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Sample records for endogenous reference genes

  1. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Joanne R.; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies. PMID:26555275

  2. With Reference to Reference Genes: A Systematic Review of Endogenous Controls in Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Joanne R; Waldenström, Jonas

    2015-01-01

    The choice of reference genes that are stably expressed amongst treatment groups is a crucial step in real-time quantitative PCR gene expression studies. Recent guidelines have specified that a minimum of two validated reference genes should be used for normalisation. However, a quantitative review of the literature showed that the average number of reference genes used across all studies was 1.2. Thus, the vast majority of studies continue to use a single gene, with β-actin (ACTB) and/or glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) being commonly selected in studies of vertebrate gene expression. Few studies (15%) tested a panel of potential reference genes for stability of expression before using them to normalise data. Amongst studies specifically testing reference gene stability, few found ACTB or GAPDH to be optimal, whereby these genes were significantly less likely to be chosen when larger panels of potential reference genes were screened. Fewer reference genes were tested for stability in non-model organisms, presumably owing to a dearth of available primers in less well characterised species. Furthermore, the experimental conditions under which real-time quantitative PCR analyses were conducted had a large influence on the choice of reference genes, whereby different studies of rat brain tissue showed different reference genes to be the most stable. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies.

  3. Validation of endogenous control reference genes for normalizing gene expression studies in endometrial carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ayakannu, Thangesweran; Taylor, Anthony H; Willets, Jonathon M; Brown, Laurence; Lambert, David G; McDonald, John; Davies, Quentin; Moss, Esther L; Konje, Justin C

    2015-09-01

    Real-time quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique used for the relative quantification of target genes, using reference (housekeeping) genes for normalization to ensure the generation of accurate and robust data. A systematic examination of the suitability of endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in endometrial cancer tissues is absent. The aims of this study were therefore to identify and evaluate from the thirty-two possible reference genes from a TaqMan(®) array panel their suitability as an internal control gene. The mathematical software packages geNorm qBasePLUS identified Pumilio homolog 1 (Drosophila) (PUM1), ubiquitin C (UBC), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1), mitochondrial ribosomal protein L19 (MRPL19) and peptidylpropyl isomerase A (cyclophilin A) (PPIA) as the best reference gene combination, whilst NormFinder identified MRPL19 as the best single reference gene, with importin 8 (IPO8) and PPIA being the best combination of two reference genes. BestKeeper ranked MRPL19 as the most stably expressed gene. In addition, the study was validated by examining the relative expression of a test gene, which encodes the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1). A significant difference in CB1 mRNA expression between malignant and normal endometrium using MRPL19, PPIA, and IP08 in combination was observed. The use of MRPL19, IPO8 and PPIA was identified as the best reference gene combination for the normalization of gene expression levels in endometrial carcinoma. This study demonstrates that the arbitrary selection of endogenous control reference genes for normalization in qRT-PCR studies of endometrial carcinoma, without validation, risks the production of inaccurate data and should therefore be discouraged.

  4. Selection of Suitable Endogenous Reference Genes for Relative Copy Number Detection in Sugarcane

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Bantong; Guo, Jinlong; Que, Youxiong; Fu, Zhiwei; Wu, Luguang; Xu, Liping

    2014-01-01

    Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM) crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential “single copy” genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3—high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1—medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2—low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane. PMID:24857916

  5. Selection of suitable endogenous reference genes for relative copy number detection in sugarcane.

    PubMed

    Xue, Bantong; Guo, Jinlong; Que, Youxiong; Fu, Zhiwei; Wu, Luguang; Xu, Liping

    2014-05-19

    Transgene copy number has a great impact on the expression level and stability of exogenous gene in transgenic plants. Proper selection of endogenous reference genes is necessary for detection of genetic components in genetically modification (GM) crops by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) or by qualitative PCR approach, especially in sugarcane with polyploid and aneuploid genomic structure. qPCR technique has been widely accepted as an accurate, time-saving method on determination of copy numbers in transgenic plants and on detection of genetically modified plants to meet the regulatory and legislative requirement. In this study, to find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) DNA content quantification, we evaluated a set of potential "single copy" genes including P4H, APRT, ENOL, CYC, TST and PRR, through qualitative PCR and absolute quantitative PCR. Based on copy number comparisons among different sugarcane genotypes, including five S. officinarum, one S. spontaneum and two S. spp. hybrids, these endogenous genes fell into three groups: ENOL-3--high copy number group, TST-1 and PRR-1--medium copy number group, P4H-1, APRT-2 and CYC-2--low copy number group. Among these tested genes, P4H, APRT and CYC were the most stable, while ENOL and TST were the least stable across different sugarcane genotypes. Therefore, three primer pairs of P4H-3, APRT-2 and CYC-2 were then selected as the suitable reference gene primer pairs for sugarcane. The test of multi-target reference genes revealed that the APRT gene was a specific amplicon, suggesting this gene is the most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference target for sugarcane DNA content quantification. These results should be helpful for establishing accurate and reliable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM sugarcane.

  6. Evaluation of four genes in rice for their suitability as endogenous reference standards in quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong; Jiang, Lingxi; Rao, Jun; Liu, Yinan; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Dabing

    2010-11-24

    The genetically modified (GM) food/feed quantification depends on the reliable detection systems of endogenous reference genes. Currently, four endogenous reference genes including sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), GOS9, phospholipase D (PLD), and ppi phosphofructokinase (ppi-PPF) of rice have been used in GM rice detection. To compare the applicability of these four rice reference genes in quantitative PCR systems, we analyzed the target nucleotide sequence variation in 58 conventional rice varieties from various geographic and phylogenic origins, also their quantification performances were evaluated using quantitative real-time PCR and GeNorm analysis via a series of statistical calculation to get a "M value" which is negative correlation with the stability of genes. The sequencing analysis results showed that the reported GOS9 and PLD taqman probe regions had detectable single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) among the tested rice cultivars, while no SNPs were observed for SPS and ppi-PPF amplicons. Also, poor quantitative performance was detectable in these cultivars with SNPs using GOS9 and PLD quantitative PCR systems. Even though the PCR efficiency of ppi-PPF system was slightly lower, the SPS and ppi-PPF quantitative PCR systems were shown to be applicable for rice endogenous reference assay with less variation among the C(t) values, good reproducibility in quantitative assays, and the low M values by the comprehensive quantitative PCR comparison and GeNorm analysis.

  7. Evaluation of endogenous reference genes for analysis of gene expression with real-time RT-PCR during planarian regeneration.

    PubMed

    Yuwen, Yan-Qing; Dong, Zi-Mei; Wang, Qing-Hua; Sun, Xiao-Juan; Shi, Chang-Ying; Chen, Guang-Wen

    2011-10-01

    It is important that endogenous reference genes for real-time RT-PCR be empirically evaluated for stability in different cell types, developmental stages, and/or sample treatment. To select the most stable endogenous reference genes during planarian regeneration, three housekeeping genes, 18S rRNA, ACTB and DjEF2, were identified and established expression levels by real-time RT-PCR. The data were analyzed by GeNorm and NormFinder software. Expression levels of the Djsix-1 gene were studied in parallel with ACTB and DjEF2 both or each and 18S rRNA as reference during regeneration. The results showed that ACTB was the most stable expressed reference gene in the planarian regeneration.

  8. Applicability of the chymopapain gene used as endogenous reference gene for transgenic huanong no. 1 papaya detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinchao; Yang, Litao; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Haibo; Qian, Bingjun; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-08-12

    The virus-resistant papaya (Carica papaya L.), Huanong no. 1, was the genetically modified (GM) fruit approved for growing in China in 2006. To implement the labeling regulation of GM papaya and its derivates, the development of papaya endogenous reference gene is very necessary for GM papaya detection. Herein, we reported one papaya specific gene, Chymopapain (CHY), as one suitable endogenous reference gene, used for GM papaya identification. Thereafter, we established the conventional and real-time quantitative PCR assays of the CHY gene. In the CHY conventional PCR assay, the limit of detection (LOD) was 25 copies of haploid papaya genome. In the CHY real-time quantitative PCR assay, both the LOD and the limit of quantification (LOQ) were as low as 12.5 copies of haploid papaya genome. Furthermore, we revealed the construct-specific sequence of Chinese GM papaya Huanong no. 1 and developed its conventional and quantitative PCR systems employing the CHY gene as endogenous reference gene. This work is useful for papaya specific identification and GM papaya detection.

  9. Evaluation of four endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays for common wheat quantification in GMOs detection.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huali; Cheng, Fang; Wang, Ruoan; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-01-01

    Proper selection of endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays is quite important in genetically modified organisms (GMOs) detection. To find a suitable endogenous reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) DNA content or copy number quantification, four previously reported wheat endogenous reference genes and their real-time PCR assays were comprehensively evaluated for the target gene sequence variation and their real-time PCR performance among 37 common wheat lines. Three SNPs were observed in the PKABA1 and ALMT1 genes, and these SNPs significantly decreased the efficiency of real-time PCR amplification. GeNorm analysis of the real-time PCR performance of each gene among common wheat lines showed that the Waxy-D1 assay had the lowest M values with the best stability among all tested lines. All results indicated that the Waxy-D1 gene and its real-time PCR assay were most suitable to be used as an endogenous reference gene for common wheat DNA content quantification. The validated Waxy-D1 gene assay will be useful in establishing accurate and creditable qualitative and quantitative PCR analysis of GM wheat.

  10. Finding the joker among the maize endogenous reference genes for genetically modified organism (GMO) detection.

    PubMed

    Paternò, Annalisa; Marchesi, Ugo; Gatto, Francesco; Verginelli, Daniela; Quarchioni, Cinzia; Fusco, Cristiana; Zepparoni, Alessia; Amaddeo, Demetrio; Ciabatti, Ilaria

    2009-12-09

    The comparison of five real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods targeted at maize ( Zea mays ) endogenous sequences is reported. PCR targets were the alcohol dehydrogenase (adh) gene for three methods and high-mobility group (hmg) gene for the other two. The five real-time PCR methods have been checked under repeatability conditions at several dilution levels on both pooled DNA template from several genetically modified (GM) maize certified reference materials (CRMs) and single CRM DNA extracts. Slopes and R(2) coefficients of all of the curves obtained from the adopted regression model were compared within the same method and among all of the five methods, and the limit of detection and limit of quantitation were analyzed for each PCR system. Furthermore, method equivalency was evaluated on the basis of the ability to estimate the target haploid genome copy number at each concentration level. Results indicated that, among the five methods tested, one of the hmg-targeted PCR systems can be considered equivalent to the others but shows the best regression parameters and a higher repeteability along the dilution range. Thereby, it is proposed as a valid module to be coupled to different event-specific real-time PCR for maize genetically modified organism (GMO) quantitation. The resulting practicability improvement on the analytical control of GMOs is discussed.

  11. Selection of endogenous reference genes for gene expression analysis in the Mediterranean species of the Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) complex.

    PubMed

    Su, Yun; He, Wen-Bo; Wang, Jia; Li, Jun-Min; Liu, Shu-Sheng; Wang, Xiao-Wei

    2013-06-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction is widely used for gene expression analysis, and robust normalization against stably expressed endogenous reference genes (ERGs) is necessary to obtain accurate results. In this study, the stability of nine housekeeping genes of the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) Mediterranean were evaluated in various conditions by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction using geNorm and Normfinder programs. Both programs suggested alpha-tubulin/ubiquitin and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA the most stable genes for bacterium- and insecticide-treated whiteflies, respectively. For developmental stages, organs, and the samples including salivary glands and the whole body, transcription initiation factor TFIID subunit was calculated as the most stably expressed gene by both programs. In addition, we compared the RNA-seq data with the results of geNorm and Normfinder and found that the stable genes revealed by RNA-seq analysis were also the ERGs recommended by geNorm and Normfinder. Furthermore, the use of the most stable gene suggested by RNA-seq analysis as an ERG produced similar gene expression patterns compared with results generated from the normalization against the most stable gene selected by geNorm and Normfinder and multiple genes recommended by geNorm. It indicates that RNA-seq data are reliable and provide a great source for ERG candidate exploration. Our results benefit future research on gene expression profiles of whiteflies and possibly other organisms.

  12. Evaluating precision and accuracy when quantifying different endogenous control reference genes in maize using real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Scholdberg, Tandace A; Norden, Tim D; Nelson, Daishia D; Jenkins, G Ronald

    2009-04-08

    The agricultural biotechnology industry routinely utilizes real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) for the detection of biotechnology-derived traits in plant material, particularly for meeting the requirements of legislative mandates that rely upon the trace detection of DNA. Quantification via real-time RT-qPCR in plant species involves the measurement of the copy number of a taxon-specific, endogenous control gene exposed to the same manipulations as the target gene prior to amplification. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO 21570:2005) specifies that the copy number of an endogenous reference gene be used for normalizing the concentration (expressed as a % w/w) of a trait-specific target gene when using RT-qPCR. For this purpose, the copy number of a constitutively expressed endogenous reference gene in the same sample is routinely monitored. Real-time qPCR was employed to evaluate the predictability and performance of commonly used endogenous control genes (starch synthase, SSIIb-2, SSIIb-3; alcohol dehydrogenase, ADH; high-mobility group, HMG; zein; and invertase, IVR) used to detect biotechnology-derived traits in maize. The data revealed relatively accurate and precise amplification efficiencies when isogenic maize was compared to certified reference standards, but highly variable results when 23 nonisogenic maize cultivars were compared to an IRMM Bt-11 reference standard. Identifying the most suitable endogenous control gene, one that amplifies consistently and predictably across different maize cultivars, and implementing this as an internationally recognized standard would contribute toward harmonized testing of biotechnology-derived traits in maize.

  13. Variation in stability of endogenous reference genes in fallopian tubes and endometrium from healthy and ectopic pregnant women.

    PubMed

    Gebeh, Alpha K; Marczylo, Emma L; Amoako, Akwasi A; Willets, Jonathon M; Konje, Justin C

    2012-01-01

    RT-qPCR is commonly employed in gene expression studies in ectopic pregnancy. Most use RN18S1, β-actin or GAPDH as internal controls without validation of their suitability as reference genes. A systematic study of the suitability of endogenous reference genes for gene expression studies in ectopic pregnancy is lacking. The aims of this study were therefore to evaluate the stability of 12 reference genes and suggest those that are stable for use as internal control genes in fallopian tubes and endometrium from ectopic pregnancy and healthy non-pregnant controls. Analysis of the results showed that the genes consistently ranked in the top six by geNorm and NormFinder algorithms, were UBC, GAPDH, CYC1 and EIF4A2 (fallopian tubes) and UBC and ATP5B (endometrium). mRNA expression of NAPE-PLD as a test gene of interest varied between the groups depending on which of the 12 reference genes was used as internal controls. This study demonstrates that arbitrary selection of reference genes for normalisation in RT-qPCR studies in ectopic pregnancy without validation, risk producing inaccurate data and should therefore be discouraged.

  14. Collaborative ring trial of the papaya endogenous reference gene and its polymerase chain reaction assays for genetically modified organism analysis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Jiaojun; Li, Feiwu; Guo, Jinchao; Li, Xiang; Xu, Junfeng; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Dabing; Yang, Litao

    2013-11-27

    The papaya (Carica papaya L.) Chymopapain (CHY) gene has been reported as a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) papaya detection in previous studies. Herein, we further validated the use of the CHY gene and its qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays through an interlaboratory collaborative ring trial. A total of 12 laboratories working on detection of genetically modified organisms participated in the ring trial and returned test results. Statistical analysis of the returned results confirmed the species specificity, low heterogeneity, and single-copy number of the CHY gene among different papaya varieties. The limit of detection of the CHY qualitative PCR assay was 0.1%, while the limit of quantification of the quantitative PCR assay was ∼25 copies of haploid papaya genome with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. The differences between the tested and true values of papaya content in 10 blind samples ranged from 0.84 to 6.58%. These results indicated that the CHY gene was suitable as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM papaya.

  15. Validation of a carnation-specific gene, ANS, used as an endogenous reference gene in qualitative and real-time quantitative PCR for carnations.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hong; Jiang, Lingxi; Tao, Shiru; Lin, Heyan; Wang, Jinbin; Tan, Furong; Zhao, Kai; Wu, Xiao; Li, Peng; Pan, Aihu; Jia, Junwei; Tang, Xueming

    2011-01-01

    The validation of the anthocyanin synthase (ANS) gene as a carnation endogenous reference gene applicable both in classical and real-time PCR methods is a prerequisite for the development of PCR assays for genetically modified (GM) carnation detection. This is important due to the fact that GM carnation lines, developed by Florigene Pty Ltd, have been approved for commercialization. In this study, both methods were tested on 14 different carnation cultivars, and identical amplification products were obtained with all of them. No amplification products were observed with samples from 14 other plant species, which demonstrated that the system was specific to carnation. The results of Southern blot analysis confirmed that the ANS gene had a low copy number in the 10 tested carnation varieties. In qualitative and real-time PCR assays, the LOD values of 0.05 and 0.005 ng carnation DNA, respectively, were validated. Moreover, the real-time PCR system was validated with high PCR efficiency and linearity. Thus, the ANS gene had species specificity, low heterogeneity, and low copy number among the tested cultivars. These results provide evidence that the gene can be used as an endogenous reference gene of carnation, as well as in qualitative and quantitative PCR systems.

  16. A smart sealed nucleic acid biosensor based on endogenous reference gene detection to screen and identify mammals on site

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuancong; Xiang, Wenjin; Wang, Qin; Cheng, Nan; Zhang, Li; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2017-01-01

    The identification of meat adulteration is a hotspot for food research worldwide. In this paper, a smart and sealed biosensor that combines loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with a lateral flow device (LFD) was developed, resulting in the universal mammalian assessment on site. First, the highly specific chromosomal Glucagon gene (Gcg) was chosen as the endogenous reference gene, and the LAMP approach provided double-labeled duplex DNA products using FITC- and BIO- modified primers. Then, an LFD strategy was used for specific signal recognition through an immunoassay. Meanwhile, LFD-LAMP was compared to LAMP and real-time LAMP, the results showed consistent high specificity and sensitivity but in a more convenient and easy-to-use system. In addition, the detection limit was as low as 10 pg, which was equivalent to 3~5 copies in mammals. All of the reactions were performed in a sealed system regardless of the amplification process or products recognized. Therefore, the smart design demonstrated significantly high specificity and the ability to detect trace amounts of DNA in complex and processed foods with mammalian meat. As a universal and specific platform for the detection of mammalian DNA, this smart biosensor is an excellent prospect for species identification and meat adulteration. PMID:28233849

  17. A smart sealed nucleic acid biosensor based on endogenous reference gene detection to screen and identify mammals on site.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yuancong; Xiang, Wenjin; Wang, Qin; Cheng, Nan; Zhang, Li; Huang, Kunlun; Xu, Wentao

    2017-02-24

    The identification of meat adulteration is a hotspot for food research worldwide. In this paper, a smart and sealed biosensor that combines loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) with a lateral flow device (LFD) was developed, resulting in the universal mammalian assessment on site. First, the highly specific chromosomal Glucagon gene (Gcg) was chosen as the endogenous reference gene, and the LAMP approach provided double-labeled duplex DNA products using FITC- and BIO- modified primers. Then, an LFD strategy was used for specific signal recognition through an immunoassay. Meanwhile, LFD-LAMP was compared to LAMP and real-time LAMP, the results showed consistent high specificity and sensitivity but in a more convenient and easy-to-use system. In addition, the detection limit was as low as 10 pg, which was equivalent to 3~5 copies in mammals. All of the reactions were performed in a sealed system regardless of the amplification process or products recognized. Therefore, the smart design demonstrated significantly high specificity and the ability to detect trace amounts of DNA in complex and processed foods with mammalian meat. As a universal and specific platform for the detection of mammalian DNA, this smart biosensor is an excellent prospect for species identification and meat adulteration.

  18. International collaborative study of the endogenous reference gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), used for qualitative and quantitative analysis of genetically modified rice.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lingxi; Yang, Litao; Zhang, Haibo; Guo, Jinchao; Mazzara, Marco; Van den Eede, Guy; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-05-13

    One rice ( Oryza sativa ) gene, sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), has been proven to be a suitable endogenous reference gene for genetically modified (GM) rice detection in a previous study. Herein are the reported results of an international collaborative ring trial for validation of the SPS gene as an endogenous reference gene and its optimized qualitative and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) systems. A total of 12 genetically modified organism (GMO) detection laboratories from seven countries participated in the ring trial and returned their results. The validated results confirmed the species specificity of the method through testing 10 plant genomic DNAs, low heterogeneity, and a stable single-copy number of the rice SPS gene among 7 indica varieties and 5 japonica varieties. The SPS qualitative PCR assay was validated with a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.1%, which corresponded to about 230 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, while the limit of quantification (LOQ) for the quantitative PCR system was about 23 copies of haploid rice genomic DNA, with acceptable PCR efficiency and linearity. Furthermore, the bias between the test and true values of eight blind samples ranged from 5.22 to 26.53%. Thus, we believe that the SPS gene is suitable for use as an endogenous reference gene for the identification and quantification of GM rice and its derivates.

  19. Evaluation of endogenous references for gene expression profiling in different tissues of the oriental fruit fly Bactrocera dorsalis (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-qPCR) has been widely used for quantification of mRNA as a way to determine key genes involved in different biological processes. For accurate gene quantification analysis, normalization of RT-qPCR data is absolutely essential. To date, normalization is most frequently achieved by the use of internal controls, often referred to as reference genes. However, several studies have shown that the reference genes used for the quantification of mRNA expression can be affected by the experimental set-up or cell type resulting in variation of the expression level of these key genes. Therefore, the evaluation of reference genes is critical for gene expression profiling, which is often neglected in gene expression studies of insects. For this purpose, ten candidate reference genes were investigated in three different tissues (midgut, Malpighian tubules, and fat body) of the oriental fruit fly, Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel). Results Two different programs, geNorm and Normfinder, were used to analyze the data. According to geNorm, α-TUB + ACT5 are the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression profiling across the three different tissues in the female flies, while ACT3 + α-TUB are considered as the best for males. Furthermore, we evaluated the stability of the candidate reference genes to determine the sexual differences in the same tissue. In the midgut and Malpighian tubules, ACT2 + α-TUB are the best choice for both males and females. However, α-TUB + ACT1 are the best pair for fat body. Meanwhile, the results calculated by Normfinder are quite the same as the results with geNorm; α-TUB is always one of the most stable genes in each sample validated by the two programs. Conclusions In this study, we validated the suitable reference genes for gene expression profiling in different tissues of B. dorsalis. Moreover, appropriate reference genes were selected out for gene expression profiling of the

  20. A specific endogenous reference for genetically modified common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) DNA quantification by real-time PCR targeting lectin gene.

    PubMed

    Venturelli, Gustavo L; Brod, Fábio C A; Rossi, Gabriela B; Zimmermann, Naíra F; Oliveira, Jaison P; Faria, Josias C; Arisi, Ana C M

    2014-11-01

    The Embrapa 5.1 genetically modified (GM) common bean was approved for commercialization in Brazil. Methods for the quantification of this new genetically modified organism (GMO) are necessary. The development of a suitable endogenous reference is essential for GMO quantification by real-time PCR. Based on this, a new taxon-specific endogenous reference quantification assay was developed for Phaseolus vulgaris L. Three genes encoding common bean proteins (phaseolin, arcelin, and lectin) were selected as candidates for endogenous reference. Primers targeting these candidate genes were designed and the detection was evaluated using the SYBR Green chemistry. The assay targeting lectin gene showed higher specificity than the remaining assays, and a hydrolysis probe was then designed. This assay showed high specificity for 50 common bean samples from two gene pools, Andean and Mesoamerican. For GM common bean varieties, the results were similar to those obtained for non-GM isogenic varieties with PCR efficiency values ranging from 92 to 101 %. Moreover, this assay presented a limit of detection of ten haploid genome copies. The primers and probe developed in this work are suitable to detect and quantify either GM or non-GM common bean.

  1. Selection of endogenous reference microRNA genes for quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction studies of boar spermatozoa cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zeng, Chang-Jun; He, Lian; Ding, Li; Tang, Ke-Yi; Peng, Wen-Pei

    2015-03-01

    It is important to select high-quality reference genes for the accurate interpretation of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction data, in particular for certain miRNAs that may demonstrate unstable expression. Although several studies have attempted to validate reference miRNA genes in the porcine testis, spermatozoa, and other tissues, no validation studies have been carried out on cryopreserved boar spermatozoa. In this study, 15 commonly used reference miRNA genes (5S, let-7c-5p, ssc-miR-16-5p, ssc-miR-17-5p, ssc-miR-20a, ssc-miR-23a, ssc-miR-24-3p, ssc-miR-26a, ssc-miR-27a-3p, ssc-miR-92a, ssc-miR-103-3p, ssc-miR-106a, ssc-miR-107-3p, ssc-miR-186, and ssc-miR-221-3p) were selected to evaluate the expression stability of target miRNAs in boar spermatozoa under different experimental conditions and concentrations. The stability of the expression of these reference miRNAs across each sample was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software. The results showed that ssc-miR-186 (mean rank value = 5.00), ssc-miR-23a (5.33), and ssc-miR-27a (5.33) were the most suitable reference genes using three different statistical algorithms and comprehensive ranking. The identification of these reference miRNAs will allow for more accurate quantification of the changes in miRNA expression during cryopreservation of boar spermatozoa.

  2. Development of real-time PCR method for the detection and the quantification of a new endogenous reference gene in sugar beet "Beta vulgaris L.": GMO application.

    PubMed

    Chaouachi, Maher; Alaya, Akram; Ali, Imen Ben Haj; Hafsa, Ahmed Ben; Nabi, Nesrine; Bérard, Aurélie; Romaniuk, Marcel; Skhiri, Fethia; Saïd, Khaled

    2013-01-01

    KEY MESSAGE : Here, we describe a new developed quantitative real-time PCR method for the detection and quantification of a new specific endogenous reference gene used in GMO analysis. The key requirement of this study was the identification of a new reference gene used for the differentiation of the four genomic sections of the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) (Beta, Corrollinae, Nanae and Procumbentes) suitable for quantification of genetically modified sugar beet. A specific qualitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay was designed to detect the sugar beet amplifying a region of the adenylate transporter (ant) gene only from the species of the genomic section I of the genus Beta (cultivated and wild relatives) and showing negative PCR results for 7 species of the 3 other sections, 8 related species and 20 non-sugar beet plants. The sensitivity of the assay was 15 haploid genome copies (HGC). A quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (QRT-PCR) assay was also performed, having high linearity (R (2) > 0.994) over sugar beet standard concentrations ranging from 20,000 to 10 HGC of the sugar beet DNA per PCR. The QRT-PCR assay described in this study was specific and more sensitive for sugar beet quantification compared to the validated test previously reported in the European Reference Laboratory. This assay is suitable for GMO quantification in routine analysis from a wide variety of matrices.

  3. Endogenous Market-Clearing Prices and Reference Point Adaptation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragicevic, Arnaud Z.

    When prices depend on the submitted bids, i.e. with endogenous market-clearing prices in repeated-round auction mechanisms, the assumption of independent private values that underlines the property of incentive-compatibility is to be brought into question; even if these mechanisms provide active involvement and market learning. In its orthodox view, adaptive bidding behavior imperils incentive-compatibility. We relax the assumption of private values' independence in the repeated-round auctions, when the market-clearing prices are made public at the end of each round. Instead of using game-theory learning models, we introduce a behavioral model that shows that bidders bid according to the anchoring-and-adjustment heuristic, which neither ignores the rationality and incentive-compatibility constraints, nor rejects the posted prices issued from others' bids. Bidders simply weight information at their disposal and adjust their discovered value using reference points encoded in the sequential price weighting function. Our model says that bidders and offerers are sincere boundedly rational utility maximizers. It lies between evolutionary dynamics and adaptive heuristics and we model the concept of inertia as high weighting of the anchor, which stands for truthful bidding and high regard to freshly discovered preferences. Adjustment means adaptive rule based on adaptation of the reference point in the direction of the posted price. It helps a bidder to maximize her expected payoff, which is after all the only purpose that matters to rationality. The two components simply suggest that sincere bidders are boundedly rational. Furthermore, by deviating from their anchor in the direction of the public signal, bidders operate in a correlated equilibrium. The correlation between bids comes from the commonly observed history of play and each bidder's actions are determined by the history. Bidders are sincere if they have limited memory and confine their reference point adaptation

  4. [Identification of endogenous control genes for gene expression studies in peripheral blood of patients with coronary artery disease].

    PubMed

    Fong, S W; Suhairi, I; Mohamed, M S; Few, L L; Too, W C S; Khoo, B Y; Yussof, Z; Rahman, A R A; Yvonne-Tee, G B

    2013-01-01

    The selection of stable endogenous control genes is critical for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) data. In this study, we aimed to identify a suitable set of control genes to be used as endogenous references for gene expression evaluation in human peripheral blood samples among coronary artery disease patients. The expression levels of 12 endogenous control genes procured from TATAA Biocenter (Goteborg, Sweden) were measured in five acute coronary syndrome patients and five chronic stable angina patients. Gene expression stability was analyzed using two different software applications i.e geNorm and NormFinder. Results suggested that beta-glucuronidase is the most stable endogenous control, followed by hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. The NormFinder analysis further confirmed that beta-glucuronidase and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase were on the first rank order with the most stable expression among endogenous control genes analyzed and 60S acidic ribosomal protein P0. Besides this, the expression levels of 18S rRNA were revealed to be highly variable between coronary heart disease patients. We thus recommend the use of beta-glucuronidase and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase as reference genes for accurate normalization of relative quantities of gene expression levels in coronary artery disease patients using qPCR. Also the use of 18S rRNA as a control gene should be avoided.

  5. CRISPR RNA-guided activation of endogenous human genes.

    PubMed

    Maeder, Morgan L; Linder, Samantha J; Cascio, Vincent M; Fu, Yanfang; Ho, Quan H; Joung, J Keith

    2013-10-01

    Short guide RNAs (gRNAs) can direct catalytically inactive CRISPR-associated 9 nuclease (dCas9) to repress endogenous genes in bacteria and human cells. Here we show that single or multiple gRNAs can direct dCas9 fused to a VP64 transcriptional activation domain to increase expression of endogenous human genes. This proof-of-principle work shows that clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)-Cas systems can target heterologous effector domains to endogenous sites in human cells.

  6. Reference Pricing with Endogenous or Exogenous Payment Limits: Impacts on Insurer and Consumer Spending.

    PubMed

    Brown, Timothy T; Robinson, James C

    2016-06-01

    Reference pricing (RP) theories predict different outcomes when reference prices are fixed (exogenous) versus being a function of market prices (MPs) (endogenous). Exogenous RP results in MPs at both high-price and low-price firms converging towards the reference price from above and below, respectively. Endogenous RP results in MPs at both high-price and low-price firms decreasing, with low-price firms acting strategically to decrease the reference price in order to gain market share. We extend these models to a hospital context focusing on insurer and consumer payments. Under exogenous RP, insurer and consumer payments to low-price hospitals increase, and insurer payments to high-price hospitals decrease, but predictions regarding consumer payments are ambiguous for high-price hospitals. Under endogenous RP, insurer payments to high-price and low-price hospitals decrease, and consumer payments to low-price hospitals decrease, but predictions regarding consumer payments are ambiguous for high-price hospitals. We test these predictions with difference-in-differences specifications using 2008-2013 data on patients undergoing joint replacement. For 2 years following RP implementation, insurer payments to high-price and low-price hospitals moved downward, consistent with endogenous RP. However, when the reference price was not reset to account for changes in MPs, insurer payments to low-price hospitals reverted to pre-implementation levels, consistent with exogenous RP. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Upregulating endogenous genes by an RNA-programmable artificial transactivator

    PubMed Central

    Fimiani, Cristina; Goina, Elisa; Mallamaci, Antonello

    2015-01-01

    To promote expression of endogenous genes ad libitum, we developed a novel, programmable transcription factor prototype. Kept together via an MS2 coat protein/RNA interface, it includes a fixed, polypeptidic transactivating domain and a variable RNA domain that recognizes the desired gene. Thanks to this device, we specifically upregulated five genes, in cell lines and primary cultures of murine pallial precursors. Gene upregulation was small, however sufficient to robustly inhibit neuronal differentiation. The transactivator interacted with target gene chromatin via its RNA cofactor. Its activity was restricted to cells in which the target gene is normally transcribed. Our device might be useful for specific applications. However for this purpose, it will require an improvement of its transactivation power as well as a better characterization of its target specificity and mechanism of action. PMID:26152305

  8. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies by qRT-PCR in the blister beetle Mylabris cichorii.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhong-Kang; Huang, Yi; Liao, Yu-Feng; Yin, You-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The blister beetle Mylabris cichorii L. (Coleoptera: Meloidae) is a traditional medicinal insect recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. It synthesizes cantharidin, which kills cancer cells efficiently. Only males produce large amounts of cantharidin. Reference genes are required as endogenous controls for the analysis of differential gene expression in M. cichorii. Our study chose 10 genes as candidate reference genes. The stability of expression of these genes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and determined with two algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder. We recommend UBE3A and RPL22e as suitable reference genes in females and UBE3A, TAF5, and RPL22e in males.

  9. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for gene Expression Studies by qRT-PCR in the Blister Beetle Mylabris cichorii

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Zhong-Kang; Huang, Yi; Liao, Yu-Feng; Yin, You-Ping

    2014-01-01

    The blister beetle Mylabris cichorii L. (Coleoptera: Meloidae) is a traditional medicinal insect recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. It synthesizes cantharidin, which kills cancer cells efficiently. Only males produce large amounts of cantharidin. Reference genes are required as endogenous controls for the analysis of differential gene expression in M. cichorii. Our study chose 10 genes as candidate reference genes. The stability of expression of these genes was analyzed by quantitative PCR and determined with two algorithms, geNorm and Normfinder. We recommend UBE3A and RPL22e as suitable reference genes in females and UBE3A, TAF5, and RPL22e in males. PMID:25368050

  10. Identification of reference genes and validation for gene expression studies in diverse axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) tissues.

    PubMed

    Guelke, Eileen; Bucan, Vesna; Liebsch, Christina; Lazaridis, Andrea; Radtke, Christine; Vogt, Peter M; Reimers, Kerstin

    2015-04-10

    For the precise quantitative RT-PCR normalization a set of valid reference genes is obligatory. Moreover have to be taken into concern the experimental conditions as they bias the regulation of reference genes. Up till now, no reference targets have been described for the axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum). In a search in the public database SalSite for genetic information of the axolotl we identified fourteen presumptive reference genes, eleven of which were further tested for their gene expression stability. This study characterizes the expressional patterns of 11 putative endogenous control genes during axolotl limb regeneration and in an axolotl tissue panel. All 11 reference genes showed variable expression. Strikingly, ACTB was to be found most stable expressed in all comparative tissue groups, so we reason it to be suitable for all different kinds of axolotl tissue-type investigations. Moreover do we suggest GAPDH and RPLP0 as suitable for certain axolotl tissue analysis. When it comes to axolotl limb regeneration, a validated pair of reference genes is ODC and RPLP0. With these findings, new insights into axolotl gene expression profiling might be gained.

  11. Reference genes for gene expression analysis in proliferating and differentiating human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Lanzafame, Manuela; Botta, Elena; Teson, Massimo; Fortugno, Paola; Zambruno, Giovanna; Stefanini, Miria; Orioli, Donata

    2015-04-01

    Abnormalities in keratinocyte growth and differentiation have a pathogenic significance in many skin disorders and result in gene expression alterations detectable by quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Relative quantification based on endogenous control (EC) genes is the commonly adopted approach, and the use of multiple reference genes from independent pathways is considered a best practice guideline, unless fully validated EC genes are available. The literature on optimal reference genes during in vitro calcium-induced differentiation of normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) is inconsistent. In many studies, the expression of target genes is compared to that of housekeeping genes whose expression, however, significantly varies during keratinocyte differentiation. Here, we report the results of our investigations on the expression stability of 15 candidate EC genes, including those commonly used as reference in expression analysis by qRT-PCR, during NHEK calcium-induced differentiation. We demonstrate that YWHAZ and UBC are extremely stable genes, and therefore, they represent optimal EC genes for expression studies in proliferating and calcium-induced differentiating NHEK. Furthermore, we demonstrate that YWHAZ/14-3-3-zeta is a suitable reference for quantitative comparison of both transcript and protein levels.

  12. Optimal Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Odelta; de Vargas Rigo, Graziela; Frasson, Amanda Piccoli; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the etiologic agent of trichomonosis, the most common non-viral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. This infection is associated with several health consequences, including cervical and prostate cancers and HIV acquisition. Gene expression analysis has been facilitated because of available genome sequences and large-scale transcriptomes in T. vaginalis, particularly using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), one of the most used methods for molecular studies. Reference genes for normalization are crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, to the best of our knowledge, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been performed for T. vaginalis. In this study, the transcripts of nine candidate reference genes were quantified using qRT-PCR under different cultivation conditions, and the stability of these genes was compared using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The most stable reference genes were α-tubulin, actin and DNATopII, and, conversely, the widely used T. vaginalis reference genes GAPDH and β-tubulin were less stable. The PFOR gene was used to validate the reliability of the use of these candidate reference genes. As expected, the PFOR gene was upregulated when the trophozoites were cultivated with ferrous ammonium sulfate when the DNATopII, α-tubulin and actin genes were used as normalizing gene. By contrast, the PFOR gene was downregulated when the GAPDH gene was used as an internal control, leading to misinterpretation of the data. These results provide an important starting point for reference gene selection and gene expression analysis with qRT-PCR studies of T. vaginalis.

  13. Endogenous small RNAs in grain: semi-quantification and sequence homology to human and animal genes.

    PubMed

    Ivashuta, Sergey I; Petrick, Jay S; Heisel, Sara E; Zhang, Yuanji; Guo, Liang; Reynolds, Tracey L; Rice, James F; Allen, Edwards; Roberts, James K

    2009-02-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are effector molecules of RNA interference (RNAi), a highly conserved RNA-based gene suppression mechanism in plants, mammals and other eukaryotes. Endogenous RNAi-based gene suppression has been harnessed naturally and through conventional breeding to achieve desired plant phenotypes. The present study demonstrates that endogenous small RNAs, such as siRNAs and miRNAs, are abundant in soybean seeds, corn kernels, and rice grain, plant tissues that are traditionally used for food and feed. Numerous endogenous plant small RNAs were found to have perfect complementarity to human genes as well as those of other mammals. The abundance of endogenous small RNA molecules in grain from safely consumed food and feed crops such as soybean, corn, and rice and the homology of a number of these dietary small RNAs to human and animal genomes and transcriptomes establishes a history of safe consumption for dietary small RNAs.

  14. Silent no more: Endogenous small RNA pathways promote gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wedeles, Christopher J; Wu, Monica Z; Claycomb, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous small RNA pathways related to RNA interference (RNAi) play a well-documented role in protecting host genomes from the invasion of foreign nucleic acids. In C. elegans, the PIWI type Argonaute, PRG-1, through an association with 21U-RNAs, mediates a genome surveillance process by constantly scanning the genome for potentially deleterious invading elements. Upon recognition of foreign nucleic acids, PRG-1 initiates a cascade of cytoplasmic and nuclear events that results in heritable epigenetic silencing of these transcripts and their coding genomic loci. If the PRG-1/21U-RNA genome surveillance pathway has the capacity to target most of the C. elegans transcriptome, what mechanisms exist to protect endogenous transcripts from being silenced by this pathway? In this commentary, we discuss three recent publications that implicate the CSR-1 small RNA pathway in the heritable activation of germline transcripts, propose a model as to why not all epialleles behave similarly, and touch on the practical implications of these findings.

  15. Identification and validation of reference genes for transcript normalization in strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) defense responses.

    PubMed

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Folta, Kevin M; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria spp) is an emerging model for the development of basic genomics and recombinant DNA studies among rosaceous crops. Functional genomic and molecular studies involve relative quantification of gene expression under experimental conditions of interest. Accuracy and reliability are dependent upon the choice of an optimal reference control transcript. There is no information available on validated endogenous reference genes for use in studies testing strawberry-pathogen interactions. Thirteen potential pre-selected strawberry reference genes were tested against different tissues, strawberry cultivars, biotic stresses, ripening and senescent conditions, and SA/JA treatments. Evaluation of reference candidate's suitability was analyzed by five different methodologies, and information was merged to identify best reference transcripts. A combination of all five methods was used for selective classification of reference genes. The resulting superior reference genes, FaRIB413, FaACTIN, FaEF1α and FaGAPDH2 are strongly recommended as control genes for relative quantification of gene expression in strawberry. This report constitutes the first systematic study to identify and validate optimal reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in strawberry plant defense response studies.

  16. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Transcript Normalization in Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) Defense Responses

    PubMed Central

    Amil-Ruiz, Francisco; Garrido-Gala, José; Blanco-Portales, Rosario; Folta, Kevin M.; Muñoz-Blanco, Juan; Caballero, José L.

    2013-01-01

    Strawberry (Fragaria spp) is an emerging model for the development of basic genomics and recombinant DNA studies among rosaceous crops. Functional genomic and molecular studies involve relative quantification of gene expression under experimental conditions of interest. Accuracy and reliability are dependent upon the choice of an optimal reference control transcript. There is no information available on validated endogenous reference genes for use in studies testing strawberry-pathogen interactions. Thirteen potential pre-selected strawberry reference genes were tested against different tissues, strawberry cultivars, biotic stresses, ripening and senescent conditions, and SA/JA treatments. Evaluation of reference candidate’s suitability was analyzed by five different methodologies, and information was merged to identify best reference transcripts. A combination of all five methods was used for selective classification of reference genes. The resulting superior reference genes, FaRIB413, FaACTIN, FaEF1α and FaGAPDH2 are strongly recommended as control genes for relative quantification of gene expression in strawberry. This report constitutes the first systematic study to identify and validate optimal reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression in strawberry plant defense response studies. PMID:23940602

  17. RNA Quality Control as a Key to Suppressing RNA Silencing of Endogenous Genes in Plants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin; Chen, Xuemei

    2016-06-06

    RNA quality control of endogenous RNAs is an integral part of eukaryotic gene expression and often relies on exonucleolytic degradation to eliminate dysfunctional transcripts. In parallel, exogenous and selected endogenous RNAs are degraded through RNA silencing, which is a genome defense mechanism used by many eukaryotes. In plants, RNA silencing is triggered by the production of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) by RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASEs (RDRs) and proceeds through small interfering (si) RNA-directed, ARGONAUTE (AGO)-mediated cleavage of homologous transcripts. Many studies revealed that plants avert inappropriate posttranscriptional gene silencing of endogenous coding genes by using RNA surveillance mechanisms as a safeguard to protect their transcriptome profiles. The tug of war between RNA surveillance and RNA silencing ensures the appropriate partitioning of endogenous RNA substrates among these degradation pathways. Here we review recent advances on RNA quality control and its role in the suppression of RNA silencing at endogenous genes and discuss the mechanisms underlying the crosstalk among these pathways.

  18. Gene expression patterns in the hippocampus and amygdala of endogenous depression and chronic stress models

    PubMed Central

    Andrus, B M; Blizinsky, K; Vedell, P T; Dennis, K; Shukla, P K; Schaffer, D J; Radulovic, J; Churchill, G A; Redei, E E

    2012-01-01

    The etiology of depression is still poorly understood, but two major causative hypotheses have been put forth: the monoamine deficiency and the stress hypotheses of depression. We evaluate these hypotheses using animal models of endogenous depression and chronic stress. The endogenously depressed rat and its control strain were developed by bidirectional selective breeding from the Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rat, an accepted model of major depressive disorder (MDD). The WKY More Immobile (WMI) substrain shows high immobility/despair-like behavior in the forced swim test (FST), while the control substrain, WKY Less Immobile (WLI), shows no depressive behavior in the FST. Chronic stress responses were investigated by using Brown Norway, Fischer 344, Lewis and WKY, genetically and behaviorally distinct strains of rats. Animals were either not stressed (NS) or exposed to chronic restraint stress (CRS). Genome-wide microarray analyses identified differentially expressed genes in hippocampi and amygdalae of the endogenous depression and the chronic stress models. No significant difference was observed in the expression of monoaminergic transmission-related genes in either model. Furthermore, very few genes showed overlapping changes in the WMI vs WLI and CRS vs NS comparisons, strongly suggesting divergence between endogenous depressive behavior- and chronic stress-related molecular mechanisms. Taken together, these results posit that although chronic stress may induce depressive behavior, its molecular underpinnings differ from those of endogenous depression in animals and possibly in humans, suggesting the need for different treatments. The identification of novel endogenous depression-related and chronic stress response genes suggests that unexplored molecular mechanisms could be targeted for the development of novel therapeutic agents. PMID:21079605

  19. Effect of endogenous leukosis virus genes on response to infection with avian leukosis and reticuloendotheliosis viruses.

    PubMed

    Crittenden, L B; Fadly, A M; Smith, E J

    1982-01-01

    We examined the effect of the presence or absence of endogenous viral gene (ev) 3, which controls expression of group-specific viral and envelope antigens (gs+chf+ phenotype), and ev2, which controls the production of a complete subgroup E virus (V-E+ phenotype), on the response of chickens to RAV-1, an exogenous avian leukosis virus (ALV) with an antigenic relationship to endogenous virus. After inoculation at one day of age, the chickens lacking either ev gene expression had a lower frequency of virus isolations and higher frequency and titer of neutralizing antibodies than those expressing ev genes. This relationship was not seen in groups inoculated with chick syncytial virus (CSV), a reticuloendotheliosis-associated virus with no relationship to endogenous virus, but the ev2+ birds tended to yield more CSV isolations than the ev2- birds. We suggest that chickens expressing ev genes may be immunologically tolerant to antigens common to exogenous and endogenous viruses. In addition, ev3- birds inoculated with RAV-1 at one day of age or as embryos died at a high rate between 6 and 12 weeks of age with a non-neoplastic syndrome characterized by severe atrophy of lymphoid organs, an inflammatory reaction in the liver, and a lower immune response to particulate antigens.

  20. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression in red-tailed phascogale (Phascogale calura) liver, lung, small intestine and spleen

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Oselyne T.W.; Young, Lauren J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference genes serve an important role as an endogenous control/standard for data normalisation in gene expression studies. Although reference genes have recently been suggested for marsupials, independent analysis of reference genes on different immune tissues is yet to be tested. Therefore, an assessment of reference genes is needed for the selection of stable, expressed genes across different marsupial tissues. Methods The study was conducted on red-tailed phascogales (Phascogale calura) using five juvenile and five adult males. The stability of five reference genes (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, GAPDH; β-actin, ACTB; 18S rRNA, 18S; 28S rRNA, 28S; and ribosomal protein L13A, RPL13A) was investigated using SYBR Green and analysed with the geNorm application available in qBasePLUS software. Results Gene stability for juvenile and adult tissue samples combined show that GAPDH was most stable in liver and lung tissue, and 18S in small intestine and spleen. While all reference genes were suitable for small intestine and spleen tissues, all reference genes except 28S were stable for lung and only 18S and 28S were stable for liver tissue. Separating the two age groups, we found that two different reference genes were considered stable in juveniles (ACTB and GAPDH) and adults (18S and 28S), and RPL13A was not stable for juvenile small intestine tissue. Except for 28S, all reference genes were stable in juvenile and adult lungs, and all five reference genes were stable in spleen tissue. Discussion Based on expression stability, ACTB and GAPDH are suitable for all tissues when studying the expression of marsupials in two age groups, except for adult liver tissues. The expression stability between juvenile and adult liver tissue was most unstable, as the stable reference genes for juveniles and adults were different. Juvenile and adult lung, small intestine and spleen share similar stable reference genes, except for small intestine tissues where

  1. Identification and validation of reference genes for expression studies in human keratinocyte cell lines treated with and without interferon-γ - a method for qRT-PCR reference gene determination.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Angelika B; Keskin, Derin B; Reinherz, Ellis L

    2012-08-01

    Based on the exquisite sensitivity, reproducibility and wide dynamic range of quantitative reverse-transcription real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), it is currently the gold standard for gene expression studies. Target gene expression is calculated relative to a stably expressed reference gene. An ideal reference should be uniformly expressed during all experimental conditions within the given experimental system. However, no commonly applicable 'best' reference gene has been identified. Thus, endogenous controls must be determined for every experimental system. As no appropriate reference genes have been reported for immunological studies in keratinocytes, we aimed at identifying and validating a set of endogenous controls for these settings. An extensive validation of sixteen possible endogenous controls in a panel of 8 normal and transformed keratinocyte cell lines in experimental conditions with and without interferon-γ was performed. RNA and cDNA quality was stringently controlled. Candidate reference genes were assessed by TaqMan(®) qRT-PCR. Two different statistical algorithms were used to determine the most stably and reproducibly expressed housekeeping genes. mRNA abundance was compared and reference genes with widely different ranges of expression than possible target genes were excluded. Subsequent geNorm and NormFinder analyses identified GAPDH, PGK1, IPO8 and PPIA as the most stably expressed genes in the keratinocyte panel under the given experimental conditions. We conclude that the geometric means of expression values of these four genes represents a robust normalization factor for qRT-PCR analyses in interferon-γ-dependent gene expression studies in keratinocytes. The methodology and results herein may help other researchers by facilitating their choice of reference genes.

  2. Expression of Endogenous Retroviral Genes in Leukemic Guinea Pig Cells

    PubMed Central

    Davis, A. R.; Nayak, D. P.

    1977-01-01

    The expression of guinea pig retrovirus (5-bromodeoxyuridine[BUdR]-induced GPV) was studied in guinea pig L2C leukemic lymphoblasts by use of molecular hybridization of viral complementary DNA (cDNA) to cellular RNA. It was found that L2C leukemic lymphoblasts, leukemic spleen, and BUdR-induced virus-producing cells contain virus-specific RNA: 0.05% (800 to 960 copies per cell), 0.02% (360 copies per cell), and 0.3% (5,120 copies per cell), respectively. Adult normal liver and spleen, on the other hand, contain less than 0.2 copy of viral RNA per cell. Both BUdR-induced cells and L2C leukemic lymphoblasts contained 14S, 22S, 35S, and 70S RNA species of total and cytoplasmic virus-specific RNA as determined by sucrose velocity gradient analysis and hybridization of sucrose gradient fractions to cDNA. Virus-specific mRNA was identified in both BUdR-induced cells and L2C leukemic lymphoblasts by the criterion that it cosedimented with purified polyribosomes in a sucrose gradient and that it changed to a lower sedimentation value if polyribosomes were disaggregated with EDTA prior to centrifugation. Virus-specific mRNA obtained from either the polyribosome region of purified polyribosomes or the released messenger region of EDTA-disaggregated purified polyribosomes consisted of 14S, 20S, and 35S species in both BUdR-induced cells and L2C leukemic lymphoblasts. Hybridization of cDNA to the RNA of L2C leukemic lymphoblasts and BUdR-induced cells was essentially complete. Additionally, leukemic lymphoblast RNA could displace 95% of the hybridization of BUdR-induced GPV 70S RNA to guinea pig DNA. The midpoints of thermal denaturation of hybrids formed between GPV cDNA and the RNA of either L2C leukemic lymphoblasts or the 70S RNA of BUdR-induced GPV were both 89°C in 2× concentrated 0.15 M NaCl plus 0.015 M sodium citrate. These results show that BUdR-induced GPV genes are essentially completely expressed in L2C leukemic lymphoblasts and that virus-specific mRNA is

  3. Detection of stable reference genes for real-time PCR analysis in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.

    PubMed

    Silberberg, Gilad; Baruch, Kuti; Navon, Ruth

    2009-08-15

    Gene expression studies using postmortem human brain tissue are a common tool for studying the etiology of psychiatric disorders. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is an accurate and sensitive technique used for gene expression analysis in which the expression level is quantified by normalization to one or more reference genes. Therefore, accurate data normalization is critical for validating results obtained by qPCR. This study aimed to identify genes that may serve as reference in postmortem dorsolateral-prefrontal cortices (Brodmann's area 46) of schizophrenics, bipolar disorder (BPD) patients, and control subjects. In the exploratory stage of the analysis, samples of four BPD patients, two schizophrenics, and two controls were quantified using the TaqMan Low Density Array endogenous control panel, containing assays for 16 commonly used reference genes. In the next stage, six of these genes (TFRC, RPLP0, ACTB, POLR2a, B2M, and GAPDH) were quantified by qPCR in 12 samples of each clinical group. Expressional stability of the genes was determined by GeNorm and NormFinder. TFRC and RPLP0 were the most stably expressed genes, whereas the commonly used 18S, POLR2a, and GAPDH were the least stable. This report stresses the importance of examining expressional stability of candidate reference genes in the specific sample collection to be analyzed.

  4. Determination of fortified and endogenous folates in food-based Standard Reference Materials by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Camara, Johanna E; Lowenthal, Mark S; Phinney, Karen W

    2013-05-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is developing a wide variety of Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) to support measurements of vitamins and other nutrients in foods. Previously, NIST has provided SRMs with values assigned for the folate vitamer, folic acid (pteroylglutamic acid), which is fortified in several foods due to its role in prevention of neural tube defects. In order to expand the number of food-based SRMs with values assigned for folic acid, as well as additional endogenous folates, NIST has developed methods that include trienzyme digestion and isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. Sample preparation was optimized for each individual food type, but all samples were analyzed under the same LC-MS/MS conditions. The application of these methods resulted in folic acid values for SRM 1849a Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula and SRM 3233 Fortified Breakfast Cereal of (2.33 ± 0.06) μg/g and (16.0 ± 0.7) μg/g, respectively. In addition, the endogenous folate vitamer 5-methlytetrahydrofolate (5-MTHF) was detected and quantified in SRM 1849a Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula, candidate SRM 1549a Whole Milk Powder, and candidate SRM 1845a Whole Egg Powder, resulting in values of (0.0839 ± 0.0071) μg/g, (0.211 ± 0.014) μg/g, and (0.838 ± 0.044) μg/g, respectively. SRM 1849a Infant/Adult Nutritional Formula is the first food-based NIST SRM to possess a reference value for 5-MTHF and the first certified reference material to have an assigned 5-MTHF value based on LC-MS/MS. The values obtained for folic acid and 5-MTHF by LC-MS/MS will be incorporated into the final value assignments for all these food-based SRMs.

  5. Validation of reference genes in Penicillium echinulatum to enable gene expression study using real-time quantitative RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Zampieri, Denise; Nora, Luísa C; Basso, Vanessa; Camassola, Marli; Dillon, Aldo J P

    2014-08-01

    Quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a methodology that facilitates the quantification of mRNA expression in a given sample. Analysis of relative gene expression by qRT-PCR requires normalization of the data using a reference gene that is expressed at a similar level in all evaluated conditions. Determining an internal control gene is essential for gene expression studies. Gene expression studies in filamentous fungi frequently use the β-actin gene (actb), β-tubulin, and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase as reference genes because they are known to have consistent expression levels. Until now, no study has been performed to select an internal control gene for the filamentous fungal species Penicillium echinulatum. The aim of this study was to evaluate and validate internal control genes to enable the study of gene expression in P. echinulatum using qRT-PCR. P. echinulatum strain S1M29 was grown in conditions to either induce (cellulose and sugar cane bagasse) or repress (glucose) gene expression to analyze 23 candidate normalization genes for stable expression. Two software programs, BestKeeper and geNorm, were used to assess the expression of the candidate normalization genes. The results indicate that the actb reference gene is more stably expressed in P. echinulatum. This is the first report in the literature that determines a normalization gene for this fungus. From the results obtained, we recommend the use of the P. echinulatum actb gene as an endogenous control for gene expression studies of cellulases and hemicellulases by qRT-PCR.

  6. Virus infection and interferon can activate gene expression through a single synthetic element, but endogenous genes show distinct regulation.

    PubMed

    Raj, N B; Engelhardt, J; Au, W C; Levy, D E; Pitha, P M

    1989-10-05

    Virus inducible elements (IE) in promoters of mouse alpha-interferon and human beta 1-interferon genes contain multiple copies of the hexanucleotide sequence AGT-GAA or its variants which are also found in the interferon-stimulated response element of genes transcriptionally induced by interferon. We have examined the similarities between virus and interferon induction of gene expression and the role of AGTGAA and AAT-GAA hexamers in these responses. Hybrid plasmids were constructed by inserting the IE region, the alpha 4 promoter, or the multiple copies of AGTGAA or AAT-GAA 5' to the inactive-45 human immunodeficiency-chloramphenicol acetyltransferase hybrid gene, and their inducible expression was studied in a transient expression assay. In L-cells, multiple hexamers were efficiently induced both by infection with Newcastle disease virus and by interferon treatment; while the alpha 4 promoter and the IE inducible region were induced predominantly by virus rather than by interferon. In order to dissociate the effect of virus and endogenous interferon on the induction process, we examined the gene expression in Vero cells, which have undergone homozygous deletion of type 1 interferon genes, and in VNPT-159 cells, which were derived from Vero cells by insertion of an inducible human interferon beta 1 gene. The results show that while the alpha 4 promoter was efficiently induced only by virus in both cell types, the constructs containing shorter segments of the IE were induced by both virus and interferon in Vero cells. However, the inducibility by interferon was not detected in VNPT-159 cells, suggesting that the presence of endogenous interferon suppresses interferon-induced expression of hexanucleotide repeats and the short inducible region. In contrast, virus inducibility of endogenous interferon-stimulated genes, ISG-15 and ISG-54, was about 100-fold more efficient in VNPT-159 cells than in Vero cells, suggesting that this induction is largely mediated through

  7. Unstable Expression of Commonly Used Reference Genes in Rat Pancreatic Islets Early after Isolation Affects Results of Gene Expression Studies.

    PubMed

    Kosinová, Lucie; Cahová, Monika; Fábryová, Eva; Týcová, Irena; Koblas, Tomáš; Leontovyč, Ivan; Saudek, František; Kříž, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The use of RT-qPCR provides a powerful tool for gene expression studies; however, the proper interpretation of the obtained data is crucially dependent on accurate normalization based on stable reference genes. Recently, strong evidence has been shown indicating that the expression of many commonly used reference genes may vary significantly due to diverse experimental conditions. The isolation of pancreatic islets is a complicated procedure which creates severe mechanical and metabolic stress leading possibly to cellular damage and alteration of gene expression. Despite of this, freshly isolated islets frequently serve as a control in various gene expression and intervention studies. The aim of our study was to determine expression of 16 candidate reference genes and one gene of interest (F3) in isolated rat pancreatic islets during short-term cultivation in order to find a suitable endogenous control for gene expression studies. We compared the expression stability of the most commonly used reference genes and evaluated the reliability of relative and absolute quantification using RT-qPCR during 0-120 hrs after isolation. In freshly isolated islets, the expression of all tested genes was markedly depressed and it increased several times throughout the first 48 hrs of cultivation. We observed significant variability among samples at 0 and 24 hrs but substantial stabilization from 48 hrs onwards. During the first 48 hrs, relative quantification failed to reflect the real changes in respective mRNA concentrations while in the interval 48-120 hrs, the relative expression generally paralleled the results determined by absolute quantification. Thus, our data call into question the suitability of relative quantification for gene expression analysis in pancreatic islets during the first 48 hrs of cultivation, as the results may be significantly affected by unstable expression of reference genes. However, this method could provide reliable information from 48 hrs onwards.

  8. Inheritable Silencing of Endogenous Genes by Hit-and-Run Targeted Epigenetic Editing.

    PubMed

    Amabile, Angelo; Migliara, Alessandro; Capasso, Paola; Biffi, Mauro; Cittaro, Davide; Naldini, Luigi; Lombardo, Angelo

    2016-09-22

    Gene silencing is instrumental to interrogate gene function and holds promise for therapeutic applications. Here, we repurpose the endogenous retroviruses' silencing machinery of embryonic stem cells to stably silence three highly expressed genes in somatic cells by epigenetics. This was achieved by transiently expressing combinations of engineered transcriptional repressors that bind to and synergize at the target locus to instruct repressive histone marks and de novo DNA methylation, thus ensuring long-term memory of the repressive epigenetic state. Silencing was highly specific, as shown by genome-wide analyses, sharply confined to the targeted locus without spreading to nearby genes, resistant to activation induced by cytokine stimulation, and relieved only by targeted DNA demethylation. We demonstrate the portability of this technology by multiplex gene silencing, adopting different DNA binding platforms and interrogating thousands of genomic loci in different cell types, including primary T lymphocytes. Targeted epigenome editing might have broad application in research and medicine.

  9. Validation of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR (qPCR) Analysis of Avibacterium paragallinarum

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Shuxiang; Chen, Xiaoling; Xu, Fuzhou; Sun, Huiling

    2016-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) offers a robust method for measurement of gene expression levels. Selection of reliable reference gene(s) for gene expression study is conducive to reduce variations derived from different amounts of RNA and cDNA, the efficiency of the reverse transcriptase or polymerase enzymes. Until now reference genes identified for other members of the family Pasteurellaceae have not been validated for Avibacterium paragallinarum. The aim of this study was to validate nine reference genes of serovars A, B, and C strains of A. paragallinarum in different growth phase by qRT-PCR. Three of the most widely used statistical algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and ΔCT method were used to evaluate the expression stability of reference genes. Data analyzed by overall rankings showed that in exponential and stationary phase of serovar A, the most stable reference genes were gyrA and atpD respectively; in exponential and stationary phase of serovar B, the most stable reference genes were atpD and recN respectively; in exponential and stationary phase of serovar C, the most stable reference genes were rpoB and recN respectively. This study provides recommendations for stable endogenous control genes for use in further studies involving measurement of gene expression levels. PMID:27942007

  10. Endogenous retroviruses in mammals: an emerging picture of how ERVs modify expression of adjacent genes.

    PubMed

    Isbel, Luke; Whitelaw, Emma

    2012-09-01

    Endogenous retrovirsuses (ERVs) have long been known to influence gene expression in plants in important ways, but what of their roles in mammals? Our relatively sparse knowledge in that area was recently increased with the finding that ERVs can influence the expression of mammalian resident genes by disrupting transcriptional termination. For many mammalian biologists, retrotransposition is considered unimportant except when it disrupts the reading frame of a gene, but this view continues to be challenged. It has been known for some time that integration into an intron can create novel transcripts and integration upstream of a gene can alter the expression of the transcript, in many cases producing phenotypic consequences and disease. The new findings on transcriptional termination extend the opportunities for retrotransposons to play a role in human disease.

  11. Evaluation of endogenous control gene(s) for gene expression studies in human blood exposed to 60Co γ-rays ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Vaiphei, S Thangminlal; Keppen, Joshua; Nongrum, Saibadaiahun; Chaubey, R C; Kma, L; Sharan, R N

    2015-01-01

    In gene expression studies, it is critical to normalize data using a stably expressed endogenous control gene in order to obtain accurate and reliable results. However, we currently do not have a universally applied endogenous control gene for normalization of data for gene expression studies, particularly those involving (60)Co γ-ray-exposed human blood samples. In this study, a comparative assessment of the gene expression of six widely used housekeeping endogenous control genes, namely 18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, MT-ATP6 and CDKN1A, was undertaken for a range of (60)Co γ-ray doses (0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0 Gy) at 8.4 Gy min(-1) at 0 and 24 h post-irradiation time intervals. Using the NormFinder algorithm, real-time PCR data obtained from six individuals (three males and three females) were analyzed with respect to the threshold cycle (Ct) value and abundance, ΔCt pair-wise comparison, intra- and inter-group variability assessments, etc. GAPDH, either alone or in combination with 18S, was found to be the most suitable endogenous control gene and should be used in gene expression studies, especially those involving qPCR of γ-ray-exposed human blood samples.

  12. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    PubMed

    Die, Jose V; Rowland, Lisa J

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  13. Importance of reference gene selection for articular cartilage mechanobiology studies

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sabah, A.; Stadnik, P.; Gilbert, S.J.; Duance, V.C.; Blain, E.J.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Objective Identification of genes differentially expressed in mechano-biological pathways in articular cartilage provides insight into the molecular mechanisms behind initiation and/or progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is commonly used to measure gene expression, and is reliant on the use of reference genes for normalisation. Appropriate validation of reference gene stability is imperative for accurate data analysis and interpretation. This study determined in vitro reference gene stability in articular cartilage explants and primary chondrocytes subjected to different compressive loads and tensile strain, respectively. Design The expression of eight commonly used reference genes (18s, ACTB, GAPDH, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL4, SDHA and YWHAZ) was determined by qPCR and data compared using four software packages (comparative delta-Ct method, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper). Calculation of geometric means of the ranked weightings was carried out using RefFinder. Results Appropriate reference gene(s) for normalisation of mechanically-regulated transcript levels in articular cartilage tissue or isolated chondrocytes were dependent on experimental set-up. SDHA, YWHAZ and RPL4 were the most stable genes whilst glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and to a lesser extent Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT), showed variable expression in response to load, demonstrating their unsuitability in such in vitro studies. The effect of using unstable reference genes to normalise the expression of aggrecan (ACAN) and matrix metalloproteinase 3 (MMP3) resulted in inaccurate quantification of these mechano-sensitive genes and erroneous interpretation/conclusions. Conclusion This study demonstrates that commonly used ‘reference genes’ may be unsuitable for in vitro cartilage chondrocyte mechanobiology studies, reinforcing the principle that careful validation of reference genes is essential prior to each experiment to

  14. Competition between virus-derived and endogenous small RNAs regulates gene expression in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Sarkies, Peter; Ashe, Alyson; Le Pen, Jérémie; McKie, Mikel A; Miska, Eric A

    2013-08-01

    Positive-strand RNA viruses encompass more than one-third of known virus genera and include many medically and agriculturally relevant human, animal, and plant pathogens. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans and its natural pathogen, the positive-strand RNA virus Orsay, have recently emerged as a new animal model to understand the mechanisms and evolution of innate immune responses. In particular, the RNA interference (RNAi) pathway is required for C. elegans resistance to viral infection. Here we report the first genome-wide analyses of gene expression upon viral infection in C. elegans. Using the laboratory strain N2, we identify a novel C. elegans innate immune response specific to viral infection. A subset of these changes is driven by the RNAi response to the virus, which redirects the Argonaute protein RDE-1 from its endogenous small RNA cofactors, leading to loss of repression of endogenous RDE-1 targets. Additionally, we show that a C. elegans wild isolate, JU1580, has a distinct gene expression signature in response to viral infection. This is associated with a reduction in microRNA (miRNA) levels and an up-regulation of their target genes. Intriguingly, alterations in miRNA levels upon JU1580 infection are associated with a transformation of the antiviral transcriptional response into an antibacterial-like response. Together our data support a model whereby antiviral RNAi competes with endogenous small RNA pathways, causing widespread transcriptional changes. This provides an elegant mechanism for C. elegans to orchestrate its antiviral response, which may have significance for the relationship between small RNA pathways and immune regulation in other organisms.

