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Sample records for endoleak prevention preliminary

  1. Prophylactic Residual Aneurysmal Sac Embolization with Expandable Hydrogel Embolic Devices for Endoleak Prevention: Preliminary Study in Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Hiraki, Takao; Pavcnik, Dusan Uchida, Barry T.; Timmermans, Hans A.; Yin Qiang; Wu Renghong; Niyyati, Mahtab; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2005-05-15

    Objective. To explore the feasibility and efficacy of residual aneurysmal sac (RAS) embolization with the expandable hydrogel embolic device (EHED) in prevention of endoleaks in a surgically created and endoluminally treated abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA). Methods. In eight dogs, an AAA was created by means of side-to-side anastomosis between the infrarenal abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava (IVC) with ligation of the IVC above and below the anastomotic end, followed by deployment of an endograft with holes. The RAS was then embolized with the EHED. One animal was killed immediately after RAS embolization and one animal died 12 hr after the procedure. Follow-up aortograms were obtained in six animals after 1 day (1 animal), 2 weeks and 6 months (1 animal), and 8 weeks (4 animals). Results. Four animals had no endoleaks on the follow-up aortograms. The remaining two animals with incomplete RAS embolization had moderate type III endoleaks. Type I or II endoleaks were not seen in any animals. Complications included RAS wall penetration by the devices with platinum wires in two animals (nos. 1 and 2), device migration into an aortic circulation through the endograft holes in two animals (nos. 2 and 3) or through distal interstices between the aortic wall and endograft in one animal (no. 8), aortic occlusion in three animals (nos. 3, 7, and 8), and RAS rupture in one animal (no. 7). Histologic examination showed expanded hydrogels occupying the RAS with associated mature or immature organized thrombus, fibrinous thrombus, or degenerate blood cells. Conclusion. RAS embolization was feasible with the EHED, although additional modifications to the device are required to avoid complications. Angiographic and histologic results suggested that RAS embolization with the EHED may help in the prevention of endoleaks.

  2. Comparison of Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound and Computed Tomography in Classifying Endoleaks After Endovascular Treatment of Abdominal Aorta Aneurysms: Preliminary Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Lagana, Domenico; Recaldini, Chiara; Mangini, Monica; Bertolotti, Elena; Caronno, Roberto; Tozzi, Matteo; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Annibale Genovese, Eugenio; Fugazzola, Carlo

    2006-12-15

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in endoleak classification after endovascular treatment of an abdominal aortic aneurysm compared to computed tomography angiography (CTA). From May 2001 to April 2003, 10 patients with endoleaks already detected by CTA underwent CEUS with Sonovue (registered) to confirm the CTA classification or to reclassify the endoleak. In three conflicting cases, the patients were also studied with conventional angiography. CEUS confirmed the CTA classification in seven cases (type II endoleaks). Two CTA type III endoleaks were classified as type II using CEUS and one CTA type II endoleak was classified as type I by CEUS. Regarding the cases with discordant classification, conventional angiography confirmed the ultrasound classification. Additionally, CEUS documented the origin of type II endoleaks in all cases. After CEUS reclassification of endoleaks, a significant change in patient management occurred in three cases. CEUS allows a better attribution of the origin of the endoleak, as it shows the flow in real time. CEUS is more specific than CTA in endoleak classification and gives more accurate information in therapeutic planning.

  3. Transiliac Paraendograft Embolisation of Type 2 Endoleak: An Alternative Approach for Endoleak Management

    SciTech Connect

    Ameli-Renani, S. Pavlidis, V.; Mailli, L.; Turner, P.; Morgan, R. A.

    2016-02-15

    Selective transarterial catheterisation and translumbar sac puncture are well established techniques for the management of significant type 2 endoleaks. We report an additional technique for endovascular access to the endoleak sac through the space between the iliac endograft and artery wall.

  4. Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm: Effectiveness of Embolization

    SciTech Connect

    Nevala, Terhi; Biancari, Fausto; Manninen, Hannu; Aho, Pekka-Sakari; Matsi, Pekka; Maekinen, Kimmo; Roth, Wolf-Dieter; Yloenen, Kari; Lepaentalo, Mauri; Peraelae, Jukka

    2010-04-15

    The purpose of this study was to report our experience in treating type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) of abdominal aortic aneurysms. Two hundred eighteen patients underwent EVAR with a Zenith stent-graft from January 2000 to December 2005. During a follow-up period of 4.5 {+-} 2.3 years, solely type II endoleak was detected in 47 patients (22%), and 14 of them underwent secondary interventions to correct this condition. Ten patients had transarterial embolization, and four patients had translumbar/transabdominal embolization. The embolization materials used were coils, thrombin, gelatin, Onyx (ethylene-vinyl alcohol copolymer), and glue. Disappearance of the endoleak without enlargement of the aneurysm sac after the first secondary intervention was achieved in only five of these patients (5/13). One patient without surveillance imaging was excluded from analyses of clinical success. After additional interventions in four patients and the spontaneous disappearance of type II endoleak in two patients, overall clinical success was achieved in eight patients (8/12). One patient did not have surveillance imaging after the second secondary intervention. Clinical success after the first secondary intervention was achieved in two patients (2/9) in the transarterial embolization group and three patients (3/4) in the translumbar embolization group. The results of secondary interventions for type II endoleak are unsatisfactory. Although the small number of patients included in this study prevents reliable comparisons between groups, the results seem to favor direct translumbar embolization in comparison to transarterial embolization.

  5. [Simultaneous manifestation of thrombocytopenia -induced endoleak type IV and II as late complication following abdominal stentgraft implantation].

    PubMed

    Kurcz, Jacek; Garcarek, Jerzy; Guziński, Maciej; Janczak, Dariusz; Skóra, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Endoleak type IV occurs very rarely and typically was observed 4-8 weeks following implantation of previous generation stentgrafts. Endoleak type II, although relatively common, typically presents early after stentgraft implantation. In our case combined thrombocytopenia-induced endoleaks type II and IV manifested 22 months following stentgraft implantation. The patient presented with abdominal pain and rapid increase in aneurysm diameter. The patient did not require endovascular intervention, medical treatment proved sufficient to relieve clinical symptoms and to prevent progression of the aneurysmal sac. Thrombocytopenia has not manifested itself again so far. The patient is followed-up with increased frequency. It should be noted that occurrence of type IV endoleak, in particular when associated with other type of endoleak, can result from thrombocytopenia. This type of endoleak should be included in differential diagnosis not only in early postinterventional period but also in long-term follow-up, first of all in patients with first generation stentgrafts implanted, featured by porosity of covering material.

  6. Ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx) to seal type 1 endoleak. A new technique.

    PubMed

    Henrikson, Olof; Roos, Håkan; Falkenberg, Mårten

    2011-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the liquid embolic agent Onyx, an ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer, can be used to seal type 1 endoleaks during endovascular aortic repair (EVAR). Six patients with large aortic aneurysms and remaining type 1 endoleaks during or after EVAR were treated with Onyx embolization through a microcatheter placed in the proximal neck in five cases and in the distal neck in one case. Four of the patients were treated using the chimney technique. The type 1 endoleak was primarily sealed by Onyx in all six patients. There was no distal embolization. Two patients had complications during follow-up. One patient had occlusions of chimney grafts to the renal arteries and to one leg extension. These occlusions were not anatomically related to Onyx embolization. One patient had late stentgraft migration of the Onyx-treated distal neck with aneurysm rupture 18 months after treatment. Early experience of Onyx embolization as a bailout solution of type 1 endoleaks after complicated EVAR is promising. However, effective seal with Onyx does not prevent late stentgraft migration. More reported patients and longer follow-up are necessary to evaluate this new technique.

  7. Early and Late Endograft Limb Proximal Migration with Resulting Type 1b Endoleak following an EVAR for Ruptured AAA

    PubMed Central

    Adrahtas, Demetri; Monastiriotis, Spyridon

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Seal zone failure after EVAR leads to type 1 endoleaks and increases the risk of delayed aortic rupture. Type 1b endoleaks, although rare, represent a true risk to the repair. Case Presentation. We report the case of a 65-year-old female who underwent emergent endovascular repair for a ruptured infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm and developed bilateral type 1b endoleaks following proximal migration of both endograft limbs. The right-side failure was diagnosed within 48 hours from the initial repair and the left side at the 1-year follow-up. Both sides were successfully treated with endovascular techniques. A review of the literature with an analysis of potential risk factors is also reported. Conclusion. For patients undergoing EVAR for ruptured AAA and with noncalcified iliac arteries, more aggressive oversizing of the iliac limbs is recommended to prevents distal seal zone failures. PMID:28255495

  8. Persistent Type I Endoleak after Endovascular Treatment with Chimney Technique

    PubMed Central

    Azevedo, Ana Isabel; Braga, Pedro; Rodrigues, Alberto; Ferreira, Nuno; Fonseca, Marlene; Dias, Adelaide; Gama Ribeiro, Vasco

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) is increasingly used in the treatment of acute type B aortic dissection. Type Ia endoleaks are a common complication of the procedure, but its clinical significance and the best treatment strategy remain poorly defined. We present a case of a type Ia endoleak following TEVAR in the treatment of acute type B aortic dissection. Chimney technique approach was used in an attempt to seal the endoleak. Although technical success was suboptimal, the patient remained clinically stable and event free. Data regarding the natural course and management of type Ia endoleaks following TEVAR for aortic dissection are sparse. Future research is required to establish the clinical and technical determinants of the need to treat these endoleaks and the best treatment strategy. PMID:27703967

  9. Quality Improvement Guidelines for Imaging Detection and Treatment of Endoleaks following Endovascular Aneurysm Repair (EVAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Rand, T.; Uberoi, R.; Cil, B.; Munneke, G.; Tsetis, D.

    2013-02-15

    Major concerns after aortic aneurysm repair are caused by the presence of endoleaks, which are defined as persistent perigraft flow within the aortic aneurysm sac. Diagnosis of endoleaks can be performed with various imaging modalities, and indications for treatment are based on further subclassifications. Early detection and correct classification of endoleaks are crucial for planning patient management. The vast majority of endoleaks can be treated successfully by interventional means. Guidelines for Imaging Detection and Treatment of endoleaks are described in this article.

  10. Unusual approach for the treatment of a type II endoleak.

    PubMed

    Ciampi Dopazo, J J; Gastaldo, F; Lanciego Pérez, C

    2016-01-01

    This case presentation is about an 88 years-old male patient with previous endovascular aortic aneurysm repairment history and aortic endoleak type II (EL2). The direct lumbar artery catheterization was considered an alternative to solve EL2, associated with aortic endovascular prosthesis and due to an incomplete sealing or exclusion of the aneurysmal sac or a vascular segment demonstrated by imaging studies, when other treatment alternative failed (transarterial embolization) to control the aneurysm growing. Performing translumbar approach was decided by puncturing the artery lumbar (L4) left, previously the lumbar arteries (L4) were evaluated in the abdominal CT arterial phase to guide a puncture/access under flouroscopy control. Diagnostic angiogram clearly demonstrated the median sacral and right lumbar arteries inflow into the aneurysm sac. Transcatheter embolization with fibered platinum microcoils was performed of the median sacral artery and lumbar left and right arteries (L4), showing satisfactory endoleak devascularization.

  11. Successful Repair of Type I Endoleak Using the Frozen Elephant Trunk Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seon Hee; Song, Seunghwan; Kim, Sang-pil; Lee, Chung Won; Son, Joohyung

    2016-01-01

    Thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) has emerged as an effective therapy for a variety of thoracic aortic pathologies. However, various types of endoleak remain a major concern, and its treatment is often challenging. We report a case of type I endoleak occurring 19 months after zone II hybrid TEVAR. The endoleak was successfully repaired by the frozen elephant trunk technique, without removal of a previous stent graft, combined with ascending aorta and total arch replacement. PMID:27525241

  12. Osteomyelitis and Discitis Following Translumbar Repair of a Type II Endoleak

    SciTech Connect

    Sella, David M. Frey, Gregory T. Giesbrandt, Kirk

    2016-03-15

    Here we present the case of an 80-year-old man who developed a type II endoleak following endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Initial attempts at treating the endoleak via a transarterial approach were unsuccessful; therefore the patient underwent percutaneous translumbar endoleak embolization. Approximately 1 month following the translumbar procedure, he developed back pain, with subsequent workup revealing osteomyelitis and discitis as a complication following repair via the translumbar approach.

  13. Redo thoracic endovascular aortic repair due to endoleak with celiac artery snorkeling.

    PubMed

    Planer, David; Bliagos, Dimitrios; Gray, William A

    2011-10-01

    Reintervention due to endoleak of aortic endograft repair is often challenging. Herein, we report endovascular endoleak repair in a patient with previous thoracic and abdominal endovascular grafts with extensive coverage of the aorta. The present technique included snorkeling of the celiac trunk to preserve antegrade flow in the celiac artery and to maintain future options for reintervention.

  14. Type 2 Endoleaks Post-EVAR: Current Evidence for Rupture Risk, Intervention and Outcomes of Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Raymond Morgan, Robert A.

    2015-06-15

    Type 2 endoleaks (EL2) are the most commonly encountered endoleaks following EVAR. Despite two decades of experience, there remains considerable variation in the management of EL2 with controversies ranging from if to treat, when to treat and how to treat. Here, we summarise the available evidence, describe the treatment techniques available and offer guidelines for management.

  15. Type 2 Endoleaks Post-EVAR: Current Evidence for Rupture Risk, Intervention and Outcomes of Treatment.

    PubMed

    Chung, Raymond; Morgan, Robert A

    2015-06-01

    Type 2 endoleaks (EL2) are the most commonly encountered endoleaks following EVAR. Despite two decades of experience, there remains considerable variation in the management of EL2 with controversies ranging from if to treat, when to treat and how to treat. Here, we summarise the available evidence, describe the treatment techniques available and offer guidelines for management.

  16. Treatment of Type II Endoleaks After Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms: Transcaval Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Mansueto, Giancarlo Cenzi, Daniela; D'Onofrio, Mirko; Petrella, Enrico; Gumbs, Andrew A.; Mucelli, Roberto Pozzi

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of the note is to describe a new technique for type II endoleak treatment, using an alternative approach through femoral venous access. Three patients who developed type II endoleak after endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm were treated with direct transcaval puncture and embolization inside the aneurysm sac. The detailed technique is described. All patients were treated without any complications and discharged 48 hours after the treatment. At 1 month follow-up the computed tomograph scan did not show a recurrence of a type II endoleak. The management of patients with type II endoleak is a controversial issue and different techniques have been proposed. We suggest an alternative technique for type II endoleak treatment. The feasibility and the advantages of this approach can offer new possibilities for the diagnosis as well as for the treatment of this complication.

  17. Early type II endoleak repair after endovascular therapy in Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Unal, Ertekin Utku; Ozen, Anil; Hijazi, Alaa; Kubat, Emre; Küçükay, Fahrettin; Tutun, Ufuk; Birincioglu, Cemal Levent

    2013-06-01

    Vascular complications of Behçet's disease include occlusion of vessels and arterial aneurysm formation, which is prone to rupture. Early type II endoleak repair following an endovascular stent-graft procedure for a ruptured descending aortic aneurysm in a 31-year-old man with Behçet's disease is described. Endovascular stent-grafts provide an important alternative in complicated cases, but the possibility of endoleak should be born in mind.

  18. Transarterial Embolization of Type II Endoleaks after EVAR: The Role of Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Copolymer (Onyx)

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Wille, Rene Wohlgemuth, Walter A. Heiss, Peter Wiggermann, Philipp Guentner, Oliver Schreyer, Andreas G. Hoffstetter, Patrick Stroszczynski, Christian; Zorger, Niels

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To determine the feasibility and efficacy of transarterial endoleak embolization using the liquid embolic agent ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer (Onyx). Methods: Over a 7-year period eleven patients (6 women, 5 men; mean age 68 years, range 37-83 years) underwent transarterial embolization of a type II endoleak after endovascular aortic aneurysm repair using the liquid embolic agent Onyx. Two patients (18 %) had a simple type II endoleak with only one artery in communication with the aneurysm sac, whereas 9 patients (82 %) had a complex type II endoleak with multiple communicating vessels. We retrospectively analyzed the technical and clinical success of transarterial type II endoleak embolization with Onyx. Complete embolization of the nidus was defined as technical success. Embolization was considered clinically successful when volume of the aneurysm sac was stable or decreased on follow-up CT scans. Result: Mean follow-up time was 26.0 (range 6-50) months. Clinical success was achieved in 8 of 11 patients (73 %). Transarterial nidus embolization with Onyx was technically successful in 6 of 11 patients (55 %). In three cases the nidus was embolized without direct catheterization from a more distal access through the network of collateral vessels. Conclusion: Onyx is a favorable embolic agent for transarterial endoleak embolization. To achieve the best clinical results, complete occlusion of the nidus is mandatory.

  19. Preventative Vaccines for Zika Virus Outbreak: Preliminary Evaluation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun; Erdos, Geza; Huang, Shaohua; Kenniston, Thomas; Falo, Louis D; Gambotto, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Since it emerged in Brazil in May 2015, the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has raised global concern due to its association with a significant rise in the number of infants born with microcephaly and neurological disorders such as Guillain-Barré syndrome. We developed prototype subunit and adenoviral-based Zika vaccines encoding the extracellular portion of the ZIKV envelope gene (E) fused to the T4 fibritin foldon trimerization domain (Efl). The subunit vaccine was delivered intradermally through carboxymethyl cellulose microneedle array (MNA). The immunogenicity of these two vaccines, named Ad5.ZIKV-Efl and ZIKV-rEfl, was tested in C57BL/6 mice. Prime/boost immunization regimen was associated with induction of a ZIKV-specific antibody response, which provided neutralizing immunity. Moreover, protection was evaluated in seven-day-old pups after virulent ZIKV intraperitoneal challenge. Pups born to mice immunized with Ad5.ZIKV-Efl were all protected against lethal challenge infection without weight loss or neurological signs, while pups born to dams immunized with MNA-ZIKV-rEfl were partially protected (50%). No protection was seen in pups born to phosphate buffered saline-immunized mice. This study illustrates the preliminary efficacy of the E ZIKV antigen vaccination in controlling ZIKV infectivity, providing a promising candidate vaccine and antigen format for the prevention of Zika virus disease.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jichun; Ma, Yukui; Huang, Bin; Yuan, Ding; Yang, Yi; Zeng, Guojun; Xiong, Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objectives This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to determine the current evidence on risk factors for type II endoleaks after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Materials and methods A systematic literature search was carried out for studies that evaluated the association of demographic, co-morbidity, and other patient-determined factors with the onset of type II endoleaks. Pooled prevalence of type II endoleaks after EVAR was updated. Results Among the 504 studies screened, 45 studies with a total of 36,588 participants were included in this review. The pooled prevalence of type II endoleaks after EVAR was 22% [95% confidence interval (CI), 19%–25%]. The main factors consistently associated with type II endoleaks included age [pooled odds ratio (OR), 0.37; 95% CI, 0.31–0.43; P<0.001], smoking (pooled OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.55–0.92; P<0.001), patent inferior mesenteric artery (pooled OR, 1.98; 95% CI, 1.06–3.71; P = 0.012), maximum aneurysm diameter (pooled OR, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.17–0.30; P<0.001), and number of patent lumbar arteries (pooled OR, 3.07; 95% CI, 2.81–3.33; P<0.001). Sex, diabetes, hypertension, anticoagulants, antiplatelet, hyperlipidemia, chronic renal insufficiency, types of graft material, and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) did not show any association with the onset of type II endoleaks. Conclusions Clinicians can use the identified risk factors to detect and manage patients at risk of developing type II endoleaks after EVAR. However, further studies are needed to analyze a number of potential risk factors. PMID:28182753

  1. Preventing Mania: A Preliminary Examination of the GOALS Program

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sheri L.; Fulford, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    There is strong evidence of a relationship between goal dysregulation and mania. Building on these findings, we examined the feasibility of developing a mania prevention treatment program designed to improve goal regulation skills for those with bipolar disorder. Here, we describe the process of developing a manual, delivering the intervention to a series of cases, and then conducting a small open uncontrolled trial. All participants met diagnostic criteria for bipolar I disorder based on the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV and were not currently experiencing episodes of depression or mania. Ten participants (8 female, mean age = 46.7 years) were enrolled in the GOALS program and completed an average of 13.2 weekly sessions. Participants were administered the Bech-Rafaelson Mania Scale (BRMS) and the Modified Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression at baseline and termination. Some participants completed self-report scales including the Altman Self-Rating Mania Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Willingly Approached Set of Statistically Unrealistic Pursuits at baseline and termination. In addition, participants were administered a consumer satisfaction questionnaire at termination. At termination, all 10 participants found the program highly relevant and helpful. Most importantly, even though levels of mania were low initially, mean levels of manic symptoms on the BRMS decreased significantly from baseline to termination, and all 10 participants were within a healthy range (BRMS <7) at termination. Although the lack of control group or follow-up data limits this study, preliminary evidence suggests that it is feasible to identify treatment targets by drawing from the basic research literature in bipolar disorder. Findings await replication and more careful testing within a randomized controlled trial. PMID:19433142

  2. Endoleak Assessment Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and Image Processing Methods in Stented Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm Models

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yueh-Hsun; Mani, Karthick; Panigrahi, Bivas; Hsu, Wen-Tang

    2016-01-01

    Endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) is a predominant surgical procedure to reduce the risk of aneurysm rupture in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients. Endoleak formation, which eventually requires additional surgical reoperation, is a major EVAR complication. Understanding the etiology and evolution of endoleak from the hemodynamic perspective is crucial to advancing the current posttreatments for AAA patients who underwent EVAR. Therefore, a comprehensive flow assessment was performed to investigate the relationship between endoleak and its surrounding pathological flow fields through computational fluid dynamics and image processing. Six patient-specific models were reconstructed, and the associated hemodynamics in these models was quantified three-dimensionally to calculate wall stress. To provide a high degree of clinical relevance, the mechanical stress distribution calculated from the models was compared with the endoleak positions identified from the computed tomography images of patients through a series of imaging processing methods. An endoleak possibly forms in a location with high local wall stress. An improved stent graft (SG) structure is conceived accordingly by increasing the mechanical strength of the SG at peak wall stress locations. The presented analytical paradigm, as well as numerical analysis using patient-specific models, may be extended to other common human cardiovascular surgeries. PMID:27660648

  3. Experience of direct percutaneous sac injection in type II endoleak using cone beam computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Park, Yoong-Seok; Do, Young Soo; Park, Hong Suk; Park, Kwang Bo; Kim, Dong-Ik

    2015-04-01

    Cone beam CT, usually used in dental area, could easily obtain 3-dimensional images using cone beam shaped ionized radiation. Cone beam CT is very useful for direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) which needs very precise measurement to avoid puncture of inferior vena cava or vessel around sac or stent graft. Here we describe two cases of DPSI using cone beam CT. In case 1, a 79-year-old male had widening of preexisted type II endoleak after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). However, transarterial embolization failed due to tortuous collateral branches of lumbar arteries. In case 2, a 72-year-old female had symptomatic sac enlargement by type II endoleak after EVAR. However, there was no route to approach the lumbar arteries. Therefore, we performed DPSI assisted by cone beam CT in cases 1, 2. Six-month CT follow-up revealed no sign of sac enlargement by type II endoleak.

  4. Long-term results of intra-arterial onyx injection for type II endoleaks following endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Ribé, L; Bicknell, C D; Gibbs, R G; Burfitt, N; Jenkins, M P; Cheshire, N; Hamady, M

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to report our experience of type II endoleak treatment after endovascular aneurysm repair with intra-arterial injection of the embolizing liquid material, Onyx liquid embolic system. Methods From 2005 to 2012, we performed a retrospective review of 600 patients, who underwent endovascular repair of an abdominal aortic aneurysm. During this period, 18 patients were treated with Onyx for type II endoleaks. Principal findings The source of the endoleak was the internal iliac artery in seven cases, inferior mesenteric artery in seven cases and lumbar arteries in four cases. Immediate technical success was achieved in all patients and no endoleak from the treated vessel recurred. During a mean follow-up of 19 months, no major morbidity or mortality occurred, and one-year survival was 100%. Conclusions Treatment of type II endoleaks with Onyx is safe and effective over a significant time period.

  5. Diagnosis of type III endoleak and endovascular treatment with aortouniiliac stent-graft.

    PubMed

    Juszkat, Robert; Staniszewski, Ryszard; Zarzecka, Anna; Majewski, Wacław

    2009-01-01

    The present report describes a case of type III endoleak from a tear in the fabric of a Zenith bifurcated stent-graft approximately 6 months after implantation. The reason of the fabric tear was unknown. The complication was successfully treated by aortouniiliac stent-graft implantation followed by creation of a femorofemoral bypass.

  6. Systemic Pulsatile Pressure in Type II Endoleaks After Stent Grafting of Experimental Abdominal Aortic Aneurysms

    SciTech Connect

    Pitton, Michael Bernhard Schmenger, Patrick; Dueber, Christoph; Neufang, Achim; Thelen, Manfred

    2003-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate pressure and maximum rate of rise of systolic pressure (peak dP/dt) in completely excluded aneurysms and endoleaks to determine the hemodynamic impact of endoleaks. Methods: In mongrel dogs (n =36) experimental aneurysms were created by insertion of a patch (portion of rectus abdomen is muscle sheath) into the infrarenalaorta. In group I (n 18), all aortic branches of the aneurysm were ligated and all aneurysms were completely excluded by stent grafts. Group II (n = 18) consisted of aneurysms with patent aortic side branches that represented sources of endoleaks.One week (n = 12), six weeks (n = 12),and six months (n = 12) after stent grafting,hemodynamic measurements were obtained in thrombosed aneurysms and proved endoleaks. Systemic blood pressure and intraaneurysmal pressure were simultaneously measured and the respective peak dP/dt were computed. Results: At the six-month follow-up, the systolic-pressure ratio (intraaneurysmatic pressure: systemic pressure)was significantly increased in endoleaks compared to non-perfused areas(0.879 {+-} 0.042 versus 0.438 {+-} 0.176, p <0.01, group II) or completely excluded aneurysms (0.385 {+-}0.221, group I). Peak dP/dt ratio (intraaneurysmal peak dP/dt: systemic peak dP/dt) was 0.922 {+-} 0.154 in endoleaks, compared to 0.084 {+-} 0.080 in non-perfused areas (group II, p <0.01), and was 0.146 {+-} 0.121 in completely excluded aneurysms (group I). The diastolic-pressure ratio was also increased inendoleaks compared to non-perfused areas (0.929 {+-} 0.088 versus 0.655 {+-} 0.231, p < 0.01, group II) or completely excluded aneurysms (0.641 {+-} 0.278, group I). In excluded aneurysms, pressure exposure declined as the length of the follow-up period increased. Conclusion: Type II endoleaks transmit pulsatile pressure of near systemic level and indicate insufficient treatment result. In contrast, complete endovascular exclusion of aneurysms results in significantly reduced pressure exposure.

  7. Emergency Endovascular Treatment of Sac Rupture for Type IIIa Endoleak in Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm Previously Excluded with Endovascular Repair

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Mangini, Monica Bracchi, Elena Recaldini, Chiara; Cocozza, Eugenio; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Pellegrino, Carlo Lagana, Domenico Fugazzola, Carlo

    2010-08-15

    Elective endovascular treatment of thoracic aortic pathology has been applied in a variety of conditions. The complications of thoracic aortic stenting are also well recognized. Endoleak after endovascular repair of thoracic aortic aneurysms is the most frequent complication; among them, type III is the least frequent. Endovascular treatment of type III endoleak is generally performed under elective conditions; less frequently, in emergency. We report a successful emergency endovascular management of post-thoracic endovascular repair for thoracic aortic aneurysm rupture due to type IIIa endoleak.

  8. Violence Prevention in Middle School: A Preliminary Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    KIllam, Wendy K.; Roland, Catherine B.; Weber, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Violence in schools continues reflecting violence within society. There is a growing need for violence prevention programs within the schools that provide students with the skills needed to cope with interpersonal and relationship is-sues effectively. This study was conducted at a middle school and there were 345 middle school students (6th to 8th…

  9. Cancer prevention interdisciplinary education program at Purdue University: overview and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Adedokun, Omolola; Childress, Amy; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella; Nagel, Julie; Knapp, Deborah W; Lelievre, Sophie; Agnew, Christopher R; Shields, Cleveland; Leary, James; Adams, Robin; Jensen, Jakob D

    2011-12-01

    Cancer prevention is a broad field that crosses many disciplines; therefore, educational efforts to enhance cancer prevention research focused on interdisciplinary approaches to the field are greatly needed. In order to hasten progress in cancer prevention research, the Cancer Prevention Internship Program (CPIP) at Purdue University was designed to develop and test an interdisciplinary curriculum for undergraduate and graduate students. The hypothesis was that course curriculum specific to introducing interdisciplinary concepts in cancer prevention would increase student interest in and ability to pursue advanced educational opportunities (e.g., graduate school, medical school). Preliminary results from the evaluation of the first year which included ten undergraduate and five graduate students suggested that participation in CPIP is a positive professional development experience, leading to a significant increase in understanding of interdisciplinary research in cancer prevention. In its first year, the CPIP project has created a successful model for interdisciplinary education in cancer prevention research.

  10. Cancer Prevention Interdisciplinary Education Program at Purdue University: Overview and Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    Teegarden, Dorothy; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Adedokun, Omolola; Childress, Amy; Parker, Loran Carleton; Burgess, Wilella; Nagel, Julie; Knapp, Deborah W.; Lelievre, Sophie; Agnew, Christopher R.; Shields, Cleveland; Leary, James; Adams, Robin; Jensen, Jakob D.

    2012-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a broad field that crosses many disciplines; therefore, educational efforts to enhance cancer prevention research focused on interdisciplinary approaches to the field are greatly needed. In order to hasten progress in cancer prevention research, the Cancer Prevention Internship Program (CPIP) at Purdue University was designed to develop and test an interdisciplinary curriculum for undergraduate and graduate students. The hypothesis was that course curriculum specific to introducing interdisciplinary concepts in cancer prevention would increase student interest in and ability to pursue advanced educational opportunities (e.g., graduate school, medical school). Preliminary results from the evaluation of the first year which included 10 undergraduate and 5 graduate students suggested that participation in CPIP is a positive professional development experience, leading to a significant increase in understanding of interdisciplinary research in cancer prevention. In its first year, the CPIP project has created a successful model for interdisciplinary education in cancer prevention research. PMID:21533583

  11. Examining the Preliminary Efficacy of a Dating Violence Prevention Program for Hispanic Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Guerra, Jessica E.; Cummings, Amanda A.; Pino, Karen; Becerra, Maria M.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of a dating violence (DV) prevention program for Cuban American adolescents ("JOVEN"/YOUTH: "Juntos Opuestos a la Violence Entre Novios"/Together Against Dating Violence). A randomized-controlled experimental design with a delayed condition was used to evaluate…

  12. Transcatheter Embolisation of Proximal Type 1 Endoleaks Following Endovascular Aneurysm Sealing (EVAS) Using the Nellix Device: Technique and Outcomes

    SciTech Connect

    Ameli-Renani, S. Morgan, R. A.

    2015-10-15

    AimTo evaluate the technical success and mid-term outcomes following transcatheter embolisation of type 1a endoleak after Nellix endovascular aneurysm sealing (EVAS).Materials and MethodsSeven patients (5 men; mean age 83; range 79–90) underwent transcatheter embolisation between July 2013 and August 2014. The average time from EVAS to embolisation was 136 days (range 6–301) and from endoleak diagnosis to embolisation was 20 days (range 2–50). Embolisation was performed with coils and Onyx in six cases and Onyx only in one case. Technical success, imaging and clinical outcomes of embolisation were reviewed. Technical success was defined as elimination of the endoleak on completion angiography and first imaging follow-up. Clinical success was defined as unchanged or decreased aneurysm sac size on subsequent follow-up (average 8 months; range 103–471 days).ResultsAll cases were technically successful. One patient required a second endovascular procedure following Onyx reflux into the Nellix endograft and another patient required surgical closure of a brachial puncture site. All patients are endoleak free with stable sac size on the latest available follow-up imaging.ConclusionIf a type 1 endoleak occurs after EVAS, embolisation using Onyx with or without coils is feasible and effective with high technical success and freedom from endoleak recurrence at mid-term follow-up.

  13. Improving the results of transarterial embolization of type 2 endoleaks with the embolic polymer Onyx

    PubMed Central

    Wnuk, Emilia; Maciag, Rafal; Solonynko, Bohdan; Korzeniowski, Krzysztof; Lamparski, Krzysztof; Rowinski, Olgierd

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Type 2 endoleaks (T2E) occur in 10 to 20% of patients after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) and remain a significant clinical issue. Aim To evaluate the efficacy and clinical outcomes of transarterial treatment of persistent type II endoleaks after EVAR using the liquid embolic Onyx. Material and methods From February 2012 to August 2015 transarterial T2E embolization was attempted in 22 patients (21 men, median age: 73, range: 62–88 years). Indications for treatment included an increase in the diameter of the aneurysm sac above 5 mm and a persistent endoleak observed for more than 6 months. Mean time from EVAR to endoleak treatment was 43 months (range: 2–125 months). Results Primary technical success was achieved in 17 (77.3%) patients and secondary technical success in 81.8%, with 0% in-hospital mortality. The mean procedure time was 95 ±48 min, with an average fluoroscopy time of 54 ±25 min. The mean amount of Onyx used was 7.5 ±6.6 ml. Clinical success was seen in 17/21 patients with follow-up imaging (80.9%). Mean follow-up time was 17 months (range: 3–38 months). Conclusions Onyx has been shown to effectively stabilize previous aneurysm growth as a result of the T2E in the majority of our patients. Transarterial embolization of T2E can be significantly improved as compared to previously reported results by using liquid embolic polymers such as Onyx. PMID:28194246

  14. Detection and visualization of endoleaks in CT data for monitoring of thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysm stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, J.; Egger, J.; Wimmer, A.; Großkopf, S.; Freisleben, B.

    2008-03-01

    In this paper we present an efficient algorithm for the segmentation of the inner and outer boundary of thoratic and abdominal aortic aneurysms (TAA & AAA) in computed tomography angiography (CTA) acquisitions. The aneurysm segmentation includes two steps: first, the inner boundary is segmented based on a grey level model with two thresholds; then, an adapted active contour model approach is applied to the more complicated outer boundary segmentation, with its initialization based on the available inner boundary segmentation. An opacity image, which aims at enhancing important features while reducing spurious structures, is calculated from the CTA images and employed to guide the deformation of the model. In addition, the active contour model is extended by a constraint force that prevents intersections of the inner and outer boundary and keeps the outer boundary at a distance, given by the thrombus thickness, to the inner boundary. Based upon the segmentation results, we can measure the aneurysm size at each centerline point on the centerline orthogonal multiplanar reformatting (MPR) plane. Furthermore, a 3D TAA or AAA model is reconstructed from the set of segmented contours, and the presence of endoleaks is detected and highlighted. The implemented method has been evaluated on nine clinical CTA data sets with variations in anatomy and location of the pathology and has shown promising results.

  15. Detection of Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Aortic Repair: Comparison Between Magnetic Resonance Angiography and Blood-Pool Contrast Agent and Dual-Phase Computed Tomography Angiography

    SciTech Connect

    Wieners, Gero; Meyer, Frank; Halloul, Zuhir; Peters, Nils; Ruehl, Ricarda; Dudeck, Oliver; Tautenhahn, Joerg; Ricke, Jens; Pech, Maciej

    2010-12-15

    PurposeThis prospective study was designed to assess the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) with blood-pool contrast agent (gadofosveset) in the detection of type-II endoleak after endovascular aortic repair (EVAR).MethodsThirty-two patients with aortic aneurysms who had undergone EVAR were included in this study. All patients were examined by dual-phase computed tomography angiography (CTA) as well as MRA with gadofosveset in the first-pass and steady-state phases. Two independent readers evaluated the images of CTA and MRA in terms of endoleak type II, feeding vessel, and image quality.ResultsMedian follow-up-time after EVAR was 22 months (range 4 to 59). Endoleak type II was detected by CTA in 12 of 32 patients (37.5%); MRA detected endoleak in all of these patients as well as in another 9 patients (n = 21, 65.6%), of whom the endoleaks in 6 patients showed an increasing diameter. Most endoleaks were detected in the steady-state phase (n = 14). The decrease in diameter of the aneurysmal sac was significantly greater in the patients without a visible endoleak that was visible on MRA (P = 0.004). In the overall estimation of diagnostic accuracy, MRA was judged superior to CTA in 66% of all examinations.ConclusionMRA with gadofosveset appeared superior to CTA, and has higher diagnostic accuracy, in the detection of endoleak after EVAR.

  16. The Burden of Hard Atherosclerotic Plaques Does Not Promote Endoleak Development After Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair: A Risk Stratification

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, Johannes Glodny, Bernhard

    2011-10-15

    Purpose: To objectify the influence of the atherosclerotic burden in the proximal landing zone on the development of endoleaks after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) or thoracic endovascular aneurysm repair (TEVAR) using objective aortic calcium scoring (ACS). Materials and Methods: This retrospective observation study included 267 patients who received an aortic endograft between 1997 and 2010 and for whom preoperative computed tomography (CT) was available to perform ACS using the CT-based V600 method. The mean follow-up period was 2 {+-} 2.3 years. Results: Type I endoleaks persisted in 45 patients (16.9%), type II in 34 (12.7%), type III in 8 (3%), and type IV or V in 3 patients, respectively (1.1% each). ACS in patients with type I endoleaks was not increased: 0.029 {+-} 0.061 ml compared with 0.075 {+-} 0.1349 ml in the rest of the patients, (p > 0.05; Whitney-Mann U-Test). There were significantly better results for the indication 'traumatic aortic rupture' than for the other indications (p < 0.05). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, age was an independent risk factor for the development of type I endoleaks in the thoracic aorta (Wald 9.5; p = 0.002), whereas ACS score was an independent protective factor (Wald 6.9; p = 0.009). In the abdominal aorta, neither age nor ACS influenced the development of endoleaks. Conclusion: Contrary to previous assumptions, TEVAR and EVAR can be carried out without increasing the risk of an endoleak of any type, even if there is a high atherosclerotic 'hard-plaque' burden of the aorta. The results are significantly better for traumatic aortic.

  17. Proximal aortic stent-graft displacement with type I endoleak due to Heimlich maneuver.

    PubMed

    Lin, Peter H; Bush, Ruth L; Lumsden, Alan B

    2003-08-01

    The Heimlich maneuver has saved countless lives by relieving foreign body obstruction from the respiratory tract. Complications related to this life-saving technique, particularly involving the abdominal aorta, are extremely rare. We report the case of a patient who underwent successful endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) repair, with AAA reduction at postoperative surveillance. Endograft displacement after performance of the Heimlich maneuver resulted in a proximal type I endoleak. This case underscores both the potential for aortic trauma from the Heimlich maneuver and the risk for clinical failure as a result of abdominal compression after successful endovascular AAA repair.

  18. Repair of type I endoleak by chimney technique after endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Na Hee; Kim, Woo Chul; Cho, Soon Gu; Hong, Kee Chun

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular aneurysm repair is a minimally invasive, durable and effective alternative to open surgery for treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA). However, in patients who do not have an adequate sealing zone, open surgical repair is required, which may increase mortality and morbidity. An alternative treatment in patients with challenging anatomy is the so-called "chimney graft" technique. Here, we describe a case using the chimney graft technique for treatment of juxtarenal type I endoleak followed by a previous conventional stent graft insertion to the AAA with good results. PMID:24851230

  19. Color duplex ultrasound and contrast-enhanced ultrasound in comparison to MS-CT in the detection of endoleak following endovascular aneurysm repair.

    PubMed

    Clevert, D-A; Minaifar, N; Weckbach, S; Kopp, R; Meimarakis, G; Clevert, D-A; Reiser, M

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare Color Duplex Ultrasound (CDU), Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound (CEUS) and Multislice Computed Tomography (MS-CT) angiography in the routine follow up of patients following Endovascular Repair (EVAR) of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm (AAA).43 consecutive patients with AAA underwent endovascular aneurysm repair and were imaged with CDU, CEUS and MS-CT angiography at regular intervals after the procedure. Each imaging modality was evaluated for the detection of endoleaks. The presence of endoleaks was analyzed and the conspicuity of findings was assessed.CTA was used as gold standard in determining the presence of endoleaks. CDU was true positive for endoleaks in 5/43 patients (11.6%) and false positive for endoleaks in 2/43 patients (4.6%). The sensitivity of CDU was therefore 33.3% and its specificity 92.8%; the positive and negative predictive values were 0.71 and 0.72, respectively. CEUS was true positive for the detection of endoleaks in 15/43 patients (34.9%) and false positive in 2/43 patients (4.6%). The sensitivity of CEUS was therefore 100% and its specificity 93%; the positive and negative predictive values were 0.88 and 1. In the follow up the two false positive endoleaks in CEUS were confirmed as true positive endoleaks by CEUS and MS-CT. In our small patient group, contrast-enhanced ultrasound seemed to be more accurately in demonstrating endoleaks after EVAR than MS-CT angiography and may be considered as a primary surveillance modality whereas duplex ultrasound scanning alone is not as sensitive as CEUS and MS-CT angiography in detection of endoleaks. Especially in patients with contraindications for CT contrast agents (e.g. due to renal failure or severe allergy) CEUS provides a good alternative to MS-CT.

