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Sample records for endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated

  1. Inflammatory reaction versus endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors expression, re-exploring secondary organ complications of spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Ke, Yan; Zhu, Chun-yun; Tang, Ning; Tian, Deng-ke; Gao, Yue-hong; Zheng, Jian-pu; Bian, Ka

    2008-11-20

    The chronic pathological changes in vascular walls of hypertension may exert destructive effects on multiple organ systems. Accumulating evidence indicates that inflammatory reactions are involved in the pathological changes of hypertension. Three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been identified: PPARalpha, PPARbeta/delta, and PPARgamma, all of which have multiple biological effects, especially the inhibition of inflammation. The aim of this study was to evaluate PPAR isoforms expression profile in important organs of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and to understand the modulation of endogenous PPAR isoforms under inflammatory condition. Tissues (kidney, liver, heart, and brain) were dissected from SHR and age-matched control Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) to investigate the abundance of PPAR isoforms and PPAR-responsive genes (acyl-CoA oxidase and CD36). The expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein delta (C/EBPdelta), which can trans-activate PPARgamma expression, was also observed. The inflammatory response was analyzed by the expression of inflammatory mediators inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), E-selectin, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1beta), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), and formation of carbonyl and nitrated proteins. The expressions of 3 PPAR isoforms and PPAR-responsive genes were markedly upregulated in SHR compared with those of WKY. Specifically, the expression of PPARalpha protein in the kidney, liver, heart and brain increased by 130.76%, 91.48%, 306.24%, and 90.70%; PPARbeta/delta upregulated by 109.34%, 161.98%, 137.04%, and 131.66%; PPARgamma increased by 393.76%, 193.17%, 559.29%, and 591.18%. In consistent with the changes in PPARgamma, the expression of C/EBPdelta was also dramatically elevated in SHR. Inflammatory mediators expressions were significantly increased in the most organs of SHR than WKY. As a consequence

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Xiuguo; Tanaka, Naoki . E-mail: naopi@hsp.md.shinshu-u.ac.jp; Nakajima, Takero; Kamijo, Yuji; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2006-08-11

    Hepatic peroxisome proliferation, increases in the numerical and volume density of peroxisomes, is believed to be closely related to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) activation; however, it remains unknown whether peroxisome proliferation depends absolutely on this activation. To verify occurrence of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation, fenofibrate treatment was used, which was expected to significantly enhance PPAR{alpha} dependence in the assay system. Surprisingly, a novel type of PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation and enlargement was uncovered in PPAR{alpha}-null mice. The increased expression of dynamin-like protein 1, but not peroxisome biogenesis factor 11{alpha}, might be associated with the PPAR{alpha}-independent peroxisome proliferation at least in part.

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Soskić, Sanja S; Dobutović, Branislava D; Sudar, Emina M; Obradović, Milan M; Nikolić, Dragana M; Zarić, Bozidarka L; Stojanović, Srdan D; Stokić, Edita J; Mikhailidis, Dimitri P; Isenović, Esma R

    2011-10-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) represent the family of 3 nuclear receptor isoforms-PPARα, -γ, and -δ/β, which are encoded by different genes. As lipid sensors, they are primarily involved in regulation of lipid metabolism and subsequently in inflammation and atherosclerosis. Atherosclerosis considers accumulation of the cells and extracellular matrix in the vessel wall leading to the formation of atherosclerotic plaque, atherothrombosis, and other vascular complications. Besides existence of natural ligands for PPARs, their more potent synthetic ligands are fibrates and thiazolidindiones. Future investigations should now focus on the mechanisms of PPARs activation, which might present new approaches involved in the antiatherosclerotic effects revealed in this review. In addition, in this review we are presenting latest data from recent performed clinical studies which have focus on novel approach to PPARs agonists as potential therapeutic agents in the treatment of complex disease such as atherosclerosis.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Biscetti, F; Straface, G; Pitocco, D; Zaccardi, F; Ghirlanda, G; Flex, A

    2009-12-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of three nuclear receptor isoforms, PPARalpha, PPARgamma and PPARdelta, encoded by different genes, and they form a subfamily of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The clinical interest in PPARs originates with fibrates and thiazolidinediones, which, respectively, act on PPARalpha and PPARgamma and are used to ameliorate hyperlipidaemia and hyperglycaemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). PPARs play a central role in these patients due to their ability to regulate the expression of numerous genes involved in glycaemic control, lipid metabolism, vascular tone and inflammation. Abnormal angiogenesis is implicated in several of the long-term complications of diabetes mellitus, characterized by vasculopathy associated with aberrant growth of new blood vessels. This pathological process plays a crucial role in diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy, impaired wound healing and impaired coronary collateral vessel development. In recent years, there has been increasing appreciation of the fact that PPARs might be involved in the molecular mechanisms that regulate angiogenesis through the action of growth factors and cytokines that stimulate migration, proliferation and survival of endothelial cells. During the last few years direct comparative analyses have been performed, using selective PPARs agonists, to clarify the angiogenic properties of the different members of the PPAR family. Lately, the findings provide new information to order to understand the biological, clinical and therapeutic effects of PPARs, and the role of these nuclear receptors in angiogenesis, with potentially important implications for the management of subjects affected by T2DM.

  5. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors and Lipoprotein Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kersten, Sander

    2008-01-01

    Plasma lipoproteins are responsible for carrying triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood and ensuring their delivery to target organs. Regulation of lipoprotein metabolism takes place at numerous levels including via changes in gene transcription. An important group of transcription factors that mediates the effect of dietary fatty acids and certain drugs on plasma lipoproteins are the peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs). Three PPAR isotypes can be distinguished, all of which have a major role in regulating lipoprotein metabolism. PPARα is the molecular target for the fibrate class of drugs. Activation of PPARα in mice and humans markedly reduces hepatic triglyceride production and promotes plasma triglyceride clearance, leading to a clinically significant reduction in plasma triglyceride levels. In addition, plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol levels are increased upon PPARα activation in humans. PPARγ is the molecular target for the thiazolidinedione class of drugs. Activation of PPARγ in mice and human is generally associated with a modest increase in plasma HDL-cholesterol and a decrease in plasma triglycerides. The latter effect is caused by an increase in lipoprotein lipase-dependent plasma triglyceride clearance. Analogous to PPARα, activation of PPARβ/δ leads to increased plasma HDL-cholesterol and decreased plasma triglyceride levels. In this paper, a fresh perspective on the relation between PPARs and lipoprotein metabolism is presented. The emphasis is on the physiological role of PPARs and the mechanisms underlying the effect of synthetic PPAR agonists on plasma lipoprotein levels. PMID:18288277

  6. Fibrates, glitazones, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lalloyer, Fanny; Staels, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Several decades ago, fibrates were approved for the treatment of dyslipidemia, whereas thiazolidinediones were screened in animal models to improve glucose homeostasis and subsequently developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Relatively recently, these drugs were found to act via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, nuclear receptors which control lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis. In this historical perspective, we discuss the history of discovery of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, from the clinical development of their agonists to the subsequent discovery of these receptors and their mechanisms of action, to finally evoke possibilities of targeted pharmacology for future development of selective peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors modulators. PMID:20393155

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors for hypertension.

    PubMed

    Usuda, Daisuke; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2014-08-26

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which is composed of four members encoded by distinct genes (α, β, γ, and δ). The genes undergo transactivation or transrepression under specific mechanisms that lead to the induction or repression of target gene expression. As is the case with other nuclear receptors, all four PPAR isoforms contain five or six structural regions in four functional domains; namely, A/B, C, D, and E/F. PPARs have many functions, particularly functions involving control of vascular tone, inflammation, and energy homeostasis, and are, therefore, important targets for hypertension, obesity, obesity-induced inflammation, and metabolic syndrome in general. Hence, PPARs also represent drug targets, and PPARα and PPARγ agonists are used clinically in the treatment of dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Because of their pleiotropic effects, they have been identified as active in a number of diseases and are targets for the development of a broad range of therapies for a variety of diseases. It is likely that the range of PPARγ agonist therapeutic actions will result in novel approaches to lifestyle and other diseases. The combination of PPARs with reagents or with other cardiovascular drugs, such as diuretics and angiotensin II receptor blockers, should be studied. This article provides a review of PPAR isoform characteristics, a discussion of progress in our understanding of the biological actions of PPARs, and a summary of PPAR agonist development for patient management. We also include a summary of the experimental and clinical evidence obtained from animal studies and clinical trials conducted to evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of PPAR agonists in the treatment of lifestyle-related diseases.

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors for hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Usuda, Daisuke; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which is composed of four members encoded by distinct genes (α, β, γ, and δ). The genes undergo transactivation or transrepression under specific mechanisms that lead to the induction or repression of target gene expression. As is the case with other nuclear receptors, all four PPAR isoforms contain five or six structural regions in four functional domains; namely, A/B, C, D, and E/F. PPARs have many functions, particularly functions involving control of vascular tone, inflammation, and energy homeostasis, and are, therefore, important targets for hypertension, obesity, obesity-induced inflammation, and metabolic syndrome in general. Hence, PPARs also represent drug targets, and PPARα and PPARγ agonists are used clinically in the treatment of dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus, respectively. Because of their pleiotropic effects, they have been identified as active in a number of diseases and are targets for the development of a broad range of therapies for a variety of diseases. It is likely that the range of PPARγ agonist therapeutic actions will result in novel approaches to lifestyle and other diseases. The combination of PPARs with reagents or with other cardiovascular drugs, such as diuretics and angiotensin II receptor blockers, should be studied. This article provides a review of PPAR isoform characteristics, a discussion of progress in our understanding of the biological actions of PPARs, and a summary of PPAR agonist development for patient management. We also include a summary of the experimental and clinical evidence obtained from animal studies and clinical trials conducted to evaluate the usefulness and effectiveness of PPAR agonists in the treatment of lifestyle-related diseases. PMID:25228953

  9. Dietary modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Marion-Letellier, R; Déchelotte, P; Iacucci, M; Ghosh, S

    2009-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor that regulates intestinal inflammation. PPAR gamma is highly expressed in the colon and can be activated by various dietary ligands. A number of fatty acids such as polyunsaturated fatty acids or eicosanoids are considered as endogenous PPAR gamma activators. Nevertheless, other nutrients such as glutamine, spicy food or flavonoids are also able to activate PPAR gamma. As PPAR gamma plays a key role in bacterial induced inflammation, anti-inflammatory properties of probiotics may be mediated through PPAR gamma. The aims of the present review are to discuss of the potential roles of dietary compounds in modulating intestinal inflammation through PPAR gamma.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and the ketogenic diet.

    PubMed

    Cullingford, Tim

    2008-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is a drug/fatty acid-activated trans cription factor involved in the starvation response, and is thus relevant to the ketogenic diet (KD). This article summarizes research indicating the role of PPARalpha in central and peripheral nervous system function with particular reference to downstream targets relevant to anticonvulsant action.

  11. The cardiovascular effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Friedland, Sayuri N; Leong, Aaron; Filion, Kristian B; Genest, Jacques; Lega, Iliana C; Mottillo, Salvatore; Poirier, Paul; Reoch, Jennifer; Eisenberg, Mark J

    2012-02-01

    Although peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists are prescribed to improve cardiovascular risk factors, their cardiovascular safety is controversial. We therefore reviewed the literature to identify landmark randomized controlled trials evaluating the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (pioglitazone and rosiglitazone), alpha agonists (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil), and pan agonists (bezafibrate, muraglitazar, ragaglitazar, tesaglitazar, and aleglitazar) on cardiovascular outcomes. Pioglitazone may modestly reduce cardiovascular events but also may increase the risk of bladder cancer. Rosiglitazone increases the risk of myocardial infarction and has been withdrawn in European and restricted in the United States. Fibrates improve cardiovascular outcomes only in select subgroups: fenofibrate in diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome, gemfibrozil in patients with dyslipidemia, and bezafibrate in patients with diabetes or metabolic syndrome. The cardiovascular safety of the new pan agonist aleglitazar, currently in phase II trials, remains to be determined. The heterogenous effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists to date highlight the importance of postmarketing surveillance. The critical question of why peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists seem to improve cardiovascular risk factors without significantly improving cardiovascular outcomes requires further investigation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and cardiovascular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2005-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor and then modulate the function of many target genes. Three PPARs are known: alpha, beta/delta, and gamma. The better known are PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma, which may be activated by different synthetic agonists, although the endogenous ligands are unknown. PPAR-alpha is involved in fatty acid oxidation and expressed in the liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle, whereas PPAR-gamma is involved in fat cell differentiation, lipid storage, and insulin sensitivity. However, both have been shown to be present in variable amounts in cardiovascular tissues, including endothelium, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and the heart. The activators of PPAR-alpha (fibrates) and PPAR-gamma (thiazolidinediones or glitazones) antagonized the actions of angiotensin II in vivo and in vitro and exerted cardiovascular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. PPAR activators lowered blood pressure, induced favorable effects on the heart, and corrected vascular structure and endothelial dysfunction in several rodent models of hypertension. Activators of PPARs may become therapeutic agents useful in the prevention of cardiovascular disease beyond their effects on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Some side effects, such as weight gain, as well as documented aggravation of advanced heart failure through fluid retention by glitazones, may, however, limit their therapeutic application in prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  13. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility.

    PubMed

    Vitti, Maurizio; Di Emidio, Giovanna; Di Carlo, Michela; Carta, Gaspare; Antonosante, Andrea; Artini, Paolo Giovanni; Cimini, Annamaria; Tatone, Carla; Benedetti, Elisabetta

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed.

  14. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Female Reproduction and Fertility

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Gaspare; Artini, Paolo Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Reproductive functions may be altered by the exposure to a multitude of endogenous and exogenous agents, drug or environmental pollutants, which are known to affect gene transcription through the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) activation. PPARs act as ligand activated transcription factors and regulate metabolic processes such as lipid and glucose metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cell proliferation and differentiation. All PPARs isotypes are expressed along the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and are strictly involved in reproductive functions. Since female fertility and energy metabolism are tightly interconnected, the research on female infertility points towards the exploration of potential PPARs activating/antagonizing compounds, mainly belonging to the class of thiazolidinediones (TZDs) and fibrates, as useful agents for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis in women with ovarian dysfunctions. In the present review, we discuss the recent evidence about PPARs expression in the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and their involvement in female reproduction. Finally, the therapeutic potential of their manipulation through several drugs is also discussed. PMID:27559343

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2006-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that are related to retinoid, steroid and thyroid hormone receptors. The PPAR subfamily comprises three members: PPAR-alpha, PPAR-beta and PPAR-gamma. PPARs have recently been implicated as regulators of cellular proliferation and inflammatory responses. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that PPAR-gamma and PPAR-alpha reduce lung injury associated with inflammation and shock.

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α signaling in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Parimal; Viswakarma, Navin; Reddy, Janardan K

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisomes are subcellular organelles that are found in the cytoplasm of most animal cells. They perform diverse metabolic functions, including H2O2-derived respiration, β-oxidation of fatty acids, and cholesterol metabolism. Peroxisome proliferators are a large class of structurally dissimilar industrial and pharmaceutical chemicals that were originally identified as inducers of both the size and the number of peroxisomes in rat and mouse livers or hepatocytes in vitro. Exposure to peroxisome proliferators leads to a stereotypical orchestration of adaptations consisting of hepatocellular hypertrophy and hyperplasia, and transcriptional induction of fatty acid metabolizing enzymes regulated in parallel with peroxisome proliferation. Chronic exposure to peroxisome proliferators causes liver tumors in both male and female mice and rats. Evidence indicates a pivotal role for a subset of nuclear receptor superfamily members, called peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), in mediating energy metabolism. Upon activation, PPARs regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism and peroxisome proliferation, as well as genes involved in cell growth. In this review, we describe the molecular mode of action of PPAR transcription factors, including ligand binding, interaction with specific DNA response elements, transcriptional activation, and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We discuss the evidence that suggests that PPARα and transcriptional coactivator Med1/PBP, a key subunit of the Mediator complex play a central role in mediating hepatic steatosis to hepatocarcinogenesis. Disproportionate increases in H2O2-generating enzymes generates excess reactive oxygen species resulting in sustained oxidative stress and progressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with activation of unfolded protein response signaling. Thus, these major contributors coupled with hepatocellular proliferation are the key players of peroxisome proliferators

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are potential drug targets for cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Juanjuan; Hou, Yongzhong

    2017-01-01

    Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors including PPARα, PPARδ and PPARγ, which play an important role in regulating cancer cell proliferation, survival, apoptosis, and tumor growth. Activation of PPARs by endogenous or synthetic compounds regulates tumor progression in various tissues. Although each PPAR isotype suppresses or promotes tumor development depending on the specific tissues or ligands, the mechanism is still unclear. In this review, we summarized the regulative mechanism of PPARs on cancer progression. PMID:28948004

  18. [Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR). Antiproliferative properties].

    PubMed

    Hojka, Anna; Rapak, Andrzej

    2011-06-21

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are transcription factors that belong to the hormone nuclear receptor superfamily. Their main role is control of fatty acid metabolism and to maintain glucose homeostasis. Isotype γ of PPAR can also be implicated in proliferation and cellular differentiation of both normal and cancer cells. Compounds that are PPARγ ligands have a negative influence on cancer cells and can induce apoptosis, inhibit proliferation or induce cellular differentiation of these cells. This review summarizes general information about PPAR and focuses on anticancer activities of PPARγ ligands and their use in combined therapy. Combination treatment using PPARγ ligands and other agents, especially retinoids and specific kinase inhibitors, may be an effective strategy for chemoprevention and treatment of some cancers.

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Reichrath, Jörg

    2011-01-01

    Since their discovery it has become clear that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors involved in the genetic regulation of the lipid metabolism and energy homoeostasis. Subsequently, accumulating evidence suggests a role of PPARs in genomic pathways including the regulation of cell growth, apoptosis and differentiation. These findings indicate that PPARs and PPAR agonists play an important role in inflammatory responses and tumor promotion. Because of their diverse biologic activities on keratinocytes and other skin cells, PPARs represent a major research target for the understanding and treatment of many skin pathologies, such as hyperproliferative and inflammatory diseases. Overmore recent clinical trials identified PPARs as promising drug targets for the prevention and treatment of various diseases in the field of dermatology. The present review summarizes the current knowledge of PPAR functions in various skin disorders particularly those involving inflammation and epidermal hyperproliferation (i.e., psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, acne, scleroderma, skin malignancies). PMID:22110772

  20. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and Acute Lung Injury

    PubMed Central

    Paola, Rosanna Di; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PPARs regulate several metabolic pathways by binding to sequence-specific PPAR response elements in the promoter region of target genes, including lipid biosynthesis and glucose metabolism. Recently, PPARs and their respective ligands have been implicated as regulators of cellular inflammatory and immune responses. These molecules are thought to exert anti-inflammatory effects by negatively regulating the expression of proinflammatory genes. Several studies have demonstrated that PPAR ligands possess anti-inflammatory properties and that these properties may prove helpful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the lung. This review will outline the anti-inflammatory effects of PPARs and PPAR ligands and discuss their potential therapeutic effects in animal models of inflammatory lung disease. PMID:17710233

  1. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Keshamouni, Venkateshwar G.; Han, ShouWei; Roman, Jesse

    2007-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Their discovery in the 1990s provided insights into the cellular mechanisms involved in the control of energy homeostasis; the regulation of cell differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis; and the modulation of important biological and pathological processes related to inflammation, among others. Since then, PPARs have become an exciting therapeutic target for several diseases. PPARs are expressed by many tumors including lung carcinoma cells, and their function has been linked to the process of carcinogenesis in lung. Consequently, intense research is being conducted in this area with the hope of discovering new PPAR-related therapeutic targets for the treatment of lung cancer. This review summarizes the research being conducted in this area and focuses on the mechanisms by which PPARs are believed to affect lung tumor cell biology. PMID:18274632

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and shock state.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Emanuela; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore; Meli, Rosaria

    2006-12-28

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that are related to retinoid, steroid, and thyroid hormone receptors. Three isotypes of PPARs have been identified: alpha, beta/delta, and gamma, encoded by different genes and distributed in various tissues. PPARs are implicated in the control of inflammatory responses and in energy homeostasis and, thus, can be defined as metabolic and anti-inflammatory transcription factors. They exert anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the induction of proinflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules, and extracellular matrix proteins, or by stimulating the production of anti-inflammatory molecules. Moreover, PPARs modulate the proliferation, differentiation, and survival of immune cells. This review presents the current state of knowledge regarding the involvement of PPARs in the control of inflammatory response, and their potential therapeutic applications in several types of shock, as well as hemorrhagic, septic, and nonseptic shock.

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jing; Chen, Lihong; Zhang, Dongjuan; Huo, Ming; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Pu, Dan; Guan, Youfei

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-dependent transcription factors. Three isoforms of PPAR, i.e., PPAR-a, -d, and -?, have been identified and are differentially expressed in various tissues, including the kidney. The target genes of PPARs are involved in diverse biological processes, including adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, inflammatory response, reproduction, and cell growth and differentiation. PPARs have been reported to protect against renal injury through indirect systemic effects and/or direct renal effects in diabetic nephropathy, glomerulonephritis, renal cell carcinoma, acute renal failure and chronic renal disease. In this review, we summarize the role of the three identified PPAR isoforms, PPARa, -d, and -?, in renal physiology and discuss the renoprotective effects of PPAR ligands in various kidney diseases.

  4. Blocking the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR): an overview.

    PubMed

    Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; De Filippis, Barbara; Giampietro, Letizia; Amoroso, Rosa

    2013-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been studied extensively over the last few decades and have been assessed as molecular targets for the development of drugs against metabolic disorders. A rapid increase in understanding of the physiology and pharmacology of these receptors has occurred, together with the identification of novel chemical structures that are able to activate the various PPAR subtypes. More recent evidence suggests that moderate activation of these receptors could be favorable in pathological situations due to a decrease in the side effects brought about by PPAR agonists. PPAR partial agonists and antagonists are interesting tools that are currently used to better elucidate the biological processes modulated by this family of nuclear receptors. Herein we present an overview of the various molecular structures that are able to block each of the PPAR subtypes, with a focus on promising therapeutic applications. Copyright © 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. [Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) and insulin sensitivity: experimental studies].

    PubMed

    Haluzík, M M; Haluzík, M

    2006-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which act as transcription factors. PPARs affect expression of many genes, which products are involved in lipid and carbohydrates metabolism, cell proliferation and differentiation and numerous other processes. Three different subtypes (isoforms) of PPARs have been identified: PPAR-alpha, PPAR-gamma, PPAR-delta. PPAR-alpha receptors play an important role in the regulation of lipid metabolism: they decrease circulating fatty acids and triglyceride levels. Recently, the ability of PPAR-alpha receptors to improve insulin sensitivity in rodent model of insulin resistance have been documented and numerous studies have focused on this topic. One of the possible mechanisms of its action on the insulin sensitivity is lowering of ectopic lipids in liver and muscle tissues with subsequent heightening of insulin signalling cascade. Here we summarize the experimental studies focusing on the role of PPAR-alpha in the regulation of insulin sensitivity and discuss possible mechanisms involved.

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha target genes.

    PubMed

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well.

  7. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha Target Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Knoch, Bianca; Müller, Michael; Kersten, Sander

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor involved in the regulation of a variety of processes, ranging from inflammation and immunity to nutrient metabolism and energy homeostasis. PPARα serves as a molecular target for hypolipidemic fibrates drugs which bind the receptor with high affinity. Furthermore, PPARα binds and is activated by numerous fatty acids and fatty acid-derived compounds. PPARα governs biological processes by altering the expression of a large number of target genes. Accordingly, the specific role of PPARα is directly related to the biological function of its target genes. Here, we present an overview of the involvement of PPARα in lipid metabolism and other pathways through a detailed analysis of the different known or putative PPARα target genes. The emphasis is on gene regulation by PPARα in liver although many of the results likely apply to other organs and tissues as well. PMID:20936127

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and hepatitis C virus

    PubMed Central

    Eslam, M.; Khattab, M. A.; Harrison, S. A.

    2011-01-01

    The prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and insulin resistance are higher among people chronically infected with hepatitis C (CHC) when compared with the general population and people with other causes of chronic liver disease. Both insulin resistance and diabetes are associated with adverse outcomes across all stages of CHC, including the liver transplant population. CHC is also associated with the development of hepatic steatosis, a common histological feature present in approximately 55% (32–81%) of cases. There is a complex interrelationship between insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis and both are postulated to aggravate each other. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear factors involved in the regulation of glucose, lipid homeostasis, inflammatory response, cell differentiation, and cell cycle. The relationship between hepatitis C virus replication and PPARs has been the focus of recent study. Given the availability of potent agonists, PPARs may represent a novel pharmacological target in the treatment of CHC. PMID:22043232

  9. Evolution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists.

    PubMed

    Chang, Feng; Jaber, Linda A; Berlie, Helen D; O'Connell, Mary Beth

    2007-06-01

    To discuss the evolution of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists from single site to multiple subtype or partial agonists for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, obesity, and the metabolic syndrome. Information was obtained from MEDLINE (1966-March 2007) using search terms peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist, PPAR dual agonist, PPAR alpha/gamma agonist, PPAR pan agonist, partial PPAR, and the specific compound names. Other sources included pharmaceutical companies, the Internet, and the American Diabetes Association 64th-66th Scientific Sessions abstract books. Animal data, abstracts, clinical trials, and review articles were reviewed and summarized. PPAR alpha, gamma, and delta receptors play an important role in lipid metabolism, regulation of adipocyte proliferation and differentiation, and insulin sensitivity. The PPAR dual agonists were developed to combine the triglyceride lowering and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol elevation from the PPAR-alpha agonists (fibrates) with the insulin sensitivity improvement from the PPAR-gamma agonists (thiazolidinediones). Although the dual agonists reduced hemoglobin A(1C) (A1C) and improved the lipid profile, adverse effects led to discontinued development. Currently, PPAR-delta agonists (GW501516 in Phase I trials), partial PPAR-gamma agonists (metaglidasen in Phase II and III trials), and pan agonists (alpha, gamma, delta; netoglitazone in Phase II and III trials) with improved cell and tissue selectivity are undergoing investigation to address multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome with a single medication. By decreasing both A1C and triglycerides, metaglidasen did improve multiple aspects of the metabolic syndrome with fewer adverse effects than compared with placebo. Metaglidasen is now being compared with pioglitazone. Influencing the various PPARs results in improved glucose, lipid, and weight management, with effects dependent on full or partial agonist

  10. International Union of Pharmacology. LXI. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Michalik, Liliane; Auwerx, Johan; Berger, Joel P; Chatterjee, V Krishna; Glass, Christopher K; Gonzalez, Frank J; Grimaldi, Paul A; Kadowaki, Takashi; Lazar, Mitchell A; O'Rahilly, Stephen; Palmer, Colin N A; Plutzky, Jorge; Reddy, Janardan K; Spiegelman, Bruce M; Staels, Bart; Wahli, Walter

    2006-12-01

    The three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. They share a high degree of structural homology with all members of the superfamily, particularly in the DNA-binding domain and ligand- and cofactor-binding domain. Many cellular and systemic roles have been attributed to these receptors, reaching far beyond the stimulation of peroxisome proliferation in rodents after which they were initially named. PPARs exhibit broad, isotype-specific tissue expression patterns. PPARalpha is expressed at high levels in organs with significant catabolism of fatty acids. PPARbeta/delta has the broadest expression pattern, and the levels of expression in certain tissues depend on the extent of cell proliferation and differentiation. PPARgamma is expressed as two isoforms, of which PPARgamma2 is found at high levels in the adipose tissues, whereas PPARgamma1 has a broader expression pattern. Transcriptional regulation by PPARs requires heterodimerization with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). When activated by a ligand, the dimer modulates transcription via binding to a specific DNA sequence element called a peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) in the promoter region of target genes. A wide variety of natural or synthetic compounds was identified as PPAR ligands. Among the synthetic ligands, the lipid-lowering drugs, fibrates, and the insulin sensitizers, thiazolidinediones, are PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists, respectively, which underscores the important role of PPARs as therapeutic targets. Transcriptional control by PPAR/RXR heterodimers also requires interaction with coregulator complexes. Thus, selective action of PPARs in vivo results from the interplay at a given time point between expression levels of each of the three PPAR and RXR isotypes, affinity for a specific promoter PPRE, and ligand and cofactor availabilities.

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma: a novel target for cancer therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Han, ShouWei; Roman, Jesse

    2007-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are ligand-activated intracellular transcription factors that have been implicated in important biological processes such as inflammation, tissue remodeling and atherosclerosis. Emerging information also implicates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in oncogenesis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, the best studied of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, modulates the proliferation and apoptosis of many cancer cell types, and it is expressed in many human tumors including lung, breast, colon, prostate and bladder. Natural and synthetic agents capable of activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma have been found to inhibit cancer cell growth in vitro and in animal models. These agents, however, are not specific and both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-dependent and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-independent pathways involved in their effects have been identified. Together, these studies, coupled with a few clinical trials, suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is a novel target for the development of new and effective anticancer therapies.

  12. Fatty acid transduction of nitric oxide signaling: multiple nitrated unsaturated fatty acid derivatives exist in human blood and urine and serve as endogenous peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Baker, Paul R S; Lin, Yiming; Schopfer, Francisco J; Woodcock, Steven R; Groeger, Alison L; Batthyany, Carlos; Sweeney, Scott; Long, Marshall H; Iles, Karen E; Baker, Laura M S; Branchaud, Bruce P; Chen, Yuqing E; Freeman, Bruce A

    2005-12-23

    Mass spectrometric analysis of human plasma and urine revealed abundant nitrated derivatives of all principal unsaturated fatty acids. Nitrated palmitoleic, oleic, linoleic, linolenic, arachidonic and eicosapentaenoic acids were detected in concert with their nitrohydroxy derivatives. Two nitroalkene derivatives of the most prevalent fatty acid, oleic acid, were synthesized (9- and 10-nitro-9-cis-octadecenoic acid; OA-NO2), structurally characterized and determined to be identical to OA-NO2 found in plasma, red cells, and urine of healthy humans. These regioisomers of OA-NO2 were quantified in clinical samples using 13C isotope dilution. Plasma free and esterified OA-NO2 concentrations were 619 +/- 52 and 302 +/- 369 nm, respectively, and packed red blood cell free and esterified OA-NO2 was 59 +/- 11 and 155 +/- 65 nm. The OA-NO2 concentration of blood is approximately 50% greater than that of nitrated linoleic acid, with the combined free and esterified blood levels of these two fatty acid derivatives exceeding 1 microm. OA-NO2 is a potent ligand for peroxisome proliferator activated receptors at physiological concentrations. CV-1 cells co-transfected with the luciferase gene under peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element regulation, in concert with PPARgamma, PPARalpha, or PPARdelta expression plasmids, showed dose-dependent activation of all PPARs by OA-NO2. PPARgamma showed the greatest response, with significant activation at 100 nm, while PPARalpha and PPARdelta were activated at approximately 300 nm OA-NO2. OA-NO2 also induced PPAR gamma-dependent adipogenesis and deoxyglucose uptake in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes at a potency exceeding nitrolinoleic acid and rivaling synthetic thiazo-lidinediones. These data reveal that nitrated fatty acids comprise a class of nitric oxide-derived, receptor-dependent, cell signaling mediators that act within physiological concentration ranges.

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors increase human sebum production.

    PubMed

    Trivedi, Nishit R; Cong, Zhaoyuan; Nelson, Amanda M; Albert, Adam J; Rosamilia, Lorraine L; Sivarajah, Surendra; Gilliland, Kathryn L; Liu, Wenlei; Mauger, David T; Gabbay, Robert A; Thiboutot, Diane M

    2006-09-01

    Sebum production is key in the pathophysiology of acne, an extremely common condition, which when severe, may require treatment with isotretinoin, a known teratogen. Apart from isotretinoin and hormonal therapy, no agents are available to reduce sebum. Increasing our understanding of the regulation of sebum production is a milestone in identifying alternative therapeutic targets. Studies in sebocytes and human sebaceous glands indicate that agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alter sebaceous lipid production. The goal of this study is to verify the expression and activity of PPARs in human skin and SEB-1 sebocytes and to assess the effects of PPAR ligands on sebum production in patients. To investigate the contribution of each receptor subtype to sebum production, lipogenesis assays were performed in SEB-1 sebocytes that were treated with PPAR ligands and isotretinoin. Isotretinoin significantly decreased lipogenesis, while the PPARalpha agonist-GW7647, PPARdelta agonist-GW0742, PPARalpha/delta agonist-GW2433, PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone, and the pan-agonist-GW4148, increased lipogenesis. Patients treated with thiazolidinediones or fibrates had significant increases in sebum production (37 and 77%, respectively) when compared to age-, disease-, and sex-matched controls. These data indicate that PPARs play a role in regulating sebum production and that selective modulation of their activity may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of acne.

  14. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Ferrari, Silvia Martina; Fallahi, Poupak; Vita, Roberto; Benvenga, Salvatore

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor- (PPAR-) γ expression has been shown in thyroid tissue from patients with thyroiditis or Graves' disease and furthermore in the orbital tissue of patients with Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO), such as in extraocular muscle cells. An increasing body of evidence shows the importance of the (C-X-C motif) receptor 3 (CXCR3) and cognate chemokines (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)9, CXCL10, and CXCL11, in the T helper 1 immune response and in inflammatory diseases such as thyroid autoimmune disorders. PPAR-γ agonists show a strong inhibitory effect on the expression and release of CXCR3 chemokines, in vitro, in various kinds of cells, such as thyrocytes, and in orbital fibroblasts, preadipocytes, and myoblasts from patients with GO. Recently, it has been demonstrated that rosiglitazone is involved in a higher risk of heart failure, stroke, and all-cause mortality in old patients. On the contrary, pioglitazone has not shown these effects until now; this favors pioglitazone for a possible use in patients with thyroid autoimmunity. However, further studies are ongoing to explore the use of new PPAR-γ agonists in the treatment of thyroid autoimmune disorders. PMID:25722716

  15. Biology and therapeutic applications of peroxisome proliferator- activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Menendez-Gutierrez, Maria P; Roszer, Tamas; Ricote, Mercedes

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand dependent transcription factors. The three mammalian PPARs are key regulators of fatty acid and lipoprotein metabolism, glucose homeostasis, cellular proliferation/ differentiation and the immune response. PPARs are therefore important targets in the treatment of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, and are also of interest in relation to chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis, arthritis, chronic pulmonary inflammation, pancreatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, and psoriasis. Recent advances have attributed novel functions to PPARs in blood pressure regulation, neuroinflammation, nerve-cell protection, inflammatory pain reduction, and the hypothalamic control of metabolism. The abundant pleiotropic actions of PPARs suggest that PPAR agonists have enormous therapeutic potential. However, current PPAR-based therapies often have undesired side effects due to the concomitant activation of PPARs in non-target cells. There is therefore growing interest in the development of cell-specific PPAR agonists and improvement of the clinical use of PPAR ligands. This review gives an overview of PPAR functions and discusses the current and potential medical implications of PPAR ligands in various pathologies, ranging from metabolic disorders to cardiovascular disease, chronic inflammation, neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as attractive antiobesity targets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fang; Lavan, Brian; Gregoire, Francine M

    2004-12-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alpha, delta and gamma are a group of ligand-activated transcription factors that function as lipid sensors and govern numerous biological processes, including energy metabolism, cell proliferation, differentiation and inflammation. It has been known for some time that both PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma play a role in lipid metabolism. Antidiabetic drugs of the thiazolidinedione (TZD) class are potent and selective activators of PPAR gamma known to promote adipocyte differentiation and lipid storage. Lipid-lowering agents of the fibrate class activate PPAR alpha. Until recently, the function of PPAR delta remained elusive, but recent progress has shown that PPAR delta plays a key role in lipid metabolism, as it regulates serum lipid profiles and fatty acid beta oxidation in muscle and adipose tissue. This suggests that PPAR delta agonists may play a beneficial role in the treatment of lipid disorders, in particular obesity. This review will highlight key new findings in PPAR delta biology and discuss the recent evidence linking PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma to adipose tissue biology and the development of obesity.

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and cancer: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Jihan; Badr, Mostafa

    2011-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, function as transcription factors and modulators of gene expression. These actions allow PPARs to regulate a variety of biological processes and to play a significant role in several diseases and conditions. The current literature describes frequently opposing and paradoxical roles for the three PPAR isotypes, PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ, in cancer. While some studies have implicated PPARs in the promotion and development of cancer, others, in contrast, have presented evidence for a protective role for these receptors against cancer. In some tissues, the expression level of these receptors and/or their activation correlates with a positive outcome against cancer, while, in other tissue types, their expression and activation have the opposite effect. These disparate findings raise the possibility of (i) PPAR receptor-independent effects, including effects on receptors other than PPARs by the utilized ligands; (ii) cancer stage-specific effect; and/or (iii) differences in essential ligand-related pharmacokinetic considerations. In this review, we highlight the latest available studies on the role of the various PPAR isotypes in cancer in several major organs and present challenges as well as promising opportunities in the field. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and cancer: challenges and opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Youssef, Jihan; Badr, Mostafa

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily, function as transcription factors and modulators of gene expression. These actions allow PPARs to regulate a variety of biological processes and to play a significant role in several diseases and conditions. The current literature describes frequently opposing and paradoxical roles for the three PPAR isotypes, PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ, in cancer. While some studies have implicated PPARs in the promotion and development of cancer, others, in contrast, have presented evidence for a protective role for these receptors against cancer. In some tissues, the expression level of these receptors and/or their activation correlates with a positive outcome against cancer, while, in other tissue types, their expression and activation have the opposite effect. These disparate findings raise the possibility of (i) PPAR receptor-independent effects, including effects on receptors other than PPARs by the utilized ligands; (ii) cancer stage-specific effect; and/or (iii) differences in essential ligand-related pharmacokinetic considerations. In this review, we highlight the latest available studies on the role of the various PPAR isotypes in cancer in several major organs and present challenges as well as promising opportunities in the field. PMID:21449912

  19. Peroxisome Proliferators-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Modulators and Metabolic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Min-Chul; Lee, Kyoung; Paik, Sang-Gi; Yoon, Do-Young

    2008-01-01

    Overweight and obesity lead to an increased risk for metabolic disorders such as impaired glucose regulation/insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Several molecular drug targets with potential to prevent or treat metabolic disorders have been revealed. Interestingly, the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR), which belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, has many beneficial clinical effects. PPAR directly modulates gene expression by binding to a specific ligand. All PPAR subtypes (α, γ, and σ) are involved in glucose metabolism, lipid metabolism, and energy balance. PPAR agonists play an important role in therapeutic aspects of metabolic disorders. However, undesired effects of the existing PPAR agonists have been reported. A great deal of recent research has focused on the discovery of new PPAR modulators with more beneficial effects and more safety without producing undesired side effects. Herein, we briefly review the roles of PPAR in metabolic disorders, the effects of PPAR modulators in metabolic disorders, and the technologies with which to discover new PPAR modulators. PMID:18566691

  20. Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Inflammation Control

    PubMed Central

    Badr, Mostafa

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) were discovered over a decade ago, and were classified as orphan members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. To date, three PPAR subtypes have been discovered and characterized (PPARα, β/δ, γ). Different PPAR subtypes have been shown to play crucial roles in important diseases and conditions such as obesity, diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, and fertility. Among the most studied roles of PPARs is their involvement in inflammatory processes. Numerous studies have revealed that agonists of PPARα and PPARγ exert anti-inflammatory effects both in vitro and in vivo. Using the carrageenan-induced paw edema model of inflammation, a recent study in our laboratories showed that these agonists hinder the initiation phase, but not the late phase of the inflammatory process. Furthermore, in the same experimental model, we recently also observed that activation of PPARδ exerted an anti-inflammatory effect. Despite the fact that exclusive dependence of these effects on PPARs has been questioned, the bulk of evidence suggests that all three PPAR subtypes, PPARα, δ, γ, play a significant role in controlling inflammatory responses. Whether these subtypes act via a common mechanism or are independent of each other remains to be elucidated. However, due to the intensity of research efforts in this area, it is anticipated that these efforts will result in the development of PPAR ligands as therapeutic agents for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:15292582

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors including insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension that markedly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes, PPARα, PPARδ/β and PPARγ are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors, which modulate the expression of an array of genes that play a central role in regulating glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, where imbalance can lead to obesity, T2DM and CVD. They are also drug targets, and currently, PPARα (fibrates) and PPARγ (thiazolodinediones) agonists are in clinical use for treating dyslipidemia and T2DM, respectively. These metabolic characteristics of the PPARs, coupled with their involvement in metabolic diseases, mean extensive efforts are underway worldwide to develop new and efficacious PPAR-based therapies for the treatment of additional maladies associated with the MetS. This article presents an overview of the functional characteristics of three PPAR isotypes, discusses recent advances in our understanding of the diverse biological actions of PPARs, particularly in the vascular system, and summarizes the developmental status of new single, dual, pan (multiple) and partial PPAR agonists for the clinical management of key components of MetS, T2DM and CVD. It also summarizes the clinical outcomes from various clinical trials aimed at evaluating the atheroprotective actions of currently used fibrates and thiazolodinediones. PMID:20932114

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and the control of inflammation.

    PubMed

    Cabrero, A; Laguna, J C; Vázquez, M

    2002-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors which form a subfamily of the nuclear receptor gene family. This subfamily consists of three isotypes, alpha (NR1C1), gamma (NR1C3), and beta/delta (NRC1C2) with a differential tissue distribution. PPARalpha is expressed primarily in tissues with a high level of fatty acid catabolism such as liver, brown fat, kidney, heart and skeletal muscle. PPARbeta is ubiquitously expressed, and PPARgamma has a restricted pattern of expression, mainly in white and brown adipose tissues, whereas other tissues such as skeletal muscle and heart contain limited amounts. Furthermore, PPARalpha and gamma isotypes are expressed in vascular cells including endothelial and smooth muscle cells and macrophages/foam cells. PPARs are activated by ligands, such as naturally occurring fatty acids, which are activators of all three PPAR isotypes. In addition to fatty acids, several synthetic compounds, such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones, bind and activate PPARalpha and PPARgamma, respectively. In order to be transcriptionally active, PPARs need to heterodimerize with the retinoid-X-receptor (RXR). Upon activation, PPAR-RXR heterodimers bind to DNA specific sequences called peroxisome proliferator-response elements (PPRE) and stimulate transcription of target genes. PPARs play a critical role in lipid and glucose homeostasis, but lately they have been implicated as regulators of inflammatory responses. The first evidence of the involvement of PPARs in the control of inflammation came from the PPARalpha null mice, which showed a prolonged inflammatory response. PPARalpha activation results in the repression of NF-kappaB signaling and inflammatory cytokine production in different cell-types. A role for PPARgamma in inflammation has also been reported in monocyte/macrophages, where ligands of this receptor inhibited the activation of macrophages and the production of inflammatory cytokines (TNFalpha

  3. Transcription coactivators for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Yu, Songtao; Reddy, Janardan K

    2007-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate diverse biological processes such as development, differentiation, neoplastic conversion, inflammation and wound healing in addition to their critical roles in energy (lipid and carbohydrate) metabolism. Unliganded PPARs heterodimerize with retinoid X receptor alpha and repress transcription when bound to DNA by interacting with corepressor molecules. Upon canonical ligand binding, PPARs manifest conformational changes that facilitate the dissociation of corepressor molecules to enable a spatiotemporally orchestrated recruitment (association) of coactivators and coactivator-associated proteins to the liganded receptor. Functional significance for the existence of over 200 nuclear receptor cofactors is not readily evident, but emerging gene knockout mouse models show that some of the coactivators are essential for embryonic growth and survival and for controlling receptor specific target gene expression in a cell specific need based demands. Coactivators contain one or more highly conserved LXXLL amphiphatic alpha-helix motif, called nuclear receptor box, for direct interaction with the activation function 2 (AF-2) regions in nuclear receptors. PPARs interact with large multisubunit coactivator protein complexes, some exhibiting intrinsic histone acetyltransferase or methyltransferase activity, while others functioning as facilitators of ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling or as linkers to the basal transcription machinery. While the dynamic and coordinated changes in nuclear receptor expression and differences in the nature of their key target genes are important, it is becoming increasingly evident that perturbations in the expression of coactivators may affect the function of many nuclear receptors including PPARs. Tissue specific differences in coactivator expression add another dimension to the complexity of gene- and cell-specific transcriptional regulation. Identification of PPAR specific

  4. Regulation of ENaC-Mediated Sodium Reabsorption by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Pavlov, Tengis S.; Imig, John D.; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of a steroid hormone receptor superfamily that responds to changes in lipid and glucose homeostasis. Peroxisomal proliferator-activated receptor subtype γ (PPARγ) has received much attention as the target for antidiabetic drugs, as well as its role in responding to endogenous compounds such as prostaglandin J2. However, thiazolidinediones (TZDs), the synthetic agonists of the PPARγ are tightly associated with fluid retention and edema, as potentially serious side effects. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) represents the rate limiting step for sodium absorption in the renal collecting duct. Consequently, ENaC is a central effector impacting systemic blood volume and pressure. The role of PPARγ agonists on ENaC activity remains controversial. While PPARγ agonists were shown to stimulate ENaC-mediated renal salt absorption, probably via Serum- and Glucocorticoid-Regulated Kinase 1 (SGK1), other studies reported that PPARγ agonist-induced fluid retention is independent of ENaC activity. The current paper provides new insights into the control and function of ENaC and ENaC-mediated sodium transport as well as several other epithelial channels/transporters by PPARs and particularly PPARγ. The potential contribution of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites in PPAR-dependent mechanisms is also discussed. PMID:20613963

  5. Peroxisomes in cardiomyocytes and the peroxisome / peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-loop.

    PubMed

    Colasante, Claudia; Chen, Jiangping; Ahlemeyer, Barbara; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

    2015-03-01

    It is well established that the heart is strongly dependent on fatty acid metabolism. In cardiomyocytes there are two distinct sites for the β-oxidisation of fatty acids: the mitochondrion and the peroxisome. Although the metabolism of these two organelles is believed to be tightly coupled, the nature of this relationship has not been fully investigated. Recent research has established the significant contribution of mitochondrial function to cardiac ATP production under normal and pathological conditions. In contrast, limited information is available on peroxisomal function in the heart. This is despite these organelles harbouring metabolic pathways that are potentially cardio-protective, and findings that patients with peroxisomal diseases, such as adult Refsum´s disease, can develop heart failure. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview on the current knowledge of peroxisomes and the regulation of lipid metabolism by PPARs in cardiomyocytes. We also present new experimental evidence on the differential expression of peroxisome-related genes in the heart chambers and demonstrate that even a mild peroxisomal biogenesis defect (Pex11α-/-) can induce profound alterations in the cardiomyocyte´s peroxisomal compartment and related gene expression, including the concomitant deregulation of specific PPARs. The possible impact of peroxisomal dysfunction in the heart is discussed and a model for the modulation of myocardial metabolism via a peroxisome/PPAR-loop is proposed.

  6. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA and protein expression during development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis and are important in reproduction and development. PPARs are targets ofpharmaceuticals and are also activated by environmental contaminants, including ...

  7. Human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor mRNA and protein expression during development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear hormone receptors that regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis and are important in reproduction and development. PPARs are targets ofpharmaceuticals and are also activated by environmental contaminants, including ...

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and hepatic stellate cell activation.

    PubMed

    Miyahara, T; Schrum, L; Rippe, R; Xiong, S; Yee, H F; Motomura, K; Anania, F A; Willson, T M; Tsukamoto, H

    2000-11-17

    The present study examined the roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) in activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSC), a pivotal event in liver fibrogenesis. RNase protection assay detected mRNA for PPARgamma1 but not that for the adipocyte-specific gamma2 isoform in HSC isolated from sham-operated rats, whereas the transcripts for neither isoforms were detectable in HSC from cholestatic liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction confirmed a 70% reduction in PPARgamma mRNA level in HSC from BDL. Nuclear extracts from BDL cells showed an expected diminution of binding to PPAR-responsive element, whereas NF-kappaB and AP-1 binding were increased. Treatment of cultured-activated HSC with ligands for PPARgamma (10 microm 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15dPGJ(2)); 0.1 approximately 10 microm BRL49653) inhibited DNA and collagen synthesis without affecting the cell viability. Suppression of HSC collagen by 15dPGJ(2) was abrogated 70% by the concomitant treatment with a PPARgamma antagonist (GW9662). HSC DNA and collagen synthesis were inhibited by WY14643 at the concentrations known to activate both PPARalpha and gamma (>100 microm) but not at those that only activate PPARalpha (<10 microm) or by a synthetic PPARalpha-selective agonist (GW9578). 15dPGJ(2) reduced alpha1(I) procollagen, smooth muscle alpha-actin, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 mRNA levels while inducing matrix metalloproteinase-3 and CD36. 15dPGJ(2) and BRL49653 inhibited alpha1(I) procollagen promoter activity. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (10 ng/ml) reduced PPARgamma mRNA, and this effect was prevented by the treatment with 15dPGJ(2). These results demonstrate that HSC activation is associated with the reductions in PPARgamma expression and PPAR-responsive element binding in vivo and is reversed by the treatment with PPARgamma ligands in vitro. These findings implicate diminished PPARgamma signaling in

  9. Epoxygenases and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in mammalian vascular biology.

    PubMed

    Wray, Jessica; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2008-01-01

    Epoxygenases, particularly of the CYP2C and CYP2J families, are important lipid-metabolizing enzymes. Epoxygenases are found throughout the cardiovascular system where their lipid products, particularly the epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs), which are arachidonic acid metabolites, have the potential to regulate vascular tone, cellular proliferation, migration, inflammation and cardiac function. The receptors for EETs are, however, poorly understood. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of three (alpha, beta/delta and gamma) nuclear receptors that are activated by lipid metabolites. Activation of PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma, similar to the longer term effects of EETs, causes the inhibition of vascular cell proliferation, migration and inflammation. Interestingly, EETs and their metabolites have recently been found to active both PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma. The epoxygenase-EET-PPAR pathway may therefore represent a novel endogenous protective pathway by which short-lived lipid mediators control vascular cell activation.

  10. Regulation of Proteome Maintenance Gene Expression by Activators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) is activated by a large number of xenobiotic and hypolipidemic compounds called peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC). One agonist of PPARa (WY-14,643) regulates responses in the mouse liver to chemic...

  11. Regulation of Proteome Maintenance Gene Expression by Activators of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor a (PPARa)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa) is activated by a large number of xenobiotic and hypolipidemic compounds called peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC). One agonist of PPARa (WY-14,643) regulates responses in the mouse liver to chemic...

  12. The role of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Everett, L; Galli, A; Crabb, D

    2000-06-01

    The liver has long been known to respond to exposure to certain chemicals with hyperplasia and proliferation of the peroxisomal compartment. This response is now known to be mediated by specific receptors. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) were cloned 10 years ago, and in that interval, have been found to serve as receptors for a number of endogenous lipid compounds, in addition to the peroxisome proliferators that originally led to their study. Three receptors, designated the alpha, delta, and gamma receptors, have been found in mammals. PPARalpha: is the most abundant form found in the liver, with smaller amounts of the delta and gamma forms also expressed there. Kupffer cells, like other macrophages, appear to express the alpha and gamma isoforms. Hepatic stellate cells are reported to express the gamma isoform. PPARalpha knock-out mice fail to undergo peroxisome proliferation when challenged with the proliferators. Moreover, they have severe derangements of lipid metabolism, particularly during fasting, indicating that normal function of the alpha receptors is needed for lipid homeostasis. This in turn suggests that inadequate PPAR-mediated responses may contribute to abnormal fatty acid metabolism in alcoholic and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. Recent information suggests that PPARgamma receptors may be important in control of the activation state of the stellate cells, and their repression or inactivation may predispose to hepatic fibrosis. The first approved drug that specifically activates PPARgamma, troglitazone, has rarely been found to cause serious liver injury. Although this is likely to represent an idiosyncratic reaction, the medical community will need to be alert to the possibility that activation or blockade of these receptors may cause hepatic dysfunction.

  13. Physiological role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors type α on dopamine systems.

    PubMed

    Melis, Miriam; Carta, Gianfranca; Pistis, Marco; Banni, Sebastiano

    2013-02-01

    The discovery that N-acylethanolamines, such as oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), acting as endogenous ligands of alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα), block nicotine-induced excitation of dopamine neurons revealed their role as important endogenous negative modulators of nicotinic receptors containing β2 subunits (denoted β2*-nAChRs) on dopamine neurons, which are key to the brain reward system. Using mass-spectrometry data analysis from rodent brain slices containing the midbrain, we characterized the effects induced by modulation of PPARα on PEA and OEA levels. PEA and OEA constitutive levels in the midbrain are higher than endocannabinoids (e.g. anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol), and depend upon excessive input drive and the metabolic state of the cells. Accordingly, OEA and PEA synthesis is affected when adding low concentrations of fatty acids (endogenous PPARα ligands), most likely through activation of PPARα. Indeed, PPARα activation increases PEA and OEA levels, which may further sustain PPARα activity. Given this, it is likely that these molecules dynamically affect dopamine function and excitability, as well as their dependent behaviour. Consequently, N-acylethanolamines may confer less vulnerability towards disruption of dynamic balance of dopamine-acetylcholine systems through PPARα activation. Finally, using pharmacological and/or nutritional strategies which target PPARα might represent a promising therapeutic approach to prevent disorders often related to neuro-inflammation, stress and abnormal β2*-nAChR function.

  14. Functional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) by environmental chemicals in relation to their toxicities.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tamie; Ichihara, Gaku; Kamijima, Michihiro; Itohara, Seiichiro; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2002-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) may work in the processes of both physiological and toxicological response to various endogenous or exogenous substances. The literature on the study of functional activation of PPARalpha by environmental chemicals in relation to their toxicities were reviewed. Environmental chemicals that were found to induce peroxisomes (peroxisome proliferators) and to activate the function of PPARalpha included plasticizers, herbicides, and organic solvents that have carboxyl groups in their parent substances or their metabolites. Several studies have showed species differences in the constitutive expression of PPARalpha and activation of PPARalpha, which may result in species differences in the induction of transcription of the genes encoding several peroxisomal enzymes. Although much information has supported the view that PPARalpha is primarily involved in the hepatic carcinogenicity of peroxisome proliferators, conflicting evidence exists. Most of the peroxisome proliferators have been shown to induce reproductive and developmental disorders, which might, in part. be associated with the functional activation of PPARalpha. Few epidemiological studies on the effect of peroxisome proliferators on humans have been conducted. The effect of perfluorooctanoic acid on humans was evaluated from the aspect of lipid metabolism in one study, which concluded that there was no effect.

  15. Mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ regulation by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Ana C; Milton, Flora A; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Sieglaff, Douglas H; Campos, Jéssica C L; Bernardes, Amanda; Filgueira, Carly S; Lindemann, Jan Lammel; Deng, Tuo; Neves, Francisco A R; Polikarpov, Igor; Webb, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) display anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and analgesic properties by inhibiting cyclooxygenases and blocking prostaglandin production. Previous studies, however, suggested that some NSAIDs also modulate peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), raising the possibility that such off target effects contribute to the spectrum of clinically relevant NSAID actions. In this study, we set out to understand how peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ/PPARG) interacts with NSAIDs using X-ray crystallography and to relate ligand binding modes to effects on receptor activity. We find that several NSAIDs (sulindac sulfide, diclofenac, indomethacin and ibuprofen) bind PPARγ and modulate PPARγ activity at pharmacologically relevant concentrations. Diclofenac acts as a partial agonist and binds to the PPARγ ligand binding pocket (LBP) in typical partial agonist mode, near the β-sheets and helix 3. By contrast, two copies of indomethacin and sulindac sulfide bind the LBP and, in aggregate, these ligands engage in LBP contacts that resemble agonists. Accordingly, both compounds, and ibuprofen, act as strong partial agonists. Assessment of NSAID activities in PPARγ-dependent 3T3-L1 cells reveals that NSAIDs display adipogenic activities and exclusively regulate PPARγ-dependent target genes in a manner that is consistent with their observed binding modes. Further, PPARγ knockdown eliminates indomethacin activities at selected endogenous genes, confirming receptor-dependence of observed effects. We propose that it is important to consider how individual NSAIDs interact with PPARγ to understand their activities, and that it will be interesting to determine whether high dose NSAID therapies result in PPAR activation.

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α activation and excess energy burning in hepatocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Misra, Parimal; Reddy, Janardan K

    2014-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) modulates the activities of all three interlinked hepatic fatty acid oxidation systems, namely mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation and microsomal ω-oxidation pathways. Hyperactivation of PPARα, by both exogenous and endogenous activators up-regulates hepatic fatty acid oxidation resulting in excess energy burning in liver contributing to the development of liver cancer in rodents. Sustained PPARα signaling disproportionately increases H2O2-generating fatty acid metabolizing enzymes as compared to H2O2-degrading enzymes in liver leading to enhanced generation of DNA damaging reactive oxygen species, progressive endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammation. These alterations also contribute to increased liver cell proliferation with changes in apoptosis. Thus, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress and hepatocellular proliferation are likely the main contributing factors in the pathogenesis of hepatocarcinogenesis, mediated by sustained PPARα activation-related energy burning in liver. Furthermore, the transcriptional co-activator Med1, a key subunit of the Mediator complex, is essential for PPARα signaling in that both PPARα-null and Med1-null hepatocytes are unresponsive to PPARα activators and fail to give rise to liver tumors when chronically exposed to PPARα activators.

  17. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ, an integrator of transcriptional repression and nuclear receptor signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yanhong; Hon, Michelle; Evans, Ronald M.

    2002-01-01

    The three PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) isoforms are critical regulators of lipid homeostasis by controlling the balance between the burning and storage of long chain fatty acids. Whereas PPARα and PPARγ have been studied extensively, the function of PPARδ remains the most elusive. Intriguingly, in cotransfection experiments, PPARδ is a potent inhibitor of ligand-induced transcriptional activity of PPARα and PPARγ. This inhibition is achieved, in part, by binding of PPARδ to a peroxisome proliferator response element and the association of nonliganded PPARδ with corepressors SMRT (silencing mediator for retinoid and thyroid hormone receptors), SHARP (SMRT and histone deacetylase-associated repressor protein), and class I histone deacetylases. Stable expression of PPARδ inhibits the expression of endogenous PPARα target gene expression in 3T3-PPARα cells, whereas a PPARδ mutant that does not interact with the corepressor SMRT loses its ability to repress the induction of PPARα target gene. Similarly, stable expression of PPARδ in 3T3-PPARγ cells leads to inhibition of PPARγ target gene expression and PPARγ-mediated adipogenesis. Given the widespread expression of PPARδ and the restricted pattern for PPARα and PPARγ, these results suggest a role for PPARδ as a gateway receptor whose relative levels of expression can be used to modulate PPARα and PPARγ activity. PMID:11867749

  18. Interaction between Calpain 5, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta genes: a polygenic approach to obesity.

    PubMed

    Sáez, María E; Grilo, Antonio; Morón, Francisco J; Manzano, Luis; Martínez-Larrad, María T; González-Pérez, Antonio; Serrano-Hernando, Javier; Ruiz, Agustín; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2008-07-25

    Obesity is a multifactorial disorder, that is, a disease determined by the combined effect of genes and environment. In this context, polygenic approaches are needed. To investigate the possibility of the existence of a crosstalk between the CALPAIN 10 homologue CALPAIN 5 and nuclear receptors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors family. Cross-sectional, genetic association study and gene-gene interaction analysis. The study sample comprise 1953 individuals, 725 obese (defined as body mass index > or = 30) and 1228 non obese subjects. In the monogenic analysis, only the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) gene was associated with obesity (OR = 1.43 [1.04-1.97], p = 0.027). In addition, we have found a significant interaction between CAPN5 and PPARD genes (p = 0.038) that reduces the risk for obesity in a 55%. Our results suggest that CAPN5 and PPARD gene products may also interact in vivo.

  19. The pathophysiological function of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in lung-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Razmovski-Naumovski, Valentina; Kota, Bhavani Prasad; Lin, Diana Shu-Hsuan; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2005-09-09

    Research into respiratory diseases has reached a critical stage and the introduction of novel therapies is essential in combating these debilitating conditions. With the discovery of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and its involvement in inflammatory responses of cardiovascular disease and diabetes, attention has turned to lung diseases and whether knowledge of this receptor can be applied to therapy of the human airways. In this article, we explore the prospect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma as a marker and treatment focal point of lung diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, lung cancer and cystic fibrosis. It is anticipated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands will provide not only useful mechanistic pathway information but also a possible new wave of therapies for sufferers of chronic respiratory diseases.

  20. Modulation of the expression of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Michael P; Saed, Ghassan

    2007-03-01

    To determine the levels of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors (PPARs) in normal and adhesion fibroblasts, we utilized real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to measure messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in fibroblasts from normal peritoneum and adhesions from five patients in both the presence or absence of dichloroacetic acid (DCA) and a cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, NS-398. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor alpha, PPARbeta, PPARgamma1, and PPARgamma2 mRNA are all present in normal peritoneal and adhesion fibroblasts, and selectively rose in response to hypoxia and either DCA or NS-398.

  1. The need for physiologically relevant peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-γ) ligands.

    PubMed

    Subramani, Parasuraman Aiya; Reddy, Madhava C; Narala, Venkata R

    2013-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is a nuclear transcription factor which is involved in the differentiation of fibroblasts to adipocytes in vitro. PPAR-γ also plays a pivotal role in inflammation and macrophage activation. Furthermore, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), a condition in which an individual's ability to respond to insulin is lowered, is treated by drugs called thiazolidinediones (TZDs) that are known to activated PPAR-γ, thus augmenting insulin signaling and glucose uptake by adipose tissue. Unfortunately, these otherwise effective drugs are responsible for side effects such as obesity and cardiovascular diseases. The ligand-binding ability of PPAR-γ is different from other nuclear receptors since it can bind to a wide variety of ligands. Although a number of compounds have been shown to activate PPAR-γ, knowledge of its endogenous ligands and their physiological functions is lacking. The known ligands were either ambiguous or found to produce ill effects in vivo. In this review we discuss the structure and functions of PPAR-γ, ligands discovered so far, and focus on the importance of identification of physiologically relevant endogenous ligands.

  2. Phosphorylation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in rat Fao cells and stimulation by ciprofibrate.

    PubMed

    Passilly, P; Schohn, H; Jannin, B; Cherkaoui Malki, M; Boscoboinik, D; Dauça, M; Latruffe, N

    1999-09-15

    The basic mechanism(s) by which peroxisome proliferators activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) is (are) not yet fully understood. Given the diversity of peroxisome proliferators, several hypotheses of activation have been proposed. Among them is the notion that peroxisome proliferators could activate PPARs by changing their phosphorylation status. In fact, it is well known that several members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily are regulated by phosphorylation. In this report, we show that the rat Fao hepatic-derived cell line, known to respond to peroxisome proliferators, exhibited a high content of PPARalpha. Alkaline phosphatase treatment of Fao cell lysate as well as immunoprecipitation of PPARalpha from cells prelabeled with [32P] orthophosphate clearly showed that PPARalpha is indeed a phosphoprotein in vivo. Moreover, treatment of rat Fao cells with ciprofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator, increased the phosphorylation level of the PPARalpha. In addition, treatment of Fao cells with phosphatase inhibitors (okadaic acid and sodium orthovanadate) decreased the activity of ciprofibrate-induced peroxisomal acyl-coenzyme A oxidase, an enzyme encoded by a PPARalpha target gene. Our results suggest that the gene expression controlled by peroxisome proliferators could be mediated in part by a modulation of the PPARalpha effect via a modification of the phosphorylation level of this receptor.

  3. SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED DECLINE IN HEPATIC PEROXISOMAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES CORRESPONDS WITH DIMINISHED LEVELS OF RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA, BUT NOT PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Aging is associated with alterations in hepatic peroxisomal metabolism and susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenecity produced by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). Mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Howev...

  4. SENESCENCE-ASSOCIATED DECLINE IN HEPATIC PEROXISOMAL ENZYME ACTIVITIES CORRESPONDS WITH DIMINISHED LEVELS OF RETINOID X RECEPTOR ALPHA, BUT NOT PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract

    Aging is associated with alterations in hepatic peroxisomal metabolism and susceptibility to hepatocarcinogenecity produced by agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). Mechanisms involved in these effects are not well understood. Howev...

  5. Diabetes or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist increases mitochondrial thioesterase I activity in heart

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) is a transcriptional regulator of the expression of mitochondrial thioesterase I (MTE-I) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), which are induced in the heart at the mRNA level in response to diabetes. Little is known about the regulation of pr...

  6. Developmental toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid is dependent on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is one of the predominant perfluoroalkyl acids in the environment and in tissues of humans and wildlife. PFNA strongly activates the mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) in vitro and negatively impacts development ...

  7. Developmental toxicity of perfluorononanoic acid is dependent on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-alpha.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is one of the predominant perfluoroalkyl acids in the environment and in tissues of humans and wildlife. PFNA strongly activates the mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARα) in vitro and negatively impacts development ...

  8. Cyclin D1 represses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and inhibits fatty acid oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Hanse, Eric A.; Mashek, Douglas G.; Mashek, Mara T.; Hendrickson, Anna M.; Mullany, Lisa K.; Albrecht, Jeffrey H.

    2016-01-01

    Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle protein that promotes proliferation by mediating progression through key checkpoints in G1 phase. It is also a proto-oncogene that is commonly overexpressed in human cancers. In addition to its canonical role in controlling cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 affects other aspects of cell physiology, in part through transcriptional regulation. In this study, we find that cyclin D1 inhibits the activity of a key metabolic transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a member of nuclear receptor family that induces fatty acid oxidation and may play an anti-neoplastic role. In primary hepatocytes, cyclin D1 inhibits PPARα transcriptional activity and target gene expression in a cdk4-independent manner. In liver and breast cancer cells, knockdown of cyclin D1 leads to increased PPARα transcriptional activity, expression of PPARα target genes, and fatty acid oxidation. Similarly, cyclin D1 depletion enhances binding of PPARα to target sequences by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In proliferating hepatocytes and regenerating liver in vivo, induction of endogenous cyclin D1 is associated with diminished PPARα activity. Cyclin D1 expression is both necessary and sufficient for growth factor-mediated repression of fatty acid oxidation in proliferating hepatocytes. These studies indicate that in addition to playing a pivotal role in cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 represses PPARα activity and inhibits fatty acid oxidation. Our findings establish a new link between cyclin D1 and metabolism in both tumor cells and physiologic hepatocyte proliferation. PMID:27351284

  9. Cyclin D1 represses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha and inhibits fatty acid oxidation.

    PubMed

    Kamarajugadda, Sushama; Becker, Jennifer R; Hanse, Eric A; Mashek, Douglas G; Mashek, Mara T; Hendrickson, Anna M; Mullany, Lisa K; Albrecht, Jeffrey H

    2016-07-26

    Cyclin D1 is a cell cycle protein that promotes proliferation by mediating progression through key checkpoints in G1 phase. It is also a proto-oncogene that is commonly overexpressed in human cancers. In addition to its canonical role in controlling cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 affects other aspects of cell physiology, in part through transcriptional regulation. In this study, we find that cyclin D1 inhibits the activity of a key metabolic transcription factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), a member of nuclear receptor family that induces fatty acid oxidation and may play an anti-neoplastic role. In primary hepatocytes, cyclin D1 inhibits PPARα transcriptional activity and target gene expression in a cdk4-independent manner. In liver and breast cancer cells, knockdown of cyclin D1 leads to increased PPARα transcriptional activity, expression of PPARα target genes, and fatty acid oxidation. Similarly, cyclin D1 depletion enhances binding of PPARα to target sequences by chromatin immunoprecipitation. In proliferating hepatocytes and regenerating liver in vivo, induction of endogenous cyclin D1 is associated with diminished PPARα activity. Cyclin D1 expression is both necessary and sufficient for growth factor-mediated repression of fatty acid oxidation in proliferating hepatocytes. These studies indicate that in addition to playing a pivotal role in cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 represses PPARα activity and inhibits fatty acid oxidation. Our findings establish a new link between cyclin D1 and metabolism in both tumor cells and physiologic hepatocyte proliferation.

