180 N at 45º) was applied to the palatal surface of the central incisor. The periodontal ligament surface was constrained on the three axes (x=y=z=0). Maximum principal stress (σ(max)) values were evaluated for the root dentin, cement layer, and glass fiber post. The most evident stress was observed in the glass fiber post at C3P1 (323 MPa), and the maximum stress in the cement layer occurred at C1P1 (43.2 MPa). The stress on the root dentin was almost constant in all models with a peak in tension at C2P1 (64.5 MPa). The greatest discrepancy between root canal and post diameters is favorable for stress concentration at the post surface. The dentin remaining after the various root canal preparations did not increase the stress levels on the root.

  15. Biofilm in endodontics: A review

    PubMed Central

    Jhajharia, Kapil; Parolia, Abhishek; Shetty, K Vikram; Mehta, Lata Kiran

    2015-01-01

    Endodontic disease is a biofilm-mediated infection, and primary aim in the management of endodontic disease is the elimination of bacterial biofilm from the root canal system. The most common endodontic infection is caused by the surface-associated growth of microorganisms. It is important to apply the biofilm concept to endodontic microbiology to understand the pathogenic potential of the root canal microbiota as well as to form the basis for new approaches for disinfection. It is foremost to understand how the biofilm formed by root canal bacteria resists endodontic treatment measures. Bacterial etiology has been confirmed for common oral diseases such as caries and periodontal and endodontic infections. Bacteria causing these diseases are organized in biofilm structures, which are complex microbial communities composed of a great variety of bacteria with different ecological requirements and pathogenic potential. The biofilm community not only gives bacteria effective protection against the host's defense system but also makes them more resistant to a variety of disinfecting agents used as oral hygiene products or in the treatment of infections. Successful treatment of these diseases depends on biofilm removal as well as effective killing of biofilm bacteria. So, the fundamental to maintain oral health and prevent dental caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis is to control the oral biofilms. From these aspects, the formation of biofilms carries particular clinical significance because not only host defense mechanisms but also therapeutic efforts including chemical and mechanical antimicrobial treatment measures have the most difficult task of dealing with organisms that are gathered in a biofilm. The aim of this article was to review the mechanisms of biofilms’ formation, their roles in pulpal and periapical pathosis, the different types of biofilms, the factors influencing biofilm formation, the mechanisms of their antimicrobial resistance, techniques to

  16. Degree of vinyl conversion, polymerization shrinkage and stress development in experimental endodontic composite

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, J.N.R.; Skrtic, D.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores degree of vinyl conversion (DVC), polymerization shrinkage (PS) and shrinkage stress (PSS) of the experimental amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) composites intended for use as an endodontic sealer. Light-cure (LC), chemical cure (CC) or dual-cure (DC; combined light and chemical cure) resins comprised urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), methacryloyloxyethyl phthalate (MEP) and a high molecular mass oligomeric co-monomer, poly(ethyleneglycol)-extended UDMA (PEG-U) (designated UPHM resin). To fabricate composites, a mass fraction of 60 % UPHM resin was blended with a mass fraction of 40 % as-made (am-ACP) or ground ACP (g-ACP). DVC values of copolymer (unfilled UPHM resin) and composite specimens were determined by infrared spectroscopy. Glass-filled composites were used as controls. PS and PSS of composites were determined by dilatometry and tensometry, respectively. LC copolymers attained extraordinary high DVC values at 24 h post-cure (95.7 %), compared to CC (52 %) and DC (79.3 %) copolymer specimens. While the DVC values of LC and DC am-ACP composites were reduced between 5 and 10 %, DVC values of DC g-ACP composites increased almost 8 % compared to the corresponding copolymers. High DVC attained in LC composites was, expectedly, accompanied with high PS values (on average 7 vol%). However, PSS developed in LC and especially DC composites did not exceed PSS values seen in other UDMA-based composites. Based on this initial evaluation, it is concluded that, DC, g-ACP filled UPHM composite shows promise as an endodontic sealer. However, further physicochemical evaluations, including water sorption, mechanical stability and ion release as well as a leachability studies need to be performed before this experimental material is tested for cellular responses and, eventually recommended for clinical utility. PMID:20411033

  17. Learning experience in endodontics: Brazilian students' perceptions.

    PubMed

    Seijo, Marilia O S; Ferreira, Efigênia F; Ribeiro Sobrinho, Antônio P; Paiva, Saul M; Martins, Renata C

    2013-05-01

    Including students' perceptions in the educational process is considered a key component in monitoring the quality of academic programs. This study aimed to evaluate the concept of one's learning experience in endodontic teaching from the perspective of a group of Brazilian students. A total of 126 self-administered, structured questionnaires were distributed to undergraduate dental students enrolled in endodontics courses during the second semester of the 2009 academic year. The questionnaires were administered during final examinations and focused on students' opinions concerning learning during endodontic treatments, time spent during endodontic treatments, difficulties found during endodontic treatments, quality of endodontic treatments performed, characteristics of the technique employed, and suggestions to improve endodontic teaching. Ninety-one percent of the questionnaires were returned for evaluation. The obtained answers were discussed and analyzed, thereby generating quantitative and qualitative data showing students' perceptions of their experiences in endodontics courses. The main points that can affect the teaching of endodontics, according to the undergraduate students, included patients' absences and delays, selection of patients, preclinical and clinical training, difficulties found, type of technique employed, and teachers' orientation during endodontic treatment. The students' perceptions provided valuable information about the development of the course and the teacher-student relationship, together with the added intention of enhancing the teaching of endodontics as well as other courses.

  18. Argon laser application to endodontics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankenau, Richard J.; Ludlow, Marvin; Anderson, David

    1993-07-01

    The application of laser technology to endodontics has been studied for some time. At the present time several major problems are being investigated: (1) removal of infected tissues, (2) sterilization of canals, (3) obturation of canals, and (4) preservation of the vitality of supporting tissues. This list is not intended to imply other problems do not exist or have been solved, but it is a starting point. This paper reviews some of the literature that relates to laser applications to endodontics and concludes with some of the findings from our investigation.

  19. Endodontic surgery: an online study guide.

    PubMed

    2008-05-01

    The Editorial Board of the Journal of Endodontics has developed a literature-based study guide of topical areas related to endodontics. This study guide is intended to give the reader a focused review of the essential endodontic literature and does not cite all possible articles related to each topic. Although citing all articles would be comprehensive, it would defeat the idea of a study guide. This section will cover indications and contraindications, surgical anatomy related to endodontics, flap design, root-end resection, the beveled root surface, root-end preparation techniques, root-end filling materials, endodontic surgical aids, endodontic surgical wound healing, incision and drainage, surgical trephination, intentional replantation, endodontic endosseous implants, submergence of roots, transplantation of teeth, and cystic decompression.

  20. The importance of cone-beam computed tomography in the management of endodontic problems: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Venskutonis, Tadas; Plotino, Gianluca; Juodzbalys, Gintaras; Mickevičienė, Lina

    2014-12-01

    To obtain essential information in clinical endodontics, cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging can be used in all phases of treatment including diagnosis, treatment planning, during the treatment phase, and through post-treatment assessment and follow-up. The purpose of this article was to review the use of CBCT imaging in the diagnosis, treatment planning, and assessing the outcome of endodontic complications. Literature was selected through a search of PubMed electronic databases for the following keywords: tooth root injuries, tooth root radiography, tooth root perforation, tomography, cone-beam computed tomography, endodontic complications, tooth root internal/external resorption, root fractures, and broken instruments. The research was restricted to articles published in English. One hundred twelve articles met the inclusion criteria and were included in this review. Currently, intraoral radiography is the imaging technique of choice for the management of endodontic disease, but CBCT imaging appears to have a superior validity and reliability in the management of endodontic diagnosis and complications. Endodontic cases should be judged individually, and CBCT imaging should be considered in situations in which information from conventional imaging systems may not yield an adequate amount of information to allow the appropriate management of endodontic problems. CBCT imaging has the potential to become the first choice for endodontic treatment planning and outcome assessment, especially when new scanners with lower radiation doses will be available. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Study of some physical and biological properties of an endodontic sealer composed of calcium hydroxide].

    PubMed

    Birman, E G; Sampaio, J M; Magalhães, J; Sato, E

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a study of the physical and biological properties of a new endodontic cement known as Sealapex. In its composition the presence of calcium hydroxide is introduced in order to induce calcification of the periapical tissue. Our results using glass round cover slips implanted on the subcutaneous tissue of mice indicated a persistent foreign body reaction (60 days). The physical properties studied compared to N-Rickert ciment indicated, a decreased leakage. Adhesivity tests didn't give us significant values. Laboratorial studies and clinical trials are necessary to a complete acceptance of this new ciment in endodontic treatment.

  2. Photodvnamic Therapy in Endodontics.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Jafarzadeh, Hamid; Shalavi, Sousan; Kinoshita, Jun-Ichiro

    2017-06-01

    Commonly used irrigants do not always eradicate the entire microbial flora in infected root canals. Therefore, several other strategies, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT) have been developed. Photoactivated disinfection is based on the interaction of a photosensitive antibacterial agent and a light source. It uses a nontoxic dye named photosensitizer (PS) and low-intensity visible light. In oxygen presentation, these combine to produce some cytotoxic species. The PS molecules attach to bacteria membrane. Irradiation with a specific wavelength of the light may lead to the production of singlet oxygen, resulting in rupture of the microbial cell wall. There are several applications for PDT in dentistry. A successful periodontal treatment is based on elimination of bacteria from the infected area. Phenothiazinium PSs have been shown to be highly effective and safe for this purpose. However, scaling/root planing should be performed before the PDT. While performing the PDT, PS should be first injected in the periodontal pocket and allowed to pigment. Then, the special fiber should be inserted 1 mm short of the pocket base and lased. Photodynamic therapy has also been used to disinfect caries dentin before restoration, disinfecting oral tissues before or during surgical procedures, treating denture stomatitis, and treating oral candidiasis in immunocompromised patients. Photodynamic therapy can be used in combination with mechanical instrumentation and chemical antimicrobial agents, such as sodium hypochlo-rite, too. The purpose of this study was to review historical perspective, mechanism of action, and applications of PDT in dentistry and especially in endodontics was reviewed. Furthermore, the effects of PDT on dentin bonding and endo-toxin are discussed. Photodynamic therapy has been advocated to increase the disinfection level of the root canal system.

