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Sample records for endonucleolytic rec12 removal

  1. Ctp1 and the MRN-complex are required for endonucleolytic Rec12 removal with release of a single class of oligonucleotides in fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Rothenberg, Maja; Kohli, Jürg; Ludin, Katja

    2009-11-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are formed during meiosis by the action of the topoisomerase-like Spo11/Rec12 protein, which remains covalently bound to the 5' ends of the broken DNA. Spo11/Rec12 removal is required for resection and initiation of strand invasion for DSB repair. It was previously shown that budding yeast Spo11, the homolog of fission yeast Rec12, is removed from DNA by endonucleolytic cleavage. The release of two Spo11 bound oligonucleotide classes, heterogeneous in length, led to the conjecture of asymmetric cleavage. In fission yeast, we found only one class of oligonucleotides bound to Rec12 ranging in length from 17 to 27 nucleotides. Ctp1, Rad50, and the nuclease activity of Rad32, the fission yeast homolog of Mre11, are required for endonucleolytic Rec12 removal. Further, we detected no Rec12 removal in a rad50S mutant. However, strains with additional loss of components localizing to the linear elements, Hop1 or Mek1, showed some Rec12 removal, a restoration depending on Ctp1 and Rad32 nuclease activity. But, deletion of hop1 or mek1 did not suppress the phenotypes of ctp1Delta and the nuclease dead mutant (rad32-D65N). We discuss what consequences for subsequent repair a single class of Rec12-oligonucleotides may have during meiotic recombination in fission yeast in comparison to two classes of Spo11-oligonucleotides in budding yeast. Furthermore, we hypothesize on the participation of Hop1 and Mek1 in Rec12 removal.

  2. Ctp1CtIP and Rad32Mre11 nuclease activity are required for Rec12Spo11 removal, but Rec12Spo11 removal is dispensable for other MRN-dependent meiotic functions.

    PubMed

    Hartsuiker, Edgar; Mizuno, Kenichi; Molnar, Monika; Kohli, Juerg; Ohta, Kunihiro; Carr, Antony M

    2009-04-01

    The evolutionarily conserved Mre11/Rad50/Nbs1 (MRN) complex is involved in various aspects of meiosis. Whereas available evidence suggests that the Mre11 nuclease activity might be responsible for Spo11 removal in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, this has not been confirmed experimentally. This study demonstrates for the first time that Mre11 (Schizosaccharomyces pombe Rad32(Mre11)) nuclease activity is required for the removal of Rec12(Spo11). Furthermore, we show that the CtIP homologue Ctp1 is required for Rec12(Spo11) removal, confirming functional conservation between Ctp1(CtIP) and the more distantly related Sae2 protein from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Finally, we show that the MRN complex is required for meiotic recombination, chromatin remodeling at the ade6-M26 recombination hot spot, and formation of linear elements (which are the equivalent of the synaptonemal complex found in other eukaryotes) but that all of these functions are proficient in a rad50S mutant, which is deficient for Rec12(Spo11) removal. These observations suggest that the conserved role of the MRN complex in these meiotic functions is independent of Rec12(Spo11) removal.

  3. Meiotic DNA double-strand break repair requires two nucleases, MRN and Ctp1, to produce a single size class of Rec12 (Spo11)-oligonucleotide complexes.

    PubMed

    Milman, Neta; Higuchi, Emily; Smith, Gerald R

    2009-11-01

    Programmed DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in meiosis are formed by Spo11 (Rec12 in fission yeast), a topoisomerase II-like protein, which becomes covalently attached to DNA 5' ends. For DSB repair through homologous recombination, the protein must be removed from these DNA ends. We show here that Rec12 is endonucleolytically removed from DSB ends attached to a short oligonucleotide (Rec12-oligonucleotide complex), as is Spo11 in budding yeast. Fission yeast, however, has only one size class of Rec12-oligonucleotide complexes, whereas budding yeast has two size classes, suggesting different endonucleolytic regulatory mechanisms. Rec12-oligonucleotide generation strictly requires Ctp1 (Sae2 nuclease homolog), the Rad32 (Mre11) nuclease domain, and Rad50 of the MRN complex. Surprisingly, Nbs1 is not strictly required, indicating separable roles for the MRN subunits. On the basis of these and other data, we propose that Rad32 nuclease has the catalytic site for Rec12-oligonucleotide generation and is activated by Ctp1, which plays an additional role in meiotic recombination.

  4. Both endonucleolytic and exonucleolytic cleavage mediate ITS1 removal during human ribosomal RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Sloan, Katherine E; Mattijssen, Sandy; Lebaron, Simon; Tollervey, David; Pruijn, Ger J M; Watkins, Nicholas J

    2013-03-04

    Human ribosome production is up-regulated during tumorogenesis and is defective in many genetic diseases (ribosomopathies). We have undertaken a detailed analysis of human precursor ribosomal RNA (pre-rRNA) processing because surprisingly little is known about this important pathway. Processing in internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1) is a key step that separates the rRNA components of the large and small ribosomal subunits. We report that this was initiated by endonuclease cleavage, which required large subunit biogenesis factors. This was followed by 3' to 5' exonucleolytic processing by RRP6 and the exosome, an enzyme complex not previously linked to ITS1 removal. In contrast, RNA interference-mediated knockdown of the endoribonuclease MRP did not result in a clear defect in ITS1 processing. Despite the apparently high evolutionary conservation of the pre-rRNA processing pathway and ribosome synthesis factors, each of these features of human ITS1 processing is distinct from those in budding yeast. These results also provide significant insight into the links between ribosomopathies and ribosome production in human cells.

  5. A DNA binding motif of meiotic recombinase Rec12 (Spo11) defined by essential glycine-202, and persistence of Rec12 protein after completion of recombination.

    PubMed

    DeWall, K Mark; Davidson, Mari K; Sharif, Wallace D; Wiley, Charla A; Wahls, Wayne P

    2005-08-15

    The Rec12 (Spo11) protein of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a meiosis-specific ortholog of the catalytic subunit of type VI topoisomerases and is thought to catalyze double-strand DNA breaks that initiate recombination. We tested the hypothesis that the rec12-117 allele affects the choice of pathways by which recombination is resolved. DNA sequence analysis revealed a single missense mutation in the coding region (rec12-G202E). The corresponding glycine-202 residue of Rec12 protein is strictly conserved in proteins of the Rec12/Spo11/Top6A family. It maps to the base of the DNA binding pocket in the crystal structure of the archaeal ortholog, Top6A. The rec12-G202E mutants lacked crossover and non-crossover recombination, demonstrating that rec12-G202E does not affect choice of resolution pathway. Like rec12-D15 null mutants, the rec12-G202E mutants suffered chromosome segregation errors in meiosis I. The Rec12-G202E protein was as stable as wild-type Rec12, demonstrating that glycine-202 is essential for a biochemical activity of Rec12 protein, rather than for its stability. These findings suggest that Rec12 facilitates binding of the meiotic recombinase to its substrate, DNA. Interestingly, the bulk of Rec12 protein persisted until the time of anaphase I, and a portion of Rec12 protein persisted until the time of anaphase II, after which it was undetectable. This suggests that Rec12 protein has additional meiotic functions after completion of recombination in prophase, as inferred previously from genetic studies [Sharif, W.D., Glick, G.G., Davidson, M.K., Wahls, W.P., 2002. Distinct functions of S. pombe Rec12 (Spo11) protein and Rec12-dependent crossover recombination (chiasmata) in meiosis I; and a requirement for Rec12 in meiosis II. Cell Chromo. 1, 1].

  6. A DNA binding motif of meiotic recombinase Rec12 (Spo11) defined by essential glycine-202, and persistence of Rec12 protein after completion of recombination

    PubMed Central

    DeWall, K. Mark; Davidson, Mari K.; Sharif, Wallace D.; Wiley, Charla A.; Wahls, Wayne P.

    2011-01-01

    The Rec12 (Spo11) protein of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe is a meiosis-specific ortholog of the catalytic subunit of type VI topoisomerases and is thought to catalyze double-strand DNA breaks that initiate recombination. We tested the hypothesis that the rec12-117 allele affects the choice of pathways by which recombination is resolved. DNA sequence analysis revealed a single missense mutation in the coding region (rec12-G202E). The corresponding glycine-202 residue of Rec12 protein is strictly conserved in proteins of the Rec12/Spo11/Top6A family. It maps to the base of the DNA binding pocket in the crystal structure of the archaeal ortholog, Top6A. The rec12-G202E mutants lacked crossover and non-crossover recombination, demonstrating that rec12-G202E does not affect choice of resolution pathway. Like rec12-D15 null mutants, the rec12-G202E mutants suffered chromosome segregation errors in meiosis I. The Rec12-G202E protein was as stable as wild-type Rec12, demonstrating that glycine-202 is essential for a biochemical activity of Rec12 protein, rather than for its stability. These findings suggest that Rec12 facilitates binding of the meiotic recombinase to its substrate, DNA. Interestingly, the bulk of Rec12 protein persisted until the time of anaphase I, and a portion of Rec12 protein persisted until the time of anaphase II, after which it was undetectable. This suggests that Rec12 protein has additional meiotic functions after completion of recombination in prophase, as inferred previously from genetic studies. PMID:16009511

  7. Distinct functions of S. pombe Rec12 (Spo11) protein and Rec12-dependent crossover recombination (chiasmata) in meiosis I; and a requirement for Rec12 in meiosis II.

    PubMed

    Sharif, Wallace D; Glick, Gloria G; Davidson, Mari K; Wahls, Wayne P

    2002-09-19

    BACKGROUND: In most organisms proper reductional chromosome segregation during meiosis I is strongly correlated with the presence of crossover recombination structures (chiasmata); recombination deficient mutants lack crossovers and suffer meiosis I nondisjunction. We report that these functions are separable in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. RESULTS: Intron mapping and expression studies confirmed that Rec12 is a member of the Spo11/Top6A topoisomerase family required for the formation of meiotic dsDNA breaks and recombination. rec12-117, rec12-D15 (null), and rec12-Y98F (active site) mutants lacked most crossover recombination and chromosomes segregated abnormally to generate aneuploid meiotic products. Since S. pombe contains only three chromosome pairs, many of those aneuploid products were viable. The types of aberrant chromosome segregation were inferred from the inheritance patterns of centromere linked markers in diploid meiotic products. The rec12-117 and rec12-D15 mutants manifest segregation errors during both meiosis I and meiosis II. Remarkably, the rec12-Y98F (active site) mutant exhibited essentially normal meiosis I segregation patterns, but still exhibited meiosis II segregation errors. CONCLUSIONS: Rec12 is a 345 amino acid protein required for most crossover recombination and for chiasmatic segregation of chromosomes during meiosis I. Rec12 also participates in a backup distributive (achiasmatic) system of chromosome segregation during meiosis I. In addition, catalytically-active Rec12 mediates some signal that is required for faithful equational segregation of chromosomes during meiosis II.

  8. Purification, folding, and characterization of Rec12 (Spo11) meiotic recombinase of fission yeast.

    PubMed

    Wu, Heng; Gao, Jun; Sharif, Wallace D; Davidson, Mari K; Wahls, Wayne P

    2004-11-01

    Meiotic recombination is initiated by controlled dsDNA breaks (DSBs). Rec12 (Spo11) protein of fission yeast is essential for the formation of meiotic DSBs in vivo, for meiotic recombination, and for segregation of chromosomes during meiosis I. Rec12 is orthologous to Top6A topoisomerase of Archaea and is likely the catalytic subunit of a meiotic recombinase that introduces recombinogenic DSBs. However, despite intensive effort, it has not been possible to produce Rec12 protein in a soluble form required to permit biochemical analyses of function. To obtain purified Rec12 protein for in vitro studies, a rec12(+) cDNA was generated, cloned into vector pET15b(+), and expressed in Escherichia coli. Rec12 protein was produced at moderate levels and it partitioned into insoluble fractions of whole-cell extracts. The protein was enriched based upon its differential solubility in two different denaturants and was further purified by column chromatography. A combinatorial, fractional, factorial approach was used to identify conditions under which Rec12 protein could be refolded. Four parameters were most important and, following optimization, soluble Rec12 protein was obtained. Gel filtration demonstrated that refolded Rec12 protein exists as a monomer in solution, suggesting that additional proteins may be required to assemble biologically-active Rec12 dimers, as inferred previously from genetic data [Cell Chromosome 1 (2002) 1]. The production of refolded Rec12 in a soluble form will allow for characterization in vitro of this key meiotic recombination enzyme.

  9. Sites of strong Rec12/Spo11 binding in the fission yeast genome are associated with meiotic recombination and with centromeres.

    PubMed

    Ludin, Katja; Mata, Juan; Watt, Stephen; Lehmann, Elisabeth; Bähler, Jürg; Kohli, Jürg

    2008-10-01

    Meiotic recombination arises from Rec12/Spo11-dependent formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and their subsequent repair. We identified Rec12-binding peaks across the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome using chromatin immunoprecipitation after reversible formaldehyde cross-linking combined with whole-genome DNA microarrays. Strong Rec12 binding coincided with previously identified DSBs at the recombination hotspots ura4A, mbs1, and mbs2 and correlated with DSB formation at a new site. In addition, Rec12 binding corresponded to eight novel conversion hotspots and correlated with crossover density in segments of chromosome I. Notably, Rec12 binding inversely correlated with guanine-cytosine (GC) content, contrary to findings in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although both replication origins and Rec12-binding sites preferred AT-rich gene-free regions, they seemed to exclude each other. We also uncovered a connection between binding sites of Rec12 and meiotic cohesin Rec8. Rec12-binding peaks lay often within 2.5 kb of a Rec8-binding peak. Rec12 binding showed preference for large intergenic regions and was found to bind preferentially near to genes expressed strongly in meiosis. Surprisingly, Rec12 binding was also detected in centromeric core regions, which raises the intriguing possibility that Rec12 plays additional roles in meiotic chromosome dynamics.

  10. Endonucleolytic processing of covalent protein-linked DNA double-strand breaks.

    PubMed

    Neale, Matthew J; Pan, Jing; Keeney, Scott

    2005-08-18

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) with protein covalently attached to 5' strand termini are formed by Spo11 to initiate meiotic recombination. The Spo11 protein must be removed for the DSB to be repaired, but the mechanism for removal is unclear. Here we show that meiotic DSBs in budding yeast are processed by endonucleolytic cleavage that releases Spo11 attached to an oligonucleotide with a free 3'-OH. Two discrete Spo11-oligonucleotide complexes were found in equal amounts, differing with respect to the length of the bound DNA. We propose that these forms arise from different spacings of strand cleavages flanking the DSB, with every DSB processed asymmetrically. Thus, the ends of a single DSB may be biochemically distinct at or before the initial processing step-much earlier than previously thought. SPO11-oligonucleotide complexes were identified in extracts of mouse testis, indicating that this mechanism is evolutionarily conserved. Oligonucleotide-topoisomerase II complexes were also present in extracts of vegetative yeast, although not subject to the same genetic control as for generating Spo11-oligonucleotide complexes. Our findings suggest a general mechanism for repair of protein-linked DSBs.

  11. Endonucleolytic cleavages by RNase E generate the mature 3′ termini of the three proline tRNAs in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Bijoy K.; Petree, Jessica R.; Kushner, Sidney R.

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate here for the first time that proline tRNA 3′ end maturation in Escherichia coli employs a one-step endonucleolytic pathway that does not involve any of the six 3′ → 5′ exonucleases (RNase T, RNase PH, RNase D, RNase BN, RNase II and polynucleotide phosphorylase [PNPase]) to generate the mature CCA terminus. Rather, RNase E is primarily responsible for the endonucleolytic removal of the entire Rho-independent transcription terminator associated with the proK, proL and proM primary transcripts by cleaving immediately downstream of the CCA determinant. In the absence of RNase E, RNase G and RNase Z are weakly able to process the proK and proM transcripts, while PNPase and RNase P are utilized in the processing of proL. The terminator fragment derived from the endonucleolytic cleavage of proL transcript is degraded through a PNPase-dependent pathway. It is not clear which enzymes degrade the proK and proM terminator fragments. Our data also suggest that the mature 5′ nucleotide of the proline tRNAs may be responsible for the cleavage specificity of RNase E at the 3′ terminus. PMID:27288443

  12. Activation of an alternative, rec12 (spo11)-independent pathway of fission yeast meiotic recombination in the absence of a DNA flap endonuclease.

    PubMed

    Farah, Joseph A; Cromie, Gareth; Davis, Luther; Steiner, Walter W; Smith, Gerald R

    2005-12-01

    Spo11 or a homologous protein appears to be essential for meiotic DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation and recombination in all organisms tested. We report here the first example of an alternative, mutationally activated pathway for meiotic recombination in the absence of Rec12, the Spo11 homolog of Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Rad2, a FEN-1 flap endonuclease homolog, is involved in processing Okazaki fragments. In its absence, meiotic recombination and proper segregation of chromosomes were restored in rec12Delta mutants to nearly wild-type levels. Although readily detectable in wild-type strains, meiosis-specific DSBs were undetectable in recombination-proficient rad2Delta rec12Delta strains. On the basis of the biochemical properties of Rad2, we propose that meiotic recombination by this alternative (Rec*) pathway can be initiated by non-DSB lesions, such as nicks and gaps, which accumulate during premeiotic DNA replication in the absence of Okazaki fragment processing. We compare the Rec* pathway to alternative pathways of homologous recombination in other organisms.

  13. DNA-PKcs dependence of Artemis endonucleolytic activity, differences between hairpins and 5' or 3' overhangs.

    PubMed

    Niewolik, Doris; Pannicke, Ulrich; Lu, Haihui; Ma, Yunmei; Wang, Ling-Chi Vicky; Kulesza, Peter; Zandi, Ebrahim; Lieber, Michael R; Schwarz, Klaus

    2006-11-10

    During V(D)J recombination, the RAG proteins create DNA hairpins at the V, D, or J coding ends, and the structure-specific nuclease Artemis is essential to open these hairpins prior to joining. Artemis also is an endonuclease for 5' and 3' overhangs at many DNA double strand breaks caused by ionizing radiation, and Artemis functions as part of the nonhomologous DNA end joining pathway in repairing these. All of these activities require activation of the Artemis protein by interaction with and phosphorylation by the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs). In this study, we have identified a region of the Artemis protein involved in the interaction with DNA-PKcs. Furthermore, the biochemical and functional analyses of C-terminally truncated Artemis variants indicate that the hair-pin opening and DNA overhang endonucleolytic features of Artemis are triggered by DNA-PKcs in two modes. First, autoinhibition mediated by the C-terminal tail of Artemis is relieved by phosphorylation of this tail by DNA-PKcs. Thus, C-terminally truncated Artemis derivatives imitate DNA-PKcs-activated wild type Artemis protein and exhibit intrinsic hairpin opening activity. Second, DNA-PKcs may optimally configure 5' and 3' overhang substrates for the endonucleolytic function of Artemis.

  14. The structural basis of damaged DNA recognition and endonucleolytic cleavage for very short patch repair endonuclease

    PubMed Central

    Tsutakawa, Susan E.; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2001-01-01

    Endonucleases in DNA repair must be able to recognize damaged DNA as well as cleave the phosphodiester backbone. These functional prerequisites are manifested in very short patch repair (Vsr) endonuclease through a common endonuclease topology that has been tailored for recognition of TG mismatches. Structural and biochemical comparison with type II restriction enzymes illustrates how Vsr resembles these endonucleases in overall topology but also how Vsr diverges in terms of the detailed catalytic mechanism. A histidine and two metal–water clusters catalyze the phosphodiester cleavage. The mode of DNA damage recognition is also unique to Vsr. All other structurally characterized DNA damage-binding enzymes employ a nucleotide flipping mechanism for substrate recognition and for catalysis. Vsr, on the other hand, recognizes the TG mismatch as a wobble base pair and penetrates the DNA with three aromatic residues on one side of the mismatch. Thus, Vsr endonuclease provides important counterpoints in our understanding of endonucleolytic mechanisms and of damaged DNA recognition. PMID:11557809

  15. Global analyses of endonucleolytic cleavage in mammals reveal expanded repertoires of cleavage-inducing small RNAs and their targets.

    PubMed

    Cass, Ashley A; Bahn, Jae Hoon; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Greer, Christopher; Lin, Xianzhi; Kim, Yong; Hsiao, Yun-Hua Esther; Xiao, Xinshu

    2016-04-20

    In mammals, small RNAs are important players in post-transcriptional gene regulation. While their roles in mRNA destabilization and translational repression are well appreciated, their involvement in endonucleolytic cleavage of target RNAs is poorly understood. Very few microRNAs are known to guide RNA cleavage. Endogenous small interfering RNAs are expected to induce target cleavage, but their target genes remain largely unknown. We report a systematic study of small RNA-mediated endonucleolytic cleavage in mouse through integrative analysis of small RNA and degradome sequencing data without imposing any bias toward known small RNAs. Hundreds of small cleavage-inducing RNAs and their cognate target genes were identified, significantly expanding the repertoire of known small RNA-guided cleavage events. Strikingly, both small RNAs and their target sites demonstrated significant overlap with retrotransposons, providing evidence for the long-standing speculation that retrotransposable elements in mRNAs are leveraged as signals for gene targeting. Furthermore, our analysis showed that the RNA cleavage pathway is also present in human cells but affecting a different repertoire of retrotransposons. These results show that small RNA-guided cleavage is more widespread than previously appreciated. Their impact on retrotransposons in non-coding regions shed light on important aspects of mammalian gene regulation. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  16. Coordinate 5' and 3' endonucleolytic trimming of terminally blocked blunt DNA double-strand break ends by Artemis nuclease and DNA-dependent protein kinase.

    PubMed

    Yannone, Steven M; Khan, Imran S; Zhou, Rui-Zhe; Zhou, Tong; Valerie, Kristoffer; Povirk, Lawrence F

    2008-06-01

    Previous work showed that, in the presence of DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), Artemis slowly trims 3'-phosphoglycolate-terminated blunt ends. To examine the trimming reaction in more detail, long internally labeled DNA substrates were treated with Artemis. In the absence of DNA-PK, Artemis catalyzed extensive 5'-->3' exonucleolytic resection of double-stranded DNA. This resection required a 5'-phosphate, but did not require ATP, and was accompanied by endonucleolytic cleavage of the resulting 3' overhang. In the presence of DNA-PK, Artemis-mediated trimming was more limited, was ATP-dependent and did not require a 5'-phosphate. For a blunt end with either a 3'-phosphoglycolate or 3'-hydroxyl terminus, endonucleolytic trimming of 2-4 nucleotides from the 3'-terminal strand was accompanied by trimming of 6 nt from the 5'-terminal strand. The results suggest that autophosphorylated DNA-PK suppresses the exonuclease activity of Artemis toward blunt-ended DNA, and promotes slow and limited endonucleolytic trimming of the 5'-terminal strand, resulting in short 3' overhangs that are trimmed endonucleolytically. Thus, Artemis and DNA-PK can convert terminally blocked DNA ends of diverse geometry and chemical structure to a form suitable for polymerase-mediated patching and ligation, with minimal loss of terminal sequence. Such processing could account for the very small deletions often found at DNA double-strand break repair sites.

  17. The exo- or endonucleolytic preference of bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A depends on its subsites structure and on the substrate size

    PubMed Central

    Cuchillo, Claudi M.; Moussaoui, Mohamed; Barman, Tom; Travers, Franck; Nogués, M. Victòria

    2002-01-01

    The cleavage pattern of oligocytidylic acid substrates by bovine pancreatic ribonuclease A (RNase A) was studied by means of reversed-phase HPLC. Oligocytidylic acids, ranging from dinucleotides to heptanucleotides, were obtained by RNase A digestion of poly(C). They were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry; it was confirmed that all of them corresponded to the general structure (Cp)nC>p, in which C>p indicates a 2`,3`-cyclic phosphate. This is a confirmation of the proposed mechanism for RNase A, wherein the so-called hydrolytic (or second) step is in fact a special case of the reverse of transphosphorylation (first step). The patterns of cleavage for the oligonucleotide substrates show that the native enzyme has no special preference for endonucleolytic or exonucleolytic cleavage, whereas a mutant of the enzyme (K7Q/R10Q-RNase A) lacking p2 (a phosphate binding subsite adjacent, on the 3` side, to the main phosphate binding site p1) shows a clear exonucleolytic pattern; a mutant (K66Q-RNase A) lacking p0 (a phosphate binding subsite adjacent, on the 5` side, to the main phosphate binding site p1) shows a more endonucleolytic pattern. This indicates the important role played by the subsites on the preference for the bond cleaved. Molecular modeling shows that, in the case of the p2 mutant, the amide group of glutamine can form a hydrogen bond with the 2`,3`-cyclic terminal phosphate, whereas the distance to a 3`,5`-phosphodiester bond is too long to form such a hydrogen bond. This could explain the preference for exonucleolytic cleavage shown by the p2 mutant. PMID:11742128

  18. The rate-limiting step in yeast PGK1 mRNA degradation is an endonucleolytic cleavage in the 3'-terminal part of the coding region.