  10. The possible role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ehara, Natsuhiko; Ono, Koh; Morimoto, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Teruhisa; Abe, Mitsuru; Hasegawa, Koji

    2004-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily that heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor and bind to specific response elements in target gene promoters. PPARs have three isoforms: α, β (or δ) and γ. The prostaglandin D2 metabolite, 15-deoxy-12,14-prostaglandin J2, is an endogenous ligand for PPARγ. The antidiabetic thiazolidinediones are synthetic ligands for PPARγ. PPARγ is expressed predominantly in adipose tissue and promotes adipocyte differentiation and glucose homeostasis. PPARγ is also present in various cell types including cardiac myocytes. PPARγ regulates various neurohumoral factors involved in the progression of heart failure; its ligands inhibit cardiac hypertrophy and ischemia-reperfusion injury via, in part, a PPAR-independent pathway. Although experimental studies suggest that PPARγ ligands might have a favourable influence on heart failure, their use in patients with heart failure is limited because of an increase in plasma volume. Further studies are needed to determine whether PPARγ ligands prevent the development of heart disease in clinical settings. PMID:19641720

  11. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Ligands as Regulators of Airway Inflammation and Remodelling in Chronic Lung Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ward, Jane Elizabeth; Tan, Xiahui

    2007-01-01

    Inflammation is a major component in the pathology of chronic lung diseases, including asthma. Anti-inflammatory treatment with corticosteroids is not effective in all patients. Thus, new therapeutic options are required to control diverse cellular functions that are currently not optimally targeted by these drugs in order to inhibit inflammation and its sequelae in lung disease. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), originally characterised as regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, offer marked potential in this respect. PPARs are expressed in both lung infiltrating and resident immune and inflammatory cells, as well as in resident and structural cells in the lungs, and play critical roles in the regulation of airway inflammation. In vitro, endogenous and synthetic ligands for PPARs regulate expression and release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemoattractants, and cell proliferation and survival. In murine models of allergen-induced inflammation, PPARα and PPARγ ligands reduce the influx of inflammatory cells, cytokine and mucus production, collagen deposition, and airways hyperresponsiveness. The activity profiles of PPAR ligands differ to corticosteroids, supporting the hypothesis that PPARs comprise additional therapeutic targets to mimimise the contribution of inflammation to airway remodelling and dysfunction. PMID:18000530

  12. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α stimulates ADAM10-mediated proteolysis of APP.

    PubMed

    Corbett, Grant T; Gonzalez, Frank J; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-07-07

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) derivative β-amyloid (Aβ) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Sequential proteolysis of APP by β-secretase and γ-secretase generates Aβ. Conversely, the α-secretase "a disintegrin and metalloproteinase" 10 (ADAM10) cleaves APP within the eventual Aβ sequence and precludes Aβ generation. Therefore, up-regulation of ADAM10 represents a plausible therapeutic strategy to combat overproduction of neurotoxic Aβ. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a transcription factor that regulates genes involved in fatty acid metabolism. Here, we determined that the Adam10 promoter harbors PPAR response elements; that knockdown of PPARα, but not PPARβ or PPARγ, decreases the expression of Adam10; and that lentiviral overexpression of PPARα restored ADAM10 expression in Ppara(-/-) neurons. Gemfibrozil, an agonist of PPARα, induced the recruitment of PPARα:retinoid x receptor α, but not PPARγ coactivator 1α (PGC1α), to the Adam10 promoter in wild-type mouse hippocampal neurons and shifted APP processing toward the α-secretase, as determined by augmented soluble APPα and decreased Aβ production. Accordingly, Ppara(-/-) mice displayed elevated SDS-stable, endogenous Aβ and Aβ1-42 relative to wild-type littermates, whereas 5XFAD mice null for PPARα (5X/α(-/-)) exhibited greater cerebral Aβ load relative to 5XFAD littermates. These results identify PPARα as an important factor regulating neuronal ADAM10 expression and, thus, α-secretase proteolysis of APP.

  13. Structure and physiological functions of the human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Zieleniak, Andrzej; Wójcik, Marzena; Woźniak, Lucyna A

    2008-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. To date, three different PPAR isotypes, namely PPAR-alpha, -delta, and -gamma, have been identified in vertebrates and have distinct patterns of tissue distribution. Like all nuclear receptors, the human PPAR-gamma (hPPAR-gamma) is characterized by a modular structure composed of an N-terminal A/B domain, a DNA-binding domain with two zinc fingers (C domain), a D domain, and a C-terminal ligand-binding domain (E/F domain). Human PPAR-gamma exists in two protein isoforms, hPPAR-gamma(1) and -gamma(2), with different lengths of the N-terminal. The hPPAR-gamma(2) isoform is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue, whereas hPPAR-gamma(1) is relatively widely expressed. Human PPAR-gamma plays a critical physiological role as a central transcriptional regulator of both adipogenic and lipogenic programs. Its transcriptional activity is induced by the binding of endogenous and synthetic lipophilic ligands, which has led to the determination of many roles for PPAR-gamma in pathological states such as type 2 diabetes, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and cancer. Of the synthetic ligands, the thiazolidinedione class of insulin-sensitizing drugs (ciglitazone, pioglitazone, troglitazone, rosiglitazone) is employed clinically in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  14. The biology of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor system in the female reproductive tract.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Leandro Martín; Abruzzese, Giselle Adriana; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2013-01-01

    Fuel sensors such as glucose, insulin or leptin, are known to be directly involved in the regulation of fertility at each level of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. The discovery of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of transcription factors has revealed the link between lipid/glucose availability and long-term metabolic adaptation. By binding to specific regions of DNA in heterodimers with the retinoid X receptors (RXRs), the members of the PPAR family (α, β/δ, γ) are able to regulate the gene expressions of several key regulators of energy homeostasis including several glucose regulators (glucose transporters, insulin receptor, substrate insulin receptor, etc), and also metabolic and endocrine pathways like lipogenesis, steroidogenesis, ovulation, oocyte maturation, maintenance of the corpus luteum, nitric oxide system, several proteases and plasminogen activator among others. All the three PPAR isoforms are expressed in different tissues of the female reproductive tract and regulate gametogenesis, ovulation, corpus luteum regression and the implantation process among others. The present review discusses the mechanisms involved in PPAR activation focusing on endogenous and synthetic ligands of PPAR not only in physiological but also in pathological conditions (such as polycystic ovary syndrome, pathologies of implantation process, chronic anovulation, etc).

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor targets for the treatment of metabolic diseases.

    PubMed

    Monsalve, Francisco A; Pyarasani, Radha D; Delgado-Lopez, Fernando; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is estimated to affect more than one in five adults, and its prevalence is growing in the adult and pediatric populations. The most widely recognized metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics commonly manifest a prothrombotic state and a proinflammatory state as well. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) may serve as potential therapeutic targets for treating the metabolic syndrome and its related risk factors. The PPARs are transcriptional factors belonging to the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily. So far, three isoforms of PPARs have been identified, namely, PPAR- α, PPAR-β/δ, and PPAR-γ. Various endogenous and exogenous ligands of PPARs have been identified. PPAR- α and PPAR- γ are mainly involved in regulating lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis, and their agonists are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and T2DM. Whereas PPAR- β / δ function is to regulate lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, anti-inflammation, and fatty acid oxidation and its agonists are used in the treatment of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. This review mainly focuses on the biological role of PPARs in gene regulation and metabolic diseases, with particular focus on the therapeutic potential of PPAR modulators in the treatment of thrombosis.

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists as therapy for chronic airway inflammation.

    PubMed

    Belvisi, Maria G; Hele, David J; Birrell, Mark A

    2006-03-08

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. PPARgamma regulates several metabolic pathways by binding to sequence-specific PPAR response elements in the promoter region of target genes, including lipid biosynthesis and glucose metabolism. Synthetic PPARgamma agonists have been developed, such as the thiazolidinediones rosiglitazone and pioglitazone. These act as insulin sensitizers and are used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Recently however, PPARgamma ligands have been implicated as regulators of cellular inflammatory and immune responses. They are thought to exert anti-inflammatory effects by negatively regulating the expression of pro-inflammatory genes. Several studies have demonstrated that PPARgamma ligands possess anti-inflammatory properties and that these properties may prove helpful in the treatment of inflammatory diseases of the airways. This review will outline the anti-inflammatory effects of synthetic and endogenous PPARgamma ligands and discuss their potential therapeutic effects in animal models of inflammatory airway disease.

  17. Cannabinoid activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: potential for modulation of inflammatory disease.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, S E; Kendall, D A

    2010-08-01

    Cannabinoids act via cell surface G protein-coupled receptors (CB(1) and CB(2)) and the ion channel receptor TRPV1. Evidence has now emerged suggesting that an additional target is the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family of nuclear receptors. There are three PPAR subtypes alpha, delta (also known as beta) and gamma, which regulate cell differentiation, metabolism and immune function. The major endocannabinoids, anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol, and ajulemic acid, a structural analogue of the phytocannabinoid Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), have anti-inflammatory properties mediated by PPARgamma. Other cannabinoids which activate PPARgamma include N-arachidonoyl-dopamine, THC, cannabidiol, HU210, WIN55212-2 and CP55940. The endogenous acylethanolamines, oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide regulate feeding and body weight, stimulate fat utilization and have neuroprotective effects mediated through PPARalpha. Other endocannabinoids that activate PPARalpha include anandamide, virodhamine and noladin ether. There is, as yet, little direct evidence for interactions of cannabinoids with PPARdelta. There is a convergence of effects of cannabinoids, acting via cell surface and nuclear receptors, on immune cell function which provides promise for the targeted therapy of a variety of immune, particularly neuroinflammatory, diseases. 2009 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Targets for the Treatment of Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Monsalve, Francisco A.; Pyarasani, Radha D.; Delgado-Lopez, Fernando; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is estimated to affect more than one in five adults, and its prevalence is growing in the adult and pediatric populations. The most widely recognized metabolic risk factors are atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and elevated plasma glucose. Individuals with these characteristics commonly manifest a prothrombotic state and a proinflammatory state as well. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) may serve as potential therapeutic targets for treating the metabolic syndrome and its related risk factors. The PPARs are transcriptional factors belonging to the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily. So far, three isoforms of PPARs have been identified, namely, PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ, and PPAR-γ. Various endogenous and exogenous ligands of PPARs have been identified. PPAR-α and PPAR-γ are mainly involved in regulating lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis, and their agonists are used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia and T2DM. Whereas PPAR-β/δ function is to regulate lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, anti-inflammation, and fatty acid oxidation and its agonists are used in the treatment of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases. This review mainly focuses on the biological role of PPARs in gene regulation and metabolic diseases, with particular focus on the therapeutic potential of PPAR modulators in the treatment of thrombosis. PMID:23781121

  19. Phospholipase A2-modified low-density lipoprotein activates macrophage peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Namgaladze, Dmitry; Morbitzer, Daniel; von Knethen, Andreas; Brüne, Bernhard

    2010-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors modulating metabolic and inflammatory responses of phagocytes to stimuli such as fatty acids and their metabolites. We studied the role of PPARs in macrophages exposed to low-density lipoprotein (LDL) modified by secretory phospholipase A(2) (PLA). By analyzing PPAR ligand-binding domain luciferase reporter activation, we observed that PLA-LDL transactivates PPARalpha and PPARdelta, but not PPARgamma. We confirmed that PLA-LDL induced PPAR response element reporter activation by endogenous PPARalpha and PPARdelta in human THP-1 macrophages. By using THP-1 cells with a stable knockdown of PPARalpha and PPARdelta, we showed that PLA-LDL-activated PPARdelta altered macrophage gene expression related to lipid metabolism and lipid droplet formation. Although PPARalpha/delta silencing did not affect cholesterol and triglyceride accumulation in PLA-LDL-treated macrophages, PPARdelta activation by PLA-LDL attenuated macrophage inflammatory gene expression induced by interferon gamma and lipopolysaccharide. PPARdelta activation by PLA-LDL does not influence lipid accumulation in PLA-LDL-treated macrophages. However, it attenuates macrophage inflammatory responses, thus contributing to an anti-inflammatory cell phenotype.

  20. Protein profiling of mouse livers with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activation.

    PubMed

    Chu, Ruiyin; Lim, Hanjo; Brumfield, Laura; Liu, Hong; Herring, Chris; Ulintz, Peter; Reddy, Janardan K; Davison, Matthew

    2004-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) is important in the induction of cell-specific pleiotropic responses, including the development of liver tumors, when it is chronically activated by structurally diverse synthetic ligands such as Wy-14,643 or by unmetabolized endogenous ligands resulting from the disruption of the gene encoding acyl coenzyme A (CoA) oxidase (AOX). Alterations in gene expression patterns in livers with PPARalpha activation were delineated by using a proteomic approach to analyze liver proteins of Wy-14,643-treated and AOX(-/-) mice. We identified 46 differentially expressed proteins in mouse livers with PPARalpha activation. Up-regulated proteins, including acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase, farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase, and carnitine O-octanoyltransferase, are involved in fatty acid metabolism, whereas down-regulated proteins, including ketohexokinase, formiminotransferase-cyclodeaminase, fructose-bisphosphatase aldolase B, sarcosine dehydrogenase, and cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase, are involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. Among stress response and xenobiotic metabolism proteins, selenium-binding protein 2 and catalase showed a dramatic approximately 18-fold decrease in expression and a modest approximately 6-fold increase in expression, respectively. In addition, glycine N-methyltransferase, pyrophosphate phosphohydrolase, and protein phosphatase 1D were down-regulated with PPARalpha activation. These observations establish proteomic profiles reflecting a common and predictable pattern of differential protein expression in livers with PPARalpha activation. We conclude that livers with PPARalpha activation are transcriptionally geared towards fatty acid combustion.

  1. Thiazolidinediones repress ob gene expression in rodents via activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed Central

    De Vos, P; Lefebvre, A M; Miller, S G; Guerre-Millo, M; Wong, K; Saladin, R; Hamann, L G; Staels, B; Briggs, M R; Auwerx, J

    1996-01-01

    The ob gene product, leptin, is a signaling factor regulating body weight and energy balance. ob gene expression in rodents is increased in obesity and is regulated by feeding patterns and hormones, such as insulin and glucocorticoids. In humans with gross obesity, ob mRNA levels are higher, but other modulators of human ob expression are unknown. In view of the importance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) in adipocyte differentiation, we analyzed whether ob gene expression is subject to regulation by factors activating PPARs. Treatment of rats with the PPARalpha activator fenofibrate did not change adipose tissue and body weight and had no significant effect on ob mRNA levels. However, administration of the thiazolidinedione BRL49653, a PPARgamma ligand, increased food intake and adipose tissue weight while reducing ob mRNA levels in rats in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory action of the thiazolidinedione BRL49653 on ob mRNA levels was also observed in vitro. Thiazolidinediones reduced the expression of the human ob promoter in primary adipocytes, however, in undifferentiated 3T3-L1 preadipocytes lacking endogenous PPARgamma, cotransfection of PPARgamma was required to observe the decrease. In conclusion, these data suggest that PPARgamma activators reduce ob mRNA levels through an effect of PPARgamma on the ob promoter. PMID:8770873

  2. Effect of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)gamma agonists on prostaglandins cascade in joint cells.

    PubMed

    Moulin, David; Poleni, Paul-Emile; Kirchmeyer, Mélanie; Sebillaud, Sylvie; Koufany, Meriem; Netter, Patrick; Terlain, Bernard; Bianchi, Arnaud; Jouzeau, Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    In response to inflammatory cytokines, chondrocytes and synovial fibroblasts produce high amounts of prostaglandins (PG) which self-perpetuate locally the inflammatory reaction. Prostaglandins act primarily through membrane receptors coupled to G proteins but also bind to nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs). Amongst fatty acids, the cyclopentenone metabolite of PGD2, 15-deoxy-Delta12,14PGJ2 (15d-PGJ2), was shown to be a potent ligand of the PPARgamma isotype prone to inhibit the production of inflammatory mediators. As the stimulated synthesis of PGE2 originates from the preferential coupling of inducible enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and membrane PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1), we investigated the potency of 15d-PGJ2 to regulate prostaglandins synthesis in rat chondrocytes stimulated with interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta). We demonstrated that 15d-PGJ2, but not the high-affinity PPARgamma ligand rosiglitazone, decreased almost completely PGE2 synthesis and mPGES-1 expression. The inhibitory potency of 15d-PGJ2 was unaffected by changes in PPARgamma expression and resulted from inhibition of NF-kappaB nuclear binding and IkappaBalpha sparing, secondary to reduced phosphorylation of IKKbeta. Consistently with 15d-PGJ2 being a putative endogenous regulator of the inflammatory reaction if synthesized in sufficient amounts, the present data confirm the variable PPARgamma-dependency of its effects in joint cells while underlining possible species and cell types specificities.

  3. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma activity reduces imatinib uptake and efficacy in chronic myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jueqiong; Lu, Liu; Kok, Chung H; Saunders, Verity A; Goyne, Jarrad M; Dang, Phuong; Leclercq, Tamara M; Hughes, Timothy P; White, Deborah L

    2017-02-02

    Imatinib is actively transported by OCT-1 influx transporter, and low OCT-1 activity in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia blood mononuclear cells is significantly associated with poor molecular response to imatinib. Here we report that, in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells and BCR-ABL1+ cell lines, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists (GW1929, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone) significantly decrease OCT-1 activity; conversely, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists (GW9662, T0070907) increase OCT-1 activity. Importantly, these effects can lead to corresponding changes in sensitivity to Bcr-Abl kinase inhibition. Results were confirmed in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma-transduced K562 cells. Furthermore, we identified a strong negative correlation between OCT-1 activity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transcriptional activity in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia patients (n=84; p<0.0001), suggesting that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation has a negative impact on the intracellular uptake of imatinib and consequent Bcr-Abl kinase inhibition. The inter-patient variability of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation likely accounts for the heterogeneity observed in patient OCT-1 activity at diagnosis. Recently, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone was reported to act synergistically with imatinib targeting the residual chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell pool. Our findings suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma ligands have differential effects on circulating mononuclear cells compared to stem cells. Since the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation on imatinib uptake in mononuclear cells may counteract the clinical benefit of this activation in stem cells, caution should be applied when combining these therapies, especially in patients

  4. Increased peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activity reduces imatinib uptake and efficacy in chronic myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jueqiong; Lu, Liu; Kok, Chung H.; Saunders, Verity A.; Goyne, Jarrad M.; Dang, Phuong; Leclercq, Tamara M.; Hughes, Timothy P.; White, Deborah L.

    2017-01-01

    Imatinib is actively transported by organic cation transporter-1 (OCT-1) influx transporter, and low OCT-1 activity in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia blood mononuclear cells is significantly associated with poor molecular response to imatinib. Herein we report that, in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia mononuclear cells and BCR-ABL1+ cell lines, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists (GW1929, rosiglitazone, pioglitazone) significantly decrease OCT-1 activity; conversely, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ antagonists (GW9662, T0070907) increase OCT-1 activity. Importantly, these effects can lead to corresponding changes in sensitivity to BCR-ABL kinase inhibition. Results were confirmed in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ-transduced K562 cells. Furthermore, we identified a strong negative correlation between OCT-1 activity and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ transcriptional activity in diagnostic chronic myeloid leukemia patients (n=84; P<0.0001), suggesting that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation has a negative impact on the intracellular uptake of imatinib and consequent BCR-ABL kinase inhibition. The inter-patient variability of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation likely accounts for the heterogeneity observed in patient OCT-1 activity at diagnosis. Recently, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist pioglitazone was reported to act synergistically with imatinib, targeting the residual chronic myeloid leukemia stem cell pool. Our findings suggest that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ ligands have differential effects on circulating mononuclear cells compared to stem cells. Since the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation on imatinib uptake in mononuclear cells may counteract the clinical benefit of this activation in stem cells, caution should be applied when combining these therapies, especially in

  5. Interaction between Calpain 5, Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta genes: a polygenic approach to obesity

    PubMed Central

    Sáez, María E; Grilo, Antonio; Morón, Francisco J; Manzano, Luis; Martínez-Larrad, María T; González-Pérez, Antonio; Serrano-Hernando, Javier; Ruiz, Agustín; Ramírez-Lorca, Reposo; Serrano-Ríos, Manuel

    2008-01-01

    Context Obesity is a multifactorial disorder, that is, a disease determined by the combined effect of genes and environment. In this context, polygenic approaches are needed. Objective To investigate the possibility of the existence of a crosstalk between the CALPAIN 10 homologue CALPAIN 5 and nuclear receptors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors family. Design Cross-sectional, genetic association study and gene-gene interaction analysis. Subjects The study sample comprise 1953 individuals, 725 obese (defined as body mass index ≥ 30) and 1228 non obese subjects. Results In the monogenic analysis, only the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARD) gene was associated with obesity (OR = 1.43 [1.04–1.97], p = 0.027). In addition, we have found a significant interaction between CAPN5 and PPARD genes (p = 0.038) that reduces the risk for obesity in a 55%. Conclusion Our results suggest that CAPN5 and PPARD gene products may also interact in vivo. PMID:18657264

  6. Expression of a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene (xPPARalpha) from Xenopus laevis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants.

    PubMed

    Nila, Alejandro G; Sandalio, Luisa M; López, Mercedes G; Gómez, Manuel; del Rio, Luis A; Gómez-Lim, Miguel A

    2006-08-01

    In this work, we have genetically transformed tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) plants with the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor cDNA (xPPARalpha) from Xenopus laevis, which is a transcriptional factor involved in the peroxisomal proliferation and induction of fatty acid beta-oxidation in animal cells. Several transgenic lines were generated and one representative line (T) from the R2 generation was selected for further studies. Analysis of free fatty acids revealed that unsaturated fatty acids such as C16:2 and C16:3 were deficient in line T, whereas saturated fatty acids like C16:0, C18:0, and C20:0 were more abundant than in non-transformed plants. Acyl-CoA oxidase (ACOX) activity was assayed as a marker enzyme of beta-oxidation in crude leaf extracts and it was found that in line T there was a threefold increase in enzyme activity. We also found that the peroxisome population was increased and that catalase (CAT) activity was induced by clofibrate, a known activator of xPPARalpha protein, in leaves from line T. Taken together, these findings suggest that xPPARalpha is functional in plants and that its expression in tobacco leads to changes in general lipid metabolism and peroxisomal proliferation as reported in animal cells. Furthermore, it indicates that there is an endogenous ligand in tobacco cells able to activate xPPARalpha.

  7. [Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma and hypertension: lessons of the history of researches].

    PubMed

    Rasin, M S

    2013-01-01

    The paper analyzes data from the clinical use of thiazolidinediones, human genetic observations and experiments with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-gamma) gene removal, and also those on the role of PPAR-alpha and -gamma in the function of the vascular endothelium, sympathetic autonomic nervous system, and renal sodium reabsorption. It is concluded that the tonic activity of PPAR is a universal protective mechanism counteracting the development of hypertension.

  8. Inhibitory effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonists on collagen IV production in podocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanjiao; Shen, Yachen; Li, Min; Su, Dongming; Xu, Weifeng; Liang, Xiubin; Li, Rongshan

    2015-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) agonists have beneficial effects on the kidney diseases through preventing microalbuminuria and glomerulosclerosis. However, the mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be fully understood. In this study, we investigate the effects of PPAR-γ agonist, rosiglitazone (Rosi) and pioglitazone (Pio), on collagen IV production in mouse podocytes. The endogenous expression of PPAR-γ was found in the primary podocytes and can be upregulated by Rosi and Pio, respectively, detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. PPAR-γ agonist markedly blunted the increasing of collagen IV expression and extraction in podocytes induced by TGF-β. In contrast, adding PPAR-γ antagonist, GW9662, to podocytes largely prevented the inhibition of collagen IV expression from Pio treatment. Our data also showed that phosphorylation of Smad2/3 enhanced by TGF-β in a time-dependent manner was significantly attenuated by adding Pio. The promoter region of collagen IV gene contains one putative consensus sequence of Smad-binding element (SBE) by promoter analysis, Rosi and Pio significantly ameliorated TGF-β-induced SBE4-luciferase activity. In conclusion, PPAR-γ activation by its agonist, Rosi or Pio, in vitro directly inhibits collagen IV expression and synthesis in primary mouse podocytes. The suppression of collagen IV production was related to the inhibition of TGF-β-driven phosphorylation of Smad2/3 and decreased response activity of SBEs of collagen IV in PPAR-γ agonist-treated mouse podocytes. This represents a novel mechanistic support regarding PPAR-γ agonists as podocyte protective agents.

  9. Neuroprotective properties of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) and its lipid ligands.

    PubMed

    Fidaleo, Marco; Fanelli, Francesca; Ceru, Maria Paola; Moreno, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Signalling lipids are known to control a wide array of cellular processes, including cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and energy metabolism. Fatty acids and their derivatives, eicosanoids, phosphoinositides, sphingolipids, some cannabinoid-like molecules bind and activate nuclear receptors, including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). This subfamily of transcription factors comprises three isotypes - PPARα (NR1C1), PPAR β/δ (NR1C2), PPARγ (NR1C3) - which bind to specific DNA response elements, as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors. PPAR activity is modulated by post-translational modifications and cofactors, towards which they show differential affinity. The three PPARs mutually interact, being integrated in a complex system, leading to the concept of a "PPAR triad". Nevertheless, the isotypes also show distinct actions on cellular physiology and partially different tissue, ligand and target gene specificities. In the brain, while the functions of PPARγ and its ligands are being thoroughly investigated, the actual and potential roles of PPARα and β/δ are far from being clarified. PPARα appears especially intriguing, since it is selectively expressed in certain brain areas and neuronal/glial populations, and modulates antioxidant responses, neurotransmission, neuroinflammation, neurogenesis, and glial cell proliferation/differentiation. This receptor and its endogenous ligands, including oleoylethanoloamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), are involved in physiological and pathological responses, such as satiety, memory consolidation, and modulation of pain perception. The protective role of PPARα agonists in neurodegenerative diseases and in neuropsychiatric disorders makes manipulation of this pathway highly attractive as therapeutic strategy for neuropathological conditions. In this review, we focus on the pleiotropic functions of PPARα and its lipid ligands in the nervous tissue, devoting special attention to

  10. Spatio-temporal expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α during human prenatal development.

    PubMed

    Cizkova, Katerina; Rajdova, Aneta; Ehrmann, Jiri

    2015-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-dependent transcription factor which is activated by various endogenous as well as exogenous compounds. It is involved in the regulation of a variety of biological processes, such as nutrient metabolism, energy homoeostasis, immunological response and xenobiotic metabolism. Little is known about its expression during human prenatal development. We examined the spatio-temporal expression pattern of PPARα in human embryonic/foetal intestines, liver and kidney from the 5th to 20th week of prenatal life by indirect two-step immunohistochemistry. PPARα expression can already be detected in the early stages of prenatal development; as early as the 7th week of intrauterine development (IUD) in the intestines, 5th week of IUD in the liver and 6th week of IUD in the kidney. We found age-dependent changes in the PPARα expression pattern in the intestines and kidney. These events occur approximately at the commencement of function of these organs. In the intestines, we detected an obvious change of the PPARα expression pattern along the crypt-villous axis in the 11th week of IUD. In the kidney, the most apparent change was increased expression of PPARα in glomeruli in the 12th week of IUD. Moreover, in the liver, we detected a strong positivity in part of the developing blood elements. Information about the spatio-temporal expression pattern of PPARα could be the first step in evaluating the potential harmful impact of a wide range of environmental or pharmaceutical compounds which serve as PPARα ligands on the developing human organism.

  11. Carbonic anhydrase III regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}2

    SciTech Connect

    Mitterberger, Maria C.; Kim, Geumsoo; Rostek, Ursula; Levine, Rodney L.; Zwerschke, Werner

    2012-05-01

    Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII) is an isoenzyme of the CA family. Because of its low specific anhydrase activity, physiological functions in addition to hydrating CO{sub 2} have been proposed. CAIII expression is highly induced in adipogenesis and CAIII is the most abundant protein in adipose tissues. The function of CAIII in both preadipocytes and adipocytes is however unknown. In the present study we demonstrate that adipogenesis is greatly increased in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) from CAIII knockout (KO) mice, as demonstrated by a greater than 10-fold increase in the induction of fatty acid-binding protein-4 (FABP4) and increased triglyceride formation in CAIII{sup -/-} MEFs compared with CAIII{sup +/+} cells. To address the underlying mechanism, we investigated the expression of the two adipogenic key regulators, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}2 (PPAR{gamma}2) and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein-{alpha}. We found a considerable (approximately 1000-fold) increase in the PPAR{gamma}2 expression in the CAIII{sup -/-} MEFs. Furthermore, RNAi-mediated knockdown of endogenous CAIII in NIH 3T3-L1 preadipocytes resulted in a significant increase in the induction of PPAR{gamma}2 and FABP4. When both CAIII and PPAR{gamma}2 were knocked down, FABP4 was not induced. We conclude that down-regulation of CAIII in preadipocytes enhances adipogenesis and that CAIII is a regulator of adipogenic differentiation which acts at the level of PPAR{gamma}2 gene expression. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We discover a novel function of Carbonic anhydrase III (CAIII). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show that CAIII is a regulator of adipogenesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We demonstrate that CAIII acts at the level of PPAR{gamma}2 gene expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Our data contribute to a better understanding of the role of CAIII in fat tissue.

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α mediates acute effects of palmitoylethanolamide on sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Khasabova, Iryna A; Xiong, Yee; Coicou, Lia G; Piomelli, Daniele; Seybold, Virginia

    2012-09-12

    The amplitude of the depolarization-evoked Ca2+ transient is larger in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons from tumor-bearing mice compared with that of neurons from naive mice, and the change is mimicked by coculturing DRG neurons with the fibrosarcoma cells used to generate the tumors (Khasabova et al., 2007). The effect of palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), a ligand for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), was determined on the evoked-Ca2+ transient in the coculture condition. The level of PEA was reduced in DRG cells from tumor-bearing mice as well as those cocultured with fibrosarcoma cells. Pretreatment with PEA, a synthetic PPARα agonist (GW7647), or ARN077, an inhibitor of the enzyme that hydrolyzes PEA, acutely decreased the amplitude of the evoked Ca2+ transient in small DRG neurons cocultured with fibrosarcoma cells. The PPARα antagonist GW6471 blocked the effect of each. In contrast, the PPARα agonist was without effect in the control condition, but the antagonist increased the amplitude of the Ca2+ transient, suggesting that PPARα receptors are saturated by endogenous ligand under basal conditions. Effects of drugs on mechanical sensitivity in vivo paralleled their effects on DRG neurons in vitro. Local injection of ARN077 decreased mechanical hyperalgesia in tumor-bearing mice, and the effect was blocked by GW6471. These data support the conclusion that the activity of DRG neurons is rapidly modulated by PEA through a PPARα-dependent mechanism. Moreover, agents that increase the activity of PPARα may provide a therapeutic strategy to reduce tumor-evoked pain.

  13. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma is crucial for antitumoral effects of 6-iodolactone.

    PubMed

    Nava-Villalba, Mario; Nuñez-Anita, Rosa E; Bontempo, Alexander; Aceves, Carmen

    2015-09-17

    Molecular iodine (I2) exhibits antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on in vivo and in vitro cancer models. These effects are thought to be mediated by an iodinated arachidonic acid derivative, 6-iodolactone (6IL), and one of the proposed mechanisms is that 6IL activates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors type gamma (PPARG). These receptors have been implicated in the inhibition of carcinogenic processes, in addition to their classical role in maintaining lipid and glucose homeostasis. The aim of this study was to determine whether PPARG participates in the 6IL antiproliferative and apoptotic effects on the mammary cancer cell line MCF-7. The 6IL/PPARG complex was inhibited by the PPARG antagonist GW9662, in both an endogenous and overexpressed (adenoviral vector infection) context, and stable PPARG-knockdown MCF-7 cells (RNA interference, confirmed with hydrolysis probes and Western blot), were used to corroborate the PPARG participation. 6IL effects on proliferation (measured by Trypan Blue exclusion) and apoptosis (phosphatidylserine identification by flow cytometer) were evaluated in conditions of chemical inhibition (GW9662) and silencing (RNA interference). A wound-healing assay was conducted on wild-type and stable PPARG-knockdown MCF-7 cells to evaluate the antimigrational effect of 6IL. Caspase-8 activity was evaluated to determine if the extrinsic pathway is involved in the effects of 6IL and I2 treatment. Antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic 6IL effects require the activation of PPARG. In addition, wound-healing assays show that 6IL is able to inhibit MCF-7 cell migration and that PPARG plays a role in this phenomenon. Finally, the data exclude the participation of the extrinsic apoptotic pathway in 6IL- and I2-induced apoptosis. These results support the previously proposed mechanism, in which the I2 effects are mediated by 6IL, and they provide further support for the use of I2 as coadjuvant in breast cancer treatment.

  14. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (PPARa), Beta (PPARI3), and Gamma (PPARy) Expression in Human Fetal Tissues.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis, are targets of pharmaceuticals, and are also activated by environmental contaminants. Almost nothing is known about expression of PPARs during human fetal development. This study uses qPCR...

  15. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors Alpha, Beta, and Gamma mRNA and protein expression in human fetal tissues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis, are targets of pharmaceuticals, and are also activated by environmental contaminants. Almost nothing is known about expression of PPARs during human fetal development. This study examine...

  16. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors Alpha, Beta, and Gamma mRNA and protein expression in human fetal tissues

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis, are targets of pharmaceuticals, and are also activated by environmental contaminants. Almost nothing is known about expression of PPARs during human fetal development. This study examine...

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (PPARa), Beta (PPARI3), and Gamma (PPARy) Expression in Human Fetal Tissues.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) regulate lipid and glucose homeostasis, are targets of pharmaceuticals, and are also activated by environmental contaminants. Almost nothing is known about expression of PPARs during human fetal development. This study uses qPCR...

  18. Palmitoylethanolamide protects dentate gyrus granule cells via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α.

    PubMed

    Koch, Marco; Kreutz, Susanne; Böttger, Charlotte; Benz, Alexander; Maronde, Erik; Ghadban, Chalid; Korf, Horst-Werner; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2011-02-01

    Endocannabinoids like 2-arachidonoylglycerol strongly modulate the complex machinery of secondary neuronal damage and are shown to improve neuronal survival after excitotoxic lesion. Palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), the naturally occurring fatty acid amide of ethanolamine and palmitic acid, is an endogenous lipid known to mimic several effects of endocannabinoids even without binding to cannabinoid receptors. Here we show that PEA (0.001-1 μM) and the synthetic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha agonist 4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthio acetic acid (Wy-14,643; 0.1-1 μM) reduced the number of microglial cells and protected dentate gyrus granule cells in excitotoxically lesioned organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). Treatment with the PPAR-alpha antagonist N-((2S)-2-(((1Z)-1-Methyl-3-oxo-3-(4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl)prop-1-enyl)amino)-3-(4-(2-(5-methyl-2-phenyl-1,3-oxazol-4-yl)ethoxy)phenyl)propyl)propanamide (GW6471; 0.05-5 μM) blocked PEA-mediated neuroprotection and reduction of microglial cell numbers whereas the PPAR-gamma antagonist 2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenyl-benzamide (GW9662; 0.01-1 μM) showed no effects. Immunocytochemistry and Western blot analyses revealed a strong PPAR-alpha immunoreaction in BV-2 microglial cells and in HT22 hippocampal cells. Intensity and location of PPAR-alpha immunoreaction remained constant during stimulation with PEA (0.01 μM; 1-36 h). In conclusion our data provide evidence that (1) PEA counteracted excitotoxically induced secondary neuronal damage of dentate gyrus granule cells, (2) PPAR-alpha but not PPAR-gamma is the endogenous binding site for PEA-mediated neuroprotection, and (3) PEA may activate PPAR-alpha in microglial cells and hippocampal neurons to exert its neuroprotective effects. In addition to classical endocannabinoids, PEA-mediated PPAR-alpha activation represents a possible target for therapeutic interventions to mitigate symptoms of secondary neuronal damage.

  19. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in carcinogenesis and chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jeffrey M; Shah, Yatrik M; Gonzalez, Frank J

    2012-02-09

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that are involved in regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis, inflammation, proliferation and differentiation. Although all of these functions might contribute to the influence of PPARs in carcinogenesis, there is a distinct need for a review of the literature and additional experimentation to determine the potential for targeting PPARs for cancer therapy and cancer chemoprevention. As PPAR agonists include drugs that are used for the treatment of metabolic diseases, a more complete understanding of the roles of PPARs in cancer will aid in determining any increased cancer risk for patients undergoing therapy with PPAR agonists.

  20. Thyroid hormone receptors regulate adipogenesis and carcinogenesis via crosstalk signaling with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Changxue; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2010-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. They are ligand-dependent transcription factors that interact with their cognate hormone response elements in the promoters to regulate respective target gene expression to modulate cellular functions. While the transcription activity of each is regulated by their respective ligands, recent studies indicate that via multiple mechanisms PPARs and TRs crosstalk to affect diverse biological functions. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and biological impact of crosstalk between these two important nuclear receptors, focusing on their roles in adipogenesis and carcinogenesis.

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma ligands and ischemia and reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2004-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors that are related to retinoid, steroid and thyroid hormone receptors. The PPAR subfamily comprises of three members, PPAR-alpha, PPAR-beta and PPAR-gamma. PPAR-gamma has recently been implicated as a regulator of cellular proliferation and inflammatory responses. There is good evidence that ligands of PPAR-gamma, including certain thiazolinediones, reduce tissue injury associated with ischemia and reperfusion. The potential utility of PPAR-gamma ligands in ischemia and reperfusion will be discussed in this review.

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and liver X receptors in atherosclerosis and immunity.

    PubMed

    Barish, Grant D

    2006-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a primary cause of death in the United States, and the current obesity epidemic threatens to exacerbate its morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite important cardiovascular treatment advances over the past few decades, new approaches are needed to curb dangerous health trends. Nuclear receptors are a superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. The discovery of subfamilies known as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and liver X receptors (LXR) as lipid-sensors that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism as well as inflammation offers new targets for nutritional and pharmacologic treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ligands and ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Rosanna; Cuzzocrea, Salvatore

    2007-05-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to a subfamily of transcription nuclear factors. Three isoforms of PPARs have been identified: alpha, beta/delta and gamma, encoded by different genes and distributed in various tissues. They play important roles in metabolic processes like regulation of glucose and lipid redistribution. They also have anti-atherogenic, anti-inflammatory as well as antihypertensive functions. There is good evidence that ligands of PPARs reduce tissue injury associated with ischemia and reperfusion. The potential utility of PPAR ligands in ischemia and reperfusion will be discussed in this review.

  4. Functions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) in Gynecologic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ping; Zhang, Yuquan; Huang, Yan; Yang, Yingli; Jiang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of a class of nuclear hormone receptors intimately involved in the regulation of expression of myriad genes that regulate energy metabolism, cell differentiation, apoptosis, and inflammation. Although originally discovered as a pivotal regulator of adipocyte differentiation, the roles that PPARγ plays in gynecological disorders are still unknown. There are a number of studies on the functions of PPARγ and its agonists in gynecological disorders. In this mini-review, we provide a brief summary of the advances in recent years. PMID:25987855

  5. Immunohistochemical characterization of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in canine normal testis and testicular tumours.

    PubMed

    Sozmen, M; Kabak, Y B; Gulbahar, M Y; Gacar, A; Karayigit, M O; Guvenc, T; Yarim, M

    2013-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Recent studies have demonstrated that PPARs regulate lipid metabolism and are expressed in various cancers. The aim of the present study was to investigate the expression of PPAR-α, -β and -γ in normal canine testicular tissue and canine testicular tumours (CTTs). Expression of PPAR-α, -β and -γ was greater (P <0.05) than in normal testicular tissue. PPARs were therefore induced in CTTs and they may play a role in the biology of these tumours. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in chronic inflammation and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Dingzhi; DuBois, Raymond N.

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and have been implicated in a variety of physiological and pathological processes, such as nutrient metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation and cancer. In this review, we highlight breakthroughs in our understanding of the potential roles of PPARs in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. These PPAR receptors might hold the key to some of the questions pertinent to the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases and colorectal cancer and could possibly serve as drug targets for new anti-inflammatory therapeutic and anti-cancer agents. PMID:20951925

  7. Thyroid hormone receptors regulate adipogenesis and carcinogenesis via crosstalk signaling with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Cheng, Sheue-Yann

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. They are ligand-dependent transcription factors that interact with their cognate hormone response elements in the promoters to regulate respective target gene expression to modulate cellular functions. While the transcription activity of each is regulated by their respective ligands, recent studies indicate that via multiple mechanisms PPARs and TRs crosstalk to affect diverse biological functions. Here, we review recent advances in the understanding of the molecular mechanisms and biological impact of crosstalk between these two important nuclear receptors, focusing on their roles in adipogenesis and carcinogenesis. PMID:19741045

  8. THE ROLE OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS IN CARCINOGENESIS AND CHEMOPREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jeffrey M.; Shah, Yatrik M.; Gonzalez, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that are involved in regulating glucose and lipid homeostasis, inflammation, proliferation and differentiation. Although all of these functions might contribute to the influence of PPARs in carcinogenesis, there is a distinct need for a balanced review of the literature and additional experimentation to determine the potential for targeting PPARs for cancer therapy and cancer chemoprevention. As PPAR agonists include drugs used for the treatment of metabolic diseases, a more complete understanding of the roles of PPARs in cancer will aid in determining any increased cancer risk for patients undergoing therapy with PPAR agonists. PMID:22318237

  9. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Alpha (PPARα), a Key Regulator of Lipid Metabolism in Avians.

    PubMed

    Navidshad, Bahman; Royan, M

    2016-01-01

    Dietary fatty acids have various effects on cellular metabolism, and many of these effects are carried out through the alteration of the gene expression. Fatty acids upregulate or downregulate the expression of different genes by acting both as agonists or antagonists for nuclear hormone receptors. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. To date, three PPAR subtypes, α, β, and γ, have been recognized. PPARs regulate various target genes with a role in intracellular and extracellular lipid metabolism, mainly those involved in peroxisomal β-oxidation. PPAR controls several genes involved in lipid metabolism, including Δ-5, Δ-6, and Δ-9 desaturases, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase. The activation of PPARα might thus decrease fat deposits indirectly by raising hepatic fatty acid β-oxidation. PPARα is likely part of the regulating system of energy metabolism in peripheral tissues such as adipose tissue and skeletal muscles.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene: a key regulator of adipocyte differentiation in chickens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Mu, Y; Li, H; Ding, N; Wang, Q; Wang, Y; Wang, S; Wang, N

    2008-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma is regarded as a "master regulator" of adipocyte differentiation in mammals. The current study was designed to investigate the function and regulatory mechanism of PPARgamma in chicken adipogenesis by RNA interference. Preadipocytes were isolated from the abdominal fat tissue of 12-d-old chickens and cultured. Small-interference PPARgamma RNA (siPPARgamma) was synthesized by in vitro transcription and transfected into chicken preadipocytes by using liposomes. The suppressive effect of siPPARgamma was detected by real-time reverse-transcription PCR and reverse-transcription PCR. The results showed that transient transfection with siPPARgamma significantly inhibited differentiation and enhanced proliferation of chicken preadipocytes (P < 0.05). The adipogenesis-associated adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein gene was down-regulated when PPARgamma was silenced. The current work indicates that PPARgamma is a key regulator of chicken preadipocyte differentiation.

  11. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gene polymorphisms in type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dong, Chen; Zhou, Hui; Shen, Chong; Yu, Lu-Gang; Ding, Yi; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Guo, Zhi-Rong

    2015-05-15

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are the serious public health problems worldwide. Moreover, it is estimated that MetS patients have about five-fold greater risk of the T2DM development compared with people without the syndrome. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are a subgroup of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors which play an important role in the pathogenesis of MetS and T2DM. All three members of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) nuclear receptor subfamily, PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ are critical in regulating insulin sensitivity, adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure. Recently, more and more studies indicated that the gene polymorphism of PPARs, such as Leu(162)Val and Val(227)Ala of PPARα, +294T > C of PPARβ/δ, Pro(12)Ala and C1431T of PPARγ, are significantly associated with the onset and progressing of MetS and T2DM in different population worldwide. Furthermore, a large body of evidence demonstrated that the glucose metabolism and lipid metabolism were influenced by gene-gene interaction among PPARs genes. However, given the complexity pathogenesis of metabolic disease, it is unlikely that genetic variation of a single locus would provide an adequate explanation of inter-individual differences which results in diverse clinical syndromes. Thus, gene-gene interactions and gene-environment interactions associated with T2DM and MetS need future comprehensive studies.

  12. Statins enhance peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha activity to regulate energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenxian; Wong, Chi-Wai

    2010-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1alpha (PGC-1alpha) serves as an inducible coactivator for a number of transcription factors to control energy metabolism. Insulin signaling through Akt kinase has been demonstrated to phosphorylate PGC-1alpha at serine 571 and downregulate its activity in the liver. Statins are 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors that reduce cholesterol synthesis in the liver. In this study, we found that statins reduced the active form of Akt and enhanced PGC-1alpha activity. Specifically, statins failed to activate an S571A mutant of PGC-1alpha. The activation of PGC-1alpha by statins selectively enhanced the expression of energy metabolizing enzymes and regulators including peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, acyl-CoA oxidase, carnitine palmitoyl transferase-1A, and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4. Importantly, a constitutively active form of Akt partially reduced the statin-enhanced gene expression. Our study thus provides a plausible mechanistic explanation for the hypolipidemic effect of statin through elevating the rate of beta-oxidation and mitochondrial Kreb's cycle capacity to enhance fatty acid utilization while reducing the rate of glycolysis.

  13. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α ligands as anticancer drugs targeting mitochondrial metabolism.

    PubMed

    Grabacka, Maja; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2013-01-01

    Tumor cells show metabolic features distinctive from normal tissues, with characteristically enhanced aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis and lipid synthesis. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR α) is activated by nutrients (fatty acids and their derivatives) and influences these metabolic pathways acting antagonistically to oncogenic Akt and c-Myc. Therefore PPAR α can be regarded as a candidate target molecule in supplementary anticancer pharmacotherapy as well as dietary therapeutic approach. This idea is based on hitting the cancer cell metabolic weak points through PPAR α mediated stimulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis with simultaneous reduction of glucose and glutamine consumption. PPAR α activity is induced by fasting and its molecular consequences overlap with the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet (CRKD). CRKD induces increase of NAD+/NADH ratio and drop in ATP/AMP ratio. The first one is the main stimulus for enhanced protein deacetylase SIRT1 activity; the second one activates AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). Both SIRT1 and AMPK exert their major metabolic activities such as fatty acid oxidation and block of glycolysis and protein, nucleotide and fatty acid synthesis through the effector protein peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 1 α coactivator (PGC-1α). PGC-1α cooperates with PPAR α and their activities might contribute to potential anticancer effects of CRKD, which were reported for various brain tumors. Therefore, PPAR α activation can engage molecular interplay among SIRT1, AMPK, and PGC-1α that provides a new, low toxicity dietary approach supplementing traditional anticancer regimen.

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in bladder cancer: a promising therapeutic target.

    PubMed

    Mansure, Jose J; Nassim, Roland; Kassouf, Wassim

    2009-04-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated intracellular transcription factors, members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. The PPAR subfamily consist of three subtypes encoded by distinct genes denoted PPARalpha, PPARbeta/delta, and PPARgamma. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is the most extensively studied subtype of the PPARs. Over the last decade, research on PPARgamma unveiled its role in important biological processes, including lipid biosynthesis, glucose metabolism, anti-inflammatory response, and atherosclerosis. Recently, PPARgamma has been shown to be expressed in many cancers including, lung, prostate, bladder, colon, breast, duodenal, thyroid, and has been demonstrated to potentially play an important role in carcinogenesis. In bladder cancer, PPARgamma ligands such as troglitazone and 15d-PGJ2 have shown to inhibit tumor growth. We have recently published the first report to show that a new class of PPARgamma agonists, PPARgamma-active C-DIMs, which are more potent than the previous generation of drugs, exhibit anti-tumorigenic activity against bladder cancer cells in vitro and bladder tumors in vivo. The following review will discuss the molecular structure of PPARgamma, its function and its role in cancer biology and how it is emerging as a promising therapeutic target in bladder cancer.

  15. Modulation of Receptor Phosphorylation Contributes to Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor α by Dehydroepiandrosterone and Other Peroxisome Proliferators

    PubMed Central

    Tamasi, Viola; Miller, Kristy K. Michael; Ripp, Sharon L.; Vila, Ermin; Geoghagen, Thomas E.; Prough, Russell A.

    2008-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), a C19 human adrenal steroid, activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) in vivo but does not ligand-activate PPARα in transient transfection experiments. We demonstrate that DHEA regulates PPARα action by altering both the levels and phosphorylation status of the receptor. Human hepatoma cells (HepG2) were transiently transfected with the expression plasmid encoding PPARα and a plasmid containing two copies of fatty acyl coenzyme oxidase (FACO) peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor responsive element consensus oligonucleotide in a luciferase reporter gene. Nafenopin treatment increased reporter gene activity in this system, whereas DHEA treatment did not. Okadaic acid significantly decreased nafenopin-induced reporter activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Okadaic acid treatment of primary rat hepatocytes decreased both DHEA- and nafenopin-induced FACO activity in primary rat hepatocytes. DHEA induced both PPARα mRNA and protein levels, as well as PP2A message in primary rat hepatocytes. Western blot analysis showed that the serines at positions 12 and 21 were rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment with DHEA and nafenopin. Results using specific protein phosphatase inhibitors suggested that protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) is responsible for DHEA action, and protein phosphatase 1 might be involved in nafenopin induction. Mutation of serines at position 6, 12, and 21 to an uncharged alanine residue significantly increased transcriptional activity, whereas mutation to negative charged aspartate residues (mimicking receptor phosphorylation) decreased transcriptional activity. DHEA action involves induction of PPARα mRNA and protein levels as well as increased PPARα transcriptional activity through decreasing receptor phosphorylation at serines in the AF1 region. PMID:18079279

  16. Expression of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-alpha, -beta, and -gamma in ovarian carcinoma effusions is associated with poor chemoresponse and shorter survival.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Ben; Hadar, Rivka; Stavnes, Helene Tuft; Trope', Claes G; Reich, Reuven

    2009-05-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors regulate lipid metabolism, affecting inflammation and cancer. The present study analyzed the anatomical site-related expression and prognostic role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in ovarian carcinoma. Fresh-frozen effusions (n = 79), primary carcinomas (n = 44), and solid metastases (n = 16) were studied for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha, -beta, and -gamma messenger RNA expression using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma messenger RNA expression was further assessed in 60 tumors (30 effusions, 20 primary carcinomas, 10 metastases) using in situ hybridization. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma protein expression was immunohistochemically analyzed in 160 effusions. All peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors were expressed in most tumors at all anatomical sites using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, but peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (P = .004) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-beta (P = .002) messenger RNA levels were higher in effusions compared with primary carcinomas and solid metastases. In situ hybridization localized peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma messenger RNA to carcinoma cells in both effusions and solid lesions. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma protein was detected in carcinoma cells in 102 of 160 (64%) effusions. Higher effusion messenger RNA levels of all peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors were associated with less favorable response to chemotherapy at diagnosis (P = .009). In univariate survival analysis, higher messenger RNA expression of all peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors was associated with poor progression-free (P = .045) and overall (P = .014) survival. Higher peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma protein expression was similarly associated with poor overall survival for the

  17. [Association and interaction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α with low high-density lipoprotein hyperlipidemia and with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ].

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng-meng; Gu, Shu-jun; Guo, Zhi-rong; Wu, Ming; Chen, Qiu; Zhou, Zheng-yuan; Yu, Hao; Ding, Yi; Luo, Wen-shu

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the association of ten single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (α, δ, γ) with low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) hyperlipidemia and the additional role of a gene-gene interactions among the 10 SNPs. Participants were recruited under the framework of the PMMJS (Prevention of Multiple Metabolic Disorders and MS in Jiangsu Province) cohort populations survey, in the urban community of Jiangsu province, China. 820 subjects (579 normal HDL-C, 241 low HDL-C) were randomly selected, with one of them related to each other. Ten SNPs (rs135539, rs4253778, rs1800206, rs2016520, rs9794, rs10865710, rs1805192, rs709158, rs3856806, rs4684847) were selected from the HapMap database, which covered PPARα, PPARδ and PPARγ. Logistic regression model was used to examine the association between ten SNPs in the PPARs and low HDL-C. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confident interval (95%CI) were calculated. Interactions were explored by using the method of Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR). After adjusting the factors as age, sex, smoking status, occupational physical activity, high-fat diet as well as low-fiber diet, both rs135539 and rs1800206 were significantly associated with the incidence of low HDL-C, with the OR (95% CI) values as 1.46 (1.07 - 1.99) and 0.62 (0.42 - 0.90). No statistically significant difference was found between other SNPs and the occurrence of low HDL-C. Data from GMDR analysis showed significant gene-gene interaction among rs135539, rs4253778 of PPARα and rs10865710, rs3856806, rs709158 and rs4684847 of PPAR γ (P = 0.0107). PPARα rs135539 was associated with the occurrence of low HDL-C, and had interacted with rs4253778, rs10865710, rs3856806, rs709158 and rs4684847.

  18. Increased hepatic oxidative metabolism distinguishes the action of Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ from Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in the ob/ob mouse

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors and members of the nuclear receptor superfamily. The PPAR family consists of three members: PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARδ. PPARδ controls the transcription of genes involved in multiple physiological pathways, including cellular differentiation, lipid metabolism and energy homeostasis. The receptor is expressed almost ubiquitously, with high expression in liver and skeletal muscle. Although the physiological ligands of PPARδ remain undefined, a number of high affinity synthetic ligands have been developed for the receptor as a therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and the metabolic syndrome. Methods In this study, the metabolic role of PPARδ activation has been investigated in liver, skeletal muscle, blood serum and white adipose tissue from ob/ob mice using a high affinity synthetic ligand and contrasted with PPARγ activation. To maximize the analytical coverage of the metabolome, 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR) spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) were used to examine metabolites from tissue extracts. Results Analysis by multivariate statistics demonstrated that PPARδ activation profoundly affected glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, the TCA cycle and linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid essential fatty acid pathways. Conclusions Although activation of both PPARδ and PPARγ lead to increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, PPARδ activation was functionally distinct from PPARγ activation, and was characterized by increased hepatic and peripheral fatty acid oxidative metabolism, demonstrating the distinctive catabolic role of this receptor compared with PPARγ. PMID:19968882

  19. Estrogen receptor alpha binds to peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor response element and negatively interferes with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Bonofiglio, Daniela; Gabriele, Sabrina; Aquila, Saveria; Catalano, Stefania; Gentile, Mariaelena; Middea, Emilia; Giordano, Francesca; Andò, Sebastiano

    2005-09-01

    The molecular mechanisms involved in the repressive effects exerted by estrogen receptors (ER) on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma-mediated transcriptional activity remain to be elucidated. The aim of the present study was to provide new insight into the crosstalk between ERalpha and PPARgamma pathways in breast cancer cells. Using MCF7 and HeLa cells as model systems, we did transient transfections and electrophoretic mobility shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies to evaluate the ability of ERalpha to influence PPAR response element-mediated transcription. A possible direct interaction between ERalpha and PPARgamma was ascertained by co-immunoprecipitation assay, whereas their modulatory role in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway was evaluated by determining PI3K activity and AKT phosphorylation. As a biological counterpart, we investigated the growth response to the cognate ligands of both receptors in hormone-dependent MCF7 breast cancer cells. Our data show for the first time that ERalpha binds to PPAR response element and represses its transactivation. Moreover, we have documented the physical and functional interactions of ERalpha and PPARgamma, which also involve the p85 regulatory subunit of PI3K. Interestingly, ERalpha and PPARgamma pathways have an opposite effect on the regulation of the PI3K/AKT transduction cascade, explaining, at least in part, the divergent response exerted by the cognate ligands 17beta-estradiol and BRL49653 on MCF7 cell proliferation. ERalpha physically associates with PPARgamma and functionally interferes with PPARgamma signaling. This crosstalk could be taken into account in setting new pharmacologic strategies for breast cancer disease.

  20. The role and regulation of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha in human liver.

    PubMed

    Kersten, Sander; Stienstra, Rinke

    2017-05-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is abundantly expressed in liver. PPARα is activated by fatty acids and various other lipid species, as well as by a class of chemicals referred to as peroxisome proliferators. Studies in mice have shown that PPARα serves as the master regulator of hepatic lipid metabolism during fasting. In addition, PPARα suppresses inflammation and the acute phase response. Comparatively little is known about PPARα in human liver. Here, an overview is provided of the role and regulation of PPARα in human liver. The main outcomes are: 1) the level of PPARA mRNA expression in human and mouse liver is similar. 2) Expression of PPARA in human liver is reduced in patients with non-alcoholic steatohepatitis or infected with the hepatitis C virus. 3) PPARα in human liver is able to effectively induce the expression of numerous genes involved in numerous lipid metabolic pathways, including microsomal, peroxisomal and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation, fatty acid binding and activation, fatty acid elongation and desaturation, synthesis and breakdown of triglycerides and lipid droplets, lipoprotein metabolism, gluconeogenesis, bile acid metabolism, and various other metabolic pathways and genes. 4) PPARα activation in human liver causes the down-regulation of a large number of genes involved in various immunity-related pathways. 5) Peroxisome proliferators do not promote tumour formation in human liver as opposed to mouse liver because of structural and functional differences between human and mouse PPARα. 6) In addition to helping to correct dyslipidemia, PPARα agonists may hold promise as a therapy for patients with cholestatic liver diseases, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and/or type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  1. Mode of action framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity: the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) as a case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Therapeutic hypolipidemic agents and industrial chemicals that cause peroxisome proliferation and induce liver tumors in rodents activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Research has elucidated the cellular and molecular events by w...

  2. Mode of action framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity: the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα) as a case study

    EPA Science Inventory

    Therapeutic hypolipidemic agents and industrial chemicals that cause peroxisome proliferation and induce liver tumors in rodents activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). Research has elucidated the cellular and molecular events by w...

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists in a battle against the aging kidney.

    PubMed

    Speeckaert, Marijn M; Vanfraechem, Céline; Speeckaert, Reinhart; Delanghe, Joris R

    2014-03-01

    As aging is a complex phenomenon characterized by intraindividual and interindividual diversities in the maintenance of the homeostatic condition of cells and tissues, changes in renal function are not uniform and depend on associated diseases and environmental factors. Multiple studies have investigated the possible underlying mechanisms of age-related decline in kidney function. Evolutionary, molecular, cellular and systemic theories have been postulated to explain the primary disease independent age-related changes and adaptive responses. As peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are involved in a broad spectrum of biological processes, PPAR activation might have an effect on the prevention of cell senescence. In this review, we will focus on the experimental and clinical evidence of PPAR agonists in a battle against the aging kidney. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Unoda, Kiichi; Doi, Yoshimitsu; Nakajima, Hideto; Yamane, Kazushi; Hosokawa, Takafumi; Ishida, Shimon; Kimura, Fumiharu; Hanafusa, Toshiaki

    2013-03-15

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), one of the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, is a neuroprotective lipid with anti-inflammatory properties. We investigated the possible therapeutic effect of EPA on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE mice were fed a diet with or without EPA. The clinical EAE scores of the EPA-fed mice were significantly lower than those of the non-EPA mice. In the EPA-treated mice, IFN-γ and IL-17 productions were remarkably inhibited and the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors were significantly enhanced in the CNS-infiltrating CD4T cells. Thus EPA shows promise as a potential new therapeutic agent against multiple sclerosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and their Ligands in Cancer Drug- Resistance: Opportunity or Challenge.

    PubMed

    Yousefi, Bahman; Zarghami, Nosratollah; Samadi, Nasser; Majidinia, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Development of resistance in cancer cells results in a high failure rate in cancer chemotherapy in the clinic. Therefore, investigating the mechanisms by which cancer cells acquire the capability to avoid cell death upon exposure to antineoplastic agents is of great significance in cancer research. In this review article, we will provide an overview of the mechanisms and molecular machinery of drug resistance in cancer cells which include but may not be limited to altered membrane transport and drug metabolizing enzymes, genetic response, enhanced DNA repair and alternation in the target molecules. A special focus will be on describing the strategies and the rationale for exploitation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors for overcoming the observed resistance in cancer cells.

  6. Green tea catechins prevent obesity through modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jingqi; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Baolu

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiological evidence and experimental studies suggest that drinking green tea is associated with a lower risk of obesity and related diseases. However, the mechanisms of these effects are not clear. In the present study, we investigated the anti-obesity mechanisms of green tea catechins (GTCs) through modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor (PPAR) pathways in high-fat diet-induced obesity in rats. GTC supplementation significantly attenuated the increased body and liver weights and the elevated serum and liver triglyceride levels. Meanwhile, GTCs increased the PPARγ levels in subcutaneous white adipose tissue (SWAT) and decreased the PPARγ levels in visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT). In addition, GTC treatment up-regulated the levels of PPARδ in SWAT, VWAT, and brown adipose tissue and increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in brown adipose tissue. Our results suggest that GTCs exert their anti-obesity mechanism in part by modulating PPAR signaling pathways.

  7. MicroRNAs and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Governing the Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenglong; Gou, Shiran; Wang, Lei; Huang, Kui; Liu, Lin; Zhao, Wenjie; Zheng, Lige; Xiao, Jingang

    2016-01-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have the self-renewal ability and the ability to produce multiple differentiation. Elucidating the genetic circuits that govern MSC self-renewal and differentiation is necessary to improve our comprehension of MSCs and their role in regenerative medicine. microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in the regulation of transcription, and are strongly linked with MSCs regarding the maintenance of pluripotency properties. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear hormonereceptor family. Interestingly, PPARs not only regulate glucose metabolism and lipidhomeostasis, but also contribute to cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and cell apoptosis. The aim of the present review was to provide an insight into the roles of miRNAs and PPARs in the differentiation of MSCs. Understanding the miRNA signature interactions in conjunction with the role of PPARs is critical for the development of improved strategies to regulate the differentiation of MSCs.

  8. Design and synthesis of dual modulators of soluble epoxide hydrolase and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    la Buscató, Estel; Blöcher, René; Lamers, Christina; Klingler, Franca-Maria; Hahn, Steffen; Steinhilber, Dieter; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Proschak, Ewgenij

    2012-12-13

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex condition which often requires the use of multiple medications as a treatment. The resulting problems of polypharmacy are increase in side effects, drug-drug interactions, and its high economic cost. Development of multitarget compounds is a promising strategy to avoid the complications arising from administration of multiple drugs. Modulators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are established agents in the treatment of dyslipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, and insulin resistance. Inhibitors of soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) are under evaluation for their use in cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, a series of dual sEH/PPAR modulators containing a pyrrole acidic headgroup and a urea pharmacophore were designed, synthesized, and evaluated in vitro using recombinant enzyme and cell-based assays. Compounds with different activity profiles were obtained which could be used in the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

  9. The Renoprotective Actions of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Agonists in Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, M. C.; Jandeleit-Dahm, K. A.; Tikellis, C.

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are widely used in the management of type 2 diabetes, chiefly as lipid-lowering agents and oral hypoglycaemic agents. Although most of the focus has been placed on their cardiovascular effects, both positive and negative, these agents also have significant renoprotective actions in the diabetic kidney. Over and above action on metabolic control and effects on blood pressure, PPAR agonists also appear to have independent effects on a number of critical pathways that are implicated in the development and progression of diabetic kidney disease, including oxidative stress, inflammation, hypertrophy, and podocyte function. This review will examine these direct and indirect actions of PPAR agonists in the diabetic kidney and explore recent findings of clinical trials of PPAR agonists in patients with diabetes. PMID:22448165

  10. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor and Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    PubMed Central

    Herzlich, Alexandra A.; Tuo, Jingsheng; Chan, Chi-Chao

    2008-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of new blindness in the western world and is becoming more of a socio-medical problem as the proportion of the aged population increases. There are multiple efforts underway to better understand this disease process. AMD involves the abnormal retinal pigment epithelium (RPE), drusen formation, photoreceptor atrophy, and choroidal neovascularization. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play an important role in lipid degeneration, immune regulation, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROSs), as well as regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). These molecules have all been implicated in the pathogenesis of AMD. In addition, PPAR gamma is expressed in RPE, an essential cell in photoreceptor regeneration and vision maintenance. This review summarizes the interactions between PPAR, AMD-related molecules, and AMD-related disease processes. PMID:18288287

  11. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor structures: ligand specificity, molecular switch and interactions with regulators.

    PubMed

    Zoete, Vincent; Grosdidier, Aurelien; Michielin, Olivier

    2007-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) compose a family of nuclear receptors that mediate the effects of lipidic ligands at the transcriptional level. In this review, we highlight advances in the understanding of the PPAR ligand binding domain (LBD) structure at the atomic level. The overall structure of PPARs LBD is described, and important protein ligand interactions are presented. Structure-activity relationships between isotypes structures and ligand specificity are addressed. It is shown that the numerous experimental three-dimensional structures available, together with in silico simulations, help understanding the role played by the activating function-2 (AF-2) in PPARs activation and its underlying molecular mechanism. The relation between the PPARs constitutive activity and the intrinsic stability of the active conformation is discussed. Finally, the interactions of PPARs LBD with co-activators or co-repressors, as well as with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) are described and considered in relation to PPARs activation.

  12. Ligands and Regulatory Modes of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma (PPARγ) in Avians.

    PubMed

    Navidshad, Bahman; Royan, M

    2015-01-01

    Nutrient and gene interaction is an important aspect of poultry metabolism that determines performance capacity. New technological tools in biochemistry and biotechnology make it possible to explore the molecular base of phenotypic characteristics of poultry production. Fats act as energy deposits in the poultry body and are an essential constituent of animal cell membranes. From a functional standpoint, it has been suggested that ingested lipids change liver fatty acid synthesis and other lipogenic enzymes by regulating mRNA synthesis. Nuclear hormone receptors are ligand-activated transcription factors that control several genes involved in lipid metabolism. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of transcription factors. Three separate PPAR genes have been identified; they are known as α, δ, and γ. The most important metabolic effect of PPARγ in chicken is its task in adipogenesis. Reviewing the ligands of chicken PPARγ gene can be useful to a better understanding of PPARγ regulatory functions.

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the control of bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Giaginis, Costas; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2007-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that regulate the storage and catabolism of dietary fats. PPARs constitute molecular targets for the treatment of human metabolic disorders, and also play a crucial role in inflammatory-related disease and cancer. Recent evidence has revealed the presence of three different PPAR isotypes (alpha, beta/delta, and gamma) in different cells of the bone tissue, as well as the possible role of PPAR ligands in bone turnover. In the present review, the latest knowledge of the expression of PPARs in bone tissue and the diverse effects of PPAR ligands on bone metabolism is summarized. PPARs, especially of the gamma isotype, could be targets for the treatment of diverse bone diseases such as osteoporosis and osteopenia related to either diabetes or aging.

  14. Association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors/retinoic acid receptors with renal diseases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tian-Biao; Drummen, Gregor P C; Jiang, Zong-Pei; Long, Yao-Bin; Qin, Yuan-Han

    2013-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily, and is a nuclear transcription receptor involving in the regulation of several biochemical pathways, such as cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. The nuclear retinoic acid receptors (RARs) are transcriptional transregulators that control the expression of specific subsets of genes in a ligand-dependent manner, and include three subtypes (RARα, RARβ, and RARγ). These control the expression of specific gene subsets subsequent to ligand binding and to strictly control phosphorylation processes. The current status of knowledge indicates that there might be inter- or overlapping actions between PPARγ and RARs, and there might be an association of PPARγ/RARs with renal diseases. Various agonists of both receptor families seem to prevent or retard the progression of renal disease. Herein, we review if causal relationships can be established between PPARγ/RARs and renal diseases and its manifestations.

  15. PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR (PPAR) AGONISTS AS PROMISING NEW MEDICATIONS FOR DRUG ADDICTION: PRECLINICAL EVIDENCE

    PubMed Central

    Foll, Bernard Le; Ciano, Patricia Di; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Goldberg, Steven R.; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This review examines the growing literature on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in addiction. There are two subtypes of PPAR receptors that have been studied in addiction: PPAR-α and PPAR-γ. The role of each PPAR subtype in common models of addictive behavior, mainly pre-clinical models, is summarized. In particular, studies are reviewed that investigated the effects of PPAR-α agonists on relapse, sensitization, conditioned place preference, withdrawal and drug intake, and effects of PPAR-γ agonists on relapse, withdrawal and drug intake. Finally, studies that investigated the effects of PPAR agonists on neural pathways of addiction are reviewed. Taken together this preclinical data indicates that PPAR agonists are promising new medications for drug addiction treatment. PMID:23614675

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists as promising new medications for drug addiction: preclinical evidence.