  3. Glass-silicon column

    DOEpatents

    Yu, Conrad M.

    2003-12-30

    A glass-silicon column that can operate in temperature variations between room temperature and about 450.degree. C. The glass-silicon column includes large area glass, such as a thin Corning 7740 boron-silicate glass bonded to a silicon wafer, with an electrode embedded in or mounted on glass of the column, and with a self alignment silicon post/glass hole structure. The glass/silicon components are bonded, for example be anodic bonding. In one embodiment, the column includes two outer layers of silicon each bonded to an inner layer of glass, with an electrode imbedded between the layers of glass, and with at least one self alignment hole and post arrangement. The electrode functions as a column heater, and one glass/silicon component is provided with a number of flow channels adjacent the bonded surfaces.

  4. Application of resin adhesive on the surface of a silanized glass fiber-reinforced post and its effect on the retention to root dentin.

    PubMed

    Machado, Fernanda Weingartner; Bossardi, Mayara; Ramos, Tatiana dos Santos; Valente, Lisia Lorea; Münchow, Eliseu Aldrighi; Piva, Evandro

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of different post surface treatments on the retention of glass fiber-reinforced post to root dentin was evaluated. The hypotheses tested were (1) post silanization would not improve its retention and (2) the application of silane plus resin adhesive on the post would enhance its retention. After root canal preparation, 4 different protocols (n = 5) of post surface treatment were evaluated, combined with or without silane (Silane coupling agent) and adhesive (Scotchbond Multipurpose): silane + adhesive (S/A), only silane, only adhesive, or no treatment (control). RelyX ARC was used for post cementation. Next, specimens were subjected to push-out bond strength testing, and data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey test (P < .05). S/A showed higher bond strength than other protocols in the middle and coronal root regions (P < .001). Only silane did not enhance post retention compared with control (P > .05). The root dentin region influenced bond strength results only in the S/A group. Whereas silanization as the only post surface treatment did not improve retention, the combination of silane plus resin adhesive enhanced post retention to dentin in the middle and coronal root regions. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of different post design and composition on stress distribution in maxillary central incisor: Finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Silva, Natércia R; Castro, Carolina G; Santos-Filho, Paulo C F; Silva, Gisele R; Campos, Roberto E; Soares, Paulo Vinicins; Soares, Carlos José

    2009-01-01

    Post design and material has very important effects on dentinal stress distribution since the post placement can create stresses that lead to root fracture. In this study we use finite element analysis (FEA) to evaluate stress distribution on endodontically treated maxillary central incisors that have been restored with different prefabricated posts. Six models were generated from the image of anatomical plate: Four metallic posts (ParaPost XH, ParaPost XT, ParaPost XP, and Flexi-Flange) and one fiberglass post (ParaPost Fiber Lux). The sixth model was a control-a sound maxillary central incisor. We used CAD software and exported the models to ANSYS 9.0. All the materials and structures were considered elastic, isotropic, homogeneous, and linear except the fiberglass post which was considered orthotropic. The values for the mechanical properties were obtained by a review of the literature and the model was meshed with 8-node tetrahedral elements. A load of 2N was applied to the lingual surface at an angle of 135 degrees. The stress results were recorded by shear stress and von Mises criteria; it was observed that there was no difference for stress distribution among the titanium posts in the radicular portions and into posts. There was higher stress concentration on the coronary portion with the titanium posts than with the glass fiber post. It seems that the metallic posts' external configuration does not influence the stress distribution. Fiber posts show more homogeneous stress distribution than metallic posts. The post material seems to be more relevant for the stress distribution in endodontically treated teeth than the posts' external configuration.

  6. The effectiveness of endodontic solvents to remove endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Jae I; Chuang, Augustine H; Sidow, Stephanie J; McNally, Kathleen; Goodin, Jeremy L; McPherson, James C

    2015-03-01

    Dental emergencies negatively affect troop readiness, especially during combat. Endodontic retreatment, when required, is especially challenging when the removal of endodontic sealer is required. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of synthetic endodontic solvents to remove endodontic sealers. Fifty capillary tubes (2.7 mm ID×22 mm L), each filled to 15 mm with either Roth 801, AH Plus, MetaSEAL, or gutta-percha, were stored at 75% humidity for 14 days at 37°C. Ten capillary tubes containing each sealer were treated with either chloroform, xylene, EndoSolv R, EndoSolv E, or no solvent, and then penetrated with D3 ProTaper Universal Retreatment file on the same day. The time for the file to penetrate the length of each sealer was recorded, and the data statistically analyzed. Roth 801 failed to set and was not tested. The file took 3.4±0.1, 4.8±0.3, 5.7±0.4, 4.5±0.2, and 10.6±1.0 seconds (mean±SD) to penetrate gutta-percha using chloroform, xylene, EndoSolv R, EndoSolv E, or no solvent, respectively, and was performed by one endodontic resident at one sitting. The time for penetration of gutta-percha with any solvent was significantly faster (p≤0.05) than for AH Plus or MetaSEAL.The time for AH Plus ranged from 23.1±1.0 to 81.5±4.5 seconds. The time for MetaSEAL ranged from 97.2±6.1 to >180 seconds. EndoSolv E was the most effective solvent for AH Plus. It took significantly more time to remove MetaSEAL than AH Plus, regardless of the solvent used. Our study indicated that the use of the proper endodontic solvent makes complete removal of a sealer much more effective during retreatment. Reprint & Copyright © 2015 Association of Military Surgeons of the U.S.

  7. Are clinical decisions in endodontics influenced by the patient's fee-paying status?

    PubMed

    Walker, I; Gilbert, D; Asimakopoulou, K

    2015-12-01

    We explored whether the fee status of a UK patient influences clinical decision-making in endodontics. In a randomised-controlled vignette study describing either an 'NHS-funded', 'Privately-funded' or undisclosed fee-status patient, we examined the importance vocational trainer dentists placed on a series of factors normally considered when deciding whether to offer patients endodontic treatment as opposed to extracting the tooth. N = 119 experienced (M years post qualification = 20.01) dentists participated. Having read a vignette describing a hypothetical patient who could potentially be treated either endodontically or through an extraction, dentists rated a series of factors they would normally consider (for example, poor oral hygiene, the rest of their mouth is unfilled and caries-free), before recommending either endodontic treatment or an extraction. The patient's funding status had no influence on these dentists' clinical decision-making when considering endodontic treatment as an option (p >0.05) with the exception of a single item relating to infrequent attendance where the NHS patient was more likely than the 'undisclosed-fee' patient, to be offered extractions (F (2, 116) 3.43, p <0.04). We have found no strong evidence to suggest that the fee-status of a patient influences clinical decision-making in endodontic treatment by experienced dentists.

  8. Comparative assessment of the incidence of vertical root fractures between conventional versus surgical endodontic retreatment.

    PubMed

    Karygianni, L; Krengel, M; Winter, M; Stampf, S; Wrbas, K T

    2014-11-01

    Vertical root fractures (VRFs) are a common cause of tooth loss. Little evidence exists though, relating the incidence of VRFs to the type of endodontic retreatment. This retrospective study aimed at evaluating the impact of conventional versus surgical endodontics on root canal-filled teeth with VRFs. Over a period of 13 years, 200 endodontically retreated teeth from 192 patients with VRFs were extracted and further examined. VRFs were assessed in relation to age, gender, tooth group, clinical signs, extension on the root surface, patency, as well as type of endodontic retreatment and restoration. Statistical analysis was conducted using a Cox PH Model, Chi-squared, Wilcoxon rank-sum, and Log rank tests at a significance level of 5 %. The majority of teeth with VRFs (62.31 %) had undergone the combination of conventional root canal retreatment and apical surgery. Women (64.06 %) presented VRFs more frequently than men (35.94 %) at the mean age of 51.1 and 55.1 years, respectively. Maxillary first (17.5 %) and second (16.5 %) premolars, restored by a resin-based material without a post (56.28 %) were more susceptible to VRFs. Apically initiated (84.1 %) VRFs could be diagnosed more easily on radiographs. The type of endodontic treatment strongly correlated with VRFs. The prevalence of VRFs in teeth having undergone both conventional and surgical endodontic retreatment could be attributed, among others, to additive dentin damage related to the aforementioned endodontic procedures. The possible involvement of endodontic retreatment in the multifactorial etiology of VRFs needs to be taken into consideration in clinical practice.

  9. Endodontic Treatment of a Large Periradicular Lesion: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Ehsani, Sara

    2008-01-01

    This case report describes the endodontic treatment of a large cyst-like periradicular lesion a 29-year-old female with a large chronic periapical abscess in the region of right maxillary sinus presented into private practice, accompanied with non-vital first upper molar and poorly root treated second upper molar. Conservative root canal treatment was carried out for both of the involved teeth in a single appointment. Post operative examination after two weeks revealed complete resolution of the sinus tract. The clinical and radiographic examination after 9 months revealed complete periapical healing. The appropriate diagnosis of periradicular lesion and the treatment of the infected root canal system allowed complete healing of these large lesions without endodontic surgery. PMID:24082906

  10. Re-attachment of Subgingivally Oblique Fractured Central Incisor Using a Fiber Post

    PubMed Central

    Adanir, Necdet; Ok, Evren; Erdek, Yesim

    2008-01-01

    This case report presents a 32 year old male with an oblique fractured maxillary right central incisor. The procedure used to repair the fracture included flap surgery with an intrasulcular incision and endodontic treatment. The root canal was filled with a root canal sealer and gutta-percha. After root canal obturation, fragments were luted with composite resin using a glass fibers post. After 12 months, clinical and radiographic examinations showed a stable reattachment of the fragments, good aesthetics and periodontal health. (Eur J Dent 2008;2:138–141) PMID:19212525

  11. Effect of surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber-reinforced composite post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

    PubMed

    Elnaghy, Amr M; Elsaka, Shaymaa E

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different surface treatments on the flexural properties and adhesion of glass fiber post to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin. Seventy-five single-rooted human teeth were prepared to receive a glass fiber post (Reblida). The posts were divided into five groups according to the surface treatment: Gr C (control; no treatment), Gr S (silanization for 60 s), Gr AP (airborne-particle abrasion), Gr HF (etching with 9 % hydrofluoric acid for 1 min), and Gr M10 (etching with CH2Cl2 for 10 min). Dual-cure self-adhesive luting agent (Rely X Unicem) was applied to each group for testing the adhesion using micropush-out test. Failure types were examined with stereomicroscope and surface morphology of the posts was characterized using a scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Flexural properties of posts were assessed using a three-point bending test. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey's HSD test. Statistical significance was set at the 0.05 probability level. Groups treated with M10 showed significantly higher bond strength than those obtained with other surface treatments (P < 0.05). In general, improvements in bond strength (MPa) were found in the following order: M10 > C > S > AP > HF. Most failure modes were adhesive type of failures between dentin and luting agent (48.2%). SEM analysis revealed that the fiber post surfaces were modified after surface treatments. The surface treatments did not compromise the flexural properties of fiber posts. Application of M10 to the fiber post surfaces enhanced the adhesion to self-adhesive luting agent and radicular dentin.