  20. HIV/AIDS Prevention in Zambia: A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    PREVENTION IN ZAMBIA: A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF OBSTACLES TO BEHAVIOR CHANGE IN THE COPPERBELT by Jana Ramona Alley Nyerges June 2006 Thesis Co...A Preliminary Study of Obstacles to Behavior Change in the Copperbelt 6. AUTHOR(S) Jana Ramona Alley Nyerges 5. FUNDING NUMBERS 7. PERFORMING... Copperbelt region in Zambia, finding significant evidence that both social and economic factors operate as fundamental obstacles to behavior change

  1. The Preventing Relational Aggression in Schools Everyday Program: A Preliminary Evaluation of Acceptability and Impact

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Stephen S.; Waasdorp, Tracy Evian; Paskewich, Brooke; Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Jawad, Abbas F.; MacEvoy, Julie Paquette; Feinberg, Betsy E.; Power, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    Despite recent research suggesting that relationally aggressive behaviors occur frequently and may lead to physically aggressive actions within urban school settings, there has been little prior research to develop and evaluate relational aggression prevention efforts within the urban schools. The current article describes the development and preliminary evaluation of the Preventing Relational Aggression in Schools Everyday (PRAISE) Program. PRAISE is a 20-session classroom-based universal prevention program, designed to be appropriate and responsive to the needs of youth within the urban school context. Results suggest strong acceptability for the program and feasibility of implementation. Further, the program was especially beneficial for girls. For instance, girls in classrooms randomly assigned to the PRAISE Program demonstrated higher levels of knowledge for social information processing and anger management techniques and lower levels of relational aggression following treatment as compared to similar girls randomly assigned to a no-treatment control condition. Further, relationally aggressive girls exhibited similar benefits from the program (greater knowledge and lower levels of relational aggression) plus lower levels of overt aggression following treatment as compared to relationally aggressive girls within the control classrooms. In contrast, the program was not associated with improvements for boys across most measures. The significance and implications of the findings for research and practice are discussed. PMID:21686034

  2. Prevention of post-rape psychopathology: preliminary findings of a controlled acute rape treatment study.

    PubMed

    Resnick, H; Acierno, R; Holmes, M; Kilpatrick, D G; Jager, N

    1999-01-01

    Violent sexual assault such as rape typically results in extremely high levels of acute distress. The intensity of these acute psychological reactions may play a role in later recovery, with higher levels of immediate distress associated with poorer outcome. Unfortunately, post-rape forensic evidence collection procedures may serve to increase, rather than reduce initial distress, potentially exacerbating future psychopathology. To address these concerns, an acute time-frame hospital-based video intervention was developed to: (a) minimize anxiety during forensic rape exams, and (b) prevent post-rape posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), panic, and anxiety. Preliminary data indicated that (1) psychological distress at the time of the exam was strongly related to PTSD symptomatology 6 weeks post-rape, and (2) the video intervention successfully reduced distress during forensic exams.

  3. Rescue Therapy of Inadvertent Coil Migration for Endovascular Treatment of Type II Endoleak

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kanghaeng; Park, Hyung Sub; Lee, Taeseung

    2016-01-01

    Coil migration during endovascular procedures is not an unusual complication, but there is no standard management strategy for bailout. Here, we describe a technique for removal of a migrated coil using a snare. During embolization of type II endoleak from the inferior mesenteric artery in a post-endovascular aneurysm repair patient, the coil migrated to the sigmoidal artery causing an occlusion. We used a microsnare loop and successfully retrieved the migrated coil. This is the first case in Korea that uses a loop snare for the removal of a migrated coil during visceral endovascular treatment to our knowledge. This technique of using a microsnare for removal of displaced coils can be a good resort in selected cases. PMID:27051657

  4. Preliminary efficacy of a computer-delivered HIV prevention intervention for African American teenage females.

    PubMed

    Klein, Charles H; Card, Josefina J

    2011-12-01

    This study translated SiHLE (Sisters Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering), a 12-hour Centers for Disease Control and Prevention evidence-based group-level intervention for African American females 14-18 years of age, into a 2-hour computer-delivered individual-level intervention. A randomized controlled trial (n = 178) was conducted to examine the efficacy of the new Multimedia SiHLE intervention. Average condom-protected sex acts (proportion of vaginal sex acts with condoms, last 90 days) for sexually active participants receiving Multimedia SiHLE rose from M = 51% at baseline to M = 71% at 3-month follow-up (t = 2.06, p = .05); no statistically significant difference was found in the control group. Non-sexually active intervention group participants reported a significant increase in condom self-efficacy (t = 2.36, p = .02); no statistically significant difference was found in the control group. The study provides preliminary support for the efficacy of a computer-delivered adaptation of a proven HIV prevention program for African American teenage women. This is consistent with meta-analyses that have shown that computer-delivered interventions, which can often be disseminated at lower per-capita cost than human-delivered interventions, can influence HIV risk behaviors in positive fashion.

  5. PRELIMINARY REPORT CONFERENCE ON SCHOOL PROGRAMS FOR JUVENILE DELINQUENCY PREVENTION AND CONTROL, WASHINGTON, OCTOBER 30-31, 1963.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1963

    AFTER PRELIMINARY COMMENTS BY THE SECRETARY OF HEALTH, EDUCATION, AND WELFARE AND THE COMMISSIONER OF EDUCATION, THE FIRST WORKING SESSION FOCUSED ON TWO TYPES OF SCHOOL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMS. PREVENTION WAS EMPHASIZED IN ALL DETROIT PROJECTS, SUCH AS PRESCHOOL, SCHOOL-HOME INVOLVEMENT, READING INSTRUCTION, CURRICULAR MODIFICATION, CULTURAL…

  6. Preliminary Results of a Comprehensive Approach to Prevent Antisocial Behaviour in Preschool and Primary School Pupils in Luxembourg

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petermann, Franz; Natzke, Heike

    2008-01-01

    This pilot study evaluated the preliminary short- and middle-term impact of a nation-wide, school-based prevention initiative on antisocial behaviour of preschool and primary school pupils in Luxembourg. Seventeen preschool and reception classes (n = 183) were assigned to intervention and comparison conditions. The intervention included…

  7. Preliminary Testing of a Program to Prevent Type 2 Diabetes among High-Risk Youth.(research Papers)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grey, Margaret; Berry, Diane; Davidson, Maryanne; Galasso, Pam; Gustafson, Elaine; Melkus, Gail

    2004-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes is increasing among youth, with minority youth at highest risk. This preliminary study tested the feasibility of a school-based program to prevent type 2 diabetes in youth at risk. Forty-one participants (age 12.6 [+ or -] 1.1 years; 63% female, 51% African American, 44% Hispanic, and 5% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to one of…

  8. Development of a monitoring platform for slope instability and sliding prevention : preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drakatos, G.; Paradissis, D.; Anastasiou, D.; Elias, P.; Marinou, A.; Chousianitis, K.; Papanikolaou, X.; Zacharis, V.; Argyrakis, P.; Papazisi, K.; Makropoulos, K.

    2012-04-01

    Land sliding, as a consequence of slope instability, constitutes a natural catastrophe resulting mainly from geological cause often followed by disastrous impact on both the natural and man-made environment. The reasons causing land slides can vary from purely geological factors, to other relevant or not natural catastrophes, urban or residential expansion, tourist growth in areas under inappropriate geological background, or even a combination of the aforementioned causes The respective consequences, also span a wide range of negative impacts, both for the man-made (e.g. destruction of transportation infrastructure, constructions and urban or sub-urban areas) and the natural environment. Unfortunately, prevention of land slides is still largely ineffective adding to an inefficient and inadequate addressing of the problem, mainly due to the lack of systematic monitoring of such regions and due to the fact that "treatment" overwhelms "prevention". Recent developments in Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), Satellite Geodesy and satellite differential interferometry (DinSAR), have established these fields as fully equipped, from a scientific and engineering perspective, to act --either as autonomous techniques or in conjunction-- as prevention and/or early warning systems. Such state-of-the-art technology was implemented, in a project undertaken by the Institute of Geodynamics Dionysos Satellite Observatory/Higher Geodesy Laboratory and the Institute for Space Applications and Remote Sensing, in order to evaluate the potential of monitoring slide stability and the assessment of hazard evaluation. Therefore, for the first time in Greece, an attempt was made to develop a monitoring platform for slope instability and sliding prevention at two of the most hazardous, regarding soil instabilities, regions of Peloponnese, namely Sellas and Chalkio (in Messinia and Korinthia respectively). GPS campaigns were carried through, cGPS stations were installed and a network

  9. Examining the Preliminary Efficacy of a Dating Violence Prevention Program for Hispanic Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Guerra, Jessica E.; Cummings, Amanda A.; Pino, Karen; Becerra, Maria M.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of a dating violence (DV) prevention program for Cuban American adolescents (JOVEN/YOUTH: Juntos Opuestos a la Violence Entre Novios/Together Against Dating Violence). A randomized-controlled experimental design with a delayed condition was used to evaluate the effects on DV victimization and perpetration (N = 82). Self-administrated assessments were completed at baseline, 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months after the intervention to assess for psychological victimization and perpetration and physical and sexual victimization and perpetration. Effect sizes were estimated, and generalized estimating equations were generated to test intervention effects over time and potential gender interactions. The intervention had medium to strong effects on DV victimization and perpetration for male participants but not for females. However, intervention effects were not statistically significant over time. More research is needed to enhance intervention effects of JOVEN on DV outcomes and to evaluate these effects among a larger and more diverse sample. PMID:26260135

  10. Examining the Preliminary Efficacy of a Dating Violence Prevention Program for Hispanic Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Guarda, Rosa Maria; Guerra, Jessica E; Cummings, Amanda A; Pino, Karen; Becerra, Maria M

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the preliminary efficacy of a dating violence (DV) prevention program for Cuban American adolescents (JOVEN/YOUTH: Juntos Opuestos a la Violence Entre Novios/Together Against Dating Violence). A randomized-controlled experimental design with a delayed condition was used to evaluate the effects on DV victimization and perpetration (N = 82). Self-administrated assessments were completed at baseline, 1 week, 3 months, and 12 months after the intervention to assess for psychological victimization and perpetration and physical and sexual victimization and perpetration. Effect sizes were estimated, and generalized estimating equations were generated to test intervention effects over time and potential gender interactions. The intervention had medium to strong effects on DV victimization and perpetration for male participants but not for females. However, intervention effects were not statistically significant over time. More research is needed to enhance intervention effects of JOVEN on DV outcomes and to evaluate these effects among a larger and more diverse sample.

  11. [The use of the dacron net in the externa tightening of the endoleak type I, after the stengraft implantation in the abdominal aorta aneurysm].

    PubMed

    Janczak, Dariusz; Pupka, Artur; Garcarek, Jerzy; Skóra, Jan; Szyber, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    Implantation of the vascular prosthesis below renal artery when the neck of the aneurysm is short, carries the risk of the appearance of the endoleak type I. At such patients one ought to make allowance for with the necessity of the single-stage or two-stage-supply of the endoleak with banding method that is to say with the tightening of the neck of the aneurysm on the stentgraft with the open method. This method consisting in to the compression of the neck of the aneurysm on stentgraft at the use of ribbons or the wide belt from the dacron net. In this paper one represented 3 patients operated with banding method. In the face the massive endoleak type I and the threat of the ruptum of the aneurysm one decided on the realization of the surgical correction with the open method with banding.

  12. Can Early Computed Tomography Angiography after Endovascular Aortic Aneurysm Repair Predict the Need for Reintervention in Patients with Type II Endoleak?

    SciTech Connect

    Dudeck, O.; Schnapauff, D.; Herzog, L.; Löwenthal, D.; Bulla, K.; Bulla, B.; Halloul, Z.; Meyer, F.; Pech, M.; Gebauer, B.; Ricke, J.

    2015-02-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to identify parameters on CT angiography (CTA) of type II endoleaks following endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) for abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), which can be used to predict the subsequent need for reinterventions.MethodsWe retrospectively identified 62 patients with type II endoleak who underwent early CTA in mean 3.7 ± 1.9 days after EVAR. On the basis of follow-up examinations (mean follow-up period 911 days; range, 373–1,987 days), patients were stratified into two groups: those who did (n = 18) and those who did not (n = 44) require reintervention. CTA characteristics, such as AAA, endoleak, as well as nidus dimensions, patency of the inferior mesenteric artery, number of aortic branch vessels, and the pattern of endoleak appearance, were recorded and correlated with the clinical outcome.ResultsUnivariate and receiver operating characteristic curve regression analyses revealed significant differences between the two groups for the endoleak volume (surveillance group: 1391.6 ± 1427.9 mm{sup 3}; reintervention group: 3227.7 ± 2693.8 mm{sup 3}; cutoff value of 2,386 mm{sup 3}; p = 0.002), the endoleak diameter (13.6 ± 4.3 mm compared with 25.9 ± 9.6 mm; cutoff value of 19 mm; p < 0.0001), the number of aortic branch vessels (2.9 ± 1.2 compared with 4.2 ± 1.4 vessels; p = 0.001), as well as a “complex type” endoleak pattern (13.6 %, n = 6 compared with 44.4 %, n = 8; p = 0.02).ConclusionsEarly CTA can predict the future need for reintervention in patients with type II endoleak. Therefore, treatment decision should be based not only on aneurysm enlargement alone but also on other imaging characteristics.

  13. 78 FR 50014 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... request for comments about thefts of model year (MY) 2011 passenger motor vehicles that occurred in..., 2013 publication, the vehicle theft rate for CY/MY 2011 vehicles was erroneously reported to be...

  14. 78 FR 41016 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2011, including theft rates for existing passenger motor vehicle lines manufactured in model year (MY) 2011....

  15. 77 FR 38024 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in ] calendar year (CY) 2010 including theft rates for existing passenger motor vehicle lines manufactured in model year (MY) 2010....

  16. 75 FR 50733 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-17

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2008 including theft rates for existing passenger motor vehicle lines manufactured in model year (MY) 2008....

  17. 76 FR 36486 - Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft Prevention Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration 49 CFR Part 541 Preliminary Theft Data; Motor Vehicle Theft... requests comments on data about passenger motor vehicle thefts that occurred in calendar year (CY) 2009 including theft rates for existing passenger motor vehicle lines manufactured in model year (MY) 2009....

  18. Embolisation of a Proximal Type I Endoleak Post-Nellix Aortic Aneurysm Repair Complicated by Reflux of Onyx into the Nellix Endograft Limb

    SciTech Connect

    Ameli-Renani, S. Das, R. Weller, A. Chung, R. Morgan, R. A.

    2015-06-15

    We report the first case of intervention for a proximal type 1 endoleak following Nellix endovascular aneurysm sealing repair of an aortic aneurysm. This was complicated by migration of Onyx into one of the Nellix graft limbs causing significant stenosis. Subsequent placement of a covered stent to affix the Onyx between the stent and the wall of the Nellix endograft successfully restored stent patency.

  19. The Assessment of Parent-Led Prevention Programs: A Preliminary Assessment of Impact.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klitzner, Michael; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Examined impact of parent-led prevention groups on youthful drug and alcohol use and assessed extent to which families involved with parent-led prevention programs reported improved family relations and increased parental control of children's social activities in 10 communities. Results suggest parent groups did have impact on family relations…

  20. Development and preliminary evaluation of a behavioural HIV-prevention programme for teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Tatiana M; Lopez, Cristina M; Saulson, Raelle; Borkman, April L; Soltis, Kathryn; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; de Arellano, Michael; Wingood, Gina M; Diclemente, Ralph J; Danielson, Carla Kmett

    2014-01-01

    National data suggests that teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA are disproportionately affected by HIV, with the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reporting the rate of new infections being approximately four times higher compared to White women of comparable age . This paper highlights the need for an effective single-sex HIV-prevention programme for teenage girls of Latino descent and describes the development and preliminary evaluation of Chicas Healing, Informing, Living and Empowering (CHILE), a culturally-tailored, HIV-prevention programme exclusively for teenage girls of Latino descent that was adapted from Sisters Informing, Healing, Living and Empowering (SiHLE), an evidence-based HIV- prevention program that is culturally tailored for African American young women. Theatre testing, a pre-testing methodology to assess consumer response to a demonstration of a product, was utilised to evaluate the relevance and utility of the HIV programme as well as opportunities for the integration of cultural constructs. Future directions for the evaluation of CHILE are discussed.

  1. Development and preliminary evaluation of a behavioural HIV prevention program for teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Tatiana M.; Lopez, Cristina M.; Saulson, Raelle; Borkman, April L.; Soltis, Kathryn; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.; de Arellano, Michael; Wingood, Gina M.; DiClemente, Ralph J.; Danielson, Carla Kmett

    2014-01-01

    National data suggests that teenage girls of Latino descent in the USA are disproportionately affected by HIV with the rate of new infections being approximately 4 times higher compared to White women of comparable age (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2013). This paper highlights the need for an effective single-sex HIV prevention program for teenage girls of Latino descent and describes the development and preliminary evaluation of Chicas Healing, Informing, Living and Empowering (CHILE), a culturally-tailored, HIV prevention programme exclusively for teenage girls of Latino descent that was adapted from Sisters Informing, Healing, Living, and Empowering (SiHLE), an evidence-based HIV prevention program that is culturally tailored for African American young women. Theatre testing, a pre-testing methodology to assess consumer response to a demonstration of a product, was utilised to evaluate the relevance and utility of the HIV program as well as opportunities for the integration of cultural constructs. Future directions for the evaluation of CHILE are discussed. PMID:24697607

  2. Dengue prevention at the household level: preliminary evaluation of a mesh cover for flowerpot saucers.

    PubMed

    Schall, Virgínia Torres; Barros, Héliton da Silva; Jardim, João Bosco; Secundino, Nágila Francinete Costa; Pimenta, Paulo Filemon Paolucci

    2009-10-01

    The effectiveness of a polyester mesh cover (evidengue), aimed at preventing the access of female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes to flowerpot saucers, was evaluated in laboratory. Two saucers of flowerpot with water were individually wrapped with the cover was placed with their respective pots in two entomological cages. One identical set of flowerpot and saucer was placed in a third cage. In each cage, 20 gravid females, fed on mouse blood, were released. Results show that the cover was effective to prevent access of females. Further tests are necessary to assess cover effectiveness as a device to prevent saucer oviposition.

  3. Preliminary examination of a couple-based eating disorder prevention program.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Ana L; Perez, Marisol; Taylor, Aaron

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the current study was to investigate a new dissonance-based prevention program that is based on the dual pathway model of eating disorders within the context of an individual's romantic relationship. A total of 209 dating couples participated in a couple-based prevention program or an assessment-only condition and completed measures of body dissatisfaction, thin-ideal internalization, disordered eating, negative affect, and relationship satisfaction at two time points (approximately one week apart) and approximately half of the sample completed 1-month follow-up measures. The prevention program significantly reduced several key risk factors for eating disorders such as environmental pressures to be thin, internalization of the thin and athletic ideals, state body dissatisfaction, and actual-ideal body discrepancy. Initial support was found for the inclusion of couples in eating disorder prevention programs as a successful way of addressing the thin ideal and its detrimental effects for women.

  4. The Feasibility, Acceptability, and Preliminary Effectiveness of a Promotora-Led Diabetes Prevention Program (PL-DPP) in Latinas

    PubMed Central

    O’Brien, Matthew J.; Perez, Alberly; Alos, Victor A.; Whitaker, Robert C.; Ciolino, Jody D.; Mohr, David C.; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this pilot study is to test the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of a Promotora-Led Diabetes Prevention Program (PL-DPP) in Hispanic women (Latinas). Methods Twenty Latina adults with prediabetes were enrolled in this single-arm pilot trial of PL-DPP. Participants underwent a year-long lifestyle intervention consisting of 24 sessions divided into 14 weekly core sessions and 10 post-core sessions offered either biweekly or monthly. Each session was led by a promotora in Spanish. The primary outcome was weight change over the 12-month study period. Results The study participants were socioeconomically challenged, middle-aged Latinas with limited access to health care. Eighteen participants (90%) completed at least 12 sessions, and 1 was lost to follow-up. Overall, participants reported high levels of satisfaction with PL-DPP. At 12 months, the participants achieved a mean weight loss of 10.8 pounds, which corresponded to 5.6% of initial body weight. Significant pre-post reductions in waist circumference, diastolic blood pressure, LDL cholesterol, and insulin levels were also observed. Modest reductions in A1C and fasting plasma glucose were not significant. Conclusions The PL-DPP demonstrated feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness in a high-risk population of Latinas. Future research examining this intervention in a randomized clinical trial should explore factors impacting its effects using both qualitative and quantitative methods. PMID:26023095

  5. Parent-based prevention program for the children of mothers with eating disorders: Feasibility and preliminary outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sadeh-Sharvit, Shiri; Zubery, Eynat; Mankovski, Esty; Steiner, Evelyne; Lock, James D

    2016-01-01

    The children of mothers with eating disorders are at high risk of feeding and eating problems and broader developmental difficulties. The Parent-Based Prevention (PBP) of eating disorders targets risk factors and facilitates behavioral change in parents to mitigate potentially negative outcomes of their children. This pre/post uncontrolled study evaluated the feasibility and preliminary outcomes of PBP. PBP was found to be a feasible intervention for mothers with eating disorders and their spouses, with satisfactory retention rates. A total of 16 intact families were assessed at three measurement points for parents' feeding practices, child outcomes, and maternal functioning. Both parents reported improved feeding practices as well as more positive perceptions of their children in comparison to baseline. These pilot findings suggest that PBP is linked with decreased risk of eating and mental problems among the offspring of mothers with eating disorders.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of the "Playing the Game" Sexual Assault Prevention Theatre Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thatcher, W. Gregory

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the effectiveness of a one-time sexual assault prevention theatre performance against a similar content video performance and a non-intervention control group. Methods: Using the College Date Rape Attitudes and Behaviors Survey, four-hundred ninety-seven students provided matched pairs data for analysis. Results: At a…

  7. [Infection of the vascular prosthesis. The diagnostic, preventive and treatment protocols: preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Battisti, G; Chiarini, F; Marigliani, M; Pulcini, A; Mansi, A; Manno, A; Stio, F; Giacomelli, L

    1993-03-01

    A number of strategies for the management of vascular graft infections are described in literature. Nevertheless, this serious compliance is still burdened with high rates of morbidity and mortality. At the present the principal efforts are therefore directed towards prevention and early diagnosis. In this view, the authors propose their protocol of study, on the basis of the encouraging results till now obtained.

  8. Review of Interventions in the Field of Prevention of Adolescent Pregnancy. Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dryfoos, Joy G.

    This report presents an overview of programs that may have a potential for prevention of teenage pregnancy. The report starts with a summary of expert opinions on the dimensions of and solutions to the problem and then describes several relatively successful programs. Following this is an overview of interventions with an analysis of program…

  9. A Smart Web Aid for Preventing Diabetes in Rural China: Preliminary Findings and Lessons

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jing; Li, Kaichun; Xie, Shaoyu; Liang, Han; Shen, Xingrong; Feng, Rui

    2014-01-01

    Background Increasing cases of diabetes, a general lack of routinely operational prevention, and a long history of separating disease prevention and treatment call for immediate engagement of frontier clinicians. This applies especially to village doctors who work in rural China where the majority of the nation’s vast population lives. Objective This study aims to develop and test an online Smart Web Aid for Preventing Type 2 Diabetes (SWAP-DM2) capable of addressing major barriers to applying proven interventions and integrating diabetes prevention into routine medical care. Methods Development of SWAP-DM2 used evolutionary prototyping. The design of the initial system was followed by refinement cycles featuring dynamic interaction between development of practical and effective standardized operation procedures (SOPs) for diabetes prevention and Web-based assistance for implementing the SOPs. The resulting SOPs incorporated proven diabetes prevention practices in a synergetic way. SWAP-DM2 provided support to village doctors ranging from simple educational webpages and record maintenance to relatively sophisticated risk scoring and personalized counseling. Evaluation of SWAP-DM2 used data collected at baseline and 6-month follow-up assessment: (1) audio recordings of service encounters; (2) structured exit surveys of patients’ knowledge, self-efficacy, and satisfaction; (3) measurement of fasting glucose, body mass index, and blood pressure; and (4) qualitative interviews with doctors and patients. Data analysis included (1) descriptive statistics of patients who received SWAP-DM2–assisted prevention and those newly diagnosed with prediabetes and diabetes; (2) comparison of the variables assessed between baseline and follow-up assessment; and (3) narratives of qualitative data. Results The 17 participating village doctors identified 2219 patients with elevated diabetes risk. Of these, 84.85% (1885/2219) consented to a fasting glucose test with 1022 new

  10. Acceptability and Preliminary Outcomes of a Peer-Led Depression Prevention Intervention for African American Adolescents and Young Adults in Employment Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tandon, Darius; Mendelson, Tamar; Mance, GiShawn

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the acceptability and preliminary outcomes from an open trial of a depression prevention intervention for low-income African American adolescents and young adults in employment training programs. The sample (N=42) consisted of predominately African American adolescents and young adults (mean age=19.1) exhibiting subclinical…

  11. Predeployed aortic extension cuff (kilt) in EVAR with hostile neck anatomy using Endurant II system: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Biernacka, Magdalena; Walas, Ryszard L.; Zembala, Marian

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Various modifications of standard endovascular aortic aneurysm repair (EVAR) have been developed to solve the problem of difficult neck anatomy. Aim The authors propose the implantation of a predeployed extension cuff (kilt) using on-shelf Endurant II elements. In a vast majority of cases, the proposed method provides a solution for the hostile neck problem using standard Endurant II elements available in all centers performing subrenal EVAR procedures. Material and methods The early outcomes of kilt implantation were evaluated in 11 patients (three with ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms, one symptomatic) in 2 vascular centers in Silesia (Poland). All patients presented with hostile neck anatomy defined as neck length < 10 mm, diameter > 28 mm, angulation > 60°, mural thrombus or calcium > 2 mm in thickness or > 180° circumference. Results No intraoperative type I endoleak or device migration was observed. Two perioperative deaths occurred in patients in a severe condition with ruptured aneurysms. One case of type III endoleak was managed by the implantation of an additional iliac extension with complete endoleak sealing. Conclusions The proposed method seems to be effective in early endoleak prevention in patients with hostile neck anatomy undergoing EVAR procedures; however, studies with long-term follow-up are needed. PMID:28096831

  12. Preliminary burn and impact tests of hybrid polymeric composites. [preventing graphite fiber release

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, S. S.; Brewer, W. D.

    1978-01-01

    Free graphite fibers released into the environment from resin matrix composite components, as a result of fire and/or explosion, pose a potential hazard to electrical equipment. An approach to prevent the fibers from becoming airborne is to use hybrid composite materials which retain the fibers at the burn site. Test results are presented for three hybrid composites that were exposed to a simulation of an aircraft fire and explosion. The hybrid systems consisted of 16 plies of graphite-epoxy with two plies of Kevlar-, S-glass-, or boron-epoxy on each face. Two different test environments were used. In one environment, specimens were heated by convection only, and then impacted by a falling mass. In the other environment, specimens were heated by convection and by radiation, but were not impacted. The convective heat flux was about 100-120 kW/m in both environments and the radiative flux was about 110 kW/sq m.

  13. Internet based HIV prevention research targeting rural MSM: feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy.

    PubMed

    Bowen, A M; Williams, M L; Daniel, C M; Clayton, S

    2008-12-01

    Internet delivered primary prevention interventions for HIV risk reduction present significant challenges. Changing lifestyle behaviors, such as beginning to use condoms, is difficult and men seeking dates on line may want to avoid thinking about HIV risk which may lead to low initiation and high dropout rates. Many Internet delivered HIV risk reduction programs have mimicked face-to-face outreach programs, failing to take advantage of the Internet's capabilities or did not conduct evaluation. This study focuses on examining the feasibility, acceptability, and efficacy of an Internet delivered HIV risk reduction program for rural men who have sex with men (MSM). The program included online recruiting, three intervention modules, each with two sessions, online questionnaires. The intervention was developed based on iterative research and the Information-Motivation-Behavioral skills model. Participants (N = 475) were randomly assigned to one of six module orders and data were collected automatically at pre-test and after each module. Data supports the feasibility and acceptability of the program as demonstrated by good retention and rapid program completion. Knowledge, self-efficacy, outcome expectancies and motivation increase in a dose response fashion. Post-intervention behavior changes included reduced anal sex and significant increases in condom use. Limitations include a short follow-up period, a predominantly young white rural sample, and the lack of an attention control. Overall the results of the study provide support for the efficacy of Internet-based interventions to reduce risk of HIV infection. Results also support traditional research methods to evaluate HIV prevention programs delivered exclusively through the Internet.

  14. Perspectives in Genetics and Sickle Cell Disease Prevention in Africa: Beyond the Preliminary Data from Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Wonkam, Ambroise; Ngo Bitoungui, Valentina Josiane; Ngogang, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    Management of sickle cell disease (SCD) in Africa needs to be accompanied by various preventive strategies, including early detection via prenatal genetic diagnosis (PND). Contrary to Cameroonian doctors who considered termination of an affected pregnancy (TAP) for SCD in 36.1%, the majority of parents (62.5%) with affected children accepted TAP in principle. In practice, most women opted for TAP (90%), justified by a huge psycho-social burden. The ethical and legal challenges of PND prompted the need to explore the use of genetics for secondary prevention of SCD. In 610 Cameroonian SCD patients, the genomic variations in two principal foetal haemoglobin-promoting loci were significantly associated with foetal haemoglobin levels. In addition, the co-inheritance of a 3.7-kb α-globin gene deletion and SCD was associated with a late disease onset and possibly improved survival: there was a much higher allele frequency of the 3.7-kb α-globin gene deletion in SCD patients (∼ 40%) than in haemoglobin AA controls (∼ 10%). The data indicate the urgent need to develop and implement policy actions in sub-Saharan Africa on at least four levels: (1) the implementation of SCD screening practices and early neonatal follow-up; (2) the development and incorporating of socio-economic support to alleviate the burden of SCD on affected families; (3) the exploration of the appropriateness of the medical abortion laws for SCD, and (4) the development of national plans for genetic medicine, including research on genomic variants that affect the phenotypes of SCD, in order to potentially use them for anticipatory guidance.

  15. Mixed Production of Filamentous Fungal Spores for Preventing Soil-Transmitted Helminth Zoonoses: A Preliminary Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Arias, M. S.; Cazapal-Monteiro, C. F.; Suárez, J.; Miguélez, S.; Francisco, I.; Arroyo, F. L.; Suárez, J. L.; Paz-Silva, A.; Sánchez-Andrade, R.; Mendoza de Gives, P.

    2013-01-01

    Helminth zoonoses are parasitic infections shared by humans and animals, being the soil-transmitted helminths (STHs) mainly caused by roundworms (ascarids) and hookworms. This study was aimed to assess the individual and/or mixed production of two helminth-antagonistic fungi, one ovicide (Mucor circinelloides) and other predator (Duddingtonia flagrans). Fungi were grown both in Petri plates and in a submerged culture (composed by water, NaCl, Na2HPO4· 12 H2O, and wheat (Triticum aestivum)). A Fasciola hepatica recombinant protein (FhrAPS) was incorporated to the cultures to improve fungal production. All the cultured plates showed fungal growth, without difference in the development of the fungi when grown alone or mixed. High counts of Mucor spores were produced in liquid media cultures, and no significant differences were achieved regarding single or mixed cultures, or the incorporation of the FhrAPS. A significantly higher production of Duddingtonia spores after the incorporation of the FhrAPS was observed. When analyzing the parasiticide efficacy of the fungal mixture, viability of T. canis eggs reduced to 51%, and the numbers of third stage cyathostomin larvae reduced to 4%. It is concluded, the capability of a fungal mixture containing an ovicide (Mucor) and a predator species (Duddingtonia) for growing together in a submerged medium containing the FhrAPS offers a very interesting tool for preventing STHs. PMID:23710451

  16. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z Prevention Basic Facts & Information Some factors that affect your ... control of the things that you can change. Preventive Recommendations for Adults Aged 65 and Older The ...

  17. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Strong Error processing SSI file About Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Heart disease and stroke are an epidemic in ... to avoid secondhand smoke. Barriers to Effective Heart Disease & Stroke Prevention Many people with key risk factors for heart ...

  18. Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ban For Clinicians Clinical Recognition Specimen Collection Treatment Smallpox Vaccine Guidance Infection Control: Hospital Infection Control: Home ... Mouth Infection) Poxvirus and Rabies Branch Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Prevention Recommend on ...

  19. Scaling-up from an implementation trial to state-wide coverage: results from the preliminary Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The successful Greater Green Triangle Diabetes Prevention Program (GGT DPP), a small implementation trial, has been scaled-up to the Victorian state-wide ‘Life!’ programme with over 10,000 individuals enrolled. The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study (MDPS) is an evaluation of the translation from the GGT DPP to the Life! programme. We report results from the preliminary phase (pMDPS) of this evaluation. Methods The pMDPS is a randomised controlled trial with 92 individuals aged 50 to 75 at high risk of developing type 2 diabetes randomised to Life! or usual care. Intervention consisted of six structured 90-minute group sessions: five fortnightly sessions and the final session at 8 months. Participants underwent anthropometric and laboratory tests at baseline and 12 months, and provided self-reported psychosocial, dietary, and physical activity measures. Intervention group participants additionally underwent these tests at 3 months. Paired t tests were used to analyse within-group changes over time. Chi-square tests were used to analyse differences between groups in goals met at 12 months. Differences between groups for changes over time were tested with generalised estimating equations and analysis of covariance. Results Intervention participants significantly improved at 12 months in mean body mass index (−0.98 kg/m2, standard error (SE) = 0.26), weight (−2.65 kg, SE = 0.72), waist circumference (−7.45 cm, SE = 1.15), and systolic blood pressure (−3.18 mmHg, SE = 1.26), increased high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (0.07 mmol/l, SE = 0.03), reduced energy from total (−2.00%, SE = 0.78) and saturated fat (−1.54%, SE = 0.41), and increased fibre intake (1.98 g/1,000 kcal energy, SE = 0.47). In controls, oral glucose at 2 hours deteriorated (0.59 mmol/l, SE = 0.27). Only waist circumference reduced significantly (−4.02 cm, SE = 0.95). Intervention participants significantly outperformed controls

  20. Embolization by Direct Puncture with a Transpedicular Approach Using an Isocenter Puncture (ISOP) Method in a Patient with a Type II Endoleak After Endovascular Aortic Repair (EVAR)

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, Yukihisa Hamaguchi, Shingo; Nishimaki, Hiroshi; Kon, Yuri; Chiba, Kiyoshi; Sakurai, Yuka; Murakami, Kenji; Arai, Yasunori; Miyairi, Takeshi; Nakajima, Yasuo

    2015-06-15

    BackgroundEndovascular aortic repair (EVAR) requires further intervention in 20-30 % of cases, often due to type II endoleak (T2EL). Management options for T2EL include transarterial embolization, direct puncture (DP), or transcaval embolization. We report the case of an 80-year-old man with T2EL who successfully underwent DP embolization.MethodsEmbolization by DP was performed with a transpedicular approach using an isocenter puncture (ISOP) method. An isocenter marker (ICM) was placed at a site corresponding to the aneurysm sac on fluoroscopy in two directions (frontal and lateral views). A vertebroplasty needle was inserted tangentially to the ICM under fluoroscopy and advanced to the anterior wall of the vertebral body. A 20 cm-length, 20-G-PTCD needle was inserted through the outer needle of the 13-G needle and advanced to the ICM. Sac embolization using 25 % N-buty-2-cyanoacrylate diluted with Lipiodol was performed. After complete embolization, rotational DA confirmed good filling of the sac with Lipiodol. The outer cannula and 13-G needle were removed and the procedure was completed.ResultsThe patient was discharged the next day. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography 1 and 8 months later showed no Lipiodol washout in the aneurysm sac, no endoleak recurrence, and no expansion of the excluded aneurysm.ConclusionDP with a transpedicular approach using ISOP may be useful when translumbar and transabdominal approaches prove difficult.

  1. Military Personnel. Preliminary Observations on DOD’s and the Coast Guard’s Sexual Assault Prevention and Response Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-31

    sexual assault; and (3) exercise oversight over reports of sexual assault. This statement draws on GAO’s preliminary observations from an ongoing...would enable servicemembers to confidentially disclose an incident of sexual assault. Since 2005, active duty servicemembers have had two options...incidents involving servicemembers; • have visibility over reports of sexual assault involving servicemembers; and • exercise oversight over

  2. The Preliminary Evaluation of a Program To Help Educators Address the Substance Use/Prevention Need of Special Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demers, Jacques; French, Deanne C.; Moore, Dennis

    2000-01-01

    In pilot study, special education teachers were exposed to experiences designed to enhance their skills in adapting substance abuse prevention activities and materials for their students. Although pilot students noted an increase in their teachers' emphasis on substance abuse prevention and their criterion-related attitudes/behaviors improved…

  3. A Case of Successful Coil Embolization for a Late-Onset Type Ia Endoleak after Endovascular Aneurysm Repair with the Chimney Technique.

    PubMed

    Igari, Kimihiro; Kudo, Toshifumi; Toyofuku, Takahiro; Inoue, Yoshinori

    2016-01-01

    Juxtarenal aortic aneurysms (JRAAs) are challenging to treat by endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) procedures. The chimney technique with EVAR (Ch-EVAR) is one of the feasible and less invasive treatments for JRAAs. However, the main concern of Ch-EVAR is the potential risk of "gutters," which can lead to type Ia endoleak (EL). Most type Ia ELs after Ch-EVAR procedures occurred intraoperatively, and these ELs could be treated using an endovascular technique. However, late-onset type Ia ELs could be extremely rare, which might have a fear of conservative treatment. Type Ia ELs are associated with an increased risk of aneurysm rupture; therefore reintervention is recommended as soon as possible, and we should be aware of the occurrence of type Ia ELs after the Ch-EVAR procedure.

  4. Intraoperative DynaCT Detection and Immediate Correction of a Type 1a Endoleak Following Endovascular Repair of Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

    SciTech Connect

    Biasi, Lukla; Ali, Tahir; Hinchliffe, Robert; Morgan, Rob; Loftus, Ian; Thompson, Matt

    2009-05-15

    Reintervention following endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) is required in up to 10% of patients at 30 days and is associated with a demonstrable risk of increased mortality. Completion angiography cannot detect all graft-related anomalies and computed tomographic angiography is therefore mandatory to ensure clinical success. Intraoperative angiographic computed tomography (DynaCT; Siemens, Germany) utilizes cone beam reconstruction software and flat-panel detectors to generate CT-like images from rotational angiographic acquisitions. We report the intraoperative use of this novel technology in detecting and immediately treating a proximal anterior type Ia endoleak, following an endovascular abdominal aortic repair, which was not seen on completion angiography. Immediate evaluation of cross-sectional imaging following endograft deployment may allow for on-table correction of clinically significant stent-related complications. This should both improve technical success and minimize the need for early secondary intervention following EVAR.

  5. HEALING OF THE CANOE: PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF A CULTURALLY GROUNDED INTERVENTION TO PREVENT SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND PROMOTE TRIBAL IDENTITY FOR NATIVE YOUTH IN TWO PACIFIC NORTHWEST TRIBE

    PubMed Central

    Donovan, Dennis M.; Thomas, Lisa Rey; Sigo, Robin Little Wing; Price, Laura; Lonczak, Heather; Lawrence, Nigel; Ahvakana, Katie; Austin, Lisette; Lawrence, Albie; Price, Joseph; Purser, Abby; Bagley, Lenora

    2015-01-01

    Using Community-Based and tribal Participatory Research (CBPR/TPR) approaches, an academic-tribal partnership between the University of Washington Alcohol and Drug Abuse Institute and the Suquamish and Port Gamble S’Klallam Tribes developed a culturally grounded social skills intervention to promote increased cultural belonging and prevent substance abuse among tribal youth. Participation in the intervention, which used the Canoe Journey as a metaphor for life, was associated with increased hope, optimism, and self-efficacy and with reduced substance use, as well as with higher levels of cultural identity and knowledge about alcohol and drugs among high school-age tribal youth. These results provide preliminary support for the intervention curricula in promoting positive youth development, an optimistic future orientation, and the reduction of substance use among Native youth. PMID:25768390

  6. Hip-Hop to Prevent Substance Use and HIV among African-American Youth: A Preliminary Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O.; Rhodes, Warren A.; Harper, P. Thandi Hicks; Quinton, Sylvia L.

    2008-01-01

    Substance use and HIV risk behaviors are increasing among African-American youth. Interventions that incorporate youth values and beliefs are needed to reduce this trajectory. Hip-hop plays an important role in the lives of many African-American youth and provides a context within which to prevent risky behaviors. The current study examines the…

  7. Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support: Preliminary Evaluation of Third-, Fourth-, and Fifth-Grade Attitudes toward Bullying

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Scott W.; Horner, Robert H.

    2014-01-01

    The current pilot study demonstrates the potential of adding simple and efficient bully prevention strategies to already established School-Wide Positive Behavior Interventions and Supports. The self-report surveys of third-, fourth-, and fifth-grade students from three elementary schools evaluated the relationship between the implementation of…

  8. The Use of a Narrative Simulation in Rural Residential Fire Prevention: A Preliminary Study in Changes of Behaviorial Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, William Clark

    2013-01-01

    Rural Kentucky residents suffer twice as many fire residential deaths than the national average. Fire prevention programs are primarily aimed at elementary school children however these children do not make the decisions nor take the precautions necessary to alter these conditions; their adult parents do. There is little research into the…

  9. A Preliminary Study of the Prevention of Ice on Aircraft by the Use of Engine-exhaust Heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rodert, Lewis A

    1939-01-01

    An investigation was made in the N.A.C.A. ice tunnel at air temperatures from 20 degrees to 28 degrees Fahrenheit and at a velocity of 80 miles per hour to determine whether ice formations on a model wing could be prevented by the use of the heat from the engine-exhaust gas. Various spanwise duct systems were tested in a 6-foot-chord N.A.C.A. 23012 wing model. The formation of ice over the entire wing chord was prevented by the direct heating of the forward 10 percent of the wing by hot air, which was passed through leading-edge ducts. Under dry conditions, enough heat to maintain the temperature of the forward 10 percent of the wing at about 200 degrees Fahrenheit above that of the ambient air was required for the prevention of ice formation. The air temperature in the ducts that was necessary to produce these skin temperatures varied from 360 degrees to 834 degrees Fahrenheit; the corresponding air velocities in the duct were 152 and 45 feet per second. Ice formations at the leading edge were locally prevented by air that passed over the interior of the wing surface at a velocity of 30 feet per second and a temperature of 122 degrees Fahrenheit.