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Bernard; Di Ciano, Patricia; Panlilio, Leigh V; Goldberg, Steven R; Ciccocioppo, Roberto

    2013-06-01

    This review examines the growing literature on the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in addiction. There are two subtypes of PPAR receptors that have been studied in addiction: PPAR-α and PPAR-γ. The role of each PPAR subtype in common models of addictive behavior, mainly pre-clinical models, is summarized. In particular, studies are reviewed that investigated the effects of PPAR-α agonists on relapse, sensitization, conditioned place preference, withdrawal and drug intake, and effects of PPAR-γ agonists on relapse, withdrawal and drug intake. Finally, studies that investigated the effects of PPAR agonists on neural pathways of addiction are reviewed. Taken together these preclinical data indicate that PPAR agonists are promising new medications for drug addiction treatment.

  17. Be fit or be sick: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are down the road.

    PubMed

    Desvergne, Béatrice; Michalik, Liliane; Wahli, Walter

    2004-06-01

    Investigating metabolism by unveiling the functions of the nuclear receptors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the numerous intricate pathways ensuring energy homeostasis and fitness has been extremely rewarding. Major lines of research were initially determined by the first-characterized crucial roles of PPARalpha in fatty oxidation and of PPARgamma in adipocyte differentiation and lipid storage. Today, the molecular bases of the functional links between glucose, lipid, and protein metabolism, under the important but nonexclusive control of PPARalpha and PPARgamma, are starting to be uncovered. In addition, in the last couple of years evidence has been provided for an important role of PPARbeta (delta) in lipid metabolism. Inevitably, such actors of metabolic homeostasis are implicated in the physiopathology of complex metabolic disorders, such as those constituting the metabolic syndrome, resulting in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular diseases. This review presents a summary of the recent findings on their dual involvement in health and disease.

  18. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor: A family of nuclear receptors role in various diseases.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Sandeep; Gupta, Paras; Saini, Arminder Singh; Kaushal, Chaitnya; Sharma, Saurabh

    2011-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of nuclear hormone receptor superfamily comprising of the following three subtypes: PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARβ/δ. Activation of PPAR-α reduces triglyceride level and is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPAR-γ causes insulin sensitization and enhances glucose metabolism, whereas activation of PPAR-β/δ enhances fatty acids metabolism. Thus, PPAR family of nuclear receptors plays a major regulatory role in energy homeostasis and metabolic function. The present review critically analyzes the protective and detrimental effect of PPAR agonists in dyslipidemia, diabetes, adipocyte differentiation, inflammation, cancer, lung diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, fertility or reproduction, pain, and obesity.

  19. Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ in Ocular Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Hongwei

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPAR γ), a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily, is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the control of a variety of physiological processes. The last decade has witnessed an increasing interest for the role played by the agonists of PPAR γ in antiangiogenesis, antifibrosis, anti-inflammation effects and in controlling oxidative stress response in various organs. As the pathologic mechanisms of major blinding diseases, such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD), diabetic retinopathy (DR), keratitis, and optic neuropathy, often involve neoangiogenesis and inflammation- and oxidative stress-mediated cell death, evidences are accumulating on the potential benefits of PPAR γ to improve or prevent these vision threatening eye diseases. In this paper we describe what is known about the role of PPAR γ in the ocular pathophysiological processes and PPAR γ agonists as novel adjuvants in the treatment of eye diseases. PMID:26146566

  20. Healing the diabetic heart: modulation of cardiometabolic syndrome through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs).

    PubMed

    Huang, Tom Hsun-Wei; Roufogalis, Basil D

    2012-06-01

    Cardiometabolic syndrome is a mixture of interrelated risk factors predisposing individuals to elevated risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nuclear receptors, specifically peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), were identified to play a pivotal role in the regulation of metabolic homeostasis. However, with rosiglitazone currently under intense scrutiny great concerns have arisen regarding the safety of the thiazolidinedione PPAR-γ agonist family as a whole. This review discusses the current concern with PPAR-γ agonists by exploring if PPARs can still be considered worth pursuing as a viable target for cardiovascular diseases. We examine current research focusing on identifying ligands that are dual and pan-PPAR agonists, selective PPAR-γ modulators, PPAR-β/δ agonists and that are of natural origin.

  1. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-coactivator-1 gene in skin aging.

    PubMed

    Aghaei, Shahrzad; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Aghaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging is a continuous process that exhibits fine and deep wrinkles, thin and transparent skin, loss of underlying fat, dry skin and itch, following decreased collagen and elastin synthesis. Both extrinsic and intrinsic agents are considered in the pathogenesis on skin aging. Extrinsic factors such as sun exposure, windy and dry weather, nutrition, and lifestyle may induce premature aging, toxic-free radicals, and reactive oxygen species due to decreasing normal function of mitochondria which play the major intrinsic factors in premature skin aging. One of the major genetic factors in mitochondrial function is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-coactivator-1 (PGC-1) gene. This factor could delay skin aging by increasing the mitochondrial biogenesis and replication and oxidative phosphorylation and so may induce free radical scavenging. This review is focused on intrinsic skin aging and the role of PGC-1 protein in decreasing effect of aging causes.

  2. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor beta/delta in the Brain: Facts and Hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hall, M G; Quignodon, Laure; Desvergne, Béatrice

    2008-01-01

    peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors acting as lipid sensors. Besides its metabolic activity in peripheral organs, the PPAR beta/delta isotype is highly expressed in the brain and its deletion in mice induces a brain developmental defect. Nevertheless, exploration of PPARbeta action in the central nervous system remains sketchy. The lipid content alteration observed in PPARbeta null brains and the positive action of PPARbeta agonists on oligodendrocyte differentiation, a process characterized by lipid accumulation, suggest that PPARbeta acts on the fatty acids and/or cholesterol metabolisms in the brain. PPARbeta could also regulate central inflammation and antioxidant mechanisms in the damaged brain. Even if not fully understood, the neuroprotective effect of PPARbeta agonists highlights their potential benefit to treat various acute or chronic neurological disorders. In this perspective, we need to better understand the basic function of PPARbeta in the brain. This review proposes different leads for future researches.

  3. Induction and repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha transcription by coregulator ARA70.

    PubMed

    Heinlein, Cynthia A; Chang, Chawnshang

    2003-07-01

    In an effort to understand transcriptional regulation by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha), we investigated the ability of a number of transcriptional coactivators to enhance PPARalpha:retinoic acid receptor (RXR) mediated transcription. We identified ARA70, a coactivator of the androgen receptor and PPARgamma, as a ligand-enhanced coactivator of PPARalpha in the prostate cancer cell line DU145. In prostate cancer cells, ARA70 demonstrated the strongest enhancement of PPARalpha transcription among the coactivators examined. Mutation of the N-terminal of the PPARalpha ligandbinding domain dramatically reduced the ability of ARA70 to enhance PPARalpha:RXR transcription. ARA70 was able to physically interact with both the wild-type and mutant PPARalpha as determined by coimmunoprecipitation. However, in the adrenal cell line Y1, ARA70 behaved as a repressor of PPARalpha while still able to coactivate PPARgamma.

  4. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and the Heart: Lessons from the Past and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wang-Soo; Kim, Jaetaek

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear family of ligand activated transcriptional factors and comprise three different isoforms, PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ, and PPAR-γ. The main role of PPARs is to regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated that PPAR agonists improve dyslipidemia and glucose control in animals, supporting their potential as a promising therapeutic option to treat diabetes and dyslipidemia. However, substantial differences exist in the therapeutic or adverse effects of specific drug candidates, and clinical studies have yielded inconsistent data on their cardioprotective effects. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the molecular function of PPARs and the mechanisms of the PPAR regulation by posttranslational modification in the heart. We also describe the results and lessons learned from important clinical trials on PPAR agonists and discuss the potential future directions for this class of drugs. PMID:26587015

  5. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor: A family of nuclear receptors role in various diseases

    PubMed Central

    Tyagi, Sandeep; Gupta, Paras; Saini, Arminder Singh; Kaushal, Chaitnya; Sharma, Saurabh

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors of nuclear hormone receptor superfamily comprising of the following three subtypes: PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARβ/δ. Activation of PPAR-α reduces triglyceride level and is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPAR-γ causes insulin sensitization and enhances glucose metabolism, whereas activation of PPAR-β/δ enhances fatty acids metabolism. Thus, PPAR family of nuclear receptors plays a major regulatory role in energy homeostasis and metabolic function. The present review critically analyzes the protective and detrimental effect of PPAR agonists in dyslipidemia, diabetes, adipocyte differentiation, inflammation, cancer, lung diseases, neurodegenerative disorders, fertility or reproduction, pain, and obesity. PMID:22247890

  6. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Is Critical to Cardiac Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huang-Jun; Liao, Hai-Han; Yang, Zheng; Tang, Qi-Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which plays a central role in regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. However, accumulating evidence demonstrates that PPARγ agonists have potential to reduce inflammation, influence the balance of immune cells, suppress oxidative stress, and improve endothelial function, which are all involved in the cellular and molecular mechanisms of cardiac fibrosis. Thus, in this review we discuss the role of PPARγ in various cardiovascular conditions associated with cardiac fibrosis, including diabetes mellitus, hypertension, myocardial infarction, heart failure, ischemia/reperfusion injury, atrial fibrillation, and several other cardiovascular disease (CVD) conditions, and summarize the developmental status of PPARγ agonists for the clinical management of CVD. PMID:27293418

  7. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Modulation during Metabolic Diseases and Cancers: Master and Minions

    PubMed Central

    Nigro, Angela; La Rosa, Valentina Lucia; Rossetti, Paola; Rapisarda, Agnese Maria Chiara; Condorelli, Rosita Angela; Corrado, Francesco; Buscema, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity and metabolic diseases (such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, dyslipidaemia, and cardiovascular diseases) has increased in the last decade, in both industrialized and developing countries. This also coincided with our observation of a similar increase in the prevalence of cancers. The aetiology of these diseases is very complex and involves genetic, nutritional, and environmental factors. Much evidence indicates the central role undertaken by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the development of these disorders. Due to the fact that their ligands could become crucial in future target-therapies, PPARs have therefore become the focal point of much research. Based on this evidence, this narrative review was written with the purpose of outlining the effects of PPARs, their actions, and their prospective uses in metabolic diseases and cancers. PMID:28115924

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as molecular targets in relation to obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Seda, Ondørej; Sedová, Lucie

    2007-06-01

    The three isotypes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are currently perceived as major regulatory nodes (or hubs) of metabolic pathway networks, linking most prevalent diseases including Type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis. The integrative functions of PPARs are also reflected in their ecogenetic profile, when the variants underlying pharmacogenetic interactions were also shown to modulate the effect of lifestyle factors. Despite their extensive clinical use, there are many outstanding issues, especially concerning their safety. Critical pharmacogenomic assessment is warranted for the new potent ligands of multiple PPAR isoforms as many have displayed serious side-effects in a limited number of treated subjects. Nevertheless, the advent of genomic, transcriptomic and system biology-level approaches, integrating knowledge from model systems and human biology, should greatly facilitate the transition to individualized PPAR-based therapies.

  9. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the esophageal, gastric, and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Fucci, Alessandra; Colangelo, Tommaso; Votino, Carolina; Pancione, Massimo; Sabatino, Lina; Colantuoni, Vittorio

    2012-01-01

    Tumors of the gastrointestinal tract are among the most frequent human malignancies and account for approximately 30% of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that control diverse cellular functions such as proliferation, differentiation, and cell death. Owing to their involvement in so many processes, they play crucial roles also in the development and physiology of the gastrointestinal tract. Consistently, PPARs deregulation has been implicated in several pathophysiological conditions, including chronic inflammation and cancer development. This paper summarizes the current knowledge on the role that the various PPAR isoforms play in the pathogenesis of the esophageal, gastric, and intestinal cancer. Elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying PPARs' signaling pathways will provide insights into their possible use as predictive biomarkers in the initial stages of the process. In addition, this understanding will provide the basis for new molecular targets in cancer therapy and chemoprevention.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and PPAR agonists: the 'future' in dermatology therapeutics?

    PubMed

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K; Mehta, Karaninder S; Chauhan, Pushpinder S; Rawat, Ritu

    2015-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors and comprise three different isoforms namely PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARβ/δ with PPARβ/δ being the predominant subtype in human keratinocytes. After binding with specific ligands, PPARs regulate gene expression, cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis, inflammatory responses, and tumorogenesis. PPARs also modulate a wide variety of skin functions including keratinocyte proliferation, epidermal barrier formation, wound healing, melanocyte proliferation, and sebum production. Recent studies have shown the importance of PPARs in the pathogenesis of many dermatological disorders. Clinical trials have suggested possible role of PPAR agonists in the management of various dermatoses ranging from acne vulgaris, psoriasis, hirsutism, and lipodystrophy to cutaneous malignancies including melanoma. This article is intended to be a primer for dermatologists in their understanding of clinical relevance of PPARs and PPAR agonists in dermatology therapeutics.

  11. [The role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors in metabolic balance disturbances under stress].

    PubMed

    Dushkin, M I; Khrapova, M V

    2011-01-01

    Some aspects of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPAR) involvement in regulation of stress-dependent biological processes leading to insulin resistance, lipid imbalance, hypertension and inflammation are reviewed. Analysis of literature data clearly shows the main role of PPAR in stress signal transduction following to metabolic disbalance development under prolonged stress conditions. The interplay of three PPAR isoforms functional activity with metabolic process disturbances during stress is under special emphasis. Taking into account experimental data described in literature we suggest that PPAR activation under acute stress is an adaptive response while stable PPAR hyperexpression under prolonged stress can cause insulin resistance, hypertension, and visceral obesity. The strategy of PPAR using as pharmacological targets in metabolic syndrome correction is under consideration.

  12. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors and the Heart: Lessons from the Past and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wang-Soo; Kim, Jaetaek

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear family of ligand activated transcriptional factors and comprise three different isoforms, PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ, and PPAR-γ. The main role of PPARs is to regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Several studies have demonstrated that PPAR agonists improve dyslipidemia and glucose control in animals, supporting their potential as a promising therapeutic option to treat diabetes and dyslipidemia. However, substantial differences exist in the therapeutic or adverse effects of specific drug candidates, and clinical studies have yielded inconsistent data on their cardioprotective effects. This review summarizes the current knowledge regarding the molecular function of PPARs and the mechanisms of the PPAR regulation by posttranslational modification in the heart. We also describe the results and lessons learned from important clinical trials on PPAR agonists and discuss the potential future directions for this class of drugs.

  13. Manganese treatment modulates the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in astrocytoma and neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Alfred Orina; Kawikova, Ivana; Bothwell, Alfred L M; Daniels, Christopher K; Lai, James C K

    2006-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play roles in neural cells by regulating energy balance, cell proliferation and anti-oxidant responses although the molecular mechanisms underlying such roles are unclear. Chronic exposure to excess manganese (Mn) leads to neurotoxicity, although Mn-induced neurotoxic mechanisms have not been fully elucidated. We hypothesized Mn neurotoxicity differentially alters the expression of PPARs. We investigated the effects of manganese chloride treatment (0.01-4 mM) on protein expression of PPAR isoforms (alpha, beta, and gamma) in human astrocytoma (U87) and neuroblastoma (SK-N-SH) cells. The two cell types expressed the 3 PPAR isoforms differentially: their expression of the PPARs was altered by Mn-treatment. Furthermore, nuclear and cytosolic fractions derived from the 2 cell types, with and without Mn-treatment, exhibited marked differences in the protein content of PPARs. Our results constitute the first demonstration that the PPAR signaling pathway may assume pathophysiological importance in Mn neurotoxicity.

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma signaling in human sperm physiology

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Li-Li; Xian, Hua; Cao, Jing-Chen; Zhang, Chong; Zhang, Yong-Hui; Chen, Miao-Miao; Qian, Yi; Jiang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a member of the PPARs, which are transcription factors of the steroid receptor superfamily. PPARγ acts as an important molecule for regulating energy homeostasis, modulates the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, and is reciprocally regulated by HPG. In the human, PPARγ protein is highly expressed in ejaculated spermatozoa, implying a possible role of PPARγ signaling in regulating sperm energy dissipation. PPARγ protein is also expressed in Sertoli cells and germ cells (spermatocytes). Its activation can be induced during capacitation and the acrosome reaction. This mini-review will focus on how PPARγ signaling may affect fertility and sperm quality and the potential reversibility of these adverse effects. PMID:25851655

  15. Targeting the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ to Counter the Inflammatory Milieu in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Corzo, Cesar

    2013-01-01

    Adipose tissue, which was once viewed as a simple organ for storage of triglycerides, is now considered an important endocrine organ. Abnormal adipose tissue mass is associated with defects in endocrine and metabolic functions which are the underlying causes of the metabolic syndrome. Many adipokines, hormones secreted by adipose tissue, regulate cells from the immune system. Interestingly, most of these adipokines are proinflammatory mediators, which increase dramatically in the obese state and are believed to be involved in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance. Drugs that target peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ have been shown to possess anti-inflammatory effects in animal models of diabetes. These findings, and the link between inflammation and the metabolic syndrome, will be reviewed here. PMID:24404510

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors modulate cardiac dysfunction in diabetic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, T-I; Kao, Y-H; Chen, Y-C; Huang, J-H; Hsiao, F-C; Chen, Y-J

    2013-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Chronic inflammation and derangement of myocardial energy and lipid homeostasis are common features of DM. The transcription factors of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily, which are important in regulating energy and lipid homeostasis. There are three PPAR isoforms, α, γ, and δ, and their roles have been increasingly recognized to be important in CVD. These three isoforms are expressed in the heart and play pivotal roles in myocardial lipid metabolism, as well as glucose and energy homeostasis, and contribute to extra metabolic roles with effects on inflammation and oxidative stress. Moreover, regulation of PPARs may have significant effects on cardiac electrical activity and arrhythmogenesis. This review describes the roles of PPARs and their agonists in DM cardiomyopathy, inflammation, and cardiac electrophysiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR): Balance for Survival in Parasitic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Marion M.; Evans, Kyle W.; Moore, Andrea R.; Fong, Dunne

    2010-01-01

    Parasitic infections induce a magnitude of host responses. At the opposite ends of the spectrum are those that ensure the host's needs to eliminate the invaders and to minimize damage to its own tissues. This review analyzes how parasites would manipulate immunity by activating the immunosuppressive nuclear factor, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) with type 2 cytokines and free fatty acids from arachidonic acid metabolism. PPARs limit the action of type 1 immunity, in which classically activated macrophages act through the production of proinflammatory signals, to spare the parasites. They also favor the development of alternately activated macrophages which control inflammation so the host would not be destroyed. Possibly, the nuclear factors hold a pivotal role in the establishment of chronic infection by delicately balancing the pro- and anti-inflammatory signaling mechanisms and their ligands may be used as combination therapeutics to limit host pathology. PMID:20169106

  18. Wakayama Symposium: Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-gamma (PPARγ) and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Jester, James V.; Brown, Donald J.

    2012-01-01

    Recently we have shown that mouse and human meibomian glands undergo specific age-related changes, including decreased acinar cell proliferation, acinar atrophy, and altered peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) localization from cytoplasmic-vesicular/nuclear in young mice and humans to nuclear in old mice and humans. Since PPARγ is a lipid-sensitive, nuclear receptor implicated in regulating adipocyte and sebocyte differentiation and lipogenesis, our findings suggest that PPARγ may be involved in modulating meibomian gland differentiation during aging. Based on these findings, we propose that aging of the meibomian gland results in downregulation of PPARγ, leading to decreased meibocyte differentiation and lipid synthesis, gland atrophy, and a hyposecretory meibomian gland dysfunction. PMID:23084144

  19. Structure-activity relationships of rosiglitazone for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma transrepression.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Yosuke; Nomura, Sayaka; Makishima, Makoto; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Ishikawa, Minoru

    2017-06-15

    Anti-inflammatory effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPRAγ) ligands are thought to be largely due to PPARγ-mediated transrepression. Thus, transrepression-selective PPARγ ligands without agonistic activity or with only partial agonistic activity should exhibit anti-inflammatory properties with reduced side effects. Here, we investigated the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of PPARγ agonist rosiglitazone, focusing on transrepression activity. Alkenic analogs showed slightly more potent transrepression with reduced efficacy of transactivating agonistic activity. Removal of the alkyl group on the nitrogen atom improved selectivity for transrepression over transactivation. Among the synthesized compounds, 3l exhibited stronger transrepressional activity (IC50: 14μM) and weaker agonistic efficacy (11%) than rosiglitazone or pioglitazone. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-coactivator-1 gene in skin aging

    PubMed Central

    Aghaei, Shahrzad; Nilforoushzadeh, Mohammad Ali; Aghaei, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Skin aging is a continuous process that exhibits fine and deep wrinkles, thin and transparent skin, loss of underlying fat, dry skin and itch, following decreased collagen and elastin synthesis. Both extrinsic and intrinsic agents are considered in the pathogenesis on skin aging. Extrinsic factors such as sun exposure, windy and dry weather, nutrition, and lifestyle may induce premature aging, toxic-free radicals, and reactive oxygen species due to decreasing normal function of mitochondria which play the major intrinsic factors in premature skin aging. One of the major genetic factors in mitochondrial function is peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-coactivator-1 (PGC-1) gene. This factor could delay skin aging by increasing the mitochondrial biogenesis and replication and oxidative phosphorylation and so may induce free radical scavenging. This review is focused on intrinsic skin aging and the role of PGC-1 protein in decreasing effect of aging causes. PMID:27904582

  1. The vascular biology of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: Modulation of atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Subodh; Szmitko, Paul E

    2006-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists possess powerful antiatherosclerotic properties, by both directly affecting the vascular wall and indirectly affecting systemic inflammation and insulin sensitivity. The PPARs are ligand-activated transcription factors, which play a number of important physiological roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis. Activation of PPARγ appears to exert a vasculoprotective effect by limiting endothelial dysfunction, impairing atherogenesis and preventing restenosis, while simultaneously and favourably modulating adipokine expression and lipid metabolism. Several experimental and clinical studies have demonstrated the potential of the PPAR agonist drug class in terms of treating atherosclerotic disease. In the present review, the vascular biology of PPARs, and how the modulation of these molecular pathways may serve as a therapeutic strategy to prevent atherosclerosis, vascular inflammation and restenosis are discussed. PMID:16498507

  2. The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kotta-Loizou, Ioly; Giaginis, Constantinos; Theocharis, Stamatios

    2012-11-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ (PPARγ) is an extensively studied ligand-activated nuclear hormone receptor that functions as transcription factor and plays an important role in diverse biological processes, such as lipid metabolism and insulin sensitization. Recent studies have demonstrated that PPARγ is over-expressed in many tumor types, including breast cancer, suggesting a possible role in tumor development and/or progression and a putative prognostic value. Moreover, naturally-occurring and synthetic PPARγ agonists promote growth inhibition, apoptosis and differentiation of tumor cells. The present review summarizes the available information on PPARγ expression in breast tumors and the use of PPARγ ligands as anti-cancer agents for breast cancer treatment, both in vitro and in vivo. Considering the data so far, specific PPARγ agonists seem to exert beneficial effects against breast cancer and may therefore represent potential therapeutic agents.

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor: effects on nutritional homeostasis, obesity and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Viana Abranches, M; Esteves de Oliveira, F C; Bressan, J

    2011-01-01

    The obesity and the metabolic disorders associated characterize the metabolic syndrome, which has increased at an alarming rate around the world. It is known that environmental and genetic factors are involved in the genesis of obesity. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) stand out among these factors. They compose the nuclear receptor superfamily and there are in three isoforms (PPARα,PPARβ/δ and PPARγ), which play an important role in the regulation of the metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. The present review aims to understand the relationship between the diet, the PPARs and the control of the blood glucose and body weight, since the understanding about the mechanisms by which these receptors act may benefit the development of the strategies aiming at prevention and elaboration of therapeutics actions which are more effective for the treatment of obesity and diabetes.

  4. Mat1 Inhibits Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ-Mediated Adipocyte Differentiation▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Helenius, Katja; Yang, Ying; Alasaari, Jukka; Mäkelä, Tomi P.

    2009-01-01

    Mammalian Cdk7, cyclin H, and Mat1 form the kinase submodule of transcription factor IIH (TFIIH) and have been considered ubiquitously expressed elements of the transcriptional machinery. Here we found that Mat1 and Cdk7 levels are undetectable in adipose tissues in vivo and downregulated during adipogenesis, where activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) acts as a critical differentiation switch. Using both Mat1−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts and Cdk7 knockdown approaches, we show that the Cdk7 complex is an inhibitor of adipogenesis and is required for inactivation of PPARγ through the phosphorylation of PPARγ-S112. The results demonstrate that the Cdk7 submodule of TFIIH acts as a physiological roadblock to adipogenesis by inhibiting PPARγ activity. The observation that components of TFIIH are absent from transcriptionally active adipose tissue prompts a reevaluation of the ubiquitous nature of basal transcription factors in mammalian tissues. PMID:18981214

  5. Novel Oxazolidinone-Based Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Agonists: Molecular Modeling, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Fresno, N; Macías-González, M; Torres-Zaguirre, A; Romero-Cuevas, M; Sanz-Camacho, P; Elguero, J; Pavón, F J; Rodríguez de Fonseca, F; Goya, P; Pérez-Fernández, R

    2015-08-27

    A series of new peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) chiral ligands have been designed following the accepted three-module structure comprising a polar head, linker, and hydrophobic tail. The majority of the ligands incorporate the oxazolidinone moiety as a novel polar head, and the nature of the hydrophobic tail has also been varied. Docking studies using the crystal structure of an agonist bound to the ligand binding domain of the PPARα receptor have been performed as a tool for their design. Suitable synthetic procedures have been developed, and compounds with different stereochemistries have been prepared. Evaluation of basal and ligand-induced activity proved that several compounds showed agonist activity at the PPARα receptor, thus validating the oxazolidinone template for PPAR activity. In addition, two compounds, 2 and 4, showed dual PPARα/PPARγ agonism and interesting food intake reduction in rats.

  6. Antifibrotic effect by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in corneal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Pan, Hongwei; Chen, Jiansu; Xu, Jintang; Chen, Miaojiao; Ma, Rong

    2009-11-10

    The transformation of quiescent keratocytes to active phenotypes and the ensuing fibrotic response play important roles in corneal scar formation. This study aims to observe the antifibrotic effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonist on corneal fibroblasts cultured in vitro, and to explore the potential application of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist to the prevention of corneal opacity following wound repair. Rabbit corneal keratocytes were cultured in a medium containing 10% serum to induce their transformation to fibroblasts and myofibroblasts, which are similar to those that repair corneas. After incubation with the PPARgamma agonist pioglitazone at different concentrations, the effect of pioglitazone on the migration, contractility, and viability of corneal fibroblasts was examined. The secretion of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 was determined by gelatin zymography, and the synthesis of collagen I and fibronectin was investigated by western blotting. Treatment with pioglitazone at concentrations ranging from 1 to 10 mum significantly decreased corneal fibroblast migration, as determined by scrape-wound assay, inhibited corneal fibroblast-induced collagen lattice contraction, and reduced MMP-2 and MMP-9 secretion into the supernatant of cell cultures in a dose-dependent manner. The expression of fibronectin was significantly decreased, while the expression of collagen I was only decreased when treated with 10 mum pioglitazone. Cell viability was not evidently changed compared to the control. This in vitro study demonstrated the anti-fibrotic effect of pioglitazone, suggesting that activation of PPARgamma may be a new approach for the treatment of corneal opacity and scar formation in the corneal wound healing process.

  7. Oxidative stress and inflammation modulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors with regional discrepancy in diabetic heart.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ting-I; Kao, Yu-Hsun; Chen, Yao-Chang; Pan, Nan-Hung; Chen, Yi-Jen

    2010-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play a pivotal role in myocardial lipid and glucose homeostasis. We investigated the effects of diabetes on PPAR isoforms in different cardiac regions and explored whether proinflammatory cytokines or oxidative stress modulate PPARs in diabetic hearts. Male Wistar rats were separated into control, diabetes and ascorbate-treated diabetes groups. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were performed on PPAR isoforms, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6, from left and right atria and ventricles. Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] oxidase activity was quantified through photometric measurements. In control hearts, PPAR-alpha was most expressed, and PPAR-gamma least expressed in mRNA and protein levels. Diabetes decreased the protein and mRNA levels of PPAR-alpha and PPAR-delta. Ascorbate attenuated the diabetes-induced down-regulations of PPAR-alpha and PPAR-delta proteins in all cardiac regions and down-regulation of PPAR-alpha mRNA in the left atrium. In PPAR-gamma, the protein and mRNA levels were increased in diabetic atria and ventricles, which were decreased by ascorbate. Moreover, diabetes increased the TNF-alpha and IL-6 protein levels, and NAD(P)H oxidase activities in atria and ventricles. Ascorbate attenuated the increase of TNF-alpha, IL-6 protein levels and NAD(P)H oxidase activity in the atria, but only attenuated the increase of NAD(P)H oxidase activities in the ventricles. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isoforms are differentially expressed in the atria and ventricles. Diabetes can modulate PPARs through increased inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress, which are attenuated by ascorbate treatment.

  8. Telmisartan attenuates peritoneal fibrosis via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation in rats.

    PubMed

    Su, Xuesong; Yu, Rui; Yang, Xu; Zhou, Guangyu; Wang, Yanqiu; Li, Li; Li, Detian

    2015-06-01

    Peritoneal dialysis (PD) is an effective treatment for patients with end-stage renal diseases, but long-term continuous PD causes peritoneal fibrosis (PF). This study aims to evaluate the anti-fibrotic effect of telmisartan on a rat model of PF and to investigate the underlying mechanisms. Five-sixths kidney nephrectomy and PD were used to establish the PF rat model. Glucose (2.5%) was used to establish an in vitro model in rat peritoneal mesothelial cells (PMC). Haematoxylin-eosin staining was used to examine the structural alterations. Masson's trichrome staining was used to observe the tissue fibrosis in peritoneal membrane of rats. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to measure messenger RNA expressions of profibrotic factors. Western blotting was used to determine protein expressions of profibrotic factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). Results demonstrated that administration of telmisartan dose-dependently attenuated the thickening of the peritoneal membrane and the fibrosis induced by long-term PD fluid exposure in rats. In addition, telmisartan treatment inhibited the upregulation of profibrotic factors induced by PD in the peritoneum of rats and by high-concentration glucose in PMC. Telmisartan was also effective in inhibiting PD and high-concentration, glucose-induced phosphorylation of MAPK in the peritoneum and PMC. Furthermore, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) inhibitor GW9662 blocked these protective effects of telmisartan in PMC. The results suggest that telmisartan is effective in attenuating PD-induced PF, and this effect may be associated with the inhibition of profibrotic factor expression and MAPK phosphorylation via PPARγ activation. © 2015 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  9. Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor A Ligands as Anticancer Drugs Targeting Mitochondrial Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Grabacka, Maja; Pierzchalska, Malgorzata; Reiss, Krzysztof

    2011-01-01

    Tumor cells show metabolic features distinctive from normal tissues, with characteristically enhanced aerobic glycolysis, glutaminolysis and lipid synthesis. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPAR α) is activated by nutrients (fatty acids and their derivatives) and influences these metabolic pathways acting antagonistically to oncogenic Akt and c-Myc. Therefore PPAR α can be regarded as a candidate target molecule in supplementary anticancer pharmacotherapy as well as dietary therapeutic approach. This idea is based on hitting the cancer cell metabolic weak points through PPAR α mediated stimulation of mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis with simultaneous reduction of glucose and glutamine consumption. PPAR α activity is induced by fasting and its molecular consequences overlap with the effects of calorie restriction and ketogenic diet (CRKD). CRKD induces increase of NAD+/NADH ratio and drop in ATP/AMP ratio. The first one is the main stimulus for enhanced protein deacetylase SIRT1 activity; the second one activates AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK). Both SIRT1 and AMPK exert their major metabolic activities such as fatty acid oxidation and block of glycolysis and protein, nucleotide and fatty acid synthesis through the effector protein peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma 1 α coactivator (PGC-1α). PGC-1α cooperates with PPAR α and their activities might contribute to potential anticancer effects of CRKD, which were reported for various brain tumors. Therefore, PPAR α activation can engage molecular interplay among SIRT1, AMPK, and PGC-1α that provides a new, low toxicity dietary approach supplementing traditional anticancer regimen. PMID:21133850

  10. Haplotypes of the porcine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene are associated with backfat thickness

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily of ligand-inducible transcription factors. It is a key regulator of lipid metabolism. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta gene (PPARD) has been assigned to a region on porcine chromosome 7, which harbours a quantitative trait locus for backfat. Thus, PPARD is considered a functional and positional candidate gene for backfat thickness. The purpose of this study was to test this candidate gene hypothesis in a cross of breeds that were highly divergent in lipid deposition characteristics. Results Screening for genetic variation in porcine PPARD revealed only silent mutations. Nevertheless, significant associations between PPARD haplotypes and backfat thickness were observed in the F2 generation of the Mangalitsa × Piétrain cross as well as a commercial German Landrace population. Haplotype 5 is associated with increased backfat in F2 Mangalitsa × Piétrain pigs, whereas haplotype 4 is associated with lower backfat thickness in the German Landrace population. Haplotype 4 and 5 carry the same alleles at all but one SNP. Interestingly, the opposite effects of PPARD haplotypes 4 and 5 on backfat thickness are reflected by opposite effects of these two haplotypes on PPAR-δ mRNA levels. Haplotype 4 significantly increases PPAR-δ mRNA levels, whereas haplotype 5 decreases mRNA levels of PPAR-δ. Conclusion This study provides evidence for an association between PPARD and backfat thickness. The association is substantiated by mRNA quantification. Further studies are required to clarify, whether the observed associations are caused by PPARD or are the result of linkage disequilibrium with a causal variant in a neighbouring gene. PMID:19943979

  11. Multiple expression control mechanisms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their target genes.

    PubMed

    Tan, Nguan Soon; Michalik, Liliane; Desvergne, Beatrice; Wahli, Walter

    2005-02-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) alpha, beta/delta and gamma belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. As ligand-activated receptors, they form a functional transcriptional unit upon heterodimerization with retinoid X receptors (RXRs). PPARs are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives, whereas RXR is activated by 9-cis retinoic acid. This heterodimer binds to peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPRE) residing in target genes and stimulates their expression. Recent reports now indicate that PPARs and RXRs can function independently, in the absence of a hetero-partner, to modulate gene expression. Of importance, these non-canonical mechanisms underscore the impact of both cofactors and DNA on gene expression. Furthermore, these different mechanisms reveal the increasing repertoire of PPAR 'target' genes that now encompasses non-PPREs containing genes. It is also becoming apparent that understanding the regulation of PPAR expression and activity, can itself have a significant influence on how the expression of subgroups of target genes is studied and integrated in current knowledge.

  12. Developmental Effects of Perfluorononanoic acid in the Mouse Are Dependent on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-alpha

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is one ofthe perfluoroalkyl acids found in the environment and in tissues of humans and wildlife. Prenatal exposure to PFNA negatively impacts survival and development of mice and activates the mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated recept...

  13. Developmental Effects of Perfluorononanoic acid in the Mouse Are Dependent on Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-alpha

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) is one ofthe perfluoroalkyl acids found in the environment and in tissues of humans and wildlife. Prenatal exposure to PFNA negatively impacts survival and development of mice and activates the mouse and human peroxisome proliferator-activated recept...

  14. Potential effects of curcumin on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in vitro and in vivo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Natural peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) agonists are found in food and may be important for health through their anti-inflammatory properties. Curcumin (Cur) is a bright yellow spice, derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa Linn. It has been shown to have many biologi...

  15. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor and CCAAT/enhancer binding protein transcription factors in cultured human sebocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, WenChieh; Yang, Chao-Chun; Sheu, Hamm-Ming; Seltmann, Holger; Zouboulis, Christos C

    2003-09-01

    Lipid synthesis and accumulation represent a major step in sebocyte differentiation and it may be of importance for sebocytes to express two families of transcription factors, CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins (c/EBPs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which were found to play a crucial role in the differentiation of adipocytes. Using the immortalized human sebaceous gland cell line SZ95 we examined the expression of the molecules before and after treatment with testosterone, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, dexamethasone, 17beta-estradiol and genistein, at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h, respectively. Reverse transcription-PCR analysis showed expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors -alpha, -delta, -gamma1, -gamma2 and CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins-alpha, -beta, -gamma-delta in native SZ95 sebocytes. In western blot studies, high levels of CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins-alpha and -beta, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma were expressed at 6, 24, and 12 h, respectively. Immunostaining of the cultured sebocytes showed the CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins-alpha and -beta mainly localized within nuclei, whereas peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma in the cytoplasm. Strong staining of sebocytes was immunohistochemically revealed in the basal layer of sebaceous glands in human scalp and sebaceous nevus. Genistein down-regulated the expression of CCAAT/enhancer binding proteins-alpha and -beta, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-gamma on the protein level. Treatment with linoleic acid for 48 h induced further differentiation of sebocytes leading to abundant lipid synthesis.

  16. Synthetic and natural Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) agonists as candidates for the therapy of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Chek Kun; Zhuang, Yan; Wahli, Walter

    2017-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are the molecular targets of hypolipidemic and insulin-sensitizing drugs and implicated in a multitude of processes that fine-tune the functions of all organs in vertebrates. As transcription factors they sense endogenous and exogenous lipid signaling molecules and convert these signals into intricate gene responses that impact health and disease. The PPARs act as modulators of cellular, organ, and systemic processes, such as lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, making them valuable for understanding body homeostasis influenced by nutrition and exercise. Areas covered: This review concentrates on synthetic and natural PPAR ligands and how they have helped reveal many aspects of the transcriptional control of complex processes important in health. Expert opinion: The three PPARs have complementary roles in the fine-tuning of most fundamental body functions, especially energy metabolism. Understanding their inter-relatedness using ligands that simultaneously modulate the activity of more than one of these receptors is a major goal. This approach may provide essential knowledge for the development of dual or pan-PPAR agonists or antagonists as potential new health-promoting agents and for nutritional approaches to prevent metabolic diseases.

  17. Dietary modulators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: implications for the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guri, Amir J; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep

    2008-01-01

    In its simplest form, obesity is a state characterized by nutrient overabundance leading to hypertrophy of storage cells in white adipose tissue and the deposition of excess lipids into key metabolic regions, such as skeletal muscle and liver. Ever so steadily, this condition begins to manifest itself as progressive insulin resistance and thus ensues a myriad of other chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and hypertension, which all fall into the realm of the metabolic syndrome. To offset imbalances in nutrient availability, however, it appears that nature has developed the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), a family of endogenous lipid sensors that adeptly modulate our rates of macronutrient oxidation and regulate the systemic inflammatory response, which itself is tightly linked to the development of obesity-induced chronic disease. By understanding how PPARs alpha, delta and gamma act jointly to maintain metabolic homeostasis and reduce the chronic inflammation associated with obesity, we may one day discover that the machinery needed to defeat obesity and control the devastating consequences of the metabolic syndrome have been with us the entire time.

  18. Evidence that activation of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) modulates sleep homeostasis in rats.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric; Guzmán, Khalil; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria; Salas-Crisóstomo, Mireille; Jiménez-Moreno, Ramsés; Arias-Carrión, Oscar

    2016-10-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily that has been suggested as a modulator of several physiological functions. The PPARα recognizes as an endogenous ligand the anorexic lipid mediator oleoylethanolamide (OEA) which displays wake-inducing properties. Despite that recent evidence indicates that activation of PPARα by synthetic agonists such as Wy14643 enhances waking as well as the extracellular contents of wake-related neurotransmitters, the role of PPARα in sleep recovery after prolonged waking has not been fully described. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize if PPARα regulates sleep rebound after total sleep deprivation (TSD). We report that after 6h of TSD activation of PPARα by pharmacological systemic administration of OEA (10, 20 or 30mg/Kg, i.p.) promoted alertness by blocking the sleep rebound after TSD. Besides, wake-linked compounds such as dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, or adenosine collected from nucleus accumbens were enhanced after TSD in OEA-treated animals. These sleep and neurochemical results were mimicked after injection of PPARα agonist Wy14643 (10, 20, 30mg/Kg, i.p.). However, similar findings from the sham of vehicle groups were observed if PPARα antagonist MK-886 was administered to rats (10, 20, 30mg/Kg, i.p.). Our results strengthened the hypothesis that PPARα might modulate sleep and neurochemical homeostasis after sleep deprivation.

  19. Computer-aided discovery, validation, and mechanistic characterization of novel neolignan activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Fakhrudin, Nanang; Ladurner, Angela; Atanasov, Atanas G; Heiss, Elke H; Baumgartner, Lisa; Markt, Patrick; Schuster, Daniela; Ellmerer, Ernst P; Wolber, Gerhard; Rollinger, Judith M; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M

    2010-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) agonists are used for the treatment of type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome. However, the currently used PPAR gamma agonists display serious side effects, which has led to a great interest in the discovery of novel ligands with favorable properties. The aim of our study was to identify new PPARgamma agonists by a PPAR gamma pharmacophore-based virtual screening of 3D natural product libraries. This in silico approach led to the identification of several neolignans predicted to bind the receptor ligand binding domain (LBD). To confirm this prediction, the neolignans dieugenol, tetrahydrodieugenol, and magnolol were isolated from the respective natural source or synthesized and subsequently tested for PPAR gamma receptor binding. The neolignans bound to the PPAR gamma LBD with EC(50) values in the nanomolar range, exhibiting a binding pattern highly similar to the clinically used agonist pioglitazone. In intact cells, dieugenol and tetrahydrodieugenol selectively activated human PPAR gamma-mediated, but not human PPAR alpha- or -beta/delta-mediated luciferase reporter expression, with a pattern suggesting partial PPAR gamma agonism. The coactivator recruitment study also demonstrated partial agonism of the tested neolignans. Dieugenol, tetrahydrodieugenol, and magnolol but not the structurally related eugenol induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation, confirming effectiveness in a cell model with endogenous PPAR gamma expression. In conclusion, we identified neolignans as novel ligands for PPAR gamma, which exhibited interesting activation profiles, recommending them as potential pharmaceutical leads or dietary supplements.

  20. Aleglitazar, a dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and -γ agonist, protects cardiomyocytes against the adverse effects of hyperglycaemia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yan; Chen, Hongmei; Birnbaum, Yochai; Nanhwan, Manjyot K; Bajaj, Mandeep; Ye, Yumei; Qian, Jinqiao

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the effects of Aleglitazar on hyperglycaemia-induced apoptosis. Methods: We incubated human cardiomyocytes, cardiomyocytes from cardiac-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ knockout or wild-type mice in normoglycaemic or hyperglycaemic conditions (glucose 25 mM). Cells were treated with different concentrations of Aleglitazar for 48 h. We measured viability, apoptosis, caspase-3 activity, cytochrome-C release, total antioxidant capacity and reactive oxygen species formation in the treated cardiomyocytes. Human cardiomyocytes were transfected with short interfering RNA against peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Results: Aleglitazar attenuated hyperglycaemia-induced apoptosis, caspase-3 activity and cytochrome-C release and increased viability in human cardiomyocyte, cardiomyocytes from cardiac-specific peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ knockout and wild-type mice. Hyperglycaemia reduced the antioxidant capacity and Aleglitazar significantly blunted this effect. Hyperglycaemia-induced reactive oxygen species production was attenuated by Aleglitazar in both human cardiomyocyte and wild-type mice cardiomyocytes. Aleglitazar improved cell viability in cells exposed to hyperglycaemia. The protective effect was partially blocked by short interfering RNA against peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α alone and short interfering RNA against peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ alone and completely blocked by short interfering RNA to both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ. Conclusion: Aleglitazar protects cardiomyocytes against hyperglycaemia-induced apoptosis by combined activation of both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ in a short-term vitro model. PMID:28111985

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ agonists attenuate biofilm formation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Bedi, Brahmchetna; Maurice, Nicholas M; Ciavatta, Vincent T; Lynn, K Sabrina; Yuan, Zhihong; Molina, Samuel A; Joo, Myungsoo; Tyor, William R; Goldberg, Joanna B; Koval, Michael; Hart, C Michael; Sadikot, Ruxana T

    2017-08-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant contributor to recalcitrant multidrug-resistant infections, especially in immunocompromised and hospitalized patients. The pathogenic profile of P. aeruginosa is related to its ability to secrete a variety of virulence factors and to promote biofilm formation. Quorum sensing (QS) is a mechanism wherein P. aeruginosa secretes small diffusible molecules, specifically acyl homo serine lactones, such as N-(3-oxo-dodecanoyl)-l-homoserine lactone (3O-C12-HSL), that promote biofilm formation and virulence via interbacterial communication. Strategies that strengthen the host's ability to inhibit bacterial virulence would enhance host defenses and improve the treatment of resistant infections. We have recently shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists are potent immunostimulators that play a pivotal role in host response to virulent P. aeruginosa Here, we show that QS genes in P. aeruginosa (strain PAO1) and 3O-C12-HSL attenuate PPARγ expression in bronchial epithelial cells. PAO1 and 3O-C12-HSL induce barrier derangements in bronchial epithelial cells by lowering the expression of junctional proteins, such as zonula occludens-1, occludin, and claudin-4. Expression of these proteins was restored in cells that were treated with pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, before infection with PAO1 and 3O-C12-HSL. Barrier function and bacterial permeation studies that have been performed in primary human epithelial cells showed that PPARγ agonists are able to restore barrier integrity and function that are disrupted by PAO1 and 3O-C12-HSL. Mechanistically, we show that these effects are dependent on the induction of paraoxonase-2, a QS hydrolyzing enzyme, that mitigates the effects of QS molecules. Importantly, our data show that pioglitazone, a PPARγ agonist, significantly inhibits biofilm formation on epithelial cells by a mechanism that is mediated via paraoxonase-2. These findings elucidate a novel role for

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as targets to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2015-05-18

    Lately, the world has faced tremendous progress in the understanding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis due to rising obesity rates. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that modulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis and inflammation, being altered in diet-induced obesity. Experimental evidences show that PPAR-alpha is the master regulator of hepatic beta-oxidation (mitochondrial and peroxisomal) and microsomal omega-oxidation, being markedly decreased by high-fat (HF) intake. PPAR-beta/delta is crucial to the regulation of forkhead box-containing protein O subfamily-1 expression and, hence, the modulation of enzymes that trigger hepatic gluconeogenesis. In addition, PPAR-beta/delta can activate hepatic stellate cells aiming to the hepatic recovery from chronic insult. On the contrary, PPAR-gamma upregulation by HF diets maximizes NAFLD through the induction of lipogenic factors, which are implicated in the fatty acid synthesis. Excessive dietary sugars also upregulate PPAR-gamma, triggering de novo lipogenesis and the consequent lipid droplets deposition within hepatocytes. Targeting PPARs to treat NAFLD seems a fruitful approach as PPAR-alpha agonist elicits expressive decrease in hepatic steatosis by increasing mitochondrial beta-oxidation, besides reduced lipogenesis. PPAR-beta/delta ameliorates hepatic insulin resistance by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis at postprandial stage. Total PPAR-gamma activation can exert noxious effects by stimulating hepatic lipogenesis. However, partial PPAR-gamma activation leads to benefits, mainly mediated by increased adiponectin expression and decreased insulin resistance. Further studies are necessary aiming at translational approaches useful to treat NAFLD in humans worldwide by targeting PPARs.

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as targets to treat non-alcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Souza-Mello, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Lately, the world has faced tremendous progress in the understanding of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis due to rising obesity rates. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcription factors that modulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism, energy homeostasis and inflammation, being altered in diet-induced obesity. Experimental evidences show that PPAR-alpha is the master regulator of hepatic beta-oxidation (mitochondrial and peroxisomal) and microsomal omega-oxidation, being markedly decreased by high-fat (HF) intake. PPAR-beta/delta is crucial to the regulation of forkhead box-containing protein O subfamily-1 expression and, hence, the modulation of enzymes that trigger hepatic gluconeogenesis. In addition, PPAR-beta/delta can activate hepatic stellate cells aiming to the hepatic recovery from chronic insult. On the contrary, PPAR-gamma upregulation by HF diets maximizes NAFLD through the induction of lipogenic factors, which are implicated in the fatty acid synthesis. Excessive dietary sugars also upregulate PPAR-gamma, triggering de novo lipogenesis and the consequent lipid droplets deposition within hepatocytes. Targeting PPARs to treat NAFLD seems a fruitful approach as PPAR-alpha agonist elicits expressive decrease in hepatic steatosis by increasing mitochondrial beta-oxidation, besides reduced lipogenesis. PPAR-beta/delta ameliorates hepatic insulin resistance by decreasing hepatic gluconeogenesis at postprandial stage. Total PPAR-gamma activation can exert noxious effects by stimulating hepatic lipogenesis. However, partial PPAR-gamma activation leads to benefits, mainly mediated by increased adiponectin expression and decreased insulin resistance. Further studies are necessary aiming at translational approaches useful to treat NAFLD in humans worldwide by targeting PPARs. PMID:26052390

  4. Expression of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) in acne vulgaris.

    PubMed

    Elmongy, Naglaa Nabil; Shaker, Olfat

    2012-01-01

    Sebum production is the key factor in the pathophysiology of acne. Studies in sebocyte and human sebaceous gland biology indicate that agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alter sebaceous lipid production. Our objective was to detect the expression of PPARβ/δ in acne lesions and find its contribution to disease pathogenesis. Twenty five acne vulgaris patients (14 males, 11 females) were included. In addition, 12 healthy volunteers (6 males, 6 females) served as controls. Punch biopsies (3mm) were taken from lesional skin of all patients, non-lesional skin in 12 patients, and from the healthy controls. The biopsies were estimated quantitatively for the level of PPARβ/δ mRNA using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain (RT-PCR) technique. PPARβ/δ mRNA levels were significantly higher in patients than controls (p=0.00) and in patients' lesional than non-lesional skin (p=0.00). No significant difference however, was found between inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions. Age and disease duration had no influence on mean PPAR mRNA levels in lesional skin. PPARβ/δ is over expressed-in inflammatory and non-inflammatory acne vulgaris and may well be considered as a candidate target in future acne therapy. However, elucidation of its functional role is recommended.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) regulates lactase expression and activity in the gut.

    PubMed

    Fumery, Mathurin; Speca, Silvia; Langlois, Audrey; Davila, Anne-Marie; Dubuquoy, Caroline; Grauso, Marta; Martin Mena, Anthony; Figeac, Martin; Metzger, Daniel; Rousseaux, Christel; Colombel, Jean-Frederic; Dubuquoy, Laurent; Desreumaux, Pierre; Bertin, Benjamin

    2017-09-25

    Lactase (LCT) deficiency affects approximately 75% of the world's adult population and may lead to lactose malabsorption and intolerance. Currently, the regulation of LCT gene expression remains poorly known. Peroxisome proliferator activator receptorγ (PPARγ) is a key player in carbohydrate metabolism. While the intestine is essential for carbohydrate digestion and absorption, the role of PPARγ in enterocyte metabolic functions has been poorly investigated. This study aims at characterizing PPARγ target genes involved in intestinal metabolic functions. In microarray analysis, the LCT gene was the most upregulated by PPARγ agonists in Caco-2 cells. We confirmed that PPARγ agonists were able to increase the expression and activity of LCT both in vitro and in vivo in the proximal small bowel of rodents. The functional response element activated by PPARγ was identified in the promoter of the human LCT gene. PPARγ modulation was able to improve symptoms induced by lactose-enriched diet in weaned rats. Our results demonstrate that PPARγ regulates LCT expression, and suggest that modulating intestinal PPARγ activity might constitute a new therapeutic strategy for lactose malabsorption. © 2017 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists modulate neuropathic pain: a link to chemokines?

    PubMed Central

    Freitag, Caroline M.; Miller, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic pain presents a widespread and intractable medical problem. While numerous pharmaceuticals are used to treat chronic pain, drugs that are safe for extended use and highly effective at treating the most severe pain do not yet exist. Chronic pain resulting from nervous system injury (neuropathic pain) is common in conditions ranging from multiple sclerosis to HIV-1 infection to type II diabetes. Inflammation caused by neuropathy is believed to contribute to the generation and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Chemokines are key inflammatory mediators, several of which (MCP-1, RANTES, MIP-1α, fractalkine, SDF-1 among others) have been linked to chronic, neuropathic pain in both human conditions and animal models. The important roles chemokines play in inflammation and pain make them an attractive therapeutic target. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of nuclear receptors known for their roles in metabolism. Recent research has revealed that PPARs also play a role in inflammatory gene repression. PPAR agonists have wide-ranging effects including inhibition of chemokine expression and pain behavior reduction in animal models. Experimental evidence suggests a connection between the pain ameliorating effects of PPAR agonists and suppression of inflammatory gene expression, including chemokines. In early clinical research, one PPARα agonist, palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), shows promise in relieving chronic pain. If this link can be better established, PPAR agonists may represent a new drug therapy for neuropathic pain. PMID:25191225

  7. Identification of novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonists using molecular modeling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, Veronica M. W.; Wong, Fiona S. L.; Ramachandran, Lalitha; Sethi, Gautam; Kumar, Alan Prem; Yap, Chun Wei

    2014-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) plays a critical role in lipid and glucose homeostasis. It is the target of many drug discovery studies, because of its role in various disease states including diabetes and cancer. Thiazolidinediones, a synthetic class of agents that work by activation of PPARγ, have been used extensively as insulin-sensitizers for the management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, a combination of QSAR and docking methods were utilised to perform virtual screening of more than 25 million compounds in the ZINC library. The QSAR model was developed using 1,517 compounds and it identified 42,378 potential PPARγ agonists from the ZINC library, and 10,000 of these were selected for docking with PPARγ based on their diversity. Several steps were used to refine the docking results, and finally 30 potentially highly active ligands were identified. Four compounds were subsequently tested for their in vitro activity, and one compound was found to have a K i values of <5 μM.

  8. Structural basis for specific ligation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chyuan-Chuan; Baiga, Thomas J.; Downes, Michael; La Clair, James J.; Atkins, Annette R.; Richard, Stephane B.; Fan, Weiwei; Stockley-Noel, Theresa A.; Bowman, Marianne E.; Noel, Joseph P.; Evans, Ronald M.

    2017-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family comprises three subtypes: PPARα, PPARγ, and PPARδ. PPARδ transcriptionally modulates lipid metabolism and the control of energy homeostasis; therefore, PPARδ agonists are promising agents for treating a variety of metabolic disorders. In the present study, we develop a panel of rationally designed PPARδ agonists. The modular motif affords efficient syntheses using building blocks optimized for interactions with subtype-specific residues in the PPARδ ligand-binding domain (LBD). A combination of atomic-resolution protein X-ray crystallographic structures, ligand-dependent LBD stabilization assays, and cell-based transactivation measurements delineate structure–activity relationships (SARs) for PPARδ-selective targeting and structural modulation. We identify key ligand-induced conformational transitions of a conserved tryptophan side chain in the LBD that trigger reorganization of the H2′–H3 surface segment of PPARδ. The subtype-specific conservation of H2′–H3 sequences suggests that this architectural remodeling constitutes a previously unrecognized conformational switch accompanying ligand-dependent PPARδ transcriptional regulation. PMID:28320959

  9. [The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPARγ) in obesity and insulin resistance].

    PubMed

    Chmielewska-Kassassir, Małgorzata; Woźniak, Lucyna A; Ogrodniczek, Paweł; Wójcik, Marzena

    2013-12-11

    Obesity, defined as abnormal or excessive fat accumulation, is currently believed to be a major public health problem worldwide. Over the past 20 years, the prevalence of obesity has increased rapidly in both industrialized and developing countries, resulting in a considerably increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and metabolic syndrome. Although the exact pathophysiological mechanisms underlying these diseases remain unclear, clinical and epidemiological studies support the existence of a relationship between obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance linked with the development and progression of metabolic diseases. Adipokines, produced and released by adipose tissue, are considered as factors linking obesity-induced inflammation with insulin resistance, and their regulation through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors γ (PPARγ also known as NR1C3) is essential in these processes. PPARγ are transcriptional factors belonging to the ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily which directly regulate the expression of a large number of genes involved in adipocyte differentiation, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as adipokine synthesis; thereby they are implicated in various metabolic disorders, including obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. This review summarizes the current literature on a functional relationship of PPARγ with obesity and insulin resistance and, moreover, highlights the significance of synthetic ligands of these receptors in the mentioned metabolic disorders.

  10. Maternal nutrition influences angiogenesis in the placenta through peroxisome proliferator activated receptors: A novel hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Meher, Akshaya; Sundrani, Deepali; Joshi, Sadhana

    2015-10-01

    Placental angiogenesis is critical to maintain adequate blood flow during gestation, and any alterations in this process can result in an adverse pregnancy. Growing evidence indicates that suboptimal maternal nutrition can alter placental development. Although the underlying mechanisms are not clear, maternal nutrition likely influences the expression of genes involved in placental development through regulation of various transcription factors such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which can be activated by ligands including long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Indeed, several studies demonstrated a role for PPAR in implantation, trophoblast differentiation, and angiogenesis. Alterations in maternal nutrition during pregnancy can affect the expression of PPARs via epigenetic mechanisms or through homocysteine, which is known to compete for PPARs. This review discusses the role of maternal nutrition-particularly micronutrients like folate, vitamin B12 , and omega-3 fatty acids-in modulating the activity of PPARs during placentation and angiogenesis, which affects placental and fetal growth. Additional animal and human studies need to be undertaken to elucidate the molecular mechanisms through which maternal nutrition regulates PPARs, specifically to determine whether PPARs affect placental angiogenesis directly through angiogenic factors or indirectly by modulating trophoblast differentiation. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in cardiovascular diseases: experimental benefits and clinical challenges.

    PubMed

    Cheang, Wai San; Tian, Xiao Yu; Wong, Wing Tak; Huang, Yu

    2015-12-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ, are ligand-activated transcriptional factors belonging to the nuclear receptors superfamily and they are known to play important roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. Experimental studies in animal models of metabolic diseases have also revealed that activation of PPARs protects against the vascular complications of diabetes, hypertension, atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction and stroke, through exerting their anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic and antioxidant effects. In clinical trials and post-market surveillance, agonists of PPARs have been shown to effectively prevent cardiovascular events. However, adverse effects, particularly for PPARγ agonists, are also observed with the use of investigational PPAR agonists and even some approved drugs. Further exploration of underlying mechanisms is needed to develop novel ways of PPAR activation without causing serious side effects. This article reviews the cardiovascular effects of PPARs, with emphasis on the therapeutic potential of PPAR agonists in combating metabolic vascular diseases. © 2014 The British Pharmacological Society.

  12. Docking and molecular dynamics simulations of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors interacting with pan agonist sodelglitazar.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu-Yuan; Wang, Run-Ling; Xu, Wei-Ren; Tang, Li-Da; Wang, Shu-Qing; Chou, Kuo-Chen

    2011-10-01

    PPAR (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) pan agonists play a critical role in treating metabolic diseases, especially the Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). GlaxoSmithKline's sodelglitazar (GW677954) is one of the potent PPAR pan agonists, which is currently being investigated in Phase II clinical trials for the treatment of T2DM and its complications. The present study was aimed at investigation into the effect of sodelglitazar at the binding pockets of PPARs. The Schrodinger Suite program (2009) was used for the molecular docking, while the GROMACS program used for the molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results thus obtained showed that sodelglitazar being docked well in the active site of PPARs. It was revealed by the MD simulations that the structures of the receptors remained quite stable during the simulations and that the important AF-2 helix showed less flexibility after binding with sodelglitazar. Also, it was observed that sodelglitazar could periodically form hydrogen bonds with the AF-2 helix of PPARs to stabilize the AF-2 helix in an active conformation. Our findings have confirmed that GlaxoSmithKline's sodelglitazar can activate the PPARs, which is quite consistent with the previous biological studies.

  13. Meta-analysis of primary target genes of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    Heinäniemi, Merja; Uski, J Oskari; Degenhardt, Tatjana; Carlberg, Carsten

    2007-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are known for their critical role in the development of diseases, such as obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and cancer. Here, an in silico screening method is presented, which incorporates experiment- and informatics-derived evidence, such as DNA-binding data of PPAR subtypes to a panel of PPAR response elements (PPREs), PPRE location relative to the transcription start site (TSS) and PPRE conservation across multiple species, for more reliable prediction of PPREs. Results In vitro binding and in vivo functionality evidence agrees with in silico predictions, validating the approach. The experimental analysis of 30 putative PPREs in eight validated PPAR target genes indicates that each gene contains at least one functional, strong PPRE that occurs without positional bias relative to the TSS. An extended analysis of the cross-species conservation of PPREs reveals limited conservation of PPRE patterns, although PPAR target genes typically contain strong or multiple medium strength PPREs. Human chromosome 19 was screened using this method, with validation of six novel PPAR target genes. Conclusion An in silico screening approach is presented, which allows increased sensitivity of PPAR binding site and target gene detection. PMID:17650321

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the regulation of female reproductive functions.

    PubMed

    Bogacka, Iwona; Kurzynska, Aleksandra; Bogacki, Marek; Chojnowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to a ligand-dependent nuclear receptor family. In the past decade, numerous studies have revealed the presence and significance of PPARs in the reproductive system. PPARs are expressed at different levels of hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis. They are also present in the uterus as well as in the placenta and embryonic tissues of different species. PPARs significance has been reported during the estrous/menstrual cycle and pregnancy with the gamma isoform studied most frequently. Several studies indicate that PPARs regulate proliferation of ovarian cells, tissue remodeling and steroidogenesis. In the endometrium, PPARs are engaged in the regulation of prostaglandins, steroids and cytokines synthesis. The role of PPARs in the trophoblast differentiation, maturation and invasion as well as in the embryo development has also been demonstrated. In this review, we summarize current findings concerning the role of PPARs in the regulation of reproductive functions at different levels of the HPG axis during various physiological statuses of females. In addition, the role of PPARs in the modulation of uterine functions as well as the placenta and embryo development has also been discussed.

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha: a pharmacological target with a promising future.

    PubMed

    van Raalte, Daniel H; Li, Min; Pritchard, P Haydn; Wasan, Kishor M

    2004-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha is a ligand-activated transcriptional factor that belongs to the family of nuclear receptors. PPAR-alpha regulates the expression of genes involved in fatty acid beta-oxidation and is a major regulator of energy homeostasis. Fibrates are PPAR-alpha agonists and have been used to treat dyslipidemia for several decades because of their triglyceride (TG) lowering and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) elevating effects. More recent research has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and anti-thrombotic actions of PPAR-alpha agonists in the vessel wall as well. Thus, PPAR-alpha agonists decrease the progression of atherosclerosis by modulating metabolic risk factors and by their anti-inflammatory actions on the level of the vascular wall. This is confirmed by several clinical studies, in which fibrates have shown to reduce atherosclerotic plaque formation and the event rate of coronary heart disease (CHD), especially in patients suffering from metabolic syndrome (MS). MS is characterized by a group of metabolic risk factors that include obesity, raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance or glucose intolerance, and a prothrombotic state, and its incidence in the Western world is rising to epidemic proportions. This review paper will focus on the functions of PPAR-alpha in fatty acid beta-oxidation, lipid metabolism, and vascular inflammation. Furthermore, PPAR-alpha genetics, the clinical use of PPAR-alpha activators and their future perspective will be discussed.

  16. Polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha gene influences the risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Brune, S; Kölsch, H; Ptok, U; Majores, M; Schulz, A; Schlosser, R; Rao, M L; Maier, W; Heun, R

    2003-09-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR-alpha) is a member of the steroid hormone super family of ligand-inducible transcription factors, involved in glucose and lipid metabolism. We screened for polymorphisms in the PPAR-alpha gene and detected two known polymorphisms located in exon 5 and intron 7. These polymorphisms were investigated for their possible association with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and for their effect in carriers of an insulin gene (INS) polymorphism. The PPAR-alpha C --> G polymorphism in exon 5 (L162V) was associated with AD, in that the V-allele was more frequent in AD patients than in healthy subjects. Further data analysis revealed that carriers of an PPAR-alpha L162V V-allele and an INS-1 allele presented with an increased risk for AD. Cerebrospinal fluid amyloid-beta levels were influenced by PPAR-alpha L162V genotype. These results suggest, that PPAR-alpha polymorphism may be a risk factor for AD.

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: potential therapeutic targets in lung disease?

    PubMed

    Denning, Gerene M; Stoll, Lynn L

    2006-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of nuclear hormone receptors that play central roles in lipid and glucose homeostasis, cellular differentiation, and the immune/inflammatory response. Growing evidence indicates that changes in expression and activation of PPARs likely modulate conditions as diverse as diabetes, atherosclerosis, cancer, asthma, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Activation of these receptors by natural or pharmacologic ligands leads to both gene-dependent and gene-independent effects that alter the expression of a wide array of proteins. In the lung, PPARs are expressed by alveolar macrophages, as well as by epithelial, endothelial, and smooth muscle cells. Studies both in vitro and in vivo suggest that PPAR ligands may have anti-inflammatory effects in asthma, pulmonary sarcoidosis, and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, as well as antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects in epithelial lung cancers. Further studies to understand the contribution of these receptors to health and disease will be important for determining whether they represent a promising target for therapeutic intervention. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Molecular cloning and characterization of olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun Kook; Kong, Hee Jeong; Nam, Bo-Hye; Kim, Woo-Jin; Noh, Jae-Koo; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Young-Ok; Cheong, JaeHun

    2009-09-15

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that play key roles in lipid and energy homeostasis. Olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) PPARgamma cDNA (olPPARgamma) was isolated by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The full-length cDNA is 1667-bp long and encodes a polypeptide with 532 amino acids containing a C4-type zinc finger and a ligand-binding domain. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that olPPARgamma transcription was detected from 7days post-hatching, and its expression was increased under a starved condition. Overexpression of olPPARgamma stimulated PPAR response element (PPRE) activity, and treatment with rosiglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist, augmented olPPARgamma-stimulated PPRE activity in HINAE olive flounder cells. Cotransfection of olPPARgamma and olRXRbeta, in the absence or presence of rosiglitazone and ciglitazone, produced a synergistic effect on PPRE transactivation in 3T3L1 adipocytes. Moreover, olPPARgamma, in the presence or absence of rosiglitazone, regulated the expression of lipid synthesis- and adipogenesis-related proteins in NIH3T3 and 3T3L1 cells. Taken together, these results suggest that olPPARgamma is functionally and evolutionarily conserved in olive flounder and mammals.

  19. Oleamide activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in vitro.

    PubMed

    Dionisi, Mauro; Alexander, Stephen P H; Bennett, Andrew J

    2012-05-14

    Oleamide (ODA) is a fatty acid primary amide first identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats, which exerts effects on vascular and neuronal tissues, with a variety of molecular targets including cannabinoid receptors and gap junctions. It has recently been reported to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Here, we have investigated the nuclear receptor family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as potential targets for ODA action. Activation of PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ was assessed using recombinant expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells with a luciferase reporter gene assay. Direct binding of ODA to the ligand binding domain of each of the three PPARs was monitored in a cell-free fluorescent ligand competition assay. A well-established assay of PPARγ activity, the differentiation of 3T3-L1 murine fibroblasts into adipocytes, was assessed using an Oil Red O uptake-based assay. ODA, at 10 and 50 μM, was able to transactivate PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors. ODA bound to the ligand binding domain of all three PPARs, although complete displacement of fluorescent ligand was only evident for PPARγ, at which an IC50 value of 38 μM was estimated. In 3T3-L1 cells, ODA, at 10 and 20 μM, induced adipogenesis. We have, therefore, identified a novel site of action of ODA through PPAR nuclear receptors and shown how ODA should be considered as a weak PPARγ ligand in vitro.

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor family and its relationship to renal complications of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guan, Youfei

    2004-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. Three PPAR isoforms, designated PPARalpha, -beta/delta, and -gamma, have been identified and attracted enormous attention as a result of the key role that these receptors play in regulating adipogenesis, lipid metabolism, insulin sensitivity, inflammation, and BP. Growing evidence points to a causative relationship between PPAR activity and the metabolic syndrome, including insulin resistance, glucose intolerance or type 2 diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and albuminuria. Importantly, both PPAR-alpha activators, such as the fibric acid class of hypolipidemic drugs, and PPAR-gamma agonists, including antidiabetic thiazolidinediones, have been proved to be effective for improving diverse aspects of the metabolic syndrome. All three PPAR isoforms seem to play important roles in the development of diabetic nephropathy in type 2 diabetes. Accumulating data suggesting that PPAR may serve as potential therapeutic targets for treating the metabolic syndrome and its related renal complications have begun to emerge. This article reviews the literature pertaining to the action, ligand selectivity, and physiologic role of PPAR. Particular emphasis is placed on their pathogenic roles in the metabolic syndrome and the therapeutic utility of PPAR modulators in the treatment of diabetic nephropathy.

  1. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ: Master Regulator of Adipogenesis and Obesity.