  12. Influence of irrigant, dowel type, and root-reinforcing material on fracture resistance of thin-walled endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Ayad, Mohamed F; Bahannan, Salma A; Rosenstiel, Stephen F

    2011-04-01

    Unresolved controversy exists concerning the optimum restorative material to reinforce the thin-walled roots of endodontically treated teeth to improve their fracture resistance under occlusal load. This study evaluated the effectiveness of irrigant, dowel type, and root-reinforcing material on the fracture resistance of thin-walled endodontically treated teeth. The root canals of 140 maxillary central incisors were enlarged and equally divided into seven groups according to the canal irrigant: no irrigant (control), 5% hydrogen peroxide, 5% sodium hypochlorite, a combination of 5% hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite, 15% ethylenediaminotetraacetic acid (EDTA), 10% lactic acid, or 20% lactic acid. Within each group, root canals were lined with composite resin (PermaFlo) or glass ionomer cement (Fuji II LC). A light-transmitting plastic dowel (Luminex) was used to create space for a quartz fiber-reinforced dowel (Aestheti Post) or a titanium alloy dowel (ParaPost XH) and to cure the restorative materials. Following dowel cementation and restoration of the roots with composite core, the teeth were submitted to fracture resistance testing, and data were analyzed with 3-way ANOVA followed by Ryan-Einot-Gabriel-Welsch Multiple Range Test (α= 0.05). Fracture resistance values were significantly different among irrigants, restorative materials, and their interaction (p < 0.001); however, the dowel type was not significantly different (p= 0.51). Thin-walled roots that had the smear layer removed with lactic acid and that were then lined with composite resin had a higher fracture resistance. © 2011 by The American College of Prosthodontists.

  13. Evaluation of Debridement Techniques for Endodontic Instruments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-08-20

    Endodontic Practice . Philadelphia, 1970, Lea and Febiger, pp. 213-214. 9. Grossman, L. I.: Fate of endodontically treated teeth with fractured root...Cstf3 everse OFd neeO a 1 d IIeif by locLETEa WE~~ CLJANIATO OF TH)S PAITIE OFh~ Iat NOVnteSred) EVALUATION OF DEBRIDEMENT TECHNIQUES FOR ENDODONTIC ...INSTRUMENTS *RONALD 0. SEGALL, DMD **CARLOS E. del RIO, DDS ***JOHN M. BRADY, DDS, MSPH ****WILLIAM A. AYER, DDS, PhD :f*MAJ, DC Endodontic Resident, US

  14. The odontogenic keratocyst: a potential endodontic misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Garlock, J A; Pringle, G A; Hicks, M L

    1998-04-01

    Odontogenic keratocysts manifest themselves as radiolucencies that can appear anywhere in the maxilla or mandible, including periradicular areas; they may thus masquerade as lesions of endodontic origin. This retrospective study examined 239 odontogenic keratocysts received by the Oral Pathology Laboratory at Temple University School of Medicine over a 3-year period. Twenty-one (9%) of the cysts received were located periradicularly; of these 21, 12 (57%) were associated with nonvital or endodontically treated teeth and thus mimicked lesions of endodontic origin. Because of its aggressive nature and tendency to recur, the periradicular odontogenic keratocyst should be included in the differential diagnosis of lesions that are refractory to endodontic treatment.

  15. Conservative restoration of severely damaged endodontically treated premolar teeth: a FEM study.

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Öznur; Eraslan, Oğuz; Eskitaşcıoğlu, Gürcan; Belli, Sema

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this finite element method (FEM) study was to test two different restorative techniques used for construction of severely damaged endodontically treated premolar teeth using Finite Element Stress Analysis Method. In this study, four types of three-dimensional (3-D) FEM mathematical models simulating (1) a sound lower single rooted premolar tooth with supporting structures; (2) a root-filled lower premolar tooth without lingual cusp, restored with resin composite; (3) a root-filled lower premolar tooth without lingual cusp restored with resin composite in combination with a polyethylene fiber which is placed circumferentially to help to create a composite lingual wall; (4) a root-filled lower premolar tooth without lingual cusp restored with resin composite in combination with a glass fiber post, were modeled. A 300-N static vertical occlusal load was applied on the node at the center of occlusal surface of the tooth to calculate stress distributions. Solidworks/Cosmosworks structural analysis programs were used for FEM analysis. The analysis of the von Mises stress values revealed that maximum stress concentrations were located at loading areas for all models. Root dentine tissue, lingual cortical bone, and apical bone structures were other stress concentration regions. There were stress concentration differences among the models at root dentine tissue. Although the distribution pattern was similar with composite resin restored tooth model, highest stress values were observed at root dentine in the model restored with post-and-core. Post structure accumulated more stress on its own body. Stress distribution patterns of sound tooth and fiber-reinforced restoration models were found as similar. The present study showed that the use of post material increased the stress values at root dentine structure while reinforcing the restoration with a fiber decreases stress transmission. Fiber-reinforced restoration provided stress distributions similar to sound

  16. Influence of airborne-particle abrasion on mechanical properties and bond strength of carbon/epoxy and glass/bis-GMA fiber-reinforced resin posts.

    PubMed

    Soares, Carlos Jose; Santana, Fernanda Ribeiro; Pereira, Janaina Carla; Araujo, Tatiana Santos; Menezes, Murilo Souza

    2008-06-01

    Controversy exists concerning the use of fiber-reinforced posts to improve bond strength to resin cement because some precementation treatments can compromise the mechanical properties of the posts. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of airborne-particle abrasion on the mechanical properties and microtensile bond strength (MTBS) of carbon/epoxy and glass/bis-GMA fiber-reinforced resin posts. Flexural strength (delta(f)), flexural modulus (E(f)), and stiffness (S) were assessed using a 3-point bending test for glass fiber-reinforced and carbon fiber-reinforced resin posts submitted to airborne-particle abrasion (AB) with 50-microm Al(2)O(3), and for posts without any surface treatment (controls) (n=10). Forty glass fiber (GF) and 40 carbon fiber (CF) posts were submitted to 1 of 4 surface treatments (n=10) prior to MTBS testing: silane (S); silane and adhesive (SA); airborne-particle abrasion with 50-microm Al(2)O(3) and silane (ABS); airborne-particle abrasion, silane, and adhesive (ABSA). Two composite resin restorations (Filtek Z250) with rounded depressions in the lateral face were bilaterally fixed to the post with resin cement (RelyX ARC). Next, the specimen was sectioned with a precision saw running perpendicular to the bonded surface to obtain 10 bonded beam specimens with a cross-sectional area of 1 mm(2). Each beam specimen was tested in a mechanical testing machine (EMIC 2,000 DL), under stress, at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until failure. Data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA followed by Tukey HSD test (alpha=.05). Failure patterns of tested specimens were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The 3-point bending test demonstrated significant differences among groups only for the post type factor for flexural strength, flexural modulus, and stiffness. The carbon fiber posts exhibited significantly higher mean flexural strength (P=.001), flexural modulus (P=.003), and stiffness (P=.001) values when compared with glass

  17. Post removal techniques part 1.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Jamie; McCrosson, John

    2014-01-01

    Dismantling restorations from teeth which require endodontic re-treatment can be difficult. Many dentists are reluctant to remove posts through fear of weakening, perforating or fracturing the remaining root structure. A variety of techniques have been described and developed for post removal. This is the first in a series of two papers which provide an overview of these techniques.The rationale for endodontic re-treatment, pre-operative assessment and factors affecting post removal are discussed. Techniques are illustrated with clinical case reports. The second paper describes the use of specific post removal devices and the removal of fibre posts. Endodontic re-treatment has a more successful long-term outcome than surgical treatment for failed root canal treatment. This may involve the removal of existing post restorations or portions thereof.

  18. Regenerative Endodontic Procedures: Clinical Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Diogenes, Anibal; Ruparel, Nikita B

    2017-01-01

    Immature teeth are at risk for pulp necrosis, resulting in arrested root development and poor long-term prognosis. There is growing evidence that regenerative endodontic procedures promote desirable clinical outcomes. Despite significant advances in the field of regenerative endodontics and acceptable clinical outcomes, current evidence suggests that the tissues formed following currently used procedures do not completely recapitulate the former pulp-dentin complex. Further research is needed to identify prognostic factors and predictors of successful outcomes and to develop different treatment strategies to better predictably achieve all identified clinical outcomes, while favoring tissue formation that more closely resembles the pulp-dentin complex. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effect of coronal macroretentions and diameter of a glass-FRC on fracture resistance of bovine teeth restored with fiber posts.

    PubMed

    Amaral, M; Favarin Santini, M; Wandscher, V; Villaça Zogheib, L; Valandro, L F

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fracture resistance of bovine teeth restored with glass fiber posts of different diameter and shape. Eighty single-rooted bovine teeth were prepared, embedded in a PVC cylinder using acrylic resin, and allocated into eight groups (N.=10) based on the post diameter (White Post DC) and shape: smooth double-tapered fiber post -- G1, G2, G3, and G4 with cervical diameters of 1.4 mm, 1.6 mm, 1.8 mm, and 2 mm, respectively; double-tapered fiber post with coronal macroretentions -- G5, G6, G7, and G8 with cervical diameters of 1.4 mm, 1.6 mm, 1.8 mm, and 2 mm, respectively. A three-step etch-and.rinse adhesive and resin cement system was used for postcementation. Afterwards, the core build-up was standardized with composite resin (Oppalis). The specimens were stored for seven days and later submitted to monotonic load at a crosshead speed of 0.05 cm/min (45 degrees ) until failure. The fracture loads were determined and the fracture mode was recorded. The post diameter (P=0.0007) and post-surface characteristic (P=0.0149) factors affected the fracture resistance results significantly (2-way ANOVA). Low fracture strength values were noted in the group with narrower diameter and macroretentions (G5). The macroretentions damaged the fracture resistance results when post diameter was 1.4 mm (G1 and G5). On fiber posts having diameters of 1.6 mm, 1.8 mm, and 2 mm, macroretentions did not impair fracture strengths significantly. A direct relation between the diameter of the fiber post and the fracture strength seems likely. Coronal macroretentions reduced fracture strength in thinner fiber posts.