  15. Assaying estrogenicity by quantitating the expression levels of endogenous estrogen-regulated genes.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, M; Vendelbo, B; Skakkebaek, N E; Leffers, H

    2000-05-01

    Scientific evidence suggests that humans and wildlife species may experience adverse health consequences from exposure to environmental chemicals that interact with the endocrine system. Reliable short-term assays are needed to identify hormone-disrupting chemicals. In this study we demonstrate that the estrogenic activity of a chemical can be evaluated by assaying induction or repression of endogenous estrogen-regulated "marker genes" in human breast cancer MCF-7 cells. We included four marker genes in the assay--pS2, transforming growth factor beta3 (TGFbeta3), monoamine oxidase A, and [alpha]1-antichymotrypsin--and we evaluated estrogenic activity for 17beta-estradiol (E(2)), diethylstilbestrol, [alpha]-zearalanol, nonylphenol, genistein, methoxychlor, endosulphan, o,p-DDE, bisphenol A, dibutylphthalate, 4-hydroxy tamoxifen, and ICI 182.780. All four marker genes responded strongly to the three high-potency estrogens (E(2), diethylstilbestrol, and [alpha]-zearalanol), whereas the potency of the other chemicals was 10(3)- to 10(6)-fold lower than that of E(2). There were some marker gene-dependent differences in the relative potencies of the tested chemicals. TGFbeta3 was equally sensitive to the three high-potency estrogens, whereas the sensitivity to [alpha]-zearalanol was approximately 10-fold lower than the sensitivity to E(2) and diethylstilbestrol when assayed with the other three marker genes. The potency of nonylphenol was equal to that of genistein when assayed with pS2 and TGFbeta3, but 10- to 100-fold higher/lower with monoamine oxidase A and [alpha]1-antichymotrypsin, respectively. The results are in agreement with results obtained by other methods and suggest that an assay based on endogenous gene expression may offer an attractive alternative to other E-SCREEN methods.

  16. Efficient Computation of Approximate Gene Clusters Based on Reference Occurrences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahn, Katharina

    Whole genome comparison based on the analysis of gene cluster conservation has become a popular approach in comparative genomics. While gene order and gene content as a whole randomize over time, it is observed that certain groups of genes which are often functionally related remain co-located across species. However, the conservation is usually not perfect which turns the identification of these structures, often referred to as approximate gene clusters, into a challenging task. In this paper, we present a polynomial time algorithm that computes approximate gene clusters based on reference occurrences. We show that our approach yields highly comparable results to a more general approach and allows for approximate gene cluster detection in parameter ranges currently not feasible for non-reference based approaches.

  17. Efficient CRISPR-rAAV engineering of endogenous genes to study protein function by allele-specific RNAi.

    PubMed

    Kaulich, Manuel; Lee, Yeon J; Lönn, Peter; Springer, Aaron D; Meade, Bryan R; Dowdy, Steven F

    2015-04-20

    Gene knockout strategies, RNAi and rescue experiments are all employed to study mammalian gene function. However, the disadvantages of these approaches include: loss of function adaptation, reduced viability and gene overexpression that rarely matches endogenous levels. Here, we developed an endogenous gene knockdown/rescue strategy that combines RNAi selectivity with a highly efficient CRISPR directed recombinant Adeno-Associated Virus (rAAV) mediated gene targeting approach to introduce allele-specific mutations plus an allele-selective siRNA Sensitive (siSN) site that allows for studying gene mutations while maintaining endogenous expression and regulation of the gene of interest. CRISPR/Cas9 plus rAAV targeted gene-replacement and introduction of allele-specific RNAi sensitivity mutations in the CDK2 and CDK1 genes resulted in a >85% site-specific recombination of Neo-resistant clones versus ∼8% for rAAV alone. RNAi knockdown of wild type (WT) Cdk2 with siWT in heterozygotic knockin cells resulted in the mutant Cdk2 phenotype cell cycle arrest, whereas allele specific knockdown of mutant CDK2 with siSN resulted in a wild type phenotype. Together, these observations demonstrate the ability of CRISPR plus rAAV to efficiently recombine a genomic locus and tag it with a selective siRNA sequence that allows for allele-selective phenotypic assays of the gene of interest while it remains expressed and regulated under endogenous control mechanisms.

  18. Reference genes for normalizing transcription in diploid and tetraploid Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haibin; Wang, Jingjing; Jiang, Jiafu; Chen, Sumei; Guan, Zhiyong; Liao, Yuan; Chen, Fadi

    2014-10-27

    Published transcription data from a set of 19 diploid Arabidopsis thaliana and 5 tetraploid (3 allo- and 2 auto- tetraploid) Arabidopsis accessions were re-analysed to identify reliable reference genes for normalization purposes. Five conventional and 16 novel reference genes previously derived from microarray data covering a wide range of abundance in absolute expression levels in diploid A. thaliana Col-0 were employed. Transcript abundance was well conserved for all 21 potential reference genes in the diploid A. thaliana accessions, with geNorm and NormFinder analysis indicating that AT5G46630, AT1G13320, AT4G26410, AT5G60390 and AT5G08290 were the most stable. However, conservation was less good among the tetraploid accessions, with the transcription of seven of the 21 genes being undetectable in all allotetraploids. The most stable gene was AT5G46630, while AT1G13440 was the unstable one. Hence, the choice of reference gene(s) for A. thaliana is quite wide, but with respect to the analysis of transcriptomic data derived from the tetraploids, it is probably necessary to select more than one reference gene.

  19. Changes in endogenous gene transcript and protein levels in maize plants expressing the soybean ferritin transgene

    PubMed Central

    Kanobe, Milly N.; Rodermel, Steven R.; Bailey, Theodore; Scott, M. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic agricultural crops with increased nutritive value present prospects for contributing to public health. However, their acceptance is poor in many countries due to the perception that genetic modification may cause unintended effects on expression of native genes in the host plant. Here, we tested effects of soybean ferritin transgene (SoyFer1, M64337) on transcript and protein levels of endogenous genes in maize. Results showed that the transgene was successfully introduced and expressed in the maize seed endosperm. mRNA abundance of seven tested iron homeostasis genes and seed storage protein genes differed significantly between seed samples positive and negative for the transgene. The PCR negative samples had higher zein and total protein content compared to the positive samples. However, PCR positive samples had significantly higher concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and iron. We have shown that the soybean ferritin transgene affected the expression of native iron homeostasis genes in the maize plant. These results underscore the importance of taking a holistic approach to the evaluation of transgenic events in target plants, comparing the transgenic plant to the untransformed controls. PMID:23785377

  20. Computational design and application of endogenous promoters for transcriptionally targeted gene therapy for rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Geurts, Jeroen; Joosten, Leo A B; Takahashi, Nozomi; Arntz, Onno J; Glück, Anton; Bennink, Miranda B; van den Berg, Wim B; van de Loo, Fons A J

    2009-11-01

    The promoter regions of genes that are differentially regulated in the synovial membrane during the course of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) represent attractive candidates for application in transcriptionally targeted gene therapy. In this study, we applied an unbiased computational approach to define proximal-promoters from a gene expression profiling study of murine experimental arthritis. Synovium expression profiles from progressing stages of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) were classified into six distinct groups using k-means clustering. Using an algorithm based on local over-representation and comparative genomics, we identified putatively functional transcription factor-binding sites (TFBS) in TATA-dependent proximal-promoters. Applying a filter based on spacing between TATA box and transcription start site (TSS) combined with the presence of over-represented nuclear factor kappaB (NFkappaB), AP-1, or CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein beta (C/EBPbeta) sites, 382 candidate murine and human promoters were reduced to 66, corresponding to 45 genes. In vitro, 9 out of 10 computationally defined promoter regions conferred cytokine-inducible expression in murine cells and human synovial fibroblasts. Under these conditions, the serum amyloid A3 (Saa3) promoter showed the strongest transcriptional induction and strength. We applied this promoter for driving therapeutically efficacious levels of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (Il1rn) in a disease-regulated fashion. These results demonstrate the value of bioinformatics for guiding the selection of endogenous promoters for transcriptionally targeted gene therapy.

  1. Changes in endogenous gene transcript and protein levels in maize plants expressing the soybean ferritin transgene.

    PubMed

    Kanobe, Milly N; Rodermel, Steven R; Bailey, Theodore; Scott, M Paul

    2013-01-01

    Transgenic agricultural crops with increased nutritive value present prospects for contributing to public health. However, their acceptance is poor in many countries due to the perception that genetic modification may cause unintended effects on expression of native genes in the host plant. Here, we tested effects of soybean ferritin transgene (SoyFer1, M64337) on transcript and protein levels of endogenous genes in maize. Results showed that the transgene was successfully introduced and expressed in the maize seed endosperm. mRNA abundance of seven tested iron homeostasis genes and seed storage protein genes differed significantly between seed samples positive and negative for the transgene. The PCR negative samples had higher zein and total protein content compared to the positive samples. However, PCR positive samples had significantly higher concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and iron. We have shown that the soybean ferritin transgene affected the expression of native iron homeostasis genes in the maize plant. These results underscore the importance of taking a holistic approach to the evaluation of transgenic events in target plants, comparing the transgenic plant to the untransformed controls.

  2. Role of endogenous insulin gene enhancer protein ISL-1 in angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Si-qi; Jiang, Hai-bo; Li, Yan-xiu; Li, Hai-bo; Xu, Hui-zhuo; Wu, Zhen-kai; Zheng, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the role of insulin gene enhancer protein ISL-1 (Islet-1) in angiogenesis and regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in vitro and in vivo. Methods siRNA targeting Islet-1 was transfected to human umbilical vein endothelial cell lines (HUVECs). The expression of Islet-1 and VEGF in the cultured cells was measured using real-time PCR and immunoblotting. 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5- diphenyltetrazolium bromide; thiazolyl blue (MTT) assay was used to analyze the proliferation of HUVECs affected by Islet-1. Wound healing and Transwell assays were conducted to assess the motility of HUVECs. The formation of capillary-like structures was examined using growth factor–reduced Matrigel. siRNA targeting Islet-1 was intravitreally injected into the murine model of oxygen-induced retinopathy (OIR). Retinal neovascularization was evaluated with angiography using fluorescein-labeled dextran and then quantified histologically. Real-time PCR and immunoblotting were used to determine whether local Islet-1 silencing affected the expression of Islet-1 and VEGF in murine retinas. Results The expression of Islet-1 and VEGF in HUVECs was knocked down by siRNA. Reduced endogenous Islet-1 levels in cultured cells greatly inhibited the proliferation, migration, and tube formation in HUVECs in vitro. Retinal neovascularization following injection of Islet-1 siRNA was significantly reduced compared with that of the contralateral control eye. Histological analysis indicated that the neovascular nuclei protruding into the vitreous cavity were decreased. Furthermore, the Islet-1 and VEGF expression levels were downregulated in murine retinas treated with siRNA against Islet-1. Conclusions Reducing the expression of endogenous Islet-1 inhibits proliferation, migration, and tube formation in vascular endothelial cells in vitro and suppresses retinal angiogenesis in vivo. Endogenous Islet-1 regulates angiogenesis via VEGF. PMID:27994436

  3. Synthetic gene network restoring endogenous pituitary-thyroid feedback control in experimental Graves' disease.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Pratik; Charpin-El Hamri, Ghislaine; Folcher, Marc; Zulewski, Henryk; Fussenegger, Martin

    2016-02-02

    Graves' disease is an autoimmune disorder that causes hyperthyroidism because of autoantibodies that bind to the thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) on the thyroid gland, triggering thyroid hormone release. The physiological control of thyroid hormone homeostasis by the feedback loops involving the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis is disrupted by these stimulating autoantibodies. To reset the endogenous thyrotrophic feedback control, we designed a synthetic mammalian gene circuit that maintains thyroid hormone homeostasis by monitoring thyroid hormone levels and coordinating the expression of a thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor antagonist (TSHAntag), which competitively inhibits the binding of thyroid-stimulating hormone or the human autoantibody to TSHR. This synthetic control device consists of a synthetic thyroid-sensing receptor (TSR), a yeast Gal4 protein/human thyroid receptor-α fusion, which reversibly triggers expression of the TSHAntag gene from TSR-dependent promoters. In hyperthyroid mice, this synthetic circuit sensed pathological thyroid hormone levels and restored the thyrotrophic feedback control of the hypothalamus-pituitary-thyroid axis to euthyroid hormone levels. Therapeutic plug and play gene circuits that restore physiological feedback control in metabolic disorders foster advanced gene- and cell-based therapies.

  4. Cas9-dependent endogenous gene regulation is required for bacterial virulence.

    PubMed

    Sampson, Timothy R; Weiss, David S

    2013-12-01

    CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems are known to mediate bacterial defence against foreign nucleic acids. We recently demonstrated a non-canonical role for a CRISPR-Cas system in controlling endogenous gene expression, which had not previously been appreciated. In the present article, we describe the studies that led to this discovery, beginning with an unbiased genome-wide screen to identify virulence genes in the intracellular pathogen Francisella novicida. A gene annotated as encoding a hypothetical protein, but which we now know encodes the Cas protein Cas9, was identified as one of the most critical to the ability of F. novicida to replicate and survive during murine infection. Subsequent studies revealed a role for this protein in evasion of the host innate immune response. Specifically, Cas9 represses the expression of a BLP (bacterial lipoprotein) that could otherwise be recognized by TLR2 (Toll-like receptor 2), a host protein involved in initiating an antibacterial pro-inflammatory response. By repressing BLP levels, Cas9 mediates evasion of TLR2, promoting bacterial virulence. Finally, we described the molecular mechanism by which Cas9 functions in complex with two small RNAs to target the mRNA encoding the BLP for degradation. This work greatly broadened the paradigm for CRISPR-Cas function, highlighting a role in gene regulation that could be conserved in numerous bacteria, and elucidating its integral contribution to bacterial pathogenesis.

  5. TALENs Mediate Efficient and Heritable Mutation of Endogenous Genes in the Marine Annelid Platynereis dumerilii

    PubMed Central

    Bannister, Stephanie; Antonova, Olga; Polo, Alessandra; Lohs, Claudia; Hallay, Natalia; Valinciute, Agne; Raible, Florian; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin

    2014-01-01

    Platynereis dumerilii is a marine polychaete and an established model system for studies of evolution and development. Platynereis is also a re-emerging model for studying the molecular basis of circalunar reproductive timing: a biological phenomenon observed in many marine species. While gene expression studies have provided new insight into patterns of gene regulation, a lack of reverse genetic tools has so far limited the depth of functional analyses in this species. To address this need, we established customized transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) as a tool to engineer targeted modifications in Platynereis genes. By adapting a workflow of TALEN construction protocols and mutation screening approaches for use in Platynereis, we engineered frameshift mutations in three endogenous Platynereis genes. We confirmed that such mutations are heritable, demonstrating that TALENs can be used to generate homozygous knockout lines in P. dumerilii. This is the first use of TALENs for generating genetic knockout mutations in an annelid model. These tools not only open the door for detailed in vivo functional analyses, but also can facilitate further technical development, such as targeted genome editing. PMID:24653002

  6. TALENs mediate efficient and heritable mutation of endogenous genes in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii.

    PubMed

    Bannister, Stephanie; Antonova, Olga; Polo, Alessandra; Lohs, Claudia; Hallay, Natalia; Valinciute, Agne; Raible, Florian; Tessmar-Raible, Kristin

    2014-05-01

    Platynereis dumerilii is a marine polychaete and an established model system for studies of evolution and development. Platynereis is also a re-emerging model for studying the molecular basis of circalunar reproductive timing: a biological phenomenon observed in many marine species. While gene expression studies have provided new insight into patterns of gene regulation, a lack of reverse genetic tools has so far limited the depth of functional analyses in this species. To address this need, we established customized transcriptional activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) as a tool to engineer targeted modifications in Platynereis genes. By adapting a workflow of TALEN construction protocols and mutation screening approaches for use in Platynereis, we engineered frameshift mutations in three endogenous Platynereis genes. We confirmed that such mutations are heritable, demonstrating that TALENs can be used to generate homozygous knockout lines in P. dumerilii. This is the first use of TALENs for generating genetic knockout mutations in an annelid model. These tools not only open the door for detailed in vivo functional analyses, but also can facilitate further technical development, such as targeted genome editing.

  7. Validation of reference genes for gene expression studies in soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a common tool for quantifying mRNA transcripts. To normalize results, a reference gene is mandatory. Aphis glycines is a significant soybean pest, yet gene expression and functional genomics studies are hindered by a lack of stable reference genes. We evalu...

  8. Reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in symbiont Entomomyces delphacidicola of Nilaparvata lugens (Stål)

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Pin-Jun; Tang, Yao-Hua; Yuan, San-Yue; He, Jia-Chun; Wang, Wei-Xia; Lai, Feng-Xiang; Fu, Qiang

    2017-01-01

    Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) is a major rice pest that harbors an endosymbiont ascomycete fungus, Entomomyces delphacidicola str. NLU (also known as yeast-like symbiont, YLS). Driving by demand of novel population management tactics (e.g. RNAi), the importance of YLS has been studied and revealed, which greatly boosts the interest of molecular level studies related to YLS. The current study focuses on reference genes for RT-qPCR studies related to YLS. Eight previously unreported YLS genes were cloned, and their expressions were evaluated for N. lugens samples of different developmental stages and sexes, and under different nutritional conditions and temperatures. Expression stabilities were analyzed by BestKeeper, geNorm, NormFinder, ΔCt method and RefFinder. Furthermore, the selected reference genes for RT-qPCR of YLS genes were validated using targeted YLS genes that respond to different nutritional conditions (amino acid deprivation) and RNAi. The results suggest that ylsRPS15p/ylsACT are the most suitable reference genes for temporal gene expression profiling, while ylsTUB/ylsACT and ylsRPS15e/ylsGADPH are the most suitable reference gene choices for evaluating nutrition and temperature effects. Validation studies demonstrated the advantage of using endogenous YLS reference genes for YLS studies. PMID:28198810

  9. Endogenous and ectopic expression of telomere regulating genes in chicken embryonic fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Michailidis, Georgios; Saretzki, Gabriele; Hall, Judith , E-Mail: Judith.hall@ncl.ac.uk

    2005-09-16

    In this study, we compared the endogenous expression of genes encoding telomere regulating proteins in cultured chicken embryonic fibroblasts (CEFs) and 10-day-old chicken embryos. CEFs maintained in vitro senesced and senescence was accompanied by reduced telomere length, telomerase activity, and expression of the chicken (c) TRF1 gene. There was no change in TRF2 gene expression although the major TRF2 transcript identified in 10-day-old chicken embryos encoded a truncated TRF2 protein (TRF2'), containing an N-terminal dimerisation domain but lacking a myb-related DNA binding domain and nuclear localisation signal. Senescence of the CEFs in vitro was associated with the loss of the TRF2' transcript, indicative of a novel function for the encoded protein. Senescence was also coupled with decreased expression of RAD51, but increased RAD52 expression. These data support that RAD51 independent recombination mechanisms do not function in vitro to maintain chicken telomeres. To attempt to rescue the CEFs from replicative senescence, we stably transfected passage 3 CEFs with the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) catalytic subunit. While hTERT expression was detected in the stable transfectants neither telomerase activity nor the stabilisation of telomere length was observed, and the transfectant cells senesced at the same passage number as the untransfected cells. These data indicate that the human TERT is incompatible with the avian telomere maintenance apparatus and suggest the functioning of a species specific telomere system in the avian.

  10. High Expression of Endogenous Retroviral Envelope Gene in the Equine Fetal Part of the Placenta

    PubMed Central

    Stefanetti, Valentina; Marenzoni, Maria Luisa; Passamonti, Fabrizio; Cappelli, Katia; Garcia-Etxebarria, Koldo; Coletti, Mauro; Capomaccio, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are proviral phases of exogenous retroviruses that have co-evolved with vertebrate genomes for millions of years. Previous studies have identified the envelope (env) protein genes of retroviral origin preferentially expressed in the placenta which suggests a role in placentation based on their membrane fusogenic capacity and therefore they have been named syncytins. Until now, all the characterized syncytins have been associated with three invasive placentation types: the endotheliochorial (Carnivora), the synepitheliochorial (Ruminantia), and the hemochorial placentation (human, mouse) where they play a role in the syncytiotrophoblast formation. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether EqERV env RNA is expressed in horse tissues as well and investigate if the horse, possessing an epitheliochorial placenta, has “captured” a common retroviral env gene with syncytin-like properties in placental tissues. Interestingly, although in the equine placenta there is no syncytiotrophoblast layer at the maternal-fetal interface, our results showed that EqERV env RNA is highly expressed at that level, as expected for a candidate syncytin-like gene but with reduced abundance in the other somatic tissues (nearly 30-fold lower) thus suggesting a possible role in the placental tissue. Although the horse is one of the few domestic animals with a sequenced genome, few studies have been conducted about the EqERV and their expression in placental tissue has never been investigated. PMID:27176223

  11. A combined strategy of "in silico" transcriptome analysis and web search engine optimization allows an agile identification of reference genes suitable for normalization in gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    Faccioli, Primetta; Ciceri, Gian Paolo; Provero, Paolo; Stanca, Antonio Michele; Morcia, Caterina; Terzi, Valeria

    2007-03-01

    Traditionally housekeeping genes have been employed as endogenous reference (internal control) genes for normalization in gene expression studies. Since the utilization of single housekeepers cannot assure an unbiased result, new normalization methods involving multiple housekeeping genes and normalizing using their mean expression have been recently proposed. Moreover, since a gold standard gene suitable for every experimental condition does not exist, it is also necessary to validate the expression stability of every putative control gene on the specific requirements of the planned experiment. As a consequence, finding a good set of reference genes is for sure a non-trivial problem requiring quite a lot of lab-based experimental testing. In this work we identified novel candidate barley reference genes suitable for normalization in gene expression studies. An advanced web search approach aimed to collect, from publicly available web resources, the most interesting information regarding the expression profiling of candidate housekeepers on a specific experimental basis has been set up and applied, as an example, on stress conditions. A complementary lab-based analysis has been carried out to verify the expression profile of the selected genes in different tissues and during heat shock response. This combined dry/wet approach can be applied to any species and physiological condition of interest and can be considered very helpful to identify putative reference genes to be shortlisted every time a new experimental design has to be set up.

  12. Selection and Evaluation of Potential Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in the Brown Planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera: Delphacidae) Using Reverse-Transcription Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xun; Wan, Hu; Shakeel, Muhammad; Zhan, Sha; Jin, Byung-Rae; Li, Jianhong

    2014-01-01

    The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Hemiptera, Delphacidae), is one of the most important rice pests. Abundant genetic studies on BPH have been conducted using reverse-transcription quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Using qRT-PCR, the expression levels of target genes are calculated on the basis of endogenous controls. These genes need to be appropriately selected by experimentally assessing whether they are stably expressed under different conditions. However, such studies on potential reference genes in N. lugens are lacking. In this paper, we presented a systematic exploration of eight candidate reference genes in N. lugens, namely, actin 1 (ACT), muscle actin (MACT), ribosomal protein S11 (RPS11), ribosomal protein S15e (RPS15), alpha 2-tubulin (TUB), elongation factor 1 delta (EF), 18S ribosomal RNA (18S), and arginine kinase (AK) and used four alternative methods (BestKeeper, geNorm, NormFinder, and the delta Ct method) to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. We examined their expression levels among different experimental factors (developmental stage, body part, geographic population, temperature variation, pesticide exposure, diet change, and starvation) following the MIQE (Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative real time PCR Experiments) guidelines. Based on the results of RefFinder, which integrates four currently available major software programs to compare and rank the tested candidate reference genes, RPS15, RPS11, and TUB were found to be the most suitable reference genes in different developmental stages, body parts, and geographic populations, respectively. RPS15 was the most suitable gene under different temperature and diet conditions, while RPS11 was the most suitable gene under different pesticide exposure and starvation conditions. This work sheds light on establishing a standardized qRT-PCR procedure in N. lugens, and serves as a starting point for screening for reference genes for

  13. Heterogeneity of genetic loci in chickens: analysis of endogenous viral and nonviral genes by cleavage of DNA with restriction endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Hughes, S H; Payvar, F; Spector, D; Schimke, R T; Robinson, H L; Payne, G S; Bishop, J M; Varmus, H E

    1979-10-01

    Restriction endonucleases can be used to define the structure and position of genetic loci for which specific molecular hybridization reagents are available. We have used this approach to compare 18 chicken embryos with respect to several cellular genes; endogenous viral DNA related to the replicative genes of avian sarcoma virus (ASV) or to RAV-O, an endogenous virus of chickens; and sequences related to the transforming (src) gene of ASV. Each cellular gene eas remarkably homogeneous within our test population. We found little or no variation in globin and ovomucoid genes; ovalbumin and transferrin (with one exception) showed variation which is probably allelic in nature. The endogenous viral DNA which has homology with RAV-O was found at several different positions in host DNA and its structure resembled that of proviruses acquired by experimental infection, with sequences from both ends of viral RNA repeated near both ends of viral DNA. Within the population of 18 chickens, one endogenous provirus was always present, whereas the several other proviruses were each found in only a few members of this group. However, screening of additional chickens identified individuals lacking the provirus common to the initial 18 animals surveyed; in at least one embryo no RAV-O-related DNA was detected. These findings suggest that the endogenous RAV-O-related sequences have entered the germ line by relatively recent infection and are still segregating in several contemporary chicken flocks. The sequences in the chicken genome which have homology with the src gene of ASV are invariant from bird to bird and in this sense resemble a cellular gene rather than a viral sequence.

  14. Horizontal gene transfer to endogenous endophytic bacteria from poplar improves phytoremediation of toluene.

    PubMed

    Taghavi, Safiyh; Barac, Tanja; Greenberg, Bill; Borremans, Brigitte; Vangronsveld, Jaco; van der Lelie, Daniel

    2005-12-01

    Poplar, a plant species frequently used for phytoremediation of groundwater contaminated with organic solvents, was inoculated with the endophyte Burkholderia cepacia VM1468. This strain, whose natural host is yellow lupine, contains the pTOM-Bu61 plasmid coding for constitutively expressed toluene degradation. Noninoculated plants or plants inoculated with the soil bacterium B. cepacia Bu61(pTOM-Bu61) were used as controls. Inoculation of poplar had a positive effect on plant growth in the presence of toluene and reduced the amount of toluene released via evapotranspiration. These effects were more dramatic for VM1468, the endophytic strain, than for Bu61. Remarkably, none of the strains became established at detectable levels in the endophytic community, but there was horizontal gene transfer of pTOM-Bu61 to different members of the endogenous endophytic community, both in the presence and in the absence of toluene. This work is the first report of in planta horizontal gene transfer among plant-associated endophytic bacteria and demonstrates that such transfer could be used to change natural endophytic microbial communities in order to improve the remediation of environmental insults.

  15. A validation of 10 feline reference genes for gene expression measurements in snap-frozen tissues.

    PubMed

    Penning, Louis C; Vrieling, Henriette E; Brinkhof, Bas; Riemers, Frank M; Rothuizen, Jan; Rutteman, Gerard R; Hazewinkel, Herman A W

    2007-12-15

    For a proper determination of relative mRNA expression levels with real-time quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) internal standards, such as the expression of reference genes, are of utmost importance. For cats, in contrast to dogs, no validation of reference genes has been published. Our goal was to evaluate frequently used reference genes for the analysis of relative mRNA levels from feline tissues in a SYBR Green-based Q-PCR protocol. First, primers were optimized on mRNA-derived cDNA from liver and kidney tissues of randomly chosen (healthy and diseased) cats. Then, the expression variation and stability of each reference gene within a specific tissue was determined. Dental roots and crowns, heart (left ventricle), renal, liver, lung, and mammary gland tissues from 3 to 11 cats of different breeds, sexes, ages, and disease status were included in this study. Averaging relative stabilities over these six tissues revealed the usefulness of each tested gene as reference gene. In order to compensate for the expression variation of a reference gene within a specific tissue, as much as six reference genes (e.g. RPL17, RPL30, RPS7, YWHAZ, and HPRT) were required to obtain highly reliable data in cat tissues. The optimal set of reference genes depended on the tissue analyzed and should, ideally, be selected and evaluated at the start of each experimental condition. A comparison with a similar evaluation in dogs revealed three issues: (i) most ribosomal genes are suitable in both species; (ii) good non-ribosomal reference genes differ; (iii) more feline than canine reference genes are required for proper analysis.

  16. Bacterial reference genes for gene expression studies by RT-qPCR: survey and analysis.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Danilo J P; Santos, Carolina S; Pacheco, Luis G C

    2015-09-01

    The appropriate choice of reference genes is essential for accurate normalization of gene expression data obtained by the method of reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). In 2009, a guideline called the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) highlighted the importance of the selection and validation of more than one suitable reference gene for obtaining reliable RT-qPCR results. Herein, we searched the recent literature in order to identify the bacterial reference genes that have been most commonly validated in gene expression studies by RT-qPCR (in the first 5 years following publication of the MIQE guidelines). Through a combination of different search parameters with the text mining tool MedlineRanker, we identified 145 unique bacterial genes that were recently tested as candidate reference genes. Of these, 45 genes were experimentally validated and, in most of the cases, their expression stabilities were verified using the software tools geNorm and NormFinder. It is noteworthy that only 10 of these reference genes had been validated in two or more of the studies evaluated. An enrichment analysis using Gene Ontology classifications demonstrated that genes belonging to the functional categories of DNA Replication (GO: 0006260) and Transcription (GO: 0006351) rendered a proportionally higher number of validated reference genes. Three genes in the former functional class were also among the top five most stable genes identified through an analysis of gene expression data obtained from the Pathosystems Resource Integration Center. These results may provide a guideline for the initial selection of candidate reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in several different bacterial species.

  17. A novel strategy for obtaining kanamycin resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana by silencing an endogenous gene encoding a putative chloroplast transporter.

    PubMed

    Aufsatz, Werner; Nehlin, Lilian; Voronin, Viktor; Schmidt, Agnes; Matzke, Antonius J M; Matzke, Marjori

    2009-02-01

    The use of bacterial antibiotic resistance markers in transgenic plants raises concerns about horizontal gene transfer to soil bacteria. We report here that kanamycin resistance in Arabidopsis thaliana can be achieved by silencing an endogenous gene encoding a putative chloroplast transporter, which presumably imports kanamycin into chloroplasts to interfere with ribosomal RNA. Homologs of the transporter exist in other plant species, suggesting this strategy may be generally useful for selecting transformed plant cells.

  18. Evaluation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization during Watermelon Fruit Development.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Liqiang; Cheng, Fei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis in watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) fruit has drawn considerable attention with the availability of genome sequences to understand the regulatory mechanism of fruit development and to improve its quality. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a routine technique for gene expression analysis. However, appropriate reference genes for transcript normalization in watermelon fruits have not been well characterized. The aim of this study was to evaluate the appropriateness of 12 genes for their potential use as reference genes in watermelon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 48 samples obtained from 12 successive developmental stages of parthenocarpic and fertilized fruits of two watermelon genotypes by using qRT-PCR analysis. Considering the effects of genotype, fruit setting method, and developmental stage, geNorm determined clathrin adaptor complex subunit (ClCAC), β-actin (ClACT), and alpha tubulin 5 (ClTUA5) as the multiple reference genes in watermelon fruit. Furthermore, ClCAC alone or together with SAND family protein (ClSAND) was ranked as the single or two best reference genes by NormFinder. By using the top-ranked reference genes to normalize the transcript abundance of phytoene synthase (ClPSY1), a good correlation between lycopene accumulation and ClPSY1 expression pattern was observed in ripening watermelon fruit. These validated reference genes will facilitate the accurate measurement of gene expression in the studies on watermelon fruit biology.

  19. Reference gene for primary culture of prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Souza, Aline Francielle Damo; Brum, Ilma Simoni; Neto, Brasil Silva; Berger, Milton; Branchini, Gisele

    2013-04-01

    Selection of reference genes to normalize mRNA levels between samples is critical for gene expression studies because their expression can vary depending on the tissues or cells used and the experimental conditions. We performed ten cell cultures from samples of prostate cancer. Cells were divided into three groups: control (with no transfection protocol), cells transfected with siRNA specific to knockdown the androgen receptor and cells transfected with inespecific siRNAs. After 24 h, mRNA was extracted and gene expression was analyzed by Real-time qPCR. Nine candidates to reference genes for gene expression studies in this model were analyzed (aminolevulinate, delta-, synthase 1 (ALAS1); beta-actin (ACTB); beta-2-microglobulin (B2M); glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH); hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase 1 (HPRT1); succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp) (SDHA); TATA box binding protein (TBP); ubiquitin C (UBC); tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein, zeta polypeptide (YWHAZ)). Expression stability was calculated NormFinder algorithm to find the most stable genes. NormFinder calculated SDHA as the most stable gene and the gene with the lowest intergroup and intragroup variation, and indicated GAPDH and SDHA as the best combination of two genes for the purpose of normalization. Androgen receptor mRNA expression was evaluated after normalization by each candidate gene and showed statistical difference in the transfected group compared to control group only when normalized by combination of GAPDH and SDHA. Based on the algorithm analysis, the combination of SDHA and GAPDH should be used to normalize target genes mRNA levels in primary culture of prostate cancer cells submitted to transfection with siRNAs.

  20. Construction of a standard reference plasmid containing seven target genes for the detection of transgenic cotton.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xujing; Tang, Qiaoling; Dong, Lei; Dong, Yufeng; Su, Yueyan; Jia, Shirong; Wang, Zhixing

    2014-07-01

    Insect resistance and herbicide tolerance are the dominant traits of commercialized transgenic cotton. In this study, we constructed a general standard reference plasmid for transgenic cotton detection. Target genes, including the cowpea trypsin gene cptI, the insect resistance gene cry1Ab/1Ac, the herbicide tolerance gene cp4-epsps, the Agrobacterium tumefaciens nopaline synthase (Nos) terminator that exists in transgenic cotton and part of the endogenous cotton SadI gene were amplified from plasmids pCPT1, pBT, pCP4 and pBI121 and from DNA of the nontransgenic cotton line K312, respectively. The genes cry1Ab/1Ac and cptI, as well as cp4-epsps and the Nos terminator gene, were ligated together to form the fusion genes cptI-Bt and cp4-Nos, respectively, by overlapping PCR. We checked the validity of genes Sad1, cptI-Bt and cp4-Nos by DNA sequencing. Then, positive clones of cptI-Bt, cp4-Nos and Sad1 were digested with the corresponding restriction enzymes and ligated sequentially into vector pCamBIA2300, which contains the CAMV 35S promoter and nptII gene, to form the reference plasmid pMCS. Qualitative detection showed that pMCS is a good positive control for transgenic cotton detection. Real-time PCR detection efficiencies with pMCS as a calibrator ranged from 94.35% to 98.67% for the standard curves of the target genes (R(2)⩾0.998). The relative standard deviation of the mean value for the known sample was 11.95%. These results indicate that the strategy of using the pMCS plasmid as a reference material is feasible and reliable for the detection of transgenic cotton. Therefore, this plasmid can serve as a useful reference tool for qualitative and quantitative detection of single or stacked trait transgenic cotton, thus paving the way for the identification of various products containing components of transgenic cotton.

  1. Assessment of Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Melon Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Qiusheng; Gao, Lingyun; Cao, Lei; Liu, Yue; Saba, Hameed; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2016-01-01

    Melon (Cucumis melo L.) is an attractive model plant for investigating fruit development because of its morphological, physiological, and biochemical diversity. Quantification of gene expression by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) with stably expressed reference genes for normalization can effectively elucidate the biological functions of genes that regulate fruit development. However, the reference genes for data normalization in melon fruits have not yet been systematically validated. This study aims to assess the suitability of 20 genes for their potential use as reference genes in melon fruits. Expression variations of these genes were measured in 24 samples that represented different developmental stages of fertilized and parthenocarpic melon fruits by qRT-PCR analysis. GeNorm identified ribosomal protein L (CmRPL) and cytosolic ribosomal protein S15 (CmRPS15) as the best pair of reference genes, and as many as five genes including CmRPL, CmRPS15, TIP41-like family protein (CmTIP41), cyclophilin ROC7 (CmCYP7), and ADP ribosylation factor 1 (CmADP) were required for more reliable normalization. NormFinder ranked CmRPS15 as the best single reference gene, and RAN GTPase gene family (CmRAN) and TATA-box binding protein (CmTBP2) as the best combination of reference genes in melon fruits. Their effectiveness was further validated by parallel analyses on the activities of soluble acid invertase and sucrose phosphate synthase, and expression profiles of their respective encoding genes CmAIN2 and CmSPS1, as well as sucrose contents during melon fruit ripening. The validated reference genes will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression studies in melon fruits. PMID:27536316

  2. Reference-based gene model prediction on DNA contigs

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y.; Uberbacher, E.C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for constructing multiple gene models on a set of contigs of a large genomic clone. The algorithm first uses pattern recognition-based methods to locate exons or partial exons in each contig, and then applies protein homology or EST information from the databases, as reference models, to parse the predicted exons into gene models. In the phase of gene model construction, the algorithm uses a unified framework for genes ranging from situation with homologous proteins/ESTs to no homologous protein/EST in the database. By exploiting protein homology or EST information, the algorithm is able to (1) parse exons into multiple gene models over a set of DNA contigs (possibly unoriented and unordered); (2) remove falsely predicted exons; and (3) identify and locate exons missed by the initial exon prediction.

  3. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies of shoulder instability.

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Belangero, Paulo Santoro; Cohen, Carina; Figueiredo, Eduardo Antônio; Loyola, Leonor Casilla; Pochini, Alberto Castro; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Belangero, Sintia Iole; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2014-01-01

    Shoulder instability is a common shoulder injury, and patients present with plastic deformation of the glenohumeral capsule. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for increasing the general understanding of capsule deformation, and reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become an effective method for such studies. Although RT-qPCR is highly sensitive and specific, it requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization to guarantee meaningful and reproducible results. In the present study, we evaluated the suitability of a set of reference genes using samples from the glenohumeral capsules of individuals with and without shoulder instability. We analyzed the expression of six commonly used reference genes (ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, TBP and TFRC) in the antero-inferior, antero-superior and posterior portions of the glenohumeral capsules of cases and controls. The stability of the candidate reference gene expression was determined using four software packages: NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper and DataAssist. Overall, HPRT1 was the best single reference gene, and HPRT1 and B2M composed the best pair of reference genes from different analysis groups, including simultaneous analysis of all tissue samples. GenEx software was used to identify the optimal number of reference genes to be used for normalization and demonstrated that the accumulated standard deviation resulting from the use of 2 reference genes was similar to that resulting from the use of 3 or more reference genes. To identify the optimal combination of reference genes, we evaluated the expression of COL1A1. Although the use of different reference gene combinations yielded variable normalized quantities, the relative quantities within sample groups were similar and confirmed that no obvious differences were observed when using 2, 3 or 4 reference genes. Consequently, the use of 2 stable reference genes for normalization, especially HPRT1 and B2M, is a

  4. Microprocessor dynamics and interactions at endogenous imprinted C19MC microRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Bellemer, Clément; Bortolin-Cavaillé, Marie-Line; Schmidt, Ute; Jensen, Stig Mølgaard Rask; Kjems, Jørgen; Bertrand, Edouard; Cavaillé, Jérôme

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear primary microRNA (pri-miRNA) processing catalyzed by the DGCR8-Drosha (Microprocessor) complex is highly regulated. Little is known, however, about how microRNA biogenesis is spatially organized within the mammalian nucleus. Here, we image for the first time, in living cells and at the level of a single microRNA cluster, the intranuclear distribution of untagged, endogenously-expressed pri-miRNAs generated at the human imprinted chromosome 19 microRNA cluster (C19MC), from the environment of transcription sites to single molecules of fully released DGCR8-bound pri-miRNAs dispersed throughout the nucleoplasm. We report that a large fraction of Microprocessor concentrates onto unspliced C19MC pri-miRNA deposited in close proximity to their genes. Our live-cell imaging studies provide direct visual evidence that DGCR8 and Drosha are targeted post-transcriptionally to C19MC pri-miRNAs as a preformed complex but dissociate separately. These dynamics support the view that, upon pri-miRNA loading and most probably concomitantly with Drosha-mediated cleavages, Microprocessor undergoes conformational changes that trigger the release of Drosha while DGCR8 remains stably bound to pri-miRNA.

  5. Radiation-induced human endogenous retrovirus (HERV)-R env gene expression by epigenetic control.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ja-Rang; Ahn, Kung; Kim, Yun-Ji; Jung, Yi-Deun; Kim, Heui-Soo

    2012-11-01

    It is commonly accepted that ionizing radiation induces genomic instability by changes in genomic structure, epigenetic regulation and gene expression. Human endogenous retroviruses (HERV)-R also are often differentially expressed between normal and disease tissues under unstable genomic conditions and are implicated in the pathogenesis of several human diseases. To understand the influence of ionizing radiation on HERV-R expression, we performed quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses using γ-irradiated normal human cells. Compared to nonirradiated cells, HERV-R expression was up-regulated in γ-irradiated cells. The regulatory mechanism of HERV-R expression in irradiated cells was investigated by methylation analyses of HERV-R 5'LTRs and treatment with garcinol. These data indicated that the up-regulated transcription of HERV-R may be regulated by radiation-induced epigenetic changes induced by histone modification, and thus could be of great importance for understanding the relationship between radiation-induced biological effects and transposable elements.

  6. The choice of reference genes for assessing gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jinlong; Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2014-11-13

    Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrids) is a world-wide cash crop for sugar and biofuel in tropical and subtropical regions and suffers serious losses in cane yield and sugar content under salinity and drought stresses. Although real-time quantitative PCR has a numerous advantage in the expression quantification of stress-related genes for the elaboration of the corresponding molecular mechanism in sugarcane, the variation happened across the process of gene expression quantification should be normalized and monitored by introducing one or several reference genes. To validate suitable reference genes or gene sets for sugarcane gene expression normalization, 13 candidate reference genes have been tested across 12 NaCl- and PEG-treated sugarcane samples for four sugarcane genotypes using four commonly used systematic statistical algorithms termed geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and the deltaCt method. The results demonstrated that glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and eukaryotic elongation factor 1-alpha (eEF-1a) were identified as suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization under salinity/drought-treatment in sugarcane. Moreover, the expression analyses of SuSK and 6PGDH further validated that a combination of clathrin adaptor complex (CAC) and cullin (CUL) as reference should be better for gene expression normalization. These results can facilitate the future research on gene expression in sugarcane under salinity and drought stresses.

  7. Identification of reference genes for circulating microRNA analysis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Yanqin; Wu, Yike; Huang, Jinyong; Li, Qing; Kang, Kang; Qu, Junle; Li, Furong; Gou, Deming

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the most frequently used method for measuring expression levels of microRNAs (miRNAs), which is based on normalization to endogenous references. Although circulating miRNAs have been regarded as potential non-invasive biomarker of disease, no study has been performed so far on reference miRNAs for normalization in colorectal cancer. In this study we tried to identify optimal reference miRNAs for qPCR analysis across colorectal cancer patients and healthy individuals. 485 blood-derived miRNAs were profiled in serum sample pools of both colorectal cancer and healthy control. Seven candidate miRNAs chosen from profiling results as well as three previous reported reference miRNAs were validated using qPCR in 30 colorectal cancer patients and 30 healthy individuals, and thereafter analyzed by statistical algorithms BestKeeper, geNorm and NormFinder. Taken together, hsa-miR-93-5p, hsa-miR-25-3p and hsa-miR-106b-5p were recommended as a set of suitable reference genes. More interestingly, the three miRNAs validated from 485 miRNAs are derived from a single primary transcript, indicting the cluster may be highly conserved in colorectal cancer. However, all three miRNAs differed significantly between healthy individuals and non-small cell lung cancer or breast cancer patients and could not be used as reference genes in the two types of cancer. PMID:27759076

  8. Reference genes for QRT-PCR tested under various stress conditions in Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta (Insecta, Collembola)

    PubMed Central

    de Boer, Muriel E; de Boer, Tjalf E; Mariën, Janine; Timmermans, Martijn JTN; Nota, Benjamin; van Straalen, Nico M; Ellers, Jacintha; Roelofs, Dick

    2009-01-01

    Background Genomic studies measuring transcriptional responses to changing environments and stress currently make their way into the field of evolutionary ecology and ecotoxicology. To investigate a small to medium number of genes or to confirm large scale microarray studies, Quantitative Reverse Transcriptase PCR (QRT-PCR) can achieve high accuracy of quantification when key standards, such as normalization, are carefully set. In this study, we validated potential reference genes for their use as endogenous controls under different chemical and physical stresses in two species of soil-living Collembola, Folsomia candida and Orchesella cincta. Treatments for F. candida were cadmium exposure, phenanthrene exposure, desiccation, heat shock and pH stress, and for O. cincta cadmium, desiccation, heat shock and starvation. Results Eight potential reference genes for F. candida and seven for O. cincta were ranked by their stability per stress factor using the programs geNorm and Normfinder. For F. candida the succinate dehydrogenase (SDHA) and eukaryotic transcription initiation factor 1A (ETIF) genes were found the most stable over the different treatments, while for O. cincta, the beta actin (ACTb) and tyrosine 3-monooxygenase (YWHAZ) genes were the most stable. Conclusion We present a panel of reference genes for two emerging ecological genomic model species tested under a variety of treatments. Within each species, different treatments resulted in differences in the top stable reference genes. Moreover, the two species differed in suitable reference genes even when exposed to similar stresses. This might be attributed to dissimilarity of physiology. It is vital to rigorously test a panel of reference genes for each species and treatment, in advance of relative quantification of QRT-PCR gene expression measurements. PMID:19486513

  9. Screening Reliable Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Moringa oleifera

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Li-Ting; Wu, Yu-Ling; Li, Jun-Cheng; OuYang, Kun-Xi; Ding, Mei-Mei; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Li, Shu-Qi; Lin, Meng-Fei; Chen, Han-Bin; Hu, Xin-Sheng; Chen, Xiao-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a promising plant species for oil and forage, but its genetic improvement is limited. Our current breeding program in this species focuses on exploiting the functional genes associated with important agronomical traits. Here, we screened reliable reference genes for accurately quantifying the expression of target genes using the technique of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in M. oleifera. Eighteen candidate reference genes were selected from a transcriptome database, and their expression stabilities were examined in 90 samples collected from the pods in different developmental stages, various tissues, and the roots and leaves under different conditions (low or high temperature, sodium chloride (NaCl)- or polyethyleneglycol (PEG)- simulated water stress). Analyses with geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms revealed that the reliable reference genes differed across sample designs and that ribosomal protein L1 (RPL1) and acyl carrier protein 2 (ACP2) were the most suitable reference genes in all tested samples. The experiment results demonstrated the significance of using the properly validated reference genes and suggested the use of more than one reference gene to achieve reliable expression profiles. In addition, we applied three isotypes of the superoxide dismutase (SOD) gene that are associated with plant adaptation to abiotic stress to confirm the efficacy of the validated reference genes under NaCl and PEG water stresses. Our results provide a valuable reference for future studies on identifying important functional genes from their transcriptional expressions via RT-qPCR technique in M. oleifera. PMID:27541138

  10. Reference genes for normalization of gene expression studies in human osteoarthritic articular cartilage

    PubMed Central

    Pombo-Suarez, Manuel; Calaza, Manuel; Gomez-Reino, Juan J; Gonzalez, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Background Assessment of gene expression is an important component of osteoarthritis (OA) research, greatly improved by the development of quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR). This technique requires normalization for precise results, yet no suitable reference genes have been identified in human articular cartilage. We have examined ten well-known reference genes to determine the most adequate for this application. Results Analyses of expression stability in cartilage from 10 patients with hip OA, 8 patients with knee OA and 10 controls without OA were done with classical statistical tests and the software programs geNorm and NormFinder. Results from the three methods of analysis were broadly concordant. Some of the commonly used reference genes, GAPDH, ACTB and 18S RNA, performed poorly in our analysis. In contrast, the rarely used TBP, RPL13A and B2M genes were the best. It was necessary to use together several of these three genes to obtain the best results. The specific combination depended, to some extent, on the type of samples being compared. Conclusion Our results provide a satisfactory set of previously unused reference genes for qPCR in hip and knee OA This confirms the need to evaluate the suitability of reference genes in every tissue and experimental situation before starting the quantitative assessment of gene expression by qPCR. PMID:18226276

  11. Reference genes for gene expression studies in wheat flag leaves grown under different farming conditions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Internal control genes with highly uniform expression throughout the experimental conditions are required for accurate gene expression analysis as no universal reference genes exists. In this study, the expression stability of 24 candidate genes from Triticum aestivum cv. Cubus flag leaves grown under organic and conventional farming systems was evaluated in two locations in order to select suitable genes that can be used for normalization of real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) reactions. The genes were selected among the most common used reference genes as well as genes encoding proteins involved in several metabolic pathways. Findings Individual genes displayed different expression rates across all samples assayed. Applying geNorm, a set of three potential reference genes were suitable for normalization of RT-qPCR reactions in winter wheat flag leaves cv. Cubus: TaFNRII (ferredoxin-NADP(H) oxidoreductase; AJ457980.1), ACT2 (actin 2; TC234027), and rrn26 (a putative homologue to RNA 26S gene; AL827977.1). In addition of these three genes that were also top-ranked by NormFinder, two extra genes: CYP18-2 (Cyclophilin A, AY456122.1) and TaWIN1 (14-3-3 like protein, AB042193) were most consistently stably expressed. Furthermore, we showed that TaFNRII, ACT2, and CYP18-2 are suitable for gene expression normalization in other two winter wheat varieties (Tommi and Centenaire) grown under three treatments (organic, conventional and no nitrogen) and a different environment than the one tested with cv. Cubus. Conclusions This study provides a new set of reference genes which should improve the accuracy of gene expression analyses when using wheat flag leaves as those related to the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency for cereal production. PMID:21951810

  12. LANOSTEROL SYNTHASE GENE POLYMORPHISMS AND CHANGES IN ENDOGENOUS OUABAIN IN THE RESPONSE TO LOW SODIUM INTAKE

    PubMed Central

    LANZANI, Chiara; GATTI, Guido; CITTERIO, Lorena; MESSAGGIO, Elisabetta; DELLI CARPINI, Simona; SIMONINI, Marco; CASAMASSIMA, Nunzia; ZAGATO, Laura; BRIONI, Elena; HAMLYN, John M.; MANUNTA, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Circulating levels of endogenous ouabain (EO), a vasopressor hormone of adrenocortical origin, are increased by sodium depletion. Further, lanosterol synthase (LSS), an enzyme involved in cholesterol biosynthesis, has a missense polymorphism (rs2254524 V642L) that affects EO biosynthesis in adrenocortical cells. Here we investigated the hypothesis that LSS rs2254524 alleles in vivo impact the BP and EO responses evoked by a low dietary Na intake (<100 mEq/day, 2 weeks) among patients with mild essential hypertension. During the low salt diet, the declines in both systolic (−8.7±1.7 vs −3.0±1.5 p= 0.013), and diastolic (−5.1±0.98 vs −1.4±0,.94 mmHg, p<0.05) BP and the slope of the long-term pressure-natriuresis relationship were affected significantly by the presence of the LSS rs2254524 A variant (AA: 0.71±0,22, AC 0.09±0.13, CC 0.04±0.11 mEq/mmHg/24h, p=0.028). In addition, BP rose in ~25% of the patients in response to the low salt diet and this was associated with increased circulating EO. LSS gene polymorphisms influence both the salt-sensitivity of BP and changes in circulating EO in response to a low salt diet. The response of BP and EO to the low salt diet is markedly heterogeneous. Approximately 25% of patients experienced adverse effects i.e., increased BP and EO when salt intake was reduced and may be at increased long-term risk. The augmented response of EO to the low salt diet further supports the view that adrenocortical function is abnormal in some essential hypertensives. PMID:26667413

  13. Identification of reference genes in human myelomonocytic cells for gene expression studies in altered gravity.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Cora S; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Unverdorben, Felix; Buttron, Isabell; Lauber, Beatrice; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E; Ullrich, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes ("housekeeping genes") are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1 g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity.

  14. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies on Rhododendron molle G. Don

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Zheng; Sun, Xiaobo; Liu, Xiaoqing; Li, Chang; He, Lisi; Chen, Shangping; Su, Jiale

    2016-01-01

    The quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) approach has become a widely used method to analyze expression patterns of target genes. The selection of an optimal reference gene is a prerequisite for the accurate normalization of gene expression in qRT-PCR. The present study constitutes the first systematic evaluation of potential reference genes in Rhododendron molle G. Don. Eleven candidate reference genes in different tissues and flowers at different developmental stages of R. molle were assessed using the following three software packages: GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The results showed that EF1-α (elongation factor 1-alpha), 18S (18s ribosomal RNA), and RPL3 (ribosomal protein L3) were the most stable reference genes in developing rhododendron flowers and, thus, in all of the tested samples, while tublin (TUB) was the least stable. ACT5 (actin), RPL3, 18S, and EF1-α were found to be the top four choices for different tissues, whereas TUB was not found to favor qRT-PCR normalization in these tissues. Three stable reference genes are recommended for the normalization of qRT-PCR data in R. molle. Furthermore, the expression profiles of RmPSY (phytoene synthase) and RmPDS (phytoene dehydrogenase) were assessed using EF1-α, 18S, ACT5, RPL3, and their combination as internals. Similar trends were found, but these trends varied when the least stable reference gene TUB was used. The results further prove that it is necessary to validate the stability of reference genes prior to their use for normalization under different experimental conditions. This study provides useful information for reliable qRT-PCR data normalization in gene studies of R. molle. PMID:27803707

  15. Selection and validation of reference genes for transcript normalization in gene expression studies in Catharanthus roseus.

    PubMed

    Pollier, Jacob; Vanden Bossche, Robin; Rischer, Heiko; Goossens, Alain

    2014-10-01

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR), a sensitive and commonly used technique for gene expression analysis, requires stably expressed reference genes for normalization of gene expression. Up to now, only one reference gene for qPCR analysis, corresponding to 40S Ribosomal protein S9 (RPS9), was available for the medicinal plant Catharanthus roseus, the only source of the commercial anticancer drugs vinblastine and vincristine. Here, we screened for additional reference genes for this plant species by mining C. roseus RNA-Seq data for orthologs of 22 genes known to be stably expressed in Arabidopsis thaliana and qualified as superior reference genes for this model plant species. Based on this, eight candidate C. roseus reference genes were identified and, together with RPS9, evaluated by performing qPCR on a series of different C. roseus explants and tissue cultures. NormFinder, geNorm and BestKeeper analyses of the resulting qPCR data revealed that the orthologs of At2g28390 (SAND family protein, SAND), At2g32170 (N2227-like family protein, N2227) and At4g26410 (Expressed protein, EXP) had the highest expression stability across the different C. roseus samples and are superior as reference genes as compared to the traditionally used RPS9. Analysis of publicly available C. roseus RNA-Seq data confirmed the expression stability of SAND and N2227, underscoring their value as reference genes for C. roseus qPCR analysis.

  16. Validation of internal reference genes for relative quantitation studies of gene expression in human laryngeal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaofeng; He, Jinting; Wang, Wei; Ren, Ming; Gao, Sujie; Zhao, Guanjie

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the expression stabilities of 12 common internal reference genes for the relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by reverse transcription real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in human laryngeal cancer. Methods Hep-2 cells and 14 laryngeal cancer tissue samples were investigated. The expression characteristics of 12 internal reference gene candidates (18S rRNA, GAPDH, ACTB, HPRT1, RPL29, HMBS, PPIA, ALAS1, TBP, PUM1, GUSB, and B2M) were assessed by RT-qPCR. The data were analyzed by three commonly used software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Results The use of the combination of four internal reference genes was more appropriate than the use of a single internal reference gene. The optimal combination was PPIA + GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 for both the cell line and tissues; while the most appropriate combination was GUSB + RPL29 + HPRT1 + HMBS for the tissues. Conclusions Our recommended internal reference genes may improve the accuracy of relative quantitation analysis of target gene expression performed by the RT-qPCR method in further gene expression research on laryngeal tumors. PMID:27957397

  17. The accumulation of endogenous proline induces changes in gene expression of several antioxidant enzymes in leaves of transgenic Swingle citrumelo.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Kenia; de Campos, Marília Kaphan Freitas; Domingues, Douglas Silva; Pereira, Luiz Filipe Protasio; Vieira, Luiz Gonzaga Esteves

    2013-04-01

    Plant exposure to abiotic stresses leads to an accumulation of reactive oxygen species with the concomitant increase in antioxidant defense mechanisms. Previous studies showed that exogenous application of proline mitigate the deleterious effects caused by oxidative stress due to its ability to increase the activity of antioxidant enzymes. However, there are no reports of the effects of high endogenous accumulation of proline in the transcriptional pattern of antioxidant enzymes genes under normal conditions of water supply or in response to water deficit. Here, we show that isoforms of four antioxidant enzymes genes (Ascorbate peroxidase-APX, Catalase-CAT, Superoxide dismutase-SOD and Glutathione reductase-GR) were differentially regulated in leaves of Swingle citrumelo transgenic plants with high endogenous proline accumulation submitted to water deficits and also under normal water supply condition. Proline per se caused a two-fold change in the transcription activity of APX1, APXcl, CAT2 and Cu/ZnSOD2, while during water deficit proline influenced mRNAs levels in APXs and Cu/ZnSODs isoforms, MnSODmit and GRcl. This study adds new information on the role of proline during drought conditions and, more important, without the potential confounding effects imposed by water deficiency. We showed that, in addition to its known effects on diverse plant physiological and biochemical processes, high endogenous proline can also acts as a regulatory/signalling molecule capable of altering the transcript levels of stress-related genes.

  18. Spatial and temporal consistency of putative reference genes for real-time PCR in a model tapeworm.

    PubMed

    Pouchkina-Stantcheva, Natalia N; Cunningham, Lucas J; Olson, Peter D

    2011-12-01

    Relative quantification of gene expression by real-time PCR relies on the use of reference genes whose expressed levels remain consistent across experimental conditions. Here we compare expression levels of commonly employed endogenous housekeeping genes against a developmental regulatory gene in the model tapeworm Hymenolepis microstoma, examining variation both spatially across regions of the adult worm and temporally through the course of larval metamorphosis. β-Tubulin, RNA polymerase II and 60S ribosomal subunit L28 showed the most variance among candidate reference genes when comparing changes in expression along the anteroposterior gradient of development represented by the adult body, whereas expression of 18S rDNA and cyclic AMP were highly consistent and could be used reliably for relative quantification. The transcription factor Hox4, referenced to either 18S or cAMP, showed 3-fold higher expression levels in the neck region than in more mature regions of the strobila. In contrast, variance among samples representing progressive stages of larval metamorphosis were greater for candidate reference genes than for Hox4, indicating that none of the candidates can be used reliably for quantifying relative changes in gene expression during metamorphosis.

  19. Identification of Reference Genes in Human Myelomonocytic Cells for Gene Expression Studies in Altered Gravity

    PubMed Central

    Thiel, Cora S.; Hauschild, Swantje; Tauber, Svantje; Paulsen, Katrin; Raig, Christiane; Raem, Arnold; Biskup, Josefine; Gutewort, Annett; Hürlimann, Eva; Philpot, Claudia; Lier, Hartwin; Engelmann, Frank; Layer, Liliana E.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression studies are indispensable for investigation and elucidation of molecular mechanisms. For the process of normalization, reference genes (“housekeeping genes”) are essential to verify gene expression analysis. Thus, it is assumed that these reference genes demonstrate similar expression levels over all experimental conditions. However, common recommendations about reference genes were established during 1 g conditions and therefore their applicability in studies with altered gravity has not been demonstrated yet. The microarray technology is frequently used to generate expression profiles under defined conditions and to determine the relative difference in expression levels between two or more different states. In our study, we searched for potential reference genes with stable expression during different gravitational conditions (microgravity, normogravity, and hypergravity) which are additionally not altered in different hardware systems. We were able to identify eight genes (ALB, B4GALT6, GAPDH, HMBS, YWHAZ, ABCA5, ABCA9, and ABCC1) which demonstrated no altered gene expression levels in all tested conditions and therefore represent good candidates for the standardization of gene expression studies in altered gravity. PMID:25654098

  20. Pharmacological modifications of endogenous antioxidant enzymes with special reference to the effects of deprenyl: a possible antioxidant strategy.

    PubMed

    Kitani, K; Kanai, S; Ivy, G O; Carrillo, M C

    1999-11-01

    Limited information is available on the upregulation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes by means of administering various pharmaceuticals and/or chemicals. It has been reported that ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a bile acid originally identified from black bear bile (a Chinese medicine, Yutan) increased glutathione S-transferase (GST) activities in mouse livers, resulting in a decrease in systemic lethal toxicity of orally challenged 1-2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB). Also, ursolic acid found in herbal medicines (e.g. leaves of loquat) was reported to increase catalase (CAT) activities in mouse liver. Interestingly, the chemical structures of these two compounds are surprisingly similar to each other, despite the difference in their original sources. These results suggest that in the future, more and more compounds will be found to have effects on increasing endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities. Deprenyl is a monoamine oxidase B inhibitor but also possesses many other different pharmacological activities. Among these various pharmacological effects of deprenyl, a possible causal relationship between two effects of deprenyl, namely the prolongation of the survival of animals and upregulation of antioxidant enzymes in selective brain regions, has been postulated by the authors. In at least four different animal species (rats, mice, hamsters and dogs), a significant prolongation of survival by chronic administration of the drug has been reported by different groups including that of the authors. This group has reported that repeated administration of the drug for 2-3 weeks can significantly increase activities of both types of superoxide dismutase (SODs) (Cu, Zn-, and Mn-SODs) as well as of CAT selectively in brain dopaminergic regions. Both effects are dose dependent but excessive dosages become less effective and even cause an adverse effect (i.e. a decrease in enzyme activities and shortening of life span). The parallelism of the dose-effect relationship between

  1. Evaluation of reference genes for gene expression studies in human brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Taube, Magdalena; Andersson-Assarsson, Johanna C; Lindberg, Kristin; Pereira, Maria J; Gäbel, Markus; Svensson, Maria K; Eriksson, Jan W; Svensson, Per-Arne

    2015-01-01

    Human brown adipose tissue (BAT) has during the last 5 year been subjected to an increasing research interest, due to its putative function as a target for future obesity treatments. The most commonly used method for molecular studies of human BAT is the quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). This method requires normalization to a reference gene (genes with uniform expression under different experimental conditions, e.g. similar expression levels between human BAT and WAT), but so far no evaluation of reference genes for human BAT has been performed. Two different microarray datasets with samples containing human BAT were used to search for genes with low variability in expression levels. Seven genes (FAM96B, GNB1, GNB2, HUWE1, PSMB2, RING1 and TPT1) identified by microarray analysis, and 8 commonly used reference genes (18S, B2M, GAPDH, LRP10, PPIA, RPLP0, UBC, and YWHAZ) were selected and further analyzed by quantitative PCR in both BAT containing perirenal adipose tissue and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Results were analyzed using 2 different algorithms (Normfinder and geNorm). Most of the commonly used reference genes displayed acceptably low variability (geNorm M-values <0.5) in the samples analyzed, but the novel reference genes identified by microarray displayed an even lower variability (M-values <0.25). Our data suggests that PSMB2, GNB2 and GNB1 are suitable novel reference genes for qPCR analysis of human BAT and we recommend that they are included in future gene expression studies of human BAT.