    PubMed

    Shao, Xiaoru; Wang, Meiqi; Wei, Xueqin; Deng, Shuwen; Fu, Na; Peng, Qiang; Jiang, Yan; Ye, Ling; Xie, Jiamin; Lin, Yunfeng

    2016-01-01

    Obesity, which is a key risk for the development of hyperglycemia, hypertension, hyperlipidemia and insulin resistance and is totally referred to as the metabolic disorders, has aroused people's great attention because of its alarming increase rate around the world. It is widely known that the occurrence of obesity can be attributed to both environmental and genetic factors. Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR), a member of ligand-dependent receptor, is one of the important genetic factors. PPAR includes three isoforms: PPAR-α, PPAR- β and PPAR- γ, all of which are exerting critical influences on the maintenance of the metabolism of saccharides, lipids and proteins. PPAR-γ is of great importance in the regulation of adipogenesis; in addition, it is essential in the prevention of adiposis and the treatment of 2-diabetes mellitus. In this review, we focus on giving a brief introduction about PPAR family, the indispensible function of PPAR-γ in adipogenesis and the inseparable relationship between PPAR-γ and obesity, deriving from the understanding of how these receptors activated will provide windows of opportunities for the treatment of obesity and associated metabolism syndromes.

  2. Association of Pro12Ala polymorphism in peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma with proliferative diabetic retinopathy

    PubMed Central

    Tariq, Khadija; Malik, Saira Bano; Ali, Syeda Hafiza Benish; Maqsood, Sundas Ejaz; Azam, Aisha; Muslim, Irfan; Khan, Muhammad Shakil; Azam, Maleeha; Waheed, Nadia Khalida

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The association of non-synonymous substitution polymorphism rs1801282 (c.34C>G, p.Pro12Ala) in exon 4 of the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma gene with diabetic retinopathy (DR) has been reported inconsistently. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to understand the population-specific role of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in DR susceptibility in Pakistani subjects. Methods A total of 180 subjects with DR, 193 subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) with no diabetic retinopathy, and 200 healthy normoglycemic non-retinopathic Pakistani individuals were genotyped for the rs1801282 (c.34C>G) polymorphism using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results We found the individuals with T2DM carrying 12Ala were at a reduced risk of developing DR (odds ratio [OR]=0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.33–0.87). Upon stratified analysis regarding disease severity, we observed this protective effect was confined to proliferative DR (OR=0.4; 95% CI=0.2–0.8) with non-significant effects on the susceptibility of non-proliferative DR (OR=0.67; 95% CI=0.37–1.19). Conclusions We report a protective role of the 12Ala polymorphism against proliferative DR in individuals with T2DM in Pakistan. PMID:23559865

  3. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors at the crossroad of obesity, diabetes, and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Polvani, Simone; Tarocchi, Mirko; Tempesti, Sara; Bencini, Lapo; Galli, Andrea

    2016-02-28

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth cause of cancer death with an overall survival of 5% at five years. The development of PDAC is characteristically associated to the accumulation of distinctive genetic mutations and is preceded by the exposure to several risk factors. Epidemiology has demonstrated that PDAC risk factors may be non-modifiable risks (sex, age, presence of genetic mutations, ethnicity) and modifiable and co-morbidity factors related to the specific habits and lifestyle. Recently it has become evident that obesity and diabetes are two important modifiable risk factors for PDAC. Obesity and diabetes are complex systemic and intertwined diseases and, over the years, experimental evidence indicate that insulin-resistance, alteration of adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress and inflammation may play a role in PDAC. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that is implicated in the regulation of metabolism, differentiation and inflammation. PPARγ is a key regulator of adipocytes differentiation, regulates insulin and adipokines production and secretion, may modulate inflammation, and it is implicated in PDAC. PPARγ agonists are used in the treatment of diabetes and oxidative stress-associated diseases and have been evaluated for the treatment of PDAC. PPARγ is at the cross-road of diabetes, obesity, and PDAC and it is an interesting target to pharmacologically prevent PDAC in obese and diabetic patients.

  4. Ginsenoside Rf, a component of ginseng, regulates lipoprotein metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Hyunghee; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Yoon, Michung . E-mail: yoon60@mokwon.ac.kr

    2006-01-06

    We investigated whether ginseng regulates lipoprotein metabolism by altering peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})-mediated pathways, using a PPAR{alpha}-null mouse model. Administration of ginseng extract, ginsenosides, and ginsenoside Rf (Rf) to wild-type mice not only significantly increased basal levels of hepatic apolipoprotein (apo) A-I and C-III mRNA compared with wild-type controls, but also substantially reversed the reductions in mRNA levels of apo A-I and C-III expected following treatment with the potent PPAR{alpha} ligand Wy14,643. In contrast, no effect was detected in the PPAR{alpha}-null mice. Testing of eight main ginsenosides on PPAR{alpha} reporter gene expression indicated that Rf was responsible for the effects of ginseng on lipoprotein metabolism. Furthermore, the inhibition of PPAR{alpha}-dependent transactivation by Rf seems to occur at the level of DNA binding. These results demonstrate that ginseng component Rf regulates apo A-I and C-III mRNA and the actions of Rf on lipoprotein metabolism are mediated via interactions with PPAR{alpha}.

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as stimulants of angiogenesis in cardiovascular disease and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Desouza, Cyrus V; Rentschler, Lindsey; Fonseca, Vivian

    2009-09-25

    The incidence of diabetes is directly related to the incidence of obesity, which is at epidemic proportions in the US. Cardiovascular disease is a common complication of diabetes, which results in high morbidity and mortality. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear hormone receptors that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism. PPAR-α agonists such as fenofibrate and PPAR-γ agonists such as the thiozolidinediones have been used to treat dyslipidemia and insulin resistance in diabetes. Over the past few years research has discovered the role of PPARs in the regulation of inflammation, proliferation, and angiogenesis. Clinical trials looking at the effect of PPAR agonists on cardiovascular outcomes have produced controversial results. Studies looking at angiogenesis and proliferation in various animal models and cell lines have shown a wide variation in results. This may be due to the differential effects of PPARs on proliferation and angiogenesis in various tissues and pathologic states. This review discusses the role of PPARs in stimulating angiogenesis. It also reviews the settings in which stimulation of angiogenesis may be either beneficial or harmful.

  6. Liver X receptor and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor as integrators of lipid homeostasis and immunity.

    PubMed

    Kidani, Yoko; Bensinger, Steven J

    2012-09-01

    Lipid metabolism has emerged as an important modulator of innate and adaptive immune cell fate and function. The lipid-activated transcription factors peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, β/δ, γ and liver X receptor (LXR) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that have a well-defined role in regulating lipid homeostasis and metabolic diseases. Accumulated evidence over the last decade indicates that PPAR and LXR signaling also influence multiple facets of inflammation and immunity, thereby providing important crosstalk between metabolism and immune system. Herein, we provide a brief introduction to LXR and PPAR biology and review recent discoveries highlighting the importance of PPAR and LXR signaling in the modulation of normal and pathologic states of immunity. We also examine advances in our mechanistic understanding of how nuclear receptors impact immune system function and homeostasis. Finally, we discuss whether LXRs and PPARs could be pharmacologically manipulated to provide novel therapeutic approaches for modulation of the immune system under pathologic inflammation or in the context of allergic and autoimmune disease. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as transcriptional nodal points and therapeutic targets.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jonathan D; Plutzky, Jorge

    2007-01-30

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors involved in the transcriptional regulation of key metabolic pathways such as lipid metabolism, adipogenesis, and insulin sensitivity. More recent work implicates all 3 PPAR isotypes (alpha, gamma, and delta, also known as beta or beta/delta) in inflammatory and atherosclerotic pathways. Because these nuclear receptors are activated by extracellular signals and control multiple gene targets, PPARs can be seen as nodes that control multiple inputs and outputs involved in energy balance, providing insight into how metabolism and the vasculature may be integrated. The ongoing clinical use of fibrates, which activate PPARalpha, and thiazolidinediones, which activate PPARgamma, establishes these receptors as viable drug targets, whereas considerable in vitro animal model and human surrogate marker studies suggest that PPAR activation may limit inflammation and atherosclerosis. Together, these various observations have stimulated intense interest in PPARs as therapeutic targets and led to large-scale cardiovascular end-point trials with PPAR agonists. The first of these studies has generated mixed results that require careful review, especially in anticipation of additional clinical trial data and ongoing attempts to develop novel PPAR modulators. Such analysis of the existing PPAR data, the appropriate use of currently approved PPAR agonists, and continued progress in PPAR therapeutics will be predicated on a better understanding of PPAR biology.

  8. Role of adipokines and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Giby, Vettickattuparambil George; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan

    2014-08-27

    Intrahepatic fat deposition has been demonstrated in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of NAFLD. Diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have been found to be closely associated with the incidence of NAFLD. Evidence suggests that obesity and insulin resistance are the major factors that contribute to the development of NAFLD. In comparing the factors that contribute to the buildup of excess calories in obesity, an imbalance of energy homeostasis can be considered as the basis. Among the peripheral signals that are generated to regulate the uptake of food, signals from adipose tissue are of major relevance and involve the maintenance of energy homeostasis through processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, and oxidation of fatty acids. Advances in research on adipose tissue suggest an integral role played by adipokines in NAFLD. Cytokines secreted by adipocytes, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, and interleukin-6, are implicated in NAFLD. Other adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin and, to a lesser extent, resistin and retinol binding protein-4 are also involved. Leptin and adiponectin can augment the oxidation of fatty acid in liver by activating the nuclear receptor super-family of transcription factors, namely peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α. Recent studies have proposed downregulation of PPAR-α in cases of hepatic steatosis. This review discusses the role of adipokines and PPARs with regard to hepatic energy metabolism and progression of NAFLD.

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: Targets for the treatment of metabolic illnesses (Review).

    PubMed

    Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Poblete Bustamante, Mauricio; González Guerra, Oscar; Leiva Madariaga, Elba; Mujica Escudero, Veronica; Aranguez Arellano, Claudio; Palomo, Iván

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to a family of transcription factors of which three isotypes, PPARα, PPARδ (β) and PPARγ, are known. These play a central role in regulating intermediate metabolism and in incidences of inflammation. In recent years, a greater understanding of their mechanisms of action and their effects, principally in the management of cardiovascular disease, has been achieved. PPAR agonists, catalysts and agents have been used since the 1990s, when it was confirmed that fibrates possess lipid modifying properties when selectively activating PPARα. In addition, thiazolidinediones, structures analogous to fibrates, showed PPARγ activity with an insulin-sensitizing effect, leading to their use in the control and even prevention of diabetes mellitus type 2. Currently, studies are oriented to the development of agents that activate multiple PPAR isoforms - not only dual (PPARα/γ), but also PPAR panagonists (α/γ/δ). The purpose of this review is to explain the mechanisms of the molecular action and the effects of PPAR agonists, and also to analyze existing and current studies concerning their use in cardiovascular and metabolic illnesses.

  10. Modulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors for therapeutic benefit? Biology, clinical experience, and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Rosenson, Robert S; Wright, R Scott; Farkouh, Michael; Plutzky, Jorge

    2012-11-01

    Clinical trials of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevention in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus primarily have been directed at the modification of a single major risk factor; however, in trials that enroll patients with and without diabetes, the absolute risk in CVD events remains higher in patients with diabetes. Efforts to reduce the macrovascular and microvascular residual risk have been directed toward a multifactorial CVD risk-factor modification; nonetheless, long-term complications remain high. Dual-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α/γ agonists may offer opportunities to lower macrovascular and microvascular complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus beyond the reductions achieved with conventional risk-factor modification. The information presented elucidates the differentiation of compound-specific vs class-effect properties of PPARs as the basis for future development of a new candidate molecule. Prior experience with thiazolidinediones, an approved class of PPARγ agonists, and glitazars, investigational class of dual-PPARα/γ agonists, also provides important lessons about the risks and benefits of targeting a nuclear receptor while revealing some of the future challenges for regulatory approval. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Functions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) in skin homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Di-Poï, Nicolas; Michalik, Liliane; Desvergne, Béatrice; Wahli, Walter

    2004-11-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear hormone receptor family. Three isotypes (PPAR alpha, PPAR beta or delta, and PPAR gamma) with distinct tissue distributions and cellular functions have been found in vertebrates. All three PPAR isotypes are expressed in rodent and human skin. They were initially investigated for a possible function in the establishment of the permeability barrier in skin because of their known function in lipid metabolism in other cell types. In vitro studies using specific PPAR agonists and in vivo gene disruption approaches in mice indeed suggest an important contribution of PPAR alpha in the formation of the epidermal barrier and in sebocyte differentiation. The PPAR gamma isotype plays a role in stimulating sebocyte development and lipogenesis, but does not appear to contribute to epidermal tissue differentiation. The third isotype, PPAR beta, regulates the late stages of sebaceous cell differentiation, and is the most effective isotype in stimulating lipid production in these cells, both in rodents and in humans. In addition, PPAR beta activation has pro-differentiating effects in keratinocytes under normal and inflammatory conditions. Finally, preliminary studies also point to a potential role of PPAR in hair follicle growth and in melanocyte differentiation. By their diverse biological effects on cell proliferation and differentiation in the skin, PPAR agonists or antagonists may offer interesting opportunities for the treatment of various skin disorders characterized by inflammation, cell hyperproliferation, and aberrant differentiation.

  12. Nuclear control of the inflammatory response in mammals by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Mandard, Stéphane; Patsouris, David

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that play pivotal roles in the regulation of a very large number of biological processes including inflammation. Using specific examples, this paper focuses on the interplay between PPARs and innate immunity/inflammation and, when possible, compares it among species. We focus on recent discoveries establishing how inflammation and PPARs interact in the context of obesity-induced inflammation and type 2 diabetes, mostly in mouse and humans. We illustrate that PPAR γ ability to alleviate obesity-associated inflammation raises an interesting pharmacologic potential. In the light of recent findings, the protective role of PPAR α and PPAR β / δ against the hepatic inflammatory response is also addressed. While PPARs agonists are well-established agents that can treat numerous inflammatory issues in rodents and humans, surprisingly very little has been described in other species. We therefore also review the implication of PPARs in inflammatory bowel disease; acute-phase response; and central, cardiac, and endothelial inflammation and compare it along different species (mainly mouse, rat, human, and pig). In the light of the data available in the literature, there is no doubt that more studies concerning the impact of PPAR ligands in livestock should be undertaken because it may finally raise unconsidered health and sanitary benefits.

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in skin health, repair and disease.

    PubMed

    Michalik, Liliane; Wahli, Walter

    2007-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, PPARalpha, PPARbeta/delta and PPARgamma, are fatty acid activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear hormone receptor family. While they are best known as transcriptional regulators of lipid and glucose metabolism, evidence has also accumulated for their importance in skin homeostasis. The three PPAR isotypes are expressed in rodent and human skin. Various cell culture and in vivo approaches suggest that PPARalpha contributes to fetal skin development, to epidermal barrier maturation and to sebocyte activity. PPARbeta/delta regulates sebocyte differentiation, promotes hair follicle growth and has pro-differentiating effects in keratinocytes in normal and inflammatory conditions. In contrast, the role of PPARgamma appears to be rather minor in keratinocytes, whereas its activity is required for sebaceous gland differentiation. Importantly, PPARalpha and beta/delta are instrumental in skin repair after an injury, each of them playing specific roles. Due to their collective diverse functions in skin biology, PPARs represent a major research target for the understanding and treatment of many skin diseases, such as benign epidermal tumors, papillomas, acne vulgaris and psoriasis.

  14. Role of adipokines and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in nonalcoholic fatty liver disease

    PubMed Central

    Giby, Vettickattuparambil George; Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan

    2014-01-01

    Intrahepatic fat deposition has been demonstrated in patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Genetic and environmental factors are important for the development of NAFLD. Diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension have been found to be closely associated with the incidence of NAFLD. Evidence suggests that obesity and insulin resistance are the major factors that contribute to the development of NAFLD. In comparing the factors that contribute to the buildup of excess calories in obesity, an imbalance of energy homeostasis can be considered as the basis. Among the peripheral signals that are generated to regulate the uptake of food, signals from adipose tissue are of major relevance and involve the maintenance of energy homeostasis through processes such as lipogenesis, lipolysis, and oxidation of fatty acids. Advances in research on adipose tissue suggest an integral role played by adipokines in NAFLD. Cytokines secreted by adipocytes, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, transforming growth factor-β, and interleukin-6, are implicated in NAFLD. Other adipokines, such as leptin and adiponectin and, to a lesser extent, resistin and retinol binding protein-4 are also involved. Leptin and adiponectin can augment the oxidation of fatty acid in liver by activating the nuclear receptor super-family of transcription factors, namely peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-α. Recent studies have proposed downregulation of PPAR-α in cases of hepatic steatosis. This review discusses the role of adipokines and PPARs with regard to hepatic energy metabolism and progression of NAFLD. PMID:25232450

  15. [Application of the human hepatoblastoma cell lines inducibly expressing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs)].

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Keisuke

    2007-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors and commonly play an important role in the regulation of lipid homeostasis. Although three PPAR subtypes, alpha, delta and gamma show a relatively close amino acid sequence homology, the functions of each PPAR are distinct. For example, PPARalpha and PPARdelta induce lipid oxidation, while PPARgamma activates lipid storage and adipogenesis. To analyze the detail functions of human PPARs, we previously established tetracycline-regulated human hepatoblastoma cell lines that can be induced to express each human PPAR subtype. The expression of each PPAR subtype in established cell line was tightly controlled by the concentration of doxycycline. DNA microarray analyses using these cell lines were performed with or without adding ligand and provided the important information on the PPAR target genes. Furthermore, we analyzed the 5'-flanking region of the human adipose differentiation-related protein (adrp) gene that responded to all subtypes of PPARs, and determined the functional PPRE of the human adrp gene. Here we discuss the usefulness of these cell lines.

  16. Identification of novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) agonists using molecular modeling method.

    PubMed

    Gee, Veronica M W; Wong, Fiona S L; Ramachandran, Lalitha; Sethi, Gautam; Kumar, Alan Prem; Yap, Chun Wei

    2014-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) plays a critical role in lipid and glucose homeostasis. It is the target of many drug discovery studies, because of its role in various disease states including diabetes and cancer. Thiazolidinediones, a synthetic class of agents that work by activation of PPARγ, have been used extensively as insulin-sensitizers for the management of type 2 diabetes. In this study, a combination of QSAR and docking methods were utilised to perform virtual screening of more than 25 million compounds in the ZINC library. The QSAR model was developed using 1,517 compounds and it identified 42,378 potential PPARγ agonists from the ZINC library, and 10,000 of these were selected for docking with PPARγ based on their diversity. Several steps were used to refine the docking results, and finally 30 potentially highly active ligands were identified. Four compounds were subsequently tested for their in vitro activity, and one compound was found to have a K i values of <5 μM.

  17. Glucose regulates fatty acid binding protein interaction with lipids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α

    PubMed Central

    Hostetler, Heather A.; Balanarasimha, Madhumitha; Huang, Huan; Kelzer, Matthew S.; Kaliappan, Alagammai; Kier, Ann B.; Schroeder, Friedhelm

    2010-01-01

    Although the pathophysiology of diabetes is characterized by elevated levels of glucose and long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), nuclear mechanisms linking glucose and LCFA metabolism are poorly understood. As the liver fatty acid binding protein (L-FABP) shuttles LCFA to the nucleus, where L-FABP directly interacts with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα), the effect of glucose on these processes was examined. In vitro studies showed that L-FABP strongly bound glucose and glucose-1-phosphate (Kd = 103 ± 19 nM and Kd = 20 ± 3 nM, respectively), resulting in altered L-FABP conformation, increased affinity for lipid ligands, and enhanced interaction with PPARα. In living cells, glucose stimulated cellular uptake and nuclear localization of a nonmetabolizable fluorescent fatty acid analog (BODIPY C-16), particularly in the presence of L-FABP. These data suggest for the first time a direct role of glucose in facilitating L-FABP-mediated uptake and distribution of lipidic ligands to the nucleus for regulation of PPARα transcriptional activity. PMID:20628144

  18. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ 2 Modulates Late-Pregnancy Homeostatic Metabolic Adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Vivas, Yurena; Díez-Hochleitner, Monica; Izquierdo-Lahuerta, Adriana; Corrales, Patricia; Horrillo, Daniel; Velasco, Ismael; Martínez-García, Cristina; Campbell, Mark; Sevillano, Julio; Ricote, Mercedes; Ros, Manuel; Ramos, Maria Pilar; Medina-Gomez, Gema

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy requires adaptation of maternal energy metabolism, including expansion and functional modifications of adipose tissue. Insulin resistance (IR), predominantly during late gestation, is a physiological metabolic adaptation that serves to support the metabolic demands of fetal growth. The molecular mechanisms underlying these adaptations are not fully understood and may contribute to gestational diabetes mellitus. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) controls adipogenesis, glucose and lipid metabolism and insulin sensitivity. The PPARγ2 isoform is mainly expressed in adipocytes and is thus likely to contribute to adipose tissue adaptation during late pregnancy. In the present study, we investigated the contribution of PPARγ2 to the metabolic adaptations occurring during the late phase of pregnancy in the context of IR. Using a model of late pregnancy in PPARγ2 knockout (KO) mice, we found that deletion of PPARγ2 exacerbated IR in association with lower serum adiponectin levels, increased body weight and enhanced lipid accumulation in the liver. Lack of PPARγ2 provoked changes in the distribution of fat mass and preferentially prevented expansion of the perigonadal depot while at the same time exacerbating inflammation. Pregnant PPARγ2KO mice presented adipose tissue depot-dependent decreased expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Collectively, these data indicate that PPARγ2 is essential in promoting healthy adipose tissue expansion and immune and metabolic functionality during pregnancy, contributing to the physiological adaptations that lead gestation to term. PMID:27782293

  19. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α in fasting-mediated oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Moon, Kwan-Hoon; Hardwick, James P.; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2009-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) regulates lipid homeostasis, particularly in the liver. This study was aimed at elucidating the relationship between hepatosteatosis and oxidative stress during fasting. Fasted Ppara-null mice exhibited marked hepatosteatosis, which was associated with elevated levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide synthase activity, and hydrogen peroxide accumulation. Total glutathione (GSH), mitochondrial GSH, and the activities of major anti-oxidant enzymes were also lower in the fasted Ppara-null mice. Consequently, the number and extent of nitrated proteins were markedly increased in the fasted Ppara-null mice, although high levels of protein nitration were still detected in the fed Ppara-null mice while many oxidatively-modified proteins were only found in the fasted Ppara-null mice. However, the role of inflammation in increased oxidative stress in the fasted Ppara-null mice was minimal based on the similar levels of tumor necrosis factor-α change in all groups. These results with increased oxidative stress observed in the fasted Ppara-null mice compared with other groups demonstrate a role for PPARα in fasting-mediated oxidative stress and that inhibition of PPARα functions may increase the susceptibility to oxidative damage in the presence of another toxic agent. PMID:19539749

  20. Structural basis for iloprost as a dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha/delta agonist.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lihua; Lin, Shengchen; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Wang, Rui; Li, Yong

    2011-09-09

    Iloprost is a prostacyclin analog that has been used to treat many vascular conditions. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-regulated transcription factors with various important biological effects such as metabolic and cardiovascular physiology. Here, we report the crystal structures of the PPARα ligand-binding domain and PPARδ ligand-binding domain bound to iloprost, thus providing unambiguous evidence for the direct interaction between iloprost and PPARs and a structural basis for the recognition of PPARα/δ by this prostacyclin analog. In addition to conserved contacts for all PPARα ligands, iloprost also initiates several specific interactions with PPARs using its unique structural groups. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal strong functional correlations of the iloprost-PPARα/δ interactions as well as the molecular basis of PPAR subtype selectivity toward iloprost ligand. As such, the structural mechanism may provide a more rational template for designing novel compounds targeting PPARs with more favorable pharmacologic impact based on existing iloprost drugs.

  1. Oregano: a source for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma antagonists.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Monika; Lukas, Brigitte; Novak, Johannes; Simoncini, Tommaso; Genazzani, Andrea Riccardo; Jungbauer, Alois

    2008-12-24

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are drug targets for several perturbations of metabolic syndrome, defined as the coexistence of obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and hyper/dyslipidemia. In this study, PPAR activation by oregano (e.g., Origanum vulgare) and its components was tested. Oregano extracts bind but do not transactivate PPARgamma, and binding affinity differs among different oregano extracts. The extracts contain PPARgamma antagonists (e.g., quercetin, luteolin, rosmarinic acid, and diosmetin), selective PPARgamma modulators (e.g., naringenin and apigenin), and PPARgamma agonists (e.g., biochanin A). Oregano extract and isolated compounds in the extract antagonize rosiglitazone-mediated DRIP205/TRAP220 recruitment to PPARgamma, pointing to oregano extracts as putative food supplements for weight reduction. Rosmarinic acid and biochanin A, PPARalpha agonists, may ameliorate the lipid profile. By endothelial nitric oxide synthase activation, oregano extract could prevent atherosclerosis. The results warrant further investigation of oregano extract for its potential to prevent and ameliorate metabolic syndrome and its complications.

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma overexpression suppresses proliferation of human colon cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tsukahara, Tamotsu; Haniu, Hisao

    2012-08-03

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We examined the correlation between PPAR{gamma} expression and cell proliferation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PPAR{gamma} overexpression reduces cell viability. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We show the synergistic effect of cell growth inhibition by a PPAR{gamma} agonist. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR{gamma}) plays an important role in the differentiation of intestinal cells and tissues. Our previous reports indicate that PPAR{gamma} is expressed at considerable levels in human colon cancer cells. This suggests that PPAR{gamma} expression may be an important factor for cell growth regulation in colon cancer. In this study, we investigated PPAR{gamma} expression in 4 human colon cancer cell lines, HT-29, LOVO, DLD-1, and Caco-2. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blot analysis revealed that the relative levels of PPAR{gamma} mRNA and protein in these cells were in the order HT-29 > LOVO > Caco-2 > DLD-1. We also found that PPAR{gamma} overexpression promoted cell growth inhibition in PPAR{gamma} lower-expressing cell lines (Caco-2 and DLD-1), but not in higher-expressing cells (HT-29 and LOVO). We observed a correlation between the level of PPAR{gamma} expression and the cells' sensitivity for proliferation.

  3. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Activity is Required for Appropriate Cardiomyocyte Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Peymani, Maryam; Ghaedi, Kamran; Irani, Shiva; Nasr-Esfahani, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Objective Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a member of the PPAR nuclear receptor superfamily. Although PPARγ acts as a master transcription factor in adipocyte differentiation, it is also associated with a variety of cell functions including carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, glucose homeostasis, cell proliferation and cell differentiation. This study aimed to assess the expression level of PPARγ in order to address its role in cardiac cell differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs). Materials and Methods In this an intervening study, mESCs were subjected to cardiac differentiation. Total RNA was extracted from the cells and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was carried out to estimate level of gene expression. Furthermore, the requirement of PPARγ in cardiac differentiation of mESCs, during cardiac progenitor cells (CPCs) formation, was examined by applying the respective agonist and antagonist. Results The obtained data revealed an elevation in the expression level of PPARγ during spontaneous formation of CPCs and cardiomyocytes. Our results indicated that during CPC formation, PPARγ inactivation via treatment with GW9662 (GW) reduced expression of CPC and cardiac markers. Conclusion We conclude that PPARγ modulation has an effective role on cardiac differentiation of mESCs at the early stage of cardiomyogenesis. PMID:27540527

  4. [Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in obesity and insulin resistance development].

    PubMed

    Alemán, Gabriela; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

    2004-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of nuclear transcription factors that belong to the steroid receptor superfamily. PPARs family includes PPARalpha, PPARbeta/delta, PPARgamma1 and PPARgamma2. PPARs form an heterodimer with the 9-cis retinoic acid receptor (RXR) and bind to response elements present in target genes activated by these transcription factors. PPARs control the expression of genes involved in fatty acid synthesis, oxidation and storage. PPARs are present in most tissues, where PPARalpha is most abundant in liver and skeletal muscle, whereas PPARgamma is found mainly in adipose tissue. Natural ligands for PPARs are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and some eicosanoids, however they are also activated by compounds such as fibrates and thiazolidinediones (TZDs). In this review is shown the different PPARs isoforms, identification, and regulation of their expression and activity. Also shows which are the natural ligands, and the chemical compounds that activate PPARs. Finally, it shows the target genes activated by the different isoforms of PPARs, the metabolic integration between the different PPAR isoforms to maintain a balance between fatty acid synthesis and oxidation and the association with the development of obesity and insulin resistance. Also shows information about the nutritional requirements of PUFAs that are the main natural ligands of PPARs.

  5. Downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in nasal polyposis

    PubMed Central

    Cardell, Lars-Olaf; Hägge, Magnus; Uddman, Rolf; Adner, Mikael

    2005-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, βδ and γ are nuclear receptors activated by fatty acid metabolites. An anti-inflammatory role for these receptors in airway inflammation has been suggested. Methods Nasal biopsies were obtained from 10 healthy volunteers and 10 patients with symptomatic allergic rhinitis. Nasal polyps were obtained from 22 patients, before and after 4 weeks of local steroid treatment (fluticasone). Real-time RT-PCR was used for mRNA quantification and immunohistochemistry for protein localization and quantification. Results mRNA expression of PPARα, PPARβδ, PPARγ was found in all specimens. No differences in the expression of PPARs were obtained in nasal biopsies from patients with allergic rhinitis and healthy volunteers. Nasal polyps exhibited lower levels of PPARα and PPARγ than normal nasal mucosa and these levels were, for PPARγ, further reduced following steroid treatment. PPARγ immunoreactivity was detected in the epithelium, but also found in smooth muscle of blood vessels, glandular acini and inflammatory cells. Quantitative evaluation of the epithelial immunostaining revealed no differences between nasal biopsies from patients with allergic rhinitis and healthy volunteers. In polyps, the PPARγ immunoreactivity was lower than in nasal mucosa and further decreased after steroid treatment. Conclusion The down-regulation of PPARγ, in nasal polyposis but not in turbinates during symptomatic seasonal rhinitis, suggests that PPARγ might be of importance in long standing inflammations. PMID:16271155

  6. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptors at the crossroad of obesity, diabetes, and pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Polvani, Simone; Tarocchi, Mirko; Tempesti, Sara; Bencini, Lapo; Galli, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the fourth cause of cancer death with an overall survival of 5% at five years. The development of PDAC is characteristically associated to the accumulation of distinctive genetic mutations and is preceded by the exposure to several risk factors. Epidemiology has demonstrated that PDAC risk factors may be non-modifiable risks (sex, age, presence of genetic mutations, ethnicity) and modifiable and co-morbidity factors related to the specific habits and lifestyle. Recently it has become evident that obesity and diabetes are two important modifiable risk factors for PDAC. Obesity and diabetes are complex systemic and intertwined diseases and, over the years, experimental evidence indicate that insulin-resistance, alteration of adipokines, especially leptin and adiponectin, oxidative stress and inflammation may play a role in PDAC. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that is implicated in the regulation of metabolism, differentiation and inflammation. PPARγ is a key regulator of adipocytes differentiation, regulates insulin and adipokines production and secretion, may modulate inflammation, and it is implicated in PDAC. PPARγ agonists are used in the treatment of diabetes and oxidative stress-associated diseases and have been evaluated for the treatment of PDAC. PPARγ is at the cross-road of diabetes, obesity, and PDAC and it is an interesting target to pharmacologically prevent PDAC in obese and diabetic patients. PMID:26937133

  7. Nuclear Control of the Inflammatory Response in Mammals by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mandard, Stéphane; Patsouris, David

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that play pivotal roles in the regulation of a very large number of biological processes including inflammation. Using specific examples, this paper focuses on the interplay between PPARs and innate immunity/inflammation and, when possible, compares it among species. We focus on recent discoveries establishing how inflammation and PPARs interact in the context of obesity-induced inflammation and type 2 diabetes, mostly in mouse and humans. We illustrate that PPARγ ability to alleviate obesity-associated inflammation raises an interesting pharmacologic potential. In the light of recent findings, the protective role of PPARα and PPARβ/δ against the hepatic inflammatory response is also addressed. While PPARs agonists are well-established agents that can treat numerous inflammatory issues in rodents and humans, surprisingly very little has been described in other species. We therefore also review the implication of PPARs in inflammatory bowel disease; acute-phase response; and central, cardiac, and endothelial inflammation and compare it along different species (mainly mouse, rat, human, and pig). In the light of the data available in the literature, there is no doubt that more studies concerning the impact of PPAR ligands in livestock should be undertaken because it may finally raise unconsidered health and sanitary benefits. PMID:23577023

  8. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha agonist, exerts anticonvulsive properties.

    PubMed

    Porta, Natacha; Vallée, Louis; Lecointe, Cécile; Bouchaert, Emmanuel; Staels, Bart; Bordet, Régis; Auvin, Stéphane

    2009-04-01

    The underlying mechanisms of the ketogenic diet (KD) remain unknown. Involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) has been suggested. The aim of this study was to assess the anticonvulsant properties of fenofibrate, a PPARalpha agonist. Wistar rats were fed at libitum during 14 days by regular diet, KD, regular diet containing 0.2% fenofibrate (F), or KD containing 0.2% fenofibrate (KD + F). Pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) threshold and latencies to the onset of status epilepticus induced by lithium-pilocarpine were used to assess diet treatments with anticonvulsive effects. Myoclonic and generalized seizure PTZ thresholds were increased in F- and KD-treated animals in comparison to control. No difference was observed between KD + F group and the others groups (control, F, KD). Latencies to the onset of status epilepticus were increased in F and KD groups compared to control. Fenofibrate exerts anticonvulsive properties comparable to KD in adult rats using PTZ and lithium-pilocarpine models. The underlying mechanisms such as PPARalpha activation and others should be investigated. These findings may provide insights into future directions to simplify KD protocols.

  9. Mitofusin 2 decreases intracellular lipids in macrophages by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chun; Ge, Beihai; He, Chao; Zhang, Yi; Liu, Xiaowen; Liu, Kejian; Qian, Cuiping; Zhang, Yu; Peng, Wenzhong; Guo, Xiaomei

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Mfn2 decreases cellular lipid accumulation by activating cholesterol transporters. • PPARγ is involved in the Mfn2-mediated increase of cholesterol transporter expressions. • Inactivation of ERK1/2 and p38 is involved in Mfn2-induced PPARγ expression. - Abstract: Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2) inhibits atherosclerotic plaque formation, but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. This study aims to reveal how Mfn2 functions in the atherosclerosis. Mfn2 expression was found to be significantly reduced in arterial atherosclerotic lesions of both mice and human compared with healthy counterparts. Here, we observed that Mfn2 increased cellular cholesterol transporter expression in macrophages by upregulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ, an effect achieved at least partially by inhibiting extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) pathway. These findings provide insights into potential mechanisms of Mfn2-mediated alterations in cholesterol transporter expression, which may have significant implications for the treatment of atherosclerotic heart disease.

  10. Dehydroepiandrosterone down-regulates the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Kajita, Kazuo; Ishizuka, Tatsuo; Mune, Tomoatsu; Miura, Atsushi; Ishizawa, Masayoshi; Kanoh, Yoshinori; Kawai, Yasunori; Natsume, Yoshiyuki; Yasuda, Keigo

    2003-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is expected to have a weight-reducing effect. In this study, we evaluated the effect of DHEA on genetically obese Otsuka Long Evans Fatty rats (OLETF) compared with Long-Evans Tokushima rats (LETO) as control. Feeding with 0.4% DHEA-containing food for 2 wk reduced the weight of sc, epididymal, and perirenal adipose tissue in association with decreased plasma leptin levels in OLETF. Adipose tissue from OLETF showed increased expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) protein, which was prevented by DHEA treatment. Further, we examined the effect of DHEA on PPARgamma in primary cultured adipocytes and monolayer adipocytes differentiated from rat preadipocytes. PPARgamma protein level was decreased in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and DHEA significantly reduced mRNA levels of PPARgamma, adipocyte lipid-binding protein, and sterol regulatory element-binding protein, but not CCAAT/enhancer binding protein alpha. DHEA-sulfate also reduced the PPARgamma protein, but dexamethasone, testosterone, or androstenedione did not alter its expression. In addition, treatment with DHEA for 5 d reduced the triglyceride content in monolayer adipocytes. These results suggest that DHEA down-regulates adiposity through the reduction of PPARgamma in adipocytes.

  11. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors under epigenetic control in placental metabolism and fetal development.

    PubMed

    Lendvai, Ágnes; Deutsch, Manuel J; Plösch, Torsten; Ensenauer, Regina

    2016-05-15

    The placental metabolism can adapt to the environment throughout pregnancy to both the demands of the fetus and the signals from the mother. Such adaption processes include epigenetic mechanisms, which alter gene expression and may influence the offspring's health. These mechanisms are linked to the diversity of prenatal environmental exposures, including maternal under- or overnutrition or gestational diabetes. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors that contribute to the developmental plasticity of the placenta by regulating lipid and glucose metabolism pathways, including lipogenesis, steroidogenesis, glucose transporters, and placental signaling pathways, thus representing a link between energy metabolism and reproduction. Among the PPAR isoforms, PPARγ appears to be the main modulator of mammalian placentation. Certain fatty acids and lipid-derived moieties are the natural activating PPAR ligands. By controlling the amounts of maternal nutrients that go across to the fetus, the PPARs play an important regulatory role in placenta metabolism, thereby adapting to the maternal nutritional status. As demonstrated in animal studies, maternal nutrition during gestation can exert long-term influences on the PPAR methylation pattern in offspring organs. This review underlines the current state of knowledge on the relationship between environmental factors and the epigenetic regulation of the PPARs in placenta metabolism and offspring development. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and inflammation: take it to heart.

    PubMed

    Smeets, P J H; Planavila, A; van der Vusse, G J; van Bilsen, M

    2007-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors acting as key regulators of lipid metabolism as well as modulators of inflammation. The role of PPARalpha and PPARgamma in cardiac ischaemia-reperfusion injury, infarct healing and hypertrophy is the subject of intense research. Due to the later development of PPARdelta-specific ligands, the role of this PPAR isoform in cardiac disease remains to be established. Although many studies point to salutatory effects of PPAR ligands in cardiac disease, the exact molecular mechanism is still largely unsolved. Both the metabolic (via transactivation) and the more recently discovered anti-inflammatory (via transrepression) effects of PPARs are likely to play a role. In this review the reported, and sometimes contradictory, effects of PPAR ligands on ischaemia-reperfusion, infarct healing and cardiac hypertrophy are critically evaluated. In particular the role of inflammation in these disease processes, the ability of PPARs to interfere with pro-inflammatory processes, and the mechanisms of transrepression are discussed. Currently, the significance of PPARs as therapeutic targets in cardiovascular disease is receiving widespread attention. Accordingly, detailed understanding of the mechanisms controlling the activity of these nuclear hormone receptors is essential.

  13. Ovary-specific novel peroxisome proliferator activated receptors-gamma transcripts in buffalo.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Isha; Monga, Rachna; Singh, Natwar; Datta, Tirtha Kumar; Singh, Dheer

    2012-08-10

    In the present study, we describe the isolation and characterization of the transcripts encoding peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ1 and PPARγ2) in buffalo ovary. 5' RACE experiments and sequence analysis showed that these transcripts (PPARγ1a, PPARγ1b and PPARγ2) were transcribed by the different promoter usage and alternative splicing of terminal 5'-exon. The distribution of these isoforms of PPARγ transcripts in different tissues (ovary, mammary gland, spleen, liver, lung, adipose tissue) was investigated using quantitative real time analysis. Tissue- and transcript-specific expression analyses showed that a transcript, transcribed from distal promoter, not only expressed preferentially in ovary but contributes predominantly to PPAR gamma expression in ovary. Western blot analysis of both, in vivo and in vitro, experiments also supported that PPARγ1 predominantly expressed in ovary. In buffalo granulosa cells culture, the isolated transcripts were found to be up-regulated by both natural (CLA) and synthetic (Rosiglitazone) ligands and effect was reversed by PPARγ antagonist GW9662. In conclusion, the present study identified an ovary-specific novel transcript, transcribed by distal promoter, predominantly expressed in ovary which could have functional relevance in buffalo ovary. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isoforms in the rat uterus during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Nishimura, Kyohei; Yamauchi, Nobuhiko; Chowdhury, Vishwajit Sur; Torii, Mikinori; Hattori, Masa-Aki; Kaneto, Masako

    2011-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play an important role in different compartments of the female reproductive system in rodents and humans. However, expressional profiles and physiological functions of PPARs in the endometrium prior to the placentation are not well understood. In this study, we determined expressional profiles of the PPARs during early pregnancy. Immunocytochemistry revealed that both PPARα and PPARβ/δ were strongly detected in the endometrial stroma on days 4.5-6.5 of pregnancy, which is just a starting time of implantation. Delayed implantation animal model showed that the expressions of PPARα and PPARβ/δ occurred after the initiation of implantation in the endometrial stroma. Moreover, an in vitro decidualization model further revealed that the expression of PPARα increased in the cultured rat endometrial stromal cells at 24 h after the decidualization treatment, but the expression of PPARβ/δ was delayed and increased at 48 h after the treatment. PPARγ was expressed in the endometrial stroma and its expression decreased significantly at 2.5 days post-coitum and maintained a low level of expression during the period of implantation. These results indicate that PPARα is expressed and induced by the initiation of implantation, prior to the expression of PPARβ/δ in decidualized endometrium. Increasing expression of PPARγ during fertilization and its decline during the period of implantation further suggest that PPARs may play important roles during early pregnancy.

  15. Molecular characterization of three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors from the sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Boukouvala, Evridiki; Antonopoulou, Efthimia; Favre-Krey, Laurence; Diez, Amalia; Bautista, José M; Leaver, Michael J; Tocher, Douglas R; Krey, Grigorios

    2004-11-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are nuclear hormone receptors that control the expression of genes involved in lipid homeostasis in mammals. We searched for PPAR in sea bass, a marine fish of particular interest to aquaculture, after hypothesizing that the physiological and molecular processes that regulate lipid metabolism in fish are similar to those in mammals. Here, we report the identification of complementary DNA and corresponding genomic sequences that encode three distinct PPAR from sea bass. The sea bass PPAR are the structural homologs of the mammalian PPAR alpha, beta/delta, and gamma isotypes. As revealed by RNase protection, the tissue expression profile of the fish PPAR appears to be very similar to that of the mammalian PPAR homologs. Thus, PPAR alpha is mainly expressed in the liver, PPAR gamma in adipose tissue, and PPAR beta in all tissues tested, with its highest levels in the liver, where it is also the dominant isotype expressed. Like mammalian PPAR, the sea bass isotypes recognize and bind to PPAR response elements of both mammalian and piscine origin, as heterodimers with the 9-cis retinoic acid receptor. Through the coactivator-dependent receptor ligand assay, we also demonstrated that natural FA and synthetic hypolipidemic compounds can act as ligands of the sea bass PPAR alpha and beta isotypes. This suggests that the sea bass PPAR act through similar mechanisms and perform the same critical lipid metabolism functions as mammalian PPAR.

  16. Bongkrekic acid as a selective activator of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) isoform.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Hiroyuki; Takeda, Shuso; Ikeda, Eriko; Fukunishi, Yoshifumi; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Taniguchi, Aya; Tokuyasu, Miki; Himeno, Taichi; Kakizoe, Kazuhiro; Matsumoto, Kenji; Shindo, Mitsuru; Aramaki, Hironori

    2015-04-01

    Bongkrekic acid (BKA), an antibiotic isolated from Pseudomonas cocovenans, is an inhibitory molecule of adenine nucleotide translocase. Since this translocase is a core component of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) formed by apoptotic stimuli, BKA has been used as a tool to abrogate apoptosis. However, the other biochemical properties of BKA have not yet been resolved. Although the definition of a fatty acid is a carboxylic acid (-COOH) with a long hydrocarbon chain (tail), when focused on the chemical structure of BKA, the molecule was revealed to be a branched unsaturated tricarboxylic acid that resembled the structure of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) consist of a subfamily of three isoforms: α, β, and γ, the ligands of which include PUFAs. Using completely synthesized BKA together with simplified BKA derivatives (purity: > 98%), we herein demonstrated the utility of BKA as a selective activator of the human PPARγ isoform, which may not be associated with the anti-apoptotic nature of BKA. We also discussed the possible usefulness of BKA.

  17. Altered peroxisome-proliferator activated receptors expression in human endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Paweł; Chabowski, Adrian; Błachnio-Zabielska, Agnieszka; Jarząbek, Katarzyna; Wołczyński, Sławomir

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to a family of nuclear hormone receptors acting as transcriptional factors, recently involved also in carcinogenesis. Present study was undertaken to evaluate the presence and subcellular localization of different PPAR isoforms (α, β, γ) in healthy endometrial tissue (n = 10) and endometrial carcinoma (FIGO I, endometrioides type, G1, n = 35). We sought to analyze PPARs mRNA content as well as protein immunohistochemical expression that was further quantified by Western Blot technique. For both PPARα and PPARβ, protein expression was significantly higher in endometrial cancers compared to normal endometrial mucosa. In opposite, PPARγ protein expression was lower in endometrial cancer cells. In each case, immunohistochemical reaction was confined to the perinuclear and/or nuclear region. At the transcriptional level, the content of mRNA of all PPAR subunits did not follow the protein pattern of changes. These results provide evidence for altered PPAR's protein expression and disregulation of posttranslational processes in endometrial cancers.

  18. Antihypertensive effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ activation.

    PubMed

    Toral, Marta; Romero, Miguel; Pérez-Vizcaíno, Francisco; Duarte, Juan; Jiménez, Rosario

    2017-02-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors, which is composed of three members encoded by distinct genes: PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ. The biological actions of PPARα and PPARγ and their potential as a cardiovascular therapeutic target have been extensively reviewed, whereas the biological actions of PPARβ/δ and its effectiveness as a therapeutic target in the treatment of hypertension remain less investigated. Preclinical studies suggest that pharmacological PPARβ/δ activation induces antihypertensive effects in direct [spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), ANG II, and DOCA-salt] and indirect (dyslipemic and gestational) models of hypertension, associated with end-organ damage protection. This review summarizes mechanistic insights into the antihypertensive effects of PPARβ/δ activators, including molecular and functional mechanisms. Pharmacological PPARβ/δ activation induces genomic actions including the increase of regulators of G protein-coupled signaling (RGS), acute nongenomic vasodilator effects, as well as the ability to improve the endothelial dysfunction, reduce vascular inflammation, vasoconstrictor responses, and sympathetic outflow from central nervous system. Evidence from clinical trials is also examined. These preclinical and clinical outcomes of PPARβ/δ ligands may provide a basis for the development of therapies in combating hypertension.

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ modulates mast cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Yao, Pei-Li; Morales, Jose L; Gonzalez, Frank J; Peters, Jeffrey M

    2017-04-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-β/δ (PPARβ/δ) is known to have multiple anti-inflammatory effects, typically observed in endothelial cells, macrophages, T cells and B cells. Despite the fact that mast cells are important mediators of inflammation, to date, the role of PPARβ/δ in mast cells has not been examined. Hence, the present study examined the hypothesis that PPARβ/δ modulates mast cell phenotype. Bone-marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) and peritoneal mast cells from Pparβ/δ(+/+) mice expressed higher levels of high-affinity IgE receptor (FcεRI) compared with Pparβ/δ(-/-) mice. BMMCs from Pparβ/δ(+/+) mice also exhibited dense granules, associated with higher expression of enzymes and proteases compared with Pparβ/δ(-/-) mice. Resting BMMCs from Pparβ/δ(+/+) mice secreted lower levels of inflammatory cytokines, associated with the altered activation of phospholipase Cγ1 and extracellular signal-regulated kinases compared with Pparβ/δ(-/-) mice. Moreover, the production of cytokines by mast cells induced by various stimuli was highly dependent on PPARβ/δ expression. This study demonstrates that PPARβ/δ is an important regulator of mast cell phenotype.

  20. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma in Obesity and Colorectal Cancer: the Role of Epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Motawi, T K; Shaker, O G; Ismail, M F; Sayed, N H

    2017-09-06

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear receptor that is deregulated in obesity. PPARγ exerts diverse antineoplastic effects. Attempting to determine the clinical relevance of the epigenetic mechanisms controlling the expression PPARγ and susceptibility to colorectal cancer (CRC) in obese subjects, this study investigated the role of some microRNAs and DNA methylation on the deregulation of PPARγ. Seventy CRC patients (34 obese and 36 lean), 22 obese and 24 lean healthy controls were included. MicroRNA levels were measured in serum. PPARγ promoter methylation was evaluated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PPARγ level was evaluated by measuring mRNA level in PBMC and protein level in serum. The tested microRNAs (miR-27b, 130b and 138) were significantly upregulated in obese and CRC patients. Obese and CRC patients had significantly low levels of PPARγ. A significant negative correlation was found between PPARγ levels and the studied microRNAs. There was a significant PPARγ promoter hypermethylation in CRC patients that correlated to low PPARγ levels. Our results suggest that upregulation of microRNAs 27b, 130b and 138 is associated with susceptibility to CRC in obese subjects through PPARγ downregulation. Hypermethylation of PPARγ gene promoter is associated with CRC through suppression of PPARγ regardless of BMI.

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma as modulator of inflammation in pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Pejcić, Tatjana; Stanković, Ivana; Petković, Tatjana Radjenović; Borovac, Desa Nastasijević; Djordjević, Ivanka; Jeftović-Stoimenov, Tatjana

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) includes the family of ligand-activated transcription factors which belong to the group of nuclear hormone receptors and are connected to retinoid, glucocorticoid and thyroid hormone receptors. There are three subtypes of PPARs: PPARalpha (also known as NR1C3), PPARgamma (known as NR1C1) and PPARdelta (known as PPARbeta or NR1C2). All of them take part in the metabolism, cell proliferation and immune response. PPARgamma and PPARalpha are identified as important immunomodulators and potentially represent an anti-inflammatory target for respiratory diseases. PPARgamma deficiency in the lungs has been observed in the inflammatory diseases such as asthma, pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, fibrosis and sarcoidosis, as well as in the animal models of the lung inflammation. A small number of papers concerned with PPARgamma in sarcoidosis pointto the lowered activity of this factor in the alveolar macrophages and a lowered gene expression for the PPARgamma, while the activity is preserved in healthy individuals. At the same time, an increased activity of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) in the bronchoalveolar lavage has been recorded in patients with sarcoidosis. The reason for the decrease in the production of PPARgamma in sarcoidosis remains unknown. Several possible mechanisms are mentioned: genetic defect with lowered production, down-regulation due to the increased values of IFN-gamma or an increased decomposition of PPARgamma. Further investigation will explain the mechanisms regarding the decreased production of PPARgamma in sarcoidosis.

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors as novel targets in lung disease.

    PubMed

    Belvisi, Maria G; Hele, David J

    2008-07-01

    Inflammatory diseases of the lung such as asthma and COPD represent a major worldwide health problem. There are potent antiinflammatory drugs available to treat asthma, such as the glucocorticoids, but these produce unwanted side effects and exhibit limited efficacy in the treatment of COPD. The identification of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) PPARgamma, PPARalpha, and PPARdelta opened up a new avenue of research as it was discovered that they exhibited antiinflammatory and immunomodulatory properties. In animal models of allergic and occupational asthma, COPD and pulmonary fibrosis PPARs are involved in the inflammatory cascade, and treatment with PPAR agonists reduces inflammation and results in beneficial outcomes. The actions of PPARgamma and PPARalpha activation are thought to be due to their ability to down-regulate proinflammatory gene expression and inflammatory cell functions, and as such makes them an attractive target for novel drug intervention. PPARdelta has been shown to be involved in wound healing, and its activation may enhance the effects of PPARgamma agonists. The only fly in the ointment is the observation of an increased incidence of cardiovascular events in diabetic patients treated with the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone. However, a clinical trial is underway to examine the effect of rosiglitazone in asthma patients, and the outcome of this trial is awaited with much anticipation. PPARs are novel targets for lung disease, and the continued work with PPAR agonists may result in a potential new treatment for these chronic inflammatory lung diseases.

  3. Significance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the cardiovascular system in health and disease.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Emma; Grieve, David J

    2009-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors that belong to the nuclear receptor superfamily. Three isoforms of PPAR have been identified, alpha, delta and gamma, which play distinct roles in the regulation of key metabolic processes, such as glucose and lipid redistribution. PPARalpha is expressed predominantly in the liver, kidney and heart, and is primarily involved in fatty acid oxidation. PPARgamma is mainly associated with adipose tissue, where it controls adipocyte differentiation and insulin sensitivity. PPARdelta is abundantly and ubiquitously expressed, but as yet its function has not been clearly defined. Activators of PPARalpha (fibrates) and gamma (thiazolidinediones) have been used clinically for a number of years in the treatment of hyperlipidaemia and to improve insulin sensitivity in diabetes. More recently, PPAR activation has been found to confer additional benefits on endothelial function, inflammation and thrombosis, suggesting that PPAR agonists may be good candidates for the treatment of cardiovascular disease. In this regard, it has been demonstrated that PPAR activators are capable of reducing blood pressure and attenuating the development of atherosclerosis and cardiac hypertrophy. This review will provide a detailed discussion of the current understanding of basic PPAR physiology, with particular reference to the cardiovascular system. It will also examine the evidence supporting the involvement of the different PPAR isoforms in cardiovascular disease and discuss the current and potential future clinical applications of PPAR activators.

  4. Roles of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ in skeletal muscle physiology.

    PubMed

    Manickam, Ravikumar; Wahli, Walter

    2017-05-01

    More than two decades of studying Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) has led to an understanding of their implications in various physiological processes that are key for health and disease. All three PPAR isotypes, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are activated by a variety of molecules, including fatty acids, eicosanoids and phospholipids, and regulate a spectrum of genes involved in development, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism, inflammation, and proliferation and differentiation of many cell types in different tissues. The hypolipidemic and antidiabetic functions of PPARα and PPARγ in response to fibrate and thiazolidinedione treatment, respectively, are well documented. However, until more recently the functions of PPARβ/δ were less well defined, but are now becoming more recognized in fatty acid metabolism, energy expenditure, and tissue repair. Skeletal muscle is an active metabolic organ with high plasticity for adaptive responses to varying conditions such as fasting or physical exercise. It is the major site of energy expenditure resulting from lipid and glucose catabolism. Here, we review the multifaceted roles of PPARβ/δ in skeletal muscle physiology.

  5. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist fenofibrate attenuates alcohol self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Haile, Colin N; Kosten, Therese A

    2017-04-01

    Fibrates are a class of medications used to treat hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia that target nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Studies have shown the PPARα agonist fenofibrate decreases voluntary EtOH consumption however its impact on the reinforcing and motivational effects of EtOH is unknown. We evaluated the ability of fenofibrate (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg), to alter EtOH (10%, w/v) and sucrose (2%, w/v) operant self-administration in rats under a FR2 schedule of reinforcement over four days and under a progressive ratio (PR) schedule on day five of treatment. Results showed fenofibrate dose-dependently decreased EtOH self-administration under both schedules of reinforcement with the greatest effects seen after four to five days of treatment. Fenofibrate decreased responding for sucrose only under the PR schedule of reinforcement and this effect was not dose-dependent. These findings provide further evidence for fenofibrate as a potential treatment for alcohol use disorder in humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Targeting Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Using Thiazolidinediones: Strategy for Design of Novel Antidiabetic Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar Javed, Sadique; Alhazmi, Hassan A.

    2017-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones are a class of well-established antidiabetic drugs, also named as glitazones. Thiazolidinedione structure has been an important structural domain of research, involving design and development of new drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Extensive research on the mechanism of action and the structural requirements has revealed that the intended antidiabetic activity in type 2 diabetes is due to their agonistic effect on peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) belonging to the nuclear receptor super family. Glitazones have specific affinity to PPARγ, one of the subtypes of PPARs. Certain compounds under development have dual PPARα/γ agonistic activity which might be beneficial in obesity and diabetic cardiomyopathy. Interesting array of hybrid compounds of thiazolidinedione PPARγ agonists exhibited therapeutic potential beyond antidiabetic activity. Pharmacology and chemistry of thiazolidinediones as PPARγ agonists and the potential of newer analogues as dual agonists of PPARs and other emerging targets for the therapy of type 2 diabetes are presented. This review highlights the possible modifications of the structural components in the general frame work of thiazolidinediones with respect to their binding efficacy, potency, and selectivity which would guide the future research in design of novel thiazolidinedione derivatives for the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:28656106

  7. Discovery of an Oxybenzylglycine Based Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Alpha Selective

    SciTech Connect

    Li, J.; Kennedy, L; Shi, Y; Tao, S; Ye, X; Chen, S; Wang, Y; Hernandez, A; Wang, W; et al.

    2010-01-01

    An 1,3-oxybenzylglycine based compound 2 (BMS-687453) was discovered to be a potent and selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) {alpha} agonist, with an EC{sub 50} of 10 nM for human PPAR{alpha} and {approx}410-fold selectivity vs human PPAR{gamma} in PPAR-GAL4 transactivation assays. Similar potencies and selectivity were also observed in the full length receptor co-transfection assays. Compound 2 has negligible cross-reactivity against a panel of human nuclear hormone receptors including PPAR{delta}. Compound 2 demonstrated an excellent pharmacological and safety profile in preclinical studies and thus was chosen as a development candidate for the treatment of atherosclerosis and dyslipidemia. The X-ray cocrystal structures of the early lead compound 12 and compound 2 in complex with PPAR{alpha} ligand binding domain (LBD) were determined. The role of the crystal structure of compound 12 with PPAR{alpha} in the development of the SAR that ultimately resulted in the discovery of compound 2 is discussed.

  8. Modulation Effect of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Agonists on Lipid Droplet Proteins in Liver

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yun-Xia; Zhang, Ming-Liang; Zhong, Yuan; Wang, Chen; Jia, Wei-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists are used for treating hyperglycemia and type 2 diabetes. However, the mechanism of action of these agonists is still under investigation. The lipid droplet-associated proteins FSP27/CIDEC and LSDP5, regulated directly by PPARγ and PPARα, are associated with hepatic steatosis and insulin sensitivity. Here, we evaluated the expression levels of FSP27/CIDEC and LSDP5 and the regulation of these proteins by consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) or administration of PPAR agonists. Mice with diet-induced obesity were treated with the PPARγ or PPARα agonist, pioglitazone or fenofibrate, respectively. Liver tissues from db/db diabetic mice and human were also collected. Interestingly, FSP27/CIEDC was expressed in mouse and human livers and was upregulated in obese C57BL/6J mice. Fenofibrate treatment decreased hepatic triglyceride (TG) content and FSP27/CIDEC protein expression in mice fed an HFD diet. In mice, LSDP5 was not detected, even in the context of insulin resistance or treatment with PPAR agonists. However, LSDP5 was highly expressed in humans, with elevated expression observed in the fatty liver. We concluded that fenofibrate greatly decreased hepatic TG content and FSP27/CIDEC protein expression in mice fed an HFD, suggesting a potential regulatory role for fenofibrate in the amelioration of hepatic steatosis. PMID:26770990

  9. Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors regulate redox signaling in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Teayoun; Yang, Qinglin

    2013-06-26

    Peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) comprise three subtypes (PPARα, δ and γ) to form a nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARs act as key transcriptional regulators of lipid metabolism, mitochondrial biogenesis, and anti-oxidant defense. While their roles in regulating lipid metabolism have been well established, the role of PPARs in regulating redox activity remains incompletely understood. Since redox activity is an integral part of oxidative metabolism, it is not surprising that changes in PPAR signaling in a specific cell or tissue will lead to alteration of redox state. The effects of PPAR signaling are directly related to PPAR expression, protein activities and PPAR interactions with their coregulators. The three subtypes of PPARs regulate cellular lipid and energy metabolism in most tissues in the body with overlapping and preferential effects on different metabolic steps depending on a specific tissue. Adding to the complexity, specific ligands of each PPAR subtype may also display different potencies and specificities of their role on regulating the redox pathways. Moreover, the intensity and extension of redox regulation by each PPAR subtype are varied depending on different tissues and cell types. Both beneficial and adverse effects of PPAR ligands against cardiovascular disorders have been extensively studied by many groups. The purpose of the review is to summarize the effects of each PPAR on regulating redox and the underlying mechanisms, as well as to discuss the implications in the cardiovascular system.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as therapeutic target in neurodegenerative disorders.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Swati; Yadav, Anuradha; Chaturvedi, Rajnish Kumar

    2017-02-19

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors and they serve to be a promising therapeutic target for several neurodegenerative disorders, which includes Parkinson disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. PPARs play an important role in the downregulation of mitochondrial dysfunction, proteasomal dysfunction, oxidative stress, and neuroinflammation, which are the major causes of the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we discuss about the role of PPARs as therapeutic targets in neurodegenerative disorders. Several experimental approaches suggest potential application of PPAR agonist as well as antagonist in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Several epidemiological studies found that the regular usage of PPAR activating non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs is effective in decreasing the progression of neurodegenerative diseases including PD and AD. We also reviewed the neuroprotective effects of PPAR agonists and associated mechanism of action in several neurodegenerative disorders both in vitro as well as in vivo animal models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. A role for Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Beta in T cell development

    PubMed Central

    Mothe-Satney, Isabelle; Murdaca, Joseph; Sibille, Brigitte; Rousseau, Anne-Sophie; Squillace, Raphaëlle; Le Menn, Gwenaëlle; Rekima, Akila; Larbret, Frederic; Pelé, Juline; Verhasselt, Valérie; Grimaldi, Paul A.; Neels, Jaap G.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolism plays an important role in T cell biology and changes in metabolism drive T cell differentiation and fate. Most research on the role of metabolism in T lymphocytes focuses on mature T cells while only few studies have investigated the role of metabolism in T cell development. In this study, we report that activation or overexpression of the transcription factor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β (PPARβ) increases fatty acid oxidation in T cells. Furthermore, using both in vivo and in vitro models, we demonstrate that PPARβ activation/overexpression inhibits thymic T cell development by decreasing proliferation of CD4−CD8− double-negative stage 4 (DN4) thymocytes. These results support a model where PPARβ activation/overexpression favours fatty acid- instead of glucose-oxidation in developing T cells, thereby hampering the proliferative burst normally occurring at the DN4 stage of T cell development. As a consequence, the αβ T cells that are derived from DN4 thymocytes are dramatically decreased in peripheral lymphoid tissues, while the γδ T cell population remains untouched. This is the first report of a direct role for a member of the PPAR family of nuclear receptors in the development of T cells. PMID:27680392

  12. Translational Insights Into Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wei; Szatmary, Peter; Wan, Meihua; Bharucha, Shameena; Awais, Muhammad; Tang, Wenfu; Criddle, David N; Xia, Qing; Sutton, Robert

    2016-02-01

    Acute pancreatitis (AP) is an inflammatory disorder of the exocrine pancreas frequently associated with metabolic causes, contributing factors, or consequences, including hypertriglyceridemia, obesity, and disorders of intermediary metabolism, respectively. To date, there is no specific therapy for this disease. Future optimal therapy should correct both inflammatory and metabolic components of the disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are lipid-sensing nuclear receptors that control inflammatory and metabolic pathways via ligand-dependent and ligand-independent mechanisms. There are 3 known subtypes, PPAR-α, PPAR-β/δ, and PPAR-γ, which are differentially expressed in various tissues. The PPARs interact closely with other transcription factors such as nuclear factor κB and signal tranducers and activators of transcription that have pivotal roles in the pathobiology of AP. In this comprehensive review, we summarize the role of PPARs in AP, highlighting important in vitro and in vivo experimental findings. Finally, we propose future research directions as well as potential translational use of PPAR agonists in the treatment of AP.

  13. Vitamin E tocotrienols improve insulin sensitivity through activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Fang, Fang; Kang, Zhanfang; Wong, Chiwai

    2010-03-01

    Vitamin E is comprised of two classes of compounds: tocopherols and tocotrienols. Tocotrienol-enriched palm oil has been shown to help reduce blood glucose levels in patients and preclinical animal models. However, the mechanistic basis for tocotrienol action is not well established. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha, gamma, and delta (PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and PPARdelta) are ligand-regulated transcription factors that play essential roles in energy metabolism. Importantly, synthetic PPARalpha and PPARgamma ligands are currently used for treating hyperlipidemia and diabetes. In this study, we present data that tocotrienols within palm oil functioned as PPAR modulators. Specifically, both alpha- and gamma-tocotrienol activated PPARalpha, while delta-tocotrienol activated PPARalpha, PPARgamma, and PPARdelta in reporter-based assays. Tocotrienols enhanced the interaction between the purified ligand-binding domain of PPARalpha with the receptor-interacting motif of coactivator PPARgamma coactivator-1alpha. In addition, the tocotrienol-rich fraction of palm oil improved whole body glucose utilization and insulin sensitivity of diabetic Db/Db mice by selectively regulating PPAR target genes. These lines of evidence collectively suggested that PPARs represent a set of molecular targets of tocotrienols.

  14. [The role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) in carcinogenesis].

    PubMed

    Knapp, Paweł; Jarzabek, Katarzyna; Błachnio, Agnieszka; Zbroch, Tomasz

    2006-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferators-activated receptors are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. The PPAR subfamily consists of three members: PPAR-alpha, PPAR-sigma (NUC-1 or beta) and PPAR-gamma. PPARs regulate gene expression by binding, as heterodimers with retinoid X receptors (RXR), to specific response elements (PPREs) in the promoter regions of target genes. The prostaglandin 12 especially, all arachidonic acid metabolites and polyunsaturated fatty acids are naturally occuring PPAR ligands. Synthetic PPAR ligands are thiazolidinediones (TZDs--rosiglitazone, pioglitazone, troglitazone). Activation of nuclear hormone receptors has been identified as an approach to induce differentiation and inhibit proliferation of cancer lines. The anti-proliferative, pro-differentiation effects of PPAR activators (TZDs) suggest that these compounds might be useful in slowing the proliferation of un-differentiated tumour cells. TZDs inhibit proliferation of human breast, prostate and colon cancers, both in vitro and in tumours derived from these cells implanted into rodents. Furthermore, recent studies show that PPAR-gamma ligands are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis, a process essential for solid-tumour growth and metastasis. In conclusion, the evidence to date suggests that activation of PPAR should suppress tumour growth and development. This represents an exciting novel therapeutic application of TZDs. In present paper, structural features of PPARs, their gene transcription mechanisms and recent developments in the discovery of their biological functions are reviewed.

  15. Atorvastatin may delay cardiac aging by upregulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Li, Minggao; Liu, Yongxue; Han, Chunguang; Ye, Ping

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the effect of atorvastatin on cardiac aging in rats. Ninety 20-month-old Wistar rats were administered oral atorvastatin (AVT; 10 or 1 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) or saline for 4 months. At the end of the experiment, age-related changes in hearts were measured. Compared with young rats, obvious increases were found in the aging rats in left ventricle thickness, diameter of cardiocytes, collagen deposition, the ratio of type I/type III collagen, β-galactosidase and malondialdehyde (MDA), and obvious decreases were found in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS). The treatment with AVT led to significant decreases in the thickness of the left ventricle, diameter of cardiocytes, collagen deposition, I/III collagen ratio, MDA, β-galactosidase and increases in the activity of SOD, CAT and NOS. Some aging-related inflammatory cytokines like interleukin (IL)-1β, tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 were found to be overexpressed in the aging rats. AVT treatment could inhibit the expression of IL-1β, TNF-α and MMP-9 on both the mRNA and protein levels, and increase the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR-α/β/δ/γ). Pretreatment with PPAR inhibitors attenuated the inhibitory effect of AVT on the expression of inflammatory cytokines. AVT may retard the cardiac aging process by upregulating PPARs. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Novel benefits of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors on cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Millar, John S

    2013-06-01

    This review provides an overview of newly described mechanisms by which peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) (α, γ, and δ) regulate several factors associated with cardiovascular risk. PPAR agonists have known effects on plasma lipoprotein levels, inflammation, and insulin resistance all of which influence the risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent studies provide more detail regarding the mechanisms behind these changes. PPAR-α activation in the enterocyte on HDL and chylomicron formation. PPAR-γ agonists reduce inflammation, in part, through direct effects on adipocytes and regulatory T cells within visceral adipose. PPAR-δ also has a relatively high expression in the macrophage. Incubation of macrophages with PPAR-δ agonists was shown to inhibit foam cell formation induced excessive levels of VLDL remnants. Treatments that activate PPAR-α, PPAR-γ, and PPAR-δ alone or in combination have the potential to reduce cardiovascular risk although multiple independent mechanisms. Treatment with PPAR agonists can reduce the burden of atherogenic postprandial lipoproteins and improve vascular function, reduce inflammation and inhibit foam cell formation. All of these would be expected to have favorable effects on cardiovascular risk. The challenge remains to develop compounds that maximize these potential cardiovascular benefits while minimizing undesirable effects of these compounds.