    PubMed Central

    Vreken, P; Raué, H A

    1992-01-01

    Insertion of an 18-nucleotide-long poly(G) tract into the 3'-terminal untranslated region of yeast phosphoglycerate kinase (PGK1) mRNA increases its chemical half-life by about a factor of 2 (P. Vreken, R. Van der Veen, V. C. H. F. de Regt, A. L. de Maat, R. J. Planta, and H. A. Raué, Biochimie 73:729-737, 1991). In this report, we show that this insertion also causes the accumulation of a degradation intermediate extending from the poly(G) sequence down to the transcription termination site. Reverse transcription and S1 nuclease mapping experiments demonstrated that this intermediate is the product of shorter-lived primary fragments resulting from endonucleolytic cleavage immediately downstream from the U residue of either of two 5'-GGUG-3' sequences present between positions 1100 and 1200 close to the 3' terminus (position 1251) of the coding sequence. Similar endonucleolytic cleavages appear to initiate degradation of wild-type PGK1 mRNA. Insertion of a poly(G) tract just upstream from the AUG start codon resulted in the accumulation of a 5'-terminal degradation intermediate extending from the insertion to the 1100-1200 region. RNase H degradation in the presence of oligo(dT) demonstrated that the wild-type and mutant PGK1 mRNAs are deadenylated prior to endonucleolytic cleavage and that the half-life of the poly(A) tail is three- to sixfold lower than that of the remainder of the mRNA. Thus, the endonucleolytic cleavage constitutes the rate-limiting step in degradation of both wild-type and mutant PGK1 transcripts, and the resulting fragments are degraded by a 5'----3' exonuclease, which appears to be severely retarded by a poly(G) sequence. Images PMID:1320194

  19. Ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 is required for endonucleolytic cleavage induced by stalled ribosome at the 3' end of nonstop mRNA.

    PubMed

    Ikeuchi, Ken; Inada, Toshifumi

    2016-06-17

    Dom34-Hbs1 stimulates degradation of aberrant mRNAs lacking termination codons by dissociating ribosomes stalled at the 3' ends, and plays crucial roles in Nonstop Decay (NSD) and No-Go Decay (NGD). In the dom34Δ mutant, nonstop mRNA is degraded by sequential endonucleolytic cleavages induced by a stalled ribosome at the 3' end. Here, we report that ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 is required for the endonucleolytic cleavage of nonstop mRNA by stalled ribosome at the 3' end of mRNA in dom34Δ mutant cells. Asc1/RACK1 facilitates degradation of truncated GFP-Rz mRNA in the absence of Dom34 and exosome-dependent decay. Asc1/RACK1 is required for the sequential endonucleolytic cleavages by the stalled ribosome in the dom34Δ mutant, depending on its ribosome-binding activity. The levels of peptidyl-tRNA derived from nonstop mRNA were elevated in dom34Δasc1Δ mutant cells, and overproduction of nonstop mRNA inhibited growth of mutant cells. E3 ubiquitin ligase Ltn1 degrades the arrest products from truncated GFP-Rz mRNA in dom34Δ and dom34Δasc1Δ mutant cells, and Asc1/RACK1 represses the levels of substrates for Ltn1-dependent degradation. These indicate that ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 facilitates endonucleolytic cleavage of nonstop mRNA by stalled ribosomes and represses the levels of aberrant products even in the absence of Dom34. We propose that Asc1/RACK1 acts as a fail-safe in quality control for nonstop mRNA.

  20. Ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 is required for endonucleolytic cleavage induced by stalled ribosome at the 3′ end of nonstop mRNA

    PubMed Central

    Ikeuchi, Ken; Inada, Toshifumi

    2016-01-01

    Dom34-Hbs1 stimulates degradation of aberrant mRNAs lacking termination codons by dissociating ribosomes stalled at the 3′ ends, and plays crucial roles in Nonstop Decay (NSD) and No-Go Decay (NGD). In the dom34Δ mutant, nonstop mRNA is degraded by sequential endonucleolytic cleavages induced by a stalled ribosome at the 3′ end. Here, we report that ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 is required for the endonucleolytic cleavage of nonstop mRNA by stalled ribosome at the 3′ end of mRNA in dom34Δ mutant cells. Asc1/RACK1 facilitates degradation of truncated GFP-Rz mRNA in the absence of Dom34 and exosome-dependent decay. Asc1/RACK1 is required for the sequential endonucleolytic cleavages by the stalled ribosome in the dom34Δ mutant, depending on its ribosome-binding activity. The levels of peptidyl-tRNA derived from nonstop mRNA were elevated in dom34Δasc1Δ mutant cells, and overproduction of nonstop mRNA inhibited growth of mutant cells. E3 ubiquitin ligase Ltn1 degrades the arrest products from truncated GFP-Rz mRNA in dom34Δ and dom34Δasc1Δ mutant cells, and Asc1/RACK1 represses the levels of substrates for Ltn1-dependent degradation. These indicate that ribosome-associated Asc1/RACK1 facilitates endonucleolytic cleavage of nonstop mRNA by stalled ribosomes and represses the levels of aberrant products even in the absence of Dom34. We propose that Asc1/RACK1 acts as a fail-safe in quality control for nonstop mRNA. PMID:27312062

  1. Long-range RNA interaction of two sequence elements required for endonucleolytic cleavage of human insulin-like growth factor II mRNAs.

    PubMed Central

    Scheper, W; Meinsma, D; Holthuizen, P E; Sussenbach, J S

    1995-01-01

    Human insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II) mRNAs are subject to site-specific endonucleolytic cleavage in the 3' untranslated region, leading to an unstable 5' cleavage product containing the IGF-II coding region and a very stable 3' cleavage product of 1.8 kb. This endonucleolytic cleavage is most probably the first and rate-limiting step in degradation of IGF-II mRNAs. Two sequence elements within the 3' untranslated region are required for cleavage: element I, located approximately 2 kb upstream of the cleavage site, and element II, encompassing the cleavage site itself. We have identified a stable double-stranded RNA stem structure (delta G = -100 kcal/mol [418.4 kJ/mol]) that can be formed between element I and a region downstream of the cleavage site in element II. This structure is conserved among human, rat, and mouse mRNAs. Detailed analysis of the requirements for cleavage shows that the relative position of the elements is not essential for cleavage. Furthermore, the distance between the coding region and the cleavage site does not affect the cleavage reaction. Mutational analysis of the long-range RNA-RNA interaction shows that not only the double-stranded character but also the sequence of the stable RNA stem is important for cleavage. PMID:7799930

  2. A global profiling of uncapped mRNAs under cold stress reveals specific decay patterns and endonucleolytic cleavages in Brachypodium distachyon

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background mRNA degradation is a critical factor in determining mRNA abundance and enables rapid adjustment of gene expression in response to environmental stress. The involvement of processing bodies in stress response suggests a role for decapping-mediated mRNA degradation. However, little is known about the role of mRNA degradation under stressful environmental conditions. Results Here, we perform a global study of uncapped mRNAs, via parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE), under cold stress in Brachypodium distachyon. Enrichment analysis indicates that degradation products detected by PARE are mainly generated by the decapping pathway. Endonucleolytic cleavages are detected, uncovering another way of modulating gene expression. PARE and RNA-Seq analyses identify four types of mRNA decay patterns. Type II genes, for which light-harvesting processes are over-represented in gene ontology analyses, show unchanged transcript abundance and altered uncapped transcript abundance. Uncapping-mediated transcript stability of light harvesting-related genes changes significantly in response to cold stress, which may allow rapid adjustments in photosynthetic activity in response to cold stress. Transcript abundance and uncapped transcript abundance for type III genes changes in opposite directions in response to cold stress, indicating that uncapping-mediated mRNA degradation plays a role in regulating gene expression. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first global analysis of mRNA degradation under environmental stress conditions in Brachypodium distachyon. We uncover specific degradation and endonucleolytic cleavage patterns under cold stress, which will deepen our understanding of mRNA degradation under stressful environmental conditions, as well as the cold stress response mechanism in monocots. PMID:24000894

  3. A global profiling of uncapped mRNAs under cold stress reveals specific decay patterns and endonucleolytic cleavages in Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingyu; Mao, Zhiwei; Chong, Kang

    2013-08-30

    mRNA degradation is a critical factor in determining mRNA abundance and enables rapid adjustment of gene expression in response to environmental stress. The involvement of processing bodies in stress response suggests a role for decapping-mediated mRNA degradation. However, little is known about the role of mRNA degradation under stressful environmental conditions. Here, we perform a global study of uncapped mRNAs, via parallel analysis of RNA ends (PARE), under cold stress in Brachypodium distachyon. Enrichment analysis indicates that degradation products detected by PARE are mainly generated by the decapping pathway. Endonucleolytic cleavages are detected, uncovering another way of modulating gene expression. PARE and RNA-Seq analyses identify four types of mRNA decay patterns. Type II genes, for which light-harvesting processes are over-represented in gene ontology analyses, show unchanged transcript abundance and altered uncapped transcript abundance. Uncapping-mediated transcript stability of light harvesting-related genes changes significantly in response to cold stress, which may allow rapid adjustments in photosynthetic activity in response to cold stress. Transcript abundance and uncapped transcript abundance for type III genes changes in opposite directions in response to cold stress, indicating that uncapping-mediated mRNA degradation plays a role in regulating gene expression. To our knowledge, this is the first global analysis of mRNA degradation under environmental stress conditions in Brachypodium distachyon. We uncover specific degradation and endonucleolytic cleavage patterns under cold stress, which will deepen our understanding of mRNA degradation under stressful environmental conditions, as well as the cold stress response mechanism in monocots.

  4. High-Throughput Genotyping of Green Algal Mutants Reveals Random Distribution of Mutagenic Insertion Sites and Endonucleolytic Cleavage of Transforming DNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ru; Patena, Weronika; Armbruster, Ute; Gang, Spencer S; Blum, Sean R; Jonikas, Martin C

    2014-04-01

    A high-throughput genetic screening platform in a single-celled photosynthetic eukaryote would be a transformative addition to the plant biology toolbox. Here, we present ChlaMmeSeq (Chlamydomonas MmeI-based insertion site Sequencing), a tool for simultaneous mapping of tens of thousands of mutagenic insertion sites in the eukaryotic unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We first validated ChlaMmeSeq by in-depth characterization of individual insertion sites. We then applied ChlaMmeSeq to a mutant pool and mapped 11,478 insertions, covering 39% of annotated protein coding genes. We observe that insertions are distributed in a manner largely indistinguishable from random, indicating that mutants in nearly all genes can be obtained efficiently. The data reveal that sequence-specific endonucleolytic activities cleave the transforming DNA and allow us to propose a simple model to explain the origin of the poorly understood exogenous sequences that sometimes surround insertion sites. ChlaMmeSeq is quantitatively reproducible, enabling its use for pooled enrichment screens and for the generation of indexed mutant libraries. Additionally, ChlaMmeSeq allows genotyping of hits from Chlamydomonas screens on an unprecedented scale, opening the door to comprehensive identification of genes with roles in photosynthesis, algal lipid metabolism, the algal carbon-concentrating mechanism, phototaxis, the biogenesis and function of cilia, and other processes for which C. reinhardtii is a leading model system.

  5. Trypanosoma brucei RNA editing protein TbMP42 (band VI) is crucial for the endonucleolytic cleavages but not the subsequent steps of U-deletion and U-insertion

    PubMed Central

    Law, Julie A.; O'Hearn, Sean F.; Sollner-Webb, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Trypanosome mitochondrial mRNAs achieve their coding sequences through RNA editing. This process, catalyzed by ∼20S protein complexes, involves large numbers of uridylate (U) insertions and deletions within mRNA precursors. Here we analyze the role of the essential TbMP42 protein (band VI/KREPA2) by individually examining each step of the U-deletional and U-insertional editing cycles, using reactions in the approximately linear range. We examined control extracts and RNA interference (RNAi) extracts prepared soon after TbMP42 was depleted (when primary effects should be most evident) and three days later (when precedent shows secondary effects can become prominent). This analysis shows TbMP42 is critical for cleavage of editing substrates by both the U-deletional and U-insertional endonucleases. However, on simple substrates that assess cleavage independent of editing features, TbMP42 is similarly required only for the U-deletional endonuclease, indicating TbMP42 affects the two editing endonucleases differently. Supplementing RNAi extract with recombinant TbMP42 partly restores these cleavage activities. Notably, we find that all the other editing steps (the 3′-U-exonuclease [3′-U-exo] and ligation steps of U-deletion and the terminal-U-transferase [TUTase] and ligation steps of U-insertion) remain at control levels upon RNAi induction, and hence are not dependent on TbMP42. This contrasts with an earlier report that TbMP42 is a 3′-U-exo that may act in U-deletion and additionally is critical for the TUTase and/or ligation steps of U-insertion, observations our data suggest reflect indirect effects of TbMP42 depletion. Thus, trypanosomes require TbMP42 for both endonucleolytic cleavage steps of RNA editing, but not for any of the subsequent steps of the editing cycles. PMID:18441050

  6. FLASH Is Required for the Endonucleolytic Cleavage of Histone Pre-mRNAs but Is Dispensable for the 5′ Exonucleolytic Degradation of the Downstream Cleavage Product ▿†

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao-cui; Xu, Bing; Sabath, Ivan; Kunduru, Lalitha; Burch, Brandon D.; Marzluff, William F.; Dominski, Zbigniew

    2011-01-01

    3′-end cleavage of histone pre-mRNAs is catalyzed by CPSF-73 and requires the interaction of two U7 snRNP-associated proteins, FLASH and Lsm11. Here, by using scanning mutagenesis we identify critical residues in human FLASH and Lsm11 that are involved in the interaction between these two proteins. We also demonstrate that mutations in the region of FLASH located between amino acids 50 and 99 do not affect binding of Lsm11. Interestingly, these mutations convert FLASH into an inhibitory protein that reduces in vitro processing efficiency of highly active nuclear extracts. Our results suggest that this region in FLASH in conjunction with Lsm11 is involved in recruiting a yet-unknown processing factor(s) to histone pre-mRNA. Following endonucleolytic cleavage of histone pre-mRNA, the downstream cleavage product (DCP) is degraded by the 5′–3′ exonuclease activity of CPSF-73, which also depends on Lsm11. Strikingly, while cleavage of histone pre-mRNA is stimulated by FLASH and inhibited by both dominant negative mutants of FLASH and anti-FLASH antibodies, the 5′–3′ degradation of the DCP is not affected. Thus, the recruitment of FLASH to the processing complex plays a critical role in activating the endonuclease mode of CPSF-73 but is dispensable for its 5′–3′ exonuclease activity. These results suggest that CPSF-73, the catalytic component in both reactions, can be recruited to histone pre-mRNA largely in a manner independent of FLASH, possibly by a separate domain in Lsm11. PMID:21245389

  7. Transcriptome-wide characterization of miRNA-directed and non-miRNA-directed endonucleolytic cleavage using Degradome analysis under low ambient temperature in Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana.

    PubMed

    An, Feng-Ming; Chan, Ming-Tsair

    2012-10-01

    Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate gene expression through post-transcriptional gene silencing. Phalaenopsis aphrodite subsp. formosana is an orchid species native to Taiwan, which has high economic value and a high frequency of floral polymorphism. To date, few studies have focused on the regulatory roles of miRNAs and functional small RNAs (sRNAs) in orchids although understanding the regulation of flower development and flowering time is potentially important. Here, we combined analyses of the transcriptome, sRNAs and the degradome to identify sRNA-directed transcript cleavages in Phalaenopsis. Degradome analysis provided large-scale evidence of conserved and novel miRNA-directed cleavage of target transcripts, and 46 abundant sRNA groups and their target transcripts were identified. Low temperature-responsive sRNAs were validated with normalized reads from an sRNA library and quantitative stem-loop reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) analysis. According to gene ontology (GO) categorization, target transcripts of the novel miRNAs and sRNAs are functionally involved in metabolic processes or responses to stress. One particular homologous gene, Allcontig28452, which encodes digalactosyldiacylglycerol synthase 2 (DGD2), was found to be targeted by natural antisense transcripts (NATs) unique to Phalaenopsis. In summary, comprehensive analyses of the transcriptome, sRNAs and degradome using deep sequencing technology provided a useful platform for investigating miRNA-directed and non-miRNA-directed endonucleolytic cleavage in a non-model plant, the orchid Phalaenopsis.

  8. Adenoid removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... taken out at the same time as the tonsils ( tonsillectomy ). Adenoid removal is also called adenoidectomy. The procedure is most often done in children. ... can be removed again if necessary. Alternative Names Adenoidectomy; Removal of ... Instructions Tonsil and adenoid removal - discharge Tonsil removal - what to ...

  9. Tick Removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... diseases Tickborne diseases abroad Borrelia miyamotoi Borrelia mayonii Mobile Application Tick Removal Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir If you find a tick attached to your skin, there's no need to panic. There are several tick removal devices on the market, but a plain set of ...

  10. Spleen removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... and infections. It also helps filter the blood. Description The spleen is removed while you are under ... cuts in the belly. The surgeon inserts an instrument called a laparoscope through one of the cuts. ...

  11. Tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Burris, Katy; Kim, Karen

    2007-01-01

    Tattoos have been a part of costume, expression, and identification in various cultures for centuries. Although tattoos have become more popular in western culture, many people regret their tattoos in later years. In this situation, it is important to be aware of the mechanisms of tattoo removal methods available, as well as their potential short- and long-term effects. Among the myriad of options available, laser tattoo removal is the current treatment of choice, given its safety and efficacy.

  12. Tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Adatto, Maurice A; Halachmi, Shlomit; Lapidoth, Moshe

    2011-01-01

    Over 50,000 new tattoos are placed each year in the United States. Studies estimate that 24% of American college students have tattoos and 10% of male American adults have a tattoo. The rising popularity of tattoos has spurred a corresponding increase in tattoo removal. Not all tattoos are placed intentionally or for aesthetic reasons though. Traumatic tattoos due to unintentional penetration of exogenous pigments can also occur, as well as the placement of medical tattoos to mark treatment boundaries, for example in radiation therapy. Protocols for tattoo removal have evolved over history. The first evidence of tattoo removal attempts was found in Egyptian mummies, dated to have lived 4,000 years BC. Ancient Greek writings describe tattoo removal with salt abrasion or with a paste containing cloves of white garlic mixed with Alexandrian cantharidin. With the advent of Q-switched lasers in the late 1960s, the outcomes of tattoo removal changed radically. In addition to their selective absorption by the pigment, the extremely short pulse duration of Q-switched lasers has made them the gold standard for tattoo removal. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. ARSENIC REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation covered five topics; arsenic chemistry, best available technology (BAT), surface water technology, ground water technology and case studies of arsenic removal. The discussion on arsenic chemistry focused on the need and method of speciation for AsIII and AsV. BAT me...

  14. Hair removal.

    PubMed

    Haedersdal, Merete; Haak, Christina S

    2011-01-01

    Hair removal with optical devices has become a popular mainstream treatment that today is considered the most efficient method for the reduction of unwanted hair. Photothermal destruction of hair follicles constitutes the fundamental concept of hair removal with red and near-infrared wavelengths suitable for targeting follicular and hair shaft melanin: normal mode ruby laser (694 nm), normal mode alexandrite laser (755 nm), pulsed diode lasers (800, 810 nm), long-pulse Nd:YAG laser (1,064 nm), and intense pulsed light (IPL) sources (590-1,200 nm). The ideal patient has thick dark terminal hair, white skin, and a normal hormonal status. Currently, no method of lifelong permanent hair eradication is available, and it is important that patients have realistic expectations. Substantial evidence has been found for short-term hair removal efficacy of up to 6 months after treatment with the available systems. Evidence has been found for long-term hair removal efficacy beyond 6 months after repetitive treatments with alexandrite, diode, and long-pulse Nd:YAG lasers, whereas the current long-term evidence is sparse for IPL devices. Treatment parameters must be adjusted to patient skin type and chromophore. Longer wavelengths and cooling are safer for patients with darker skin types. Hair removal with lasers and IPL sources are generally safe treatment procedures when performed by properly educated operators. However, safety issues must be addressed since burns and adverse events do occur. New treatment procedures are evolving. Consumer-based treatments with portable home devices are rapidly evolving, and presently include low-level diode lasers and IPL devices.

  15. Removing Bureaucracy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-08-01

    11 Defense AT&L: July–August 2015 Removing Bureaucracy Katharina G. McFarland McFarland is Assistant Secretary of Defense for Acquisition. I once...managed a new start program to deliver a revolutionary warfighting capability in Battlefield Management/Command and Control . The Service sponsor was...involvement from all of the Service warfighting areas came together to scrub the program requirements due to concern over the “ bureaucracy ” and

  16. Radionuclide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Sorg, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed new and revised regulations on radionuclide contaminants in drinking water in June 1991. During the 1980's, the Drinking Water Research Division, USEPA conducted a research program to evaluate various technologies to remove radium, uranium and radon from drinking water. The research consisted of laboratory and field studies conducted by USEPA, universities and consultants. The paper summarizes the results of the most significant projects completed. General information is also presented on the general chemistry of the three radionuclides. The information presented indicates that the most practical treatment methods for radium are ion exchange and lime-soda softening and reverse osmosis. The methods tested for radon are aeration and granular activated carbon and the methods for uranium are anion exchange and reverse osmosis.

  17. Mode of action of RNase BN/RNase Z on tRNA precursors: RNase BN does not remove the CCA sequence from tRNA.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Tanmay; Deutscher, Murray P

    2010-07-23

    RNase BN, the Escherichia coli homolog of RNase Z, was previously shown to act as both a distributive exoribonuclease and an endoribonuclease on model RNA substrates and to be inhibited by the presence of a 3'-terminal CCA sequence. Here, we examined the mode of action of RNase BN on bacteriophage and bacterial tRNA precursors, particularly in light of a recent report suggesting that RNase BN removes CCA sequences (Takaku, H., and Nashimoto, M. (2008) Genes Cells 13, 1087-1097). We show that purified RNase BN can process both CCA-less and CCA-containing tRNA precursors. On CCA-less precursors, RNase BN cleaved endonucleolytically after the discriminator nucleotide to allow subsequent CCA addition. On CCA-containing precursors, RNase BN acted as either an exoribonuclease or endoribonuclease depending on the nature of the added divalent cation. Addition of Co(2+) resulted in higher activity and predominantly exoribonucleolytic activity, whereas in the presence of Mg(2+), RNase BN was primarily an endoribonuclease. In no case was any evidence obtained for removal of the CCA sequence. Certain tRNA precursors were extremely poor substrates under any conditions tested. These findings provide important information on the ability of RNase BN to process tRNA precursors and help explain the known physiological properties of this enzyme. In addition, they call into question the removal of CCA sequences by RNase BN.

  18. ARSENIC REMOVAL BY IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the removal of arsenic from drinking water using iron removal processes that include oxidation/filtration and the manganese greensand processes. Presentation includes results of U.S. EPA field studies conducted in Michigan and Ohio on existing iron remo...

  19. Turbomachinery debris remover

    DOEpatents

    Krawiec, Donald F.; Kraf, Robert J.; Houser, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    An apparatus for removing debris from a turbomachine. The apparatus includes housing and remotely operable viewing and grappling mechanisms for the purpose of locating and removing debris lodged between adjacent blades in a turbomachine.

  20. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    DOEpatents

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  1. Gallbladder Removal: Laparoscopic Method

    MedlinePlus

    ... say “co-lee-sist-eck-toe-mee”). During traditional surgery, the gallbladder is removed through a 5- ... stay and have a shorter recovery time. Unlike traditional surgery, laparoscopic surgery to remove the gallbladder can ...

  2. Wart remover poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    Wart removers are medicines used to get rid of warts. Warts are small growths on the skin that are caused by a virus. They are usually painless. Wart remover poisoning occurs when someone swallows or uses ...

  3. Spider Vein Removal

    MedlinePlus

    Spider veins: How are they removed? I have spider veins on my legs. What options are available ... M.D. Several options are available to remove spider veins — thin red lines or weblike networks of ...

  4. Weakly supervised glasses removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhicheng; Zhou, Yisu; Wen, Lijie

    2015-03-01

    Glasses removal is an important task on face recognition, in this paper, we provide a weakly supervised method to remove eyeglasses from an input face image automatically. We choose sparse coding as face reconstruction method, and optical flow to find exact shape of glasses. We combine the two processes iteratively to remove glasses more accurately. The experimental results reveal that our method works much better than these algorithms alone, and it can remove various glasses to obtain natural looking glassless facial images.

  5. Removal program priorities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-03-31

    The directive contains general policy guidelines regarding removal program priorities as it specifically relates to the 10 regional offices. Emphasis is placed on addressing the most serious public health and environmental threats (classic emergencies, time-critical removals at NPL sites, and time-critical removals at non-NPL sites). Regions are urged to pursue cleanup by the responsible parties (RP) and manage the removal program within the boundaries of their resources.

  6. ARSENIC REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research studies. T...

  7. ARSENIC REMOVAL TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Presentation will discuss the state-of-art technology for removal of arsenic from drinking water. Presentation includes results of several EPA field studies on removal of arsenic from existing arsenic removal plants and key results from several EPA sponsored research studies. T...

  8. Graphitic packing removal tool

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  9. Graphitic packing removal tool

    SciTech Connect

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    Graphitic packing removal tools are described for removal of the seal rings in one piece from valves and pumps. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  10. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, Kurt Edward; Kolsun, George J.

    1997-01-01

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece. he packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal.

  11. Graphitic packing removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Meyers, K.E.; Kolsun, G.J.

    1997-11-11

    Graphitic packing removal tools for removal of the seal rings in one piece are disclosed. The packing removal tool has a cylindrical base ring the same size as the packing ring with a surface finish, perforations, knurling or threads for adhesion to the seal ring. Elongated leg shanks are mounted axially along the circumferential center. A slit or slits permit insertion around shafts. A removal tool follower stabilizes the upper portion of the legs to allow a spanner wrench to be used for insertion and removal. 5 figs.