  2. Identifying suitable reference genes for gene expression analysis in developing skeletal muscle in pigs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, YuanYuan; Hua, Chaoju; Wang, Zishuai; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    The selection of suitable reference genes is crucial to accurately evaluate and normalize the relative expression level of target genes for gene function analysis. However, commonly used reference genes have variable expression levels in developing skeletal muscle. There are few reports that systematically evaluate the expression stability of reference genes across prenatal and postnatal developing skeletal muscle in mammals. Here, we used quantitative PCR to examine the expression levels of 15 candidate reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, RNF7, RHOA, RPS18, RPL32, PPIA, H3F3, API5, B2M, AP1S1, DRAP1, TBP, WSB, and VAPB) in porcine skeletal muscle at 26 different developmental stages (15 prenatal and 11 postnatal periods). We evaluated gene expression stability using the computer algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Our results indicated that GAPDH and ACTB had the greatest variability among the candidate genes across prenatal and postnatal stages of skeletal muscle development. RPS18, API5, and VAPB had stable expression levels in prenatal stages, whereas API5, RPS18, RPL32, and H3F3 had stable expression levels in postnatal stages. API5 and H3F3 expression levels had the greatest stability in all tested prenatal and postnatal stages, and were the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization in developing skeletal muscle. Our data provide valuable information for gene expression analysis during different stages of skeletal muscle development in mammals. This information can provide a valuable guide for the analysis of human diseases. PMID:27994956

  3. Identifying suitable reference genes for gene expression analysis in developing skeletal muscle in pigs.

    PubMed

    Niu, Guanglin; Yang, Yalan; Zhang, YuanYuan; Hua, Chaoju; Wang, Zishuai; Tang, Zhonglin; Li, Kui

    2016-01-01

    The selection of suitable reference genes is crucial to accurately evaluate and normalize the relative expression level of target genes for gene function analysis. However, commonly used reference genes have variable expression levels in developing skeletal muscle. There are few reports that systematically evaluate the expression stability of reference genes across prenatal and postnatal developing skeletal muscle in mammals. Here, we used quantitative PCR to examine the expression levels of 15 candidate reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, RNF7, RHOA, RPS18, RPL32, PPIA, H3F3, API5, B2M, AP1S1, DRAP1, TBP, WSB, and VAPB) in porcine skeletal muscle at 26 different developmental stages (15 prenatal and 11 postnatal periods). We evaluated gene expression stability using the computer algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Our results indicated that GAPDH and ACTB had the greatest variability among the candidate genes across prenatal and postnatal stages of skeletal muscle development. RPS18, API5, and VAPB had stable expression levels in prenatal stages, whereas API5, RPS18, RPL32, and H3F3 had stable expression levels in postnatal stages. API5 and H3F3 expression levels had the greatest stability in all tested prenatal and postnatal stages, and were the most appropriate reference genes for gene expression normalization in developing skeletal muscle. Our data provide valuable information for gene expression analysis during different stages of skeletal muscle development in mammals. This information can provide a valuable guide for the analysis of human diseases.

  4. Reference ranges for urinary concentrations and ratios of endogenous steroids, which can be used as markers for steroid misuse, in a Caucasian population of athletes.

    PubMed

    Van Renterghem, Pieter; Van Eenoo, Peter; Geyer, Hans; Schänzer, Wilhelm; Delbeke, Frans T

    2010-02-01

    The detection of misuse with naturally occurring steroids is a great challenge for doping control laboratories. Intake of natural anabolic steroids alters the steroid profile. Thus, screening for exogenous use of these steroids can be established by monitoring a range of endogenous steroids, which constitute the steroid profile, and evaluate their concentrations and ratios against reference ranges. Elevated values of the steroid profile constitute an atypical finding after which a confirmatory IRMS procedure is needed to unequivocally establish the exogenous origin of a natural steroid. However, the large inter-individual differences in urinary steroid concentrations and the recent availability of a whole range of natural steroids (e.g. dehydroepiandrosterone and androstenedione) which each exert a different effect on the monitored parameters in doping control complicate the interpretation of the current steroid profile. The screening of an extended steroid profile can provide additional parameters to support the atypical findings and can give specific information upon the steroids which have been administered. The natural concentrations of 29 endogenous steroids and 11 ratios in a predominantly Caucasian population of athletes were determined. The upper reference values at 97.5%, 99% and 99.9% levels were assessed for male (n=2027) and female (n=1004) populations. Monitoring minor metabolites and evaluation of concentration ratios with respect to their natural abundances could improve the interpretation of the steroid profile in doping analysis.

  5. Validation of commonly used reference genes for sleep-related gene expression studies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kil S; Alvarenga, Tathiana A; Guindalini, Camila; Andersen, Monica L; Castro, Rosa MRPS; Tufik, Sergio

    2009-01-01

    Background Sleep is a restorative process and is essential for maintenance of mental and physical health. In an attempt to understand the complexity of sleep, multidisciplinary strategies, including genetic approaches, have been applied to sleep research. Although quantitative real time PCR has been used in previous sleep-related gene expression studies, proper validation of reference genes is currently lacking. Thus, we examined the effect of total or paradoxical sleep deprivation (TSD or PSD) on the expression stability of the following frequently used reference genes in brain and blood: beta-actin (b-actin), beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HPRT). Results Neither TSD nor PSD affected the expression stability of all tested genes in both tissues indicating that b-actin, B2M, GAPDH and HPRT are appropriate reference genes for the sleep-related gene expression studies. In order to further verify these results, the relative expression of brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase1 (GPD1) was evaluated in brain and blood, respectively. The normalization with each of four reference genes produced similar pattern of expression in control and sleep deprived rats, but subtle differences in the magnitude of expression fold change were observed which might affect the statistical significance. Conclusion This study demonstrated that sleep deprivation does not alter the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in brain and blood. Nonetheless, the use of multiple reference genes in quantitative RT-PCR is required for the accurate results. PMID:19445681

  6. Identification of valid reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR expression studies in human breast cancer cell lines treated with and without transient transfection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Lin-Lin; Zhao, Hui; Ma, Teng-Fei; Ge, Fei; Chen, Ce-Shi; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful technique for examining gene expression changes during tumorigenesis. Target gene expression is generally normalized by a stably expressed endogenous reference gene; however, reference gene expression may differ among tissues under various circumstances. Because no valid reference genes have been documented for human breast cancer cell lines containing different cancer subtypes treated with transient transfection, we identified appropriate and reliable reference genes from thirteen candidates in a panel of 10 normal and cancerous human breast cell lines under experimental conditions with/without transfection treatments with two transfection reagents. Reference gene expression stability was calculated using four algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and comparative delta Ct), and the recommended comprehensive ranking was provided using geometric means of the ranking values using the RefFinder tool. GeNorm analysis revealed that two reference genes should be sufficient for all cases in this study. A stability analysis suggests that 18S rRNA-ACTB is the best reference gene combination across all cell lines; ACTB-GAPDH is best for basal breast cancer cell lines; and HSPCB-ACTB is best for ER+ breast cancer cells. After transfection, the stability ranking of the reference gene fluctuated, especially with Lipofectamine 2000 transfection reagent in two subtypes of basal and ER+ breast cell lines. Comparisons of relative target gene (HER2) expression revealed different expressional patterns depending on the reference genes used for normalization. We suggest that identifying the most stable and suitable reference genes is critical for studying specific cell lines under certain circumstances.

  7. Reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in multiple avian species.

    PubMed

    Olias, Philipp; Adam, Iris; Meyer, Anne; Scharff, Constance; Gruber, Achim D

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) rapidly and reliably quantifies gene expression levels across different experimental conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes is essential for meaningful normalization and thus correct interpretation of data. In recent years, an increasing number of avian species other than the chicken has been investigated molecularly, highlighting the need for an experimentally validated pan-avian primer set for reference genes. Here we report testing a set for 14 candidate reference genes (18S, ABL, GAPDH, GUSB, HMBS, HPRT, PGK1, RPL13, RPL19, RPS7, SDHA, TFRC, VIM, YWHAZ) on different tissues of the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos), domestic chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), common crane (Grus grus), white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla), domestic turkey (Meleagris gallopavo f. domestica), cockatiel (Nymphicus hollandicus), Humboldt penguin (Sphenicus humboldti), ostrich (Struthio camelus) and zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), spanning a broad range of the phylogenetic tree of birds. Primer pairs for six to 11 genes were successfully established for each of the nine species. As a proof of principle, we analyzed expression levels of 10 candidate reference genes as well as FOXP2 and the immediate early genes, EGR1 and CFOS, known to be rapidly induced by singing in the avian basal ganglia. We extracted RNA from microbiopsies of the striatal song nucleus Area X of adult male zebra finches after they had sang or remained silent. Using three different statistical algorithms, we identified five genes (18S, PGK1, RPS7, TFRC, YWHAZ) that were stably expressed within each group and also between the singing and silent conditions, establishing them as suitable reference genes. In conclusion, the newly developed pan-avian primer set allows accurate normalization and quantification of gene expression levels in multiple avian species.

  8. Evaluation of plasma antioxidant activity in rats given excess EGCg with reference to endogenous antioxidants concentrations and assay methods.

    PubMed

    Yokotani, Kaori; Umegaki, Keizo

    2017-02-01

    The contribution of (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) intake to in vivo antioxidant activity is unclear, even with respect to plasma. In this study, we examined how administration of EGCg contributes to plasma antioxidant activity, relative to its concentration, endogenous antioxidants, and assay methods, namely oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP). Administration of EGCg (500 mg/kg) to rats increased plasma EGCg (4μmol/L as free form) and ascorbic acid (1.7-fold), as well as ORAC (1.2-fold) and FRAP (3-fold) values. The increase in plasma ascorbic acid following EGCg administration was accompanied by its relocation from the adrenal glands and lymphocytes into plasma, and was related to the increase in FRAP. Plasma deproteinization and assays in plasma model solutions revealed that protein levels significantly contributed to ORAC values, where <3 μmol/L EGCg in the presence of protein exhibited minimal antioxidant activity, as measured by both FRAP and ORAC. As the concentration of plasma ascorbic acid was not influenced by deproteinization, differences in FRAP values with and without deproteinization were estimated to determine the contribution of enhanced ascorbic acid attributable to EGCg administration. These results will help to understand the points that should be considered when evaluating EGCg antioxidant activity in plasma.

  9. KEGG as a reference resource for gene and protein annotation

    PubMed Central

    Kanehisa, Minoru; Sato, Yoko; Kawashima, Masayuki; Furumichi, Miho; Tanabe, Mao

    2016-01-01

    KEGG (http://www.kegg.jp/ or http://www.genome.jp/kegg/) is an integrated database resource for biological interpretation of genome sequences and other high-throughput data. Molecular functions of genes and proteins are associated with ortholog groups and stored in the KEGG Orthology (KO) database. The KEGG pathway maps, BRITE hierarchies and KEGG modules are developed as networks of KO nodes, representing high-level functions of the cell and the organism. Currently, more than 4000 complete genomes are annotated with KOs in the KEGG GENES database, which can be used as a reference data set for KO assignment and subsequent reconstruction of KEGG pathways and other molecular networks. As an annotation resource, the following improvements have been made. First, each KO record is re-examined and associated with protein sequence data used in experiments of functional characterization. Second, the GENES database now includes viruses, plasmids, and the addendum category for functionally characterized proteins that are not represented in complete genomes. Third, new automatic annotation servers, BlastKOALA and GhostKOALA, are made available utilizing the non-redundant pangenome data set generated from the GENES database. As a resource for translational bioinformatics, various data sets are created for antimicrobial resistance and drug interaction networks. PMID:26476454

  10. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR studies of gene expression in banana fruit under different experimental conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lei; Zhong, Hai-ying; Kuang, Jian-fei; Li, Jian-guo; Lu, Wang-jin; Chen, Jian-ye

    2011-08-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a sensitive technique for quantifying gene expression, but its success depends on the stability of the reference gene(s) used for data normalization. Only a few studies on validation of reference genes have been conducted in fruit trees and none in banana yet. In the present work, 20 candidate reference genes were selected, and their expression stability in 144 banana samples were evaluated and analyzed using two algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. The samples consisted of eight sample sets collected under different experimental conditions, including various tissues, developmental stages, postharvest ripening, stresses (chilling, high temperature, and pathogen), and hormone treatments. Our results showed that different suitable reference gene(s) or combination of reference genes for normalization should be selected depending on the experimental conditions. The RPS2 and UBQ2 genes were validated as the most suitable reference genes across all tested samples. More importantly, our data further showed that the widely used reference genes, ACT and GAPDH, were not the most suitable reference genes in many banana sample sets. In addition, the expression of MaEBF1, a gene of interest that plays an important role in regulating fruit ripening, under different experimental conditions was used to further confirm the validated reference genes. Taken together, our results provide guidelines for reference gene(s) selection under different experimental conditions and a foundation for more accurate and widespread use of RT-qPCR in banana.

  11. Reference gene alternatives to Gapdh in rodent and human heart failure gene expression studies

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Quantitative real-time RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive method for mRNA quantification, but requires invariant expression of the chosen reference gene(s). In pathological myocardium, there is limited information on suitable reference genes other than the commonly used Gapdh mRNA and 18S ribosomal RNA. Our aim was to evaluate and identify suitable reference genes in human failing myocardium, in rat and mouse post-myocardial infarction (post-MI) heart failure and across developmental stages in fetal and neonatal rat myocardium. Results The abundance of Arbp, Rpl32, Rpl4, Tbp, Polr2a, Hprt1, Pgk1, Ppia and Gapdh mRNA and 18S ribosomal RNA in myocardial samples was quantified by RT-qPCR. The expression variability of these transcripts was evaluated by the geNorm and Normfinder algorithms and by a variance component analysis method. Biological variability was a greater contributor to sample variability than either repeated reverse transcription or PCR reactions. Conclusions The most stable reference genes were Rpl32, Gapdh and Polr2a in mouse post-infarction heart failure, Polr2a, Rpl32 and Tbp in rat post-infarction heart failure and Rpl32 and Pgk1 in human heart failure (ischemic disease and cardiomyopathy). The overall most stable reference genes across all three species was Rpl32 and Polr2a. In rat myocardium, all reference genes tested showed substantial variation with developmental stage, with Rpl4 as was most stable among the tested genes. PMID:20331858

  12. Activation of endogenous opioid gene expression in human keratinocytes and fibroblasts by pulsed radiofrequency energy fields

    PubMed Central

    Moffett, John; Fray, Linley M; Kubat, Nicole J

    2012-01-01

    Background Pulsed radiofrequency energy (PRFE) fields are being used increasingly for the treatment of pain arising from dermal trauma. However, despite their increased use, little is known about the biological and molecular mechanism(s) responsible for PRFE-mediated analgesia. In general, current therapeutics used for analgesia target either endogenous factors involved in inflammation, or act on endogenous opioid pathways. Methods and Results Using cultured human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and human epidermal keratinocytes (HEK), we investigated the effect of PRFE treatment on factors, which are involved in modulating peripheral analgesia in vivo. We found that PRFE treatment did not inhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme activity, but instead had a positive effect on levels of endogenous opioid precursor mRNA (proenkephalin, pro-opiomelanocortin, prodynorphin) and corresponding opioid peptide. In HEK cells, increases in opioid mRNA were dependent, at least in part, on endothelin-1. In HDF cells, additional pathways also appear to be involved. PRFE treatment was also followed by changes in endogenous expression of several cytokines, including increased levels of interleukin-10 mRNA and decreased levels of interleukin-1β mRNA in both cell types. Conclusion These findings provide a new insight into the molecular mechanism underlying PRFE-mediated analgesia reported in the clinical setting. PMID:23055776

  13. Acute modulation of cytokine gene expression in bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by endogenous cortisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar. 2009. Neuroimmunomod. 16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expr...

  14. Acute modulation of cytokine gene expression in bovine PBMCs by endogenous cortisol

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar, Neuroimmunomod 2009;16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expres...

  15. Endogenous Cortisol: Acute Modulation of Cytokine Gene Expression in Bovine PBMCs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cortisol suppresses many aspects of immune function. However, recent publications suggest acute cortisol exposure may actually enhance immune function (Dhabhar, Neuroimmunomod 2009;16:300). The objective of this study was to determine the influence of acute increases in endogenous cortisol on expres...

  16. Optimal reference genes for qPCR in resting and activated human NK cells--Flow cytometric data correspond to qPCR gene expression analysis.

    PubMed

    Kaszubowska, Lucyna; Wierzbicki, Piotr Mieczysław; Karsznia, Sylwia; Damska, Marta; Ślebioda, Tomasz Jerzy; Foerster, Jerzy; Kmieć, Zbigniew

    2015-07-01

    Natural killer cells (NK cells) are cytotoxic lymphocytes critical to the innate immune system engaged in rapid response against tumor or virus infected cells. After activation NK cells acquire enhanced cytotoxicity and are capable of producing cytokines to stimulate other immune cells. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) is a method of choice for gene expression analysis but the usage of reliable reference genes for the normalization process is critical. Commonly used reference genes may vary in expression level between different experimental conditions providing wrong quantitative results of the studied genes' expression levels. Fourteen potential endogenous control genes were analyzed by qPCR method in NK-92 cell line that shows characteristics of human natural killer cells and is often used in studies on biology of NK lymphocytes. NK-92 cells were stimulated with IL-2 or TNF for 2, 24 or 72 h. Results were analyzed with RefFinder, a program which enables evaluation and screening of reference genes and integrates the currently available major computational programs (Genorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper and Delta Ct). The most stable gene in activated and non-activated NK cells was B2M, followed by IPO-8 and GAPDH and the least stable were HPRT1, PPIA and RPL32. The normalization process was performed on SOD2 gene and the results of qPCR experiments were confirmed by flow cytometry. The flow cytometric data corresponded to the results of qPCR gene expression analysis performed for the reference genes qualified by RefFinder as the most stable.

  17. Gene Therapy with Endogenous Inhibitors of Angiogenesis for Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: Beyond Anti-VEGF Therapy.

    PubMed

    Prea, Selwyn M; Chan, Elsa C; Dusting, Gregory J; Vingrys, Algis J; Bui, Bang V; Liu, Guei-Sheung

    2015-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause of substantial and irreversible vision loss amongst elderly populations in industrialized countries. The advanced neovascular (or "wet") form of the disease is responsible for severe and aggressive loss of central vision. Current treatments aim to seal off leaky blood vessels via laser therapy or to suppress vessel leakage and neovascular growth through intraocular injections of antibodies that target vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). However, the long-term success of anti-VEGF therapy can be hampered by limitations such as low or variable efficacy, high frequency of administration (usually monthly), potentially serious side effects, and, most importantly, loss of efficacy with prolonged treatment. Gene transfer of endogenous antiangiogenic proteins is an alternative approach that has the potential to provide long-term suppression of neovascularization and/or excessive vascular leakage in the eye. Preclinical studies of gene transfer in a large animal model have provided impressive preliminary results with a number of transgenes. In addition, a clinical trial in patients suffering from advanced neovascular AMD has provided proof-of-concept for successful gene transfer. In this mini review, we summarize current theories pertaining to the application of gene therapy for neovascular AMD and the potential benefits when used in conjunction with endogenous antiangiogenic proteins.

  18. An endogenous artificial microRNA system for unraveling the function of root endosymbioses related genes in Medicago truncatula

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Legumes have the unique capacity to undergo two important root endosymbioses: the root nodule symbiosis and the arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis. Medicago truncatula is widely used to unravel the functions of genes during these root symbioses. Here we describe the development of an artificial microRNA (amiR)-mediated gene silencing system for M. truncatula roots. Results The endogenous microRNA (miR) mtr-miR159b was selected as a backbone molecule for driving amiR expression. Heterologous expression of mtr-miR159b-amiR constructs in tobacco showed that the backbone is functional and mediates an efficient gene silencing. amiR-mediated silencing of a visible marker was also effective after root transformation of M. truncatula constitutively expressing the visible marker. Most importantly, we applied the novel amiR system to shed light on the function of a putative transcription factor, MtErf1, which was strongly induced in arbuscule-containing cells during mycorrhizal symbiosis. MtPt4 promoter driven amiR-silencing led to strongly decreased transcript levels and deformed, non-fully truncated arbuscules indicating that MtErf1 is required for arbuscule development. Conclusions The endogenous amiR system demonstrated here presents a novel and highly efficient tool to unravel gene functions during root endosymbioses. PMID:23679580

  19. Screening for the Most Suitable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Equine Milk Somatic Cells.

    PubMed

    Cieslak, Jakub; Mackowski, Mariusz; Czyzak-Runowska, Grazyna; Wojtowski, Jacek; Puppel, Kamila; Kuczynska, Beata; Pawlak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Apart from the well-known role of somatic cell count as a parameter reflecting the inflammatory status of the mammary gland, the composition of cells isolated from milk is considered as a valuable material for gene expression studies in mammals. Due to its unique composition, in recent years an increasing interest in mare's milk consumption has been observed. Thus, investigating the genetic background of horse's milk variability presents and interesting study model. Relying on 39 milk samples collected from mares representing three breeds (Polish Primitive Horse, Polish Cold-blooded Horse, Polish Warmblood Horse) we aimed to investigate the utility of equine milk somatic cells as a source of mRNA and to screen the best reference genes for RT-qPCR using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. The results showed that despite relatively low somatic cell counts in mare's milk, the amount and the quality of the extracted RNA are sufficient for gene expression studies. The analysis of the utility of 7 potential reference genes for RT-qPCR experiments for the normalization of equine milk somatic cells revealed some differences between the outcomes of the applied algorithms, although in both cases the KRT8 and TOP2B genes were pointed as the most stable. Analysis by geNorm showed that the combination of 4 reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, TOP2B and KRT8) is required for apropriate RT-qPCR experiments normalization, whereas NormFinder algorithm pointed the combination of KRT8 and RPS9 genes as the most suitable. The trial study of the relative transcript abundance of the beta-casein gene with the use of various types and numbers of internal control genes confirmed once again that the selection of proper reference gene combinations is crucial for the final results of each real-time PCR experiment.

  20. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR in Cycas elongata

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Tian; Chen, Letian; Wu, Hong; Zhang, Shouzhou

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique used in gene expression studies. To achieve a reliable quantification of transcripts, appropriate reference genes are required for comparison of transcripts in different samples. However, few reference genes are available for non-model taxa, and to date, reliable reference genes in Cycas elongata have not been well characterized. In this study, 13 reference genes (ACT7, TUB, UBQ, EIF4, EF1, CLATHRIN1, PP2A, RPB2, GAPC2, TIP41, MAPK, SAMDC and CYP) were chosen from the transcriptome database of C. elongata, and these genes were evaluated in 8 different organ samples. Three software programs, NormFinder, GeNorm and BestKeeper, were used to validate the stability of the potential reference genes. Results obtained from these three programs suggested that CeGAPC2 and CeRPB2 are the most stable reference genes, while CeACT7 is the least stable one among the 13 tested genes. Further confirmation of the identified reference genes was established by the relative expression of AGAMOUSE gene of C. elongata (CeAG). While our stable reference genes generated consistent expression patterns in eight tissues, we note that our results indicate that an inappropriate reference gene might cause erroneous results. Our systematic analysis for stable reference genes of C. elongata facilitates further gene expression studies and functional analyses of this species. PMID:27124298

  1. Investigation of Reference Genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus for Gene Expression Analysis Using Quantitative RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yue-jiao; Sun, Xiao-hong; Xu, Xiao-yan; Zhao, Yong; Pan, Ying-jie; Hwang, Cheng-An; Wu, Vivian C. H.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant human pathogen capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked seafood. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a useful tool for studying gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus to characterize its virulence factors and understand the effect of environmental conditions on its pathogenicity. However, there is not a stable gene in V. parahaemolyticus that has been identified for use as a reference gene for qRT-PCR. This study evaluated the stability of 6 reference genes (16S rRNA, recA, rpoS, pvsA, pvuA, and gapdh) in 5 V. parahaemolyticus strains (O3:K6-clinical strain-tdh+, ATCC33846-tdh+, ATCC33847-tdh+, ATCC17802-trh+, and F13-environmental strain-tdh+) cultured at 4 different temperatures (15, 25, 37 and 42°C). Stability values were calculated using GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and Delta CT algorithms. The results indicated that recA was the most stably expressed gene in the V. parahaemolyticus strains cultured at different temperatures. This study examined multiple V. parahaemolyticus strains and growth temperatures, hence the finding provided stronger evidence that recA can be used as a reference gene for gene expression studies in V. parahaemolyticus. PMID:26659406

  2. Reference genes to quantify gene expression during oogenesis in a teleost fish.

    PubMed

    Deloffre, Laurence A M; Andrade, André; Filipe, Alexandra I; Canario, Adelino V M

    2012-09-10

    Understanding the molecular events involved in the acquisition of competence during oogenesis is a key step to determine the secret of 'high quality' eggs for aquaculture. Quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the technique of election to determine changes in transcript abundance in such studies, but choosing reference genes for normalization, in particular during oogenesis, remains a challenge. In the present study, transcription of 6 functionally distinct genes, β actin (ACTB), cathepsin D (CTSD), cathepsin Z (CTSZ), elongation factor 1 α (EEF1A), TATA binding protein (TBP) and tubulin A (TUBA1A) was assessed as normalizers of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) and activin membrane-bound inhibitor (BAMBI) gene expression in mRNA from Mozambique tilapia oocytes during oogenesis. Reverse transcription was equally efficient and varies little in all samples. Most of the genes considered for reference were stable during early stages of oogenesis but variations were observed during vitellogenesis. A single gene and up to 3 genes were shown to be insufficient for reliable normalization throughout the whole oogenesis. The combination of the genes ACTB, CTSD, EEF1A and CTSZ as reference was found to minimize variation and has the most stable expression pattern between maturation stages.

  3. The reduced expression of endogenous duplications (REED) in the maize R gene family is mediated by DNA methylation.

    PubMed Central

    Ronchi, A; Petroni, K; Tonelli, C

    1995-01-01

    The duplicated R and Sn genes regulate the maize anthocyanin biosynthetic pathway and encode tissue-specific products that are homologous to helix-loop-helix transcriptional activators. As a consequence of their coupling in the genome, Sn is partially silenced. Genomic restriction analysis failed to reveal gross structural DNA alterations between the strong original phenotype and the weak derivatives. However, the differences in pigmentation were inversely correlated with differences in the methylation of the Sn promoter. Accordingly, treatment with 5-azacytidine (AZA), a demethylating agent, restored a strong pigmentation pattern that was transmitted to the progeny and that was correlated with differential expression of the Sn transcript. Genomic sequencing confirmed that methylation of the Sn promoter was more apparent in the less pigmented seedlings and was greatly reduced in the AZA revertants. In addition, some methylcytosines were located in non-symmetrical C sequences. These findings provide an insight into Sn and R interaction, a process that we have termed Reduced Expression of Endogenous Duplications (REED). We propose that increasing the copy number of regulatory genes by endogenous duplication leads to such epigenetic mechanisms of silencing. Further understanding of the REED process may have broader implications for gene regulation and may identify new levels of regulation within eukaryotic genomes. Images PMID:7489721

  4. Cloning of the functional promoter for human insulin-like growth factor binding protein-4 gene: endogenous regulation.

    PubMed

    Dai, B; Widen, S G; Mifflin, R; Singh, P

    1997-01-01

    The majority of the colon cancers analyzed to-date express insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP)-4, and antisense inhibition of IGFBP-4 messenger RNA (mRNA) confers a growth advantage to the cells in response to endogenous and exogenous IGFs. We recently reported a significant up-regulation of IGFBP-4 expression in a human colon cancer cell line (CaCo2) on spontaneous differentiation of the cells in culture. This suggests that the expression of IGFBP-4 may be related to growth and differentiation of colon cancer cells. To study the endogenous factors involved in the transcriptional regulation of IGFBP-4, we have isolated and sequenced the human (h) IGFBP-4 promoter. The approximately 1.3 kilobase pair (kb) 5' flanking region of the IGFBP-4 gene is GC rich and possesses several potential regulatory elements. These elements include a typical TATA box with sequence TATAA, located -299 nt from the initiation ATG codon. The cap site is located 14 nt downstream of the TATA box as determined by primer extension analysis. A 1.4-kb DNA fragment including the 1.254 kb 5' flanking region of the hIGFBP-4 gene was subcloned into a luciferase reporter vector (pGL-2 basic) either in the sense (BP-4-S-pGL) (S) or antisense (BP-4-AS-pGL) (AS) (negative control) orientation, relative to the luciferase coding sequence in the vector. CaCo2 cells were transfected with either the S or the AS vectors on days 2-10 of culture; cotransfection with the SV40-beta-Galactidose (Gal) vector was used to correct for transfection efficiency. The ratio of luciferase/beta-Gal expression by CaCo2 cells transfected with the S vectors increased significantly from days 3 and 4 to days 5 and 6 of culture, followed by a sharp decline on days 7-9, resembling the pattern of endogenous expression of IGFBP-4 by the cells; the expression of luciferase by the AS vectors remained low and insignificant. These results thus suggest that the approximately 1.4 kb 5' flanking region of the IGFBP-4 gene

  5. Evaluation and selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression under abiotic stress in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Wang, Qinglian; Zhang, Baohong

    2013-11-01

    Reference genes are critical for normalization of the gene expression level of target genes. The widely used housekeeping genes may change their expression levels at different tissue under different treatment or stress conditions. Therefore, systematical evaluation on the housekeeping genes is required for gene expression analysis. Up to date, no work was performed to evaluate the housekeeping genes in cotton under stress treatment. In this study, we chose 10 housekeeping genes to systematically assess their expression levels at two different tissues (leaves and roots) under two different abiotic stresses (salt and drought) with three different concentrations. Our results show that there is no best reference gene for all tissues at all stress conditions. The reliable reference gene should be selected based on a specific condition. For example, under salt stress, UBQ7, GAPDH and EF1A8 are better reference genes in leaves; TUA10, UBQ7, CYP1, GAPDH and EF1A8 were better in roots. Under drought stress, UBQ7, EF1A8, TUA10, and GAPDH showed less variety of expression level in leaves and roots. Thus, it is better to identify reliable reference genes first before performing any gene expression analysis. However, using a combination of housekeeping genes as reference gene may provide a new strategy for normalization of gene expression. In this study, we found that combination of four housekeeping genes worked well as reference genes under all the stress conditions.

  6. Easy-to-use strategy for reference gene selection in quantitative real-time PCR experiments.

    PubMed

    Klenke, Stefanie; Renckhoff, Kristina; Engler, Andrea; Peters, Jürgen; Frey, Ulrich H

    2016-12-01

    Real-time PCR is an indispensable technique for mRNA expression analysis but conclusions depend on appropriate reference gene selection. However, while reference gene selection has been a topic of publications, this issue is often disregarded when measuring target mRNA expression. Therefore, we (1) evaluated the frequency of appropriate reference gene selection, (2) suggest an easy-to-use tool for least variability reference gene selection, (3) demonstrate application of this tool, and (4) show effects on target gene expression profiles. All 2015 published articles in Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology were screened for the use of quantitative real-time PCR analysis and selection of reference genes. Target gene expression (Vegfa, Grk2, Sirt4, and Timp3) in H9c2 cells was analyzed following various interventions (hypoxia, hyperglycemia, and/or isoflurane exposure with and without subsequent hypoxia) in relation to putative reference genes (Actb, Gapdh, B2m, Sdha, and Rplp1) using the least variability method vs. an arbitrarily selected but established reference gene. In the vast majority (18 of 21) of papers, no information was provided regarding selection of an appropriate reference gene. In only 1 of 21 papers, a method of appropriate reference gene selection was described and in 2 papers reference gene selection remains unclear. The method of reference gene selection had major impact on interpretation of target gene expression. With hypoxia, for instance, the least variability gene was Rplp1 and target gene expression (Vefga) heavily showed a 2-fold up-regulation (p = 0.022) but no change (p = 0.3) when arbitrarily using Gapdh. Frequency of appropriate reference gene selection in this journal is low, and we propose our strategy for reference gene selection as an easy tool for proper target gene expression.

  7. Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a predatory biological control agent, Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunxiao; Pan, Huipeng; Noland, Jeffrey Edward; Zhang, Deyong; Zhang, Zhanhong; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-12-10

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression across various biological processes, of which requires a set of suited reference genes to normalize the expression data. Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the most extensively used biological control agents in the field to manage arthropod pest species. In this study, expression profiles of 16 housekeeping genes selected from C. maculata were cloned and investigated. The performance of these candidates as endogenous controls under specific experimental conditions was evaluated by dedicated algorithms, including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt method. In addition, RefFinder, a comprehensive platform integrating all the above-mentioned algorithms, ranked the overall stability of these candidate genes. As a result, various sets of suitable reference genes were recommended specifically for experiments involving different tissues, developmental stages, sex, and C. maculate larvae treated with dietary double stranded RNA. This study represents the critical first step to establish a standardized RT-qPCR protocol for the functional genomics research in a ladybeetle C. maculate. Furthermore, it lays the foundation for conducting ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based gene silencing biotechnologies on non-target organisms; in this case, a key predatory biological control agent.

  8. Selection of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in a predatory biological control agent, Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chunxiao; Pan, Huipeng; Noland, Jeffrey Edward; Zhang, Deyong; Zhang, Zhanhong; Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable technique for quantifying gene expression across various biological processes, of which requires a set of suited reference genes to normalize the expression data. Coleomegilla maculata (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae), is one of the most extensively used biological control agents in the field to manage arthropod pest species. In this study, expression profiles of 16 housekeeping genes selected from C. maculata were cloned and investigated. The performance of these candidates as endogenous controls under specific experimental conditions was evaluated by dedicated algorithms, including geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and ΔCt method. In addition, RefFinder, a comprehensive platform integrating all the above-mentioned algorithms, ranked the overall stability of these candidate genes. As a result, various sets of suitable reference genes were recommended specifically for experiments involving different tissues, developmental stages, sex, and C. maculate larvae treated with dietary double stranded RNA. This study represents the critical first step to establish a standardized RT-qPCR protocol for the functional genomics research in a ladybeetle C. maculate. Furthermore, it lays the foundation for conducting ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based gene silencing biotechnologies on non-target organisms; in this case, a key predatory biological control agent. PMID:26656102

  9. The human endogenous retrovirus link between genes and environment in multiple sclerosis and in multifactorial diseases associating neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Perron, Hervé; Lang, Alois

    2010-08-01

    Endogenous retroviruses represent about 8% of the human genome and belong to the superfamily of transposable and retrotransposable genetic elements. Altogether, these mobile genetic elements and their numerous inactivated "junk" sequences represent nearly one half of the human DNA. Nonetheless, a significant part of this "non-conventional" genome has retained potential activity. Epigenetic control is notably involved in silencing most of these genetic elements but certain environmental factors such as viruses are known to dysregulate their expression in susceptible cells. More particularly, embryonal cells with limited gene methylation are most susceptible to uncontrolled activation of these mobile genetic elements by, e.g., viral infections. In particular, certain viruses transactivate promoters from endogenous retroviral family type W (HERV-W). HERV-W RNA was first isolated in circulating viral particles (Multiple Sclerosis-associated RetroViral element, MSRV) that have been associated with the evolution and prognosis of multiple sclerosis. HERV-W elements encode a powerful immunopathogenic envelope protein (ENV) that activates a pro-inflammatory and autoimmune cascade through interaction with Toll-like receptor 4 on immune cells. This ENV protein has repeatedly been detected in MS brain lesions and may be involved in other diseases. Epigenetic factors controlling HERV-W ENV protein expression then reveal critical. This review addresses the gene-environment epigenetic interface of such HERV-W elements and its potential involvement in disease.

  10. Dissection of splicing regulation at an endogenous locus by zinc-finger nuclease-mediated gene editing.

    PubMed

    Cristea, Sandra; Gregory, Philip D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Cost, Gregory J

    2011-02-08

    Sequences governing RNA splicing are difficult to study in situ due to the great difficulty of traditional targeted mutagenesis. Zinc-finger nuclease (ZFN) technology allows for the rapid and efficient introduction of site-specific mutations into mammalian chromosomes. Using a ZFN pair along with a donor plasmid to manipulate the outcomes of DNA repair, we introduced several discrete, targeted mutations into the fourth intron of the endogenous BAX gene in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Putative lariat branch points, the polypyrimidine tract, and the splice acceptor site were targeted. We recovered numerous otherwise isogenic clones carrying the intended mutations and analyzed the effect of each on BAX pre-mRNA splicing. Mutation of one of three possible branch points, the polypyrimidine tract, and the splice acceptor site all caused exclusion of exon five from BAX mRNA. Interestingly, these exon-skipping mutations allowed usage of cryptic splice acceptor sites within intron four. These data demonstrate that ZFN-mediated gene editing is a highly effective tool for dissection of pre-mRNA splicing regulatory sequences in their endogenous context.

  11. Identification of suitable reference genes for gene expression normalization in qRT-PCR analysis in watermelon.

    PubMed

    Kong, Qiusheng; Yuan, Jingxian; Gao, Lingyun; Zhao, Shuang; Jiang, Wei; Huang, Yuan; Bie, Zhilong

    2014-01-01

    Watermelon is one of the major Cucurbitaceae crops and the recent availability of genome sequence greatly facilitates the fundamental researches on it. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) is the preferred method for gene expression analyses, and using validated reference genes for normalization is crucial to ensure the accuracy of this method. However, a systematic validation of reference genes has not been conducted on watermelon. In this study, transcripts of 15 candidate reference genes were quantified in watermelon using qRT-PCR, and the stability of these genes was compared using geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm identified ClTUA and ClACT, ClEF1α and ClACT, and ClCAC and ClTUA as the best pairs of reference genes in watermelon organs and tissues under normal growth conditions, abiotic stress, and biotic stress, respectively. NormFinder identified ClYLS8, ClUBCP, and ClCAC as the best single reference genes under the above experimental conditions, respectively. ClYLS8 and ClPP2A were identified as the best reference genes across all samples. Two to nine reference genes were required for more reliable normalization depending on the experimental conditions. The widely used watermelon reference gene 18SrRNA was less stable than the other reference genes under the experimental conditions. Catalase family genes were identified in watermelon genome, and used to validate the reliability of the identified reference genes. ClCAT1and ClCAT2 were induced and upregulated in the first 24 h, whereas ClCAT3 was downregulated in the leaves under low temperature stress. However, the expression levels of these genes were significantly overestimated and misinterpreted when 18SrRNA was used as a reference gene. These results provide a good starting point for reference gene selection in qRT-PCR analyses involving watermelon.

  12. Endogenous hepatic glucocorticoid receptor signaling coordinates sex-biased inflammatory gene expression.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Matthew A; Cidlowski, John A

    2016-02-01

    An individual's sex affects gene expression and many inflammatory diseases present in a sex-biased manner. Glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) are regulators of inflammatory genes, but their role in sex-specific responses is unclear. Our goal was to evaluate whether GR differentially regulates inflammatory gene expression in male and female mouse liver. Twenty-five percent of the 251 genes assayed by nanostring analysis were influenced by sex. Of these baseline sexually dimorphic inflammatory genes, 82% was expressed higher in female liver. Pathway analyses defined pattern-recognition receptors as the most sexually dimorphic pathway. We next exposed male and female mice to the proinflammatory stimulus LPS. Female mice had 177 genes regulated by treatment with LPS, whereas males had 149, with only 66% of LPS-regulated genes common between the sexes. To determine the contribution of GR to sexually dimorphic inflammatory genes we performed nanostring analysis on liver-specific GR knockout (LGRKO) mice in the presence or absence of LPS. Comparing LGRKO to GR(flox/flox) revealed that 36 genes required GR for sexually dimorphic expression, whereas 24 genes became sexually dimorphic in LGRKO. Fifteen percent of LPS-regulated genes in GR(flox/flox) were not regulated in male and female LGRKO mice treated with LPS. Thus, GR action is influenced by sex to regulate inflammatory gene expression.

  13. Automatic extraction of reference gene from literature in plants based on texting mining.

    PubMed

    He, Lin; Shen, Gengyu; Li, Fei; Huang, Shuiqing

    2015-01-01

    Real-Time Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used in biological research. It is a key to the availability of qRT-PCR experiment to select a stable reference gene. However, selecting an appropriate reference gene usually requires strict biological experiment for verification with high cost in the process of selection. Scientific literatures have accumulated a lot of achievements on the selection of reference gene. Therefore, mining reference genes under specific experiment environments from literatures can provide quite reliable reference genes for similar qRT-PCR experiments with the advantages of reliability, economic and efficiency. An auxiliary reference gene discovery method from literature is proposed in this paper which integrated machine learning, natural language processing and text mining approaches. The validity tests showed that this new method has a better precision and recall on the extraction of reference genes and their environments.

  14. Validation of reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in Volvox carteri using real-time RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Kianianmomeni, Arash; Hallmann, Armin

    2013-12-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique for analysis of gene expression under a wide diversity of biological conditions. However, the identification of suitable reference genes is a critical factor for analysis of gene expression data. To determine potential reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data in the green alga Volvox carteri, the transcript levels of ten candidate reference genes were measured by qRT-PCR in three experimental sample pools containing different developmental stages, cell types and stress treatments. The expression stability of the candidate reference genes was then calculated using the algorithms geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The genes for 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1α2 (eef1) turned out to have the most stable expression levels among the samples both from different developmental stages and different stress treatments. The genes for the ribosomal protein L23 (rpl23) and the TATA-box binding protein (tbpA) showed equivalent transcript levels in the comparison of different cell types, and therefore, can be used as reference genes for cell-type specific gene expression analysis. Our results indicate that more than one reference gene is required for accurate normalization of qRT-PCRs in V. carteri. The reference genes in our study show a much better performance than the housekeeping genes used as a reference in previous studies.

  15. Candidate qRT-PCR reference genes for barley that demonstrate better stability than traditional housekeeping genes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene transcript expression analysis is a useful tool for correlating gene activity with plant phenotype. For these studies, an appropriate reference gene is necessary to quantify the expression of target genes. Classic housekeeping genes have often been used for this purpose, but may not be consis...

  16. Validation of Suitable Reference Genes for Assessing Gene Expression of MicroRNAs in Lonicera japonica

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaolong; Liu, Juan; Wang, Xumin; Liu, Shuang; Wang, Guoliang; Zhou, Junhui; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Tiying; Jiang, Chao; Zha, Liangping; Huang, Luqi

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs), which play crucial regulatory roles in plant secondary metabolism and responses to the environment, could be developed as promising biomarkers for different varieties and production areas of herbal medicines. However, limited information is available for miRNAs from Lonicera japonica, which is widely used in East Asian countries owing to various pharmaceutically active secondary metabolites. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target miRNA expression through quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of secondary metabolic regulation in different tissues and varieties of L. japonica. For precise normalization of gene expression data in L. japonica, 16 candidate miRNAs were examined in three tissues, as well as 21 cultivated varieties collected from 16 production areas, using GeNorm, NormFinder, and RefFinder algorithms. Our results revealed combination of u534122 and u3868172 as the best reference genes across all samples. Their specificity was confirmed by detecting the cycling threshold (Ct) value ranges in different varieties of L. japonica collected from diverse production areas, suggesting the use of these two reference miRNAs is sufficient for accurate transcript normalization with different tissues, varieties, and production areas. To our knowledge, this is the first report on validation of reference miRNAs in honeysuckle (Lonicera spp.). Restuls from this study can further facilitate discovery of functional regulatory miRNAs in different varieties of L. japonica. PMID:27507983

  17. Identification of suitable reference genes for investigating gene expression in human gallbladder carcinoma using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shan; Yang, Qiwei; Yang, Jing Hui; Du, Zhenwu; Zhang, Guizhen

    2015-04-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) has become a frequently used strategy in gene expression studies. The relative quantification method is an important and commonly used method for the evaluation of RT‑qPCR data. The key aim of this method is to identify an applicable internal reference gene, however, there are currently no suitable reference genes for gene analysis in gallbladder carcinoma. In the present study, screening was performed using 12 common reference genes, which were selected in order to provide an experimental basis for the investigation of gene expression in gallbladder carcinoma. A total of 16 tissue samples of gallbladder carcinoma and their matched normal gallbladder tissues were used. The gene expression stability and applicability of the 12 reference gene candidates were determined using the geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software programs. Following comparison of the results of the three software programs, HPRT1 was identified as the most stably expressed reference gene. In the normal gallbladder group, the relative stably expressed reference gene was PPIA and in the entire sample group, the relatively stably expressed reference gene was PPIA. The present study also demonstrated that the combination of the three reference genes was the most appropriate. The recommended combinations were PPIA + PUM1 + ACTB for the total sample group, GAPDH + PBGD + ALAS1 for the gallbladder carcinoma group and PPIA + PUM1 + TBP for the paired normal gallbladder group.

  18. Robust heat-inducible gene expression by two endogenous hsp70-derived promoters in transgenic Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Carpenetti, Tiffany L. G.; Aryan, Azadeh; Myles, Kevin M.; Adelman, Zach N.

    2011-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is an important vector of the viruses that cause dengue fever, dengue hemorrhagic fever, and yellow fever. Reverse genetic approaches to the study of gene function in this mosquito have been limited by the lack of a robust inducible promoter to allow precise temporal control over a protein-encoding or hairpin RNA transgene. Likewise, investigations into the molecular and biochemical basis of vector competence would benefit from the ability to activate an anti-pathogen molecule at specific times during infection. We have characterized the ability of genomic sequences derived from two Ae. aegypti hsp70 genes to drive heat-inducible expression of a reporter in both transient and germline transformation contexts. AaHsp70-luciferase transcripts accumulated specifically after heat shock, and displayed a pattern of rapid induction and decay similar to endogenous AaHsp70 genes. Luciferase expression in transgenic Ae. aegypti increased by ∼25-50 fold in whole adults by four hours after heat-shock, with significant activity (∼20 fold) remaining at 24 hr. Heat-induced expression was even more dramatic in midgut tissues, with one strain showing a ∼2500-fold increase in luciferase activity. The AaHsp70 promoters described could be valuable for gene function studies as well as for the precise timing of the expression of anti-pathogen molecules. PMID:22142225

  19. Evaluation of potential reference genes for use in gene expression studies in the conifer pathogen (Heterobasidion annosum).

    PubMed

    Raffaello, Tommaso; Asiegbu, Fred O

    2013-07-01

    The basidiomycete Heterobasidion annosum is the causative agent of butt and root rot disease of conifer trees and it's one of the most destructive conifer pathogen in the northern hemisphere. Because of the intrinsic difficulties in genome manipulation in this fungus, most studies have been focused on gene expression analysis using quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). qPCR is a powerful technique but its reliability resides in the correct selection of a set of reference genes used in the data normalization. In this study, we determined the expression stability of 11 selected reference genes in H. annosum. Almost nothing has so far been published about validation of a set of reference genes to be used in gene expression experiments in this fungus. Eleven reference genes were validated in H. annosum which was grown on three different substrates: pine bark, pine heartwood, and pine sapwood. Bestkeeper and NormFinder Excel-based software were used to evaluate the reference gene transcripts' stability. The results from these two programs indicated that three reference genes namely Tryp metab, RNA Pol3 TF, and Actin were stable in H. annosum in the conditions studied. Interestingly, the GAPDH transcript which has been extensively used in qPCR data normalization is not the best choice when a wide reference gene selection is available. This work represents the first extensive validation of reference genes in H. annosum providing support for gene expression studies and benefits for the wider forest pathology community.

  20. Chromatin endogenous cleavage and psoralen crosslinking assays to analyze rRNA gene chromatin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Griesenbeck, Joachim; Wittner, Manuel; Charton, Romain; Conconi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    In eukaryotes, multiple copies of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes co-exist in two different chromatin states: actively transcribed (nucleosome depleted) chromatin, and nontranscribed (nucleosomal) chromatin. The presence of two rRNA gene populations compromises the interpretation of analyses obtained by the standard biochemical methods that are used to study chromatin structure (e.g., nuclease digestion and chromatin immunoprecipitation). Here, we provide a protocol to investigate the specific association of proteins with the two rRNA gene chromatin populations in vivo, using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model eukaryote.

  1. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Studies of Gene Expression in Dioscorea opposita

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xiting; Zhang, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaobo; Li, Shujie; Han, Linlin; Song, Zhihui; Wang, Yunying; Li, Junhua; Li, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is one of the most common methods for gene expression studies. Data normalization based on reference genes is essential for obtaining reliable results for qRT-PCR assays. This study evaluated potential reference genes of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.), which is an important tuber crop and medicinal plant in East Asia. The expression of ten candidate reference genes across 20 samples from different organs and development stages was assessed. We identified the most stable genes for qRT-PCR studies using combined samples from different organs. Our results also suggest that different suitable reference genes or combinations of reference genes for normalization should be applied according to different organs and developmental stages. To validate the suitability of the reference genes, we evaluated the relative expression of PE2.1 and PE53, which are two genes that may be associated with microtuber formation. Our results provide the foundation for reference gene(s) selection in D. opposita and will contribute toward more accurate gene analysis studies of the genus Dioscorea. PMID:27314014

  2. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Studies of Gene Expression in Dioscorea opposita.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiting; Zhang, Xiaoli; Guo, Xiaobo; Li, Shujie; Han, Linlin; Song, Zhihui; Wang, Yunying; Li, Junhua; Li, Mingjun

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is one of the most common methods for gene expression studies. Data normalization based on reference genes is essential for obtaining reliable results for qRT-PCR assays. This study evaluated potential reference genes of Chinese yam (Dioscorea opposita Thunb.), which is an important tuber crop and medicinal plant in East Asia. The expression of ten candidate reference genes across 20 samples from different organs and development stages was assessed. We identified the most stable genes for qRT-PCR studies using combined samples from different organs. Our results also suggest that different suitable reference genes or combinations of reference genes for normalization should be applied according to different organs and developmental stages. To validate the suitability of the reference genes, we evaluated the relative expression of PE2.1 and PE53, which are two genes that may be associated with microtuber formation. Our results provide the foundation for reference gene(s) selection in D. opposita and will contribute toward more accurate gene analysis studies of the genus Dioscorea.

  3. Improved Techniques for Endogenous Epitope Tagging and Gene Deletion in Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Upadhya, Rajendra; Kim, Kami; Hogue-Angeletti, Ruth; Weiss, Louis M

    2011-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an excellent model organism for studies on the biology of the Apicomplexa due to its ease of in vitro cultivation and genetic manipulation. Large-scale reverse genetic studies in T. gondii have, however, been difficult due to the low frequency of homologous recombination. Efforts to ensure homologous recombination have necessitated engineering long flanking regions in the targeting construct. This requirement makes it difficult to engineer chromosomally targeted epitope tags or gene knock out constructs only by restriction enzyme mediated cloning steps. To address this issue we employed multisite Gateway® recombination techniques to generate chromosomal gene manipulation targeting constructs. Incorporation of 1.5 to 2.0 kb flanking homologous sequences in PCR generated targeting constructs resulted in 90% homologous recombination events in wild type T. gondii (RH strain) as determined by epitope tagging and target gene deletion experiments. Furthermore, we report that split marker constructs were equally efficient for targeted gene disruptions using the T. gondii UPRT gene locus as a test case. The methods described in this paper represent an improved strategy for efficient epitope tagging and gene disruptions in T. gondii. PMID:21352857

  4. Genome-wide selection of superior reference genes for expression studies in Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhichao; Xu, Jiang; Ji, Aijia; Zhu, Yingjie; Zhang, Xin; Hu, Yuanlei; Song, Jingyuan; Chen, Shilin

    2015-12-15

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used for the accurate analysis of gene expression. However, high homology among gene families might result in unsuitability of reference genes, which leads to the inaccuracy of qRT-PCR analysis. The release of the Ganoderma lucidum genome has triggered numerous studies to be done on the homology among gene families with the purpose of selecting reliable reference genes. Based on the G. lucdum genome and transcriptome database, 38 candidate reference genes including 28 novel genes were systematically selected and evaluated for qRT-PCR normalization. The result indicated that commonly used polyubiquitin (PUB), beta-actin (BAT), and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were unsuitable reference genes because of the high sequence similarity and low primer specificity. According to the evaluation of RefFinder, cyclophilin 5 (CYP5) was ranked as the most stable reference gene for 27 tested samples under all experimental conditions and eighteen mycelial samples. Based on sequence analysis and expression analysis, our study suggested that gene characteristic, primer specificity of high homologous genes, allele-specificity expression of candidate genes and under-evaluation of reference genes influenced the accuracy and sensitivity of qRT-PCR analysis. This investigation not only revealed potential factors influencing the unsuitability of reference genes but also selected the superior reference genes from more candidate genes and testing samples than those used in the previous study. Furthermore, our study established a model for reference gene analysis by using the genomic sequence.

  5. Evaluation and Validation of Reference Genes for Normalization of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Based Gene Expression Studies in Peanut

    PubMed Central

    Cindhuri, Katamreddy Sri; Sharma, Kiran K.

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based techniques have become essential for gene expression studies and high-throughput molecular characterization of transgenic events. Normalizing to reference gene in relative quantification make results from qPCR more reliable when compared to absolute quantification, but requires robust reference genes. Since, ideal reference gene should be species specific, no single internal control gene is universal for use as a reference gene across various plant developmental stages and diverse growth conditions. Here, we present validation studies of multiple stably expressed reference genes in cultivated peanut with minimal variations in temporal and spatial expression when subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Stability in the expression of eight candidate reference genes including ADH3, ACT11, ATPsyn, CYP2, ELF1B, G6PD, LEC and UBC1 was compared in diverse peanut plant samples. The samples were categorized into distinct experimental sets to check the suitability of candidate genes for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression using qPCR. Stability in expression of the references genes in eight sets of samples was determined by geNorm and NormFinder methods. While three candidate reference genes including ADH3, G6PD and ELF1B were identified to be stably expressed across experiments, LEC was observed to be the least stable, and hence must be avoided for gene expression studies in peanut. Inclusion of the former two genes gave sufficiently reliable results; nonetheless, the addition of the third reference gene ELF1B may be potentially better in a diverse set of tissue samples of peanut. PMID:24167633

  6. Evaluation and validation of reference genes for normalization of quantitative real-time PCR based gene expression studies in peanut.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Dumbala Srinivas; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Cindhuri, Katamreddy Sri; Sharma, Kiran K

    2013-01-01

    The quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) based techniques have become essential for gene expression studies and high-throughput molecular characterization of transgenic events. Normalizing to reference gene in relative quantification make results from qPCR more reliable when compared to absolute quantification, but requires robust reference genes. Since, ideal reference gene should be species specific, no single internal control gene is universal for use as a reference gene across various plant developmental stages and diverse growth conditions. Here, we present validation studies of multiple stably expressed reference genes in cultivated peanut with minimal variations in temporal and spatial expression when subjected to various biotic and abiotic stresses. Stability in the expression of eight candidate reference genes including ADH3, ACT11, ATPsyn, CYP2, ELF1B, G6PD, LEC and UBC1 was compared in diverse peanut plant samples. The samples were categorized into distinct experimental sets to check the suitability of candidate genes for accurate and reliable normalization of gene expression using qPCR. Stability in expression of the references genes in eight sets of samples was determined by geNorm and NormFinder methods. While three candidate reference genes including ADH3, G6PD and ELF1B were identified to be stably expressed across experiments, LEC was observed to be the least stable, and hence must be avoided for gene expression studies in peanut. Inclusion of the former two genes gave sufficiently reliable results; nonetheless, the addition of the third reference gene ELF1B may be potentially better in a diverse set of tissue samples of peanut.

  7. Transgenic mice expressing an artificial zinc finger regulator targeting an endogenous gene.

    PubMed

    Passananti, Claudio; Corbi, Nicoletta; Onori, Annalisa; Di Certo, Maria Grazia; Mattei, Elisabetta

    2010-01-01

    Zinc finger (ZF) proteins belonging to the Cys2-His2 class provide a simple and versatile framework to design novel artificial transcription factors (ATFs) targeted to the desired genes. Our work is based on ZF ATFs engineered to up-regulate the expression level of the dystrophin-related gene utrophin in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). In particular, on the basis of the "recognition code" that defines specific rules between zinc finger primary structure and potential DNA-binding sites we engineered and selected a new family of artificial transcription factors, whose DNA-binding domain consists in a three zinc finger peptide called "Jazz." Jazz protein binds specifically the 9 bp DNA sequence (5(')-GCT-GCT-GCG-3(')) present in the promoter region of both the human and mouse utrophin gene. We generated a transgenic mouse expressing Jazz protein fused to the strong transcriptional activation domain VP16 and under the control of the muscle specific promoter of the myosin light chain gene. Vp16-Jazz mice display a strong up-regulation of the utrophin at both mRNA and protein levels. To our knowledge, this represents the first example of a transgenic mouse expressing an artificial gene coding for a zinc finger-based transcription factor.

  8. Genome analysis of poplar LRR-RLP gene clusters reveals RISP, a defense-related gene coding a candidate endogenous peptide elicitor

    PubMed Central

    Petre, Benjamin; Hacquard, Stéphane; Duplessis, Sébastien; Rouhier, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    In plants, cell-surface receptors control immunity and development through the recognition of extracellular ligands. Leucine-rich repeat receptor-like proteins (LRR-RLPs) constitute a large multigene family of cell-surface receptors. Although this family has been intensively studied, a limited number of ligands has been identified so far, mostly because methods used for their identification and characterization are complex and fastidious. In this study, we combined genome and transcriptome analyses to describe the LRR-RLP gene family in the model tree poplar (Populus trichocarpa). In total, 82 LRR-RLP genes have been identified in P. trichocarpa genome, among which 66 are organized in clusters of up to seven members. In these clusters, LRR-RLP genes are interspersed by orphan, poplar-specific genes encoding small proteins of unknown function (SPUFs). In particular, the nine largest clusters of LRR-RLP genes (47 LRR-RLPs) include 71 SPUF genes that account for 59% of the non-LRR-RLP gene content within these clusters. Forty-four LRR-RLP and 55 SPUF genes are expressed in poplar leaves, mostly at low levels, except for members of some clusters that show higher and sometimes coordinated expression levels. Notably, wounding of poplar leaves strongly induced the expression of a defense SPUF gene named Rust-Induced Secreted protein (RISP) that has been previously reported as a marker of poplar defense responses. Interestingly, we show that the RISP-associated LRR-RLP gene is highly expressed in poplar leaves and slightly induced by wounding. Both gene promoters share a highly conserved region of ~300 nucleotides. This led us to hypothesize that the corresponding pair of proteins could be involved in poplar immunity, possibly as a ligand/receptor couple. In conclusion, we speculate that some poplar SPUFs, such as RISP, represent candidate endogenous peptide ligands of the associated LRR-RLPs and we discuss how to investigate further this hypothesis. PMID:24734035

  9. Identification and testing of reference genes for Sesame gene expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Wei, Libin; Miao, Hongmei; Zhao, Ruihong; Han, Xiuhua; Zhang, Tide; Zhang, Haiyang

    2013-03-01

    Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) is an ancient and important oilseed crop. However, few sesame reference genes have been selected for quantitative real-time PCR until now. Screening and validating reference genes is a requisite for gene expression normalization in sesame functional genomics research. In this study, ten candidate reference genes, i.e., SiACT, SiUBQ6, SiTUB, Si18S rRNA, SiEF1α, SiCYP, SiHistone, SiDNAJ, SiAPT and SiGAPDH, were chosen and examined systematically in 32 sesame samples. Three qRT-PCR analysis methods, i.e., geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, were evaluated systematically. Results indicated that all ten candidate reference genes could be used as reference genes in sesame. SiUBQ6 and SiAPT were the optimal reference genes for sesame plant development; SiTUB was suitable for sesame vegetative tissue development, SiDNAJ for pathogen treatment, SiHistone for abiotic stress, SiUBQ6 for bud development and SiACT for seed germination. As for hormone treatment and seed development, SiHistone, SiCYP, SiDNAJ or SiUBQ6, as well as SiACT, SiDNAJ, SiTUB or SiAPT, could be used as reference gene, respectively. To illustrate the suitability of these reference genes, we analyzed the expression variation of three functional sesame genes of SiSS, SiLEA and SiGH in different organs using the optimal qRT-PCR system for the first time. The stability levels of optimal and worst reference genes screened for seed development, anther sterility and plant development were validated in the qRT-PCR normalization. Our results provided a reference gene application guideline for sesame gene expression characterization using qRT-PCR system.

  10. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) using qPCR.

    PubMed

    Obrero, Angeles; Die, Jose V; Román, Belén; Gómez, Pedro; Nadal, Salvador; González-Verdejo, Clara I

    2011-05-25

    The zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) is an important food crop, the transcriptomics of which are a fundamental tool to accelerate the development of new varieties by breeders. However, the suitability of reference genes for data normalization in zucchini has not yet been studied. The aim of this study was to assess the suitability of 13 genes for their potential use as reference genes in quantitative real-time PCR. Assays were performed on 34 cDNA samples representing plants under different stresses and at different developmental stages. The application of geNorm and NormFinder software revealed that the use of a combination of UFP, EF-1A, RPL36aA, PP2A, and CAC genes for the different experimental sets was the best strategy for reliable normalization. In contrast, 18S rRNA and TUA were less stable and unsuitable for use as internal controls. These results provide the possibility to allow more accurate use of qPCR in this horticultural crop.

  11. Validation of Reference Housekeeping Genes for Gene Expression Studies in Western Corn Rootworm (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera)

    PubMed Central

    Barros Rodrigues, Thaís; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Matz, Natalie; Cunha Cardoso, Danielle; Valicente, Fernando Hercos; Zhou, Xuguo; Siegfried, Blair

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative Real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a powerful technique to investigate comparative gene expression. In general, normalization of results using a highly stable housekeeping gene (HKG) as an internal control is recommended and necessary. However, there are several reports suggesting that regulation of some HKGs is affected by different conditions. The western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), is a serious pest of corn in the United States and Europe. The expression profile of target genes related to insecticide exposure, resistance, and RNA interference has become an important experimental technique for study of western corn rootworms; however, lack of information on reliable HKGs under different conditions makes the interpretation of qRT-PCR results difficult. In this study, four distinct algorithms (Genorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and delta-CT) and five candidate HKGs to genes of reference (β-actin; GAPDH, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase; β-tubulin; RPS9, ribosomal protein S9; EF1a, elongation factor-1α) were evaluated to determine the most reliable HKG under different experimental conditions including exposure to dsRNA and Bt toxins and among different tissues and developmental stages. Although all the HKGs tested exhibited relatively stable expression among the different treatments, some differences were noted. Among the five candidate reference genes evaluated, β-actin exhibited highly stable expression among different life stages. RPS9 exhibited the most similar pattern of expression among dsRNA treatments, and both experiments indicated that EF1a was the second most stable gene. EF1a was also the most stable for Bt exposure and among different tissues. These results will enable researchers to use more accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in WCR experiments. PMID:25356627

  12. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies related to lung injury in a preterm lamb model

    PubMed Central

    Pereira-Fantini, Prue M.; Rajapaksa, Anushi E.; Oakley, Regina; Tingay, David G.

    2016-01-01

    Preterm newborns often require invasive support, however even brief periods of supported ventilation applied inappropriately to the lung can cause injury. Real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR (qPCR) has been extensively employed in studies of ventilation-induced lung injury with the reference gene 18S ribosomal RNA (18S RNA) most commonly employed as the internal control reference gene. Whilst the results of these studies depend on the stability of the reference gene employed, the use of 18S RNA has not been validated. In this study the expression profile of five candidate reference genes (18S RNA, ACTB, GAPDH, TOP1 and RPS29) in two geographical locations, was evaluated by dedicated algorithms, including geNorm, Normfinder, Bestkeeper and ΔCt method and the overall stability of these candidate genes determined (RefFinder). Secondary studies examined the influence of reference gene choice on the relative expression of two well-validated lung injury markers; EGR1 and IL1B. In the setting of the preterm lamb model of lung injury, RPS29 reference gene expression was influenced by tissue location; however we determined that individual ventilation strategies influence reference gene stability. Whilst 18S RNA is the most commonly employed reference gene in preterm lamb lung studies, our results suggest that GAPDH is a more suitable candidate. PMID:27210246

  13. A system for assaying homologous recombination at the endogenous human thymidine kinase gene

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, M.B.; Little, J.B. ); Potter, H. ); Yandell, D.W. Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA )

    1991-08-01

    A system for assaying human interchromosomal recombination in vitro was developed, using a cell line containing two different mutant thymidine kinase genes (TK) on chromosomes 17. Heteroalleles were generated in the TK{sup +/+} parent B-lymphoblast cell line WIL-2 by repeated exposure to the alkylating nitrogen mustard ICR-191, which preferentially causes +1 or {minus}1 frameshifts. Resulting TK{sup {minus}/{minus}} mutants were selected in medium containing the toxic thymidine analog trifluorothymidine. In two lines, heterozygous frameshifts were located in exons 4 and 7 of the TK gene separated by {approx}8 kilobases. These lines undergo spontaneous reversion to TK{sup +} at a frequency of < 10{sup {minus}7}, and revertants can be selected in cytidine/hypoxanthine/aminopterin/thymidine medium. The nature and location of these heteroallelic mutations make large deletions, rearrangements, nondisjunction, and reduplication unlikely mechanisms for reversion to TK{sup +}. The mode of reversion to TK{sup +} was specifically assessed by DNA sequencing, use of single-strand conformation polymorphisms, and analysis of various restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) linked to the TK gene on chromosome 17. The data suggest that a proportion of revertants has undergone recombination and gene conversion at the TK locus, with concomitant loss of frameshifts and allele loss at linked RFLPs. Models are presented for the origin of two recombinants.

  14. Is Soy Estrogenic? Hepatic Gene Expression in the Presence or Absence of Endogenous Estrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to address the question of soy's estrogenicity by studying the hepatic gene expression (HGE) signature of diets made with soy protein isolate (SPI) fed in the presence or absence of estradiol (E2). Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX) at PND50, infused with E...