  17. The roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    The epidemic of obesity and its association with insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, collectively known as the metabolic syndrome or syndrome X, is one of the most challenging health problems facing industrialized countries. The nuclear receptors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs alpha (α), beta (β) also known as delta (δ), and gamma (γ)), have well-documented roles in lipid and glucose metabolism. Pharmacologically, PPARα is activated by fibrate hypolipidemic drugs, whereas PPARγ is activated by insulin sensitizers thiazolidinediones (TZDs). No marketed drug is yet available for PPARβ(δ). The identification of fibrates and TZDs as respective ligands for PPARα and PPARγ was a groundbreaking finding that sparked notable pharmaceutical interest in PPARs as potential drug targets for treatment of the metabolic syndrome. Limiting side effects associated with clinical use of TZDs have emerged in recent years. New and novel PPAR drugs with broad safety margins and therapeutic potentials for the metabolic syndrome are in development. These include partial, dual, or pan PPAR agonists; PPAR antagonists; and selective PPAR modulators. The objective of this chapter is to highlight the therapeutic benefits of targeting more than one PPAR subtype in the treatment of the metabolic syndrome. The pros and cons observed during clinical use of TZDs and the strategies and progress made in the production of new generations of safe and effective PPAR ligands are discussed. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. The role of various peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their ligands in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Derosa, Giuseppe; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Maffioli, Pamela

    2018-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors involved in several physiological processes including modulation of cellular differentiation, development, metabolism of carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and tumorigenesis. The aim of this review is to examine how different PPAR ligands act, and discuss their use in clinical practice. PPAR ligands have a lot of effects and applications in clinical practice. Some PPAR ligands such as fibrates (PPAR-α ligands) are currently used for the treatment of dyslipidemia, while pioglitazone and rosiglitazone (PPAR-γ ligands) are anti-diabetic and insulin-sensitizing agents. Regarding new generation drugs, acting on both α/γ, β/δ, or α/δ receptors simultaneously, preliminary data on PPAR-α/γ dual agonists revealed a positive effect on lipid profile, blood pressure, atherosclerosis, inflammation, and anti-coagulant effects, while the overexpression of PPAR-β/δ seems to prevent obesity and to decrease lipid storage in cardiac cells. Finally, PPAR-α/δ dual agonist induces resolution of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis without fibrosis worsening. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Structural Basis for Iloprost as a Dual Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor [alpha/delta] Agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Lihua; Lin, Shengchen; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Wang, Rui; Li, Yong

    2012-03-15

    Iloprost is a prostacyclin analog that has been used to treat many vascular conditions. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-regulated transcription factors with various important biological effects such as metabolic and cardiovascular physiology. Here, we report the crystal structures of the PPAR{alpha} ligand-binding domain and PPAR{delta} ligand-binding domain bound to iloprost, thus providing unambiguous evidence for the direct interaction between iloprost and PPARs and a structural basis for the recognition of PPAR{alpha}/{delta} by this prostacyclin analog. In addition to conserved contacts for all PPAR{alpha} ligands, iloprost also initiates several specific interactions with PPARs using its unique structural groups. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal strong functional correlations of the iloprost-PPAR{alpha}/{delta} interactions as well as the molecular basis of PPAR subtype selectivity toward iloprost ligand. As such, the structural mechanism may provide a more rational template for designing novel compounds targeting PPARs with more favorable pharmacologic impact based on existing iloprost drugs.

  20. Therapeutic modulators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR): a patent review (2008-present).

    PubMed

    Lamers, Christina; Schubert-Zsilavecz, Manfred; Merk, Daniel

    2012-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. The three known subtypes PPARα, PPARγ and PPARδ have different tissue distribution and play a key role as regulators of glucose and lipid homeostasis as well as in cell proliferation, differentiation and inflammatory responses. They have gained a lot of interest as pharmaceutical targets over the last years and with the antidiabetic thiazolidindiones (TZDs) and the hypolipidemic fibrates, two classes of drugs had entered the market. Early observations of severe adverse events changed the situation in the recent past. Herein the authors summarize recent (2008-present) patent applications concerning PPAR ligands claimed for the use in metabolic disorders as well as patents indicating new applications for modulators of the PPAR subtypes. Looking at the recent patent activity regarding novel compounds, there have not been real innovations. As major applications for therapeutic PPAR ligands cancer therapy, skin-related disorders and systemic anti-inflammatory therapies might arise in the mid-term future. The known PPAR targeting drugs might see a repurposing for novel indications.

  1. Male and female NOD mice differentially express peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and pathogenic cytokines.

    PubMed

    Yaacob, Nik Soriani; Goh, Kenny Soen Keong; Norazmi, Mohd Nor

    2012-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been implicated in regulating the immune response. We determined the relative changes in the transcriptional expression of PPAR isoforms (α, γ1 and γ2) and cytokines involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in the immune cells of 5 weeks, 10 weeks and diabetic male non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice compared to those of female NOD mice from our previous studies, "normalized" against their respective non-obese diabetic resistant (NOR) mice controls. Overall PPARα was significantly more elevated in the macrophages of female NOD mice of all age groups whereas PPARγ, particularly the PPARγ2 isoform was more depressed in the macrophages and CD4(+) lymphocytes of female NOD mice compared to their male counterparts. The pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1 and TNFα, as well as the Th1 cytokines, IL-2 and IFNγ were more elevated in female NOD mice whereas the Th2 cytokine, IL-4, was more depressed in these mice compared to their male counterparts. These findings suggest that the preponderance of T1D in female NOD mice may be influenced by the more pronounced changes in the expression of PPAR isoforms and pathogenic cytokines compared to those in male NOD mice. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ inhibits vascular calcification by upregulating Klotho

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Lijuan; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Jun; Hao, Lirong

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases are common in patients with chronic kidney disease. One of the key symptoms is the calcification of the vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), which is induced by dysregulated mineral metabolism with high circulating levels of inorganic phosphate (Pi) and calcium. Klotho, which was originally identified as an aging suppressor gene, has been shown to be associated with vascular calcification. Since Klotho was recently identified as a target for nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, the present study aimed to determine whether PPARγ regulates VSMC calcification through modulating the expression levels of Klotho. It was demonstrated that the expression of PPARγ was downregulated during Pi-induced VSMC calcification. In addition, treatment with PPARγ agonists inhibited the calcification and enhanced the expression of Klotho in VSMCs in a PPARγ-dependent manner. Of note, loss of Klotho expression by RNA interference abolished the ability of PPARγ activation to inhibit VSMC calcification. Furthermore, activation of Klotho as well as PPARγ inhibited the expression of Pi transporter 1/2 and reduced Pi influx into VSMCs. To the best of our knowledge, the present study was the first to demonstrate that PPARγ regulates VSMC calcification through activating Klotho.

  3. CHARMM Force Field Parameterization of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Ligands

    PubMed Central

    Mottin, Melina; Souza, Paulo C. T.; Ricci, Clarisse G.; Skaf, Munir S.

    2016-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) ligands are important therapeutic drugs for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. In particular, partial agonists and non-agonists are interesting targets to reduce glucose levels, presenting few side effects in comparison to full agonists. In this work, we present a set of CHARMM-based parameters of a molecular mechanics force field for two PPARγ ligands, GQ16 and SR1664. GQ16 belongs to the thiazolidinedione class of drugs and it is a PPARγ partial agonist that has been shown to promote the “browning” of white adipose tissue. SR1664 is the precursor of the PPARγ non-agonist class of ligands that activates PPARγ in a non-classical manner. Here, we use quantum chemical calculations consistent with the CHARMM protocol to obtain bonded and non-bonded parameters, including partial atomic charges and effective torsion potentials for both molecules. The newly parameterized models were evaluated by examining the behavior of GQ16 and SR1664 free in water and bound to the ligand binding pocket of PPARγ using molecular dynamics simulations. The potential parameters derived here are readily transferable to a variety of pharmaceutical compounds and similar PPARγ ligands. PMID:28025495

  4. Inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-mediated keratinocyte differentiation by lipoxygenase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    Thuillier, Philippe; Brash, Alan R; Kehrer, James P; Stimmel, Julie B; Leesnitzer, Lisa M; Yang, Peiying; Newman, Robert A; Fischer, Susan M

    2002-01-01

    Lipoxygenase (LOX) metabolites from arachidonic acid and linoleic acid have been implicated in atherosclerosis, inflammation, keratinocyte differentiation and tumour progression. We previously showed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) play a role in keratinocyte differentiation and that the PPARalpha ligand 8S-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid is important in this process. We hypothesized that blocking LOX activity would block PPAR-mediated keratinocyte differentiation. Three LOX inhibitors, nordihydroguaiaretic acid, quercetin and morin, were studied for their effects on primary keratinocyte differentiation and PPAR activity. All three LOX inhibitors blocked calcium-induced expression of the differentiation marker keratin 1. In addition, activity of a PPAR-responsive element was inhibited in the presence of all three inhibitors, and this effect was mediated primarily through PPARalpha and PPARgamma. LOX inhibitors decreased the activity of a chimaeric PPAR-Gal4-ligand-binding domain reporter system and this effect was reversed by addition of PPAR ligands. Ligand-binding studies revealed that the LOX inhibitors bind directly to PPARs and demonstrate a novel mechanism for these inhibitors in altering PPAR-mediated gene expression. PMID:12069687

  5. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) and Ligand Choreography: Newcomers Take the Stage.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vallvé, Santiago; Guasch, Laura; Tomas-Hernández, Sarah; del Bas, Josep Maria; Ollendorff, Vincent; Arola, Lluís; Pujadas, Gerard; Mulero, Miquel

    2015-07-23

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs), such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone, are peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) full agonists that have been widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Despite the demonstrated beneficial effect of reducing glucose levels in the plasma, TZDs also induce several adverse effects. Consequently, the search for new compounds with potent antidiabetic effects but fewer undesired effects is an active field of research. Interestingly, the novel proposed mechanisms for the antidiabetic activity of PPARγ agonists, consisting of PPARγ Ser273 phosphorylation inhibition, ligand and receptor mutual dynamics, and the presence of an alternate binding site, have recently changed the view regarding the optimal characteristics for the screening of novel PPARγ ligands. Furthermore, transcriptional genomics could bring essential information about the genome-wide effects of PPARγ ligands. Consequently, facing the new mechanistic scenario proposed for these compounds is essential for resolving the paradoxes among their agonistic function, antidiabetic activities, and side effects and should allow the rational development of better and safer PPARγ-mediated antidiabetic drugs.

  6. Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor α Induces Lysosomal Biogenesis in Brain Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Arunava; Jana, Malabendu; Modi, Khushbu; Gonzalez, Frank J.; Sims, Katherine B.; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-01-01

    Lysosomes are ubiquitous membrane-enclosed organelles filled with an acidic interior and are central to the autophagic, endocytic, or phagocytic pathway. In contrast to its classical function as the waste management machinery, lysosomes are now considered to be an integral part of various cellular signaling processes. The diverse functionality of this single organelle requires a very complex and coordinated regulation of its activity with transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, at its core. However, mechanisms by which TFEB is regulated are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that gemfibrozil, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, alone and in conjunction with all-trans-retinoic acid is capable of enhancing TFEB in brain cells. We also observed that PPARα, but not PPARβ and PPARγ, is involved in gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of TFEB. Reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies confirmed the recruitment of retinoid X receptor α, PPARα, and PGC1α on the PPAR-binding site on the Tfeb promoter as well. Subsequently, the drug-mediated induction of TFEB caused an increase in lysosomal protein and the lysosomal abundance in cell. Collectively, this study reinforces the link between lysosomal biogenesis and lipid metabolism with TFEB at the crossroads. Furthermore, gemfibrozil may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders in which autophagy-lysosome pathway plays an important role. PMID:25750174

  7. Structural Basis for Iloprost as a Dual Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor α/δ Agonist*

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Lihua; Lin, Shengchen; Rong, Hui; Zheng, Songyang; Jin, Shikan; Wang, Rui; Li, Yong

    2011-01-01

    Iloprost is a prostacyclin analog that has been used to treat many vascular conditions. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-regulated transcription factors with various important biological effects such as metabolic and cardiovascular physiology. Here, we report the crystal structures of the PPARα ligand-binding domain and PPARδ ligand-binding domain bound to iloprost, thus providing unambiguous evidence for the direct interaction between iloprost and PPARs and a structural basis for the recognition of PPARα/δ by this prostacyclin analog. In addition to conserved contacts for all PPARα ligands, iloprost also initiates several specific interactions with PPARs using its unique structural groups. Structural and functional studies of receptor-ligand interactions reveal strong functional correlations of the iloprost-PPARα/δ interactions as well as the molecular basis of PPAR subtype selectivity toward iloprost ligand. As such, the structural mechanism may provide a more rational template for designing novel compounds targeting PPARs with more favorable pharmacologic impact based on existing iloprost drugs. PMID:21775429

  8. Natalizumab Treatment Modulates Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors Expression in Women with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferret-Sena, Véronique; Maia e Silva, Alexandra; Cavaleiro, Inês; Vale, José; Derudas, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR) are transcription factors suggested to be involved in inflammatory lesions of autoimmune encephalomyelitis and multiple sclerosis (MS). Our objective was to assess whether Natalizumab (NTZ) therapy is associated with alterations of PPAR expression in MS patients. We analyzed gene expression of PPAR in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) as well as blood inflammatory markers in women with MS previously medicated with first-line immunomodulators (baseline) and after NTZ therapy. No differences in PPARα, PPARβ/δ, PPARγ, and CD36 mRNA expression were found in PBMC between patients under baseline and healthy controls. At three months, NTZ increased PPARβ/δ mRNA (p = 0.009) in comparison to baseline, while mRNA expression of PPARγ and CD36 (a well-known PPAR target gene) was lower in comparison to healthy controls (p = 0.026 and p = 0.028, resp.). Although these trends of alterations remain after six months of therapy, the results were not statistically significant. Osteopontin levels were elevated in patients (p = 0.002) and did not change during the follow-up period of NTZ treatment. These results suggest that PPAR-mediated processes may contribute to the mechanisms of action of NTZ therapy. PMID:28077943

  9. Contributions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ to skin health and disease.

    PubMed

    Montagner, Alexandra; Wahli, Walter

    2013-02-01

    Among the three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) transcription factors, PPARβ/δ is the isotype with the broadest expression pattern. In fact, the expression of PPARβ/δ is ubiquitous, albeit at levels that are tightly regulated. Herein, we reviewed its multiple functions in skin health and disease. PPARβ/δ has pro-differentiating effects in keratinocytes, regulates sebocyte differentiation, and promotes hair follicle growth in healthy skin. Furthermore, we reviewed novel insights into the roles of PPARβ/δ in skin wound healing, especially in inhibiting apoptosis and in modulating keratinocyte proliferation and migration. Therefore, PPARβ/δ represents a research target for the understanding and treatment of inflammatory skin diseases, such as psoriasis and acne vulgaris. In addition, PPARβ/δ is a tumor growth modifier. Epidemiological studies have established that tumor progression may be exacerbated by chronic low-grade inflammation, a condition promoting the production of the lipids that act as modulators of PPARβ/δ activity. The action of PPARβ/δ in skin cancer is ambivalent, which might be explained by this receptor's putative highly context-specific behavior, which depends on a combination of factors ranging from receptor expression levels to co-regulator distribution, diversity and activity of the ligands produced, and other tissue-specific conditions. Given its diverse and crucial roles in many tissues and organs, PPARβ/δ will remain a major focus of future research.

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta activation leads to increased transintestinal cholesterol efflux

    PubMed Central

    Vrins, Carlos L. J.; van der Velde, Astrid E.; van den Oever, Karin; Levels, Johannes H. M.; Huet, Stephane; Oude Elferink, Ronald P. J.; Kuipers, Folkert; Groen, Albert K.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARδ) is involved in regulation of energy homeostasis. Activation of PPARδ markedly increases fecal neutral sterol secretion, the last step in reverse cholesterol transport. This phenomenon can neither be explained by increased hepatobiliary cholesterol secretion, nor by reduced cholesterol absorption. To test the hypothesis that PPARδ activation leads to stimulation of transintestinal cholesterol efflux (TICE), we quantified it by intestine perfusions in FVB mice treated with PPARδ agonist GW610742. To exclude the effects on cholesterol absorption, mice were also treated with cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe or ezetimibe/GW610742. GW601742 treatment had little effect on plasma lipid levels but stimulated both fecal neutral sterol excretion (∼200%) and TICE (∼100%). GW610742 decreased intestinal Npc1l1 expression but had no effect on Abcg5/Abcg8. Interestingly, expression of Rab9 and LIMPII, encoding proteins involved in intracellular cholesterol trafficking, was increased upon PPARδ activation. Although treatment with ezetimibe alone had no effect on TICE, it reduced the effect of GW610742 on TICE. These data show that activation of PPARδ stimulates fecal cholesterol excretion in mice, primarily by the two-fold increase in TICE, indicating that this pathway provides an interesting target for the development of drugs aiming at the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:19439761

  11. Hepatic triacylglycerol hydrolysis regulates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Sapiro, Jessica M; Mashek, Mara T; Greenberg, Andrew S; Mashek, Douglas G

    2009-08-01

    Recent evidence suggests that fatty acids generated from intracellular triacylglycerol (TAG) hydrolysis may have important roles in intracellular signaling. This study was conducted to determine if fatty acids liberated from TAG hydrolysis regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). Primary rat hepatocyte cultures were treated with adenoviruses overexpressing adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) or adipose triacylglycerol lipase (ATGL) or treated with short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeted against ADRP. Subsequent effects on TAG metabolism and PPARalpha activity and target gene expression were determined. Overexpressing ADRP attenuated TAG hydrolysis, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of ADRP or ATGL overexpression resulted in enhanced TAG hydrolysis. Results from PPARalpha reporter activity assays demonstrated that decreasing TAG hydrolysis by ADRP overexpression resulted in a 35-60% reduction in reporter activity under basal conditions or in the presence of fatty acids. As expected, PPARalpha target genes were also decreased in response to ADRP overexpression. However, the PPARalpha ligand, WY-14643, was able to restore PPARalpha activity following ADRP overexpression. Despite its effects on PPARalpha, overexpressing ADRP did not affect PPARgamma activity. Enhancing TAG hydrolysis through ADRP knockdown or ATGL overexpression increased PPARalpha activity. These results indicate that TAG hydrolysis and the consequential release of fatty acids regulate PPARalpha activity.

  12. Cloning, expression and investigation for polymorphisms of canine peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Naohito; Takasu, Masaki; Soe, Ok Kar; Maeda, Sadatoshi; Ohba, Yasunori; Inoue-Murayama, Miho; Kitagawa, Hitoshi

    2007-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors implicated in lipid metabolism. In this study, the full-length cDNA of canine PPARbeta and gamma were sequenced, and expression of PPARs was evaluated in normal tissues and primary cultures of adipocytes in dogs, followed by investigations for polymorphisms of canine PPARgamma. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of canine PPARbeta and gamma cDNA with that of human PPARbeta and gamma cDNA revealed 95.9% and 98.2% identity, respectively. PPARbeta expression was ubiquitous and high PPARgamma expression was detected in the subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues, spleen and large intestine. Canine PPARgamma mRNA expression in cultured adipocytes began to increase from 4 days after induction of differentiation, and increased nearly ninefold within 10 days after induction of differentiation. Although expression level of PPARalpha was low in the cultured adipocytes, it slightly increased within 10 days. In contrast, expression of PPARbeta showed only small variations during adipocyte differentiation, though expression levels were relatively high. These results suggest that PPARgamma may play an important role in adipocyte differentiation in dogs. Investigations for polymorphisms of PPARgamma revealed a silent polymorphism, C1362T, in 3 of 92 dogs.

  13. Activation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha ameliorates ethanol mediated liver fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Nan, Yue-Min; Kong, Ling-Bo; Ren, Wei-Guang; Wang, Rong-Qi; Du, Jing-Hua; Li, Wen-Cong; Zhao, Su-Xian; Zhang, Yu-Guo; Wu, Wen-Juan; Di, Hai-Ling; Li, Ya; Yu, Jun

    2013-02-06

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) ameliorates ethanol induced hepatic steatohepatitis. However, its role in alcoholic liver fibrosis has not been fully clarified. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effect and the molecular basis of PPARα in ethanol induced liver fibrosis in mice. C57BL/6J mice were fed with 4% ethanol-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for eight weeks, and intraperitoneal injected with 5% carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) for the last four weeks to induce alcoholic liver fibrosis. PPARα agonist WY14643 was administered to mice during the last couple of weeks. The effects of PPARα induction on liver histology, activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), as well as hepatic expression of inflammatory and fibrogenic factors were assessed. The ethanol plus CCl4 treated mice exhibited progressive liver injury including piecemeal necrosis of hepatocytes, severe inflammatory cells infiltration and bridging fibrosis. This was accompanied by down-regulated hepatic expression of PPARα and the protective cytokines adiponectin, heme oxygenase-1 and interleukin-10. Additionally, up-regulation of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha, as well as the profibrogenic genes osteopontin, transforming growth factor-beta 1, visfatin, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 was observed. WY14643 treatment restored expression of cytokines altered by ethanol plus CCl4 treatment and concomitantly ameliorated the liver injury. The present study provides evidence for the protective role of PPARα induction in ameliorating ethanol mediated fibrosis through mediation of inflammatory and fibrogenic factors.

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha protects against alcohol-induced liver damage.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijo, Yuji; Tanaka, Naoki; Sugiyama, Eiko; Tanaka, Eiji; Kiyosawa, Kendo; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Peters, Jeffrey M; Gonzalez, Frank J; Aoyama, Toshifumi

    2004-10-01

    The mechanisms underlying alcoholic liver disease are not completely understood, but lipid accumulation seems to be central to the cause of this disease. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) plays an important role in the control of lipid homeostasis, metabolism of bioactive molecules, and modulation of inflammatory responses. To investigate the roles of PPARalpha in alcoholic liver injury, wild-type and PPARalpha-null mice were continuously fed a diet containing 4% ethanol, and liver injury was analyzed. PPARalpha-null mice fed ethanol exhibited marked hepatomegaly, hepatic inflammation, cell toxicity, fibrosis, apoptosis, and mitochondrial swelling. Some of these hepatic abnormalities were consistent with those of patients with alcoholic liver injury and were not found in wild-type mice. Next, the molecular mechanisms of ethanol-induced liver injury in PPARalpha-null mice were investigated, and changes related to ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolism, oxidative stress, inflammation, hepatocyte proliferation, fibrosis, and mitochondrial permeability transition activation occurred specifically in PPARalpha-null mice as compared with wild-type mice. In conclusion, these studies suggest a protective role for PPARalpha in alcoholic liver disease. Humans may be more susceptible to liver toxicity induced by ethanol as PPARalpha expression in human liver is considerably lower compared to that of rodents.

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and the vascular system: beyond their metabolic effects.

    PubMed

    Marchesi, Chiara; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alpha and gamma are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear receptor superfamily. PPARalpha has effects on fatty acid metabolism and its activation by fibrates results in reduction of triglyceride concentrations in blood. PPARgamma induces differentiation of adipocytes, and its activation by thiazolidinediones (TZDs) has insulin sensitizing effects, for which reason these agents are used for treating type 2 diabetes. PPARalpha and PPARgamma are present in the vasculature, where they have been shown to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and to blunt the development of fibrosis and remodeling in experimental models and in several cardiovascular clinical conditions. This review will discuss some of the evidence, both experimental and clinical, that suggests that activation of PPARalpha and PPARgamma in hypertension may exert beneficial cardiovascular protective effects. However, a recent meta-analysis suggests an excess of myocardial infarction and borderline excess of cardiovascular death in type 2 diabetic patients treated with rosiglitazone. Thus the safety of use of PPARgamma activators for cardiovascular prevention and whether they are protective or actually may be harmful remains to be established.

  16. Deletion of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha induces an alteration of cardiac functions.

    PubMed

    Loichot, Cécile; Jesel, Laurence; Tesse, Angela; Tabernero, Antonia; Schoonjans, Kristina; Roul, Gérard; Carpusca, Irina; Auwerx, Johan; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson

    2006-07-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPARalpha) plays a major role in the control of cardiac energy metabolism. The role of PPARalpha on cardiac functions was evaluated by using PPARalpha knockout (PPARalpha -/-) mice. Hemodynamic parameters by sphygmomanometric measurements show that deletion of PPARalpha did not affect systolic blood pressure and heart rate. Echocardiographic measurements demonstrated reduced systolic performance as shown by the decrease of left ventricular fractional shortening in PPARalpha -/- mice. Telemetric electrocardiography revealed neither atrio- nor intraventricular conduction defects in PPARalpha -/- mice. Also, heart rate, P-wave duration and amplitude, and QT interval were not affected. However, the amplitude of T wave from PPARalpha -/- mice was lower compared with wild-type (PPARalpha +/+) mice. When the myocardial function was measured by ex vivo Langendorff's heart preparation, basal and beta-adrenergic agonist-induced developed forces were significantly reduced in PPARalpha-null mice. In addition, Western blot analysis shows that the protein expression of beta1-adrenergic receptor is reduced in hearts from PPARalpha -/- mice. Histological analysis showed that hearts from PPARalpha -/- but not PPARalpha +/+ mice displayed myocardial fibrosis. These results suggest that PPARalpha-null mice have an alteration of cardiac contractile performance under basal and under stimulation of beta1-adrenergic receptors. These effects are associated with myocardial fibrosis. The data shed light on the role of PPARalpha in maintaining cardiac functions.

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activation inhibits progesterone-stimulated human MUC1 expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Dharmaraj, Neeraja; Brayman, Melissa J; Carson, Daniel D

    2010-07-01

    Mucin 1 (MUC1) is a type I transmembrane glycoprotein abundantly expressed on nearly all epithelial tissues and overexpressed by many cancer cells. Previous studies from our lab showed that progesterone receptor (PR)B is a strong stimulator of MUC1 gene expression. It is reported that liganded peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) stimulates Muc1 expression in murine trophoblast. Here, we demonstrate that although the PPARgamma ligand, rosiglitazone, stimulates the murine Muc1 promoter in HEC1A, a human uterine epithelial cell line, rosiglitazone alone, has no significant effect on basal human MUC1 promoter activity. In fact, rosiglitazone treatment antagonizes progesterone-stimulated human MUC1 promoter activity and protein expression in two human uterine epithelial cell lines and T47D human breast cancer cells. This response is antagonized by the PPARgamma antagonist, GW9662, as well as a dominant-negative form of PPARgamma, demonstrating the response is mediated by PPARgamma. Additional studies indicate that PPARgamma activation does not change PR binding to the MUC1 promoter but generally antagonizes progesterone activity by stimulating PRB degradation and inhibiting progesterone-induced PRB phosphorylation. Collectively, these studies indicate that PPARgamma activation inhibits PRB activity through both acute (phosphorylation) and long-term (PRB degradation) pathways.

  18. Expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in human prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Segawa, Yoshihiro; Yoshimura, Rikio; Hase, Taro; Nakatani, Tatsuya; Wada, Seiji; Kawahito, Yutaka; Kishimoto, Taketoshi; Sano, Hajime

    2002-05-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator activator-receptors (PPAR)-gamma is expressed in some cancer cells such as breast, lung, and gastric cancer, and its ligand induces growth arrest of these cancer cells through apoptosis. However, the expression and localization of PPARs in prostate have not been examined. In this study, PPARs expression was investigated in human prostate cancer (PC), prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and normal prostate (NP) tissues. Tumor specimens were obtained from 156 patients with PC, 15 with PIN, 20 with BPH, and 12 patients with NP tissues. The expressions were investigated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemical methods. Immunoreactive PPAR-alpha and -beta were significantly apparent in PC tissues. Marked expressions of PPAR-alpha and -beta were also detected in PIN, BPH, and NP groups. However, very weak or no expression of immunoreactive PPAR-gamma was found in BPH and NP cases. In contrast, we found significant expression of immunoreactive PPAR-gamma in cancer cells in PC group and in PIN group. Our results demonstrated that PPAR-gamma is induced in PC, and suggest that PPAR-gamma ligands may mediate its own potent antiproliferative effect against PC cells through differentiation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands for the treatment of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Fenner, Martin H; Elstner, Elena

    2005-06-01

    Pioglitazone and rosiglitazone are thiazolidinediones used for the treatment of Type 2 diabetes mellitus. They modulate glucose and fat metabolism, mainly by binding to the nuclear hormone receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma. PPAR-gamma signalling is involved in a number of other disease conditions including cancer. In breast cancer cells, PPAR-gamma ligands inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. PPAR-gamma ligands also inhibit tumour angiogenesis and invasion. The only published clinical trial using a PPAR-gamma ligand in patients with metastatic breast cancer failed to show any clinical benefits. The mechanism of action of the thiazolidinediones in breast cancer cells is not fully understood but involves interactions with other nuclear hormone receptors, transcriptional co-activators and repressors as well as PPAR-gamma-independent effects. A better understanding of these mechanisms will be needed before PPAR-gamma ligands may be useful in the treatment of breast cancer patients.

  20. Cyclin D1 repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma expression and transactivation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chenguang; Pattabiraman, Nagarajan; Zhou, Jian Nian; Fu, Maofu; Sakamaki, Toshiyuki; Albanese, Chris; Li, Zhiping; Wu, Kongming; Hulit, James; Neumeister, Peter; Novikoff, Phyllis M; Brownlee, Michael; Scherer, Philipp E; Jones, Joan G; Whitney, Kathleen D; Donehower, Lawrence A; Harris, Emily L; Rohan, Thomas; Johns, David C; Pestell, Richard G

    2003-09-01

    The cyclin D1 gene is overexpressed in human breast cancers and is required for oncogene-induced tumorigenesis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) is a nuclear receptor selectively activated by ligands of the thiazolidinedione class. PPAR gamma induces hepatic steatosis, and liganded PPAR gamma promotes adipocyte differentiation. Herein, cyclin D1 inhibited ligand-induced PPAR gamma function, transactivation, expression, and promoter activity. PPAR gamma transactivation induced by the ligand BRL49653 was inhibited by cyclin D1 through a pRB- and cdk-independent mechanism, requiring a region predicted to form an helix-loop-helix (HLH) structure. The cyclin D1 HLH region was also required for repression of the PPAR gamma ligand-binding domain linked to a heterologous DNA binding domain. Adipocyte differentiation by PPAR gamma-specific ligands (BRL49653, troglitazone) was enhanced in cyclin D1(-/-) fibroblasts and reversed by retroviral expression of cyclin D1. Homozygous deletion of the cyclin D1 gene, enhanced expression by PPAR gamma ligands of PPAR gamma and PPAR gamma-responsive genes, and cyclin D1(-/-) mice exhibit hepatic steatosis. Finally, reduction of cyclin D1 abundance in vivo using ponasterone-inducible cyclin D1 antisense transgenic mice, increased expression of PPAR gamma in vivo. The inhibition of PPAR gamma function by cyclin D1 is a new mechanism of signal transduction cross talk between PPAR gamma ligands and mitogenic signals that induce cyclin D1.

  1. Pioglitazone, a Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Agonist, Suppresses Rat Prostate Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Shugo; Mori, Yukiko; Nagano, Aya; Naiki-Ito, Aya; Kato, Hiroyuki; Nagayasu, Yuko; Kobayashi, Mizuho; Kuno, Toshiya; Takahashi, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Pioglitazone (PGZ), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist, which is known as a type 2 diabetes drug, inhibits cell proliferation in various cancer cell lines, including prostate carcinomas. This study focused on the effect of PGZ on prostate carcinogenesis using a transgenic rat for an adenocarcinoma of prostate (TRAP) model. Adenocarcinoma lesions as a percentage of overall lesions in the ventral prostate were significantly reduced by PGZ treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The number of adenocarcinomas per given area in the ventral prostate was also significantly reduced by PGZ treatment. The Ki67 labeling index in the ventral prostate was also significantly reduced by PGZ. Decreased cyclin D1 expression in addition to the inactivation of both p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor (NF)κB were detected in PGZ-treated TRAP rat groups. In LNCaP, a human androgen-dependent prostate cancer cell line, PGZ also inhibited cyclin D1 expression and the activation of both p38 MAPK and NFκB. The suppression of cultured cell growth was mainly regulated by the NFκB pathway as detected using specific inhibitors in both LNCaP and PC3, a human androgen-independent prostate cancer cell line. These data suggest that PGZ possesses a chemopreventive potential for prostate cancer. PMID:27973395

  2. Topical Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor Activators Accelerate Postnatal Stratum Corneum Acidification

    PubMed Central

    Fluhr, Joachim W.; Man, Mao-Qiang; Hachem, Jean-Pierre; Crumrine, Debra; Mauro, Theodora M.; Elias, Peter M.; Feingold, Kenneth R.

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that pH declines from between 6 and 7 at birth to adult levels (pH 5.0–5.5) over 5–6 days in neonatal rat stratum corneum (SC). As a result, at birth, neonatal epidermis displays decreased permeability barrier homeostasis and SC integrity, improving days 5–6. We determined here whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) activators accelerate postnatal SC acidification. Topical treatment with two different PPARα activators, clofibrate and WY14643, accelerated the postnatal decline in SC surface pH, whereas treatment with PPARγ activators did not and a PPARβ/δ activator had only a modest effect. Treatment with clofibrate significantly accelerated normalization of barrier function. The morphological basis for the improvement in barrier function in PPARα-treated animals includes accelerated secretion of lamellar bodies and enhanced, postsecretory processing of secreted lamellar body contents into mature lamellar membranes. Activity of β-glucocerebrosidase increased after PPARα-activator treatment. PPARα activator also improved SC integrity, which correlated with an increase in corneodesmosome density and increased desmoglein-1 content, with a decline in serine protease activity. Topical treatment of newborn animals with a PPARα activator increased secretory phospholipase A2 activity, which likely accounts for accelerated SC acidification. Thus, PPARα activators accelerate neonatal SC acidification, in parallel with improved permeability homeostasis and SC integrity/cohesion. Hence, PPARα activators might be useful to prevent or treat certain common neonatal dermatoses. PMID:18704104

  3. Inhibition of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha by MK886.

    PubMed Central

    Kehrer, J P; Biswal, S S; La, E; Thuillier, P; Datta, K; Fischer, S M; Vanden Heuvel, J P

    2001-01-01

    Although MK886 was originally identified as an inhibitor of 5-lipoxygenase activating protein (FLAP), recent data demonstrate that this activity does not underlie its ability to induce apoptosis [Datta, Biswal and Kehrer (1999) Biochem. J. 340, 371--375]. Since FLAP is a fatty-acid binding protein, it is conceivable that MK886 may affect other such proteins. A family of nuclear receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their metabolites, the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), have been implicated in apoptosis and may represent a target for MK886. The ability of MK886 to inhibit PPAR-alpha, -beta and -gamma activity was assessed using reporter assay systems (peroxisome-proliferator response element--luciferase). Using a transient transfection system in monkey kidney fibroblast CV-1 cells, mouse keratinocyte 308 cells and human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, 10--20 microM MK886 inhibited Wy14,643 activation of PPAR alpha by approximately 80%. Similar inhibition of PPAR alpha by MK886 was observed with a stable transfection reporter system in CV-1 cells. Only minimal inhibitory effects were seen on PPAR beta and PPAR gamma. MK886 inhibited PPAR alpha by a non-competitive mechanism as shown by its effects on the binding of arachidonic acid to PPAR alpha protein, and a dose-response study using a transient transfection reporter assay in COS-1 cells. An assay assessing PPAR ligand-receptor interactions showed that MK886 prevents the conformational change necessary for active-complex formation. The expression of keratin-1, a protein encoded by a PPAR alpha-responsive gene, was reduced by MK886 in a culture of mouse primary keratinocytes, suggesting that PPAR inhibition has functional consequences in normal cells. Although Jurkat cells express all PPAR isoforms, various PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma agonists were unable to prevent MK886-induced apoptosis. This is consistent with MK886 functioning as a non-competitive inhibitor of PPAR alpha, but may

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists (PPARs): a promising prospect in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis*

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Emerson de Andrade; Lima, Mariana Modesto Dantas de Andrade; Marques, Cláudia Diniz Lopes; Duarte, Angela Luzia Branco Pinto; Pita, Ivan da Rocha; Pita, Maira Galdino da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Psoriasis is a polygenic, inflammatory and progressive disease, characterized by an abnormal differentiation and hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, associated with impaired immunologic activation and systemic disorders, while psoriatic arthritis is a chronic inflammatory articular disease. Pathophysiology of psoriasis comprises a dysfunction of the immune system cells with an interactive network between cells and cytokines supporting the initiation and perpetuation of disease and leading to inflammation of skin, enthesis and joints. Recent studies have shown an important role of systemic inflammation in the development of atherosclerosis. Corroborating these findings, patients with severe Psoriasis have marked incidence of psoriatic arthritis, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity and diabetes mellitus, showing an increased risk for acute myocardial infarction, which suggests that the condition is not restricted to the skin. Nuclear receptors are ligand-dependent transcription factors, whose activation affects genes that control vital processes. Among them the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor is responsible for establishing the relationship between lipids, metabolic diseases and innate immunity. In the skin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors have an important effect in keratinocyte homeostasis, suggesting a role in diseases such as psoriasis. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonists represent a relevant source of research in the treatment of skin conditions, however more clinical studies are needed to define the potential response of these drugs in patients with psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. PMID:24474126

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and Alzheimer's disease: hitting the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Zolezzi, Juan M; Inestrosa, Nibaldo C

    2013-12-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is often affected in several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). Integrity and proper functionality of the neurovascular unit are recognized to be critical for maintenance of the BBB. Research has traditionally focused on structural integrity more than functionality, and BBB alteration has usually been explained more as a consequence than a cause. However, ongoing evidence suggests that at the early stages, the BBB of a diseased brain often shows distinct expression patterns of specific carriers such as members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transport protein family, which alter BBB traffic. In AD, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposits are a pathological hallmark and, as recently highlighted by Cramer et al. (2012), Aβ clearance is quite fundamental and is a less studied approach. Current knowledge suggests that BBB traffic plays a more important role than previously believed and that pharmacological modulation of the BBB may offer new therapeutic alternatives for AD. Recent investigations carried out in our laboratory indicate that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists are able to prevent Aβ-induced neurotoxicity in hippocampal neurons and cognitive impairment in a double transgenic mouse model of AD. However, even when enough literature about PPAR agonists and neurodegenerative disorders is available, the problem of how they exert their functions and help to prevent and rescue Aβ-induced neurotoxicity is poorly understood. In this review, along with highlighting the main features of the BBB and its role in AD, we will discuss information regarding the modulation of BBB components, including the possible role of PPAR agonists as BBB traffic modulators.

  6. Sexually dimorphic adaptation of cardiac function: roles of epoxyeicosatrienoic acid and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jun; Le, Yicong; Froogh, Ghezal; Kandhi, Sharath; Jiang, Houli; Luo, Meng; Sun, Dong; Huang, An

    2016-06-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are cardioprotective mediators metabolized by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) to form corresponding diols (DHETs). As a sex-susceptible target, sEH is involved in the sexually dimorphic regulation of cardiovascular function. Thus, we hypothesized that the female sex favors EET-mediated potentiation of cardiac function via downregulation of sEH expression, followed by upregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). Hearts were isolated from male (M) and female (F) wild-type (WT) and sEH-KO mice, and perfused with constant flow at different preloads. Basal coronary flow required to maintain the perfusion pressure at 100 mmHg was significantly greater in females than males, and sEH-KO than WT mice. All hearts displayed a dose-dependent decrease in coronary resistance and increase in cardiac contractility, represented as developed tension in response to increases in preload. These responses were also significantly greater in females than males, and sEH-KO than WT 14,15-EEZE abolished the sex-induced (F vs. M) and transgenic model-dependent (KO vs. WT) differences in the cardiac contractility, confirming an EET-driven response. Compared with M-WT controls, F-WT hearts expressed downregulation of sEH, associated with increased EETs and reduced DHETs, a pattern comparable to that observed in sEH-KO hearts. Coincidentally, F-WT and sEH-KO hearts exhibited increased PPARα expression, but comparable expression of eNOS, PPARβ, and EET synthases. In conclusion, female-specific downregulation of sEH initiates an EET-dependent adaptation of cardiac function, characterized by increased coronary flow via reduction in vascular resistance, and promotion of cardiac contractility, a response that could be further intensified by PPARα. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  7. Genetic polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta associated with obesity.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyoung Doo; Park, Byung Lae; Kim, Lyoung Hyo; Jung, Hye Seung; Cho, Young Min; Moon, Min Kyong; Park, Young Joo; Lee, Hong Kyu; Park, Kyong Soo

    2004-03-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear receptors regulating the expression of genes involved in lipid and glucose metabolism. Three different PPARs, PPAR-alpha, -gamma, and -delta, have been characterized, and they are distinguished from each other by tissue distribution and cell activation. All PPARs are, to different extents, activated by fatty acids and derivatives. Recently, it has been shown that PPAR-delta serves as a widespread regulator of fat burning, suggesting that it might be a potential target in the treatment of obesity and type 2 diabetes. In an effort to identify polymorphic markers in potential candidate genes for type 2 diabetes, we have sequenced PPAR-delta, including -1,500 bp of the 5' flanking region. Nine polymorphisms were identified in PPAR-delta: four in the intron, one in the 5' untranslated region (UTR), and four in the 3' UTR. Among identified polymorphisms, five common sites, including c.-13454G>T, c.-87T>C, c.2022+12G>A, c.2629T>C, and c.2806C>G, were genotyped in subjects with type 2 diabetes and normal control subjects (n = 702). The genetic associations with the risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic phenotype were analyzed. No significant associations with the risk of type 2 diabetes were detected. However, several positive associations of PPAR-delta polymorphisms with fasting plasma glucose and BMI were detected in nondiabetic control subjects. The genetic information about PPAR-delta from this study would be useful for further genetic study of obesity, diabetes, and other metabolic diseases.

  8. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma polymorphism is related to peak bone mass: the JPOS study.

    PubMed

    Tamaki, J; Iki, M; Morita, A; Ikeda, Y; Sato, Y; Kajita, E; Kagamimori, S; Kagawa, Y; Yoneshima, H

    2010-02-01

    We analyzed 1,217 women to examine the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma (PPARgamma) C161 --> T on bone status. Among 664 premenopausal women, the C161 --> T is associated with low bone mineral density (BMD) at the total hip and femoral neck. Moreover, the odds ratio for osteopenia or osteoporosis at the femoral neck was 1.98 for premenopausal CT/TT genotypes. The impact of PPARgamma on BMD has not been conclusively established. We examined if PPARgamma C161T polymorphism is associated with BMD and its change. We conducted a baseline survey in 1996 and a 10-year follow-up survey, Japanese Population-based Osteoporosis Study, with a sample population representative of Japanese women. Of these, 1,217 participants in the 1996 survey were analyzed cross-sectionally, while longitudinal analysis was performed on 563 women. A P value < 0.0042 (=0.05/12 for three menstrual statuses and four skeletal sites) was considered statistically significant after Bonferroni correction in multiple testing for cross-sectional analysis. The total hip and femoral neck BMDs were significantly higher for CC genotype than for CT/TT genotypes among 664 premenopausal women (P = 0.0020, P = 0.0022, respectively). Compared to the CC genotype, the odds ratio for osteopenia or osteoporosis (T-scores below -1) at the femoral neck was 1.98 for premenopausal CT/TT genotypes with statistical significance (P = 0.0041). Change of BMD at either skeletal site during the follow-up period was not significantly different for either menstrual status. We conclude that the PPARgamma C161T is associated with low peak bone mass.

  9. Genetic variants of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ are associated with gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Christie; Chang, Shen-Chih; Mu, Lina; Zhao, Jinkou; Rao, Jian-Yu; Lu, Qing-Yi; Zhang, Zuo-Feng

    2013-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are implicated in pathogenesis of insulin resistance and cancers of the digestive system. We investigated the associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of PPAR δ and γ with gastric cancer and explored interactions with risk factors of gastric cancer. We conducted our analysis in a case-control study of 196 gastric cancer patients and 397 controls residing in the Taixing region of Jiangsu, China. Six SNPs in the PPARδ (rs2076167, rs3734254) and PPARγ genes (rs10865710, rs1801282, rs3856806, rs13306747) were genotyped. We employed logistic regression to evaluate the association between each genotype and gastric cancer and tested for gene-environment interaction with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection, smoking status, and meat and salt intake. We found that the G/G variant rs2076167, in tight linkage disequilibrium with rs3734254 (R (2) = 0.97), was associated with increased risk of gastric cancer in a recessive model (OR 2.20, 95 % CI 1.12, 4.32). The association between G/G variant of rs2016167 and gastric cancer was particularly strong among those with higher salt intake (OR 5.11, 95 % CI 1.11, 23.5), but did not vary by H. pylori infection or smoking status. We found that genetic variants of PPARδ were associated with gastric cancer. If the association is confirmed in larger studies, it may implicate a role for PPARδ activators, such as insulin-sensitizing agents, in prevention of gastric cancer.

  10. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma2 Pro12Ala polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Stumvoll, Michael; Häring, Hans

    2002-08-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma is a transcription factor with a key role in adipocyte differentiation. The Ala allele of the common Pro12Ala polymorphism in the isoform PPAR-gamma2 is associated with reduced risk for type 2 diabetes. The effect on the individual is weak, but because of a prevalence of >75% of the high-risk Pro allele, the population-attributable risk is enormous. The in vivo effects of the polymorphism are secondary to alterations in adipose tissue, where PPAR-gamma2 is predominantly expressed. Moderate reduction in transcriptional activity of PPAR-gamma as a result of the polymorphism modulates production and release of adipose-derived factors. Both decreased release of insulin-desensitizing free fatty acids, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and resistin and increased release of the insulin-sensitizing hormone adiponectin result in secondary improvement of insulin sensitivity of glucose uptake and suppression of glucose production. The population effect of this polymorphism may be modulated by environmental or genetic factors such as obesity, ethnicity, ratio of unsaturated to saturated fatty acids, and genetic background. Once diabetes has developed, the protective effect of the Ala allele may be lost, since increased vascular complications and more pronounced beta-cell dysfunction have been reported. These observations, however, are currently unexplained. In conclusion, the Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPAR-gamma2 represents the first genetic variant with a broad impact on the risk of common type 2 diabetes. The precise understanding of its mechanism may lead to novel diagnostic, preventive, and therapeutic approaches for improving the management of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Association of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma gene polymorphisms with the development of asthma.

    PubMed

    Oh, Sun-Hee; Park, Se-Min; Lee, Yoo Hoon; Cha, Ji Yeon; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Shin, Eun Kyong; Park, Jong-Sook; Park, Byeong-Lae; Shin, Hyoung Doo; Park, Choon-Sik

    2009-07-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcriptional factors. PPAR-gamma (PPARG) activation downregulates production of Th2 type cytokines and eosinophil function. Additionally, treatment with a synthetic PPARG ligand can reduce lung inflammation and IFN-gamma, IL-4, and IL-2 production in experimental allergic asthma. In patients with asthma, PPARG gene expression is known to be associated with the airway inflammatory and remodeling responses. Thus, genetic variants of PPARG may be associated with the development of asthma. We genotyped two single nucleotide polymorphisms on the PPARG gene, +34C>G (Pro12Ala) and +82466C>T (His449His), in Korean subjects (839 subjects with asthma and 449 normal controls). Association analysis using logistic regression analysis showed that +82466C>T and haplotypes 1(CC) and 2(CT) were associated with the development of asthma (p=0.01-0.04). The frequency of PPARG-ht2 was significantly lower in the patients with asthma compared to the normal controls in codominant and dominant models (p=0.01, p(corr)=0.03 and p=0.02, p(corr)=0.03, respectively). Conversely, the frequency of PPARG-ht1 was significantly higher in the patients with asthma compared to the normal controls in the codominant model [p=0.04, OR: 1.27 (1.01-1.6)]. In addition, the rare allele frequency of +82466C>T was significantly lower in patients with asthma in comparison to normal controls in the codominant model (OR: 0.78, p=0.04). Thus, polymorphism of the PPARG gene may be linked to an increased risk of asthma development.

  12. Association analysis of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma gene polymorphisms with asprin hypersensitivity in asthmatics

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Sun-Hee; Park, Se-Min; Park, Jong-Sook; Jang, An-Soo; Lee, Yong-Mok; Uh, Soo-Taek; Kim, Young Hoon; Choi, In-Seon; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Park, Byeong Lae

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional factors activated by ligands of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. The activation of PPARγ regulates inflammation by downregulating the production of Th2 type cytokines and eosinophil function. In addition, a range of natural substances, including arachidonate pathway metabolites such as 15-hydroxyeicosatetranoic acid (15-HETE), strongly promote PPARG expression. Therefore, genetic variants of the PPARG gene may be associated with the development of aspirin-intolerant asthma (AIA). We investigated the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the PPARG gene and AIA. Methods Based on the results of an oral aspirin challenge, asthmatics (n=403) were categorized into two groups: those with a decrease in FEV1 of 15% or greater (AIA) or less than 15% (aspirin-tolerant asthma, ATA). We genotyped two single nucleotide polymorphisms in the PPARG gene from Korean asthmatics and normal controls (n=449): +34C>G (Pro12Ala) and +82466C>T (His449His). Results Logistic regression analysis showed that +82466C>T and haplotype 1 (CC) were associated with the development of aspirin hypersensitivity in asthmatics (P=0.04). The frequency of the rare allele of +82466C>T was significantly higher in AIA patients than in ATA patients in the recessive model [P=0.04, OR=3.97 (1.08-14.53)]. In addition, the frequency of PPARG haplotype 1 was significantly lower in AIA patients than in ATA patients in the dominant model (OR=0.25, P=0.04). Conclusions The +82466C>T polymorphism and haplotype 1 of the PPARG gene may be linked to increased risk for aspirin hypersensitivity in asthma. PMID:20224667

  13. [Effects related to gene-gene interactions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor on essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yu, Hao; Chen, Qiu; Yang, Jie; Hu, Xiao-shu; Zhou, Zheng-yuan; Guo, Zhi-rong; Wu, Ming

    2013-04-01

    To explore the impact of the gene-gene interaction among the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/δ/γ on essential hypertension (EH). Participants were recruited based on the previous work of the PMMJS (Prevention of Multiple Metabolic Disorders and Metabolic Syndrome in Jiangsu Province) cohort study in Jiangsu province of China. A total number of 820 subjects were randomly selected from the cohort and received gene polymorphism detection covered ten SNPs:PPARα/δ/γ (PPARα: rs135539, rs1800206 and rs4253778; PPARδ: rs2016520 and rs9794; PPARγ: rs10865710, rs1805192, rs4684847, rs709158 and rs3856806). Generalized Multifactor Dimensionality Reduction (GMDR) model was used to evaluate the association between gene-gene interaction among the ten SNPs and EH. After adjusting factors as gender, age, BMI, FPG, TG, HDL-C, high fat diet, low fiber diet and physical activity, results from the GMDR analysis showed that the best qualitative trait models were 7/9-dimensional model (EH: cross-validation consistency were 9/10 and 10/10, prediction accuracy were 0.5862 and 0.5885), 5/9-dimensional model (SBP:cross-validation consistency were 10/10 and 8/10, prediction accuracy were 0.6055 and 0.6011), and 8/9-dimensional model (DBP: cross-validation consistency both were 10/10, prediction accuracy were 0.5926 and 0.5972), while the best quantitative trait models were 4/5-dimensional model (SBP: cross-validation consistency were 10/10 and 8/10, prediction accuracy were 0.6111 and 0.6072), and 5-dimensional model (DBP: cross-validation consistency were 9/10, prediction accuracy were 0.5753). Interactions among ten SNPs of PPARs seemed to have existed and with significant impact on the levels of blood pressure.

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and atherogenesis: regulators of gene expression in vascular cells.

    PubMed

    Marx, Nikolaus; Duez, Hélène; Fruchart, Jean-Charles; Staels, Bart

    2004-05-14

    A large body of data gathered over the past couple of years has identified the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) alpha, gamma, and beta/delta as transcription factors exerting modulatory actions in vascular cells. PPARs, which belong to the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors, were originally described as gene regulators of various metabolic pathways. Although the PPARalpha, gamma, and beta/delta subtypes are approximately 60% to 80% homologous in their ligand- and DNA-binding domains, significant differences in ligand and target gene specificities are observed. PPARalpha is activated by polyunsaturated fatty acids and oxidized derivatives and by lipid-modifying drugs of the fibrate family, including fenofibrate or gemfibrozil. PPARalpha controls expression of genes implicated in lipid metabolism. PPARgamma, in contrast, is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis and adipogenesis. Ligands of PPARgamma include naturally occurring FA derivatives, such as hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), prostaglandin derivatives such as 15-deoxyDelta12,14-prostaglandin J2, and glitazones, insulin-sensitizing drugs presently used to treat patients with type 2 diabetes. Ligands for PPARbeta/delta are polyunsaturated fatty acids, prostaglandins, and synthetic compounds, some of which are presently in clinical development. PPARbeta/delta stimulates fatty acid oxidation predominantly acting in muscle. All PPARs are expressed in vascular cells, where they exhibit antiinflammatory and antiatherogenic properties. In addition, studies in various animal models as well as clinical data suggest that PPARalpha and PPARgamma activators can modulate atherogenesis in vivo. At present, no data are available relating to possible effects of PPARbeta/delta agonists on atherogenesis. Given the widespread use of PPARalpha and PPARgamma agonists in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease, the understanding of their function in the vasculature is

  15. Oleamide activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Oleamide (ODA) is a fatty acid primary amide first identified in the cerebrospinal fluid of sleep-deprived cats, which exerts effects on vascular and neuronal tissues, with a variety of molecular targets including cannabinoid receptors and gap junctions. It has recently been reported to exert a hypolipidemic effect in hamsters. Here, we have investigated the nuclear receptor family of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) as potential targets for ODA action. Results Activation of PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ was assessed using recombinant expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells with a luciferase reporter gene assay. Direct binding of ODA to the ligand binding domain of each of the three PPARs was monitored in a cell-free fluorescent ligand competition assay. A well-established assay of PPARγ activity, the differentiation of 3T3-L1 murine fibroblasts into adipocytes, was assessed using an Oil Red O uptake-based assay. ODA, at 10 and 50 μM, was able to transactivate PPARα, PPARβ and PPARγ receptors. ODA bound to the ligand binding domain of all three PPARs, although complete displacement of fluorescent ligand was only evident for PPARγ, at which an IC50 value of 38 μM was estimated. In 3T3-L1 cells, ODA, at 10 and 20 μM, induced adipogenesis. Conclusions We have, therefore, identified a novel site of action of ODA through PPAR nuclear receptors and shown how ODA should be considered as a weak PPARγ ligand in vitro. PMID:22584002

  16. Treatment of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist fenofibrate.

    PubMed

    Osada, Miho; Sakai, Tsutomu; Kuroyanagi, Kana; Kohno, Hideo; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist has been approved for treating hypercholesterolemia and lipid abnormalities. Researchers have recently discovered that an anti-inflammatory effect of PPAR agonist may have the potential to treat autoimmune disease. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of fenofibrate on experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). EAU was induced in Lewis rats using bovine S-antigen (S-Ag) peptide. Fenofibrate was suspended in 3% arabic gum and administered orally at a high dose of 100 mg/kg and at a low dose of 20 mg/kg every day. Fenofibrate treatment was initiated after the clinical onset once daily for 14 days. The rats were examined every other day for clinical signs of EAU. The histological scores and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) were evaluated on day 28 post-immunization. Morphologic and immunohistochemical examinations were performed with light and confocal microscopy, respectively. Lymphocyte proliferation was measured with [3H] thymidine incorporation into antigen-stimulated T cells from inguinal lymph nodes. Clinical and histological scores of EAU were decreased in the fenofibrate-treated groups. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and Müller cell proliferation were inhibited in the fenofibrate-treated groups. DTH was significantly inhibited in the fenofibrate-treated groups, compared with the vehicle-treated groups (controls). Lymphocyte proliferation assay demonstrated decreased proliferation in the presence of 25 mg/ml S-Ag peptide in the fenofibrate-treated groups compared with controls. The current results indicate that fenofibrate administered orally following clinical onset has therapeutic effect in EAU. Fenofibrate may be useful for treating intraocular inflammation.

  17. Treatment of experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonist fenofibrate

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Miho; Kuroyanagi, Kana; Kohno, Hideo; Tsuneoka, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist has been approved for treating hypercholesterolemia and lipid abnormalities. Researchers have recently discovered that an anti-inflammatory effect of PPAR agonist may have the potential to treat autoimmune disease. This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effects of fenofibrate on experimental autoimmune uveoretinitis (EAU). Methods EAU was induced in Lewis rats using bovine S-antigen (S-Ag) peptide. Fenofibrate was suspended in 3% arabic gum and administered orally at a high dose of 100 mg/kg and at a low dose of 20 mg/kg every day. Fenofibrate treatment was initiated after the clinical onset once daily for 14 days. The rats were examined every other day for clinical signs of EAU. The histological scores and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) were evaluated on day 28 post-immunization. Morphologic and immunohistochemical examinations were performed with light and confocal microscopy, respectively. Lymphocyte proliferation was measured with [3H] thymidine incorporation into antigen-stimulated T cells from inguinal lymph nodes. Results Clinical and histological scores of EAU were decreased in the fenofibrate-treated groups. The expression of inflammatory cytokines and Müller cell proliferation were inhibited in the fenofibrate-treated groups. DTH was significantly inhibited in the fenofibrate-treated groups, compared with the vehicle-treated groups (controls). Lymphocyte proliferation assay demonstrated decreased proliferation in the presence of 25 mg/ml S-Ag peptide in the fenofibrate-treated groups compared with controls. Conclusions The current results indicate that fenofibrate administered orally following clinical onset has therapeutic effect in EAU. Fenofibrate may be useful for treating intraocular inflammation. PMID:25489225

  18. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α Activation Induces Hepatic Steatosis, Suggesting an Adverse Effect

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fang; Wang, Qi; Xu, Chao; Cao, Mingfeng; Zhou, Xiaoming; Wang, Tingting; Yu, Chunxiao; Jing, Fei; Chen, Wenbin; Gao, Ling; Zhao, Jiajun

    2014-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by hepatic triglyceride accumulation, ranging from steatosis to steatohepatitis and cirrhosis. NAFLD is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is associated with metabolic syndrome. Antihyperlipidemic drugs are recommended as part of the treatment for NAFLD patients. Although fibrates activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα), leading to the reduction of serum triglyceride levels, the effects of these drugs on NAFLD remain controversial. Clinical studies have reported that PPARα activation does not improve hepatic steatosis. In the present study, we focused on exploring the effect and mechanism of PPARα activation on hepatic triglyceride accumulation and hepatic steatosis. Male C57BL/6J mice, Pparα-null mice and HepG2 cells were treated with fenofibrate, one of the most commonly used fibrate drugs. Both low and high doses of fenofibrate were administered. Hepatic steatosis was detected through oil red O staining and electron microscopy. Notably, in fenofibrate-treated mice, the serum triglyceride levels were reduced and the hepatic triglyceride content was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Oil red O staining of liver sections demonstrated that fenofibrate-fed mice accumulated abundant neutral lipids. Fenofibrate also increased the intracellular triglyceride content in HepG2 cells. The expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c (SREBP-1c) and the key genes associated with lipogenesis were increased in fenofibrate-treated mouse livers and HepG2 cells in a dose-dependent manner. However, the effect was strongly impaired in Pparα-null mice treated with fenofibrate. Fenofibrate treatment induced mature SREBP-1c expression via the direct binding of PPARα to the DR1 motif of the SREBP-1c gene. Taken together, these findings indicate the molecular mechanism by which PPARα activation increases liver triglyceride accumulation and suggest an adverse effect of

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in vascular biology-molecular mechanisms and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Touyz, Rhian M; Schiffrin, Ernesto L

    2006-07-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)alpha, gamma and beta/delta belong to the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors. PPARs heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and then act as transcription factors to modulate the function of many target genes. PPARalpha, gamma and beta/delta subtypes have significant differences in their ligand and gene specificities. PPARalpha is activated by polyunsaturated fatty acids and by fibrate drugs (fenofibrate and gemfibrozil) and controls expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. PPARgamma is activated by fatty acid derivatives, such as hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (HODEs), prostaglandin derivatives, such as 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2, and thiazolidinedione (glitazone) drugs, such as pioglitazone and rosiglitazone. PPARgamma is a key regulator of glucose homeostasis and adipogenesis. PPARbeta/delta ligands include polyunsaturated fatty acids, prostaglandins and synthetic compounds and stimulate fatty acid oxidation. All PPARs are expressed in vascular cells where they exert antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory and vasculoprotective actions. Activators of PPARalpha (fibrates) and PPARgamma (thiazolidinediones or glitazones) antagonize angiotensin II effects in vivo and in vitro and have cardiovascular antioxidant and anti-inflammatory actions. PPAR agonists slightly reduce blood pressure are cardio-protective and correct vascular structure and endothelial dysfunction in experimental models of hypertension. Because of these beneficial effects, activators of PPARs may have therapeutic potential in the prevention of cardiovascular disease beyond their actions on carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. The present chapter focuses on the role of PPARs in vascular biology and discusses the clinical implications of using PPAR agonists in the management of vascular disease.

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Jay, Mollie A; Ren, Jun

    2007-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus, a global epidemic, is largely attributed to metabolic syndrome and its clustering of cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and hyperglycemia. The two primary approaches to optimally control risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome are lifestyle changes and medications. Although many pharmacological targets have been identified, clinical management of cardiovascular risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes is still dismal. Recent evidence suggests premises of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ligands in the combat against type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome including obesity and insulin resistance. Three subtypes of the PPAR nuclear fatty acid receptors have been identified: alpha, beta/delta and gamma. PPARalpha is believed to participate in fatty acid uptake (beta- and omega-oxidation) mainly in the liver and heart. PPARbeta/delta is involved in fatty acid oxidation in muscle. PPARgamma is highly expressed in fat to facilitate glucose and lipid uptake, stimulate glucose oxidation, decrease free fatty acid level and ameliorate insulin resistance. Synthetic ligands for PPARalpha and gamma such as fibric acid and thiazolidinediones have been used in patients with type 2 diabetes and pre-diabetic insulin resistance with significantly improved HbA(1c) and glucose levels. In addition, nonhypoglycemic effects may be elicited by PPAR agonists or dual agonists including improved lipid metabolism, blood pressure control and endothelial function, as well as suppressed atherosclerotic plaque formation and coagulation. However, issues of safety and clinical indication remain undetermined for use of PPAR agonists for the incidence of heart disease in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

  1. Evaluation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists on interleukin-5-induced eosinophil differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Steven G; Hill, Mike; Oliveria, John-Paul; Watson, Brittany M; Baatjes, Adrian J; Dua, Benny; Howie, Karen; Campbell, Heather; Watson, Rick M; Sehmi, Roma; Gauvreau, Gail M

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists have been suggested as novel therapeutics for the treatment of inflammatory lung disease, such as allergic asthma. Treatment with PPAR agonists has been shown to inhibit airway eosinophilia in murine models of allergic asthma, which can occur through several mechanisms including attenuated generation of chemoattractants (e.g. eotaxin) and decreased eosinophil migrational responses. In addition, studies report that PPAR agonists can inhibit the differentiation of several cell types. To date, no studies have examined the effects of PPAR agonists on interleukin-5 (IL-5) -induced eosinophil differentiation from haemopoietic progenitor cells. Non-adherent mononuclear cells or CD34+ cells isolated from the peripheral blood of allergic subjects were grown for 2 weeks in Methocult® cultures with IL-5 (10 ng/ml) and IL-3 (25 ng/ml) in the presence of 1–1000 nm PPARα agonist (GW9578), PPARβ/δ agonist (GW501516), PPARγ agonist (rosiglitazone) or diluent. The number of eosinophil/basophil colony-forming units (Eo/B CFU) was quantified by light microscopy. The signalling mechanism involved was assessed by phosphoflow. Blood-extracted CD34+ cells cultured with IL-5 or IL-5 + IL-3 formed Eo/B CFU, which were significantly inhibited by rosiglitazone (100 nm, P < 0·01) but not GW9578 or GW501516. In addition, rosglitazone significantly inhibited IL-5-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. We observed an inhibitory effect of rosiglitazone on eosinophil differentiation in vitro, mediated by attenuation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 signalling pathway. These findings indicate that the PPARγ agonist can attenuate tissue eosinophilia by interfering with local differentiative responses. PMID:24628018

  2. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors mediate host cell proinflammatory responses to Pseudomonas aeruginosa autoinducer.

    PubMed

    Jahoor, Aruna; Patel, Rashila; Bryan, Amanda; Do, Catherine; Krier, Jay; Watters, Chase; Wahli, Walter; Li, Guigen; Williams, Simon C; Rumbaugh, Kendra P

    2008-07-01

    The pathogenic bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa utilizes the 3-oxododecanoyl homoserine lactone (3OC(12)-HSL) autoinducer as a signaling molecule to coordinate the expression of virulence genes through quorum sensing. 3OC(12)-HSL also affects responses in host cells, including the upregulation of genes encoding inflammatory cytokines. This proinflammatory response may exacerbate underlying disease during P. aeruginosa infections. The specific mechanism(s) through which 3OC(12)-HSL influences host responses is unclear, and no mammalian receptors for 3OC(12)-HSL have been identified to date. Here, we report that 3OC(12)-HSL increases mRNA levels for a common panel of proinflammatory genes in murine fibroblasts and human lung epithelial cells. To identify putative 3OC(12)-HSL receptors, we examined the expression patterns of a panel of nuclear hormone receptors in these two cell lines and determined that both peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARbeta/delta) and PPARgamma were expressed. 3OC(12)-HSL functioned as an agonist of PPARbeta/delta transcriptional activity and an antagonist of PPARgamma transcriptional activity and inhibited the DNA binding ability of PPARgamma. The proinflammatory effect of 3OC(12)-HSL in lung epithelial cells was blocked by the PPARgamma agonist rosiglitazone, suggesting that 3OC(12)-HSL and rosiglitazone are mutually antagonistic negative and positive regulators of PPARgamma activity, respectively. These data identify PPARbeta/delta and PPARgamma as putative mammalian 3OC(12)-HSL receptors and suggest that PPARgamma agonists may be employed as anti-inflammatory therapeutics for P. aeruginosa infections.

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonists and bladder cancer: lessons from animal studies.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chin-Hsiao; Tseng, Farn-Hsuan

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews available animal studies on the possible link between the use of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists and bladder cancer, with further discussion on the possible implications to humans. Carcinogenicity studies suggest that the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone and dual PPARα/γ agonists such as ragaglitazar, muraglitazar, and naveglitazar may increase the risk of bladder cancer in a dose-responsive pattern in rats. It is interesting that bladder cancer related to PPAR agonists shows remarkable species- and sex-specificity and has a predilection to occur in the ventral dome of bladder in rodents. While male rats treated with pioglitazone or muraglitazar have a higher propensity to develop bladder cancer than female rats, mice of both sexes do not develop bladder cancer even when exposed to very high doses. Direct genotoxicity or cytotoxicity of PPAR agonists is unlikely to be the mode of action because most of the parent compounds or their metabolites of the PPAR agonists are neither mutagenic nor genotoxic, and they are rarely excreted in the urine; but a receptor-mediated PPAR effect cannot be excluded. Some suggest a "urolithiasis hypothesis" referring to the formation of urinary solids and calculi, which subsequently causes bladder necrosis, regenerative proliferation, hypertrophy, and cancer. However, whether these animal findings could have human relevance is not yet fully understood. Some argue that the urolithiasis-induced bladder cancer might be rat-specific and would probably not be applicable to humans. An effect of increased urinary growth factors induced by PPAR agonists has also been proposed, but this requires more investigations. Before fully clarified, a balance between the risks and benefits of the use of pioglitazone, an approved oral antidiabetic agent that has recently been linked to an increased but not yet confirmed risk of bladder cancer in humans, should be justified for individual use.