  12. Ctp1-dependent clipping and resection of DNA double-strand breaks by Mre11 endonuclease complex are not genetically separable

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Kristi L.; Russell, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Homologous recombination (HR) repair of programmed meiotic double-strand breaks (DSBs) requires endonucleolytic clipping of Rec12Spo11-oligonucleotides from 5′ DNA ends followed by resection to generate invasive 3′ single-stranded DNA tails. The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 (MRN) endonuclease and Ctp1 (CtIP and Sae2 ortholog) are required for both activities in fission yeast but whether they are genetically separable is controversial. Here, we investigate the mitotic DSB repair properties of Ctp1 C-terminal domain (ctp1-CD) mutants that were reported to be specifically clipping deficient. These mutants are sensitive to many clastogens, including those that create DSBs devoid of covalently bound proteins. These sensitivities are suppressed by genetically eliminating Ku nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) protein, indicating that Ctp1-dependent clipping by MRN is required for Ku removal from DNA ends. However, this rescue requires Exo1 resection activity, implying that Ctp1-dependent resection by MRN is defective in ctp1-CD mutants. The ctp1-CD mutants tolerate one but not multiple broken replication forks, and they are highly reliant on the Chk1-mediated cell cycle checkpoint arrest, indicating that HR repair is inefficient. We conclude that the C-terminal domain of Ctp1 is required for both efficient clipping and resection of DSBs by MRN and these activities are mechanistically similar. PMID:27325741

  13. Dam removal: Listening in

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Melissa M.; Bellmore, James; O'Connor, James E.; Duda, Jeff; East, Amy E.; Grant, Gordon G.; Anderson, Chauncey; Bountry, Jennifer A.; Collins, Mathias J.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Craig, Laura S.; Evans, James E.; Greene, Samantha; Magilligan, Francis J.; Magirl, Christopher S.; Major, Jon J.; Pess, George R.; Randle, Timothy J.; Shafroth, Patrick B.; Torgersen, Christian; Tullos, Desiree D.; Wilcox, Andrew C.

    2017-01-01

    Dam removal is widely used as an approach for river restoration in the United States. The increase in dam removals—particularly large dams—and associated dam-removal studies over the last few decades motivated a working group at the USGS John Wesley Powell Center for Analysis and Synthesis to review and synthesize available studies of dam removals and their findings. Based on dam removals thus far, some general conclusions have emerged: (1) physical responses are typically fast, with the rate of sediment erosion largely dependent on sediment characteristics and dam-removal strategy; (2) ecological responses to dam removal differ among the affected upstream, downstream, and reservoir reaches; (3) dam removal tends to quickly reestablish connectivity, restoring the movement of material and organisms between upstream and downstream river reaches; (4) geographic context, river history, and land use significantly influence river restoration trajectories and recovery potential because they control broader physical and ecological processes and conditions; and (5) quantitative modeling capability is improving, particularly for physical and broad-scale ecological effects, and gives managers information needed to understand and predict long-term effects of dam removal on riverine ecosystems. Although these studies collectively enhance our understanding of how riverine ecosystems respond to dam removal, knowledge gaps remain because most studies have been short (< 5 years) and do not adequately represent the diversity of dam types, watershed conditions, and dam-removal methods in the U.S.

  14. Laser tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Eric F

    2007-08-01

    Tattooing has been a part of human culture since the earliest beginnings of modern civilization. What has changed over the millennia are the myriad of colors with which we can now express our thoughts, feelings, and desires through body art. What has not changed is human nature, and our propensity to change our minds about what it is we think, feel, and wish to express on the canvas of our skin. Our fickle nature results in the desire to change what has been placed as a permanent reminder of a friend, spouse, or as a work of art. The technology used to remove tattoos began with destructive methods of removal, which wreaked havoc not only on the tattoo but more prominently on the skin containing that tattoo. The discovery of selective photothermolysis, the ability to selectively remove target structures without disrupting the surrounding skin, made it at least possible to remove tattoos without destroying the surrounding skin and leaving a scar. Theory predicted that pulse durations in the nanosecond domain would be optimal for tattoo removal, and the Q-switched neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet, alexandrite, and ruby lasers operate in this range and are the key tools for modern tattoo removal. Too often, the wrong devices operating in the millisecond range, such as intense pulsed light sources, or lasers that are nonselective, such as the carbon dioxide laser, are used to treat tattoos, resulting in significant scarring without complete removal of the tattoo. Although the Q-switched lasers are capable of removing tattoos without harming the skin, removal often takes numerous treatments and still can be incomplete, especially when attempting to remove multicolored tattoos. Developments leading to removable tattoo inks, feedback systems to detect the absorbance characteristics of tattoo inks, dermal clearing agents, and perhaps even shorter pulse-duration lasers should result in improvements in tattoo removal in the near future.

  15. Acoustic bubble removal method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, E. H.; Elleman, D. D.; Wang, T. G. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A method is described for removing bubbles from a liquid bath such as a bath of molten glass to be used for optical elements. Larger bubbles are first removed by applying acoustic energy resonant to a bath dimension to drive the larger bubbles toward a pressure well where the bubbles can coalesce and then be more easily removed. Thereafter, submillimeter bubbles are removed by applying acoustic energy of frequencies resonant to the small bubbles to oscillate them and thereby stir liquid immediately about the bubbles to facilitate their breakup and absorption into the liquid.

  16. Device for removing blackheads

    DOEpatents

    Berkovich, Tamara

    1995-03-07

    A device for removing blackheads from pores in the skin having a elongated handle with a spoon shaped portion mounted on one end thereof, the spoon having multiple small holes piercing therethrough. Also covered is method for using the device to remove blackheads.

  17. REMOVAL: TS_Abstract.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    This article has been removed: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Due to an administrative error, an issue was accidentally published here. This has now been removed. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience this may cause. Copyright © 2017.

  18. REMOVAL: P1_Abstract.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    This article has been removed: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Due to an administrative error, an issue was accidentally published here. This has now been removed. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience this may cause. Copyright © 2017.

  19. REMOVAL: S_Abstract.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    This article has been removed: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Due to an administrative error, an issue was accidentally published here. This has now been removed. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience this may cause. Copyright © 2017.

  20. REMOVAL: SP_Abstract.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    This article has been removed: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Due to an administrative error, an issue was accidentally published here. This has now been removed. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience this may cause. Copyright © 2017.

  1. REMOVAL: LS_Abstract.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    This article has been removed: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Due to an administrative error, an issue was accidentally published here. This has now been removed. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience this may cause. Copyright © 2017.

  2. REMOVAL: PS_Abstract.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    This article has been removed: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Due to an administrative error, an issue was accidentally published here. This has now been removed. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience this may cause. Copyright © 2017.

  3. REMOVAL: MS_Abstract.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    This article has been removed: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Due to an administrative error, an issue was accidentally published here. This has now been removed. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience this may cause. Copyright © 2017.

  4. REMOVAL: P3_Abstract.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    This article has been removed: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Due to an administrative error, an issue was accidentally published here. This has now been removed. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience this may cause. Copyright © 2017.

  5. REMOVAL: STS_Abstract.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    This article has been removed: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Due to an administrative error, an issue was accidentally published here. This has now been removed. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience this may cause. Copyright © 2017.

  6. REMOVAL: KL_Abstract.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    This article has been removed: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Due to an administrative error, an issue was accidentally published here. This has now been removed. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience this may cause. Copyright © 2017.

  7. REMOVAL: ML_Abstract.

    PubMed

    2017-03-01

    This article has been removed: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Due to an administrative error, an issue was accidentally published here. This has now been removed. The publisher apologises for any inconvenience this may cause. Copyright © 2017.

  8. Paint removal using lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Katherine; Garmire, Elsa

    1995-07-01

    Experiments to investigate the potential for practical laser graffiti-removal systems are reported. A universal engineering curve for the time needed for removal of paint from nonconductive substrates that was valid over a range of 107 in intensity was measured with a variety of lasers. Comparable times were measured for conductive substrates, when pulses shorter than the thermal conduction times were used. Analysis suggests that Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers may be the most efficient means for removing graffiti and other unwanted paint. An 1-m2 area of paint 14 mu m thick can be removed in approximately 10 min with a 50-Hz laser system of 15-W average power.

  9. Removing Images From Microfilm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, L. L.

    1984-01-01

    Film softened, scraped, and then dried. Unwanted images removed from microfilm for softening base film with hot water, scraping film and drying with isopropyl alcohol. Method simple and no visible damage to film.

  10. Paint removal using lasers.

    PubMed

    Liu, K; Garmire, E

    1995-07-20

    Experiments to investigate the potential for practical laser graffiti-removal systems are reported. A universal engineering curve for the time needed for removal of paint from nonconductive substrates that was valid over a range of 10(7) in intensity was measured with a variety of lasers. Comparable times were measured for conductive substrates, when pulses shorter than the thermal conduction times were used. Analysis suggests that Q-switched Nd:YAG lasers may be the most efficient means for removing graffiti and other unwanted paint. An 1-m(2) area of paint 14 µm thick can be removed in approximately 10 min with a 50-Hz laser system of 15-W average power.

  11. Thyroid gland removal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... will make your scar show less. Thyroid Hormone Replacement You may need to take thyroid hormone medicine ... natural thyroid hormone. You may not need hormone replacement if only part of your thyroid was removed. ...

  12. Surgical Borescopes Remove Contaminants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vallow, K.

    1987-01-01

    Borescope instruments put to use in extracting hard-to-reach particles. Surgical instruments in flexible borescopes used for removing contaminant particles from normally inaccessible places within equipment. Instruments readily enter small openings, turn corners, and reach far.

  13. Marangoni Inside (MI) Removal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-23

    ISS036-E-023083 (23 July 2013) --- NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 36 flight engineer, works to remove the Marangoni Inside (MI) from the Fluid Physics Experiment Facility (FPEF) in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  14. Marangoni Inside (MI) Removal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-23

    ISS036-E-023070 (23 July 2013) --- NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 36 flight engineer, works to remove the Marangoni Inside (MI) from the Fluid Physics Experiment Facility (FPEF) in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  15. Marangoni Inside (MI) Removal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-23

    ISS036-E-023061 (23 July 2013) --- NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 36 flight engineer, works to remove the Marangoni Inside (MI) from the Fluid Physics Experiment Facility (FPEF) in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  16. Asbestos Removal Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Stanley J.

    1986-01-01

    The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

  17. Reactor for removing ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Luo, Weifang [Livermore, CA; Stewart, Kenneth D [Valley Springs, CA

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  18. Reactor for removing ammonia

    DOEpatents

    Luo, Weifang; Stewart, Kenneth D.

    2009-11-17

    Disclosed is a device for removing trace amounts of ammonia from a stream of gas, particularly hydrogen gas, prepared by a reformation apparatus. The apparatus is used to prevent PEM "poisoning" in a fuel cell receiving the incoming hydrogen stream.

  19. Mechanical Foam Remover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Streech, Neil

    1994-01-01

    Filter removes foam from soapy water stream discharged by primary phase separator of water-reclamation system. Uses no antifoam chemicals, contains no moving parts and requires no energy input other than small energy needed to pump water through filter.

  20. Asbestos Removal Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Stanley J.

    1986-01-01

    The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

  1. Gallbladder removal - open

    MedlinePlus

    ... the surgeon needs to switch to an open surgery if laparoscopic surgery cannot be successfully continued. Other reasons for removing the gallbladder by open surgery: Unexpected bleeding during the laparoscopic operation Obesity Pancreatitis (inflammation in the pancreas) Pregnancy ( ...

  2. Advanced Coating Removal Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seibert, Jon

    2006-01-01

    An important step in the repair and protection against corrosion damage is the safe removal of the oxidation and protective coatings without further damaging the integrity of the substrate. Two such methods that are proving to be safe and effective in this task are liquid nitrogen and laser removal operations. Laser technology used for the removal of protective coatings is currently being researched and implemented in various areas of the aerospace industry. Delivering thousands of focused energy pulses, the laser ablates the coating surface by heating and dissolving the material applied to the substrate. The metal substrate will reflect the laser and redirect the energy to any remaining protective coating, thus preventing any collateral damage the substrate may suffer throughout the process. Liquid nitrogen jets are comparable to blasting with an ultra high-pressure water jet but without the residual liquid that requires collection and removal .As the liquid nitrogen reaches the surface it is transformed into gaseous nitrogen and reenters the atmosphere without any contamination to surrounding hardware. These innovative technologies simplify corrosion repair by eliminating hazardous chemicals and repetitive manual labor from the coating removal process. One very significant advantage is the reduction of particulate contamination exposure to personnel. With the removal of coatings adjacent to sensitive flight hardware, a benefit of each technique for the space program is that no contamination such as beads, water, or sanding residue is left behind when the job is finished. One primary concern is the safe removal of coatings from thin aluminum honeycomb face sheet. NASA recently conducted thermal testing on liquid nitrogen systems and found that no damage occurred on 1/6", aluminum substrates. Wright Patterson Air Force Base in conjunction with Boeing and NASA is currently testing the laser remOval technique for process qualification. Other applications of liquid

  3. Sulfur removal from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Lompa-Krzymien, L.

    1985-01-01

    Coal is treated to remove both pyritic and organic sulfur by contacting with an aqueous solution comprising cupric ions at temperatures of about 140/sup 0/ C.-200/sup 0/ C. under autogenic pressure, until substantial amounts of the sulfur are solubilized, separating the coal solids, and washing the solids with water to remove soluble forms of sulfur, iron and copper therefrom. The copper can be recovered and recycled as a cupric salt.

  4. Laser hair removal pearls.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Emily P; Goldberg, David J

    2008-03-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the follicle through the targeting of melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Pearls of laser hair removal are presented in this review, focusing on four areas of recent development: 1 treatment of blond, white and gray hair; 2 paradoxical hypertrichosis; 3 laser hair removal in children; and 4 comparison of lasers and IPL. Laser and light-based technologies to remove hair represents one of the most exciting areas where discoveries by dermatologists have led to novel treatment approaches. It is likely that in the next decade, continued advancements in this field will bring us closer to the development of a more permanent and painless form of hair removal.

  5. Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Susan H.

    2012-01-01

    Orbital debris in Low Earth Orbit (LEO) is an international problem that threatens the success of future space ventures. An analysis of a wide variety of alternative solutions for active debris removal (ADR) has been performed. The solution selected is an efficient, effective, and executable solution to remove large debris in LEO, primarily spent rocket bodies. Removing large debris objects is a critical step in reducing the hazard from orbital debris, because of the large amount of medium and small debris created through large body collisions. Based on the analysis of alternatives, the concept and design for a vehicle which could efficiently address the debris hazard by disposing of several large objects per mission has been developed. This concept establishes a comprehensive, detailed technical approach for an actual end-to-end, on-orbit ADR solution to remove large debris. This robust solution enables the start of solving the problem of debris removal before it reaches a critical and potentially irreversible state by "getting there as soon as possible, as economically as possible, with the most capability".

  6. Arsenic removal from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2007-07-24

    Methods for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical methods for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A method for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a method for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  7. Laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Molly

    2005-01-01

    Since 1996, there have been numerous advances in hair laser removal that utilize melanin as a chromophore. All of the devices on the market may be used in patients with light skin (phototypes I-III) and yield hair reduction near 75%. The ruby (694 nm) laser, alexandrite (755 nm) laser, and diode (810 nm) laser, as well as intense pulsed light are commonly used devices for hair laser removal. The long-pulsed Nd:YAG (1064 nm) laser represents the safest device for hair removal in dark-skinned patients because of its long wavelength, although the diode laser, alexandrite laser, and intense pulse light may be used. For treatment of light hair, combination radiofrequency and optical devices as well as photodynamic therapy are under investigation.

  8. Hemodialysis removal of norfloxacin.

    PubMed

    Lau, A H; Tang, I; Fitzloff, J; Jain, R

    1994-01-01

    The effect of hemodialysis on norfloxacin removal was evaluated in 7 patients. Single 800-mg doses of the drug were given to the subjects prior to dialysis using cuprophan hollow fiber dialyzers. Arterial and venous sample pairs were obtained at hourly intervals during treatment. Norfloxacin plasma concentrations were determined by HPLC. The mean hemodialysis clearance and extraction ratio were 38.84 +/- 10.92 ml/min and 0.19 +/- 0.06, respectively. Small differences in these parameters were observed between dialyzers with different surface areas (p > 0.05) and also between treatments using different blood flow rates (p > 0.05). Since a relatively small amount of norfloxacin is removed by hemodialysis, dosage adjustment is not necessary to compensate for the extracorporeal removal.

  9. Arsenic removal by coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, K.N.; Green, J.F.; Do, H.D.; McLean, S.J.

    1995-04-01

    This study evaluated the removal of naturally occurring arsenic in a full-scale (106-mgd) conventional treatment plant. When the source water was treated with 3--10 mg/L of ferric chloride or 6, 10, or 20 mg/L of alum, arsenic removal was 81--96% (ferric chloride) and 23--71% (alum). Metal concentrations in the sludge produced during this study were below the state`s current hazardous waste levels at all coagulant dosages. No operational difficulties were encountered.

  10. Drum lid removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Pella, Bernard M.; Smith, Philip D.

    2010-08-24

    A tool for removing the lid of a metal drum wherein the lid is clamped over the drum rim without protruding edges, the tool having an elongated handle with a blade carried by an angularly positioned holder affixed to the midsection of the handle, the blade being of selected width to slice between lid lip and the drum rim and, when the blade is so positioned, upward motion of the blade handle will cause the blade to pry the lip from the rim and allow the lid to be removed.

  11. Optimising Laser Tattoo Removal

    PubMed Central

    Sardana, Kabir; Ranjan, Rashmi; Ghunawat, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Lasers are the standard modality for tattoo removal. Though there are various factors that determine the results, we have divided them into three logical headings, laser dependant factors such as type of laser and beam modifications, tattoo dependent factors like size and depth, colour of pigment and lastly host dependent factors, which includes primarily the presence of a robust immune response. Modifications in the existing techniques may help in better clinical outcome with minimal risk of complications. This article provides an insight into some of these techniques along with a detailed account of the factors involved in tattoo removal. PMID:25949018

  12. Quickly Removable Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, John S.

    1988-01-01

    Unit removed with minimal disturbance. Valve inlet and outlet ports adjacent to each other on same side of valve body. Ports inserted into special manifold on fluid line. Valve body attached to manifold by four bolts or, alternatively, by toggle clamps. Electromechanical actuator moves in direction parallel to fluid line to open and close valve. When necessary to clean valve, removed simply by opening bolts or toggle clamps. No need to move or separate ports of fluid line. Valve useful where disturbance of fluid line detrimental or where fast maintenance essential - in oil and chemical industries, automotive vehicles, aircraft, and powerplants.

  13. Optimising laser tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Sardana, Kabir; Ranjan, Rashmi; Ghunawat, Sneha

    2015-01-01

    Lasers are the standard modality for tattoo removal. Though there are various factors that determine the results, we have divided them into three logical headings, laser dependant factors such as type of laser and beam modifications, tattoo dependent factors like size and depth, colour of pigment and lastly host dependent factors, which includes primarily the presence of a robust immune response. Modifications in the existing techniques may help in better clinical outcome with minimal risk of complications. This article provides an insight into some of these techniques along with a detailed account of the factors involved in tattoo removal.

  14. Quickly Removable Valve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, John S.

    1988-01-01

    Unit removed with minimal disturbance. Valve inlet and outlet ports adjacent to each other on same side of valve body. Ports inserted into special manifold on fluid line. Valve body attached to manifold by four bolts or, alternatively, by toggle clamps. Electromechanical actuator moves in direction parallel to fluid line to open and close valve. When necessary to clean valve, removed simply by opening bolts or toggle clamps. No need to move or separate ports of fluid line. Valve useful where disturbance of fluid line detrimental or where fast maintenance essential - in oil and chemical industries, automotive vehicles, aircraft, and powerplants.

  15. Dry removal of asbestos.

    PubMed

    Elias, J D

    1981-08-01

    A method for the dry removal of friable asbestos has been developed. The Workplace Safety and Health Branch in Manitoba's Limited have co-operated in the production of an improved procedure. It was employed for the first time in the fall of 1979 when the Industrial Hygiene Section was asked for advice about removal of asbestos from a Winnipeg School Division warehouse. Fans were used to maintain the work area under negative pressure to prevent the spread of asbestos throughout the building. The exhaust air was filtered to prevent environmental contamination, and special precautions were taken to protect workers.

  16. Solder dross removal apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    An automatic dross removal apparatus is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade is positioned adjacent the solder bath which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit causes a motor to rotate the wiper arm one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller as a component approaches the solder bath.

  17. Solder dross removal apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webb, Winston S. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    An automatic dross removal apparatus (10) is disclosed for removing dross from the surface of a solder bath (22) in an automated electric component handling system. A rotatable wiper blade (14) is positioned adjacent the solder bath (22) which skims the dross off of the surface prior to the dipping of a robot conveyed component into the bath. An electronic control circuit (34) causes a motor (32) to rotate the wiper arm (14) one full rotational cycle each time a pulse is received from a robot controller (44) as a component approaches the solder bath (22).

  18. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, R.C.

    1994-10-04

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith. 8 figs.

  19. Removable feedwater sparger assembly

    DOEpatents

    Challberg, Roy C.

    1994-01-01

    A removable feedwater sparger assembly includes a sparger having an inlet pipe disposed in flow communication with the outlet end of a supply pipe. A tubular coupling includes an annular band fixedly joined to the sparger inlet pipe and a plurality of fingers extending from the band which are removably joined to a retention flange extending from the supply pipe for maintaining the sparger inlet pipe in flow communication with the supply pipe. The fingers are elastically deflectable for allowing engagement of the sparger inlet pipe with the supply pipe and for disengagement therewith.

  20. Parathyroid gland removal

    MedlinePlus

    ... and will remove the diseased glands with the instruments. Endoscopic parathyroidectomy: Your surgeon will make two or three small cuts in the front of your neck and one cut above the top of your collarbone. This reduces visible scarring, pain, and recovery time. This cut is less than ...

  1. Removing Welding Fumes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Lloyd J.; Hall, Vandel L.

    1987-01-01

    Portable exhaust duct for machining and welding shops removes oil mist, dust, smoke, and fumes. Duct used with shop exhaust system, inlets of which placed at various convenient locations in shop floor. Flanged connector on underside of wheeled base links flexible tube to exhaust system under floor. Made especially for welding in room with low ceiling.

  2. Marangoni Inside (MI) Removal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-07-23

    ISS036-E-023006 (23 July 2013) --- NASA astronaut Chris Cassidy, Expedition 36 flight engineer, uses a computer as he works to remove the Marangoni Inside (MI) from the Fluid Physics Experiment Facility (FPEF) in the Kibo laboratory of the International Space Station.

  3. Bunion removal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... clean and dry until it is removed. Take sponge baths or cover your foot and dressing with a plastic bag when you take showers if it is OK with your health care provider. Make sure water cannot leak into the bag.

  4. Condensate removal device

    DOEpatents

    Maddox, James W.; Berger, David D.

    1984-01-01

    A condensate removal device is disclosed which incorporates a strainer in unit with an orifice. The strainer is cylindrical with its longitudinal axis transverse to that of the vapor conduit in which it is mounted. The orifice is positioned inside the strainer proximate the end which is remoter from the vapor conduit.

  5. Improved Paint Removal Technique

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-04-25

    4 (Phenol)1: p1P4 ji:i Condition of Point Surface Condition of Paint: Surface 4 after 45 minutes ufter 25 minutes Ten~t Pronsidure No. I. on~ Tent ...the ,.I .- pit so high velume water flow can be used to flush the pit floor clean at I the end of each day. Installation of removable grating is also

  6. Lacrosse Helmet Facemask Removal

    PubMed Central

    Bradney, Debbie A; Bowman, Thomas G

    2013-01-01

    Context Facemask removal (FMR) is required to access the airway of a catastrophically injured football or ice hockey athlete. However, the best method of caring for the helmeted lacrosse athlete with suspected catastrophic injury remains unclear. Objective To evaluate the effects of sex and grip strength on the speed and ease of use of various FMR methods across different lacrosse helmet types. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Athletic training laboratory. Patients or Other Participants Fourteen athletic trainers (7 men, 7 women). Intervention(s) Removal method (cordless screwdriver [CSD], Face Mask Extractor 2 [FMX], pruner, Trainer's Angel [TA]), helmet type (Cascade CPX, Cascade Pro7, Riddell Revolution, Brine Triumph, Warrior Venom), and sex. Main Outcome Measure(s) Facemask removal time and participant-reported ease of use of the removal method (6-point Likert scale). Results We found a 2-way interaction for removal method and sex only for the ease-of-use scores (F3,246 = 4.67, P = .01). A main effect for removal method for time (F3,200 = 19.41, P < .001) and ease of use (F3,200 = 53.78, P < .001) was seen. The fastest times (32.32 ± 11.70 seconds) and highest ease-of-use scores (4.94 ± 0.30) were recorded for the CSD. We noted a main effect for helmet type only for time (F4,200 = 5.34, P < .001), with the fastest removal times (72.75 ± 74.67 seconds) recorded for the CPX. We discovered a main effect for sex only for time (F1,200 = 17.57, P < .001), with slower times recorded for women (115.51 ± 110.80 seconds) than men (75.71 ± 83.87 seconds). We found correlations between FMR time and grip strength only when using the FMX (r = −0.40, P = .001), pruner (r = −0.26, P = .04), and TA (r = −0.26, P = .047). Conclusions Based on our results, FMR of lacrosse helmets should be attempted with a CSD. We recommend carrying a pruner as a backup cutting tool in case the CSD fails, practicing FMR regularly, and inspecting helmets for faulty hardware to

  7. Wildland road removal: research needs

    Treesearch

    T. Adam Switalski; John A. Bissonette; Tom H. Deluca; Charles H. Luce; Mary Ann Madej

    2003-01-01

    Wildland road removal is a common practice across the U.S. and in some parts of Canada. The main types of road removal include ripping, stream crossing restoration, and full recontour. Road removal creates a short-term disturbance that may temporarily increase sediment loss. However, research and long-term monitoring have shown that road removal both reduces erosion...