  20. Micro push-out bond strengths of 2 fiber post types luted using different adhesive strategies.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ugur; Mumcu, Emre; Topcu, Fulya Toksoy; Yildiz, Esra; Yamanel, Kivanc; Akyol, Mesut

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the push-out bond strengths of carbon and glass fiber posts adhesively luted with Panavia F 2.0 and RelyX Unicem luting cements, as well as a modified application procedure using RelyX Unicem cement in combination with a single-bottle total-etch adhesive in 3 segments of teeth. Sixty single-rooted human maxillary central incisors and canines were sectioned below the cementoenamel junction, and the roots were endodontically treated. The roots were divided into 2 fiber-post groups, and then divided into 3 subgroups of 10 specimens each to test different luting strategies. Bonded specimens were cut (1-mm-thick sections) and push-out tests were performed (crosshead-speed, 0.5 mm/min). Failure modes were evaluated using a stereomicroscope at original magnification ×40. Micro push-out bond strengths were significantly affected by the type of luting agent and the type of post (P < .05). In all root sections, the push-out bond strength values of glass fiber posts were significantly higher than that of carbon fiber posts (P < .05). Moreover, the highest push-out bond strengths were measured for Panavia F 2.0 and RelyX Unicem cements. These values were significantly higher than that of modified application procedure in the medium section for both glass- and carbon-fiber posts, and in the apical root sections only for glass-fiber post (P < .05). In each region, the modified application procedure showed the lowest bond strength values. Adhesive failure between dentin and cement was the most frequent type of failure. In all root segments, the glass fiber post provided significantly increased post retention compared with the carbon fiber post, regardless of the luting strategy used. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of adhesive system type and root region on the push-out bond strength of glass-fibre posts to radicular dentine.

    PubMed

    Onay, E O; Korkmaz, Y; Kiremitci, A

    2010-04-01

    To compare interfacial strength in different thirds of the root canal amongst glass-fibre posts luted with four different adhesive luting agents. A total of 44 extracted human single-rooted teeth were randomly divided in four groups and restored using glass-fibre posts and the following luting agents: All Bond SE/Duo-Link (ABSE), All Bond 3/Duo-Link (AB3), BisCem (BC), Clearfil ED primer II/Clearfil Esthetic Cement (CLF). One week after luting, the samples were thermocycled in water, and then embedded in acrylic resin. Three sections (cervical, middle and apical) of 2 mm thickness were prepared from each specimen, and the post in each section was subjected to a push-out test. One additional specimen for each group was prepared for scanning electron microscopy analysis and the bonding effectiveness to dentine was assessed. The data were analysed using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, two-way anova, one-way anova, and the Scheffe test (P < 0.05). The push-out bond strength values for BC and ABSE were not significantly different (P > 0.05), but both were significantly higher than the means for AB3 and CLF (P < 0.05) in the cervical and middle regions. The same trend was observed in the apical region, except for the AB3 and ABSE which were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from each other. There were significant differences in bond strength amongst root thirds, with a reduction in values from the cervical to apical third (P < 0.05). The use of BisCem and All Bond SE/Duo-Link combination with their simplified application procedures may be considered an alternative to the currently used systems for luting glass-fibre posts in root canal.

  2. Healing of apical periodontitis through modern endodontic retreatment techniques.

    PubMed

    Ray, Jarom J; Kirkpatrick, Timothy C

    2013-01-01

    The presence of apical periodontitis in teeth which have undergone initial root canal treatment is largely attributed to bacteria residing in or invading from the apical root canal space. Bacteria-associated apical periodontitis will not heal spontaneously, nor will systemic antibiotics eradicate the infection. Only endodontic retreatment, endodontic surgery, or extraction will control the bacterial etiology. Modern retreatment is an effective means of addressing apical periodontitis. A mandibular premolar with apical periodontitis, apical root resorption, and overfilled gutta percha was retreated with post removal, retrieval of gutta percha from beyond the apex, ultrasonic irrigation and disinfection, and placement of a collagen internal matrix to facilitate a well-controlled MTA apical fill. The magnification and illumination imparted by the operating microscope was integral to achievement of treatment objectives. The patient's symptoms were resolved and complete osseous healing occurred. During treatment planning, clinicians should consider the capability of modern endodontic techniques to overcome technical challenges, often allowing the natural dentition to be preserved and restored to function days after retreatment.

  3. Imaging Techniques in Endodontics: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, B. S.; Subash, T. S.; Narmatha, V. J.; Anamika, T.; Snehil, T. K.; Nandini, D. B.

    2012-01-01

    This review provides an overview of the relevance of imaging techniques such as, computed tomography, cone beam computed tomography, and ultrasound, to endodontic practice. Many limitations of the conventional radiographic techniques have been overcome by the newer methods. Advantages and disadvantages of various imaging techniques in endodontic practice are also discussed. PMID:22530184

  4. Teacher Training in Graduate Endodontic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, William; Lee, Mickey M.

    1981-01-01

    A national survey of postdoctoral endodontic students on the perceived educational needs of dental faculty indicated that most endodontic students possess very little formal educational training, they perceive a strong need for it, and that they desire more training in evaluation/testing methods. (MLW)

  5. Teacher Training in Graduate Endodontic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrell, William; Lee, Mickey M.

    1981-01-01

    A national survey of postdoctoral endodontic students on the perceived educational needs of dental faculty indicated that most endodontic students possess very little formal educational training, they perceive a strong need for it, and that they desire more training in evaluation/testing methods. (MLW)

  6. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a) Identification. An endodontic paper point is a device made of paper intended for use during endodontic therapy to dry...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3830 - Endodontic paper point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endodontic paper point. 872.3830 Section 872.3830...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3830 Endodontic paper point. (a) Identification. An endodontic paper point is a device made of paper intended for use during endodontic therapy to dry...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3840 - Endodontic silver point.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endodontic silver point. 872.3840 Section 872.3840...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3840 Endodontic silver point. (a) Identification. An endodontic silver point is a device made of silver intended for use during endodontic therapy...

  13. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize endodontic...

  14. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize endodontic...

  15. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize endodontic...

  16. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize endodontic...

  17. 21 CFR 872.6730 - Endodontic dry heat sterilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. 872.6730 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Miscellaneous Devices § 872.6730 Endodontic dry heat sterilizer. (a) Identification. An endodontic dry heat sterilizer is a device intended to sterilize endodontic...

  18. Postextraction implant in sites with endodontic infection as an alternative to endodontic retreatment: a review of literature.

    PubMed

    Corbella, Stefano; Taschieri, Silvio; Tsesis, Igor; Massimo, Del Fabbro

    2012-05-22

    Abstract Objective: the aim of this literature review was to evaluate the outcomes of implants placed after extraction of teeth with infections of endodontic origin.Study design: an electronic search was performed through electronic databases (Medline and EMBASE) using the terms "immediate implant", "post-extractive implants", "endodontic infection", "infected site", "extraction socket" combined with the use of Boolean operators ("AND" and "OR"). Only articles on human subjects were considered. At least 12 month of mean follow-up was required for inclusion. No restriction was placed regarding study design.Results: Ten studies were included in this review. Survival rates ranged from 92% to 100%. A total of 497 implants were placed in sites with endodontic infection. In nine studies the use of bone substitutes was associated with immediate implant placement.Conclusion: because of the low number of included study and the heterogeneity in study design, more well-designed studies are required in order to assess relevance of this treatment alternative.

  19. Laser applications in endodontics: an update review.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Zahed

    2009-02-01

    The search for new devices and technologies for endodontic procedures always has been challenging. Since the development of the ruby laser by Maiman in 1960 and the application of the laser for endodontics by Weichman in 1971, a variety of potential applications for lasers in endodontics have been proposed. With the development of thinner, more flexible and durable laser fibres, laser applications in endodontics have increased. Since laser devices are still relatively costly, access to them is limited. The purpose of this paper is to summarise laser applications in endodontics, including their use in pulp diagnosis, dentinal hypersensitivity, pulp capping and pulpotomy, sterilisation of root canals, root canal shaping and obturation and apicectomy. The effects of lasers on root canal walls and periodontal tissues are also reviewed.

  20. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Mao, Teresa; Neelakantan, Prasanna

    2014-09-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome.

  1. Three-dimensional imaging modalities in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Recent research in endodontics has highlighted the need for three-dimensional imaging in the clinical arena as well as in research. Three-dimensional imaging using computed tomography (CT) has been used in endodontics over the past decade. Three types of CT scans have been studied in endodontics, namely cone-beam CT, spiral CT, and peripheral quantitative CT. Contemporary endodontics places an emphasis on the use of cone-beam CT for an accurate diagnosis of parameters that cannot be visualized on a two-dimensional image. This review discusses the role of CT in endodontics, pertaining to its importance in the diagnosis of root canal anatomy, detection of peri-radicular lesions, diagnosis of trauma and resorption, presurgical assessment, and evaluation of the treatment outcome. PMID:25279337

  2. Aesthetic considerations in endodontics: internal bleaching.

    PubMed

    Abbott, P V

    1997-09-01

    During endodontic treatment of any tooth, aesthetics must be considered in the same manner as during any other dental treatment. The most common aesthetic challenge associated with endodontics is the discoloration of natural tooth structure. The discoloration may be a result of pulp pathosis, especially pulpal hemorrhage prior to or during treatment, or it may be due to various endodontic and restorative materials placed in the pulp chamber. There are several simple measures that can be utilized during and following endodontic treatment to eliminate or reduce aesthetic deficiency. The learning objective of this article is to discuss internal bleaching of discolored pulpless teeth that have been endodontically treated. The discussion includes the chemical composition of bleaching agents and principles by which they function during the bleaching procedures.