  10. Preliminary Predictors of within-Session Adherence to Exposure and Response Prevention in Pediatric Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Jessica; Caporino, Nicole E.; De Nadai, Alessandro S.; Truax, Tatyana; Lewin, Adam B.; Jung, Leah; Park, Jennifer M.; Khan, Yasmeen Ali; Murphy, Tanya K.; Storch, Eric A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behavioral therapy with exposure and response prevention (ERP) is an effective treatment for pediatric OCD; however, up to 30 % of children are treatment non-responders and as many as 40% are partial responders. Although poor treatment adherence has been linked to attenuated response in adults with OCD, little research has…

  11. A Preliminary Evaluation of Two Behavioral Skills Training Procedures for Teaching Abduction-Prevention Skills to Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Brigitte M.; Miltenberger, Raymond G.; Knudson, Peter; Egemo-Helm, Kristin; Kelso, Pamela; Jostad, Candice; Langley, Linda

    2006-01-01

    Although child abduction is a low-rate event, it presents a serious threat to the safety of children. The victims of child abduction face the threat of physical and emotional injury, sexual abuse, and death. Previous research has shown that behavioral skills training (BST) is effective in teaching children abduction-prevention skills, although not…

  12. A Complex Systems Approach to Evaluate HIV Prevention in Metropolitan Areas: Preliminary Implications for Combination Intervention Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Marshall, Brandon D. L.; Paczkowski, Magdalena M.; Seemann, Lars; Tempalski, Barbara; Pouget, Enrique R.; Galea, Sandro; Friedman, Samuel R.

    2012-01-01

    Background HIV transmission among injecting and non-injecting drug users (IDU, NIDU) is a significant public health problem. Continuing propagation in endemic settings and emerging regional outbreaks have indicated the need for comprehensive and coordinated HIV prevention. We describe the development of a conceptual framework and calibration of an agent-based model (ABM) to examine how combinations of interventions may reduce and potentially eliminate HIV transmission among drug-using populations. Methodology/Principal Findings A multidisciplinary team of researchers from epidemiology, sociology, geography, and mathematics developed a conceptual framework based on prior ethnographic and epidemiologic research. An ABM was constructed and calibrated through an iterative design and verification process. In the model, “agents” represent IDU, NIDU, and non-drug users who interact with each other and within risk networks, engaging in sexual and, for IDUs, injection-related risk behavior over time. Agents also interact with simulated HIV prevention interventions (e.g., syringe exchange programs, substance abuse treatment, HIV testing) and initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART) in a stochastic manner. The model was constructed to represent the New York metropolitan statistical area (MSA) population, and calibrated by comparing output trajectories for various outcomes (e.g., IDU/NIDU prevalence, HIV prevalence and incidence) against previously validated MSA-level data. The model closely approximated HIV trajectories in IDU and NIDU observed in New York City between 1992 and 2002, including a linear decrease in HIV prevalence among IDUs. Exploratory results are consistent with empirical studies demonstrating that the effectiveness of a combination of interventions, including syringe exchange expansion and ART provision, dramatically reduced HIV prevalence among IDUs during this time period. Conclusions/Significance Complex systems models of adaptive HIV transmission

  13. Hip-hop to prevent substance use and HIV among African-American youth: a preliminary investigation.

    PubMed

    Turner-Musa, Jocelyn O; Rhodes, Warren A; Harper, P Thandi Hicks; Quinton, Sylvia L

    2008-01-01

    Substance use and HIV risk behaviors are increasing among African-American youth. Interventions that incorporate youth values and beliefs are needed to reduce this trajectory. Hip-hop plays an important role in the lives of many African-American youth and provides a context within which to prevent risky behaviors. The current study examines the efficacy of a hip-hop based substance use and HIV preventive intervention that targets African-American middle-school youth. The sample consists of 68 middle-school students who completed baseline and 6-month follow-up assessments. Findings suggest that students in the intervention group were significantly more likely to have higher knowledge of perception of drug risk and more knowledge about HIV/AIDS compared to students in the comparison group at the 6-month post-intervention assessment. Discussion is centered on implications of hip-hop as a viable approach for preventing substance use and HIV within a high-risk group.

  14. The Primary Prevention of PTSD in Firefighters: Preliminary Results of an RCT with 12-Month Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Clare S.; Mazzucchelli, Trevor G.; Kane, Robert T.

    2016-01-01

    Aim To develop and evaluate an evidence-based and theory driven program for the primary prevention of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Design A pre-intervention / post-intervention / follow up control group design with clustered random allocation of participants to groups was used. The “control” group received “Training as Usual” (TAU). Method Participants were 45 career recruits within the recruit school at the Department of Fire and Emergency Services (DFES) in Western Australia. The intervention group received a four-hour resilience training intervention (Mental Agility and Psychological Strength training) as part of their recruit training school curriculum. Data was collected at baseline and at 6- and 12-months post intervention. Results We found no evidence that the intervention was effective in the primary prevention of mental health issues, nor did we find any significant impact of MAPS training on social support or coping strategies. A significant difference across conditions in trauma knowledge is indicative of some impact of the MAPS program. Conclusion While the key hypotheses were not supported, this study is the first randomised control trial investigating the primary prevention of PTSD. Practical barriers around the implementation of this program, including constraints within the recruit school, may inform the design and implementation of similar programs in the future. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) ACTRN12615001362583 PMID:27382968

  15. Preliminary Results of a Phase I Trial of Prophylactic Ethanol-Lock Administration to Prevent Mediport Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kayton, Mark L.; Garmey, Edward G.; Ishill, Nicole M.; Cheung, Nai-Kong V.; Kushner, Brian H.; Kramer, Kim; Modak, Shakeel; Rossetto, Carol; Hennelly, Courtney; Doyle, Melissa Parra; Rosenberg, Shoshana; Santoro, Olga; La Quaglia, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Catheter-related bloodstream infections remain costly with no simple prevention. We report preliminary results of a phase I trial of ethanol-lock administration to prevent mediport catheter-related bloodstream infections in children. Methods Twelve patients receiving intravenous antibody treatments for neuroblastoma were enrolled. On 4 days of each 5-day antibody cycle, 70% ethanol was administered instead of heparin to dwell in each patient’s mediport overnight. We used clinical monitoring/questionnaires to assess symptoms; and measured blood ethanol levels and liver functions. Patients were tracked for positive blood cultures. Time-to-infection for ethanol-lock treated patients was compared with historical controls. Results We administered 123 ethanol-locks. No adverse symptoms attributable to ethanol occurred; one patient’s urticaria worsened. Blood ethanol levels averaged 11 mg/dL. The study was voluntarily suspended after 3 patients’ catheters became occluded, 1 of which fractured. A positive blood culture occurred in 1 of 12 patients (8%), but suspension of the study precluded statistical power to detect impact on time-to-infection. Conclusions Although children with mediport catheters exhibited nontoxic blood ethanol levels and a low rate of bloodstream infections following prophylactic ethanol-lock use, there was a high incidence of catheter occlusion. Adjustments are necessary before adopting ethanol-locks for routine prophylaxis against catheter infections in children. PMID:20920713

  16. Ventilator-associated pneumonia and the importance of education of ICU nurses on preventionPreliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Mogyoródi, Bence; Dunai, Erzsébet; Gál, János; Iványi, Zsolt

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) increases intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay, ICU mortality, the number of ventilator days, and costs. We implemented a VAP bundle and investigated its efficacy on prevention. Materials and methods A prospective observational study was conducted between January 1, 2015 and December 31, 2015 in a 12-bed multidisciplinary ICU. The bundle was implemented on July 02, 2015. Comparative analysis was performed before and after the implementation of the bundle. The compliance of the nurses was also studied. Results The incidence of VAP was 21.5/1,000 ventilator days (95% CI: 14.17–31.10) in the first phase and 12.0/1,000 ventilator days (95% CI: 7.2–19.49) in the second phase. Relative risk reduction was 44% (95% CI: −0.5 to 0.98). Most common bacteria identified during the first phase were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Staphylococcus aureus; and in the second phase P. aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, and S. maltophilia were identified. Significant improvement was achieved in the head-of-bed elevation (p = 0.004), oral care (p = 0.01), hand hygiene (p < 0.001), endotracheal suctioning (p = 0.004), and removal of condensate (p = 0.043). Discussion The incidence of VAP showed tendency for reduction. The prevalence of nursing-dependent bacteria decreased and compliance in following prevention methods increased. Conclusion These results underline the importance of education of prevention methods. PMID:28180003

  17. The implementation of a statewide bullying prevention program: preliminary findings from the field and the importance of coalitions.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Betsy A; Messina, Allison; Schroeder, Diana; Good, Karla; Barto, Shiryl; Saylor, Jennifer; Masiello, Matthew

    2012-07-01

    Bullying in schools has become recognized as a significant public health problem. The Olweus Bullying Prevention Program (OBPP) has been identified as an effective means to reduce bullying behavior in schools. The goal of this large population-based initiative was to reduce bullying by producing a quantifiable change in school climate using an established program and standardized measurement tool. Program participants over a 2-year period included 56,137 students and more than 2,400 teachers from 107 schools in 49 counties across Pennsylvania. An age cohorts design was used, and data from two equivalent age cohorts of students were compared at two or more points in time. After 1 to 2 years of program implementation, across cohorts, there were reductions in student self-reports of bullying others, and improvements in student perceptions of adults' responsiveness, and students' attitudes about bullying. This study is the largest bullying prevention initiative to date in the United States. This initiative reaffirms the efficacy of the OBPP, emphasizes the importance of an identified coalition, and highlights several positive outcomes. It is recommended that the OBPP be implemented through the establishment of community partnerships and coalitions as consistent with the public health model.

  18. A randomised controlled trial of probiotics for the prevention of spontaneous preterm delivery associated with bacterial vaginosis: preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis increases the risk of spontaneous preterm delivery at less than 34 weeks of gestation. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the early administration of selected lactobacilli strains (probiotics) to pregnant women with asymptomatic bacterial vaginosis/intermediate-degree infections to prevent spontaneous premature delivery and associated neonatal morbidity. Methods/Design Asymptomatic pregnant women at less than 20 weeks of gestation, with no indication of elective preterm delivery, with a vaginal pH ≥ 4.5 and Nugent score > 3 were randomly assigned to the placebo or intervention group (oral administration of selected lactobacilli up to the 24th to 26th week of gestation). The randomisation was stratified for the history of premature delivery (HPD) and blocked. The allocation was concealed, and the participating health professionals and patients were blinded. The primary outcome was preterm delivery (<34 to <32 weeks), and the secondary outcomes were associated neonatal complications. Results In total, 4,204 pregnant women were screened; 320 and 324 individuals were respectively randomly assigned to the placebo and intervention groups, and 62% finished the trial. None of the randomised patients were lost to follow-up. For the non-HPD stratum, the intent-to-treat relative risks of spontaneous premature birth at < 34 and < 37 weeks' gestation were 0.33 (0.03, 3.16) and 0.49 (0.17, 1.44), respectively, and they were non-significant (ns) with p = 0.31 and 0.14. The corresponding actual treatment figures were zero and 0.32 (0.09, 1.19), which were ns with p = 0.12 and 0.06. The intent-to-treat relative risk of spontaneous premature birth at < 37 weeks of gestation for the trial as a whole, including HPD and non-HPD participants, was 0.69 (0.26, 1.78), p = 0.30 (ns). The neonatal complications under evaluation occurred in only one infant (< 34 weeks; placebo group) who presented with respiratory distress

  19. TexiCare: an innovative embedded device for pressure ulcer prevention. Preliminary results with a paraplegic volunteer.

    PubMed

    Chenu, Olivier; Vuillerme, Nicolas; Bucki, Marek; Diot, Bruno; Cannard, Francis; Payan, Yohan

    2013-08-01

    This paper introduces the recently developed TexiCare device that aims at preventing pressure ulcers for people with spinal cord injury. This embedded device is aimed to be mounted on the user wheelchair. Its sensor is 100% textile and allows the measurement of pressures at the interface between the cushion and the buttocks. It is comfortable, washable and low cost. It is connected to a cigarette-box sized unit that (i) measures the pressures in real time, (ii) estimates the risk for internal over-strains, and (iii) alerts the wheelchair user whenever necessary. The alert method has been defined as a result of a utility/usability/acceptability study conducted with representative end users. It is based on a tactile-visual feedback (via a watch or a smartphone for example): the tactile modality is used to discreetly alarm the person while the visual modality conveys an informative message. In order to evaluate the usability of the TexiCare device, a paraplegic volunteer equipped his wheelchair at home during a six months period. Interestingly, the first results revealed bad habits such as an inadequate posture when watching TV, rare relief maneuvers, and the occurrence of abnormal high pressures.

  20. Is radiation-induced ovarian failure in rhesus monkeys preventable by luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists?: Preliminary observations

    SciTech Connect

    Ataya, K.; Pydyn, E.; Ramahi-Ataya

    1995-03-01

    With the advent of cancer therapy, increasing numbers of cancer patients are achieving long term survival. Impaired ovarian function after radiation therapy has been reported in several studies. Some investigators have suggested that luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone agonists (LHRHa) can prevent radiation-induced ovarian injury in rodents. Adult female rhesus monkeys were given either vehicle or Leuprolide acetate before, during, and after radiation. Radiation was given in a dose of 200 rads/day for a total of 4000 rads to the ovaries. Frequent serum samples were assayed for estradiol (E{sub 2}) and FSH. Ovariectomy was performed later. Ovaries were processed and serially sectioned. Follicle count and size distribution were determined. Shortly after radiation started, E{sub 2} dropped to low levels, at which it remained, whereas serum FSH level, which was low before radiation, rose soon after starting radiation. In monkeys treated with a combination of LHRHa and radiation, FSH started rising soon after the LHRHa-loaded minipump was removed (after the end of radiation). Serum E{sub 2} increased after the end of LHRHa treatment in the non-irradiated monkey, but not in the irradiated monkey. Follicle counts were not preserved in the LHRHa-treated monkeys that received radiation. The data demonstrated no protective effect of LHRHa treatment against radiation-induced ovarian injury in this rhesus monkey model. 58 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Preliminary traction and the use of under-thigh pillows to prevent avascular necrosis of the femoral head in Pavlik harness treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Seto, Y; Futami, T; Kashiwagi, N

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and sixty-one hips of 145 patients were treated with the Pavlik harness for developmental dysplasia of the hip. The patients were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of 65 patients (70 hips) who were treated between 1980 and 1987. The harness was applied immediately after the diagnosis. Group B consisted of 80 patients (91 hips) who were treated between 1988 and 1992. These patients received preliminary traction, and small pillows supported the lower extremities from just above the knee to the foot to prevent extreme abduction when the harness was applied. When the distance from the middle point of the proximal metaphyseal border of the femur to the Y-line (distance "a") was 8 mm or more on the initial X-ray picture, the rate of avascular necrosis in group A was 11% and that in group B was 0%; the difference was significant. However, when distance "a" was less than 8 mm, the rate of avascular necrosis in group A was 13% and that in group B was 12%, and there was no significant difference. Thus, we suggest that the Pavlik harness is indicated for developmental dysplasia of the hip in which distance "a" is 8 mm or more. Traction should precede application of the harness, and pillows placed under the thigh must be used during application.

  2. A preliminary investigation of the mechanisms underlying the effect of berberine in preventing high-fat diet-induced insulin resistance in rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, J-J; Gao, F-Y; Zhao, T Y

    2012-10-01

    Berberine exerts insulin resistance-improving effects, the underlying mechanism of which is not well understood. We herein aimed to examine the effects of berberine on mediators of insulin signaling in pancreatic β- and α- islet cells and hepatocytes using a rat obesity model. Rats were fed the following diets for 22 weeks: normal control (NC); normal+berberine (NC+BBR 200 mg/kg/day); high-fat (HF); HF+BBR(1) (BBR 100 mg/kg/day); HF+BBR(2) (BBR 200 mg/kg/day). Metabolic parameters were assessed and mediators of insulin signaling were quantified by immunohistochemistry. The HF diet significantly increased body weight (BW), visceral fat (VF), the visceral fat to BW ratio (VF/BW), and insulin resistance index in the HF group compared with the NC group. Both doses of BBR significantly reduced HF diet-induced increases in BW, VF, and VF/BW. IR and IRS-1 expression in β-cells was significantly lower in the HF group, but not the HF+BBR groups, compared with the NC and NC+BBR groups. Glucagon expression in α-cells was significantly higher in the HF group compared with all other groups. IR expression in α-cells was significantly lower in the HF group compared with the NC, NC+BBR, and HF+BBR(2) groups. IR expression in hepatocytes was significantly lower in the HF group compared with all groups. Our preliminary findings suggest that berberine may ameliorate the development of insulin resistance by differentially preventing alterations in expression of IR, IRS-1, and glucagon in β-cells, α-cells, and hepatocytes.

  3. Type 2 Endoleaks: The Diagnostic Performance of Non-Specialized Readers on Arterial and Venous Phase Multi-Slice CT Angiography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To define the diagnostic precision of non-specialized readers in the detection of type 2 endoleaks (T2EL) in arterial versus venous phase acquisitions, and to evaluate an approach for radiation dose reduction. Methods The pre-discharge and final follow-up multi-slice CT angiographies of 167 patients were retrospectively analyzed. Image data were separated into an arterial and a venous phase reading set. Two radiology residents assessed the reading sets for the presence of a T2EL, feeding vessels, and aneurysm sac size. Findings were compared with a standard of reference established by two experts in interventional radiology. The effective dose was calculated. Results Overall, experts detected 131 T2ELs, and 331 feeding vessels in 334 examinations. Persistent T2ELs causing aneurysm sac growth > 5 mm were detected in 20 patients. Radiation in arterial and venous phases contributed to a mean of 58.6% and 39.0% of the total effective dose. Findings of reader 1 and 2 showed comparable sensitivities in arterial sets of 80.9 versus 85.5 (p = 0.09), and in venous sets of 73.3 versus 79.4 (p = 0.15), respectively. Reader 1 and 2 achieved a significant higher detection rate of feeding vessels with arterial compared to venous set (p = 0.04, p < 0.01). Both readers correctly identified T2ELs with growing aneurysm sac in all cases, independent of the acquisition phase. Conclusion Arterial acquisitions enable non-specialized readers an accurate detection of T2ELs, and a significant better identification of feeding vessels. Based on our results, it seems reasonable to eliminate venous phase acquisitions. PMID:26930490

  4. Unenhanced Cone Beam Computed Tomography and Fusion Imaging in Direct Percutaneous Sac Injection for Treatment of Type II Endoleak: Technical Note

    SciTech Connect

    Carrafiello, Gianpaolo Ierardi, Anna Maria; Radaelli, Alessandro; Marchi, Giuseppe De; Floridi, Chiara; Piffaretti, Gabriele; Federico, Fontana

    2016-03-15

    AimTo evaluate safety, feasibility, technical success, and clinical success of direct percutaneous sac injection (DPSI) for the treatment of type II endoleaks (T2EL) using anatomical landmarks on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and fusion imaging (FI).Materials and MethodsEight patients with T2EL were treated with DPSI using CBCT as imaging guidance. Anatomical landmarks on unenhanced CBCT were used for referencing T2EL location in the first five patients, while FI between unenhanced CBCT and pre-procedural computed tomography angiography (CTA) was used in the remaining three patients. Embolization was performed with thrombin, glue, and ethylene–vinyl alcohol copolymer. Technical and clinical success, iodinated contrast utilization, procedural time, fluoroscopy time, and mean radiation dose were registered.ResultsDPSI was technically successful in all patients: the needle was correctly positioned at the first attempt in six patients, while in two of the first five patients the needle was repositioned once. Neither minor nor major complications were registered. Average procedural time was 45 min and the average administered iodinated contrast was 13 ml. Mean radiation dose of the procedure was 60.43 Gy cm{sup 2} and mean fluoroscopy time was 18 min. Clinical success was achieved in all patients (mean follow-up of 36 months): no sign of T2EL was reported in seven patients until last CT follow-up, while it persisted in one patient with stability of sac diameter.ConclusionsDPSI using unenhanced CBCT and FI is feasible and provides the interventional radiologist with an accurate and safe alternative to endovascular treatment with limited iodinated contrast utilization.

  5. Using PANDA (Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol) in a Baltimore City Head Start Setting: A Preliminary Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belcher, Harolyn M. E.; Lockhart, Paula J.; Perkins-Parks, Susan; McNally, Margaret

    2000-01-01

    Describes an evaluation of a substance abuse prevention curriculum, Preventing the Abuse of Tobacco, Narcotics, Drugs, and Alcohol (PANDA), taught to African American Head Start preschool students, examining changes in children's self-concept following participation. Overall, students demonstrated significantly improved self-concept, and PANDA…

  6. INTEGRATION OF POLLUTION PREVENTION TOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A prototype computer-based decision support system was designed to provide small businesses with an integrated pollution prevention methodology. Preliminary research involved compilation of an inventory of existing pollution prevention tools (i.e., methodologies, software, etc.),...

  7. The Preliminary Findings of a Study Exploring the Perceptions of a Sample of Young Heterosexual Males regarding HIV Prevention Education Programming in Nova Scotia, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gahagan, Jacqueline; Rehman, Laurene; Barbour, Laura; McWilliam, Susan

    2007-01-01

    Despite the increasing numbers of young Canadian females becoming infected with HIV through heterosexual transmission with an infected male sexual partner, the majority of current HIV prevention programs and services in Canada continue to ignore the needs of young heterosexual males. This research is derived from 30 in-depth interviews, 9 focus…

  8. Preliminary Effectiveness of Surviving the Teens[R] Suicide Prevention and Depression Awareness Program on Adolescents' Suicidality and Self-Efficacy in Performing Help-Seeking Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Keith A.; Strunk, Catherine M.; Sorter, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Suicide ranks as the third leading cause of death among youth aged 15-24 years. Schools provide ideal opportunities for suicide prevention efforts. However, research is needed to identify programs that effectively impact youth suicidal ideation and behavior. This study examined the immediate and 3-month effect of Surviving the Teens[R]…

  9. A Preliminary Trial of a Prototype Internet Dissonance-Based Eating Disorder Prevention Program for Young Women with Body Image Concerns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Durant, Shelley; Shaw, Heather

    2012-01-01

    Objective: A group dissonance-based eating disorder prevention program, in which young women critique the thin ideal, reduces eating disorder risk factors and symptoms, but it can be difficult to identify school clinicians with the time and expertise to deliver the intervention. Thus, we developed a prototype Internet version of this program and…

  10. Evaluation of Yoga for Preventing Adolescent Substance Use Risk Factors in a Middle School Setting: A Preliminary Group-Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Butzer, Bethany; LoRusso, Amanda; Shin, Sunny H; Khalsa, Sat Bir S

    2017-03-01

    Adolescence is a key developmental period for preventing substance use initiation, however prevention programs solely providing educational information about the dangers of substance use rarely change adolescent substance use behaviors. Recent research suggests that mind-body practices such as yoga may have beneficial effects on several substance use risk factors, and that these practices may serve as promising interventions for preventing adolescent substance use. The primary aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of yoga for reducing substance use risk factors during early adolescence. Seventh-grade students in a public school were randomly assigned by classroom to receive either a 32-session yoga intervention (n = 117) in place of their regular physical education classes or to continue with physical-education-as-usual (n = 94). Participants (63.2 % female; 53.6 % White) completed pre- and post-intervention questionnaires assessing emotional self-regulation, perceived stress, mood impairment, impulsivity, substance use willingness, and actual substance use. Participants also completed questionnaires at 6-months and 1-year post-intervention. Results revealed that participants in the control condition were significantly more willing to try smoking cigarettes immediately post-intervention than participants in the yoga condition. Immediate pre- to post-intervention differences did not emerge for the remaining outcomes. However, long-term follow-up analyses revealed a pattern of delayed effects in which females in the yoga condition, and males in the control condition, demonstrated improvements in emotional self-control. The findings suggest that school-based yoga may have beneficial effects with regard to preventing males' and females' willingness to smoke cigarettes, as well as improving emotional self-control in females. However additional research is required, particularly with regard to the potential long-term effects of mind-body interventions

  11. The Bartlett-Edwards incentive spirometer: a preliminary assessment of its use in the prevention of atelectasis after cardio-pulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Gale, G D; Sanders, D E

    1977-05-01

    A preliminary assessment of the effectiveness of the Bartlett-Edwards incentive spirometer was made using it as part of the post-operative treatment of 34 patients after open-heart surgery. Its effects on atelectasis were assessed by measuring vital capacity, arterial oxygen tensions, clinical signs and radiological changes. It was found that vital capacity fell after surgery to 41.5 per cent of the pre-operative level, but this rose after the use of the incentive spirometer by an average of 15.5 per cent. Arterial oxygen tensions were unaltered by the use of the incentive spirometer. Temperature, pulse and respirations were of little help in the early diagnosis of atelectasis, but all patients who were still pyrexic four days after operation showed radiological evidence of atelectasis. The incidence of atelectasis demonstrated radiologically was total 84 per cent and plate 69 per cent, sub-segmental 34 per cent and segmental 9 per cent. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. High dose rate brachytherapy for prevention of restenosis after percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty: Preliminary dosimetric tests of a new source presentation

    SciTech Connect

    Popowski, Y.; Rouzaud, M.; Kurtz, J.M.

    1995-08-30

    Balloon dilatation of coronary artery stenosis has become a standard treatment of atherosclerotic heart disease. Restenosis due to excessive intimal cell proliferation, which subsequently occurs in 20-50% of patients, represents one of the major clinical problems in contemporary cardiology, and no satisfactory method for its prevention has thus far been found. Because modest doses of radiation have proved effective in preventing certain types of abnormal cellular proliferation resulting from surgical trauma, and brachytherapy has already been used successfully after dilatation of peripheral arteries, development of a radioactive source suitable for coronary artery applications would be of great interest. Doses obtained at the surface of the balloon, for a 2-min exposure for the 0.26 mm wire (balloon inflated with air) and the 0.15 mm wire (air or contrast), were 56.5 Gy, 17.8 Gy, 5.4 Gy, respectively. As expected for a beta emitter, the fall-off in dose as a function of depth was rapid. External irradiation from the beta source was negligible. Our experiments indicate that the dose rates attainable at the surface of the angioplasty balloon using this technique allow the doses necessary for the inhibition of intimal cell proliferation to be reached within a relatively short period of time. The thin yttrium-90 wires are very easy to handle, and their mechanical and radioactive properties are well suited to the requirements of the catheterization procedure. 16 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Development of a New Hanging-Type Esophageal Stent for Preventing Migration: A Preliminary Study in an Animal Model of Esophagotracheal Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Endo, Masayuki Kaminou, Toshio Ohuchi, Yasufumi; Sugiura, Kimihiko; Yata, Shinsaku Adachi, Akira Kawai, Tsuyoshi Takasugi, Syohei Yamamoto, Shuichi Matsumoto, Kensuke; Hashimoto, Masayuki; Ihaya, Takashi; Ogawa, Toshihide

    2012-10-15

    Purpose: Covered, self-expandable metallic stents (SEMS) have been enthusiastically adopted for the treatment of esophagotracheal fistula, but problems with stent migration have yet to be resolved. To overcome this problem, we have developed a new hanging-type esophageal stent designed to prevent migration, and we conducted an animal study to assess the efficacy of our method. Methods: A total of six female pigs were used in this study. The main characteristic of our stent was the presence of a string tied to the proximal edge of the stent for fixation under the skin of the neck. The first experiment was performed to confirm technical feasibility in three pigs with esophagotracheal fistula. The second experiment was performed to evaluate stent migration and esophagotracheal fistula in three pigs. Results: Creation of the esophagotracheal fistula and stent placement were technically successful in all pigs. In the first experiment, esophagotracheal fistula was sealed by stent placement. In the second experiment, no stent migration was seen 11 or 12 days after stent placement. Gross findings showed no fistulas on the esophageal or tracheal wall. Conclusions: Our new hanging-type esophageal stent seems to offer a feasible method for preventing stent migration.

  14. Using Behavioral and Electrophysiological Measures to Assess the Effects of a Preventive Intervention: A Preliminary Study With Preschool-Aged Foster Children

    PubMed Central

    Bruce, Jacqueline; McDermott, Jennifer Martin; Fisher, Philip A.; Fox, Nathan A.

    2008-01-01

    The current study was designed to explore the use of behavioral (i.e., accuracy and reaction times) and electrophysiological measures (i.e., event-related potentials) to assess the impact of a family-based preventive intervention for preschool-aged, maltreated children in foster care. These measures were recorded during a computerized flanker task designed to assess cognitive control and response monitoring. The sample was recruited from a larger randomized efficacy trial of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for Preschoolers (MTFC-P) and included foster children assigned to the intervention condition (n = 10), foster children assigned to a services-as-usual comparison condition (n = 13), and low-income, nonmaltreated community children (n = 11). The children’s behavioral and electrophysiological performance on the task was generally consistent with previous research with adults and older children. There were no group differences on the behavioral measures of cognitive control or response monitoring. Notably, however, group differences were observed on the electrophysiological measures of response monitoring. Specifically, the foster children who received services as usual were significantly less responsive to performance feedback about errors than the foster children who received the intervention and the nonmaltreated children. Applications of this methodology and implications of the results for future prevention research are discussed. PMID:19030992

  15. The Efficacy of Umbelliferone, Arbutin, and N-Acetylcysteine to Prevent Microbial Colonization and Biofilm Development on Urinary Catheter Surface: Results from a Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Tommaso; Gallelli, Luca; Meacci, Francesca; Brugnolli, Anna; Prosperi, Letizia; Roberta, Stefani; Eccher, Cristina; Mazzoli, Sandra; Lanzafame, Paolo; Caciagli, Patrizio; Malossini, Gianni; Bartoletti, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated, in a preliminary study, the efficacy of umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine to inhibit biofilm formation on urinary catheter. We used 20 urinary catheters: 5 catheters were incubated with Enterococcus faecalis (control group); 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg) (group 1); 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (150 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (400 mg) (group 2); and 5 catheters were incubated with E. faecalis in presence of umbelliferone (300 mg), arbutin (60 mg), and N-acetylcysteine (150 mg) (group 3). After 72 hours, planktonic microbial growth and microorganisms on catheter surface were assessed. In the control group, we found a planktonic load of ≥105 CFU/mL in the inoculation medium and retrieved 3.69 × 106 CFU/cm from the sessile cells adherent to the catheter surface. A significantly lower amount in planktonic (p < 0.001) and sessile (p = 0.004) bacterial load was found in group 3, showing <100 CFU/mL and 0.12 × 106 CFU/cm in the incubation medium and on the catheter surface, respectively. In groups 1 and 2, 1.67 × 106 CFU/cm and 1.77 × 106 CFU/cm were found on catheter surface. Our results document that umbelliferone, arbutin, and N-acetylcysteine are able to reduce E. faecalis biofilm development on the surface of urinary catheters. PMID:27127655

  16. A preliminary study on the teratogenesis of dexamethasone and the preventive effect of vitamin B12 on murine embryonic palatal shelf fusion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sheng-jun; He, Wei; Shi, Bing; Meng, Tian; Li, Xiao-yu; Liu, Yu-rong

    2008-04-01

    Excessive dexamethasone (Dex) administrated into pregnant mice during critical periods of palatal development can produce a high incidence of cleft palate. Its mechanisms remain unknown. Vitamin B12 has been shown to antagonize the teratogenic effects of Dex, which, however, remains controversial. In this study, we investigated the effects of Dex and vitamin B12 on murine embryonic palatal shelf fusion using organ culture of murine embryonic shelves. The explanted palatal shelves on embryonic day 14 (E14) were cultured for 24, 48, 72 or 96 h in different concentrations of Dex and/or vitamin B12. The palatal shelves were examined histologically for the morphological alterations on the medial edge epithelium (MEE) and fusion rates among different groups. It was found that the palatal shelves were not fused at 72 h or less of culture in Dex group, while they were completely fused in the control and vitamin B12-treated groups at 72 and 96 h, respectively. The MEE still existed and proliferated. In Dex+vitamin B12 group the palatal shelves were fused at each time point in a similar rate to controls. These results may suggest that Dex causes teratogenesis of murine embryonic palatal shelves and vitamin B12 prevents the teratogenic effect of Dex on palatogenesis on murine embryos in vitro.

  17. Development and preliminary data on the use of a mobile app specifically designed to increase community awareness of invasive pneumococcal disease and its prevention

    PubMed Central

    Panatto, Donatella; Domnich, Alexander; Gasparini, Roberto; Bonanni, Paolo; Icardi, Giancarlo; Amicizia, Daniela; Arata, Lucia; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Signori, Alessio; Landa, Paolo; Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Given the growing use and great potential of mobile apps, this project aimed to develop and implement a user-friendly app to increase laypeople's knowledge and awareness of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Despite the heavy burden of IPD, the documented low awareness of IPD among both laypeople and healthcare professionals and far from optimal pneumococcal vaccination coverage, no app specifically targeting IPD has been developed so far. The app was designed to be maximally functional and conceived in accordance with user-centered design. Its content, layout and usability were discussed and formally tested during several workshops that involved the principal stakeholders, including experts in IPD and information technology and potential end-users. Following several workshops, it was decided that, in order to make the app more interactive, its core should be a personal “checker” of the risk of contracting IPD and a user-friendly risk-communication strategy. The checker was populated with risk factors identified through both Italian and international official guidelines. Formal evaluation of the app revealed its good readability and usability properties. A sister web site with the same content was created to achieve higher population exposure. Seven months after being launched in a price- and registration-free modality, the app, named “Pneumo Rischio,” averaged 20.9 new users/day and 1.3 sessions/user. The first in-field results suggest that “Pneumo Rischio” is a promising tool for increasing the population's awareness of IPD and its prevention through a user-friendly risk checker. PMID:26795065

  18. Development and preliminary data on the use of a mobile app specifically designed to increase community awareness of invasive pneumococcal disease and its prevention.

    PubMed

    Panatto, Donatella; Domnich, Alexander; Gasparini, Roberto; Bonanni, Paolo; Icardi, Giancarlo; Amicizia, Daniela; Arata, Lucia; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Signori, Alessio; Landa, Paolo; Bechini, Angela; Boccalini, Sara

    2016-04-02

    Given the growing use and great potential of mobile apps, this project aimed to develop and implement a user-friendly app to increase laypeople's knowledge and awareness of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). Despite the heavy burden of IPD, the documented low awareness of IPD among both laypeople and healthcare professionals and far from optimal pneumococcal vaccination coverage, no app specifically targeting IPD has been developed so far. The app was designed to be maximally functional and conceived in accordance with user-centered design. Its content, layout and usability were discussed and formally tested during several workshops that involved the principal stakeholders, including experts in IPD and information technology and potential end-users. Following several workshops, it was decided that, in order to make the app more interactive, its core should be a personal "checker" of the risk of contracting IPD and a user-friendly risk-communication strategy. The checker was populated with risk factors identified through both Italian and international official guidelines. Formal evaluation of the app revealed its good readability and usability properties. A sister web site with the same content was created to achieve higher population exposure. Seven months after being launched in a price- and registration-free modality, the app, named "Pneumo Rischio," averaged 20.9 new users/day and 1.3 sessions/user. The first in-field results suggest that "Pneumo Rischio" is a promising tool for increasing the population's awareness of IPD and its prevention through a user-friendly risk checker.

  19. Rape prevention

    MedlinePlus

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc.gov/ ...

  20. From Acquaintance to Engagement: Support in Confronting Primary Prevention Hassles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Israelashvili, Moshe

    2008-01-01

    For many students the importance of primary prevention is unquestionable. However, once they are exposed to the large number of problems that prevention practitioners and prevention scientists face, their preliminary enthusiasm decreases. It is suggested that in order to keep students' positive attitude toward primary prevention and to empower…

  1. Poison Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play On ... Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help ...

  2. Preliminary Drill Sites

    DOE Data Explorer

    Lane, Michael

    2013-06-28

    Preliminary locations for intermediate depth temperature gradient holes and/or resource confirmation wells based on compilation of geological, geophysical and geochemical data prior to carrying out the DOE-funded reflection seismic survey.

  3. The role of trefoil factor family in apparently healthy subjects administrated gastroprotective agents for the primary prevention of gastrointestinal injuries from low-dose acetylsalicylic acid: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Takashi; Takagi, Yu; Fukuzawa, Mari; Yamagishi, Tetsuya; Goto, Shinya

    2011-09-01

    It is well-known that acetylsalicylic acid induces gastrointestinal complication. Recently, trefoil factor family has been reported as a mucosal protective factor. We focused on trefoil factor family as one of defensive system for gastrointestinal injuries. The aim of this trial was to evaluate trefoil factor family levels in the serum of healthy subjects with low-dose acetylsalicylic acid. Low-dose acetylsalicylic acid with placebo or proton pump inhibitor or rebamipide were administered in 30 healthy subjects. Transnasal endoscopy was performed at 0, 24 h, 3 and 7 day. Changing of trefoil factor family (1,2,3) and numbers of gastric injuries were evaluated. The numbers of gastric injuries were significantly increased in the placebo group at 3 and 7 days. Injuries in the proton pump inhibitor group were not induced, in the rebamipide group were slightly induced. Trefoil factor family level in the placebo group were decreased in 3 and 7 days compared with prior to starting the trial. Trefoil factor family may have an important association with acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastrointestinal damage. Proton pump inhibitor and rebamipide prevented low-dose acetylsalicylic acid-induced gastrointestinal complications compared with the placebo group.

  4. Preventative Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  5. Prevent Cyberbullying

    MedlinePlus

    ... Policies & Laws | Español Search Stopbullying.gov WHAT IS BULLYING Definition The Roles Kids Play Other Types of Aggressive Behavior CYBER BULLYING What is Cyberbullying? Prevent Cyberbullying Report Cyberbullying WHO ...

  6. Preventing Influenza

    MedlinePlus

    ... spread in respiratory droplets distributed by coughing and sneezing, they readily spread from person to person. Additionally, ... and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing, you may help prevent those around you from ...

  7. Notification: Preliminary Research to Evaluate Hazardous Waste Passing Through Publicly Owned Treatment Works

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    March 13, 2013. The EPA's OIG plans to start preliminary research to evaluate the effectiveness of the EPA’s programs in preventing and addressing contamination of surface water from hazardous wastes passing through publicly owned treatment works.

  8. Preliminary hazards analysis -- vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Coordes, D.; Ruggieri, M.; Russell, J.; TenBrook, W.; Yimbo, P.

    1994-06-01

    This paper presents a Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) for mixed waste vitrification by joule heating. The purpose of performing a PHA is to establish an initial hazard categorization for a DOE nuclear facility and to identify those processes and structures which may have an impact on or be important to safety. The PHA is typically performed during and provides input to project conceptual design. The PHA is then followed by a Preliminary Safety Analysis Report (PSAR) performed during Title 1 and 2 design. The PSAR then leads to performance of the Final Safety Analysis Report performed during the facility`s construction and testing. It should be completed before routine operation of the facility commences. This PHA addresses the first four chapters of the safety analysis process, in accordance with the requirements of DOE Safety Guidelines in SG 830.110. The hazards associated with vitrification processes are evaluated using standard safety analysis methods which include: identification of credible potential hazardous energy sources; identification of preventative features of the facility or system; identification of mitigative features; and analyses of credible hazards. Maximal facility inventories of radioactive and hazardous materials are postulated to evaluate worst case accident consequences. These inventories were based on DOE-STD-1027-92 guidance and the surrogate waste streams defined by Mayberry, et al. Radiological assessments indicate that a facility, depending on the radioactive material inventory, may be an exempt, Category 3, or Category 2 facility. The calculated impacts would result in no significant impact to offsite personnel or the environment. Hazardous materials assessment indicates that a Mixed Waste Vitrification facility will be a Low Hazard facility having minimal impacts to offsite personnel and the environment.

  9. Preliminary Cruise Report - Iguana Expedition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    A preliminary cruise report of Expedition Iguana , 31 March 1972-11 May 1972, gives some preliminary results, list of equipment and, personnel, stations and data gathered, and track and topographic plots. (Author)

  10. Preliminary AirMSPI Datasets

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-06

    ... Preliminary AirMSPI Datasets   The data files available through this web page and ftp links are preliminary ... geometric corrections. Caution should be used for science analysis. At a later date, more qualified versions will be made public.   ...

  11. Preventing Tragedy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    One Feather, Sandra

    2003-01-01

    The Navajo supervisor in the Office of Environmental Health in New Mexico identifies diseases and their risk factors, administers an injury prevention program, and ensures compliance with various health-related codes. She assists in the planning and direction of environmental health programs and public health education for local Navajo…

  12. Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Patrice

    2016-01-01

    The focus of the milestone project is to focus on bridging the gap of bullying and classroom instruction methods. There has to be a defined expectations and level of accountability that has to be defined when supporting and implementing a plan linked to bullying prevention. All individuals involved in the student's learning have to be aware of…

  13. Shoplifting Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everhardt, Richard M.

    The retailers' concern about shoplifting and shoplifting losses provided impetus for the development of this programed text. The self-instructional booklet is designed for all retail employees as an aid to preventing financial losses to the store caused by shoplifting. The common characteristics of shoplifters, methods used by shoplifters, and a…

  14. Prevention of postoperative tooth sensitivity: a preliminary clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sobral, M A P; Garone-Netto, N; Luz, M A A C; Santos, A P

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinically the effects of pre-treatments with a 35% hydroxyethyl metacrylate/5% glutaraldehyde dentine desensitizer (Gluma Desensitizer) and a 2% chlorexidine-based cavity disinfectant (Cav-Clean) on postoperative sensitivity. Three premolar teeth with no pain symptoms were selected from each one of 17 patients, totalling 51 teeth, for which Class II restoration using a composite was indicated. Each one of the three premolar teeth of the same patient was submitted to a different treatment. After acid etching, only a dental adhesive was applied to the first tooth, which served as the control. Gluma Desensitizer dentinal desensitizer was applied to the second premolar tooth prior to applying the dental adhesive. Cav-Clean cavity disinfectant was used on the third premolar tooth before applying the dental adhesive. Only one tooth was restored per session, and all premolar teeth were restored with a condensable composite, according to current restoration technique guidelines. Sensitivity to different stimuli (cold, heat, sweet and dental floss) was assessed on Day 1, Day 4 and Day 7 by questionnaire following restorative procedures. The results of this clinical research showed that, as far as the investigated stimuli and postoperative course are concerned, there was no statistically significant difference in the three different treatments (P>0.05). Postoperative sensitivity resulting from Class II restorations using composite resin cannot be completely eliminated with the prior use of a dentinal desensitizer or a cavity disinfectant. In day-to-day clinical treatment, postoperative sensitivity may possibly be related to the technique employed.