  8. Investigations in gallium removal

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, C.V.; Pitt, W.W.; Beard, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    Gallium present in weapons plutonium must be removed before it can be used for the production of mixed-oxide (MOX) nuclear reactor fuel. The main goal of the preliminary studies conducted at Texas A and M University was to assist in the development of a thermal process to remove gallium from a gallium oxide/plutonium oxide matrix. This effort is being conducted in close consultation with the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) personnel involved in the development of this process for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Simple experiments were performed on gallium oxide, and cerium-oxide/gallium-oxide mixtures, heated to temperatures ranging from 700--900 C in a reducing environment, and a method for collecting the gallium vapors under these conditions was demonstrated.

  9. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Neuhaus, John E.

    1992-01-01

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw.

  10. Pneumatic soil removal tool

    DOEpatents

    Neuhaus, J.E.

    1992-10-13

    A soil removal tool is provided for removing radioactive soil, rock and other debris from the bottom of an excavation, while permitting the operator to be located outside of a containment for that excavation. The tool includes a fixed jaw, secured to one end of an elongate pipe, which cooperates with a movable jaw pivotably mounted on the pipe. Movement of the movable jaw is controlled by a pneumatic cylinder mounted on the pipe. The actuator rod of the pneumatic cylinder is connected to a collar which is slidably mounted on the pipe and forms part of the pivotable mounting assembly for the movable jaw. Air is supplied to the pneumatic cylinder through a handle connected to the pipe, under the control of an actuator valve mounted on the handle, to provide movement of the movable jaw. 3 figs.

  11. Laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Ibrahimi, Omar A; Avram, Mathew M; Hanke, C William; Kilmer, Suzanne L; Anderson, R Rox

    2011-01-01

    The extended theory of selective photothermolysis enables the laser surgeon to target and destroy hair follicles, thereby leading to hair removal. Today, laser hair removal (LHR) is the most commonly requested cosmetic procedure in the world and is routinely performed by dermatologists, other physicians, and non-physician personnel with variable efficacy. The ideal candidate for LHR is fair skinned with dark terminal hair; however, LHR can today be successfully performed in all skin types. Knowledge of hair follicle anatomy and physiology, proper patient selection and preoperative preparation, principles of laser safety, familiarity with the various laser/light devices, and a thorough understanding of laser-tissue interactions are vital to optimizing treatment efficacy while minimizing complications and side effects.

  12. Facilities removal working group

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    This working group`s first objective is to identify major economic, technical, and regulatory constraints on operator practices and decisions relevant to offshore facilities removal. Then, the group will try to make recommendations as to regulatory and policy adjustments, additional research, or process improvements and/or technological advances, that may be needed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the removal process. The working group will focus primarily on issues dealing with Gulf of Mexico platform abandonments. In order to make the working group sessions as productive as possible, the Facilities Removal Working Group will focus on three topics that address a majority of the concerns and/or constraints relevant to facilities removal. The three areas are: (1) Explosive Severing and its Impact on Marine Life, (2) Pile and Conductor Severing, and (3) Deep Water Abandonments This paper will outline the current state of practice in the offshore industry, identifying current regulations and specific issues encountered when addressing each of the three main topics above. The intent of the paper is to highlight potential issues for panel discussion, not to provide a detailed review of all data relevant to the topic. Before each panel discussion, key speakers will review data and information to facilitate development and discussion of the main issues of each topic. Please refer to the attached agenda for the workshop format, key speakers, presentation topics, and panel participants. The goal of the panel discussions is to identify key issues for each of the three topics above. The working group will also make recommendations on how to proceed on these key issues.

  13. Laser removal of tattoos.

    PubMed

    Tammaro, A; Fatuzzo, G; Narcisi, A; Abruzzese, C; Caperchi, C; Gamba, A; Parisella, F R; Persechino, S

    2012-01-01

    In Western countries the phenomenon of "tattooing" is expanding and tattoos are considered a new fashion among young people. In this paper we briefly trace the history of tattooing, the techniques used, the analysis of pigments used, and their possible adverse reactions. We also carried out a review of the international literature on the use of Q-switched laser in tattoo removal and its complications, and we describe our experience in the use of this technique.

  14. KKG Group Paraffin Removal

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte, Ralph

    2001-12-01

    The Rocky Mountain Oilfield Testing Center (RMOTC) has recently completed a test of a paraffin removal system developed by the KKG Group utilizing the technology of two Russian scientists, Gennady Katzyn and Boris Koggi. The system consisting of chemical ''sticks'' that generate heat in-situ to melt the paraffin deposits in oilfield tubing. The melted paraffin is then brought to the surface utilizing the naturally flowing energy of the well.

  15. Optimize acid gas removal

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholas, D.M.; Wilkins, J.T.

    1983-09-01

    Innovative design of physical solvent plants for acid gas removal can materially reduce both installation and operating costs. A review of the design considerations for one physical solvent process (Selexol) points to numerous arrangements for potential improvement. These are evaluated for a specific case in four combinations that identify an optimum for the case in question but, more importantly, illustrate the mechanism for use for such optimization elsewhere.

  16. Arsenic removal during precipitative softening

    SciTech Connect

    McNeill, L.S.; Edwards, M.

    1997-05-01

    Because utilities with hard waters tend to have higher concentrations of arsenic, removal of arsenic via precipitative softening processes was investigated in the context of the more stringent proposed arsenic regulation. Arsenic removal can be facilitated by a variety of solids formed during softening including CaCO{sub 3}, Mg(OH){sub 2}, Mn(OH){sub 2}, and Fe(OH){sub 3}. The extent of As(V) removal is decreased in the presence of orthophosphate and carbonate. As(III) removal is much lower than As(V) removal. At typical solids concentrations, arsenic removal followed a linear isotherm for CaCO{sub 3}, Mg(OH){sub 2}, and Fe(OH){sub 3}, with constant percentage arsenic removal regardless of initial arsenic concentrations. However, for Mn(OH){sub 2} solids arsenic removal was sensitive to arsenic concentrations. A framework for predicting arsenate removal when multiple solids form during softening is presented.

  17. IN SITU ENHANCED SOURCE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This html report describes and compares the performance of in situ technologies designed to accelerate the removal of organic contaminants from unconsolidated soils and aquifers. The research was conducted through the Enhanced Source Removal (ESR) Program within the Subsurface Pr...

  18. Tonsil and adenoid removal - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Adenoidectomy - discharge; Removal of adenoid glands - discharge; Tonsillectomy - discharge ... Your child had surgery to remove the adenoid glands in the throat. These ... the nose and the back of the throat. Often, adenoids are ...

  19. Helium Removal and Recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, D.; Wiesen, S

    2004-03-15

    Removal of helium, the ash from the D-T-fusion reaction, from a burning plasma flame, is one of the critical issues for future thermonuclear burning plasma. Even in plasmas driven by additional heating to large Q-values this is a severe problem. Recombination of fuel and ash ions at plasma exposed surfaces, re-emission as neutral particles and subsequent pumping (''recycling'') provides, at least in principle, the mechanism to flush the plasma from its ash. However, plasma surface interaction has to be limited in order to protect vessel components from excessive thermal load, often a conflicting requirement.

  20. [Transient removable dentures].

    PubMed

    Kouadio, A A; Jordana, F; N'Goran, J K; Le Bars, P

    2015-09-01

    Removable dentures are always transient current. The epidemiology and causes of tooth gaps demonstrate the need to master the different prosthetic treatment. This made whether to propose treatment plans that take into account psychological, physiological and technical support for this patient. Different situations may arise. A gradual transition may be considered or immediate passage to the total edentulous according to general criteria, local and desiderata of patients. After tooth extraction, the transitional prosthesis can control bone lysis thereby it is part of a complete treatment before prosthesis. It also facilitates a good psychological and physiological integration before the prosthesis use.

  1. Removal of orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew J.; Talent, David L.

    1989-01-01

    The several methods presently identified for the reduction of orbital debris populations are broadly classifiable as either preventive or remedial, and fall within distinctive operational regimes. For all particles, (1) in the 250-2000-km altitude band, intelligent sweepers may be used; (2) for large objects, in the 80-250-km altitude band, orbital decay renders removal impractical; (3) for the 250-750-km altitude band, deorbit devices should be used; (4) for 750-2500-km altitude, OMV rendezvous for propulsive deorbit package attachment is foreseeable; and beyond 2500 km, (5) propulsive escape from earth orbit is required.

  2. Mower/Litter Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Burg Corporation needed to get more power out of the suction system in their Vac 'N Bag grass mower/litter remover. The president submitted a problem statement to the Marshall Space Flight Center Technology Transfer Office, which devised a way to guide heavier items of trash to a point where suction was greatest, and made changes to the impeller and the exhaust port, based on rocket propulsion technology. The improved system is used by highway departments, city governments and park authorities, reducing work time by combining the tasks of grass cutting and vacuuming trash and grass clippings.

  3. Removal of orbital debris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petro, Andrew J.; Talent, David L.

    The several methods presently identified for the reduction of orbital debris populations are broadly classifiable as either preventive or remedial, and fall within distinctive operational regimes. For all particles, (1) in the 250-2000-km altitude band, intelligent sweepers may be used; (2) for large objects, in the 80-250-km altitude band, orbital decay renders removal impractical; (3) for the 250-750-km altitude band, deorbit devices should be used; (4) for 750-2500-km altitude, OMV rendezvous for propulsive deorbit package attachment is foreseeable; and beyond 2500 km, (5) propulsive escape from earth orbit is required.

  4. Removal of orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew J.; Talent, David L.

    1989-01-01

    The several methods presently identified for the reduction of orbital debris populations are broadly classifiable as either preventive or remedial, and fall within distinctive operational regimes. For all particles, (1) in the 250-2000-km altitude band, intelligent sweepers may be used; (2) for large objects, in the 80-250-km altitude band, orbital decay renders removal impractical; (3) for the 250-750-km altitude band, deorbit devices should be used; (4) for 750-2500-km altitude, OMV rendezvous for propulsive deorbit package attachment is foreseeable; and beyond 2500 km, (5) propulsive escape from earth orbit is required.

  5. Hot Oil Removes Wax

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herzstock, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Mineral oil heated to temperature of 250 degrees F (121 degrees C) found effective in removing wax from workpieces after fabrication. Depending upon size and shape of part to be cleaned of wax, part immersed in tank of hot oil, and/or interior of part flushed with hot oil. Pump, fittings, and ancillary tooling built easily for this purpose. After cleaning, innocuous oil residue washed off part by alkaline aqueous degreasing process. Serves as relatively safe alternative to carcinogenic and environmentally hazardous solvent perchloroethylene.

  6. Endonucleolytic cleavage of RNA at 5' endogenous stem structures by human flap endonuclease 1.

    PubMed

    Stevens, A

    1998-10-20

    Structure-specific nucleases called 5' flap endonucleases cleave unannealed 5' arms of template-primer DNA model substrates at the start of the duplex and are involved in Okazaki fragment processing during DNA synthesis. To determine the possible use of the enzymes in RNA structure analysis, the cleavage of synthetic and native RNAs was examined using flap endonuclease 1 (Fen1) of HeLa cells. RNAs are cleaved at about 20% of the rate of DNA model substrates, and most of the cleavage sites are within 200 nucleotides of the 5' end. Hydrolysis of MFA2 mRNA of yeast shows that the cleavages are at the start of five possible stem structures of a folded secondary structure predicted on the basis of both chemical and enzymatic structure probing. 16S ribosomal RNA of Escherichia coli is cleaved at several 5' stem structures of its phylogenetically predicted folded structure. This type of RNA cleavage specificity may be very useful in secondary structure analysis in the future and also may be used by cells for specific 5' end-geared RNA cleavages.

  7. Mercury removal sorbents

    DOEpatents

    Alptekin, Gokhan

    2016-03-29

    Sorbents and methods of using them for removing mercury from flue gases over a wide range of temperatures are disclosed. Sorbent materials of this invention comprise oxy- or hydroxyl-halogen (chlorides and bromides) of manganese, copper and calcium as the active phase for Hg.sup.0 oxidation, and are dispersed on a high surface porous supports. In addition to the powder activated carbons (PACs), this support material can be comprised of commercial ceramic supports such as silica (SiO.sub.2), alumina (Al.sub.2O.sub.3), zeolites and clays. The support material may also comprise of oxides of various metals such as iron, manganese, and calcium. The non-carbon sorbents of the invention can be easily injected into the flue gas and recovered in the Particulate Control Device (PCD) along with the fly ash without altering the properties of the by-product fly ash enabling its use as a cement additive. Sorbent materials of this invention effectively remove both elemental and oxidized forms of mercury from flue gases and can be used at elevated temperatures. The sorbent combines an oxidation catalyst and a sorbent in the same particle to both oxidize the mercury and then immobilize it.

  8. Engine Removal Projection Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Ferryman, Thomas A.; Matzke, Brett D.; Wilson, John E.; Sharp, Julia L.; Greitzer, Frank L.

    2005-06-02

    The US Navy has over 3500 gas turbine engines used throughout the surface fleet for propulsion and the generation of electrical power. Past data is used to forecast the number of engine removals for the next ten years and determine engine down times between removals. Currently this is done via a FORTRAN program created in the early 1970s. This paper presents results of R&D associated with creating a new algorithm and software program. We tested over 60 techniques on data spanning 20 years from over 3100 engines and 120 ships. Investigated techniques for the forecast basis including moving averages, empirical negative binomial, generalized linear models, Cox regression, and Kaplan Meier survival curves, most of which are documented in engineering, medical and scientific research literature. We applied those techniques to the data, and chose the best algorithm based on its performance on real-world data. The software uses the best algorithm in combination with user-friendly interfaces and intuitively understandable displays. The user can select a specific engine type, forecast time period, and op-tempo. Graphical displays and numerical tables present forecasts and uncertainty intervals. The technology developed for the project is applicable to other logistic forecasting challenges.

  9. X-31 wing removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    U.S. and German personnel of the X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Technology Demonstrator aircraft program removing the right wing of the aircraft, which was ferried from Edwards Air Force Base, California, to Europe on May 22, 1995 aboard an Air Force Reserve C-5 transport. The X-31, based at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center was ferried to Europe and flown in the Paris Air Show in June. The wing of the X-31 was removed on May 18, 1995, to allow the aircraft to fit inside the C-5 fuselage. Officials of the X-31 project used Manching, Germany, as a staging base to prepare the aircraft for the flight demonstration. At the air show, the X-31 demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems to provide controlled flight at very high angles of attack. The aircraft arrived back at Edwards in a Air Force Reserve C-5 on June 25, 1995 and off loaded at Dryden June 27. The X-31 aircraft was developed jointly by Rockwell International's North American Aircraft Division (now part of Boeing) and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm), under sponsorship by the U.S. Department of Defense and The German Federal Ministry of Defense.

  10. X-31 wing removal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-05-18

    U.S. and German personnel of the X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Technology Demonstrator aircraft program removing the right wing of the aircraft, which was ferried from Edwards Air Force Base, California, to Europe on May 22, 1995 aboard an Air Force Reserve C-5 transport. The X-31, based at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center was ferried to Europe and flown in the Paris Air Show in June. The wing of the X-31 was removed on May 18, 1995, to allow the aircraft to fit inside the C-5 fuselage. Officials of the X-31 project used Manching, Germany, as a staging base to prepare the aircraft for the flight demonstration. At the air show, the X-31 demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems to provide controlled flight at very high angles of attack. The aircraft arrived back at Edwards in a Air Force Reserve C-5 on June 25, 1995 and off loaded at Dryden June 27. The X-31 aircraft was developed jointly by Rockwell International's North American Aircraft Division (now part of Boeing) and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm), under sponsorship by the U.S. Department of Defense and the German Federal Ministry of Defense.

  11. X-31 wing removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    U.S. and German personnel of the X-31 Enhanced Fighter Maneuverability Technology Demonstrator aircraft program removing the right wing of the aircraft, which was ferried from Edwards Air Force Base, California, to Europe on May 22, 1995 aboard an Air Force Reserve C-5 transport. The X-31, based at the NASA Dryden Flight Research Center was ferried to Europe and flown in the Paris Air Show in June. The wing of the X-31 was removed on May 18, 1995, to allow the aircraft to fit inside the C-5 fuselage. Officials of the X-31 project used Manching, Germany, as a staging base to prepare the aircraft for the flight demonstration. At the air show, the X-31 demonstrated the value of using thrust vectoring (directing engine exhaust flow) coupled with advanced flight control systems to provide controlled flight at very high angles of attack. The aircraft arrived back at Edwards in a Air Force Reserve C-5 on June 25, 1995 and off loaded at Dryden June 27. The X-31 aircraft was developed jointly by Rockwell International's North American Aircraft Division (now part of Boeing) and Daimler-Benz Aerospace (formerly Messerschmitt-Bolkow-Blohm), under sponsorship by the U.S. Department of Defense and The German Federal Ministry of Defense.

  12. SPECS: Orbital debris removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The debris problem has reached a stage at which the risk to satellites and spacecraft has become substantial in low Earth orbit (LEO). This research discovered that small particles posed little threat to spacecraft because shielding can effectively prevent these particles from damaging the spacecraft. The research also showed that, even though collision with a large piece of debris could destroy the spacecraft, the large pieces of debris pose little danger because they can be tracked and the spacecraft can be maneuvered away from these pieces. Additionally, there are many current designs to capture and remove large debris particles from the space environment. From this analysis, it was decided to concentrate on the removal of medium-sized orbital debris, that is, those pieces ranging from 1 cm to 50 cm in size. The current design incorporates a transfer vehicle and a netting vehicle to capture the medium-sized debris. The system is based near an operational space station located at 28.5 deg inclination and 400 km altitude. The system uses ground-based tracking to determine the location of a satellite breakup or debris cloud. These data are uploaded to the transfer vehicle, which proceeds to rendezvous with the debris at a lower altitude parking orbit. Next, the netting vehicle is deployed, tracks the targeted debris, and captures it. After expending the available nets, the netting vehicle returns to the transfer vehicle for a new netting module and continues to capture more debris in the target area. Once all the netting modules are expended, the transfer vehicle returns to the space station's orbit where it is resupplied with new netting modules from a space shuttle load. The new modules are launched by the shuttle from the ground and the expended modules are taken back to Earth for removal of the captured debris, refueling, and repacking of the nets. Once the netting modules are refurbished, they are taken back into orbit for reuse. In a typical mission, the

  13. Rubber stopper remover

    DOEpatents

    Stitt, Robert R.

    1994-01-01

    A device for removing a rubber stopper from a test tube is mountable to an upright wall, has a generally horizontal splash guard, and a lower plate spaced parallel to and below the splash guard. A slot in the lower plate has spaced-apart opposing edges that converge towards each other from the plate outer edge to a narrowed portion, the opposing edges shaped to make engagement between the bottom of the stopper flange and the top edge of the test tube to wedge therebetween and to grasp the stopper in the slot narrowed portion to hold the stopper as the test tube is manipulated downwardly and pulled from the stopper. The opposing edges extend inwardly to adjoin an opening having a diameter significantly larger than that of the stopper flange.

  14. Geothermal hydrogen sulfide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Urban, P.

    1981-04-01

    UOP Sulfox technology successfully removed 500 ppM hydrogen sulfide from simulated mixed phase geothermal waters. The Sulfox process involves air oxidation of hydrogen sulfide using a fixed catalyst bed. The catalyst activity remained stable throughout the life of the program. The product stream composition was selected by controlling pH; low pH favored elemental sulfur, while high pH favored water soluble sulfate and thiosulfate. Operation with liquid water present assured full catalytic activity. Dissolved salts reduced catalyst activity somewhat. Application of Sulfox technology to geothermal waters resulted in a straightforward process. There were no requirements for auxiliary processes such as a chemical plant. Application of the process to various types of geothermal waters is discussed and plans for a field test pilot plant and a schedule for commercialization are outlined.

  15. Black hole hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Nabamita; Mandal, Ipsita; Sen, Ashoke

    2009-07-01

    Macroscopic entropy of an extremal black hole is expected to be determined completely by its near horizon geometry. Thus two black holes with identical near horizon geometries should have identical macroscopic entropy, and the expected equality between macroscopic and microscopic entropies will then imply that they have identical degeneracies of microstates. An apparent counterexample is provided by the 4D-5D lift relating BMPV black hole to a four dimensional black hole. The two black holes have identical near horizon geometries but different microscopic spectrum. We suggest that this discrepancy can be accounted for by black hole hair — degrees of freedom living outside the horizon and contributing to the degeneracies. We identify these degrees of freedom for both the four and the five dimensional black holes and show that after their contributions are removed from the microscopic degeneracies of the respective systems, the result for the four and five dimensional black holes match exactly.

  16. Softeners for hardness removal.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Rashma; Manjunath, N T; Babu, B T Suresh

    2005-10-01

    The depletion of water resources, both surface and subsurface and deterioration of water quality made researchers and policy makers to think of the possible remedies to make water sources potable / wholesome. There is a need to address the problems of hardness and fluoride in subsurface water on priority basis. In this direction, bench scale studies were conducted to evaluate the performance of water softeners. Indepth studies were carried out at University B.D.T College of Engineering, Davangere, Karnataka, to assess the performance of bench scale softeners of D to H ratio 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 in removing hardness of varied concentrations from both synthetic and natural water samples. Studies revealed that irrespective of D to H ratio of softeners, the waters having hardness concentration up to 1000 mg/l can be treated to the same degree (81.68% and above). The findings of regeneration studies and cost economics are also summarized in this paper.

  17. Laser tattoo removal: a review.

    PubMed

    Kent, Kathryn M; Graber, Emmy M

    2012-01-01

    Tattoos have played an important role in human culture for thousands of years, and they remain popular today. The development of quality-switched (QS) lasers has revolutionized the removal of unwanted tattoos. To thoroughly review the literature on laser tattoo removal pertaining to its history, its theoretical basis, the various devices used, potential adverse effects, and future developments. An extensive literature review of publications related to tattoo removal was conducted. Reports exist demonstrating the efficacy of laser removal of different tattoo types, including professional, amateur, traumatic, cosmetic, and medical. The literature supports the use of different QS lasers for removal of tattoos. Some colors have a more-complete response using particular wavelengths. QS lasers can effectively and safely remove different types of unwanted tattoos. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Post removal techniques part 1.

    PubMed

    Dickie, Jamie; McCrosson, John

    2014-01-01

    Dismantling restorations from teeth which require endodontic re-treatment can be difficult. Many dentists are reluctant to remove posts through fear of weakening, perforating or fracturing the remaining root structure. A variety of techniques have been described and developed for post removal. This is the first in a series of two papers which provide an overview of these techniques.The rationale for endodontic re-treatment, pre-operative assessment and factors affecting post removal are discussed. Techniques are illustrated with clinical case reports. The second paper describes the use of specific post removal devices and the removal of fibre posts. Endodontic re-treatment has a more successful long-term outcome than surgical treatment for failed root canal treatment. This may involve the removal of existing post restorations or portions thereof.

  19. Unilateral removable partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Goodall, W A; Greer, A C; Martin, N

    2017-01-27

    Removable partial dentures (RPDs) are widely used to replace missing teeth in order to restore both function and aesthetics for the partially dentate patient. Conventional RPD design is frequently bilateral and consists of a major connector that bridges both sides of the arch. Some patients cannot and will not tolerate such an extensive appliance. For these patients, bridgework may not be a predictable option and it is not always possible to provide implant-retained restorations. This article presents unilateral RPDs as a potential treatment modality for such patients and explores indications and contraindications for their use, including factors relating to patient history, clinical presentation and patient wishes. Through case examples, design, material and fabrication considerations will be discussed. While their use is not widespread, there are a number of patients who benefit from the provision of unilateral RPDs. They are a useful treatment to have in the clinician's armamentarium, but a highly-skilled dental team and a specific patient presentation is required in order for them to be a reasonable and predictable prosthetic option.

  20. Orion Window Covers Removed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-06

    Inside the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a technician carefully removes the window covers on Orion before the fourth and final Ogive panel is installed around the spacecraft and Launch Abort System. The Ogive panels will smooth the airflow over the conical spacecraft to limit sound and vibration, which will make for a much smoother ride for the astronauts who will ride inside Orion in the future. The work marked the final major assembly steps for the spacecraft before it is transported to Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in November. Orion is the exploration spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to destinations not yet explored by humans, including an asteroid and Mars. It will have emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel and provide safe re-entry from deep space return velocities. The first unpiloted flight test of Orion is scheduled to launch in December 2014 atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket, and in 2018 on NASA’s Space Launch System rocket.

  1. Orion Window Covers Removed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-06

    Inside the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, preparations are underway to remove the window covers on Orion before the fourth and final Ogive panel is installed around the spacecraft and Launch Abort System. The Ogive panels will smooth the airflow over the conical spacecraft to limit sound and vibration, which will make for a much smoother ride for the astronauts who will ride inside Orion in the future. The work marked the final major assembly steps for the spacecraft before it is transported to Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in November. Orion is the exploration spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to destinations not yet explored by humans, including an asteroid and Mars. It will have emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel and provide safe re-entry from deep space return velocities. The first unpiloted flight test of Orion is scheduled to launch in December 2014 atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket, and in 2018 on NASA’s Space Launch System rocket.