  4. Monitoring Solution Structures of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ upon Ligand Binding

    PubMed Central

    Schwarz, Rico; Tänzler, Dirk; Ihling, Christian H.; Sinz, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) have been intensively studied as drug targets to treat type 2 diabetes, lipid disorders, and metabolic syndrome. This study is part of our ongoing efforts to map conformational changes in PPARs in solution by a combination of chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry (MS). To our best knowledge, we performed the first studies addressing solution structures of full-length PPAR-β/δ. We monitored the conformations of the ligand-binding domain (LBD) as well as full-length PPAR-β/δ upon binding of two agonists. (Photo-) cross-linking relied on (i) a variety of externally introduced amine- and carboxyl-reactive linkers and (ii) the incorporation of the photo-reactive amino acid p-benzoylphenylalanine (Bpa) into PPAR-β/δ by genetic engineering. The distances derived from cross-linking experiments allowed us to monitor conformational changes in PPAR-β/δ upon ligand binding. The cross-linking/MS approach proved highly advantageous to study nuclear receptors, such as PPARs, and revealed the interplay between DBD (DNA-binding domain) and LDB in PPAR-β/δ. Our results indicate the stabilization of a specific conformation through ligand binding in PPAR-β/δ LBD as well as full-length PPAR-β/δ. Moreover, our results suggest a close distance between the N- and C-terminal regions of full-length PPAR-β/δ in the presence of GW1516. Chemical cross-linking/MS allowed us gaining detailed insights into conformational changes that are induced in PPARs when activating ligands are present. Thus, cross-linking/MS should be added to the arsenal of structural methods available for studying nuclear receptors. PMID:26992147

  5. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)γ Can Inhibit Chronic Renal Allograft Damage

    PubMed Central

    Kiss, Eva; Popovic, Zoran V.; Bedke, Jens; Adams, Judith; Bonrouhi, Mahnaz; Babelova, Andrea; Schmidt, Claudia; Edenhofer, Frank; Zschiedrich, Inka; Domhan, Sophie; Abdollahi, Amir; Schäfer, Liliana; Gretz, Norbert; Porubsky, Stefan; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammation and fibrosis are the leading causes of chronic allograft failure. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ is a transcription factor known to have antidiabetogenic and immune effects, and PPARγ forms obligate heterodimers with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). We have reported that a retinoic acid (RAR)/RXR-agonist can potently influence the course of renal chronic allograft dysfunction. In this study, in a Fischer to Lewis rat renal transplantation model, administration of the PPARγ-agonist, rosiglitazone, independent of dose (3 or 30 mg/kgBW/day), lowered serum creatinine, albuminuria, and chronic allograft damage with a chronic vascular damage score as follows: 35.0 ± 5.8 (controls) vs. 8.1 ± 2.4 (low dose-Rosi; P < 0.05); chronic tubulointerstitial damage score: 13.6 ± 1.8 (controls) vs. 2.6 ± 0.4 (low dose-Rosi; P < 0.01). The deposition of extracellular matrix proteins (collagen, fibronectin, decorin) was strikingly lower. The expression of transforming growth factor-β1 was inhibited, whereas that of bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7) was increased. Intragraft mononuclear cells and activated fibroblast numbers were reduced by 50%. In addition, the migratory and proliferative activity of these cells was significantly inhibited in vitro. PPARγ activation diminished the number of cells expressing the proinflammatory and fibrogenic proteoglycan biglycan. In macrophages its secretion was blocked by rosiglitazone in a predominantly PPARγ-dependent manner. The combination of PPARγ- and RAR/RXR-agonists resulted in additive effects in the inhibition of fibrosis. In summary, PPARγ activation was potently immunosuppressive and antifibrotic in kidney allografts, and these effects were enhanced by a RAR/RXR-agonist. PMID:20363918

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma can inhibit chronic renal allograft damage.

    PubMed

    Kiss, Eva; Popovic, Zoran V; Bedke, Jens; Adams, Judith; Bonrouhi, Mahnaz; Babelova, Andrea; Schmidt, Claudia; Edenhofer, Frank; Zschiedrich, Inka; Domhan, Sophie; Abdollahi, Amir; Schäfer, Liliana; Gretz, Norbert; Porubsky, Stefan; Gröne, Hermann-Josef

    2010-05-01

    Chronic inflammation and fibrosis are the leading causes of chronic allograft failure. The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma is a transcription factor known to have antidiabetogenic and immune effects, and PPARgamma forms obligate heterodimers with the retinoid X receptor (RXR). We have reported that a retinoic acid (RAR)/RXR-agonist can potently influence the course of renal chronic allograft dysfunction. In this study, in a Fischer to Lewis rat renal transplantation model, administration of the PPARgamma-agonist, rosiglitazone, independent of dose (3 or 30 mg/kgBW/day), lowered serum creatinine, albuminuria, and chronic allograft damage with a chronic vascular damage score as follows: 35.0 +/- 5.8 (controls) vs. 8.1 +/- 2.4 (low dose-Rosi; P < 0.05); chronic tubulointerstitial damage score: 13.6 +/- 1.8 (controls) vs. 2.6 +/- 0.4 (low dose-Rosi; P < 0.01). The deposition of extracellular matrix proteins (collagen, fibronectin, decorin) was strikingly lower. The expression of transforming growth factor-beta1 was inhibited, whereas that of bone morphogenic protein-7 (BMP-7) was increased. Intragraft mononuclear cells and activated fibroblast numbers were reduced by 50%. In addition, the migratory and proliferative activity of these cells was significantly inhibited in vitro. PPARgamma activation diminished the number of cells expressing the proinflammatory and fibrogenic proteoglycan biglycan. In macrophages its secretion was blocked by rosiglitazone in a predominantly PPARgamma-dependent manner. The combination of PPARgamma- and RAR/RXR-agonists resulted in additive effects in the inhibition of fibrosis. In summary, PPARgamma activation was potently immunosuppressive and antifibrotic in kidney allografts, and these effects were enhanced by a RAR/RXR-agonist.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha controls hepatic heme biosynthesis through ALAS1.

    PubMed

    Degenhardt, Tatjana; Väisänen, Sami; Rakhshandehroo, Maryam; Kersten, Sander; Carlberg, Carsten

    2009-05-01

    Heme is an essential prosthetic group of proteins involved in oxygen transport, energy metabolism and nitric oxide production. ALAS1 (5-aminolevulinate synthase) is the rate-limiting enzyme in heme synthesis in the liver and is highly regulated to adapt to the metabolic demand of the hepatocyte. In the present study, we describe human hepatic ALAS1 as a new direct target for the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). In primary human hepatocytes and in HepG2 cells, PPARalpha agonists induced an increase in ALAS1 mRNA levels, which was abolished by PPARalpha silencing. These effects are mediated by two functional PPAR binding sites at positions -9 and -2.3 kb relative to the ALAS1 transcription start site. PPARalpha ligand treatment also up-regulated the mRNA levels of the genes ALAD (5-aminolevulinate dehydratase), UROS (uroporphyrinogen III synthase), UROD (uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase), CPOX (coproporphyrinogen oxidase) and PPOX (protoporphyrinogen oxidase) encoding for enzymes controlling further steps in heme biosynthesis. In HepG2 cells treated with PPARalpha agonists and in mouse liver upon fasting, the association of PPARalpha, its partner retinoid X receptor, PPARgamma co-activator 1alpha and activated RNA polymerase II with the transcription start site region of all six genes was increased, leading to higher levels of the metabolite heme. In conclusion, these data strongly support a role of PPARalpha in the regulation of human ALAS1 and of five additional genes of the pathway, consequently leading to increased heme synthesis.

  8. Gestational diabetes mellitus is associated with increased leukocyte peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ expression

    PubMed Central

    Mac-Marcjanek, Katarzyna; Nadel, Iwona; Woźniak, Lucyna; Cypryk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is a ligand-activated transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily that is involved in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism as well as inflammation; thereby it participates in metabolic diseases including diabetes. Although PPARγ expression has been observed in different tissues of diabetic patients, its level in leukocytes from subjects affected by gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) has not yet been reported. This study aimed to investigate leukocyte PPARG expression in GDM patients at 24–33 weeks of gestation and, in turn, to correlate these alterations with anthropometric and metabolic parameters of patients. Material and methods Leukocytes were isolated from the blood of normal glucose tolerant (NGT; n = 34) and GDM (n = 77) pregnant women between 24 and 33 weeks of gestation. Leukocyte PPARG mRNA expression was determined by semi-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Univariate correlation analysis was performed to investigate associations between PPARG expression and clinical characteristics of patients. Results Leukocyte PPARG mRNA level was significantly higher in GDM than NGT women (p < 0.05). In the whole study group, PPARG expression positively correlated with plasma glucose concentrations at 1 h (r = 0.222, p = 0.049) and 2 h (r = 0.315, p = 0.020) of 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and negatively correlated with plasma HDL cholesterol concentration (r = -0.351, p = 0.010). Conclusions The correlation between leukocyte PPARG overexpression and hyperglycaemia suggests that PPARG mRNA expression in these cells might be up-regulated in high-glucose conditions in GDM patients at 24–33 weeks of gestation. PMID:26322090

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their ligands: nutritional and clinical implications – a review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are expressed in many tissues, including adipocytes, hepatocytes, muscles and endothelial cells; however, the affinity depends on the isoform of PPAR, and different distribution and expression profiles, which ultimately lead to different clinical outcomes. Because they play an important role in lipid and glucose homeostasis, they are called lipid and insulin sensors. Their actions are limited to specific tissue types and thus, reveal a characteristic influence on target cells. PPARα mainly influences fatty acid metabolism and its activation lowers lipid levels, while PPARγ is mostly involved in the regulation of the adipogenesis, energy balance, and lipid biosynthesis. PPARβ/δ participates in fatty acid oxidation, mostly in skeletal and cardiac muscles, but it also regulates blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Many natural and synthetic ligands influence the expression of these receptors. Synthetic ligands are widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia (e.g. fibrates - PPARα activators) or in diabetes mellitus (e.g. thiazolidinediones - PPARγ agonists). New generation drugs - PPARα/γ dual agonists - reveal hypolipemic, hypotensive, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant action while the overexpression of PPARβ/δ prevents the development of obesity and reduces lipid accumulation in cardiac cells, even during a high-fat diet. Precise data on the expression and function of natural PPAR agonists on glucose and lipid metabolism are still missing, mostly because the same ligand influences several receptors and a number of reports have provided conflicting results. To date, we know that PPARs have the capability to accommodate and bind a variety of natural and synthetic lipophilic acids, such as essential fatty acids, eicosanoids, phytanic acid and palmitoylethanolamide. A current understanding of the effects of PPARs, their molecular mechanisms and the role of these receptors in nutrition and

  10. Taiwanofungus camphoratus activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and induces hypotriglyceride in hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Suk, Fat-Moon; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Chen, Chien-Ho; Yen, Shish-Jung; Su, Ching-Hua; Liu, Der-Zen; Hou, Wen-Chi; Hung, Ling-Fang; Lin, Pei-Jung; Liang, Yu-Chih

    2008-07-01

    Taiwanofungus camphoratus (T. camphoratus), a fungus and a Taiwan-specific, well-known traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used to treat diarrhea, hypertension, itchy skin, and liver cancer. To gain a large amount of T. camphoratus, several culture techniques have been developed, including solid-state culture and liquid-state fermentation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) has been described as a hypoglycemic agent that increases insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues and results in reduced blood glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels in insulin-resistant animals and in type-2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. In this study, we investigate the possibility that T. camphoratus might activate PPARgamma in vitro and hypolipidemic activity in vivo. The results show that an aqueous extract of the wild fruiting bodies of T. camphoratus was able to increase the PPARgamma activity in cells transfected with the PPARgamma expression plasmid and the AOx-TK reporter plasmid. Based on the cell experiment, we examined the hypolipidemic effect of wild fruiting bodies (WFT) and a solid-state culture (SST) of T. camphoratus on SD rats fed on a high-cholesterol (HC) diet. The results show that WFT significantly decreased the serum triglyceride level, but could not affect the cholesterol level. SST only slightly decreased the serum triglyceride level. In addition, both WFT and SST significantly decreased the serum alanine transaminase (ALT) level and protected against the liver damage induced by the HC diet from the results of a histological examination. These results suggest that T. camphoratus might contain PPARgamma ligands and result in a hypotriglyceridemic effect, and that it also exhibits a liver protective activity.

  11. Targeting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in kidney and urologic disease.

    PubMed

    Guan, Y

    2002-06-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily of ligand-activated transcription factors. Three PPAR isoforms, designated PPAR-alpha, beta/delta and -gamma, have been identified and were initially investigated in the tissues along urinary tract because of their known role in regulating lipid-activated gene transcription, lipid metabolism, inflammation and cell proliferation and differentiation. Gene distribution studies suggested that 3 PPAR isoforms are differentially expressed in the kidney. PPAR-alpha is predominantly expressed in renal proximal tubules and medullary thick ascending limbs. PPAR-gamma is mainly localized in renal medullary collecting duct with lower expression in renal glomeruli and renal microvasculature. Unlike PPAR-alpha and -gamma, PPAR-beta/delta is ubiquitously expressed in every segment along the nephron. In ureter and urinary bladder, all PPAR isoforms are mainly localized in urothelium of ureter and bladder. The emerging data have suggested physiological and pathophysiological roles of PPARs in tissues along urinary tract. PPAR-alpha plays a major role in triggering fatty acid utilization and the adaptive response to dietary lipids in the kidney. PPAR-beta/delta contributes to cell survival of renal interstitial cell in medullary hyperosmality. PPAR-gamma is involved in regulating renal hemodynamic and water and sodium transport. Furthermore, it also participates in the pathogenesis of glomerulopathy, antidiabetic thiazolidinedione-related water and sodium retention and renal, bladder and prostate carcinomas. PPARs may serve as potential therapeutic targets for certain diseases along urinary tract including glomerulosclerosis, diabetic nephropathy and kidney, prostate and bladder tumors.

  12. CD36-dependent fatty acid uptake regulates expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Drover, V A; Abumrad, N A

    2005-02-01

    CD36 is an important regulator of lipid metabolism in vivo due to its role in the facilitated uptake of long-chain FAs (fatty acids). CD36-deficient mice display reduced TAG (triacylglycerol) in muscle, but elevated hepatic TAG. Also, insulin sensitivity is enhanced peripherally, while it appears impaired in the liver. Tissues such as muscle, which normally express high levels of CD36, shift to high glucose utilization in CD36 deficiency, so we hypothesized that this shift must involve adaptive changes in the PPAR (peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor) transcription factors which regulate FA metabolism. To test this, we examined mRNA levels for the three PPAR isoforms in tissues of WT (wild-type) and CD36-deficient mice following the administration of saline, glucose or olive oil by intragastric gavage. Compared with WT mice, CD36-null mice had 5-10-fold increased PPAR mRNA in adipose tissue in the basal state, and did not exhibit diet-induced changes. Correlations between adipose PPAR mRNA abundance and plasma lipids were observed in WT mice, but not in CD36-null mice. The opposite was true for hepatic PPAR mRNA levels, which correlated with plasma FA, TAG and/or glucose only in CD36-null mice. No significant differences were observed in PPAR mRNA levels in the intestine, where CD36 does not impact on FA uptake. The data suggest that CD36 and the PPARs are components of the FA-sensing machinery to respond to changes in FA flux in a tissue-specific manner.

  13. Differential peroxisome proliferator activated receptors activity in a rodent model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yan; Yin, Xiang; Wang, Shuyu; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Hongquan; Wang, Xudong; Ren, Ming; Feng, Honglin

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset neurodegenerative disorder that is characterized by the irreversible loss of corticospinal neurons and motor neurons. Recent studies has demonstrated an anti-inflammatory activity for the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPARs) agonists, which in ALS have been able to decrease the production of proinflammatory genes, including cytokines and chemokines. The comprehension of the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for their neuroprotective activity of PPARs could possibly lead to identify new targets for unprecedented therapeutic approaches. Using a PPRE-Luc; hSOD1-G93AALS transgenic mice we investigated the PPAR transcriptional activity over the course of ALS pathogenesis. The analysis of the enzymatic activity of luciferase in the spinal cord and the brain areas of PPRE-Luc; hSOD1-G93A mice showed an abrupt increase of PPAR activity at the end stage of the disease in the spinal cord, which was not shared by the peripheral organs. Furthermore, it was not dependent on the metabolic modifications induced from the starvation that the animals experienced during the last days of their life when they are almost completely paralyzed. Analysis of the nuclear translocation of PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ in the spinal cord of hSOD1-G93A mice with an ELISA-based Transcription Factor Assay showed that the overall nuclear presence of the different isoforms of PPARs did not change during the course of the disease. Our results indicate that the increase in PPAR activity at the end stage of the disease could represent a compensatory mechanism aimed at counteracting the intense neurodegenerative process which takes place at this time.

  14. Pharmacophore modeling improves virtual screening for novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Stephanie N.; Garcia, Zulma; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Bevan, David R.

    2015-05-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in regulating various metabolic and immune processes. The PPAR family of receptors possesses a large binding cavity that imparts promiscuity of ligand binding not common to other nuclear receptors. This feature increases the challenge of using computational methods to identify PPAR ligands that will dock favorably into a structural model. Utilizing both ligand- and structure-based pharmacophore methods, we sought to improve agonist prediction by grouping ligands according to pharmacophore features, and pairing models derived from these features with receptor structures for docking. For 22 of the 33 receptor structures evaluated we observed an increase in true positive rate (TPR) when screening was restricted to compounds sharing molecular features found in rosiglitazone. A combination of structure models used for docking resulted in a higher TPR (40 %) when compared to docking with a single structure model (<20 %). Prediction was also improved when specific protein-ligand interactions between the docked ligands and structure models were given greater weight than the calculated free energy of binding. A large-scale screen of compounds using a marketed drug database verified the predictive ability of the selected structure models. This study highlights the steps necessary to improve screening for PPARγ ligands using multiple structure models, ligand-based pharmacophore data, evaluation of protein-ligand interactions, and comparison of docking datasets. The unique combination of methods presented here holds potential for more efficient screening of compounds with unknown affinity for PPARγ that could serve as candidates for therapeutic development.

  15. In vitro interaction between resistin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ in porcine ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Rak-Mardyła, Agnieszka; Drwal, Eliza

    2016-03-01

    In the present study, using real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting methods, we quantified the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, PPARα and PPARβ in different sized ovarian follicles (small (SF), medium (MF) and large (LF) follicles) in prepubertal and adult pigs. In prepubertal pigs, PPARγ and PPARα expression was highest in LF; however, PPARβ expression did not differ among SF, MF and LF. In mature pigs, only protein expression of PPARγ and PPARα increased during ovarian follicle development. Following identification of very high levels of PPARγ expression in LF in prepubertal and adult pigs, using in vitro culture of ovarian follicles, we determined the effect of resistin at 0.1, 1 and 10ngmL(-1) on PPARγ mRNA and protein expression and the effect of rosiglitazone at 25 and 50µM (a PPARγ agonist) on resistin mRNA and protein expression. Resistin increased PPARγ expression in ovarian follicles in both prepubertal and adult pigs, whereas rosiglitazone had an inhibitory effect on resistin expression. The role of PPARγ in regulating the effects of resistin on ovarian steroidogenesis was investigated using GW9662 (a PPARγ antagonist at dose of 1μM). In these studies, GW9662 reversed the effect of resistin on steroid hormone secretion. The data suggest that there is local cooperation between resistin and PPARγ expression in the porcine ovary. Resistin significantly increased the expression of PPARγ, whereas PPARγ decreased resistin expression; thus, PPARγ is a new key regulator of resistin expression and function.

  16. Hydroxy monounsaturated fatty acids as agonists for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Yokoi, Hiroshi; Mizukami, Hajime; Nagatsu, Akito; Tanabe, Hiroki; Inoue, Makoto

    2010-01-01

    The physiological and pathological role of oxidized polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) has been extensively studied, whereas those of hydroxy monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) are not well understood. This study demonstrated that 11-hydroxy-(9Z)-octadecenoic acid ((9Z)-11-HOE), which was isolated from adlay seeds (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen STAF.), can activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)alpha, delta and gamma in luciferase reporter assays more efficiently than (9Z)-octadecenoic acid (oleic acid), and to the same degree as linoleic acid. (9Z)-11-HOE increased the mRNA levels of UCP2 and CD36 in C2C12 myotubes and THP- 1 cells, respectively, and these effects were blocked by the PPARdelta- and gamma-specific antagonists GSK0660 and T0070907, respectively. Evaluation of the structure.activity relationship between hydroxy MUFAs and PPAR activation revealed that (9E)-11-HOE, the geometrical isomer of (9Z)-11-HOE, activated PPARs more potently than (9Z)-11-HOE, and that PPAR activation by hydroxyl MUFAs was not markedly influenced by the position of the hydroxy group or the double bond, although PPARdelta seemed to possess ligand specificity different to that of PPARalpha or gamma . Additionally, the finding that 11-hydroxy octadecanoic acid, the hydrogenated product of (9E)-11- HOE, was also capable of activating PPARs to a similar extent as (9E)-11-HOE indicates that the double bond in hydroxy MUFAs is not essential for PPAR activation. In conclusion, (9Z)-11-HOE derived from alday seeds and hydroxy MUFAs with a chain length of 16 or 18 acted as PPAR agonists. Hydroxylation of MUFAs may change these compounds from silent PPAR ligands to active PPAR agonists.

  17. Opposite Action of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-γ in Regulating Renal Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Xiaoyan; Li, Yingjian; Liu, Youhua

    2010-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) agonists, a new class of antidiabetic agents, have been shown to possess antiinflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism by which PPARγ agonists inhibit proinflammatory cytokine expression in rat glomerular mesangial cells. Both natural and synthetic PPARγ agonists potently inhibited RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression induced by TNF-α in mesangial cells, which was dependent on NF-κB signaling. However, PPARγ agonists had little effect on TNF-α-triggered IκBα phosphorylation and its subsequent degradation, p65 phosphorylation, and nuclear translocation. In the absence of PPARγ ligand, TNF-α induced a physical interaction between nuclear p65 and PPARγ, as demonstrated by co-immunoprecipitation. Such an interaction was mediated by the C-terminal region of p65. Activation of PPARγ by its agonist prevented PPARγ·p65 complex formation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay revealed that TNF-α induced p65 binding to the cis-acting κB elements in rat RANTES promoter, whereas disruption of PPARγ·p65 by its agonist blocked p65 interaction with its cognate κB sites. Knockdown of PPARγ via siRNA strategy completely abolished TNF-α-mediated p65 binding to κB sites and negated RANTES induction, suggesting that unliganded PPARγ is obligatory for NF-κB signaling. Consistently, overexpression of PPARγ in the absence of its ligand sensitized mesangial cells to TNF-α stimulation. These results uncover a paradoxical action of the unliganded and ligand-activated PPARγ in regulating NF-κB signaling and demonstrate PPARγ ligand as a molecular switch that controls its ability to modulate inflammatory responses in opposite directions. PMID:20663893

  18. Pharmacophore modeling improves virtual screening for novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Stephanie N.; Garcia, Zulma; Hontecillas, Raquel; Bassaganya-Riera, Josep; Bevan, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is a nuclear hormone receptor involved in regulating various metabolic and immune processes. The PPAR family of receptors possesses a large binding cavity that imparts promiscuity of ligand binding not common to other nuclear receptors. This feature increases the challenge of using computational methods to identify PPAR ligands that will dock favorably into a structural model. Utilizing both ligand- and structure-based pharmacophore methods, we sought to improve agonist prediction by grouping ligands according to pharmacophore features, and pairing models derived from these features with receptor structures for docking. For 22 of the 33 receptor structures evaluated we observed an increase in true positive rate (TPR) when screening was restricted to compounds sharing molecular features found in rosiglitazone. A combination of structure models used for docking resulted in a higher TPR (40%) when compared to docking with a single structure model (less than 20%). Prediction was also improved when specific protein-ligand interactions between the docked ligands and structure models were given greater weight than the calculated free energy of binding. A large-scale screen of compounds using a marketed drug database verified the predictive ability of the selected structure models. This study highlights the steps necessary to improve screening for PPARγ ligands using multiple structure models, ligand-based pharmacophore data, evaluation of protein-ligand interactions, and comparison of docking datasets. The unique combination of methods presented here holds potential for more efficient screening of compounds with unknown affinity for PPARγ that could serve as candidates for therapeutic development. PMID:25616366

  19. Activation of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) promotes blastocyst hatching in mice.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hee Jung; Hwang, Soo Jin; Yoon, Jung Ah; Jun, Jin Hyun; Lim, Hyunjung Jade; Yoon, Tae Ki; Song, Haengseok

    2011-10-01

    Prostaglandins participate in a variety of female reproductive processes, including ovulation, fertilization, embryo implantation and parturition. In particular, maternal prostacyclin (PGI(2)) is critical for embryo implantation and the action of PGI(2) is not mediated via its G-protein-coupled membrane receptor, IP, but its nuclear receptor, peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ). Recently, several studies have shown that PGI(2) enhances blastocyst development and/or hatching rate in vitro, and subsequently implantation and live birth rates in mice. However, the mechanism by which PGI(2) improves preimplantation embryo development in vitro remains unclear. Using molecular, pharmacologic and genetic approaches, we show that PGI(2)-induced PPARδ activation accelerates blastocyst hatching in mice. mRNAs for PPARδ, retinoid X receptor (heterodimeric partners of PPARδ) and PGI(2) synthase (PGIS) are temporally induced after zygotic gene activation, and their expression reaches maximum levels at the blastocyst stage, suggesting that functional complex of PPARδ can be formed in the blastocyst. Carbaprostacyclin (a stable analogue of PGI(2)) and GW501516 (a PPARδ selective agonist) significantly accelerated blastocyst hatching but did not increase total cell number of cultured blastocysts. Whereas U51605 (a PGIS inhibitor) interfered with blastocyst hatching, GW501516 restored U51605-induced retarded hatching. In contrast to the improvement of blastocyst hatching by PPARδ agonists, PPAR antagonists significantly inhibited blastocyst hatching. Furthermore, deletion of PPARδ at early stages of preimplantation mouse embryos caused delay of blastocyst hatching, but did not impair blastocyst development. Taken together, PGI(2)-induced PPARδ activation accelerates blastocyst hatching in mice.

  20. Leptin promotes fibroproliferative acute respiratory distress syndrome by inhibiting peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ.

    PubMed

    Jain, Manu; Budinger, G R Scott; Lo, Amy; Urich, Daniela; Rivera, Stephanie E; Ghosh, Asish K; Gonzalez, Angel; Chiarella, Sergio E; Marks, Katie; Donnelly, Helen K; Soberanes, Saul; Varga, John; Radigan, Kathryn A; Chandel, Navdeep S; Mutlu, Gökhan M

    2011-06-01

    Diabetic patients have a lower incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and those who develop ARDS are less likely to die. The mechanisms that underlie this protection are unknown. To determine whether leptin resistance, a feature of diabetes, prevents fibroproliferation after lung injury. We examined lung injury and fibroproliferation after the intratracheal instillation of bleomycin in wild-type and leptin-resistant (db/db) diabetic mice. We examined the effect of leptin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-β(1)-mediated transcription in primary normal human lung fibroblasts. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) samples from patients with ARDS and ventilated control subjects were obtained for measurement of leptin and active TGF-β(1) levels. Diabetic mice (db/db) were resistant to lung fibrosis. The db/db mice had higher levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), an inhibitor of the transcriptional response to TGF-β(1), a cytokine critical in the pathogenesis of fibroproliferative ARDS. In normal human lung fibroblasts, leptin augmented the transcription of profibrotic genes in response to TGF-β(1) through a mechanism that required PPARγ. In patients with ARDS, BAL leptin levels were elevated and correlated with TGF-β(1) levels. Overall, there was no significant relationship between BAL leptin levels and clinical outcomes; however, in nonobese patients, higher BAL leptin levels were associated with fewer intensive care unit- and ventilator-free days and higher mortality. Leptin signaling is required for bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Leptin augments TGF-β(1) signaling in lung fibroblasts by inhibiting PPARγ. These findings provide a mechanism for the observed protection against ARDS observed in diabetic patients.

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in cystic fibrosis lung epithelium.

    PubMed

    Perez, Aura; van Heeckeren, Anna M; Nichols, David; Gupta, Sanhita; Eastman, Jean F; Davis, Pamela B

    2008-08-01

    The pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis (CF) inflammatory lung disease is not well understood. CF airway epithelial cells respond to inflammatory stimuli with increased production of proinflammatory cytokines as a result of increased NF-kappaB activation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) inhibits NF-kappaB activity and is reported to be reduced in CF. If PPARgamma participates in regulatory dysfunction in the CF lung, perhaps PPARgamma ligands might be useful therapeutically. Cell models of CF airway epithelium were used to evaluate PPARgamma expression and binding to NF-kappaB at basal and under conditions of inflammatory stimulation by Pseudomonas aeruginosa or TNFalpha/IL-1beta. An animal model of CF was used to evaluate the potential of PPARgamma agonists as therapeutic agents in vivo. In vitro, PPARgamma agonists reduced IL-8 and MMP-9 release from airway epithelial cells in response to PAO1 or TNFalpha/IL-1beta stimulation. Less NF-kappaB bound to PPARgamma in CF than normal cells, in two different assays; PPARgamma agonists abrogated this reduction. PPARgamma bound less to its target DNA sequence in CF cells. To test the importance of the reported PPARgamma inactivation by phosphorylation, we observed that inhibitors of ERK, but not JNK, were synergistic with PPARgamma agonists in reducing IL-8 secretion. In vivo, administration of PPARgamma agonists reduced airway inflammation in response to acute infection with P. aeruginosa in CF, but not wild-type, mice. In summary, PPARgamma inhibits the inflammatory response in CF, at least in part by interaction with NF-kappaB in airway epithelial cells. PPARgamma agonists may be therapeutic in CF.

  2. Crosstalk between circulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma, adipokines and metabolic syndrome in obese subjects

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) has direct and indirect function in adipokines production process. We aimed to assess the possible influence of circulating PPARγ on relative risk of metabolic syndrome and also examine the association between circulating PPARγ and adipokines levels among obese subjects. Methods A total of 96 obese subjects (body mass index (BMI) ≥30) were included in the current cross-sectional study. We assessed the body composition with the use of Body Composition Analyzer BC-418MA - Tanita. The MetS (metabolic syndrome) was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. All baseline blood samples were obtained following an overnight fasting. Serum concentrations of adipokines including Retinol binding protein 4 (RBP4), omentin-1, vaspin, progranulin, nesfatin-1 and circulating PPARγ was measured with the use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Statistical analyses were performed using software package used for statistical analysis (SPSS). Results We found main association between circulating PPARγ and body composition in obese population. The risk of metabolic syndrome in subjects with higher concentration of PPARγ was 1.9 fold in compared with lower concentration of PPARγ after adjustment for age, sex and BMI. There was significant association between PPARγ and adipokines, specially nesfatin-1 and progranulin. Defined adipokines pattern among participants demonstrated the markedly higher concentration of vaspin, RBP4 and nesfatin-1 in participants with MetS compared to non-MetS subjects. Conclusions It appears all of studied adipokines might have association with PPARγ level and might simultaneously be involve in some common pathway to make susceptible obese subjects for MetS. PMID:24330836

  3. Multifaceted roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) at the cellular and whole organism levels.

    PubMed

    Yessoufou, A; Wahli, W

    2010-09-15

    Chronic disorders, such as obesity, diabetes, inflammation, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis, are related to alterations in lipid and glucose metabolism, in which peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR)α, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ are involved. These receptors form a subgroup of ligand-activated transcription factors that belong to the nuclear hormone receptor family. This review discusses a selection of novel PPAR functions identified during the last few years. The PPARs regulate processes that are essential for the maintenance of pregnancy and embryonic development. Newly found hepatic functions of PPARα are the mediation of female-specific gene repression and the protection of the liver from oestrogen induced toxicity. PPARα also controls lipid catabolism and is the target of hypolipidaemic drugs, whereas PPARγ controls adipocyte differentiation and regulates lipid storage; it is the target for the insulin sensitising thiazolidinediones used to treat type 2 diabetes. Activation of PPARβ/δ increases lipid catabolism in skeletal muscle, the heart and adipose tissue. In addition, PPARβ/δ ligands prevent weight gain and suppress macrophage derived inflammation. In fact, therapeutic benefits of PPAR ligands have been confirmed in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, such as encephalomyelitis and inflammatory bowel disease. Furthermore, PPARs promote skin wound repair. PPARα favours skin healing during the inflammatory phase that follows injury, whilst PPARβ/δ enhances keratinocyte survival and migration. Due to their collective functions in skin, PPARs represent a major research target for our understanding of many skin diseases. Taken altogether, these functions suggest that PPARs serve as physiological sensors in different stress situations and remain valuable targets for innovative therapies.

  4. Catalposide is a natural agonistic ligand of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha}

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Ji Hae; Jun, Hee-jin; Hoang, Minh-Hien; Jia, Yaoyao; Han, Xiang Hua; Lee, Dong-Ho; Lee, Hak-Ju; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-06-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposide is a novel ligand for PPAR{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell stimulated with catalposide improved fatty acid uptake, regulated target genes in fatty acid {beta}-oxidation and synthesis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalposdie reduces hepatic triacylglycerides. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Theses demonstrate catalposide could ameliorate hyperlipidemia and hepatic steatosis. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a nuclear receptor that regulates the expression of genes related to cellular lipid uptake and oxidation. Thus, PPAR{alpha} agonists may be important in the treatment of hypertriglyceridemia and hepatic steatosis. In this study, we demonstrated that catalposide is a novel natural PPAR{alpha} agonist, identified from reporter gene assay-based activity screening with approximately 900 natural plant and seaweed extracts. Results of time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses suggested that the compound interacted directly with the ligand-binding domain of PPAR{alpha}. Cultured hepatocytes stimulated with catalposide exhibited significantly reduced cellular triglyceride concentrations, by 21%, while cellular uptake of fatty acids was increased, by 70% (P < 0.05). Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the increase in cellular fatty acid uptake was due to upregulation of fatty acid transporter protein-4 (+19% vs. the control) in cells stimulated with catalposide. Additionally, expression of genes related to fatty acid oxidation and high-density lipoprotein metabolism were upregulated, while that of genes related to fatty acid synthesis were suppressed. In conclusion, catalposide is hypolipidemic by activation of PPAR{alpha} via a ligand-mediated mechanism that modulates the expression of in lipid metabolism genes in hepatocytes.

  5. Cannabinoids go nuclear: evidence for activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    O'Sullivan, S E

    2007-01-01

    Cannabinoids act at two classical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), a 7TM orphan receptor and the transmitter-gated channel transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 receptor. Recent evidence also points to cannabinoids acting at members of the nuclear receptor family, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs, with three subtypes α, β (δ) and γ), which regulate cell differentiation and lipid metabolism. Much evidence now suggests that endocannabinoids are natural activators of PPARα. Oleoylethanolamide regulates feeding and body weight, stimulates fat utilization and has neuroprotective effects mediated through activation of PPARα. Similarly, palmitoylethanolamide regulates feeding and lipid metabolism and has anti-inflammatory properties mediated by PPARα. Other endocannabinoids that activate PPARα include anandamide, virodhamine and noladin. Some (but not all) endocannabinoids also activate PPARγ; anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol have anti-inflammatory properties mediated by PPARγ. Similarly, ajulemic acid, a structural analogue of a metabolite of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), causes anti-inflammatory effects in vivo through PPARγ. THC also activates PPARγ, leading to a time-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated arteries. Other cannabinoids which activate PPARγ include N-arachidonoyl-dopamine, HU210, WIN55212-2 and CP55940. In contrast, little research has been carried out on the effects of cannabinoids at PPARδ. In this newly emerging area, a number of research questions remain unanswered; for example, why do cannabinoids activate some isoforms and not others? How much of the chronic effects of cannabinoids are through activation of nuclear receptors? And importantly, do cannabinoids confer the same neuro- and cardioprotective benefits as other PPARα and PPARγ agonists? This review will summarize the published literature implicating cannabinoid-mediated PPAR effects and discuss the implications thereof. PMID:17704824

  6. Fermented Ginseng Contains an Agonist of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors α and γ.

    PubMed

    Igami, Kentaro; Shimojo, Yosuke; Ito, Hisatomi; Miyazaki, Toshitsugu; Nakano, Fusako; Kashiwada, Yoshiki

    2016-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) is a nuclear receptor that is one of the transcription factors regulating lipid and glucose metabolism. Fermented ginseng (FG) is a ginseng fermented by Lactobacillus paracasei A221 containing minor ginsenosides and metabolites of fermentation. DNA microarray analysis of rat liver treated with FG indicated that FG affects on lipid metabolism are mediated by PPAR-α. To identify a PPAR-α agonist in FG, PPAR-α transcription reporter assay-guided fractionation was performed. The fraction obtained from the MeOH extract of FG, which showed potent transcription activity of PPAR-α, was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography into 16 subfractions, and further separation and crystallization gave compound 1 together with four known constituents of ginseng, including 20(R)- and 20(S)-protopanaxadiol, and 20(R)- and 20(S)-ginsenoside Rh1. The structure of compound 1 was identified as 10-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectra and by EI-MS analysis of the methyl ester of 1. Compound 1 demonstrated much higher transcription activity of PPAR-α than the other isolated compounds. In addition, compound 1 also showed 5.5-fold higher transcription activity of PPAR-γ than vehicle at the dose of 20 μg/mL. In the present study, we identified 10-hydroxy-octadecanoic acid as a dual PPAR-α/γ agonist in FG. Our study suggested that metabolites of fermentation, in addition to ginsenosides, contribute to the health benefits of FG.

  7. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and their ligands: nutritional and clinical implications--a review.

    PubMed

    Grygiel-Górniak, Bogna

    2014-02-14

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are expressed in many tissues, including adipocytes, hepatocytes, muscles and endothelial cells; however, the affinity depends on the isoform of PPAR, and different distribution and expression profiles, which ultimately lead to different clinical outcomes. Because they play an important role in lipid and glucose homeostasis, they are called lipid and insulin sensors. Their actions are limited to specific tissue types and thus, reveal a characteristic influence on target cells. PPARα mainly influences fatty acid metabolism and its activation lowers lipid levels, while PPARγ is mostly involved in the regulation of the adipogenesis, energy balance, and lipid biosynthesis. PPARβ/δ participates in fatty acid oxidation, mostly in skeletal and cardiac muscles, but it also regulates blood glucose and cholesterol levels. Many natural and synthetic ligands influence the expression of these receptors. Synthetic ligands are widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia (e.g. fibrates--PPARα activators) or in diabetes mellitus (e.g. thiazolidinediones--PPARγ agonists). New generation drugs--PPARα/γ dual agonists--reveal hypolipemic, hypotensive, antiatherogenic, anti-inflammatory and anticoagulant action while the overexpression of PPARβ/δ prevents the development of obesity and reduces lipid accumulation in cardiac cells, even during a high-fat diet. Precise data on the expression and function of natural PPAR agonists on glucose and lipid metabolism are still missing, mostly because the same ligand influences several receptors and a number of reports have provided conflicting results. To date, we know that PPARs have the capability to accommodate and bind a variety of natural and synthetic lipophilic acids, such as essential fatty acids, eicosanoids, phytanic acid and palmitoylethanolamide. A current understanding of the effects of PPARs, their molecular mechanisms and the role of these receptors in nutrition and therapeutic

  8. Cannabinoids go nuclear: evidence for activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    O'Sullivan, S E

    2007-11-01

    Cannabinoids act at two classical cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2), a 7TM orphan receptor and the transmitter-gated channel transient receptor potential vanilloid type-1 receptor. Recent evidence also points to cannabinoids acting at members of the nuclear receptor family, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs, with three subtypes alpha, beta (delta) and gamma), which regulate cell differentiation and lipid metabolism. Much evidence now suggests that endocannabinoids are natural activators of PPAR alpha. Oleoylethanolamide regulates feeding and body weight, stimulates fat utilization and has neuroprotective effects mediated through activation of PPAR alpha. Similarly, palmitoylethanolamide regulates feeding and lipid metabolism and has anti-inflammatory properties mediated by PPAR alpha. Other endocannabinoids that activate PPAR alpha include anandamide, virodhamine and noladin. Some (but not all) endocannabinoids also activate PPAR gamma; anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol have anti-inflammatory properties mediated by PPAR gamma. Similarly, ajulemic acid, a structural analogue of a metabolite of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), causes anti-inflammatory effects in vivo through PPAR gamma. THC also activates PPAR gamma, leading to a time-dependent vasorelaxation in isolated arteries. Other cannabinoids which activate PPAR gamma include N-arachidonoyl-dopamine, HU210, WIN55212-2 and CP55940. In contrast, little research has been carried out on the effects of cannabinoids at PPAR delta. In this newly emerging area, a number of research questions remain unanswered; for example, why do cannabinoids activate some isoforms and not others? How much of the chronic effects of cannabinoids are through activation of nuclear receptors? And importantly, do cannabinoids confer the same neuro- and cardioprotective benefits as other PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma agonists? This review will summarize the published literature implicating cannabinoid-mediated PPAR

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in cardiac energy metabolism and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Ajith, Thekkuttuparambil Ananthanarayanan; Jayakumar, Thankamani Gopinathan

    2016-07-01

    Cardiomyocytes mainly depend on energy produced from the oxidation of fatty acids and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Shortage of energy or excessive fat accumulation can lead to cardiac disorders. High saturated fat intake and a sedentary life style have a major influence in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), one of the nuclear receptor super family members, play critical role in the metabolism of lipids by regulating their oxidation and storage. Furthermore, they are involved in glucose homeostasis as well. PPARs, mainly alpha (α) and beta/delta (β/δ), have a significant effect on the lipid metabolism and anti-inflammation in endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells, and also in cardiomyocytes. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, mainly tumour necrosis factor-α, released at the site of inflammation in the sub-ECs of coronary arteries can inactivate the PPARs which can eventually lead to decreased energy production in the myocardium. Various synthetic ligands of PPAR-α and β/δ have many favourable effects in modulating the vascular diseases and heart failure. Despite the adverse effects from therapy using PPAR- gamma ligands, several laboratories are now focused on synthesizing partial activators which may combine their beneficial effects with lowering of undesirable side effects. This review discusses the role of isoforms of PPAR in the cardiomyocytes energy balance and CVD. The knowledge will help in the synthesis of ligands for their partial activation in order to render energy balance and protection from CVD. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  10. Recovery of brain biomarkers following peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist neuroprotective treatment before ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lipid lowering agent such as agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are suggested as neuroprotective agents and may protect from the sequelae of brain ischemic stroke. Although the demonstration is not clearly established in human, the underlying molecular mechanism may be of interest for future therapeutic purposes. To this end, we have used our well established rodent model of ischemia-reperfusion pre-treated or not with fenofibrate or atorvastatin and performed a differential proteomics analyses of the brain and analysed the protein markers which levels returned to “normal” following pre-treatments with PPARα agonists. Results In order to identify potential therapeutic targets positively modulated by pre-treatment with the PPARα agonists, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis proteome profiles between control, ischemia-reperfusion and pre-treated or not, were compared. The polypeptide which expression was altered following ischemia – reperfusion but whose levels remain unchanged after pre-treatment were characterized by mass spectrometry and further investigated by Western-blotting and immunohistochemistry. A series of 28 polypeptides were characterized among which the protein disulfide isomerase reduction – a protein instrumental to the unfolded protein response system - was shown to be reduced following PPARα agonists treatment while it was strongly increased in ischemia-reperfusion. Conclusions Pre-treatment with PPARα agonist or atorvastatin show potential neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the PDI overexpression in conjunction with the preservation of other neuronal markers, several of which are associated with the regulation of protein homeostasis, signal transduction and maintenance of synaptic plasticity. This proteomic study therefore suggests that neuroprotective effect of PPARα agonists supposes the preservation of the expression of several proteins essential for the maintenance of protein homeostasis

  11. Adaptation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha to hibernation in bats.

    PubMed

    Han, Yijie; Zheng, Guantao; Yang, Tianxiao; Zhang, Shuyi; Dong, Dong; Pan, Yi-Hsuan

    2015-05-17

    Hibernation is a survival mechanism in the winter for some animals. Fat preserved instead of glucose produced is the primary fuel during winter hibernation of mammals. Many genes involved in lipid metabolism are regulated by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα). The role of PPARα in hibernation of mammals remains largely unknown. Using a multidisciplinary approach, we investigated whether PPARα is adapted to hibernation in bats. Evolutionary analyses revealed that the ω value of Pparα of the ancestral lineage of hibernating bats in both Yinpterochiroptera and Yangochiroptera was lower than that of non-hibernating bats in Yinpterochiroptera, suggesting that a higher selective pressure acts on Pparα in hibernating bats. PPARα expression was found to be increased at both mRNA and protein levels in distantly related bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and Hipposideros armiger in Yinpterochiroptera and Myotis ricketti in Yangochiroptera) during their torpid episodes. Transcription factors such as FOXL1, NFYA, NFYB, SP1, TBP, and ERG were bioinformatically determined to have a higher binding affinity to the potential regulatory regions of Pparα in hibernating than in non-hibernating mammals. Genome-wide bioinformatic analyses of 64 mammalian species showed that PPARα has more potential target genes and higher binding affinity to these genes in hibernating than in non-hibernating mammals. We conclude that PPARα is adapted to hibernation in bats based on the observations that Pparα has a more stringent functional constraint in the ancestral lineage of hibernating bats and a higher level of expression in hibernating than in non-hibernating bats. We also conclude that PPARα plays a very important role in hibernation as hibernators have more PPARα target genes than non-hibernators, and PPARα in hibernators has a higher binding affinity for its target genes than in non-hibernators.

  12. Effects of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-δ Agonist on Cardiac Healing after Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Rang; Ahn, Jong Hwa; Jung, Myeong Hee; Koh, Jin-Sin; Park, Yongwhi; Hwang, Seok-Jae; Jeong, Young-Hoon; Kwak, Choong Hwan; Lee, Young Soo; Seo, Han Geuk; Kim, Jin Hyun; Hwang, Jin-Yong

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-delta (PPAR-δ)-dependent signaling is associated with rapid wound healing in the skin. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effects of PPAR-δ-agonist treatment on cardiac healing in post-myocardial infarction (MI) rats. Animals were assigned to the following groups: sham-operated control group, left anterior descending coronary artery ligation (MI) group, or MI with administration of the PPAR-δ agonist GW610742 group. GW610742 (1 mg/kg) was administrated intraperitoneally after the operation and repeated every 3 days. Echocardiographic data showed no differences between the two groups in terms of cardiac function and remodeling until 4 weeks. However, the degrees of angiogenesis and fibrosis after MI were significantly higher in the GW610742-treated rats than in the untreated MI rats at 1 week following MI, which changes were not different at 2 weeks after MI. Naturally, PPAR-δ expression in infarcted myocardium was highest increased in 3 day after MI and then disappeared in 14 day after MI. GW610742 increased myofibroblast differentiation and transforming growth factor-beta 2 expression in the infarct zone at 7 days after MI. GW610742 also increased bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) recruitment in whole myocardium, and increased serum platelet-derived growth factor B, stromal-derived factor-1 alpha, and matrix metallopeptidase 9 levels at day 3 after MI. PPAR-δ agonists treatment have the temporal effect on early fibrosis of infarcted myocardium, which might not sustain the functional and structural beneficial effect. PMID:26862756

  13. Ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma block activation of pancreatic stellate cells.

    PubMed

    Masamune, Atsushi; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Satoh, Masahiro; Sakai, Yoshitaka; Satoh, Akihiko; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2002-01-04

    Activated pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) have recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of pancreatic fibrosis and inflammation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) is a ligand-activated transcription factor which controls growth, differentiation, and inflammation in different tissues. Roles of PPAR-gamma activation in PSCs are poorly characterized. Here we examined the effects of PPAR-gamma ligands on the key parameters of PSC activation. PSCs were isolated from rat pancreas tissue, and used in their culture-activated, myofibroblast-like phenotype. Activation of PPAR-gamma was induced with 15-deoxy-Delta12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2) or with troglitazone. Expression of PPAR-gamma was predominantly localized in the nuclei, and PPAR-gamma was transcriptionally active after ligand stimulation. PPAR-gamma ligands inhibited platelet-derived growth factor-induced proliferation. This effect was associated with inhibition of cell cycle progression beyond the G1 phase. PPAR-gamma ligands decreased alpha-smooth muscle actin protein expression and alpha1(I) procollagen and prolyl 4-hydroxylase(alpha) mRNA levels. Activation of PPAR-gamma also resulted in the inhibition of inducible monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 expression. 15d-PGJ2, but not troglitazone, inhibited the degradation of IkappaB-alpha and consequent NF-kappaB activation. In conclusion, activation of PPAR-gamma inhibited profibrogenic and proinflammatory actions in activated PSCs, suggesting a potential application of PPAR-gamma ligands in the treatment of pancreatic fibrosis and inflammation.

  14. Regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Liu; Chan, Che-Chang; Kwon, Oh-Sang; Liu, Songling; McGhee, Jason; Stimpson, Stephen A; Chen, Lihong Z; Harrington, W Wallace; Symonds, William T; Rockey, Don C

    2006-11-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) impart diverse cellular effects in biological systems. Because stellate cell activation during liver injury is associated with declining PPARgamma expression, we hypothesized that its expression is critical in stellate cell-mediated fibrogenesis. We therefore modulated its expression during liver injury in vivo. PPARgamma was depleted in rat livers by using an adenovirus-Cre recombinase system. PPARgamma was overexpressed by using an additional adenoviral vector (AdPPARgamma). Bile duct ligation was utilized to induce stellate cell activation and liver fibrosis in vivo; phenotypic effects (collagen I, smooth muscle alpha-actin, hydroxyproline content, etc.) were measured. PPARgamma mRNA levels decreased fivefold and PPARgamma protein was undetectable in stellate cells after culture-induced activation. During activation in vivo, collagen accumulation, assessed histomorphometrically and by hydroxyproline content, was significantly increased after PPARgamma depletion compared with controls (1.28 +/- 0.14 vs. 1.89 +/- 0.21 mg/g liver tissue, P < 0.03). In isolated stellate cells, AdPPARgamma overexpression resulted in significantly increased adiponectin mRNA expression and decreased collagen I and smooth muscle alpha-actin mRNA expression compared with controls. During in vivo fibrogenesis, rat livers exposed to AdPPARgamma had significantly less fibrosis than controls. Collagen I and smooth muscle alpha-actin mRNA expression were significantly reduced in AdPPARgamma-infected rats compared with controls (P < 0.05, n = 10). PPARgamma-deficient mice exhibited enhanced fibrogenesis after liver injury, whereas PPARgamma receptor overexpression in vivo attenuated stellate cell activation and fibrosis. The data highlight a critical role for PPARgamma during in vivo fibrogenesis and emphasize the importance of the PPARgamma pathway in stellate cells during liver injury.

  15. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma inhibits hepatic fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Xu, Jia-Peng; Zheng, Yong-Chao; Chen, Wei; Sun, Yong-Wei; Wu, Zhi-Yong; Luo, Meng

    2011-02-01

    Hepatic fibrosis is a necessary step in the development of hepatic cirrhosis. In this study we used lentiviral vector-mediated transfection technology to evaluate the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-gamma) on rat hepatic fibrosis. Hepatic fibrosis in rats was induced by CCl4 for 2 weeks (early fibrosis) and 8 weeks (sustained fibrosis). The rats were randomly divided into four groups: normal control, fibrosis, blank vector, and PPAR-gamma. They were infected with the recombinant lentiviral expression vector carrying the rat PPAR-gamma gene by portal vein injection. The liver of the rats was examined histologically and hydroxyproline was assessed. In vitro primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) were infected with the recombinant lentiviral expression vector carrying the rat PPAR-gamma gene. The status of HSC proliferation was measured by the MTT assay. The protein levels of PPAR-gamma, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA) and type I collagen expression were evaluated by the Western blotting method. In vitro studies revealed that expression of PPAR-gamma inhibited expression of alpha-SMA and type I collagen in activated HSCs (P<0.01) as well as HSC proliferation (P<0.01). In vivo experiments indicated that in the early hepatic fibrosis group, the hydroxyproline content and the level of collagen I protein in the liver in the PPAR-gamma transfected group were not significantly different compared to the hepatic fibrosis group and the blank vector group; whereas the expressions of PPAR-gamma and alpha-SMA were different compared to the hepatic fibrosis group (P<0.01). In the sustained hepatic fibrosis group, there were significant differences in the hydroxyproline content and the expression of PPAR-gamma, alpha-SMA, and type I collagen between each group. PPAR-gamma can inhibit HSC proliferation and hepatic fibrosis, and suppress alpha-SMA and type I collagen expression.

  16. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in human breast carcinoma: a modulator of estrogenic actions.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Hayashi, S; Miki, Y; Nakamura, Y; Moriya, T; Sugawara, A; Ishida, T; Ohuchi, N; Sasano, H

    2006-03-01

    It has been reported that agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) inhibit proliferation of breast carcinoma cells, but the biological significance of PPARgamma remains undetermined in human breast carcinomas. Therefore, we immunolocalized PPARgamma in 238 human breast carcinoma tissues. PPARgamma immunoreactivity was detected in 42% of carcinomas, and was significantly associated with the status of estrogen receptor (ER) alpha, ERbeta, progesterone receptor, retinoic X receptors, p21 or p27, and negatively correlated with histological grade or cyclooxygenase-2 status. PPARgamma immunoreactivity was significantly associated with an improved clinical outcome of breast carcinoma patients by univariate analysis, and multivariate analysis demonstrated that PPARgamma immunoreactivity was an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in ERalpha-positive patients. We then examined possible mechanisms of modulation by PPARgamma on estrogenic actions in MCF-7 breast carcinoma cells. A PPARgamma activator, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)- prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), significantly inhibited estrogen-responsive element-dependent transactivation by estradiol in MCF-7 cells, which was blocked by addition of a PPARgamma antagonist GW9662. Subsequent study, employing a custom-made microarray focused on estrogen-responsive genes, revealed that mRNA expression was significantly regulated by estradiol in 49 genes, but this significance vanished on addition of 15d-PGJ(2) in 16 out of 49 (33%) genes. These findings were confirmed by real-time PCR in 11 genes. 15d-PGJ(2) significantly inhibited estrogen-mediated proliferation of MCF-7 cells, and caused accumulation of p21 and p27 protein. These results suggest that PPARgamma is mainly expressed in well-differentiated and ER-positive breast carcinomas, and modulates estrogenic actions.

  17. Enhanced expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in epithelial ovarian carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, G Y; Ahmed, N; Riley, C; Oliva, K; Barker, G; Quinn, M A; Rice, G E

    2005-01-17

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to a subclass of nuclear hormone receptor that executes important cellular transcriptional functions. Previous studies have demonstrated the expression of PPARgamma in several tumours including colon, breast, bladder, prostate, lung and stomach. This study demonstrates the relative expression of PPARgamma in normal ovaries and different pathological grades of ovarian tumours of serous, mucinous, endometrioid, clear cell and mixed subtypes. A total of 56 ovarian specimens including 10 normal, eight benign, 10 borderline, seven grade 1, nine grade 2 and 12 grade 3 were analysed using immunohistochemistry. Immunoreactive PPARgamma was not expressed in normal ovaries. Out of eight benign and 10 borderline tumours, only one tumour in each group showed weak cytoplasmic PPARgamma expression. In contrast, 26 out of 28 carcinomas studied were positive for PPARgamma expression with staining confined to cytoplasmic and nuclear regions. An altered staining pattern of PPARgamma was observed in high-grade ovarian tumours with PPARgamma being mostly localized in the nuclei with little cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. On the other hand, predominant cytoplasmic staining was observed in lower-grade tumours. Significantly increased PPARgamma immunoreactivity was observed in malignant ovarian tumours (grade 1, 2 and 3) compared to benign and borderline tumours (chi2 = 48.80, P < 0.001). Western blot analyses showed significant elevation in the expression of immunoreactive PPARgamma in grade 3 ovarian tumours compared with that of normal ovaries and benign ovarian tumours (P < 0.01). These findings suggest an involvement of PPARgamma in the onset and development of ovarian carcinoma and provide an insight into the regulation of this molecule in the progression of the disease.

  18. Prognostic and biological significance of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in luminal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Abduljabbar, Rezvan; Al-Kaabi, Methaq Mueen; Negm, Ola H; Jerjees, Dena; Muftah, Abir A; Mukherjee, Abhik; Lai, Chun F; Buluwela, Laki; Ali, Simak; Tighe, Patrick J; Green, Andrew; Ellis, Ian; Rakha, Emad

    2015-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ) is an adopted orphan receptor that belongs to the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors. PPARγ is regarded as a differentiation factor and it plays an important role in regulating adipogenesis, cell growth, proliferation and tumour progression. In breast cancer (BC), PPARγ agonists were reported to inhibit proliferation and growth invasion and promote phenotypic changes associated with a less malignant and more differentiated status. This study aims to assess the prognostic and biological roles of PPARγ protein expression in a large cohort of BC patients (n = 1100) with emphasis on the luminal oestrogen receptor (ER) positive class. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess the levels of PPARγ expression in BC series prepared as tissue microarrays (TMAs). PPARγ antibody specificity was confirmed using Western blotting. PPARγ nuclear expression was detected in 79 % of the cases and its expression was positively correlated with the hormonal receptors (ER, progesterone receptor and androgen receptor). PPARγ levels were significantly higher in tumours with lobular subtype, smaller size and lower grade, while HER2-positive, ductal or medullary tumours were associated with lower PPARγ levels. Survival analysis showed that PPARγ is associated with better outcome in the whole series as well as in luminal ER-positive class. Cox regression model showed that PPARγ is an independent predictor of outcome. Higher PPARγ was associated with longer survival in patients with ER-positive tumours who did not receive hormone therapy. PPARγ is a good prognostic marker associated with hormone receptors. In patients with luminal BCs, PPARγ is a marker of better prognosis and is associated with longer survival.

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ induces myogenesis by modulating myostatin activity.

    PubMed

    Bonala, Sabeera; Lokireddy, Sudarsanareddy; Arigela, Harikumar; Teng, Serena; Wahli, Walter; Sharma, Mridula; McFarlane, Craig; Kambadur, Ravi

    2012-04-13

    Classically, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) function was thought to be restricted to enhancing adipocyte differentiation and development of adipose-like cells from other lineages. However, recent studies have revealed a critical role for PPARβ/δ during skeletal muscle growth and regeneration. Although PPARβ/δ has been implicated in regulating myogenesis, little is presently known about the role and, for that matter, the mechanism(s) of action of PPARβ/δ in regulating postnatal myogenesis. Here we report for the first time, using a PPARβ/δ-specific ligand (L165041) and the PPARβ/δ-null mouse model, that PPARβ/δ enhances postnatal myogenesis through increasing both myoblast proliferation and differentiation. In addition, we have identified Gasp-1 (growth and differentiation factor-associated serum protein-1) as a novel downstream target of PPARβ/δ in skeletal muscle. In agreement, reduced Gasp-1 expression was detected in PPARβ/δ-null mice muscle tissue. We further report that a functional PPAR-responsive element within the 1.5-kb proximal Gasp-1 promoter region is critical for PPARβ/δ regulation of Gasp-1. Gasp-1 has been reported to bind to and inhibit the activity of myostatin; consistent with this, we found that enhanced secretion of Gasp-1, increased Gasp-1 myostatin interaction and significantly reduced myostatin activity upon L165041-mediated activation of PPARβ/δ. Moreover, we analyzed the ability of hGASP-1 to regulate myogenesis independently of PPARβ/δ activation. The results revealed that hGASP-1 protein treatment enhances myoblast proliferation and differentiation, whereas silencing of hGASP-1 results in defective myogenesis. Taken together these data revealed that PPARβ/δ is a positive regulator of skeletal muscle myogenesis, which functions through negatively modulating myostatin activity via a mechanism involving Gasp-1.

  20. Lung injury after hemorrhage is age-dependent: role of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ

    PubMed Central

    Zingarelli, Basilia; Hake, Paul W.; O’Connor, Michael; Burroughs, Timothy J.; Wong, Hector R.; Solomkin, Joseph S.; Lentsch, Alex B.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The incidence of multiple organ failure in pediatric trauma victims is lower than in the adult population. However, the molecular mechanisms are not yet defined. We investigated whether the pathophysiologic characteristics of hemorrhage-induced lung injury may be age-dependent and may be regulated by the peroxisome proliferator activator receptor γ (PPARγ). Design Prospective, laboratory investigation that used an established rodent model of hemorrhagic shock. Setting University hospital laboratory. Subjects Young (n=67; 3–5 months old) and mature (n=66; 11–13 months old) male rats. Interventions Hemorrhagic shock was induced in young and mature rats by withdrawing blood to a mean arterial blood pressure of 50 mmHg. After 3 hrs, rats were rapidly resuscitated by infusing the shed blood and sacrificed 3 hrs thereafter. Measurements and Main Results In young rats, lung injury was characterized by accumulation of red cells and neutrophils at the end of the resuscitation period; at Western blot analysis, lung expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was increased. In contrast, the severity of lung injury was more pronounced in mature rats. Lung myeloperoxidase activity and expression of constitutive and inducible ICAM-1 was significantly higher in mature rats when compared to young rats. Mature rats also had higher plasma levels of cytokines and chemokines when compared to young rats. This heightened inflammation was associated with higher degree of activation of nuclear factor-κB and down-regulation of PPARγ and heat shock factor-1 in the lung of mature rats when compared to young rats. Treatment with the PPARγ ligand, the cyclopentenone prostaglandin 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2, ameliorated lung injury in young, but not in mature animals. Conclusions Lung injury after severe hemorrhage is age-dependent and may be secondary to a diverse regulation of PPARγ. PMID:19384226

  1. The identification of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha-independent effects of oleoylethanolamide on intestinal transit in mice.

    PubMed

    Cluny, N L; Keenan, C M; Lutz, B; Piomelli, D; Sharkey, K A

    2009-04-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is an endogenous lipid produced in the intestine that mediates satiety by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). OEA inhibits gastric emptying and intestinal motility, but the mechanism of action remains to be determined. We investigated whether OEA inhibits intestinal motility by activation of PPARalpha. PPARalpha immunoreactivity was examined in whole mount preparations of mouse gastrointestinal (GI) tract. The effect of OEA on motility was assessed in wildtype, PPARalpha, cannabinoid CB(1) receptor and CB(2) receptor gene-deficient mice and in a model of accelerated GI transit. In addition, the effect of OEA on motility was assessed in mice injected with the PPARalpha antagonist GW6471, transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 antagonist SB366791 or the glucagon-like peptide 1 antagonist exendin-3(9-39) amide. PPARalpha immunoreactivity was present in neurons in the myenteric and submucosal plexuses throughout the GI tract. OEA inhibited upper GI transit in a dose-dependent manner, but was devoid of an effect on whole gut transit or colonic propulsion. OEA-induced inhibition of motility was still present in PPARalpha, CB(1) and CB(2) receptor gene-deficient mice and in the presence of GW6471, SB366791 and exendin-3(9-39) amide, suggesting neither PPARalpha nor the cannabinoids and other likely receptors are involved in mediating the effects of OEA. OEA blocked stress-induced accelerated upper GI transit at a dose that had no effect on physiological transit. We show that PPARalpha is found in the enteric nervous system, but our results suggest that PPARalpha is not involved in the suppression of motility by OEA.

  2. Orally administered oleoylethanolamide protects mice from focal cerebral ischemic injury by activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yu; Yang, Lichao; Ma, Ang; Zhang, Xuemei; Li, Weijie; Yang, Wushuang; Chen, Caixia; Jin, Xin

    2012-08-01

    Oleoylethanolamide (OEA) is a high-affinity agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) which may act as an endogenous neuroprotective factor. However, it is not clear whether orally administered OEA is effective against ischemic brain injury. In our study, transient focal cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 90 min followed by reperfusion. To evaluate its preventive effects, OEA (10, 20 or 40 mg/kg, ig) was administered for 3 days before ischemia. To evaluate its therapeutic effects, OEA (40 mg/kg, ig) was administered at 0.5 or 1h before reperfusion or at 0 or 1h after reperfusion. In some experiments, the PPARα antagonist MK886 (10mg/kg, ig) was administered 0.5h before OEA. Neurological deficit score, infarct volume and brain edema degree were determined at 24h after reperfusion. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption was evaluated by Evans blue (EB) leakage at 6h after reperfusion. Real-time RT-PCR and western blot were performed to detect PPARα mRNA and protein expression. Oral OEA pretreatment improved neurological dysfunction reduced infarct volume and alleviated brain edema in a dose-dependent manner; the most effective dose was 40 mg/kg. The therapeutic time is within 1h after reperfusion. OEA also increased PPARα mRNA and protein expression in the ischemic brain. The PPARα antagonist MK886 abolished the protective effects of OEA. In conclusion, our results indicate that orally administered OEA protects against acute cerebral ischemic injury in mice, at least in part by activating PPARα. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pro12Ala polymorphism in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) gene in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Atug, Ozlen; Tahan, Veysel; Eren, Fatih; Tiftikci, Arzu; Imeryuz, Nese; Hamzaoglu, Hulya Over; Tozun, Nurdan

    2008-12-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) has recently been implicated as an endogenous regulator of cellular proliferation and inflammation. Impaired expression of PPAR-gamma in colonic epithelial cells in ulcerative colitis (UC) and increased expression in hypertrophic mesenteric adipose tissue in Crohn's disease (CD) have been reported. Furthermore, PPAR-gamma ligands have been shown to inhibit tissue injury associated with immune activation in UC. Any mutation in PPAR-gamma gene may be responsible for the increase in inflammatory mediators and hence the perpetuation of inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. One common polymorphism in PPAR-gamma gene is proline to alanine substitution (Pro12Ala) which results from a CCA to GCA missense substitution in codon 12 of exon 2 of the PPAR-gamma gene. In this study, we aimed to explore Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPAR-gamma gene in IBD in Turkish patients. 69 patients with CD, 45 with UC and 100 controls of similar age and sex were studied. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood leucocytes and mutagenically separated-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analyses were performed to determine the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPAR-gamma gene. We observed no significant differences in the frequency of the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma gene among subjects with CD, UC and controls (15.9%, 15.5% and 13%, respectively, p>0.05). These results suggest that Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPAR-gamma gene relates neither to the risk of the development of inflammatory bowel disease nor to the clinical subtypes of CD in the Turkish population.

  4. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, PPARα, directly regulates transcription of cytochrome P450 CYP2C8

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Maria; Winter, Stefan; Klumpp, Britta; Turpeinen, Miia; Klein, Kathrin; Schwab, Matthias; Zanger, Ulrich M.

    2015-01-01

    The cytochrome P450, CYP2C8, metabolizes more than 60 clinically used drugs as well as endogenous substances including retinoic acid and arachidonic acid. However, predictive factors for interindividual variability in the efficacy and toxicity of CYP2C8 drug substrates are essentially lacking. Recently we demonstrated that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a nuclear receptor primarily involved in control of lipid and energy homeostasis directly regulates the transcription of CYP3A4. Here we investigated the potential regulation of CYP2C8 by PPARα. Two linked intronic SNPs in PPARα (rs4253728, rs4823613) previously associated with hepatic CYP3A4 status showed significant association with CYP2C8 protein level in human liver samples (N = 150). Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knock-down of PPARα in HepaRG human hepatocyte cells resulted in up to ∼60 and ∼50% downregulation of CYP2C8 mRNA and activity, while treatment with the PPARα agonist WY14,643 lead to an induction by >150 and >100%, respectively. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation scanning assay we identified a specific upstream gene region that is occupied in vivo by PPARα. Electromobility shift assay demonstrated direct binding of PPARα to a DR-1 motif located at positions –2762/–2775 bp upstream of the CYP2C8 transcription start site. We further validated the functional activity of this element using luciferase reporter gene assays in HuH7 cells. Moreover, based on our previous studies we demonstrated that WNT/β-catenin acts as a functional inhibitor of PPARα-mediated inducibility of CYP2C8 expression. In conclusion, our data suggest direct involvement of PPARα in both constitutive and inducible regulation of CYP2C8 expression in human liver, which is further modulated by WNT/β-catenin pathway. PPARA gene polymorphism could have a modest influence on CYP2C8 phenotype. PMID:26582990

  5. Blockade of nicotine reward and reinstatement by activation of alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    Mascia, Paola; Pistis, Marco; Justinova, Zuzana; Panlilio, Leigh V.; Luchicchi, Antonio; Lecca, Salvatore; Scherma, Maria; Fratta, Walter; Fadda, Paola; Barnes, Chanel; Redhi, Godfrey H.; Yasar, Sevil; Le Foll, Bernard; Tanda, Gianluigi; Piomelli, Daniele; Goldberg, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Background Recent findings indicate that inhibitors of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) counteract the rewarding effects of nicotine in rats. FAAH inhibition increases levels of several endogenous substances in the brain, including the endocannabinoid anandamide and the non-cannabinoid fatty-acid ethanolamides oleoylethanolamide (OEA) and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), which are ligands for alpha-type peroxisome proliferator-activated nuclear receptors (PPAR-α). Here, we evaluated whether directly-acting PPAR-α agonists can modulate reward-related effects of nicotine. Methods We combined behavioral, neurochemical and electrophysiological approaches to evaluate effects of the PPAR-α agonists WY14643 and methOEA (a long-lasting form of OEA) on: (1) nicotine self-administration in rats and squirrel monkeys; (2) reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior in rats and monkeys; (3) nicotine discrimination in rats; (4) nicotine-induced electrophysiological activity of VTA dopamine neurons in anesthetized rats; and (5) nicotine-induced elevation of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell of freely-moving rats. Results PPAR-α agonists dose-dependently decreased nicotine self-administration and nicotine-induced reinstatement in rats and monkeys, but did not alter food- or cocaine-reinforced operant behavior or the interoceptive effects of nicotine. PPAR-α agonists also dose-dependently decreased nicotine-induced excitation of dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nicotine-induced elevations of dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens shell of rats. The ability of WY14643 and methOEA to counteract the behavioral, electrophysiological, and neurochemical effects of nicotine was reversed by the PPAR-α antagonist MK886. Conclusions These findings indicate that PPAR-α might provide a valuable new target for anti-smoking medications. PMID:20801430

  6. Polyacetylenes from Notopterygium incisum–New Selective Partial Agonists of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Noha, Stefan M.; Malainer, Clemens; Kramer, Matthias P.; Cocic, Amina; Kunert, Olaf; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Heiss, Elke H.; Schuster, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a key regulator of glucose and lipid metabolism and therefore an important pharmacological target to combat metabolic diseases. Since the currently used full PPARγ agonists display serious side effects, identification of novel ligands, particularly partial agonists, is highly relevant. Searching for new active compounds, we investigated extracts of the underground parts of Notopterygium incisum, a medicinal plant used in traditional Chinese medicine, and observed significant PPARγ activation using a PPARγ-driven luciferase reporter model. Activity-guided fractionation of the dichloromethane extract led to the isolation of six polyacetylenes, which displayed properties of selective partial PPARγ agonists in the luciferase reporter model. Since PPARγ activation by this class of compounds has so far not been reported, we have chosen the prototypical polyacetylene falcarindiol for further investigation. The effect of falcarindiol (10 µM) in the luciferase reporter model was blocked upon co-treatment with the PPARγ antagonist T0070907 (1 µM). Falcarindiol bound to the purified human PPARγ receptor with a Ki of 3.07 µM. In silico docking studies suggested a binding mode within the ligand binding site, where hydrogen bonds to Cys285 and Glu295 are predicted to be formed in addition to extensive hydrophobic interactions. Furthermore, falcarindiol further induced 3T3-L1 preadipocyte differentiation and enhanced the insulin-induced glucose uptake in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes confirming effectiveness in cell models with endogenous PPARγ expression. In conclusion, we identified falcarindiol-type polyacetylenes as a novel class of natural partial PPARγ agonists, having potential to be further explored as pharmaceutical leads or dietary supplements. PMID:23630612

  7. Review of the expression of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors alpha (PPARα), beta (PPAR β), and gamma (PPAR() in rodent and human development.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and there are three primary isotypes, PPARα, β, and (. These receptors regulate important physiological processes that impact lipid homeostasis, inflammation, adipogenesis, r...