  15. Selection and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis of gene expression in Cichorium intybus

    PubMed Central

    Delporte, Marianne; Legrand, Guillaume; Hilbert, Jean-Louis; Gagneul, David

    2015-01-01

    Plant polyphenols represent a huge reservoir of bioactive compounds. Industrial chicory, an important crop from northwestern Europe, accumulates an original combination of such compounds, i.e., chlorogenic, isochlorogenic, caftaric, and chicoric acids arising from the phenylpropanoid pathway. For a complete understanding of these biochemical pathways, analyses of gene expression using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) should be considered. Because cell cultures are a model of choice for specialized metabolism investigations, this study described for the first time the validation of reference genes for this system in chicory. Eighteen potential reference genes were obtained by mining expressed sequence tag databases of chicory for orthologs of Arabidopsis thaliana genes currently used as reference genes. Twelve genes passed the qRT-PCR standard requirements and their expression stability across different samples was tested using three distinct softwares: geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. In cell cultures grown under various conditions, TIP41 (TIP41 like protein) was shown to be the most stable gene. Further validation of the proposed reference genes was done by normalization of expression levels of a group of genes of interest. In order to assess the potentiality of the proposed list of candidate reference genes, theses genes were in parallel tested on another experimental design, i.e., chicory seedlings. In this case, the best reference gene identified was Clath (Clathrin adaptator complex subunit). The results highlight the importance of the use of properly validated reference genes to achieve relevant interpretation of qRT-PCR analyses. Here, we provide a list of reference genes suitable for future gene expression studies in chicory. PMID:26347767

  16. Pushing the endogenous envelope

    PubMed Central

    Henzy, Jamie E.; Johnson, Welkin E.

    2013-01-01

    The majority of retroviral envelope glycoproteins characterized to date are typical of type I viral fusion proteins, having a receptor binding subunit associated with a fusion subunit. The fusion subunits of lentiviruses and alpha-, beta-, delta- and gammaretroviruses have a very conserved domain organization and conserved features of secondary structure, making them suitable for phylogenetic analyses. Such analyses, along with sequence comparisons, reveal evidence of numerous recombination events in which retroviruses have acquired envelope glycoproteins from heterologous sequences. Thus, the envelope gene (env) can have a history separate from that of the polymerase gene (pol), which is the most commonly used gene in phylogenetic analyses of retroviruses. Focusing on the fusion subunits of the genera listed above, we describe three distinct types of retroviral envelope glycoproteins, which we refer to as gamma-type, avian gamma-type and beta-type. By tracing these types within the ‘fossil record’ provided by endogenous retroviruses, we show that they have surprisingly distinct evolutionary histories and dynamics, with important implications for cross-species transmissions and the generation of novel lineages. These findings validate the utility of env sequences in contributing phylogenetic signal that enlarges our understanding of retrovirus evolution. PMID:23938755

  17. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    PubMed

    Pessoa, Daniella Duarte Villarinho; Vidal, Marcia Soares; Baldani, José Ivo; Simoes-Araujo, Jean Luiz

    2016-08-01

    The RT-qPCR technique needs a validated set of reference genes for ensuring the consistency of the results from the gene expression. Expression stabilities for 9 genes from Herbaspirillum seropedicae, strain HRC54, grown with different carbon sources were calculated using geNorm and NormFinder, and the gene rpoA showed the best stability values.

  18. Bioinformatics approach for choosing the correct reference genes when studying gene expression in human keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Beer, Lucian; Mlitz, Veronika; Gschwandtner, Maria; Berger, Tanja; Narzt, Marie-Sophie; Gruber, Florian; Brunner, Patrick M; Tschachler, Erwin; Mildner, Michael

    2015-10-01

    Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has become a mainstay in many areas of skin research. To enable quantitative analysis, it is necessary to analyse expression of reference genes (RGs) for normalization of target gene expression. The selection of reliable RGs therefore has an important impact on the experimental outcome. In this study, we aimed to identify and validate the best suited RGs for qRT-PCR in human primary keratinocytes (KCs) over a broad range of experimental conditions using the novel bioinformatics tool 'RefGenes', which is based on a manually curated database of published microarray data. Expression of 6 RGs identified by RefGenes software and 12 commonly used RGs were validated by qRT-PCR. We assessed whether these 18 markers fulfilled the requirements for a valid RG by the comprehensive ranking of four bioinformatics tools and the coefficient of variation (CV). In an overall ranking, we found GUSB to be the most stably expressed RG, whereas the expression values of the commonly used RGs, GAPDH and B2M were significantly affected by varying experimental conditions. Our results identify RefGenes as a powerful tool for the identification of valid RGs and suggest GUSB as the most reliable RG for KCs.

  19. Selection of reference genes for qPCR in hairy root cultures of peanut

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Hairy root cultures produced via Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation have emerged as practical biological models to elucidate the biosynthesis of specialized metabolites. To effectively understand the expression patterns of the genes involved in the metabolic pathways of these compounds, reference genes need to be systematically validated under specific experimental conditions as established by the MIQE (Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments) guidelines. In the present report we describe the first validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR in hairy root cultures of peanut which produce stilbenoids upon elicitor treatments. Results A total of 21 candidate reference genes were evaluated. Nineteen genes were selected based on previous qPCR studies in plants and two were from the T-DNAs transferred from A. rhizogenes. Nucleotide sequences of peanut candidate genes were obtained using their homologous sequences in Arabidopsis. To identify the suitable primers, calibration curves were obtained for each candidate reference gene. After data analysis, 12 candidate genes meeting standard efficiency criteria were selected. The expression stability of these genes was analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms and a ranking was established based on expression stability of the genes. Candidate reference gene expression was shown to have less variation in methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treated root cultures than those treated with sodium acetate (NaOAc). Conclusions This work constitutes the first effort to validate reference genes for RT-qPCR in hairy roots. While these genes were selected under conditions of NaOAc and MeJA treatment, we anticipate these genes to provide good targets for reference genes for hairy roots under a variety of stress conditions. The lead reference genes were a gene encoding for a TATA box binding protein (TBP2) and a gene encoding a ribosomal protein (RPL8C). A commonly used reference gene

  20. Reference gene selection for gene expression analysis of oocytes collected from dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer.

    PubMed

    Macabelli, Carolina Habermann; Ferreira, Roberta Machado; Gimenes, Lindsay Unno; de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Júlia Gleyci; Ayres, Henderson; Ferraz, Márcio Leão; Watanabe, Yeda Fumie; Watanabe, Osnir Yoshime; Sangalli, Juliano Rodrigues; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Oocytes from dairy cattle and buffaloes have severely compromised developmental competence during summer. While analysis of gene expression is a powerful technique for understanding the factors affecting developmental hindrance in oocytes, analysis by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) relies on the correct normalization by reference genes showing stable expression. Furthermore, several studies have found that genes commonly used as reference standards do not behave as expected depending on cell type and experimental design. Hence, it is recommended to evaluate expression stability of candidate reference genes for a specific experimental condition before employing them as internal controls. In acknowledgment of the importance of seasonal effects on oocyte gene expression, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of expression levels of ten well-known reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, GUSB, HIST1H2AG, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL15, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) using oocytes collected from different categories of dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer. A normalization factor was provided for cattle (RPL15, PPIA and GUSB) and buffaloes (YWHAZ, GUSB and GAPDH) based on the expression of the three most stable reference genes in each species. Normalization of non-reference target genes by these reference genes was shown to be considerably different from normalization by less stable reference genes, further highlighting the need for careful selection of internal controls. Therefore, due to the high variability of reference genes among experimental groups, we conclude that data normalized by internal controls can be misleading and should be compared to not normalized data or to data normalized by an external control in order to better interpret the biological relevance of gene expression analysis.

  1. Reference Gene Selection for Gene Expression Analysis of Oocytes Collected from Dairy Cattle and Buffaloes during Winter and Summer

    PubMed Central

    Gimenes, Lindsay Unno; de Carvalho, Nelcio Antonio Tonizza; Soares, Júlia Gleyci; Ayres, Henderson; Ferraz, Márcio Leão; Watanabe, Yeda Fumie; Watanabe, Osnir Yoshime; Sangalli, Juliano Rodrigues; Smith, Lawrence Charles; Baruselli, Pietro Sampaio; Meirelles, Flávio Vieira; Chiaratti, Marcos Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Oocytes from dairy cattle and buffaloes have severely compromised developmental competence during summer. While analysis of gene expression is a powerful technique for understanding the factors affecting developmental hindrance in oocytes, analysis by real-time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) relies on the correct normalization by reference genes showing stable expression. Furthermore, several studies have found that genes commonly used as reference standards do not behave as expected depending on cell type and experimental design. Hence, it is recommended to evaluate expression stability of candidate reference genes for a specific experimental condition before employing them as internal controls. In acknowledgment of the importance of seasonal effects on oocyte gene expression, the aim of this study was to evaluate the stability of expression levels of ten well-known reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, GUSB, HIST1H2AG, HPRT1, PPIA, RPL15, SDHA, TBP and YWHAZ) using oocytes collected from different categories of dairy cattle and buffaloes during winter and summer. A normalization factor was provided for cattle (RPL15, PPIA and GUSB) and buffaloes (YWHAZ, GUSB and GAPDH) based on the expression of the three most stable reference genes in each species. Normalization of non-reference target genes by these reference genes was shown to be considerably different from normalization by less stable reference genes, further highlighting the need for careful selection of internal controls. Therefore, due to the high variability of reference genes among experimental groups, we conclude that data normalized by internal controls can be misleading and should be compared to not normalized data or to data normalized by an external control in order to better interpret the biological relevance of gene expression analysis. PMID:24676354

  2. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn under Abiotic Stresses, Hormone Treatments and Different Tissues.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yucheng; Luo, Jun; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Tingting; Han, Chao; Chen, Yijun; Kong, Lingyi

    2016-01-01

    Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn is one of the main traditional Chinese medicines producing coumarins and plenty of literatures are focused on the biosynthesis of coumarins. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a widely used method in studying the biosynthesis pathway and the selection of reference genes plays a crucial role in accurate normalization. To facilitate biosynthesis study of coumarins, twelve candidate reference genes were selected from the transcriptome database of P. praeruptorum according to previous studies. Then, BestKeeper, geNoFrm and NormFinder were used for selecting stably expressed reference genes in different tissues and under various stress treatments. The results indicated that, among the twelve candidate reference genes, the SAND family protein (SAND), actin 2 (ACT2), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9), protein phosphatase 2A gene (PP2A) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTBP1) were the most stable reference genes under different experimental treatments, while glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and tubulin beta-6 (TUB6) were the least stable genes. In addition, the suitability of SAND, TIP41-like protein (TIP41), UBC9, ACT2, TUB6 and their combination as reference genes were confirmed by normalizing the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) in different treatments. This work is the first survey of the stability of reference genes in P. praeruptorum and provides guidelines to obtain more accurate qRT-PCR results in P. praeruptorum and other plant species.

  3. Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn under Abiotic Stresses, Hormone Treatments and Different Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yucheng; Luo, Jun; Xu, Sheng; Wang, Wei; Liu, Tingting; Han, Chao; Chen, Yijun; Kong, Lingyi

    2016-01-01

    Peucedanum praeruptorum Dunn is one of the main traditional Chinese medicines producing coumarins and plenty of literatures are focused on the biosynthesis of coumarins. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a widely used method in studying the biosynthesis pathway and the selection of reference genes plays a crucial role in accurate normalization. To facilitate biosynthesis study of coumarins, twelve candidate reference genes were selected from the transcriptome database of P. praeruptorum according to previous studies. Then, BestKeeper, geNoFrm and NormFinder were used for selecting stably expressed reference genes in different tissues and under various stress treatments. The results indicated that, among the twelve candidate reference genes, the SAND family protein (SAND), actin 2 (ACT2), ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9), protein phosphatase 2A gene (PP2A) and polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTBP1) were the most stable reference genes under different experimental treatments, while glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and tubulin beta-6 (TUB6) were the least stable genes. In addition, the suitability of SAND, TIP41-like protein (TIP41), UBC9, ACT2, TUB6 and their combination as reference genes were confirmed by normalizing the expression of 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase (ACO) in different treatments. This work is the first survey of the stability of reference genes in P. praeruptorum and provides guidelines to obtain more accurate qRT-PCR results in P. praeruptorum and other plant species. PMID:27022972

  4. Endogenous microRNAs in human microvascular endothelial cells regulate mRNAs encoded by hypertension-related genes.

    PubMed

    Kriegel, Alison J; Baker, Maria Angeles; Liu, Yong; Liu, Pengyuan; Cowley, Allen W; Liang, Mingyu

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this study was to systematically identify endogenous microRNAs (miRNAs) in endothelial cells that regulate mRNAs encoded by genes relevant to hypertension. Small RNA deep sequencing was performed in cultured human microvascular endothelial cells. Of the 50 most abundant miRNAs identified, 30 had predicted target mRNAs encoded by genes with known involvement in hypertension or blood pressure regulation. The cells were transfected with anti-miR oligonucleotides to inhibit each of the 30 miRNAs and the mRNA abundance of predicted targets was examined. Of 95 miRNA-target pairs examined, the target mRNAs were significantly upregulated in 35 pairs and paradoxically downregulated in 8 pairs. The result indicated significant suppression of the abundance of mRNA encoded by ADM by endogenous miR-181a-5p, ATP2B1 by the miR-27 family, FURIN by miR-125a-5p, FGF5 by the let-7 family, GOSR2 by miR-27a-3p, JAG1 by miR-21-5p, SH2B3 by miR-30a-5p, miR-98, miR-181a-5p, and the miR-125 family, TBX3 by the miR-92 family, ADRA1B by miR-22-3p, ADRA2A by miR-30a-5p and miR-30e-5p, ADRA2B by miR-30e-5p, ADRB1 by the let-7 family and miR-98, EDNRB by the miR-92 family, and NOX4 by the miR-92 family, miR-100-5p, and miR-99b-5p (n=3-9; P<0.05 versus scrambled anti-miR). Treatment with anti-miR-21 decreased blood pressure in mice fed a 4% NaCl diet. Inhibition of the miRNAs targeting NOX4 mRNA increased H2O2 release from endothelial cells. The findings indicate widespread, tonic control of mRNAs encoded by genes relevant to blood pressure regulation by endothelial miRNAs and provide a novel and uniquely informative basis for studying the role of miRNAs in hypertension.

  5. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Songbirds

    PubMed Central

    Zinzow-Kramer, Wendy M.; Horton, Brent M.; Maney, Donna L.

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is becoming a popular tool for the quantification of gene expression in the brain and endocrine tissues of songbirds. Accurate analysis of qPCR data relies on the selection of appropriate reference genes for normalization, yet few papers on songbirds contain evidence of reference gene validation. Here, we evaluated the expression of ten potential reference genes (18S, ACTB, GAPDH, HMBS, HPRT, PPIA, RPL4, RPL32, TFRC, and UBC) in brain, pituitary, ovary, and testis in two species of songbird: zebra finch and white-throated sparrow. We used two algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder, to assess the stability of these reference genes in our samples. We found that the suitability of some of the most popular reference genes for target gene normalization in mammals, such as 18S, depended highly on tissue type. Thus, they are not the best choices for brain and gonad in these songbirds. In contrast, we identified alternative genes, such as HPRT, RPL4 and PPIA, that were highly stable in brain, pituitary, and gonad in these species. Our results suggest that the validation of reference genes in mammals does not necessarily extrapolate to other taxonomic groups. For researchers wishing to identify and evaluate suitable reference genes for qPCR songbirds, our results should serve as a starting point and should help increase the power and utility of songbird models in behavioral neuroendocrinology. PMID:24780145

  6. Concentration-dependent effects of endogenous S-nitrosoglutathione on gene regulation by specificity proteins Sp3 and Sp1.

    PubMed Central

    Zaman, Khalequz; Palmer, Lisa A; Doctor, Allan; Hunt, John F; Gaston, Benjamin

    2004-01-01

    The activities of certain nuclear regulatory proteins are modified by high concentrations of S-nitrosothiols associated with nitrosative stress. In the present study, we have studied the effect of physiological (low microM) concentrations of the endogenous S-nitrosothiol, GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione), on the activities of nuclear regulatory proteins Sp3 and Sp1 (specificity proteins 3 and 1). Low concentrations of GSNO increased Sp3 binding, as well as Sp3-dependent transcription of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatory gene, cftr. However, higher GSNO levels prevented Sp3 binding, augmented Sp1 binding and prevented both cftr transcription and CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) expression. We conclude that low concentrations of GSNO favour Sp3 binding to 'housekeeping' genes such as cftr, whereas nitrosative stress-associated GSNO concentrations shut off Sp3-dependent transcription, possibly to redirect cellular resources. Since low micromolar concentrations of GSNO also increase the maturation and activity of a clinically common CFTR mutant, whereas higher concentrations have the opposite effect, these observations may have implications for dosing of S-nitrosylating agents used in cystic fibrosis clinical trials. PMID:14766015

  7. A Minimal Model of Ribosome Allocation Dynamics Captures Trade-offs in Expression between Endogenous and Synthetic Genes.

    PubMed

    Gorochowski, Thomas E; Avcilar-Kucukgoze, Irem; Bovenberg, Roel A L; Roubos, Johannes A; Ignatova, Zoya

    2016-07-15

    Cells contain a finite set of resources that must be distributed across many processes to ensure survival. Among them, the largest proportion of cellular resources is dedicated to protein translation. Synthetic biology often exploits these resources in executing orthogonal genetic circuits, yet the burden this places on the cell is rarely considered. Here, we develop a minimal model of ribosome allocation dynamics capturing the demands on translation when expressing a synthetic construct together with endogenous genes required for the maintenance of cell physiology. Critically, it contains three key variables related to design parameters of the synthetic construct covering transcript abundance, translation initiation rate, and elongation time. We show that model-predicted changes in ribosome allocation closely match experimental shifts in synthetic protein expression rate and cellular growth. Intriguingly, the model is also able to accurately infer transcript levels and translation times after further exposure to additional ambient stress. Our results demonstrate that a simple model of resource allocation faithfully captures the redistribution of protein synthesis resources when faced with the burden of synthetic gene expression and environmental stress. The tractable nature of the model makes it a versatile tool for exploring the guiding principles of efficient heterologous expression and the indirect interactions that can arise between synthetic circuits and their host chassis because of competition for shared translational resources.

  8. Safety assessment considerations for food and feed derived from plants with genetic modifications that modulate endogenous gene expression and pathways.

    PubMed

    Kier, Larry D; Petrick, Jay S

    2008-08-01

    The current globally recognized comparative food and feed safety assessment paradigm for biotechnology-derived crops is a robust and comprehensive approach for evaluating the safety of both the inserted gene product and the resulting crop. Incorporating many basic concepts from food safety, toxicology, nutrition, molecular biology, and plant breeding, this approach has been used effectively by scientists and regulatory agencies for 10-15 years. Current and future challenges in agriculture include the need for improved yields, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and improved nutrition. The next generation of biotechnology-derived crops may utilize regulatory proteins, such as transcription factors that modulate gene expression and/or endogenous plant pathways. In this review, we discuss the applicability of the current safety assessment paradigm to biotechnology-derived crops developed using modifications involving regulatory proteins. The growing literature describing the molecular biology underlying plant domestication and conventional breeding demonstrates the naturally occurring genetic variation found in plants, including significant variation in the classes, expression, and activity of regulatory proteins. Specific examples of plant modifications involving insertion or altered expression of regulatory proteins are discussed as illustrative case studies supporting the conclusion that the current comparative safety assessment process is appropriate for these types of biotechnology-developed crops.

  9. Evaluation of Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528 reference genes in gene expression studies by qRT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juanjuan; Tan, Yang; Yang, Xiaohong; Chen, Xiaohua; Li, Fuli

    2013-10-01

    Clostridium ljungdahlii DSM 13528 is a promising platform organism for biofuel production from syngas. Gene expression analysis permits a better understanding of the important molecular biological characteristics of this organism, such as carbon fixation and solvent adaptation. Normalization is a prerequisite for accurate gene expression analysis, but until now, no valid reference genes have been proposed for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis of C. ljungdahlii DSM 13528. In this study, seven candidate reference genes (gyrA, rho, fotl, rpoA, gukl, recA, 16S rRNA) were selected for qRT-PCR quantification of their expression levels in various culture conditions that corresponded to different carbon sources and stresses. Two analytical programs, geNorm and NormFinder, were used to evaluate reference gene stability. The results showed that gyrA, rho and fotl exhibited the most stable expression levels across all tested samples and can be confidently used as reference genes to normalize the transcriptional data of target genes in qRT-PCR analyses of C. ljungdahlii DSM 13528. This study presents the first attempt to explore the validity of candidate reference genes and provide a set of valid reference genes for normalizing C. ljungdahlii DSM 13528 target gene expression and transcriptome analysis.

  10. Influence of overexpression of efflux proteins on the function and gene expression of endogenous peptide transporters in MDR-transfected MDCKII cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiying; Pal, Dhananjay; Patel, Ashaben; Kwatra, Deep; Mitra, Ashim K.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study is to delineate whether overexpression of human efflux transporters (P-gp, MRP2, and BCRP) in transfected MDCK cells affect the functional activities, and gene and protein expression of endogenous influx peptide transporter system (PepT). Real-time PCR, immunoblotting, uptake and permeability studies of [3H]Gly-Sar were conducted on transfected MDCKII and wild-type cells to investigate functional differences. Cellular [3H]Gly-Sar accumulation was significantly lower in transfected MDCKII cell lines compared to wild-type cells. Transport efficiency of apical peptide transporters was markedly reduced to around 25%, 30%, and 40% in P-gp-, MRP2-, and BCRP-overexpressed MDCK cell lines, respectively. With ascending cell-passage, transport efficiency was enhanced. A significantly higher Gly-Sar permeability was observed across parental cell-monolayers over transfected cells at all pHs. Levels of mRNA for both canine PepT1 and PepT2 were substantially reduced when efflux transporters overexpressed but enhanced when mRNA-levels of efflux genes diminished with ascending cell-passage of transfected cells. An inverse correlation was evident between endogenous PepT and exogenous efflux transporters in transfected MDCKII cells. Results of protein expression also supported these findings. Overexpression of MDR genes can affect endogenous PepT function which might be due to the phenomenon of transporter-compensation resulting in down-regulation of endogenous genes. PMID:23262422

  11. Microscale technologies for imaging endogenous gene expression in individual cells within 3D tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Ting; Luo, Zhen; Ma, Yunzhe; Gill, Harvinder Singh; Nitin, N.

    2013-05-01

    The goal of this study was to develop an innovative approach to image gene expression in intact 3D tissues. Imaging gene expression of individual cells in 3D tissues is expected to have a significant impact on both clinical diagnostic applications and fundamental biological science and engineering applications in a laboratory setting. To achieve this goal, we have developed an integrated approach that combines: 1) microneedle-based minimally invasive intra-tissue delivery of oligonucleotide probes and Streptolysin O (SLO) or CPP; 2) SLO as a pore forming permeation enhancer to enable intracellular delivery of oligonucleotide probes and CPP peptides can also transport conjugated cargo in cells; and 3) fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) pair of ON probes to improve specificity and sensitivity of RNA detection in tissue models. The results of this study demonstrate uniform coating and rapid release of ON probes from microneedles in a tissue environment. Microneedle assisted delivery of ON probes in 3D tissue does not result in cell damage and the ON probes are uniformly delivered in the tissue. The results also demonstrate the feasibility of FRET imaging of ON probes in 3D tissue and highlight the potential for imaging 28-s rRNA in individual living cells.

  12. An Endogenous Accelerator for Viral Gene Expression Confers a Fitness Advantage

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, Melissa; Bolovan-Fritts, Cynthia; Dar, Roy D.; Womack, Andrew; Simpson, Michael L; Shenk, Thomas; Weinberger, Leor S.

    2012-01-01

    Signal transduction circuits have long been known to differentiate between signals by amplifying inputs to different levels. Here, we describe a novel transcriptional circuitry that dynamically converts greater input levels into faster rates, without increasing the final equilibrium level (i.e. a rate amplifier). We utilize time-lapse microscopy to study human herpesvirus (cytomegalovirus) infection of live cells in real time. Strikingly, our results show that transcriptional activators accelerate viral gene expression in single cells without amplifying the steady-state levels of gene products in these cells. Experiment and modeling show that rate amplification operates by dynamically manipulating the traditional gain-bandwidth feedback relationship from electrical circuit theory to convert greater input levels into faster rates, and is driven by highly self-cooperative transcriptional feedback encoded by the virus s essential transactivator, IE2. This transcriptional rate-amplifier provides a significant fitness advantage for the virus and for minimal synthetic circuits. In general, rate-amplifiers may provide a mechanism for signal-transduction circuits to respond quickly to external signals without increasing steady-state levels of potentially cytotoxic molecules.

  13. [Endogenous hypertriglyceridemia].

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Kazuhisa

    2013-09-01

    Endogenous hypertriglyceridemia, which includes familial hypertriglyceridemia and idiopathic hypertriglyceridemia, is characterized by the increased level of VLDL-triglycerides in the blood. Increased production of VLDL from the liver and the decreased catabolism of VLDL-TG in the vessel, which are also the main metabolic features of insulin resistance, have been proposed to be the causes of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia. Genetic factors responsible for endogenous hypertriglyceridemia have been elucidated in several studies, however, these factors have so far not been clearly identified yet; thus the causes of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia would be polygenic. Recent advances in the genetic analytical methods like genome-wide association study would hopefully unveil the whole pictures of endogenous hypertriglyceridemia.

  14. Selection of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in normal human ovarian tissues, borderline ovarian tumours and ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Ofinran, Olumide; Bose, Ujjal; Hay, Daniel; Abdul, Summi; Tufatelli, Cristina; Khan, Raheela

    2016-12-01

    The use of reference genes is the most common method of controlling the variation in mRNA expression during quantitative polymerase chain reaction, although the use of traditional reference genes, such as β‑actin, glyceraldehyde‑3‑phosphate dehydrogenase or 18S ribosomal RNA, without validation occasionally leads to unreliable results. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate a set of five commonly used reference genes to determine the most suitable for gene expression studies in normal ovarian tissues, borderline ovarian and ovarian cancer tissues. The expression stabilities of these genes were ranked using two gene stability algorithms, geNorm and NormFinder. Using geNorm, the two best reference genes in ovarian cancer were β‑glucuronidase and β‑actin. Hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase‑1 and β‑glucuronidase were the most stable in ovarian borderline tumours, and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase‑1 and glyceraldehyde‑3‑phosphate dehydrogenase were the most stable in normal ovarian tissues. NormFinder ranked β‑actin the most stable in ovarian cancer, and the best combination of two genes was β‑glucuronidase and β‑actin. In borderline tumours, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase‑1 was identified as the most stable, and the best combination was hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase‑1 and β‑glucuronidase. In normal ovarian tissues, β‑glucuronidase was recommended as the optimum reference gene, and the most optimum pair of reference genes was hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase‑1 and β‑actin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to investigate the selection of a set of reference genes for normalisation in quantitative polymerase chain reactions in different ovarian tissues, and therefore it is recommended that β‑glucuronidase, β‑actin and hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase‑1 are the most suitable reference genes for such analyses.

  15. Selection of suitable reference genes for gene expression studies in Staphylococcus capitis during growth under erythromycin stress.

    PubMed

    Cui, Bintao; Smooker, Peter M; Rouch, Duncan A; Deighton, Margaret A

    2016-08-01

    Accurate and reproducible measurement of gene transcription requires appropriate reference genes, which are stably expressed under different experimental conditions to provide normalization. Staphylococcus capitis is a human pathogen that produces biofilm under stress, such as imposed by antimicrobial agents. In this study, a set of five commonly used staphylococcal reference genes (gyrB, sodA, recA, tuf and rpoB) were systematically evaluated in two clinical isolates of Staphylococcus capitis (S. capitis subspecies urealyticus and capitis, respectively) under erythromycin stress in mid-log and stationary phases. Two public software programs (geNorm and NormFinder) and two manual calculation methods, reference residue normalization (RRN) and relative quantitative (RQ), were applied. The potential reference genes selected by the four algorithms were further validated by comparing the expression of a well-studied biofilm gene (icaA) with phenotypic biofilm formation in S. capitis under four different experimental conditions. The four methods differed considerably in their ability to predict the most suitable reference gene or gene combination for comparing icaA expression under different conditions. Under the conditions used here, the RQ method provided better selection of reference genes than the other three algorithms; however, this finding needs to be confirmed with a larger number of isolates. This study reinforces the need to assess the stability of reference genes for analysis of target gene expression under different conditions and the use of more than one algorithm in such studies. Although this work was conducted using a specific human pathogen, it emphasizes the importance of selecting suitable reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression more generally.

  16. Expression Profiling in Bemisia tabaci under Insecticide Treatment: Indicating the Necessity for Custom Reference Gene Selection

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xuguo; Gao, Xiwu

    2014-01-01

    Finding a suitable reference gene is the key for qRT-PCR analysis. However, none of the reference gene discovered thus far can be utilized universally under various biotic and abiotic experimental conditions. In this study, we further examine the stability of candidate reference genes under a single abiotic factor, insecticide treatment. After being exposed to eight commercially available insecticides, which belong to five different classes, the expression profiles of eight housekeeping genes in the sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci, one of the most invasive and destructive pests in the world, were investigated using qRT-PCR analysis. In summary, elongation factor 1α (EF1α), α-tubulin (TUB1α) and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were identified as the most stable reference genes under the insecticide treatment. The initial assessment of candidate reference genes was further validated with the expression of two target genes, a P450 (Cyp6cm1) and a glutathione S-transferase (GST). However, ranking of reference genes varied substantially among intra- and inter-classes of insecticides. These combined data strongly suggested the necessity of conducting custom reference gene selection designed for each and every experimental condition, even when examining the same abiotic or biotic factor. PMID:24498122

  17. A Whole-Transcriptome Approach to Evaluating Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies: A Case Study in Mimulus

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Kimmy A.; Edger, Patrick P.; Puzey, Joshua R.; Kinser, Taliesin; Cheng, Philip; Vernon, Daniel M.; Forsthoefel, Nancy R.; Cooley, Arielle M.

    2017-01-01

    While quantitative PCR (qPCR) is widely recognized as being among the most accurate methods for quantifying gene expression, it is highly dependent on the use of reliable, stably expressed reference genes. With the increased availability of high-throughput methods for measuring gene expression, whole-transcriptome approaches may be increasingly utilized for reference gene selection and validation. In this study, RNA-seq was used to identify a set of novel qPCR reference genes and evaluate a panel of traditional “housekeeping” reference genes in two species of the evolutionary model plant genus Mimulus. More broadly, the methods proposed in this study can be used to harness the power of transcriptomes to identify appropriate reference genes for qPCR in any study organism, including emerging and nonmodel systems. We find that RNA-seq accurately estimates gene expression means in comparison to qPCR, and that expression means are robust to moderate environmental and genetic variation. However, measures of expression variability were only in agreement with qPCR for samples obtained from a shared environment. This result, along with transcriptome-wide comparisons, suggests that environmental changes have greater impacts on expression variability than on expression means. We discuss how this issue can be addressed through experimental design, and suggest that the ever-expanding pool of published transcriptomes represents a rich and low-cost resource for developing better reference genes for qPCR. PMID:28258113

  18. Reference Gene Selection for qPCR Normalization of Kosteletzkya virginica under Salt Stress

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Xiaoli; Wang, Hongyan; Shao, Chuyang; Shao, Hongbo

    2015-01-01

    Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) is a newly introduced perennial halophytic plant. Presently, reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is regarded as the best choice for analyzing gene expression and its accuracy mainly depends on the reference genes which are used for gene expression normalization. In this study, we employed qPCR to select the most stable reference gene in K. virginica which showed stable expression profiles under our experimental conditions. The candidate reference genes were 18S ribosomal RNA (18SrRNA), β-actin (ACT), α-tubulin (TUA), and elongation factor (EF). We tracked the gene expression profiles of the candidate genes and analyzed their stabilities through BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder software programs. The results of the three programs were identical and 18SrRNA was assessed to be the most stable reference gene in this study. However, TUA was identified to be the most unstable. Our study proved again that the traditional reference genes indeed displayed a certain degree of variations under given experimental conditions. Importantly, our research also provides guidance for selecting most suitable reference genes and lays the foundation for further studies in K. virginica. PMID:26581422

  19. Determination of reference genes for circadian studies in different tissues and mouse strains

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Circadian rhythms have a profound effect on human health. Their disruption can lead to serious pathologies, such as cancer and obesity. Gene expression studies in these pathologies are often studied in different mouse strains by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Selection of reference genes is a crucial step of qPCR experiments. Recent studies show that reference gene stability can vary between species and tissues, but none has taken circadian experiments into consideration. Results In the present study the expression of ten candidate reference genes (Actb, Eif2a, Gapdh, Hmbs, Hprt1, Ppib, Rn18s, Rplp0, Tbcc and Utp6c) was measured in 131 liver and 97 adrenal gland samples taken from three mouse strains (C57BL/6JOlaHsd, 129Pas plus C57BL/6J and Crem KO on 129Pas plus C57BL/6J background) every 4 h in a 24 h period. Expression stability was evaluated by geNorm and NormFinder programs. Differences in ranking of the most stable reference genes were observed both between individual mouse strains as well as between tissues within each mouse strain. We show that selection of reference gene (Actb) that is often used for analyses in individual mouse strains leads to errors if used for normalization when different mouse strains are compared. We identified alternative reference genes that are stable in these comparisons. Conclusions Genetic background and circadian time influence the expression stability of reference genes. Differences between mouse strains and tissues should be taken into consideration to avoid false interpretations. We show that the use of a single reference gene can lead to false biological conclusions. This manuscript provides a useful reference point for researchers that search for stable reference genes in the field of circadian biology. PMID:20712867

  20. Reference gene selection for qRT-PCR in Caragana korshinskii Kom. under different stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qi; Yin, Jiajia; Li, Gao; Qi, Liwang; Yang, Feiyun; Wang, Ruigang; Li, Guojing

    2014-01-01

    Caragana korshinskii Kom., which is widely distributed in the northwest China and Mongolia, is an important forage bush belonging to the legume family with high economic and ecological value. Strong tolerance ability to various stresses makes C. korshinskii Kom. a valuable species for plant stress research. In this study, suitable reference genes for quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) were screened from 11 candidate reference genes, including ACT, GAPDH, EF1α, UBQ, TUA, CAP, TUB, TUB3, SKIP1, SKIP5-1 and SKIP5-2. A total of 129 samples under drought, heat, cold, salt, ABA and high pH treatment were profiled, and software such as geNORM, NormFinder and BestKeeper were used for reference gene evaluation and selection. Different suitable reference genes were selected under different stresses. Across all 129 samples, GAPDH, EF1α and SKIP5-1 were found to be the most stable reference genes, and EF1α+SKIP5-1 is the most stable reference gene combination. Conversely, TUA, TUB and SKIP1 were not suitable for using as reference genes owing to their great expression variation under some stress conditions. The relative expression levels of CkWRKY1 were detected using the stable and unstable reference genes and their applicability was confirmed. These results provide some stable reference genes and reference gene combinations for qRT-PCR under different stresses in C. korshinskii Kom. for future research work, and indicate that CkWRKY1 plays essential roles in response to stresses in C. korshinskii.

  1. Selection of low-variance expressed Malus x domestica (apple) genes for use as quantitative PCR reference genes (housekeepers)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To accurately measure gene expression using PCR-based approaches, there is the need for reference genes that have low variance in expression (housekeeping genes) to normalise the data for RNA quantity and quality. For non-model species such as Malus x domestica (apples), previously, the selection of...

  2. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes and Their Impact on Normalized Gene Expression Studies across Cultivated and Wild Cicer Species.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Dumbala Srinivas; Bhatnagar-Mathur, Pooja; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Sri Cindhuri, Katamreddy; Sivaji Ganesh, Adusumalli; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) is a preferred and reliable method for accurate quantification of gene expression to understand precise gene functions. A total of 25 candidate reference genes including traditional and new generation reference genes were selected and evaluated in a diverse set of chickpea samples. The samples used in this study included nine chickpea genotypes (Cicer spp.) comprising of cultivated and wild species, six abiotic stress treatments (drought, salinity, high vapor pressure deficit, abscisic acid, cold and heat shock), and five diverse tissues (leaf, root, flower, seedlings and seed). The geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder algorithms used to identify stably expressed genes in four sample sets revealed stable expression of UCP and G6PD genes across genotypes, while TIP41 and CAC were highly stable under abiotic stress conditions. While PP2A and ABCT genes were ranked as best for different tissues, ABCT, UCP and CAC were most stable across all samples. This study demonstrated the usefulness of new generation reference genes for more accurate qPCR based gene expression quantification in cultivated as well as wild chickpea species. Validation of the best reference genes was carried out by studying their impact on normalization of aquaporin genes PIP1;4 and TIP3;1, in three contrasting chickpea genotypes under high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) treatment. The chickpea TIP3;1 gene got significantly up regulated under high VPD conditions with higher relative expression in the drought susceptible genotype, confirming the suitability of the selected reference genes for expression analysis. This is the first comprehensive study on the stability of the new generation reference genes for qPCR studies in chickpea across species, different tissues and abiotic stresses.

  3. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes and Their Impact on Normalized Gene Expression Studies across Cultivated and Wild Cicer Species

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Sri Cindhuri, Katamreddy; Sivaji Ganesh, Adusumalli; Sharma, Kiran Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Real-Time PCR (qPCR) is a preferred and reliable method for accurate quantification of gene expression to understand precise gene functions. A total of 25 candidate reference genes including traditional and new generation reference genes were selected and evaluated in a diverse set of chickpea samples. The samples used in this study included nine chickpea genotypes (Cicer spp.) comprising of cultivated and wild species, six abiotic stress treatments (drought, salinity, high vapor pressure deficit, abscisic acid, cold and heat shock), and five diverse tissues (leaf, root, flower, seedlings and seed). The geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder algorithms used to identify stably expressed genes in four sample sets revealed stable expression of UCP and G6PD genes across genotypes, while TIP41 and CAC were highly stable under abiotic stress conditions. While PP2A and ABCT genes were ranked as best for different tissues, ABCT, UCP and CAC were most stable across all samples. This study demonstrated the usefulness of new generation reference genes for more accurate qPCR based gene expression quantification in cultivated as well as wild chickpea species. Validation of the best reference genes was carried out by studying their impact on normalization of aquaporin genes PIP1;4 and TIP3;1, in three contrasting chickpea genotypes under high vapor pressure deficit (VPD) treatment. The chickpea TIP3;1 gene got significantly up regulated under high VPD conditions with higher relative expression in the drought susceptible genotype, confirming the suitability of the selected reference genes for expression analysis. This is the first comprehensive study on the stability of the new generation reference genes for qPCR studies in chickpea across species, different tissues and abiotic stresses. PMID:26863232

  4. Chilli leaf curl virus-based vector for phloem-specific silencing of endogenous genes and overexpression of foreign genes.

    PubMed

    Kushwaha, Nirbhay Kumar; Chakraborty, Supriya

    2017-03-01

    Geminiviruses are the largest and most devastating group of plant viruses which contain ssDNA as a genetic material. Geminivirus-derived virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) vectors have emerged as an efficient and simple tool to study functional genomics in various plants. However, previously developed VIGS vectors have certain limitations, owing to their inability to be used in tissue-specific functional study. In the present study, we developed a Chilli leaf curl virus (ChiLCV)-based VIGS vector for its tissue-specific utilization by replacing the coat protein gene (open reading frame (ORF) AV1) with the gene of interest for phytoene desaturase (PDS) of Nicotiana benthamiana. Functional validation of ChiLCV-based VIGS in N. benthamiana resulted in systemic silencing of PDS exclusively in the phloem region of inoculated plants. Furthermore, expression of enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP) using the same ChiLCV vector was verified in the phloem region of the inoculated plants. Our results also suggested that, during the early phase of infection, ChiLCV was associated with the phloem region, but at later stage of pathogenesis, it can spread into the adjoining non-vascular tissues. Taken together, the newly developed ChiLCV-based vector provides an efficient and versatile tool, which can be exploited to unveil the unknown functions of several phloem-specific genes.

  5. Suitable Reference Genes for Accurate Gene Expression Analysis in Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) for Abiotic Stresses and Hormone Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng-Yao; Song, Xiong; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Parsley, one of the most important vegetables in the Apiaceae family, is widely used in the food, medicinal, and cosmetic industries. Recent studies on parsley mainly focus on its chemical composition, and further research involving the analysis of the plant's gene functions and expressions is required. qPCR is a powerful method for detecting very low quantities of target transcript levels and is widely used to study gene expression. To ensure the accuracy of results, a suitable reference gene is necessary for expression normalization. In this study, four software, namely geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of eight candidate reference genes of parsley (GAPDH, ACTIN, eIF-4α, SAND, UBC, TIP41, EF-1α, and TUB) under various conditions, including abiotic stresses (heat, cold, salt, and drought) and hormone stimuli treatments (GA, SA, MeJA, and ABA). Results showed that EF-1α and TUB were the most stable genes for abiotic stresses, whereas EF-1α, GAPDH, and TUB were the top three choices for hormone stimuli treatments. Moreover, EF-1α and TUB were the most stable reference genes among all tested samples, and UBC was the least stable one. Expression analysis of PcDREB1 and PcDREB2 further verified that the selected stable reference genes were suitable for gene expression normalization. This study can guide the selection of suitable reference genes in gene expression in parsley. PMID:27746803

  6. Suitable Reference Genes for Accurate Gene Expression Analysis in Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) for Abiotic Stresses and Hormone Stimuli.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Yao; Song, Xiong; Wang, Feng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Parsley, one of the most important vegetables in the Apiaceae family, is widely used in the food, medicinal, and cosmetic industries. Recent studies on parsley mainly focus on its chemical composition, and further research involving the analysis of the plant's gene functions and expressions is required. qPCR is a powerful method for detecting very low quantities of target transcript levels and is widely used to study gene expression. To ensure the accuracy of results, a suitable reference gene is necessary for expression normalization. In this study, four software, namely geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder were used to evaluate the expression stabilities of eight candidate reference genes of parsley (GAPDH, ACTIN, eIF-4α, SAND, UBC, TIP41, EF-1α, and TUB) under various conditions, including abiotic stresses (heat, cold, salt, and drought) and hormone stimuli treatments (GA, SA, MeJA, and ABA). Results showed that EF-1α and TUB were the most stable genes for abiotic stresses, whereas EF-1α, GAPDH, and TUB were the top three choices for hormone stimuli treatments. Moreover, EF-1α and TUB were the most stable reference genes among all tested samples, and UBC was the least stable one. Expression analysis of PcDREB1 and PcDREB2 further verified that the selected stable reference genes were suitable for gene expression normalization. This study can guide the selection of suitable reference genes in gene expression in parsley.

  7. A unified gene catalog for the laboratory mouse reference genome.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Y; Richardson, J E; Hale, P; Baldarelli, R M; Reed, D J; Recla, J M; Sinclair, R; Reddy, T B K; Bult, C J

    2015-08-01

    We report here a semi-automated process by which mouse genome feature predictions and curated annotations (i.e., genes, pseudogenes, functional RNAs, etc.) from Ensembl, NCBI and Vertebrate Genome Annotation database (Vega) are reconciled with the genome features in the Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) database (http://www.informatics.jax.org) into a comprehensive and non-redundant catalog. Our gene unification method employs an algorithm (fjoin--feature join) for efficient detection of genome coordinate overlaps among features represented in two annotation data sets. Following the analysis with fjoin, genome features are binned into six possible categories (1:1, 1:0, 0:1, 1:n, n:1, n:m) based on coordinate overlaps. These categories are subsequently prioritized for assessment of annotation equivalencies and differences. The version of the unified catalog reported here contains more than 59,000 entries, including 22,599 protein-coding coding genes, 12,455 pseudogenes, and 24,007 other feature types (e.g., microRNAs, lincRNAs, etc.). More than 23,000 of the entries in the MGI gene catalog have equivalent gene models in the annotation files obtained from NCBI, Vega, and Ensembl. 12,719 of the features are unique to NCBI relative to Ensembl/Vega; 11,957 are unique to Ensembl/Vega relative to NCBI, and 3095 are unique to MGI. More than 4000 genome features fall into categories that require manual inspection to resolve structural differences in the gene models from different annotation sources. Using the MGI unified gene catalog, researchers can easily generate a comprehensive report of mouse genome features from a single source and compare the details of gene and transcript structure using MGI's mouse genome browser.

  8. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR normalization in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Paolacci, Anna R; Tanzarella, Oronzo A; Porceddu, Enrico; Ciaffi, Mario

    2009-01-01

    Background Usually the reference genes used in gene expression analysis have been chosen for their known or suspected housekeeping roles, however the variation observed in most of them hinders their effective use. The assessed lack of validated reference genes emphasizes the importance of a systematic study for their identification. For selecting candidate reference genes we have developed a simple in silico method based on the data publicly available in the wheat databases Unigene and TIGR. Results The expression stability of 32 genes was assessed by qRT-PCR using a set of cDNAs from 24 different plant samples, which included different tissues, developmental stages and temperature stresses. The selected sequences included 12 well-known HKGs representing different functional classes and 20 genes novel with reference to the normalization issue. The expression stability of the 32 candidate genes was tested by the computer programs geNorm and NormFinder using five different data-sets. Some discrepancies were detected in the ranking of the candidate reference genes, but there was substantial agreement between the groups of genes with the most and least stable expression. Three new identified reference genes appear more effective than the well-known and frequently used HKGs to normalize gene expression in wheat. Finally, the expression study of a gene encoding a PDI-like protein showed that its correct evaluation relies on the adoption of suitable normalization genes and can be negatively affected by the use of traditional HKGs with unstable expression, such as actin and α-tubulin. Conclusion The present research represents the first wide screening aimed to the identification of reference genes and of the corresponding primer pairs specifically designed for gene expression studies in wheat, in particular for qRT-PCR analyses. Several of the new identified reference genes outperformed the traditional HKGs in terms of expression stability under all the tested conditions

  9. Long-Term Endurance Exercise in Humans Stimulates Cell Fusion of Myoblasts along with Fusogenic Endogenous Retroviral Genes In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Suhr, Frank; Konou, Thierry M.; Tappe, Kim A.; Toigo, Marco; Jung, Hans H.; Henke, Christine; Steigleder, Ruth; Strissel, Pamela L.; Huebner, Hanna; Beckmann, Matthias W.; van der Keylen, Piet; Schoser, Benedikt; Schiffer, Thorsten; Frese, Laura; Bloch, Wilhelm; Strick, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Myogenesis is defined as growth, differentiation and repair of muscles where cell fusion of myoblasts to multinucleated myofibers is one major characteristic. Other cell fusion events in humans are found with bone resorbing osteoclasts and placental syncytiotrophoblasts. No unifying gene regulation for natural cell fusions has been found. We analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies of competitive cyclists for muscle-specific attributes and expression of human endogenous retrovirus (ERV) envelope genes due to their involvement in cell fusion of osteoclasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Comparing muscle biopsies from post- with the pre-competitive seasons a significant 2.25-fold increase of myonuclei/mm fiber, a 2.38-fold decrease of fiber area/nucleus and a 3.1-fold decrease of satellite cells (SCs) occurred. We propose that during the pre-competitive season SC proliferation occurred following with increased cell fusion during the competitive season. Expression of twenty-two envelope genes of muscle biopsies demonstrated a significant increase of putative muscle-cell fusogenic genes Syncytin-1 and Syncytin-3, but also for the non-fusogenic erv3. Immunohistochemistry analyses showed that Syncytin-1 mainly localized to the sarcolemma of myofibers positive for myosin heavy-chain isotypes. Cellular receptors SLC1A4 and SLC1A5 of Syncytin-1 showed significant decrease of expression in post-competitive muscles compared with the pre-competitive season, but only SLC1A4 protein expression localized throughout the myofiber. Erv3 protein was strongly expressed throughout the myofiber, whereas envK1-7 localized to SC nuclei and myonuclei. Syncytin-1 transcription factors, PPARγ and RXRα, showed no protein expression in the myofiber, whereas the pCREB-Ser133 activator of Syncytin-1 was enriched to SC nuclei and myonuclei. Syncytin-1, Syncytin-3, SLC1A4 and PAX7 gene regulations along with MyoD1 and myogenin were verified during proliferating or actively-fusing human primary myoblast cell

  10. Long-Term Endurance Exercise in Humans Stimulates Cell Fusion of Myoblasts along with Fusogenic Endogenous Retroviral Genes In Vivo.

    PubMed

    Frese, Sebastian; Ruebner, Matthias; Suhr, Frank; Konou, Thierry M; Tappe, Kim A; Toigo, Marco; Jung, Hans H; Henke, Christine; Steigleder, Ruth; Strissel, Pamela L; Huebner, Hanna; Beckmann, Matthias W; van der Keylen, Piet; Schoser, Benedikt; Schiffer, Thorsten; Frese, Laura; Bloch, Wilhelm; Strick, Reiner

    2015-01-01

    Myogenesis is defined as growth, differentiation and repair of muscles where cell fusion of myoblasts to multinucleated myofibers is one major characteristic. Other cell fusion events in humans are found with bone resorbing osteoclasts and placental syncytiotrophoblasts. No unifying gene regulation for natural cell fusions has been found. We analyzed skeletal muscle biopsies of competitive cyclists for muscle-specific attributes and expression of human endogenous retrovirus (ERV) envelope genes due to their involvement in cell fusion of osteoclasts and syncytiotrophoblasts. Comparing muscle biopsies from post- with the pre-competitive seasons a significant 2.25-fold increase of myonuclei/mm fiber, a 2.38-fold decrease of fiber area/nucleus and a 3.1-fold decrease of satellite cells (SCs) occurred. We propose that during the pre-competitive season SC proliferation occurred following with increased cell fusion during the competitive season. Expression of twenty-two envelope genes of muscle biopsies demonstrated a significant increase of putative muscle-cell fusogenic genes Syncytin-1 and Syncytin-3, but also for the non-fusogenic erv3. Immunohistochemistry analyses showed that Syncytin-1 mainly localized to the sarcolemma of myofibers positive for myosin heavy-chain isotypes. Cellular receptors SLC1A4 and SLC1A5 of Syncytin-1 showed significant decrease of expression in post-competitive muscles compared with the pre-competitive season, but only SLC1A4 protein expression localized throughout the myofiber. Erv3 protein was strongly expressed throughout the myofiber, whereas envK1-7 localized to SC nuclei and myonuclei. Syncytin-1 transcription factors, PPARγ and RXRα, showed no protein expression in the myofiber, whereas the pCREB-Ser133 activator of Syncytin-1 was enriched to SC nuclei and myonuclei. Syncytin-1, Syncytin-3, SLC1A4 and PAX7 gene regulations along with MyoD1 and myogenin were verified during proliferating or actively-fusing human primary myoblast cell

  11. Identification of internal reference genes for gene expression normalization between the two sexes in dioecious white Campion.

    PubMed

    Zemp, Niklaus; Minder, Aria; Widmer, Alex

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real time (qRT)-PCR is a precise and efficient method for studying gene expression changes between two states of interest, and is frequently used for validating interesting gene expression patterns in candidate genes initially identified in genome-wide expression analyses, such as RNA-seq experiments. For an adequate normalisation of qRT-PCR data, it is essential to have reference genes available whose expression intensities are constant among the different states of interest. In this study we present and validate a catalogue of traditional and newly identified reference genes that were selected from RNA-seq data from multiple individuals from the dioecious plant Silene latifolia with the aim of studying gene expression differences between the two sexes in both reproductive and vegetative tissues. The catalogue contains more than 15 reference genes with both stable expression intensities and a range of expression intensities in flower buds and leaf tissues. These reference genes were used to normalize expression differences between reproductive and vegetative tissues in eight candidate genes with sex-biased expression. Our results suggest a trend towards a reduced sex-bias in sex-linked gene expression in vegetative tissues. In this study, we report on the systematic identification and validation of internal reference genes for adequate normalization of qRT-PCR-based analyses of gene expression differences between the two sexes in S. latifolia. We also show how RNA-seq data can be used efficiently to identify suitable reference genes in a wide diversity of species.

  12. Non integrative strategy decreases chromosome instability and improves endogenous pluripotency genes reactivation in porcine induced pluripotent-like stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Congras, Annabelle; Barasc, Harmonie; Canale-Tabet, Kamila; Plisson-Petit, Florence; Delcros, Chantal; Feraud, Olivier; Oudrhiri, Noufissa; Hadadi, Eva; Griscelli, Franck; Bennaceur-Griscelli, Annelise; Turhan, Ali; Afanassieff, Marielle; Ferchaud, Stéphane; Pinton, Alain; Yerle-Bouissou, Martine; Acloque, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The pig is an emerging animal model, complementary to rodents for basic research and for biomedical and agronomical purposes. However despite the progress made on mouse and rat models to produce genuine pluripotent cells, it remains impossible to produce porcine pluripotent cell lines with germline transmission. Reprogramming of pig somatic cells using conventional integrative strategies remains also unsatisfactory. In the present study, we compared the outcome of both integrative and non-integrative reprogramming strategies on pluripotency and chromosome stability during pig somatic cell reprogramming. The porcine cell lines produced with integrative strategies express several pluripotency genes but they do not silence the integrated exogenes and present a high genomic instability upon passaging. In contrast, pig induced pluripotent-like stem cells produced with non-integrative reprogramming system (NI-iPSLCs) exhibit a normal karyotype after more than 12 months in culture and reactivate endogenous pluripotency markers. Despite the persistent expression of exogenous OCT4 and MYC, these cells can differentiate into derivatives expressing markers of the three embryonic germ layers and we propose that these NI-iPSLCs can be used as a model to bring new insights into the molecular factors controlling and maintaining pluripotency in the pig and other non-rodent mammalians. PMID:27245508

  13. Mrpl10 and Tbp Are Suitable Reference Genes for Peripheral Nerve Crush Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yaxian; Shan, Qianqian; Meng, Yali; Pan, Jiacheng; Yi, Sheng

    2017-01-01

    Peripheral nerve injury triggers the dysregulation of a large number of genes at multiple sites, including neurons, peripheral nerve stump, and the target organ. Housekeeping genes were frequently used as reference genes to normalize the expression values of target genes. Suitable selection of housekeeping genes that are stably expressed after nerve injury minimizes bias elicited by reference genes and thus helps to better and more sensitively reflect gene expression changes. However, many housekeeping genes have been used as reference genes without testing the expression patterns of themselves. In the current study, we calculated the expression stability of nine commonly used housekeeping genes, such as 18S (18S ribosomal RNA), Actb (β-actin), CypA (cyclophilin A), Gapdh (glyceraldehydes-3-phosphate dehydrogenase), Hprt (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase), Pgk1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1), Tbp (TATA box binding protein), Ubc (ubiquitin C), YwhaZ (tyrosine 3-monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation), and four newly identified housekeeping genes, including Ankrd27 (Ankyrin repeat domain 27), Mrpl10 (mitochondrial ribosomal protein L10), Rictor (rapamycin-insensitive companion of mTOR, Complex 2), and Ubxn 11 (UBX domain protein 11), in both distal sciatic nerve samples and dorsal root ganglion (DRG) samples after sciatic nerve injury. Our results suggested that following peripheral nerve injury, Mrpl10 and Tbp might be used as suitable reference genes for sciatic nerve stump and DRGs, respectively. PMID:28134789

  14. A reference gene set for chemosensory receptor genes of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Christopher; Hirsh, Ariana; Bucks, Sascha; Klinner, Christian; Vogel, Heiko; Shukla, Aditi; Mansfield, Jennifer H; Morton, Brian; Hansson, Bill S; Grosse-Wilde, Ewald

    2015-11-01

    The order of Lepidoptera has historically been crucial for chemosensory research, with many important advances coming from the analysis of species like Bombyx mori or the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta. Specifically M. sexta has long been a major model species in the field, especially regarding the importance of olfaction in an ecological context, mainly the interaction with its host plants. In recent years transcriptomic data has led to the discovery of members of all major chemosensory receptor families in the species, but the data was fragmentary and incomplete. Here we present the analysis of the newly available high-quality genome data for the species, supplemented by additional transcriptome data to generate a high quality reference gene set for the three major chemosensory receptor gene families, the gustatory (GR), olfactory (OR) and antennal ionotropic receptors (IR). Coupled with gene expression analysis our approach allows association of specific receptor types and behaviors, like pheromone and host detection. The dataset will provide valuable support for future analysis of these essential chemosensory modalities in this species and in Lepidoptera in general.

  15. Selection of suitable reference genes for assessing gene expression in pearl millet under different abiotic stresses and their combinations.

    PubMed

    Shivhare, Radha; Lata, Charu

    2016-03-14

    Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] a widely used grain and forage crop, is grown in areas frequented with one or more abiotic stresses, has superior drought and heat tolerance and considered a model crop for stress tolerance studies. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target stress-responsive gene expression through quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of improved stress tolerance. For precise normalization of gene expression data in pearl millet, ten candidate reference genes were examined in various developmental tissues as well as under different individual abiotic stresses and their combinations at 1 h (early) and 24 h (late) of stress using geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder algorithms. Our results revealed EF-1α and UBC-E2 as the best reference genes across all samples, the specificity of which was confirmed by assessing the relative expression of a PgAP2 like-ERF gene that suggested use of these two reference genes is sufficient for accurate transcript normalization under different stress conditions. To our knowledge this is the first report on validation of reference genes under different individual and multiple abiotic stresses in pearl millet. The study can further facilitate fastidious discovery of stress-tolerance genes in this important stress-tolerant crop.

  16. Selection of suitable reference genes for assessing gene expression in pearl millet under different abiotic stresses and their combinations

    PubMed Central

    Shivhare, Radha; Lata, Charu

    2016-01-01

    Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] a widely used grain and forage crop, is grown in areas frequented with one or more abiotic stresses, has superior drought and heat tolerance and considered a model crop for stress tolerance studies. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target stress-responsive gene expression through quantitative real-time (qRT)-PCR is important for elucidating the molecular mechanisms of improved stress tolerance. For precise normalization of gene expression data in pearl millet, ten candidate reference genes were examined in various developmental tissues as well as under different individual abiotic stresses and their combinations at 1 h (early) and 24 h (late) of stress using geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder algorithms. Our results revealed EF-1α and UBC-E2 as the best reference genes across all samples, the specificity of which was confirmed by assessing the relative expression of a PgAP2 like-ERF gene that suggested use of these two reference genes is sufficient for accurate transcript normalization under different stress conditions. To our knowledge this is the first report on validation of reference genes under different individual and multiple abiotic stresses in pearl millet. The study can further facilitate fastidious discovery of stress-tolerance genes in this important stress-tolerant crop. PMID:26972345

  17. Identification of polybacterial communities in patients with postoperative, posttraumatic, and endogenous endophthalmitis through 16S rRNA gene libraries.

    PubMed

    Jayasudha, Rajagopalaboopathi; Narendran, Venkatapathy; Manikandan, Palanisamy; Prabagaran, Solai Ramatchandirane

    2014-05-01

    Endophthalmitis is a potential vision-threatening complication following surgical procedures (postoperative endophthalmitis [POE]), trauma (posttraumatic endophthalmitis [PTE]), and bacteremic seeding of the eye from a distant infection site (endogenous endophthalmitis [EE]). Several studies have revealed the polybacterial characteristics of endophthalmitis, which make the administration of antibiotics to treat the disease challenging. However, until now, the polybacterial communities of POE, PTE, and EE have not been precisely studied. Hence, the present study was designed to identify the bacterial community of endophthalmitis through 16S rRNA gene libraries. Of the 40 intraocular samples tested, 30 libraries were constructed with bacterial nested-PCR-positive samples. The obtained recombinant clones were screened through amplified rRNA gene restriction analysis (ARDRA) to identify unique clones. The multiple types of ARDRA patterns (P=0.345) and diverse bacterial sequences (P=0.277) within the libraries revealed the polybacterial nature of infection in POE, PTE, and EE. Moreover, to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on polybacterial infection in EE. Gram-positive bacteria, including Bacillus spp. (n=19), Streptococcus spp. (n=18), Staphylococcus spp. (n=6), Exiguobacterium spp. (n=3), Gemella spp. (n=2), Enterococcus spp. (n=2), a Lysinibacillus sp. (n=1), a Clostridium sp. (n=1), and a Nocardia sp. (n=1), and Gram-negative bacteria, including Serratia spp. (n=18), Pseudomonas spp. (n=10), Enterobacter spp. (n=8), Acinetobacter spp. (n=3), Pantoea spp. (n=3), a Haemophilus sp. (n=1), and a Massilia sp. (n=1), were identified. Interestingly, among them, 10 bacterial species were not previously reported to be associated with endophthalmitis or other ocular infections. Besides, the presence of 4 unidentifiable clones suggests the possibility of novel organisms that might cause eye infections. Therefore, it is recommended that, in addition to the

  18. Characterization of reference gene expression in tung tree (Vernicia fordii)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tung oil from tung tree (Vernicia fordii) is widely used as a drying ingredient in paints, varnishes, and other coatings and finishes. Recent research has focused on the understanding of the biosynthesis of oil in tung trees. Many oil biosynthetic genes have been identified in tung tree but little...

  19. Identification and Characterization of Reference Genes for Normalizing Expression Data from Red Swamp Crawfish Procambarus clarkii.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hucheng; Qian, Zhaojun; Lu, Wei; Ding, Huaiyu; Yu, Hongwei; Wang, Hui; Li, Jiale

    2015-09-08

    qRT-PCR is a widely used technique for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression data. The use of reference genes for normalization of the expression levels is crucial for accuracy. Several studies have shown that there is no perfect reference gene that is appropriate for use in all experimental conditions, and research on suitable reference genes in red swamp crawfish (Procambarus clarkii) is particularly scarce. In this study, eight commonly used crustacean reference genes were chosen from P. clarkii transcriptome data and investigated as potential candidates for normalization of qRT-PCR data. Expression of these genes under different experimental conditions was examined by qRT-PCR, and the stability of their expression was evaluated using three commonly used statistical algorithms, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. A final comprehensive ranking determined that EIF and 18S were the optimal reference genes for expression data from different tissues, while TBP and EIF were optimal for expression data from different ovarian developmental stages. To our knowledge, this is the first systematic analysis of reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR data in P. clarkii. These results will facilitate more accurate and reliable expression studies of this and other crustacean species.

  20. Identification of Phosphoglycerate Kinase 1 (PGK1) as a reference gene for quantitative gene expression measurements in human blood RNA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Blood is a convenient sample and increasingly used for quantitative gene expression measurements with a variety of diseases including chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). Quantitative gene expression measurements require normalization of target genes to reference genes that are stable and independent from variables being tested in the experiment. Because there are no genes that are useful for all situations, reference gene selection is an essential step to any quantitative reverse transcription-PCR protocol. Many publications have described appropriate genes for a wide variety of tissues and experimental conditions, however, reference genes that may be suitable for the analysis of CFS, or human blood RNA derived from whole blood as well as isolated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), have not been described. Findings Literature review and analyses of our unpublished microarray data were used to narrow down the pool of candidate reference genes to six. We assayed whole blood RNA from Tempus tubes and cell preparation tube (CPT)-collected PBMC RNA from 46 subjects, and used the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms to select the most stable reference genes. Phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1) was one of the optimal normalization genes for both whole blood and PBMC RNA, however, additional genes differed for the two sample types; Ribosomal protein large, P0 (RPLP0) for PBMC RNA and Peptidylprolyl isomerase B (PPIB) for whole blood RNA. We also show that the use of a single reference gene is sufficient for normalization when the most stable candidates are used. Conclusions We have identified PGK1 as a stable reference gene for use with whole blood RNA and RNA derived from PBMC. When stable genes are selected it is possible to use a single gene for normalization rather than two or three. Optimal normalization will improve the ability of results from PBMC RNA to be compared with those from whole blood RNA and potentially allows comparison of gene expression results

  1. Assessment of reference genes for reliable analysis of gene transcription by RT-qPCR in ovine leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Mahakapuge, T A N; Scheerlinck, J-P Y; Rojas, C A Alvarez; Every, A L; Hagen, J

    2016-03-01

    With the availability of genetic sequencing data, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (RT-qPCR) is increasingly being used for the quantification of gene transcription across species. Too often there is little regard to the selection of reference genes and the impact that a poor choice has on data interpretation. Indeed, RT-qPCR provides a snapshot of relative gene transcription at a given time-point, and hence is highly dependent on the stability of the transcription of the reference gene(s). Using ovine efferent lymph cells and peripheral blood mono-nuclear cells (PBMCs), the two most frequently used leukocytes in immunological studies, we have compared the stability of transcription of the most commonly used ovine reference genes: YWHAZ, RPL-13A, PGK1, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT, SDHA and ACTB. Using established algorithms for reference gene normalization "geNorm" and "Norm Finder", PGK1, GAPDH and YWHAZ were deemed the most stably transcribed genes for efferent leukocytes and PGK1, YWHAZ and SDHA were optimal in PBMCs. These genes should therefore be considered for accurate and reproducible RT-qPCR data analysis of gene transcription in sheep.