  15. Using media to promote suicide prevention hotlines to Veteran households.

    PubMed

    Karras, Elizabeth; Stephens, Brady; Kemp, Janet E; Bossarte, Robert M

    2014-02-01

    This article presents preliminary evidence that media campaigns are valuable in promoting suicide prevention hotlines to Veteran households by reporting data from 2526 telephone surveys. Findings from this study underscore the need for further investigation of the use of media campaigns to support suicide prevention initiatives aimed at Veteran populations.

  16. On Preliminary Breakdown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, W. H.; Petersen, D.

    2013-12-01

    The preliminary breakdown phase of a negative cloud-to-ground lightning flash was observed in detail. Observations were made with a Photron SA1.1 high-speed video camera operating at 9,000 frames per second, fast optical sensors, a flat-plate electric field antenna covering the SLF to MF band, and VHF and UHF radio receivers with bandwidths of 20 MHz. Bright stepwise extensions of a negative leader were observed at an altitude of 8 km during the first few milliseconds of the flash, and were coincident with bipolar electric field pulses called 'characteristic pulses'. The 2-D step lengths of the preliminary processes were in excess of 100 meters, with some 2-D step lengths in excess of 200 meters. Smaller and shorter unipolar electric field pulses were superposed onto the bipolar electric field pulses, and were coincident with VHF and UHF radio pulses. After a few milliseconds, the emerging negative stepped leader system showed a marked decrease in luminosity, step length, and propagation velocity. Details of these events will be discussed, including the possibility that the preliminary breakdown phase consists not of a single developing lightning leader system, but of multiple smaller lightning leader systems that eventually join together into a single system.

  17. Preeclampsia prevention

    PubMed Central

    Herrera-Medina, Rodolfo; Pineda, Lucia M

    2015-01-01

    Background: Preeclampsia is the main complication of pregnancy in developing countries. Calcium starting at 14 weeks of pregnancy is indicated to prevent the disease. Recent advances in prevention of preeclampsia endorse the addition of conjugated linoleic acid. Objective: To estimate the protective effect from calcium alone, compared to calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid in nulliparous women at risk of preeclampsia. Methods: A case-control design nested in the cohort of nulliparous women attending antenatal care from 2010 to 2014. The clinical histories of 387 cases of preeclampsia were compared with 1,054 normotensive controls. The exposure was prescriptions for calcium alone, the first period, or calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid, the second period, from 12 to 16 weeks of gestational age to labor. Confounding variables were controlled, allowing only nulliparous women into the study and stratifying by age, education and ethnic group. Results: The average age was 26.4 yrs old (range= 13-45), 85% from mixed ethnic backgrounds and with high school education. There were no differences between women who received calcium carbonate and those who did not (OR= 0.96; 95% CI= 0.73-1.27). The group of adolescents (13 to 18 years old) in the calcium plus conjugated linoleic acid was protected for preeclampsia (OR= 0.00; 95% CI= 0.00-0.44) independent of the confounder variables. Conclusions: 1. Calcium supplementation during pregnancy did not have preventive effects on preeclampsia. 2. Calcium plus Conjugated Linoleic acid provided to adolescents was observed to have preventive effect on Preeclampsia. PMID:26848195

  18. Allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    Muche-Borowski, Cathleen; Kopp, Matthias; Reese, Imke; Sitter, Helmut; Werfel, Thomas; Schäfer, Torsten

    2010-09-01

    The further increase of allergies in industrialized countries demands evidence-based measures of primary prevention. The recommendations as published in the guideline of 2004 were updated and consented on the basis of a systematic literature search. Evidence from the period February 2003-May 2008 was searched in the electronic databases Cochrane and MEDLINE as well as in reference lists of recent reviews and by contacting experts. The retrieved citations were screened for relevance first by title and abstract and in a second step as full paper. Levels of evidence were assigned to each included study and the methodological quality of the studies was assessed as high or low. Finally the revised recommendations were formally consented (nominal group process) by representatives of relevant societies and organizations including a self-help group. Of originally 4556 hits, 217 studies (4 Cochrane Reviews, 14 meta-analyses, 19 randomized controlled trials, 135 cohort and 45 case-control studies) were included and critically appraised. Grossly unchanged remained the recommendations on avoiding environmental tobacco smoke, breast-feeding over 4 months (alternatively hypoallergenic formulas for children at risk), avoiding a mold-promoting indoor climate, vaccination according to current recommendations, and avoidance of furry pets (especially cats) in children at risk. The recommendation on reducing the house dust mite allergen exposure as a measure of primary prevention was omitted and the impact of a delayed introduction of supplementary food was reduced. New recommendations were adopted concerning fish consumption (during pregnancy / breast-feeding and as supplementary food in the first year), avoidance of overweight, and reducing the exposure to indoor and outdoor air pollutants. The revision of this guideline on a profound evidence basis led to (1) a confirmation of existing recommendations, (2) substantial revisions, and (3) new recommendations. Thereby it is possible

  19. Environmental Survey preliminary report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the preliminary findings from the first phase of the Environmental Survey of the United States Department of Energy (DOE) Sandia National Laboratories conducted August 17 through September 4, 1987. The objective of the Survey is to identify environmental problems and areas of environmental risk associated with Sandia National Laboratories-Albuquerque (SNLA). The Survey covers all environmental media and all areas of environmental regulation. It is being performed in accordance with the DOE Environmental Survey Manual. This phase of the Survey involves the review of existing site environmental data, observations of the operations carried on at SNLA, and interviews with site personnel. 85 refs., 49 figs., 48 tabs.

  20. Ruiz Volcano: Preliminary report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz Volcano, Colombia (4.88°N, 75.32°W). All times are local (= GMT -5 hours).An explosive eruption on November 13, 1985, melted ice and snow in the summit area, generating lahars that flowed tens of kilometers down flank river valleys, killing more than 20,000 people. This is history's fourth largest single-eruption death toll, behind only Tambora in 1815 (92,000), Krakatau in 1883 (36,000), and Mount Pelée in May 1902 (28,000). The following briefly summarizes the very preliminary and inevitably conflicting information that had been received by press time.

  1. A PRELIMINARY JUPITER MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Hubbard, W. B.; Militzer, B.

    2016-03-20

    In anticipation of new observational results for Jupiter's axial moment of inertia and gravitational zonal harmonic coefficients from the forthcoming Juno orbiter, we present a number of preliminary Jupiter interior models. We combine results from ab initio computer simulations of hydrogen–helium mixtures, including immiscibility calculations, with a new nonperturbative calculation of Jupiter's zonal harmonic coefficients, to derive a self-consistent model for the planet's external gravity and moment of inertia. We assume helium rain modified the interior temperature and composition profiles. Our calculation predicts zonal harmonic values to which measurements can be compared. Although some models fit the observed (pre-Juno) second- and fourth-order zonal harmonics to within their error bars, our preferred reference model predicts a fourth-order zonal harmonic whose absolute value lies above the pre-Juno error bars. This model has a dense core of about 12 Earth masses and a hydrogen–helium-rich envelope with approximately three times solar metallicity.

  2. Preliminary reference Earth model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dziewonski, Adam M.; Anderson, Don L.

    1981-06-01

    A large data set consisting of about 1000 normal mode periods, 500 summary travel time observations, 100 normal mode Q values, mass and moment of inertia have been inverted to obtain the radial distribution of elastic properties, Q values and density in the Earth's interior. The data set was supplemented with a special study of 12 years of ISC phase data which yielded an additional 1.75 × 10 6 travel time observations for P and S waves. In order to obtain satisfactory agreement with the entire data set we were required to take into account anelastic dispersion. The introduction of transverse isotropy into the outer 220 km of the mantle was required in order to satisfy the shorter period fundamental toroidal and spheroidal modes. This anisotropy also improved the fit of the larger data set. The horizontal and vertical velocities in the upper mantle differ by 2-4%, both for P and S waves. The mantle below 220 km is not required to be anisotropic. Mantle Rayleigh waves are surprisingly sensitive to compressional velocity in the upper mantle. High S n velocities, low P n velocities and a pronounced low-velocity zone are features of most global inversion models that are suppressed when anisotropy is allowed for in the inversion. The Preliminary Reference Earth Model, PREM, and auxiliary tables showing fits to the data are presented.

  3. Preliminary Analysis of Photoreading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNamara, Danielle S.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to provide a preliminary analysis of a reading strategy called PhotoReading. PhotoReading is a technique developed by Paul Scheele that claims to increase reading rate to 25,000 words per minute (Scheele, 1993). PhotoReading itself involves entering a "relaxed state" and looking at, but not reading, each page of a text for a brief moment (about I to 2 seconds). While this technique has received attention in the popular press, there had been no objective examinations of the technique's validity. To examine the effectiveness of PhotoReading, the principal investigator (i.e., trainee) participated in a PhotoReading workshop to learn the technique. Parallel versions of two standardized and three experimenter-created reading comprehension tests were administered to the trainee and an expert user of the PhotoReading technique to compare the use of normal reading strategies and the PhotoReading technique by both readers. The results for all measures yielded no benefits of using the PhotoReading technique. The extremely rapid reading rates claimed by PhotoReaders were not observed; indeed, the reading rates were generally comparable to those for normal reading. Moreover, the PhotoReading expert generally showed an increase in reading time when using the PhotoReading technique in comparison to when using normal reading strategies to process text. This increase in reading time when PhotoReading was accompanied by a decrease in text comprehension.

  4. Enhanced preliminary assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-02-01

    An Enhanced Preliminary Assessment was conducted at Fort Benjamin Harrison (FBH) Indiana, which is located approximately 12 miles from downtown Indianapolis in Lawrence Township, Marion County. FBH contains 2,501 acres, of which approximately 1,069 acres is covered by woodlands. Activities at FBH include administration, training, housing, and support. Sensitive environments at FBH include wetlands, habitat areas for the endangered Indiana bat, endangered plants, and historically and archeologically significant areas. FBH is a U.S. Army Soldier Support Center under the jurisdiction of the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). Based on information obtained during and subsequent to a site visit (15 through 18 October 1991), 36 types of Areas Requiring Environmental Evaluation (AREEs) were identified and grouped by the following categories: Facility Operations; Maintenance/Fueling Operations; Water Treatment Operations; Training Areas; Hazardous Materials Storage/Waste Handling Areas; Sanitary Wastewater Treatment Plants; Storage Tanks; Landfills/Incinerators; Medical Facilities; Burn Pit Areas; Spill Areas; Ammunition Storage; Coal Storage; and Facility-wide AREEs. This report presents a summary of findings for each AREE and recommendations for further action.

  5. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker, F.; Bridges, J.; Brownlee, D. E.; Burchell, M.; Burghammer, M.; Butterworth, A. L.; Cloetens, P.; Cody, G.; Ferroir, T.; Floss, C.; Flynn, G. J.; Frank, D.; Gainsforth, Z.; Grün, E.; Hoppe, P.; Kearsley, A.; Lemelle, L.; Leroux, H.; Lettieri, R.; Marchant, W.; Mendez, B.; Nittler, L. R.; Ogliore, R.; Postberg, F.; Sandford, S. A.; Schmitz, S.; Silversmit, G.; Simionovici, A.; Srama, R.; Stadermann, F. J.; Stephan, T.; Stroud, R. M.; Susini, J.; Sutton, S.; Trieloff, M.; Tsou, P.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Tyliczszak, T.; Vekemans, B.; Vincze, L.; Warren, J.; Zolensky, M. E.

    2009-03-01

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE.

  6. 32 CFR 651.49 - Preliminary phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary phase. 651.49 Section 651.49... Preliminary phase. In the preliminary phase, the proponent agency or office identifies, as early as possible... tentative list of the affected parties to be notified. A key part of this preliminary identification is...

  7. Polio and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Essays Photo Collections Videos Polio Today → Polio + Prevention Polio + Prevention Polio and prevention Polio is a crippling ... for poliovirus within 48 hours of onset. Bulbar polio More extensive paralysis, involving the trunk and muscles ...

  8. Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Home For Patients Search FAQs Preventing ... Vein Thrombosis FAQ174, August 2011 PDF Format Preventing Deep Vein Thrombosis Women's Health What is deep vein ...

  9. National Suicide Prevention Lifeline

    MedlinePlus

    ... Best Practices Our Network Media Resources National Suicide Prevention Lifeline We can all help prevent suicide. The ... The Lifeline Everyone Plays A Role In Suicide Prevention Here are some helpful links: GET HELP NOW ...

  10. PRELIMINARY SELECTION OF MGR DESIGN BASIS EVENTS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Kappes

    1999-09-16

    The purpose of this analysis is to identify the preliminary design basis events (DBEs) for consideration in the design of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). For external events and natural phenomena (e.g., earthquake), the objective is to identify those initiating events that the MGR will be designed to withstand. Design criteria will ensure that radiological release scenarios resulting from these initiating events are beyond design basis (i.e., have a scenario frequency less than once per million years). For internal (i.e., human-induced and random equipment failures) events, the objective is to identify credible event sequences that result in bounding radiological releases. These sequences will be used to establish the design basis criteria for MGR structures, systems, and components (SSCs) design basis criteria in order to prevent or mitigate radiological releases. The safety strategy presented in this analysis for preventing or mitigating DBEs is based on the preclosure safety strategy outlined in ''Strategy to Mitigate Preclosure Offsite Exposure'' (CRWMS M&O 1998f). DBE analysis is necessary to provide feedback and requirements to the design process, and also to demonstrate compliance with proposed 10 CFR 63 (Dyer 1999b) requirements. DBE analysis is also required to identify and classify the SSCs that are important to safety (ITS).

  11. Bienestar: A Diabetes Risk-Factor Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino, Robert P.; Pugh, Jacqueline A.; Hernandez, Arthur E.; Menchaca, Velma D.; Ramirez, Robert R.; Mendoza, Monica

    1998-01-01

    The Bienestar Health Program is a diabetes risk-factor prevention program targeting Mexican American fourth graders. Program goals are to decrease overweight and dietary fats. The program is based on social cognitive theory and uses culturally relevant material. Preliminary evaluation indicates the program significantly decreases dietary fat,…

  12. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westphal, A.; Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examation Team: http://www. ssl. berkeley. edu/~westphal/ISPE/

    2011-12-01

    A. J. Westphal, C. Allen, A. Ansari, S. Bajt, R. S. Bastien, H. A. Bechtel, J. Borg, F. E. Brenker, J. Bridges, D. E. Brownlee, M. Burchell, M. Burghammer, A. L. Butterworth, A. M. Davis, P. Cloetens, C. Floss, G. Flynn, D. Frank, Z. Gainsforth, E. Grün, P. R. Heck, J. K. Hillier, P. Hoppe, G. Huss, J. Huth, B. Hvide, A. Kearsley, A. J. King, B. Lai, J. Leitner, L. Lemelle, H. Leroux, R. Lettieri, W. Marchant, L. R. Nittler, R. Ogliore, F. Postberg, M. C. Price, S. A. Sandford, J.-A. Sans Tresseras, T. Schoonjans, S. Schmitz, G. Silversmit, A. Simionovici, V. A. Solé, R. Srama, T. Stephan, V. Sterken, J. Stodolna, R. M. Stroud, S. Sutton, M. Trieloff, P. Tsou, A. Tsuchiyama, T. Tyliszczak, B. Vekemans, L. Vincze, D. Zevin, M. E. Zolensky, >29,000 Stardust@home dusters ISPE author affiliations are at http://www.ssl.berkeley.edu/~westphal/ISPE/. In 2000 and 2002, a ~0.1m2 array of aerogel tiles and alumi-num foils onboard the Stardust spacecraft was exposed to the interstellar dust (ISD) stream for an integrated time of 200 days. The exposure took place in interplanetary space, beyond the orbit of Mars, and thus was free of the ubiquitous orbital debris in low-earth orbit that precludes effective searches for interstellar dust there. Despite the long exposure of the Stardust collector, <<100 ISD particles are expected to have been captured. The particles are thought to be ~1μm or less in size, and the total ISD collection is probably <10-6 by mass of the collection of cometary dust parti-cles captured in the Stardust cometary dust collector from the coma of the Jupiter-family comet Wild 2. Thus, although the first solid sample from the local interstellar medium is clearly of high interest, the diminutive size of the particles and the low numbers of particles present daunting challenges. Nevertheless, six recent developments have made a Preliminary Examination (PE) of this sample practical: (1) rapid automated digital optical scanning microscopy for three

  13. STD patients’ preferences for HIV prevention strategies

    PubMed Central

    Castro, Jose G; Jones, Deborah L; Weiss, Stephen M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this pilot study was to explore the knowledge of and preferences regarding effective biomedical interventions among high risk individuals attending a sexually transmitted diseases clinic, and to examine the effect of a brief information intervention on preference. Participants completed a baseline assessment, attended a presentation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevention methods, and completed a postintervention assessment. Outcome measures included: demographics and sexual risk factors, self-perceived HIV risk, and knowledge and attitudes regarding new biomedical methods of HIV prevention. After the baseline evaluation, participants were provided with information on new biomedical prevention strategies. Participants were given the option to review the information by reading a pamphlet or by viewing a brief video containing the same information. Participants (n=97) were female (n=51) and male (n=46). At baseline, only a small minority of participants were aware of the newer biomedical strategies to prevent HIV infection. Postintervention, 40% endorsed having heard about the use of HIV medications to prevent HIV infection; 72% had heard that male circumcision can decrease the risk of acquiring HIV infection in men; and 73% endorsed knowledge of the potential role of microbicides in decreasing the risk of acquiring HIV. Following the intervention, the most preferred prevention method was male condoms, followed by preexposure prophylaxis, and microbicides. The least preferred methods were male circumcision and female condoms. This study provides preliminary information on knowledge and attitudes regarding newer biomedical interventions to protect against HIV infection. PMID:25540597

  14. North Korean refugee doctors' preliminary examination scores

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Although there have been studies emphasizing the re-education of North Korean (NK) doctors for post-unification of the Korean Peninsula, study on the content and scope of such re-education has yet to be conducted. Researchers intended to set the content and scope of re-education by a comparative analysis for the scores of the preliminary examination, which is comparable to the Korean Medical Licensing Examination (KMLE). Methods The scores of the first and second preliminary exams were analyzed by subject using the Wilcoxon signed rank test. The passing status of the group of NK doctors for KMLE in recent 3 years were investigated. The multiple-choice-question (MCQ) items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of South Korean (SK) medical students by two times of the standard deviation of the scores of SK medical students were selected to investigate the relevant reasons. Results The average scores of nearly all subjects were improved in the second exam compared with the first exam. The passing rate of the group of NK doctors was 75%. The number of MCQ items of which difficulty indexes of NK doctors were lower than those of SK medical students was 51 (6.38%). NK doctors’ lack of understandings for Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures, Therapeutics, Prenatal Care, and Managed Care Programs was suggested as the possible reason. Conclusion The education of integrated courses focusing on Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures and Therapeutics, and apprenticeship-style training for clinical practice of core subjects are needed. Special lectures on the Preventive Medicine are likely to be required also. PMID:27907983

  15. Implementation of School Policies to Prevent Youth Tobacco Use in Alabama

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geiger, Brian F.; Vaid, Isam; Beeson, Diane; Riddle, Barry

    2012-01-01

    Background: Public health professionals must monitor the effectiveness of school policies and programs to prevent youth initiation, promote quitting, and eliminate secondhand smoke. This analysis of school tobacco policies was preliminary to release of a state tobacco prevention and control plan for 2010-2015. Methods: University health educators…

  16. Concentrating solar collector subsystem: Preliminary design package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Preliminary design data are presented for a concentrating solar collector including an attitude controller. Provided are schedules, technical status, all documents required for preliminary design, and other program activities.

  17. Brief Report: Preliminary Results of a Suicide Awareness Mass Media Campaign in Cuyahoga County, Ohio

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Richard J.; Spilsbury, James C.; Osiecki, Scott S.; Denihan, William M.; Zureick, Joel L.; Friedman, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Little information is currently available concerning the effects of suicide awareness and prevention campaigns. This brief report provides preliminary information about the influence of such a media campaign on the number of suicide-related telephone calls to an emergency mental health service in Cuyahoga County, Ohio. Examination of the pattern…

  18. Preliminary safety evaluation for the spent nuclear fuel project`s cold vacuum drying system

    SciTech Connect

    Garvin, L.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    This preliminary safety evaluation (PSE) considers only the Cold Vacuum Drying System (CVDS) facility and its mission as it relates to the integrated process strategy (WHC 1995). The purpose of the PSE is to identify those CBDS design functions that may require safety- class and safety-significant accident prevention and mitigation features.

  19. Measuring Organizational Learning: A Preliminary Progress Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    Contractor Report 2010-01 Measuring Organizational Learning : A Preliminary Progress Report Chris Winkler and Charles T...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Measuring Organizational Learning : A Preliminary Progress Report 5a. CONTRACT OR GRANT NUMBER W91WAW-07-C-0074 5b...Technical Publications Specialist (703) 602-8049 ii iii MEASURING ORGANIZATIONAL LEARNING : A PRELIMINARY

  20. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Application Procedure § 806.11 Preliminary consultations. (a) Any... Commission staff for an informal discussion of preliminary plans for the proposed project. To facilitate preliminary consultations, it is suggested that the project sponsor provide a general description of...

  1. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION REVIEW AND APPROVAL OF PROJECTS Application Procedure § 806.11 Preliminary consultations. (a) Any... Commission staff for an informal discussion of preliminary plans for the proposed project. To facilitate preliminary consultations, it is suggested that the project sponsor provide a general description of...

  2. Childhood obesity: prevention is better than cure

    PubMed Central

    Pandita, Aakash; Sharma, Deepak; Pandita, Dharti; Pawar, Smita; Tariq, Mir; Kaul, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its associated comorbidities have emerged as a major health problem garnering interests from both public health agencies and mainstream media consumers. With increasing awareness on its impact on health, finances, and community at large, it has come to the forefront for scientific research and development of health plans. The need for better strategies and novel interventions to manage obesity is now being recognized by the entire health care system. Obesity and overweight is now the fifth leading global risk factor for mortality. Strategic investment is thus urgently needed to implement population-based childhood obesity prevention programmes which are effective and also culturally appropriate. Population-based prevention is crucial to stem this rising tide of childhood obesity which is fast reaching epidemic proportions. Obesity has its onset very early in life; therefore, children constitute a major group of this disease. It is thus imperative to lay utmost importance on prevention of obesity in children and herald its progress, if present already. Furthermore, treatment is still in preliminary stage, so early prevention holds better than treatment at later stages. This article is an attempt to lay emphasis on childhood obesity as a problem that needs to be recognized early and measures for its prevention. PMID:27042133

  3. Obstacles to the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Breast Cancer in African-American Women.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    AD _ _ _ _ GRANT NUMBER DAMD17-96-1-6272 TITLE: Obstacles to the Primary and Secondary Prevention of Breast Cancer in African-American Women...FUNDING NUMBERS Obstacles to the Primary and Secondary Prevention of DAMD17-96-1-6272 Breast Cancer in African American Women 6. AUTHOR(S) Margaret K...barriers to primary and secondary prevention of breast cancer , to use this tool to establish preliminary norms in an urban, southern, African American

  4. Antioxidants and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... 23 ). Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) : This U.S. trial investigated whether daily supplementation with ... the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT). JAMA 2009;301(1):39-51. [PubMed Abstract] ...

  5. Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Visitor Information Contact Us Research > NIAID's Role in Research > Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance > Understanding share with facebook share with twitter ... Prevention, Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Antimicrobial (Drug) Resistance Antimicrobial ... To prevent antimicrobial resistance, you and your healthcare ...

  6. HPV Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    HPV CANCER PREVENTION HPV VACCINE IS CANCER PREVENTION HPV vaccine protects against HPV types that most commonly cause ... professionals are the key to protecting adolescents from HPV cancers. VACCINATE YOUR 11-12 YEAR OLDS. www. cdc. ...

  7. High Blood Pressure Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Pressure Prevention Steps You Can Take You can take steps to prevent high blood pressure by adopting these healthy lifestyle habits. Follow a ...

  8. Risk Factors and Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... atherosclerosis (“clogged” arteries) and High Blood Pressure . Preventing Arrhythmias and Heart Disease Prevent heart disease by lowering ... cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following conditions can increase ...

  9. Settings for Suicide Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary Care Justice System Adult Justice System Juvenile Justice System ... About Suicide Effective Prevention Resources & Programs Training & Events News & Highlights Organizations The Suicide Prevention Resource Center (SPRC) is supported ...

  10. High Blood Cholesterol Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  11. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  12. Preventing Eye Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Injuries Sections Preventing Eye Injuries Recognizing and Treating ... Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Preventing Eye Injuries Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Mar. ...

  13. Preventing Diabetes Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Preventing Diabetes Problems View or Print All Sections Heart Disease & ... prevent or delay sexual and urologic problems. Depression & Diabetes Depression is common among people with a chronic, ...

  14. Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment Liver Cancer Prevention Liver Cancer Screening Research Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Prevention (PDQ®)–Patient Version What is ... to keep cancer from starting. General Information About Liver (Hepatocellular) Cancer Key Points Liver cancer is a ...

  15. Using communities that care for community child maltreatment prevention.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Amy M; Haggerty, Kevin P; de Haan, Benjamin; Catalano, Richard F; Vann, Terri; Vinson, Jean; Lansing, Michaele

    2016-03-01

    The prevention of mental, emotional, and behavioral (MEB) disorders among children and adolescents is a national priority. One mode of implementing community-wide MEB prevention efforts is through evidence-based community mobilization approaches such as Communities That Care (CTC). This article provides an overview of the CTC framework and discusses the adaptation process of CTC to prevent development of MEBs through preventing child abuse and neglect and bolstering child well-being in children aged 0 to 10. Adaptations include those to the intervention itself as well as those to the evaluation approach. Preliminary findings from the Keeping Families Together pilot study of this evolving approach suggest that the implementation was manageable for sites, and community board functioning and community adoption of a science-based approach to prevention in pilot sites looks promising. Implications and next steps are outlined. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Accident prevention in radiotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Holmberg, O

    2007-01-01

    In order to prevent accidents in radiotherapy, it is important to learn from accidents that have occurred previously. Lessons learned from a number of accidents are summarised and underlying patterns are looked for in this paper. Accidents can be prevented by applying several safety layers of preventive actions. Categories of these preventive actions are discussed together with specific actions belonging to each category of safety layer. PMID:21614274

  17. The Suicide Prevention Continuum

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Dawn

    2010-01-01

    The suicide prevention continuum illustrates a practical approach to the complex issue of suicide prevention. The continuum evolved from discussions with two Aboriginal communities in Atlantic Canada about suicide and the different types of interventions available. The continuum offers a framework and reference tool to differentiate between the different stages of suicide risk. It illustrates where the Aboriginal Community Youth Resilience Network (ACYRN) fits into suicide prevention and how it contributes to prevention knowledge, capacity building, and policy development. PMID:20835376

  18. Radioactive waste shredding: Preliminary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Soelberg, N.R.; Reimann, G.A.

    1994-07-01

    The critical constraints for sizing solid radioactive and mixed wastes for subsequent thermal treatment were identified via a literature review and a survey of shredding equipment vendors. The types and amounts of DOE radioactive wastes that will require treatment to reduce the waste volume, destroy hazardous organics, or immobilize radionuclides and/or hazardous metals were considered. The preliminary steps of waste receipt, inspection, and separation were included because many potential waste treatment technologies have limits on feedstream chemical content, physical composition, and particle size. Most treatment processes and shredding operations require at least some degree of feed material characterization. Preliminary cost estimates show that pretreatment costs per unit of waste can be high and can vary significantly, depending on the processing rate and desired output particle size.

  19. Fall Prevention: Simple Tips to Prevent Falls

    MedlinePlus

    ... fall-prevention plan. High heels, floppy slippers and shoes with slick soles can make you slip, stumble ... your stocking feet. Instead, wear properly fitting, sturdy shoes with nonskid soles. Sensible shoes may also reduce ...

  20. Fire Prevention Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehmann, Jeanne; Claus, William C.

    The fire prevention education bulletin helps schools continue their work to make the home, school, and community safe places in which to live and to help children and young people live in safe ways without developing undue fears. Briefly discussed are the goals of a fire prevention program, who should be concerned with fire prevention education,…

  1. Prevention of Food Poisoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Army Quartermaster School, Ft. Lee, VA.

    The programed text provides a single lesson, four-hour, correspondence subcourse on the prevention of food poisoning. It covers the following areas: a definition of food poisoning; chemical food poisoning; biological food poisoning; causes and prevention of trichinosis; six factors controlling bacteria growth; bacterial infection; prevention of…

  2. Suicide Prevention Triangle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutter, Fred

    This manual provides resource tools and strategies to enhance the suicide prevention capabilities of health professionals and the health care setting in which care is provided. In the first section, terms are defined and the suicide prevention triangle model is described. Applications of the model and good practices for suicide prevention in any…

  3. Lunar Excavator Preliminary Test Video

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This video shows a preliminary test of the boom and bucket wheel assembly of the lunar excavator prototype developed by the Center for Commercial Applications of Combustion at the Colorado School of Mines in Golden. According to Michael Duke, director for the center, the wheel on the end of the boom can dig up 45.36 kilograms (100 pounds) of dirt each hour which is several times the weight of the entire device.

  4. The MUNU experiment : preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busto, J.; MUNU Collaboration

    2000-06-01

    The MUNU collaboration has built a detector to study overlineνe - e - scattering at low energy. From the results we expect to increase the sensitivity to the neutrino magnetic moment. The detector used, a 1 m 3 T.P.C. surrounded by an anti-Compton scintillator, is running at the Bugey nuclear plant. Some preliminary results will be presented in the following.

  5. [Prevention of psychic disorders].

    PubMed

    Siepmann, M

    2012-06-01

    Prevention aims to avoid the occurrence of psychiatric illness and disability caused by psychic disorders. The relevant interventions refer to the individual, the family context and other environmental factors. Universal and primary prevention target the entire population or a part of this (i. e. students). Secondary and selective intervention should prevent the manifestation of psychiatric disorders in vulnerable individuals (i. e. children with behavioral problems). Tertiary measures aim at preventing the worsening or recurrence of symptoms in individuals who already suffer from mental illness. Within the past 25 years protective and risk factors that reduce or increase the probability of occurrence of mental disorders have increasingly been identified. This results in improved prevention. The present article gives an overview of preventive measures against the most common mental disorders in the light of the current evidence base.

  6. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  7. Preliminary considerations concerning actinide solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Newton, T.W.; Bayhurst, B.P.; Daniels, W.R.; Erdal, B.R.; Ogard, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    Work at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory on the fundamental solution chemistry of the actinides has thus far been confined to preliminary considerations of the problems involved in developing an understanding of the precipitation and dissolution behavior of actinide compounds under environmental conditions. Attempts have been made to calculate solubility as a function of Eh and pH using the appropriate thermodynamic data; results have been presented in terms of contour maps showing lines of constant solubility as a function of Eh and pH. Possible methods of control of the redox potential of rock-groundwater systems by the use of Eh buffers (redox couples) is presented.

  8. Dielectric cure monitoring: Preliminary studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, B. E.; Semmel, M. L.

    1984-01-01

    Preliminary studies have been conducted on two types of dielectric cure monitoring systems employing both epoxy resins and phenolic composites. An Audrey System was used for 23 cure monitoring runs with very limited success. Nine complete cure monitoring runs have been investigated using a Micromet System. Two additional measurements were performed to investigate the Micromet's sensitivity to water absorption in a post-cure carbon-phenolic material. While further work is needed to determine data significance, the Micromet system appears to show promise as a feedback control device during processing.

  9. Values in Preventive Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmaster, Barry

    1992-01-01

    We know how lifestyle affects health, yet concern for preventing illness by promoting healthy lifestyles remains marginal in medical practice. Effective preventive strategies can raise daunting moral and political problems about the extent to which individual freedoms may be infringed, particularly on paternalistic grounds. Evaluative questions also arise about more specific matters, such as identifying risk and causal factors, determining what level of risk is acceptable, and deciding how compelling the evidence must be to take preventive action. PMID:11651426

  10. Child Maltreatment Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Violence Data LGB Suicidal Thoughts & Experiences Data LGB Youth Report School Violence Featured Topic: Opportunities for Action Featured Topic: Bullying Research Featured Topic: Prevent Gang Membership Featured Topic: ...

  11. Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? Most people with thyroid cancer have ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  12. Can Myelodysplastic Syndromes Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myelodysplastic Syndromes Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Can Myelodysplastic Syndromes Be Prevented? Since smoking is linked to the ... Syndromes? Can Myelodysplastic Syndromes Be Prevented? More In Myelodysplastic Syndromes About Myelodysplastic Syndromes Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  13. Prevention at Community Colleges. Prevention Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    According to "Community College Student Alcohol Use: Developing Context-Specific Evidence and Prevention Approaches," community colleges have traditionally had a threefold mission that includes preparing students for transfer to four-year colleges, developmental education, and workforce preparation. The researchers point out that the demographic…

  14. Preventing teen pregnancy: what works.

    PubMed

    Dryfoos, J

    1986-01-01

    This discussion reviews the approaches used to prevent teen pregnancy, explores ways of measuring the effects of these activities, and includes examples of programs whose effects have been documented. To avoid unintended pregnancy among young persons, 2 conditions must be met: they must have the capacity and a reason to want to control their fertility. Programs directed toward building capacity include sexuality and family life education and birth control services. Programs directed toward developing a reason for avoiding unintended pregnancy include improving the quality of life and expanding opportunities. Numerous studies have shown that sex education can enhance knowledge, at least in the short term, but little evidence exists that school-based sexuality education, per se, has an effect on attitudes, sexual activity, or contraceptive use. This conclusion has not been put to a real test with controls for the quality of the curriculum and the teaching. 2 new trends are developing as efforts are made to upgrade the quality of the education and to introduce concepts that include the life options approach: sex education is combined with vocational guidance and emerges as "life planning;" and the use of training in decision making to assist the student to take control of her life. Preliminary evaluations of the life planning approach suggest a high degree of user satisfaction and interest but no apparent behavioral changes. Evaluation of the problem-solving method, while based on a very small sample, shows a lessening of risk-taking behavior and an increase in contraceptive use among those who did decide to become sexually active. Whether or not teenagers use contraception obviously is related to pregnancy prevention. For the US as a whole, evidence exists that fertility in areas with clinics has decreased more than in areas without clinic, but that fact offers little upon which to base program design. A new study conducted in Baltimore will show lower pregnancy

  15. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Albert C.; Standley, Vaughn; Voss, Susan S.; Haskin, Eric

    1993-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  16. Preliminary Investigation of a Paraglider

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogallo, Francis M.; Lowry, John G.; Croom, Delwin R.; Taylor, Robert T.

    1960-01-01

    A preliminary investigation of the aerodynamic and control characteristics of a flexible glider similar to a parachute in construction has been made at the Langley Research Center to evaluate its capabilities as a reentry glider. Preliminary weight estimates of the proposed vehicle indicate that such a structure can be made with extremely low wing loading. Maximum temperatures during the reentry maneuver might be held as low as about 1,500 F. The results of wind-tunnel and free-glide tests show that the glider when constructed of nonporous material performed extremely well at subsonic speeds and could be flown at angles of attack from about 200 to 900. At supersonic speeds the wing showed none of the unfavorable tendencies exhibited by conventional parachutes at these speeds, such as squidding and breathing. Several methods of packing and deploying the glider have been successfully demonstrated. The results of this study indicate that this flexible-lifting-surface concept may provide a lightweight controllable paraglider for manned space vehicles.

  17. Descent Advisor Preliminary Field Test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Steven M.; Vivona, Robert A.; Sanford, Beverly

    1995-01-01

    A field test of the Descent Advisor (DA) automation tool was conducted at the Denver Air Route Traffic Control Center in September 1994. DA is being developed to assist Center controllers in the efficient management and control of arrival traffic. DA generates advisories, based on trajectory predictions, to achieve accurate meter-fix arrival times in a fuel efficient manner while assisting the controller with the prediction and resolution of potential conflicts. The test objectives were: (1) to evaluate the accuracy of DA trajectory predictions for conventional and flight-management system equipped jet transports, (2) to identify significant sources of trajectory prediction error, and (3) to investigate procedural and training issues (both air and ground) associated with DA operations. Various commercial aircraft (97 flights total) and a Boeing 737-100 research aircraft participated in the test. Preliminary results from the primary test set of 24 commercial flights indicate a mean DA arrival time prediction error of 2.4 seconds late with a standard deviation of 13.1 seconds. This paper describes the field test and presents preliminary results for the commercial flights.

  18. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. . Dept. of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering)

    1992-01-01

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz 11 space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safely assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the US with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  19. Topaz II preliminary safety assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, A.C. ); Standley, V. ); Voss, S.S. ); Haskin, E. )

    1993-01-10

    The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) decided to investigate the possibility of launching a Russian Topaz II space nuclear power system. A preliminary safety assessment was conducted to determine whether or not a space mission could be conducted safely and within budget constraints. As part of this assessment, a safety policy and safety functional requirements were developed to guide both the safety assessment and future Topaz II activities. A review of the Russian flight safety program was conducted and documented. Our preliminary safety assessment included a top level event tree, neutronic analysis of normal and accident configurations, an evaluation of temperature coefficients of reactivity, a reentry and disposal analysis, and analysis of postulated launch abort impact accidents, and an analysis of postulated propellant fire and explosion accidents. Based on the assessment, it appears that it will be possible to safely launch the Topaz II system in the U.S. with some possible system modifications. The principal system modifications will probably include design changes to preclude water flooded criticality and to assure intact reentry.

  20. Prevention across the Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Emily C.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Describes curriculum infusion, a prevention strategy that is particularly effective on commuter campuses. Faculty design modules for their own courses in which the prevention information fits seamlessly with the scholarly content and students actively process that information. Workers in academic affairs identify courses, recruit and train…

  1. IMPACT Youth Crime Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warrington, Georgina; Wright, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Four models of crime prevention are discussed that arise from differing views of the causes of crime: criminal justice, situational, developmental, and social development models. Two activity-based youth crime prevention projects in Queensland (Australia) use developmental and social development models and expand local youth service…

  2. Neverstreaming: Preventing Learning Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Robert E.

    1996-01-01

    Schools can reduce special-education and remedial instruction costs by helping students succeed in early grades. This article profiles several prevention and early intervention programs, including Success for All, Reading Recovery, Prevention of Learning Disabilities, the Carolina Abecedarian Project, Comer's School Development Program, and…

  3. Can I Prevent Acne?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? Print ... en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  4. Fire Prevention Inspection Procedures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribyl, Paul F.

    Lesson plans are provided for a fire prevention inspection course of the Wisconsin Fire Service Training program. Objectives for the course are to enable students to describe and conduct fire prevention inspections, to identify and correct hazards common to most occupancies, to understand the types of building construction and occupancy, and to…

  5. Can I Prevent Acne?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Can I Prevent Acne? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can I Prevent Acne? A ... en español ¿Puedo prevenir el acné? What Causes Acne? Contrary to what you may have heard, acne ...

  6. Teaching Prevention in Pediatrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Tina L.; Greenberg, Larrie; Loeser, Helen; Keller, David

    2000-01-01

    Reviews methods of teaching preventive medicine in pediatrics and highlights innovative programs. Methods of teaching prevention in pediatrics include patient interactions, self-directed learning, case-based learning, small-group learning, standardized patients, computer-assisted instruction, the Internet, student-centered learning, and lectures.…

  7. Pfiesteria in Maryland: preliminary epidemiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Golub, J E; Haselow, D T; Hageman, J C; Lopez, A S; Oldach, D W; Grattan, L M; Perl, T M

    1998-05-01

    In the fall of 1996, fish kills in Maryland rivers were attributed to the dinoflagellate, Pfiesteria piscicida. After a group of researchers established a potential link between exposure to Pfiesteria and an illness causing memory problems, state health authorities closed a portion of the Pocomoke River. To determine the extent of illness, the range of symptoms, potential risk factors for disease, and to provide information to concerned citizens, a toll-free hotline was created. All symptomatic persons who called the toll-free number were administered a standardized questionnaire. Persons who had been exposed to Pfiesteria or Pfiesteria-laden waters were more likely to have respiratory, neurologic, dermatologic, and gastrointestinal problems than those persons without exposure. Among the persons calling the hotline, many had extensive neuropsychologic testing. Of the neuropsychologic test battery, low scores on the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test (RAVLT), a standardized measure of learning and memory, best characterized illness related to Pfiesteria exposure. Patients with low RAVLT scores were more likely to have neurologic symptoms and skin lesions than control subjects. Low RAVLT scores were associated with fishing (OR, 9.00, 95% CI, 106, 409.87), catching fish with lesions (OR, 6.17, 95% CI 1.27, 32.10), and handling fish with lesions (OR, 5.34, 95% CI, 1.05, 29.92), but not with consumption of seafood. While preliminary, these results do suggest that some risk factors for Pfiesteria-related illness may be easy to modify and used to prevent unnecessary human exposure.