  3. Finite element analysis to study the effects of using CAD/CAM glass-fiber post system in a severely damaged anterior tooth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Aijie; Feng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Yanli; Liu, Ruoyu; Shao, Longquan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the stress distribution of a severely damaged maxillary anterior tooth restored with a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) glass-fiber post system. Twelve models were fabricated with different alveolar bone levels and cervical dentin wall thicknesses and studied using a two-dimensional finite element method. A force of 100 N was applied to the lingual surface of the crown at 45 degrees, and the maximum von Mises stress was calculated. A higher stress level was observed in the dentin than in the post and crown. With the reduction of dentin thickness, the maximum von Mises stress in the dentin increased slightly to a peak at a thickness of 1.5 mm, followed by a slight decrease at a thickness of 1.0 mm. However, the relative ratio (RR) values did not show a large difference (RR > 80%). Meanwhile, a large difference in RR values was observed with a change in bone level (RR < 80%). When using a CAD/CAM glass-fiber post system, the maximal von Mises stress was significantly affected by the bone level, rather than by the dentin thickness. Moreover, this system may be applied to the treatment of a maxillary anterior tooth with a bone level of only 2/3.

  4. Evaluation of Novel Glass Fiber-reinforced Composite Technique for Primary Anterior Teeth with Deep Carious Lesions: A 12-month Clinical Study.

    PubMed

    Sawant, Ajinkya; Chunawalla, Yusuf; Morawala, Abdul; S Kanchan, Nupur; Jain, Kapil; Talathi, Rohan

    2017-01-01

    Early childhood caries discloses a distinct clinical pattern, and the teeth most often involved are the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors, and the maxillary and man-dibular first molars. The maxillary incisors are most severely affected, with deep carious lesions usually involving the pulp. Teeth that have been endodontically treated often have little coronal tooth tissue remaining and as such require a post to retain the core and restoration .This study evaluated and compared the efficacy of EverStick glass fiber-reinforced composite post with ParaPost Taper Lux in primary maxillary anterior teeth. An in vivo study was conducted to evaluate and compare the longevity and failures of two fiber post systems in primary maxillary anterior teeth. A total of 60 severely mutilated primary maxillary anterior teeth from children aged 3 to 5 years were selected according to the inclusion criteria. These teeth were treated endodontically and were randomly assigned into two groups with 30 samples in each group, group I: EverStick glass fiber-reinforced composite post, group II: ParaPost Taper Lux post. The evaluation of dislodgment of posts, secondary caries, root fracture, and post fracture was carried out clinically and radiographically during every follow-up at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months interval. Statistical tests (Chi-square test, Fisher's exact probability test) suggested that dislodgment of the posts was significant between the two groups at 6, 9, and 12 months follow-ups. But within the group during subsequent follow-up intervals, dislodgment of posts as a mode of failure was not statistically significant. However, clinically failures were seen in both the study groups. Fiber post system has proved to be successful clinically in both primary and permanent teeth due to the mono-block effect with luting agent, post system, core material, and bonding to dentin. Thus, today the EverStick glass fiber post system provides a novel way of fabricating cost-effective and

  5. Evaluation of Novel Glass Fiber-reinforced Composite Technique for Primary Anterior Teeth with Deep Carious Lesions: A 12-month Clinical Study

    PubMed Central

    Sawant, Ajinkya; Chunawalla, Yusuf; Morawala, Abdul; Jain, Kapil; Talathi, Rohan

    2017-01-01

    Background Early childhood caries discloses a distinct clinical pattern, and the teeth most often involved are the maxillary central incisors, lateral incisors, and the maxillary and man-dibular first molars. The maxillary incisors are most severely affected, with deep carious lesions usually involving the pulp. Teeth that have been endodontically treated often have little coronal tooth tissue remaining and as such require a post to retain the core and restoration .This study evaluated and compared the efficacy of EverStick glass fiber-reinforced composite post with ParaPost Taper Lux in primary maxillary anterior teeth. Aim An in vivo study was conducted to evaluate and compare the longevity and failures of two fiber post systems in primary maxillary anterior teeth. Materials and methods A total of 60 severely mutilated primary maxillary anterior teeth from children aged 3 to 5 years were selected according to the inclusion criteria. These teeth were treated endodontically and were randomly assigned into two groups with 30 samples in each group, group I: EverStick glass fiber-reinforced composite post, group II: ParaPost Taper Lux post. The evaluation of dislodgment of posts, secondary caries, root fracture, and post fracture was carried out clinically and radiographically during every follow-up at 3, 6, 9, and 12 months interval. Results Statistical tests (Chi-square test, Fisher’s exact probability test) suggested that dislodgment of the posts was significant between the two groups at 6, 9, and 12 months follow-ups. But within the group during subsequent follow-up intervals, dislodgment of posts as a mode of failure was not statistically significant. However, clinically failures were seen in both the study groups. Conclusion Fiber post system has proved to be successful clinically in both primary and permanent teeth due to the mono-block effect with luting agent, post system, core material, and bonding to dentin. Thus, today the EverStick glass fiber post

  6. Iatrogenic subcutaneous emphysema of endodontic origin - case report with literature review.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Lora; Patnaik, Swarnav; Patro, Sangram; Debnath, Nitai; Mishra, Satyaranjan

    2014-01-01

    Surgical emphysema is well known and many case reports have been published on this. Many authors have reported this as a complication post dentoalveolar treatment. Diffusion of air into facial planes and periorbital area during endodontic procedures has been rarely reported. The use of three way air syringe and forceful irrigation of root canal can lead to surgical emphysema of subcutaneous tissue planes in and around the teeth which are involved. This case report highlights one such complication seen during endodontic treatment, discusses aetiology, complications and conservative management of this dental office emergency.

  7. Regenerative Endodontics by Cell Homing.

    PubMed

    He, Ling; Zhong, Juan; Gong, Qimei; Cheng, Bin; Kim, Sahng G; Ling, Junqi; Mao, Jeremy J

    2017-01-01

    Apical revascularization (AR) and platelet-rich plasma have been used to restore dental pulp vitality in infected immature permanent teeth. Two regenerative therapies are cell transplantation and cell homing. This article updates and benchmarks these therapies with cell homing. A case report concluded that AR increased root length; however, quantitative and statistical assessments disproved this. Regenerative endodontic therapies require prospective clinical trials demonstrating safety and efficacy. These therapies are intrinsically susceptible to procedural and patient variations. Cell homing uses novel molecules that drive therapeutic efficacy, and may be less sensitive to procedural and patient variations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Endodontic Retreatment of a Mandibular Second Molar with four Separate Roots: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Idris, Mohamed; Sakkir, Nasil; Kj, Nandakishore; Kini, Annapurna

    2014-03-01

    Aberrations in the root canal anatomy are a commonly occurring phenomenon. Although the mandibular second molar is commonly a bi-rooted tooth with an uncomplicated endodontic anatomy, variations have to be considered every time endodontic therapy is performed. This case report describes the non-surgical endodontic retreatment performed on a mandibular second molar with four seperate roots and canals. ProTaper Universal rotary nickel-titanium instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) for treatment and retreatment were used to remove the old gutta percha and to clean and shape all root canals, followed by the complete obturation of root canal system. Post-operative CBCT scan was taken to confirm the quality of the performed treatment.

  9. Endodontic Retreatment of a Mandibular Second Molar with four Separate Roots: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Idris, Mohamed; Sakkir, Nasil; KJ, Nandakishore; Kini, Annapurna

    2014-01-01

    Aberrations in the root canal anatomy are a commonly occurring phenomenon. Although the mandibular second molar is commonly a bi-rooted tooth with an uncomplicated endodontic anatomy, variations have to be considered every time endodontic therapy is performed. This case report describes the non-surgical endodontic retreatment performed on a mandibular second molar with four seperate roots and canals. ProTaper Universal rotary nickel-titanium instruments (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) for treatment and retreatment were used to remove the old gutta percha and to clean and shape all root canals, followed by the complete obturation of root canal system. Post-operative CBCT scan was taken to confirm the quality of the performed treatment. PMID:24783160

  10. Effect of various endodontic solutions on punch out strength of Resilon under cyclic loading

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Narender; Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Gupta, Ridhima

    2011-01-01

    Background: Before obturation, various endodontic solutions are used as a final rinse. These solutions might affect the bond strength of Resilon-Epiphany system. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of NaOCl (5.25%), chlorhexidine CHX (2%), EDTA solution (17%), and BioPure MTAD on push out bond strength of Resilon-Epiphany system. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five human premolar roots were prepared and divided on the basis of final endodontic solution rinse. The canals were obturated with Resilon-Epiphany system. All samples were restored using a fiber post system and indirect composite crown. The samples received 150 000 cycles of mechanical loading. Push out bond strength was performed in the apical third of root having Resilon obturation. Results and Conclusions: Different endodontic solutions tested, did not affected the push out bond strength of Resilon-Epiphany obturation system. PMID:22144804

  11. The frequency of medically compromised patients in endodontic offices in iran.

    PubMed

    Parirokh, Masoud; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Kakoei, Shahla; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Kakooei, Sina

    2013-01-01

    As the result of epidemiological transition and aging of Iranian population, the frequencies of systemic diseases among patients in of need endodontic treatment has increased, especially within developed cities. However, there have been no concise reports of systemic diseases in Iranian patients. Based on this need, the present investigation was conducted to assess the frequency of systemic disease among patients referred to endodontic private practice in three main cities in Iran. In a retrospective study, the frequency of systematic diseases were abstracted from the health records of patients who were referred to three private practices limited to endodontics in Kerman, Mashhad, and Tehran between 1994 to 2011. Overall, 15,413 records of patients were assessed. The patterns of systematic diseases among endodontic patients in these three cities were different. The overall frequency of systemic disease in Kerman was significantly higher than two other cities (Kerman: 55.03%, Mashhad: 24.32%, Tehran: 22.16%; P<0.001). The most commonly occurring diseases were cardiac disease, hypertension, allergy and neurological disorders. Since the number of endodontic patients with systematic diseases is considerably significant and varied, special training and educations for treatment of medically compromised patient should be considered at both post- and undergraduate training.