  8. PEROXISOME-PROLIFERATOR ACTIVATED RECEPTORS AS A MACROMOLECULAR TARGET FOR CHEMICAL TOXICITY: MODELS OF THE INTERACTIONS OF PPARS WITH PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs), a class of nuclear receptors that modulate both transcription and metabolic processes, are implicated in a variety of metabolic disorders linked to lipidogenesis, adipose tissue accumulation, fatty-acid oxidation pathways, ...

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonists down-regulate alpha2-macroglobulin expression by a PPARalpha-dependent mechanism.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) regulates transcription of genes involved both in lipid and glucose metabolism as well as inflammation. Fibrates are PPARα ligands used to normalize lipid and glucose parameters and exert anti-inflammatory effects. Fibrates...

  10. Analysis of the Heat Shock Response in Mouse Liver Reveals Transcriptional Dependence on the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates responses to chemical or physical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance. Many of these genes are also transcriptionally regulated by h...

  11. Analysis of the Heat Shock Response in Mouse Liver Reveals Transcriptional Dependence on the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARα)

    EPA Science Inventory

    BACKGROUND: The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) regulates responses to chemical or physical stress in part by altering expression of genes involved in proteome maintenance. Many of these genes are also transcriptionally regulated by h...

  12. ACTIVATION OF MOUSE AND HUMAN PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS (PPAR ALPHA, GAMMA, BETA DELTA) BY PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) AND PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the potential for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), using a transient transfection cell assay. Cos-1 cells were cultured in DMEM with fetal bovine serum (FBS) in ...

  13. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPARα in rodents inc...

  14. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) agonists down-regulate alpha2-macroglobulin expression by a PPARalpha-dependent mechanism.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) regulates transcription of genes involved both in lipid and glucose metabolism as well as inflammation. Fibrates are PPARα ligands used to normalize lipid and glucose parameters and exert anti-inflammatory effects. Fibrates...

  15. ACTIVATION OF MOUSE AND HUMAN PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTORS (PPAR ALPHA, GAMMA, BETA DELTA) BY PERFLUOROOCTANOIC ACID (PFOA) AND PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study evaluates the potential for perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), using a transient transfection cell assay. Cos-1 cells were cultured in DMEM with fetal bovine serum (FBS) in ...

  16. Review of the expression of Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors alpha (PPARα), beta (PPAR β), and gamma (PPAR() in rodent and human development.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and there are three primary isotypes, PPARα, β, and (. These receptors regulate important physiological processes that impact lipid homeostasis, inflammation, adipogenesis, r...

  17. PEROXISOME-PROLIFERATOR ACTIVATED RECEPTORS AS A MACROMOLECULAR TARGET FOR CHEMICAL TOXICITY: MODELS OF THE INTERACTIONS OF PPARS WITH PERFLUORINATED ORGANIC COMPOUNDS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptors (PPARs), a class of nuclear receptors that modulate both transcription and metabolic processes, are implicated in a variety of metabolic disorders linked to lipidogenesis, adipose tissue accumulation, fatty-acid oxidation pathways, ...

  18. Identification of Modulators of the Nuclear Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor α (PPARα) in a Mouse Liver Gene Expression Compendium

    EPA Science Inventory

    The nuclear receptor family member peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) is activated by therapeutic hypolipidemic drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals to regulate genes involved in lipid transport and catabolism. Chronic activation of PPARα in rodents inc...

  19. Rapid broad-spectrum analgesia through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha.

    PubMed

    LoVerme, Jesse; Russo, Roberto; La Rana, Giovanna; Fu, Jin; Farthing, Jesse; Mattace-Raso, Giuseppina; Meli, Rosaria; Hohmann, Andrea; Calignano, Antonio; Piomelli, Daniele

    2006-12-01

    Severe pain remains a major area of unmet medical need. Here we report that agonists of the nuclear receptor PPAR-alpha (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha) suppress pain behaviors induced in mice by chemical tissue injury, nerve damage, or inflammation. The PPAR-alpha agonists GW7647 [2-(4-(2-(1-cyclohexanebutyl)-3-cyclohexylureido)ethyl)phenylthio)-2-methylpropionic acid], Wy-14643 [4-chloro-6-(2,3-xylidino)-2-pyrimidinylthioacetic acid], and palmitoylethanolamide (PEA) reduced nocifensive behaviors elicited in mice by intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of formalin or i.p. injection of magnesium sulfate. These effects were absent in PPAR-alpha-null mice yet occurred within minutes of agonist administration in wild-type mice, suggesting that they were mediated through a transcription-independent mechanism. Consistent with this hypothesis, blockade of calcium-operated IK(ca) (K(Ca)3.1) and BK(ca) (K(Ca)1.1) potassium channels prevented the effects of GW7647 and PEA in the formalin test. Three observations suggest that PPAR-alpha agonists may inhibit nocifensive responses by acting on peripheral PPAR-alpha. (i) PEA reduced formalin-induced pain at i.pl. doses that produced no increase in systemic PEA levels; (ii) PPAR-alpha was expressed in dorsal root ganglia neurons of wild-type but not PPAR-alpha-null mice; and (ii) GW7647 and PEA prevented formalin-induced firing of spinal cord nociceptive neurons in rats. In addition to modulating nociception, GW7647 and PEA reduced hyperalgesic responses in the chronic constriction injury model of neuropathic pain; these effects were also contingent on PPAR-alpha expression and were observed following either acute or subchronic PPAR-alpha agonist administration. Finally, acute administration of GW7647 and PEA reduced hyperalgesic responses in the complete Freund's adjuvant and carrageenan models of inflammatory pain. Our results suggest that PPAR-alpha agonists may represent a novel class of analgesics.

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonist rosiglitazone attenuates postincisional pain by regulating macrophage polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Hasegawa-Moriyama, Maiko; Ohnou, Tetsuya; Godai, Kohei; Kurimoto, Tae; Nakama, Mayo; Kanmura, Yuichi

    2012-09-14

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rosiglitazone attenuated postincisional pain. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Rosiglitazone alters macrophage polarization to F4/80{sup +}CD206{sup +} M2 macrophages at the incisional sites. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Transplantation of rosiglitazone-treated macrophages produced analgesic effects. -- Abstract: Acute inflammation triggered by macrophage infiltration to injured tissue promotes wound repair and may induce pain hypersensitivity. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR){gamma} signaling is known to regulate heterogeneity of macrophages, which are often referred to as classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 macrophages have considerable antimicrobial activity and produce a wide variety of proinflammatory cytokines. In contrast, M2 macrophages are involved in anti-inflammatory and homeostatic functions linked to wound healing and tissue repair. Although it has been suggested that PPAR{gamma} agonists attenuate pain hypersensitivity, the molecular mechanism of macrophage-mediated effects of PPAR{gamma} signaling on pain development has not been explored. In this study, we investigated the link between the phenotype switching of macrophage polarization induced by PPAR{gamma} signaling and the development of acute pain hypersensitivity. Local administration of rosiglitazone significantly ameliorated hypersensitivity to heat and mechanical stimuli, and paw swelling. Consistent with the down-regulation of nuclear factor {kappa}B (NF{kappa}B) phosphorylation by rosiglitazone at the incisional sites, the number of F4/80{sup +}iNOS{sup +} M1 macrophages was decreased whereas numbers of F4/80{sup +}CD206{sup +} M2 macrophages were increased in rosiglitazone-treated incisional sites 24 h after the procedure. In addition, gene induction of anti-inflammatory M2-macrophage-associated markers such as arginase1, FIZZ1 and interleukin (IL)-10 were significantly increased, whereas

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor Pro12Ala polymorphism and the risks of gestational diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lihong; Xu, Wenting; Wang, Xu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-λ (PPAR-λ) is a member of nuclear receptor superfamily and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor often found in the adrenal gland, the spleen, and adipose tissue. The Pro12Ala polymorphism of PPAR-λ has been associated with the risks of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); however, association studies have provided conflicting results. The aim of this Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) compliant meta-analysis is to reach a more up-to-date and accurate estimation of the relationship between Pro12Ala genetic polymorphisms and the risks of GDM. Methods: Eligible studies were retrieved by searching PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, Ovid, WanFang, and Chinese National Knowledge Databases and selected according to a pre-defined inclusion criterion. The risk of bias was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. The per-allele odds ratio (OR) of risk allele proline (Pro) was compared between cases and controls in each study to describe the association between the Pro allele and an individual's risk of GDM. The ORs were pooled using both the random-effects model (the DerSimonian and Laird method) and the fixed effects model (the Mantel-Haenszel method) and the 95% confidence interval (95% CI) was calculated using Woolf method. Results: The final meta-analysis included a total of 11 articles of 12 data sets consisting of 7054 controls and 2980 GDM cases. Our results demonstrate that the Pro allele is not associated with GDM [OR: across multiple populations, 95% CI: 0.98–1.24; P(Z) = 0.01; P(Q) = 0.003]. In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, significantly increased risks were found for the Chinese (OR = 2.36; 95% CI: 1.47–3.78) and Korean (OR = 1.39; 95% CI: 1.00–1.93) populations. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential role of Pro allele in the pathogenesis of GDM in Asian populations. Although the funnel plot

  2. Phytoceramide and sphingoid bases derived from brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Itsuo; Wakasa, Yukari; Yamashita, Shinji; Kurihara, Toshio; Zama, Kota; Kobayashi, Naoyuki; Mizutani, Yukiko; Mitsutake, Susumu; Shigyo, Tatsuro; Igarashi, Yasuyuki

    2011-08-24

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism. PPARα is highly expressed in the liver and controls genes involved in lipid catabolism. We previously reported that synthetic sphingolipid analogs, part of which contains shorter-length fatty acid chains than natural sphingolipids, stimulated the transcriptional activities of PPARs. Sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine (DHS) are abundant sphingoid bases, and ceramide and dihydroceramide are major ceramide species in mammals. In contrast, phytosphingosine (PHS) and DHS are the main sphingoid bases in fungi. PHS and phytoceramide exist in particular tissues such as the epidermis in mammals, and involvement of ceramide species in PPARβ activation in cultured keratinocytes has been reported. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether natural sphingolipids with C18 fatty acid and yeast-derived sphingoid bases activate PPARs as PPAR agonists. Lipids of brewer's yeast contain PHS- and DHS-based sphingolipids. To obtain the sphingoid bases, lipids were extracted from brewer's yeast and acid-hydrolyzed. The sphingoid base fraction was purified and quantified. To assess the effects of sphingolipids on PPAR activation, luciferase reporter assay was carried out. NIH/3T3 and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected with expression vectors for PPARs and retinoid × receptors, and PPAR responsive element reporter vector. When indicated, the PPAR/Gal4 chimera system was performed to enhance the credibility of experiments. Sphingolipids were added to the cells and the dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the transcriptional activity of PPARs. We observed that phytoceramide increased the transcriptional activities of PPARs significantly, whereas ceramide and dihydroceramide did not change PPAR activities. Phytoceramide also increased transactivation of PPAR/Gal4 chimera receptors. Yeast-derived sphingoid

  3. Genetic analysis of four novel peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ splice variants in monkey macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jiming; Wilson, Katina M.; Medh, Jheem D.

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ(PPAR-γ) is abundantly expressed in atherosclerotic lesions and is implicated in atherogenesis. The existence of three splice variants, PPAR-γ1, PPAR-γ2, and PPAR-γ3 has been established. Using monocyte-derived macrophages from cynomolgus monkeys, we demonstrate here the identification of two new PPAR-γ exons, exon C and exon D, which splice together with already established exons A1, A2, and B in the 5′ terminal region to generate four novel PPAR-γ subtypes, PPAR-γ4, -γ5, -γ6, and -γ7. PPAR-γ4 and γ5 were detected only in macrophages whereas γ6 and γ7 were expressed both in macrophages and adipose tissues. None of these novel isoforms were detected in muscle, kidney, and spleen from monkeys. We found sequences identical to exons C and D in the human genome database. These and all PPAR-γ exons known to date are encoded by a single gene, located from region 10498 K to 10384 K on human chromosome 3. We cloned and expressed PPAR-γ1, PPAR-γ4, and PPAR-γ5 proteins in yeast using the expression vector pPICZB. As expected, all recombinant proteins showed a molecular weight of approximately 50 kDa. We also investigated the effect of a high-fat diet on the level of macrophage PPAR-γ expression in monkeys. RT-PCR showed a significant increase in total PPAR-γ and ABCA1 mRNA levels in macrophages of fat-fed monkeys (n = 7) compared to those maintained on a normal diet (n = 2). However, none of the novel isoforms seemed to be induced by fat-feeding. We used tetracycline-responsive expression vectors to obtain moderate expression of PPAR-γ4 and -γ5 in CHO cells. In these cells, expression of PPAR-γ5 but not -γ4 repressed the expression of ABCA1. Neither isoform modulated the expression of lipoprotein lipase. Our results suggest that individual PPAR-γ isoforms may be responsible for unique tissue-specific biological effects and that PPAR-γ4 and -γ5 may modulate macrophage function and atherogenesis. PMID

  4. Dual and pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) co-agonism: the bezafibrate lessons.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Motro, Michael; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2005-09-16

    There are three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) subtypes which are commonly designated PPAR alpha, PPAR gamma and PPAR beta/delta. PPAR alpha activation increases high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol synthesis, stimulates "reverse" cholesterol transport and reduces triglycerides. PPAR gamma activation results in insulin sensitization and antidiabetic action. Until recently, the biological role of PPAR beta/delta remained unclear. However, treatment of obese animals by specific PPAR delta agonists results in normalization of metabolic parameters and reduction of adiposity. Combined treatments with PPAR gamma and alpha agonists may potentially improve insulin resistance and alleviate atherogenic dyslipidemia, whereas PPAR delta properties may prevent the development of overweight which typically accompanies "pure" PPAR gamma ligands. The new generation of dual-action PPARs--the glitazars, which target PPAR-gamma and PPAR-alpha (like muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) are on deck in late-stage clinical trials and may be effective in reducing cardiovascular risk, but their long-term clinical effects are still unknown. A number of glitazars have presented problems at a late stage of clinical trials because of serious side-effects (including ragaglitazar and farglitazar). The old and well known lipid-lowering fibric acid derivative bezafibrate is the first clinically tested pan--(alpha, beta/delta, gamma) PPAR activator. It is the only pan-PPAR activator with more than a quarter of a century of therapeutic experience with a good safety profile. Therefore, bezafibrate could be considered (indeed, as a "post hoc" understanding) as an "archetype" of a clinically tested pan-PPAR ligand. Bezafibrate leads to considerable raising of HDL cholesterol and reduces triglycerides, improves insulin sensitivity and reduces blood glucose level, significantly lowering the incidence of cardiovascular events and new diabetes in patients with features of metabolic

  5. Proinflammatory cytokine and ligands modulate cardiac peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Lee, T-I; Kao, Y-H; Chen, Y-C; Chen, Y-J

    2009-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) mediate inflammatory processes and alter cardiac function. However, it is not clear whether inflammatory cytokines or PPAR ligands regulate PPARs in the cardiomyocytes to modulate cardiac functions. We investigated the effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and PPAR ligands on the expression of PPARs in HL-1 cardiomyocytes. HL-1 cardiomyocytes were incubated with and without TNF-alpha (1, 10, 25 and 50 ng mL(-1)) or PPAR ligands (rosiglitazone, pioglitazone and fenofibrate) at concentrations of 0.1, 1 and 10 microM for 24 h. The cells also received SN-50 (NF-kappaB inhibitor, 50 microg mL(-1)), ascorbic acid (100 microM) and coenzyme Q10 (10 microM) alone or combined with TNF-alpha. Using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot, we found that incubation of TNF-alpha (50 ng mL(-1)) for 24 h decreased PPAR-alpha, but increased PPAR-gamma without altering PPAR-delta. These effects were not changed by co-administration of SN-50. However, co-administration of ascorbic acid prevented the effect of TNF-alpha both on PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma. Coenzyme Q10 partially attenuated the effect of TNF-alpha on PPAR-gamma but did not alter its effect on PPAR-alpha. The administration of rosiglitazone (10 microM) and pioglitazone (10 microM) for 24 h increased PPAR-gamma mRNA, but did not alter PPAR-alpha or PPAR-delta. Moreover, fenofibrate (0.1, 1 and 10 microM) increased PPAR-gamma without any effects on PPAR-alpha or PPAR-delta. Oxidative stress causes the regulations of PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma in the TNF-alpha-treated cardiomyocytes. The up-regulation of PPAR-gamma by PPAR ligands may contribute to their anti-inflammation effects.

  6. Phytoceramide and sphingoid bases derived from brewer's yeast Saccharomyces pastorianus activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate lipid and glucose metabolism. PPARα is highly expressed in the liver and controls genes involved in lipid catabolism. We previously reported that synthetic sphingolipid analogs, part of which contains shorter-length fatty acid chains than natural sphingolipids, stimulated the transcriptional activities of PPARs. Sphingosine and dihydrosphingosine (DHS) are abundant sphingoid bases, and ceramide and dihydroceramide are major ceramide species in mammals. In contrast, phytosphingosine (PHS) and DHS are the main sphingoid bases in fungi. PHS and phytoceramide exist in particular tissues such as the epidermis in mammals, and involvement of ceramide species in PPARβ activation in cultured keratinocytes has been reported. The purpose of the present study is to investigate whether natural sphingolipids with C18 fatty acid and yeast-derived sphingoid bases activate PPARs as PPAR agonists. Method Lipids of brewer's yeast contain PHS- and DHS-based sphingolipids. To obtain the sphingoid bases, lipids were extracted from brewer's yeast and acid-hydrolyzed. The sphingoid base fraction was purified and quantified. To assess the effects of sphingolipids on PPAR activation, luciferase reporter assay was carried out. NIH/3T3 and human hepatoma (HepG2) cells were transfected with expression vectors for PPARs and retinoid × receptors, and PPAR responsive element reporter vector. When indicated, the PPAR/Gal4 chimera system was performed to enhance the credibility of experiments. Sphingolipids were added to the cells and the dual luciferase reporter assay was performed to determine the transcriptional activity of PPARs. Results We observed that phytoceramide increased the transcriptional activities of PPARs significantly, whereas ceramide and dihydroceramide did not change PPAR activities. Phytoceramide also increased transactivation of PPAR/Gal4 chimera receptors

  7. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} enhances fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joo-Young; Hashizaki, Hikari; Goto, Tsuyoshi; Sakamoto, Tomoya; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Kawada, Teruo

    2011-04-22

    Highlights: {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes and GPDH activity in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation also increased insulin-dependent glucose uptake in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation did not affect lipid accumulation in human adipocytes. {yields} PPAR{alpha} activation increased fatty acid oxidation through induction of fatty acid oxidation-related genes in human adipocytes. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{alpha} (PPAR{alpha}) is a key regulator for maintaining whole-body energy balance. However, the physiological functions of PPAR{alpha} in adipocytes have been unclarified. We examined the functions of PPAR{alpha} using human multipotent adipose tissue-derived stem cells as a human adipocyte model. Activation of PPAR{alpha} by GW7647, a potent PPAR{alpha} agonist, increased the mRNA expression levels of adipocyte differentiation marker genes such as PPAR{gamma}, adipocyte-specific fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase and increased both GPDH activity and insulin-dependent glucose uptake level. The findings indicate that PPAR{alpha} activation stimulates adipocyte differentiation. However, lipid accumulation was not changed, which is usually observed when PPAR{gamma} is activated. On the other hand, PPAR{alpha} activation by GW7647 treatment induced the mRNA expression of fatty acid oxidation-related genes such as CPT-1B and AOX in a PPAR{alpha}-dependent manner. Moreover, PPAR{alpha} activation increased the production of CO{sub 2} and acid soluble metabolites, which are products of fatty acid oxidation, and increased oxygen consumption rate in human adipocytes. The data indicate that activation of PPAR{alpha} stimulates both adipocyte differentiation and fatty acid oxidation in human adipocytes, suggesting that PPAR{alpha} agonists could improve insulin resistance without lipid accumulation in adipocytes. The expected

  8. Dual and pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) co-agonism: the bezafibrate lessons

    PubMed Central

    Tenenbaum, Alexander; Motro, Michael; Fisman, Enrique Z

    2005-01-01

    There are three peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) subtypes which are commonly designated PPAR alpha, PPAR gamma and PPAR beta/delta. PPAR alpha activation increases high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol synthesis, stimulates "reverse" cholesterol transport and reduces triglycerides. PPAR gamma activation results in insulin sensitization and antidiabetic action. Until recently, the biological role of PPAR beta/delta remained unclear. However, treatment of obese animals by specific PPAR delta agonists results in normalization of metabolic parameters and reduction of adiposity. Combined treatments with PPAR gamma and alpha agonists may potentially improve insulin resistance and alleviate atherogenic dyslipidemia, whereas PPAR delta properties may prevent the development of overweight which typically accompanies "pure" PPAR gamma ligands. The new generation of dual-action PPARs – the glitazars, which target PPAR-gamma and PPAR-alpha (like muraglitazar and tesaglitazar) are on deck in late-stage clinical trials and may be effective in reducing cardiovascular risk, but their long-term clinical effects are still unknown. A number of glitazars have presented problems at a late stage of clinical trials because of serious side-effects (including ragaglitazar and farglitazar). The old and well known lipid-lowering fibric acid derivative bezafibrate is the first clinically tested pan – (alpha, beta/delta, gamma) PPAR activator. It is the only pan-PPAR activator with more than a quarter of a century of therapeutic experience with a good safety profile. Therefore, bezafibrate could be considered (indeed, as a "post hoc" understanding) as an "archetype" of a clinically tested pan-PPAR ligand. Bezafibrate leads to considerable raising of HDL cholesterol and reduces triglycerides, improves insulin sensitivity and reduces blood glucose level, significantly lowering the incidence of cardiovascular events and new diabetes in patients with features of

  9. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor (PPAR) Gene Profiling Uncovers Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 as a PPARα Target Gene in Cardioprotection*

    PubMed Central

    el Azzouzi, Hamid; Leptidis, Stefanos; Bourajjaj, Meriem; Armand, Anne-Sophie; van der Nagel, Roel; van Bilsen, Marc; Da Costa Martins, Paula A.; De Windt, Leon J.

    2011-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors and consist of the three isoforms, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ. Considerable evidence indicates the importance of PPARs in cardiovascular lipid homeostasis and diabetes, yet the isoform-dependent cardiac target genes remain unknown. Here, we constructed murine ventricular clones allowing stable expression of siRNAs to achieve specifically knockdown for each of the PPAR isoforms. By combining gene profiling and computational peroxisome proliferator response element analysis following PPAR isoform activation in normal versus PPAR isoform-deficient cardiomyocyte-like cells, we have, for the first time, determined PPAR isoform-specific endogenous target genes in the heart. Electromobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the existence of an evolutionary conserved peroxisome proliferator response element consensus-binding site in an insulin-like growth factor-1 (igf-1) enhancer. In line, Wy-14643-mediated PPARα activation in the wild-type mouse heart resulted in up-regulation of igf-1 transcript abundance and provided protection against cardiomyocyte apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion or biomechanical stress. Taken together, these data confirm igf-1 as an in vivo target of PPARα and the involvement of a PPARα/IGF-1 signaling pathway in the protection of cardiomyocytes under ischemic and hemodynamic loading conditions. PMID:21245137

  10. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gene profiling uncovers insulin-like growth factor-1 as a PPARalpha target gene in cardioprotection.

    PubMed

    el Azzouzi, Hamid; Leptidis, Stefanos; Bourajjaj, Meriem; Armand, Anne-Sophie; van der Nagel, Roel; van Bilsen, Marc; Da Costa Martins, Paula A; De Windt, Leon J

    2011-04-22

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-activated transcription factors and consist of the three isoforms, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ. Considerable evidence indicates the importance of PPARs in cardiovascular lipid homeostasis and diabetes, yet the isoform-dependent cardiac target genes remain unknown. Here, we constructed murine ventricular clones allowing stable expression of siRNAs to achieve specifically knockdown for each of the PPAR isoforms. By combining gene profiling and computational peroxisome proliferator response element analysis following PPAR isoform activation in normal versus PPAR isoform-deficient cardiomyocyte-like cells, we have, for the first time, determined PPAR isoform-specific endogenous target genes in the heart. Electromobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated the existence of an evolutionary conserved peroxisome proliferator response element consensus-binding site in an insulin-like growth factor-1 (igf-1) enhancer. In line, Wy-14643-mediated PPARα activation in the wild-type mouse heart resulted in up-regulation of igf-1 transcript abundance and provided protection against cardiomyocyte apoptosis following ischemia/reperfusion or biomechanical stress. Taken together, these data confirm igf-1 as an in vivo target of PPARα and the involvement of a PPARα/IGF-1 signaling pathway in the protection of cardiomyocytes under ischemic and hemodynamic loading conditions.

  11. Immunotoxicity of perfluorooctanoic acid and perfluorooctane sulfonate and the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Jamie C; Shnyra, Alexander; Badr, Mostafa Z; Loveless, Scott E; Hoban, Denise; Frame, Steven R; Cunard, Robyn; Anderson, Stacey E; Meade, B Jean; Peden-Adams, Margie M; Luebke, Robert W; Luster, Michael I

    2009-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) are environmentally widespread and persistent chemicals with multiple toxicities reported in experimental animals and humans. These compounds can trigger biological activity by activating the alpha isotype of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), ligand-activated transcription factors that regulate gene expression; however, some biological effects may occur independently of the receptor. Activation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) modulates lipid and glucose homeostasis, cell proliferation and differentiation, and inflammation. Reported immunomodulation in experimental animals exposed to PFOA and PFOS has included altered inflammatory responses, production of cytokines and other proteins, reduced lymphoid organ weights, and altered antibody synthesis. Mounting experimental animal evidence suggests PPARalpha independence of some immune effects. This evidence originates primarily from studies with PPARalpha knockout models exposed to PFOA that demonstrate hepatic peroxisome proliferation, reduced lymphoid organ weights, and altered antibody synthesis. As human PPARalpha expression is significantly less than that of rodents, potential PPARalpha independence indicates that future research must explore mechanisms of action of these compounds, including PPARalpha-dependent and -independent pathways. This multiauthored review contains brief descriptions of current and recently published work exploring immunomodulation by PFOA and PFOS, as well as a short overview of other PPARalpha ligands of therapeutic and environmental interest.

  12. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR α/γ) agonists as a potential target to reduce cardiovascular risk in diabetes.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Stephen J; Uno, Kiyoko

    2012-04-01

    The disappointing results of glucose lowering studies have highlighted the ongoing need to develop new therapeutic strategies to reduce cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. The presence of a range of metabolic abnormalities in diabetic patients presents a number of potential targets for therapeutic intervention. While modulation of peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs) represents an attractive approach, the results of studies of pharmacological agonists have been variable. The findings of these studies and rationale for development of dual PPAR-α/γ agonists will be reviewed.

  13. [Lessons Learned after 25 Years of Studies on the Physiological Roles of the Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor].

    PubMed

    Motojima, Kiyoto

    2015-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) was discovered a quarter of a century ago. PPAR was soon recognized as a general transcriptional regulator of lipid homeostasis, and several hypolipidemic and antidiabetic agents were shown to be effective ligands for it. Since then, many attempts to develop more potent drugs have been made worldwide, but most were unsuccessful due to serious side effects. It appears that the PPAR boom has ended. This review summarizes the short history of PPAR studies, including our own results, and discusses the lessons learned from the rise and fall of studies in this field for next-generation basic studies and drug development research.

  14. Role of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma and Its Ligands in the Treatment of Hematological Malignancies

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Bates, Tatiana M.; Lehmann, Geniece M.; Simpson-Haidaris, Patricia J.; Bernstein, Steven H.; Sime, Patricia J.; Phipps, Richard P.

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a multifunctional transcription factor with important regulatory roles in inflammation, cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. PPARγ is expressed in a variety of immune cells as well as in numerous leukemias and lymphomas. Here, we review recent studies that provide new insights into the mechanisms by which PPARγ ligands influence hematological malignant cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Understanding the diverse properties of PPARγ ligands is crucial for the development of new therapeutic approaches for hematological malignancies. PMID:18528522

  15. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ and Its Ligands in the Treatment of Tumors in the Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yun; Lu, Yun; Yu, Fang; Zhu, Chuntie; Wang, Hua; Wang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor -γ (PPARγ) has been identified in a wide range of cancers, including brain, breast, colon, stomach and lung cancers. It belongs to the thyroid/ steroid hormone receptors superfamily. Binding with their special ligands, PPARγ plays important roles in regulating transcription of their target genes. PPARγ activation suppresses the growth of the tumor cells, implicating the anti-tumor potential of PPARγ ligand. Tumors in the nervous system are among the most devastating cancers. This review highlights key advances in understanding the effects of PPARγ ligands in the treatment of tumors in the nervous system.

  16. Regulation of the human SLC25A20 expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha in human hepatoblastoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Kentaro; Inada, Hirohiko; Yamasaki, Daisuke; Ishimoto, Kenji; Tanaka, Toshiya; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Doi, Takefumi

    2009-11-20

    Solute carrier family 25, member 20 (SLC25A20) is a key molecule that transfers acylcarnitine esters in exchange for free carnitine across the mitochondrial membrane in the mitochondrial {beta}-oxidation. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR{alpha}) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that plays an important role in the regulation of {beta}-oxidation. We previously established tetracycline-regulated human cell line that can be induced to express PPAR{alpha} and found that PPAR{alpha} induces the SLC25A20 expression. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region of the human slc25a20 gene and showed that PPAR{alpha} regulates the expression of human SLC25A20 via the peroxisome proliferator responsive element.

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) isoforms are differentially expressed in peri-implantation porcine conceptuses.

    PubMed

    Blitek, Agnieszka; Szymanska, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of ligand-dependent transcription factors. PPARs are critical regulators of glucose homeostasis and lipid metabolism, and affect cell proliferation and differentiation. In the current study, we examined (1) the profiles of PPARA, PPARD, and PPARG mRNA expression and DNA binding activity in porcine conceptuses collected on Days 10-11 (spherical and tubular conceptuses), 11-12 (filamentous conceptuses), 13-14, and 15-16 (elongated conceptuses) of pregnancy, (2) the presence of PPARA, PPARD, and PPARG proteins in Days 10, 12, and 15 conceptuses. Moreover, we analyzed the abundance of retinoid X receptor (RXR; PPARs heterodimer partner) transcripts as well as the correlation between PPARs mRNA expression and the expression of genes important for and/or associated with elongation of porcine conceptuses: aromatase (CYP19A1), prostaglandin endoperoxide synthase 2 (PTGS2), glucose transporter 1 (SLC2A1), and interleukin 1B (IL1B). PPARA mRNA expression in conceptuses did not change during Days 10-14 of gestation, but was greater on Days 15-16 compared to Days 10-11 (P < 0.05). A considerable increase in PPARD and PPARG mRNA expression was observed in filamentous conceptuses from Days 11-12 compared to spherical and tubular conceptuses from Days 10-11 (P < 0.01), followed by a decrease on Days 13-14 and 15-16 (P < 0.05). PPARA, PPARD, and PPARG proteins were present in conceptus tissue demonstrating nuclear localization clearly visible on Days 12 and 15 of pregnancy. DNA binding activity of the PPARD isoform was greater in filamentous conceptuses from Days 11-12 than in spherical and tubular conceptuses from Days 10-11 (P < 0.01). Moreover, concentrations of active PPARD and PPARG proteins in nuclear fractions of conceptus tissue were greater on Days 11-12 compared to Days 13-14 and 15-16 of pregnancy (P < 0.05). RXRA, RXRD, and RXRG mRNA expression in conceptuses

  18. [Association between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gene polymorphism and essential hypertension].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yao; Gu, Shu-jun; Wu, Ming; Chen, Qiu; Zhou, Zheng-yuan; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Li-jun; Luo, Wen-shu; Guo, Zhi-rong

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the association between ten single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α/δ/γ and essential hypertension (EH). Participants were recruited within the framework of a cohort populations survey from the PMMJS (Prevention of Multiple Metabolic Disorders and MS in Jiangsu Province) which was conducted in the urban community of Jiangsu province from 1999 to 2007. Eight hundred and twenty subjects (551 non-hypertensive subjects, 269 hypertensive subjects) were randomly selected but were not related to each other. Ten SNP (rs135539, rs1800206, rs4253778 of PPARα; rs2016520, rs9794 of PPARδ; rs10865710, rs1805192, rs4684847, rs709158 and rs3856806 of PPARγ) were selected from the HapMap database. χ(2) test was used to determine whether the whole population was in H-W genetic equilibrium. SHEsis software was used to examine the relations of SNP and linkage equilibrium. Logistic regression model was used to examine the association between ten SNP in the PPAR and EH. Difference on the distribution of four SNP genotypes including rs1800206, rs9794, rs10865710 and rs4684847 between high blood pressure and non-high blood pressure group, high systolic blood pressure (SBP) and normal SBP group, high diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and normal DBP group was significant (P < 0.05). After adjusting factors as age, sex, body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, high density lipoprotein cholesterol-C, high-fat diet and compared with wild-type gene carriers, the OR (95%CI) of objects with rs1800206 V allele appeared in high blood pressure, high SBP and high DBP were 0.60 (0.41 - 0.89), 0.57 (0.37 - 0.88) and 0.61 (0.39 - 0.96), respectively. The OR (95%CI) of objects with G allele of rs9794 were 0.63 (0.46 - 0.87), 0.51 (0.36 - 0.73) and 0.68 (0.47 - 1.01). The OR (95%CI) of objects with G allele of rs10865710 were 1.62 (1.19 - 2.20), 1.59 (1.14 - 2.22) and 1.53 (1.07 - 2.18), respectively. While the OR (95%CI) of

  19. Fasting-induced increases in aquaporin 7 and adipose triglyceride lipase mRNA expression in adipose tissue are attenuated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha deficiency.

    PubMed

    Walker, C G; Holness, M J; Gibbons, G F; Sugden, M C

    2007-07-01

    To investigate the impact of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha deficiency on gene expression of adipose triglyceride lipase and the glycerol transporter aquaglyceroporin 7 in white adipose tissue in the fed and fasted states in relation to glycerol release by isolated adipocytes. Studies using wild-type and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha null mice. Hormone and metabolite concentrations, real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), basal and stimulated adipocyte lipolysis, estimated by glycerol release. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha deficiency blocked the increase in aquaglyceroporin 7 transcript level and attenuated the increase in adipose triglyceride lipase transcript level in white adipose tissue elicited by fasting. Fasting glycerol levels were lower in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha null than wild-type mice, despite increased mobilization of adipocyte fat reserves in vivo as indicated by reduced adipose tissue masses (three distinct depots) and a significantly lower epididymal adipocyte diameter. Basal net glycerol release was unchanged but beta-adrenergic-stimulated net glycerol release was higher with isolated adipocytes from fasted peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha null mice compared with those of fasted wild-type mice. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha deficiency prevents effects of fasting to increase adipocyte aquaglyceroporin 7 gene expression, and influences the regulation of inter-tissue glycerol flux after fasting via lowered adipocyte aquaglyceroporin 7 expression. Lowered gene expression of adipose triglyceride lipase and aquaglyceroporin 7 in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha null mice is not limiting for adipose triglyceride breakdown in vivo during fasting.

  20. Electrophilic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands have potent antifibrotic effects in human lung fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Heather E; Kulkarni, Ajit; Lehmann, Geniece M; Garcia-Bates, Tatiana M; Thatcher, Thomas H; Huxlin, Krystel R; Phipps, Richard P; Sime, Patricia J

    2009-12-01

    Pulmonary fibrosis is a progressive scarring disease with no effective treatment. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta is up-regulated in fibrotic diseases, where it stimulates differentiation of fibroblasts to myofibroblasts and production of excess extracellular matrix. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma is a transcription factor that regulates adipogenesis, insulin sensitization, and inflammation. We report here that a novel PPARgamma ligand, 2-cyano-3,12-dioxoolean-1,9-dien-28-oic acid (CDDO), is a potent inhibitor of TGF-beta-stimulated differentiation of human lung fibroblasts to myofibroblasts, and suppresses up-regulation of alpha-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, collagen, and the novel myofibroblast marker, calponin. The inhibitory concentration causing a 50% decrease in aSMA for CDDO was 20-fold lower than the endogenous PPARgamma ligand, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15 d-PGJ(2)), and 400-fold lower than the synthetic ligand, rosiglitazone. Pharmacologic and genetic approaches were used to demonstrate that CDDO mediates its activity via a PPARgamma-independent pathway. CDDO and 15 d-PGJ(2) contain an alpha/beta unsaturated ketone, which acts as an electrophilic center that can form covalent bonds with cellular proteins. Prostaglandin A(1) and diphenyl diselenide, both strong electrophiles, also inhibit myofibroblast differentiation, but a structural analog of 15 d-PGJ(2) lacking the electrophilic center is much less potent. CDDO does not alter TGF-beta-induced Smad or AP-1 signaling, but does inhibit acetylation of CREB binding protein/p300, a critical coactivator in the transcriptional regulation of TGF-beta-responsive genes. Overall, these data indicate that certain PPARgamma ligands, and other small molecules with electrophilic centers, are potent inhibitors of critical TGF-beta-mediated profibrogenic activities through pathways independent of PPARgamma. As the inhibitory concentration causing a 50% decrease in a

  1. Inducible Conditional Vascular-Specific Overexpression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Beta/Delta Leads to Rapid Cardiac Hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Kay-Dietrich; Vukolic, Ana; Baudouy, Delphine; Michiels, Jean-François; Wagner, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors which function as ligand-activated transcription factors. Among them, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ) is highly expressed in the heart and thought to have cardioprotective functions due to its beneficial effects in metabolic syndrome. As we already showed that PPARβ/δ activation resulted in an enhanced cardiac angiogenesis and growth without impairment of heart function, we were interested to determine the effects of a specific activation of PPARβ/δ in the vasculature on cardiac performance under normal and in chronic ischemic heart disease conditions. We analyzed the effects of a specific PPARβ/δ overexpression in endothelial cells on the heart using an inducible conditional vascular-specific mouse model. We demonstrate that vessel-specific overexpression of PPARβ/δ induces rapid cardiac angiogenesis and growth with an increase in cardiomyocyte size. Upon myocardial infarction, vascular overexpression of PPARβ/δ, despite the enhanced cardiac vessel formation, does not protect against chronic ischemic injury. Our results suggest that the proper balance of PPARβ/δ activation in the different cardiac cell types is required to obtain beneficial effects on the outcome in chronic ischemic heart disease.

  2. Inducible Conditional Vascular-Specific Overexpression of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Beta/Delta Leads to Rapid Cardiac Hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Kay-Dietrich; Vukolic, Ana; Baudouy, Delphine; Michiels, Jean-François

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors which function as ligand-activated transcription factors. Among them, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta/delta (PPARβ/δ) is highly expressed in the heart and thought to have cardioprotective functions due to its beneficial effects in metabolic syndrome. As we already showed that PPARβ/δ activation resulted in an enhanced cardiac angiogenesis and growth without impairment of heart function, we were interested to determine the effects of a specific activation of PPARβ/δ in the vasculature on cardiac performance under normal and in chronic ischemic heart disease conditions. We analyzed the effects of a specific PPARβ/δ overexpression in endothelial cells on the heart using an inducible conditional vascular-specific mouse model. We demonstrate that vessel-specific overexpression of PPARβ/δ induces rapid cardiac angiogenesis and growth with an increase in cardiomyocyte size. Upon myocardial infarction, vascular overexpression of PPARβ/δ, despite the enhanced cardiac vessel formation, does not protect against chronic ischemic injury. Our results suggest that the proper balance of PPARβ/δ activation in the different cardiac cell types is required to obtain beneficial effects on the outcome in chronic ischemic heart disease. PMID:27057154

  3. Improved Insulin Resistance and Lipid Metabolism by Cinnamon Extract through Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yuebo; Gong, Zhenwei; Huang, Cheng; Zang, Ying Qin

    2008-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are transcriptional factors involved in the regulation of insulin resistance and adipogenesis. Cinnamon, a widely used spice in food preparation and traditional antidiabetic remedy, is found to activate PPARgamma and alpha, resulting in improved insulin resistance, reduced fasted glucose, FFA, LDL-c, and AST levels in high-caloric diet-induced obesity (DIO) and db/db mice in its water extract form. In vitro studies demonstrate that cinnamon increases the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma and alpha (PPARgamma/alpha) and their target genes such as LPL, CD36, GLUT4, and ACO in 3T3-L1 adipocyte. The transactivities of both full length and ligand-binding domain (LBD) of PPARgamma and PPARalpha are activated by cinnamon as evidenced by reporter gene assays. These data suggest that cinnamon in its water extract form can act as a dual activator of PPARgamma and alpha, and may be an alternative to PPARgamma activator in managing obesity-related diabetes and hyperlipidemia.

  4. Synergistic interactions between heregulin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) agonist in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Bae-Hang; Lee, Sean-Bong; Stolz, Donna B; Lee, Yong J; Lee, Byeong-Chel

    2011-06-03

    Here, we demonstrate that troglitazone (Rezulin), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist, acted in synergy with heregulin to induce massive cell death in breast cancer cells. Although the combination of heregulin and troglitazone (HRG/TGZ) induced both apoptosis and necrosis, the main mode of cell death was caspase-independent and occurred via necrosis. This combination increased generation of superoxide in mitochondria, which in turn destabilized mitochondria potential. Pretreatment with N-acetyl-l-cysteine and catalase expression ameliorated cell death induced by the combination treatment, indicating a role of oxidative stress in mediating HRG/TGZ-induced cell death. Notably, pretreatment with pyruvate significantly prevented the cell death, suggesting a potential mechanistic link between metabolic stress and HRG/TGZ-induced cell death. The activation of the HRG signaling axis has been considered as a poor prognostic factor in breast cancer and confers resistance to gefitinib (Iressa) and tamoxifen. However, our data presented here paradoxically suggest that HRG expression can actually be beneficial when it comes to treating breast cancer with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligands. Taken together, the combination of HRG and TGZ may provide a basis for the development of a novel strategy in the treatment of apoptosis-resistant and/or hormone-refractory breast cancer.

  5. Positive regulation of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway by fatty acids through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR).

    PubMed

    Dreyer, C; Keller, H; Mahfoudi, A; Laudet, V; Krey, G; Wahli, W

    1993-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferators regulate the transcription of genes by activating ligand-dependent transcription factors, which, due to their structure and function, can be assigned to the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors. Three such peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR alpha, beta, and gamma) have been cloned in Xenopus laevis. Their mRNAs are expressed differentially; xPPAR alpha and beta but not xPPAR gamma are expressed in oocytes and embryos. In the adult, expression of xPPAR alpha and beta appears to be ubiquitous, and xPPAR gamma is mainly observed in adipose tissue and kidney. Immunocytochemical analysis revealed that PPARs are nuclear proteins, and that their cytoplasmic-nuclear translocation is independent of exogenous activators. A target gene of PPARs is the gene encoding acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the peroxisomal beta-oxidation of fatty acids. A peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE), to which PPARs bind, has been identified within the promoter of the ACO gene. Besides the known xenobiotic activators of PPARs, such as hypolipidemic drugs, natural activators have been identified. Polyunsaturated fatty acids at physiological concentrations are efficient activators of PPARs, and 5,8,11,14-eicosatetraynoic acid (ETYA), which is the alkyne homolog of arachidonic acid, is the most potent activator of xPPAR alpha described to date. Taken together, our data suggest that PPARs have an important role in lipid metabolism.

  6. Single gene contributions: genetic variants of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (isoforms alpha, beta/delta and gamma) and mechanisms of dyslipidemias.

    PubMed

    Yong, Eu Leong; Li, Jun; Liu, Mei Hui

    2008-04-01

    Polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor isoforms may be among the most important single-gene contributors to dyslipidemias, insulin resistance, and maturity-onset diabetes. Familial partial lipodystrophy is a rare but characteristic phenotype associated with carriers of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma missense mutations. Mutant receptors are transcriptionally defective, exhibit aberrant affinity for co-regulator molecules, and can exert dominant-negative or haplo-insufficiency effects on normal peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma function. The P12A variant of isoform gamma is estimated to reduce diabetes risk by 19% in many populations, and has a large attributable risk because of high prevalence of the normal allele. Variants L162V and V227A of isoform alpha (common in white and Oriental populations, respectively) are associated with sexually dimorphic perturbations of lipid metabolism and cardiovascular risk. Polymorphisms in isoforms alpha and beta/delta are reported to influence lipid and glucose utilization. Apart from lipodystrophic syndromes, metabolic and cardiovascular risk in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor variants is apparently modulated by dietary and exercise interventions, and interactions with polymorphisms in other genetic loci. Polymorphisms in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are critical susceptibility risk factors for dyslipidemias and diabetes. They provide attractive targets for gene-environment interventions to reduce the burden of metabolic disease.

  7. A complex between 6-iodolactone and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor type gamma may mediate the antineoplastic effect of iodine in mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Nuñez-Anita, R E; Arroyo-Helguera, O; Cajero-Juárez, M; López-Bojorquez, L; Aceves, C

    2009-06-01

    Recently we and other groups have shown that molecular iodine (I(2)) exhibits potent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects in mammary cancer models. In the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, I(2) treatment generates iodine-containing lipids similar to 6-iodo-5-hydroxy-eicosatrienoic acid and the 6-iodolactone (6-IL) derivative of arachidonic acid (AA), and it significantly decreases cellular proliferation and induces caspase-dependent apoptosis. Several studies have shown that AA is a natural ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which are nuclear transcription factors thought to participate in regulating cancer cell proliferation. Our results show that in MCF-7 cells: (1) 6-IL binds specifically and with high affinity to PPAR proteins (EMSA assays), (2) 6-IL activates both transfected (by transactivation assays) and endogenous (by lipid accumulation) peroxisome proliferator response elements, and (3) 6-IL supplementation increases PPAR gamma and decreases PPAR alpha expression. These results implicate PPARs in a molecular mechanism by which I(2), through formation of 6-IL, inhibits the growth of human breast cancer cells.

  8. [Gene-gene interactions among the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor polymorphisms for hypertriglyceridemia].

    PubMed

    Gu, Shu-jun; Liu, Meng-meng; Guo, Zhi-rong; Wu, Ming; Chen, Qiu; Zhou, Zheng-yuan; Yu, Hao; Zhang, Li-jun; Luo, Wen-shu

    2012-10-01

    To investigate the association of ten SNP at peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, δ, γ) with hypertriglyceridemia and the gene-gene interaction. Participants were recruited from the Prevention of MetS and Multi-metabolic Disorders in Jiangsu province of China Study (PMMJS). A total of 820 subjects were selected from the 4083 participants who had received follow-up examination, by using simple random sampling. Participants in baseline and follow-up study surveys were both collected blood samples 11 ml in the morning after at least 8 hours of fasting. Blood samples which collected at the baseline were subjected to PPARα, PPARδ and PPARγ genotype analyses. Blood samples which collected at the follow-up were used to measure serum triglyceride levels. The logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between different SNP and hypertriglyceridemia, and the generalized multifactor dimensionality reduction (GMDR) was applied to explore the gene-gene interaction. The samples included 474 in the non-hypertriglyceridemia group and 346 in the hypertriglyceridemia group. The genotype frequencies of rs1800206 in the hypertriglyceridemia group were 211 (61.0%) for LL, 132 (38.2%) for LV and 3 (0.9%) for VV, and in the non-hypertriglyceridemia group were 411 (86.7%) for LL, 59 (12.4%) for LV and 4(0.8%) for VV (χ(2) = 74.18, P < 0.01). V allele frequencies of rs1800206 in the hypertriglyceridemia group was 138(19.9%), and in the non-hypertriglyceridemia group was 67 (7.1%) (χ(2) = 60.62, P < 0.01). The genotype frequencies of rs2016520 in the hypertriglyceridemia group were 177 (51.2%) for TT, 154 (44.5%) for TC and 15 (4.3%) for CC, and in the non-hypertriglyceridemia group were 211 (44.5%) for TT, 212 (44.7%) for TC and 51 (10.8%) for CC(χ(2) = 15.93, P < 0.01). C allele frequencies of rs2016520 in the hypertriglyceridemia group was 184(26.6%), and in the non-hypertriglyceridemia group was 314 (33.1%) (χ(2) = 8.07, P < 0.01). The genotype

  9. Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting–refeeding process

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Joon No; Dutta, Raghbendra Kumar; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Yoo, Kyeong-Won; Song, Seung Ryel; Park, Do-Sim; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil

    2013-12-06

    Highlights: •A fasting–refeeding high fat diet (HDF) model mimics irregular eating habit. •A fasting–refeeding HFD induces liver ballooning injury. •A fasting–refeeding HDF process elicits hepatic triglyceride accumulation. •Fenofibrate, PPARα ligand, prevents liver damage induced by refeeding HFD. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24 h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determined by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24 h. Also, NF-κB is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-α, IL1-β, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting–refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-κB target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting–refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation.

  10. MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN THE ENHANCED SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SENESCENT RATS TO THE HEPATOCARCINOGENIC EFFECT OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATORS: ROLE OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA (PPARA), CELL PROLIFERATION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanisms involved in the ENHANCED SUSCEPTIBILITY of SENESCENT Rats TO THE HEPATOCARCINOGENIC EFFECT OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATORS: Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa), cell proliferation and oxidative stress

    Jihan A. Youssef1, Pierre Ammann2, B...

  11. MECHANISMS INVOLVED IN THE ENHANCED SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SENESCENT RATS TO THE HEPATOCARCINOGENIC EFFECT OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATORS: ROLE OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-ACTIVATED RECEPTOR ALPHA (PPARA), CELL PROLIFERATION AND OXIDATIVE STRESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mechanisms involved in the ENHANCED SUSCEPTIBILITY of SENESCENT Rats TO THE HEPATOCARCINOGENIC EFFECT OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATORS: Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa), cell proliferation and oxidative stress

    Jihan A. Youssef1, Pierre Ammann2, B...

  12. Genetic variation in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 (PGC1) gene families and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Raquel; Williams, Scott M.; Gao, Yu-Tang; Long, Jirong; Shi, Jiajun; Cai, Hui; Li, Honglan; Chen, Ching-Chu; Tai, E. Shyong; Hu, Frank; Cai, Qiuyin; Zheng, Wei; Shu, Xiao-Ou

    2014-01-01

    Summary We used a two-stage study design to evaluate whether variations in the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 (PGC1) gene families (PPARA, PPARG, PPARD, PPARGC1A, and PPARGC1B) are associated with T2D risk. Stage I used data from a genome-wide association study (GWAS) from Shanghai, China (1,019 T2D cases and 1,709 controls) and from a meta-analysis of data from the Asian Genetic Epidemiology Network for T2D (AGEN-T2D). Criteria for selection of SNPs for stage II were: 1) P<0.05 in single marker analysis in Shanghai GWAS and P<0.05 in the meta-analysis or 2) P<10−3 in the meta-analysis alone and 3) minor allele frequency ≥0.10. Nine SNPs from the PGC1 family were assessed in stage II (an independent set of middle-aged men and women from Shanghai with 1,700 T2D cases and 1,647 controls). One SNP in PPARGC1B, rs251464, was replicated in stage II (OR=0.87; 95% CI: 0.77–0.99). Gene-body mass index (BMI) and gene-exercise interactions and T2D risk were evaluated in a combined dataset (Shanghai GWAS and stage II data: 2,719 cases and 3,356 controls). One SNP in PPARGC1A, rs12640088, had a significant interaction with BMI. No interactions between the PPARGC1B gene and BMI or exercise were observed. PMID:24359475

  13. A new ligand for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma), GW7845, inhibits rat mammary carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Suh, N; Wang, Y; Williams, C R; Risingsong, R; Gilmer, T; Willson, T M; Sporn, M B

    1999-11-15

    We have tested a new ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, GW7845, as an inhibitor of experimental mammary carcinogenesis, using the classic rat model with nitrosomethylurea as carcinogen. Rats were first treated with a single dose of nitrosomethylurea (50 mg/kg body weight, i.p.). Starting 1 week later, they were fed GW7845, at either 60 or 30 mg/kg of diet, for 2 months. This agent significantly reduced tumor incidence, tumor number, and tumor weight at both doses. This is the first report of the use of a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma to prevent experimental breast cancer.

  14. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α ameliorates mitochondrial dysfunction and protects podocytes from aldosterone-induced injury.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yanggang; Huang, Songming; Wang, Wenyan; Wang, Yingying; Zhang, Ping; Zhu, Chunhua; Ding, Guixia; Liu, Bicheng; Yang, Tianxin; Zhang, Aihua

    2012-10-01

    Glomerular podocytes are highly specialized epithelial cells whose injury in glomerular diseases causes proteinuria. Since mitochondrial dysfunction is an early event in podocyte injury, we tested whether a major regulator of oxidative metabolism and mitochondrial function, the transcriptional coactivator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α), affects podocyte damage. Aldosterone-induced injury decreased PGC-1α expression, and induced mitochondrial and podocyte damage in dose- and time-dependent manners. The suppression of endogenous PGC-1α by RNAi caused podocyte mitochondrial damage and apoptosis while its increase by infection with an adenoviral vector prevented aldosterone-induced mitochondrial malfunction and inhibited injury. Overexpression of the silent mating type information regulation 2 homolog 1, a gene upstream of PGC-1α, prevented aldosterone-induced mitochondrial damage and podocyte injury by upregulating PGC-1α at both the transcriptional and post-translational levels. Resveratrol, a SIRT1 activator, attenuated aldosterone-induced mitochondrial malfunction and podocyte injury in vitro and in aldosterone-infused mice in vivo. Hence, endogenous PGC-1α may be important for maintenance of mitochondrial function in podocytes under normal conditions. Activators of SIRT1, such as resveratol, may be therapeutically useful in glomerular diseases to promote and maintain PGC-1α expression and, consequently, podocyte integrity.

  15. Covalent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma adduction by nitro-fatty acids: selective ligand activity and anti-diabetic signaling actions.

    PubMed

    Schopfer, Francisco J; Cole, Marsha P; Groeger, Alison L; Chen, Chen-Shan; Khoo, Nicholas K H; Woodcock, Steven R; Golin-Bisello, Franca; Motanya, U Nkiru; Li, Yong; Zhang, Jifeng; Garcia-Barrio, Minerva T; Rudolph, Tanja K; Rudolph, Volker; Bonacci, Gustavo; Baker, Paul R S; Xu, H Eric; Batthyany, Carlos I; Chen, Y Eugene; Hallis, Tina M; Freeman, Bruce A

    2010-04-16

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) binds diverse ligands to transcriptionally regulate metabolism and inflammation. Activators of PPARgamma include lipids and anti-hyperglycemic drugs such as thiazolidinediones (TZDs). Recently, TZDs have raised concern after being linked with increased risk of peripheral edema, weight gain, and adverse cardiovascular events. Most reported endogenous PPARgamma ligands are intermediates of lipid metabolism and oxidation that bind PPARgamma with very low affinity. In contrast, nitro derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids (NO(2)-FA) are endogenous products of nitric oxide ((*)NO) and nitrite (NO(2)(-))-mediated redox reactions that activate PPARgamma at nanomolar concentrations. We report that NO(2)-FA act as partial agonists of PPARgamma and covalently bind PPARgamma at Cys-285 via Michael addition. NO(2)-FA show selective PPARgamma modulator characteristics by inducing coregulator protein interactions, PPARgamma-dependent expression of key target genes, and lipid accumulation is distinctively different from responses induced by the TZD rosiglitazone. Administration of this class of signaling mediators to ob/ob mice revealed that NO(2)-FA lower insulin and glucose levels without inducing adverse side effects such as the increased weight gain induced by TZDs.

  16. The effect of bioactive compounds in tea on lipid metabolism and obesity through regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Joon; Jia, Yaoyao

    2015-02-01

    The hypolipidemic and antiobesogenic effects of tea intake have been associated with bioactive compounds that regulate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). This review describes the recent research on two of these compounds, (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) and linalool. Catechins (specifically EGCG) are key bioactive compounds found in tea, and a recent study has shown that linalool may also be an active tea compound. These compounds act on lipid metabolism by regulating PPAR subtypes. EGCG inhibits the key adipogenic transcription factor PPARγ while activating PPARα, whereas linalool is a PPARα agonist activating hepatic fatty acid uptake and subsequent oxidation to reduce plasma triglyceride levels. The collective activities of EGCG and linalool in tea may exert hypolipidemic and antiobesogenic effects by regulating PPARs. The research summarized in this review expands our understanding of the biological and physiological mechanisms of the bioactive compounds found in tea.

  17. [Role of the fatty acids in ovarian functions: involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and adipokines].

    PubMed

    Dupont, J; Froment, P; Ramé, C; Pierre, P; Coyral-Castel, S; Chabrolle, C

    2008-12-01

    The impact of nutrition and energy reserves on the reproductive functions is known for a very long time. However, the metabolic factors involved in the interactions between nutrition and reproduction are still poorly understood. These factors may be hormones or nutrients (glucose, protein and fatty acids). However, it remains to determine whether these factors act directly or indirectly on the reproductive tissues. In this issue, we briefly summarize the impact of fatty acids on the development of ovarian follicles, oocyte and embryo. We then discuss the current hypotheses about the mechanisms of action of these fatty acids on the ovarian functions. We describe more particularly the role of some receptors of fatty acids, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR) and Liver X Receptors (LXR) and two adipokines, leptin and adiponectin on ovarian cells.

  18. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) in Regenerative Medicine: Molecular Mechanism for PPAR in Stem Cells' Adipocyte Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Xie, Qiang; Tian, Taoran; Chen, Zhaozhao; Deng, Shuwen; Sun, Ke; Xie, Jing; Cai, Xiaoxiao

    2016-01-01

    Regenerative medicine plays an indispensable role in modern medicine and many trials and researches have therefore been developed to fit our medical needs. Tissue engineering has proven that adipose tissue can widely be used and brings advantages to regenerative medicine. Moreover, a trait of adipose stem cells being isolated and grown in vitro is a cornerstone to various applications. Since the adipose tissue has been widely used in regenerative medicine, numerous studies have been conducted to seek methods for gaining more adipocytes. To investigate molecular mechanism for adipocyte differentiation, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) has been widely studied to find out its functional mechanism, as a key factor for adipocyte differentiation. However, the precise molecular mechanism is still unknown. This review thus summarizes recent progress on the study of molecular mechanism and role of PPAR in adipocyte differentiation.

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in regulation of cytochromes P450: new way to overcome multidrug resistance?

    PubMed

    Cizkova, Katerina; Konieczna, Anna; Erdosova, Bela; Lichnovska, Radka; Ehrmann, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic and tumour cells are able to protect themselves against various harmful compounds. In human pathology, this phenomenon exists in the form of multidrug resistance (MDR) that significantly deteriorates success of anticancer treatment. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play one of the key roles in the xenobiotic metabolism. CYP expression could contribute to resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. CYP epoxygenases (CYP2C and CYP2J) metabolize about 20% of clinically important drugs. Besides of drug metabolism, CYP epoxygenases and their metabolites play important role in embryos, normal body function, and tumors. They participate in angiogenesis, mitogenesis, and cell signaling. It was found that CYP epoxygenases are affected by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Based on the results of current studies, we assume that PPARs ligands may regulate CYP2C and CYP2J and in some extent they may contribute to overcoming of MDR in patients with different types of tumours.

  20. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and ovarian function--implications for regulating steroidogenesis, differentiation, and tissue remodeling.

    PubMed

    Komar, Carolyn M

    2005-08-30

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a family of transcription factors involved in varied and diverse processes such as steroidogenesis, angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, cell cycle, apoptosis, and lipid metabolism. These processes are critical for normal ovarian function, and all three PPAR family members--alpha, delta, and gamma, are expressed in the ovary. Most notably, the expression of PPARgamma is limited primarily to granulosa cells in developing follicles, and is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH). Although much has been learned about the PPARs since their initial discovery, very little is known regarding their function in ovarian tissue. This review highlights what is known about the roles of PPARs in ovarian cells, and discusses potential mechanisms by which PPARs could influence ovarian function. Because PPARs are activated by drugs currently in clinical use (fibrates and thiazolidinediones), it is important to understand their role in the ovary, and how manipulation of their activity may impact ovarian physiology as well as ovarian pathology.

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) and their agonists for hypertension and heart failure: are the reagents beneficial or harmful?

    PubMed

    Chen, Rui; Liang, Fengxia; Moriya, Junji; Yamakawa, Jun-ichi; Takahashi, Takashi; Shen, Lin; Kanda, Tsugiyasu

    2008-11-12

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) alpha and gamma regulate nearly every step in cellular fatty acid uptake, utilization, oxidation, and storage pathways. They also control cell growth and migration, oxidative stress, and inflammation in the cardiovascular system. Recent studies have shown that PPARs have paradoxical effects on cardiovascular diseases, especially hypertension and heart failure. It is still unclear whether the blood pressure increases or decreases after treatment with a PPAR alpha agonist; it is also uncertain whether PPAR agonists are beneficial or harmful for heart failure. In order to clarify these issues, the literature on PPAR alpha and gamma and their agonists, as well as their effect on hypertension and heart failure not only in humans but also in experimental animals, was reviewed.

  2. Effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors on lipoprotein metabolism and glucose control in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Rosenson, Robert S

    2007-02-19

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are central regulators of lipoprotein metabolism and glucose homeostasis that are considered particularly useful for improving glycemic control and comorbidities in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Clinical trials of PPAR-alpha agonists have demonstrated efficacy in reducing cardiovascular events; however, these benefits have been confined to subgroups of patients with low levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol or high levels of triglycerides. While activators of PPAR-gamma reduce early atherosclerotic lesions and reduce cardiovascular events, these agents have the effect of increasing fluid retention in patients, which results in more hospitalizations for congestive heart failure. Future studies of PPAR-gamma agonists or dual PPAR-alpha/gamma agonists will require further delineation of the risk profile to avoid adverse outcomes in susceptible patients.

  3. Investigations into tumor accumulation and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor binding by F-18 and C-11 fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Jonson, Stephanie D; Welch, Michael J

    2002-02-01

    [11C]Acetate, a myocardial PET imaging agent for analysis of oxidative metabolism, has potential use in tumor imaging. Aromatic fatty acids display antitumor effects with phenylacetate currently in clinical trial. Tumor differentiation and cytostasis resulting from phenylacetate treatment may involve the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha). To examine whether aromatic fatty acids are potential imaging agents for PPARalpha or tumors in general, [11C]phenylacetic acid (PAA) and [18F]fluorophenyl-acetic acid (FPAA) were synthesized and evaluated in EMT-6 tumor bearing mice and 9L-Glioma tumor bearing rats and compared to [11C]acetate. [11C]Acetate showed better tumor accumulation than PAA or FPAA. The aromatic fatty acids did not directly bind PPARalpha as confirmed by a biodistribution study of PAA in PPARalpha -/- mice.

  4. Minireview: Won’t Get Fooled Again: The Nonmetabolic Roles of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) in the Heart

    PubMed Central

    Lockyer, Pamela; Schisler, Jonathan C.; Patterson, Cam; Willis, Monte S.

    2010-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) transcription factors are nuclear receptors initially identified for their key role in regulating metabolic processes. Recent studies designed to identify the role of PPARα, -β, and -γ in vivo uncovered extrametabolic roles that may be less well known in the heart. In this review, we describe what is known about these extrametabolic roles of PPARs, including regulation of cardiac inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling, oxidative stress, and regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. Lastly, we discuss the emerging role of PPARs in cell cycle regulation and angiogenesis in noncardiac systems that may be applicable to heart biology. Although this review primarily discusses the extrametabolic role of PPARα, the most studied PPAR isoform in the heart, we highlight where possible what is known about the unique and overlapping roles of the PPAR isoforms in terms of metabolic function. PMID:20016041

  5. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) activates promyogenic signaling pathways, thereby promoting myoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Go, Ga-Yeon; Yoo, Miran; Kim, Yong Kee; Seo, Dong-Wan; Kang, Jong-Sun; Bae, Gyu-Un

    2016-01-29

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) regulates postnatal myogenesis by alleviating myostatin activity, but the molecular mechanisms by which it regulates myogenesis are not fully understood. In this study, we investigate molecular mechanisms of PPARβ/δ in myoblast differentiation. C2C12 myoblasts treated with a PPARβ/δ agonist, GW0742 exhibit enhanced myotube formation and muscle-specific gene expression. GW0742 treatment dramatically activates promyogenic kinases, p38MAPK and Akt, in a dose-dependent manner. GW0742-stimulated myoblast differentiation is mediated by p38MAPK and Akt, since it failed to restore myoblast differentiation repressed by inhibition of p38MAPK and Akt. In addition, GW0742 treatment enhances MyoD-reporter activities. Consistently, overexpression of PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation accompanied by elevated activation of p38MAPK and Akt. Collectively, these results suggest that PPARβ/δ enhances myoblast differentiation through activation of promyogenic signaling pathways.

  6. Sleep and neurochemical modulation by the nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPAR-α) in rat.

    PubMed

    Mijangos-Moreno, Stephanie; Poot-Aké, Alwin; Guzmán, Khalil; Arankowsky-Sandoval, Gloria; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Zaldívar-Rae, Jaime; Sarro-Ramírez, Andrea; Murillo-Rodríguez, Eric

    2016-04-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) is a nuclear protein that plays an essential role in diverse neurobiological processes. However, the role of PPARα on the sleep modulation is unknown. Here, rats treated with an intrahypothalamic injection of Wy14643 (10μg/1μL; PPARα agonist) enhanced wakefulness and decreased slow wave sleep and rapid eye movement sleep whereas MK-886 (10μg/1μL; PPARα antagonist) promoted opposite effects. Moreover, Wy14643 increased dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, and adenosine contents collected from nucleus accumbens. The levels of these neurochemicals were diminished after MK-886 treatment. The current findings suggest that PPARα may participate in the sleep and neurochemical modulation.