  2. Identification and evaluation of reference genes for qRT-PCR normalization in Ganoderma lucidum.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jiang; Xu, ZhiChao; Zhu, YingJie; Luo, HongMei; Qian, Jun; Ji, AiJia; Hu, YuanLei; Sun, Wei; Wang, Bo; Song, JingYuan; Sun, Chao; Chen, ShiLin

    2014-01-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a rapid, sensitive, and reliable technique for gene expression studies. The accuracy and reliability of qRT-PCR results depend on the stability of the reference genes used for gene normalization. Therefore, a systematic process of reference gene evaluation is needed. Ganoderma lucidum is a famous medicinal mushroom in East Asia. In the current study, 10 potential reference genes were selected from the G. lucidum genomic data. The sequences of these genes were manually curated, and primers were designed following strict criteria. The experiment was conducted using qRT-PCR, and the stability of each candidate gene was assessed using four commonly used statistical programs-geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. According to our results, PP2A was expressed at the most stable levels under different fermentation conditions, and RPL4 was the most stably expressed gene in different tissues. RPL4, PP2A, and β-tubulin are the most commonly recommended reference genes for normalizing gene expression in the entire sample set. The current study provides a foundation for the further use of qRT-PCR in G. lucidum gene analysis.

  3. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Studies of Xenobiotic Adaptation in Tetranychus urticae

    PubMed Central

    Morales, Mariany Ashanty; Mendoza, Bianca Marie; Lavine, Laura Corley; Lavine, Mark Daniel; Walsh, Douglas Bruce; Zhu, Fang

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is an extensively used, high-throughput method to analyze transcriptional expression of genes of interest. An appropriate normalization strategy with reliable reference genes is required for calculating gene expression across diverse experimental conditions. In this study, we aim to identify the most stable reference genes for expression studies of xenobiotic adaptation in Tetranychus urticae, an extremely polyphagous herbivore causing significant yield reduction of agriculture. We chose eight commonly used housekeeping genes as candidates. The qRT-PCR expression data for these genes were evaluated from seven populations: a susceptible and three acaricide resistant populations feeding on lima beans, and three other susceptible populations which had been shifted host from lima beans to three other plant species. The stability of the candidate reference genes was then assessed using four different algorithms (comparative ΔCt method, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper). Additionally, we used an online web-based tool (RefFinder) to assign an overall final rank for each candidate gene. Our study found that CycA and Rp49 are best for investigating gene expression in acaricide susceptible and resistant populations. GAPDH, Rp49, and Rpl18 are best for host plant shift studies. And GAPDH and Rp49 were the most stable reference genes when investigating gene expression under changes in both experimental conditions. These results will facilitate research in revealing molecular mechanisms underlying the xenobiotic adaptation of this notorious agricultural pest. PMID:27570487

  4. N-ICE plasmids for generating N-terminal 3 × FLAG tagged genes that allow inducible, constitutive or endogenous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yueping; Serratore, Nina D; Briggs, Scott D

    2016-12-12

    PCR-mediated homologous recombination is a powerful approach to introduce epitope tags into the chromosomal loci at the N-terminus or the C-terminus of targeted genes. Although strategies of C-terminal epitope tagging of target genes at their loci are simple and widely used in yeast, C-terminal epitope tagging is not practical for all proteins. For example, a C-terminal tag may affect protein function or a protein may get cleaved or processed, resulting in the loss of the epitope tag. Therefore, N-terminal epitope tagging may be necessary to resolve these problems. In some cases, an epitope tagging strategy is used to introduce a heterologous promoter with the epitope tag at the N-terminus of a gene of interest. The potential issue with this strategy is that the tagged gene is not expressed at the endogenous level. Another strategy after integration is to excise the selection marker, using the Cre-LoxP system, leaving the epitope tagged gene expressed from the endogenous promoter. However, N-terminal epitope tagging of essential genes using this strategy requires a diploid strain followed by tetrad dissection. Here we present 14 new plasmids for N-terminal tagging, which combines two previous strategies for epitope tagging in a haploid strain. These 'N-ICE' plasmids were constructed so that non-essential and essential genes can be N-terminally 3 × FLAG tagged and expressed from an inducible promoter (GAL1), constitutive promoters (CYC1 or PYK1) or the endogenous promoter. We have validated the N-ICE plasmid system by N-terminal tagging two non-essential genes (SET1 and SET2) and two essential genes (ERG11 and PKC1). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Selection of Candidate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) under Abiotic Stress.

    PubMed

    Niu, Kuiju; Shi, Yi; Ma, Huiling

    2017-01-01

    Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) belong to Gramineae and is widely used in lawns, golf courses, landscapes, and sport fields as a prominent cool-season grass. Gene expression patterns during different stages of plant development can provide clues toward the understanding of its biological functions. The selection and validation of reference genes are the first steps in any real-time quantitative PCR gene expression study. Therefore, suitable reference genes are necessary for obtaining reliable results in real-time quantitative PCR analyses of Kentucky bluegrass. In the present study, 9 candidate reference genes were chosen, and their expression stability in the leaves and roots of Kentucky bluegrass under different stresses (drought, salt, heat, and cold) were evaluated using the GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder programs. The results showed that the expression stability of the candidate reference genes was dependent on the experimental conditions. The combination of SAM with GAPDH was the most stable in leaves under salt stress and cold stress, while TUB combined with ACT or GAPDH was stable in roots under salt or cold stress, respectively. ACT and SAM maintained stable expression in drought-treated leaves, and GAPDH combined with ACT was stable in drought-treated roots. SAM and TUB exhibited stable expression in heat-treated leaves. ACT and RPL were stable in heat-treated roots. In addition, the expression patterns of PpFEH in response to drought and cold stress were used to confirm the reliability of the selected reference genes, indicating that the use of an inappropriate reference gene as the internal control will cause erroneous results. This work is the first study on the expression stability of reference genes in Kentucky bluegrass and will be particularly useful in the selection of stress-tolerance genes and the identification of the molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this species.

  6. Selection of Candidate Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis in Kentucky Bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) under Abiotic Stress

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Kuiju; Shi, Yi; Ma, Huiling

    2017-01-01

    Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) belong to Gramineae and is widely used in lawns, golf courses, landscapes, and sport fields as a prominent cool-season grass. Gene expression patterns during different stages of plant development can provide clues toward the understanding of its biological functions. The selection and validation of reference genes are the first steps in any real-time quantitative PCR gene expression study. Therefore, suitable reference genes are necessary for obtaining reliable results in real-time quantitative PCR analyses of Kentucky bluegrass. In the present study, 9 candidate reference genes were chosen, and their expression stability in the leaves and roots of Kentucky bluegrass under different stresses (drought, salt, heat, and cold) were evaluated using the GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder programs. The results showed that the expression stability of the candidate reference genes was dependent on the experimental conditions. The combination of SAM with GAPDH was the most stable in leaves under salt stress and cold stress, while TUB combined with ACT or GAPDH was stable in roots under salt or cold stress, respectively. ACT and SAM maintained stable expression in drought-treated leaves, and GAPDH combined with ACT was stable in drought-treated roots. SAM and TUB exhibited stable expression in heat-treated leaves. ACT and RPL were stable in heat-treated roots. In addition, the expression patterns of PpFEH in response to drought and cold stress were used to confirm the reliability of the selected reference genes, indicating that the use of an inappropriate reference gene as the internal control will cause erroneous results. This work is the first study on the expression stability of reference genes in Kentucky bluegrass and will be particularly useful in the selection of stress-tolerance genes and the identification of the molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this species. PMID:28261247

  7. Identification of a novel reference gene for apple transcriptional profiling under postharvest conditions.

    PubMed

    Storch, Tatiane Timm; Pegoraro, Camila; Finatto, Taciane; Quecini, Vera; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor; Girardi, César Luis

    2015-01-01

    Reverse Transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is one of the most important techniques for gene expression profiling due to its high sensibility and reproducibility. However, the reliability of the results is highly dependent on data normalization, performed by comparisons between the expression profiles of the genes of interest against those of constitutively expressed, reference genes. Although the technique is widely used in fruit postharvest experiments, the transcription stability of reference genes has not been thoroughly investigated under these experimental conditions. Thus, we have determined the transcriptional profile, under these conditions, of three genes commonly used as reference--ACTIN (MdACT), PROTEIN DISULPHIDE ISOMERASE (MdPDI) and UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME E2 (MdUBC)--along with two novel candidates--HISTONE 1 (MdH1) and NUCLEOSSOME ASSEMBLY 1 PROTEIN (MdNAP1). The expression profile of the genes was investigated throughout five experiments, with three of them encompassing the postharvest period and the other two, consisting of developmental and spatial phases. The transcriptional stability was comparatively investigated using four distinct software packages: BestKeeper, NormFinder, geNorm and DataAssist. Gene ranking results for transcriptional stability were similar for the investigated software packages, with the exception of BestKeeper. The classic reference gene MdUBC ranked among the most stably transcribed in all investigated experimental conditions. Transcript accumulation profiles for the novel reference candidate gene MdH1 were stable throughout the tested conditions, especially in experiments encompassing the postharvest period. Thus, our results present a novel reference gene for postharvest experiments in apple and reinforce the importance of checking the transcription profile of reference genes under the experimental conditions of interest.

  8. Quantitative Evaluation and Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR in Mouse Acute Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhaoping; Gao, Jinhang; Lv, Xiuhe; Yang, Wenjuan; Wen, Shilei; Tong, Huan; Tang, Chengwei

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of differences in gene expression is dependent on normalization using reference genes. However, the expression of many of these reference genes, as evaluated by quantitative RT-PCR, is upregulated in acute pancreatitis, so they cannot be used as the standard for gene expression in this condition. For this reason, we sought to identify a stable reference gene, or a suitable combination, for expression analysis in acute pancreatitis. The expression stability of 10 reference genes (ACTB, GAPDH, 18sRNA, TUBB, B2M, HPRT1, UBC, YWHAZ, EF-1α, and RPL-13A) was analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper software and evaluated according to variations in the raw Ct values. These reference genes were evaluated using a comprehensive method, which ranked the expression stability of these genes as follows (from most stable to least stable): RPL-13A, YWHAZ > HPRT1 > GAPDH > UBC > EF-1α > 18sRNA > B2M > TUBB > ACTB. RPL-13A was the most suitable reference gene, and the combination of RPL-13A and YWHAZ was the most stable group of reference genes in our experiments. The expression levels of ACTB, TUBB, and B2M were found to be significantly upregulated during acute pancreatitis, whereas the expression level of 18sRNA was downregulated. Thus, we recommend the use of RPL-13A or a combination of RPL-13A and YWHAZ for normalization in qRT-PCR analyses of gene expression in mouse models of acute pancreatitis. PMID:27069927

  9. Screening for Suitable Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR in Heterosigma akashiwo (Raphidophyceae).

    PubMed

    Ji, Nanjing; Li, Ling; Lin, Lingxiao; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    The raphidophyte Heterosigma akashiwo is a globally distributed harmful alga that has been associated with fish kills in coastal waters. To understand the mechanisms of H. akashiwo bloom formation, gene expression analysis is often required. To accurately characterize the expression levels of a gene of interest, proper reference genes are essential. In this study, we assessed ten of the previously reported algal candidate genes (rpL17-2, rpL23, cox2, cal, tua, tub, ef1, 18S, gapdh, and mdh) for their suitability as reference genes in this species. We used qRT-PCR to quantify the expression levels of these genes in H. akashiwo grown under different temperatures, light intensities, nutrient concentrations, and time points over a diel cycle. The expression stability of these genes was evaluated using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Although none of these genes exhibited invariable expression levels, cal, tub, rpL17-2 and rpL23 expression levels were the most stable across the different conditions tested. For further validation, these selected genes were used to normalize the expression levels of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large unite (HrbcL) over a diel cycle. Results showed that the expression of HrbcL normalized against each of these reference genes was the highest at midday and lowest at midnight, similar to the diel patterns typically documented for this gene in algae. While the validated reference genes will be useful for future gene expression studies on H. akashiwo, we expect that the procedure used in this study may be helpful to future efforts to screen reference genes for other algae.

  10. Reference genes for quantitative PCR in the adipose tissue of mice with metabolic disease.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Oliveira, Fernanda; Leandro, João G B; Ausina, Priscila; Sola-Penna, Mauro; Majerowicz, David

    2017-04-01

    Obesity and diabetes are metabolic diseases and they are increasing in prevalence. The dynamics of gene expression associated with these diseases is fundamental to identifying genes involved in related biological processes. qPCR is a sensitive technique for mRNA quantification and the most commonly used method in gene-expression studies. However, the reliability of these results is directly influenced by data normalization. As reference genes are the major normalization method used, this work aims to identify reference genes for qPCR in adipose tissues of mice with type-I diabetes or obesity. We selected 12 genes that are commonly used as reference genes. The expression of these genes in the adipose tissues of mice was analyzed in the context of three different experimental protocols: 1) untreated animals; 2) high-fat-diet animals; and 3) streptozotocin-treated animals. Gene-expression stability was analyzed using four different algorithms. Our data indicate that TATA-binding protein is stably expressed across adipose tissues in control animals. This gene was also a useful reference when the brown adipose tissues of control and obese mice were analyzed. The mitochondrial ATP synthase F1 complex gene exhibits stable expression in subcutaneous and perigonadal adipose tissue from control and obese mice. Moreover, this gene is the best reference for qPCR normalization in adipose tissue from streptozotocin-treated animals. These results show that there is no perfect stable gene suited for use under all experimental conditions. In conclusion, the selection of appropriate genes is a prerequisite to ensure qPCR reliability and must be performed separately for different experimental protocols.

  11. Selection of reference genes for gene expression studies in virus-infected monocots using quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Kun; Niu, Shaofang; Di, Dianping; Shi, Lindan; Liu, Deshui; Cao, Xiuling; Miao, Hongqin; Wang, Xianbing; Han, Chenggui; Yu, Jialin; Li, Dawei; Zhang, Yongliang

    2013-10-10

    Both genome-wide transcriptomic surveys of the mRNA expression profiles and virus-induced gene silencing-based molecular studies of target gene during virus-plant interaction involve the precise estimation of the transcript abundance. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the most widely adopted technique for mRNA quantification. In order to obtain reliable quantification of transcripts, identification of the best reference genes forms the basis of the preliminary work. Nevertheless, the stability of internal controls in virus-infected monocots needs to be fully explored. In this work, the suitability of ten housekeeping genes (ACT, EF1α, FBOX, GAPDH, GTPB, PP2A, SAND, TUBβ, UBC18 and UK) for potential use as reference genes in qPCR were investigated in five different monocot plants (Brachypodium, barley, sorghum, wheat and maize) under infection with different viruses including Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), Brome mosaic virus (BMV), Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV). By using three different algorithms, the most appropriate reference genes or their combinations were identified for different experimental sets and their effectiveness for the normalisation of expression studies were further validated by quantitative analysis of a well-studied PR-1 gene. These results facilitate the selection of desirable reference genes for more accurate gene expression studies in virus-infected monocots.

  12. Selection of reference genes for qRT-PCR analysis of gene expression in sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus during aestivation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ye; Chen, Muyan; Wang, Tianming; Sun, Lina; Xu, Dongxue; Yang, Hongsheng

    2014-11-01

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a technique that is widely used for gene expression analysis, and its accuracy depends on the expression stability of the internal reference genes used as normalization factors. However, many applications of qRT-PCR used housekeeping genes as internal controls without validation. In this study, the expression stability of eight candidate reference genes in three tissues (intestine, respiratory tree, and muscle) of the sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus was assessed during normal growth and aestivation using the geNorm, NormFinder, delta CT, and RefFinder algorithms. The results indicate that the reference genes exhibited significantly different expression patterns among the three tissues during aestivation. In general, the β-tubulin (TUBB) gene was relatively stable in the intestine and respiratory tree tissues. The optimal reference gene combination for intestine was 40S ribosomal protein S18 (RPS18), TUBB, and NADH dehydrogenase (NADH); for respiratory tree, it was β-actin (ACTB), TUBB, and succinate dehydrogenase cytochrome B small subunit (SDHC); and for muscle it was α-tubulin (TUBA) and NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] 1 α subcomplex subunit 13 (NDUFA13). These combinations of internal control genes should be considered for use in further studies of gene expression in A. japonicus during aestivation.

  13. Selection of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR in Pinus massoniana Post Nematode Inoculation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Yongcheng; Liu, Qinghua; Dong, Hongyu; Zhou, Zhichun; Hao, Yanping; Chen, Xuelian; Xu, Liuyi

    2016-01-01

    Pinus massoniaia Lamb has gained more and more attention as the most important tree species for timber and forestation in South China. Gene expression studies are of great importance to identify new and elite cultivars. Real-time quantitative PCR, a highly sensitive and specific method, is commonly used in the analysis of gene expression. The appropriate reference genes must be employed to normalize the calculation program for ascertaining repeatable and significant results. Herein, eleven housekeeping genes were evaluated during different stages of P. massoniana post nematode inoculation in this study. Three statistical approaches such as geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were selected to analyze the stability of candidate genes. The results indicated that U2af and β-TUB were the most stable reference genes. These two genes could be used for the normalization in most of the experiments of P. massoniana, while Histone and AK were the least stable ones. In addition, EF expressed at the lowest average Ct value was the most abundant candidate gene. As an important gene associated with defense mechanisms, ABC transporter was analyzed by qRT-PCR, and the results were used to confirm the reliability of two genes. The selected reference genes in the present study will be conducive to future gene expression normalized by qRT-PCR in P. massoniana. PMID:26800152

  14. Selection of Reference Genes for Real-Time Quantitative PCR in Pinus massoniana Post Nematode Inoculation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yongcheng; Liu, Qinghua; Dong, Hongyu; Zhou, Zhichun; Hao, Yanping; Chen, Xuelian; Xu, Liuyi

    2016-01-01

    Pinus massoniaia Lamb has gained more and more attention as the most important tree species for timber and forestation in South China. Gene expression studies are of great importance to identify new and elite cultivars. Real-time quantitative PCR, a highly sensitive and specific method, is commonly used in the analysis of gene expression. The appropriate reference genes must be employed to normalize the calculation program for ascertaining repeatable and significant results. Herein, eleven housekeeping genes were evaluated during different stages of P. massoniana post nematode inoculation in this study. Three statistical approaches such as geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were selected to analyze the stability of candidate genes. The results indicated that U2af and β-TUB were the most stable reference genes. These two genes could be used for the normalization in most of the experiments of P. massoniana, while Histone and AK were the least stable ones. In addition, EF expressed at the lowest average Ct value was the most abundant candidate gene. As an important gene associated with defense mechanisms, ABC transporter was analyzed by qRT-PCR, and the results were used to confirm the reliability of two genes. The selected reference genes in the present study will be conducive to future gene expression normalized by qRT-PCR in P. massoniana.

  15. Selection of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Stipa grandis during Environmental Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Qi; Zou, Bo; Ren, Weibo; Ding, Yong; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Ruigang; Wang, Kai; Hou, Xiangyang

    2017-01-01

    Stipa grandis P. Smirn. is a dominant plant species in the typical steppe of the Xilingole Plateau of Inner Mongolia. Selection of suitable reference genes for the quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is important for gene expression analysis and research into the molecular mechanisms underlying the stress responses of S. grandis. In the present study, 15 candidate reference genes (EF1 beta, ACT, GAPDH, SamDC, CUL4, CAP, SNF2, SKIP1, SKIP5, SKIP11, UBC2, UBC15, UBC17, UCH, and HERC2) were evaluated for their stability as potential reference genes for qRT-PCR under different stresses. Four algorithms were used: GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The results showed that the most stable reference genes were different under different stress conditions: EF1beta and UBC15 during drought and salt stresses; ACT and GAPDH under heat stress; SKIP5 and UBC17 under cold stress; UBC15 and HERC2 under high pH stress; UBC2 and UBC15 under wounding stress; EF1beta and UBC17 under jasmonic acid treatment; UBC15 and CUL4 under abscisic acid treatment; and HERC2 and UBC17 under salicylic acid treatment. EF1beta and HERC2 were the most suitable genes for the global analysis of all samples. Furthermore, six target genes, SgPOD, SgPAL, SgLEA, SgLOX, SgHSP90 and SgPR1, were selected to validate the most and least stable reference genes under different treatments. Our results provide guidelines for reference gene selection for more accurate qRT-PCR quantification and will promote studies of gene expression in S. grandis subjected to environmental stress. PMID:28056110

  16. Reference genes selection for transcript normalization in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) under salinity and drought stress.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoping; Qi, Jianmin; Chen, Meixia; Zhang, Gaoyang; Tao, Aifen; Fang, Pingping; Xu, Jiantang; Onyedinma, Sandra A; Su, Jianguang

    2015-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is an economic and ecological fiber crop but suffers severe losses in fiber yield and quality under the stressful conditions of excess salinity and drought. To explore the mechanisms by which kenaf responds to excess salinity and drought, gene expression was performed at the transcriptomic level using RNA-seq. Thus, it is crucial to have a suitable set of reference genes to normalize target gene expression in kenaf under different conditions using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). In this study, we selected 10 candidate reference genes from the kenaf transcriptome and assessed their expression stabilities by qRT-PCR in 14 NaCl- and PEG-treated samples using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The results indicated that TUBα and 18S rRNA were the optimum reference genes under conditions of excess salinity and drought in kenaf. Moreover, TUBα and 18S rRNA were used singly or in combination as reference genes to validate the expression levels of WRKY28 and WRKY32 in NaCl- and PEG-treated samples by qRT-PCR. The results further proved the reliability of the two selected reference genes. This work will benefit future studies on gene expression and lead to a better understanding of responses to excess salinity and drought in kenaf.

  17. Reference genes selection for transcript normalization in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) under salinity and drought stress

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiaoping; Chen, Meixia; Zhang, Gaoyang; Tao, Aifen; Fang, Pingping; Xu, Jiantang; Onyedinma, Sandra A.

    2015-01-01

    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) is an economic and ecological fiber crop but suffers severe losses in fiber yield and quality under the stressful conditions of excess salinity and drought. To explore the mechanisms by which kenaf responds to excess salinity and drought, gene expression was performed at the transcriptomic level using RNA-seq. Thus, it is crucial to have a suitable set of reference genes to normalize target gene expression in kenaf under different conditions using real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). In this study, we selected 10 candidate reference genes from the kenaf transcriptome and assessed their expression stabilities by qRT-PCR in 14 NaCl- and PEG-treated samples using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The results indicated that TUBα and 18S rRNA were the optimum reference genes under conditions of excess salinity and drought in kenaf. Moreover, TUBα and 18S rRNA were used singly or in combination as reference genes to validate the expression levels of WRKY28 and WRKY32 in NaCl- and PEG-treated samples by qRT-PCR. The results further proved the reliability of the two selected reference genes. This work will benefit future studies on gene expression and lead to a better understanding of responses to excess salinity and drought in kenaf. PMID:26644967

  18. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in Périgord black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) developmental stages.

    PubMed

    Zarivi, Osvaldo; Cesare, Patrizia; Ragnelli, Anna Maria; Aimola, Pierpaolo; Leonardi, Marco; Bonfigli, Antonella; Colafarina, Sabrina; Poma, Anna Maria; Miranda, Michele; Pacioni, Giovanni

    2015-08-01

    The symbiotic fungus Tuber melanosporum Vittad. (Périgord black truffle) belongs to the Ascomycota and forms mutualistic symbiosis with tree and shrub roots. This truffle has a high value in a global market and is cultivated in many countries of both hemispheres. The publication of the T. melanosporum genome has given researchers unique opportunities to learn more about the biology of the fungus. Real-time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) is a definitive technique for quantitating differences in transcriptional gene expression levels between samples. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate qRT-PCR data, normalization relative to stable housekeeping genes is required. These housekeeping genes must show stable expression under given experimental conditions for the qRT-PCR results to be accurate. Unfortunately, there are no studies on the stability of housekeeping genes used in T. melanosporum development. In this study, we present a morphological and microscopical classification of the developmental stages of T. melanosporum fruit body, and investigate the expression levels of 12 candidate reference genes (18S rRNA; 5.8S rRNA; Elongation factor 1-alpha; Elongation factor 1-beta; α-tubulin; 60S ribosomal protein L29; β-tubulin; 40S ribosomal protein S1; 40S ribosomal protein S3; Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase; β-actin; Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme). To evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls, five software-based approaches and one web-based comprehensive tool (RefFinder) were used to analyze and rank the tested genes. We demonstrate here that the 18S rRNA gene shows the most stable expression during T. melanosporum development and that a set of three genes, 18S rRNA, Elongation factor 1-alpha and 40S ribosomal protein S3, is the most suitable to normalize qRT-PCR data from all the analyzed developmental stages; conversely, 18S rRNA, Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and Elongation factor 1-alpha are the most suitable

  19. Identification and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Analysis of Brazilian Pine (Araucaria angustifolia Bertol. Kuntze) Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Elbl, Paula; Navarro, Bruno V; de Oliveira, Leandro F; Almeida, Juliana; Mosini, Amanda C; Dos Santos, André L W; Rossi, Magdalena; Floh, Eny I S

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative analysis of gene expression is a fundamental experimental approach in many fields of plant biology, but it requires the use of internal controls representing constitutively expressed genes for reliable transcript quantification. In this study, we identified fifteen putative reference genes from an A. angustifolia transcriptome database. Variation in transcript levels was first evaluated in silico by comparing read counts and then by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), resulting in the identification of six candidate genes. The consistency of transcript abundance was also calculated applying geNorm and NormFinder software packages followed by a validation approach using four target genes. The results presented here indicate that a diverse set of samples should ideally be used in order to identify constitutively expressed genes, and that the use of any two reference genes in combination, of the six tested genes, is sufficient for effective expression normalization. Finally, in agreement with the in silico prediction, a comprehensive analysis of the qRT-PCR data combined with validation analysis revealed that AaEIF4B-L and AaPP2A are the most suitable reference genes for comparative studies of A. angustifolia gene expression.

  20. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantitative gene expression studies in milk somatic cells of lactating cows (Bos indicus).

    PubMed

    Varshney, N; Mohanty, A K; Kumar, S; Kaushik, J K; Dang, A K; Mukesh, M; Mishra, B P; Kataria, R; Kimothi, S P; Mukhopadhyay, T K; Malakar, D; Prakash, B S; Grover, S; Batish, V K

    2012-06-01

    We assessed the suitability of 9 internal control genes (ICG) in milk somatic cells of lactating cows to find suitable reference genes for use in quantitative PCR (qPCR). Eighteen multiparous lactating Sahiwal cows were used, 6 in each of 3 lactation stages: early (25 ± 5 d in milk), mid (160 ± 15 d in milk), and late (275 ± 25 d in milk) lactation. Nine candidate reference genes [glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 11 (PPP1R11), β-actin (ACTB), β-2 microglobulin (B2M), 40S ribosomal protein S15a (RPS15A), ubiquitously expressed transcript (UXT), mitochondrial GTPase 1 (MTG1), 18S rRNA (RN18S1), and ubiquitin (UBC)] were evaluated. Three genes, β-casein (CSN2), lactoferrin (LTF), and cathelicidin (CAMP) were chosen as target genes. Very high amplification was observed in 7 ICG and very low level amplification was observed in 2 ICG (UXT and MTG1). Thus, UXT and MTG1 were excluded from further analysis. The qPCR data were analyzed by 2 software packages, geNorm and NormFinder, to determine suitable reference genes, based on their stability and expression. Overall, PPP1R11, ACTB, UBC, and GAPDH were stably expressed among all candidate reference genes. Therefore, these genes could be used as ICG for normalization of qPCR data in milk somatic cells through lactation.

  1. Selection of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis of rat tissues under physiological and toxicological conditions.

    PubMed

    Svingen, Terje; Letting, Heidi; Hadrup, Niels; Hass, Ulla; Vinggaard, Anne Marie

    2015-01-01

    In biological research the analysis of gene expression levels in cells and tissues can be a powerful tool to gain insights into biological processes. For this, quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR) is a popular method that often involve the use of constitutively expressed endogenous reference (or 'housekeeping') gene for normalization of data. Thus, it is essential to use reference genes that have been verified to be stably expressed within the specific experimental setting. Here, we have analysed the expression stability of 12 commonly used reference genes (Actb, B2m, Gapdh, Hprt, Pgk1, Rn18s, Rpl13a, Rps18, Rps29, Sdha, Tbp and Ubc) across several juvenile and adult rat tissues (liver, adrenal, prostate, fat pad, testis and ovaries), both under normal conditions and following exposure to various chemicals during development. Employing NormFinder and BestKeeper softwares, we found Hprt and Sdha to be amongst the most stable genes across normal and manipulated tissues, with several others also being suitable for most tissues. Tbp and B2m displayed highest variability in transcript levels between tissues and developmental stages. It was also observed that the reference genes were most unstable in liver and testis following toxicological exposure. For future studies, we propose the use of more than one verified reference gene and the continuous monitoring of their suitability under various experimental conditions, including toxicological studies, based on changes in threshold (Ct) values from cDNA samples having been reverse-transcribed from a constant input concentration of RNA.

  2. Validation of suitable reference genes for expression normalization in Echinococcus spp. larval stages.

    PubMed

    Espínola, Sergio Martin; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Zaha, Arnaldo

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, a significant amount of sequence data (both genomic and transcriptomic) for Echinococcus spp. has been published, thereby facilitating the analysis of genes expressed during a specific stage or involved in parasite development. To perform a suitable gene expression quantification analysis, the use of validated reference genes is strongly recommended. Thus, the aim of this work was to identify suitable reference genes to allow reliable expression normalization for genes of interest in Echinococcus granulosus sensu stricto (s.s.) (G1) and Echinococcus ortleppi upon induction of the early pre-adult development. Untreated protoscoleces (PS) and pepsin-treated protoscoleces (PSP) from E. granulosus s.s. (G1) and E. ortleppi metacestode were used. The gene expression stability of eleven candidate reference genes (βTUB, NDUFV2, RPL13, TBP, CYP-1, RPII, EF-1α, βACT-1, GAPDH, ETIF4A-III and MAPK3) was assessed using geNorm, Normfinder, and RefFinder. Our qPCR data showed a good correlation with the recently published RNA-seq data. Regarding expression stability, EF-1α and TBP were the most stable genes for both species. Interestingly, βACT-1 (the most commonly used reference gene), and GAPDH and ETIF4A-III (previously identified as housekeeping genes) did not behave stably in our assay conditions. We propose the use of EF-1α as a reference gene for studies involving gene expression analysis in both PS and PSP experimental conditions for E. granulosus s.s. and E. ortleppi. To demonstrate its applicability, EF-1α was used as a normalizer gene in the relative quantification of transcripts from genes coding for antigen B subunits. The same EF-1α reference gene may be used in studies with other Echinococcus sensu lato species. This report validates suitable reference genes for species of class Cestoda, phylum Platyhelminthes, thus providing a foundation for further validation in other epidemiologically important cestode species, such as those from the

  3. Identification of stable reference genes in differentiating human pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Holmgren, Gustav; Ghosheh, Nidal; Zeng, Xianmin; Bogestål, Yalda; Sartipy, Peter; Synnergren, Jane

    2015-06-01

    Reference genes, often referred to as housekeeping genes (HKGs), are frequently used to normalize gene expression data based on the assumption that they are expressed at a constant level in the cells. However, several studies have shown that there may be a large variability in the gene expression levels of HKGs in various cell types. In a previous study, employing human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) subjected to spontaneous differentiation, we observed that the expression of commonly used HKG varied to a degree that rendered them inappropriate to use as reference genes under those experimental settings. Here we present a substantially extended study of the HKG signature in human pluripotent stem cells (hPSC), including nine global gene expression datasets from both hESC and human induced pluripotent stem cells, obtained during directed differentiation toward endoderm-, mesoderm-, and ectoderm derivatives. Sets of stably expressed genes were compiled, and a handful of genes (e.g., EID2, ZNF324B, CAPN10, and RABEP2) were identified as generally applicable reference genes in hPSCs across all cell lines and experimental conditions. The stability in gene expression profiles was confirmed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR analysis. Taken together, the current results suggest that differentiating hPSCs have a distinct HKG signature, which in some aspects is different from somatic cell types, and underscore the necessity to validate the stability of reference genes under the actual experimental setup used. In addition, the novel putative HKGs identified in this study can preferentially be used for normalization of gene expression data obtained from differentiating hPSCs.

  4. An efficient RNA isolation procedure and identification of reference genes for normalization of gene expression in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Vashisth, Tripti; Johnson, Lisa Klima; Malladi, Anish

    2011-12-01

    Application of transcriptomics approaches can greatly enhance our understanding of blueberry physiology. The success of transcriptomics approaches is dependent on the extraction of high-quality RNA which is complicated by the abundance of polyphenolics and polysaccharides in blueberry. Additionally, transcriptomics requires the accurate quantification of transcript abundance. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a robust method to determine transcript abundance. Normalization of gene expression using stably expressed reference genes is essential in qRT-PCR. An evaluation of the stability of expression of reference genes has not yet been reported in blueberry. The objectives of this study were to develop an effective procedure for extracting RNA from different organs and to evaluate potential reference genes for qRT-PCR analyses in blueberry. RNA of high quality and yield was extracted from eight and six organs of rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberry, respectively, using a modified cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-based method. The expression stability of 12 reference genes was evaluated. UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME (UBC28), RNA HELICASE-LIKE (RH8), CLATHRIN ADAPTER COMPLEXES MEDIUM SUBUNIT FAMILY PROTEIN (CACSa), and POLYUBIQUITIN (UBQ3b) were the most stably expressed genes across multiple organs in both blueberry species. Further, the expression stability of the reference genes in the branch abscission zone following treatment with fruit abscission-inducing compounds was analyzed. CACSa, RH8, and UBC28 were the most stably expressed genes in the abscission zone under abscission-inducing conditions. We suggest a preliminary evaluation of UBC28, CACSa, RH8, and UBQ3b to identify the most suitable reference genes for the experimental conditions under consideration in blueberry.

  5. Reference genes selection and normalization of oxidative stress responsive genes upon different temperature stress conditions in Hypericum perforatum L.

    PubMed

    Velada, Isabel; Ragonezi, Carla; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit; Cardoso, Hélia

    2014-01-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a widely used technique for gene expression analysis. The reliability of this method depends largely on the suitable selection of stable reference genes for accurate data normalization. Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) is a field growing plant that is frequently exposed to a variety of adverse environmental stresses that can negatively affect its productivity. This widely known medicinal plant with broad pharmacological properties (anti-depressant, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and antibacterial) has been overlooked with respect to the identification of reference genes suitable for RT-qPCR data normalization. In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were analyzed in H. perforatum plants subjected to cold and heat stresses. The expression stability of these genes was assessed using GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The results revealed that the ranking of stability among the three algorithms showed only minor differences within each treatment. The best-ranked reference genes differed between cold- and heat-treated samples; nevertheless, TUB was the most stable gene in both experimental conditions. GSA and GAPDH were found to be reliable reference genes in cold-treated samples, while GAPDH showed low expression stability in heat-treated samples. 26SrRNA and H2A had the highest stabilities in the heat assay, whereas H2A was less stable in the cold assay. Finally, AOX1, AOX2, CAT1 and CHS genes, associated with plant stress responses and oxidative stress, were used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. These target genes showed differential expression profiles over time in treated samples. This study not only is the first systematic analysis for the selection of suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in H. perforatum subjected to temperature stress conditions, but may also provide valuable information

  6. Reference Genes Selection and Normalization of Oxidative Stress Responsive Genes upon Different Temperature Stress Conditions in Hypericum perforatum L

    PubMed Central

    Velada, Isabel; Ragonezi, Carla; Arnholdt-Schmitt, Birgit; Cardoso, Hélia

    2014-01-01

    Reverse transcription-quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) is a widely used technique for gene expression analysis. The reliability of this method depends largely on the suitable selection of stable reference genes for accurate data normalization. Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John's wort) is a field growing plant that is frequently exposed to a variety of adverse environmental stresses that can negatively affect its productivity. This widely known medicinal plant with broad pharmacological properties (anti-depressant, anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-cancer, and antibacterial) has been overlooked with respect to the identification of reference genes suitable for RT-qPCR data normalization. In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were analyzed in H. perforatum plants subjected to cold and heat stresses. The expression stability of these genes was assessed using GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The results revealed that the ranking of stability among the three algorithms showed only minor differences within each treatment. The best-ranked reference genes differed between cold- and heat-treated samples; nevertheless, TUB was the most stable gene in both experimental conditions. GSA and GAPDH were found to be reliable reference genes in cold-treated samples, while GAPDH showed low expression stability in heat-treated samples. 26SrRNA and H2A had the highest stabilities in the heat assay, whereas H2A was less stable in the cold assay. Finally, AOX1, AOX2, CAT1 and CHS genes, associated with plant stress responses and oxidative stress, were used as target genes to validate the reliability of identified reference genes. These target genes showed differential expression profiles over time in treated samples. This study not only is the first systematic analysis for the selection of suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in H. perforatum subjected to temperature stress conditions, but may also provide valuable information

  7. New in-depth rainbow trout transcriptome reference and digital atlas of gene expression

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sequencing the rainbow trout genome is underway and a transcriptome reference sequence is required to help in genome assembly and gene discovery. Previously, we reported a transcriptome reference sequence using a 19X coverage of 454-pyrosequencing data. Although this work added a great wealth of ann...

  8. Comprehensive Selection of Reference Genes for Gene Expression Normalization in Sugarcane by Real Time Quantitative RT-PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Hui; Wu, Qibin; Guo, Jinlong; Xu, Liping; Que, Youxiong

    2014-01-01

    The increasingly used real time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) method for gene expression analysis requires one or several reference gene(s) acting as normalization factor(s). In order to facilitate gene expression studies in sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum), a non-model plant with limited genome information, the stability of 13 candidate reference genes was evaluated. The geNorm, NormFinder and deltaCt methods were used for selecting stably expressed internal controls across different tissues and under various experimental treatments. These results revealed that, among these 13 candidate reference genes, GAPDH, eEF-1a and eIF-4α were the most stable and suitable for use as normalization factors across all various experimental samples. In addition, APRT could be a candidate for examining the relationship between gene copy number and transcript levels in sugarcane tissue samples. According to the results evaluated by geNorm, combining CUL and eEF-1α in hormone treatment experiments; CAC and CUL in abiotic stress tests; GAPDH, eEF-1a and CUL in all treatment samples plus CAC, CUL, APRT and TIPS-41 in cultivar tissues as groups for normalization would lead to more accurate and reliable expression quantification in sugarcane. This is the first systematic validation of reference genes for quantification of transcript expression profiles in sugarcane. This study should provide useful information for selecting reference genes for more accurate quantification of gene expression in sugarcane and other plant species. PMID:24823940

  9. Effect of carbon monoxide on gene expression in cerebrocortical astrocytes: Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Sara R; Vieira, Helena L A; Duarte, Carlos B

    2015-09-15

    Quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a widely used technique to characterize changes in gene expression in complex cellular and tissue processes, such as cytoprotection or inflammation. The accurate assessment of changes in gene expression depends on the selection of adequate internal reference gene(s). Carbon monoxide (CO) affects several metabolic pathways and de novo protein synthesis is crucial in the cellular responses to this gasotransmitter. Herein a selection of commonly used reference genes was analyzed to identify the most suitable internal control genes to evaluate the effect of CO on gene expression in cultured cerebrocortical astrocytes. The cells were exposed to CO by treatment with CORM-A1 (CO releasing molecule A1) and four different algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, Delta Ct and BestKeeper) were applied to evaluate the stability of eight putative reference genes. Our results indicate that Gapdh (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) together with Ppia (peptidylpropyl isomerase A) is the most suitable gene pair for normalization of qRT-PCR results under the experimental conditions used. Pgk1 (phosphoglycerate kinase 1), Hprt1 (hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyl transferase I), Sdha (Succinate Dehydrogenase Complex, Subunit A), Tbp (TATA box binding protein), Actg1 (actin gamma 1) and Rn18s (18S rRNA) genes presented less stable expression profiles in cultured cortical astrocytes exposed to CORM-A1 for up to 60 min. For validation, we analyzed the effect of CO on the expression of Bdnf and bcl-2. Different results were obtained, depending on the reference genes used. A significant increase in the expression of both genes was found when the results were normalized with Gapdh and Ppia, in contrast with the results obtained when the other genes were used as reference. These findings highlight the need for a proper and accurate selection of the reference genes used in the quantification of qRT-PCR results

  10. A Comprehensive Selection of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in a Predatory Lady Beetle, Hippodamia convergens (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae)

    PubMed Central

    Siegfried, Blair D.; Zhou, Xuguo

    2015-01-01

    Reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a reliable, rapid, and reproducible technique for measuring and evaluating changes in gene expression. To facilitate gene expression studies and obtain more accurate RT-qPCR data, normalization relative to stable reference genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of seven candidate reference genes, including β-actin (Actin), elongation factor 1 α (EF1A), glyceralde hyde-3-phosphate dehydro-genase (GAPDH), cyclophilins A (CypA), vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (ATPase), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) from Hippodamia convergens were investigated. H. convergens is an abundant predatory species in the New World, and has been widely used as a biological control agent against sap-sucking insect pests, primarily aphids. A total of four analytical methods, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were employed to evaluate the performance of these seven genes as endogenous controls under diverse experimental conditions. Additionally, RefFinder, a comprehensive evaluation platform integrating the four above mentioned algorithms, ranked the overall stability of these candidate genes. A suite of reference genes were specifically recommended for each experimental condition. Among them, 28S, EF1A, and CypA were the best reference genes across different development stages; GAPDH, 28S, and CypA were most stable in different tissues. GAPDH and CypA were most stable in female and male adults and photoperiod conditions, 28S and EF1A were most stable under a range of temperatures, Actin and CypA were most stable under dietary RNAi condition. This work establishes a standardized RT-qPCR analysis in H. convergens. Additionally, this study lays a foundation for functional genomics research in H. convergens and sheds light on the ecological risk assessment of RNAi-based biopesticides on this non-target biological control agent. PMID:25915640

  11. Identification of suitable reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis in rat adipose stromal cells induced to trilineage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Santos, Bruno Paiva Dos; da Costa Diesel, Luciana Fraga; da Silva Meirelles, Lindolfo; Nardi, Nance Beyer; Camassola, Melissa

    2016-12-15

    This study was designed to (i) identify stable reference genes for the analysis of gene expression during in vitro differentiation of rat adipose stromal cells (rASCs), (ii) recommend stable genes for individual treatment conditions, and (iii) validate these genes by comparison with normalization results from stable and unstable reference genes. On the basis of a literature review, eight genes were selected: Actb, B2m, Hprt1, Ppia, Rplp0, Rpl13a, Rpl5, and Ywhaz. Genes were ranked according to their stability under different culture conditions as assessed using GenNorm, NormFinder, and RefFinder algorithms. Although the employed algorithms returned different rankings, the most frequently top-ranked genes were: B2m and/or Ppia for all 28day treatments (ALL28); Ppia and Hprt1 (adipogenic differentiation; A28), B2m (chondrogenic differentiation; C28), Rpl5 (controls maintained in complete culture medium; CCM), Rplp0 (osteogenic differentiation for 3days; O3), Rpl13a and Actb (osteogenic differentiation for 7days; O7), Rplp0 and Ppia (osteogenic differentiation for 14days; O14), Hprt1 and Ppia (osteogenic differentiation for 28days; O28), as well as Actb (all osteogenesis time points combined; ALLOSTEO). The obtained results indicate that the performance of reference genes depends on the differentiation protocol and on the analysis time, thus providing valuable information for the design of RT-PCR experiments.

  12. Evaluation and validation of reference gene stability during Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection.

    PubMed

    Neerukonda, Sabari Nath; Katneni, Upendra K; Golovan, Sergey; Parcells, Mark S

    2016-10-01

    Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is widely used in the study of relative gene expression in general, and has been used in the field of Marek's disease (MD) research to measure transcriptional responses to infection and/or vaccination. Studies in the past have either employed cellular β-actin (BACT) or glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as internal reference genes, although the stability of their expression in the context of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection has never been investigated. In the present study, we compared the stability of five reference genes (BACT, 28S RNA, 18S RNA, GAPDH, Peptidyl-prolyl-isomerase B [PPIB], a.k.a. cyclophilin B) as standard internal controls in chicken embryo fibroblast (CEFs) cultures infected with either MD vaccine or oncogenic MDV1 viruses. We further extend these analyses to reference gene stability in spleen lymphomas induced by infection of commercial broiler chickens with a very virulent plus MDV1 (vv+ TK-2a virus). Two excel based algorithms, (Bestkeeper and Normfinder) were employed to compare reference gene stability. Bestkeeper and Normfinder analysis of reference gene stability in virus- and mock-infected cells, showed that 28S RNA and PPIB displayed higher stability in CEF infections with either oncogenic or vaccine viruses. In addition, both Bestkeeper and Normfinder determined 28S RNA and PPIB to be the most stably-expressed reference genes in vivo in vv+ TK-2a-induced spleen lymphomas. Furthermore, Bestkeeper and Normfinder analyses both determined BACT to be the least stable reference gene during MDV infection of CEF with oncogenic viruses, vaccine viruses, as well as in vv+ TK-2a-induced spleen lymphomas.

  13. Super-resolution imaging of fluorescently labeled, endogenous RNA Polymerase II in living cells with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Won-Ki; Jayanth, Namrata; Mullen, Susan; Tan, Tzer Han; Jung, Yoon J.; Cissé, Ibrahim I.

    2016-01-01

    Live cell imaging of mammalian RNA polymerase II (Pol II) has previously relied on random insertions of exogenous, mutant Pol II coupled with the degradation of endogenous Pol II using a toxin, α-amanitin. Therefore, it has been unclear whether over-expression of labeled Pol II under an exogenous promoter may have played a role in reported Pol II dynamics in vivo. Here we label the endogenous Pol II in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system. Using single-molecule based super-resolution imaging in the living cells, we captured endogenous Pol II clusters. Consistent with previous studies, we observed that Pol II clusters were short-lived (cluster lifetime ~8 s) in living cells. Moreover, dynamic responses to serum-stimulation, and drug-mediated transcription inhibition were all in agreement with previous observations in the exogenous Pol II MEF cell line. Our findings suggest that previous exogenously tagged Pol II faithfully recapitulated the endogenous polymerase clustering dynamics in living cells, and our approach may in principle be used to directly label transcription factors for live cell imaging. PMID:27782203

  14. Super-resolution imaging of fluorescently labeled, endogenous RNA Polymerase II in living cells with CRISPR/Cas9-mediated gene editing.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Ki; Jayanth, Namrata; Mullen, Susan; Tan, Tzer Han; Jung, Yoon J; Cissé, Ibrahim I

    2016-10-26

    Live cell imaging of mammalian RNA polymerase II (Pol II) has previously relied on random insertions of exogenous, mutant Pol II coupled with the degradation of endogenous Pol II using a toxin, α-amanitin. Therefore, it has been unclear whether over-expression of labeled Pol II under an exogenous promoter may have played a role in reported Pol II dynamics in vivo. Here we label the endogenous Pol II in mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing system. Using single-molecule based super-resolution imaging in the living cells, we captured endogenous Pol II clusters. Consistent with previous studies, we observed that Pol II clusters were short-lived (cluster lifetime ~8 s) in living cells. Moreover, dynamic responses to serum-stimulation, and drug-mediated transcription inhibition were all in agreement with previous observations in the exogenous Pol II MEF cell line. Our findings suggest that previous exogenously tagged Pol II faithfully recapitulated the endogenous polymerase clustering dynamics in living cells, and our approach may in principle be used to directly label transcription factors for live cell imaging.

  15. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in Quercus suber.

    PubMed

    Marum, Liliana; Miguel, Andreia; Ricardo, Cândido P; Miguel, Célia

    2012-01-01

    The use of reverse transcription quantitative PCR technology to assess gene expression levels requires an accurate normalization of data in order to avoid misinterpretation of experimental results and erroneous analyses. Despite being the focus of several transcriptomics projects, oaks, and particularly cork oak (Quercus suber), have not been investigated regarding the identification of reference genes suitable for the normalization of real-time quantitative PCR data. In this study, ten candidate reference genes (Act, CACs, EF-1α, GAPDH, His3, PsaH, Sand, PP2A, ß-Tub and Ubq) were evaluated to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in cork oak. The transcript abundance of these genes was analysed in several tissues of cork oak, including leaves, reproduction cork, and periderm from branches at different developmental stages (1-, 2-, and 3-year old) or collected in different dates (active growth period versus dormancy). The three statistical methods (geNorm, NormFinder, and CV method) used in the evaluation of the most suitable combination of reference genes identified Act and CACs as the most stable candidates when all the samples were analysed together, while ß-Tub and PsaH showed the lowest expression stability. However, when different tissues, developmental stages, and collection dates were analysed separately, the reference genes exhibited some variation in their expression levels. In this study, and for the first time, we have identified and validated reference genes in cork oak that can be used for quantification of target gene expression in different tissues and experimental conditions and will be useful as a starting point for gene expression studies in other oaks.

  16. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in a Non-Model Tree Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.).

    PubMed

    Moazzam Jazi, Maryam; Ghadirzadeh Khorzoghi, Effat; Botanga, Christopher; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The tree species, Pistacia vera (P. vera) is an important commercial product that is salt-tolerant and long-lived, with a possible lifespan of over one thousand years. Gene expression analysis is an efficient method to explore the possible regulatory mechanisms underlying these characteristics. Therefore, having the most suitable set of reference genes is required for transcript level normalization under different conditions in P. vera. In the present study, we selected eight widely used reference genes, ACT, EF1α, α-TUB, β-TUB, GAPDH, CYP2, UBQ10, and 18S rRNA. Using qRT-PCR their expression was assessed in 54 different samples of three cultivars of P. vera. The samples were collected from different organs under various abiotic treatments (cold, drought, and salt) across three time points. Several statistical programs (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) were applied to estimate the expression stability of candidate reference genes. Results obtained from the statistical analysis were then exposed to Rank aggregation package to generate a consensus gene rank. Based on our results, EF1α was found to be the superior reference gene in all samples under all abiotic treatments. In addition to EF1α, ACT and β-TUB were the second best reference genes for gene expression analysis in leaf and root. We recommended β-TUB as the second most stable gene for samples under the cold and drought treatments, while ACT holds the same position in samples analyzed under salt treatment. This report will benefit future research on the expression profiling of P. vera and other members of the Anacardiaceae family.

  17. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in a Non-Model Tree Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.)

    PubMed Central

    Moazzam Jazi, Maryam; Ghadirzadeh Khorzoghi, Effat; Botanga, Christopher; Seyedi, Seyed Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    The tree species, Pistacia vera (P. vera) is an important commercial product that is salt-tolerant and long-lived, with a possible lifespan of over one thousand years. Gene expression analysis is an efficient method to explore the possible regulatory mechanisms underlying these characteristics. Therefore, having the most suitable set of reference genes is required for transcript level normalization under different conditions in P. vera. In the present study, we selected eight widely used reference genes, ACT, EF1α, α-TUB, β-TUB, GAPDH, CYP2, UBQ10, and 18S rRNA. Using qRT-PCR their expression was assessed in 54 different samples of three cultivars of P. vera. The samples were collected from different organs under various abiotic treatments (cold, drought, and salt) across three time points. Several statistical programs (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper) were applied to estimate the expression stability of candidate reference genes. Results obtained from the statistical analysis were then exposed to Rank aggregation package to generate a consensus gene rank. Based on our results, EF1α was found to be the superior reference gene in all samples under all abiotic treatments. In addition to EF1α, ACT and β-TUB were the second best reference genes for gene expression analysis in leaf and root. We recommended β-TUB as the second most stable gene for samples under the cold and drought treatments, while ACT holds the same position in samples analyzed under salt treatment. This report will benefit future research on the expression profiling of P. vera and other members of the Anacardiaceae family. PMID:27308855

  18. Reference gene validation for quantitative RT-PCR during biotic and abiotic stresses in Vitis vinifera.

    PubMed

    Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies.

  19. Reference Gene Validation for Quantitative RT-PCR during Biotic and Abiotic Stresses in Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alexandre Filipe; Fonseca, Catarina; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Lourenço, Ana Maria; Monteiro, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Grapevine is one of the most cultivated fruit crop worldwide with Vitis vinifera being the species with the highest economical importance. Being highly susceptible to fungal pathogens and increasingly affected by environmental factors, it has become an important agricultural research area, where gene expression analysis plays a fundamental role. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is currently amongst the most powerful techniques to perform gene expression studies. Nevertheless, accurate gene expression quantification strongly relies on appropriate reference gene selection for sample normalization. Concerning V. vinifera, limited information still exists as for which genes are the most suitable to be used as reference under particular experimental conditions. In this work, seven candidate genes were investigated for their stability in grapevine samples referring to four distinct stresses (Erysiphe necator, wounding and UV-C irradiation in leaves and Phaeomoniella chlamydospora colonization in wood). The expression stability was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. In all cases, full agreement was not observed for the three methods. To provide comprehensive rankings integrating the three different programs, for each treatment, a consensus ranking was created using a non-weighted unsupervised rank aggregation method. According to the last, the three most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine leaves, regardless of the stress, are UBC, VAG and PEP. For the P. chlamydospora treatment, EF1, CYP and UBC were the best scoring genes. Acquaintance of the most suitable reference genes to be used in grapevine samples can contribute for accurate gene expression quantification in forthcoming studies. PMID:25340748

  20. Reference gene selection for quantitative gene expression studies during biological invasions: A test on multiple genes and tissues in a model ascidian Ciona savignyi.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuena; Gao, Yangchun; Jiang, Bei; Zhou, Zunchun; Zhan, Aibin

    2016-01-15

    As invasive species have successfully colonized a wide range of dramatically different local environments, they offer a good opportunity to study interactions between species and rapidly changing environments. Gene expression represents one of the primary and crucial mechanisms for rapid adaptation to local environments. Here, we aim to select reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis based on quantitative Real-Time PCR (qRT-PCR) for a model invasive ascidian, Ciona savignyi. We analyzed the stability of ten candidate reference genes in three tissues (siphon, pharynx and intestine) under two key environmental stresses (temperature and salinity) in the marine realm based on three programs (geNorm, NormFinder and delta Ct method). Our results demonstrated only minor difference for stability rankings among the three methods. The use of different single reference gene might influence the data interpretation, while multiple reference genes could minimize possible errors. Therefore, reference gene combinations were recommended for different tissues - the optimal reference gene combination for siphon was RPS15 and RPL17 under temperature stress, and RPL17, UBQ and TubA under salinity treatment; for pharynx, TubB, TubA and RPL17 were the most stable genes under temperature stress, while TubB, TubA and UBQ were the best under salinity stress; for intestine, UBQ, RPS15 and RPL17 were the most reliable reference genes under both treatments. Our results suggest that the necessity of selection and test of reference genes for different tissues under varying environmental stresses. The results obtained here are expected to reveal mechanisms of gene expression-mediated invasion success using C. savignyi as a model species.

  1. Selection of Reference Genes for Expression Analysis Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR in the Pea Aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum (Harris) (Hemiptera, Aphidiae)

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yong; Zhou, Xuguo

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate gene expression study and obtain accurate qRT-PCR analysis, normalization relative to stable expressed housekeeping genes is required. In this study, expression profiles of 11 candidate reference genes, including actin (Actin), elongation factor 1 α (EF1A), TATA-box-binding protein (TATA), ribosomal protein L12 (RPL12), β-tubulin (Tubulin), NADH dehydrogenase (NADH), vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (v-ATPase), succinate dehydrogenase B (SDHB), 28S ribosomal RNA (28S), 16S ribosomal RNA (16S), and 18S ribosomal RNA (18S) from the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum, under different developmental stages and temperature conditions, were investigated. A total of four analytical tools, geNorm, Normfinder, BestKeeper, and the ΔCt method, were used to evaluate the suitability of these genes as endogenous controls. According to RefFinder, a web-based software tool which integrates all four above-mentioned algorithms to compare and rank the reference genes, SDHB, 16S, and NADH were the three most stable house-keeping genes under different developmental stages and temperatures. This work is intended to establish a standardized qRT-PCR protocol in pea aphid and serves as a starting point for the genomics and functional genomics research in this emerging insect model. PMID:25423476

  2. Capture of syncytin-Mar1, a Fusogenic Endogenous Retroviral Envelope Gene Involved in Placentation in the Rodentia Squirrel-Related Clade

    PubMed Central

    Redelsperger, François; Cornelis, Guillaume; Vernochet, Cécile; Tennant, Bud C.; Catzeflis, François; Mulot, Baptiste; Heidmann, Odile; Dupressoir, Anne

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Syncytin genes are fusogenic envelope protein (env) genes of retroviral origin that have been captured for a function in placentation. Within rodents, two such genes have previously been identified in the mouse-related clade, allowing a demonstration of their essential role via knockout mice. Here, we searched for similar genes in a second major clade of the Rodentia order, the squirrel-related clade, taking advantage of the complete sequencing of the ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus genome. In silico search for env genes with full coding capacity identified several candidate genes with one displaying placenta-specific expression, as revealed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of a large panel of tissues. This gene belongs to a degenerate endogenous retroviral element, with recognizable hallmarks of an integrated provirus. Cloning of the gene in an expression vector for ex vivo cell-cell fusion and pseudotype assays demonstrated fusogenicity on a large panel of mammalian cells. In situ hybridization on placenta sections showed specific expression in domains where trophoblast cells fuse into a syncytiotrophoblast at the fetomaternal interface, consistent with a role in syncytium formation. Finally, we show that the gene is conserved among the tribe Marmotini, thus dating its capture back to about at least 25 million years ago, with evidence for purifying selection and conservation of fusogenic activity. This gene that we named syncytin-Mar1 is distinct from all seven Syncytin genes identified to date in eutherian mammals and is likely to be a major effector of placentation in its related clade. IMPORTANCE Syncytin genes are fusogenic envelope genes of retroviral origin, ancestrally captured for a function in placentation. Within rodents, two such genes had been previously identified in the mouse-related clade. Here, in the squirrel-related rodent clade, we identified the envelope gene of an endogenous retrovirus with all the

  3. Capture of syncytin-Mar1, a fusogenic endogenous retroviral envelope gene involved in placentation in the Rodentia squirrel-related clade.

    PubMed

    Redelsperger, François; Cornelis, Guillaume; Vernochet, Cécile; Tennant, Bud C; Catzeflis, François; Mulot, Baptiste; Heidmann, Odile; Heidmann, Thierry; Dupressoir, Anne

    2014-07-01

    Syncytin genes are fusogenic envelope protein (env) genes of retroviral origin that have been captured for a function in placentation. Within rodents, two such genes have previously been identified in the mouse-related clade, allowing a demonstration of their essential role via knockout mice. Here, we searched for similar genes in a second major clade of the Rodentia order, the squirrel-related clade, taking advantage of the complete sequencing of the ground squirrel Ictidomys tridecemlineatus genome. In silico search for env genes with full coding capacity identified several candidate genes with one displaying placenta-specific expression, as revealed by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR analysis of a large panel of tissues. This gene belongs to a degenerate endogenous retroviral element, with recognizable hallmarks of an integrated provirus. Cloning of the gene in an expression vector for ex vivo cell-cell fusion and pseudotype assays demonstrated fusogenicity on a large panel of mammalian cells. In situ hybridization on placenta sections showed specific expression in domains where trophoblast cells fuse into a syncytiotrophoblast at the fetomaternal interface, consistent with a role in syncytium formation. Finally, we show that the gene is conserved among the tribe Marmotini, thus dating its capture back to about at least 25 million years ago, with evidence for purifying selection and conservation of fusogenic activity. This gene that we named syncytin-Mar1 is distinct from all seven Syncytin genes identified to date in eutherian mammals and is likely to be a major effector of placentation in its related clade. Importance: Syncytin genes are fusogenic envelope genes of retroviral origin, ancestrally captured for a function in placentation. Within rodents, two such genes had been previously identified in the mouse-related clade. Here, in the squirrel-related rodent clade, we identified the envelope gene of an endogenous retrovirus with all the features of a

  4. Identification of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Data Normalization in Cannabis sativa Stem Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Mangeot-Peter, Lauralie; Legay, Sylvain; Hausman, Jean-Francois; Esposito, Sergio; Guerriero, Gea

    2016-01-01

    Gene expression profiling via quantitative real-time PCR is a robust technique widely used in the life sciences to compare gene expression patterns in, e.g., different tissues, growth conditions, or after specific treatments. In the field of plant science, real-time PCR is the gold standard to study the dynamics of gene expression and is used to validate the results generated with high throughput techniques, e.g., RNA-Seq. An accurate relative quantification of gene expression relies on the identification of appropriate reference genes, that need to be determined for each experimental set-up used and plant tissue studied. Here, we identify suitable reference genes for expression profiling in stems of textile hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), whose tissues (isolated bast fibres and core) are characterized by remarkable differences in cell wall composition. We additionally validate the reference genes by analysing the expression of putative candidates involved in the non-oxidative phase of the pentose phosphate pathway and in the first step of the shikimate pathway. The goal is to describe the possible regulation pattern of some genes involved in the provision of the precursors needed for lignin biosynthesis in the different hemp stem tissues. The results here shown are useful to design future studies focused on gene expression analyses in hemp. PMID:27649158

  5. Mutation of the endogenous p53 gene in cells transformed by HPV-16 E7 and EJ c-ras confers a growth advantage involving an autocrine mechanism.

    PubMed Central

    Peacock, J W; Benchimol, S

    1994-01-01

    Rat embryo fibroblasts transformed with the HPV-16 E7 gene and the activated c-H-ras gene fall into two distinct phenotypic classes. At high cell density, clones of one class form colonies in methylcellulose supplemented with low serum; at low cell density, these cells display responsiveness to mitogenic factors present in serum-free conditioned medium from rat embryo fibroblasts. In contrast, clones of the second class exhibit an absolute dependency on growth factors present in serum at all cell densities in the methylcellulose colony assay and fail to respond to conditioned medium. We find that the status of the endogenous p53 gene is tightly correlated with these two classes of clones. Clones of the first class contain missense mutations in the p53 gene and have lost the wild-type allele. Clones of the second class express wild-type p53 protein. The importance of mutant p53 expression in reducing the growth factor dependency of transformed clones was confirmed in a separate series of experiments in which rat embryo fibroblasts were transformed with three genes, E7 + ras + mutant p53. The growth behaviour of these triply transfected clones was similar to that of the E7 + ras clones expressing endogenous mutant p53. We demonstrate that the enhanced proliferation of E7 + ras clones expressing mutant p53 protein involves an autocrine mechanism. Images PMID:8131742

  6. Defining suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis on intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sirakov, Maria; Borra, Marco; Cambuli, Francesca Maria; Plateroti, Michelina

    2013-07-01

    The study of the mammalian intestinal epithelium concerns several aspects of cellular and molecular biology. In fact, most of these studies aim to define molecular components or mechanisms related with the control of stemness and the balance between cell proliferation and differentiation in physiopathological conditions. It is worth mentioning that real-time quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) approaches are commonly used, but only a few studies are available regarding suitable reference genes to normalize gene expression data. The present study was designed to validate potential reference genes in freshly isolated proliferating or differentiated epithelial cells from the mouse intestine. We also extended our analysis to the IEC6 intestinal epithelial cells, as a promising model to study intestinal physiopathology in vitro. The stability of six potential reference genes (Hprt1, Ppia, Gapdh, Rplp0, Ppib, and Vil1) has been tested both in epithelial cells isolated from the mouse intestine and in the IEC6 cell line. The software programs-geNorm and Normfinder-were used to obtain an estimation of the expression stability of each gene and, by comparing the results, to identify the most suitable genes for RT-qPCR data normalization. These multiple approaches allowed us to select different suitable reference genes for the correct quantification of mRNAs depending on the differentiated or proliferative nature of the cells.

  7. Impact of thawing on reference gene expression stability in renal cell carcinoma samples.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yi; Dai, HuiLi; Kong, XianMing; Wang, LiMin

    2012-09-01

    More and more samples are obtained from biobanks for biomedical research; however, some of these samples may undergo thawing before processing. We aim to evaluate the reference gene expression stability in thawed renal cell carcinoma samples. Sixteen matched malignant and nonmalignant renal tissue samples were obtained and each sample was divided into 4 aliquots before being snap frozen and stored at -80°C. By quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, a time-course study was conducted on the thawed tissue to evaluate the expression stability of a panel of the 10 most frequently used reference genes in renal cell carcinom samples: ACTB, ALAS1, B2M, GAPDH, HMBS, HPRT, PPIA, RPLP0,TBP, and TUBB. As shown by geNorm M values, PPIA was the most stable gene at the 0-, 15-, and 30-minute time points (M=0.82, 0.85, and 0.76, respectively), whereas GAPDH was ranked last at the 5-, 15-, and 30-minute time points (M=1.38, 1.44, and 1.39, respectively). A positive correlation was found by linear regression between the thawing time and 2 to the power of crossing point values of all candidate reference genes (P<0.05). The mean coefficient of variance of all reference genes increased significantly at time points 5, 15, and 30 minutes compared with 0 minutes (P<0.01). In conclusion, using the geNorm algorithm, PPIA was identified as the most stably expressed gene between malignant and nonmalignant renal tissue samples that were thawed for similar time periods. All the reference genes showed high variations along with the thawing time; it should be recommended to use a combination of several candidate reference genes when comparing samples thawed for different time periods.