  2. Orion Window Covers Removed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-06

    Inside the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a technician on a work platform carefully removes the window covers on Orion before the fourth and final Ogive panel is installed around the spacecraft and Launch Abort System. The Ogive panels will smooth the airflow over the conical spacecraft to limit sound and vibration, which will make for a much smoother ride for the astronauts who will ride inside Orion in the future. The work marked the final major assembly steps for the spacecraft before it is transported to Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in November. Orion is the exploration spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to destinations not yet explored by humans, including an asteroid and Mars. It will have emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel and provide safe re-entry from deep space return velocities. The first unpiloted flight test of Orion is scheduled to launch in December 2014 atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket, and in 2018 on NASA’s Space Launch System rocket.

  3. Orion Window Covers Removed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-11-06

    Inside the Launch Abort System Facility at NASA’s Kennedy Space Center in Florida, a window cover has been carefully removed from the Orion spacecraft before the fourth and final Ogive panel is installed around the spacecraft and Launch Abort System. The Ogive panels will smooth the airflow over the conical spacecraft to limit sound and vibration, which will make for a much smoother ride for the astronauts who will ride inside Orion in the future. The work marked the final major assembly steps for the spacecraft before it is transported to Space Launch Complex 37 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in November. Orion is the exploration spacecraft designed to carry astronauts to destinations not yet explored by humans, including an asteroid and Mars. It will have emergency abort capability, sustain the crew during space travel and provide safe re-entry from deep space return velocities. The first unpiloted flight test of Orion is scheduled to launch in December 2014 atop a United Launch Alliance Delta IV Heavy rocket, and in 2018 on NASA’s Space Launch System rocket.

  4. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents a long term performance study of two iron removal water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. Performance information was collected from one system located in midwest for one full year and at the second system located in the farwest...

  5. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents a long term performance study of two iron removal water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. Performance information was collected from one system located in midwest for one full year and at the second system located in the farwest...

  6. Laser assisted graffiti paints removing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, B. Y.; Chikalev, Y. V.; Shakhno, E. A.

    2011-02-01

    It's hard to imagine a modern city view without some drawings and inscriptions, usually called "graffiti". Traditional cleaning methods do not suit modern requirements. Investigation of possibilities of laser assisted paints removing is described in this article. The conditions for removing different paints from different surfaces were defined.

  7. Laser assisted graffiti paints removing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikov, B. Y.; Chikalev, Y. V.; Shakhno, E. A.

    2010-07-01

    It's hard to imagine a modern city view without some drawings and inscriptions, usually called "graffiti". Traditional cleaning methods do not suit modern requirements. Investigation of possibilities of laser assisted paints removing is described in this article. The conditions for removing different paints from different surfaces were defined.

  8. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  9. Nutrient Removal in Wastewater Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Kanti L.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses the sources and effects of nutrients in wastewater, and the methods of their removal in wastewater treatment. In order to conserve water resources and eliminate the cost of nutrient removal, treated effluent should be used wherever possible for irrigation, since it contains all the ingredients for proper plant growth. (JR)

  10. ARSENIC REMOVAL COST ESTIMATING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arsenic Removal Cost Estimating program (Excel) calculates the costs for using adsorptive media and anion exchange treatment systems to remove arsenic from drinking water. The program is an easy-to-use tool to estimate capital and operating costs for three types of arsenic re...

  11. Barnacle removal process and product

    SciTech Connect

    Richmond, T.L.

    1984-07-24

    Barnacles from marine vessels are removed by spraying the surfaces thereof with a mixture the active ingredients of which are a hydrocarbon liquid oil; a surfactant; alcohol; a metal hypochlorite; and an alkyl, dialkyl benzyl ammonium salt. After the solution has been applied to the surfaces for about 20 minutes, the barnacles are removed by power spraying the surfaces with water.

  12. ARSENIC REMOVAL COST ESTIMATING PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arsenic Removal Cost Estimating program (Excel) calculates the costs for using adsorptive media and anion exchange treatment systems to remove arsenic from drinking water. The program is an easy-to-use tool to estimate capital and operating costs for three types of arsenic re...

  13. TREATMENT CONSIDERATIONS FOR MICROBIAL REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will focus on filtration and related processes for removing microbes from drinking water. In recent years, the emphsis on the need to remove microbes from drinking water has increased. This increased concern was brought about partly by documented waterborne dise...

  14. Laser assisted hair-removal.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, S; Elsaie, M L; Nouri, K

    2009-10-01

    A number of lasers and light devices are now available for the treatment of unwanted hair. The goal of laser hair removal is to damage stem cells in the bulge of the hair follicle by targeting melanin, the endogenous chromophore for laser and light devices utilized to remove hair. The competing chromophores in the skin and hair, oxyhemoglobin and water, have a decreased absorption between 690 nm and 1000 nm, thus making this an ideal range for laser and light sources. Laser hair removal is achieved through follicular unit destruction based on selective photothermolysis. The principle of selective photothermolysis predicts that the thermal injury will be restricted to a given target if there is sufficient selective absorption of light and the pulse duration is shorter than the thermal relaxation time of the target. This review will focus on the mechanisms of laser assisted hair removal and provide an update on the newer technologies emerging in the field of lasers assisted hair removal.

  15. A new removable airway stent

    PubMed Central

    Amundsen, Tore; Sørhaug, Sveinung; Leira, Håkon Olav; Tyvold, Stig Sverre; Langø, Thomas; Hammer, Tommy; Manstad-Hulaas, Frode; Mattsson, Erney

    2016-01-01

    Background Malignant airway obstruction is a feared complication and will most probably occur more frequently in the future because of increasing cancer incidence and increased life expectancy in cancer patients. Minimal invasive treatment using airway stents represents a meaningful and life-saving palliation. We present a new removable airway stent for improved individualised treatment. Methods To our knowledge, the new airway stent is the world's first knitted and uncovered self-expanding metal stent, which can unravel and be completely removed. In an in vivo model using two anaesthetised and spontaneously breathing pigs, we deployed and subsequently removed the stents by unravelling the device. The procedures were executed by flexible bronchoscopy in an acute and a chronic setting – a ‘proof-of-principle’ study. Results The new stent was easily and accurately deployed in the central airways, and it remained fixed in its original position. It was easy to unravel and completely remove from the airways without clinically significant complications. During the presence of the stent in the chronic study, granulation tissue was induced. This tissue disappeared spontaneously with the removal. Conclusions The new removable stent functioned according to its purpose and unravelled easily, and it was completely removed without significant technical or medical complications. Induced granulation tissue disappeared spontaneously. Further studies on animals and humans are needed to define its optimal indications and future use. PMID:27608269

  16. Arsenic removal by ferric chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Hering, J.G.; Chen, P.Y.; Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M.; Liang, S.

    1996-04-01

    Bench-scale studies were conducted in model freshwater systems to investigate how various parameters affected arsenic removal during coagulation with ferric chloride and arsenic adsorption onto preformed hydrous ferric oxide. Parameters included arsenic oxidation state and initial concentration, coagulant dosage or adsorbent concentration, pH, and the presence of co-occurring inorganic solutes. Comparison of coagulation and adsorption experiments and of experimental results with predictions based on surface complexation modeling demonstrated that adsorption is an important (though not the sole) mechanism governing arsenic removal during coagulation. Under comparable conditions, better removal was observed with arsenic(V) [As(V)] than with arsenic(III) [As(III)] in both coagulation and adsorption experiments. Below neutral pH values, As(III) removal-adsorption was significantly decreased in the presence of sulfate, whereas only a slight decrease in As(V) removal-adsorption was observed. At high pH, removal-adsorption of As(V) was increased in the presence of calcium. Removal of As(V) during coagulation with ferric chloride is both more efficient and less sensitive than that of As(III) to variations in source water composition.

  17. USGS Dam Removal Science Database

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bellmore, J. Ryan; Vittum, Katherine; Duda, Jeff J.; Greene, Samantha L.

    2015-01-01

    This database is the result of an extensive literature search aimed at identifying documents relevant to the emerging field of dam removal science. In total the database contains 179 citations that contain empirical monitoring information associated with 130 different dam removals across the United States and abroad. Data includes publications through 2014 and supplemented with the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers National Inventory of Dams database, U.S. Geological Survey National Water Information System and aerial photos to estimate locations when coordinates were not provided. Publications were located using the Web of Science, Google Scholar, and Clearinghouse for Dam Removal Information.

  18. Enhanced coagulation for arsenic removal

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, R.C.; Liang, S.; Wang, H.C.; Beuhler, M.D. )

    1994-09-01

    The possible use of enhanced coagulation for arsenic removal was examined at the facilities of a California utility in 1992 and 1993. The tests were conducted at bench, pilot, and demonstration scales, with two source waters. Alum and ferric chloride, with cationic polymer, were investigated at various influence arsenic concentrations. The investigators concluded that for the source waters tested, enhanced coagulation could be effective for arsenic removal and that less ferric chloride than alum, on a weight basis, is needed to achieve the same removal.

  19. Removable partial dentures without rests.

    PubMed

    Meinig, D A

    1994-04-01

    Ever since Bonwill recommended the use of rests on removable partial dentures in 1899, rests have been universally considered inviolate and have gone unchallenged and untested. The author claims that removable partial dentures without rests may not cause the adverse conditions usually predicted, such as gingival stripping, gingival inflammation, mutilated residual ridges, or extensive and rapid resorption of the alveolar ridges. In removable partial dentures made by the author for several patients, the residual ridge remained stable and in physiologic equilibrium when rests were not used. A history of the long-term effect on patients wearing partial dentures with and without rests is presented.

  20. Easy removal of nasal magnets.

    PubMed

    Starke, Lori

    2005-09-01

    This article uses a case report and discussion to demonstrate the removal of magnets which have become lodged in the nasal cavity as a result of using magnet-backed earrings to decorate the alae. If bi-alar decoration is used, removal of nasal magnets can present more of a challenge than other nasal foreign bodies. This is because of their attraction to each other through the septum and because of the edema that can form around the magnets. This case discusses that removal of magnets lodged in the nares can be easily achieved with minimal trauma, by the use of a household pocket magnet.

  1. Documentation for POTW Removal Rates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Table VI of the RFI presents removal and destruction rates for toxic chemicals sent to POTWs, based on experimental and estimated data compiled by the Risk-Screening Environmental Indicators (RSEI) Program.

  2. Tattoo removal with ingenol mebutate

    PubMed Central

    Cozzi, Sarah-Jane; Le, Thuy T; Ogbourne, Steven M; James, Cini; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of people are getting tattoos; however, many regret the decision and seek their removal. Lasers are currently the most commonly used method for tattoo removal; however, treatment can be lengthy, costly, and sometimes ineffective, especially for certain colors. Ingenol mebutate is a licensed topical treatment for actinic keratoses. Here, we demonstrate that two applications of 0.1% ingenol mebutate can efficiently and consistently remove 2-week-old tattoos from SKH/hr hairless mice. Treatment was associated with relocation of tattoo microspheres from the dermis into the posttreatment eschar. The skin lesion resolved about 20 days after treatment initiation, with some cicatrix formation evident. The implications for using ingenol mebutate for tattoo removal in humans are discussed. PMID:28579816

  3. Can Acne Scars Be Removed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Can Acne Scars Be Removed? KidsHealth > For Teens > Can Acne ... eliminar las cicatrices del acné? Different Types of Acne Scars from acne can seem like double punishment — ...

  4. Spleen removal - laparoscopic - adults - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... sneeze to ease discomfort and protect your incision. Wound Care If stitches, staples, or glue were used ... 57 Read More Spleen removal Patient Instructions Surgical wound care - open Review Date 3/13/2015 Updated ...

  5. Steaming Chips Facilitates Bark Removal

    Treesearch

    John R. Erickson

    1976-01-01

    Whole tree chipping is a productive and economical harvesting system. The resultant product, however, is barky chips. THis paper outlines a promising method for removing the bark particles from whole tree chips.

  6. Tattoo removal with ingenol mebutate.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Sarah-Jane; Le, Thuy T; Ogbourne, Steven M; James, Cini; Suhrbier, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of people are getting tattoos; however, many regret the decision and seek their removal. Lasers are currently the most commonly used method for tattoo removal; however, treatment can be lengthy, costly, and sometimes ineffective, especially for certain colors. Ingenol mebutate is a licensed topical treatment for actinic keratoses. Here, we demonstrate that two applications of 0.1% ingenol mebutate can efficiently and consistently remove 2-week-old tattoos from SKH/hr hairless mice. Treatment was associated with relocation of tattoo microspheres from the dermis into the posttreatment eschar. The skin lesion resolved about 20 days after treatment initiation, with some cicatrix formation evident. The implications for using ingenol mebutate for tattoo removal in humans are discussed.

  7. Removing Silicone Grease from Glassware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, Thomas H.

    1997-07-01

    A recent note in this Journal (1) described the use of 5% aqueous hydrofluoric acid for removing silicone grease residues from round-bottom flasks. A safer and more convenient alternative is a saturated solution of sodium hydroxide in ethanol.

  8. Innovative approach to asbestos removal

    SciTech Connect

    Kahal, E J

    1984-01-01

    The most common asbestos materials used at the Savannah River site include: steam pipe insulation; powerhouse boiler insulation; wallboards; roofing materials; and cement products. Asbestos was also found in a number of other materials: aprons; gaskets; laboratory hot pads; and talcum powder used for gloves. Techniques for removal; personnel training; mechanical ventilation; and personnel isolation techniques are described for completing asbestos removal safely and without boiler downtime. (PSB)

  9. Article removal device for glovebox

    DOEpatents

    Guyer, R.H.; Leebl, R.G.

    1973-12-01

    An article removal device for a glovebox is described comprising a conduit extending through a glovebox wall which may be closed by a plug within the glovebox, and a fire-resistant container closing the outer end of the conduit and housing a removable container for receiving pyrophoric or otherwise hazardous material without disturbing the interior environment of the glovebox or adversely affecting the environment outside of the glovebox. (Official Gazette)

  10. Paint Removal from Family Housing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-01

    Both products were also tested for removing a baked finish from aluminum siding. In this test, the 700-W was more effective than 667-W, probably...Once Leeder 667-W has / -been allowed to penetrate and lift, simply remove it with damp rags. Caution: Leeder 667-W contains caustic soda . Avoid...and First Aid Procedures: Skin: Wash with water. Follow with ’oric acid or vinegar wash. Internal: Give vinegar , juice of lemor, -rapef-ruit or orange

  11. Electronic Commerce Removing Regulatory Impediments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    AD-A252 691 ELECTRONIC COMMERCE Removing Regulatory Impediments ~DuiG A% ELECTE I JUL1 8 1992 0 C D Daniel J. Drake John A. Ciucci ... - ""N ST AT KE...Management Institute 6400 Goldsboro Road Bethesda, Maryland 20817-5886 92 LMI Executive Summary ELECTRONIC COMMERCE : REMOVING REGULATORY IMPEDIMENTS... Electronic Commerce techniques, such as electronic mail and electronic data interchange (EDI), enable Government agencies to conduct business without the

  12. Guidelines for laser hair removal.

    PubMed

    Casey, Angela S; Goldberg, David

    2008-03-01

    Requests for removal of unwanted body hair are common in dermatologic and surgical practices. Technology continues to improve the achievement of a more permanent reduction through the use of lasers. Despite the increased use of lasers, to date, few guidelines exist in terms of how to approach laser hair removal. Specifically, one must understand the mechanism of hair growth and how lasers work to target the hair follicle. There is significant variation among practitioners in pre-and post-laser recommendations to patients as well as intervals between treatment sessions. We performed a thorough review of the literature in order to determine evidence for the ideal interval between treatment sessions and the ideal number of sessions. We also sought to establish, based on published reports, the recommendations for shaving, plucking, waxing or other hair removal methods prior to laser hair removal and the guidelines for sun exposure before and after laser treatments. Finally, we searched the literature to find out whether there are areas that should not be treated with laser hair removal. The evidence and recommendations in this article aim to help guide practitioners in their approach to laser hair removal.

  13. Removal of unwanted facial hair.

    PubMed

    Shenenberger, Donald W; Utecht, Lynn M

    2002-11-15

    Unwanted facial hair is a common problem that is seldom discussed in the primary care setting. Although men occasionally request removal of unwanted facial hair, women most often seek help with this condition. Physicians generally neglect to address the problem if the patient does not first request help. The condition may be caused by androgen overproduction, increased sensitivity to circulating androgens, or other metabolic and endocrine disorders, and should be properly evaluated. Options for hair removal vary in efficacy, degree of discomfort, and cost. Clinical studies on the efficacy of many therapies are lacking. Short of surgical removal of the hair follicle, the only permanent treatment is electrolysis. However, the practice of electrolysis lacks standardization, and regulation of the procedure varies from state to state. Shaving, epilation, and depilation are the most commonly attempted initial options for facial hair removal. Although these methods are less expensive, they are only temporary. Laser hair removal, although better studied than most methods and more strictly regulated, has yet to be proved permanent in all patients. Eflornithine, a topical treatment, is simple to apply and has minimal side effects. By the time most patients consult a physician, they have tried several methods of hair removal. Family physicians can properly educate patients and recommend treatment for this common condition if they are armed with basic knowledge about the treatment options.

  14. How Effective are Existing Arsenic Removal Techniques

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will summarize the system performance results of the technologies demonstrated in the arsenic demonstration program. The technologies include adsorptive media, iron removal, iron removal with iron additions, iron removal followed by adsorptive media, coagulatio...

  15. How Effective are Existing Arsenic Removal Techniques

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will summarize the system performance results of the technologies demonstrated in the arsenic demonstration program. The technologies include adsorptive media, iron removal, iron removal with iron additions, iron removal followed by adsorptive media, coagulatio...

  16. High removal rate laser-based coating removal system

    DOEpatents

    Matthews, Dennis L.; Celliers, Peter M.; Hackel, Lloyd; Da Silva, Luiz B.; Dane, C. Brent; Mrowka, Stanley

    1999-11-16

    A compact laser system that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1000 ft.sup.2 /hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

  17. Removal - An alternative to clearance

    SciTech Connect

    Feinhals, J.; Kelch, A.; Kunze, V.

    2007-07-01

    This presentation shows the differences between the application of clearance and removal, both being procedures for materials leaving radiation protection areas permanently. The differentiation will be done on the basis of the German legislation but may be also applicable for other national legislation. For clearance in Germany two basic requirements must be given, i.e. that the materials are activated or contaminated and that they result from the licensed use or can be assigned to the scope of the license. Clearance needs not to be applied to objects in Germany which are to be removed only temporarily from controlled areas with the purpose of repair or reuse in other controlled areas. In these cases only the requirements of contamination control apply. In the case of removal it must either be proved by measurements that the relevant materials are neither activated nor contaminated or that the materials result from areas where activation or contamination is impossible due to the operational history considering operational procedures and events. If the material is considered neither activated nor contaminated there is no need for a clearance procedure. Therefore, these materials can be removed from radiation protection areas and the removal is in the responsibility of the licensee. Nevertheless, the removal procedure and the measuring techniques to be applied for the different types of materials need an agreement from the competent authority. In Germany a maximum value of 10% of the clearance values has been established in different licenses as a criterion for the application of removal. As approximately 2/3 of the total mass of a nuclear power plant is not expected to be contaminated or activated there is a need for such a procedure of removal for this non contaminated material without any regulatory control especially in the case of decommissioning. A remarkable example is NPP Stade where in the last three years more than 8600 Mg were disposed of by removal and

  18. Large Component Removal/Disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, D. M.

    2002-02-27

    This paper describes the removal and disposal of the large components from Maine Yankee Atomic Power Plant. The large components discussed include the three steam generators, pressurizer, and reactor pressure vessel. Two separate Exemption Requests, which included radiological characterizations, shielding evaluations, structural evaluations and transportation plans, were prepared and issued to the DOT for approval to ship these components; the first was for the three steam generators and one pressurizer, the second was for the reactor pressure vessel. Both Exemption Requests were submitted to the DOT in November 1999. The DOT approved the Exemption Requests in May and July of 2000, respectively. The steam generators and pressurizer have been removed from Maine Yankee and shipped to the processing facility. They were removed from Maine Yankee's Containment Building, loaded onto specially designed skid assemblies, transported onto two separate barges, tied down to the barges, th en shipped 2750 miles to Memphis, Tennessee for processing. The Reactor Pressure Vessel Removal Project is currently under way and scheduled to be completed by Fall of 2002. The planning, preparation and removal of these large components has required extensive efforts in planning and implementation on the part of all parties involved.

  19. Overview of paint removal methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster, Terry

    1995-04-01

    With the introduction of strict environmental regulations governing the use and disposal of methylene chloride and phenols, major components of chemical paint strippers, there have been many new environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal developed. The new methods developed for removing coatings from aircraft and aircraft components include: mechanical methods using abrasive media such as plastic, wheat starch, walnut shells, ice and dry ice, environmentally safe chemical strippers and paint softeners, and optical methods such as lasers and flash lamps. Each method has its advantages and disadvantages, and some have unique applications. For example, mechanical and abrasive methods can damage sensitive surfaces such as composite materials and strict control of blast parameters and conditions are required. Optical methods can be slow, leaving paint residues, and chemical methods may not remove all of the coating or require special coating formulations to be effective. As an introduction to environmentally safe and effective methods of paint removal, this paper is an overview of the various methods available. The purpose of this overview is to introduce the various paint removal methods available.

  20. Actinide removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method for removing actinide contaminants (uranium and thorium) from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents are added to precipitate the thorium as thorium oxide and/or the uranium as either uranium oxide or as a diuranate salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as radioactive waste. About 90% of the thorium and/or uranium present is removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 0.1 ppm of thorium or uranium.

  1. Metals removal from spent salts

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Peter C.; Von Holtz, Erica H.; Hipple, David L.; Summers, Leslie J.; Brummond, William A.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2002-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing metal contaminants from the spent salt of a molten salt oxidation (MSO) reactor is described. Spent salt is removed from the reactor and analyzed to determine the contaminants present and the carbonate concentration. The salt is dissolved in water, and one or more reagents may be added to precipitate the metal oxide and/or the metal as either metal oxide, metal hydroxide, or as a salt. The precipitated materials are filtered, dried and packaged for disposal as waste or can be immobilized as ceramic pellets. More than about 90% of the metals and mineral residues (ashes) present are removed by filtration. After filtration, salt solutions having a carbonate concentration >20% can be spray-dried and returned to the reactor for re-use. Salt solutions containing a carbonate concentration <20% require further clean-up using an ion exchange column, which yields salt solutions that contain less than 1.0 ppm of contaminants.

  2. Laser Tattoo Removal: An Update.

    PubMed

    Naga, Lina I; Alster, Tina S

    2017-02-01

    Tattoo art has been around for thousands of years in every culture and is currently flourishing in all age groups, social classes, and occupations. Despite the rising popularity of tattoos, demand for their removal has also increased. While various treatments, including surgical excision, dermabrasion, and chemical destruction have historically been applied, over the past 2 decades, lasers have revolutionized the way tattoos are treated and have become the gold standard of treatment. To achieve optimal cosmetic outcome of treatment, lasers emitting high energies and short pulses are required to adequately destroy tattoo ink. We review the history of laser tattoo removal, outlining the challenges inherent in developing lasers that can most effectively remove tattoo particles while safely protecting skin from unwanted injury.

  3. Synthesizing Studies of Dam Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Jim; East, Amy

    2014-10-01

    Dam decommissioning is rapidly emerging as an important river restoration strategy in the United States. Hundreds of dams have been removed in the past few decades, including several large ones (>10-15 meters) impounding large sediment volumes (>106 cubic meters) in the past 3 years, notably Condit Dam and the Elwha River dams in Washington State. These removals and the associated studies provide for the first time an opportunity to evaluate the immediate and persistent consequences of these significant fluvial—and in some cases, coastal—perturbations. Understanding dam removal response not only improves understanding of landscape and ecosystem adjustment to profound sediment pulses but also provides important lessons for future watershed restoration efforts.

  4. Designing successful removable partial dentures.

    PubMed

    Daher, Tony; Hall, Dan; Goodacre, Charles J

    2006-03-01

    In today's busy dental offices, removable partial denture design is often abdicated by dentists, both as a result of a lack of experience and consensus of design and because of educational failure on the part of dental schools. The result is delegation of the clinical design process to the lab technician. The lack of clinical data provided to the dental technician jeopardizes the quality of care. This article will focus on a logical and simple approach to this problem, making removable partial denture design simple and predictably achievable. The clinical evidence related to removable partial denture design will be described, along with a checklist to simplify the process and make it practical and applicable to everyday clinical practice.

  5. Hair removal on dermoscopy images.

    PubMed

    Maglogiannis, Ilias; Delibasis, Kostantinos

    2015-08-01

    Digital Dermoscopy is a tool commonly used by dermatologists for assisting the diagnosis of skin lesions. The presence of hair in such dermoscopic images frequently occludes significant diagnostic information and reduces their value. In this work we propose algorithms that successfully identify and remove hair from the dermoscopic images. The proposed algorithms consist of two parts; the first deals with the identification of hair, while the second part concerns the image restoration using interpolation. For the evaluation of the algorithms we used ground truth images with synthetic hair and compared the results with the commonly used in the literature DullRazor tool. According to the experimental results the proposed hair removal algorithms can be used successfully in the detection and removal of both dark and light colored hair.