  12. The Frequency of Medically Compromised Patients in Endodontic Offices in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Parirokh, Masoud; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Kakoei, Shahla; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar; Kakooei, Sina

    2013-01-01

    Introduction As the result of epidemiological transition and aging of Iranian population, the frequencies of systemic diseases among patients in of need endodontic treatment has increased, especially within developed cities. However, there have been no concise reports of systemic diseases in Iranian patients. Based on this need, the present investigation was conducted to assess the frequency of systemic disease among patients referred to endodontic private practice in three main cities in Iran. Materials and Methods In a retrospective study, the frequency of systematic diseases were abstracted from the health records of patients who were referred to three private practices limited to endodontics in Kerman, Mashhad, and Tehran between 1994 to 2011. Results Overall, 15,413 records of patients were assessed. The patterns of systematic diseases among endodontic patients in these three cities were different. The overall frequency of systemic disease in Kerman was significantly higher than two other cities (Kerman: 55.03%, Mashhad: 24.32%, Tehran: 22.16%; P<0.001). The most commonly occurring diseases were cardiac disease, hypertension, allergy and neurological disorders. Conclusion Since the number of endodontic patients with systematic diseases is considerably significant and varied, special training and educations for treatment of medically compromised patient should be considered at both post- and undergraduate training. PMID:23717328

  13. Effect of endodontic sealers on tooth color.

    PubMed

    Meincke, Débora Könzgen; Prado, Maíra; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo; Bona, Alvaro Della; Sousa, Ezilmara Leonor Rolim

    2013-08-01

    One of the goals of endodontic treatment is the adequate filling of the root canal,which is often done using gutta-percha and sealer. It has been reported that sealer remnants in the coronary pulp chamber cause tooth color changes. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effect of endodontic sealer remnants on tooth color, testing the hypothesis that sealers cause coronal color changes. Forty single-rooted human teeth were endodontically treated leaving excess sealer material in the coronary pulp chamber. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10) according to the endodontic sealer used (AH, AH Plus; EF, Endofill; EN,endome´ thasoneN; and S26, Sealer 26). Teeth were stored at 37 8C moist environment.Color coordinates (L*a*b*) were measured with a spectrophotometer before endodontic treatment(baseline-control), 24 h and 6 months after treatment. L*a*b* values were used to calculate color changes (DE). Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney-U tests. Color changes were observed for all groups with S26 and EN producing the greatest mean DE values after 6 months. Endodontic sealer remnants affect tooth color confirming the experimental hypothesis. This study examined the effect of endodontic sealer remnants on tooth color, and observed that after 6 months, the sealers produced unacceptable color changes. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. In vitro assessment of tooth color alteration by two different types of endodontic irrigants.

    PubMed

    Koursoumis, Anastasios Dimitrios; Kerezoudis, Nikolaos P; Kakaboura, Afrodite

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess in vitro the tooth color alterations associated with two commonly used endodontic irrigants, the chlorhexidine gluconate (CHX) and the sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) up to 15 days post-treatment. Additionally, the possible influence of endodontic access preparation on tooth color was investigated. Thirty intact human anterior teeth were used. Black adhesive tape with a 4 mm diameter window was used to standardize the enamel surface intended for color analysis. After the access cavity, preparation and the initial root canal negotiation with stainless steel hand files, the root canal shaping was completed with rotary nickel-titanium files. The teeth were divided into three groups (n = 10). Conventional syringe irrigation was performed with one irrigant for each group. The enamel surfaces were colorimetrically evaluated before access cavity, after cavity preparation and at 1, 3, 7 and 15 days post-treatment. The CIE color parameters (L*, a*, b*) were recorded and averaged for each material and the corresponding color differences (ΔE) were calculated and statistically analyzed. The most significant factor in tooth color alteration, during the endodontic treatment, was the access preparation. CHX and NaOCl caused tooth color changes comparable with the saline. CHX and NaOCl did not increase the tooth color changes relative to the values induced by the access preparation. The two endodontic irrigants were not able to induce tooth color alteration to a greater extent than the access preparation. Chlorhexidine and NaOCl cannot be considered as discoloring endodontic materials. The most contributing factor in tooth color alteration during endodontic treatment in the anterior teeth is access preparation.

  15. Can Silanization Increase the Retention of Glass-fiber posts? A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of In Vitro Studies.

    PubMed

    Moraes, A P; Sarkis-Onofre, R; Moraes, R R; Cenci, M S; Soares, C J; Pereira-Cenci, T

    2015-01-01

    The role of silanes in the bonding of resin luting agents to glass-fiber posts (GFPs) is a controversial topic, and the question still remains whether post silanization is able to improve the retention of GFPs luted into root canals. Thus, this study was designed to determine whether evidence exists to justify silanization of GFPs before cementation to increase their retention into root canals. In vitro studies that evaluated the retention of GFPs cemented into root canals or artificial substrates and that used silane coupling agents for pretreatment of the post were selected. Searches were carried out in PubMed and Scopus databases with no publication year or language limits. The last search was carried out in August 2014. Two distinct data analyses were carried out: 1) control group (no post pretreatment) vs silane only and 2) post pretreatment + silane vs silane only. Pooled-effect estimates were obtained by comparing the difference between each bond strength mean value and were expressed as the weighted mean difference between groups (p≤0.05). A total of 178 articles were found, and 23 were included in the review. The results were affected by the substrate into which the GFPs were luted (teeth or artificial devices). The analysis between control group and silane only for studies that used artificial devices favored the use of silane (p<0.0001), but considering studies that used teeth as substrate, no significant difference was observed (p=0.35). The analysis between silane only and pretreatment + silane did not show a significant difference between groups when artificial devices were used (p=0.71), whereas the analysis favored the use of post pretreatment + silane over silane (p<0.00001) only when the GFPs were luted into teeth. In conclusion, this review indicates that silanization improves the retention of GFPs luted into root canals provided that selective surface pretreatments are applied to the post before silanization.

  16. Biomimetic endodontics: the final evolution?

    PubMed

    Clark, David J

    2007-07-01

    We are seeing a gradual evolution by a small but growing number of endodontists and general dentists toward delicate biomimetic, microscope-based shaping. This old-fashioned respect for periradicular dentin is paired with microscopes, ultrasonics, and an appreciation for root morphology. Although no 2 roots are the same, general anatomic patterns allow the microscope-equipped clinician to search for major pulpal regions that will yield a high probability of cleaning and shaping the clinically available pulpal zones. There are complex, anatomically improbable, and clinically impossible areas of pulp that are beyond the reach of even the most gifted hands. Regardless, the clinician has the responsibility to begin each procedure seeking perfection and joyfully finishing with excellence. The shapes that were introduced during the Schilder (crown-down) era have served as a transitional technique to allow the first real 3-dimensional compaction of gutta-percha. Nonetheless, endodontics is in the end a restoratively driven procedure. Large, arbitrary, round shapes create beautiful endodontics but can dramatically weaken the tooth. The shaping philosophy advanced in this treatise allows perfectly adequate shapes to achieve the hydraulics needed for modern obturation. It will require different skills and materials to shape, pack, and restore the exotic architecture of nature. (See Tables 1 to 3.).

  17. Effect of resin cement system and root region on the push-out bond strength of a translucent fiber post.

    PubMed

    Calixto, L R; Bandéca, M C; Clavijo, V; Andrade, M F; Vaz, L Geraldo; Campos, E A

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluated the bond strength of luting systems for bonding glass fiber posts to root canal dentin. The hypothesis tested was that there are no differences in bond strength of glass fiber posts luted with different cement systems. Forty bovine incisors were randomly assigned to five different resin cement groups (n=8). After endodontic treatment and crown removal, translucent glass fiber posts were bonded into the root canal using five different luting protocols (self-cured cement and etch-and-rinse adhesive system; dual-cured cement and etch-and-rinse adhesive system; self-cured cement and self-etch adhesive system; dual-cured cement and self-etch adhesive system; and dual-cured self-adhesive cement). Push-out bond strength was evaluated at three different radicular levels: cervical, middle, and apical. The interface between resinous cement and the post was observed using a stereoscopic microscope. Analysis of variance showed a statistically significant difference among the cements (p<0.05) and the root canal thirds (p<0.05). The self-adhesive resinous cement had lower values of retention. The resin cements used with etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesive systems seem to be adequate for glass fiber post cementation.

  18. Endoscope- and video-assisted endodontic surgery.

    PubMed

    von Arx, Thomas; Hunenbart, Stefan; Buser, Daniel

    2002-04-01

    Since the introduction of microsurgical principles in the 1990s, the field of endodontic surgery has made continuous and substantial progress. Particularly, root-end cavity preparation has been simplified and optimized by means of newly developed surgical microinstruments. However, the successful outcome of endodontic surgery depends to a large extent on accurate intraoperative diagnostics. Conventionally, micromirrors (retromirrors) and microprobes have been used for this purpose. Recently, the surgical microscope has been used to enhance visibility during dental procedures. In addition, endoscopy has been reported to provide the surgeon with outstanding vision and ease of use. This article describes the technical specifications and the diagnostic application of the endoscope during endodontic surgery.

  19. Effects of post surface conditioning before silanization on bond strength between fiber post and resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbarian, Parisa

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Post surface conditioning is necessary to expose the glass fibers to enable bonding between fiber post and resin cement. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different surface conditioning on tensile bond strength (TBS) of a glass fiber reinforced post to resin cement. MATERIALS AND METHODS In this in vitro study, 40 extracted single canal central incisors were endodontically treated and post spaces were prepared. The teeth were divided into four groups according to the methods of post surface treatment (n=10): 1) Silanization after etching with 20% H2O2, 2) Silanization after airborne-particle abrasion, 3) Silanization, and 4) No conditioning (Control). Adhesive resin cement (Panavia F 2.0) was used for cementation of the fiber posts to the root canal dentin. Three slices of 3 mm thick were obtained from each root. A universal testing machine was used with a cross-head speed of 1 mm/minute for performing the push-out tests. Two-way ANOVA and Tukey post hoc tests were used for analyzing data (α=0.05). RESULTS It is revealed that different surface treatments and root dentin regions had significant effects on TBS, but the interaction between surface treatments and root canal regions had no significant effect on TBS. There was significant difference among H2O2 + Silane Group and other three groups. CONCLUSION There were significant differences among the mean TBS values of different surface treatments. Application of hydrogen peroxide before silanization increased the bond strength between resin cements and fiber posts. The mean TBS mean values was significantly greater in the coronal region of root canal than the middle and apical thirds. PMID:23755337

  20. Endodontic therapy of traumatised teeth in children.

    PubMed

    Winter, G B

    1977-09-01

    One of the most difficult problems met with in endodontic therapy for children is the traumatized anterior tooth whose root is still incomplete. In cases where the pulp is vital, treatment by pulp capping or pulpotomy is directed to preserving the vitality of the radicular pulp to ensure completion of root formation. Calcium hydroxide remains the material of choice in both forms of treatment. Once root formation is complete, removal of the pulp residue and filling of the root canal may be performed as a preliminary to restoration by means of a post retained crown. Where the pulp is non vital, attempts to fill the funnel shaped apical part of the canal, whether from a coronal approach or by open operation for retrograde filling, have proved unsatisfactory. Many workers have shown however that a number of root filling materials and root dressings are capable of inducing either continued root growth or a closure of the apical region by a calcific scar. A detailed survey of 34 teeth treated by this method has been made and the important principles which appear to influence the success of the technique are enumerated.