  8. Zika Virus Disease in Colombia - Preliminary Report.

    PubMed

    Pacheco, Oscar; Beltrán, Mauricio; Nelson, Christina A; Valencia, Diana; Tolosa, Natalia; Farr, Sherry L; Padilla, Ana V; Tong, Van T; Cuevas, Esther L; Espinosa-Bode, Andrés; Pardo, Lissethe; Rico, Angélica; Reefhuis, Jennita; González, Maritza; Mercado, Marcela; Chaparro, Pablo; Martínez Duran, Mancel; Rao, Carol Y; Muñoz, María M; Powers, Ann M; Cuéllar, Claudia; Helfand, Rita; Huguett, Claudia; Jamieson, Denise J; Honein, Margaret A; Ospina Martínez, Martha L

    2016-06-15

    Background Colombia began official surveillance for Zika virus disease (ZVD) in August 2015. In October 2015, an outbreak of ZVD was declared after laboratory-confirmed disease was identified in nine patients. Methods Using the national population-based surveillance system, we assessed patients with clinical symptoms of ZVD from August 9, 2015, to April 2, 2016. Laboratory test results and pregnancy outcomes were evaluated for a subgroup of pregnant women. Concurrently, we investigated reports of microcephaly for evidence of congenital ZVD. Results By April 2, 2016, there were 65,726 cases of ZVD reported in Colombia, of which 2485 (4%) were confirmed by means of reverse-transcriptase-polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The overall reported incidence of ZVD among female patients was twice that in male patients. A total of 11,944 pregnant women with ZVD were reported in Colombia, with 1484 (12%) of these cases confirmed on RT-PCR assay. In a subgroup of 1850 pregnant women, more than 90% of women who were reportedly infected during the third trimester had given birth, and no infants with apparent abnormalities, including microcephaly, have been identified. A majority of the women who contracted ZVD in the first or second trimester were still pregnant at the time of this report. Among the cases of microcephaly investigated from January 2016 through April 2016, four patients had laboratory evidence of congenital ZVD; all were born to asymptomatic mothers who were not included in the ZVD surveillance system. Conclusions Preliminary surveillance data in Colombia suggest that maternal infection with the Zika virus during the third trimester of pregnancy is not linked to structural abnormalities in the fetus. However, the monitoring of the effect of ZVD on pregnant women in Colombia is ongoing. (Funded by Colombian Instituto Nacional de Salud and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  9. 37 CFR 1.115 - Preliminary amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... amendment unduly interferes with the preparation of a first Office action in an application. Factors that... first Office action as of the date of receipt (§ 1.6) of the preliminary amendment by the Office; and... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary amendments....

  10. 37 CFR 1.115 - Preliminary amendments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amendment unduly interferes with the preparation of a first Office action in an application. Factors that... first Office action as of the date of receipt (§ 1.6) of the preliminary amendment by the Office; and... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preliminary amendments....

  11. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a)...

  12. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a)...

  13. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a)...

  14. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a)...

  15. 23 CFR 645.109 - Preliminary engineering.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preliminary engineering. 645.109 Section 645.109 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING AND TRAFFIC OPERATIONS UTILITIES Utility Relocations, Adjustments, and Reimbursement § 645.109 Preliminary engineering. (a)...

  16. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  17. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  18. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  19. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  20. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  1. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  2. 32 CFR 1801.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1801.11 Section 1801.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing Of Privacy Act Requests § 1801.11 Preliminary...

  3. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  4. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  5. 18 CFR 1b.6 - Preliminary investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary investigations. 1b.6 Section 1b.6 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY GENERAL RULES RULES RELATING TO INVESTIGATIONS § 1b.6 Preliminary investigations....

  6. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... any proposed structures, anticipated water needs, and the environmental impacts. (b) Preliminary... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Preliminary consultations. 806.11 Section 806.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER...

  7. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... any proposed structures, anticipated water needs, and the environmental impacts. (b) Preliminary... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary consultations. 806.11 Section 806.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER...

  8. 18 CFR 806.11 - Preliminary consultations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... any proposed structures, anticipated water needs, and the environmental impacts. (b) Preliminary... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary consultations. 806.11 Section 806.11 Conservation of Power and Water Resources SUSQUEHANNA RIVER...

  9. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced...

  10. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced...

  11. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced...

  12. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 158.345 Section 158.345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced...

  13. 32 CFR 1901.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1901.11 Section 1901.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing of Privacy Act Requests § 1901.11 Preliminary information....

  14. 32 CFR 1901.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1901.11 Section 1901.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AGENCY PUBLIC RIGHTS UNDER THE PRIVACY ACT OF 1974 Filing of Privacy Act Requests § 1901.11 Preliminary information....

  15. Plutonium Immobilization Can Loading Preliminary Specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Kriikku, E.

    1998-11-25

    This report discusses the Plutonium Immobilization can loading preliminary equipment specifications and includes a process block diagram, process description, equipment list, preliminary equipment specifications, plan and elevation sketches, and some commercial catalogs. This report identifies loading pucks into cans and backfilling cans with helium as the top priority can loading development areas.

  16. Surveyor 3 Preliminary Science Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1967-01-01

    Surveyor III soft-landed on the Moon at 00:04 GMT on April 20, 1967. Data obtained have significantly increased our knowledge of the Moon. The Surveyor III spacecraft was similar to Surveyor I; the only major change in scientific instrumentation was the addition of a soil mechanics surface sampler. Surveyor III results at this preliminary evaluation of data give valuable information about the relation between the surface skin of under-dense material responsible for the photometric properties and the deeper layers of material whose properties resemble those of ordinary terrestrial soils. In addition, they provide new insight into the relation between the general lunar surface as seen by Surveyor I and the interior of a large subdued crater. The new results have also contributed to our understanding of the mechanism of downhill transport. Many critical questions cannot, however, be answered until final reduction of experimental data.

  17. Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues.

    PubMed

    Adams, Kenneth Alan

    2015-01-01

    "Psychohistory and Slavery: Preliminary Issues," begins an examination of slavery in the antebellum South. The paper suggests that how slavery and the group-fantasy of white male supremacy were perpetuated among slaveholders is a question of fundamental importance for psychohistorians. The family and childrearing are the focus of attention. Given the ferocity of slavery, it is argued that the psychological and emotional consequences of this barbarism were not limited to the slaves themselves, but had significant impact on the slaveholders as well-their parenting, their children, and their children's parenting of the next generation. In each generation the trauma of slavery was injected into slaveholder children and became a fundamental component of elite Southern personality.

  18. Genesis Preliminary Examination: Ellipsometry Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stansbery, E. K.; McNamara, K. M.

    2005-01-01

    The Genesis spacecraft returned to Earth on September 8, 2004, experiencing a non-nominal reentry in which both the drogue and main parachutes failed to deploy causing the capsule to impact the surface of the UTTR desert at a speed of approximately 310 kph (193 mph). The impact caused severe damage to the capsule and a breach of the science canister in the field. The science canister was recovered and transported to the cleanroom at UTTR within approximately 8 hours of reentry. Although the ground water table did not rise to canister level before removal, damp soil and debris from the heat shield and other spacecraft components did enter the canister and contaminate some collector surfaces. The objective of preliminary examination of the Genesis collectors is to provide the science community with the information necessary to request the most useful samples for their analysis.

  19. Preliminary results of UCN τ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattie, Robert; UCNtau Collaboration

    2017-01-01

    There is currently a 4 σ discrepancy between measurements of the neutron lifetime performed using cold neutron beams and those performed with ultracold neutron (UCN) storage vessels. The UCN τ experiment uses an asymmetric magneto-gravitational UCN trap with in situ counting of surviving neutrons to measure the neutron lifetime. This design eliminates a major systematic of previous bottle experiments related to the loss of UCN on material trap walls and with unloading neutrons from the storage vessel. A new in situ detection system was used in the 2015-2016 run that was able to measure the population of surviving UCN at different heights in the trap, providing important information on spectral evolution. Understanding the behavior of quasi-bound UCN in a bottle experiment is essential to achieving a subsecond precision measurement of τn. We will present the preliminary results from the 2015-2016 data set and an update on the UCN τ experiment.

  20. Monsoon '90 - Preliminary SAR results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dubois, Pascale C.; Van Zyl, Jakob J.; Guerra, Abel G.

    1992-01-01

    Multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the Walnut Gulch watershed near Tombstone, Arizona were acquired on 28 Mar. 1990 and on 1 Aug. 1990. Trihedral corner reflectors were deployed prior to both overflights to allow calibration of the two SAR data sets. During both overflights, gravimetric soil moisture and dielectric constant measurements were made. Detailed vegetation height, density, and water content measurements were made as part of the Monsoon 1990 Experiment. Preliminary results based on analysis of the multitemporal polarimetric SAR data are presented. Only the C-band data (5.7-cm wavelength) radar images show significant difference between Mar. and Aug., with the strongest difference observed in the HV images. Based on the radar data analysis and the in situ measurements, we conclude that these differences are mainly due to changes in the vegetation and not due to the soil moisture changes.

  1. Monsoon 1990: Preliminary SAR results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzyl, Jakob J.; Dubois, Pascale; Guerra, Abel

    1991-01-01

    Multifrequency polarimetric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the Walnut Gulch watershed near Tombstone, Arizona were acquired on 28 Mar. 1990 and on 1 Aug. 1990. Trihedral corner reflectors were deployed prior to both overflights to allow calibration of the two SAR data sets. During both overflights, gravimetric soil moisture and dielectric constant measurements were made. Detailed vegetation height, density, and water content measurements were made as part of the Monsoon 1990 Experiment. Preliminary results based on analysis of the multitemporal polarimetric SAR data are presented. Only the C-band data (5.7-cm wavelength) radar images show significant difference between Mar. and Aug., with the strongest difference observed in the HV images. Based on the radar data analysis and the in situ measurements, we conclude that these differences are mainly due to changes in the vegetation and not due to the soil moisture changes.

  2. [Prevention of alcohol dependence].

    PubMed

    Trova, A C; Paparrigopoulos, Th; Liappas, I; Ginieri-Coccossis, M

    2015-01-01

    With the exception of cardiovascular diseases, no other medical condition causes more serious dysfunction or premature deaths than alcohol-related problems. Research results indicate that alcohol dependent individuals present an exceptionally poor level of quality of life. This is an outcome that highlights the necessity of planning and implementing preventive interventions on biological, psychological or social level, to be provided to individuals who make alcohol abuse, as well as to their families. Preventive interventions can be considered on three levels of prevention: (a) primary prevention, which is focused on the protection of healthy individuals from alcohol abuse and dependence, and may be provided on a universal, selective or indicated level, (b) secondary prevention, which aims at the prevention of deterioration regarding alcoholic dependence and relapse, in the cases of individuals already diagnosed with the condition and (c) tertiary prevention, which is focused at minimizing deterioration of functioning in chronically sufferers from alcoholic dependence. The term "quaternary prevention" can be used for the prevention of relapse. As for primary prevention, interventions focus on assessing the risk of falling into problematic use, enhancing protective factors and providing information and health education in general. These interventions can be delivered in schools or in places of work and recreation for young people. In this context, various programs have been applied in different countries, including Greece with positive results (Preventure, Alcolocks, LST, SFP, Alcohol Ignition Interlock Device). Secondary prevention includes counseling and structured help with the delivery of programs in schools and in high risk groups for alcohol dependence (SAP, LST). These programs aim at the development of alcohol refusal skills and behaviors, the adoption of models of behaviors resisting alcohol use, as well as reinforcement of general social skills. In the

  3. Prevention of Alzheimer disease

    PubMed Central

    Scalco, Monica Zavaloni; van Reekum, Robert

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To review the evidence regarding prevention of Alzheimer disease (AD) in order to highlight the role of family medicine. QUALITY OF EVIDENCE Most of the evidence relating to prevention of AD is derived from observational (cross-sectional, case-control, or longitudinal) studies. Evidence from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) is available only for blood pressure control and for hormone replacement therapy for menopausal women. MAIN MESSAGE Many preventive approaches to AD have been identified, but no RCTs support their efficacy. Evidence from RCTs supports the effectiveness of blood pressure control in reducing incidence of AD, but demonstrates that postmenopausal women’s use of estrogen is ineffective in reducing it. Observational studies suggest that some preventive approaches, such as healthy lifestyle, ongoing education, regular physical activity, and cholesterol control, play a role in prevention of AD. These approaches can and should be used for every patient because they carry no significant risk. Currently, no effective pharmacologic interventions have been researched enough to support their use in prevention of AD. CONCLUSION Health professionals should educate patients, especially patients at higher risk of AD, about preventive strategies and potentially modifiable risk factors. PMID:16529393

  4. Prevention of hip fractures.

    PubMed

    Meunier, P J

    1993-11-30

    For a 50-year old Caucasian woman today, the risk of a hip fracture over her remaining life-time is about 17%. Tomorrow the situation will clearly be worse because the continuous increase in life expectancy will cause a three-fold increase in worldwide fracture incidence over the next 60 years. Through diagnostic bone mass measurements at the hip and assessment of biochemical parameters, a great deal has been learned in recent years about reduction of hip fracture risk. Preventive strategies are based on prevention of falls, use of hip protectors, and prevention of bone fragility. The latter includes the optimization of peak bone mass during childhood, postmenopausal estrogen replacement therapy, and also late prevention consisting in reversing senile secondary hyperparathyroidism, which plays an important role in the decrease of skeletal strength. This secondary hyperparathyroidism, which results from both vitamin D insufficiency and low calcium intake, is preventable with vitamin D3 and calcium supplements. They have recently been shown capable of providing effective prevention of hip fractures in elderly women living in nursing homes, with a reduction of about 25% in the number of hip fractures noted in a 3-year controlled study in 3,270 women (intention-to-treat analysis). In conclusion, it is never too early to reduce the risk of osteoporosis and never too late to prevent hip fractures.

  5. Stardust interstellar preliminary examination (ISPE).

    SciTech Connect

    Westphal, A.J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Flynn, G.L.; Sutton, S.

    2009-03-23

    The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the Stardust interstellar dust collection and collector using non-destructive techniques. We summarize the status of the ISPE. In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, Comet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return of contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were {approx}0.1 m{sup 2} in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the collecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Collector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m{sup 2}-day during two periods before the cometary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using nondestructive techniques. The goals and restrictions of the ISPE are described in Westphal et al. The ISPE consists of six interdependent projects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microscopy and a massively distributed, calibrated search; (2) Candidate extraction and photodocumentation; (3) Characterization of candidates through synchrotron-based Fourier-Tranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning X-Ray Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission X-ray Microscopy (STXM); (4) Search for and analysis of craters in foils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotron-based Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM); (5) Modeling of interstellar dust transport in the solar system; and (6) Laboratory simulations of hypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media.

  6. Transgender HIV prevention: a qualitative needs assessment.

    PubMed

    Bockting, W O; Robinson, B E; Rosser, B R

    1998-08-01

    Although clinical experience and preliminary research suggest that some transgender people are at significant risk for HIV, this stigmatized group has so far been largely ignored in HIV prevention. As part of the development of HIV prevention education targeting the transgender population, focus groups of selected transgender individuals assessed their HIV risks and prevention needs. Data were gathered in the following four areas: (1) the impact of HIV/AIDS on transgender persons; (2) risk factors; (3) information and services needed; and (4) recruitment strategies. Findings indicated that HIV/AIDS compounds stigmatization related to transgender identity, interferes with sexual experimentation during the transgender 'coming out' process, and may interfere with obtaining sex reassignment. Identified transgender-specific risk factors include: sexual identity conflict, shame and isolation, secrecy, search for affirmation, compulsive sexual behaviour, prostitution, and sharing needles while injecting hormones. Community involvement, peer education and affirmation of transgender identity were stressed as integral components of a successful intervention. Education of health professionals about transgender identity and sexuality and support groups for transgender people with HIV/AIDS are urgently needed.

  7. Guideline Implementation: Preventing Hypothermia.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-03-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for prevention of unplanned patient hypothermia" provides guidance for identifying factors associated with intraoperative hypothermia, preventing hypothermia, educating perioperative personnel on this topic, and developing relevant policies and procedures. This article focuses on key points of the guideline, which addresses performing a preoperative assessment for factors that may contribute to hypothermia, measuring and monitoring the patient's temperature in all phases of perioperative care, and implementing interventions to prevent hypothermia. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures.

  8. [Prevention of oral diseases].

    PubMed

    Vodanović, Marin

    2013-06-01

    Oral health is essential to general health and quality of life. Ever more people are affected with oral diseases. Dental caries, gingivitis and periodontitis are the most common oral diseases and they can be prevented. Oral health promotion and oral disease prevention programs should be incorporated in national health strategies. Inability to understand health information can be a profound disadvantage to patients when asked to take responsibility for their health. Increasing the level of oral health literacy and improvement of communication between patients and dentists by avoiding the usage of professional dental terminology should be included in each oral prevention program.

  9. Household Safety: Preventing Choking

    MedlinePlus

    ... room a child shouldn't enter to prevent wandering into places that haven't been properly childproofed. ... the activities that develop your child's body and mind. Reviewed by: Rupal Christine Gupta, MD Date reviewed: ...

  10. Preventive Law on Campus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Paul; Tribbensee, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how, by fostering a teamwork relationship between administrators and university attorneys, the preventive law approach can effectively identify risks and develop strategies and policies in advance of any individual legal dispute. (EV)

  11. Wildfire Prevention Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Wildlife Coordinating Group, Boise, ID.

    This document provides information and guidance on wildfire prevention strategies. Chapters include: (1) "Introduction"; (2) "How to Use this Guide"; (3) "Fire Cause Classification"; (4) "Relative Effectiveness"; (5) "Degree of Difficulty"; (6) "Intervention Techniques"; (7)…

  12. Prevent Cervical Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... Links Inside Knowledge Campaign What CDC Is Doing Research AMIGAS Fighting Cervical Cancer Worldwide Stay Informed ... Prevent Cervical Cancer with the Right Test at the Right Time Screening tests can find abnormal cells so they ...

  13. Polyp Prevention Trial

    Cancer.gov

    The primary objective of the Polyp Prevention Trial (PPT) is to determine whether a low fat, high fiber, high vegetable and fruit eating plan will decrease the recurrence of adenomatous polyps of the large bowel.

  14. Preventability of Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Colditz, Graham A.; Wei, Esther K.

    2013-01-01

    Whereas models of cancer disparities and variation in cancer burden within population groups now specify multiple levels of action from biologic processes to individual risk factors and social and physical contextual factors, approaches to estimating the preventable proportion of cancer use more traditional direct models often from single exposures to cancer at specific organ sites. These approaches are reviewed, and the strengths and limitations are presented. The need for additional multilevel data and approaches to estimation of preventability are identified. International or regional variation in cancer may offer the most integrated exposure assessment over the life course. For the four leading cancers, which account for 50% of incidence and mortality, biologic, social, and physical environments play differing roles in etiology and potential prevention. Better understanding of the interactions and contributions across these levels will help refine prevention strategies. PMID:22224878

  15. Automating Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oshier, Michael J.

    1984-01-01

    Describes the following aspects of the State University of New York-Brockport's preventive maintenance computerization project: (1) software selection, (2) project implementation; and (3) problems and benefits of the system. (MCG)

  16. Chemical Accident Prevention Publications

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    These include chemical safety alerts, emergency preparedness and prevention advisories, and topical backgrounders. Excess flow valves, protecting workers in ethylene oxide sterilization facilities, reactivity hazards, and delayed coker units are covered.

  17. Wound Care: Preventing Infection

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent swelling. Take care of your whole self – body, mind, and spirit. Eat well and drink plenty of water to strengthen your body’s natural healing capacity. Check your residual limb regularly ...

  18. Profiting from pollution prevention

    SciTech Connect

    LoPilato, A.J.; Eng, D.B.

    1994-12-31

    In the case of pollution prevention, national environmental goals coincide with industry`s economic interests. Most, if not all businesses have strong incentives to reduce the toxicity and quantities of wastes generated. These incentives include not only the ever increasing cost of compliance within a growing framework of regulations, but may include a firms desire to reduce the risk of criminal and civil liability, reduce overall operating costs, improve employee morale and participation, enhance corporate image in the community and insure protection of both public health and the environment. Although some businesses may invest in a pollution prevention program because it is the green thin to do, most businesses will weight their initial and long-term pollution prevention program investments on sound economic analyses. An effective pollution prevention program can provide cost savings that will more than offset the initial development and implementation costs.

  19. Can Vaginitis Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gynecologic Health and Disease Branch Division of Epidemiology, Statistics, and Prevention Research 2012 Annual Report All related news Home Contact Accessibility Web Policies and Notices FOIA Facebook Twitter Pinterest YouTube ...

  20. Tips to Prevent Poisonings

    MedlinePlus

    ... back programs in your community . Household Chemicals and Carbon Monoxide Always read the label before using a ... American Association of Poison Control Centers, Inc. CDC: Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Prevention Guidelines U.S. Food and Drug ...

  1. Prevent Bite Wounds

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pediatrician Health Issues Conditions Abdominal ADHD Allergies & Asthma Autism Cancer Chest & Lungs Chronic Conditions Cleft & Craniofacial Developmental ... of immune globulin and begin a series of immunizations against the rabies virus, which will prevent the ...

  2. Cleanup and Prevention Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA takes strides to prevent and cleanup contamination and contaminated sites located on or near Tribal lands. Our programs work hand-in-hand with tribes to ensure we protect their health and the environment.

  3. Men's Health: Violence Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Men's Health This information in Spanish ( en español ) Violence prevention for men Get help for violence in ... whole community. Return to top Get help for violence in your life Are you a victim of ...

  4. Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Recruiting Patients & Families Consortia, Networks & Centers Reports & Planning Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) Page Content On this page: ... increased risk of developing diabetes. [ Top ] Type 2 Diabetes and Prediabetes Type 2 diabetes is a disorder ...

  5. Prevention of premature birth.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, F

    1980-03-01

    With six different groups of pharmacologic agents that potentially can inhibit undesirable uterine contractions, prevention of premature births should be increasingly successful. The rationale for the use of each of these agents and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed.

  6. Scabies: Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diagnostic Assistance [DPDx] Error processing SSI file Prevention & Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir When a ... avoid outbreaks. Institutional outbreaks can be difficult to control and require a rapid, aggressive, and sustained response. ...

  7. Prevention of Hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Mei-Hwei; Chen, Ding-Shinn

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes life-threatening liver disease. It is transmitted through a horizontal route or a mother-to-infant route, and the latter is the major route in endemic areas. Prevention of HBV infection by immunization is the best way to eliminate HBV-related diseases. The HBV vaccine is the first human vaccine using a viral antigen from infected persons, which is safe and effective. Either passive immunization by hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) or active immunization by HBV vaccine is effective, and a combination of both yields the best efficacy in preventing HBV infection. The impact of universal HBV immunization is huge, with 90%–95% effectiveness in preventing chronic HBV infection. It is the first cancer preventive vaccine with a protective efficacy against hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) of ∼70%. Nevertheless, further effort is still needed to avoid vaccine failure and to increase the global coverage rate. PMID:25732034

  8. Preventing Sexually Transmitted Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kieren, Dianne; Cumming, Ceinwen E.; Cumming, David C.

    1992-01-01

    The discouraging results of early efforts to educate the public about sexually transmitted diseases indicated that the goals of STD preventive action must be longer term and must change attitudes and behaviour as well as educate. They must also avoid an ostrich mentality about the sexual involvement of young people. This article examines more recent approaches to teaching about sexuality in general and STD prevention in particular. PMID:21221351

  9. Preventing Obesity through Schools

    PubMed Central

    Nihiser, Allison; Merlo, Caitlin; Lee, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    PRÉCIS This paper describes highlights from the Weight of the Nation™ 2012 Schools Track. Included is a summary of 16 presentations. Presenters shared key actions for obesity prevention through schools. The information provided at the Weight of the Nation™ can help school health practitioners access tools, apply evidence-based strategies, and model real-world examples to successfully start obesity prevention initiatives in their jurisdiction. PMID:24446995

  10. Adolescent suicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Novick, Lloyd F; Cibula, Donald A; Sutphen, Sally M

    2003-05-01

    This case-prevention of adolescent suicide-is one of a series of teaching cases in the Case-Based Series in Population-Oriented Prevention (C-POP). It has been developed for use in medical school and residency prevention curricula. The complete set of cases is presented in this supplement to the American Journal of Preventive Medicine. This teaching case examines the issue of prevention of adolescent and young adult suicide both at an individual and at a population or community level, using data from the Onondaga County Health Department. In the first section of the case, students are asked to determine whether five deaths related to falling or jumping at a local shopping mall should be considered to be suicidal deaths. Students then develop skills in the reporting as well as in the epidemiology of adolescent suicidal deaths in Onondaga County. As the case progresses, students analyze the results of a local surveillance study of suicidal attempts and ideation. The case concludes with students evaluating a hypothetical screening study intended to reduce the risk of suicidal death and discussing a research design to examine the effectiveness of this prevention strategy.

  11. [Insurance and preventive medicine].

    PubMed

    Delachaux, A; Stark, E W; von Schroeder, F

    1978-12-01

    Not only do insurance companies have to pay in case of death, injuries or disease, they are also concerned with their prevention. This is particularly true for the "Swiss National Accident Insurance Fund" (Caisse nationale suisse d'assurance en cas d'accidents--(CNA): for them the prevention of work related accidents and occupational diseases is required by law. Preventive activities in this area are very promising. The progress in the sickness insurance programmes for preventive medicine in the general population has, however, not been as successful. To date, the legislation denies payment for preventive medical care. Why is there this difference? In the case of accidents and occupational diseases, the cause of the pathologies are for the most part exogenous and develop in well known and controlled environments. In the case of disease or invalidity in the general population, the factors are in a large part endogenous and therefore very difficult to supervise, as they develop in much more complex and uncontrolled environments. Nevertheless progress has been done in this field as well. At present, some selected scientifically proven preventive examinations could be included in insurance programmes as part of a general plan and with strict quality control of laboratory findings.

  12. [Can falls be prevented?].

    PubMed

    Dubousset, Jean

    2014-06-01

    Most recommendations and measures intended to prevent falls focus on the elderly (see HAS guideline of April 2009) but, in our opinion, this isfar too late: prevention must begin much earlier, not only by identifying persons at risk, but also by providing personalized lifestyle advice adapted to each individual's biomechanical, somatic, neurological and biological characteristics. The first preventive measure is to identify a possible deterioration of balance, starting with a physical examination at the age of 45 and repeated regularly throughout life. Extrinsic preventive measures focusing on the domestic and external environments are clearly necessary. But what is most important is to detect and, if necessary, correct any degradation of intrinsic (intracorporeal or somatic) factors starting at the age of 45 years; these include vision, vestibular function and balance, proprioception, and psychological and neurological status. Chronic illnesses and their treatments must also be taken into account: treatment must be limited to indispensable drugs; sedative psychotropics must be avoided if possible; and polymedication must be tightly controlled, as it is a major risk factor for falls. Prevention also requires a diet sufficiently rich in protein, calcium and vitamin D3 (to prevent osteoporosis), and regular daily exercise adapted to the individual, if possible associated with a simultaneous cognitive task. The last key point is the absolute need for thorough functional rehabilitation after any accidental or medical trauma, regardless of age, with the aim of restoring functional status to that existing prior to the accident.

  13. Mobile text messaging solutions for obesity prevention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akopian, David; Jayaram, Varun; Aaleswara, Lakshmipathi; Esfahanian, Moosa; Mojica, Cynthia; Parra-Medina, Deborah; Kaghyan, Sahak

    2011-02-01

    Cellular telephony has become a bright example of co-evolution of human society and information technology. This trend has also been reflected in health care and health promotion projects which included cell phones in data collection and communication chain. While many successful projects have been realized, the review of phone-based data collection techniques reveals that the existing technologies do not completely address health promotion research needs. The paper presents approaches which close this gap by extending existing versatile platforms. The messaging systems are designed for a health-promotion research to prevent obesity and obesity-related health disparities among low-income Latino adolescent girls. Messaging and polling mechanisms are used to communicate and automatically process response data for the target constituency. Preliminary survey data provide an insight on phone availability and technology perception for the study group.

  14. Preliminary design of JEM ECLSS and TCS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, T.; Otsuki, F.; Suzuki, K.; Shibutani, S.; Hattori, A.; Sasayama, H.; Inoue, M.; Sugai, W.

    1991-12-01

    Preliminary design of the Japanese Module (JEM), which will be attached to the U.S. Space Station Freedom (SSF), began in early 1991. The target of the design activities is the Preliminary Design Review (PDR) planned in the beginning of 1992. The pressurized module of the JEM is composed of several subsystems including the Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS), the Thermal Control System (TCS), mechanical equipment (airlock), the data management system, the communications and tracking system, the electrical power system, and the experiment support system. The preliminary design of ECLSS and TCS including the baseline configurations and the design requirements are described.

  15. Preventing head injuries in children

    MedlinePlus

    Concussion - preventing in children; Traumatic brain injury - preventing in children; TBI - children; Safety - preventing head injury ... not ride on these vehicles. After having a concussion or mild head injury , your child may need ...

  16. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  17. Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart disease and stroke prevention Heart Health and Stroke Heart disease and stroke prevention Related information Learn more about healthy eating ... to top More information on Heart disease and stroke prevention Read more from womenshealth.gov A Lifetime ...

  18. Space station preliminary design report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The results of a 3 month preliminary design and analysis effort is presented. The configuration that emerged consists of a very stiff deployable truss structure with an overall triangular cross section having universal modules attached at the apexes. Sufficient analysis was performed to show feasibility of the configuration. An evaluation of the structure shows that desirable attributes of the configuration are: (1) the solar cells, radiators, and antennas will be mounted to stiff structure to minimize control problems during orbit maintenance and correction, docking, and attitude control; (2) large flat areas are available for mounting and servicing of equipment; (3) Large mass items can be mounted near the center of gravity of the system to minimize gravity gradient torques; (4) the trusses are lightweight structures and can be transported into orbit in one Shuttle flight; (5) the trusses are expandable and will require a minimum of EVA; and (6) the modules are anticipated to be structurally identical except for internal equipment to minimize cost.

  19. Advanced space engine preliminary design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuffe, J. P. B.; Bradie, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    A preliminary design was completed for an O2/H2, 89 kN (20,000 lb) thrust staged combustion rocket engine that has a single-bell nozzle with an overall expansion ratio of 400:1. The engine has a best estimate vacuum specific impulse of 4623.8 N-s/kg (471.5 sec) at full thrust and mixture ratio = 6.0. The engine employs gear-driven, low pressure pumps to provide low NPSH capability while individual turbine-driven, high-speed main pumps provide the system pressures required for high-chamber pressure operation. The engine design dry weight for the fixed-nozzle configuration is 206.9 kg (456.3 lb). Engine overall length is 234 cm (92.1 in.). The extendible nozzle version has a stowed length of 141.5 cm (55.7 in.). Critical technology items in the development of the engine were defined. Development program plans and their costs for development, production, operation, and flight support of the ASE were established for minimum cost and minimum time programs.

  20. Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination (ISPE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westphal, A. J.; Allen, C.; Bajt, S.; Basset, R.; Bastien, R.; Bechtel, H.; Bleuet, P.; Borg, J.; Brenker F.; Bridges, J.

    2009-01-01

    In January 2006 the Stardust sample return capsule returned to Earth bearing the first solid samples from a primitive solar system body, C omet 81P/Wild2, and a collector dedicated to the capture and return o f contemporary interstellar dust. Both collectors were approximately 0.1m(exp 2) in area and were composed of aerogel tiles (85% of the co llecting area) and aluminum foils. The Stardust Interstellar Dust Col lector (SIDC) was exposed to the interstellar dust stream for a total exposure factor of 20 m(exp 2-) day during two periods before the co metary encounter. The Stardust Interstellar Preliminary Examination ( ISPE) is a three-year effort to characterize the collection using no ndestructive techniques. The ISPE consists of six interdependent proj ects: (1) Candidate identification through automated digital microsco py and a massively distributed, calibrated search (2) Candidate extr action and photodocumentation (3) Characterization of candidates thro ugh synchrotronbased FourierTranform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), S canning XRay Fluoresence Microscopy (SXRF), and Scanning Transmission Xray Microscopy (STXM) (4) Search for and analysis of craters in f oils through FESEM scanning, Auger Spectroscopy and synchrotronbased Photoemission Electron Microscopy (PEEM) (5) Modeling of interstell ar dust transport in the solar system (6) Laboratory simulations of h ypervelocity dust impacts into the collecting media

  1. EUPORIAS: plans and preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buontempo, C.

    2013-12-01

    Recent advances in our understanding and ability to forecast climate variability have meant that skilful predictions are beginning to be routinely made on seasonal to decadal (s2d) timescales. Such forecasts have the potential to be of great value to a wide range of decision-making, where outcomes are strongly influenced by variations in the climate. In 2012 the European Commission funded EUPORIAS, a four year long project to develop prototype end-to-end climate impact prediction services operating on a seasonal to decadal timescale, and assess their value in informing decision-making. EUPORIAS commenced on 1 November 2012, coordinated by the UK Met Office leading a consortium of 24 organisations representing world-class European climate research and climate service centres, expertise in impacts assessments and seasonal predictions, two United Nations agencies, specialists in new media, and commercial companies in climate-vulnerable sectors such as energy, water and tourism. The poster describes the setup of the project, its main outcome and some of the very preliminary results.

  2. Preliminary Iron Distribution on Vesta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mittlefehldt, David W.; Mittlefehldt, David W.

    2013-01-01

    The distribution of iron on the surface of the asteroid Vesta was investigated using Dawn's Gamma Ray and Neutron Detector (GRaND) [1,2]. Iron varies predictably with rock type for the howardite, eucrite, and diogenite (HED) meteorites, thought to be representative of Vesta. The abundance of Fe in howardites ranges from about 12 to 15 wt.%. Basaltic eucrites have the highest abundance, whereas, lower crustal and upper mantle materials (cumulate eucrites and diogenites) have the lowest, and howardites are intermediate [3]. We have completed a mapping study of 7.6 MeV gamma rays produced by neutron capture by Fe as measured by the bismuth germanate (BGO) detector of GRaND [1]. The procedures to determine Fe counting rates are presented in detail here, along with a preliminary distribution map, constituting the necessary initial step to quantification of Fe abundances. We find that the global distribution of Fe counting rates is generally consistent with independent mineralogical and compositional inferences obtained by other instruments on Dawn such as measurements of pyroxene absorption bands by the Visual and Infrared Spectrometer (VIR) [4] and Framing Camera (FC) [5] and neutron absorption measurements by GRaND [6].

  3. Preliminary Response Analysis of AUV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hariri, Azian; Basharie, Siti Mariam; Ghani, Mohamad Hanifah Abd.

    2010-06-01

    Development of Autonomous Unmanned Vehicle (AUV) involves a great task to fully understand the overall working principles of an UAV that needed time, experience and a wide range of intelligence to cover the entire scientific facts. This study is done by means to acquire the fundamental knowledge in understanding the stability and response of an UAV. The longitudinal response and stability of UAV owing to deflection of stern plane during trimmed equilibrium motion can be computed by solving the AUV equation of motion. In this study, the AUV equations of motion were rederived and the solution was computed with the aid of Matlab software. From the existing AUV, a new dimension, weight and speed were specified to be used in the rederivation of the linearised AUV longitudinal equations of motion. From the analysis done, the longitudinal response AUV shows the stern plane and thrust has relatively steady longitudinal control power and quick response characteristic. The results had successfully given a preliminary insight of the specified AUV response and dynamic stability.

  4. Preliminary results of ANAIS-25

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaré, J.; Cebrián, S.; Cuesta, C.; García, E.; Ginestra, C.; Martínez, M.; Oliván, M. A.; Ortigoza, Y.; Ortiz de Solórzano, A.; Pobes, C.; Puimedón, J.; Sarsa, M. L.; Villar, J. A.; Villar, P.

    2014-04-01

    The ANAIS (Annual Modulation with NaI(Tl) Scintillators) experiment aims at the confirmation of the DAMA/LIBRA signal using the same target and technique at the Canfranc Underground Laboratory. 250 kg of ultrapure NaI(Tl) crystals will be used as a target, divided into 20 modules, each coupled to two photomultipliers. Two NaI(Tl) crystals of 12.5 kg each, grown by Alpha Spectra from a powder having a potassium level under the limit of our analytical techniques, form the ANAIS-25 set-up. The background contributions are being carefully studied and preliminary results are presented: their natural potassium content in the bulk has been quantified, as well as the uranium and thorium radioactive chains presence in the bulk through the discrimination of the corresponding alpha events by PSA, and due to the fast commissioning, the contribution from cosmogenic activated isotopes is clearly identified and their decay observed along the first months of data taking. Following the procedures established with ANAIS-0 and previous prototypes, bulk NaI(Tl) scintillation events selection and light collection efficiency have been also studied in ANAIS-25.

  5. Increasing Parent Involvement in Youth HIV Prevention: A Randomized Caribbean Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baptiste, Donna R.; Kapungu, Chisina; Miller, Steve; Crown, Laurel; Henry, David; Da Costa Martinez, Dona; Jo-Bennett, Karen

    2009-01-01

    This article presents preliminary findings of a randomized HIV prevention study in Trinidad and Tobago in the Caribbean. The study centers on a family HIV workshop aimed at strengthening parenting skills that are empirically linked to reducing adolescent HIV exposure and other sexual risks. These skills include parental monitoring; educating youth…

  6. Prevention Practice Differences Among Persons With Spinal Cord Injuries Who Rarely Versus Frequently Sustain Pressure Ulcers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Michael L.; Marini, Irmo; Slate, John R.

    2005-01-01

    Pressure ulcers are common among people with spinal cord injury (SCI) and not only are costly to treat but also affect the quality of life of those affected by them. Despite a plethora of literature on prevention, there are few wellness studies focusing on the practices of people who do not develop pressure ulcers. This preliminary study sought to…

  7. Prevention of Coronary Atherosclerosis: The Role of a College Health Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manchester, Ralph A.; Greenland, Philip

    1987-01-01

    This paper reviews the concept of behavioral risk factors for atherosclerosis which become entrenched in adolescence or young adulthood. Evidence favoring intervention in the adolescent years and a screening program at the University of Rochester Health Service are described. A preliminary strategy for prevention of atherosclerosis on campus is…

  8. Stress Prevention and Mindfulness: A Psychoeducational and Support Group for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiser, Jenson E.; Murphy, Susan L.; McCarthy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    A stress prevention and mindfulness (SPAM) group is described, which is a 6-week psychoeducational and support group for teachers. The group incorporated psychoeducation about stress and utilized elements of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). The group was implemented in a public charter school in the Southwest. Preliminary evaluation…

  9. San Mateo Creek Basin Preliminary Assessment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The objective of this Preliminary Assessment is to evaluate the site using the Hazard Ranking System and the Superfund Chemical Data Matrix to determine if a threat to human health and the environment exists such that further action is warranted.

  10. 40 CFR 158.345 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS FOR PESTICIDES Product Chemistry § 158.345 Preliminary analysis. (a) If the product is produced by... point in the production process after which no further chemical reactions designed to produce or...

  11. Multidisciplinary Optimization Methods for Preliminary Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korte, J. J.; Weston, R. P.; Zang, T. A.

    1997-01-01

    An overview of multidisciplinary optimization (MDO) methodology and two applications of this methodology to the preliminary design phase are presented. These applications are being undertaken to improve, develop, validate and demonstrate MDO methods. Each is presented to illustrate different aspects of this methodology. The first application is an MDO preliminary design problem for defining the geometry and structure of an aerospike nozzle of a linear aerospike rocket engine. The second application demonstrates the use of the Framework for Interdisciplinary Design Optimization (FIDO), which is a computational environment system, by solving a preliminary design problem for a High-Speed Civil Transport (HSCT). The two sample problems illustrate the advantages to performing preliminary design with an MDO process.

  12. 29 CFR 1955.31 - Preliminary conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) PROCEDURES FOR WITHDRAWAL OF APPROVAL OF STATE PLANS Preliminary Conference and Discovery § 1955... those not disposed of by admissions or agreements, and control the subsequent course of the...