  6. Alternative strategies for removing bromate

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqui, M. ); Amy, G.; Ozekin, K.; Zhai, W.; Westerhoff, P. )

    1994-10-01

    Stage 1 of the Disinfectants-Disinfection By-Products Rule specifies a maximum contaminant level of 10[mu]g/L for bromate ion, a by-product of the ozonation of natural water containing bromide ion. Several options for removing bromate after its formation are evaluated: reduction with ferrous iron (Fe[sup 2+]), reduction on the surface of activated carbon, ultraviolet irradiation, and high-energy electron beam irradiation. For all the processes, bromide was found in the treated water, which indicates that the dominating mechanism of bromate removal is chemical reduction. If Fe[sup 2+] is introduced after preozonation, it may function both as a reducing agent for bromate and as a coagulant for dissolved organic carbon removal.

  7. Arsenic removal by electrocoagulation process: Recent trends and removal mechanism.

    PubMed

    Nidheesh, P V; Singh, T S Anantha

    2017-08-01

    Arsenic contamination in drinking water is a major issue in the present world. Arsenicosis is the disease caused by the regular consumption of arsenic contaminated water, even at a lesser contaminated level. The number of arsenicosis patients is increasing day-by-day. Decontamination of arsenic from the water medium is the only one way to regulate this and the arsenic removal can be fulfilled by water treatment methods based on separation techniques. Electrocoagulation (EC) process is a promising technology for the effective removal of arsenic from aqueous solution. The present review article analyzes the performance of the EC process for arsenic removal. Electrocoagulation using various sacrificial metal anodes such as aluminium, iron, magnesium, etc. is found to be very effective for arsenic decontamination. The performances of each anode are described in detail. A special focus has been made on the mechanism behind the arsenite and arsenate removal by EC process. Main trends in the disposal methods of sludge containing arsenic are also included. Comparison of arsenic decontamination efficiencies of chemical coagulation and EC is also reported. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Laser-based coatings removal

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.A.

    1995-10-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D&D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building. This report describes the use of pulse-repetetion laser systems for the removal of paints and coatings.

  9. Removing Solids From Supercritical Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Glenn T.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus removes precipitated inorganic salts and other solids in water-recycling process. Designed for use with oxidation in supercritical water which treats wastes and yields nearly pure water. Heating coils and insulation around vessel keep it hot. Locking bracket seals vessel but allows it to be easily opened for replacement of filled canisters.

  10. Electrochemical Machining Removes Deep Obstructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catania, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) is effective way of removing obstructing material between two deep holes supposed to intersect but do not because of misalignment of drilling tools. ECM makes it possible to rework costly castings otherwise scrapped. Method fast even for tough or hard alloys and complicated three-dimensional shapes.

  11. Arsenic Removal by Liquid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Marino, Tiziana; Figoli, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs) look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s) plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration. PMID:25826756

  12. Artificial wetlands performance: nitrogen removal.

    PubMed

    Durán-de-Bazúa, Carmen; Guido-Zárate, Alejandro; Huanosta, Thalía; Padrón-López, Rosa Martha; Rodríguez-Monroy, Jesús

    2008-01-01

    Artificial wetlands (AW) are a promising option for wastewater treatment in small communities due to their high performance in nutrients removal and low operation and maintenance costs. Nitrogen can favour the growth of algae in water bodies causing eutrophication when present at high concentrations. Nitrogen can be removed through different mechanisms (e.g. nitrification-denitrification, adsorption and plant uptake). Environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity can play an important role in the performance of these systems by promoting the growth of macrophytes such as reeds and cattails (e.g. Phragmites australis, Typha latifolia respectively). In this paper, two AW systems were compared, one located in Mexico City, Mexico at an altitude higher than 2,000 m above the sea level, and the second one located in Villahermosa, Tabasco, Mexico at an a altitude near the sea level (27 m). Both systems comprised five reactors (147-L plastic boxes) filled with volcanic slag and gravel and intermittently fed with synthetic water. The removal nitrogen efficiency found for the system located in Mexico City was higher than that of the Tabasco system (90 and 80% as TKN respectively). The higher temperatures in the Tabasco system did not enhanced the nitrogen removal as expected.

  13. MICROBIOLOGICAL REMOVAL BY FILTRATION PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Filtration ws originally used to remove contaminants that affect the appearance, odor, and taste of drinking water. Later it was demonstrated that bacteria in drinking water were causative agents of disease. Water treatment technology improved with the addition of disinfection, c...

  14. GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

  15. GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

  16. Electrochemical Machining Removes Deep Obstructions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catania, Mark J.

    1987-01-01

    Electrochemical machining (ECM) is effective way of removing obstructing material between two deep holes supposed to intersect but do not because of misalignment of drilling tools. ECM makes it possible to rework costly castings otherwise scrapped. Method fast even for tough or hard alloys and complicated three-dimensional shapes.

  17. Removing Tenured Faculty for Cause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendrickson, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews 41 cases involving removal of tenured faculty for cause decided since 1982 to clarify the specific requirements institutions must meet to guarantee due process to tenured faculty and to avoid the infringement of constitutional rights of faculty at public institutions. (MLF)

  18. Waterjet processes for coating removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, Fletcher; Cosby, Steve; Hoppe, David

    1995-01-01

    USBI and NASA have been testing and investigating the use of high pressure water for coating removal for approximately the past 12 years at the Automated TPS (Thermal Protection System - ablative materials used for thermal protection during ascent and descent of the solid rocket boosters) Removal Facility located in the Productivity Enhancement Complex at Marshall Space Flight Center. Originally the task was to develop and automate the removal process and transfer the technology to a production facility at Kennedy Space Center. Since that time more and more applications and support roles for the waterjet technology have been realized. The facility has become a vital part of development activities ongoing at MSFC. It supports the development of environmentally compliant insulations, sealants, and coatings. It also supports bonding programs, test motors, and pressure vessels. The most recent role of the cell is supporting Thiokol Corporation's solid rocket motor program in the development of waterjet degreasing and paint stripping methods. Currently vapor degreasing methods use 500,000 lbs. of ozone depleting chemicals per year. This paper describes the major cell equipment, test methods practiced, and coatings that have been removed.

  19. Removing Solids From Supercritical Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, Glenn T.

    1992-01-01

    Apparatus removes precipitated inorganic salts and other solids in water-recycling process. Designed for use with oxidation in supercritical water which treats wastes and yields nearly pure water. Heating coils and insulation around vessel keep it hot. Locking bracket seals vessel but allows it to be easily opened for replacement of filled canisters.

  20. Arsenic removal by liquid membranes.

    PubMed

    Marino, Tiziana; Figoli, Alberto

    2015-03-27

    Water contamination with harmful arsenic compounds represents one of the most serious calamities of the last two centuries. Natural occurrence of the toxic metal has been revealed recently for 21 countries worldwide; the risk of arsenic intoxication is particularly high in Bangladesh and India but recently also Europe is facing similar problem. Liquid membranes (LMs) look like a promising alternative to the existing removal processes, showing numerous advantages in terms of energy consumption, efficiency, selectivity, and operational costs. The development of different LM configurations has been a matter of investigation by several researching groups, especially for the removal of As(III) and As(V) from aqueous solutions. Most of these LM systems are based on the use of phosphine oxides as carriers, when the metal removal is from sulfuric acid media. Particularly promising for water treatment is the hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) configuration, which offers high selectivity, easy transport of the targeted metal ions, large surface area, and non-stop flow process. The choice of organic extractant(s) plays an essential role in the efficiency of the arsenic removal. Emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) systems have not been extensively investigated so far, although encouraging results have started to appear in the literature. For such LM configuration, the most relevant step toward efficiency is the choice of the surfactant type and its concentration.

  1. Aerator Combined With Bubble Remover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dreschel, Thomas W.

    1993-01-01

    System produces bubble-free oxygen-saturated water. Bubble remover consists of outer solid-walled tube and inner hydrophobic, porous tube. Air bubbles pass from water in outer tube into inner tube, where sucked away. Developed for long-term aquaculture projects in space. Also applicable to terrestrial equipment in which entrained bubbles dry membranes or give rise to cavitation in pumps.

  2. Mercury Removal from Waste Organics

    SciTech Connect

    Cummins, R.L.; Klasson, T.; Taylor, P.A.

    1999-02-28

    Mercury was effectively removed from the oil via sorption using SAMMS.The method was demonstrated on a large scale using ORNL waste oil contaminated with mercury. This technology is ready for further demonstration and implementation when the SAMMS material is available in large quantities.

  3. Adsorbent Removes Traces Of Oxygen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Pramod K.; Seshan, Panchalam K.

    1991-01-01

    An adsorbent, carbon molecular sieve containing copper oxide, selectively removes oxygen from gas mixtures, producing gas containing less than 1 part per billion of oxygen. Used to help prevent oxidation of chemicals being prepared in dry boxes or to extract undesired traces of oxygen from inert-gas chambers in which flammable gases are stored.

  4. Removable singularities of holomorphic functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chirka, E. M.

    2016-09-01

    Several sufficient conditions for the removability of singular sets with area zero are obtained for holomorphic functions in plane domains and on Riemann surfaces, under certain metric and topological assumptions about cluster sets of these functions and the limit sets of their graphs. Bibliography: 14 titles.

  5. Pillsbury Mills LLC Removal Site

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Pillsbury Mills LLC removal site is located at 1525 E. Phillips St., Springfield, IL. Residential properties are located immediately across the street on the north and east perimeters. The site is a former Pillsbury grain mill on about 18 acres.

  6. 27 CFR 25.251 - Authorized removals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removal of Brewer's Yeast and Other Articles § 25.251 Authorized removals. (a) Brewer's yeast. A brewer may remove brewer's yeast, in liquid or solid form containing not... including the words “Brewer's Yeast.” (c) Pipeline. If brewer's yeast is removed by pipeline, the pipeline...

  7. 44 CFR 206.224 - Debris removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Debris removal. 206.224... Debris removal. (a) Public interest. Upon determination that debris removal is in the public interest, the Regional Administrator may provide assistance for the removal of debris and wreckage from publicly...

  8. 44 CFR 206.224 - Debris removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Debris removal. 206.224... Debris removal. (a) Public interest. Upon determination that debris removal is in the public interest, the Regional Administrator may provide assistance for the removal of debris and wreckage from publicly...

  9. 44 CFR 206.224 - Debris removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Debris removal. 206.224... Debris removal. (a) Public interest. Upon determination that debris removal is in the public interest, the Regional Administrator may provide assistance for the removal of debris and wreckage from publicly...

  10. 44 CFR 206.224 - Debris removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Debris removal. 206.224... Debris removal. (a) Public interest. Upon determination that debris removal is in the public interest, the Regional Administrator may provide assistance for the removal of debris and wreckage from publicly...

  11. Jail Removal Cost Study. Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Illinois Univ., Champaign. Community Research Center.

    This second volume of the jail removal cost study provides a detailed report of the study findings which examine the costs, experiences, and ramifications of removing children from adult jails and lockups. The foreword supplies background information and hypothetical removal cost estimates. The approach used to conduct the jail removal cost study…

  12. 40 CFR 403.7 - Removal credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Removal credits. 403.7 Section 403.7... GENERAL PRE-TREAT-MENT REGULATIONS FOR EXIST-ING AND NEW SOURCES OF POLLUTION § 403.7 Removal credits. (a... section, grant removal credits to reflect removal by the POTW of pollutants specified in the...

  13. 27 CFR 25.251 - Authorized removals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removal of Brewer's Yeast and Other Articles § 25.251 Authorized removals. (a) Brewer's yeast. A brewer may remove brewer's yeast, in liquid or solid form containing not... including the words “Brewer's Yeast.” (c) Pipeline. If brewer's yeast is removed by pipeline, the...

  14. 27 CFR 25.251 - Authorized removals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removal of Brewer's Yeast and Other Articles § 25.251 Authorized removals. (a) Brewer's yeast. A brewer may remove brewer's yeast, in liquid or solid form containing not... including the words “Brewer's Yeast.” (c) Pipeline. If brewer's yeast is removed by pipeline, the...

  15. 27 CFR 25.251 - Authorized removals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removal of Brewer's Yeast and Other Articles § 25.251 Authorized removals. (a) Brewer's yeast. A brewer may remove brewer's yeast, in liquid or solid form containing not... including the words “Brewer's Yeast.” (c) Pipeline. If brewer's yeast is removed by pipeline, the...

  16. 27 CFR 25.251 - Authorized removals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removal of Brewer's Yeast and Other Articles § 25.251 Authorized removals. (a) Brewer's yeast. A brewer may remove brewer's yeast, in liquid or solid form containing not... including the words “Brewer's Yeast.” (c) Pipeline. If brewer's yeast is removed by pipeline, the...

  17. High removal rate laser-based coating removal system

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, D.L.; Celliers, P.M.; Hackel, L.; Da Silva, L.B.; Dane, C.B.; Mrowka, S.

    1999-11-16

    A compact laser system is disclosed that removes surface coatings (such as paint, dirt, etc.) at a removal rate as high as 1,000 ft{sup 2}/hr or more without damaging the surface. A high repetition rate laser with multiple amplification passes propagating through at least one optical amplifier is used, along with a delivery system consisting of a telescoping and articulating tube which also contains an evacuation system for simultaneously sweeping up the debris produced in the process. The amplified beam can be converted to an output beam by passively switching the polarization of at least one amplified beam. The system also has a personal safety system which protects against accidental exposures.

  18. Industrial lead paint removal specifications

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, R.C.

    1997-06-01

    The purpose of this paper is to inform the reader as to some of the pertinent rules and regulations promulgated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) that may effect an industrial lead paint removal project. The paper discusses a recommended schedule of procedures and preparations to be followed by the lead paint removal specification writer when analyzing the possible impact of the project on the environment, the public and workers. Implications of the Clean Air Act, the Clean Water Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) along with hazardous waste handling, manifesting, transporting and disposal procedures are discussed with special emphasis placed as to their impact on the writer and the facility owner. As the rules and regulations are highly complex, the writer has attempted to explain the methodology currently being used in state-of-the-art industrial lead abatement specifications.

  19. [Indications for removable partial dentures].

    PubMed

    van Waas, M A J

    2009-11-01

    Since there are many ways of preserving a natural dentition, if necessary with support of solitary crowns and fixed partial dentures, sometimes on dental implants, removable partial dentures are nowadays primarily indicated in patients with complaints about missing teeth in the aesthetic zone, which cannot be solved in another way. In addition to this, a removable partial denture is indicated in patients with extremely reduced dentitions or large or multiple edentulous areas, in patients with severe periodontitis or excessive loss of alveolar bone, in patients who are physically or emotionally vulnerable, as an interim solution on the way to edentulousness, as a temporary solution waiting for more extensive treatment and for patients who cannot afford an alternative.

  20. Microalgae removal with Moringa oleifera.

    PubMed

    Barrado-Moreno, M M; Beltran-Heredia, J; Martín-Gallardo, J

    2016-02-01

    Moringa oleifera seed extract was tested for algae (Chlorella, Microcystis, Oocystis and Scenedesmus) removal by Jar-test technique. This coagulant can be used in drinking water treatment. Jar-test has been carried out in order to evaluate the efficiency of this natural coagulant agent inside real surface water matrix. The influence of variables has been studied in this process, including operating parameters such as coagulant dosage, initial algae concentration, pH, agitation time and water matrix. Removal capacity is verified for water with high contamination of algae while the process is not affected by the pH and water matrix. Coagulation process may be modelling through Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption hypothesis, so acceptable r2 coefficients are obtained.

  1. Explosives Removal from Munitions Wastewaters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    SERVICE springiel.d, VA. 22151 ’ PRESENTED AT THE 30TH ANNUAL PURDUE INDUSTRIAL WASTE C0NFERENCh MAY 6-7-8, 1975 -I/ * * V ’ Removal of Explosives From...explosive Laterials, such as DNT and nitrocresols, from waste streams. The loaded adsorbent can be regenerated with solvent. To minimize operating costs...Rohm and Haas Company, Philadelphia, Pa., 19105 2 Background Generally, pollation in munitions plant waste water stems from washing and steam cleaning

  2. Contaminant Removal From Natural Resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clausen, Christian A. (Inventor); Quinn, Jacqueline W. (Inventor); Geiger, Cheri L. (Inventor); Reinhart, Debra (Inventor); Fillpek, Laura B. (Inventor); Coon, Christina (Inventor); Devor, Robert (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A zero-valent metal emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles is used to remediate contaminated natural resources, such as groundwater and soil. In a preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion removes heavy metals, such as lead (pb), from contaminated natural resources. In another preferred embodiment, the zero-valent metal emulsion is a bimetallic emulsion containing zero-valent metal particles doped with a catalytic metal to remediate halogenated aromatic compounds, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), from natural resources.

  3. PROCESS FOR REMOVING ALUMINUM COATINGS

    DOEpatents

    Flox, J.

    1959-07-01

    A process is presented for removing aluminum jackets or cans from uranium slugs. This is accomplished by immersing the aluminum coated uranium slugs in an aqueous solution of 9 to 20% sodium hydroxide and 35 to 12% sodium nitrate to selectively dissolve the aluminum coating, the amount of solution being such as to obtain a molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to aluminum of at least

  4. Zeolites Remove Sulfur From Fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voecks, Gerald E.; Sharma, Pramod K.

    1991-01-01

    Zeolites remove substantial amounts of sulfur compounds from diesel fuel under relatively mild conditions - atmospheric pressure below 300 degrees C. Extracts up to 60 percent of sulfur content of high-sulfur fuel. Applicable to petroleum refineries, natural-gas processors, electric powerplants, and chemical-processing plants. Method simpler and uses considerably lower pressure than current industrial method, hydro-desulfurization. Yields cleaner emissions from combustion of petroleum fuels, and protects catalysts from poisoning by sulfur.

  5. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-06

    Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. 30 Abductions by N. Korea not...3007. 33 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions, International Herald Tribune, September 4, 2007, p. 5...spring of 2007 to smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri

  6. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-07-10

    and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet version), March 13, 2007. Korea’s nuclear programs and...the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 30 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions...including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan navy intercepted and

  7. WRS2 UPA DA Removal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-23

    ISS021-E-032275 (23 Nov. 2009) --- NASA astronaut Leland Melvin, STS-129 mission specialist, holds the failed Urine Processor Assembly / Distillation Assembly (UPA DA) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis remains docked with the station. Melvin and European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne (out of frame), Expedition 21 commander, removed and packed the UPA DA, then transferred it from the Water Recovery System 2 (WRS-2) rack to Atlantis for stowage on the middeck.

  8. METHOD OF REMOVING STRONTIUM IONS

    DOEpatents

    Rhodes, D.W.; McHenry, J.R.; Ames, L.L. Jr.

    1962-05-01

    A method is given for removing trace amounts of Sr/sup 90/ from solutions. Phosphate ion is added to the solution and it is then brought into contact with a solid salt such as calcium carbonate which will react methathetically with the phosphate ion to form a salt such as calcium phosphate. During this reaction, strontium will be absorbed to a high degree within the newly formed lattice. (AEC)

  9. Thorium removal by different adsorbents.

    PubMed

    Metaxas, Michail; Kasselouri-Rigopoulou, Vasilia; Galiatsatou, Polymnia; Konstantopoulou, Cathrine; Oikonomou, Dimitrios

    2003-02-28

    The removal of radiotoxic Th(4+) from aqueous solutions has been explored using two different groups of adsorptive materials (e.g. two activated carbons and four zeolites-two natural and two synthetic). The activated carbons were prepared from solvent extracted olive pulp (SEOP) and olive stone (OS) by a two-step physical activation method with steam. They were characterized by N(2) at 77K adsorption, Hg porosimetry and by determination of their iodine number. All carbons prepared are of the H-type (e.g. contain mainly basic surface oxides) confirmed by the results of the Boehm's method. The natural zeolites, clinoptilolite (NaCLI) and mordenite (NaMOR), were pretreated with Na(+) before the adsorption experiments, while the synthetic ones, NaX and NaA, were provided in their commercial sodium form. The natural zeolites, NaCLI and NaMOR, utilized 11.5 and 38.6% of the theoretical ion-exchange capacity, based on Al content, respectively, while NaX and NaA utilized 41.5 and 45.9%, respectively. The activated carbons showed better removal capability than NaCLI. NaMOR, showed comparable results to the carbon originated from OS, but lower removal capability than the carbon originated from SEOP. The synthetic zeolites showed the highest removal ability for thorium ions due to their increased ion-exchange capacity because of their cleaner and larger framework channels and their higher number of ion-exchange sites. The carbons adsorption capacity mainly depends on the content and nature of functional surface groups. The adsorption data were fitted to Langmuir and Freundlich models. The former achieved best fits and was further applied to obtain the respective Langmuir constant and maximum adsorption capacity for each system.

  10. Virus Removal by Biogenic Cerium

    SciTech Connect

    De Gusseme, B.; Du Laing, G; Hennebel, T; Renard, P; Chidambaram, D; Fitts, J; Bruneel, E; Van Driessche, I; Verbeken, K; et. al.

    2010-01-01

    The rare earth element cerium has been known to exert antifungal and antibacterial properties in the oxidation states +III and +IV. This study reports on an innovative strategy for virus removal in drinking water by the combination of Ce(III) on a bacterial carrier matrix. The biogenic cerium (bio-Ce) was produced by addition of aqueous Ce(III) to actively growing cultures of either freshwater manganese-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) Leptothrix discophora or Pseudomonas putida MnB29. X-ray absorption spectroscopy results indicated that Ce remained in its trivalent state on the bacterial surface. The spectra were consistent with Ce(III) ions associated with the phosphoryl groups of the bacterial cell wall. In disinfection assays using a bacteriophage as model, it was demonstrated that bio-Ce exhibited antiviral properties. A 4.4 log decrease of the phage was observed after 2 h of contact with 50 mg L{sup -1} bio-Ce. Given the fact that virus removal with 50 mg L{sup -1} Ce(III) as CeNO{sub 3} was lower, the presence of the bacterial carrier matrix in bio-Ce significantly enhanced virus removal.

  11. Dye removal by immobilised fungi.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Couto, Susana

    2009-01-01

    Dyes are widely used within the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, printing, textile and leather industries. This has resulted in the discharge of highly coloured effluents that affect water transparency and gas solubility in water bodies. Furthermore, they pose a problem because of their carcinogenicity and toxicity. Therefore, removal of such dyes before discharging them into natural water streams is essential. For this, appropriate treatment technologies are required. The treatment of recalcitrant and toxic dyes with traditional technologies is not always effective or may not be environmentally friendly. This has impelled the search for alternative technologies such as biodegradation with fungi. In particular, ligninolytic fungi and their non-specific oxidative enzymes have been reported to be responsible for the decolouration of different synthetic dyes. Thus, the use of such fungi is becoming a promising alternative to replace or complement the current technologies for dye removal. Processes using immobilised growing cells seem to be more promising than those with free cells, since the immobilisation allows using the microbial cells repeatedly and continuously. This paper reviews the application of fungal immobilisation to dye removal.

  12. Water Distribution and Removal Model

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Deng; N. Chipman; E.L. Hardin

    2005-08-26

    The design of the Yucca Mountain high level radioactive waste repository depends on the performance of the engineered barrier system (EBS). To support the total system performance assessment (TSPA), the Engineered Barrier System Degradation, Flow, and Transport Process Model Report (EBS PMR) is developed to describe the thermal, mechanical, chemical, hydrological, biological, and radionuclide transport processes within the emplacement drifts, which includes the following major analysis/model reports (AMRs): (1) EBS Water Distribution and Removal (WD&R) Model; (2) EBS Physical and Chemical Environment (P&CE) Model; (3) EBS Radionuclide Transport (EBS RNT) Model; and (4) EBS Multiscale Thermohydrologic (TH) Model. Technical information, including data, analyses, models, software, and supporting documents will be provided to defend the applicability of these models for their intended purpose of evaluating the postclosure performance of the Yucca Mountain repository system. The WD&R model ARM is important to the site recommendation. Water distribution and removal represents one component of the overall EBS. Under some conditions, liquid water will seep into emplacement drifts through fractures in the host rock and move generally downward, potentially contacting waste packages. After waste packages are breached by corrosion, some of this seepage water will contact the waste, dissolve or suspend radionuclides, and ultimately carry radionuclides through the EBS to the near-field host rock. Lateral diversion of liquid water within the drift will occur at the inner drift surface, and more significantly from the operation of engineered structures such as drip shields and the outer surface of waste packages. If most of the seepage flux can be diverted laterally and removed from the drifts before contacting the wastes, the release of radionuclides from the EBS can be controlled, resulting in a proportional reduction in dose release at the accessible environment. The purposes

  13. Bioretention Design to Improve Nitrogen Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioretention has been shown to effectively remove a variety of stormwater stressors, including oil/grease, heavy metals, phosphorus, and ammonium. However, reported nitrate and total nitrogen removal performance is highly variable. The media typically used in bioretention install...

  14. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Women)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Removing Pubic Hair Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 March 2017. +Related Content Key Facts Removing pubic hair is a personal preference. There are no health ...

  15. Designing Bioretention Systems to Improve Nitrogen Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioretention systems effectively remove many stormwater stressors, including oil/grease, heavy metals, phosphorus, and ammonium. However, reported nitrate removal performance is highly variable. Bioretention media is typically coarse-grained with low organic matter content, which...