  7. The role of NF-кB in SAA-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhe; Ooi, Shu Qin; Heng, Chew-Kiat

    2013-03-01

    Serum amyloid A (SAA) is an acute phase protein whose expression increases markedly during bacterial infection, tissue damage, and inflammation. The potential beneficial roles of SAA include its involvement in the reverse cholesterol transport and possibly extracellular lipid deposition at sites of inflammation and tissue repair. It is an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) plays a major regulatory role in adipogenesis, and the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. Activation of PPARγ leads to multiple changes in gene expression, some of which are believed to be atherogenic while others are antiatherogenic. In this study, we demonstrated that SAA upregulated COX-2 expression and induced PPARγ activity through NF-кB pathway. The effect of SAA on NF-кB activity is mediated by FPRL-1 and TLR4. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Pioglitazone Suppresses CXCR7 Expression To Inhibit Human Macrophage Chemotaxis through Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Duo; Zhu, Zhicheng; Li, Dan; Xu, Rihao; Wang, Tiance; Liu, Kexiang

    2015-11-17

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Pioglitazone, the widely used thiazolidinedione, is shown to be efficient in the prevention of cardiovascular complications of T2DM. In this study, we report that pioglitazone inhibits CXCR7 expression and thus blocks chemotaxis in differentiated macrophage without perturbing cell viability or macrophage differentiation. In addition, pioglitazone-mediated CXCR7 suppression and chemotaxis inhibition occur via activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) but not PPARα in differentiated macrophage. More importantly, pioglitazone therapy-induced PPARγ activation suppresses CXCR7 expression in human carotid atherosclerotic lesions. Collectively, our data demonstrate that pioglitazone suppresses CXCR7 expression to inhibit human macrophage chemotaxis through PPARγ.

  9. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors: role of isoform gamma in the antineoplastic effect of iodine in mammary cancer.

    PubMed

    Nunez-Anita, R E; Cajero-Juarez, M; Aceves, C

    2011-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) are ligand-activated transcription factors. Three subtypes--PPAR alpha, PPAR beta, and PPAR gamma--have been identified and are differentially expressed in tissues. Originally, they were described as molecular regulators of lipid metabolism; recently, it has been shown that they are also involved in regulating the cell cycle and apoptosis in both normal and tumoral cells. In fact, some synthetic PPAR ligands are used to treat dyslipidemia, metabolic diseases, and type 2 diabetes. Here, we review the role of PPAR gamma (PPARγ) in tumor initiation and progression, emphasizing the relationship between this isoform and the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the antineoplastic effect of iodine on mammary cancer.

  10. Minireview: Won't get fooled again: the nonmetabolic roles of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) in the heart.

    PubMed

    Lockyer, Pamela; Schisler, Jonathan C; Patterson, Cam; Willis, Monte S

    2010-06-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) transcription factors are nuclear receptors initially identified for their key role in regulating metabolic processes. Recent studies designed to identify the role of PPARalpha, -beta, and -gamma in vivo uncovered extrametabolic roles that may be less well known in the heart. In this review, we describe what is known about these extrametabolic roles of PPARs, including regulation of cardiac inflammation, extracellular matrix remodeling, oxidative stress, and regulation of cardiac hypertrophy. Lastly, we discuss the emerging role of PPARs in cell cycle regulation and angiogenesis in noncardiac systems that may be applicable to heart biology. Although this review primarily discusses the extrametabolic role of PPARalpha, the most studied PPAR isoform in the heart, we highlight where possible what is known about the unique and overlapping roles of the PPAR isoforms in terms of metabolic function.

  11. Synthesis, in vitro evaluation, and molecular modeling investigation of benzenesulfonimide peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α antagonists.

    PubMed

    Ammazzalorso, Alessandra; Carrieri, Antonio; Verginelli, Fabio; Bruno, Isabella; Carbonara, Giuseppe; D'Angelo, Alessandra; De Filippis, Barbara; Fantacuzzi, Marialuigia; Florio, Rosalba; Fracchiolla, Giuseppe; Giampietro, Letizia; Giancristofaro, Antonella; Maccallini, Cristina; Cama, Alessandro; Amoroso, Rosa

    2016-05-23

    Recent evidences suggest a moderate activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) could be favorable in metabolic diseases, reducing side effects given from full agonists. PPAR partial agonists and antagonists represent, to date, interesting tools to better elucidate biological processes modulated by these receptors. In this work are reported new benzenesulfonimide compounds able to block PPARα, synthesized and tested by transactivation assays and gene expression analysis. Some of these compounds showed a dose-dependent antagonistic behavior on PPARα, submicromolar potency, different profiles of selectivity versus PPARγ, and a repressive effect on CPT1A expression. Dockings and molecular dynamics on properly selected benzenesulfonimide derivatives furnished fresh insights into the molecular determinant most likely responsible for PPARα antagonism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Mechanism of the anti-platelet effect of natural bioactive compounds: role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors activation.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Fuentes, Francisco; Palomo, Iván

    2014-01-01

    Platelets are crucial mediators of the acute complications of atherosclerosis causing life-threatening ischemic events throughout plaque development. The inhibition of the platelet function has been used for a long time in an effort to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. However, morbidity and mortality figures indicate that current anti-platelet strategies are far from a panacea. In this context, a large number of natural bioactive compounds (NBCs) (polyphenols, terpenoids, alkaloids and fatty acids, among others) have been reported with apparent inhibitory activity on human platelets and each constituent may possess multiple targets. In this sense, the article describes how the mechanism of anti-platelet action by NBCs peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonists is mediated by inhibition of protein kinase-α, cyclooxygenase-1, thromboxane A2, cytosolic calcium, and indirect stimulation of protein kinase A (increased in cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels) and protein kinase G (increased in cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels).

  13. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Agonists: Potential Therapeutics for Neuropathology Associated with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Drew, Paul D.; Kane, Cynthia J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) result from fetal exposure to alcohol during pregnancy. These disorders present a variety of sequelae including involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) with lasting impact on cognitive function and behavior. FASD occur at an alarming rate and have significant personal and societal impact. There are currently no effective treatments for FASD. Recent studies demonstrate that ethanol induces potent neuroinflammation in many regions of the developing brain. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory agents such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonists suppress ethanol-induced neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. This suggests that anti-inflammatory agents may be effective in treatment of FASD. Future studies designed to determine the specific mechanisms by which alcohol induces neuroinflammation in the developing CNS may lead to targeted therapies for FASD. PMID:28203487

  14. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors in Regulation of Cytochromes P450: New Way to Overcome Multidrug Resistance?

    PubMed Central

    Cizkova, Katerina; Konieczna, Anna; Erdosova, Bela; Lichnovska, Radka; Ehrmann, Jiri

    2012-01-01

    Embryonic and tumour cells are able to protect themselves against various harmful compounds. In human pathology, this phenomenon exists in the form of multidrug resistance (MDR) that significantly deteriorates success of anticancer treatment. Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) play one of the key roles in the xenobiotic metabolism. CYP expression could contribute to resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapy. CYP epoxygenases (CYP2C and CYP2J) metabolize about 20% of clinically important drugs. Besides of drug metabolism, CYP epoxygenases and their metabolites play important role in embryos, normal body function, and tumors. They participate in angiogenesis, mitogenesis, and cell signaling. It was found that CYP epoxygenases are affected by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Based on the results of current studies, we assume that PPARs ligands may regulate CYP2C and CYP2J and in some extent they may contribute to overcoming of MDR in patients with different types of tumours. PMID:23193364

  15. Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) mediates the action of gamma linolenic acid in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jiang, W G; Redfern, A; Bryce, R P; Mansel, R E

    2000-02-01

    Gamma linolenic acid (GLA) is a polyunsaturated fatty acid, which induces cytotoxicity and regulates cell adhesion in cancer cells. The molecular mechanism of these actions is not clear. We have shown that GLA acts via peroxisome proliferator activated receptors (PPARs), by stimulating their phosphorylation and translocation to the nucleus. Removing PPAR gamma with antisense oligos abolished the effect of GLA on the expression of adhesion molecules and tumour suppressor genes, whereas removal of PPAR alpha had no effect. Tissues from patients with breast cancer showed a reduction of expression of both PPARs in cancer tissues, as compared with normal. Thus, PPAR gamma serves as the receptor for GLA in the regulation of gene expression in breast cancer cells.

  16. Anti-kindling Effect of Bezafibrate, a Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors Alpha Agonist, in Pentylenetetrazole Induced Kindling Seizure Model

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Lekha; Bhandari, Swati; Bhatia, Alka; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti; Chakrabarti, Amitava

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Studies in the animals suggested that Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs) may be involved in seizure control and selective agonists of PPAR α or PPAR γ raise seizure thresholds. The present study was contemplated with the aim of evaluating the anti kindling effects and the mechanism of bezafibrate, a Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors α (PPAR-α) agonist in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model of seizures in rats. Methods: In a PTZ kindled Wistar rat model, different doses of bezafibrate (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the PTZ injection. The PTZ injection was given on alternate day till the animal became fully kindled or till 10 weeks. The parameters measured were the latency to develop kindling and incidence of kindling, histopathological study of hippocampus, hippocampal lipid peroxidation studies, serum neuron specific enolase, and hippocampal DNA fragmentation study. Results: In this study, bezafibrate significantly reduced the incidence of kindling in PTZ treated rats and exhibited a marked prolongation in the latencies to seizures. In the present study bezafibrate decreased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance i.e. Malondialdehyde levels, increased the reduced glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in the brain. This added to its additional neuroprotective effects. Bezafibrate also reduced the neuronal damage and apoptosis in hippocampal area of the brain. Therefore bezafibrate exerted anticonvulsant properties in PTZ induced kindling model in rats. Conclusions: These findings may provide insights into the understanding of the mechanism of bezafibrate as an anti kindling agent and could offer a useful support to the basic antiepileptic therapy in preventing the development of PTZ induced seizures, suggesting its potential for therapeutic applications in temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:25625088

  17. Effects of the dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activator aleglitazar in patients with Type 2 Diabetes mellitus or prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Erland; Califf, Robert; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Malmberg, Klas; Ruilope, Luis; Schwartz, Gregory G; Wedel, Hans; Volz, Dietmar; Ditmarsch, Marc; Svensson, Anders; Bengus, Monica

    2015-07-01

    Insulin-resistant states, including type 2 diabetes (T2D) and prediabetes, are associated with elevated cardiovascular (CV) risk. Aleglitazar is a dual peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/γ agonist with favorable insulin-sensitizing and glucose-lowering actions, favorable effects on blood lipids, and an acceptable safety profile in short-time studies. Therefore, it was hypothesized that aleglitazar would reduce CV morbidity and mortality in patients with T2D mellitus and prediabetes (defined as glycosylated hemoglobin ≥5.7% to <6.5%) with previous CV complications. ALEPREVENT was a phase III, multicenter, randomized, double-blind, trial comparing aleglitazar 150 μg or placebo daily in patients with T2D or prediabetes with established, stable CV disease. The intended sample size was 19,000 with a primary efficacy measure of major adverse CV events. However, the trial was halted prematurely after 1,999 patients had been randomized because of futility and an unfavorable benefit risk ratio in another CV outcomes trial evaluating aleglitazar. At study termination after 58 ± 38 days of treatment, data had been collected from 1,996 patients (1,581 with T2D and 415 with pre-T2D). Despite the brief duration of treatment, aleglitazar induced favorable changes in glycosylated hemoglobin and blood lipids, similar for participants with T2D or prediabetes. However, compared with placebo, aleglitazar increased the incidence of hypoglycemia (86 vs 166; P < .0001), and muscular events (3 vs12; P = .012). Even within a short duration of exposure, aleglitazar was associated with excess adverse events, corroborating the findings of a larger and longer trial in T2D. Coupled with the previous failure of several other peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α/γ activators, this class now holds little promise for CV therapeutics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Impact of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma and delta on adiposity in toddlers and preschoolers in the GENESIS Study.

    PubMed

    Lagou, Vasiliki; Scott, Robert A; Manios, Yannis; Chen, Tun-Li Joshua; Wang, Guan; Grammatikaki, Evangelia; Kortsalioudaki, Christine; Liarigkovinos, Thodoris; Moschonis, George; Roma-Giannikou, Eleftheria; Pitsiladis, Yannis P

    2008-04-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR gamma) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPAR delta) are promising candidate genes for obesity. Associations between adiposity-related phenotypes and genetic variation in PPAR gamma (Pro12Ala and C1431T), as well as PPAR delta (T+294C) were assessed in 2,102 Greek children aged 1-6 years, as part of a large-scale epidemiological study (Growth, Exercise and Nutrition Epidemiological Study In preSchoolers). In girls aged 3-4 years, the Ala12 allele was associated with higher mid-upper arm (P = 0.010) and hip (P = 0.005) circumferences, as well as subscapular (P = 0.008) and total skinfolds (P = 0.011) that explained 2.0, 3.7, 2.1, and 1.9% of the phenotypic variance, respectively, while the T1431 allele was associated with higher mean values for waist circumference (P = 0.018) and suprailiac skinfold (P = 0.017), genotype accounting for 1.6% of the variance in both phenotypes. No significant effects of PPAR delta T+294C polymorphism or the interaction of the PPAR delta and PPAR gamma variants on adiposity-related phenotypes were observed in any age group or gender. Haplotype-based analysis including both PPAR gamma polymorphisms revealed that in girls aged 3-4 years, the Ala-T haplotype was associated with higher waist (P = 0.014) and hip (P = 0.007) circumferences compared to the common Pro-C haplotype. The PPAR gamma Pro12Ala and C1431T polymorphisms are associated with increased adiposity during early childhood in a gender- and age-specific manner and independently of the PPAR delta T+294C polymorphism.

  19. Adaptability and selectivity of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) pan agonists revealed from crystal structures

    SciTech Connect

    Oyama, Takuji; Toyota, Kenji; Waku, Tsuyoshi; Hirakawa, Yuko; Nagasawa, Naoko; Kasuga, Jun-ichi; Hashimoto, Yuichi; Miyachi, Hiroyuki; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2009-08-01

    The structures of the ligand-binding domains (LBDs) of human peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, PPARγ and PPARδ) in complexes with a pan agonist, an α/δ dual agonist and a PPARδ-specific agonist were determined. The results explain how each ligand is recognized by the PPAR LBDs at an atomic level. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) belong to the nuclear hormone receptor family, which is defined as transcriptional factors that are activated by the binding of ligands to their ligand-binding domains (LBDs). Although the three PPAR subtypes display different tissue distribution patterns and distinct pharmacological profiles, they all are essentially related to fatty-acid and glucose metabolism. Since the PPARs share similar three-dimensional structures within the LBDs, synthetic ligands which simultaneously activate two or all of the PPARs could be potent candidates in terms of drugs for the treatment of abnormal metabolic homeostasis. The structures of several PPAR LBDs were determined in complex with synthetic ligands, derivatives of 3-(4-alkoxyphenyl)propanoic acid, which exhibit unique agonistic activities. The PPARα and PPARγ LBDs were complexed with the same pan agonist, TIPP-703, which activates all three PPARs and their crystal structures were determined. The two LBD–ligand complex structures revealed how the pan agonist is adapted to the similar, but significantly different, ligand-binding pockets of the PPARs. The structures of the PPARδ LBD in complex with an α/δ-selective ligand, TIPP-401, and with a related δ-specific ligand, TIPP-204, were also determined. The comparison between the two PPARδ complexes revealed how each ligand exhibits either a ‘dual selective’ or ‘single specific’ binding mode.

  20. Sphingosine 1-phosphate is a ligand for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ that regulates neoangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Parham, Kate A; Zebol, Julia R; Tooley, Katie L; Sun, Wai Y; Moldenhauer, Lachlan M; Cockshell, Michaelia P; Gliddon, Briony L; Moretti, Paul A; Tigyi, Gabor; Pitson, Stuart M; Bonder, Claudine S

    2015-09-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive lipid that can function both extracellularly and intracellularly to mediate a variety of cellular processes. Using lipid affinity matrices and a radiolabeled lipid binding assay, we reveal that S1P directly interacts with the transcription factor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)γ. Herein, we show that S1P treatment of human endothelial cells (ECs) activated a luciferase-tagged PPARγ-specific gene reporter by ∼12-fold, independent of the S1P receptors. More specifically, in silico docking, gene reporter, and binding assays revealed that His323 of the PPARγ ligand binding domain is important for binding to S1P. PPARγ functions when associated with coregulatory proteins, and herein we identify that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1 (PGC1)β binds to PPARγ in ECs and their progenitors (nonadherent endothelial forming cells) and that the formation of this PPARγ:PGC1β complex is increased in response to S1P. ECs treated with S1P selectively regulated known PPARγ target genes with PGC1β and plasminogen-activated inhibitor-1 being increased, no change to adipocyte fatty acid binding protein 2 and suppression of CD36. S1P-induced in vitro tube formation was significantly attenuated in the presence of the PPARγ antagonist GW9662, and in vivo application of GW9662 also reduced vascular development in Matrigel plugs. Interestingly, activation of PPARγ by the synthetic ligand troglitazone also reduced tube formation in vitro and in vivo. To support this, Sphk1(-/-)Sphk2(+/-) mice, with low circulating S1P levels, demonstrated a similar reduction in vascular development. Taken together, our data reveal that the transcription factor, PPARγ, is a bona fide intracellular target for S1P and thus suggest that the S1P:PPARγ:PGC1β complex may be a useful target to manipulate neovascularization.

  1. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma in gastric ulcer: An overview of experimental evidences.

    PubMed

    Saha, Lekha

    2015-11-06

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Three subtypes, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, have been identified so far. PPARα is expressed in the liver, kidney, small intestine, heart, and muscle, where it activates the fatty acid catabolism and control lipoprotein assembly in response to long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic drugs (e.g., fenofibrate). PPARβ/δ is more broadly expressed and is implicated in fatty acid oxidation, keratinocyte differentiation, wound healing, and macrophage response to very low density lipoprotein metabolism. This isoform has been implicated in transcriptional-repression functions and has been shown to repress the activity of PPARα or PPARγ target genes. PPARγ1 and γ2 are generated from a single-gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma by differential promoter usage and alternative splicing. PPARγ1 is expressed in colon, immune system (e.g., monocytes and macrophages), and other tissues where it participates in the modulation of inflammation, cell proliferation, and differentiation. PPARs regulate gene expression through distinct mechanisms: Ligand-dependent transactivation, ligand-independent repression, and ligand-dependent transrepression. Studies in animals have demonstrated the gastric antisecretory activity of PPARα agonists like ciprofibrate, bezafibrate and clofibrate. Study by Pathak et al also demonstrated the effect of PPARα agonist, bezafibrate, on gastric secretion and gastric cytoprotection in various gastric ulcer models in rats. The majority of the experimental studies is on pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, which are PPARγ activators. In all the studies, both the PPARγ activators showed protection against the gastric ulcer and also accelerate the ulcer healing in gastric ulcer model in rats. Therefore, PPARα and PPARγ may be a target for gastric ulcer therapy

  2. Telmisartan improves cardiac fibrosis in diabetes through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor δ (PPARδ): from bedside to bench.

    PubMed

    Chang, Wei-Ting; Cheng, Juei-Tang; Chen, Zhih-Cherng

    2016-08-12

    Despite the known risk of diabetes-induced cardiac fibrosis, less is known about whether diabetes causes an altered cardiac phenotype independent of coronary atherosclerosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ), a versatile regulator of metabolic homeostasis, may be a potential therapeutic target. Herein we investigated the effectiveness of telmisartan, a unique angiotensin receptor blocker that increases PPARδ expression, in improving left ventricular remodeling in diabetic humans and rats. In this longitudinal, prospective study, we enrolled 15 diabetic patients receiving telmisartan (20 mg/day) for 12 weeks. After treatment, strain was measured and compared with the baseline value. Using streptozotocin to induce type 1 diabetes rat model, we measured PPARδ expression and downstream targets. After treatment with telmisartan, both longitudinal and circumferential strains improved in diabetic patients. Compared with that of controls, the diabetic rat heart developed significant fibrosis, which markedly decreased after treatment with telmisartan (30 mg/kg/day, orally) for 7 days. After incubation with 30 mM glucose, rat cardiomyocytes showed a significant down-regulation of PPARδ. Interestingly, the increased expression of fibrosis-associated proteins, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) was attenuated by the co-incubation of GW0742, a PPARδ agonist. By knockdown or inhibition of STAT3, the hyperglycemia related high expression of fibrosis associated targets was reversed. Independent from the hyperglycemic incubation, STAT3 over-expression led to similar results. Conversely, in the presence of GSK0660, a PPARδ inhibitor, the protective effects of telmisartan were diminished. Telmisartan improved the hyperglycemia-induced cardiac fibrosis through the PPARδ/STAT3 pathway. Graphical abstract Summary of the mechanism of telmisartan's effect on the suppression of hyperglycemia-induced cardiac fibrosis through

  3. Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma in gastric ulcer: An overview of experimental evidences

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Lekha

    2015-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors belonging to the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily. Three subtypes, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, have been identified so far. PPARα is expressed in the liver, kidney, small intestine, heart, and muscle, where it activates the fatty acid catabolism and control lipoprotein assembly in response to long-chain unsaturated fatty acids, eicosanoids, and hypolipidemic drugs (e.g., fenofibrate). PPARβ/δ is more broadly expressed and is implicated in fatty acid oxidation, keratinocyte differentiation, wound healing, and macrophage response to very low density lipoprotein metabolism. This isoform has been implicated in transcriptional-repression functions and has been shown to repress the activity of PPARα or PPARγ target genes. PPARγ1 and γ2 are generated from a single-gene peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors gamma by differential promoter usage and alternative splicing. PPARγ1 is expressed in colon, immune system (e.g., monocytes and macrophages), and other tissues where it participates in the modulation of inflammation, cell proliferation, and differentiation. PPARs regulate gene expression through distinct mechanisms: Ligand-dependent transactivation, ligand-independent repression, and ligand-dependent transrepression. Studies in animals have demonstrated the gastric antisecretory activity of PPARα agonists like ciprofibrate, bezafibrate and clofibrate. Study by Pathak et al also demonstrated the effect of PPARα agonist, bezafibrate, on gastric secretion and gastric cytoprotection in various gastric ulcer models in rats. The majority of the experimental studies is on pioglitazone and rosiglitazone, which are PPARγ activators. In all the studies, both the PPARγ activators showed protection against the gastric ulcer and also accelerate the ulcer healing in gastric ulcer model in rats. Therefore, PPARα and PPARγ may be a target for gastric ulcer therapy

  4. Inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ: a potential link between chronic maternal hypoxia and impaired fetal growth

    PubMed Central

    Julian, Colleen G.; Yang, Ivana V.; Browne, Vaughn A.; Vargas, Enrique; Rodriguez, Carmelo; Pedersen, Brent S.; Moore, Lorna G.; Schwartz, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic exposure to hypoxia raises the risk of pregnancy disorders characterized by maternal vascular dysfunction and diminished fetal growth. In an effort to identify novel pathways for these hypoxia-related effects, we assessed gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) obtained from 43 female, high-altitude or sea-level residents in the nonpregnant state or during pregnancy (20 or 36 wk). Hypoxia-related fetal growth restriction becomes apparent between 25 and 29 wk of gestation and continues until delivery. Our sampling strategy was designed to capture changes occurring before (20 wk) and during (36 wk) the time frame of slowed fetal growth. PBMC gene expression profiles were generated using human gene expression microarrays and compared between altitudes. Biological pathways were identified using pathway analysis. Modest transcriptional differences were observed between altitudes in the nonpregnant state. Of the genes that were differentially expressed at high altitude vs. sea level during pregnancy (20 wk: 59 probes mapped to 41 genes; 36 wk: 985 probes mapped to 700 genes), several are of pathological relevance for fetal growth restriction. In particular, transcriptional changes were consistent with the negative regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) at high altitude; such effects were accompanied by reduced birth weight (P <0.05) and head circumference (P <0.01) at high altitude vs. sea level. Our findings indicate that chronic exposure to hypoxia during pregnancy alters maternal gene expression patterns in general and, in particular, expression of key genes involved in metabolic homeostasis that have been proposed to play a role in the pathophysiology of fetal growth restriction.—Julian, C. G., Yang, I. V., Browne, V. A., Vargas, E., Rodriguez, C., Pedersen, B. S., Moore, L. G., Schwartz, D. A. Inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ: a potential link between chronic maternal

  5. Therapeutic potential of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in chronic inflammation and colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingzhi; DuBois, Raymond N

    2010-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferatoreactivated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and have been implicated in a variety of physiologic and pathologic processes, such as nutrient metabolism, energy homeostasis, inflammation, and cancer. This article highlights breakthroughs in our understanding of the potential roles of PPARs in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. PPARs might hold the key to some of the questions that are pertinent to the pathophysiology of inflammatory diseases and colorectal cancer and could possibly serve as drug targets for new antiinflammatory therapeutic and anticancer agents. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ enhances adiponectin secretion via up-regulating DsbA-L expression.

    PubMed

    Jin, Dan; Sun, Jun; Huang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoling; Yu, An; He, Yiduo; Li, Qiang; Yang, Zaiqing

    2015-08-15

    Disulfide-bond A oxidoreductase like-protein (DsbA-L) was identified as a molecular chaperone facilitating the assembly and secretion of adiponectin, an adipokine with multiple beneficial effects. In obesity the level of DsbA-L is reduced with a concomitant decrease of the circulating adiponectin level, especially of the high molecular weight form (HMW). Both rodent and human studies have shown that the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonists increase adiponectin levels in serum by activating PPARγ, which up-regulates critical endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperones thus facilitating protein folding. As shown in the present study, overexpression of PPARγ in human embryonic kidney (HEK) 293 cells elicited the cellular release of HMW adiponectin. PPARγ enhanced expression of DsbA-L by binding directly to peroxisome proliferator response element (PPRE) site within the DsbA-L promoter. Conversely, in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells, PPARγ knockdown resulted in decreased expression of Adiponectin, DsbA-L and ERp44. DsbA-L expression increased after PPARγ agonist treatment and decreased upon treatment with PPARγ antagonist in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DsbA-L deficiency in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells impaired the secretion of adiponectin. We therefore propose that DsbA-L plays an important role in facilitating HMW adiponectin formation and release from cells under the regulation of PPARγ. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Regulation of breast cancer resistant protein by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α in human brain microvessel endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hoque, Md Tozammel; Robillard, Kevin R; Bendayan, Reina

    2012-04-01

    Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane-associated drug efflux transporter, is known to localize at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and can significantly restrict xenobiotic permeability in the brain. The objective of this study is to investigate the regulation of BCRP functional expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα), a ligand-activated transcription factor primarily involved in lipid metabolism, in a cerebral microvascular endothelial cell culture system (hCMEC/D3), representative of human BBB. We demonstrate that PPARα-selective ligands (i.e., clofibrate, GW7647) significantly induce BCRP mRNA and protein expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, whereas pharmacological inhibitors (i.e., MK886, GW6471) prevent this induction. Using [(3)H]mitoxantrone, an established BCRP substrate, we observe a significant reduction in its cellular accumulation by monolayer cells treated with clofibrate, suggesting increased BCRP efflux activity. In addition, we show a significant decrease in BCRP protein expression and function when PPARα is down-regulated by small interfering RNA. Applying chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we observe that clofibrate treatment increases PPARα binding to the peroxisome proliferator response element within the ABCG2 gene promoter. This study provides the first evidence of direct BCRP regulation by PPARα in a human in vitro BBB model and suggests new targeting strategies for either improving drug brain bioavailability or increasing neuroprotection.

  8. Targeting components of the stress system as potential therapies for the metabolic syndrome: the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Yumuk, Volkan D

    2006-11-01

    The three peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) subtypes PPAR-alpha, PPAR-gamma, and PPAR-delta are ligand-activated transcription factors of the nuclear receptor family. PPARs form obligate heterodimers with the retinoid X receptor, which bind to peroxisome-proliferator-response elements (PPREs). PPAR-alpha is expressed mainly in liver, brown fat, kidney, heart, and skeletal muscle; PPAR-gamma in intestine and adipose tissue; PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma are both expressed in vascular endothelium, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and foam cells; PPAR-delta in skeletal muscle, human embryonic kidney, intestine, heart, adipose tissue, developing brain, and keratinocytes. Intense interest in the development of drugs with new mechanisms of action for the metabolic syndrome has focused attention on nuclear receptors, such as PPARs that function as regulators of energy homeostasis. Agonists of PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma are currently used to treat diabetic dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes. Dual PPAR-alpha/gamma agonists and PPAR-alpha/gamma/delta pan-agonists are under investigation for treatment of cardiovascular disease and the metabolic syndrome. Selective PPAR modulators (SPPARMs) are PPAR ligands that possess desirable efficacy and improved tolerance. Efforts are being made to identify novel partial agonists or antagonists for PPAR-gamma in order to combine their antidiabetic and antiobesity effects. Glucocorticoids are major mediators of the stress response and could be the link between stress and PPAR activator signaling and thus may affect the downstream metabolic pathways involved in fuel homeostasis.

  9. A common building block for the syntheses of amorfrutin and cajaninstilbene acid libraries toward efficient binding with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Aidhen, Indrapal S; Mukkamala, Ramesh; Weidner, Christopher; Sauer, Sascha

    2015-01-16

    A common building block for the synthesis of amorfrutin and cajaninstilbene acid derivatives has been developed. The library of synthesized compounds has enabled identification of new nontoxic ligands of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) and potential inhibitors of the transcriptional corepressor protein NCoR. The biological data holds promise in identification of new potential leads for the antidiabetic drug discovery process.

  10. Human mannose-binding lectin 2 is directly regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors via a peroxisome proliferator responsive element.

    PubMed

    Tachibana, Keisuke; Takeuchi, Kentaro; Inada, Hirohiko; Sugimoto, Ken; Ishimoto, Kenji; Yamashita, Masanori; Maegawa, Takashi; Yamasaki, Daisuke; Osada, Shigehiro; Tanaka, Toshiya; Rakugi, Hiromi; Hamakubo, Takao; Sakai, Juro; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Doi, Takefumi

    2013-09-01

    Human mannose-binding lectin (MBL) is encoded by the MBL2 gene and is a key player in innate immunity. However, the mechanism of the transcriptional regulation of MBL2 is largely unknown. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that play an important role in a number of biological responses, including lipid homeostasis, immune function and adipogenesis. In this study, we showed that PPARα and PPARγ up-regulate the expression of human MBL2. Using a luciferase assay, electrophoretic mobility-shift assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, we demonstrated that PPARs regulate the expression of human MBL2 via the peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE). On the other hand, MBL2 mRNA expression was not affected by the PPARα ligand both in vivo in rat liver and in vitro in rat H4IIE hepatoma cells. Thus, there is a species difference in regulation of MBL2 gene expression by PPARs between humans and rodents. We also show that the species differences in response to PPAR could be due in part to sequence-specific differences in the PPRE in the promoter region of MBL2. These results indicate that human, but not rat, MBL2 expression is regulated by PPARs via a PPRE.

  11. [Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) in pathophysiology of the circulatory system and prospective use of agonists of these receptors in therapy].

    PubMed

    Bełtowski, Jerzy; Wójcicka, Grazyna; Jamroz, Anna

    2003-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are ligand-activated nuclear receptors which regulate the expression of target genes. Three types of PPAR have been identified: PPAR alpha, PPAR beta/delta and PPAR gamma. The known endogenous PPAR ligands are polyunsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoids, such as 15-deoxy-delta 12,14-prostaglandin J2 and leukotriene B4. Two classes of drugs, fibrates and thiazolidinediones, bind to PPAR alpha and PPAR gamma, respectively. PPARs are involved in the regulation of the lipid metabolism and adipogenesis but are also expressed in the vasculature. PPARs activators inhibit inflammatory reactions within the vascular wall, inhibit vascular smooth muscle cells migration and proliferation and affect foam cells formation by changing the expression of scavenger receptors. PPAR agonists lower blood pressure and improve endothelial function in different animal models of hypertension as well as in humans. PPAR gamma ligands inhibit the development of atherosclerosis in LDL receptor deficient and apolipoprotein E deficient mice and in diabetic humans. PPAR gamma agonists have also been shown to attenuate myocardial hypertrophy and protect against ischemia-reperfuion injury.

  12. Inhibition of human lung cancer cell growth by the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma agonists through induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Tsubouchi, Y; Sano, H; Kawahito, Y; Mukai, S; Yamada, R; Kohno, M; Inoue, K; Hla, T; Kondo, M

    2000-04-13

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), members of the nuclear hormone receptors superfamily, have an important regulatory role in adipogenesis and inflammation. PPAR-gamma ligands induce terminal differentiation and growth inhibition of human breast cancer cells and prostatic cancer cells. In this study, we demonstrated that PPAR-gamma, but not PPAR-alpha, was expressed in human lung cancer cell lines by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis. We also found that the synthetic PPAR-gamma agonist thiazolidinedione compounds (troglitazone) and the endogenous PPAR-gamma ligand, 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), inhibited the growth of human lung cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis. However, PPAR-alpha agonist (bezafibrate) and other prostanoids (PGE(2), PGF(2alpha)) did not induce apoptosis. These findings suggest that PPAR-gamma may play an important role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer and that PPAR-gamma agonist may be useful therapeutic agents in the treatment of human lung cancer. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  13. HER2 regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) expression and sensitivity of breast cancer cells to PPARgamma ligand therapy.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhibo; Bagheri-Yarmand, Rozita; Balasenthil, Seetharaman; Hortobagyi, Gabriel; Sahin, Aysegul A; Barnes, Christopher J; Kumar, Rakesh

    2003-08-01

    Induction of terminal differentiation of cancer cells is an evolving novel therapeutic approach, and accordingly, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a ligand-stimulated transcription factor with differentiation-promoting activity and overexpressed in a variety of cancers, has emerged as one of the promising therapeutic targets. Because c-erbB family growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) overexpression is one of the most recognizable molecular dysfunctions in breast tumors, in the studies presented here, we explored the effect of HER2 overexpression on the status of PPARgamma expression and on the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to PPARgamma-ligand troglitazone-induced growth inhibition. We show that HER2 overexpression in MCF7 breast cancer cells enhanced the expression of PPARgamma-mRNA and -protein. Furthermore, PPARgamma expression was dramatically increased in 11 of 16 breast tumors as compared with the adjacent normal tissue. In addition, HER2 up-regulation resulted in a partial inhibition of transcriptional activity of the endogenous PPARgamma, stimulation to differentiation, and resistance to troglitazone-mediated inhibition of anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells. Conversely, down-regulation of HER2 by anti-HER2 monoclonal antibody Herceptin led to a decreased level of PPARgamma protein and sensitization of breast cancer cells to the inhibitory effects of troglitazone. In summary, these findings show for the first time that HER2 up-regulates PPARgamma expression and modulates the sensitivity of breast cancer cells to PPARgamma ligand therapy.

  14. Modulation of VEGF-Induced Retinal Vascular Permeability by Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-β/δ

    PubMed Central

    Suarez, Sandra; McCollum, Gary W.; Bretz, Colin A.; Yang, Rong; Capozzi, Megan E.; Penn, John S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced retinal vascular permeability contributes to diabetic macular edema (DME), a serious vision-threatening condition. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) antagonist/reverse agonist, GSK0660, inhibits VEGF-induced human retinal microvascular endothelial cell (HRMEC) proliferation, tubulogenesis, and oxygen-induced retinal vasculopathy in newborn rats. These VEGF-induced HRMEC behaviors and VEGF-induced disruption of endothelial cell junctional complexes may well share molecular signaling events. Thus, we sought to examine the role of PPARβ/δ in VEGF-induced retinal hyperpermeability. Methods. Transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) measurements were performed on HRMEC monolayers to assess permeability. Claudin-1/Claudin-5 localization in HRMEC monolayers was determined by immunocytochemistry. Extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (Erk 1/2) phosphorylation, VEGF receptor 1 (VEGFR1) and R2 were assayed by Western blot analysis. Expression of VEGFR1 and R2 was measured by quantitative RT-PCR. Last, retinal vascular permeability was assayed in vivo by Evans blue extravasation. Results. Human retinal microvascular endothelial cell monolayers treated with VEGF for 24 hours showed decreased TEER values that were completely reversed by the highest concentration of GSK0660 (10 μM) and PPARβ/δ-directed siRNA (20 μM). In HRMEC treated with VEGF, GSK0660 stabilized tight-junctions as evidenced by Claudin-1 staining, reduced phosphorylation of Erk1/2, and reduced VEGFR1/2 expression. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ siRNA had a similar effect on VEGFR expression and Claudin-1, supporting the specificity of GSK0660 in our experiments. Last, GSK0660 significantly inhibited VEGF-induced retinal vascular permeability and reduced retinal VEGFR1and R2 levels in C57BL/6 mice. Conclusions. These data suggest a protective effect for PPARβ/δ antagonism against

  15. Decreased expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma in cftr-/- mice.

    PubMed

    Ollero, Mario; Junaidi, Omer; Zaman, Munir M; Tzameli, Iphigenia; Ferrando, Adolfo A; Andersson, Charlotte; Blanco, Paola G; Bialecki, Eldad; Freedman, Steven D

    2004-08-01

    Some of the pathological manifestations of cystic fibrosis are in accordance with an impaired expression and/or activity of PPARgamma. We hypothesized that PPARgamma expression is altered in tissues lacking the normal cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator protein (CFTR). PPARgamma mRNA levels were measured in colonic mucosa, ileal mucosa, adipose tissue, lung, and liver from wild-type and cftr-/- mice by quantitative RT-PCR. PPARgamma expression was decreased twofold in CFTR-regulated tissues (colon, ileum, and lung) from cftr-/- mice compared to wild-type littermates. In contrast, no differences were found in fat and liver. Immunohistochemical analysis of PPARgamma in ileum and colon revealed a predominantly nuclear localization in wild-type mucosal epithelial cells while tissues from cftr-/- mice showed a more diffuse, lower intensity labeling. A significant decrease in PPARgamma expression was confirmed in nuclear extracts of colon mucosa by Western blot analysis. In addition, binding of the PPARgamma/RXR heterodimer to an oligonucletotide containing a peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE) was also decreased in colonic mucosa extracts from cftr-/- mice. Treatment of cftr-/- mice with the PPARgamma ligand rosiglitazone restored both the nuclear localization and binding to DNA, but did not increase RNA levels. We conclude that PPARgamma expression in cftr-/- mice is downregulated at the RNA and protein levels and its function diminished. These changes may be related to the loss of function of CFTR and may be relevant to the pathogenesis of metabolic abnormalities associated with cystic fibrosis in humans. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor γ Is a Target for Halogenated Analogs of Bisphenol A

    PubMed Central

    Riu, Anne; Grimaldi, Marina; le Maire, Albane; Bey, Gilbert; Phillips, Kevin; Boulahtouf, Abdelhay; Perdu, Elisabeth; Zalko, Daniel; Bourguet, William

    2011-01-01

    Background: The occurrence of halogenated analogs of the xenoestrogen bisphenol A (BPA) has been recently demonstrated both in environmental and human samples. These analogs include brominated [e.g., tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA)] and chlorinated [e.g., tetrachlorobisphenol A (TCBPA)] bisphenols, which are both flame retardants. Because of their structural homology with BPA, such chemicals are candidate endocrine disruptors. However, their possible target(s) within the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily has remained unknown. Objectives: We investigated whether BPA and its halogenated analogs could be ligands of estrogen receptors (ERs) and peroxisome proliferator–activated receptors (PPARs) and act as endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Methods: We studied the activity of compounds using reporter cell lines expressing ERs and PPARs. We measured the binding affinities to PPARγ by competitive binding assays with [3H]-rosiglitazone and investigated the impact of TBBPA and TCBPA on adipocyte differentiation using NIH3T3-L1 cells. Finally, we determined the binding mode of halogenated BPAs to PPARγ by X-ray crystallography. Results: We observed that TBBPA and TCBPA are human, zebrafish, and Xenopus PPARγ ligands and determined the mechanism by which these chemicals bind to and activate PPARγ. We also found evidence that activation of ERα, ERβ, and PPARγ depends on the degree of halogenation in BPA analogs. We observed that the bulkier brominated BPA analogs, the greater their capability to activate PPARγ and the weaker their estrogenic potential. Conclusions: Our results strongly suggest that polyhalogenated bisphenols could function as obesogens by acting as agonists to disrupt physiological functions regulated by human or animal PPARγ. PMID:21561829

  17. Hepatic sirtuin 1 is dispensable for fibrate-induced peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α function in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Bonzo, Jessica A.; Brocker, Chad; Jiang, Changtao; Wang, Rui-Hong; Deng, Chu-Xia

    2014-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) mediates metabolic remodeling, resulting in enhanced mitochondrial and peroxisomal β-oxidation of fatty acids. In addition to the physiological stimuli of fasting and high-fat diet, PPARα is activated by the fibrate class of drugs for the treatment of dyslipidemia. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), an important regulator of energy homeostasis, was downregulated in fibrate-treated wild-type mice, suggesting PPARα regulation of Sirt1 gene expression. The impact of SIRT1 loss on PPARα functionality in vivo was assessed in hepatocyte-specific knockout mice that lack the deacetylase domain of SIRT1 (Sirt1ΔLiv). Knockout mice were treated with fibrates or fasted for 24 h to activate PPARα. Basal expression of the PPARα target genes Cyp4a10 and Cyp4a14 was reduced in Sirt1ΔLiv mice compared with wild-type mice. However, no difference was observed between wild-type and Sirt1ΔLiv mice in either fasting- or fibrate-mediated induction of PPARα target genes. Similar to the initial results, there was no difference in fibrate-activated PPARα gene induction. To assess the relationship between SIRT1 and PPARα in a pathophysiological setting, Sirt1ΔLiv mice were maintained on a high-fat diet for 14 wk, followed by fibrate treatment. Sirt1ΔLiv mice exhibited increased body mass compared with control mice. In the context of a high-fat diet, Sirt1ΔLiv mice did not respond to the cholesterol-lowering effects of the fibrate treatment. However, there were no significant differences in PPARα target gene expression. These results suggest that, in vivo, SIRT1 deacetylase activity does not significantly impact induced PPARα activity. PMID:24496310

  18. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma regulates expression of signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, Hanne; Haldosen, Lars-Arne . E-mail: Lars-Arne.Haldosen@mednut.ki.se

    2006-05-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 5A (STAT5A) has been shown to be important for terminal differentiation of mammary epithelial cells. In order to understand regulation of expression of STAT5A, the 5' end of the mouse Stat5a gene was isolated. Putative regulatory elements was searched for and several peroxisome proliferator response elements (PPREs) were found, one with high (12/13 nucleotides) and three with less (8-10/13) similarity to the reported consensus sequence. Mouse mammary epithelial HC11 cells were treated with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) ligand, the thiazolidinedione (TZD) troglitazone, and an increase in STAT5A protein expression was seen. The 5' flank of Stat5a gene was cloned in a luciferase reporter vector. A concentration dependent activation of the STAT5A-luciferase reporter was detected, when transiently transfected HC11 cells were treated with TZD. The activation could be inhibited by treatment with a PPAR{gamma} antagonist. It has earlier been shown that epidermal growth factor (EGF) induces MAPK phosphorylation of PPAR{gamma} resulting in a less transcriptionally active receptor. In HC11 cells, EGF inhibited TZD induced STAT5A-reporter activity suggesting that our previously reported EGF-mediated suppression of STAT5A expression is mediated in all or partly through inhibition of PPAR{gamma} activity. Furthermore, the MEK inhibitor PD98059 inhibited the EGF effect. All together, data presented suggest that PPAR{gamma} participates in regulation of STAT5A expression.

  19. BML-111 Attenuates Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury Via Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α-Regulated Heme Oxygenase-1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sheng-Hua; Chen, Xiao-Qing; Lü, Jing; Wang, Ming-Jie

    2016-04-01

    We examine whether BML-111, a lipoxin receptor agonist, inhibits renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, and whether peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) or heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is involved in protective effects of BML-111 on kidney against I/R injury. Rats subjected to renal I/R injury were treated with or without BML-111. Renal histological and immunohistochemical studies were performed. Expressions of phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (pp38 MAPK), phosphorylated PPARα (pPPARα), and HO-1 were assessed in NRK-52E cells exposed to BML-111. The binding activity of PPARα to peroxisome proliferator-responsive element (PPRE) on HO-1 promoter in the cells was determined. BML-111 treatment resulted in a marked reduction in the severity of histological features of renal I/R injury, and attenuated the rise in renal myeloperoxidase and malondialdehyde, blood urea nitrogen and creatinine, urinary N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase, and leucine aminopeptidase levels caused by I/R injury. BML-111 stimulated the renal expressions of pPPARα and HO-1, and cellular messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expressions of pPPARα and HO-1 which were both blocked by GW6471, a selective PPARα antagonist, and ZnPP-IX, a specific inhibitor of HO-1 pretreatment. The pp38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 blocked the BML-111-induced expressions of pp38 MAPK, pPPARα, and HO-1 in NRK-52E cells. The binding activity of PPARα to PPRE in nuclear extracts of NRK-52E cells was enhanced by treatment of the cells with BML-111, and was suppressed by GW6471 and SB203580. BML-111 protects the kidney against I/R injury via activation of p38 MAPK/PPARα/HO-1 pathway.

  20. Nuclear receptors of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) family in gestational diabetes: from animal models to clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Arck, Petra; Toth, Bettina; Pestka, Aurelia; Jeschke, Udo

    2010-08-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is defined as impaired glucose tolerance and affects 2%-8% of all pregnancies. Among other complications, GDM can lead to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2) in both mother and child. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are major regulators of glucose and lipid metabolism. Furthermore, PPARs are mediators of inflammation and angiogenesis and are involved in the maternal adaptational dynamics during pregnancy to serve the requirements of the growing fetus. PPARs were originally named for their ability to induce hepatic peroxisome proliferation in mice in response to xenobiotic stimuli. The expression of three PPAR isoforms, alpha, beta/delta, and gamma, have been described. Each of them is encoded by different genes; however, they share 60%-80% homology in their ligand-binding and DNA-binding domains. PPARs are involved in trophoblast differentiation, invasion, metabolism, and parturition and are expressed in invasive extravillous trophoblast and villous trophoblast cells. Nuclear receptors, to which PPARs belong, are promising targets for disease-specific treatment strategies because they act as transcription factors controlling cellular processes at the level of gene expression and may produce selective alterations in downstream gene expression. To date, PPAR agonists are therapeutically used in patients with DM 2 and in patients with reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome. Because of safety concerns and limited data, PPAR agonists are not yet included in GDM-related treatment strategies. Our objective herein is to review newly emerging generations of selective PPAR modulators and panagonists, which may have potent therapeutic implications in the context of GDM.

  1. Identification and Mechanism of 10-Carbon Fatty Acid as Modulating Ligand of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors*

    PubMed Central

    Malapaka, Raghu R. V.; Khoo, SokKean; Zhang, Jifeng; Choi, Jang H.; Zhou, X. Edward; Xu, Yong; Gong, Yinhan; Li, Jun; Yong, Eu-Leong; Chalmers, Michael J.; Chang, Lin; Resau, James H.; Griffin, Patrick R.; Chen, Y. Eugene; Xu, H. Eric

    2012-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, -β/δ, and -γ) are a subfamily of nuclear receptors that plays key roles in glucose and lipid metabolism. PPARγ is the molecular target of the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs that has many side effects. PPARγ is also activated by long chain unsaturated or oxidized/nitrated fatty acids, but its relationship with the medium chain fatty acids remains unclear even though the medium chain triglyceride oils have been used to control weight gain and glycemic index. Here, we show that decanoic acid (DA), a 10-carbon fatty acid and a major component of medium chain triglyceride oils, is a direct ligand of PPARγ. DA binds and partially activates PPARγ without leading to adipogenesis. Crystal structure reveals that DA occupies a novel binding site and only partially stabilizes the AF-2 helix. DA also binds weakly to PPARα and PPARβ/δ. Treatments with DA and its triglyceride form improve glucose sensitivity and lipid profiles without weight gain in diabetic mice. Together, these results suggest that DA is a modulating ligand for PPARs, and the structure can aid in designing better and safer PPARγ-based drugs. PMID:22039047

  2. Medium Chain Fatty Acids Are Selective Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ Activators and Pan-PPAR Partial Agonists

    PubMed Central

    Ayers, Steven D.; Lin, Jean Z.; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C. T.; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A.; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A. R.; Skaf, Munir S.; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8–C10) bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products. PMID:22649490

  3. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) in brown trout: Interference of estrogenic and androgenic inputs in primary hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Célia; Madureira, Tânia Vieira; Ferreira, Nádia; Pinheiro, Ivone; Castro, L Filipe C; Rocha, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) is a pivotal regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism in vertebrates. Here, we isolated and characterized for the first time the PPARγ gene from brown trout (Salmo trutta f. fario). Hormones have been reported to interfere with the regulatory function of PPARγ in various organisms, albeit with little focus on fish. Thus, primary hepatocytes isolated from juveniles of brown trout were exposed to 1, 10 and 50μM of ethinylestradiol (EE2) or testosterone (T). A significant (3 fold) decrease was obtained in response to 50μM of EE2 and to 10 and 50μM of T (13 and 14 folds), while a 3 fold increase was observed at 1μM of EE2. Therefore, trout PPARγ seems a target for natural/synthetic compounds with estrogenic or androgenic properties and so, we advocate considering PPARγ as another alert sensor gene when assessing the effects of sex-steroid endocrine disruptors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Medium chain fatty acids are selective peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ activators and pan-PPAR partial agonists.

    PubMed

    Liberato, Marcelo Vizoná; Nascimento, Alessandro S; Ayers, Steven D; Lin, Jean Z; Cvoro, Aleksandra; Silveira, Rodrigo L; Martínez, Leandro; Souza, Paulo C T; Saidemberg, Daniel; Deng, Tuo; Amato, Angela Angelica; Togashi, Marie; Hsueh, Willa A; Phillips, Kevin; Palma, Mário Sérgio; Neves, Francisco A R; Skaf, Munir S; Webb, Paul; Polikarpov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) act through peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) γ to increase insulin sensitivity in type 2 diabetes (T2DM), but deleterious effects of these ligands mean that selective modulators with improved clinical profiles are needed. We obtained a crystal structure of PPARγ ligand binding domain (LBD) and found that the ligand binding pocket (LBP) is occupied by bacterial medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs). We verified that MCFAs (C8-C10) bind the PPARγ LBD in vitro and showed that they are low-potency partial agonists that display assay-specific actions relative to TZDs; they act as very weak partial agonists in transfections with PPARγ LBD, stronger partial agonists with full length PPARγ and exhibit full blockade of PPARγ phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (cdk5), linked to reversal of adipose tissue insulin resistance. MCFAs that bind PPARγ also antagonize TZD-dependent adipogenesis in vitro. X-ray structure B-factor analysis and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations suggest that MCFAs weakly stabilize C-terminal activation helix (H) 12 relative to TZDs and this effect is highly dependent on chain length. By contrast, MCFAs preferentially stabilize the H2-H3/β-sheet region and the helix (H) 11-H12 loop relative to TZDs and we propose that MCFA assay-specific actions are linked to their unique binding mode and suggest that it may be possible to identify selective PPARγ modulators with useful clinical profiles among natural products.

  5. Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α induces lysosomal biogenesis in brain cells: implications for lysosomal storage disorders.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Arunava; Jana, Malabendu; Modi, Khushbu; Gonzalez, Frank J; Sims, Katherine B; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Pahan, Kalipada

    2015-04-17

    Lysosomes are ubiquitous membrane-enclosed organelles filled with an acidic interior and are central to the autophagic, endocytic, or phagocytic pathway. In contrast to its classical function as the waste management machinery, lysosomes are now considered to be an integral part of various cellular signaling processes. The diverse functionality of this single organelle requires a very complex and coordinated regulation of its activity with transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, at its core. However, mechanisms by which TFEB is regulated are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that gemfibrozil, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α, alone and in conjunction with all-trans-retinoic acid is capable of enhancing TFEB in brain cells. We also observed that PPARα, but not PPARβ and PPARγ, is involved in gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of TFEB. Reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies confirmed the recruitment of retinoid X receptor α, PPARα, and PGC1α on the PPAR-binding site on the Tfeb promoter as well. Subsequently, the drug-mediated induction of TFEB caused an increase in lysosomal protein and the lysosomal abundance in cell. Collectively, this study reinforces the link between lysosomal biogenesis and lipid metabolism with TFEB at the crossroads. Furthermore, gemfibrozil may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders in which autophagy-lysosome pathway plays an important role.

  6. Prenatal Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon, Adiposity, Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) γ Methylation in Offspring, Grand-Offspring Mice

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhonghai; Zhang, Hanjie; Maher, Christina; Arteaga-Solis, Emilio; Champagne, Frances A.; Wu, Licheng; McDonald, Jacob D.; Yan, Beizhan; Schwartz, Gary J.; Miller, Rachel L.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Greater levels of prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) have been associated with childhood obesity in epidemiological studies. However, the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Objectives We hypothesized that prenatal PAH over-exposure during gestation would lead to weight gain and increased fat mass in offspring and grand-offspring mice. Further, we hypothesized that altered adipose gene expression and DNA methylation in genes important to adipocyte differentiation would be affected. Materials and Methods Pregnant dams were exposed to a nebulized PAH mixture versus negative control aerosol 5 days a week, for 3 weeks. Body weight was recorded from postnatal day (PND) 21 through PND60. Body composition, adipose cell size, gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ, CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBP) α, cyclooxygenase (Cox)-2, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and adiponectin, and DNA methylation of PPAR γ, were assayed in both the offspring and grand-offspring adipose tissue. Findings Offspring of dams exposed to greater PAH during gestation had increased weight, fat mass, as well as higher gene expression of PPAR γ, C/EBP α, Cox2, FAS and adiponectin and lower DNA methylation of PPAR γ. Similar differences in phenotype and DNA methylation extended through the grand-offspring mice. Conclusions Greater prenatal PAH exposure was associated with increased weight, fat mass, adipose gene expression and epigenetic changes in progeny. PMID:25347678

  7. Adiponectin, a downstream target gene of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma}, controls hepatitis B virus replication

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Sarah; Jung, Jaesung; Kim, Taeyeung; Park, Sun; Chwae, Yong-Joon; Shin, Ho-Joon; Kim, Kyongmin

    2011-01-20

    In this study, HepG2-hepatitis B virus (HBV)-stable cells that did not overexpress HBx and HBx-deficient mutant-transfected cells were analyzed for their expression of HBV-induced, upregulated adipogenic and lipogenic genes. The mRNAs of CCAAT enhancer binding protein {alpha} (C/EBP{alpha}), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), adiponectin, liver X receptor {alpha} (LXR{alpha}), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (SREBP1c), and fatty acid synthase (FAS) were expressed at higher levels in HepG2-HBV and lamivudine-treated stable cells and HBx-deficient mutant-transfected cells than in the HepG2 cells. Lamivudine treatment reduced the mRNA levels of PPAR{gamma} and C/EBP{alpha}. Conversely, HBV replication was upregulated by adiponectin and PPAR{gamma} agonist rosiglitazone treatments and was downregulated by adiponectin siRNAs. Collectively, our results demonstrate that HBV replication and/or protein expression, even in the absence of HBx, upregulated adipogenic or lipogenic genes, and that the control of adiponectin might prove useful as a therapeutic modality for the treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

  8. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Delta: A Conserved Director of Lipid Homeostasis through Regulation of the Oxidative Capacity of Muscle

    PubMed Central

    de Lange, Pieter; Lombardi, Assunta; Silvestri, Elena; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia; Moreno, Maria

    2008-01-01

    The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which are ligand-inducible transcription factors expressed in a variety of tissues, have been shown to perform key roles in lipid homeostasis. In physiological situations such as fasting and physical exercise, one PPAR subtype, PPARδ, triggers a transcriptional program in skeletal muscle leading to a switch in fuel usage from glucose/fatty acids to solely fatty acids, thereby drastically increasing its oxidative capacity. The metabolic action of PPARδ has also been verified in humans. In addition, it has become clear that the action of PPARδ is not restricted to skeletal muscle. Indeed, PPARδ has been shown to play a crucial role in whole-body lipid homeostasis as well as in insulin sensitivity, and it is active not only in skeletal muscle (as an activator of fat burning) but also in the liver (where it can activate glycolysis/lipogenesis, with the produced fat being oxidized in muscle) and in the adipose tissue (by incrementing lipolysis). The main aim of this review is to highlight the central role for activated PPARδ in the reversal of any tendency toward the development of insulin resistance. PMID:18815630

  9. The Nuclear Hormone Receptor Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor β/δ Potentiates Cell Chemotactism, Polarization, and Migration▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Nguan Soon; Icre, Guillaume; Montagner, Alexandra; Heggeler, Béatrice Bordier-ten; Wahli, Walter; Michalik, Liliane

    2007-01-01

    After an injury, keratinocytes acquire the plasticity necessary for the reepithelialization of the wound. Here, we identify a novel pathway by which a nuclear hormone receptor, until now better known for its metabolic functions, potentiates cell migration. We show that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β/δ (PPARβ/δ) enhances two phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-dependent pathways, namely, the Akt and the Rho-GTPase pathways. This PPARβ/δ activity amplifies the response of keratinocytes to a chemotactic signal, promotes integrin recycling and remodeling of the actin cytoskeleton, and thereby favors cell migration. Using three-dimensional wound reconstructions, we demonstrate that these defects have a strong impact on in vivo skin healing, since PPARβ/δ−/− mice show an unexpected and rare epithelialization phenotype. Our findings demonstrate that nuclear hormone receptors not only regulate intercellular communication at the organism level but also participate in cell responses to a chemotactic signal. The implications of our findings may be far-reaching, considering that the mechanisms described here are important in many physiological and pathological situations. PMID:17682064

  10. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor-γ Coactivator 1-α (PGC1α) Protects against Experimental Murine Colitis*

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Kellie E.; Vincent, Garret; Sodhi, Chhinder P.; Novak, Elizabeth A.; Ranganathan, Sarangarajan; Egan, Charlotte E.; Stolz, Donna Beer; Rogers, Matthew B.; Firek, Brian; Morowitz, Michael J.; Gittes, George K.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Hackam, David J.; Mollen, Kevin P.

    2016-01-01

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1-α (PGC1α) is the primary regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and was recently found to be highly expressed within the intestinal epithelium. PGC1α is decreased in the intestinal epithelium of patients with inflammatory bowel disease, but its role in pathogenesis is uncertain. We now hypothesize that PGC1α protects against the development of colitis and helps to maintain the integrity of the intestinal barrier. We selectively deleted PGC1α from the intestinal epithelium of mice by breeding a PGC1αloxP/loxP mouse with a villin-cre mouse. Their progeny (PGC1αΔIEC mice) were subjected to 2% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis for 7 days. The SIRT1 agonist SRT1720 was used to enhance PGC1α activation in wild-type mice during DSS exposure. Mice lacking PGC1α within the intestinal epithelium were more susceptible to DSS colitis than their wild-type littermates. Pharmacologic activation of PGC1α successfully ameliorated disease and restored mitochondrial integrity. These findings suggest that a depletion of PGC1α in the intestinal epithelium contributes to inflammatory changes through a failure of mitochondrial structure and function as well as a breakdown of the intestinal barrier, which leads to increased bacterial translocation. PGC1α induction helps to maintain mitochondrial integrity, enhance intestinal barrier function, and decrease inflammation. PMID:26969166

  11. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors as Potential Targets for Carcinogenic Activity of Polychlorinated Biphenyls: A Computational Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Ishfaq Ahmad; Khweek, Arwa Abu; Beg, Mohd Amin

    2016-11-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous environment-contaminating synthetic chemicals that have been associated with increased risk of hepatic cancer, melanoma, non-Hodgkin lymphoma and cancer of many other body organs. Structural binding analyses of PCB 77 and PCB 118 with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ) was performed to predict the association of PCBs with potential disruption of PPAR signaling pathways. The crystal structures of human PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ were obtained from the Protein Data Bank. Structures of PCB 77 and PCB 118 were obtained from PubChem database. Docking was performed using glide (Schrodinger) induced fit docking (IFD) module. The PCB 77 and PCB 118 interacted with PPARα, PPARβ/δ and PPARγ showing an overlapping of 40-58% interacting amino acid residues with synthetic co-complex agonists of the three PPARs. The binding affinity was higher for PCB 118 than for PCB 77 during docking interactions with each of the three PPARs. The consistent commonality of interacting residues for PCB 77 and PCB 118 with co-complex synthetic agonists of the PPARs together with good binding affinity suggested that the PPAR signaling pathway is a potential target for toxicologic activity of PCBs. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Trans fatty acids affect cellular viability of human intestinal Caco-2 cells and activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors.

    PubMed

    Kloetzel, Marianne; Ehlers, Anke; Niemann, Birgit; Buhrke, Thorsten; Lampen, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) are hypothesized to have an impact not only on coronary heart diseases but also on the development of colon cancer. To analyze if TFA exhibit cellular and molecular effects which could be involved in colon tumor progression, cells of the human colorectal adenocarcinoma-derived cell line Caco-2 were treated with various TFA isomers differing in the number and position of trans double bonds. The TFA tested in this study did not increase cellular proliferation but displayed growth-inhibitory effects at concentrations higher than 500 μM. In case of the TFA isomer C18:3 t9, t11, t13, an IC50 value of 23 μM was estimated for cytotoxicity indicating a high cytotoxic potential of this compound. In addition to the cytotoxicity studies, the TFA isomers were tested for their ability to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) by taking advantage of a PPAR-dependent reporter gene assay. In contrast to PPARγ that was not activated by the TFA isomers tested in this study, the substances were shown to moderately activate PPARα, and strong activation was observed for PPARδ. The putative impact of TFA on colon cancer development with respect to PPARδ activation is being discussed.

  13. Genotyping of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) polymorphism (Pro12Ala) in Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Namvaran, Fatemeh; Rahimi-Moghaddam, Parvaneh; Azarpira, Negar

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is a nuclear hormone receptor. It is predominantly expressed in adipose tissue and as a receptor for thiazolidinediones, it has drawn attentions towards itself as a key molecule to trigger pathways involving in some diseases such as cancers, type 2 diabetes, inflammations and osteoporosis. A proline changed to alanine in codon 12 of PPAR-γ gene (Pro12Ala) has been known to be responsible for decreased risk of type 2 diabetes. The aim of the present study is to investigate the frequency of Pro12Ala polymorphism in PPAR-γ in healthy Iranian population to compare with other populations. Understanding this polymorphism may help us in better diagnosis, prevention, and therapeutic approaches toward a better management of diseases such as type 2 diabetes and osteoporosis. METHODS: 128 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. To determine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), we did real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), using TaqMan allelic discrimination assays. RESULTS: Genotype frequencies for PPAR-γ gene Pro12Ala (rs1801282) polymorphism were 0.86 for CC, 0.14 for CG, 0.00 for GG while allelic frequencies were 0.93 and 0.0.07 for C and G, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: There are statistical differences between the distribution of the PPAR-γ-2 Pro12Ala polymorphism in other populations and Iranian population. PMID:22091247

  14. Pro12Ala polymorphism of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 in patients with fatty liver diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rey, Johannes W; Noetel, Andrea; Hardt, Aline; Canbay, Ali; Alakus, Hakan; zur Hausen, Axel; Dienes, Hans Peter; Drebber, Uta; Odenthal, Margarete

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To test the occurrence of the Pro12Ala mutation of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ)2-gene in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or alcoholic fatty liver disease (AFLD). METHODS: DNA from a total of 622 specimens including 259 blood samples of healthy blood donors and 363 histologically categorized liver biopsies of patients with NAFLD (n = 263) and AFLD (n = 100) were analyzed by Real-time polymerase chain reaction using allele-specific probes. RESULTS: In the NAFLD and the AFLD collective, 3% of the patients showed homozygous occurrence of the Ala12 PPARγ2-allele, differing from only 1.5% cases in the healthy population. In NAFLD patients, a high incidence of the Ala12 mutant was not associated with the progression of fatty liver disease. However, we observed a significantly higher risk (odds ratio = 2.50, CI: 1.05-5.90, P = 0.028) in AFLD patients carrying the mutated Ala12 allele to develop inflammatory alterations. The linkage of the malfunctioning Ala12-positive PPARγ2 isoform to an increased risk in patients with AFLD to develop severe steatohepatitis and fibrosis indicates a more prominent anti-inflammatory impact of PPARγ2 in progression of AFLD than of NAFLD. CONCLUSION: In AFLD patients, the Pro12Ala single nuclear polymorphism should be studied more extensively in order to serve as a novel candidate in biomarker screening for improved prognosis. PMID:21155004

  15. [Association of peroxisome proliferator-activated-receptors-gamma C161-->T gene polymorphism with metabolic syndrome and dietary predisposition].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming; Guo, Hong-Wei; Wan, Wen-Tao; Luo, Xuan; Zhang, Shi-Xiu; Xue, Kun; Ma, Yi-Yi

    2008-07-01

    To study the genotype frequencies of peroxisome proliferators-activated -receptors-gamma C161-->T gene and its possible association with the metabolic syndrome and dietary intakes. The PCR-PFLP method was used to detect the polymorphism of PPARgammaC161-->T gene of 224 adults with metabolic syndrome and 224 normal adults in Shanghai. Their physical examinations, dietary investigation and the serum biochemistry were analyzed. (1) The genotype frequencies of PPARgamma C161-->T CC, CT and TT were 32.4%, 49.6% and 18.0% respectively, which were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. There was no significant difference in the distribution of genotypes or allele between the metabolic syndrome group and the control group, and the result was the same between male and female subjects. (2) The levels of body mass index,waist width and hip width were significantly different among three genotypes groups. Subjects of the CT genotype had the highest levels. (3) There was significant difference in the negative correlation with the intake of protein and serum TG levels in the metabolic syndrome group. The results suggested PPARgamma gene C161-->T should be associated with body mass index, waist width and hip width. It might contribute to the heterogeneity in diet response to TG.

  16. Gender specific association of genetic variation in peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma-2 with longevity.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Michelangela; Bonafè, Massimiliano; Rizzo, Maria Rosaria; Ragno, Emilia; Olivieri, Fabiola; Marchegiani, Francesca; Franceschi, Claudio; Paolisso, Giuseppe

    2004-07-01

    Long-lived subjects have been shown to have peculiar anthropometric features (i.e. lower body mass index (BMI)) and metabolic parameters (i.e. improved insulin sensitivity). Life style and a genetic background potentially protective against the age-related metabolic derangement might contribute to such a particular phenotype. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)gamma-2 is an important regulator of adipose tissue metabolism, insulin sensitivity and inflammatory response. Thus, the potential role of genetic variability at Pro/Ala loci of PPARG gene on longevity was studied in 222 long-lived subjects and 250 aged subjects. We found a different Pro/Ala genotype frequency distribution between long-lived and aged men subjects, long-lived men having an increased frequency of Pro/Ala genotype (20 vs 8.5%); no differences was found when allele and genotype distribution of Pro/Ala gene polymorphism were analyzed in the two age group of women. Interestingly, subjects with Pro/Ala polymorphism had significantly lower BMI than Ala/Ala and Pro/Pro polymorphism. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that paraoxonase Pro/Ala gene polyporphism is associated with human longevity. Such an effect is probably due to the effect of Pro/Ala polymorphism on body composition and appears to be gender specific.

  17. Association between the Pro12Ala Polymorphism of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Gamma Gene and Strength Athlete Status

    PubMed Central

    Maciejewska-Karlowska, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Zarebska, Aleksandra; Sawczyn, Stanislaw

    2013-01-01

    Background The 12Ala allele of the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma gene (PPARG) Pro12Ala polymorphism produces a decreased binding affinity of the PPARγ2 protein, resulting in low activation of the target genes. The 12Ala allele carriers display a significantly improved insulin sensitivity that may result in better glucose utilisation in working skeletal muscles. We hypothesise that the PPARG 12Ala allele could be associated with strength athlete status in Polish athletes. Methodology The genotype distribution of PPARG Pro12Ala was examined in 660 Polish athletes. The athletes were stratified into four subgroups: endurance, strength-endurance, sprint-strength and strength. Control samples were prepared from 684 unrelated sedentary volunteers. A χ2 test was used to compare the PPARG Pro12Ala allele and genotype frequencies between the different groups of athletes and control subjects. Bonferroni’s correction for multiple testing was applied. Results A statistically significant higher frequency of PPARG 12Ala alleles was observed in the subgroup of strength athletes performing short-term and very intense exertion characterised by predominant anaerobic energy production (13.2% vs. 7.5% in controls; P = 0.0007). Conclusion The PPARG 12Ala allele may be a relevant genetic factor favouring strength abilities in professional athletes, especially in terms of insulin-dependent metabolism, a shift of the energy balance towards glucose utilisation and the development of a favourable weight-to-strength ratio. PMID:23799144

  18. Small heterodimer partner-interacting leucine zipper protein inhibits adipogenesis by regulating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ activity.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hoon; Kim, Hyoung-Joo; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Park, Jae-Kyung; Sun, Wu-Sheng; Hwang, Seongsoo; Oh, Keo