  1. Effect of post length and type of luting agent on the dislodging time of metallic prefabricated posts by using ultrasonic vibration.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimi Dastgurdi, Maziar; Khabiri, Masud; Khademi, Abbasali; Zare Jahromi, Maryam; Hosseini Dastnaei, Peimaneh

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine and compare the times needed to dislodge prefabricated titanium posts of different luting lengths with various cements. Eighty-one intact extracted, single-canal human teeth were selected and endodontically treated. Specimens were randomly divided into 9 groups, which were arranged according to the post space length (5, 7, and 9 mm) and cement type (zinc phosphate, glass ionomer, and resin cement). Titanium posts were cemented into the post spaces, and after 1 week of storage they were subjected to ultrasonic vibration. The dislodging times were recorded and analyzed by using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests (P < .05). A significant difference was observed between the dislodging times on the basis of post length and luting agent (P < .001). There were also significant differences between different cements luted with the same length posts (P < .001). Significant differences were observed between the 5-mm posts and both the 7- and 9-mm posts for each cement, but the differences between the 7-mm and 9-mm posts were not significant (P < .05). Changes in the cement type and post length alter the time required to dislodge a post with an ultrasonic device. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The effect of temporary restorative materials on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth.

    PubMed

    Milani, Amin Salem; Froughreyhani, Mohammad; Mohammadi, Hosein; Tabegh, Fatemeh Ghasemi; Pournaghiazar, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate the fracture strength of endodontically treated teeth temporarily restored with some commonly used interim materials. Of 90 extracted maxillary premolars used in this study, 15 were left intact as the positive control. Endodontic treatment was performed on the remaining 75 teeth. The endodontically treated teeth were then randomly assigned to 5 groups (n = 15). One group was not restored and served as the negative control. In the remaining 4 experimental groups, the teeth were restored with a temporary cement: Zonalin, IRM, Coltosol, or Fuji II LC resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI). The fracture strengths of all teeth were measured with a universal testing machine. The fracture strength of teeth restored with RMGI was significantly greater than that of other groups (P < 0.001), including intact teeth (P = 0.025). The fracture strength of teeth restored with other temporary materials was significantly lower than that of intact teeth (P < 0.05) but not significantly different from that of the negative control. From a structural resistance standpoint, RMGI may be the best choice for short-term temporary restoration of endodontically treated teeth. Other types of temporary restorative material had no reinforcing effect on tooth structure.

  3. A paradigm shift in endodontic management of immature teeth: conservation of stem cells for regeneration.

    PubMed

    Huang, George T-J

    2008-06-01

    This article will review the new concept of regenerative endodontics in the management of immature permanent teeth. The potential role of stem cells to regenerate immature permanent teeth after conservative treatment will be discussed. Two sets of data source are focused in this review: (i) the characterization of various dental stem cells discovered since 2000 and (ii) recent clinical case reports showing that after conservative treatment, severely infected immature teeth with periradicular periodontitis and abscess can undergo healing and apexogenesis or maturogenesis. A new protocol of treating endodontically involved immature permanent teeth based on published articles to date is summarized in the review. The key procedures of the protocol are (1) minimal or no instrumentation of the canal while relying on a gentle but thorough irrigation of the canal system, (2) the disinfection is augmented with intra-canal medication of a triple-antibiotic paste between appointments, and (3) the treated tooth is sealed with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) and glass ionomer/resin cement at the completion of the treatment. Periodical follow-ups will take place to observe any continued maturation of the root. While more clinical research is needed, regenerative endodontics promotes a paradigm shift in treating endodontically involved immature permanent teeth from performing apexification procedures to conserving any dental stem cells that might remain in the disinfected viable tissues to allow tissue regeneration and repair to achieve apexogenesis/maturogenesis.

  4. Influence of surface remodelling using burs on the macro and micro surface morphology of anatomically formed fibre posts.

    PubMed

    Plotino, G; Grande, N M; Pameijer, C H; Somma, F

    2008-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of modifying preformed fibre-reinforced composite (FRC) endodontic posts on their surface morphology and to determine how this procedure affects the integrity of the posts. Surfaces of 10 preformed glass-fibre posts (group 1) and carbon-fibre posts (group 2) were compared with those of individually formed glass-fibre posts (group 3). Ten FRC posts were modelled in order to give them a shape as close as possible to the anatomy of oval root canals. Starting from a preformed cylindrical fibre post 2.5 mm in diameter, it was modelled in such a way as to passively occupy the entire post-space length, using a cast previously created as a guide. Microscopic analyses (optical stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscope) of the post surfaces revealed similar features in all three groups. All posts had regular surfaces after cutting with a diamond bur. Smear layer mainly attributable to the cutting procedures covered the cut surface of some specimens. In conclusion, modulation of a fibre post using a diamond-coated bur did not show a loss of integrity of the post. *Because of the importance of micromechanical retention, the surface integrity of fibre posts may be important for adhesion between post and composite resin. *Modification of a fibre post using a diamond-coated bur did not damage the surface integrity of the posts. *Fibre posts can be ground to a different shape without losing their surface integrity, resulting in posts with a surface that is not visibly different from unmodified commercially available fibre posts.

  5. Effect of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems on hardness uniformity of resin cements after glass fiber post cementation

    PubMed Central

    Grande da Cruz, Fernanda Zander; Grande, Christiana Zander; Roderjan, Douglas Augusto; Galvão Arrais, César Augusto; Bührer Samra, Adriana Postiglione; Calixto, Abraham Lincoln

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of etch-and-rinse and self-etching adhesive systems on Vickers hardness (VHN) uniformity of dual-cured resin cements after fiber post cementation. Methods: Fifty glass fiber posts were cemented into bovine roots using the following cementing systems: Prime&Bond 2.1 Dual Cure and Enforce with light-activation (PBDC-LCEN); Prime&Bond 2.1 and Enforce with light-activation (PB-CLEN); Prime&Bond 2.1 Dual Cure and Enforce without light exposure (PBDC-SCEN); ED Primer and Panavia 21 (ED-SCPN); and Clearfil SE Bond and Panavia 21 (CF-SCPN). The roots were stored in distilled water for 72 h and transversely sectioned into thirds (coronal, medium, and apical). The VHN values of the resin cement layers were measured close to the post and to the dentin wall on the transversely sectioned flat surfaces. The results were analyzed by three-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post-hoc test (pre-set alpha of 5%). Results: Most resin cements presented higher VHN values near the post than near the dentin wall. The ED-SCPN group showed the highest VHN values regardless of the root third, while the self-cured group PBDC-SCEN exhibited the lowest values. The resin cements from the light-activated groups PBDC-LCEN and PB-LCEN showed lower VHN values at the apical third than at the coronal third. The VHN values were not influenced by the root third in self-cured groups PBDC-SCEN, ED-SCPN, and ED-SCPN. Conclusion: Depending on the product, bonding agents might promote changes in hardness uniformity of resin cements after post cementation. PMID:22904652

  6. Photodynamic therapy in endodontics: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Trindade, Alessandra Cesar; De Figueiredo, José Antônio Poli; Steier, Liviu; Weber, João Batista Blessmann

    2015-03-01

    Recently, several in vitro and in vivo studies demonstrated promising results about the use of photodynamic therapy during root canal system disinfection. However, there is no consensus on a standard protocol for its incorporation during root canal treatment. The purpose of this study was to summarize the results of research on photodynamic therapy in endodontics published in peer-reviewed journals. A review of pertinent literature was conducted using the PubMed database, and data obtained were categorized into sections in terms of relevant topics. Studies conducted in recent years highlighted the antimicrobial potential of photodynamic therapy in endodontics. However, most of these studies were not able to confirm a significant improvement in root canal disinfection for photodynamic therapy as a substitute for current disinfection methods. Its indication as an excellent adjunct to conventional endodontic therapy is well documented, however. Data suggest the need for protocol adjustments or new photosensitizer formulations to enhance photodynamic therapy predictability in endodontics.

  7. An investigation of current endodontic practice and training needs in primary care in the north west of England.

    PubMed

    Palmer, N O A; Ahmed, M; Grieveson, B

    2009-06-13

    To investigate current endodontic clinical practice in the north west of England and evaluate practitioner's training needs. A questionnaire was posted to 702 primary care dentists in the north west of England in January 2006. The questionnaire investigated aspects of dentists' endodontic clinical practice, the provision of endodontics within their practice, their recent postgraduate training in endodontics and their training needs. Responses to the questionnaire were received from 498 (70.9%) primary care dentists, of which 449 questionnaires contained useful information. Only 30% of respondents use rubber dam for isolation in all endodontic cases. The majority used radiographs either as the only method for establishing the working length (57.3%) or in conjunction with an apex locator (34.5%). Most dentists used sodium hypochlorite solution as an irrigant during the root canal treatment. Almost 55% used a combination of conventional hand files and rotary files to prepare root canals. Fifty-eight percent used the crown down technique while 35% used the step back technique for canal preparation. Almost two-thirds routinely used non-setting calcium hydroxide as an intra-canal medicament. Lateral condensation technique was the popular obturation method and the vast majority of respondents routinely took postoperative radiographs. Almost 25% of respondents had not received any teaching or training in endodontics in the past two years. The results of this study suggest that primary care dentists in the north west of England have embraced modern techniques and follow most aspects of accepted endodontic practice. Despite the majority having postgraduate training in the last two years, only a minority used rubber dam routinely for endodontic treatment.