  16. THE REMOVAL OF GLYPHOSATE FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effectiveness of granulated activated carbon (GAC), packed activated carbon (PAC), conventional treatment, membranes, and oxidation for removing glyphosate from natural waters is evaluated. Results indicate that GAC and PAC are not effective in removing glyphosate, while oxid...

  17. How to Remove a Stuck Ring Safely

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ... Gardening Safety Turkey Carving Removing a Ring Español Artritis de la base del pulgar Dedo en gatillo ...

  18. 50 CFR 600.230 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Council Membership § 600.230 Removal. The Secretary...)(6) of the Magnuson-Stevens Act, wherein the Council concerned first recommends removal of that...

  19. Designing Bioretention Systems to Improve Nitrogen Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioretention systems effectively remove many stormwater stressors, including oil/grease, heavy metals, phosphorus, and ammonium. However, reported nitrate removal performance is highly variable. Bioretention media is typically coarse-grained with low organic matter content, which...

  20. Self Insuring against Asbestos Removal Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slutzky, Lorence H.

    1987-01-01

    Asbestos removal is costly and many contractors have difficulty in obtaining insurance coverage. Presents a case for self insuring if contractors perform the removal work in compliance with state and federal regulations. Includes a reference list. (MD)

  1. Bioretention Design to Improve Nitrogen Removal

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bioretention has been shown to effectively remove a variety of stormwater stressors, including oil/grease, heavy metals, phosphorus, and ammonium. However, reported nitrate and total nitrogen removal performance is highly variable. The media typically used in bioretention install...

  2. Self Insuring against Asbestos Removal Risks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slutzky, Lorence H.

    1987-01-01

    Asbestos removal is costly and many contractors have difficulty in obtaining insurance coverage. Presents a case for self insuring if contractors perform the removal work in compliance with state and federal regulations. Includes a reference list. (MD)

  3. Fogarty catheter removal of nasal foreign bodies.

    PubMed

    Fox, J R

    1980-01-01

    The removal, without incident, of 14 nasal foreign bodies is described. None of the bodies was amenable to anterior instrumental extraction, and all were removed using a small-diameter Fogarty catheter.

  4. North Korea: Terrorism List Removal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-06

    ct/rls/crt/2006/82736.htm] at p. 147. 28 Yi Sang-il and Chin Se-ku. Yongbyon nuclear facility can be disabled within a year. JongAng Ilbo (internet...Interview of the President by Foreign Print Media, August 30, 3007. 32 Choe Sang- hun and David E. Sanger, North Korea claims U.S. will remove sanctions...smuggle conventional arms, including machine guns , automatic rifles, and anti-tank rocket launchers, to the Tamil Tigers in Sri Lanka. The Sri Lankan

  5. Laser-based coatings removal

    SciTech Connect

    Freiwald, J.G.; Freiwald, D.

    1995-12-01

    Over the years as building and equipment surfaces became contaminated with low levels of uranium or plutonium dust, coats of paint were applied to stabilize the contaminants in place. Most of the earlier paint used was lead-based paint. More recently, various non-lead-based paints, such as two-part epoxy, are used. For D & D (decontamination and decommissioning), it is desirable to remove the paints or other coatings rather than having to tear down and dispose of the entire building.

  6. Spikes removal in surface measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podulka, P.; Pawlus, P.; Dobrzański, P.; Lenart, A.

    2014-03-01

    Several cylinder surface topographies made from grey cast iron were measured by Talysurf CCI white light interferometer with and without use of spikes filter. They were plateau honed by abrasive stones. Measured area was 3.3 mm × 3.3 mm, height resolution was 0.01 nm. The forms were eliminated using polynomial of the 3rd degree. After it, spikes were removed using four methods. These approaches were compared. Parameters of the smaller and highest sensitivity on spikes presence were selected.

  7. WRS2 UPA DA Removal

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2009-11-23

    ISS021-E-032273 (23 Nov. 2009) --- European Space Agency astronaut Frank De Winne, Expedition 21 commander, holds the failed Urine Processor Assembly / Distillation Assembly (UPA DA) in the Destiny laboratory of the International Space Station while space shuttle Atlantis remains docked with the station. De Winne and NASA astronaut Leland Melvin (out of frame), STS-129 mission specialist, removed and packed the UPA DA, then transferred it from the Water Recovery System 2 (WRS-2) rack to Atlantis for stowage on the middeck.

  8. Complexed iron removal from groundwater

    SciTech Connect

    Munter, R.; Ojaste, H.; Sutt, J.

    2005-07-01

    The paper demonstrates an intensive work carried out and results obtained on the pilot plant of the City of Kogalym Water Treatment Station (Tjumen, Siberia, Russian Federation) to elaborate on a contemporary nonreagent treatment technology for the local iron-rich groundwater. Several filter materials (Birm, Pyrolox, hydroanthracite, Everzit, granulated activated carbon) and chemical oxidants (ozone, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide, oxygen, and potassium permanganate) were tested to solve the problem with complexed iron removal from groundwater. The final elaborated technology consists of raw water intensive aeration in the gas-degas treatment unit followed by sequential filtration through hydroanthracite and the special anthracite Everzit.

  9. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  10. Hardware Removal after Osseous Free Flap Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Day, Kristine E.; Desmond, Renee; Magnuson, J. Scott; Carroll, William R.; Rosenthal, Eben L.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Identifying risk factors for hardware removal in patients undergoing mandibular reconstruction with vascularized osseous free flaps remains a challenge. The purpose of this study is to identify potential risk factors, including osteocutaneous radial forearm versus fibular flap, for need for removal and to describe the fate of implanted hardware. Study Design Case series with chart review. Setting Academic tertiary care medical center. Subjects and Methods Two hundred thirteen patients undergoing 227 vascularized osseous mandibular reconstructions between the years 2004 and 2012. Data were compiled through a manual chart review, and patients incurring hardware removals were identified. Results Thirty-four of 213 evaluable vascularized osseous free flaps (16%) underwent surgical removal of hardware. The average length of time to removal was 16.2 months (median 10 months), with the majority of removals occurring within the first year. Osteocutaneous radial forearm free flaps (OCRFFF) incurred a slightly higher percentage of hardware removals (9.9%) compared to fibula flaps (6.1%). Partial removal was performed in 8 of 34 cases, and approximately 38% of these required additional surgery for removal. Conclusion Hardware removal was associated with continued tobacco use after mandibular reconstruction (P = .03). Removal of the supporting hardware most commonly occurs from infection or exposure in the first year. In the majority of cases the bone is well healed and the problem resolves with removal. PMID:24201061

  11. Hardware removal after osseous free flap reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Day, Kristine E; Desmond, Renee; Magnuson, J Scott; Carroll, William R; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2014-01-01

    Identifying risk factors for hardware removal in patients undergoing mandibular reconstruction with vascularized osseous free flaps remains a challenge. The purpose of this study is to identify potential risk factors, including osteocutaneous radial forearm versus fibular flap, for need for removal and to describe the fate of implanted hardware. Case series with chart review Setting Academic tertiary care medical center. Two hundred thirteen patients undergoing 227 vascularized osseous mandibular reconstructions between the years 2004 and 2012. Data were compiled through a manual chart review, and patients incurring hardware removals were identified. Thirty-four of 213 evaluable vascularized osseous free flaps (16%) underwent surgical removal of hardware. The average length of time to removal was 16.2 months (median 10 months), with the majority of removals occurring within the first year. Osteocutaneous radial forearm free flaps (OCRFFF) incurred a slightly higher percentage of hardware removals (9.9%) compared to fibula flaps (6.1%). Partial removal was performed in 8 of 34 cases, and approximately 38% of these required additional surgery for removal. Hardware removal was associated with continued tobacco use after mandibular reconstruction (P = .03). Removal of the supporting hardware most commonly occurs from infection or exposure in the first year. In the majority of cases the bone is well healed and the problem resolves with removal.

  12. System for Removing Pollutants from Incinerator Exhaust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wickham, David t.; Bahr, James; Dubovik, Rita; Gebhard, Steven C.; Lind, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    A system for removing pollutants -- primarily sulfur dioxide and mixed oxides of nitrogen (NOx) -- from incinerator exhaust has been demonstrated. The system is also designed secondarily to remove particles, hydrocarbons, and CO. The system is intended for use in an enclosed environment, for which a prior NOx-and-SO2-removal system designed for industrial settings would not be suitable.

  13. 8 CFR 250.2 - Removal authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal authorization. 250.2 Section 250.2 Aliens and Nationality DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS REMOVAL OF ALIENS WHO HAVE FALLEN INTO DISTRESS § 250.2 Removal authorization. If the district director grants the application...

  14. 10 CFR 850.35 - Medical removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.35 Medical removal. (a) Medical removal protection. The responsible employer must offer a beryllium-associated worker medical removal from exposure to beryllium if the SOMD determines in a written medical opinion that it is...

  15. 10 CFR 850.35 - Medical removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.35 Medical removal. (a) Medical removal protection. The responsible employer must offer a beryllium-associated worker medical removal from exposure to beryllium if the SOMD determines in a written medical opinion that it is...

  16. 10 CFR 850.35 - Medical removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.35 Medical removal. (a) Medical removal protection. The responsible employer must offer a beryllium-associated worker medical removal from exposure to beryllium if the SOMD determines in a written medical opinion that it is...

  17. 33 CFR 159.87 - Removal fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Removal fittings. 159.87 Section...) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.87 Removal fittings. If sewage removal fittings or adapters are provided with the device, they must be of either 11/2″ or 4″ nominal...

  18. 7 CFR 3201.106 - Paint removers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Paint removers. 3201.106 Section 3201.106 Agriculture... Items § 3201.106 Paint removers. (a) Definition. Products formulated to loosen and remove paint from painted surfaces. (b) Minimum biobased content. The Federal preferred procurement product must have...

  19. Non-Time-Critical Removal Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Removal responses are used to address contamination that poses an immediate threat to human health and the environment. The documents below are a partial list of EPA's guidance for removals, with a focus on Non-Time-Critical Removal Actions (NTCRA).

  20. Benefits and impacts of road removal

    Treesearch

    T. A. Switalski; J. A. Bissonette; T. H. Deluca; C. H. Luce; M. A. Madej

    2004-01-01

    Road removal is being used to mitigate the physical and ecological impacts of roads and to restore both public and private lands. Although many federal and state agencies and private landowners have created protocols for road removal and priorities for restoration, research has not kept pace with the rate of removal. Some research has been conducted on hydrologic and...

  1. Apparatus Removes Organic Contaminants From Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akse, James R.; Thompson, John

    1994-01-01

    Catalytic-oxidation apparatus removes low-molecular-weight, polar, nonionizable organic contaminants from wastewater. Wastewater stream, previously treated by multifiltration process, pumped through apparatus for removal of trace organic contaminants. After injection of oxygen, flow preheated and enters catalytic reactor, where organic contaminants broken down into carbon dioxide and water. Carbon dioxide and unused oxygen removed in degasser.

  2. Street tree pruning and removal needs

    Treesearch

    David J. Nowak

    1990-01-01

    Street tree pruning and removal needs were examined for 11 species from inventory data collected in 11 cities in the North Central and Northeastern United States. The needs ranged from predominantly no pruning and routine pruning of small trees to safety pruning and removal of large trees. Species were ranked in terms of overall pruning and removal urgency, with London...

  3. 14 CFR 25.31 - Removable ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Removable ballast. 25.31 Section 25.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.31 Removable ballast. Removable ballast may...

  4. 14 CFR 25.31 - Removable ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Removable ballast. 25.31 Section 25.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.31 Removable ballast. Removable ballast may...

  5. 14 CFR 25.31 - Removable ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Removable ballast. 25.31 Section 25.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.31 Removable ballast. Removable ballast may...

  6. 14 CFR 25.31 - Removable ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removable ballast. 25.31 Section 25.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.31 Removable ballast. Removable ballast may...

  7. 14 CFR 25.31 - Removable ballast.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removable ballast. 25.31 Section 25.31 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Flight General § 25.31 Removable ballast. Removable ballast may...

  8. 10 CFR 850.35 - Medical removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Medical removal. 850.35 Section 850.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.35 Medical removal. (a) Medical removal protection. The responsible employer must offer a beryllium-associated worker...

  9. 10 CFR 850.35 - Medical removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Medical removal. 850.35 Section 850.35 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.35 Medical removal. (a) Medical removal protection. The responsible employer must offer a beryllium-associated worker...

  10. Ultrasonic Abrasive Removal Of EDM Recast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mandel, Johnny L.; Jacobson, Marlowe S.

    1990-01-01

    Ultrasonic abrasive process removes layer of recast material generated during electrical-discharge machining (EDM) of damper pocket on turbine blade. Form-fitted tool vibrated ultrasonically in damper pocket from which material removed. Vibrations activate abrasive in pocket. Amount of material removed controlled precisely.

  11. 5 CFR 359.403 - Removal: Conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Removal: Conduct. 359.403 Section 359.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Removal of Career Appointees...

  12. 5 CFR 359.403 - Removal: Conduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Removal: Conduct. 359.403 Section 359.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REMOVAL FROM THE SENIOR EXECUTIVE SERVICE; GUARANTEED PLACEMENT IN OTHER PERSONNEL SYSTEMS Removal of Career Appointees...

  13. Method of making thermally removable epoxies

    DOEpatents

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; Russick, Edward M.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable epoxy by mixing a bis(maleimide) compound to a monomeric furan compound containing an oxirane group to form a di-epoxy mixture and then adding a curing agent at temperatures from approximately room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a thermally-removable epoxy. The thermally-removable epoxy can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The epoxy material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  14. Space Station trash removal system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew J. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A trash removal system for space stations is described. The system is comprised of a disposable trash bag member and an attached, compacted large, lightweight inflatable balloon element. When the trash bag member is filled, the astronaut places the bag member into space through an airlock. Once in the vacuum of space, the balloon element inflates. Due to the large cross-sectional area of the balloon element relative to its mass, the combined balloon element and the trash bag member are slowed by atmospheric drag to a much greater extent than the Space Station's. The balloon element and bag member lose altitude and re-enter the atmosphere, and the elements and contents are destroyed by aerodynamic heating. The novelty of this system is in the unique method of using the vacuum of space and aerodynamic heating to dispose of waste material with a minimum of increase in orbital debris.

  15. Removing EDB with GAC filters

    SciTech Connect

    Narbaitz, R.M.; Baratta, A.; Parsons, F.Z. )

    1994-08-01

    Nearly 1,000 point-of-entry granular activated carbon (GAC) filters are efficiently removing ethylene dibromide (EDB) from contaminated groundwater throughout Florida. This article discusses the design, performance, and operational problems of the filters and assesses the possibility of extending the interval between GAC replacement from the current six months. Few breakthroughs have occurred in these filters, and most were caused by desorption during periods of sharp decreases in well-water EDB concentrations. Because GAC loading data from the literature described the program data very well, they were used in conjunction with the equilibrium column model to predict the performance of the program's filters for different GAC replacement periods. Based on the most conservative estimates, maintenance for 50% of the filters could be extended to every nine months.

  16. Fuel removal, transport, and storage

    SciTech Connect

    Reno, H.W.

    1986-01-01

    The March 1979 accident at Unit 2 of the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station (TMI-2) which damaged the core of the reactor resulted in numerous scientific and technical challenges. Some of those challenges involve removing the core debris from the reactor, packaging it into canisters, loading canisters into a rail cask, and transporting the debris to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) for storage, examination, and preparation for final disposal. This paper highlights how some challenges were resolved, including lessons learned and benefits derived therefrom. Key to some success at TMI was designing, testing, fabricating, and licensing two rail casks, which each provide double containment of the damaged fuel. 10 refs., 12 figs.

  17. Chemomechanical caries removal for children.

    PubMed

    Balciuniene, Irena; Sabalaite, Rūta; Juskiene, Inga

    2005-01-01

    Pain is still an actual problem in dentistry, and a usage of anaesthetics can be still limited, so new ways of caries treatment are still being searched in order to ease this process both to a patient and a doctor. Efficiency of chemomechanical tooth treatment to children was studied. 30 children within two age groups of 3-6 and 7-13 years took part in this research, and their teeth with caries were treated in two different ways--chemomechanical and traditional. Teeth with the same class of cavities were treated. There are presented records about the need of anaesthetics' usage, cleaning duration and patients' complaints in this study. Results show that chemomechanical treatment could be as effective as traditional one, causes less pain and lowers the need for anaesthetics. There was noticed less removal of solid tissue cleaning carious cavity.

  18. Forced removals embodied as tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Eugene T; Morrow, Carl D; Ho, Theodore; Fürst, Nicole; Cohelia, Rebekkah; Tram, Khai Hoan; Farmer, Paul E; Wood, Robin

    2016-07-01

    South Africa has one of the worst tuberculosis burdens in the world. Several ecological forces have contributed to this, including high HIV prevalence; failing TB control strategies; crowded, poorly ventilated indoor environments-including the complex web of political and economic interests which produce them; the development of racial capitalism; and mining and migration. In the following study, we measure CO2 levels in public transport to investigate the role extended commutes from peri-urban settlements to urban sites of work-a direct result of forced removals-potentially play in propagating the TB epidemic in Cape Town, South Africa. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Removal of uranium by biosorption

    SciTech Connect

    Faison, B.D.; Bonner, J.D.; Munroe, N.D.; Bloomingburg, G.F.

    1993-06-01

    The technology developed here will exploit the ability of microorganisms to remove dissolved metals from aqueous solutions. Microbial sorbents for uranium will be immobilized biosorbents will be deployed ex situ within flow-through reactors for the continuous or semicontinuous treatment of recovered wastewaters. The proposed technology will primarily be applied within a pump-and-treat process using immobilized biosorbents for the large-scale, long-term remediation of uranium-laden surface water or groundwater impoundments (environmental restoration). The technology may be equally useful as an ``end-of-pipe`` treatment of process effluents (waste management). Successful operation of this process will achieve immobilization of the targeted waste and accompanying volume reduction.

  20. ICPS Removal from Shipping Container

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-03-09

    Inside the United Launch Alliance (ULA) Horizontal Integration Facility at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida, a crane lifts the shipping container cover away from the Interim Cryogenic Propulsion Stage (ICPS) for NASA's Space Launch System rocket, followed by the ICPS bring removed and placed on a work stand for processing. The ICPS is the first integrated piece of flight hardware to arrive for the SLS. The ICPS arrived from the ULA facility in Decatur, Alabama. The ICPS is the in-space stage that is located toward the top of the rocket, between the Launch Vehicle Stage Adapter and the Orion Spacecraft Adapter. It will provide some of the in-space propulsion during Orion's first flight test atop the SLS on Exploration Mission 1.

  1. THERMALLY SHIELDED MOISTURE REMOVAL DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Miller, O.E.

    1958-08-26

    An apparatus is presented for removing moisture from the air within tanks by condensation upon a cartridge containing liquid air. An insulating shell made in two halves covers the cartridge within the evacuated system. The shell halves are hinged together and are operated by a system of levers from outside the tank with the motion translated through a sylphon bellows to cover and uncover the cartridge. When the condensation of moisture is in process, the insulative shell is moved away from the liquid air cartridge, and during that part of the process when there is no freezing out of moisture, the shell halves are closed on the cell so thnt the accumulated frost is not evaporated. This insulating shell greatly reduces the consumption of liquid air in this condensation process.

  2. Melter Glass Removal and Dismantlement

    SciTech Connect

    Richardson, BS

    2000-10-31

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has been using vitrification processes to convert high-level radioactive waste forms into a stable glass for disposal in waste repositories. Vitrification facilities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) and at the West Valley Demonstration Project (WVDP) are converting liquid high-level waste (HLW) by combining it with a glass-forming media to form a borosilicate glass, which will ensure safe long-term storage. Large, slurry fed melters, which are used for this process, were anticipated to have a finite life (on the order of two to three years) at which time they would have to be replaced using remote methods because of the high radiation fields. In actuality the melters useable life spans have, to date, exceeded original life-span estimates. Initial plans called for the removal of failed melters by placing the melter assembly into a container and storing the assembly in a concrete vault on the vitrification plant site pending size-reduction, segregation, containerization, and shipment to appropriate storage facilities. Separate facilities for the processing of the failed melters currently do not exist. Options for handling these melters include (1) locating a facility to conduct the size-reduction, characterization, and containerization as originally planned; (2) long-term storing or disposing of the complete melter assembly; and (3) attempting to refurbish the melter and to reuse the melter assembly. The focus of this report is to look at methods and issues pertinent to size-reduction and/or melter refurbishment in particular, removing the glass as a part of a refurbishment or to reduce contamination levels (thus allowing for disposal of a greater proportion of the melter as low level waste).

  3. Nitrogen removal from natural gas

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    According to a 1991 Energy Information Administration estimate, U.S. reserves of natural gas are about 165 trillion cubic feet (TCF). To meet the long-term demand for natural gas, new gas fields from these reserves will have to be developed. Gas Research Institute studies reveal that 14% (or about 19 TCF) of known reserves in the United States are subquality due to high nitrogen content. Nitrogen-contaminated natural gas has a low Btu value and must be upgraded by removing the nitrogen. In response to the problem, the Department of Energy is seeking innovative, efficient nitrogen-removal methods. Membrane processes have been considered for natural gas denitrogenation. The challenge, not yet overcome, is to develop membranes with the required nitrogen/methane separation characteristics. Our calculations show that a methane-permeable membrane with a methane/nitrogen selectivity of 4 to 6 would make denitrogenation by a membrane process viable. The objective of Phase I of this project was to show that membranes with this target selectivity can be developed, and that the economics of the process based on these membranes would be competitive. Gas permeation measurements with membranes prepared from two rubbery polymers and a superglassy polymer showed that two of these materials had the target selectivity of 4 to 6 when operated at temperatures below - 20{degrees}C. An economic analysis showed that a process based on these membranes is competitive with other technologies for small streams containing less than 10% nitrogen. Hybrid designs combining membranes with other technologies are suitable for high-flow, higher-nitrogen-content streams.

  4. Hot Spot Removal System: System description

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    Hazardous wastes contaminated with radionuclides, chemicals, and explosives exist across the Department of Energy complex and need to be remediated due to environmental concerns. Currently, an opportunity is being developed to dramatically reduce remediation costs and to assist in the acceleration of schedules associated with these wastes by deploying a Hot Spot Removal System. Removing the hot spot from the waste site will remove risk driver(s) and enable another, more cost effective process/option/remedial alternative (i.e., capping) to be applied to the remainder of the site. The Hot Spot Removal System consists of a suite of technologies that will be utilized to locate and remove source terms. Components of the system can also be used in a variety of other cleanup activities. This Hot Spot Removal System Description document presents technologies that were considered for possible inclusion in the Hot Spot Removal System, technologies made available to the Hot Spot Removal System, industrial interest in the Hot Spot Removal System`s subsystems, the schedule required for the Hot Spot Removal System, the evaluation of the relevant technologies, and the recommendations for equipment and technologies as stated in the Plan section.

  5. Chemomechanical caries removal--a clinical evaluation.

    PubMed

    Zinck, J H; McInnes-Ledoux, P; Capdeboscq, C; Weinberg, R

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to evaluate the efficacy and convenience of decayed dentine removal with N-monochloro-DL-2 aminobutyrate (CARIDEX) in all classes of cavities. Fifty-seven patients, each with two teeth having similarly sized carious cavities, participated in this study. One cavity in each patient was treated with the chemomechanical CARIDEX technique and the other cavity was treated with conventional mechanical drilling. The cavities were restored with either amalgam, composite or glass ionomer restorative materials. The time taken for access and caries removal was noted and the efficacy of caries removal with each technique was evaluated. The chemomechanical caries removal technique was effective in removing 90-100% of decayed dentine in 98% of the cavities treated. Multiple regression adjusted access and caries removal time to account for volume of caries removed. This adjusted time was operator dependent, and ranged from 4 to 10 minutes longer for CARIDEX than for the conventional technique. Ninety-three per cent of patients preferred the chemomechanical method of caries removal over the conventional technique (highly significant P less than 0.001). Even though the chemomechanical removal of caries is slower than the conventional technique, the efficacy of CARIDEX and its high patient acceptance provides a viable alternative method for dentinal caries removal in all classes of cavities.

  6. Hardware Removal in Craniomaxillofacial Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Cahill, Thomas J.; Gandhi, Rikesh; Allori, Alexander C.; Marcus, Jeffrey R.; Powers, David; Erdmann, Detlev; Hollenbeck, Scott T.; Levinson, Howard

    2015-01-01

    Background Craniomaxillofacial (CMF) fractures are typically treated with open reduction and internal fixation. Open reduction and internal fixation can be complicated by hardware exposure or infection. The literature often does not differentiate between these 2 entities; so for this study, we have considered all hardware exposures as hardware infections. Approximately 5% of adults with CMF trauma are thought to develop hardware infections. Management consists of either removing the hardware versus leaving it in situ. The optimal approach has not been investigated. Thus, a systematic review of the literature was undertaken and a resultant evidence-based approach to the treatment and management of CMF hardware infections was devised. Materials and Methods A comprehensive search of journal articles was performed in parallel using MEDLINE, Web of Science, and ScienceDirect electronic databases. Keywords and phrases used were maxillofacial injuries; facial bones; wounds and injuries; fracture fixation, internal; wound infection; and infection. Our search yielded 529 articles. To focus on CMF fractures with hardware infections, the full text of English-language articles was reviewed to identify articles focusing on the evaluation and management of infected hardware in CMF trauma. Each article’s reference list was manually reviewed and citation analysis performed to identify articles missed by the search strategy. There were 259 articles that met the full inclusion criteria and form the basis of this systematic review. The articles were rated based on the level of evidence. There were 81 grade II articles included in the meta-analysis. Result Our meta-analysis revealed that 7503 patients were treated with hardware for CMF fractures in the 81 grade II articles. Hardware infection occurred in 510 (6.8%) of these patients. Of those infections, hardware removal occurred in 264 (51.8%) patients; hardware was left in place in 166 (32.6%) patients; and in 80 (15.6%) cases

  7. Carbon dioxide removal with inorganic membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Judkins, R.R.; Fain, D.E.