  13. Prevention of Football Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Kirkendall, Donald T; Junge, Astrid; Dvorak, Jiri

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Every sport has a unique profile of injury and risk of injury. In recent years, there have been numerous attempts at conducting injury prevention trials for specific injuries or for injuries within specific sports to provide evidence useful to the sports medicine and sport community. Football has been a focus of a number of randomized injury prevention trials. Methods MEDLINE was searched with the first order keywords of “injury prevention” and “sport”. This list was restricted to “clinical trial” or “randomized controlled trial” which had been conducted on children and adults whose goal was preventing common football injuries. Our objective was to find studies with an exercise-based training program, thus projects that used mechanical interventions were excluded. Results A structured, generalized warm-up has been shown to be effective at preventing common injuries in football, reducing injuries by about one-third. Conclusion The huge participation numbers in the worldwide family of football would suggest that any reduction in injury should have a public health impact. Professionals in sports medicine need to promote injury prevention programs that have been shown to be effective. PMID:22375195

  14. Prevention of malignant melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Chaidemenos, G; Stratigos, A; Papakonstantinou, M; Tsatsou, F

    2008-01-01

    The results of Primary Prevention programs, aiming at the decrease of melanoma incidence, were less encouraging than those of Secondary prevention which aims at an early diagnosis of malignant melanoma. Australia was the country with the best results obtained in both Prevention strategies, especially in avoiding intense, though intermittent, UV exposure. The success of these programs encouraged health authorities to initiate their application to other disorders. New sunscreens containing substances correcting the UV-damaged DNA may offer a promising result in the decades to come. However, so far no one epidemiological study has proved the prevention of malignant melanoma with the use of sun protecting agents. A meta-analysis verified the connection between melanoma and solarium use. The protective role of vitamin D in the development of prostate, breast and colon cancer was shown in a meta-analysis. The authors, however, suggest that fair-skinned persons should take oral supplementation of vitamin D, instead of exposing themselves to the sun. The Hellenic Society of Dermatology and Venereology published the results of 5-year-prevention programs in Greece. Their favorable results in the early diagnosis of melanoma justify an intense continuation of these efforts. PMID:18923759

  15. JNCI and Cancer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Sharmistha; Kramer, Barnett S.

    2015-01-01

    The Journal of the National Cancer Institute (JNCI), with its broad coverage of bench research, epidemiologic studies, and clinical trials, has a long history of publishing practice-changing studies in cancer prevention and public health. These include studies of tobacco cessation, chemoprevention, and nutrition. The landmark Breast Cancer Prevention Trial (BCPT)—the first large trial to prove efficacy of a preventive medication for a major malignancy—was published in the Journal, as were key ancillary papers to the BCPT. Even when JNCI was not the publication venue for the main trial outcomes, conceptual and design discussions leading to the trial as well as critical follow-up analyses based on trial data from the Prostate Cancer Prevention Trial (PCPT) and the Selenium and Vitamin E Chemoprevention Trial (SELECT) were published in the Journal. The Journal has also published important evidence on very charged topics, such as the purported link between abortion and breast cancer risk. In summary, JNCI has been at the forefront of numerous major publications related to cancer prevention. PMID:25713150

  16. 43 CFR 3425.1-7 - Preliminary data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preliminary data. 3425.1-7 Section 3425.1... Preliminary data. (a) Any application for a lease shall contain preliminary data to assist the authorized... preliminary data shall include: (1) A map, or maps, showing the topography, physical features and...

  17. Prevention of running injuries.

    PubMed

    Fields, Karl B; Sykes, Jeannie C; Walker, Katherine M; Jackson, Jonathan C

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for preventive strategies to lessen running injuries is needed as these occur in 40%-50% of runners on an annual basis. Many factors influence running injuries, but strong evidence for prevention only exists for training modification primarily by reducing weekly mileage. Two anatomical factors - cavus feet and leg length inequality - demonstrate a link to injury. Weak evidence suggests that orthotics may lessen risk of stress fracture, but no clear evidence proves they will reduce the risk of those athletes with leg length inequality or cavus feet. This article reviews other potential injury variables, including strength, biomechanics, stretching, warm-up, nutrition, psychological factors, and shoes. Additional research is needed to determine whether interventions to address any of these will help prevent running injury.

  18. Prevention of Child Maltreatment

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Wendy Gwirtzman

    2014-01-01

    Pediatricians and other health care providers can play a number of important roles in the prevention of child maltreatment. As part of routine patient care, pediatricians can provide anticipatory guidance for effective discipline and parent-child communication, screen for maltreatment risk factors, and refer parents and families to effective community-based programs. This article will help pediatricians incorporate child abuse prevention into their practice. Resources for systematizing anticipatory guidance and child maltreatment risk factor screening will be described. The modalities and strengths and weaknesses of community-based prevention programs will be discussed, and providers will be given tools to identify the effectiveness of available community-based programs. At a broader level, the article will describe ways that pediatricians can advocate at the local, state, and national level for policies and programs that support families and children. PMID:25242703

  19. Secondary stroke prevention.

    PubMed

    Hankey, Graeme J

    2014-02-01

    Survivors of stroke and transient ischaemic attacks are at risk of a recurrent stroke, which is often more severe and disabling than the index event. Optimum secondary prevention of recurrent stroke needs rapid diagnosis and treatment and prompt identification of the underlying cardiovascular cause. Effective treatments include organised acute assessment and intervention with antithrombotic therapy, carotid revascularisation, and control of causal risk factors, as appropriate. However, effective treatments are not implemented optimally in clinical practice. Recurrent strokes continue to account for 25-30% of all strokes and represent unsuccessful secondary prevention. Immediate and sustained implementation of effective and appropriate secondary prevention strategies in patients with first-ever stroke or transient ischaemic attack has the potential to reduce the burden of stroke by up to a quarter.

  20. Prevention of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schütte, Kerstin; Balbisi, Fathi; Malfertheiner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The epidemiology of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has significantly changed throughout the past decade and will continue to do so in the future as a consequence of effective primary prevention and treatment of virus-related liver diseases. However, other risk factors for HCC are constantly on the rise, including alcoholic liver disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. The knowledge on these and further risk factors associated with an increased risk of HCC provide the opportunity and chance for the development and implementation of successful preventive strategies to decrease the worldwide burden of HCC. This mini-review gives a short overview on current strategies in primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of HCC. PMID:27722155

  1. Prevention of cervix cancer.

    PubMed

    Rock, C L; Michael, C W; Reynolds, R K; Ruffin, M T

    2000-03-01

    Cervix carcinoma is an important health problem world-wide, being the second most common cancer among women, ranking first in many developing countries. A number of important epidemiological risk factors have been identified as contributing to the development of CIN and invasive cervix carcinoma. Of key importance is infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), which is the primary risk factor. There are evolving primary and secondary preventive strategies that could further reduce the burden from cervical carcinoma. The possible primary preventive strategies include risk reduction, diet or dietary supplements, HPV vaccines, and other chemopreventive agents. The possible advances in secondary preventive strategies include new technologies for Pap smears, HPV typing triage, and other adjuvant screening procedures. The impact of these strategies will depend upon evidence to support their use along with the characteristics of the population and environment in which they are used.

  2. Probiotics for allergy prevention.

    PubMed

    West, C E

    2016-01-01

    Probiotics, given either as a supplement or in infant foods, have been evaluated in randomised controlled trials for allergy prevention. Here, the aim is to give an overview of the results from these primary prevention studies and to discuss current strategies. In most studies, single strains or a mixture of strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria have been used--prenatally, postnatally or perinatally. Several meta-analyses have reported a moderate benefit of probiotics for eczema prevention, and the most consistent effect has been observed with a combined perinatal intervention in infants at high risk of allergic disease due to familial predisposition. In a recent meta-analysis, the use of multi-strain probiotics appeared to be most effective for eczema prevention. No preventive effect has been shown for other allergic manifestations. As long-term follow-up data on later onset allergic conditions (asthma and allergic rhinitis) are available only from a few of the initiated studies, reports from ongoing follow-up studies that are adequately powered to examine long-term outcomes are anticipated to provide more insight. Arguably, the differences in many aspects of study design and the use of different probiotic strains and combinations have made direct comparison difficult. To date, expert bodies do not generally recommend probiotics for allergy prevention, although the World Allergy Organization (WAO) in their recently developed guidelines suggests considering using probiotics in pregnant women, during breastfeeding and/or to the infant if at high risk of developing allergic disease (based on heredity). However, in concordance with other expert bodies, the WAO guideline panel stressed the low level of evidence and the need for adequately powered randomised controlled trials and a more standardised approach before clinical recommendations on specific strains, dosages and timing can be given.

  3. Gender-Based Violence Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on gender-based violence prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Preventing Gender-Based Violence: An Overview (Linda Langford); (2) Q&A With Amelia Cobb; (3) Denim Day at HBCUs; (4) Dear Colleague Letter; (5) ED Grants for Violence Prevention; and (6) Higher Education Center…

  4. Community How To Guide On Underage Drinking Prevention: Prevention & Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Governors' Highway Safety Representatives.

    Underage drinking prevention has two goals: prevent harm to the individual drinker and prevent harm to society. Modern prevention programs should be measured not by their intentions, but by their consequences: reducing the number of criminal events, reducing the amount of harm to individuals, and reducing the harm to society. This guide discusses…

  5. Youth homicide prevention.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Kobie; Bell, Carl C

    2011-03-01

    Homicide continues to be a problematic public health concern, but homicide rates have dropped considerably since the mid-1980s. This article proposes that the decrease in violence was caused by a large number of national and local violence prevention initiatives. Homicide and violence data are reviewed and the developmental dynamics of violence and homicide are discussed, noting the different tracks youth take toward violence. The risk factors that lead youth toward a violent lifestyle are compared with the protective factors that shield them from it. The principles involved in the prevention of violent behavior such as homicide are also discussed.

  6. Nanomaterials in preventive dentistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannig, Matthias; Hannig, Christian

    2010-08-01

    The prevention of tooth decay and the treatment of lesions and cavities are ongoing challenges in dentistry. In recent years, biomimetic approaches have been used to develop nanomaterials for inclusion in a variety of oral health-care products. Examples include liquids and pastes that contain nano-apatites for biofilm management at the tooth surface, and products that contain nanomaterials for the remineralization of early submicrometre-sized enamel lesions. However, the treatment of larger visible cavities with nanomaterials is still at the research stage. Here, we review progress in the development of nanomaterials for different applications in preventive dentistry and research, including clinical trials.

  7. Infection prevention and control.

    PubMed

    Pegram, Anne; Bloomfield, Jacqueline

    2015-03-18

    All newly registered graduate nurses are required to have the appropriate knowledge and understanding to perform the skills required for patient care, specifically the competencies identified in the Nursing and Midwifery Council's essential skills clusters. This article focuses on the third essential skills cluster - infection prevention and control. It provides an overview and discussion of the key skills and behaviours that must be demonstrated to meet the standards set by the Nursing and Midwifery Council. In doing so, it considers the key principles of infection prevention and control, including local and national policies, standard infection control precautions, risk assessment, standard isolation measures and asepsis.

  8. Preliminary LISA Telescope Spacer Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livas, J.; Arsenovic, P.; Catellucci, K.; Generie, J.; Howard, J.; Stebbins, R. T.

    2010-01-01

    The Laser Interferometric Space Antenna (LISA) mission observes gravitational waves by measuring the separations between freely floating proof masses located 5 million kilometers apart with an accuracy of approximately 10 picometers. The separations are measured interferometrically. The telescope is an afocal Cassegrain style design with a magnification of 80x. The entrance pupil has a 40 cm diameter and will either be centered on-axis or de-centered off-axis to avoid obscurations. Its two main purposes are to transform the small diameter beam used on the optical bench to a diffraction limited collimated beam to efficiently transfer the metrology laser between spacecraft, and to receive the incoming light from the far spacecraft. It transmits and receives simultaneously. The basic optical design and requirements are well understood for a conventional telescope design for imaging applications, but the LISA design is complicated by the additional requirement that the total optical path through the telescope must remain stable at the picometer level over the measurement band during the mission to meet the measurement accuracy. This poster describes the requirements for the telescope and the preliminary work that has been done to understand the materials and mechanical issues associated with the design of a passive metering structure to support the telescope and to maintain the spacing between the primary and secondary mirrors in the LISA on-orbit environment. This includes the requirements flowdown from the science goals, thermal modeling of the spacecraft and telescope to determine the expected temperature distribution,layout options for the telescope including an on- and off-axis design, and plans for fabrication and testing.

  9. Preventing Giardia Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beer, W. Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    Outdoor recreationists are at risk for developing giardia infection from drinking contaminated stream water. Giardia is the most common human parasite found in contaminated water that causes gastrointestinal illness. Describes medical treatment and ways of preventing infection through water treatment, including heat, filtration, and chemical…

  10. Neonatal Pressure Ulcer Prevention.

    PubMed

    Scheans, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of pressure ulcers in acutely ill infants and children ranges up to 27 percent in intensive care units, with a range of 16-19 percent in NICUs. Anatomic, physiologic, and developmental factors place ill and preterm newborns at risk for skin breakdown. Two case studies illustrate these factors, and best practices for pressure ulcer prevention are described.

  11. Youth Suicide Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gould, Madelyn S.; Kramer, Rachel A.

    2001-01-01

    Reviews research literature on youth suicide that has emerged during the past two decades and examines the possibility of linking this research to the practice of suicide prevention. Such research could be used to develop and evaluate appropriate crisis centers and hotlines as well as school-based suicide awareness curriculum programs. Table…

  12. Reducing Bullying Through Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gubler, Rea; Croxall, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    Schoolyard bullies are seven times more likely to become delinquents or criminals than their nonbully peers. The unacceptable anti-social behavior of bullies can have an impact on both bullies and their victims across the lifespan. Most family and consumer sciences (FCS) professionals realize that early violence prevention protects the social and…

  13. Why Prevention? Why Now?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tabachnick, Joan

    2013-01-01

    In 1995, the American Medical Association declared sexual abuse a "silent, violent epidemic." Since that declaration, there has been a growing acceptance and awareness of the need for a broader public health approach to preventing sexual violence. However, it is only recently that individuals and organizations are beginning to look at…

  14. Approaches to Truancy Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mogulescu, Sara; Segal, Heidi J.

    This report examines how New York counties can systematically and programmatically improve approaches to managing persons in need of supervision (PINS), describing approaches to truancy prevention and diversion that have been instituted nationwide and may be applicable to the PINS operating system. Researchers surveyed truancy-specific programs…

  15. Prevention of allergic disorders.

    PubMed

    Solomon, W R

    1994-08-01

    Allergic disease produces substantial pediatric morbidity and individual dysfunction, making its mechanisms an appropriate target for clarification and preventive strategies. Disease expression seems to reflect a constellation of determinants that controls IgE production variably, affects specific function of target organs, and determines exposure to putative allergens. Bases for the two former factors are being defined rapidly and appear to be controlled genetically. Therefore, although stronger eugenic motivation will be required to exploit even present information for effective prevention, parental phenotypes can provide a rough indication of postconceptive risk. Despite many divergent data, current evidence fails to support the value of gestational strategies undertaken to prevent allergic disease in the newborn; however, this risk apparently may be reduced by avoiding postnatal allergens. The protection afforded seems to be allergen-specific rather than somehow serving to abate "the allergic tendency." Evidence increasingly is persuasive that sensitization to pollens, foods, and possibly other agents is prone to occur in the first 6 to 12 months of life. Strategies that exclude potent food allergens from the diets of high-risk infants appear to reduce the occurrence of atopic dermatitis, but seem far less able to influence respiratory symptoms. Efforts to limit exposure to potent inhalant allergens (eg, dust mites, animal "danders") are now also feasible and offer quite effective secondary and, perhaps, primary prevention. Trials of these strategies and clarification of other domestic contaminant effects on child health offer "homely" but valid and potentially useful approaches to reducing the impact of allergic disease.

  16. The Prevention Researcher, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    1999-01-01

    Volume 6 of" The Prevention Researcher" contains three 12-page issues and one supplement. Issue Number 1 focuses on gambling, and contains the following articles: (1) "Gambling in the Family: The Hidden Addiction" (D. A. Abbott); (2) "Adolescent Gambling and Substance Use: The View from Texas" (L. Wallisch); (3)…

  17. The Prevention Researcher, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This document consists of volume 7 of "The Prevention Researcher," a service of Integrated Research Services. Each issue provides information on a specific topic. The topic of Issue Number One is adolescent dating violence. This issue includes articles on adolescents' beliefs about rape and sexual victimization, and contains a report on an…

  18. Light Vehicle Preventive Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    This correspondence course, originally developed for the Marine Corps, is designed to instruct students in the performance of preventive maintenance on motor vehicles. Instructional materials are presented in three chapters as follows: (1) Major Maintenance Areas (maintenance system, tires, batteries, cooling systems, and vehicle lubrication; (2)…

  19. Student Leadership. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langford, Linda; DeJong, William

    2010-01-01

    Campus-based efforts to reduce alcohol and other drug abuse and violence (AODV) will be more successful if they involve a wide range of stakeholders--including students--who can contribute to the program's design, implementation, and evaluation. Students provide a unique perspective on AODV prevention, and they can also bring a certain authority…

  20. POLLUTION PREVENTION RESEARCH STRATEGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the strategic goals of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is to prevent pollution and reduce risk in communities, homes, workplaces, and ecosystems. This goal must be based in large part on the application of the best available science and technology associat...

  1. Prevention Researcher, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    2001-01-01

    The issues of this quarterly publication and year end supplement contain professional articles on topics that concern at risk youth and emphasize preventive measures. Number 1 highlights the challenges facing gay, lesbian, and bisexual youth in schools. Many schools have nothing in their curricula to help provide an understanding of these issues…

  2. Responsible Hospitality. Prevention Updates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colthurst, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Responsible Hospitality (RH)--also called Responsible Beverage Service (RBS)--encompasses a variety of strategies for reducing risks associated with the sale and service of alcoholic beverages. RH programs have three goals: (1) to prevent illegal alcohol service to minors; (2) to reduce the likelihood of drinkers becoming intoxicated; and (3) to…

  3. Substance Use Prevention Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Judy

    This report outlines the Hillsborough County, Florida, Head Start Program's project to field test with young children and their families curricula that were designed to prevent alcohol and other drug problems. A national search conducted by means of computers, individual contacts, and other methods yielded information on 22 substance abuse…

  4. Preventing food poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... often and dispose of diapers carefully so that bacteria can't spread to other surfaces or people. If you make canned food at home, be sure to follow proper canning techniques to prevent botulism. DO NOT feed honey to children under 1 year of age. DO ...

  5. Pumped-Up Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dahlgren, Sally

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the importance of avoiding costly repairs in fitness centers by keeping up on preventive maintenance and part replacement. One university's answer to weight training equipment rehabilitation is highlighted as is a solution for racquetball wall repair. Several "tricks-of-the-trade" notes are included. (GR)

  6. Preventing School Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rulloda, Rudolfo Barcena

    2011-01-01

    School violence has mushroomed into a devastating epidemic and is deteriorating the basic foundation of education. In this article, the author will present several teaching strategies for preventing school violence from becoming an arduous enigma within the classroom and school environments, and focus on assessment and reflection in order to…

  7. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, David

    The adolescent at risk for suicidal preoccupation and behavior has become an increasing concern for schools and communities. This paper presents some of the causes of teen suicide, things adults should know about adolescent suicide prevention, and what can be done to help such youth. The transition to adolescence is a complex time when many values…

  8. Police Burglary Prevention Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Thomas W.; And Others

    The study is designed to assist police and other law enforcement agencies, as well as local government officials, in planning new burglary prevention activities and modifying existing ones. Information was compiled from (1) a survey of 50 United States police departments, (2) site visits to 12 departments with operating burglary prevention…

  9. Perinatal programming prevention measures.

    PubMed

    Larguía, A Miguel; González, María Aurelia; Dinerstein, Néstor Alejandro; Soto Conti, Constanza

    2015-01-01

    Over the past 10 years, there has been outstanding scientific progress related to perinatal programming and its epigenetic effects in health, and we can anticipate this trend will continue in the near future. We need to make use and apply these achievements to human neurodevelopment via prevention interventions. Based on the concept of the interaction between genome and ambiome, this chapter proposes low-cost easy-implementation preventive strategies for maternal and infant health institutions.Breastfeeding and human milk administration are the first preventive measures, as has been reviewed in the policy statement of the American Academy of Pediatrics. Another strategy is the Safe and Family-Centered Maternity Hospitals initiative that promotes and empowers the inclusion of the families and the respect for their rights, especially during pregnancy and birth. (This change of paradigm was approved and is recommended by both United Nations Children's Fund, UNICEF, and Pan American Health Organization, PAHO.) Then, there is also an important emphasis given to the sacred hour-which highlights the impact of bonding, attachment, and breastfeeding during the first hour of life-the pain prevention and treatment in newborns, the control of the "new morbidity" represented by late preterm infants, and finally, the importance of avoiding intrauterine and extrauterine growth restriction. (However, there are not yet clear recommendations about nutritional interventions in order to diminish the potential metabolic syndrome consequence in the adult.).

  10. Prevent and "British Values"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenny, Alex; Ghale, Baljeet

    2015-01-01

    At the recent National Union of Teachers' conference the role of the Prevent strategy and the introduction of "British Values" in the Office for Standards in Education, Children's Services and Skills framework emerged as key issues for delegates. Two of the speeches made at the conference are presented here.

  11. Preventing Adolescent Suicide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capuzzi, Dave; Golden, Larry

    This book deals with the realities of adolescent suicide. It consists of 15 chapters organized under 5 major headings: The Problem of Adolescent Suicide (chapters 1 and 2); A Profile of the Attempter (chapters 3-6); Assessing Lethality (chapters 7 and 8); Prevention and Intervention (chapters 9-14); and Legal Issues (chapter 15). Individual…

  12. The Prevention Researcher, 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven, Ed.

    1998-01-01

    As a service of Integrated Research Services, a non-profit organization, this newsletter reports on many facets of prevention research. Written in direct, accessible language, each issue provides a "snapshot" update on a specific topic. Some articles are reprinted (often in a briefer format) from other publications; others provide a synthesis of…

  13. | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Division of Cancer Prevention (DCP) conducts and supports research to determine a person's risk of cancer and to find ways to reduce the risk. This knowledge is critical to making progress against cancer because risk varies over the lifespan as genetic and epigenetic changes can transform healthy tissue into invasive cancer.

  14. Preventive Maintenance Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciaruffoli, Veronica; Bramley, Craig; Matteson, Mike

    2001-01-01

    The Preventive Maintenance (PM) program at Stennis Space Center (SSC) evolved from an ineffective and poorly organized state to a highly organized state in which it became capable of tracking equipment, planning jobs with man hour estimates, and supporting outsourcing. This viewgraph presentation traces the steps the program took to improve itself.

  15. Probiotics for preventive health.

    PubMed

    Minocha, Anil

    2009-01-01

    Gut flora and probiotics have potential to affect health and disease far beyond the gut. There is increasing evidence that probiotics have beneficial effects in preventing a wide range of conditions and improving health. Randomized, double-blind studies have provided evidence of the effectiveness of probiotics for preventing various diarrheal illnesses as well as allergic disorders. Evidence for their efficacy for use in the prevention and treatment of bacterial vaginosis and urinary tract infections is also mounting. In addition, probiotics may be useful for preventing respiratory infections, dental caries, necrotizing enterocolitis, and certain aspects of inflammatory bowel disease. Data also suggest that probiotics may promote good health in day care and work settings, and may enhance growth in healthy as well as ill and malnourished children. Results from meta-analyses and systematic reviews that combine results of studies from different types of probiotics to examine the effects in any disease state should be interpreted with caution. Specific strains are effective in specific disease states. No 2 probiotics are exactly alike; we should not expect reproducible results from studies that employ different species or strains, variable formulations, and diverse dosing schedules.

  16. Preventive Law Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Martha V.; Gullatt, David E.; Hardin, Dawn T.; Jannik, Catherine; Tollett, John R.

    This curriculum guide presents a context for preservice education and/or professional development in education law for teachers. Section 1, "Teacher Liability," discusses "Duty to Supervise,""Providing Reasonable Care,""Duty,""Preventing Student-to-Student Sexual Harassment,""Reporting Child…

  17. Primary Prevention in Infancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lourie, Reginald S.

    1981-01-01

    Reviews significant recent research and information related to the beginning period of human life, and specifically discusses the developing fetus and infant, and the surrounding environment in which the infant is born and reared. Suggestions for prevention of mental-health problems are offered. (Author/DB)

  18. Handbook of Youth Prevention Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, Beth, Ed.; Pfohl, William, Ed.; Yoon, Jina S., Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The "Handbook of Youth Prevention Science" describes current research and practice in mental health preventive interventions for youth. Traditional prevention research focused on preventing specific disorders, e.g. substance abuse, conduct disorders, or criminality. This produced "silos" of isolated knowledge about the…

  19. Delinquency Prevention Works. Program Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bilchik, Shay

    The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) compiled this summary in order to assist states and jurisdictions in their delinquency prevention efforts. The summary provides a synthesis of current information on a broad range of programs and strategies which seek to prevent delinquency. The theory of risk-focused prevention is…

  20. ERIS: preliminary design phase overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuntschner, Harald; Jochum, Lieselotte; Amico, Paola; Dekker, Johannes K.; Kerber, Florian; Marchetti, Enrico; Accardo, Matteo; Brast, Roland; Brinkmann, Martin; Conzelmann, Ralf D.; Delabre, Bernard A.; Duchateau, Michel; Fedrigo, Enrico; Finger, Gert; Frank, Christoph; Rodriguez, Fernando G.; Klein, Barbara; Knudstrup, Jens; Le Louarn, Miska; Lundin, Lars; Modigliani, Andrea; Müller, Michael; Neeser, Mark; Tordo, Sebastien; Valenti, Elena; Eisenhauer, Frank; Sturm, Eckhard; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; George, Elisabeth M.; Hartl, Michael; Hofmann, Reiner; Huber, Heinrich; Plattner, Markus P.; Schubert, Josef; Tarantik, Karl; Wiezorrek, Erich; Meyer, Michael R.; Quanz, Sascha P.; Glauser, Adrian M.; Weisz, Harald; Esposito, Simone; Xompero, Marco; Agapito, Guido; Antichi, Jacopo; Biliotti, Valdemaro; Bonaglia, Marco; Briguglio, Runa; Carbonaro, Luca; Cresci, Giovanni; Fini, Luca; Pinna, Enrico; Puglisi, Alfio T.; Quirós-Pacheco, Fernando; Riccardi, Armando; Di Rico, Gianluca; Arcidiacono, Carmelo; Dolci, Mauro

    2014-07-01

    The Enhanced Resolution Imager and Spectrograph (ERIS) is the next-generation adaptive optics near-IR imager and spectrograph for the Cassegrain focus of the Very Large Telescope (VLT) Unit Telescope 4, which will soon make full use of the Adaptive Optics Facility (AOF). It is a high-Strehl AO-assisted instrument that will use the Deformable Secondary Mirror (DSM) and the new Laser Guide Star Facility (4LGSF). The project has been approved for construction and has entered its preliminary design phase. ERIS will be constructed in a collaboration including the Max- Planck Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, the Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich and the Osservatorio Astrofisico di Arcetri and will offer 1 - 5 μm imaging and 1 - 2.5 μm integral field spectroscopic capabilities with a high Strehl performance. Wavefront sensing can be carried out with an optical high-order NGS Pyramid wavefront sensor, or with a single laser in either an optical low-order NGS mode, or with a near-IR low-order mode sensor. Due to its highly sensitive visible wavefront sensor, and separate near-IR low-order mode, ERIS provides a large sky coverage with its 1' patrol field radius that can even include AO stars embedded in dust-enshrouded environments. As such it will replace, with a much improved single conjugated AO correction, the most scientifically important imaging modes offered by NACO (diffraction limited imaging in the J to M bands, Sparse Aperture Masking and Apodizing Phase Plate (APP) coronagraphy) and the integral field spectroscopy modes of SINFONI, whose instrumental module, SPIFFI, will be upgraded and re-used in ERIS. As part of the SPIFFI upgrade a new higher resolution grating and a science detector replacement are envisaged, as well as PLC driven motors. To accommodate ERIS at the Cassegrain focus, an extension of the telescope back focal length is required, with modifications of the guider arm assembly. In this paper we report on the status of the

  1. Very preliminary reference Moon model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Raphaël F.; Gagnepain-Beyneix, Jeannine; Chevrot, Sébastien; Lognonné, Philippe

    2011-09-01

    The deep structure of the Moon is a missing piece to understand the formation and evolution of the Earth-Moon system. Despite the great amount of information brought by the Apollo passive seismic experiment (ALSEP), the lunar structure below deep moonquakes, which occur around 900 km depth, remains largely unknown. We construct a reference Moon model which incorporates physical constraints, and fits both geodesic (lunar mass and polar moment of inertia, and Love numbers) and seismological (body wave arrivals measured by Apollo network) data. In this model, the core radius is constrained by the detection of S waves reflected from the core. In a first step, for each core radius, a radial model of the lunar interior, including P and S wave velocities and density, is inverted from seismic and geodesic data. In a second step, the core radius is determined from the detection of shear waves reflected on the lunar core by waveform stacking of deep moonquake Apollo records. This detection has been made possible by careful data selection and processing, including a correction of the gain of horizontal sensors based on the principle of energy equipartition inside the coda of lunar seismic records, and a precise alignment of SH waveforms by a non-linear inversion method. The Very Preliminary REference MOON model (VPREMOON) obtained here has a core radius of 380 ± 40 km and an average core mass density of 5200 ± 1000 kg/m 3. The large error bars on these estimates are due to the poorly constrained S-wave velocity profile at the base of the mantle and to mislocation errors of deep moonquakes. The detection of horizontally polarized S waves reflected from the core and the absence of detection of vertically polarized S waves favour a liquid state in the outermost part of the core. All these results are consistent, within their error bars, with previous estimates based on lunar rotation dissipation ( Williams et al., 2001) and on lunar induced magnetic moment ( Hood et al., 1999).

  2. Gene-Environment Interactions in Preventive Medicine: Current Status and Expectations for the Future.

    PubMed

    Narimatsu, Hiroto

    2017-01-30

    The progression of many common disorders involves a complex interplay of multiple factors, including numerous different genes and environmental factors. Gene-environmental cohort studies focus on the identification of risk factors that cannot be discovered by conventional epidemiological methodologies. Such epidemiological methodologies preclude precise predictions, because the exact risk factors can be revealed only after detailed analyses of the interactions among multiple factors, that is, between genes and environmental factors. To date, these cohort studies have reported some promising results. However, the findings do not yet have sufficient clinical significance for the development of precise, personalized preventive medicine. Especially, some promising preliminary studies have been conducted in terms of the prevention of obesity. Large-scale validation studies of those preliminary studies, using a prospective cohort design and long follow-ups, will produce useful and practical evidence for the development of preventive medicine in the future.

  3. Gene–Environment Interactions in Preventive Medicine: Current Status and Expectations for the Future

    PubMed Central

    Narimatsu, Hiroto

    2017-01-01

    The progression of many common disorders involves a complex interplay of multiple factors, including numerous different genes and environmental factors. Gene–environmental cohort studies focus on the identification of risk factors that cannot be discovered by conventional epidemiological methodologies. Such epidemiological methodologies preclude precise predictions, because the exact risk factors can be revealed only after detailed analyses of the interactions among multiple factors, that is, between genes and environmental factors. To date, these cohort studies have reported some promising results. However, the findings do not yet have sufficient clinical significance for the development of precise, personalized preventive medicine. Especially, some promising preliminary studies have been conducted in terms of the prevention of obesity. Large-scale validation studies of those preliminary studies, using a prospective cohort design and long follow-ups, will produce useful and practical evidence for the development of preventive medicine in the future. PMID:28146085

  4. Prevention of suicidal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe. PMID:27489458

  5. Prevention of suicidal behavior.

    PubMed

    Hegerl, Ulrich

    2016-06-01

    More than 800 000 people die every year from suicide, and about 20 times more attempt suicide. In most countries, suicide risk is highest in older males, and risk of attempted suicide is highest in younger females. The higher lethal level of suicidal acts in males is explained by the preference for more lethal methods, as well as other factors. In the vast majority of cases, suicidal behavior occurs in the context of psychiatric disorders, depression being the most important one. Improving the treatment of depression, restricting access to lethal means, and avoiding the Werther effect (imitation suicide) are central aspects of suicide prevention programs. In several European regions, the four-level intervention concept of the European Alliance Against Depression (www.EAAD.net), simultaneously targeting depression and suicidal behavior, has been found to have preventive effects on suicidal behavior. It has already been implemented in more than 100 regions in Europe.

  6. The prevention of thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Cao, Antonio; Kan, Yuet Wai

    2013-02-01

    The thalassemias are among the most common inherited diseases worldwide, affecting individuals originating from the Mediterranean area, Middle East, Transcaucasia, Central Asia, Indian subcontinent, and Southeast Asia. As the diseases require long-term care, prevention of the homozygous state constitutes a major armament in the management. This article discusses the major prevention programs that are set up in many countries in Europe, Asia, and Australia, often drawing from the experience in Sardinia. These comprehensive programs involve carrier detections, molecular diagnostics, genetic counseling, and prenatal diagnosis. Variability of clinical severity can be attributable to interactions with α-thalassemia and mutations that increase fetal productions. Special methods that are currently quite expensive and not widely applicable are preimplantation and preconception diagnosis. The recent successful studies of fetal DNA in maternal plasma may allow future prenatal diagnosis that is noninvasive for the fetus.

  7. Medical Services: Preventive Dentistry

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    hygienist b. DENTAC— dental activity c. DFO— dental fitness officer d. DODDS—Department of Defense Dependent Schools e. HSC—U.S. Army Health Services Command f...community health dental hygienist (CHDH) in implementing these programs. (3) Coordinate with the preventive medicine activity and post or installation...aspects of preven- tive dentistry and dental public health programs. j. The community health dental hygienist , where assigned, will assist the DFO as

  8. Prevention and drug treatment.

    PubMed

    Testa, Mark F; Smith, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Evidence linking alcohol and other drug abuse with child maltreatment, particularly neglect, is strong. But does substance abuse cause maltreatment? According to Mark Testa and Brenda Smith, such co-occurring risk factors as parental depression, social isolation, homelessness, or domestic violence may be more directly responsible than substance abuse itself for maltreatment. Interventions to prevent substance abuse-related maltreatment, say the authors, must attend to the underlying direct causes of both. Research on whether prevention programs reduce drug abuse or help parents control substance use and improve their parenting has had mixed results, at best. The evidence raises questions generally about the effectiveness of substance abuse services in preventing child maltreatment. Such services, for example, raise only marginally the rates at which parents are reunified with children who have been placed in foster care. The primary reason for the mixed findings, say Testa and Smith, is that almost all the parents face not only substance abuse problems but the co-occurring issues as well. To prevent recurring maltreatment and promote reunification, programs must ensure client progress in all problem areas. At some point in the intervention process, say Testa and Smith, attention must turn to the child's permanency needs and well-being. The best evidence to date suggests that substance-abusing parents pose no greater risk to their children than do parents of other children taken into child protective custody. It may be sensible, say the authors, to set a six-month timetable for parents to engage in treatment and allow twelve to eighteen months for them to show sufficient progress in all identified problem areas. After that, permanency plans should be expedited to place the child with a relative caregiver or in an adoptive home. Investing in parental recovery from substance abuse and dependence, the authors conclude, should not substitute for a comprehensive approach

  9. Preventing Supercooling Of Gallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massucco, Arthur A.; Wenghoefer, Hans M.; Wilkins, Ronnie

    1994-01-01

    Principle of heterogeneous nucleation exploited to prevent gallium from supercooling, enabling its use as heat-storage material that crystallizes reproducibly at its freezing or melting temperature of 29 to 30 degrees C. In original intended application, gallium used as heat-storage material in gloves of space suits. Terrestrial application lies in preparation of freezing-temperature reference samples for laboratories. Principle of heterogeneous nucleation also exploited similarly in heat pipes filled with sodium.

  10. Models for effective prevention.

    PubMed

    Perry, C L; Kelder, S H

    1992-07-01

    The social influence models do provide some optimism for primary prevention efforts. Prevention programs appear most effective when 1) the target behavior of the intervention has received increasing societal disapproval (such as cigarette smoking), 2) multiple years of behavioral health education are planned, and 3) community-wide involvement or mass media complement a school-based peer-led program (45,46). Short-term programs and those involving alcohol use have had less favorable outcomes. Future research in primary prevention should address concerns of high-risk groups and high-risk countries, such as lower income populations in the United States or countries that have large adolescent homeless populations. The utilization of adolescent leaders for program dissemination might be particularly critical in these settings. A second major and global concern should focus upon alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. In many communities adolescent alcohol use is normative and even adult supported. Thus, young people are getting quite inconsistent messages on alcohol from their schools, from TV, from peers, and from parents. This inconsistency may translate into many tragic and avoidable deaths for young people. Clearly, in the area of alcohol-related problems, community-wide involvement may be necessary. A third direction for prevention research should involve issues of norms, access, and enforcement including policy interventions, such as involve the availability of cigarette vending machines or the ease of under-age buying or levels of taxation. These methods affect adolescents more acutely since their financial resources, for the most part, are more limited. These policy level methods also signify to adolescents what adults consider appropriate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Prevention of foot blisters.

    PubMed

    Knapik, Joseph J

    2014-01-01

    Foot blisters are the most common medical problem faced by Soldiers during foot march operations and, if untreated, they can lead to infection. Foot blisters are caused by boots rubbing on the foot (frictional forces), which separates skin layers and allows fluid to seep in. Blisters can be prevented by wearing properly sized boots, conditioning feet through regular road marching, wearing socks that reduce reduce friction and moisture, and possibly applying antiperspirants to the feet.

  12. Guidelines for prevention in psychology.

    PubMed

    2014-04-01

    The effectiveness of prevention to enhance human functioning and reduce psychological distress has been demonstrated. From infancy through adulthood, access to preventive services and interventions is important to improve the quality of life and human functioning and reduce illness and premature death. The importance of prevention is consistent with the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010. Even with the increased focus on prevention, psychology training programs rarely require specific courses on prevention. In particular, conceptualizations about best practices in prevention, particularly at the environmental level, are lacking. Therefore, psychologists engaged in prevention can benefit from a set of guidelines that address and inform prevention practices. Accordingly, the Guidelines for Prevention in Psychology are intended to "inform psychologists, the public, and other interested parties regarding desirable professional practices" in prevention. The Prevention Guidelines are recommended based on their potential benefits to the public and the professional practice of psychology. They support prevention as an important area of practice, research, and training for psychologists. The Guidelines give increased attention to prevention within APA, encouraging psychologists to become involved with preventive activities relevant to their area of practice. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Osteoradionecrosis prevention myths

    SciTech Connect

    Wahl, Michael J. E-mail: WahlMichaelJ@aol.com

    2006-03-01

    Purpose: To critically analyze controversial osteoradionecrosis (ORN) prevention techniques, including preradiation extractions of healthy or restorable teeth and the use of prophylactic antibiotics or hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatments for preradiation and postradiation extractions. Methods: The author reviewed ORN studies found on PubMed and in other article references, including studies on overall ORN incidence and pre- and postradiation incidence, with and without prophylactic HBO or antibiotics. Results: Owing in part to more efficient radiation techniques, the incidence of ORN has been declining in radiation patients over the last 2 decades, but the prevention of ORN remains controversial. A review of the available literature does not support the preradiation extraction of restorable or healthy teeth. There is also insufficient evidence to support the use of prophylactic HBO treatments or prophylactic antibiotics before extractions or other oral surgical procedures in radiation patients. Conclusions: To prevent ORN, irradiated dental patients should maintain a high level of oral health. A preradiation referral for a dental evaluation and close collaboration by a multidisciplinary team can be invaluable for radiation patients. As with most other dental patients, restorable and healthy teeth should be retained in irradiated patients. The use of prophylactic HBO or antibiotics should be reconsidered for preradiation and postradiation extractions.

  14. Prevention, family, and community

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shu-Lung; Rohrbach, Louise Ann; Daley, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    The “Prevention, Family, and Community” session was chaired by Dr. Joseph Jror-Serk Cheng, who is an expert in community psychiatry and mental health policy and is superintendent of the Bali Psychiatric Center in Taipei. Dr. Shu-Lung Yang, dean of Student Affairs and Professor/Director of the Crime Research Center, National Chung Cheng University in Taiwan, served as the discussant. The two presenters were Dr. Louise Ann Rohrbach, who presented on “Prevention of Alcohol and other Drug Abuse: Science, Practice, Critical Issues, and Future Direction,” and Dr. Dennis Daley, who spoke on “Family and Social Aspects of Drug Abuse: Implications for Treatment and Recovery.” Dr. Rohrbach is associate professor of Preventive Medicine and director of the Master of Public Health (MPH) program at the University of Southern California (USC) Keck School of Medicine. Dr. Daley is professor of psychiatry at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine in Pennsylvania. PMID:25264416

  15. Adriamycin alopecia prevented by cold air scalp cooling.

    PubMed

    Symonds, R P; McCormick, C V; Maxted, K J

    1986-10-01

    Preliminary studies are reported on the effectiveness of cold air scalp cooling to prevent alopecia in patients receiving Adriamycin. Cold air produced in a novel way using a vortex refrigeration tube was applied to the scalp for 15 min before and 30 min after the administration of Adriamycin and other cytotoxic agents. Sixteen of 26 patients had no hair loss, four had slight hair loss, and six required a wig. Two subgroups fared particularly well. Four of four patients treated with ABVD for Hodgkin's disease and nine of 13 treated with Adriamycin (40 mg/m2) and vincristine (2 mg) for breast cancer had no hair loss.

  16. Reducing Stress and Preventing Anxiety in African American Adolescents: A Culturally- Grounded Approach

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Droege, Jocelyn R.; Case, Mary H.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Evidenced-based and culturally adapted stress-reduction interventions for urban African American adolescents who are at risk for anxiety and other problems related to stress are needed. This study presents intervention components and preliminary outcome findings of a culturally adapted stress-reduction intervention for urban African American adolescents. Preliminary findings support the efficacy of the intervention to reduce anxiety and enhance general cognitive competencies, such as coping strategies, self-efficacy, and positive thinking, among participants, in comparison to controls. Clinical implications of the stress-reduction intervention for the prevention of psychopathology, particularly among African American adolescents, are discussed. PMID:27042702

  17. Hydrothermal Liquefaction Treatment Preliminary Hazard Analysis Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Peter P.; Wagner, Katie A.

    2015-08-31

    A preliminary hazard assessment was completed during February 2015 to evaluate the conceptual design of the modular hydrothermal liquefaction treatment system. The hazard assessment was performed in 2 stages. An initial assessment utilizing Hazard Identification and Preliminary Hazards Analysis (PHA) techniques identified areas with significant or unique hazards (process safety-related hazards) that fall outside of the normal operating envelope of PNNL and warranted additional analysis. The subsequent assessment was based on a qualitative What-If analysis. This analysis was augmented, as necessary, by additional quantitative analysis for scenarios involving a release of hazardous material or energy with the potential for affecting the public.