  8. Endogenous IL-2 production by natural killer cells maintains cytotoxic and proliferative capacity following retroviral-mediated gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Miller, J S; Tessmer-Tuck, J; Blake, N; Lund, J; Scott, A; Blazar, B R; Orchard, P J

    1997-10-01

    Interleukin (IL)-2 therapy given at tolerable doses is insufficient to induce maximum activation of natural killer (NK) cells. We recently demonstrated that NK cells expanded in vivo can be maximally activated by short-term ex vivo incubation with 1000 U/mL IL-2. However, IL-2 withdrawal, which would occur with reinfusion, may lead to a rapid loss of cell viability and function. We hypothesized that retroviral transduction could provide an endogenous source of IL-2 to maintain NK function as measured by proliferation and cytotoxicity. Enriched NK cells were transduced with supernatants containing an MFG-based retrovirus designed to express murine IL-2 cDNA. Several supernatant transduction strategies were evaluated. NK cells were initially cultured in 1000 U/mL of huIL2 for 7-8 days, harvested, and replated prior to transduction (4 hours at 37degrees C); this proved insufficient to sustain NK proliferation or maintain cytotoxicity after exogenous human IL-2 (huIL-2) withdrawal. An alternative transduction procedure using phosphate-depleted medium, centrifugation, and transduction for 16 hours at 32degrees C was then evaluated. NK cells transduced under these conditions maintained significant NK proliferation in the absence of exogenous IL-2 compared with sham-transduced controls. Two consecutive daily transductions resulted in less proliferation, suggesting that several exposures to retroviral supernatant may inhibit subsequent NK proliferation. Cytotoxicity of the transduced NK cells against K562 and Raji was maintained under these conditions without exogenous IL-2. Sham-transduced NK cells produced 8.3+/-2.6 U/mL of murine IL-2 (muIL-2) by ELISA (background) after 7 days without exogenous IL-2. In contrast, 109+/-23 U/mL muIL-2 was produced by NK cells transduced with supernatant from the MFG/muIL-2 producer line. These experiments demonstrate that NK cells can be successfully transduced with retroviruses and induced to express sufficient IL-2 to maintain their

  9. Selection of Reference Genes for Transcriptional Analysis of Edible Tubers of Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    PubMed Central

    Voorhuijzen, Marleen M.; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C. B.; Van Dijk, Jeroen P.; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples. PMID:25830330

  10. Selection of reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.).

    PubMed

    Mariot, Roberta Fogliatto; de Oliveira, Luisa Abruzzi; Voorhuijzen, Marleen M; Staats, Martijn; Hutten, Ronald C B; Van Dijk, Jeroen P; Kok, Esther; Frazzon, Jeverson

    2015-01-01

    Potato (Solanum tuberosum) yield has increased dramatically over the last 50 years and this has been achieved by a combination of improved agronomy and biotechnology efforts. Gene studies are taking place to improve new qualities and develop new cultivars. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a bench-marking analytical tool for gene expression analysis, but its accuracy is highly dependent on a reliable normalization strategy of an invariant reference genes. For this reason, the goal of this work was to select and validate reference genes for transcriptional analysis of edible tubers of potato. To do so, RT-qPCR primers were designed for ten genes with relatively stable expression in potato tubers as observed in RNA-Seq experiments. Primers were designed across exon boundaries to avoid genomic DNA contamination. Differences were observed in the ranking of candidate genes identified by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms. The ranks determined by geNorm and NormFinder were very similar and for all samples the most stable candidates were C2, exocyst complex component sec3 (SEC3) and ATCUL3/ATCUL3A/CUL3/CUL3A (CUL3A). According to BestKeeper, the importin alpha and ubiquitin-associated/ts-n genes were the most stable. Three genes were selected as reference genes for potato edible tubers in RT-qPCR studies. The first one, called C2, was selected in common by NormFinder and geNorm, the second one is SEC3, selected by NormFinder, and the third one is CUL3A, selected by geNorm. Appropriate reference genes identified in this work will help to improve the accuracy of gene expression quantification analyses by taking into account differences that may be observed in RNA quality or reverse transcription efficiency across the samples.

  11. Distinctive profiles of small RNA couple inverted repeat-induced post-transcriptional gene silencing with endogenous RNA silencing pathways in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Matvienko, Marta; Piskurewicz, Urszula; Xu, Huaqin; Martineau, Belinda; Wong, Joan; Govindarajulu, Manjula; Kozik, Alexander; Michelmore, Richard W.

    2014-01-01

    The experimental induction of RNA silencing in plants often involves expression of transgenes encoding inverted repeat (IR) sequences to produce abundant dsRNAs that are processed into small RNAs (sRNAs). These sRNAs are key mediators of post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and determine its specificity. Despite its application in agriculture and broad utility in plant research, the mechanism of IR-PTGS is incompletely understood. We generated four sets of 60 Arabidopsis plants, each containing IR transgenes expressing different configurations of uidA and CHALCONE SYNTHASE (At-CHS) gene fragments. Levels of PTGS were found to depend on the orientation and position of the fragment in the IR construct. Deep sequencing and mapping of sRNAs to corresponding transgene-derived and endogenous transcripts identified distinctive patterns of differential sRNA accumulation that revealed similarities among sRNAs associated with IR-PTGS and endogenous sRNAs linked to uncapped mRNA decay. Detailed analyses of poly-A cleavage products from At-CHS mRNA confirmed this hypothesis. We also found unexpected associations between sRNA accumulation and the presence of predicted open reading frames in the trigger sequence. In addition, strong IR-PTGS affected the prevalence of endogenous sRNAs, which has implications for the use of PTGS for experimental or applied purposes. PMID:25344399

  12. Evaluation and Validation of Housekeeping Genes as Reference for Gene Expression Studies in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) Under Drought Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Pallavi; Singh, Vikas K.; Suryanarayana, V.; Krishnamurthy, L.; Saxena, Rachit K.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a very sensitive technique and its sensitivity depends on the stable performance of reference gene(s) used in the study. A number of housekeeping genes have been used in various expression studies in many crops however, their expression were found to be inconsistent under different stress conditions. As a result, species specific housekeeping genes have been recommended for different expression studies in several crop species. However, such specific housekeeping genes have not been reported in the case of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) despite the fact that genome sequence has become available for the crop. To identify the stable housekeeping genes in pigeonpea for expression analysis under drought stress conditions, the relative expression variations of 10 commonly used housekeeping genes (EF1α, UBQ10, GAPDH, 18SrRNA, 25SrRNA, TUB6, ACT1, IF4α, UBC and HSP90) were studied on root, stem and leaves tissues of Asha (ICPL 87119). Three statistical algorithms geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were used to define the stability of candidate genes. geNorm analysis identified IF4α and TUB6 as the most stable housekeeping genes however, NormFinder analysis determined IF4α and HSP90 as the most stable housekeeping genes under drought stress conditions. Subsequently validation of the identified candidate genes was undertaken in qRT-PCR based gene expression analysis of uspA gene which plays an important role for drought stress conditions in pigeonpea. The relative quantification of the uspA gene varied according to the internal controls (stable and least stable genes), thus highlighting the importance of the choice of as well as validation of internal controls in such experiments. The identified stable and validated housekeeping genes will facilitate gene expression studies in pigeonpea especially under drought stress conditions. PMID:25849964

  13. Evaluation and validation of housekeeping genes as reference for gene expression studies in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) under drought stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Pallavi; Singh, Vikas K; Suryanarayana, V; Krishnamurthy, L; Saxena, Rachit K; Varshney, Rajeev K

    2015-01-01

    Gene expression analysis using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is a very sensitive technique and its sensitivity depends on the stable performance of reference gene(s) used in the study. A number of housekeeping genes have been used in various expression studies in many crops however, their expression were found to be inconsistent under different stress conditions. As a result, species specific housekeeping genes have been recommended for different expression studies in several crop species. However, such specific housekeeping genes have not been reported in the case of pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) despite the fact that genome sequence has become available for the crop. To identify the stable housekeeping genes in pigeonpea for expression analysis under drought stress conditions, the relative expression variations of 10 commonly used housekeeping genes (EF1α, UBQ10, GAPDH, 18SrRNA, 25SrRNA, TUB6, ACT1, IF4α, UBC and HSP90) were studied on root, stem and leaves tissues of Asha (ICPL 87119). Three statistical algorithms geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were used to define the stability of candidate genes. geNorm analysis identified IF4α and TUB6 as the most stable housekeeping genes however, NormFinder analysis determined IF4α and HSP90 as the most stable housekeeping genes under drought stress conditions. Subsequently validation of the identified candidate genes was undertaken in qRT-PCR based gene expression analysis of uspA gene which plays an important role for drought stress conditions in pigeonpea. The relative quantification of the uspA gene varied according to the internal controls (stable and least stable genes), thus highlighting the importance of the choice of as well as validation of internal controls in such experiments. The identified stable and validated housekeeping genes will facilitate gene expression studies in pigeonpea especially under drought stress conditions.

  14. Reference Gene Validation for RT-qPCR, a Note on Different Available Software Packages

    PubMed Central

    De Spiegelaere, Ward; Dern-Wieloch, Jutta; Weigel, Roswitha; Schumacher, Valérie; Schorle, Hubert; Nettersheim, Daniel; Bergmann, Martin; Brehm, Ralph; Kliesch, Sabine; Vandekerckhove, Linos; Fink, Cornelia

    2015-01-01

    Background An appropriate normalization strategy is crucial for data analysis from real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reactions (RT-qPCR). It is widely supported to identify and validate stable reference genes, since no single biological gene is stably expressed between cell types or within cells under different conditions. Different algorithms exist to validate optimal reference genes for normalization. Applying human cells, we here compare the three main methods to the online available RefFinder tool that integrates these algorithms along with R-based software packages which include the NormFinder and GeNorm algorithms. Results 14 candidate reference genes were assessed by RT-qPCR in two sample sets, i.e. a set of samples of human testicular tissue containing carcinoma in situ (CIS), and a set of samples from the human adult Sertoli cell line (FS1) either cultured alone or in co-culture with the seminoma like cell line (TCam-2) or with equine bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (eBM-MSC). Expression stabilities of the reference genes were evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Similar results were obtained by the three approaches for the most and least stably expressed genes. The R-based packages NormqPCR, SLqPCR and the NormFinder for R script gave identical gene rankings. Interestingly, different outputs were obtained between the original software packages and the RefFinder tool, which is based on raw Cq values for input. When the raw data were reanalysed assuming 100% efficiency for all genes, then the outputs of the original software packages were similar to the RefFinder software, indicating that RefFinder outputs may be biased because PCR efficiencies are not taken into account. Conclusions This report shows that assay efficiency is an important parameter for reference gene validation. New software tools that incorporate these algorithms should be carefully validated prior to use. PMID:25825906

  15. Validation of Reference Genes for Oral Cancer Detection Panels in a Prospective Blinded Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Jack L.

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference genes are needed as internal controls to determine relative expression for clinical application of gene expression panels. Candidate constitutively expressed genes must be validated as suitable reference genes in each body fluid and disease entity. Prior studies have predominantly validated oral squamous cell carcinoma associated messenger RNAs (mRNAs) based on quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) quantification cycle (Cq) values without adjustment for housekeeping genes. Methods One hundred sixty eight patients had saliva collected before clinically driven biopsy of oral lesions suspicious for cancer. Seven potential housekeeping mRNAs and six pre-specified oral cancer associated mRNAs were measured with qPCR by personnel blinded to tissue diagnosis. Housekeeping gene stability was determined with the NormFinder program in a training set of 12 randomly selected cancer and 24 control patients. Genes with stability indices <0.02 were then tested in the validation set consisting of the remaining cancer and control patients and were further validated by the geNorm program. Cancer gene delta Cqs were compared in case and control patients after subtracting the geometric mean of the reference gene raw Cqs. Results B2M and UBC had stability indices >0.02 in the training set and were not further tested. MT-ATP6, RPL30, RPL37A, RPLP0 and RPS17 all had stability indices <0.02 in the training set and in the verification set. The geNorm M values were all ≤1.10. All six pre-specified cancer genes (IL8, IL1, SAT, OAZ1, DUSP1 and S100P) were up-regulated in cancer versus control patients with from nearly twofold to over threefold higher levels (p<0.01 for all based on delta Cq values). Conclusions Five reference genes are validated for use in oral cancer salivary gene expression panels. Six pre-specified oral carcinoma associated genes are demonstrated to be highly significantly up-regulated in cancer patients based on delta Cq values. These cancer

  16. Validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR during latex regeneration in rubber tree.

    PubMed

    Long, Xiangyu; He, Bin; Gao, Xinsheng; Qin, Yunxia; Yang, Jianghua; Fang, Yongjun; Qi, Jiyan; Tang, Chaorong

    2015-06-01

    In rubber tree, latex regeneration is one of the decisive factors influencing the rubber yield, although its molecular regulation is not well known. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a popular and powerful tool used to understand the molecular mechanisms of latex regeneration. However, the suitable reference genes required for qPCR are not available to investigate the expressions of target genes during latex regeneration. In this study, 20 candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability across the samples during the process of latex regeneration. All reference genes showed a relatively wide range of the threshold cycle values, and their stability was validated by four different algorithms (comparative delta Ct method, Bestkeeper, NormFinder and GeNorm). Three softwares (comparative delta Ct method, NormFinder and GeNorm) exported similar results that identify UBC4, ADF, UBC2a, eIF2 and ADF4 as the top five suitable references, and 18S as the least suitable one. The application of the screened references would improve accuracy and reliability of gene expression analysis in latex regeneration experiments.

  17. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for analysis of mouse (Mus musculus) sex-dimorphic brain development

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Tanya T.; Weston, Mitchell K.

    2017-01-01

    The development of the brain is sex-dimorphic, and as a result so are many neurological disorders. One approach for studying sex-dimorphic brain development is to measure gene expression in biological samples using RT-qPCR. However, the accuracy and consistency of this technique relies on the reference gene(s) selected. We analyzed the expression of ten reference genes in male and female samples over three stages of brain development, using popular algorithms NormFinder, GeNorm and Bestkeeper. The top ranked reference genes at each time point were further used to quantify gene expression of three sex-dimorphic genes (Wnt10b, Xist and CYP7B1). When comparing gene expression between the sexes expression at specific time points the best reference gene combinations are: Sdha/Pgk1 at E11.5, RpL38/Sdha E12.5, and Actb/RpL37 at E15.5. When studying expression across time, the ideal reference gene(s) differs with sex. For XY samples a combination of Actb/Sdha. In contrast, when studying gene expression across developmental stage with XX samples, Sdha/Gapdh were the top reference genes. Our results identify the best combination of two reference genes when studying male and female brain development, and emphasize the importance of selecting the correct reference genes for comparisons between developmental stages. PMID:28133578

  18. Selection of reference genes for expression analyses of red-fleshed sweet orange (Citrus sinensis).

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, T T; Nishimura, D S; De Nadai, F B; Figueira, A; Latado, R R

    2015-12-28

    Red-fleshed oranges (Citrus sinensis) contain high levels of carotenoids and lycopene. The growing consumer demand for products with health benefits has increased interest in these types of Citrus cultivars as a potential source of nutraceuticals. However, little is known about the physiology of these cultivars under Brazilian conditions. Transcriptome and gene expression analyses are important tools in the breeding and management of red-fleshed sweet orange cultivars. Reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction is a method of quantifying gene expression, but various standardizations are required to obtain precise, accurate, and specific results. Among the standardizations required, the choice of suitable stable reference genes is fundamental. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of 11 candidate genes using various tissue and organ samples from healthy plants or leaves from citrus greening disease (Huanglongbing)-symptomatic plants of a Brazilian red-fleshed cultivar ('Sanguínea de Mombuca'), in order to select the most suitable reference gene for investigating gene expression under these conditions. geNorm and NormFinder identified genes that encoded translation initiation factor 3, ribosomal protein L35, and translation initiation factor 5A as the most stable genes under the biological conditions tested, and genes coding actin (ACT) and the subunit of the PSI reaction center subunit III were the least stable. Phosphatase, malate dehydrogenase, and ACT were the most stable genes in the leaf samples of infected plants.

  19. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-time PCR in Gentiana macrophylla

    PubMed Central

    He, Yihan; Yan, Hailing; Hua, Wenping; Huang, Yaya; Wang, Zhezhi

    2016-01-01

    Real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR or qPCR) has been extensively applied for analyzing gene expression because of its accuracy, sensitivity, and high throughput. However, the unsuitable choice of reference gene(s) can lead to a misinterpretation of results. We evaluated the stability of 10 candidates – five traditional housekeeping genes (UBC21, GAPC2, EF-1α4, UBQ10, and UBC10) and five novel genes (SAND1, FBOX, PTB1, ARP, and Expressed1) – using the transcriptome data of Gentiana macrophylla. Common statistical algorithms ΔCt, GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were run with samples collected from plants under various experimental conditions. For normalizing expression levels from tissues at different developmental stages, GAPC2 and UBC21 had the highest rankings. Both SAND1 and GAPC2 proved to be the optimal reference genes for roots from plants exposed to abiotic stresses while EF-1α4 and SAND1 were optimal when examining expression data from the leaves of stressed plants. Based on a comprehensive ranking of stability under different experimental conditions, we recommend that SAND1 and EF-1α4 are the most suitable overall. In this study, to find a suitable reference gene and its real-time PCR assay for G. macrophylla DNA content quantification, we evaluated three target genes including WRKY30, G10H, and SLS, through qualitative and absolute quantitative PCR with leaves under elicitors stressed experimental conditions. Arbitrary use of reference genes without previous evaluation can lead to a misinterpretation of the data. Our results will benefit future research on the expression of genes related to secoiridoid biosynthesis in this species under different experimental conditions. PMID:27446172

  20. Identification of qRT-PCR reference genes for analysis of opioid gene expression in a hibernator.

    PubMed

    Otis, Jessica P; Ackermann, Laynez W; Denning, Gerene M; Carey, Hannah V

    2010-04-01

    Previous work has suggested that central and peripheral opioid signaling are involved in regulating torpor behavior and tissue protection associated with the hibernation phenotype. We used quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) to measure mRNA levels of opioid peptide precursors and receptors in the brain and heart of summer ground squirrels (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) and winter hibernating squirrels in the torpid or interbout arousal states. The use of appropriate reference genes for normalization of qRT-PCR gene expression data can have profound effects on the analysis and interpretation of results. This may be particularly important when experimental subjects, such as hibernating animals, undergo significant morphological and/or functional changes during the study. Therefore, an additional goal of this study was to identify stable reference genes for use in qRT-PCR studies of the 13-lined ground squirrel. Expression levels of 10 potential reference genes were measured in the small intestine, liver, brain, and heart, and the optimal combinations of the most stable reference genes were identified by the GeNorm Excel applet. Based on this analysis, we provide recommendations for reference genes to use in each tissue that would be suitable for comparative studies among different activity states. When appropriate normalization of mRNA levels was used, there were no changes in opioid-related genes in heart among the three activity states; in brain, DOR expression was highest during torpor, lowest in interbout arousal and intermediate in summer. The results support the idea that changes in DOR expression may regulate the level of neuronal activity in brain during the annual hibernation cycle and may contribute to hibernation-associated tissue protection.

  1. A brain region-specific predictive gene map for autism derived by profiling a reference gene set.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ajay; Swanwick, Catherine Croft; Johnson, Nicole; Menashe, Idan; Basu, Saumyendra N; Bales, Michael E; Banerjee-Basu, Sharmila

    2011-01-01

    Molecular underpinnings of complex psychiatric disorders such as autism spectrum disorders (ASD) remain largely unresolved. Increasingly, structural variations in discrete chromosomal loci are implicated in ASD, expanding the search space for its disease etiology. We exploited the high genetic heterogeneity of ASD to derive a predictive map of candidate genes by an integrated bioinformatics approach. Using a reference set of 84 Rare and Syndromic candidate ASD genes (AutRef84), we built a composite reference profile based on both functional and expression analyses. First, we created a functional profile of AutRef84 by performing Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis which encompassed three main areas: 1) neurogenesis/projection, 2) cell adhesion, and 3) ion channel activity. Second, we constructed an expression profile of AutRef84 by conducting DAVID analysis which found enrichment in brain regions critical for sensory information processing (olfactory bulb, occipital lobe), executive function (prefrontal cortex), and hormone secretion (pituitary). Disease specificity of this dual AutRef84 profile was demonstrated by comparative analysis with control, diabetes, and non-specific gene sets. We then screened the human genome with the dual AutRef84 profile to derive a set of 460 potential ASD candidate genes. Importantly, the power of our predictive gene map was demonstrated by capturing 18 existing ASD-associated genes which were not part of the AutRef84 input dataset. The remaining 442 genes are entirely novel putative ASD risk genes. Together, we used a composite ASD reference profile to generate a predictive map of novel ASD candidate genes which should be prioritized for future research.

  2. Exploring Valid Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study, seven candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), elongation factor 1 (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20), tubulin (TUB), and β-actin (ACTB) were evaluated for their suitability in normalizing gene expression under different experimental conditions. The results indicated that three genes (RPS13, RPS20, and EF1) were optimal for normalizing gene expression in different insect tissues (head, epidermis, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, haemocytes, and salivary glands). 18S rRNA, EF1, and GAPDH were best for normalizing expression with respect to developmental stages and sex (egg masses; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instar larvae; male and female pupae; and one-day-old male and female adults). 18S rRNA, RPS20, and TUB were optimal for fifth instars exposed to different temperatures (−8, −6, −4, −2, 0, and 27°C). To validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene heat shock protein 83 gene (hsp83) was investigated, and results showed the selection was necessary and effective. In conclusion, this study describes reference gene sets that can be used to accurately measure gene expression in S. inferens. PMID:25585250

  3. Exploring valid reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR analysis in Sesamia inferens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Sun, Meng; Lu, Ming-Xing; Tang, Xiao-Tian; Du, Yu-Zhou

    2015-01-01

    The pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens, which is endemic in China and other parts of Asia, is a major pest of rice and causes significant yield loss in this host plant. Very few studies have addressed gene expression in S. inferens. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently the most accurate and sensitive method for gene expression analysis. In qRT-PCR, data are normalized using reference genes, which help control for internal differences and reduce error between samples. In this study, seven candidate reference genes, 18S ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA), elongation factor 1 (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), ribosomal protein S20 (RPS20), tubulin (TUB), and β-actin (ACTB) were evaluated for their suitability in normalizing gene expression under different experimental conditions. The results indicated that three genes (RPS13, RPS20, and EF1) were optimal for normalizing gene expression in different insect tissues (head, epidermis, fat body, foregut, midgut, hindgut, Malpighian tubules, haemocytes, and salivary glands). 18S rRNA, EF1, and GAPDH were best for normalizing expression with respect to developmental stages and sex (egg masses; first, second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth instar larvae; male and female pupae; and one-day-old male and female adults). 18S rRNA, RPS20, and TUB were optimal for fifth instars exposed to different temperatures (-8, -6, -4, -2, 0, and 27°C). To validate this recommendation, the expression profile of a target gene heat shock protein 83 gene (hsp83) was investigated, and results showed the selection was necessary and effective. In conclusion, this study describes reference gene sets that can be used to accurately measure gene expression in S. inferens.

  4. Evaluation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR in the marine flavobacterium Zobellia galactanivorans.

    PubMed

    Thomas, François; Barbeyron, Tristan; Michel, Gurvan

    2011-01-01

    The marine bacteria Zobellia galactanivorans is an emerging model microorganism for the bioconversion of algal polysaccharides. The sequence analysis of its genome opens the way to in-depth gene expression analysis, such as reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) studies. The selection and validation of reference genes are a mandatory first step for the accurate quantification of transcripts. We selected fourteen candidate reference genes belonging to distinct pathways, namely replication, transcription, translation, citric acid cycle, amino acid, nucleotide and dihydrofolate metabolisms, and peptidoglycan, FMN and aromatic compounds synthesis. We quantified their expression by RT-qPCR in various culture conditions corresponding to different temperatures, carbon sources or stresses. The applications geNorm and Normfinder allowed ranking the genes according to their stability and gave concordant results. We found that the geometric average of the expression of glyA, icdA and gmkA can be confidently used to normalize the transcript abundance of genes of interest. In conclusion, this work provides a reliable procedure for gene expression analysis in the flavobacterium Z. galactanivorans and a validated set of reference genes to be used in future transcriptomics approaches. The strategy developed could also be the starting point for similar studies in other members of the Flavobacteria class.

  5. Identification of reference genes for qPCR analysis during hASC long culture maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Palombella, Silvia; Pirrone, Cristina; Cherubino, Mario; Valdatta, Luigi; Bernardini, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    Up to now quantitative PCR based assay is the most common method for characterizing or confirming gene expression patterns and comparing mRNA levels in different sample populations. Since this technique is relative easy and low cost compared to other methods of characterization, e.g. flow cytometry, we used it to typify human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs). hASCs possess several characteristics that make them attractive for scientific research and clinical applications. Accurate normalization of gene expression relies on good selection of reference genes and the best way to choose them appropriately is to follow the common rule of the “Best 3”, at least three reference genes, three different validation software and three sample replicates. Analysis was performed on hASCs cultivated until the eleventh cell confluence using twelve candidate reference genes, initially selected from literature, whose stability was evaluated by the algorithms NormFinder, BestKeeper, RefFinder and IdealRef, a home-made version of GeNorm. The best gene panel (RPL13A, RPS18, GAPDH, B2M, PPIA and ACTB), determined in one patient by IdealRef calculation, was then investigated in other four donors. Although patients demonstrated a certain gene expression variability, we can assert that ACTB is the most unreliable gene whereas ribosomal proteins (RPL13A and RPS18) show minor inconstancy in their mRNA expression. This work underlines the importance of validating reference genes before conducting each experiment and proposes a free software as alternative to those existing. PMID:28182697

  6. Significant changes in endogenous retinal gene expression assessed 1 year after a single intraocular injection of AAV-CNTF or AAV-BDNF

    PubMed Central

    LeVaillant, Chrisna J; Sharma, Anil; Muhling, Jill; Wheeler, Lachlan PG; Cozens, Greg S; Hellström, Mats; Rodger, Jennifer; Harvey, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Use of viral vectors to deliver therapeutic genes to the central nervous system holds promise for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and neurotrauma. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or ciliary derived neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promote the viability and regeneration of injured adult rat retinal ganglion cells. However, these growth-inducing transgenes are driven by a constitutively active promoter, thus we examined whether long-term AAV-mediated secretion of BDNF or CNTF affected endogenous retinal gene expression. One year after the intravitreal injection of AAV-green fluorescent protein (GFP), bi-cistronic AAV-BDNF-GFP or AAV-CNTF-GFP, mRNA was extracted and analyzed using custom 96 well polymerase chain reaction arrays. Of 93 test genes, 56% showed significantly altered expression in AAV-BDNF-GFP and/or AAV-CNTF-GFP retinas compared with AAV-GFP controls. Of these genes, 73% showed differential expression in AAV-BDNF versus AAV-CNTF injected eyes. To focus on retinal ganglion cell changes, quantitative polymerase chain reaction was undertaken on mRNA (16 genes) obtained from fixed retinal sections in which the ganglion cell layer was enriched. The sign and extent of fold changes in ganglion cell layer gene expression differed markedly from whole retinal samples. Sustained and global alteration in endogenous mRNA expression after gene therapy should be factored into any interpretation of experimental/clinical outcomes, particularly when introducing factors into the central nervous system that require secretion to evoke functionality. PMID:27933306

  7. Significant changes in endogenous retinal gene expression assessed 1 year after a single intraocular injection of AAV-CNTF or AAV-BDNF.

    PubMed

    LeVaillant, Chrisna J; Sharma, Anil; Muhling, Jill; Wheeler, Lachlan Pg; Cozens, Greg S; Hellström, Mats; Rodger, Jennifer; Harvey, Alan R

    2016-01-01

    Use of viral vectors to deliver therapeutic genes to the central nervous system holds promise for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases and neurotrauma. Adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors encoding brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) or ciliary derived neurotrophic factor (CNTF) promote the viability and regeneration of injured adult rat retinal ganglion cells. However, these growth-inducing transgenes are driven by a constitutively active promoter, thus we examined whether long-term AAV-mediated secretion of BDNF or CNTF affected endogenous retinal gene expression. One year after the intravitreal injection of AAV-green fluorescent protein (GFP), bi-cistronic AAV-BDNF-GFP or AAV-CNTF-GFP, mRNA was extracted and analyzed using custom 96 well polymerase chain reaction arrays. Of 93 test genes, 56% showed significantly altered expression in AAV-BDNF-GFP and/or AAV-CNTF-GFP retinas compared with AAV-GFP controls. Of these genes, 73% showed differential expression in AAV-BDNF versus AAV-CNTF injected eyes. To focus on retinal ganglion cell changes, quantitative polymerase chain reaction was undertaken on mRNA (16 genes) obtained from fixed retinal sections in which the ganglion cell layer was enriched. The sign and extent of fold changes in ganglion cell layer gene expression differed markedly from whole retinal samples. Sustained and global alteration in endogenous mRNA expression after gene therapy should be factored into any interpretation of experimental/clinical outcomes, particularly when introducing factors into the central nervous system that require secretion to evoke functionality.

  8. Genome-Wide Screening of Retroviral Envelope Genes in the Nine-Banded Armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus, Xenarthra) Reveals an Unfixed Chimeric Endogenous Betaretrovirus Using the ASCT2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Malicorne, Sébastien; Vernochet, Cécile; Cornelis, Guillaume; Mulot, Baptiste; Delsuc, Frédéric; Heidmann, Odile

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Retroviruses enter host cells through the interaction of their envelope (Env) protein with a cell surface receptor, which triggers the fusion of viral and cellular membranes. The sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter ASCT2 is the common receptor of the large RD114 retrovirus interference group, whose members display frequent env recombination events. Germ line retrovirus infections have led to numerous inherited endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) in vertebrate genomes, which provide useful insights into the coevolutionary history of retroviruses and their hosts. Rare ERV-derived genes display conserved viral functions, as illustrated by the fusogenic syncytin env genes involved in placentation. Here, we searched for functional env genes in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus) genome and identified dasy-env1.1, which clusters with RD114 interference group env genes and with two syncytin genes sharing ASCT2 receptor usage. Using ex vivo pseudotyping and cell-cell fusion assays, we demonstrated that the Dasy-Env1.1 protein is fusogenic and can use both human and armadillo ASCT2s as receptors. This gammaretroviral env gene belongs to a provirus with betaretrovirus-like features, suggesting acquisition through recombination. Provirus insertion was found in several Dasypus species, where it has not reached fixation, whereas related family members integrated before diversification of the genus Dasypus >12 million years ago (Mya). This newly described ERV lineage is potentially useful as a population genetic marker. Our results extend the usage of ASCT2 as a retrovirus receptor to the mammalian clade Xenarthra and suggest that the acquisition of an ASCT2-interacting env gene is a major selective force driving the emergence of numerous chimeric viruses in vertebrates. IMPORTANCE Retroviral infection is initiated by the binding of the viral envelope glycoprotein to a host cell receptor(s), triggering membrane fusion. Ancient germ line infections

  9. Metazoan mitochondrial gene sequence reference datasets for taxonomic assignment of environmental samples

    PubMed Central

    Machida, Ryuji J.; Leray, Matthieu; Ho, Shian-Lei; Knowlton, Nancy

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial-encoded genes are increasingly targeted in studies using high-throughput sequencing approaches for characterizing metazoan communities from environmental samples (e.g., plankton, meiofauna, filtered water). Yet, unlike nuclear ribosomal RNA markers, there is to date no high-quality reference dataset available for taxonomic assignments. Here, we retrieved all metazoan mitochondrial gene sequences from GenBank, and then quality filtered and formatted the datasets for taxonomic assignments using taxonomic assignment tools. The reference datasets—‘Midori references’—are available for download at www.reference-midori.info. Two versions are provided: (I) Midori-UNIQUE that contains all unique haplotypes associated with each species and (II) Midori-LONGEST that contains a single sequence, the longest, for each species. Overall, the mitochondrial Cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene was the most sequence-rich gene. However, sequences of the mitochondrial large ribosomal subunit RNA and Cytochrome b apoenzyme genes were observed for a large number of species in some phyla. The Midori reference is compatible with some taxonomic assignment software. Therefore, automated high-throughput sequence taxonomic assignments can be particularly effective using these datasets. PMID:28291235

  10. Recommended Reference Genes for Quantitative PCR Analysis in Soybean Have Variable Stabilities during Diverse Biotic Stresses.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Raman; Mittapelly, Priyanka; Cassone, Bryan J; Mamidala, Praveen; Redinbaugh, Margaret G; Michel, Andy

    2015-01-01

    For real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) in soybean, reference genes in different tissues, developmental stages, various cultivars, and under stress conditions have been suggested but their usefulness for research on soybean under various biotic stresses occurring in North-Central U.S. is not known. Here, we investigated the expression stabilities of ten previously recommended reference genes (ABCT, CYP, EF1A, FBOX, GPDH, RPL30, TUA4, TUB4, TUA5, and UNK2) in soybean under biotic stress from Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), powdery mildew (PMD), soybean aphid (SBA), and two-spotted spider mite (TSSM). BPMV, PMD, SBA, and TSSM are amongst the most common pest problems on soybean in North-Central U.S. and other regions. Reference gene stability was determined using three software algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper) and a web-based tool (RefFinder). Reference genes showed variability in their expression as well as stability across various stressors and the best reference genes were stress-dependent. ABCT and FBOX were found to be the most stable in soybean under both BPMV and SBA stress but these genes had only minimal to moderate stability during PMD and TSSM stress. Expression of TUA4 and CYP was found to be most stable during PMD stress; TUB4 and TUA4 were stable under TSSM stress. Under various biotic stresses on soybean analyzed, GPDH expression was found to be consistently unstable. For all biotic stressors on soybean, we obtained pairwise variation (V2/3) values less than 0.15 which suggested that combined use of the two most stable reference genes would be sufficient for normalization. Further, we demonstrated the utility of normalizing the qRT-PCR data for target genes using the most stable reference genes validated in current study. Following of the recommendations from our current study will enable an accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in soybean under biotic stress.

  11. Recommended Reference Genes for Quantitative PCR Analysis in Soybean Have Variable Stabilities during Diverse Biotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Raman; Mittapelly, Priyanka; Cassone, Bryan J.; Mamidala, Praveen; Redinbaugh, Margaret G.; Michel, Andy

    2015-01-01

    For real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) in soybean, reference genes in different tissues, developmental stages, various cultivars, and under stress conditions have been suggested but their usefulness for research on soybean under various biotic stresses occurring in North-Central U.S. is not known. Here, we investigated the expression stabilities of ten previously recommended reference genes (ABCT, CYP, EF1A, FBOX, GPDH, RPL30, TUA4, TUB4, TUA5, and UNK2) in soybean under biotic stress from Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), powdery mildew (PMD), soybean aphid (SBA), and two‐spotted spider mite (TSSM). BPMV, PMD, SBA, and TSSM are amongst the most common pest problems on soybean in North-Central U.S. and other regions. Reference gene stability was determined using three software algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper) and a web-based tool (RefFinder). Reference genes showed variability in their expression as well as stability across various stressors and the best reference genes were stress-dependent. ABCT and FBOX were found to be the most stable in soybean under both BPMV and SBA stress but these genes had only minimal to moderate stability during PMD and TSSM stress. Expression of TUA4 and CYP was found to be most stable during PMD stress; TUB4 and TUA4 were stable under TSSM stress. Under various biotic stresses on soybean analyzed, GPDH expression was found to be consistently unstable. For all biotic stressors on soybean, we obtained pairwise variation (V2/3) values less than 0.15 which suggested that combined use of the two most stable reference genes would be sufficient for normalization. Further, we demonstrated the utility of normalizing the qRT-PCR data for target genes using the most stable reference genes validated in current study. Following of the recommendations from our current study will enable an accurate and reliable normalization of qRT-PCR data in soybean under biotic stress. PMID:26244340

  12. A Panel of Stably Expressed Reference Genes for Real-Time qPCR Gene Expression Studies of Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos).

    PubMed

    Chapman, Joanne R; Helin, Anu S; Wille, Michelle; Atterby, Clara; Järhult, Josef D; Fridlund, Jimmy S; Waldenström, Jonas

    2016-01-01

    Determining which reference genes have the highest stability, and are therefore appropriate for normalising data, is a crucial step in the design of real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) gene expression studies. This is particularly warranted in non-model and ecologically important species for which appropriate reference genes are lacking, such as the mallard--a key reservoir of many diseases with relevance for human and livestock health. Previous studies assessing gene expression changes as a consequence of infection in mallards have nearly universally used β-actin and/or GAPDH as reference genes without confirming their suitability as normalisers. The use of reference genes at random, without regard for stability of expression across treatment groups, can result in erroneous interpretation of data. Here, eleven putative reference genes for use in gene expression studies of the mallard were evaluated, across six different tissues, using a low pathogenic avian influenza A virus infection model. Tissue type influenced the selection of reference genes, whereby different genes were stable in blood, spleen, lung, gastrointestinal tract and colon. β-actin and GAPDH generally displayed low stability and are therefore inappropriate reference genes in many cases. The use of different algorithms (GeNorm and NormFinder) affected stability rankings, but for both algorithms it was possible to find a combination of two stable reference genes with which to normalise qPCR data in mallards. These results highlight the importance of validating the choice of normalising reference genes before conducting gene expression studies in ducks. The fact that nearly all previous studies of the influence of pathogen infection on mallard gene expression have used a single, non-validated reference gene is problematic. The toolkit of putative reference genes provided here offers a solid foundation for future studies of gene expression in mallards and other waterfowl.

  13. Validation of reference genes from Eucalyptus spp. under different stress conditions

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The genus Eucalyptus consists of approximately 600 species and subspecies and has a physiological plasticity that allows some species to propagate in different regions of the world. Eucalyptus is a major source of cellulose for paper manufacturing, and its cultivation is limited by weather conditions, particularly water stress and low temperatures. Gene expression studies using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) require reference genes, which must have stable expression to facilitate the comparison of the results from analyses using different species, tissues, and treatments. Such studies have been limited in eucalyptus. Results Eucalyptus globulus Labill, Eucalyptus urograndis (hybrid from Eucalyptus urophylla S.T. Blake X Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex-Maiden) and E. uroglobulus (hybrid from E. urograndis X E. globulus) were subjected to different treatments, including water deficiency and stress recovery, low temperatures, presence or absence of light, and their respective controls. Except for treatment with light, which examined the seedling hypocotyl or apical portion of the stem, the expression analyses were conducted in the apical and basal parts of the stem. To select the best pair of genes, the bioinformatics tools GeNorm and NormFinder were compared. Comprehensive analyses that did not differentiate between species, treatments, or tissue types, showed that IDH (isocitrate dehydrogenase), SAND (SAND protein), ACT (actin), and A-Tub (α-tubulin) genes were the most stable. IDH was the most stable gene in all of the treatments. Conclusion Comparing these results with those of other studies on eucalyptus, we concluded that five genes are stable in different species and experimental conditions: IDH, SAND, ACT, A-Tub, and UBQ (ubiquitin). It is usually recommended a minimum of two reference genes is expression analysis; therefore, we propose that IDH and two others genes among the five identified genes in this study

  14. Comprehensively identifying and characterizing the missing gene sequences in human reference genome with integrated analytic approaches.

    PubMed

    Chen, Geng; Wang, Charles; Shi, Leming; Tong, Weida; Qu, Xiongfei; Chen, Jiwei; Yang, Jianmin; Shi, Caiping; Chen, Long; Zhou, Peiying; Lu, Bingxin; Shi, Tieliu

    2013-08-01

    The human reference genome is still incomplete and a number of gene sequences are missing from it. The approaches to uncover them, the reasons causing their absence and their functions are less explored. Here, we comprehensively identified and characterized the missing genes of human reference genome with RNA-Seq data from 16 different human tissues. By using a combined approach of genome-guided transcriptome reconstruction coupled with genome-wide comparison, we uncovered 3.78 and 2.37 Mb transcribed regions in the human genome assemblies of Celera and HuRef either missed from their homologous chromosomes of NCBI human reference genome build 37.2 or partially or entirely absent from the reference. We further identified a significant number of novel transcript contigs in each tissue from de novo transcriptome assembly that are unalignable to NCBI build 37.2 but can be aligned to at least one of the genomes from Celera, HuRef, chimpanzee, macaca or mouse. Our analyses indicate that the missing genes could result from genome misassembly, transposition, copy number variation, translocation and other structural variations. Moreover, our results further suggest that a large portion of these missing genes are conserved between human and other mammals, implying their important biological functions. Totally, 1,233 functional protein domains were detected in these missing genes. Collectively, our study not only provides approaches for uncovering the missing genes of a genome, but also proposes the potential reasons causing genes missed from the genome and highlights the importance of uncovering the missing genes of incomplete genomes.

  15. Selection of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR gene expression analysis in Jute (Corchorus capsularis) under stress treatments.

    PubMed

    Niu, Xiaoping; Qi, Jianmin; Zhang, Gaoyang; Xu, Jiantang; Tao, Aifen; Fang, Pingping; Su, Jianguang

    2015-01-01

    To accurately measure gene expression using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), reliable reference gene(s) are required for data normalization. Corchorus capsularis, an annual herbaceous fiber crop with predominant biodegradability and renewability, has not been investigated for the stability of reference genes with qRT-PCR. In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were selected and their expression levels were assessed using qRT-PCR. To account for the influence of experimental approach and tissue type, 22 different jute samples were selected from abiotic and biotic stress conditions as well as three different tissue types. The stability of the candidate reference genes was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper programs, and the comprehensive rankings of gene stability were generated by aggregate analysis. For the biotic stress and NaCl stress subsets, ACT7 and RAN were suitable as stable reference genes for gene expression normalization. For the PEG stress subset, UBC, and DnaJ were sufficient for accurate normalization. For the tissues subset, four reference genes TUBβ, UBI, EF1α, and RAN were sufficient for accurate normalization. The selected genes were further validated by comparing expression profiles of WRKY15 in various samples, and two stable reference genes were recommended for accurate normalization of qRT-PCR data. Our results provide researchers with appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR in C. capsularis, and will facilitate gene expression study under these conditions.

  16. Selection of reliable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR gene expression analysis in Jute (Corchorus capsularis) under stress treatments

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Xiaoping; Qi, Jianmin; Zhang, Gaoyang; Xu, Jiantang; Tao, Aifen; Fang, Pingping; Su, Jianguang

    2015-01-01

    To accurately measure gene expression using quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), reliable reference gene(s) are required for data normalization. Corchorus capsularis, an annual herbaceous fiber crop with predominant biodegradability and renewability, has not been investigated for the stability of reference genes with qRT-PCR. In this study, 11 candidate reference genes were selected and their expression levels were assessed using qRT-PCR. To account for the influence of experimental approach and tissue type, 22 different jute samples were selected from abiotic and biotic stress conditions as well as three different tissue types. The stability of the candidate reference genes was evaluated using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper programs, and the comprehensive rankings of gene stability were generated by aggregate analysis. For the biotic stress and NaCl stress subsets, ACT7 and RAN were suitable as stable reference genes for gene expression normalization. For the PEG stress subset, UBC, and DnaJ were sufficient for accurate normalization. For the tissues subset, four reference genes TUBβ, UBI, EF1α, and RAN were sufficient for accurate normalization. The selected genes were further validated by comparing expression profiles of WRKY15 in various samples, and two stable reference genes were recommended for accurate normalization of qRT-PCR data. Our results provide researchers with appropriate reference genes for qRT-PCR in C. capsularis, and will facilitate gene expression study under these conditions. PMID:26528312

  17. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR studies in long yellow daylily, Hemerocallis citrina Borani

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene expression analysis requires the use of reference genes in the target species. The long yellow daylily is rich in beneficial secondary metabolites and is considered as a functional vegetable. It is widely cultivated and consumed in East Asia. However, reference genes for use in RT-qPCR in this ...

  18. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Normalization of Gene Expression Using Quantitative RT-PCR under Aluminum, Cadmium, and Heat Stresses in Soybean.

    PubMed

    Gao, Mengmeng; Liu, Yaping; Ma, Xiao; Shuai, Qin; Gai, Junyi; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used to analyze the relative gene expression level, however, the accuracy of qRT-PCR is greatly affected by the stability of reference genes, which is tissue- and environment- dependent. Therefore, choosing the most stable reference gene in a specific tissue and environment is critical to interpret gene expression patterns. Aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), and heat stresses are three important abiotic factors limiting soybean (Glycine max) production in southern China. To identify the suitable reference genes for normalizing the expression levels of target genes by qRT-PCR in soybean response to Al, Cd and heat stresses, we studied the expression stability of ten commonly used housekeeping genes in soybean roots and leaves under these three abiotic stresses, using five approaches, BestKeeper, Delta Ct, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. We found TUA4 is the most stable reference gene in soybean root tips under Al stress. Under Cd stress, Fbox and UKN2 are the most stable reference genes in roots and leaves, respectively, while 60S is the most suitable reference gene when analyzing both roots and leaves together. For heat stress, TUA4 and UKN2 are the most stable housekeeping genes in roots and leaves, respectively, and UKN2 is the best reference gene for analysis of roots and leaves together. To validate the reference genes, we quantified the relative expression levels of six target genes that were involved in soybean response to Al, Cd or heat stresses, respectively. The expression patterns of these target genes differed between using the most and least stable reference genes, suggesting the selection of a suitable reference gene is critical for gene expression studies.

  19. Evaluation of Reference Genes for Normalization of Gene Expression Using Quantitative RT-PCR under Aluminum, Cadmium, and Heat Stresses in Soybean

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao; Shuai, Qin; Gai, Junyi; Li, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is widely used to analyze the relative gene expression level, however, the accuracy of qRT-PCR is greatly affected by the stability of reference genes, which is tissue- and environment- dependent. Therefore, choosing the most stable reference gene in a specific tissue and environment is critical to interpret gene expression patterns. Aluminum (Al), cadmium (Cd), and heat stresses are three important abiotic factors limiting soybean (Glycine max) production in southern China. To identify the suitable reference genes for normalizing the expression levels of target genes by qRT-PCR in soybean response to Al, Cd and heat stresses, we studied the expression stability of ten commonly used housekeeping genes in soybean roots and leaves under these three abiotic stresses, using five approaches, BestKeeper, Delta Ct, geNorm, NormFinder and RefFinder. We found TUA4 is the most stable reference gene in soybean root tips under Al stress. Under Cd stress, Fbox and UKN2 are the most stable reference genes in roots and leaves, respectively, while 60S is the most suitable reference gene when analyzing both roots and leaves together. For heat stress, TUA4 and UKN2 are the most stable housekeeping genes in roots and leaves, respectively, and UKN2 is the best reference gene for analysis of roots and leaves together. To validate the reference genes, we quantified the relative expression levels of six target genes that were involved in soybean response to Al, Cd or heat stresses, respectively. The expression patterns of these target genes differed between using the most and least stable reference genes, suggesting the selection of a suitable reference gene is critical for gene expression studies. PMID:28046130

  20. Selection of reliable reference genes for gene expression studies in Clonostachys rosea 67-1 under sclerotial induction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhan-Bin; Li, Shi-Dong; Sun, Man-Hong

    2015-07-01

    Reference genes are important to precisely quantify gene expression by real-time PCR. In order to identify stable and reliable expressed genes in mycoparasite Clonostachys rosea in different modes of nutrition, seven commonly used housekeeping genes, 18S rRNA, actin, β-tubulin, elongation factor 1, ubiquitin, ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, from the effective biocontrol isolate C. rosea 67-1 were tested for their expression under sclerotial induction and during vegetative growth on PDA medium. Analysis by three software programs showed that differences existed among the candidates. Elongation factor 1 was most stable; the M value in geNorm, SD value in Bestkeeper and stability value in Normfinder analysis were 0.405, 0.450 and 0.442, respectively, indicating that the gene elongation factor 1 could be used to normalize gene expression in C. rosea in both vegetative growth and parasitic process. By using elongation factor 1, the expression of a serine protease gene, sep, in different conditions was assessed, which was consistent with the transcriptomic data. This research provides an effective method to quantitate expression changes of target genes in C. rosea, and will assist in further investigation of parasitism-related genes of this fungus.

  1. Recommended reference genes for quantitative PCR analysis in soybean have variable stabilities during diverse biotic stresses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) in soybean, reference genes in different tissues, developmental stages, various cultivars, and under stress conditions have been suggested but their usefulness for research on soybean under various biotic stresses occurring in North-Central U.S. is n...

  2. Selection of reference genes for expression analyses in liver of rats with impaired glucose metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, Alfonso H; Curi, Rui; Salazar, Luis A

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic gene expression studies are vital for identification of molecular factors involved in insulin resistance. However, the need of normalized gene expression data has led to the search of stable genes which are useful as a reference in specific experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate expression stability of potential reference genes for real-time PCR gene expression studies, in rats with insulin resistance, early programmed in intrauterine environment of maternal insulin resistance and triggered by exposure to a high sucrose and fat diet in adult life. Male rats coming from insulin resistant (F1IR) mothers or normal (F1N) mothers were fed a standard rodent diet from postnatal day 21 to day 56, and then divided in two groups each. One of each subgroups were fed a high sucrose and fat diet (groups F1IR + HSFD and F1N + HSFD respectively), the rest were fed a control diet (groups F1IR + CD and F1N + CD) for 14 days. Glucose metabolism related tests were later performed. After liver extraction, RNA was isolated and gene expression analyzes of seven potential reference genes (Actb, Gapdh, Gusb, Hprt1, Ldha, Rpl13a and Rplp1) were carried out. LinRegPCR software was used to analyze raw data and determinate baseline corrections, threshold lines, efficiency of PCR reactions and corrected Cq values. Evaluations of gene expression stabilities as well as the number of necessary genes for normalization were assessed with geNorm tool. All samples from all groups showed acceptable PCR amplification efficiencies. The most stable genes were Rplp1, Ldha, Hprt1 and Rpl13a and the less stable was Gapdh. For all groups, just 2 to 3 of the most stable genes were necessary for optimal gene expression data normalization in rat liver. Genes encoding ribosomal proteins are the most appropriated for normalization of expression data in the presented animal model. By contrast, Gapdh, one of the most used genes in normalization, is not recommendable due to its high

  3. The utility of optical detection system (qPCR) and bioinformatics methods in reference gene expression analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarzyńska, Agnieszka; Pawełkowicz, Magdalena; PlÄ der, Wojciech; Przybecki, Zbigniew

    2016-09-01

    Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction is consider as the most reliable method for gene expression studies. However, the expression of target gene could be misinterpreted due to improper normalization. Therefore, the crucial step for analysing of qPCR data is selection of suitable reference genes, which should be validated experimentally. In order to choice the gene with stable expression in the designed experiment, we performed reference gene expression analysis. In this study genes described in the literature and novel genes predicted as control genes, based on the in silico analysis of transcriptome data were used. Analysis with geNorm and NormFinder algorithms allow to create the ranking of candidate genes and indicate the best reference for flower morphogenesis study. According to the results, genes CACS and CYCL were characterised the most stable expression, but the least suitable genes were TUA and EF.

  4. Endogenous interferon-β-inducible gene expression and interferon-β-treatment are associated with reduced T cell responses to myelin basic protein in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Börnsen, Lars; Romme Christensen, Jeppe; Ratzer, Rikke; Hedegaard, Chris; Søndergaard, Helle B; Krakauer, Martin; Hesse, Dan; Nielsen, Claus H; Sorensen, Per S; Sellebjerg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    Autoreactive CD4+ T-cells are considered to play a major role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis. In experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, an animal model of multiple sclerosis, exogenous and endogenous type I interferons restrict disease severity. Recombinant interferon-β is used for treatment of multiple sclerosis, and some untreated multiple sclerosis patients have increased expression levels of type I interferon-inducible genes in immune cells. The role of endogenous type I interferons in multiple sclerosis is controversial: some studies found an association of high expression levels of interferon-β-inducible genes with an increased expression of interleukin-10 and a milder disease course in untreated multiple sclerosis patients, whereas other studies reported an association with a poor response to treatment with interferon-β. In the present study, we found that untreated multiple sclerosis patients with an increased expression of interferon-β-inducible genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and interferon-β-treated multiple sclerosis patients had decreased CD4+ T-cell reactivity to the autoantigen myelin basic protein ex vivo. Interferon-β-treated multiple sclerosis patients had increased IL10 and IL27 gene expression levels in monocytes in vivo. In vitro, neutralization of interleukin-10 and monocyte depletion increased CD4+ T-cell reactivity to myelin basic protein while interleukin-10, in the presence or absence of monocytes, inhibited CD4+ T-cell reactivity to myelin basic protein. Our findings suggest that spontaneous expression of interferon-β-inducible genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from untreated multiple sclerosis patients and treatment with interferon-β are associated with reduced myelin basic protein-induced T-cell responses. Reduced myelin basic protein-induced CD4+ T-cell autoreactivity in interferon-β-treated multiple sclerosis patients may be mediated by monocyte-derived interleukin-10.

  5. Identification of stable reference genes for quantitative PCR in cells derived from chicken lymphoid organs.

    PubMed

    Borowska, D; Rothwell, L; Bailey, R A; Watson, K; Kaiser, P

    2016-02-01

    Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is a powerful technique for quantification of gene expression, especially genes involved in immune responses. Although qPCR is a very efficient and sensitive tool, variations in the enzymatic efficiency, quality of RNA and the presence of inhibitors can lead to errors. Therefore, qPCR needs to be normalised to obtain reliable results and allow comparison. The most common approach is to use reference genes as internal controls in qPCR analyses. In this study, expression of seven genes, including β-actin (ACTB), β-2-microglobulin (B2M), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), β-glucuronidase (GUSB), TATA box binding protein (TBP), α-tubulin (TUBAT) and 28S ribosomal RNA (r28S), was determined in cells isolated from chicken lymphoid tissues and stimulated with three different mitogens. The stability of the genes was measured using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper software. The results from both geNorm and NormFinder were that the three most stably expressed genes in this panel were TBP, GAPDH and r28S. BestKeeper did not generate clear answers because of the highly heterogeneous sample set. Based on these data we will include TBP in future qPCR normalisation. The study shows the importance of appropriate reference gene normalisation in other tissues before qPCR analysis.

  6. Selection of Valid Reference Genes for Reverse Transcription Quantitative PCR Analysis in Heliconius numata (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)

    PubMed Central

    Chouteau, Mathieu; Whibley, Annabel; Joron, Mathieu; Llaurens, Violaine

    2016-01-01

    Identifying the genetic basis of adaptive variation is challenging in non-model organisms and quantitative real time PCR. is a useful tool for validating predictions regarding the expression of candidate genes. However, comparing expression levels in different conditions requires rigorous experimental design and statistical analyses. Here, we focused on the neotropical passion-vine butterflies Heliconius, non-model species studied in evolutionary biology for their adaptive variation in wing color patterns involved in mimicry and in the signaling of their toxicity to predators. We aimed at selecting stable reference genes to be used for normalization of gene expression data in RT-qPCR analyses from developing wing discs according to the minimal guidelines described in Minimum Information for publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE). To design internal RT-qPCR controls, we studied the stability of expression of nine candidate reference genes (actin, annexin, eF1α, FK506BP, PolyABP, PolyUBQ, RpL3, RPS3A, and tubulin) at two developmental stages (prepupal and pupal) using three widely used programs (GeNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper). Results showed that, despite differences in statistical methods, genes RpL3, eF1α, polyABP, and annexin were stably expressed in wing discs in late larval and pupal stages of Heliconius numata. This combination of genes may be used as a reference for a reliable study of differential expression in wings for instance for genes involved in important phenotypic variation, such as wing color pattern variation. Through this example, we provide general useful technical recommendations as well as relevant statistical strategies for evolutionary biologists aiming to identify candidate-genes involved adaptive variation in non-model organisms. PMID:27271971

  7. Identification of Reference Genes for Quantitative RT-PCR in Ascending Aortic Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Henn, Dominic; Bandner-Risch, Doris; Perttunen, Hilja; Schmied, Wolfram; Porras, Carlos; Ceballos, Francisco; Rodriguez-Losada, Noela; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension and congenital aortic valve malformations are frequent causes of ascending aortic aneurysms. The molecular mechanisms of aneurysm formation under these circumstances are not well understood. Reference genes for gene activity studies in aortic tissue that are not influenced by aortic valve morphology and its hemodynamic consequences, aortic dilatation, hypertension, or antihypertensive medication are not available so far. This study determines genes in ascending aortic tissue that are independent of these parameters. Tissue specimens from dilated and undilated ascending aortas were obtained from 60 patients (age ≤70 years) with different morphologies of the aortic valve (tricuspid undilated n = 24, dilated n = 11; bicuspid undilated n = 6, dilated n = 15; unicuspid dilated n = 4). Of the studied individuals, 36 had hypertension, and 31 received ACE inhibitors or AT1 receptor antagonists. The specimens were obtained intraoperatively from the wall of the ascending aorta. We analyzed the expression levels of 32 candidate reference genes by quantitative RT-PCR (RT-qPCR). Differential expression levels were assessed by parametric statistics. The expression analysis of these 32 genes by RT-qPCR showed that EIF2B1, ELF1, and PPIA remained constant in their expression levels in the different specimen groups, thus being insensitive to aortic valve morphology, aortic dilatation, hypertension, and medication with ACE inhibitors or AT1 receptor antagonists. Unlike many other commonly used reference genes, the genes EIF2B1, ELF1, and PPIA are neither confounded by aortic comorbidities nor by antihypertensive medication and therefore are most suitable for gene expression analysis of ascending aortic tissue. PMID:23326585

  8. Identification and Evaluation of Reference Genes for Accurate Transcription Normalization in Safflower under Different Experimental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Dandan; Hu, Bo; Wang, Qing; Liu, Hongchang; Pan, Feng; Wu, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) has received a significant amount of attention as a medicinal plant and oilseed crop. Gene expression studies provide a theoretical molecular biology foundation for improving new traits and developing new cultivars. Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) has become a crucial approach for gene expression analysis. In addition, appropriate reference genes (RGs) are essential for accurate and rapid relative quantification analysis of gene expression. In this study, fifteen candidate RGs involved in multiple metabolic pathways of plants were finally selected and validated under different experimental treatments, at different seed development stages and in different cultivars and tissues for real-time PCR experiments. These genes were ABCS, 60SRPL10, RANBP1, UBCL, MFC, UBCE2, EIF5A, COA, EF1-β, EF1, GAPDH, ATPS, MBF1, GTPB and GST. The suitability evaluation was executed by the geNorm and NormFinder programs. Overall, EF1, UBCE2, EIF5A, ATPS and 60SRPL10 were the most stable genes, and MBF1, as well as MFC, were the most unstable genes by geNorm and NormFinder software in all experimental samples. To verify the validation of RGs selected by the two programs, the expression analysis of 7 CtFAD2 genes in safflower seeds at different developmental stages under cold stress was executed using different RGs in RT-qPCR experiments for normalization. The results showed similar expression patterns when the most stable RGs selected by geNorm or NormFinder software were used. However, the differences were detected using the most unstable reference genes. The most stable combination of genes selected in this study will help to achieve more accurate and reliable results in a wide variety of samples in safflower. PMID:26457898

  9. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR gene expression analysis in Salix matsudana under different abiotic stresses

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunxing; Han, Xiaojiao; Chen, Shuangshuang; Zheng, Liu; He, Xuelian; Liu, Mingying; Qiao, Guirong; Wang, Yang; Zhuo, Renying

    2017-01-01

    Salix matsudana is a deciduous, rapidly growing willow species commonly cultivated in China, which can tolerate drought, salt, and heavy metal stress conditions. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR is important for normalizing the expression of the key genes associated with various stresses. To validate suitable reference genes, we selected 11 candidate reference genes (five traditional housekeeping genes and six novel genes) and analyzed their expression stability in various samples, including different tissues and under different abiotic stress treatments. The expression of these genes was determined using five programs—geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, ΔCt, and RefFinder. The results showed that α-TUB2 (alpha-tubulin 2) and DnaJ (chaperone protein DnaJ 49) were the most stable reference genes across all the tested samples. We measured the expression profiles of the defense response gene SmCAT (catalase) using the two most stable and one least stable reference genes in all samples of S. matsudana. The relative quantification of SmCAT varied greatly according to the different reference genes. We propose that α-TUB2 and DnaJ should be the preferred reference genes for normalization and quantification of transcript levels in future gene expression studies in willow species under various abiotic stress conditions. PMID:28120870

  10. Reference Genes in the Pathosystem Phakopsora pachyrhizi/ Soybean Suitable for Normalization in Transcript Profiling

    PubMed Central

    Hirschburger, Daniela; Müller, Manuel; Voegele, Ralf T.; Link, Tobias

    2015-01-01

    Phakopsora pachyrhizi is a devastating pathogen on soybean, endangering soybean production worldwide. Use of Host Induced Gene Silencing (HIGS) and the study of effector proteins could provide novel strategies for pathogen control. For both approaches quantification of transcript abundance by RT-qPCR is essential. Suitable stable reference genes for normalization are indispensable to obtain accurate RT-qPCR results. According to the Minimum Information for Publication of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Experiments (MIQE) guidelines and using algorithms geNorm and NormFinder we tested candidate reference genes from P. pachyrhizi and Glycine max for their suitability in normalization of transcript levels throughout the infection process. For P. pachyrhizi we recommend a combination of CytB and PDK or GAPDH for in planta experiments. Gene expression during in vitro stages and over the whole infection process was found to be highly unstable. Here, RPS14 and UbcE2 are ranked best by geNorm and NormFinder. Alternatively CytB that has the smallest Cq range (Cq: quantification cycle) could be used. We recommend specification of gene expression relative to the germ tube stage rather than to the resting urediospore stage. For studies omitting the resting spore and the appressorium stages a combination of Elf3 and RPS9, or PKD and GAPDH should be used. For normalization of soybean genes during rust infection Ukn2 and cons7 are recommended. PMID:26404265

  11. Genome-wide identification and characterization of reference genes with different transcript abundances for Streptomyces coelicolor

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shanshan; Wang, Weishan; Li, Xiao; Fan, Keqiang; Yang, Keqian

    2015-01-01

    The lack of reliable reference genes (RGs) in the genus Streptomyces hampers effort to obtain the precise data of transcript levels. To address this issue, we aimed to identify reliable RGs in the model organism Streptomyces coelicolor. A pool of potential RGs containing 1,471 genes was first identified by determining the intersection of genes with stable transcript levels from four time-series transcriptome microarray datasets of S. coelicolor M145 cultivated in different conditions. Then, following a strict rational selection scheme including homology analysis, disturbance analysis, function analysis and transcript abundance analysis, 13 candidates were selected from the 1,471 genes. Based on real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR assays, SCO0710, SCO6185, SCO1544, SCO3183 and SCO4758 were identified as the top five genes with the most stable transcript levels among the 13 candidates. Further analyses showed these five genes also maintained stable transcript levels in different S. coelicolor strains, as well as in Streptomyces avermitilis MA-4680 and Streptomyces clavuligerus NRRL 3585, suggesting they could fulfill the requirements of accurate data normalization in streptomycetes. Moreover, the systematic strategy employed in this work could be used for reference in other microorganism to select reliable RGs. PMID:26527303

  12. [Selection of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR in six oil-tea camellia based on RNA].

    PubMed

    Zhou, C F; Lin, P; Yao, X H; Wang, K L; Chang, J; Han, X J

    2013-01-01

    qRT-PCR is becoming a routine tool in molecular biology to study gene expression. It is nec- essary to find stable reference genes when performing qRT-PCR. The expression of genes cloned in oil-tea camellia currently can't be accurately analyzed because of a lack of suitable reference genes. We collected different tissues (including roots, stems, leaves, flowers and seeds) from six oil-tea camellia species to determine stable reference genes. Five novel and ten traditional reference gene sequences were selected from the RNA-seq database of Camellia oleifera C. Abel seeds and specific PCR primers were designed for each. Cycle threshold (Ct) data were obtained from each reaction for all samples. Three different software tools, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper were applied to calculate the expression stability of the candidate reference genes according to the Ct values. The results were similar between analyzed by the three software packages, and indicated that the traditional gene TUBa-3, AC17a and the novel gene CESA were relatively stable in all species and tissues. However, no genes were sufficiently stable across all species and tissues, thus the optimal number of reference genes required for accurate normalization varied from two to six. Finally, the relative expression ofsqualene synthase (SQS) and squalene epoxidase (SQE) genes related to important ingredients squalene and tea saponin in oil-tea camellia seeds were compared by using stable to less stable reference genes. The comparison results validated the selection of reference genes in the current study. In summary, different optimal numbers of suitable reference genes were found for the different tissues of six oil-tea camellia species.

  13. Effect of exogenous GA3 and its inhibitor paclobutrazol on floral formation, endogenous hormones, and flowering-associated genes in 'Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Songwen; Zhang, Dong; Fan, Sheng; Du, Lisha; Shen, Yawen; Xing, Libo; Li, Youmei; Ma, Juanjuan; Han, Mingyu

    2016-10-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) reduce apple (Malus domestica) flowering rates; however, the mechanism of their action is not fully understood. To gain a better insight into gibberellin-regulated flowering, here, 5 year-old 'Fuji' apple trees were used to explore the responses of hormones [GA1+3, GA4+7, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), zeatin-riboside (ZR), and abscisic acid (ABA)], and gibberellin- and flowering-associated genes, to applications of gibberellin acid (GA3) and paclobutrazol (PAC). Results showed that GA3 relatively stimulated vegetative growth and delayed floral induction. Moreover, GA3 spraying significantly affected contents of all endogenous hormones and all the genes tested in at least one time points: the content of endogenous GAs was increased instantly and that of ZR was reduced at 44 days after fullbloom (DAF), which might constitute an unfavorable factor for flower formation; MdKO (ent-kaurene oxidase gene) and MdGA20ox (GA20 oxidase gene) were significantly repressed by a high level of GAs through the negative feedback regulation of GA; additionally, the MdSPLs (SQUAMOSA-PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE) in this study were all significantly repressed by GA3 but promoted by PAC; the expression of MdFT1/2 (FLOWERING LOCUS T), MdSOC1 (SUPPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS1) and MdAP1 (APETALA1) in GA3-treated buds changed in the same way, and they were repressed at 44 DAF. We suppose that GA3 spraying disrupts the balance between ZR and GAs, and inhibits floral induction, probably by suppressing MdSPLs and the floral integrators in flower induction, which ultimately contributed to inhibiting flower formation.