  8. Fracture resistance of upper central incisors restored with different posts and cores

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei Dastjerdi, Maryam; Amirian Chaijan, Kamran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine and compare the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors restored with different posts and cores. Materials and Methods Forty-eight upper central incisors were randomly divided into four groups: cast post and core (group 1), fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) post and composite core (group 2), composite post and core (group 3), and controls (group 4). Mesio-distal and bucco-lingual dimensions at 7 and 14 mm from the apex were compared to ensure standardization among the groups. Twelve teeth were prepared for crown restoration (group 4). Teeth in other groups were endodontically treated, decoronated at 14 mm from the apex, and prepared for posts and cores. Resin-based materials were used for cementation in groups 1 and 2. In group 3, composite was used directly to fill the post space and for core build-up. All samples were restored by standard metal crowns using glass ionomer cement, mounted at 135° vertical angle, subjected to thermomechanical aging, and then fractured using a universal testing machine. Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to analyze the data. Results Fracture resistance of the groups was as follows: Control (group 4) > cast post and core (group 1) > fiber post and composite core (group 2) > composite post and core (group 3). All samples in groups 2 and 3 fractured in restorable patterns, whereas most (58%) in group 1 were non-restorable. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, FRC posts showed acceptable fracture resistance with favorable fracture patterns for reconstruction of upper central incisors. PMID:26295027

  9. The Factors Responsible for Endodontic Treatment Failure in the Permanent Dentitions of the Patients Reported to the College of Dentistry, the University of Aljouf, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The endodontic failure is a common problem in dentistry. The success of endodontic and re-endodontic treatment depends on many factors. These includes periodontal disease, root fractures, residual necrotic pulp tissue, presence of peri-radicular infection, broken instruments, mechanical perforations, root canal underfillings, root canal overfillings, missed canals or unfilled canals. Aim The present research was aimed at evaluating the different factors responsible for endodontic treatment failure in permanent dentitions of the patients. Materials and Methods In the present in vivo cross-sectional study, 90 patients, who reported in endodontic section of Department of Conservative Dentistry, with post endodontic treatment pain, tenderness to percussion, swelling and sinus tract in their permanent dentitions were considered as endodontic failure cases, and were considered for endodontic re-treatment. The teeth with vertical root fracture and badly broken down unrestorable teeth were excluded from the present study. The study subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of their age. Informed consent was taken from the study subjects and the approval was taken for this study from the college ethical committee. Results The results were obtained as frequencies and percentages after analysing the collected informations by using SPSS version 10 computer soft ware. The majority of the endodontic failures were noted in the age group III (41.11%) and minimum endodontic failures were found in the age group I (24.44%). According to the tooth type, the majority of the endodontic failures were noted in maxillary molars (44.4%), mandibular molars (20%) and maxillary premolars (15.5%). The endodontic treatment performed by the general dental practitioners (GDPs) showed the most failure rate (78.8%). The factors which were most responsible for endodontic failures were underfilled canals (33.3%), unfilled and missed canals (17.7%). Conclusion This study

  10. Endodontic management of patients with systemic complications

    PubMed Central

    Rajeswari, Kalaiselvam; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Karthick, Soundararajan

    2016-01-01

    Successful endodontic practice requires complete knowledge about the various medical conditions and appropriateness in planning treatment as per the need with effective safety measures. This review focuses on a number of systemic complications encountered in endodontic practice and directions to be followed for avoiding potential complications. A detailed PubMed search was carried out using specific keywords, and 25 articles were referred for finalizing the content. PMID:27829742

  11. Endodontic management of patients with systemic complications.

    PubMed

    Rajeswari, Kalaiselvam; Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Karthick, Soundararajan

    2016-10-01

    Successful endodontic practice requires complete knowledge about the various medical conditions and appropriateness in planning treatment as per the need with effective safety measures. This review focuses on a number of systemic complications encountered in endodontic practice and directions to be followed for avoiding potential complications. A detailed PubMed search was carried out using specific keywords, and 25 articles were referred for finalizing the content.

  12. A laboratory comparison of individual Targis/Vectris posts with standard fiberglass posts.

    PubMed

    Corsalini, Massimo; Genovese, Katia; Lamberti, Luciano; Pappalettere, Carmine; Carella, Mauro; Carossa, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    This article presents an in vitro analysis of a specific occlusal loading test on endodontically treated teeth restored with 2 different composite post materials. Individual, customized posts (IFPs) were compared to standard fiberglass posts (SFPs). The selected IFPs (standard cylindric Targis/Vectris posts) were compared to SFPs (Conic 6% Post, Ghimas). The posts were first subjected to a 3-point bending test to compare their flexural elastic properties. They were then used to restore 22 endodontically treated artificial maxillary central incisors and subjected to a specific occlusal loading simulation test. The loading test showed that IFP restorations performed better than SFP restorations. A clinical evaluation of this laboratory observation is suggested.

  13. Cone beam computed tomography evaluation and endodontic management of permanent mandibular second molar with four roots: A rare case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Rajasekhara, Subhashini; Sharath Chandra, SM; Parthasarathy, Late Bharath

    2014-01-01

    The morphological variation in the number of roots and root canals, especially in multi-rooted teeth is a constant challenge for diagnosis and successful endodontic therapy. Knowledge of the most common anatomic characteristics and their possible variations is fundamental. Although, endodontic management of four-rooted mandibular first molars have been observed on a few occasions in the literature, to the best of our knowledge four-rooted mandibular second molars having two mesial and two distal roots have not been reported. This paper highlights endodontic management of mandibular second molar with four roots (two mesial and two distal) with one canal in each root and its cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) evaluation which was primarily done for post treatment assessment for diagnosing post-endodontic complications, at the same time confirmed our radiographic diagnosis of this variation. This also helped us portraying the anatomy of this rare variation. PMID:25125856

  14. Utilization of blended learning to teach preclinical endodontics.

    PubMed

    Maresca, Cristina; Barrero, Carlos; Duggan, Dereck; Platin, Enrique; Rivera, Eric; Hannum, Wallace; Petrola, Frank

    2014-08-01

    Blended learning (BL) is the integration of classroom learning with an online environment. The purpose of this study was to determine whether dental students who experienced BL in a preclinical endodontic course demonstrated better manual skills, conceptual knowledge, and learning experience compared to those experiencing traditional learning. All eighty-one students (100 percent) in a preclinical endodontics course agreed to participate and were assigned to either the traditional or BL group. A root canal procedure was used to determine the level of manual skills gained by each group. Pre- and post-intervention quizzes were given to all students to evaluate conceptual knowledge gained, and the students' perspectives on the methods were evaluated with a survey. The BL group scored better than the traditional group on the manual skills exercise at a statistically significant level (p=0.0067). There were no differences in the post-intervention quiz scores between the two groups, and the students' opinions were positive regarding BL. With BL, the students were able to learn and demonstrate dental skills at a high level.

  15. Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively. PMID:28123272

  16. Identifying murder victims with endodontic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Silva, Rhonan Ferreira; Franco, Ademir; Mendes, Solon Diego Santos Carvalho; Picoli, Fernando Fortes; Nunes, Fernando Gomes; Estrela, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Endodontics is a special branch of dentistry constantly guided by imaging examinations. From a forensic scope, endodontics plays a valuable role providing solid antemortem (AM) radiographic evidence for comparison with postmortem findings in human identifications. This study illustrates the interface between endodontics and forensic odontology describing three cases of human identification based on radiographic endodontic records. From 2009 to 2012, three unknown male victims of murder were examined in a local Brazilian medico-legal institute to retrieve identity and potential cause of death. Specifically, when asked for AM data, a relative of the three victims provided periapical radiographs of endodontic treatments. Based on that, forensic dentists reproduced the same imaging acquisition techniques obtaining similar periapical radiographs, enabling a comparative dental identification. All the victims were positively identified based on patterns of dental morphology and treatment intervention. This study draws the attention of general and forensic dentists highlight the importance of properly recording dental treatments and searching for evidence in AM endodontic data, respectively.

  17. Load capability of excessively flared teeth restored with fiber-reinforced composite posts and all-ceramic crowns.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Michael; Preuss, Anja; Frankenberger, Roland

    2006-01-01

    This investigation evaluated the stabilizing effect of glass fiber reinforced posts (FRP) luted with self-adhesive universal cement on the fracture resistance of excessively flared endodontically treated teeth (ETT). Values were compared to teeth with no ferrule, 2 mm ferrule and resin cement for luting with 2 mm ferrule. Thirty-two caries-free maxillary central incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n=8) and endodontically treated. Two groups were flattened 2 mm above and 2 groups at the cemen-to-enamel junction (CEJ). The teeth received FRPs as follows: 1) post was cemented with self-adhesive cement (RelyX Unicem, 3M ESPE) (U), no ferrule (F) was prepared, root canal entrance was excessively flared with a remaining wall thickness of 0.5 - 0.75 mm (UNF/flared); 2) post was cemented with U, no F was prepared; 3) post was luted with U, F was prepared; 4) post was cemented with a resin cement (Panavia F, Kuraray, Japan), F was prepared. All specimens were built-up using a resin composite (Clearfil Core, Kuraray). All-ceramic crowns were adhesively luted (U). Specimens were exposed to thermo-mechanical loading and statically loaded until failure. The mean fracture load values [N](SD) were: UNF/flared=68 (126); UNF=315 (136); UF=488 (72); PF=860 (190). All groups exhibited statistically significant differences regarding maximum fracture load (p<0.05).

  18. 4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. View showing underside of wing, looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  19. 5. Headon view of looking glass aircraft. View to southwest. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Head-on view of looking glass aircraft. View to southwest. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  20. 3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. General view showing rear of looking glass aircraft. View to north. - Offutt Air Force Base, Looking Glass Airborne Command Post, Looking Glass Aircraft, On Operational Apron covering northeast half of Project Looking Glass Historic District, Bellevue, Sarpy County, NE

  1. Chloroform in the endodontic operatory

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, M.N.; Vire, D.E. )

    1992-06-01

    This article reviews the role chloroform has played in dentistry and describes an occupational health clinical investigation into the possible hazards of chloroform use in the operatory. Due to a Food and Drug Administration ban on drugs and cosmetics containing chloroform, there has been some confusion as to whether the use of chloroform in the practice of dentistry is considered unsafe or has been prohibited. Utilizing common endodontic treatment methods employing chloroform, this study reports no negative health effects to the dentist or assistant and air vapor levels well be