  18. Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    The Cancer Prevention Fellowship provides a strong foundation for scientists and clinicians to train in the field of cancer prevention and control. This structured, multidisciplinary program offers early career scientists from different health disciplines a variety of postdoctoral training opportunities . | Training to form a strong foundation in cancer prevention and control for scientists and clinicians.

  19. Role of Enforcement in Prevention. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on the role of enforcement in prevention. This issue contains the following articles: (1) What the Evidence Tells Us about the Role of Enforcement in Prevention; (2) Campus Briefs; (3) Q&A with Charles Cychosz; and (4) Higher Education Center Resources.

  20. Community Colleges--Prevention Challenges. Issues in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higher Education Center for Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Violence Prevention, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This issue of "Issues in Prevention" focuses on prevention challenges facing community colleges. This issue contains the following articles: (1) Prevention at Community Colleges; (2) Q&A With William Auvenshine; (3) Chancellor's Initiative at the University of Wisconsin-Stout; (4) Alcohol Marketing in the Digital Age; and (5) Higher Education…

  1. Overview study of LNG release prevention and control systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pelto, P.J.; Baker, E.G.; Holter, G.M.; Powers, T.B.

    1982-03-01

    The liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry employs a variety of release prevention and control techniques to reduce the likelihood and the consequences of accidental LNG releases. A study of the effectiveness of these release prevention and control systems is being performed. Reference descriptions for the basic types of LNG facilities were developed. Then an overview study was performed to identify areas that merit subsequent and more detailed analyses. The specific objectives were to characterize the LNG facilities of interest and their release prevention and control systems, identify possible weak links and research needs, and provide an analytical framework for subsequent detailed analyses. The LNG facilities analyzed include a reference export terminal, marine vessel, import terminal, peakshaving facility, truck tanker, and satellite facility. A reference description for these facilities, a preliminary hazards analysis (PHA), and a list of representative release scenarios are included. The reference facility descriptions outline basic process flows, plant layouts, and safety features. The PHA identifies the important release prevention operations. Representative release scenarios provide a format for discussing potential initiating events, effects of the release prevention and control systems, information needs, and potential design changes. These scenarios range from relatively frequent but low consequence releases to unlikely but large releases and are the principal basis for the next stage of analysis.

  2. Prophylactic stenting for esophageal stricture prevention after endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ke-Da; Ji, Feng

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) of superficial esophageal cancer has been increasingly used as an alternative to surgery because it is minimally invasive and has a high rate of en bloc resection. However, a high rate of esophageal stricture is observed after ESD for large lesions, which can dramatically decrease the patient’s quality of life. Stricture prevention is necessary to allow for endoscopic therapy to expand. We, herein, review the most recent evidence and discuss the role of the metallic self-expandable stent and the biodegradable stent in esophageal stricture prevention. Limited studies suggested that prophylactic stenting could reduce the stricture rate without increasing the number of complications. In addition, the number of bougie dilation procedures was significantly lower with stent placement. Esophageal stenting is a promising option for post-ESD stricture prevention. However, current evidence is too preliminary to formulate practice standards. Future studies are needed to further validate the efficacy and safety of prophylactic stenting and determine the best strategy for stricture prevention. Stent migration is the most common complication. A new stent that has advantages of a low migration rate and minimal tissue reaction will need to be developed. Therefore, randomized controlled trials with long-term follow-up periods are required before prophylactic stenting could be considered a valid option to prevent post-ESD stricture. PMID:28246466

  3. Smart isolation mount for army guns: I. Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allaei, Daryoush; Tarnowski, David J.; Mattice, Michael S.; Testa, Robert C.

    2000-06-01

    The work reported in this paper is focused on an effective and efficient solution, namely Smart Isolation Mount for Army Guns (SIMAG), to the weapon stabilization and fire control issues facing US Army guns. SIMAG is composed of the optimum integration of two innovative technologies. Vibration Control by Confinement and smart senor/actuator/active control systems. The combined approach may also be applied to a gun barrel to reduce its undesired vibratory motions excited by external and internal disturbances, such as gun firing action. SIMAG reconfigures the distribution and propagation of excess vibration energy and confines vibrations to certain non-critical regions or modes within a structure. Concentrated passive, active, or smart damping elements or cancellation techniques may be applied to more effectively dissipate or cancel the trapped vibrations and to prevent build up in the assembly. As the active elements, an array of collocated, PZT-based sensor- actuator sets is recommended for incorporation in SIMAG. Part of the active elements is used for spatially managing excess vibration energy while the other part is utilized for energy dissipation and cancellation. The preliminary result of our feasibility work on the SIMAG concept is demonstrated via computer simulations. It is shown that the insertion of a preliminary version of SIMAG in a 30mm gun system onboard an attack helicopter reduces the fluctuating loads and deformations measured across the helicopter bottom shell by 40 to 50 percent. SIMAG makes significant progress towards solving the firing control problems with affordable weight and power penalties by compensating for all errors in one of the two places, the turret-aircraft interface or gun barrel. Even thought the initial target application of SIMAG is airborne guns, a modified version can be incorporated into ground armors, such as tanks and humvees.

  4. Small-Scale Bullying Prevention Discussion Video for Classrooms: A Preliminary Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Migliaccio, Todd; Raskauskas, Juliana

    2013-01-01

    Bullying has been shown to be negatively related to both academic performance and attendance among students. The present study examined a small-scale bullying intervention using a video-discussion model. Eighty-one students in grades 4 through 6 completed pre- and posttests examining gains in knowledge of bullying and responses to it. Results…

  5. Group training with healthy computing practices to prevent repetitive strain injury (RSI): a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Peper, Erik; Gibney, Katherine H; Wilson, Vietta E

    2004-12-01

    This pilot study investigated whether group training, in which participants become role models and coaches, would reduce discomfort as compared to a nontreatment Control Group. Sixteen experimental participants participated in 6 weekly 2-hr group sessions of a Healthy Computing program whereas 12 control participants received no training. None of the participants reported symptoms to their supervisors nor were they receiving medical treatment for repetitive strain injury prior to the program. The program included training in ergonomic principles, psychophysiological awareness and control, sEMG practice at the workstation, and coaching coworkers. Using two-tailed t tests to analyze the data, the Experimental Group reported (1) a significant overall reduction in most body symptoms as compared to the Control Group and (2) a significant increase in positive work-style habits, such as taking breaks at the computer, as compared to the Control Group. This study suggests that employees could possibly improve health and work style patterns based on a holistic training program delivered in a group format followed by individual practice.

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of a Parent Training Program to Prevent Gun Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Amy; Miltenberger, Raymond; Knudson, Peter; Bosch, Amanda; Breitwieser, Carrie Brower

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has shown that behavioral skills training with in situ training is an effective strategy to teach children the safety skills needed if they ever encounter an unattended firearm. The current study evaluated the use of parents as trainers to increase the efficiency of training. The success of parent training on their children's…

  7. Jet-lag: prevention with Pycnogenol. Preliminary report: evaluation in healthy individuals and in hypertensive patients.

    PubMed

    Belcaro, G; Cesarone, M R; Steigerwalt, R J; Di Renzo, A; Grossi, M G; Ricci, A; Stuard, S; Ledda, A; Dugall, M; Cornelli, U; Cacchio, M

    2008-10-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of showing the effects of Pycnogenol on controlling jet-lag symptoms. Oral Pycnogenol, 50 mg tablets 3 times/die, for 7 days starting 2 days prior to the flight was used. The study was divided into two separate parts. In study 1 the most common complaints of patients with jet-lag were evaluated with a rating scale consisting in of a scoring system. In study 2 a brain CT scan was performed after the flight in order to assess minimal brain edema (MBE) in association with typical signs and symptoms, observed in previous published flight studies. Study one included 38 subjects treated with Pycnogenol and 30 controls. The symptomatic jet-lag related total score was significantly lower (indicating a lower level of jet-lag) in the Pycnogenol group. The average duration of any jet lag symptom following the flight was significantly reduced from 39.3 (SD=0.8) hours in controls to an average of 18.2 (SD=3.3) hours in the Pycnogenol group (P<0.05). Study 2 included 34 subjects treated with Pycnogenol and 31 controls. The main observation was the brain CT scan performed within 28 hours after the end of the flight. The difference between the Pycnogenol and the control groups was statistically significant (P<0.05) for all items assessed including the cerebral edema score obtained by CT scan. The short-term memory was significantly altered in the control group and associated to edema and swelling of the lower limbs. The score (and the level of edema) was comparatively higher in a subgroup of hypertensive subjects in the control group. Minor alterations of cardiac function were observed in association with de-stabilisation of blood pressure. Fatigue was also significantly higher in the control group in comparison with the Pycnogenol group. A number of spontaneously reported symptoms was also scored and there was a statistically significant difference (P<0.05) between the Pycnogenol and control groups. In conlusion, Pycnogenol was useful to control jet-lag and minimal brain edema.

  8. [Prevention of postenucleation syndrome: the hydroxylapatite silicone implant. Preliminary experimental studies and initial clinical experiences].

    PubMed

    Guthoff, R; Vick, H P; Schaudig, U

    1995-04-01

    An orbital implant after enucleation compensates for volume deficiency and increases prosthesis motility. In the literature, however, an extrusion rate of orbital implant between 10 and 25% is reported. Since the introduction of hydroxylapatic ceramics (HAC), these numbers have been reduced considerably. The HAC, which is derived from corals, has a rough surface and requires a scleral covering for implantation. The HAC, which is made in the laboratory, can be produced with smoother surfaces, so that a homoplastic covering is no longer mandatory. A composite implant was developed to improve prosthesis motility further. This consists of artificial HAC at its anterior surface to guarantee safe tissue integration; the posterior part of the implant is manufactured from silicon rubber to create a jointlike structure in Tenon's capsule. Integration of the porous HAC in the orbital soft tissues has been tested and confirmed by animal experiments. After 30 full HAC implants and 25 composite implants, only one extrusion occurred. In all other cases, compatibility proved to be excellent; transmission of the motility to the prosthesis was moderate to good. Examinations comparing prosthesis motility and computer tomographically evaluated implant motility enabled the analysis of deficits in motility transmission of the implant for the artificial eye.

  9. The Development and Preliminary Evaluation of an Education Intervention to Prevent Driveway Run-Over Incidents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Kerry A.; Watling, Hanna; Davey, Jeremy

    2016-01-01

    Objective: While driveway run-over incidents continue to be a cause of serious injury and deaths among young children in Australia, few empirically evaluated educational interventions have been developed which address these incidents. Addressing this gap, this study describes the development and evaluation of a paper-based driveway safety…

  10. Utility and preliminary effects of online digital assistance (ODA) for behavioral attack prevention in migraine.

    PubMed

    Kleiboer, Annet; Sorbi, Marjolijn; Mérelle, Saskia; Passchier, Jan; van Doornen, Lorenz

    2009-09-01

    There were two objectives of this research. First was to establish the utility of online digital assistance (ODA), a generic software-based method designed to support behavioral training (BT) in migraine. The second was to test whether ODA can produce additional effects in BT. Utility (feasibility and acceptability) was based on 44 patients with migraine who received ODA as an adjuvant to BT delivered to small groups by lay trainers with migraine at home. ODA tracking files were used to determine ODA feasibility. Acceptability was assessed by a structured interview. To examine ODA effects, 31 patients with migraine who received ODA during BT and at 6 months' follow-up were compared with a matched group of 31 participants who received BT only. Feasibility was established based on minimal technical problems, good compliance, and successful execution of ODA. Acceptability was confirmed by positive participant responses concerning usefulness, supportiveness, and low burden. Finally, ODA participants did not mark better improvements considering migraine attack frequency, internal control, and migraine-specific quality of life compared to those that underwent BT only. ODA is feasible, well-accepted, and perceived to support self-care in 44 patients with migraine. The method is currently designed for these patients, but it can be easily adapted for other health settings. Whether ODA can induce higher gains remains to be established.

  11. Risk and Prevention of Aspergillosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Aspergillosis Risk & Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Who gets ... and animals from the lungs. How can I prevent aspergillosis? It’s difficult to avoid breathing in Aspergillus ...

  12. Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance

    MedlinePlus

    ... Button Past Emails CDC Features Mission Critical: Preventing Antibiotic Resistance Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Can ... spp. So, what can we do to prevent antibiotic resistance in healthcare settings? Patients, healthcare providers, healthcare ...

  13. Body Lice Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  14. Head Lice: Prevention and Control

    MedlinePlus

    ... Treatment FAQs Malathion FAQs Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ... Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) Epidemiology & Risk Factors Disease Biology Diagnosis Treatment Prevention & Control Resources for Health Professionals ...

  15. Vitamin D and Cancer Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Partners & Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ... Collaborators Spotlight on Scientists NCI Research Areas Cancer Biology Cancer Genomics Causes of Cancer Diagnosis Prevention Screening & ...

  16. How Can Bronchitis Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics » Bronchitis » How Can Bronchitis Be Prevented? Explore Bronchitis What Is... Other Names Causes Who Is at Risk Signs & Symptoms Diagnosis Treatments Prevention Living With Clinical Trials Links Related Topics ...

  17. Prevention: What You Can Do

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention ...

  18. Can Vaginal Cancer Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... well as anal and genital warts. Cervarix ® , another HPV vaccine available in the US, also helps prevent some ... help prevent vaginal cancer or pre-cancer More HPV vaccines are being developed and tested. For more information ...

  19. Can Atrial Fibrillation Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Can Atrial Fibrillation Be Prevented? Following a healthy lifestyle and taking ... for heart disease may help you prevent atrial fibrillation (AF). These steps include: Following a heart healthy ...

  20. How Can Pneumonia Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... t last as long Fewer serious complications Pneumococcal pneumonia vaccines Two vaccines are available to prevent pneumococcal ... Vaccination Web page. Other ways to help prevent pneumonia You also can take the following steps to ...

  1. Vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajiv; Engwerda, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is a parasitic disease that encompasses a range of clinical manifestations affecting people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Epidemiological and experimental data indicate that protection from disease can be achieved in most people. In addition, we know how the host immune system must respond to infection in order to control parasite growth. However, there is still no vaccine for use in humans. Here, we review our understanding of host immunity following Leishmania infection and also discuss recent advances in the development of vaccines to prevent leishmaniasis, highlighting a new promising approach that targets the parasite hemoglobin receptor. PMID:25505961

  2. [The health and epidemic prevention system of Qingdao in German occupation period].

    PubMed

    Jin, Xia

    2012-07-01

    In 1893, the German army occupied Qingdao and the 17-year-long control began. During the occupation period, the German colonial government had taken a series of health and epidemic prevention measures, including solving the drinking water problem, improving living conditions, sewer construction, and sewage and garbage disposal to promote the level of sanitation. They also established epidemic prevention and treatment institutions, including epidemic administration and reporting. A series of rules for epidemic prevention were put forward and executed by police officers. Those measures played a role in the administration, legalization and professionalization of the health and epidemic prevention system in Qingdao and initiated the preliminary modern transformation of the health prevention mechanism.

  3. Preliminary designs: passive solar manufactured housing. Technical status report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-12

    The criteria established to guide the development of the preliminary designs are listed. Three preliminary designs incorporating direct gain and/or sunspace are presented. Costs, drawings, and supporting calculations are included. (MHR)

  4. 37 CFR 1.484 - Conduct of international preliminary examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... international preliminary examination will be conducted on inventions not previously searched by an International Searching Authority. (d) The International Preliminary Examining Authority will establish a... reply. (e) The written opinion established by the International Searching Authority under PCT Rule...

  5. 37 CFR 1.484 - Conduct of international preliminary examination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... international preliminary examination will be conducted on inventions not previously searched by an International Searching Authority. (d) The International Preliminary Examining Authority will establish a... reply. (e) The written opinion established by the International Searching Authority under PCT Rule...

  6. Biorepositories | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    Carefully collected and controlled high-quality human biospecimens, annotated with clinical data and properly consented for investigational use, are available through the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories listed in the charts below. Biorepositories Managed by the Division of Cancer Prevention Biorepositories Supported by the Division of Cancer Prevention Related Biorepositories | Information about accessing biospecimens collected from DCP-supported clinical trials and projects.

  7. Proven Pathways to Violence Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calhoun, John

    2006-01-01

    Drawing on forty years of distinguished service in delinquency prevention, John Calhoun, founder of the National Crime Prevention Council, lays out the essential ingredients for preventing violence. These include strategies for connecting with alienated youth, building community norms of caring, reducing access of weapons of violence, and claiming…

  8. Polarized electrons in ELSA (preliminary results)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, S.; von Drachenfels, W.; Durek, D.; Frommberger, F.; Hoffmann, M.; Husmann, D.; Kiel, B.; Klein, F. J.; Menze, D.; Michel, T.; Nakanishi, T.; Naumann, J.; Reichelt, T.; Steier, C.; Toyama, T.; Voigt, S.; Westermann, M.

    1998-01-01

    Polarized electrons have been accelerated in the electron stretcher accelerator ELSA for the first time. Up to 2.1 GeV the polarization of the electron beam supplied by the 120 keV polarized electron source has been measured with a Mo/ller polarimeter. Preliminary results of polarization measurements at high energies and the performance of the source are presented.

  9. 32 CFR 1900.11 - Preliminary Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of Foia Requests § 1900.11 Preliminary Information. Members of the public shall address all communications to the CIA Coordinator as... Information Act and this regulation. CIA employees receiving a communication in the nature of a FOIA...

  10. 28 CFR 36.604 - Preliminary determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary determination. 36.604 Section 36.604 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF DISABILITY BY PUBLIC ACCOMMODATIONS AND IN COMMERCIAL FACILITIES Certification of State Laws or Local Building...

  11. Preliminary Findings on Rural Homelessness in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    First, Richard J.; And Others

    This report is designed to present preliminary findings from the first comprehensive study of rural homelessness in the United States. The study was conducted during the first 6 months of 1990, and data were collected from interviews with 921 homeless adults in 21 randomly selected rural counties in Ohio. The sample counties represent 26% of the…

  12. Secondary School Mathematics. Preliminary Version. Sample Chapters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Max S.; And Others

    This volume contains preliminary versions of five of the chapters prepared by the SMSG curriculum project for use in grades 7 and 8. The first four chapters and the tenth chapter in the sequence are presented. The sample chapters in this volume illustrate a number of aspects of the curriculum project: (1) association of ideas of number and space…

  13. National Mathematics Advisory Panel Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The National Mathematics Advisory Panel was established within the Department of Education as part of the President's "American Competitiveness Initiative" through Executive Order 13398, April 18, 2006. This document fulfills the obligation of that order to issue a Preliminary Report no later than January 31, 2007. The Panel chose to divide into…

  14. A Preliminary "Basic Math Program" Proposal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luhring, Richard

    This report proposes a preliminary basic math program that may help mitigate the student attrition problem at Contra Costa College (California). For the purposes of this proposal, Math 101, 115, and 118 are identified as courses to be included in the program. The essential features of this proposed curriculum are summarized as follows: (1) it…

  15. 32 CFR 1700.4 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... receive a FOIA request shall expeditiously forward the request to the Director, Information Management... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1700.4 Section 1700.4... INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS PURSUANT TO THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT §...

  16. 32 CFR 1700.4 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... receive a FOIA request shall expeditiously forward the request to the Director, Information Management... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1700.4 Section 1700.4... INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS PURSUANT TO THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT §...

  17. 32 CFR 1700.4 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... receive a FOIA request shall expeditiously forward the request to the Director, Information Management... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1700.4 Section 1700.4... INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS PURSUANT TO THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT §...

  18. 32 CFR 1700.4 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... receive a FOIA request shall expeditiously forward the request to the Director, Information Management... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1700.4 Section 1700.4... INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS PURSUANT TO THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT §...

  19. 32 CFR 1700.4 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... receive a FOIA request shall expeditiously forward the request to the Director, Information Management... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1700.4 Section 1700.4... INTELLIGENCE PROCEDURES FOR DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS PURSUANT TO THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT §...

  20. 40 CFR 161.170 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 161.170 Section 161.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Product Chemistry Data Requirements §...

  1. 32 CFR 1800.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1800.11 Section 1800.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of FOIA Requests §...

  2. 32 CFR 1803.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1803.11 Section 1803.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC REQUESTS FOR MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION PURSUANT TO SECTION 3.6...

  3. 32 CFR 1800.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1800.11 Section 1800.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of FOIA Requests §...

  4. 32 CFR 1803.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1803.11 Section 1803.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC REQUESTS FOR MANDATORY DECLASSIFICATION REVIEW OF CLASSIFIED INFORMATION PURSUANT TO SECTION 3.6...

  5. 32 CFR 1800.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1800.11 Section 1800.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of FOIA Requests §...

  6. 32 CFR 1800.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1800.11 Section 1800.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of FOIA Requests §...

  7. 32 CFR 1800.11 - Preliminary information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary information. 1800.11 Section 1800.11 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense NATIONAL COUNTERINTELLIGENCE CENTER PUBLIC ACCESS TO NACIC RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of FOIA Requests §...

  8. A DESCRIPTIVE INDONESIAN GRAMMAR--PRELIMINARY EDITION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DYEN, ISIDORE

    THIS PRELIMINARY EDITION COMPRISES A DESCRIPTIVE GRAMMAR OF INDONESIAN (BAHASA INDONESIA), THE OFFICIAL LANGUAGE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA. THE THREE SECTIONS--PHONOLOGY, SYNTAX, AND MORPHOLOGY--PRESENT A COMPREHENSIVE LINGUISTIC ANALYSIS OF INDONESIAN, WITH OCCASIONAL CONTRASTIVE REFERENCE TO MALAY, JAVANESE, SUNDANESE, AND SUMATRAN. THIS…

  9. 40 CFR 161.170 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 161.170 Section 161.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Product Chemistry Data Requirements §...

  10. Preliminary radiation shielding design for BOOMERANG

    SciTech Connect

    Donahue, Richard J.

    2002-10-23

    Preliminary radiation shielding specifications are presented here for the 3 GeV BOOMERANG Australian synchrotron light source project. At this time the bulk shield walls for the storage ring and injection system (100 MeV Linac and 3 GeV Booster) are considered for siting purposes.

  11. 25 CFR 11.1005 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... detention or shelter care, the children's court shall conduct a preliminary inquiry within 24 hours for the... delinquent act; and (2) Whether continued detention or shelter care is necessary pending further proceedings...; and (2) The need for detention or shelter care. (f) If the children's court finds that probable...

  12. 25 CFR 11.1105 - Preliminary inquiry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shelter care, the children's court shall conduct a preliminary inquiry with 24 hours for the purpose of...) Whether continued shelter care is necessary pending further proceedings. (b) If a minor has been released... the complaint or the taking of the minor into custody; and (2) The need for shelter care. (f) If...

  13. Preliminary aerothermodynamic design method for hypersonic vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harloff, G. J.; Petrie, S. L.

    1987-01-01

    Preliminary design methods are presented for vehicle aerothermodynamics. Predictions are made for Shuttle orbiter, a Mach 6 transport vehicle and a high-speed missile configuration. Rapid and accurate methods are discussed for obtaining aerodynamic coefficients and heat transfer rates for laminar and turbulent flows for vehicles at high angles of attack and hypersonic Mach numbers.

  14. 10 CFR 71.85 - Preliminary determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preliminary determinations. 71.85 Section 71.85 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Operating... shipment of licensed material— (a) The licensee shall ascertain that there are no cracks,...

  15. 19 CFR 207.108 - Preliminary conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preliminary conference. 207.108 Section 207.108 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR...

  16. 19 CFR 207.108 - Preliminary conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preliminary conference. 207.108 Section 207.108 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR...

  17. 19 CFR 207.108 - Preliminary conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preliminary conference. 207.108 Section 207.108 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR...

  18. 19 CFR 207.108 - Preliminary conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary conference. 207.108 Section 207.108 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR...

  19. 19 CFR 207.108 - Preliminary conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preliminary conference. 207.108 Section 207.108 Customs Duties UNITED STATES INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION NONADJUDICATIVE INVESTIGATIONS INVESTIGATIONS OF WHETHER INJURY TO DOMESTIC INDUSTRIES RESULTS FROM IMPORTS SOLD AT LESS THAN FAIR VALUE OR...

  20. 40 CFR 161.170 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 161.170 Section 161.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Product Chemistry Data Requirements §...

  1. 40 CFR 161.170 - Preliminary analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary analysis. 161.170 Section 161.170 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS DATA REQUIREMENTS FOR REGISTRATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL PESTICIDES Product Chemistry Data Requirements §...

  2. Preliminary tests of the electrostatic plasma accelerator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aston, G.; Acker, T.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the results of a program to verify an electrostatic plasma acceleration concept and to identify those parameters most important in optimizing an Electrostatic Plasma Accelerator (EPA) thruster based upon this thrust mechanism. Preliminary performance measurements of thrust, specific impulse and efficiency were obtained using a unique plasma exhaust momentum probe. Reliable EPA thruster operation was achieved using one power supply.

  3. Preliminary Safety Analysis for the IRIS Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Ricotti, M.E.; Cammi, A.; Cioncolini, A.; Lombardi, C.; Cipollaro, A.; Orioto, F.; Conway, L.E.; Barroso, A.C.

    2002-07-01

    A deterministic analysis of the IRIS safety features has been carried out by means of the best-estimate code RELAP (ver. RELAP5 mod3.2). First, the main system components were modeled and tested separately, namely: the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV), the modular helical-coil Steam Generators (SG) and the Passive (natural circulation) Emergency Heat Removal System (PEHRS). Then, a preliminary set of accident transients for the whole primary and safety systems was investigated. Since the project was in a conceptual phase, the reported analyses must be considered preliminary. In fact, neither the reactor components, nor the safety systems and the reactor signal logics were completely defined at that time. Three 'conventional' design basis accidents have been preliminary evaluated: a Loss Of primary Flow Accident, a Loss Of Coolant Accident and a Loss Of Feed Water accident. The results show the effectiveness of the safety systems also in LOCA conditions; the core remains covered for the required grace period. This provides the basis to move forward to the preliminary design. (authors)

  4. 32 CFR 651.49 - Preliminary phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Preliminary phase. 651.49 Section 651.49 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Public Involvement and the Scoping Process §...

  5. 32 CFR 651.49 - Preliminary phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary phase. 651.49 Section 651.49 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Public Involvement and the Scoping Process §...

  6. 32 CFR 651.49 - Preliminary phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary phase. 651.49 Section 651.49 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Public Involvement and the Scoping Process §...

  7. 32 CFR 651.49 - Preliminary phase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Preliminary phase. 651.49 Section 651.49 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ENVIRONMENTAL ANALYSIS OF ARMY ACTIONS (AR 200-2) Public Involvement and the Scoping Process §...

  8. 18 CFR 154.105 - Preliminary statement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preliminary statement. 154.105 Section 154.105 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Form and Composition...

  9. Engineering Technology Programs. Preliminary Curriculum Planning Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Occupational Research and Development, Inc., Waco, TX.

    Developed as a resource to assist in a major revision underway in Georgia area technical schools to change curricula for preparing engineering technicians, this preliminary program-planning guide describes curriculum structures for specialized programs in three major areas--electronics, electromechanics, and mechanics. The handbook, which is…

  10. 32 CFR 1900.11 - Preliminary Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of Foia Requests § 1900.11 Preliminary Information. Members of the public shall address all communications to the CIA Coordinator as... Information Act and this regulation. CIA employees receiving a communication in the nature of a FOIA...

  11. 32 CFR 1900.11 - Preliminary Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of Foia Requests § 1900.11 Preliminary Information. Members of the public shall address all communications to the CIA Coordinator as... Information Act and this regulation. CIA employees receiving a communication in the nature of a FOIA...

  12. 32 CFR 1900.11 - Preliminary Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of Foia Requests § 1900.11 Preliminary Information. Members of the public shall address all communications to the CIA Coordinator as... Information Act and this regulation. CIA employees receiving a communication in the nature of a FOIA...

  13. 32 CFR 1900.11 - Preliminary Information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... TO CIA RECORDS UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT (FOIA) Filing of Foia Requests § 1900.11 Preliminary Information. Members of the public shall address all communications to the CIA Coordinator as... Information Act and this regulation. CIA employees receiving a communication in the nature of a FOIA...

  14. Gamification strategy on prevention of STDs for youth.

    PubMed

    Gabarron, Elia; Schopf, Thomas; Serrano, J Artur; Fernandez-Luque, Luis; Dorronzoro, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and especially chlamydia is a worrying problem among North-Norwegian youngsters. Gamified web applications should be valued for sexual health education, and thus STDs prevention, for their potential to get users engaged and involved with their healthcare. Aiming to achieve that youngsters become more aware of STDs we have developed "sjekkdeg.no", a gamified web application focused on sexual health targeting North-Norwegian youngsters. Gamification techniques like avatars, achievement-based gifts and social network sharing buttons have been implemented in the site that includes educational content on sexual health and a STDs symptom checker. Preliminary results show that the game-style web app could be useful to encourage users to learn more on sexual health and STDs and thus changing their risky behaviors and preventing sexually transmitted diseases.

  15. Prevention of childhood injuries.

    PubMed

    Greensher, J

    1984-11-01

    Accidents account for more deaths among children aged 1 to 14 years than the next five most common causes. Thinking about accidents as injuries that happen in a context comprising a host, an agent, and an environment may help prevent them. Until a profile of the family and child at risk of injuries is developed, causal factors must be identified and removed, and parents and children educated about injury prevention. Different problems occur at different stages of a child's development. The agents most commonly associated with injuries are automobiles, bicycles, swimming, and animals. The special vulnerability of infants was addressed by the American Academy of Pediatrics' "First Ride/A Safe Ride" program, which encouraged the use of safety seats. Design changes have reduced the number of bicycle injuries, but human factors continue to contribute significantly. Most drownings occur in fresh water, with many children within a few feet of safety; continuing education is essential. Inculcating respect for animals, learning safety rules for interaction, and advice on pet ownership help to reduce animal bite injuries.

  16. TOWARD SUICIDE PREVENTION

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Venkoba A.

    1999-01-01

    Suicide is an important mode of death. There are many psychiatrically ill patients in therapy running different degree of suicide risk. The risk of death by suicide is with almost all psychiatric illnesses, but it is found more with depressive disease, schizophrenia and personality disorder. Many studies have reported higher incidences of suicide attempts and suicide among alcoholics, which is often precipitated by family crises. Drug problems, low threshold for tolerance of day to day frustration, unemployement and poor parenting are major causes for youth suicide. There is biological evidence of suicidal behaviour. Fall in the level of serotonin and 5-HIAA in the CSF and in hind brain is found in subjects dying from suicide. Researchers have found decreased melatonin level in depression and suicide attempters. Long term therapy with antidepressants (Tricyclics), mood stabilizers (lithium and valproate) and new SSRIs prevent relapses and lessen suicide. It was concluded that general hospital doctors are in position of reducing suicide rates. Education of physician in detection of depression and suicide prevention will result in decline in number of suicides. The important measures include limiting the ability of methods of self-harm, antidepressants, paracetamol and insecticides. PMID:21430799

  17. Initiatives for proliferation prevention

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    Preventing the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction is a central part of US national security policy. A principal instrument of the Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) program for securing weapons of mass destruction technology and expertise and removing incentives for scientists, engineers and technicians in the newly independent states (NIS) of the former Soviet Union to go to rogue countries or assist terrorist groups is the Initiatives for Proliferation Prevention (IPP). IPP was initiated pursuant to the 1994 Foreign Operations Appropriations Act. IPP is a nonproliferation program with a commercialization strategy. IPP seeks to enhance US national security and to achieve nonproliferation objectives by engaging scientists, engineers and technicians from former NIS weapons institutes; redirecting their activities in cooperatively-developed, commercially viable non-weapons related projects. These projects lead to commercial and economic benefits for both the NIS and the US IPP projects are funded in Russian, Ukraine, Kazakhstan and Belarus. This booklet offers an overview of the IPP program as well as a sampling of some of the projects which are currently underway.

  18. Prevention of suicide.

    PubMed Central

    McNamee, J E; Offord, D R

    1990-01-01

    We reviewed the epidemiologic features of suicide in Canada and evaluated suicide prevention programs. Three groups were found to be at increased risk for suicide: men aged 70 years or more, women aged 65 to 69 and men aged 20 to 24. The other groups, in decreasing order of risk, were the mentally ill, people who have attempted suicide, those with a life-threatening illness, native people, people with a family history of suicide and prisoners. Studies that evaluated suicide prevention programs showed that none significantly reduced the incidence of suicide; however, the studies were found to be methodologically inadequate or used noncomparable systems of data collection. On the basis of our findings we recommend that primary care physicians routinely evaluate suicide risk among patients in high-risk groups and that intervention include counselling, follow-up and, if necessary, referral to a psychiatrist. Close follow-up is recommended for newly discharged psychiatric patients and those who recently attempted suicide. PMID:2134157

  19. Can prevention eliminate caries?

    PubMed

    O'Mullane, D

    1995-07-01

    There are four main factors involved in the carious process: at-risk tooth structure, plaque flora, fermentable carbohydrates, and time. Based on our knowledge of the carious process, four main preventive strategies have been developed over the years, namely, fluorides, fissure sealing, dietary choice, and plaque control. Fluorides are having a major impact on smooth-surface caries; hence, strategies combining fluorides and fissure sealing are very effective. However, use of fissure sealing is still problematic. Changing dietary practices with a view to reducing dental caries seems to be having little impact on a global scale. Plaque control, as practiced routinely by the majority of people, is not sufficient to result in caries reductions. Deprivation and poverty are strongly associated with high caries levels. Although the preventive strategies currently available are likely to result in lower caries levels for many, for logistical reasons and because of factors associated with deprivation and poverty, caries is likely to remain a major public health problem in most communities for the foreseeable future.

  20. [Prevention of diabetic foot].

    PubMed

    Metelko, Zeljko; Brkljacić Crkvencić, Neva

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic foot (DF) is the most common chronic complication, which depends mostly on the duration and successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. Based on epidemiological studies, it is estimated that 25% of persons with diabetes mellitus (PwDM) will develop the problems with DF during lifetime, while 5% do 15% will be treated for foot or leg amputation. The treatment is prolonged and expensive, while the results are uncertain. The changes in DF are influenced by different factors usually connected with the duration and regulation of diabetes mellitus. The first problems with DF are the result of misbalance between nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms on the one hand and the intensity of damaging factors against DF on the other hand. Diabetes mellitus is a state of chronic hyperglycemia, consisting of changes in carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism. As a consequence of the long duration of diabetes mellitus, late complications can develop. Foot is in its structure very complex, combined with many large and small bones connected with ligaments, directed by many small and large muscles, interconnected with many small and large blood vessels and nerves. Every of these structures can be changed by nutritional, defensive and reparatory mechanisms with consequential DE Primary prevention of DF includes all measures involved in appropriate maintenance of nutrition, defense and reparatory mechanisms.First, it is necessary to identify the high-risk population for DF, in particular for macrovascular, microvascular and neural complications. The high-risk population of PwDM should be identified during regular examination and appropriate education should be performed. In this group, it is necessary to include more frequent and intensified empowerment for lifestyle changes, appropriate diet, regular exercise (including frequent breaks for short exercise during sedentary work), regular self control of body weight, quit smoking, and appropriate treatment of glycemia

  1. Exercise Prevents Mental Illness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Purnomo, K. I.; Doewes, M.; Giri, M. K. W.; Setiawan, K. H.; Wibowo, I. P. A.

    2017-03-01

    Multiple current studies show that neuroinflammation may contribute to mental illness such as depression, anxiety, and mood disorder. Chronic inflammation in peripheral tissues is indicated by the increase of inflammatory marker like cytokine IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β. Pro-inflammatory cytokine in peripheral tissues can reach brain tissues and activate microglia and it causes neuroinflammation. Psychological stress may led peripheral and central inflammation. Activated microglia will produce pro-inflammatory cytokine, ROS, RNS, and tryptophan catabolizes. This neuroinflammation can promote metabolism changes of any neurotransmitter, such as serotonin, dopamine, and glutamate that will influence neurocircuit in the brain including basal ganglia and anterior cingulated cortex. It leads to mental illness. Exercise give contribution to reduce tissue inflammation. When muscle is contracting in an exercise, muscle will produce the secretion of cytokine like IL-6, IL-1ra, and IL-10. It will react as anti-inflammation and influence macrophage, T cell, monosit, protein Toll-Like Receptor (TLR), and then reduce neuroinflammation, characterised by the decrease of pro-inflammatory cytokine and prevent the activation of microglia in the brain. The objective of the present study is to review scientific articles in the literature related to the contribution of exercise to prevent and ease mental illness.

  2. Obesity prevention in children.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Luis A; Bel-Serrat, Silvia; Santaliestra-Pasías, Alba M; Rodríguez, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity continues to be unacceptably high and of public health concern in Europe. During childhood and adolescence, environmental factors are the main drivers of obesity development. Obesity is caused by a chronic energy imbalance involving both dietary intake and physical activity patterns. Several risk factors are influencing obesity development, even starting in the prenatal period. From birth, along life, mainly diet and physical activity/inactivity are the most important drivers on top of genetic susceptibility. The first years of life can therefore be crucial to start preventive interventions that can have an impact on lifestyle and on later overweight and obesity. Schools are an attractive and popular setting for implementing interventions for children. Interventions including a community component are considered to be the most effective. Obesity control will require policy interventions to improve the environments that promote poor dietary intake and physical inactivity rather than individually focused interventions. More solid institutional and health policies are needed together with more effective interventions to obtain evident changes for the prevention of excess adiposity among children.

  3. Pilot Testing an Internet-Based STI and HIV Prevention Intervention With Chilean Women

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Natalia; Santisteban, Daniel; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian; Ambrosia, Todd; Peragallo, Nilda; Lara, Loreto

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is high among young Chilean women, and there are no STI or HIV prevention interventions available to them that incorporate technology. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preliminary efficacy of an Internet-based STI and HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI) for Chilean young women on measures of STI- and HIV-related information, motivation, behavioral skills, and preventive behaviors. Design This is a pretest-posttest study. Forty young Chilean women between 18 and 24 years of age participated in an investigation of the I-STIPI’s preliminary efficacy on STI and HIV prevention-related outcomes between baseline and a postintervention assessment. The intervention consisted of four online modules. Data collection was conducted in Santiago, Chile. Paired-samples t test analysis was used to determine whether there were significant differences in each of the outcome variables. Findings After receiving I-STIPI, women reported a significant increase in levels of STI- and HIV-related knowledge, attitudes toward the use of condoms and perceived self-efficacy, and a reduction of risky sexual behaviors with uncommitted partners. Conclusions The I-STIPI showed promise as an Internet-based intervention that can reduce barriers to accessing preventive interventions and increase STI and HIV preventive behaviors in young Chilean women. Clinical Relevance The study provided important information about the ability of an Internet-based intervention to reduce young women’s risk factors and to provide positive preliminary efficacy on STI- and HIV-related outcomes. Internet-based interventions can eliminate many barriers to receiving prevention interventions and may prove to be cost effective. PMID:25410132

  4. 36 CFR 72.16 - Preliminary Action Program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Preliminary Action Program... INTERIOR URBAN PARK AND RECREATION RECOVERY ACT OF 1978 Local Recovery Action Programs § 72.16 Preliminary.... Included should be a brief discussion of the relationship of the Preliminary Action Program to...

  5. 36 CFR 72.16 - Preliminary Action Program requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preliminary Action Program... INTERIOR URBAN PARK AND RECREATION RECOVERY ACT OF 1978 Local Recovery Action Programs § 72.16 Preliminary.... Included should be a brief discussion of the relationship of the Preliminary Action Program to...

  6. 32 CFR 644.30 - Preliminary real estate work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Preliminary real estate work. 644.30 Section 644... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Military (army and Air Force) and Other Federal Agencies § 644.30 Preliminary real estate work. (a) Preliminary real estate work is defined as that action...

  7. 32 CFR 644.30 - Preliminary real estate work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Preliminary real estate work. 644.30 Section 644... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Military (army and Air Force) and Other Federal Agencies § 644.30 Preliminary real estate work. (a) Preliminary real estate work is defined as that action...

  8. 32 CFR 644.30 - Preliminary real estate work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Preliminary real estate work. 644.30 Section 644... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Military (army and Air Force) and Other Federal Agencies § 644.30 Preliminary real estate work. (a) Preliminary real estate work is defined as that action...

  9. 32 CFR 644.30 - Preliminary real estate work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Preliminary real estate work. 644.30 Section 644... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Project Planning Military (army and Air Force) and Other Federal Agencies § 644.30 Preliminary real estate work. (a) Preliminary real estate work is defined as that action...

  10. 10 CFR 830.206 - Preliminary documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Preliminary documented safety analysis. 830.206 Section... Preliminary documented safety analysis. If construction begins after December 11, 2000, the contractor... category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must: (a) Prepare a preliminary documented safety analysis for...

  11. 10 CFR 830.206 - Preliminary documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Preliminary documented safety analysis. 830.206 Section... Preliminary documented safety analysis. If construction begins after December 11, 2000, the contractor... category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must: (a) Prepare a preliminary documented safety analysis for...

  12. 10 CFR 830.206 - Preliminary documented safety analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Preliminary documented safety analysis. 830.206 Section... Preliminary documented safety analysis. If construction begins after December 11, 2000, the contractor... category 1, 2, or 3 DOE nuclear facility must: (a) Prepare a preliminary documented safety analysis for...