  14. Selection of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR during Flower Development in Tree Peony (Paeonia suffruticosa Andr.)

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jian; Han, Jigang; Hu, Yonghong; Yang, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Tree peony (Paeonia suffruticosa) is a perennial plant indigenous to China known for its elegant and vibrantly colorful flowers. A few genes involved in petal pigmentation have been cloned in tree peony. However, to date, there have been few studies on the comparison and selection of stable reference genes for gene expression analysis by quantitative reverse-transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) in this species. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes were evaluated for the normalization of qRT-PCR in three tree peony cultivars. GAPDH and UBC were identified as the top two most stable reference genes in ‘Feng Dan’ and ‘Xi Shi,’ and EF-1α/UBC was recommended to be the best combination for ‘Que Hao.’ The expression stability of various reference genes differed across cultivars, suggesting that selection and validation of reliable reference genes for quantitative gene expression analysis was necessary not only for different species but also for different cultivars. The results provided a list of reference genes for further study on gene expression in P. suffruticosa. However, in any case, a preliminary check on the accuracy of the best performing reference genes is requested for each qRT-PCR experiment. PMID:27148337

  15. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in Cimex lectularius.

    PubMed

    Mamidala, Praveen; Rajarapu, Swapna P; Jones, Susan C; Mittapalli, Omprakash

    2011-07-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) has emerged as robust methodology for gene expression studies, but reference genes are crucial for accurate normalization. Commonly used reference genes are housekeeping genes that are thought to be nonregulated; however, their expression can be unstable across different experimental conditions. We report the identification and validation of suitable reference genes in the bed bug, Cimex lectularius, by using qRT-PCR. The expression stability of eight reference genes in different tissues (abdominal cuticle, midgut, Malpighian tubules, and ovary) and developmental stages (early instar nymphs, late instar nymphs, and adults) of pesticide-susceptible and pesticide-exposed C. lectularius were analyzed using geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Overall expression analysis of the eight reference genes revealed significant variation among samples, indicating the necessity of validating suitable reference genes for accurate quantification of mRNA transcripts. Ribosomal protein (RPL18) exhibited the most stable gene expression across all the tissue and developmental-stage samples; a-tubulin revealed the least stability across all of the samples examined. Thus, we recommend RPL18 as a suitable reference gene for normalization in gene expression studies of C. lectularius.

  16. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Normalization and Its Applications in Lycium

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Shaohua; Liu, Yongliang; Wu, Min; Liu, Xiaomin; Shen, Xiaofei; Liu, Chunzhao; Wang, Ying

    2014-01-01

    Lycium barbarum and L. ruthenicum are extensively used as traditional Chinese medicinal plants. Next generation sequencing technology provides a powerful tool for analyzing transcriptomic profiles of gene expression in non-model species. Such gene expression can then be confirmed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Therefore, use of systematically identified suitable reference genes is a prerequisite for obtaining reliable gene expression data. Here, we calculated the expression stability of 18 candidate reference genes across samples from different tissues and grown under salt stress using geNorm and NormFinder procedures. The geNorm-determined rank of reference genes was similar to those defined by NormFinder with some differences. Both procedures confirmed that the single most stable reference gene was ACNTIN1 for L. barbarum fruits, H2B1 for L. barbarum roots, and EF1α for L. ruthenicum fruits. PGK3, H2B2, and PGK3 were identified as the best stable reference genes for salt-treated L. ruthenicum leaves, roots, and stems, respectively. H2B1 and GAPDH1+PGK1 for L. ruthenicum and SAMDC2+H2B1 for L. barbarum were the best single and/or combined reference genes across all samples. Finally, expression of salt-responsive gene NAC, fruit ripening candidate gene LrPG, and anthocyanin genes were investigated to confirm the validity of the selected reference genes. Suitable reference genes identified in this study provide a foundation for accurately assessing gene expression and further better understanding of novel gene function to elucidate molecular mechanisms behind particular biological/physiological processes in Lycium. PMID:24810586

  17. LbCML38 and LbRH52, two reference genes derived from RNA-Seq data suitable for assessing gene expression in Lycium barbarum L.

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lei; Yang, Yajun; Chen, Yuchao; Shi, Jing; Song, Yuxia; Zhang, Hongxia

    2016-01-01

    For quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis, the key prerequisite that determines result accuracy is the selection of appropriate reference gene(s). Goji (Lycium barbarum L.) is a multi-branched shrub belonging to the Solanaceae family. To date, no systematic screening or evaluation of reference gene(s) in Goji has been performed. In this work, we identified 18 candidate reference genes from the transcriptomic sequencing data of 14 samples of Goji at different developmental stages and under drought stress condition. The expression stability of these candidate genes was rigorously analyzed using qRT-PCR and four different statistical algorithms: geNorm, BestKeeper, NormFinder and RefFinder. Two novel reference genes LbCML38 and LbRH52 showed the most stable expression, whereas the traditionally used reference genes such as LbGAPDH, LbHSP90 and LbTUB showed unstable expression in the tested samples. Expression of a target gene LbMYB1 was also tested and compared using optimal reference genes LbCML38 and LbRH52, mediocre reference gene LbActin7, and poor reference gene LbHSP90 as normalization standards, respectively. As expected, calculation of the target gene expression by normalization against LbCML38, LbActin7 or LbHSP90 showed significant differences. Our findings suggest that LbCML38 and LbRH52 can be used as reference genes for gene expression analysis in Goji. PMID:27841319

  18. Evaluation of Suitable Reference Genes for Normalization of qPCR Gene Expression Studies in Brinjal (Solanum melongena L.) During Fruit Developmental Stages.

    PubMed

    Kanakachari, Mogilicherla; Solanke, Amolkumar U; Prabhakaran, Narayanasamy; Ahmad, Israr; Dhandapani, Gurusamy; Jayabalan, Narayanasamy; Kumar, Polumetla Ananda

    2016-02-01

    Brinjal/eggplant/aubergine is one of the major solanaceous vegetable crops. Recent availability of genome information greatly facilitates the fundamental research on brinjal. Gene expression patterns during different stages of fruit development can provide clues towards the understanding of its biological functions. Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become one of the most widely used methods for rapid and accurate quantification of gene expression. However, its success depends on the use of a suitable reference gene for data normalization. For qPCR analysis, a single reference gene is not universally suitable for all experiments. Therefore, reference gene validation is a crucial step. Suitable reference genes for qPCR analysis of brinjal fruit development have not been investigated so far. In this study, we have selected 21 candidate reference genes from the Brinjal (Solanum melongena) Plant Gene Indices database (compbio.dfci.harvard.edu/tgi/plant.html) and studied their expression profiles by qPCR during six different fruit developmental stages (0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 50 days post anthesis) along with leaf samples of the Pusa Purple Long (PPL) variety. To evaluate the stability of gene expression, geNorm and NormFinder analytical softwares were used. geNorm identified SAND (SAND family protein) and TBP (TATA binding protein) as the best pairs of reference genes in brinjal fruit development. The results showed that for brinjal fruit development, individual or a combination of reference genes should be selected for data normalization. NormFinder identified Expressed gene (expressed sequence) as the best single reference gene in brinjal fruit development. In this study, we have identified and validated for the first time reference genes to provide accurate transcript normalization and quantification at various fruit developmental stages of brinjal which can also be useful for gene expression studies in other Solanaceae plant species.

  19. Stimulating endogenous cardiac repair

    PubMed Central

    Finan, Amanda; Richard, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The healthy adult heart has a low turnover of cardiac myocytes. The renewal capacity, however, is augmented after cardiac injury. Participants in cardiac regeneration include cardiac myocytes themselves, cardiac progenitor cells, and peripheral stem cells, particularly from the bone marrow compartment. Cardiac progenitor cells and bone marrow stem cells are augmented after cardiac injury, migrate to the myocardium, and support regeneration. Depletion studies of these populations have demonstrated their necessary role in cardiac repair. However, the potential of these cells to completely regenerate the heart is limited. Efforts are now being focused on ways to augment these natural pathways to improve cardiac healing, primarily after ischemic injury but in other cardiac pathologies as well. Cell and gene therapy or pharmacological interventions are proposed mechanisms. Cell therapy has demonstrated modest results and has passed into clinical trials. However, the beneficial effects of cell therapy have primarily been their ability to produce paracrine effects on the cardiac tissue and recruit endogenous stem cell populations as opposed to direct cardiac regeneration. Gene therapy efforts have focused on prolonging or reactivating natural signaling pathways. Positive results have been demonstrated to activate the endogenous stem cell populations and are currently being tested in clinical trials. A potential new avenue may be to refine pharmacological treatments that are currently in place in the clinic. Evidence is mounting that drugs such as statins or beta blockers may alter endogenous stem cell activity. Understanding the effects of these drugs on stem cell repair while keeping in mind their primary function may strike a balance in myocardial healing. To maximize endogenous cardiac regeneration, a combination of these approaches could ameliorate the overall repair process to incorporate the participation of multiple cellular players. PMID:26484341

  20. Evaluation of reference genes in Vibrio parahaemolyticus for gene expression analysis using quantitative RT-PCR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a significant human pathogen capable of causing foodborne gastroenteritis associated with the consumption of contaminated raw or undercooked seafood. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) is a useful tool for studying gene expression in V. parahaemolyticus to characterize the viru...

  1. Comprehensive evaluation of candidate reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of gene expression in mustard aphid, Lipaphis erysimi (Kalt)

    PubMed Central

    Koramutla, Murali Krishna; Aminedi, Raghavendra; Bhattacharya, Ramcharan

    2016-01-01

    Mustard aphid, also known as turnip aphid (Lipaphis erysimi) is a major insect pest of rapeseed-mustard group of crops. Tremendous economic significance has led to substantial basic research involving gene-expression studies in this insect species. In qRT-PCR analysis of gene-expression, normalization of data against RNA variation by using appropriate reference gene is fundamental. However, appropriate reference genes are not known in case of L. erysimi. We evaluated 11 candidate reference genes for their expression stability in 21 samples of L. erysimi subjected to various regimes of experimental treatments. Unlike other studies, we validated true effects of the treatments on the samples either by gene-expression study of an associated marker gene or by biochemical tests. In the validated samples, expression stability of the reference genes was analysed by employing four different statistical softwares geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and deltaCt. Drawing consensus on the results from different softwares, we recommend three best reference genes 16S, RPS18 and RPL13 for normalization of qRT-PCR data in L. erysimi. This study provides for the first time a comprehensive list of suitable reference genes for mustard aphid and demonstrates the advantage of using more than one reference gene in combination for certain experimental conditions. PMID:27165720

  2. A gene-based association method for mapping traits using reference transcriptome data

    PubMed Central

    Gamazon, Eric R.; Wheeler, Heather E.; Shah, Kaanan P.; Mozaffari, Sahar V.; Aquino-Michaels, Keston; Carroll, Robert J.; Eyler, Anne E.; Denny, Joshua C.; Nicolae, Dan L.; Cox, Nancy J.; Kyung Im, Hae

    2015-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified thousands of variants robustly associated with complex traits. However, the biological mechanisms underlying these associations are, in general, not well understood. We propose a gene-based association method called PrediXcan that directly tests the molecular mechanisms through which genetic variation affects phenotype. The approach estimates the component of gene expression determined by an individual’s genetic profile and correlates the “imputed” gene expression with the phenotype under investigation to identify genes involved in the etiology of the phenotype. The genetically regulated gene expression is estimated using whole-genome tissue-dependent prediction models trained with reference transcriptome datasets. PrediXcan enjoys the benefits of gene-based approaches such as reduced multiple testing burden and a principled approach to the design of follow-up experiments. Our results demonstrate that PrediXcan can detect known and novel genes associated with disease traits and provide insights into the mechanism of these associations. PMID:26258848

  3. Selection and Validation of Appropriate Reference Genes for Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis of Gene Expression in Lycoris aurea

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Rui; Xu, Sheng; Zhao, Yucheng; Xia, Bing; Wang, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Lycoris aurea (L' Hér.) Herb, a perennial grass species, produces a unique variety of pharmacologically active Amaryllidaceae alkaloids. However, the key enzymes and their expression pattern involved in the biosynthesis of Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (especially for galanthamine) are far from being fully understood. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), a commonly used method for quantifying gene expression, requires stable reference genes to normalize its data. In this study, to choose the appropriate reference genes under different experimental conditions, 14 genes including YLS8 (mitosis protein YLS8), CYP2 (Cyclophilin 2), CYP 1 (Cyclophilin 1), TIP41 (TIP41-like protein), EXP2 (Expressed protein 2), PTBP1 (Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein 1), EXP1 (Expressed protein 1), PP2A (Serine/threonine-protein phosphatase 2A), β-TUB (β-tubulin), α-TUB (α-tubulin), EF1-α (Elongation factor 1-α), UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme), ACT (Actin) and GAPDH (Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) were selected from the transcriptome datasets of L. aurea. And then, expressions of these genes were assessed by qRT-PCR in various tissues and the roots under different treatments. The expression stability of the 14 candidates was analyzed by three commonly used software programs (geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper), and their results were further integrated into a comprehensive ranking based on the geometric mean. The results show the relatively stable genes for each subset as follows: (1) EXP1 and TIP41 for all samples; (2) UBC and EXP1 for NaCl stress; (3) PTBP1 and EXP1 for heat stress, polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress and ABA treatment; (4) UBC and CYP2 for cold stress; (5) PTBP1 and PP2A for sodium nitroprusside (SNP) treatment; (6) CYP1 and TIP41 for methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment; and (7) EXP1 and TIP41 for various tissues. The reliability of these results was further enhanced through comparison between part qRT-PCR result and RNA

  4. Identification of appropriate reference genes for human mesenchymal stem cell analysis by quantitative real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuying; Yang, Qiwei; Bai, Jinping; Xuan, Yali; Wang, Yimin

    2015-01-01

    Normalization to a reference gene is the method of choice for quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis. The stability of reference genes is critical for accurate experimental results and conclusions. We have evaluated the expression stability of eight commonly used reference genes found in four different human mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). Using geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper algorithms, we show that beta-2-microglobulin and peptidyl-prolylisomerase A were the optimal reference genes for normalizing RT-qPCR data obtained from MSC, whereas the TATA box binding protein was not suitable due to its extensive variability in expression. Our findings emphasize the significance of validating reference genes for qPCR analyses. We offer a short list of reference genes to use for normalization and recommend some commercially-available software programs as a rapid approach to validate reference genes. We also demonstrate that the two reference genes, β-actin and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, are frequently used are not always successful in many cases.

  5. Role of Toll-like receptors and retinoic acid inducible gene I in endogenous production of type I interferon in dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Dai, Tingjun; Lv, Jingwei; Ji, Kunqian; Liu, Junling; Zhang, Bin; Yan, Chuanzhu

    2015-08-15

    To explore the possible mechanisms implicated in the endogenous production of type I interferons within the muscle tissue of dermatomyositis (DM) patients. We detected the co-localization of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and retinoic acid inducible gene (RIG)-I by immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence. Western blotting confirmed the expression of TLRs and RIG-I. TLR-3 and RIG-I was preferentially expressed in the perifascicular atrophy fibers of DM. TLR-7 was only in inflammatory infiltrates of a few DM patients. TLR-4 and TLR-9 was expressed mainly in inflammatory infiltrates. Immunofluorescence showed extensive co-localization of BDCA-2 with TLR-9 and little co-localization with TLR-7. Western blotting showed upregulation of expression of TLRs and RIG-I in DM compared with the controls. Our findings indicate that endogenous production of type I IFN in DM is generated by pDCs, mainly through the TLR-9 pathway and in part by TLR-7. TLR-3 and RIG-I are implicated in the formation of perifascicular atrophy in DM.

  6. Reference materials (RMs) for analysis of the human factor II (prothrombin) gene G20210A mutation.

    PubMed

    Klein, Christoph L; Márki-Zay, János; Corbisier, Philippe; Gancberg, David; Cooper, Susan; Gemmati, Donato; Halbmayer, Walter-Michael; Kitchen, Steve; Melegh, Béla; Neumaier, Michael; Oldenburg, Johannes; Leibundgut, Elisabeth Oppliger; Reitsma, Pieter H; Rieger, Sandra; Schimmel, Heinz G; Spannagl, Michael; Tordai, Attilia; Tosetto, Alberto; Visvikis, Sophie; Zadro, Renata; Mannhalter, Christine

    2005-01-01

    The Scientific Committee of Molecular Biology Techniques (C-MBT) in Clinical Chemistry of the IFCC has initiated a joint project in co-operation with the European Commission, Joint Research Centre, Institute of Reference Materials and Measurements to develop and produce plasmid-type reference materials (RMs) for the analysis of the human prothrombin gene G20210A mutation. Although DNA tests have a high impact on clinical decision-making and the number of tests performed in diagnostic laboratories is high, issues of quality and quality assurance exist, and currently only a few RMs for clinical genetic testing are available. A gene fragment chosen was produced that spans all primer annealing sites published to date. Both the wild-type and mutant alleles of this gene fragment were cloned into a pUC18 plasmid and two plasmid RMs were produced. In addition, a mixture of both plasmids was produced to mimic the heterozygous genotype. The present study describes the performance of these reference materials in a commutability study, in which they were tested by nine different methods in 13 expert laboratories. This series of plasmid RMs are, to the best of our knowledge, the first plasmid-type clinical genetic RMs introduced worldwide.

  7. Down-regulation of Fusarium oxysporum endogenous genes by Host-Delivered RNA interference enhances disease resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Zongli; Parekh, Urvi; Maruta, Natsumi; Trusov, Yuri; Botella, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a devastating pathogen causing extensive yield losses in a variety of crops and development of sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to improve crop resistance is crucial. We have used Host-Derived RNA interference (HD-RNAi) technology to partially silence three different genes (FOW2, FRP1 and OPR) in the hemi-biotrophic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. Expression of double stranded RNA molecules targeting fungal pathogen genes was achieved in a number of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. F. oxysporum infecting the transgenic lines displayed substantially reduced mRNA levels on all three targeted genes, with an average of 75%, 83% and 72% reduction for FOW2, FRP1 and OPR respectively. The silencing of pathogen genes had a clear positive effect on the ability of the transgenic lines to fight infection. All transgenic lines displayed enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum with delayed disease symptom development, especially FRP1 and OPR lines. Survival rates after fungal infection were higher in the transgenic lines compared to control wild type plants which consistently showed survival rates of 10%, with FOW2 lines showing 25% survival; FRP1 lines 30-50% survival and FOW2 between 45-70% survival. The down-regulation effect was specific for the targeted genes without unintended effects in related genes. In addition to producing resistant crops, HD-RNAi can provide a useful tool to rapidly screen candidate fungal pathogenicity genes without the need to produce fungal knockout mutants.

  8. Down-regulation of Fusarium oxysporum endogenous genes by Host-Delivered RNA interference enhances disease resistance

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zongli; Parekh, Urvi; Maruta, Natsumi; Trusov, Yuri; Botella, Jose R.

    2015-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is a devastating pathogen causing extensive yield losses in a variety of crops and development of sustainable, environmentally friendly methods to improve crop resistance is crucial. We have used Host-Delivered RNA interference (HD-RNAi) technology to partially silence three different genes (FOW2, FRP1, and OPR) in the hemi-biotrophic fungus F. oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans. Expression of double stranded RNA (dsRNA) molecules targeting fungal pathogen genes was achieved in a number of transgenic Arabidopsis lines. F. oxysporum infecting the transgenic lines displayed substantially reduced mRNA levels on all three targeted genes, with an average of 75, 83, and 72% reduction for FOW2, FRP1, and OPR, respectively. The silencing of pathogen genes had a clear positive effect on the ability of the transgenic lines to fight infection. All transgenic lines displayed enhanced resistance to F. oxysporum with delayed disease symptom development, especially FRP1 and OPR lines. Survival rates after fungal infection were higher in the transgenic lines compared to control wild type plants which consistently showed survival rates of 10%, with FOW2 lines showing 25% survival; FRP1 lines 30–50% survival and OPR between 45 and 70% survival. The down-regulation effect was specific for the targeted genes without unintended effects in related genes. In addition to producing resistant crops, HD-RNAi can provide a useful tool to rapidly screen candidate fungal pathogenicity genes without the need to produce fungal knockout mutants. PMID:25654075

  9. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Analysis in Non-Heading Chinese Cabbage Flowers

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng; Cui, Hong-Mi; Huang, Tian-Hong; Liu, Tong-Kun; Hou, Xi-Lin; Li, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Non-heading Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa ssp. chinensis Makino) is an important vegetable member of Brassica rapa crops. It exhibits a typical sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI) system and is an ideal model plant to explore the mechanism of SI. Gene expression research are frequently used to unravel the complex genetic mechanism and in such studies appropriate reference selection is vital. Validation of reference genes have neither been conducted in Brassica rapa flowers nor in SI trait. In this study, 13 candidate reference genes were selected and examined systematically in 96 non-heading Chinese cabbage flower samples that represent four strategic groups in compatible and self-incompatible lines of non-heading Chinese cabbage. Two RT-qPCR analysis software, geNorm and NormFinder, were used to evaluate the expression stability of these genes systematically. Results revealed that best-ranked references genes should be selected according to specific sample subsets. DNAJ, UKN1, and PP2A were identified as the most stable reference genes among all samples. Moreover, our research further revealed that the widely used reference genes, CYP and ACP, were the least suitable reference genes in most non-heading Chinese cabbage flower sample sets. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes identified in this study, the expression level of SRK and Exo70A1 genes which play important roles in regulating interaction between pollen and stigma were studied. Our study presented the first systematic study of reference gene(s) selection for SI study and provided guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results in non-heading Chinese cabbage. PMID:27375663

  10. Selection of appropriate reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in Berkshire, Duroc, Landrace, and Yorkshire pigs.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Je; Kwon, Seul Gi; Hwang, Jung Hye; Park, Da Hye; Kim, Tae Wan; Kim, Chul Wook

    2015-03-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is the most reliable molecular biology technique for assessment of mRNA expression levels. However, to obtain the accurate RT-qPCR results, the expression levels of genes of interest should be normalized with appropriate reference genes and optimal numbers of reference genes. In this study, we assessed the expression stability of 15 well-known candidate reference genes (ACTB, ALDOA, B2M, GAPDH, HPAR1, HSPCB, PGK1, POLR2G, PPIA, RPL4, RPS18, SDHA, TBP, TOP2B, and YWHAZ) in seven body tissues (liver, lung, kidney, spleen, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine) of Berkshire, Landrace, Duroc, and Yorkshire pigs using three excel-based programs, geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Combination analysis of these three programs showed that the stable and appropriate reference genes are PPIA, TBP, and HSPCB in Berkshire pigs; PPIA, TBP, RPL4, and RPS18 in Landrace pigs; PPIA and TBP in Duroc pigs; and PPIA, TOP2B, RPL4, and RPS18 in Yorkshire pigs. Because the four pig breeds had different suitable reference genes, the selection of appropriate reference genes is essential in RT-qPCR analyses. Taken together, our data could help to select reliable reference genes for the normalization of expression levels of various target genes in pigs.

  11. Low-level lasers and mRNA levels of reference genes used in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, A. F.; Machado, Y. L. R. C.; Fonseca, A. S.; Mencalha, A. L.

    2016-11-01

    Low-level lasers are widely used for the treatment of diseases and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is widely used to evaluate mRNA levels and output data from a target gene are commonly relative to a reference mRNA that cannot vary according to treatment. In this study, the level of reference genes from Escherichia coli exposed to red or infrared lasers at different fluences was evaluated. E. coli AB1157 cultures were exposed to red (660 nm) and infrared (808 nm) lasers, incubated (20 min, 37 °C), the total RNA was extracted, and cDNA synthesis was performed to evaluate mRNA levels from arcA, gyrA and rpoA genes by RT-qPCR. Melting curves and agarose gel electrophoresis were carried out to evaluate specific amplification. Data were analyzed by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The melting curve and agarose gel electrophoresis showed specific amplification. Although mRNA levels from arcA, gyrA or rpoA genes presented no significant variations trough a traditional statistical analysis, Excel-based tools revealed that these reference genes are not suitable for E. coli cultures exposed to lasers. Our data showed that exposure to low-level red and infrared lasers at different fluences alter the mRNA levels from arcA, gyrA and rpoA in E. coli cells.

  12. An endogenous promoter for conditional gene expression in Acremonium chrysogenum: the xylan and xylose inducible promoter xyl1(P.).

    PubMed

    Blatzer, Michael; Gsaller, Fabio; Abt, Beate; Schrettl, Markus; Specht, Thomas; Haas, Hubertus

    2014-01-01

    Acremonium chrysogenum is the natural producer of the beta-lactam antibiotic cephalosporin C and therefore of significant biotechnological importance. Here we identified and characterized the xylanase-encoding xyl1 gene and demonstrate that its promoter, xyl1(P), is suitable for conditional expression of heterologous genes in A. chrysogenum. This was shown by xylose and xylan-inducible xyl1(P)-driven expression of genes encoding green fluorescence protein and phleomycin resistance. Moreover, we demonstrate the potential of the xyl1(P) promoter for selection marker recycling. Taken together, these finding will help to overcome the limitation in genetic tools in this important filamentous fungus.

  13. Increased endogenous H2S generation by CBS, CSE, and 3MST gene therapy improves ex vivo renovascular relaxation in hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Sen, Utpal; Sathnur, Pushpakumar B; Kundu, Sourav; Givvimani, Srikanth; Coley, Denise M; Mishra, Paras K; Qipshidze, Natia; Tyagi, Neetu; Metreveli, Naira; Tyagi, Suresh C

    2012-07-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) has recently been identified as a regulator of various physiological events, including vasodilation, angiogenesis, antiapoptotic, and cellular signaling. Endogenously, H(2)S is produced as a metabolite of homocysteine (Hcy) by cystathionine β-synthase (CBS), cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), and 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MST). Although Hcy is recognized as vascular risk factor at an elevated level [hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy)] and contributes to vascular injury leading to renovascular dysfunction, the exact mechanism is unclear. The goal of the current study was to investigate whether conversion of Hcy to H(2)S improves renovascular function. Ex vivo renal artery culture with CBS, CSE, and 3MST triple gene therapy generated more H(2)S in the presence of Hcy, and these arteries were more responsive to endothelial-dependent vasodilation compared with nontransfected arteries treated with high Hcy. Cross section of triple gene-delivered renal arteries immunostaining suggested increased expression of CD31 and VEGF and diminished expression of the antiangiogenic factor endostatin. In vitro endothelial cell culture demonstrated increased mitophagy during high levels of Hcy and was mitigated by triple gene delivery. Also, dephosphorylated Akt and phosphorylated FoxO3 in HHcy were reversed by H(2)S or triple gene delivery. Upregulated matrix metalloproteinases-13 and downregulated tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 in HHcy were normalized by overexpression of triple genes. Together, these results suggest that H(2)S plays a key role in renovasculopathy during HHcy and is mediated through Akt/FoxO3 pathways. We conclude that conversion of Hcy to H(2)S by CBS, CSE, or 3MST triple gene therapy improves renovascular function in HHcy.

  14. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR in Solanum lycopersicum L. inoculated with the mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Alejandra; Ortiz, Javier; Saavedra, Nicolás; Salazar, Luis A; Meneses, Claudio; Arriagada, Cesar

    2016-04-01

    The gene expression stability of candidate reference genes in the roots and leaves of Solanum lycopersicum inoculated with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi was investigated. Eight candidate reference genes including elongation factor 1 α (EF1), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK), protein phosphatase 2A (PP2Acs), ribosomal protein L2 (RPL2), β-tubulin (TUB), ubiquitin (UBI) and actin (ACT) were selected, and their expression stability was assessed to determine the most stable internal reference for quantitative PCR normalization in S. lycopersicum inoculated with the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis. The stability of each gene was analysed in leaves and roots together and separated using the geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Differences were detected between leaves and roots, varying among the best-ranked genes depending on the algorithm used and the tissue analysed. PGK, TUB and EF1 genes showed higher stability in roots, while EF1 and UBI had higher stability in leaves. Statistical algorithms indicated that the GAPDH gene was the least stable under the experimental conditions assayed. Then, we analysed the expression levels of the LePT4 gene, a phosphate transporter whose expression is induced by fungal colonization in host plant roots. No differences were observed when the most stable genes were used as reference genes. However, when GAPDH was used as the reference gene, we observed an overestimation of LePT4 expression. In summary, our results revealed that candidate reference genes present variable stability in S. lycopersicum arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis depending on the algorithm and tissue analysed. Thus, reference gene selection is an important issue for obtaining reliable results in gene expression quantification.

  15. Deep RNA sequencing analysis of readthrough gene fusions in human prostate adenocarcinoma and reference samples

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Readthrough fusions across adjacent genes in the genome, or transcription-induced chimeras (TICs), have been estimated using expressed sequence tag (EST) libraries to involve 4-6% of all genes. Deep transcriptional sequencing (RNA-Seq) now makes it possible to study the occurrence and expression levels of TICs in individual samples across the genome. Methods We performed single-end RNA-Seq on three human prostate adenocarcinoma samples and their corresponding normal tissues, as well as brain and universal reference samples. We developed two bioinformatics methods to specifically identify TIC events: a targeted alignment method using artificial exon-exon junctions within 200,000 bp from adjacent genes, and genomic alignment allowing splicing within individual reads. We performed further experimental verification and characterization of selected TIC and fusion events using quantitative RT-PCR and comparative genomic hybridization microarrays. Results Targeted alignment against artificial exon-exon junctions yielded 339 distinct TIC events, including 32 gene pairs with multiple isoforms. The false discovery rate was estimated to be 1.5%. Spliced alignment to the genome was less sensitive, finding only 18% of those found by targeted alignment in 33-nt reads and 59% of those in 50-nt reads. However, spliced alignment revealed 30 cases of TICs with intervening exons, in addition to distant inversions, scrambled genes, and translocations. Our findings increase the catalog of observed TIC gene pairs by 66%. We verified 6 of 6 predicted TICs in all prostate samples, and 2 of 5 predicted novel distant gene fusions, both private events among 54 prostate tumor samples tested. Expression of TICs correlates with that of the upstream gene, which can explain the prostate-specific pattern of some TIC events and the restriction of the SLC45A3-ELK4 e4-e2 TIC to ERG-negative prostate samples, as confirmed in 20 matched prostate tumor and normal samples and 9 lung cancer

  16. Activation of endogenous p53 by combined p19Arf gene transfer and nutlin-3 drug treatment modalities in the murine cell lines B16 and C6

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Reactivation of p53 by either gene transfer or pharmacologic approaches may compensate for loss of p19Arf or excess mdm2 expression, common events in melanoma and glioma. In our previous work, we constructed the pCLPG retroviral vector where transgene expression is controlled by p53 through a p53-responsive promoter. The use of this vector to introduce p19Arf into tumor cells that harbor p53wt should yield viral expression of p19Arf which, in turn, would activate the endogenous p53 and result in enhanced vector expression and tumor suppression. Since nutlin-3 can activate p53 by blocking its interaction with mdm2, we explored the possibility that the combination of p19Arf gene transfer and nutlin-3 drug treatment may provide an additive benefit in stimulating p53 function. Methods B16 (mouse melanoma) and C6 (rat glioma) cell lines, which harbor p53wt, were transduced with pCLPGp19 and these were additionally treated with nutlin-3 or the DNA damaging agent, doxorubicin. Viral expression was confirmed by Western, Northern and immunofluorescence assays. p53 function was assessed by reporter gene activity provided by a p53-responsive construct. Alterations in proliferation and viability were measured by colony formation, growth curve, cell cycle and MTT assays. In an animal model, B16 cells were treated with the pCLPGp19 virus and/or drugs before subcutaneous injection in C57BL/6 mice, observation of tumor progression and histopathologic analyses. Results Here we show that the functional activation of endogenous p53wt in B16 was particularly challenging, but accomplished when combined gene transfer and drug treatments were applied, resulting in increased transactivation by p53, marked cell cycle alteration and reduced viability in culture. In an animal model, B16 cells treated with both p19Arf and nutlin-3 yielded increased necrosis and decreased BrdU marking. In comparison, C6 cells were quite susceptible to either treatment, yet p53 was further activated

  17. Validation of reference genes for RT-qPCR normalization in common bean during biotic and abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Borges, Aline; Tsai, Siu Mui; Caldas, Danielle Gregorio Gomes

    2012-05-01

    Selection of reference genes is an essential consideration to increase the precision and quality of relative expression analysis by the quantitative RT-PCR method. The stability of eight expressed sequence tags was evaluated to define potential reference genes to study the differential expression of common bean target genes under biotic (incompatible interaction between common bean and fungus Colletotrichum lindemuthianum) and abiotic (drought; salinity; cold temperature) stresses. The efficiency of amplification curves and quantification cycle (C (q)) were determined using LinRegPCR software. The stability of the candidate reference genes was obtained using geNorm and NormFinder software, whereas the normalization of differential expression of target genes [beta-1,3-glucanase 1 (BG1) gene for biotic stress and dehydration responsive element binding (DREB) gene for abiotic stress] was defined by REST software. High stability was obtained for insulin degrading enzyme (IDE), actin-11 (Act11), unknown 1 (Ukn1) and unknown 2 (Ukn2) genes during biotic stress, and for SKP1/ASK-interacting protein 16 (Skip16), Act11, Tubulin beta-8 (β-Tub8) and Unk1 genes under abiotic stresses. However, IDE and Act11 were indicated as the best combination of reference genes for biotic stress analysis, whereas the Skip16 and Act11 genes were the best combination to study abiotic stress. These genes should be useful in the normalization of gene expression by RT-PCR analysis in common bean, the most important edible legume.

  18. Reference genes for accessing differential expression among developmental stages and analysis of differential expression of OBP genes in Anastrepha obliqua

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Aline Minali; Chahad-Ehlers, Samira; Lima, André Luís A.; Taniguti, Cristiane Hayumi; Sobrinho Jr., Iderval; Torres, Felipe Rafael; de Brito, Reinaldo Alves

    2016-01-01

    The West Indian fruit fly, Anastrepha obliqua, is an important agricultural pest in the New World. The use of pesticide-free methods to control invasive species such as this reinforces the search for genes potentially useful in their genetic control. Therefore, the study of chemosensory proteins involved with a range of responses to the chemical environment will help not only on the understanding of the species biology but may also help the development of environmentally friendly pest control strategies. Here we analyzed the expression patterns of three OBP genes, Obp19d_2, Obp56a and Obp99c, across different phases of A. obliqua development by qPCR. In order to do so, we tested eight and identified three reference genes for data normalization, rpl17, rpl18 and ef1a, which displayed stability for the conditions here tested. All OBPs showed differential expression on adults and some differential expression among adult stages. Obp99c had an almost exclusive expression in males and Obp56a showed high expression in virgin females. Thereby, our results provide relevant data not only for other gene expression studies in this species, as well as for the search of candidate genes that may help in the development of new pest control strategies. PMID:26818909

  19. Reference Genes for Addressing Gene Expression of Bladder Cancer Cell Models under Hypoxia: A Step Towards Transcriptomic Studies

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Janine; Neves, Manuel; Santos, Lúcio Lara; Ferreira, José Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Highly aggressive, rapidly growing tumors contain significant areas of hypoxia or anoxia as a consequence of inadequate and/or irregular blood supply. During oxygen deprivation, tumor cells withstand a panoply of adaptive responses, including a shift towards anaerobic metabolism and the reprogramming of the transcriptome. One of the major mediators of the transcriptional hypoxic response is the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), whose stabilization under hypoxia acts as an oncogenic stimulus contributing to chemotherapy resistance, invasion and metastasis. Gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR is a powerful tool for cancer cells phenotypic characterization. Nevertheless, as cells undergo a severe transcriptome remodeling.in response to oxygen deficit, the precise identification of reference genes poses a significant challenge for hypoxic studies. Herein, we aim to establish the best reference genes for studying the effects of hypoxia on bladder cancer cells. Accordingly, three bladder cancer cell lines (T24, 5637, and HT1376) representative of two distinct carcinogenesis pathways to invasive cancer (FGFR3/CCND1 and E2F3/RB1) were used. Additionally, we have explored the most suitable control gene when addressing the influence of Deferoxamine Mesilate salt (DFX), an iron chelator often used to avoid the proteasomal degradation of HIF-1α, acting as an hypoxia-mimetic agent. Using bioinformatics tools (GeNorm and NormFinder), we have elected B2M and HPRT as the most stable genes for all cell lines and experimental conditions out of a panel of seven putative candidates (HPRT, ACTB, 18S, GAPDH, TBP, B2M, and SDHA). These observations set the molecular basis for future studies addressing the effect of hypoxia and particularly HIF-1α in bladder cancer cells. PMID:27835695

  20. Reference Genes for Addressing Gene Expression of Bladder Cancer Cell Models under Hypoxia: A Step Towards Transcriptomic Studies.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luís; Gaiteiro, Cristiana; Peixoto, Andreia; Soares, Janine; Neves, Manuel; Santos, Lúcio Lara; Ferreira, José Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Highly aggressive, rapidly growing tumors contain significant areas of hypoxia or anoxia as a consequence of inadequate and/or irregular blood supply. During oxygen deprivation, tumor cells withstand a panoply of adaptive responses, including a shift towards anaerobic metabolism and the reprogramming of the transcriptome. One of the major mediators of the transcriptional hypoxic response is the hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1), whose stabilization under hypoxia acts as an oncogenic stimulus contributing to chemotherapy resistance, invasion and metastasis. Gene expression analysis by qRT-PCR is a powerful tool for cancer cells phenotypic characterization. Nevertheless, as cells undergo a severe transcriptome remodeling.in response to oxygen deficit, the precise identification of reference genes poses a significant challenge for hypoxic studies. Herein, we aim to establish the best reference genes for studying the effects of hypoxia on bladder cancer cells. Accordingly, three bladder cancer cell lines (T24, 5637, and HT1376) representative of two distinct carcinogenesis pathways to invasive cancer (FGFR3/CCND1 and E2F3/RB1) were used. Additionally, we have explored the most suitable control gene when addressing the influence of Deferoxamine Mesilate salt (DFX), an iron chelator often used to avoid the proteasomal degradation of HIF-1α, acting as an hypoxia-mimetic agent. Using bioinformatics tools (GeNorm and NormFinder), we have elected B2M and HPRT as the most stable genes for all cell lines and experimental conditions out of a panel of seven putative candidates (HPRT, ACTB, 18S, GAPDH, TBP, B2M, and SDHA). These observations set the molecular basis for future studies addressing the effect of hypoxia and particularly HIF-1α in bladder cancer cells.

  1. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis under Abiotic Stresses in the Desert Biomass Willow, Salix psammophila.

    PubMed

    Li, Jianbo; Jia, Huixia; Han, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Jin; Sun, Pei; Lu, Mengzhu; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Salix psammophila is a desert shrub willow that has extraordinary adaptation to abiotic stresses and plays an important role in maintaining local ecosystems. Moreover, S. psammophila is regarded as a promising biomass feedstock because of its high biomass yields and short rotation coppice cycle. However, few suitable reference genes (RGs) for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) constrain the study on normalization of gene expression in S. psammophila until now. Here, we investigated the expression stabilities of 14 candidate RGs across tissue types and under four abiotic stress treatments, including heat, cold, salt, and drought treatments. After calculation of PCR efficiencies, three different software, NormFinder, geNorm, and BestKeeper were employed to analyze systematically the qRT-PCR data, and the outputs were merged by RankAggreg software. The optimal RGs selected for gene expression analysis were EF1α (Elongation factor-1 alpha) and OTU (OTU-like cysteine protease family protein) for different tissue types, UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2) and LTA4H (Leukotriene A-4 hydrolase homolog) for heat treatment, HIS (Histone superfamily protein H3) and ARF2 (ADP-ribosylation factor 2) for cold treatment, OTU and ACT7 (Actin 7) for salt treatment, UBC and LTA4H for drought treatment. The expression of UBC, ARF2, and VHAC (V-type proton ATPase subunit C) varied the least across tissue types and under abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the relative genes expression profiles of one tissue-specific gene WOX1a (WUSCHEL-related homeobox 1a), and four stress-inducible genes, including Hsf-A2 (Heat shock transcription factors A2), CBF3 (C-repeat binding factor 3), HKT1 (High-Affinity K(+) Transporter 1), and GST (Glutathione S-transferase), were conducted to confirm the validity of the RGs in this study. These results provided an important RGs application guideline for gene expression characterization in S. psammophila.

  2. Rice folate enhancement through metabolic engineering has an impact on rice seed metabolism, but does not affect the expression of the endogenous folate biosynthesis genes.

    PubMed

    Blancquaert, Dieter; Van Daele, Jeroen; Storozhenko, Sergei; Stove, Christophe; Lambert, Willy; Van Der Straeten, Dominique

    2013-11-01

    Folates are key-players in one-carbon metabolism in all organisms. However, only micro-organisms and plants are able to synthesize folates de novo and humans rely entirely on their diet as a sole folate source. As a consequence, folate deficiency is a global problem. Although different strategies are currently implemented to fight folate deficiency, up until now, all of them have their own drawbacks. As an alternative and complementary means to those classical strategies, folate biofortification of rice by metabolic engineering was successfully achieved a couple of years ago. To gain more insight into folate biosynthesis regulation and the effect of folate enhancement on general rice seed metabolism, a transcriptomic study was conducted in developing transgenic rice seeds, overexpressing 2 genes of the folate biosynthetic pathway. Upon folate enhancement, the expression of 235 genes was significantly altered. Here, we show that rice folate biofortification has an important effect on folate dependent, seed developmental and plant stress response/defense processes, but does not affect the expression of the endogenous folate biosynthesis genes.

  3. Validation and Comparison of Reference Genes for qPCR Normalization of Celery (Apium graveolens) at Different Development Stages.

    PubMed

    Li, Meng-Yao; Wang, Feng; Jiang, Qian; Wang, Guan-Long; Tian, Chang; Xiong, Ai-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    A suitable reference gene is an important prerequisite for guarantying accurate and reliable results in qPCR analysis. Celery is one of the representative vegetable in Apiaceae and is widely cultivated and consumed in the world. However, no reports have been previously published concerning reference genes in celery. In this study, the expression stabilities of nine candidate reference genes in leaf blade and petiole at different development stages were evaluated using three statistics algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. Our results showed that TUB-B, TUB-A, and UBC were the most reference genes among all tested samples. GAPDH represented the maximum stability for most individual sample, while the UBQ displayed the minimum stability. To further validate the stability of reference genes, the expression pattern of AgAP2-2 was calculated by using the selected genes for normalization. In addition, the expression patterns of several development-related genes were studied using the selected reference gene. Our results will be beneficial for further studies on gene transcription in celery.

  4. A Versatile Panel of Reference Gene Assays for the Measurement of Chicken mRNA by Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Helena J.; Van Borm, Steven; Young, John R.; Fife, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR assays are widely used for the quantification of mRNA within avian experimental samples. Multiple stably-expressed reference genes, selected for the lowest variation in representative samples, can be used to control random technical variation. Reference gene assays must be reliable, have high amplification specificity and efficiency, and not produce signals from contaminating DNA. Whilst recent research papers identify specific genes that are stable in particular tissues and experimental treatments, here we describe a panel of ten avian gene primer and probe sets that can be used to identify suitable reference genes in many experimental contexts. The panel was tested with TaqMan and SYBR Green systems in two experimental scenarios: a tissue collection and virus infection of cultured fibroblasts. GeNorm and NormFinder algorithms were able to select appropriate reference gene sets in each case. We show the effects of using the selected genes on the detection of statistically significant differences in expression. The results are compared with those obtained using 28s ribosomal RNA, the present most widely accepted reference gene in chicken work, identifying circumstances where its use might provide misleading results. Methods for eliminating DNA contamination of RNA reduced, but did not completely remove, detectable DNA. We therefore attached special importance to testing each qPCR assay for absence of signal using DNA template. The assays and analyses developed here provide a useful resource for selecting reference genes for investigations of avian biology. PMID:27537060

  5. Patterning of Virus-Infected Glycine max Seed Coat Is Associated with Suppression of Endogenous Silencing of Chalcone Synthase Genes

    PubMed Central

    Senda, Mineo; Masuta, Chikara; Ohnishi, Shizen; Goto, Kazunori; Kasai, Atsushi; Sano, Teruo; Hong, Jin-Sung; MacFarlane, Stuart

    2004-01-01

    Most commercial Glycine max (soybean) varieties have yellow seeds because of loss of pigmentation in the seed coat. It has been suggested that inhibition of seed coat pigmentation in yellow G. max may be controlled by homology-dependent silencing of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. Our analysis of CHS mRNA and short-interfering RNAs provide clear evidence that the inhibition of seed coat pigmentation in yellow G. max results from posttranscriptional rather than transcriptional silencing of the CHS genes. Furthermore, we show that mottling symptoms present on the seed coat of G. max plants infected with some viruses can be caused by suppression of CHS posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) by a viral silencing suppressor protein. These results demonstrate that naturally occurring PTGS plays a key role in expression of a distinctive phenotype in plants and present a simple clear example of the elucidation of the molecular mechanism for viral symptom induction. PMID:15037735

  6. Patterning of virus-infected Glycine max seed coat is associated with suppression of endogenous silencing of chalcone synthase genes.

    PubMed

    Senda, Mineo; Masuta, Chikara; Ohnishi, Shizen; Goto, Kazunori; Kasai, Atsushi; Sano, Teruo; Hong, Jin-Sung; MacFarlane, Stuart

    2004-04-01

    Most commercial Glycine max (soybean) varieties have yellow seeds because of loss of pigmentation in the seed coat. It has been suggested that inhibition of seed coat pigmentation in yellow G. max may be controlled by homology-dependent silencing of chalcone synthase (CHS) genes. Our analysis of CHS mRNA and short-interfering RNAs provide clear evidence that the inhibition of seed coat pigmentation in yellow G. max results from posttranscriptional rather than transcriptional silencing of the CHS genes. Furthermore, we show that mottling symptoms present on the seed coat of G. max plants infected with some viruses can be caused by suppression of CHS posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) by a viral silencing suppressor protein. These results demonstrate that naturally occurring PTGS plays a key role in expression of a distinctive phenotype in plants and present a simple clear example of the elucidation of the molecular mechanism for viral symptom induction.

  7. Identification and validation of superior reference gene for gene expression normalization via RT-qPCR in staminate and pistillate flowers of Jatropha curcas – A biodiesel plant

    PubMed Central

    Karuppaiya, Palaniyandi; Yan, Xiao-Xue; Liao, Wang; Chen, Fang; Tang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L) seed oil is a natural resource for the alternative production of fossil fuel. Seed oil production is mainly depended on seed yield, which was restricted by the low ratio of staminate flowers to pistillate flowers. Further, the mechanism of physic nut flower sex differentiation has not been fully understood yet. Quantitative Real Time—Polymerase Chain Reaction is a reliable and widely used technique to quantify the gene expression pattern in biological samples. However, for accuracy of qRT-PCR, appropriate reference gene is highly desirable to quantify the target gene level. Hence, the present study was aimed to identify the stable reference genes in staminate and pistillate flowers of J. curcas. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability in staminate and pistillate flowers, and their stability was validated by five different algorithms (ΔCt, BestKeeper, NormFinder, GeNorm and RefFinder). Resulting, TUB and EF found to be the two most stably expressed reference for staminate flower; while GAPDH1 and EF found to be the most stably expressed reference gene for pistillate flowers. Finally, RT-qPCR assays of target gene AGAMOUS using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes in different stages of flower development. AGAMOUS gene expression levels at different stages were further proved by gene copy number analysis. Therefore, the present study provides guidance for selecting appropriate reference genes for analyzing the expression pattern of floral developmental genes in staminate and pistillate flowers of J. curcas. PMID:28234941

  8. Identification and validation of superior reference gene for gene expression normalization via RT-qPCR in staminate and pistillate flowers of Jatropha curcas - A biodiesel plant.

    PubMed

    Karuppaiya, Palaniyandi; Yan, Xiao-Xue; Liao, Wang; Wu, Jun; Chen, Fang; Tang, Lin

    2017-01-01

    Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L) seed oil is a natural resource for the alternative production of fossil fuel. Seed oil production is mainly depended on seed yield, which was restricted by the low ratio of staminate flowers to pistillate flowers. Further, the mechanism of physic nut flower sex differentiation has not been fully understood yet. Quantitative Real Time-Polymerase Chain Reaction is a reliable and widely used technique to quantify the gene expression pattern in biological samples. However, for accuracy of qRT-PCR, appropriate reference gene is highly desirable to quantify the target gene level. Hence, the present study was aimed to identify the stable reference genes in staminate and pistillate flowers of J. curcas. In this study, 10 candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability in staminate and pistillate flowers, and their stability was validated by five different algorithms (ΔCt, BestKeeper, NormFinder, GeNorm and RefFinder). Resulting, TUB and EF found to be the two most stably expressed reference for staminate flower; while GAPDH1 and EF found to be the most stably expressed reference gene for pistillate flowers. Finally, RT-qPCR assays of target gene AGAMOUS using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes in different stages of flower development. AGAMOUS gene expression levels at different stages were further proved by gene copy number analysis. Therefore, the present study provides guidance for selecting appropriate reference genes for analyzing the expression pattern of floral developmental genes in staminate and pistillate flowers of J. curcas.

  9. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR.

    PubMed

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes.

  10. Validation of Reference Genes for Relative Quantitative Gene Expression Studies in Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) by Using Quantitative Real-Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Meizhen; Hu, Wenbin; Xia, Zhiqiang; Zhou, Xincheng; Wang, Wenquan

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR, also referred to as quantitative RT-PCR or RT-qPCR) is a highly sensitive and high-throughput method used to study gene expression. Despite the numerous advantages of RT-qPCR, its accuracy is strongly influenced by the stability of internal reference genes used for normalizations. To date, few studies on the identification of reference genes have been performed on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz). Therefore, we selected 26 candidate reference genes mainly via the three following channels: reference genes used in previous studies on cassava, the orthologs of the most stable Arabidopsis genes, and the sequences obtained from 32 cassava transcriptome sequence data. Then, we employed ABI 7900 HT and SYBR Green PCR mix to assess the expression of these genes in 21 materials obtained from various cassava samples under different developmental and environmental conditions. The stability of gene expression was analyzed using two statistical algorithms, namely geNorm and NormFinder. geNorm software suggests the combination of cassava4.1_017977 and cassava4.1_006391 as sufficient reference genes for major cassava samples, the union of cassava4.1_014335 and cassava4.1_006884 as best choice for drought stressed samples, and the association of cassava4.1_012496 and cassava4.1_006391 as optimal choice for normally grown samples. NormFinder software recommends cassava4.1_006884 or cassava4.1_006776 as superior reference for qPCR analysis of different materials and organs of drought stressed or normally grown cassava, respectively. Results provide an important resource for cassava reference genes under specific conditions. The limitations of these findings were also discussed. Furthermore, we suggested some strategies that may be used to select candidate reference genes. PMID:27242878

  11. Endogenous gustatory responses and gene expression profile of stably proliferating human taste cells isolated from fungiform papillae.

    PubMed

    Hochheimer, Andreas; Krohn, Michael; Rudert, Kerstin; Riedel, Katja; Becker, Sven; Thirion, Christian; Zinke, Holger

    2014-05-01

    Investigating molecular mechanisms underlying human taste sensation requires functionally dedicated and at the same time proliferating human taste cells. Here, we isolated viable human fungiform taste papillae cells from biopsy samples, adenovirally transduced proliferation promoting genes, and obtained stably proliferating cell lines. Analysis of gene expression of 1 human taste cell line termed HTC-8 revealed that these cells express 13 TAS2R bitter taste receptor genes, CD36, OXTR encoding oxytocin receptor, as well as genes implicated with signal transduction and cell fate control. Bitter tastants triggered functionally distinct signaling pathways in HTC-8 cells. Salicin elicited phospholipase C-dependent calcium signaling and no cell depolarization. In contrast, stimulation with saccharin, aristolochic acid, or phenylthiocarbamide triggered cell depolarization and phospholipase C-independent calcium influx. Simultaneous stimulation with salicin and saccharin revealed that saccharin can enhance the phospholipase C-dependent response to salicin indicating crosstalk of signaling pathways. Our results show that HTC-8 cells are programmed to bitter taste reception but are also responsive to fatty acids, oxytocin, and somatosensory stimuli, whereas HTC-8 cells are insensitive to compounds representing other basic taste qualities.

  12. A Complete Set of Flagellar Genes Acquired by Horizontal Transfer Coexists with the Endogenous Flagellar System in Rhodobacter sphaeroides▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Sebastian; Abreu-Goodger, Cei; Fabela, Salvador; Osorio, Aurora; Dreyfus, Georges; Vinuesa, Pablo; Camarena, Laura

    2007-01-01

    Bacteria swim in liquid environments by means of a complex rotating structure known as the flagellum. Approximately 40 proteins are required for the assembly and functionality of this structure. Rhodobacter sphaeroides has two flagellar systems. One of these systems has been shown to be functional and is required for the synthesis of the well-characterized single subpolar flagellum, while the other was found only after the genome sequence of this bacterium was completed. In this work we found that the second flagellar system of R. sphaeroides can be expressed and produces a functional flagellum. In many bacteria with two flagellar systems, one is required for swimming, while the other allows movement in denser environments by producing a large number of flagella over the entire cell surface. In contrast, the second flagellar system of R. sphaeroides produces polar flagella that are required for swimming. Expression of the second set of flagellar genes seems to be positively regulated under anaerobic growth conditions. Phylogenic analysis suggests that the flagellar system that was initially characterized was in fact acquired by horizontal transfer from a γ-proteobacterium, while the second flagellar system contains the native genes. Interestingly, other α-proteobacteria closely related to R. sphaeroides have also acquired a set of flagellar genes similar to the set found in R. sphaeroides, suggesting that a common ancestor received this gene cluster. PMID:17293429

  13. Identification of reliable reference genes for qRT-PCR studies of the developing mouse mammary gland

    PubMed Central

    van de Moosdijk, Anoeska Agatha Alida; van Amerongen, Renée

    2016-01-01

    Cell growth and differentiation are often driven by subtle changes in gene expression. Many challenges still exist in detecting these changes, particularly in the context of a complex, developing tissue. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) allows relatively high-throughput evaluation of multiple genes and developmental time points. Proper quantification of gene expression levels by qRT-PCR requires normalization to one or more reference genes. Traditionally, these genes have been selected based on their presumed “housekeeping” function, with the implicit assumption that they are stably expressed over the entire experimental set. However, this is rarely tested empirically. Here we describe the identification of novel reference genes for the mouse mammary gland based on their stable expression in published microarray datasets. We compared eight novel candidate reference genes (Arpc3, Clock, Ctbp1, Phf7, Prdx1, Sugp2, Taf11 and Usp7) to eight traditional ones (18S, Actb, Gapdh, Hmbs, Hprt, Rpl13a, Sdha and Tbp) and analysed all genes for stable expression in the mouse mammary gland from pre-puberty to adulthood using four different algorithms (GeNorm, DeltaCt, BestKeeper and NormFinder). Prdx1, Phf7 and Ctbp1 were validated as novel and reliable, tissue-specific reference genes that outperform traditional reference genes in qRT-PCR studies of postnatal mammary gland development. PMID:27752147

  14. Reference genes for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction studies in soybean plants under hypoxic conditions.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, T J; Rodrigues, F A; Neumaier, N; Marcelino-Guimarães, F C; Farias, J R B; de Oliveira, M C N; Borém, A; de Oliveira, A C B; Emygdio, B M; Nepomuceno, A L

    2014-02-13

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is a powerful tool used to measure gene expression. However, because of its high sensitivity, the method is strongly influenced by the quality and concentration of the template cDNA and by the amplification efficiency. Relative quantification is an effective strategy for correcting random and systematic errors by using the expression level of reference gene(s) to normalize the expression level of the genes of interest. To identify soybean reference genes for use in studies of flooding stress, we compared 5 candidate reference genes (CRGs) with the NormFinder and GeNorm programs to select the best internal control. The expression stability of the CRGs was evaluated in root tissues from soybean plants subjected to hypoxic conditions. Elongation factor 1-beta and actin-11 were identified as the most appropriate genes for RT-qPCR normalization by both the NormFinder and GeNorm analyses. The expression profiles of the genes for alcohol dehydrogenase 1, sucrose synthase 4, and ascorbate peroxidase 2 were analyzed by comparing different normalizing combinations (including no normalization) of the selected reference genes. Here, we have identified potential genes for use as references for RT-qPCR normalization in experiments with soybean roots growing in O2-depleted environments, such as flooding-stressed plants.

  15. Selection and evaluation of reference genes for improved interrogation of microbial transcriptomes: case study with the extremophile Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans

    PubMed Central

    Nieto, Pamela A; Covarrubias, Paulo C; Jedlicki, Eugenia; Holmes, David S; Quatrini, Raquel

    2009-01-01

    Background Normalization is a prerequisite for accurate real time PCR (qPCR) expression analysis and for the validation of microarray profiling data in microbial systems. The choice and use of reference genes that are stably expressed across samples, experimental conditions and designs is a key consideration for the accurate interpretation of gene expression data. Results Here, we evaluate a carefully selected set of reference genes derived from previous microarray-based transcriptional profiling experiments performed on Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans and identify a set of genes with minimal variability under five different experimental conditions that are frequently used in Acidithiobacilli research. Suitability of these and other previously reported reference genes to monitor the expression of four selected target genes from A. ferrooxidans grown with different energy sources was investigated. Utilization of reference genes map, rpoC, alaS and era results in improved interpretation of gene expression profiles in A. ferrooxidans. Conclusion This investigation provides a validated set of reference genes for studying A. ferrooxidans gene expression under typical biological conditions and an initial point of departure for exploring new experimental setups in this microorganism and eventually in other closely related Acidithiobacilli. The information could also be of value for future transcriptomic experiments in other bacterial systems. PMID:19555508

  16. Identification of suitable reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in blotched snakehead Channa maculata.

    PubMed

    Mao, H; Chen, K; Zhu, X; Luo, Q; Zhao, J; Li, W; Wu, X; Xu, H

    2017-04-07

    A systematic study was conducted to identify reliable reference genes for normalization of gene expression analysis in the blotched snakehead Channa maculata under normal physiological conditions. Firstly, the partial complementary (c)DNA of nine candidate reference genes (actb, tmem104, ube2l3, ef1α, churc1, tmem256, rpl13a, sep15 and g6pd) were cloned from C. maculata. The expression levels of these genes were then assessed in embryos of different developmental stages and various tissue types of adult fish using quantitative real-time (qrt-)PCR. RefFinder algorithm was used to evaluate the expression stability of these genes based on their cycle-threshold (Ct ) values in the qrt-PCR analysis. Results showed that there was no single best reference gene for all stages of embryos and adult tissues tested. Furthermore, it was found that, among the nine candidate genes tested, actb and tmem104 were the most stable reference genes across adult tissue types, while sep15 and tmem256 were the most stable ones across developmental stages of embryos. These stable reference genes are recommended for normalization of gene expression analysis in C. maculata.

  17. Validation of reference genes for cryopreservation studies with the gorgonian coral endosymbiont Symbiodinium

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Gabriella; Kuo, Fu-Wen; Tsai, Sujune; Lin, Chiahsin

    2017-01-01

    Quantification by real-time RT-PCR requires a stable internal reference known as a housekeeping gene (HKG) for normalising the mRNA levels of target genes. The present study identified and validated stably expressed HKGs in post-thaw Symbiodinium clade G. Six potential HKGs, namely, pcna, gapdh, 18S rRNA, hsp90, rbcl, and ps1, were analysed using three different algorithms, namely, GeNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper. The GeNorm algorithm ranked the candidate genes as follows in the order of decreasing stability: pcna and gapdh > ps1 > 18S rRNA > hsp90 > rbcl. Results obtained using the NormFinder algorithm also showed that pcna was the most stable HKG and ps1 was the second most stable HKG. We found that the candidate HKGs examined in this study showed variable stability with respect to the three algorithms. These results indicated that both pcna and ps1 were suitable for normalising target gene expression determined by performing real-time RT-PCR in cryopreservation studies on Symbiodinium clade G. The results of the present study would help future studies to elucidate the effect of cryopreservation on gene expression in dinoflagellates. PMID:28067273

  18. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for the Normalization of Gene Expression Data in qRT-PCR Analysis in Aphis gossypii (Hemiptera: Aphididae).

    PubMed

    Ma, Kang-Sheng; Li, Fen; Liang, Ping-Zhuo; Chen, Xue-Wei; Liu, Ying; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2016-01-01

    To obtain accurate and reliable results from quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis, it is necessary to select suitable reference genes as standards for normalizing target gene expression data. QRT-PCR is a popular analytical methodology for studying gene expression and it has been used widely in studies of Aphis gossypii Glover in recent years. However, there is absence of study on the stability of the expression of reference genes in A. gossypii. In this study, eight commonly used candidate reference genes, including 18S, 28S, β-ACT, GAPDH, EF1α, RPL7, α-TUB, and TBP, were evaluated under various experimental conditions to assess their suitability for use in the normalization of qRT-PCR data. The optimal number of reference genes was determined using the geNorm program, and the suitability of particular reference genes was empirically validated by performing normalizations of expression data for the HSP70 gene. The results showed the most suitable combinations of reference genes for the different experimental conditions. For experiments based on divergent developmental stages, EF1α, β-ACT, and RPL7 are the optimal reference gene combination, both EF1α and β-ACT are the optimal combination used in the experiments of different geographical populations, whereas for experiments of the temperature changes, the combination of GAPDH and RPL7 is optimal, both 18S and β-ACT are an optimal combination for feeding assay experiments. These research results should be useful for the selection of the suitable reference genes to obtain reliable qRT-PCR data in the gene expression study of A. gossypii.

  19. Evaluation of reference genes at different developmental stages for quantitative real-time PCR in Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Dzaki, Najat; Ramli, Karima N; Azlan, Azali; Ishak, Intan H; Azzam, Ghows

    2017-03-16

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) is the most notorious vector of illness-causing viruses such as Dengue, Chikugunya, and Zika. Although numerous genetic expression studies utilizing quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted with regards to Ae. aegypti, a panel of genes to be used suitably as references for the purpose of expression-level normalization within this epidemiologically important insect is presently lacking. Here, the usability of seven widely-utilized reference genes i.e. actin (ACT), eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1α), alpha tubulin (α-tubulin), ribosomal proteins L8, L32 and S17 (RPL8, RPL32 and RPS17), and glyceraldeyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were investigated. Expression patterns of the reference genes were observed in sixteen pre-determined developmental stages and in cell culture. Gene stability was inferred from qPCR data through three freely available algorithms i.e. BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder. The consensus rankings generated from stability values provided by these programs suggest a combination of at least two genes for normalization. ACT and RPS17 are the most dependably expressed reference genes and therefore, we propose an ACT/RPS17 combination for normalization in all Ae. aegypti derived samples. GAPDH performed least desirably, and is thus not a recommended reference gene. This study emphasizes the importance of validating reference genes in Ae. aegypti for qPCR based research.

  20. Evaluation of reference genes at different developmental stages for quantitative real-time PCR in Aedes aegypti

    PubMed Central

    Dzaki, Najat; Ramli, Karima N.; Azlan, Azali; Ishak, Intan H.; Azzam, Ghows

    2017-01-01

    The mosquito Aedes aegypti (Ae. aegypti) is the most notorious vector of illness-causing viruses such as Dengue, Chikugunya, and Zika. Although numerous genetic expression studies utilizing quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted with regards to Ae. aegypti, a panel of genes to be used suitably as references for the purpose of expression-level normalization within this epidemiologically important insect is presently lacking. Here, the usability of seven widely-utilized reference genes i.e. actin (ACT), eukaryotic elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1α), alpha tubulin (α-tubulin), ribosomal proteins L8, L32 and S17 (RPL8, RPL32 and RPS17), and glyceraldeyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were investigated. Expression patterns of the reference genes were observed in sixteen pre-determined developmental stages and in cell culture. Gene stability was inferred from qPCR data through three freely available algorithms i.e. BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder. The consensus rankings generated from stability values provided by these programs suggest a combination of at least two genes for normalization. ACT and RPS17 are the most dependably expressed reference genes and therefore, we propose an ACT/RPS17 combination for normalization in all Ae. aegypti derived samples. GAPDH performed least desirably, and is thus not a recommended reference gene. This study emphasizes the importance of validating reference genes in Ae. aegypti for qPCR based research. PMID:28300076

  1. Evaluation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Studies in the Seagrass Zostera muelleri Exposed to Light Limitation

    PubMed Central

    Schliep, M.; Pernice, M.; Sinutok, S.; Bryant, C. V.; York, P. H.; Rasheed, M. A.; Ralph, P. J.