  13. Effects of a social cognitive theory-based hip fracture prevention web site for older adults.

    PubMed

    Nahm, Eun-Shim; Barker, Bausell; Resnick, Barbara; Covington, Barbara; Magaziner, Jay; Brennan, Patricia Flatley

    2010-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to develop a Social Cognitive Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site for older adults and conduct a preliminary evaluation of its effectiveness. The Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site is composed of learning modules and a moderated discussion board. A total of 245 older adults recruited from two Web sites and a newspaper advertisement were randomized into the Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site and the conventional Web sites groups. Outcomes included (1) knowledge (hip fractures and osteoporosis), (2) self-efficacy and outcome expectations, and (3) calcium intake and exercise and were assessed at baseline, end of treatment (2 weeks), and follow-up (3 months). Both groups showed significant improvement in most outcomes. For calcium intake, only the Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site group showed improvement. None of the group and time interactions were significant. The Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site group, however, was more satisfied with the intervention. The discussion board usage was significantly correlated with outcome gains. Despite several limitations, the findings showed some preliminary effectiveness of Web-based health interventions for older adults and the use of a Theory-based, structured Hip Fracture Prevention Web site as a sustainable Web structure for online health behavior change interventions.

  14. Pressure Ulcer Prevention

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Executive Summary In April 2008, the Medical Advisory Secretariat began an evidence-based review of the literature concerning pressure ulcers. Please visit the Medical Advisory Secretariat Web site, http://www.health.gov.on.ca/english/providers/program/mas/tech/tech_mn.html to review these titles that are currently available within the Pressure Ulcers series. Pressure ulcer prevention: an evidence based analysis The cost-effectiveness of prevention strategies for pressure ulcers in long-term care homes in Ontario: projections of the Ontario Pressure Ulcer Model (field evaluation) Management of chronic pressure ulcers: an evidence-based analysis (anticipated pubicstion date - mid-2009) Purpose A pressure ulcer, also known as a pressure sore, decubitus ulcer, or bedsore, is defined as a localized injury to the skin/and or underlying tissue occurring most often over a bony prominence and caused by pressure, shear, or friction, alone or in combination. (1) Those at risk for developing pressure ulcers include the elderly and critically ill as well as persons with neurological impairments and those who suffer conditions associated with immobility. Pressure ulcers are graded or staged with a 4-point classification system denoting severity. Stage I represents the beginnings of a pressure ulcer and stage IV, the severest grade, consists of full thickness tissue loss with exposed bone, tendon, and or muscle. (1) In a 2004 survey of Canadian health care settings, Woodbury and Houghton (2) estimated that the prevalence of pressure ulcers at a stage 1 or greater in Ontario ranged between 13.1% and 53% with nonacute health care settings having the highest prevalence rate (Table 1). Executive Summary Table 1: Prevalence of Pressure Ulcers* Setting Canadian Prevalence,% (95% CI) Ontario Prevalence,Range % (n) Acute care 25 (23.8–26.3) 23.9–29.7 (3418) Nonacute care† 30 (29.3–31.4) 30.0–53.3 (1165) Community care 15 (13.4–16.8) 13.2 (91) Mixed health care‡ 22 (20.9

  15. The Results of Teaching Middle School Students Two Relaxation Techniques as Part of a Conflict Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dacey, John S.; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Boston College Conflict Prevention Program techniques for relaxation and self-control were taught to middle-school students in two Boston schools. Preliminary results from teacher interviews revealed that students spontaneously used these methods to calm their "fight-or-flight" reactions in real conflicts. Results also indicated that…

  16. Preliminary results and worst-case analysis of in patient scoliosis rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Weiss, H R; Lohschmidt, K; el-Obeidi, N; Verres, C

    1997-01-01

    exception of point 4. These patients formed the questionnaire sample for the worst-case analysis showing that the progression rate of the 181 patients from the preliminary study and the 116 patients of the questionnaire sample together was still better than natural history even if all drop-outs were considered to be failures. The fact that there was no relative progression in our patients sample treated solely by physiotherapy (preliminary study), seems to show the effectiveness of the inpatient rehabilitation programme even in cases with a bad prognosis, severe angles of curvature and unfavourable curvature patterns. A worst-case analysis does not prevent this conclusion, even if all dropouts from the non-repeaters group were considered as failures.

  17. Preventing Childhood Caries

    PubMed Central

    Albino, J.; Tiwari, T.

    2016-01-01

    The etiology of dental caries reflects a complex interplay of biochemical, microbial, genetic, social and physical environmental, and health-influencing behavioral factors. This review updates the literature on the efficacy of behavioral approaches to caries prevention for children up to 18 y of age. Included were studies of behavioral interventions implemented at individual, family, and community levels that assessed results in terms of reductions in caries increments. Only those reports published since 2011 were considered. Outcomes were variable, although motivational interviewing, which involves individuals in decisions about oral health within the context of their respective life circumstances, proved effective in 3 of 4 reported studies, and more definitive trials are underway. Recommendations for future research include examinations of the cost-effectiveness of interventions, as well as work focused on understanding the mechanisms underlying oral health behavior change and variables that may mediate or moderate responses to interventions. PMID:26438210

  18. [Prevention of leg ulcer].

    PubMed

    Marinović Kulisić, Sandra

    2013-10-01

    Lower leg ulcers is the most common form of ulceration of the lower extremities. The prevalence of leg ulcer varies among studies from 0.1% to 0.6%. In the majority of studies, 1% of the population develop leg ulcer at least once in lifetime. The prevalence is higher in elderly people. There are several hypotheses used to explain the pathophysiological steps leading from the popliteal venous hypertension in value. Currently, the treatment of leg ulcer relies on due knowledge of ulcer pathophysiology and making an accurate diagnosis. Venous disease has a significant impact on quality of life and work productivity. In addition, costs associated with the prevention and treatment of lower leg ulcers are significant.

  19. Preliminary geotechnical evaluation of deep borehole facilities for nuclear waste disposal in shales

    SciTech Connect

    Nataraj, M.S. New Orleans Univ., LA . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1991-01-01

    This study is concerned with a preliminary engineering evaluation of borehole facilities for nuclear waste disposal in shales. Some of the geotechnical properties of Pierre, Rhinestreet, and typical illite shale have been collected. The influence of a few geotechnical properties on strength and deformation of host material is briefly examined. It appears that Pierre shale is very unstable and requires support to prevent collapse. Typical illite shale is more stable than Rhinestreet shale, although it undergoes relatively more deformation. 16 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Prevention of low birthweight.

    PubMed

    Alam, Dewan S

    2009-01-01

    Globally an estimated 20 million infants are born with low birthweight (LBW), of those over 18 million are born in developing countries. These LBW infants are at a disproportionately higher risk of mortality, morbidity, poor growth, impaired psychomotor and cognitive development as immediate outcomes, and are also disadvantaged as adults due to their greater susceptibility to type 2 diabetes, hypertension and coronary heart disease. Maternal malnutrition prior to and during pregnancy manifested by low bodyweight, short stature, inadequate energy intake during pregnancy and coexisting micronutrient deficiency are considered major determinants in developing countries where the burden is too high. LBW is a multifactorial outcome and its prevention requires a lifecycle approach and interventions must be continued for several generations. So far, most interventions are targeted during pregnancy primarily due to the increased nutritional demand and aggravations of already existing inadequacy in most women. Several individually successful interventions during pregnancy include balanced protein energy supplementation, several single micro-nutrients or more recently a mix of multiple micronutrients. Nutrition education has been successful in increasing the dietary intake of pregnant women but has had no effect on LBW. The challenge is to identify a community-specific intervention package. Current evidence supports intervention during pregnancy with increased dietary intakes including promotions of foods rich in micronutrients and micronutrient supplementation, preferably with a multiple micronutrient mix. Simultaneously a culturally appropriate educational component is required to address misconceptions about diet during pregnancy and childbirth including support for healthy pregnancy with promotion of antenatal and perinatal care services. While further research is needed to identify more efficacious interventions, an urgent public health priority would be to select and

  1. Prevention of Lyme borreliosis.

    PubMed

    Wormser, Gary P

    2005-06-01

    Lyme borreliosis, the most common tick-borne disease in both North America and Europe, is acquired through the bite of certain tick species in the genus Ixodes. The number of Ixodes ticks in the environment can be reduced by relatively simple interventions such as removing leaf litter and brush, which increases exposure of the tick to sun and air and takes advantage of the tick's vulnerability to desiccation, or by application of acaricides to property. Deer elimination or exclusion, application of topical acaricides to mice or deer, and application of systemic acaricides to deer are more complex approaches. However, none of these methods for reducing tick numbers, nor any of the recommended personal prevention measures, such as reducing the amount of exposed skin, use of tick repellents on exposed skin or clothing, and frequent tick checks to remove attached ticks expeditiously, has been demonstrated to decrease significantly the incidence of Lyme borreliosis in humans. Only two strategies have been shown to do so. A recombinant outer surface protein A (OspA) vaccine was approximately 80% effective in clinical trials in the United States, and a single 200 mg dose of doxycycline given within 72 hours of an I. scapularis tick bite, was shown to be 87% effective. The OspA vaccine is no longer manufactured due to poor sales. Consequently, single-dose doxycycline prophylaxis is rapidly gaining acceptance in the United States. Limiting single-dose doxycycline to just the highest risk tick bites can be accomplished if the health care provider has learned to differentiate engorged from unengorged I. scapularis ticks. Limitations of single-dose doxycycline prophylaxis are that the majority of patients with Lyme borreliosis do not recall a tick bite, and that there is no evidence that other Ixodes transmitted infections, such as human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, would be prevented. A safe, effective, inexpensive and well-accepted vaccine would be welcome.

  2. CPFP Summer Curriculum: Molecular Prevention Course | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    This Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program (CPFP) one-week course on molecular aspects of cancer prevention follows the Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course. It provides a strong background about molecular biology and genetics of cancer, and an overview of cutting-edge research and techniques in the fields of molecular epidemiology, biomarkers, multi-omic, and translational research. The following topics will be typically presented: |

  3. Firearm injury prevention training in Preventive Medicine Residency programs.

    PubMed

    Khubchandani, Jagdish; Price, James H; Dake, Joseph A

    2009-08-01

    Preventive medicine plays a central role in the reducing the number of deaths due to preventable causes of premature deaths. General Preventive Medicine Residency programs have not been studied in relation to training in this area. A three-wave mail survey was conducted with email and telephone follow-ups. The outcome measures were the portion of program directors involved in training residents on firearm injury prevention issues and their perceived benefits and barriers of training residents on firearm injury prevention issues. Only 25% of the programs provided formal training on firearm injury prevention. Program directors who provided formal training perceived significantly higher number of benefits to offering such training than did directors who did not provide such training but no significant difference was found between the two for number of perceived barriers. If preventive medicine residency graduates are to play a role in reducing premature morbidity and mortality from firearms it will require more residencies to offer formal training in this area. The Association for Prevention Teaching and Research needs to develop guidelines on specific curriculum topics regarding firearm injury prevention.

  4. How UAPB students eat: Preliminary results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The University of Arkansas – Pine Bluff Delta Obesity Prevention Research Project (DOPRP) is focused on nutritional adherence to the dietary guidelines, prevention of excess weight, promotion of healthy eating, and maintenance of a healthy weight during the college years. Adjusting to college life ...

  5. The costs of HIV prevention strategies in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Söderlund, N; Lavis, J; Broomberg, J; Mills, A

    1993-01-01

    Since many evaluations of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevention programmes do not include data on costs, a preliminary analysis of the costs and outputs of a sample of HIV prevention projects was attempted. Case studies, representing six broad HIV prevention strategies in developing countries with differing levels of per capita gross domestic product, were sought on the basis of availability of data and potential generalizability. The six prevention strategies studied were mass media campaigns, peer education programmes, sexually transmitted disease treatment, condom social marketing, safe blood provision, and needle exchange/bleach provision programmes. Financial cost data were abstracted from published studies or were obtained directly from project coordinators. Although estimates of cost-effectiveness were not made, calculations of the relative cost per common process measure of output were compared. Condom distribution costs ranged from US$ 0.02 to 0.70 per condom distributed, and costs of strategies involving personal educational input ranged from US$ 0.15 to 12.59 per contact.

  6. The costs of HIV prevention strategies in developing countries.

    PubMed Central

    Söderlund, N.; Lavis, J.; Broomberg, J.; Mills, A.

    1993-01-01

    Since many evaluations of HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) prevention programmes do not include data on costs, a preliminary analysis of the costs and outputs of a sample of HIV prevention projects was attempted. Case studies, representing six broad HIV prevention strategies in developing countries with differing levels of per capita gross domestic product, were sought on the basis of availability of data and potential generalizability. The six prevention strategies studied were mass media campaigns, peer education programmes, sexually transmitted disease treatment, condom social marketing, safe blood provision, and needle exchange/bleach provision programmes. Financial cost data were abstracted from published studies or were obtained directly from project coordinators. Although estimates of cost-effectiveness were not made, calculations of the relative cost per common process measure of output were compared. Condom distribution costs ranged from US$ 0.02 to 0.70 per condom distributed, and costs of strategies involving personal educational input ranged from US$ 0.15 to 12.59 per contact. PMID:8261563

  7. Evaluating the SOS suicide prevention program: a replication and extension

    PubMed Central

    Aseltine, Robert H; James, Amy; Schilling, Elizabeth A; Glanovsky, Jaime

    2007-01-01

    Background Suicide is a leading cause of death for children and youth in the United States. Although school based programs have been the principal vehicle for youth suicide prevention efforts for over two decades, few have been systematically evaluated. This study examined the effectiveness of the Signs of Suicide (SOS) prevention program in reducing suicidal behavior. Methods 4133 students in 9 high schools in Columbus, Georgia, western Massachusetts, and Hartford, Connecticut were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups during the 2001–02 and 2002–03 school years. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by students in both groups approximately 3 months after program implementation. Results Significantly lower rates of suicide attempts and greater knowledge and more adaptive attitudes about depression and suicide were observed among students in the intervention group. Students' race/ethnicity, grade, and gender did not alter the impact of the intervention on any of the outcomes assessed in this analysis. Conclusion This study has confirmed preliminary analysis of Year 1 data with a larger and more racially and socio-economically diverse sample. SOS continues to be the only universal school-based suicide prevention program to demonstrate significant effects of self-reported suicide attempts in a study utilizing a randomized experimental design. Moreover, the beneficial effects of SOS were observed among high school-aged youth from diverse racial/ethnic backgrounds, highlighting the program's utility as a universal prevention program. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT000387855. PMID:17640366

  8. Turbulence flight director analysis and preliminary simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. E.; Klein, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    A control column and trottle flight director display system is synthesized for use during flight through severe turbulence. The column system is designed to minimize airspeed excursions without overdriving attitude. The throttle system is designed to augment the airspeed regulation and provide an indication of the trim thrust required for any desired flight path angle. Together they form an energy management system to provide harmonious display indications of current aircraft motions and required corrective action, minimize gust upset tendencies, minimize unsafe aircraft excursions, and maintain satisfactory ride qualities. A preliminary fixed-base piloted simulation verified the analysis and provided a shakedown for a more sophisticated moving-base simulation to be accomplished next. This preliminary simulation utilized a flight scenario concept combining piloting tasks, random turbulence, and discrete gusts to create a high but realistic pilot workload conducive to pilot error and potential upset. The turbulence director (energy management) system significantly reduced pilot workload and minimized unsafe aircraft excursions.

  9. Explosive volcanic deposits on Mars: Preliminary investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crown, D. A.; Leshin, L. A.; Greeley, Ronald

    1987-01-01

    Two investigations were undertaken to examine possible large scale explosive volcanic deposits on Mars. The first includes an analysis of Viking Infrared Thermal Mapper (IRTM) data covering the vast deposits in the Amazonis, Memnonia, and Aeolis regions. These postulated ignimbrites have been previously mapped, and at least five high resolution nighttime IRTM data tracks cross the deposits. Preliminary analysis of the data covering Amazonis Planitia show that local features have anomalous thermal inertias but the ignimbrites as a whole do not consistently have significantly different thermal inertias from their surroundings. Preliminary photogeologic and IRTM studies of the large and small highland paterae have also begun. The purpose of IRTM studies of postulated Martian explosive volcanic deposits is to determine the physical properties of the proposed ignimbrites. If volcanic deposits are exposed at the surface, high thermal inertias, as are observed for Apollinaris Patera, should be present.

  10. [Transmission and prevention].

    PubMed

    Reboulot, B

    1992-01-01

    This work provides an overview of current knowledge of AIDS transmission and attitudes toward prevention in France. Most HIV infections are transmitted sexually. AIDS became established in the homosexual community in California because of mutual infection by members of the community with large numbers of sexual partners. The possibility of heterosexual transmission was not immediately recognized by all observers. Different publications estimate the risk of seroconversion after 1 episode of heterosexual coitus at between 1:100 and 1:1000/ Heterosexual transmission is bidirectional, but male-female transmission appears easier. Factors favoring transmission identified in AFrican studies include multiple partners, sexually transmitted diseases, anal penetration, relations during menstruation, and age. No epidemiologic study has concluded that kissing with mutual salivary contact can lead to infection, but oral-genital sex may pose a risk. As of October 1991, 966 cases of posttransfusion AIDS had been diagnosed in France, and an estimated 6000-9000 HIV seropositive persons were infected through transfusion. 239 AIDS cases were reported in hemophiliacs and others with coagulation disorders. 1200 of 3500 French hemophiliacs receiving transfusions before 1985 are seropositive. The risk of developing AIDS from a transfusions in France is currently estimated at 1/250,000. HIV transmission among drug addicts results from sharing contaminated needles and syringes. The risk of infection for health workers treating those who are HIV positive appears small; only about 30 documented cases have been reported worldwide, including 3 of 10,000 cases in France. The risk that an infected mother will have a seropositive baby is estimated at 25% in France. The number of seropositive women in the world is estimated at over 3 million, with 80% in sub-Saharan Africa. As of October 1991, 16,0000-36,000 seropositive women and 1500 seropositive children were estimated to live in France

  11. One-stage hybrid procedure without sternotomy for treating thoracic aortic pathologies that involve distal aortic arch: a single-center preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Changwei; Guo, Xi; Sun, Lizhong; Huang, Lianjun; Lai, Yongqiang

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aims to evaluate the initial results of a hybrid procedure without sternotomy for treating descending thoracic aortic disease that involves distal aortic arch. It also intends to report our initial experience in performing this procedure. Methods A total of 45 patients (35 males and 10 females) with descending thoracic aortic disease underwent a hybrid procedure, namely, thoracic endovascular aortic repair (TEVAR) combined with supra-arch branch vessel bypass, in our center from April 2009 to August 2014. Right axillary artery to left axillary artery bypass (n=20) or right axillary artery to left common carotid artery (LCCA) and left axillary artery bypass (n=25) were performed. The conditions of all patients were followed up from the 2nd month to the 65th month postoperative (mean, 26.0±17.1). Mortality within 30 days, complications such as endoleak after the hybrid procedure, and stenosis or blockage of the bypass graft during the follow-up period was assessed. Results All the patients underwent a one-stage procedure. One case of death and one case of cerebral infarction were reported within 30 days. One patient died of the sudden drop in blood pressure during the 2nd day of operation. Meanwhile, another patient suffered from cerebral infarction. Two patients underwent open surgery, and one of them had to undergo a second TEVAR during the follow-up period. Moreover, endoleak occurred in two patients and a newly formed intimal tear was observed in one patient. Overall, 93.2% of the patients survived without any complication related to the hybrid procedure. Conclusions Initial results suggest that the one-stage hybrid procedure is a suitable therapeutic option for thoracic aortic pathologies that involve distal aortic arch. However, this procedure is not recommended for type-B aortic dissection, in which a tear is located in the greater curvature or near the left subclavian artery (LSA), because of the high possibility of endoleak occurrence

  12. Preliminary results of large-actuator-count MEMS DM development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helmbrecht, Michael A.; He, Min; Rhodes, Patrick; Kempf, Carl J.

    2010-02-01

    Compensating for atmospheric turbulence in meter-class telescopes and for free-space communications can require deformable mirrors (DM) with hundreds of actuators. Advances in high-contrast imaging techniques and increased telescope sizes require DMs mirrors with thousands of actuators [1]-[3]. In response to these needs, Iris AO has been developing a nearly 500-actuator DM and is conducting pathfinding research into 3000-actuator class DMs. This paper begins with an overview of the segmented DM design and describes improvements made to the DM over the prior year in the areas of speed, high-quality dielectric coatings, and snap-in prevention structures. The paper then describes the next-generation PTT489 DM design and fabrication process. Failure modes encountered during fabrication are presented as well as test methods to detect the failure modes. Preliminary yield data are presented for the fabrication process as well. The paper concludes with a view to the future showing pathfinding research into 3000-actuator DMs.

  13. Ultrathin angioscopic guidewire: preliminary in-vitro results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castracane, James; Conerty, Michelle D.; Breisblatt, Warren

    1995-05-01

    One significant avenue for cost containment in medical care is the application of affordable spin-off technology. Innovative methods for the efficient prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic plaques in cardiac arteries will have significant implications for reducing health care costs in a large patient population. We report on preliminary work aimed at exploiting advanced sensing, fiber optic and materials technologies to create an innovative medical instrument: the Ultrathin Angioscopic Guidewire (UAG). The UAG uses an innovative method to combine high resolution fiber optic imaging bundles with flexible guidewire extensions into a integral unit having a diameter of less than 350 microns. The UAG would serve as the guidewire over a integral unit having a diameter of less than 350 microns. The UAG would serve as the guidewire over which the treatment catheter would ride eliminating repeated removal and reinsertion of the catheter for evaluation. The resulting images are coupled to a high resolution, image intensified detector. Use of digital image capture before and after treatment combined with frame processing allows for a quantitative evaluation of lesion removal and archival data to establish treatment efficacy. Once developed, this instrument will be particularly useful in conjunction with current interventional procedures. As a diagnostic tool, the intensifier in the UAG allows for sensitive imaging for application to in vivo bio/chemiluminescent immunoassays. We will present design details and discuss proof of principle results with the first prototype UAG.

  14. Preliminary studies to determine the shelf life of HEPA filters

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, H.; Fretthold, J.K.; Rainer, F.

    1995-02-01

    We have completed a preliminary study using filter media tests and filter qualification tests to investigate the effect of shelf-life on HEPA filter performance. Our media studies showed that the tensile strength decreased with age, but the data were not sufficient to establish a shelf-life. Thermogravimetric analyses demonstrated that one manufacturer had media with low tensile strength due to insufficient binder. The filter qualification tests (heated air and overpressure) conducted on different aged filters showed that filter age is not the primary factor affecting filter performance; materials and the construction design have a greater effect. An unexpected finding of our study was that sub-standard HEPA filters have been installed in DOE facilities despite existing regulations and filter qualification tests. We found that the filter with low tensile strength failed the overpressure test. The same filter had passed the heated air test, but left the filter so structurally weak, it was prone to blow-out. We recommend that DOE initiate a filter qualification program to prevent this occurrence.

  15. Case report: injuries associated with interactive game consoles: preliminary data.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ches; Hammig, Bart

    2009-04-01

    The use of motion-sensing video game software has provided users with the ability to mimic movements in many sports such as baseball, tennis, and boxing. Epidemiology on injuries and overuse of motion-sensing video game systems is minimal because the systems have only been available for 2 years. This case series report presents preliminary data on injuries related to the game systems from the first full year of use. Methods included the use of secondary data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System for 2007. The query found 21 cases of injury related to the use of the "Wii" video game system (Nintendo of America Inc., Redmond, WA). Results indicated that females were more prone to injuries, and the mean age was 16 years. Most injuries were soft tissue in nature and located in the shoulders, hands and fingers, and the face and neck region. Our discussion includes prevention strategies for reducing injury risk when playing motion-sensing video games.

  16. A preliminary investigation of affective interaction in chronic pain couples.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Ayna Beate; Cano, Annmarie

    2007-11-01

    The objective of this preliminary study was to examine the extent to which affective marital interaction related to depressive symptoms in persons with chronic pain and their spouses and to pain severity in persons with pain. Couples from the community completed self-report surveys and engaged in a videotaped conversation on a topic of mutual disagreement that was coded for three affect types (i.e., anger/contempt, sadness, humor). Humor was positively related to marital satisfaction in both partners. Spouse anger/contempt and sadness were positively related to depressive symptoms in spouses. Several significant interaction effects between couple pain status (i.e., whether one or both partners reported pain) and affect also emerged. Specifically, sadness in the participant designated as the person with pain was associated with greater depressive symptoms and pain severity when only he or she reported pain whereas sadness was related to fewer depressive symptoms and less pain severity when both partners reported pain. The relationships between spouse anger and spouse depressive symptoms and between spouse humor and pain severity in the person with pain were also moderated by couple pain status. These exploratory findings can be interpreted in light of emotion regulation and pain empathy theories. For example, partners who have not experienced pain themselves may fail to empathize with persons in pain, thus preventing effective emotion regulation. When both spouses report chronic pain, expressions of negative affect may instead promote emotion regulation because the affect is experienced with a spouse who may be more empathetic.

  17. Vibration of a rolling wheel— preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsworth, B.

    1983-03-01

    Preliminary results are presented of the axial vibration of a railway wheel on a vehicle travelling at speeds of up to 100 miles/h. Frequency analysis shows that the wheel response is resonant, at modes of vibration which have been identified from static tests. Further developments of measurement and analysis techniques will be necessary before a more complete picture of the importance of wheel vibration on wheel/rail noise radiation can be determined.

  18. X-48B Preliminary Flight Test Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the preliminary Flight tests of the X-48B development program. The X-48B is a blended wing body aircraft that is being used to test various features of the BWB concept. The research concerns the following: (1) Turbofan Development, (2) Intelligent Flight Control and Optimization, (3) Airdata Calibration (4) Parameter Identification (i.e., Determination of the parameters of a mathematical model of a system based on observation of the system inputs and response.)

  19. Bunch compression for the TLC: Preliminary design

    SciTech Connect

    Kheifets, S.A.; Ruth, R.D.; Murray, J.J.; Fieguth, T.H.

    1988-12-01

    A preliminary design of a TLC bunch compressor as a two-stage device is described. The main parameters of the compressor, as well as results of some simulations, are presented. They show that the ideal system (no imperfections) does the job of transmitting transverse emittances without distortions (at least up to the second-order terms) producing at the same time the desired bunch length of 50 m. 9 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. [Tonsillectomy with a laser dissector. Preliminary report].

    PubMed

    Lenz, H

    1984-11-01

    A so called laser-dissector with a flexible beam guide system for tonsillectomy is described. With this instrument the tissue is irradiated for a very short time resulting in a coagulation of the peritonsillar tissue with closure of the small vessels even before mechanical dissection is performed. A preliminary report of 10 patients is given. The main advantage is that the procedure could be performed without or with much less bleeding as in tonsillectomy without using vasoconstrictors.

  1. Preliminary design study of lunar housing configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    A preliminary design study assesses various configurations for habitation of the lunar surface. The study assumes an initial 4-man habitation module expandable to a 48-man concept. Through the numerous coupling combinations of identical modules, five basic configuration types are identified. A design model presents each configuration in light of certain issues. The issues include circulation, internal and external spatial characteristics, functional organizations, and future growth potential. The study discusses the attributes, potentials, and unique requirements of each configuration.

  2. Interferometer experiment on nimbus 3: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Hanel, R; Conrath, B

    1969-09-19

    A Michelson interferometer spectrometer carried aboard the Nimbus 3 satellite, launched 14 April 1969, measured the spectrum between 400 and 2000 wave numbers with a resolution of 5 wave numbers. High-quality spectra have been obtained on a global scale, and preliminary results indicate that the absorption bands of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and ozone can be used to obtain vertical distributions of temperature, water vapor, and ozone.

  3. Can We Really Prevent Suicide?

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz-Lifshitz, Maya; Zalsman, Gil; Giner, Lucas; Oquendo, Maria A.

    2012-01-01

    Every year, suicide is among the top 20 leading causes of death globally for all ages. Unfortunately, suicide is difficult to prevent, in large part because the prevalence of risk factors is high among the general population. In this review, clinical and psychological risk factors are examined and methods for suicide prevention are discussed. Prevention strategies found to be effective in suicide prevention include means restriction, responsible media coverage, and general public education, as well identification methods such as screening, gatekeeper training, and primary care physician education. Although the treatment for preventing suicide is difficult, follow-up that includes pharmacotherapy, psychotherapy, or both may be useful. However, prevention methods cannot be restricted to the individual. Community, social, and policy interventions will also be essential. PMID:22996297

  4. Pioglitazone prevents tau oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Hamano, Tadanori; Shirafuji, Norimichi; Makino, Chiemi; Yen, Shu-Hui; Kanaan, Nicholas M; Ueno, Asako; Suzuki, Jinya; Ikawa, Masamichi; Matsunaga, Akiko; Yamamura, Osamu; Kuriyama, Masaru; Nakamoto, Yasunari

    2016-09-23

    Tau aggregation and amyloid β protein (Aβ) deposition are the main causes of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) activation modulates Aβ production. To test whether the PPARγ agonist pioglitazone (PIO) is also effective in preventing tau aggregation in AD, we used a cellular model in which wild-type tau protein (4R0N) is overexpressed (M1C cells) (Hamano et al., 2012) as well as primary neuronal cultures. PIO reduced both phosphorylated and total tau levels, and inactivated glycogen synthase kinase 3β, a major tau kinase, associated with activation of Akt. In addition, PIO decreased cleaved caspase3 and C-terminal truncated tau species by caspase, which is expected to decrease tau aggregation. A fractionation study showed that PIO reduced high molecular-weight (120 kDa), oligomeric tau species in Tris Insoluble, sarkosyl-soluble fractions. Tau decrease was reversed by adding GW9662, a PPARγ antagonist. Together, our current results support the idea that PPARγ agonists may be useful therapeutic agents for AD.

  5. Calcification prevention tablets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindsay, Geoffrey A.; Hasting, Michael A.; Gustavson, Michael A.

    1991-01-01

    Citric acid tablets, which slowly release citric acid when flushed with water, are under development by the Navy for calcification prevention. The citric acid dissolves calcium carbonate deposits and chelates the calcium. For use in urinals, a dispenser is not required because the tablets are non-toxic and safe to handle. The tablets are placed in the bottom of the urinal, and are consumed in several hundred flushes (the release rate can be tailored by adjusting the formulation). All of the ingredients are environmentally biodegradable. Mass production of the tablets on commercial tableting machines was demonstrated. The tablets are inexpensive (about 75 cents apiece). Incidences of clogged pipes and urinals were greatly decreased in long term shipboard tests. The corrosion rate of sewage collection pipe (90/10 Cu/Ni) in citric acid solution in the laboratory is several mils per year at conditions typically found in traps under the urinals. The only shipboard corrosion seen to date is of the yellow brass urinal tail pieces. While this is acceptable, the search for a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor is underway. The shelf life of the tablets is at least one year if stored at 50 percent relative humidity, and longer if stored in sealed plastic buckets.

  6. Prevention of venereal infections

    PubMed Central

    Guthe, T.

    1958-01-01

    In the first part of this paper, a plea is made for a broad view by health administrations of the preventive aspects of venereal disease control, based on epidemiological rather than purely clinical grounds. Stress is laid on the importance of measures directed towards health promotion, specific protection, early recognition and prompt treatment, disability limitation, and rehabilitation. The value of case-finding and contact-tracing and of systematic blood-testing of certain population groups is emphasized. In the second part, measures for local and systemic prophylaxis are discussed. It is also pointed out that in the past 15 years there has been a rapid reduction in syphilis throughout the world as a whole (although some recrudescence has recently been reported in certain countries), but that over the same period the reservoir of gonorrhoea has been but slightly reduced. The possible epidemiological, immunological and other reasons for this phenomenon are gone into, and the conclusion is reached that the outlook for the control of gonorrhoea is now somewhat less favourable than it was a few years ago. Should apprehension on this score bring about a general orientation away from penicillin (particularly the long-acting preparations) in treating gonorrhoea, the effect on the reservoir of syphilis may also be unfortunate. PMID:13596876

  7. Preventing Suicide Among Inpatients

    PubMed Central

    Sakinofsky, Isaac

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inpatient suicide comprises a proportionately small but clinically important fraction of suicide. This study is intended as a qualitative analysis of the comprehensive English literature, highlighting what is known and what can be done to prevent inpatient suicide. Method: A systematic search was conducted on the Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge, and a personal database for articles on cohort series, preferably controlled, of inpatient suicide (not deliberate self-harm or attempted suicide, unless they also dealt specifically with suicide data). Results: A qualitative discussion is presented, based on the findings of the literature searched. Conclusions: The bulk of inpatient suicides actually occur not on the ward but off premises, when the patient was on leave or had absconded. Peaks occur shortly after admission and discharge. It is possible to reduce suicide risk on the ward by having a safe environment, optimizing patient visibility, supervising patients appropriately, careful assessment, awareness of and respect for suicide risk, good teamwork and communication, and adequate clinical treatment. PMID:24881161

  8. Prevention of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  9. Selenium for preventing cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vinceti, Marco; Dennert, Gabriele; Crespi, Catherine M; Zwahlen, Marcel; Brinkman, Maree; Zeegers, Maurice PA; Horneber, Markus; D'Amico, Roberto; Del Giovane, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Background This review is an update of the first Cochrane publication on selenium for preventing cancer (Dennert 2011). Selenium is a metalloid with both nutritional and toxicological properties. Higher selenium exposure and selenium supplements have been suggested to protect against several types of cancers. Objectives Two research questions were addressed in this review: What is the evidence for: an aetiological relation between selenium exposure and cancer risk in humans? andthe efficacy of selenium supplementation for cancer prevention in humans? Search methods We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, 2013, Issue 1), MEDLINE (Ovid, 1966 to February 2013 week 1), EMBASE (1980 to 2013 week 6), CancerLit (February 2004) and CCMed (February 2011). As MEDLINE now includes the journals indexed in CancerLit, no further searches were conducted in this database after 2004. Selection criteria We included prospective observational studies (cohort studies including sub-cohort controlled studies and nested case-control studies) and randomised controlled trials (RCTs) with healthy adult participants (18 years of age and older). Data collection and analysis For observational studies, we conducted random effects meta-analyses when five or more studies were retrieved for a specific outcome. For RCTs, we performed random effects meta-analyses when two or more studies were available. The risk of bias in observational studies was assessed using forms adapted from the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale for cohort and case-control studies; the criteria specified in the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were used to evaluate the risk of bias in RCTs. Main results We included 55 prospective observational studies (including more than 1,100,000 participants) and eight RCTs (with a total of 44,743 participants). For the observational studies, we found lower cancer incidence (summary odds ratio (OR) 0

  10. [Doping: effectiveness, consequences, prevention].

    PubMed

    Guezennec, C Y

    2001-02-01

    The use of doping is linked with the history of sports. Doping abuse escalated until the mid sixties when government and sports authorities responded with antidoping laws and drug testing. Today, the details of substances detected in controls give a good indication on the importance of doping use. Three classes of pharmaceuticals account for most of the positive controls. They are anabolic steroids, stimulants and narcotics. Their use can be related with the goal of the athletes. Anabolic steroids are mainly used in sports such as bodybuilding or weight lifting in order to develop strength. Stimulants are used in sports were speed favors performance. All the products that enhance blood oxygen transportation are used in endurance sports, their efficacy is not scientifically demonstrated, but their use does result in real risks. Several studies have evidenced the medical problems resulting from prolonged doping. Doping control is impaired by the fact that many products now used, e.g. EPO or rhGH, are not detectable. Regular medical examination of athletes could help prevent use of doping.

  11. Fungal Diseases: Ringworm Risk & Prevention

    MedlinePlus

    ... Foodborne, Waterborne, and Environmental Diseases Mycotic Diseases Branch Ringworm Risk & Prevention Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Who gets ringworm? Ringworm is very common. Anyone can get ringworm, ...

  12. Understanding and preventing military suicide.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Craig J; Jennings, Keith W; Jobes, David A; Bradley, John C

    2012-01-01

    The continual rise in the U.S. military's suicide rate since 2004 is one of the most vexing issues currently facing military leaders, mental health professionals, and suicide experts. Despite considerable efforts to address this problem, however, suicide rates have not decreased. The authors consider possible reasons for this frustrating reality, and question common assumptions and approaches to military suicide prevention. They further argue that suicide prevention efforts that more explicitly embrace the military culture and implement evidence-based strategies across the full spectrum of prevention and treatment could improve success. Several recommendations for augmenting current efforts to prevent military suicide are proposed.

  13. What is a Preventive HIV Vaccine?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services HIV Overview What is a Preventive HIV Vaccine? (Last updated 2/20/2017; last reviewed 2/ ... preventive HIV vaccine. What is a preventive HIV vaccine? A preventive HIV vaccine is given to people ...

  14. Prevention of Methamphetamine Abuse: Can Existing Evidence Inform Community Prevention?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birckmayer, Johanna; Fisher, Deborah A.; Holder, Harold D.; Yacoubian, George S.

    2008-01-01

    Little research exists on effective strategies to prevent methamphetamine production, distribution, sales, use, and harm. As a result, prevention practitioners (especially at the local level) have little guidance in selecting potentially effective strategies. This article presents a general causal model of methamphetamine use and harms that…

  15. Annual Advances in Cancer Prevention Lecture | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    2015 Keynote Lecture HPV Vaccination: Preventing More with Less A special keynote lecture became part of the NCI summer Curriculum in Cancer Prevention in 2000. This lecture will be held on Thursday, July 23, 2015 at 3:00pm at Masur Auditorium, Building 10, NIH Main Campus, Bethesda, MD. This year’s keynote speaker is Dr. Douglas Lowy, NCI Acting Director. |

  16. Design of a Vehicle Based Intervention System to Prevent Ozone Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, Robin; Fisher, Daniel; Meade, Matt; Neel, James; Olson, Kristin; Pittman, Andrew; Valdivia, Anne; Wibisono, Aria; Mason, William H.; Kirschbaum, Nathan

    1995-01-01

    This project was designed to be completed over a period of three years. Overall project goals were: (1) To understand the processes that contribute to stratospheric ozone loss; (2) To determine the best prevention scheme for loss; (3) To design a delivery vehicle to accomplish the prevention scheme. The 1994-1995 design objectives included: (1) To review the results of the 1993-1994 design team, including a reevaluation of the major assumptions and criteria selected to choose a vehicle; (2) To evaluate preliminary vehicle concepts and perform quantitative trade studies to select the optimal vehicle concept.

  17. Proposed national strategies for the prevention of leading work-related diseases and injuries. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    Preliminary strategies developed at the National Symposium on the Prevention of Leading Work Related Diseases and Injuries, held in Atlanta, Georgia on May 1 to 3, 1985 were revised, elaborated, and further developed. Strategies were developed for the prevention of occupational lung diseases, musculoskeletal injuries, occupational cancers, severe occupational traumatic injuries, and occupational cardiovascular diseases. Lung diseases considered included silicosis, asbestosis, lung cancer mesothelioma, coal workers' pneumoconiosis, byssinosis, occupational asthma, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, asphyxiation, irritation, pulmonary edema, brucellosis, psitticosis, anthrax, mycobacterioses, histoplasmosis, aspergillosis, and coccidioidomycosis. Occupational cancers were discussed as they occur in the lung, pleura, peritoneum, bladder, kidneys, blood, nasal cavity, skin, nasal sinuses, and liver.

  18. Culturally Grounded Stress Reduction and Suicide Prevention for African American Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, W. LaVome; Case, Mary H.; Whipple, Christopher R.; Gooden, Adia S.; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F.; Jason, Leonard A.

    2016-01-01

    Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9th, 10th and 11th grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed. PMID:27517094

  19. Culturally Grounded Stress Reduction and Suicide Prevention for African American Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Robinson, W LaVome; Case, Mary H; Whipple, Christopher R; Gooden, Adia S; Lopez-Tamayo, Roberto; Lambert, Sharon F; Jason, Leonard A

    2016-06-01

    Suicide is an often-overlooked manifestation of violence among African American youth that has become more prevalent in the last two decades. This article reports on the process used to culturally adapt a cognitive-behavioral coping with stress prevention intervention for African American adolescents. We implemented this adapted school-based suicide prevention intervention with 758 African American 9(th,) 10(th) and 11(th) grade students at four high schools in a large Midwestern city. The findings presented are preliminary. The adolescents in this sample endorsed high levels of suicide risk, with females endorsing significantly more suicide risk than males. Those receiving the prevention intervention evidenced an 86% relative suicide risk reduction, compared to the standard care control participants. The presented model of adaptation and resulting culturally-grounded suicide prevention intervention significantly reduced suicide risk among African American adolescents. Clinical, research and policy implications are discussed.

  20. [Boxing: traumatology and prevention].

    PubMed

    Cabanis, Emmanuel-Alain; Iba-Zizen, Marie-Thérèse; Perez, Georges; Senegas, Xavier; Furgoni, Julien; Pineau, Jean-Claude; Louquet, Jean-Louis; Henrion, Roger

    2010-10-01

    In 1986, a surgeon who, as an amateur boxer himself was concerned with boxers' health, approached a pioneering Parisian neuroimaging unit. Thus began a study in close cooperation with the French Boxing Federation, spanning 25 years. In a first series of 52 volunteer boxers (13 amateurs and 39 professionals), during which MRI gradually replaced computed tomography, ten risk factors were identified, which notably included boxing style: only one of 40 "stylists" with a good boxing technique had cortical atrophy (4.5 %), compared to 15 % of "sloggers". Changes to the French Boxing Federation rules placed the accent on medical prevention. The second series, of 247 boxers (81 amateurs and 266 professionals), showed a clear improvement, as lesions were suspected in 14 individuals, of which only 4 (1.35 %) were probably due to boxing. The third and fourth series were part of a protocol called "Brain-Boxing-Ageing", which included 76 boxers (11 having suffered KOs) and 120 MRI scans, with reproducible CT and MRI acquisitions (9 sequences with 1.5 T then 3 T, and CT). MRI anomalies secondary to boxing were found in 11 % of amateurs and 38 % of professionals (atrophy, high vascular T2 signal areas, 2 cases of post-KO subdural bleeding). CT revealed sinus damage in 13 % of the amateurs and 19 % of the professionals. The risk of acute and chronic facial and brain damage was underline, along with detailed precautionary measures (organization of bouts, role of the referee and ringside doctor, and application of French Boxing Federation rules).