    2015-01-01

    Seagrass meadows are threatened by coastal development and global change. In the face of these pressures, molecular techniques such as reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) have great potential to improve management of these ecosystems by allowing early detection of chronic stress. In RT-qPCR, the expression levels of target genes are estimated on the basis of reference genes, in order to control for RNA variations. Although determination of suitable reference genes is critical for RT-qPCR studies, reports on the evaluation of reference genes are still absent for the major Australian species Zostera muelleri subsp. capricorni (Z. muelleri). Here, we used three different software (geNorm, NormFinder and Bestkeeper) to evaluate ten widely used reference genes according to their expression stability in Z. muelleri exposed to light limitation. We then combined results from different software and used a consensus rank of four best reference genes to validate regulation in Photosystem I reaction center subunit IV B and Heat Stress Transcription factor A- gene expression in Z. muelleri under light limitation. This study provides the first comprehensive list of reference genes in Z. muelleri and demonstrates RT-qPCR as an effective tool to identify early responses to light limitation in seagrass. PMID:26592440

  2. Selection of reference genes for quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction normalization in Brassica napus under various stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Chen, Yu; Fang, Hedi; Shi, Haifeng; Chen, Keping; Zhang, Zhiyan; Tan, Xiaoli

    2014-10-01

    Data normalization is essential for reliable output of quantitative real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays, as the unsuitable choice of reference gene(s), whose expression might be influenced by exogenous treatments in plant tissues, could cause misinterpretation of results. To date, no systematic studies on reference genes have been performed in stressed Brassica napus. In this study, we investigated the expression variations of nine candidate reference genes in 40 samples of B. napus leaves subjected to various exogenous treatments. Parallel analyses by geNorm and NormFinder revealed that optimal reference genes differed across the different sets of samples. The best-ranked reference genes were PP2A and TIP41 for salt stress, TIP41 and ACT7 for heavy metal (Cr(6+)) stress, PP2A and UBC21 for drought stress, F-box and SAND for cold stress, F-box and ZNF for salicylic acid stress, TIP41, ACT7, and PP2A for methyl jasmonate stress, TIP41 and ACT7 for abscisic acid stress, and TIP41, UBC21, and PP2A for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum stress. Two newly employed reference genes, TIP41 and PP2A, showed better performances, suggesting their suitability in multiple conditions. To further validate the suitability of the reference genes, the expression patterns of BnWRKY40 and BnMKS1 were studied in parallel. This study is the first systematic analysis of reference gene selection for qRT-PCR normalization in B. napus, an agriculturally important crop, under different stress conditions. The results will contribute toward more accurate and widespread use of qRT-PCR in gene analysis of the genus Brassica.

  3. T-cell tolerance toward a transgenic beta-cell antigen and transcription of endogenous pancreatic genes in thymus.

    PubMed Central

    Jolicoeur, C; Hanahan, D; Smith, K M

    1994-01-01

    Transgenic mice expressing T antigen (Tag) in pancreatic beta cells establish systemic tolerance toward this self-protein. The self-tolerance in two families of rat insulin promoter (RIP)-Tag mice, expressing different levels of Tag protein, has been characterized. These mice have impaired antibody responses to Tag, show diminished Tag-specific T-cell proliferation, and evidence an inability to generate Tag-specific cytotoxic T cells. The existence of systemic tolerance toward a beta-cell-specific protein motivated examination of transgene expression in the thymus. Indeed, low levels of Tag mRNA were detected intrathymically. Remarkably, this expression is a valid property of the insulin gene regulatory region, since insulin RNA was also expressed in the thymus of nontransgenic mice. RNA for other pancreatic genes was also detected in the thymus, thus raising the possibility that many tissue-specific genes could be expressed intrathymically during immunological development and induction of self-tolerance. These results raise important questions for future research into the role of the thymus in tolerance induction toward so-called tissue-specific antigens. Images PMID:8022837

  4. The human estrogen receptor can regulate exogenous but not endogenous vitellogenin gene promoters in a Xenopus cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Seiler-Tuyns, A.; Merillat, A.M.; Haefliger, D.N.; Wahli, W. )

    1988-09-12

    Transfection of a human estrogen receptor cDNA expression vector (HEO) into cultured Xenopus kidney cells confers estrogen responsiveness to the recipient cells as demonstrated by the hormone dependent expression of co-transfected Xenopus vitellogenin-CAT chimeric genes. The estrogen stimulation of these vit-CAT genes is dependent upon the presence of the vitellogenin estrogen responsive element (ERE) in their 5{prime} flanking region. Thus, functional human estrogen receptor (hER) can be synthesized in heterologous lower vertebrate cells and can act as a trans-acting regulatory factor that is necessary, together with estradiol, for the induction of the vit-CAT constructs in these cells. In addition, vitellogenin minigenes co-transfected with the HEO expression vector also respond to hormonal stimulation. Their induction is not higher than that of the vit-CAT chimeric genes. It suggests that in the Xenopus kidney cell line B 3.2, the structural parts of the vitellogenin minigenes do not play a role in the induction process. Furthermore, no stabilizing effect of estrogen on vitellogenin mRNA is observed in these cells.

  5. Identification of suitable reference gene and biomarkers of serum miRNAs for osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jian; Li, Kai; Pang, Qianqian; Yang, Chao; Zhang, Hongyu; Wu, Feng; Cao, Hongqing; Liu, Hongju; Wan, Yumin; Xia, Weibo; Wang, Jinfu; Dai, Zhongquan; Li, Yinghui

    2016-01-01

    Our objective was to identify suitable reference genes in serum miRNA for normalization and screen potential new biomarkers for osteoporosis diagnosis by a systematic study. Two types of osteoporosis models were used like as mechanical unloading and estrogen deficiency. Through a large-scale screening using microarray, qPCR validation and statistical algorithms, we first identified miR-25-3p as a suitable reference gene for both type of osteoporosis, which also showed stability during the differentiation processes of osteoblast and osteoclast. Then 15 serum miRNAs with differential expression in OVX rats were identified by microarray and qPCR validation. We further detected these 15 miRNAs in postmenopausal women and bedrest rhesus monkeys and evaluated their diagnostic value by ROC analysis. Among these miRNAs, miR-30b-5p was significantly down-regulated in postmenopausal women with osteopenia or osteoporosis; miR-103-3p, miR-142-3p, miR-328-3p were only significantly decreased in osteoporosis. They all showed positive correlations with BMD. Except miR328-3p, the other three miRNAs were also declined in the rhesus monkeys after long-duration bedrest. Their AUC values (all >0.75) proved the diagnostic potential. Our results provided a reliable normalization reference gene and verified a group of circulating miRNAs as non-invasive biomarkers in the detection of postmenopausal- and mechanical unloading- osteoporosis. PMID:27821865

  6. Nematode endogenous small RNA pathways

    PubMed Central

    Hoogstrate, Suzanne W; Volkers, Rita JM; Sterken, Mark G; Kammenga, Jan E; Snoek, L Basten

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of small RNA silencing pathways has greatly extended our knowledge of gene regulation. Small RNAs have been presumed to play a role in every field of biology because they affect many biological processes via regulation of gene expression and chromatin remodeling. Most well-known examples of affected processes are development, fertility, and maintenance of genome stability. Here we review the role of the three main endogenous small RNA silencing pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans: microRNAs, endogenous small interfering RNAs, and PIWI-interacting RNAs. After providing an entry-level overview on how these pathways function, we discuss research on other nematode species providing insight into the evolution of these small RNA pathways. In understanding the differences between the endogenous small RNA pathways and their evolution, a more comprehensive picture is formed of the functions and effects of small RNAs. PMID:25340013

  7. The effect of two endogenous retinoids on the mRNA expression profile in human primary keratinocytes, focusing on genes causing autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis.

    PubMed

    Törmä, H; Bergström, A; Ghiasifarahani, G; Berne, B

    2014-10-01

    Retinoids (natural forms and synthetic derivatives of vitamin A) are used as therapeutic agents for numerous skin diseases such as keratinization disorders (e.g. ichthyoses) and psoriasis. Two endogenous ligands for retinoic acid receptors exist, retinoic acid (atRA) and 3,4-didehydroretinoic acid (ddRA). In primary human epidermal keratinocytes many transcriptional targets for atRA are known, whereas the targets for ddRA are unknown. In an attempt to determine the targets, we compared the effect of atRA and ddRA on transcriptional profiles in undifferentiated and differentiating human primary keratinocytes. First, as expected, many genes were induced or suppressed in response to keratinocyte differentiation. Furthermore, the two retinoids affected substantially more genes in differentiated keratinocytes (>350) than in proliferating keratinocytes (≈20). In differentiating keratinocytes markers of cornification were suppressed suggesting a de-differentiating effect by the two retinoids. When comparing the expression profile of atRA to that of ddRA, no differently regulated genes were found. The array analysis also found that a minor number of miRNAs and a large number of non-coding transcripts were changed during differentiation and in response to the two retinoids. Furthermore, the expression of all, except one, genes known to cause autosomal recessive congenital ichthyosis (ARCI) were found to be induced by differentiation. These results comprehensively document that atRA and ddRA exert similar transcriptional changes in keratinocytes and also add new insights into the molecular mechanism influenced by retinoids in the epidermis. Furthermore, it suggests which ARCI patients could benefit from therapy with retinoids.

  8. Creating reference gene annotation for the mouse C57BL6/J genome assembly.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Jonathan M; Harrow, Jennifer

    2015-10-01

    Annotation on the reference genome of the C57BL6/J mouse has been an ongoing project ever since the draft genome was first published. Initially, the principle focus was on the identification of all protein-coding genes, although today the importance of describing long non-coding RNAs, small RNAs, and pseudogenes is recognized. Here, we describe the progress of the GENCODE mouse annotation project, which combines manual annotation from the HAVANA group with Ensembl computational annotation, alongside experimental and in silico validation pipelines from other members of the consortium. We discuss the more recent incorporation of next-generation sequencing datasets into this workflow, including the usage of mass-spectrometry data to potentially identify novel protein-coding genes. Finally, we will outline how the C57BL6/J genebuild can be used to gain insights into the variant sites that distinguish different mouse strains and species.

  9. T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer with lentiviral vectors allows efficient redirection of tumor specificity in naive and memory T cells without prior stimulation of endogenous TCR.

    PubMed

    Circosta, Paola; Granziero, Luisa; Follenzi, Antonia; Vigna, Elisa; Stella, Stefania; Vallario, Antonella; Elia, Angela Rita; Gammaitoni, Loretta; Vitaggio, Katiuscia; Orso, Francesca; Geuna, Massimo; Sangiolo, Dario; Todorovic, Maja; Giachino, Claudia; Cignetti, Alessandro

    2009-12-01

    We investigated the possibility of introducing exogenous T cell receptor (TCR) genes into T cells by lentiviral transduction, without prior stimulation of endogenous TCR with anti-CD3. TCR transfer is used to impose tumor antigen specificity on recipient T cells, but sustained activation required for retroviral transduction may affect the clinical efficacy of engineered T cells. Cytokine stimulation makes T cells susceptible to lentiviral transduction in the absence of TCR triggering, but this advantage has never been exploited for TCR transfer. Autoimmune diseases are a source of high-affinity TCRs specific for self/tumor antigens. We selected, from a patient with vitiligo, a Mart1-specific TCR based on intrinsic interchain pairing properties and functional avidity. After lentiviral transduction of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells, preferential pairing of exogenous alpha and beta chains was observed, together with effective recognition of Mart1(+) melanoma cells. We tested transduction efficiency on various T cell subsets prestimulated with interleukin (IL)-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 (alone or in combination). Both naive and unfractionated CD8(+) T cells could be transduced without requiring endogenous TCR triggering. IL-7 plus IL-15 was the most powerful combination, allowing high levels of transgene expression without inducing T cell differentiation (34 +/- 5% Mart1-TCR(+) cells in naive CD8(+) and 16 +/- 6% in unfractionated CD8(+)). Cytokine-prestimulated, Mart1-redirected naive and unfractionated CD8(+) cells expanded better than CD3-CD28-prestimulated counterparts in response to both peptide-pulsed antigen-presenting cells and Mart1(+) melanoma cells. This strategy allows the generation of tumor-specific T cells encompassing truly naive T cells, endowed with an intact proliferative potential and a preserved differentiation stage.

  10. Transcriptional and functional studies of Human Endogenous Retrovirus envelope EnvP(b) and EnvV genes in human trophoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Vargas, Amandine Thiery, Maxime Lafond, Julie Barbeau, Benoit

    2012-03-30

    HERV (Human Endogenous Retrovirus)-encoded envelope proteins are implicated in the development of the placenta. Indeed, Syncytin-1 and -2 play a crucial role in the fusion of human trophoblasts, a key step in placentation. Other studies have identified two other HERV env proteins, namely EnvP(b) and EnvV, both expressed in the placenta. In this study, we have fully characterized both env transcripts and their expression pattern and have assessed their implication in trophoblast fusion. Through RACE analyses, standard spliced transcripts were detected, while EnvV transcripts demonstrated alternative splicing at its 3 Prime end. Promoter activity and expression of both genes were induced in forskolin-stimulated BeWo cells and in primary trophoblasts. Although we have confirmed the fusogenic activity of EnvP(b), overexpression or silencing experiments revealed no impact of this protein on trophoblast fusion. Our results demonstrate that both env genes are expressed in human trophoblasts but are not required for syncytialization.

  11. Assessment of brain reference genes for RT-qPCR studies in neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rydbirk, Rasmus; Folke, Jonas; Winge, Kristian; Aznar, Susana; Pakkenberg, Bente; Brudek, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Evaluation of gene expression levels by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) has for many years been the favourite approach for discovering disease-associated alterations. Normalization of results to stably expressed reference genes (RGs) is pivotal to obtain reliable results. This is especially important in relation to neurodegenerative diseases where disease-related structural changes may affect the most commonly used RGs. We analysed 15 candidate RGs in 98 brain samples from two brain regions from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), Parkinson’s disease (PD), Multiple System Atrophy, and Progressive Supranuclear Palsy patients. Using RefFinder, a web-based tool for evaluating RG stability, we identified the most stable RGs to be UBE2D2, CYC1, and RPL13 which we recommend for future RT-qPCR studies on human brain tissue from these patients. None of the investigated genes were affected by experimental variables such as RIN, PMI, or age. Findings were further validated by expression analyses of a target gene GSK3B, known to be affected by AD and PD. We obtained high variations in GSK3B levels when contrasting the results using different sets of common RG underlining the importance of a priori validation of RGs for RT-qPCR studies. PMID:27853238

  12. Gene expression of calpains and their specific endogenous inhibitor, calpastatin, in skeletal muscle of fed and fasted rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Ilian, M A; Forsberg, N E

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the role of calpains in myofibrillar protein degradation in skeletal muscle and the regulation of their activity in vivo, we studied the effects of fasting on gene expression of calpains and calpastatin in the skeletal muscle of rabbits. In response to fasting, myofibrillar protein degradation increased 2-fold and mRNA levels of calpain I, calpain II and calpastatin were also increased. However, calpain and calpastatin activities remained unchanged. To investigate this discrepancy, we analysed polysomal calpain mRNA. Results indicated that fasting caused a 2-fold increase in the loading of calpain I and II mRNAs on ribosomes. Thus transcription of genes encoding calpain may be increased during fasting to ensure adequate synthesis of the proteinases needed to mobilize muscle protein reserves. The effect of fasting on calpain and calpastatin mRNA expression is shared by cathepsin D and proteasome C2 but not by beta-actin, implying that fasting invokes control of several proteolytic systems in skeletal muscle and underscores the possibility that each proteolytic system plays a role in the adaptation of skeletal muscle to the fasted state. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. PMID:1417770

  13. Reference gene selection for quantitative real-time PCR normalization in larvae of three species of Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae).

    PubMed

    Ridgeway, Jaryd A; Timm, Alicia E

    2015-01-01

    Despite the agricultural importance of species in the Grapholitini (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), and the value of gene expression analysis for improved population management, few gene expression studies based on quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) have been conducted for this tribe. Part of the reason for this lack of information is that suitable reference genes, which are fundamental for accurate normalization of qPCR studies, have not been identified for the tribe. Thus, the expression stability of six potential reference genes (ACT, AK, COI, EF1, ENO and TUB) was assessed in three different tissues (whole body, midgut and cuticle) of Cryptophlebia peltastica (Meyrick), Cydia pomonella (L.) and Thaumatotibia leucotreta (Meyrick). Additionally, these reference genes were tested using T. leucotreta at different temperatures (15°C, 25°C and 35°C) with and without baculovirus infection. Suitable reference genes were identified for the whole body and midgut tissue of all three species, and for cuticle tissue of Cy. pomonella and T. leucotreta. When T. leucotreta was infected with the virus at all temperature conditions ACT, AK and EF1 were found to be the most suitable reference genes for experimental normalization. In general, for all tissue types, species and stress conditions, AK and EF1 were the best-performing reference genes. However, even though the three species analysed were closely related and within the same tribe, each species required varying gene combinations for suitable normalization. This study provides the first reference gene evaluation for the Tortricidae, and paves the way for future qPCR analysis in Tortricidae.

  14. Different distribution patterns of ten virulence genes in Legionella reference strains and strains isolated from environmental water and patients.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiao-Yong; Hu, Chao-Hui; Zhu, Qing-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Virulence genes are distinct regions of DNA which are present in the genome of pathogenic bacteria and absent in nonpathogenic strains of the same or related species. Virulence genes are frequently associated with bacterial pathogenicity in genus Legionella. In the present study, an assay was performed to detect ten virulence genes, including iraA, iraB, lvrA, lvrB, lvhD, cpxR, cpxA, dotA, icmC and icmD in different pathogenicity islands of 47 Legionella reference strains, 235 environmental strains isolated from water, and 4 clinical strains isolated from the lung tissue of pneumonia patients. The distribution frequencies of these genes in reference or/and environmental L. pneumophila strains were much higher than those in reference non-L. pneumophila or/and environmental non-L. pneumophila strains, respectively. L. pneumophila clinical strains also maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to four other types of Legionella strains. Distribution frequencies of these genes in reference L. pneumophila strains were similar to those in environmental L. pneumophila strains. In contrast, environmental non-L. pneumophila maintained higher frequencies of these genes compared to those found in reference non-L. pneumophila strains. This study illustrates the association of virulence genes with Legionella pathogenicity and reveals the possible virulence evolution of non-L. pneumophia strains isolated from environmental water.

  15. Validation of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression for real time-quantitative PCR in strawberry fruits using different cultivars and osmotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Galli, Vanessa; Borowski, Joyce Moura; Perin, Ellen Cristina; Messias, Rafael da Silva; Labonde, Julia; Pereira, Ivan dos Santos; Silva, Sérgio Delmar Dos Anjos; Rombaldi, Cesar Valmor

    2015-01-10

    The increasing demand of strawberry (Fragaria×ananassa Duch) fruits is associated mainly with their sensorial characteristics and the content of antioxidant compounds. Nevertheless, the strawberry production has been hampered due to its sensitivity to abiotic stresses. Therefore, to understand the molecular mechanisms highlighting stress response is of great importance to enable genetic engineering approaches aiming to improve strawberry tolerance. However, the study of expression of genes in strawberry requires the use of suitable reference genes. In the present study, seven traditional and novel candidate reference genes were evaluated for transcript normalization in fruits of ten strawberry cultivars and two abiotic stresses, using RefFinder, which integrates the four major currently available software programs: geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and the comparative delta-Ct method. The results indicate that the expression stability is dependent on the experimental conditions. The candidate reference gene DBP (DNA binding protein) was considered the most suitable to normalize expression data in samples of strawberry cultivars and under drought stress condition, and the candidate reference gene HISTH4 (histone H4) was the most stable under osmotic stresses and salt stress. The traditional genes GAPDH (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) and 18S (18S ribosomal RNA) were considered the most unstable genes in all conditions. The expression of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and 9-cis epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1) genes were used to further confirm the validated candidate reference genes, showing that the use of an inappropriate reference gene may induce erroneous results. This study is the first survey on the stability of reference genes in strawberry cultivars and osmotic stresses and provides guidelines to obtain more accurate RT-qPCR results for future breeding efforts.

  16. Identification of Importin 8 (IPO8) as the most accurate reference gene for the clinicopathological analysis of lung specimens

    PubMed Central

    Nguewa, Paul A; Agorreta, Jackeline; Blanco, David; Lozano, Maria Dolores; Gomez-Roman, Javier; Sanchez, Blas A; Valles, Iñaki; Pajares, Maria J; Pio, Ruben; Rodriguez, Maria Jose; Montuenga, Luis M; Calvo, Alfonso

    2008-01-01

    Background The accurate normalization of differentially expressed genes in lung cancer is essential for the identification of novel therapeutic targets and biomarkers by real time RT-PCR and microarrays. Although classical "housekeeping" genes, such as GAPDH, HPRT1, and beta-actin have been widely used in the past, their accuracy as reference genes for lung tissues has not been proven. Results We have conducted a thorough analysis of a panel of 16 candidate reference genes for lung specimens and lung cell lines. Gene expression was measured by quantitative real time RT-PCR and expression stability was analyzed with the softwares GeNorm and NormFinder, mean of |ΔCt| (= |Ct Normal-Ct tumor|) ± SEM, and correlation coefficients among genes. Systematic comparison between candidates led us to the identification of a subset of suitable reference genes for clinical samples: IPO8, ACTB, POLR2A, 18S, and PPIA. Further analysis showed that IPO8 had a very low mean of |ΔCt| (0.70 ± 0.09), with no statistically significant differences between normal and malignant samples and with excellent expression stability. Conclusion Our data show that IPO8 is the most accurate reference gene for clinical lung specimens. In addition, we demonstrate that the commonly used genes GAPDH and HPRT1 are inappropriate to normalize data derived from lung biopsies, although they are suitable as reference genes for lung cell lines. We thus propose IPO8 as a novel reference gene for lung cancer samples. PMID:19014639

  17. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Analysis under Abiotic Stresses in the Desert Biomass Willow, Salix psammophila

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianbo; Jia, Huixia; Han, Xiaojiao; Zhang, Jin; Sun, Pei; Lu, Mengzhu; Hu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Salix psammophila is a desert shrub willow that has extraordinary adaptation to abiotic stresses and plays an important role in maintaining local ecosystems. Moreover, S. psammophila is regarded as a promising biomass feedstock because of its high biomass yields and short rotation coppice cycle. However, few suitable reference genes (RGs) for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) constrain the study on normalization of gene expression in S. psammophila until now. Here, we investigated the expression stabilities of 14 candidate RGs across tissue types and under four abiotic stress treatments, including heat, cold, salt, and drought treatments. After calculation of PCR efficiencies, three different software, NormFinder, geNorm, and BestKeeper were employed to analyze systematically the qRT-PCR data, and the outputs were merged by RankAggreg software. The optimal RGs selected for gene expression analysis were EF1α (Elongation factor-1 alpha) and OTU (OTU-like cysteine protease family protein) for different tissue types, UBC (Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2) and LTA4H (Leukotriene A-4 hydrolase homolog) for heat treatment, HIS (Histone superfamily protein H3) and ARF2 (ADP-ribosylation factor 2) for cold treatment, OTU and ACT7 (Actin 7) for salt treatment, UBC and LTA4H for drought treatment. The expression of UBC, ARF2, and VHAC (V-type proton ATPase subunit C) varied the least across tissue types and under abiotic stresses. Furthermore, the relative genes expression profiles of one tissue-specific gene WOX1a (WUSCHEL-related homeobox 1a), and four stress-inducible genes, including Hsf-A2 (Heat shock transcription factors A2), CBF3 (C-repeat binding factor 3), HKT1 (High-Affinity K+ Transporter 1), and GST (Glutathione S-transferase), were conducted to confirm the validity of the RGs in this study. These results provided an important RGs application guideline for gene expression characterization in S. psammophila. PMID:27761137

  18. Metastasized lung cancer suppression by Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaf compared to Erlotinib via anti-inflammatory, endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic gene activation.

    PubMed

    Lim, Swee-Ling; Mustapha, Noordin M; Goh, Yong-Meng; Bakar, Nurul Ain Abu; Mohamed, Suhaila

    2016-05-01

    Metastasized lung and liver cancers cause over 2 million deaths annually, and are amongst the top killer cancers worldwide. Morinda citrifolia (Noni) leaves are traditionally consumed as vegetables in the tropics. The macro and micro effects of M. citrifolia (Noni) leaves on metastasized lung cancer development in vitro and in vivo were compared with the FDA-approved anti-cancer drug Erlotinib. The extract inhibited the proliferation and induced apoptosis in A549 cells (IC50 = 23.47 μg/mL) and mouse Lewis (LL2) lung carcinoma cells (IC50 = 5.50 μg/mL) in vitro, arrested cancer cell cycle at G0/G1 phases and significantly increased caspase-3/-8 without changing caspase-9 levels. The extract showed no toxicity on normal MRC5 lung cells. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549-induced BALB/c mice were fed with 150 and 300 mg/kg M. citrifolia leaf extract and compared with Erlotinib (50 mg/kg body weight) for 21 days. It significantly increased the pro-apoptotic TRP53 genes, downregulated the pro-tumourigenesis genes (BIRC5, JAK2/STAT3/STAT5A) in the mice tumours, significantly increased the anti-inflammatory IL4, IL10 and NR3C1 expression in the metastasized lung and hepatic cancer tissues and enhanced the NFE2L2-dependent antioxidant responses against oxidative injuries. The extract elevated serum neutrophils and reduced the red blood cells, haemoglobin, corpuscular volume and cell haemoglobin concentration in the lung cancer-induced mammal. It suppressed inflammation and oedema, and upregulated the endogenous antioxidant responses and apoptotic genes to suppress the cancer. The 300 mg/kg extract was more effective than the 50 mg/kg Erlotinib for most of the parameters measured.

  19. Methods of RNA preparation affect mRNA abundance quantification of reference genes in pig maturing oocytes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y-K; Li, X; Song, Z-Q; Yang, C-X

    2017-04-13

    To ensure accurate normalization and quantification of target RNA transcripts using reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), most studies focus on the identification of stably expressed gene(s) as internal reference. However, RNA preparation methods could also be an important factor, especially for test samples of limited quantity (e.g. oocytes). In this study, we aimed to select appropriate reference gene(s), and evaluate the effect of RNA preparation methods on gene expression quantification in porcine oocytes and cumulus cells during in vitro maturation. Expression profiles of seven genes (GAPDH, 18S, YWHAG, BACT, RPL4, HPRT1 and PPIA) were examined, on RNA samples extracted from cumulus cells (RNeasy Kit) and oocytes (RNeasy Kit and Lysis Kit) during in vitro maturation, respectively. Interestingly, different RNA preparation methods were found to potentially affect the quantification of reference gene expression in pig oocytes cultured in vitro. After geNorm analyses, the most suitable genes for normalization were identified, GAPDH/18S for cumulus cells and YWHAG/BACT for oocytes, respectively. Thus, our results provide useful data and information on the selection of better reference genes and RNA preparation method for related functional studies.

  20. Functional classification of genes using semantic distance and fuzzy clustering approach: evaluation with reference sets and overlap analysis.

    PubMed

    Devignes, Marie-Dominique; Benabderrahmane, Sidahmed; Smaïl-Tabbone, Malika; Napoli, Amedeo; Poch, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Functional classification aims at grouping genes according to their molecular function or the biological process they participate in. Evaluating the validity of such unsupervised gene classification remains a challenge given the variety of distance measures and classification algorithms that can be used. We evaluate here functional classification of genes with the help of reference sets: KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopaedia of Genes and Genomes) pathways and Pfam clans. These sets represent ground truth for any distance based on GO (Gene Ontology) biological process and molecular function annotations respectively. Overlaps between clusters and reference sets are estimated by the F-score method. We test our previously described IntelliGO semantic distance with hierarchical and fuzzy C-means clustering and we compare results with the state-of-the-art DAVID (Database for Annotation Visualisation and Integrated Discovery) functional classification method. Finally, study of best matching clusters to reference sets leads us to propose a set-difference method for discovering missing information.

  1. SHORT-COMMUNICATION Validation of reference genes for real-time quantitative PCR in tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum).

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A R; Silva, G F; Gualberto, G F; Almeida, F L

    2016-12-23

    Tambaqui, Colossoma macropomum, is the main native freshwater fish in Brazilian aquaculture. Therefore, intensive research pressure has been applied to the species to support new technologies for tambaqui farming. Molecular biology represents a tool that can be used to investigate every field of applied biology, from fish physiology to the effects of climate change. Based on the importance of reference genes for the relative or absolute quantification of gene transcripts, we cloned and sequenced three candidate reference genes in tambaqui (18S ribossomal RNA - 18s, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase - gapdh, and actin beta - β-actin), and validated a set of primers for each gene for use in real-time quantitative PCR. The results were evaluated by RefFinder, which indicated that β-actin is the most suitable reference gene for tambaqui among those studied, followed by 18s.

  2. Appropriate Real-Time PCR Reference Genes for Fluoride Treatment Studies Performed In Vitro or In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Faibish, D.; Suzuki, M.; Bartlett, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is routinely performed for experiments designed to identify the molecular mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of dental fluorosis. Expression of reference gene(s) is expected to remain unchanged in fluoride-treated cells or in rodents relative to the corresponding untreated controls. The aim of this study was to select optimal reference genes for fluoride experiments performed in vitro and in vivo. Design Five candidate genes were evaluated: B2m, Eef1a1, Gapdh, Hprt and Tbp. For in vitro experiments, LS8 cells derived from mouse enamel organ were treated with 0, 1, 3 and/or 5 mM sodium fluoride (NaF) for 6 or 18 hours followed by RNA isolation. For in vivo experiments, six-week old rats were treated with 0 or 100 ppm fluoride as NaF for six weeks at which time RNA was isolated from enamel organs. RNA from cells and enamel organs were reverse-transcribed and stability of gene expression for the candidate reference genes was evaluated by qPCR in treated versus non-treated samples. Results The most stably expressed genes in vitro according to geNorm were B2m and Tbp, and according to Normfinder were Hprt and Gapdh. The most stable genes in vivo were Eef1a1 and Gapdh. Expression of Ddit3, a gene previously shown to be induced by fluoride, was demonstrated to be accurately calculated only when using an optimal reference gene. Conclusions This study identifies suitable reference genes for relative quantification of gene expression by qPCR after fluoride treatment both in cultured cells and in the rodent enamel organ. PMID:26615575

  3. Evaluation of reference genes for accurate normalization of gene expression for real time-quantitative PCR in Pyrus pyrifolia using different tissue samples and seasonal conditions.

    PubMed

    Imai, Tsuyoshi; Ubi, Benjamin E; Saito, Takanori; Moriguchi, Takaya

    2014-01-01

    We have evaluated suitable reference genes for real time (RT)-quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis in Japanese pear (Pyrus pyrifolia). We tested most frequently used genes in the literature such as β-Tubulin, Histone H3, Actin, Elongation factor-1α, Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, together with newly added genes Annexin, SAND and TIP41. A total of 17 primer combinations for these eight genes were evaluated using cDNAs synthesized from 16 tissue samples from four groups, namely: flower bud, flower organ, fruit flesh and fruit skin. Gene expression stabilities were analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder software packages or by ΔCt method. geNorm analysis indicated three best performing genes as being sufficient for reliable normalization of RT-qPCR data. Suitable reference genes were different among sample groups, suggesting the importance of validation of gene expression stability of reference genes in the samples of interest. Ranking of stability was basically similar between geNorm and NormFinder, suggesting usefulness of these programs based on different algorithms. ΔCt method suggested somewhat different results in some groups such as flower organ or fruit skin; though the overall results were in good correlation with geNorm or NormFinder. Gene expression of two cold-inducible genes PpCBF2 and PpCBF4 were quantified using the three most and the three least stable reference genes suggested by geNorm. Although normalized quantities were different between them, the relative quantities within a group of samples were similar even when the least stable reference genes were used. Our data suggested that using the geometric mean value of three reference genes for normalization is quite a reliable approach to evaluating gene expression by RT-qPCR. We propose that the initial evaluation of gene expression stability by ΔCt method, and subsequent evaluation by geNorm or NormFinder for limited number of superior gene candidates will be a practical way of finding out

  4. Selection and Validation of Housekeeping Genes as Reference for Gene Expression Studies in Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) under Heat and Salt Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Pallavi; Saxena, Rachit K.; Singh, Vikas K.; Krishnamurthy, L.; Varshney, Rajeev K.

    2015-01-01

    To identify stable housekeeping genes as a reference for expression analysis under heat and salt stress conditions in pigeonpea, the relative expression variation for 10 commonly used housekeeping genes (EF1α, UBQ10, GAPDH, 18Sr RNA, 25Sr RNA, TUB6, ACT1, IF4α, UBC, and HSP90) was studied in root, stem, and leaves tissues of Asha (ICPL 87119), a leading pigeonpea variety. Three statistical algorithms geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were used to define the stability of candidate genes. Under heat stress, UBC, HSP90, and GAPDH were found to be the most stable reference genes. In the case of salinity stress, GAPDH followed by UBC and HSP90 were identified to be the most stable reference genes. Subsequently, the above identified genes were validated using qRT-PCR based gene expression analysis of two universal stress-resposive genes namely uspA and uspB. The relative quantification of these two genes varied according to the internal controls (most stable, least stable, and combination of most stable and least stable housekeeping genes) and thus confirmed the choice as well as validation of internal controls in such experiments. The identified and validated housekeeping genes will facilitate gene expression studies under heat and salt stress conditions in pigeonpea. PMID:27242803

  5. Identifying Stable Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Normalisation in Gene Expression Studies of Narrow-Leafed Lupin (Lupinus angustifolius L.).

    PubMed

    Taylor, Candy M; Jost, Ricarda; Erskine, William; Nelson, Matthew N

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative Reverse Transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is currently one of the most popular, high-throughput and sensitive technologies available for quantifying gene expression. Its accurate application depends heavily upon normalisation of gene-of-interest data with reference genes that are uniformly expressed under experimental conditions. The aim of this study was to provide the first validation of reference genes for Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, a significant grain legume crop) using a selection of seven genes previously trialed as reference genes for the model legume, Medicago truncatula. In a preliminary evaluation, the seven candidate reference genes were assessed on the basis of primer specificity for their respective targeted region, PCR amplification efficiency, and ability to discriminate between cDNA and gDNA. Following this assessment, expression of the three most promising candidates [Ubiquitin C (UBC), Helicase (HEL), and Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein (PTB)] was evaluated using the NormFinder and RefFinder statistical algorithms in two narrow-leafed lupin lines, both with and without vernalisation treatment, and across seven organ types (cotyledons, stem, leaves, shoot apical meristem, flowers, pods and roots) encompassing three developmental stages. UBC was consistently identified as the most stable candidate and has sufficiently uniform expression that it may be used as a sole reference gene under the experimental conditions tested here. However, as organ type and developmental stage were associated with greater variability in relative expression, it is recommended using UBC and HEL as a pair to achieve optimal normalisation. These results highlight the importance of rigorously assessing candidate reference genes for each species across a diverse range of organs and developmental stages. With emerging technologies, such as RNAseq, and the completion of valuable transcriptome data sets, it is possible that other potentially more

  6. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantitative real-time PCR studies in long yellow daylily, Hemerocallis citrina Borani

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinyao; Kang, Xiuping; Weng, Yiqun

    2017-01-01

    Gene expression analysis using reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) requires the use of reference gene(s) in the target species. The long yellow daylily, Hemerocallis citrina Baroni. is rich in beneficial secondary metabolites and is considered as a functional vegetable. It is widely cultivated and consumed in East Asian countries. However, reference genes for use in RT-qPCR in H. citrina are not available. In the present study, six potential reference genes, actin (ACT), AP-4 complex subunit (AP4), tubulin (TUB), ubiquitin (UBQ), 18S and 60S ribosomal RNA, were selected and their expression stability in different developmental stages, organs and accessions was evaluated using four statistical software packages (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder). For commercial flower buds of different landraces, the combination of 60S, TUB, and AP4 was appropriate whereas ACT and 60S was suitable for normalization of different organs. In addition, AP4 exhibited the most stable expression in flower buds among different developmental stages. UBQ was less stable than the other reference genes under the experimental conditions except under different organs was 18S. The relative expression levels of two genes, primary-amine oxidase (HcAOC3) and tyrosine aminotransferase (HcTAT) which play important roles in alkaloid biosynthesis were also examined in different organs of the ‘Datong’ landrace, which further confirmed the results of selected reference genes. This is the first report to evaluate the stability of reference genes in the long yellow daylily that can serve as a foundation for RT-qPCR analysis of gene expression in this species. PMID:28362875

  7. Reference Gene Selection for RT-qPCR Analysis of Flower Development in Chrysanthemum morifolium and Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Shuai; Yang, Liwen; Wen, Xiaohui; Hong, Yan; Song, Xuebin; Zhang, Mengmeng; Dai, Silan

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a popular and powerful tool used to understand the molecular mechanisms of flower development. However, the accuracy of this approach depends on the stability of reference genes. The capitulum of chrysanthemums is very special, which is consisting of ray florets and disc florets. There are obvious differences between the two types of florets in symmetry, gender, histological structure, and function. Furthermore, the ray florets have various shapes. The objective of present study was to identify the stable reference genes in Chrysanthemum morifolium and Chrysanthemum lavandulifolium during the process of flower development. In this study, nine candidate reference genes were selected and evaluated for their expression stability acrosssamples during the process of flower development, and their stability was validated by four different algorithms (Bestkeeper, NormFinder, GeNorm, and Ref-finder). SAND (SAND family protein) was found to be the most stably expressed gene in all samples or different tissues during the process of C. lavandulifolium development. Both SAND and PGK (phosphoglycerate kinase) performed most stable in Chinese large-flowered chrysanthemum cultivars, and PGK was the best in potted chrysanthemums. There were differences in best reference genes among varieties as the genetic background of them were complex. These studies provide guidance for selecting reference genes for analyzing the expression pattern of floral development genes in chrysanthemums. PMID:27014310

  8. Reference gene selection for reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction in chicken hypothalamus under different feeding status.

    PubMed

    Simon, Á; Jávor, A; Bai, P; Oláh, J; Czeglédi, L

    2017-03-15

    This study was designed to investigate the stability of 10 candidate reference genes, namely ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HMBS, LBR, POLR2B, RN18S, RPS17, TBP, and YWHAZ for the normalization of gene expression data obtained by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) in studies related to feed intake of chicken. Samples were isolated from hypothalamus under three different nutritional status (ad libitum, fasted for 24 hr, fasted for 24 hr then refed for 2 hr). Five different algorithms were applied for the analysis of reference gene stability: BestKeeper, geNorm, NormFinder, the comparative ΔCt method, and a novel approach using multivariate linear mixed-effects modelling for stable reference gene selection. TBP and POLR2B were identified as the two most suitable and B2M and RN18S as the two least stable reference genes for normalization. Despite our review, the current literature showing that RN18S is one of the most commonly used reference gene in chicken gene expression studies, its applicability for normalization should be evaluated before each qPCR experiment.

  9. Identification of Suitable Reference Genes for Investigating Gene Expression in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury by Using Reverse Transcription-Quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Leal, Mariana Ferreira; Astur, Diego Costa; Debieux, Pedro; Arliani, Gustavo Gonçalves; Silveira Franciozi, Carlos Eduardo; Loyola, Leonor Casilla; Andreoli, Carlos Vicente; Smith, Marília Cardoso; Pochini, Alberto de Castro; Ejnisman, Benno; Cohen, Moises

    2015-01-01

    The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most frequently injured structures during high-impact sporting activities. Gene expression analysis may be a useful tool for understanding ACL tears and healing failure. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has emerged as an effective method for such studies. However, this technique requires the use of suitable reference genes for data normalization. Here, we evaluated the suitability of six reference genes (18S, ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, and TBP) by using ACL samples of 39 individuals with ACL tears (20 with isolated ACL tears and 19 with ACL tear and combined meniscal injury) and of 13 controls. The stability of the candidate reference genes was determined by using the NormFinder, geNorm, BestKeeper DataAssist, and RefFinder software packages and the comparative ΔCt method. ACTB was the best single reference gene and ACTB+TBP was the best gene pair. The GenEx software showed that the accumulated standard deviation is reduced when a larger number of reference genes is used for gene expression normalization. However, the use of a single reference gene may not be suitable. To identify the optimal combination of reference genes, we evaluated the expression of FN1 and PLOD1. We observed that at least 3 reference genes should be used. ACTB+HPRT1+18S is the best trio for the analyses involving isolated ACL tears and controls. Conversely, ACTB+TBP+18S is the best trio for the analyses involving (1) injured ACL tears and controls, and (2) ACL tears of patients with meniscal tears and controls. Therefore, if the gene expression study aims to compare non-injured ACL, isolated ACL tears and ACL tears from patients with meniscal tear as three independent groups ACTB+TBP+18S+HPRT1 should be used. In conclusion, 3 or more genes should be used as reference genes for analysis of ACL samples of individuals with and without ACL tears.

  10. Validation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR Studies of Gene Expression in Preharvest and Postharvest Longan Fruits under Different Experimental Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianyang; Zhang, Hongna; Liu, Liqin; Li, Weicai; Wei, Yongzan; Shi, Shengyou

    2016-01-01

    Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) as the accurate and sensitive method is use for gene expression analysis, but the veracity and reliability result depends on whether select appropriate reference gene or not. To date, several reliable reference gene validations have been reported in fruits trees, but none have been done on preharvest and postharvest longan fruits. In this study, 12 candidate reference genes, namely, CYP, RPL, GAPDH, TUA, TUB, Fe-SOD, Mn-SOD, Cu/Zn-SOD, 18SrRNA, Actin, Histone H3, and EF-1a, were selected. Expression stability of these genes in 150 longan samples was evaluated and analyzed using geNorm and NormFinder algorithms. Preharvest samples consisted of seven experimental sets, including different developmental stages, organs, hormone stimuli (NAA, 2,4-D, and ethephon) and abiotic stresses (bagging and girdling with defoliation). Postharvest samples consisted of different temperature treatments (4 and 22°C) and varieties. Our findings indicate that appropriate reference gene(s) should be picked for each experimental condition. Our data further showed that the commonly used reference gene Actin does not exhibit stable expression across experimental conditions in longan. Expression levels of the DlACO gene, which is a key gene involved in regulating fruit abscission under girdling with defoliation treatment, was evaluated to validate our findings. In conclusion, our data provide a useful framework for choice of suitable reference genes across different experimental conditions for RT-qPCR analysis of preharvest and postharvest longan fruits. PMID:27375640

  11. Evaluation of Reference Genes for RT-qPCR in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Under UVB Stress.

    PubMed

    Sang, Wen; He, Li; Wang, Xiao-Ping; Zhu-Salzman, Keyan; Lei, Chao-Liang

    2015-04-01

    Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) has become a widely used technique to quantify gene expression. It is necessary to select appropriate reference genes for normalization. In the present study, we assessed the expression stability of seven candidate genes in Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) irradiated by ultraviolet B (UVB) at different developmental stages for various irradiation time periods. The algorithms of geNorm, NormFinder, and BestKeeper were applied to determine the stability of these candidate genes. Ribosomal protein genes RpS3, RpL13A, and β-actin gene (ActB) showed the highest stability across all UVB irradiation time points, whereas expression of other normally used reference genes, such as those encoding the β-tubulin gene TUBB and the E-cadherin gene CAD, varied at different developmental stages. This study will potentially provide more suitable reference gene candidates for RT-qPCR analysis in T. castaneum subjected to environmental stresses, particularly UV irradiation.

  12. Selection and evaluation of new reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in Epinephelus akaara based on transcriptome data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huan; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Qiaohong; Liu, Xiaochun; Ding, Shaoxiong

    2017-01-01

    Groupers are an economically important fish species in world fishery markets. Because many studies using RT-qPCR have addressed gene expression in groupers, appropriate reference genes are required to obtain reliable and accurate results. In this study, the most suitable reference genes were identified from eleven candidate genes of one of the most valuable species, Epinephelus akaara, in a range of different experimental conditions. Using the software packages geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and refFinder, three traditionally used reference genes, β-actin (β-ACT), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), were identified as not suitable for E. akaara gene expression studies, whereas two newly identified reference genes, conserved oligomeric Golgi complex subunit 5 (Cog5) and brefeldin a-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 1 (ARFGEF1), could be universally applied under all the tested conditions. These data provide the foundation for more precise results in RT-qPCR studies of gene expression in E. akaara and other Epinephelus species.

  13. Transcriptome-wide identification of reference genes for expression analysis of soybean responses to drought stress along the day

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean transcriptome displays strong variation along the day in optimal growth conditions and also in response to adverse circumstances, like drought stress. However, no study conducted to date has presented suitable reference genes, with stable expression along the day, for relative gene expre...

  14. Selection and evaluation of new reference genes for RT-qPCR analysis in Epinephelus akaara based on transcriptome data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huan; Zhang, Xiang; Liu, Qiaohong; Liu, Xiaochun; Ding, Shaoxiong

    2017-01-01

    Groupers are an economically important fish species in world fishery markets. Because many studies using RT-qPCR have addressed gene expression in groupers, appropriate reference genes are required to obtain reliable and accurate results. In this study, the most suitable reference genes were identified from eleven candidate genes of one of the most valuable species, Epinephelus akaara, in a range of different experimental conditions. Using the software packages geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and refFinder, three traditionally used reference genes, β-actin (β-ACT), glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), and beta-2-microglobulin (B2M), were identified as not suitable for E. akaara gene expression studies, whereas two newly identified reference genes, conserved oligomeric Golgi complex subunit 5 (Cog5) and brefeldin a-inhibited guanine nucleotide-exchange protein 1 (ARFGEF1), could be universally applied under all the tested conditions. These data provide the foundation for more precise results in RT-qPCR studies of gene expression in E. akaara and other Epinephelus species. PMID:28182746

  15. Transcriptome-Wide Identification of Reference Genes for Expression Analysis of Soybean Responses to Drought Stress along the Day.

    PubMed

    Marcolino-Gomes, Juliana; Rodrigues, Fabiana Aparecida; Fuganti-Pagliarini, Renata; Nakayama, Thiago Jonas; Ribeiro Reis, Rafaela; Bouças Farias, Jose Renato; Harmon, Frank G; Correa Molinari, Hugo Bruno; Correa Molinari, Mayla Daiane; Nepomuceno, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    The soybean transcriptome displays strong variation along the day in optimal growth conditions and also in response to adverse circumstances, like drought stress. However, no study conducted to date has presented suitable reference genes, with stable expression along the day, for relative gene expression quantification in combined studies on drought stress and diurnal oscillations. Recently, water deficit responses have been associated with circadian clock oscillations at the transcription level, revealing the existence of hitherto unknown processes and increasing the demand for studies on plant responses to drought stress and its oscillation during the day. We performed data mining from a transcriptome-wide background using microarrays and RNA-seq databases to select an unpublished set of candidate reference genes, specifically chosen for the normalization of gene expression in studies on soybean under both drought stress and diurnal oscillations. Experimental validation and stability analysis in soybean plants submitted to drought stress and sampled during a 24 h timecourse showed that four of these newer reference genes (FYVE, NUDIX, Golgin-84 and CYST) indeed exhibited greater expression stability than the conventionally used housekeeping genes (ELF1-β and β-actin) under these conditions. We also demonstrated the effect of using reference candidate genes with different stability values to normalize the relative expression data from a drought-inducible soybean gene (DREB5) evaluated in different periods of the day.

  16. Selection and Validation of Reference Genes for qRT-PCR Expression Analysis of Candidate Genes Involved in Olfactory Communication in the Butterfly Bicyclus anynana

    PubMed Central

    Arun, Alok; Baumlé, Véronique; Amelot, Gaël; Nieberding, Caroline M.

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae), two developmental stages (pupal and adult) and two sexes (male and female), all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum). The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the expression

  17. Selection and validation of reference genes for qRT-PCR expression analysis of candidate genes involved in olfactory communication in the butterfly Bicyclus anynana.

    PubMed

    Arun, Alok; Baumlé, Véronique; Amelot, Gaël; Nieberding, Caroline M

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a technique widely used to quantify the transcriptional expression level of candidate genes. qRT-PCR requires the selection of one or several suitable reference genes, whose expression profiles remain stable across conditions, to normalize the qRT-PCR expression profiles of candidate genes. Although several butterfly species (Lepidoptera) have become important models in molecular evolutionary ecology, so far no study aimed at identifying reference genes for accurate data normalization for any butterfly is available. The African bush brown butterfly Bicyclus anynana has drawn considerable attention owing to its suitability as a model for evolutionary ecology, and we here provide a maiden extensive study to identify suitable reference gene in this species. We monitored the expression profile of twelve reference genes: eEF-1α, FK506, UBQL40, RpS8, RpS18, HSP, GAPDH, VATPase, ACT3, TBP, eIF2 and G6PD. We tested the stability of their expression profiles in three different tissues (wings, brains, antennae), two developmental stages (pupal and adult) and two sexes (male and female), all of which were subjected to two food treatments (food stress and control feeding ad libitum). The expression stability and ranking of twelve reference genes was assessed using two algorithm-based methods, NormFinder and geNorm. Both methods identified RpS8 as the best suitable reference gene for expression data normalization. We also showed that the use of two reference genes is sufficient to effectively normalize the qRT-PCR data under varying tissues and experimental conditions that we used in B. anynana. Finally, we tested the effect of choosing reference genes with different stability on the normalization of the transcript abundance of a candidate gene involved in olfactory communication in B. anynana, the Fatty Acyl Reductase 2, and we confirmed that using an unstable reference gene can drastically alter the expression

  18. Human endogenous retrovirus W family envelope gene activates the small conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channel in human neuroblastoma cells through CREB.

    PubMed

    Li, S; Liu, Z C; Yin, S J; Chen, Y T; Yu, H L; Zeng, J; Zhang, Q; Zhu, F

    2013-09-05

    Numerous studies have shown that human endogenous retrovirus W family (HERV-W) envelope gene (env) is related to various diseases but the underlying mechanism has remained poorly understood. Our previous study showed that there was abnormal expression of HERV-W env in sera of patients with schizophrenia. In this paper, we reported that overexpression of the HERV-W env elevated the levels of small conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channel protein 3 (SK3) in human neuroblastoma cells. Using a luciferase reporter system and RNA interference method, we found that functional cAMP response element site was required for the expression of SK3 triggered by HERV-W env. In addition, it was also found that the SK3 channel was activated by HERV-W env. Further study indicated that cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) was required for the activation of the SK3 channel. Thus, a novel signaling mechanism of how HERV-W env influences neuronal activity and contributes to mental illnesses such as schizophrenia was proposed.

  19. Identification and validation of quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR reference genes for gene expression analysis in teak (Tectona grandis L.f.)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Teak (Tectona grandis L.f.) is currently the preferred choice of the timber trade for fabrication of woody products due to its extraordinary qualities and is widely grown around the world. Gene expression studies are essential to explore wood formation of vascular plants, and quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) is a sensitive technique employed for quantifying gene expression levels. One or more appropriate reference genes are crucial to accurately compare mRNA transcripts through different tissues/organs and experimental conditions. Despite being the focus of some genetic studies, a lack of molecular information has hindered genetic exploration of teak. To date, qRT-PCR reference genes have not been identified and validated for teak. Results Identification and cloning of nine commonly used qRT-PCR reference genes from teak, including ribosomal protein 60s (rp60s), clathrin adaptor complexes medium subunit family (Cac), actin (Act), histone 3 (His3), sand family (Sand), β-Tubulin (Β-Tub), ubiquitin (Ubq), elongation factor 1-α (Ef-1α), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH). Expression profiles of these genes were evaluated by qRT-PCR in six tissue and organ samples (leaf, flower, seedling, root, stem and branch secondary xylem) of teak. Appropriate gene cloning and sequencing, primer specificity and amplification efficiency was verified for each gene. Their stability as reference genes was validated by NormFinder, BestKeeper, geNorm and Delta Ct programs. Results obtained from all programs showed that TgUbq and TgEf-1α are the most stable genes to use as qRT-PCR reference genes and TgAct is the most unstable gene in teak. The relative expression of the teak cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (TgCAD) gene in lignified tissues at different ages was assessed by qRT-PCR, using TgUbq and TgEf-1α as internal controls. These analyses exposed a consistent expression pattern with both reference genes. Conclusion This study

  20. A simple analytical and experimental procedure for selection of reference genes for reverse-transcription quantitative PCR normalization data.

    PubMed

    Manjarin, R; Trottier, N L; Weber, P S; Liesman, J S; Taylor, N P; Steibel, J P

    2011-10-01

    Variation in cellular activity in a tissue induces changes in RNA concentration, which affects the validity of gene mRNA abundance analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). A common way of accounting for such variation consists of the use of reference genes for normalization. Programs such as geNorm may be used to select suitable reference genes, although a large set of genes that are not co-regulated must be analyzed to obtain accurate results. The objective of this study was to propose an alternative experimental and analytical protocol to assess the invariance of reference genes in porcine mammary tissue using mammary RNA and DNA concentrations as correction factors. Mammary glands were biopsied from 4 sows on d 110 of gestation (prepartum), on d 5 (early) and 17 (peak) of lactation, and on d 5 after weaning (postweaning). Relative expression of 7 potential reference genes, API5, MRPL39, VAPB, ACTB, GAPDH, RPS23, and MTG1, and one candidate gene, SLC7A1, was quantified by RT-qPCR using a relative standard curve approach. Variation in gene expression levels, measured as cycles to threshold at each stage of mammary physiological activity, was tested using a linear mixed model fitting RNA and DNA concentrations as covariates. Results were compared with those obtained with geNorm analysis, and genes selected by each method were used to normalize SLC7A1. Quantified relative mRNA abundance of GAPDH and MRPL39 remained unchanged across stages of mammary physiological activity after accounting for changes in tissue RNA and DNA concentration. In contrast, geNorm analysis selected MTG1, MRPL39, and VAPB as the best reference genes. However, when target gene SLC7A1 was normalized with genes selected either based on our proposed protocol or by geNorm, fold changes in mRNA abundance did not differ. In conclusion, the proposed analytical protocol assesses expression invariance of potential reference genes by accounting for variation in tissue RNA and DNA

  1. Synthetic certified DNA reference material for analysis of human erythropoietin transgene and transcript in gene doping and gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Baoutina, A; Bhat, S; Zheng, M; Partis, L; Dobeson, M; Alexander, I E; Emslie, K R

    2016-10-01

    There is a recognised need for standardisation of protocols for vector genome analysis used in vector manufacturing, to establish dosage, in biodistribution studies and to detect gene doping in sport. Analysis of vector genomes and transgene expression is typically performed by qPCR using plasmid-based calibrants incorporating transgenic sequences. These often undergo limited characterisation and differ between manufacturers, potentially leading to inaccurate quantification, inconsistent inter-laboratory results and affecting clinical outcomes. Contamination of negative samples with such calibrants could cause false positive results. We developed a design strategy for synthetic reference materials (RMs) with modified transgenic sequences to prevent false positives due to cross-contamination. When such RM is amplified in transgene-specific assays, the amplicons are distinguishable from transgene's amplicons based on size and sequence. Using human erythropoietin as a model, we produced certified RM according to this strategy and following ISO Guide 35. Using non-viral and viral vectors, we validated the effectiveness of this RM in vector genome analysis in blood in vitro. The developed design strategy could be applied to production of RMs for other transgenes, genes or transcripts. Together with validated PCR assays, such RMs form a measurement tool that facilitates standardised, accurate and reliable genetic analysis in various applications.

  2. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR.

    PubMed

    Niu, Longjian; Tao, Yan-Bin; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Fu, Qiantang; Li, Chaoqiong; Dong, Yuling; Wang, Xiulan; He, Huiying; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-06-03

    Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis), a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (ΔCt), BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder) were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE), actin (ACT) and phospholipase A22 (PLA) were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), cyclophilin (CYC) and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1α) were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII) were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1α were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi.

  3. Selection of Reliable Reference Genes for Gene Expression Studies of a Promising Oilseed Crop, Plukenetia volubilis, by Real-Time Quantitative PCR

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Longjian; Tao, Yan-Bin; Chen, Mao-Sheng; Fu, Qiantang; Li, Chaoqiong; Dong, Yuling; Wang, Xiulan; He, Huiying; Xu, Zeng-Fu

    2015-01-01

    Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) is a reliable and widely used method for gene expression analysis. The accuracy of the determination of a target gene expression level by RT-qPCR demands the use of appropriate reference genes to normalize the mRNA levels among different samples. However, suitable reference genes for RT-qPCR have not been identified in Sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis), a promising oilseed crop known for its polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-rich seeds. In this study, using RT-qPCR, twelve candidate reference genes were examined in seedlings and adult plants, during flower and seed development and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. Four statistical algorithms (delta cycle threshold (ΔCt), BestKeeper, geNorm, and NormFinder) were used to assess the expression stabilities of the candidate genes. The results showed that ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme (UCE), actin (ACT) and phospholipase A22 (PLA) were the most stable genes in Sacha inchi seedlings. For roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and seeds from adult plants, 30S ribosomal protein S13 (RPS13), cyclophilin (CYC) and elongation factor-1alpha (EF1α) were recommended as reference genes for RT-qPCR. During the development of reproductive organs, PLA, ACT and UCE were the optimal reference genes for flower development, whereas UCE, RPS13 and RNA polymerase II subunit (RPII) were optimal for seed development. Considering the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi, UCE, ACT and EF1α were sufficient for the purpose of normalization. Our results provide useful guidelines for the selection of reliable reference genes for the normalization of RT-qPCR data for seedlings and adult plants, for reproductive organs, and for the entire growth cycle of Sacha inchi. PMID:26047338

  4. RefPrimeCouch—a reference gene primer CouchApp

    PubMed Central

    Silbermann, Jascha; Wernicke, Catrin; Pospisil, Heike; Frohme, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    To support a quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction standardization project, a new reference gene database application was required. The new database application was built with the explicit goal of simplifying not only the development process but also making the user interface more responsive and intuitive. To this end, CouchDB was used as the backend with a lightweight dynamic user interface implemented client-side as a one-page web application. Data entry and curation processes were streamlined using an OpenRefine-based workflow. The new RefPrimeCouch database application provides its data online under an Open Database License. Database URL: http://hpclife.th-wildau.de:5984/rpc/_design/rpc/view.html PMID:24368831

  5. Evaluation of reference genes for real-time PCR studies of Brazilian Somalis sheep infected by gastrointestinal nematodes

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Precise normalization with reference genes is necessary, in order to obtain reliable relative expression data in response to gastrointestinal nematode infection. By using sheep from temperate regions as models, three reference genes, viz., ribosomal protein LO (RPLO), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and succinate dehydrogenase complex subunit A (SDHA), were investigated in the abomasum, abomasal lymph nodes and small intestine of Brazilian Somalis sheep, either resistant or susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes infections. Real time PCR was carried out by using SYBR Green I dye, and gene stability was tested by geNorm. RPLO was an ideal reference gene, since its expression was constant across treatments, presented lower variation, and was ranked as the most stable in abomasum and lymph node tissues. On the other hand, SDHA was the most stable in the small intestine followed by RPLO and GAPDH. These findings demonstrate the importance of correctly choosing reference genes prior to relative quantification. In addition, we determined that reference genes used in sheep from temperate regions, when properly tested, can be applied in animals from tropical regions such as the Brazilian Somalis sheep. PMID:21637421

  6. Certified DNA Reference Materials to Compare HER2 Gene Amplification Measurements Using Next-Generation Sequencing Methods.

    PubMed

    Lih, Chih-Jian; Si, Han; Das, Biswajit; Harrington, Robin D; Harper, Kneshay N; Sims, David J; McGregor, Paul M; Camalier, Corinne E; Kayserian, Andrew Y; Williams, P Mickey; He, Hua-Jun; Almeida, Jamie L; Lund, Steve P; Choquette, Steve; Cole, Kenneth D

    2016-09-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Materials 2373 is a set of genomic DNA samples prepared from five breast cancer cell lines with certified values for the ratio of the HER2 gene copy number to the copy numbers of reference genes determined by real-time quantitative PCR and digital PCR. Targeted-amplicon, whole-exome, and whole-genome sequencing measurements were used with the reference material to compare the performance of both the laboratory steps and the bioinformatic approaches of the different methods using a range of amplification ratios. Although good reproducibility was observed in each next-generation sequencing method, slightly different HER2 copy numbers associated with platform-specific biases were obtained. This study clearly demonstrates the value of Standard Reference Materials 2373 as reference material and as a calibrator for evaluating assay performance as well as for increasing confidence in reporting HER2 amplification for clinical applications.

  7. Selection of reference genes from two leafhopper species challenged by phytoplasma infection, for gene expression studies by RT-qPCR

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Phytoplasmas are phloem-limited phytopathogenic wall-less bacteria and represent a major threat to agriculture worldwide. They are transmitted in a persistent, propagative manner by phloem-sucking Hemipteran insects. For gene expression studies based on mRNA quantification by RT-qPCR, stability of housekeeping genes is crucial. The aim of this study was the identification of reference genes to study the effect of phytoplasma infection on gene expression of two leafhopper vector species. The identified reference genes will be useful tools to investigate differential gene expression of leafhopper vectors upon phytoplasma infection. Results The expression profiles of ribosomal 18S, actin, ATP synthase β, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) and tropomyosin were determined in two leafhopper vector species (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), both healthy and infected by “Candidatus Phytoplasma asteris” (chrysanthemum yellows phytoplasma strain, CYP). Insects were analyzed at three different times post acquisition, and expression stabilities of the selected genes were evaluated with BestKeeper, geNorm and Normfinder algorithms. In Euscelidius variegatus, all genes under all treatments were stable and could serve as reference genes. In Macrosteles quadripunctulatus, BestKeeper and Normfinder analysis indicated ATP synthase β, tropomyosin and GAPDH as the most stable, whereas geNorm identified reliable genes only for early stages of infection. Conclusions In this study a validation of five candidate reference genes was performed with three algorithms, and housekeeping genes were identified for over time transcript profiling of two leafhopper vector species infected by CYP. This work set up an experimental system to study the molecular basis of phytoplasma multiplication in the insect body, in order to elucidate mechanisms of vector specificity. Most of the sequences provided in this study are new for leafhoppers, which are vectors of economically

  8. Identification of Reliable Reference Genes for Quantification of MicroRNAs in Serum Samples of Sulfur Mustard-Exposed Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Sedigheh; Shamsara, Mehdi; Khateri, Shahriar; Soroush, Mohammad Reza; Ghorbanmehr, Nassim; Tavallaei, Mahmood; Nourani, Mohammad Reza; Mowla, Seyed Javad

    2015-01-01

    Objective In spite of accumulating information about pathological aspects of sulfur mustard (SM), the precise mechanism responsible for its effects is not well understood. Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) are promising biomarkers for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Accurate normalization using appropriate reference genes, is a critical step in miRNA expression studies. In this study, we aimed to identify appropriate reference gene for microRNA quantification in serum samples of SM victims. Materials and Methods In this case and control experimental study, using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), we evaluated the suitability of a panel of small RNAs including SNORD38B, SNORD49A, U6, 5S rRNA, miR-423-3p, miR-191, miR-16 and miR-103 in sera of 28 SM-exposed veterans of Iran-Iraq war (1980-1988) and 15 matched control volunteers. Different statistical algorithms including geNorm, Normfinder, best-keeper and comparative delta-quantification cycle (Cq) method were employed to find the least variable reference gene. Results miR-423-3p was identified as the most stably expressed reference gene, and miR- 103 and miR-16 ranked after that. Conclusion We demonstrate that non-miRNA reference genes have the least stabil- ity in serum samples and that some house-keeping miRNAs may be used as more reliable reference genes for miRNAs in serum. In addition, using the geometric mean of two reference genes could increase the reliability of the normalizers. PMID:26464821

  9. Evaluation of candidate reference genes for QPCR during ontogenesis and of immune-relevant tissues of European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax).

    PubMed

    Mitter, Karin; Kotoulas, Georgios; Magoulas, Antonios; Mulero, Victor; Sepulcre, Pilar; Figueras, Antonio; Novoa, Beatrice; Sarropoulou, Elena

    2009-08-01

    The expression level of mRNA can vary significantly in different experimental conditions, such as stress, infection, developmental stage or tissue. Suitable reference genes are expected to exhibit constant expression levels. However no single gene is constitutively expressed in all cell types and under all experimental conditions. It has become clear that expression stability of the intended reference gene has to be examined before each experiment. For expression studies using quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) at least two reference genes have to be applied. So far expression studies in the European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) as well as in the Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) have been performed with only one reference gene (S18, Ef-1 alpha or Gapdh). Though significant variations showed up in other teleost species such as the Atlantic halibut and the zebrafish affirming the need for proper normalization strategies, the present study aims at identifying suitable reference genes among nine candidates [glyceraldehyde-phosphate-dehydrogenase (Gapdh), beta-actin (two regions of beta-actin), 40S ribosomal protein S30 (Fau), ribosomal protein L13 a (L13a), beta2-tubulin (Tubb2) and tyrosine 3 monooxygenase/tryptophan 5-monooxygenase activation protein (Tyr)] for expression analysis of 8 developmental stages and a tissue panel (spleen, liver, kidney and brain) with samples infected with Nodavirus and Vibrio anguillarum in D. labrax. Besides the analysis of raw Ct-values, the gene expression stability was determined using two different software applications BestKeeper and NormFinder. According to both algorithms the best two reference genes for an appropriate normalization approach during D. labrax development are Ef-1 alpha and L13a whereas in the tissue panel Fau and L13a are recommended for qPCR normalization.

  10. Selection and assessment of reference genes for quantitative PCR normalization in migratory locust Locusta migratoria (Orthoptera: Acrididae).

    PubMed

    Yang, Qingpo; Li, Zhen;