    1993-12-31

    The increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere has sparked a great deal of interest in the removal of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of fossil fueled plants. Presently, several techniques for the removal of CO{sub 2} are considered to have potential, but are lacking in practicality. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is potential, but are lacking in practically. For example, amine scrubbing of flue gas streams is effective in removing CO{sub 2}, but costs are high; efficiency suffers; and other acid gases must be removed prior to amine stripping. Membrane systems for CO{sub 2} removal are held in high regard, and inorganic, particularly ceramic, membranes offer the potential for high temperature, thus energy saving, removal.

  8. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    SciTech Connect

    Bengel, P.R.; Smith, M.D.; Estabrook, G.A.

    1985-09-01

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training, the head was safely removed and stored; and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities.

  9. Carisolv- an innovative method of caries removal.

    PubMed

    Kathuria, Vartika; Ankola, Anil V; Hebbal, Mamata; Mocherla, Monica

    2013-12-01

    The use of minimal invasive dentistry and attention to patient comfort is of utmost importance especially for the school children and anxious and uncooperative patients. This demanded the newer patient friendly technique in dentistry amongst which is the Chemo mechanical caries removal (CMCR). CMCR involves the selective caries removal of carious dentine. As only the carious dentine is removed the painful removal of sound dentine is avoided and the anxiety due to the vibration of the handpiece is also reduced thus it appears to be more comfortable to the patient. CMCR although more prolonged procedure, is effective in caries removal. Thus CMCR is an effective alternate method for caries removal; it is more conservative and appears to be more comfortable for the patients.

  10. Phosphorus removal in emergent free surface wetlands.

    PubMed

    Kadlec, Robert H

    2005-01-01

    Constructed and natural wetlands are capable of absorbing new phosphorus loadings, and, in appropriate circumstances, can provide a low-cost alternative to chemical and biological treatment. Phosphorus interacts strongly with wetland soils and biota, which provide both short-term and sustainable long-term storage of this nutrient. Soil sorption may provide initial removal, but this partly reversible storage eventually becomes saturated. Uptake by biota, including bacteria, algae, and duckweed, as well as macrophytes, forms an initial removal mechanism. Cycling through growth, death, and decomposition returns most of the biotic uptake, but an important residual contributes to long-term accretion in newly formed sediments and soils. Despite the apparent complexity of these several removal mechanisms, data analysis shows that relatively simple equations can describe the sustainable processes. Previous global first order removal rates characterize the sustainable removal, but do not incorporate any biotic features. This article reviews the relevant processes and summarizes quantitative data on wetland phosphorus removal.

  11. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1990-11-13

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat unit for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heayv metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  12. Removal of metal ions from aqueous solution

    DOEpatents

    Jackson, Paul J.; Delhaize, Emmanuel; Robinson, Nigel J.; Unkefer, Clifford J.; Furlong, Clement

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing heavy metals from aqueous solution, a composition of matter used in effecting said removal, and apparatus used in effecting said removal. One or more of the polypeptides, poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines, is immobilized on an inert material in particulate form. Upon contact with an aqueous solution containing heavy metals, the polypeptides sequester the metals, removing them from the solution. There is selectivity of poly (.gamma.-glutamylcysteinyl)glycines having a particular number of monomer repeat units for particular metals. The polypeptides are easily regenerated by contact with a small amount of an organic acid, so that they can be used again to remove heavy metals from solution. This also results in the removal of the metals from the column in a concentrated form.

  13. TMI-2 reactor vessel head removal

    SciTech Connect

    Bengel, P.R.; Smith, M.D.; Estabrook, G.A.

    1984-12-01

    This report describes the safe removal and storage of the Three Mile Island Unit 2 reactor vessel head. The head was removed in July 1984 to permit the removal of the plenum and the reactor core, which were damaged during the 1979 accident. From July 1982, plans and preparations were made using a standard head removal procedure modified by the necessary precautions and changes to account for conditions caused by the accident. After data acquisition, equipment and structure modifications, and training the head was safely removed and stored and the internals indexing fixture and a work platform were installed on top of the vessel. Dose rates during and after the operation were lower than expected; lessons were learned from the operation which will be applied to the continuing fuel removal operations activities.

  14. High temperature hydrogen sulfide removal

    SciTech Connect

    Copeland, R.J.; Karpuk, M.E.

    1992-11-01

    The objective is to develop and test a regenerable stannic oxide-based sorbent to remove H{sub 2}S from hot coal gases while producing sulfur as the only product. The detailed technical objectives in support of this are: (1) Develop mechanically strong and chemically inert support materials which will retain their properties through multiple absorption regeneration cycles. (2) Develop mathematical models to predict the performance of large-scale systems from benchscale results. (3) Test the durability of the best sorbent/support combinations. (4) Conduct a bench-scale proof of concept test with the best stannic-oxide sorbent. Several approaches are being used to develop long-life sorbents. The investigators have tested sorbents produced by agglomeration, pressing, and extrusion. To date over 50 formulations have been tested, with several showing promise. Table II presents the results on five of these formulations; all of these formulations had surface areas in excess of 2 m{sup 2}/gm. All of the formulations meet the goals for porosity, tin content, and surface area. The crush strength for a 1/8inches dia. by 1/8inches long sorbent is significantly affected by the method of preparing the sorbent.

  15. Human PIEZO1: Removing Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Bae, Chilman; Gottlieb, Philip A.; Sachs, Frederick

    2013-01-01

    PIEZO1 is an inactivating eukaryotic cation-selective mechanosensitive ion channel. Two sites have been located in the channel that when individually mutated lead to xerocytotic anemia by slowing inactivation. By introducing mutations at two sites, one associated with xerocytosis and the other artificial, we were able to remove inactivation. The double mutant (DhPIEZO1) has a substitution of arginine for methionine (M2225R) and lysine for arginine (R2456K). The loss of inactivation was accompanied by ∼30-mmHg shift of the activation curve to lower pressures and slower rates of deactivation. The slope sensitivity of gating was the same for wild-type and mutants, indicating that the dimensional changes between the closed and open state are unaffected by the mutations. The unitary channel conductance was unchanged by mutations, so these sites are not associated with pore. DhPIEZO1 was reversibly inhibited by the peptide GsMTx4 that acted as a gating modifier. The channel kinetics were solved using complex stimulus waveforms and the data fit to a three-state loop in detailed balance. The reaction had two pressure-dependent rates, closed to open and inactivated to closed. Pressure sensitivity of the opening rate with no sensitivity of the closing rate means that the energy barrier between them is located near the open state. Mutant cycle analysis of inactivation showed that the two sites interacted strongly, even though they are postulated to be on opposite sides of the membrane. PMID:23972840

  16. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W [Harrisonville, MO; Hand, Thomas E [Lee's Summit, MO; DeLaurentiis, Gary M [Jamestown, CA

    2008-12-09

    A resin recycling method that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The method includes receiving the resin in container form. The containers are then ground into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. After separating the particles and the resin, a solvent removing agent is used to remove any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  17. PRTR ion exchange vault water removal

    SciTech Connect

    Ham, J.E.

    1995-11-01

    This report documents the removal of radiologically contaminated water from the Plutonium Recycle Test Reactor (PRTR) ion exchange vault. Approximately 57,000 liters (15,000 gallons) of water had accumulated in the vault due to the absence of a rain cover. The water was removed and the vault inspected for signs of leakage. No evidence of leakage was found. The removal and disposal of the radiologically contaminated water decreased the risk of environmental contamination.

  18. Process for particulate removal from coal liquids

    DOEpatents

    Rappe, Gerald C.

    1983-01-01

    Suspended solid particulates are removed from liquefied coal products by first subjecting such products to hydroclone action for removal in the underflow of the larger size particulates, and then subjecting the overflow from said hydroclone action, comprising the residual finer particulates, to an electrostatic field in an electrofilter wherein such finer particulates are deposited in the bed of beads of dielectric material on said filter. The beads are periodically cleaned by backwashing to remove the accumulated solids.

  19. DBPs removal in GAC filter-adsorber.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkeun; Kang, Byeongsoo

    2008-01-01

    A rapid sand filter and granular activated carbon filter-adsorber (GAC FA) were compared in terms of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and disinfection by-products (DBPs) removal. A water treatment plant (WTP) that had a high ammonia concentration and DOC in raw water, which, in turn, led to a high concentration of DBPs because of a high dose of pre-chlorination, was investigated. To remove DBPs and DOC simultaneously, a conventional rapid sand filter had been retrofitted to a GAC FA at the Buyeo WTP in Korea. The overall removal efficiency of DBPs and DOC was higher in the GAC FA than in the sand filter, as expected. Breakthrough of trihalomethanes (THMs) was noticed after 3 months of GAC FA operation, and then removal of THMs was minimal (<10%). On the other hand, the removal efficiency of five haloacetic acids (HAA(5)) in the GAC FA was better than that of THMs, though adsorption of HAA(5) decreased rapidly after 3.5 months of GAC FA operation. And then, gradual improvement (>90%) in HAA(5) removal efficiency was again observed, which could be attributed to biodegradation. At the early stage of GAC FA operation, HAA(5) removal was largely due to physical adsorption, but later on biodegradation appeared to prevail. Biodegradation of HAA(5) was significantly influenced by water temperature. Similar turbidity removal was noticed in both filters, while better manganese removal was confirmed in the sand filter rather than in the GAC FA.

  20. Method of making thermally removable polymeric encapsulants

    DOEpatents

    Small, James H.; Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.

    2001-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable encapsulant by heating a mixture of at least one bis(maleimide) compound and at least one monomeric tris(furan) or tetrakis(furan) compound at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a gel and cooling the gel to form the thermally-removable encapsulant. The encapsulant can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C., preferably in a polar solvent. The encapsulant can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the encapsulant for component repair, modification or quality control.

  1. System for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2010-11-23

    A resin recycling system that produces essentially contaminant-free synthetic resin material in an environmentally safe and economical manner. The system includes receiving the resin in container form. A grinder grinds the containers into resin particles. The particles are exposed to a solvent in one or more solvent wash vessels, the solvent contacting the resin particles and substantially removing contaminants on the resin particles. A separator is used to separate the resin particles and the solvent. The resin particles are then placed in solvent removing element where they are exposed to a solvent removing agent which removes any residual solvent remaining on the resin particles after separation.

  2. Removal of plutonium from hepatic tissue

    DOEpatents

    Lindenbaum, Arthur; Rosenthal, Marcia W.

    1979-01-01

    A method is provided for removing plutonium from hepatic tissues by introducing into the body and blood stream a solution of the complexing agent DTPA and an adjunct thereto. The adjunct material induces aberrations in the hepatic tissue cells and removes intracellularly deposited plutonium which is normally unavailable for complexation with the DTPA. Once the intracellularly deposited plutonium has been removed from the cell by action of the adjunct material, it can be complexed with the DTPA present in the blood stream and subsequently removed from the body by normal excretory processes.

  3. Soluble manganese removal by porous media filtration.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Jung, S

    2008-12-01

    Filtration experiments were conducted to investigate soluble manganese removal in granular media filtration; sand, manganese oxide coated sand (MOCS), sand + MOCS (1:1) and granular activated carbon (GAC) were used as filter media. Manganese removal, manganese oxide accumulation, turbidity removal, and regeneration of MOCS under various conditions were examined. Soluble manganese removal by the MOCS column was rapid and efficient; most of the removal happened at the top (e.g. 5 cm) of the filter. When filter influent with an average manganese concentration of 0.204 mg l(-1) was fed through the filter columns, the sand + MOCS and MOCS columns removed 98.9% and 99.2% of manganese, respectively. However, manganese removal in sand and the GAC columns was not significant during the initial stage of filtration, but after eight months of filter run they could remove 99% and 35% of manganese, respectively. It was revealed that partial replacement of sand with MOCS showed comparable manganese removal to that of the MOCS filter media.

  4. 7 CFR 1220.208 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.208 Removal. If...

  5. 7 CFR 1220.208 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.208 Removal. If...

  6. 7 CFR 1220.208 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.208 Removal. If...

  7. 7 CFR 1220.208 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.208 Removal. If...

  8. 7 CFR 1220.208 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SOYBEAN PROMOTION, RESEARCH, AND CONSUMER INFORMATION Soybean Promotion and Research Order United Soybean Board § 1220.208 Removal. If...

  9. Removal of failed crown and bridge

    PubMed Central

    Rahul, G R.; Poduval, Soorya T.; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-01-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in completing restorative/endodontic procedures. There are different mechanisms available to remove a failed crown or bridge. But there is no information published about the classification of available systems for crown and bridge removal. So it is logical to classify these systems into different groups which can help a clinician in choosing a particular type of system depending upon the clinical situation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification for various crown and bridge removal systems; describe how a number of systems work; and when and why they might be used. A PubMed search of English literature was conducted up to January 2010 using the terms: Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. Additionally, the bibliographies of 3 previous reviews, their cross references as well as articles published in various journals like International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and were manually searched. Key words:Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. PMID:24558549

  10. Removal of failed crown and bridge.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashu; Rahul, G R; Poduval, Soorya T; Shetty, Karunakar

    2012-07-01

    Crown and bridge have life span of many years but they fail for a number of reasons. Over the years, many devices have been designed to remove crowns and bridges from abutment teeth. While the removal of temporary crowns and bridges is usually very straightforward, the removal of a definitive cast crown with unknown cement is more challenging. Removal is often by destructive means. There are a number of circumstances, however, in which conservative disassembly would aid the practitioner in completing restorative/endodontic procedures. There are different mechanisms available to remove a failed crown or bridge. But there is no information published about the classification of available systems for crown and bridge removal. So it is logical to classify these systems into different groups which can help a clinician in choosing a particular type of system depending upon the clinical situation. The aim of this article is to provide a classification for various crown and bridge removal systems; describe how a number of systems work; and when and why they might be used. A PubMed search of English literature was conducted up to January 2010 using the terms: Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure. Additionally, the bibliographies of 3 previous reviews, their cross references as well as articles published in various journals like International Endodontic Journal, Journal of Endodontics and were manually searched. Key words:Crown and bridge removal, Crown and bridge disassembly, Crown and bridge failure.

  11. Improved sulfur removal processes evaluated for IGCC

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    An inherent advantage of Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) electric power generation is the ability to easily remove and recover sulfur. During the last several years, a number of new, improved sulfur removal and recovery processes have been commercialized. An assessment is given of alternative sulfur removal processes for IGCC based on the Texaco coal gasifier. The Selexol acid gas removal system, Claus sulfur recovery, and SCOT tail gas treating are currently used in Texaco-based IGCC. Other processes considered are: Purisol, Sulfinol-M, Selefning, 50% MDEA, Sulften, and LO-CAT. 2 tables.

  12. 27 CFR 25.201 - Removal by pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer to A Contiguous Distilled Spirits Plant § 25.201 Removal by pipeline. A brewer may remove beer from the brewery,...

  13. 27 CFR 25.201 - Removal by pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer to A Contiguous Distilled Spirits Plant § 25.201 Removal by pipeline. A brewer may remove beer from the brewery, without...

  14. 27 CFR 25.201 - Removal by pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer to A Contiguous Distilled Spirits Plant § 25.201 Removal by pipeline. A brewer may remove beer from the brewery, without...

  15. 27 CFR 25.201 - Removal by pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer to A Contiguous Distilled Spirits Plant § 25.201 Removal by pipeline. A brewer may remove beer from the brewery, without...

  16. 27 CFR 25.201 - Removal by pipeline.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removal of Beer to A Contiguous Distilled Spirits Plant § 25.201 Removal by pipeline. A brewer may remove beer from the brewery, without...

  17. Human PIEZO1: removing inactivation.

    PubMed

    Bae, Chilman; Gottlieb, Philip A; Sachs, Frederick

    2013-08-20

    PIEZO1 is an inactivating eukaryotic cation-selective mechanosensitive ion channel. Two sites have been located in the channel that when individually mutated lead to xerocytotic anemia by slowing inactivation. By introducing mutations at two sites, one associated with xerocytosis and the other artificial, we were able to remove inactivation. The double mutant (DhPIEZO1) has a substitution of arginine for methionine (M2225R) and lysine for arginine (R2456K). The loss of inactivation was accompanied by ∼30-mmHg shift of the activation curve to lower pressures and slower rates of deactivation. The slope sensitivity of gating was the same for wild-type and mutants, indicating that the dimensional changes between the closed and open state are unaffected by the mutations. The unitary channel conductance was unchanged by mutations, so these sites are not associated with pore. DhPIEZO1 was reversibly inhibited by the peptide GsMTx4 that acted as a gating modifier. The channel kinetics were solved using complex stimulus waveforms and the data fit to a three-state loop in detailed balance. The reaction had two pressure-dependent rates, closed to open and inactivated to closed. Pressure sensitivity of the opening rate with no sensitivity of the closing rate means that the energy barrier between them is located near the open state. Mutant cycle analysis of inactivation showed that the two sites interacted strongly, even though they are postulated to be on opposite sides of the membrane. Copyright © 2013 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert,George W.; Hand,Thomas E.; Delaurentiis,Gary M.

    2007-08-07

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  19. Method for removing contaminants from plastic resin

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-12-30

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  20. Method of removing contaminants from plastic resins

    DOEpatents

    Bohnert, George W.; Hand, Thomas E.; DeLaurentiis, Gary M.

    2008-11-18

    A method for removing contaminants from synthetic resin material containers using a first organic solvent system and a second carbon dioxide system. The organic solvent is utilized for removing the contaminants from the synthetic resin material and the carbon dioxide is used to separate any residual organic solvent from the synthetic resin material.

  1. DISSOLUTION METHOD OF REMOVING BONDING AGENTS

    DOEpatents

    Hyman, H.H.

    1960-04-19

    A method is given for removing residual aluminumsilicon bonding agents from uranium slugs after the removal of aluminum coatings. To accomplish this the slug is immersed in an aqueous solution about 0.75 N in hydrofluoric acid and about 7 N in nitric acid.

  2. Arsenic removal from drinking water during coagulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hering, J.G.; Chen, P.Y.; Wilkie, J.A.; Elimelech, M.

    1997-08-01

    The efficiency of arsenic removal from source waters and artificial freshwaters during coagulation with ferric chloride and alum was examined in bench-scale studies. Arsenic(V) removal by either ferric chloride or alum was relatively insensitive to variations in source water composition below pH 8. At pH 8 and 9, the efficiency of arsenic(V) removal by ferric chloride was decreased in the presence of natural organic matter. The pH range for arsenic(V) removal with alum was more restricted than with ferric chloride. For source waters spiked with 20 {micro}g/L arsenic(V), final dissolved arsenic(V) concentrations in the product water of less than 2 {micro}g/L were achieved with both coagulants at neutral pH. Removal of arsenic(III) from source waters by ferric chloride was both less efficient and more strongly influenced by source water composition than removal of arsenic(V). The presence of sulfate (at pH 4 and 5) and natural organic matter (at pH 4 through 9) adversely affected the efficiency of arsenic(III) removal by ferric chloride. Arsenic(III) could not be removed from source waters by coagulation with alum.

  3. Removing Bonded Integrated Circuits From Boards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, John T.

    1989-01-01

    Small resistance heater makes it easier, faster, and cheaper to remove integrated circuit from hybrid-circuit board, package, or other substrate for rework. Heater, located directly in polymeric bond interface or on substrate under integrated-circuit chip, energized when necessary to remove chip. Heat generated softens adhesive or solder that bonds chip to substrate. Chip then lifted easily from substrate.

  4. REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

  5. Evolution of removable partial denture design.

    PubMed

    Becker, C M; Kaiser, D A; Goldfogel, M H

    1994-09-01

    This is a brief overview of the progress of design philosophies of removable partial dentures. It begins in 1711 with the first published description of a removable partial denture prosthesis and continues, with discussion of the most significant discoveries, through 1990.

  6. Tool Removes Coil-Spring Thread Inserts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Gerald J., Jr.; Swenson, Gary J.; Mcclellan, J. Scott

    1991-01-01

    Tool removes coil-spring thread inserts from threaded holes. Threads into hole, pries insert loose, grips insert, then pulls insert to thread it out of hole. Effects essentially reverse of insertion process to ease removal and avoid further damage to threaded inner surface of hole.

  7. TECHNOLOGIES FOR RADON AND RADIONUCLIDE REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper provides a summary of the technologies that are currently being used to remove radionuclides from drinking water. The radionuclides that are featured are the radionuclides currently regulated by EPA; radium, radon and uranium. Tehnologies effective for removal of eac...

  8. REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

  9. 50 CFR 600.230 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Removal. 600.230 Section 600.230 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Council Membership § 600.230 Removal. The Secretary...

  10. 33 CFR 159.87 - Removal fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Removal fittings. 159.87 Section 159.87 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.87 Removal fittings. If...

  11. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  12. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  13. 33 CFR 159.87 - Removal fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Removal fittings. 159.87 Section 159.87 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.87 Removal fittings. If...

  14. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  15. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  16. 33 CFR 159.87 - Removal fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Removal fittings. 159.87 Section 159.87 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.87 Removal fittings. If...

  17. 33 CFR 159.87 - Removal fittings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Removal fittings. 159.87 Section 159.87 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.87 Removal fittings. If...

  18. 33 CFR 159.85 - Sewage removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sewage removal. 159.85 Section 159.85 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION MARINE SANITATION DEVICES Design, Construction, and Testing § 159.85 Sewage removal. The...

  19. Thermal removal of asbestos pipeline coating

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.H.

    1997-03-01

    A heat (thermal) technique, not previously used in the US for removing external pipe coating was used to remove asbestos-wrapped coating from 17 miles of 24-inch-diameter pipe. The process was conducted in compliance with all asbestos and air quality regulations, and produced asbestos-free pipe at timely and cost-effective rates.

  20. Removal of silver nanoparticles by coagulation processes.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qian; Li, Yan; Tang, Ting; Yuan, Zhihua; Yu, Chang-Ping

    2013-10-15

    Commercial use of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) will lead to a potential route for human exposure via potable water. Coagulation followed by sedimentation, as a conventional technique in the drinking water treatment facilities, may become an important barrier to prevent human from AgNP exposures. This study investigated the removal of AgNP suspensions by four regular coagulants. In the aluminum sulfate and ferric chloride coagulation systems, the water parameters slightly affected the AgNP removal. However, in the poly aluminum chloride and polyferric sulfate coagulation systems, the optimal removal efficiencies were achieved at pH 7.5, while higher or lower of pH could reduce the AgNP removal. Besides, the increasing natural organic matter (NOM) would reduce the AgNP removal, while Ca(2+) and suspended solids concentrations would also affect the AgNP removal. In addition, results from the transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction showed AgNPs or silver-containing nanoparticles were adsorbed onto the flocs. Finally, natural water samples were used to validate AgNP removal by coagulation. This study suggests that in the case of release of AgNPs into the source water, the traditional water treatment process, coagulation/sedimentation, can remove AgNPs and minimize the silver ion concentration under the well-optimized conditions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. EVALUATION OF REMOVABLE FILM CORROSION PREVENTIVES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The report covers the evaluation of some 12 pressure sensitive tapes and one strippable vinyl plastisol material for possible use as a removable film...fungus resistance) and ease of removal of any of the tapes tested. A weather resistant polyvinyl fluoride backed tape and the strippable vinyl plastisol were the two most corrosive materials tested. (Author)

  2. Removal of heavy metals using waste eggshell.

    PubMed

    Park, Heung Jai; Jeong, Seong Wook; Yang, Jae Kyu; Kim, Boo Gil; Lee, Seung Mok

    2007-01-01

    The removal capacity of toxic heavy metals by the reused eggshell was studied. As a pretreatment process for the preparation of reused material from waste eggshell, calcination was performed in the furnace at 800 degrees C for 2 h after crushing the dried waste eggshell. Calcination behavior, qualitative and quantitative elemental information, mineral type and surface characteristics before and after calcination of eggshell were examined by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), respectively. After calcination, the major inorganic composition was identified as Ca (lime, 99.63%) and K, P and Sr were identified as minor components. When calcined eggshell was applied in the treatment of synthetic wastewater containing heavy metals, a complete removal of Cd as well as above 99% removal of Cr was observed after 10 min. Although the natural eggshell had some removal capacity of Cd and Cr, a complete removal was not accomplished even after 60 min due to quite slower removal rate. However, in contrast to Cd and Cr, an efficient removal of Pb was observed with the natural eggshell rather than the calcined eggshell. From the application of the calcined eggshell in the treatment of real electroplating wastewater, the calcined eggshell showed a promising removal capacity of heavy metal ions as well as had a good neutralization capacity in the treatment of strong acidic wastewater.

  3. 49 CFR 193.2173 - Water removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Water removal. 193.2173 Section 193.2173...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2173 Water removal. (a) Impoundment areas must be constructed such that all areas drain completely to prevent water collection....

  4. 49 CFR 193.2173 - Water removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Water removal. 193.2173 Section 193.2173...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2173 Water removal. (a) Impoundment areas must be constructed such that all areas drain completely to prevent water collection....

  5. 49 CFR 193.2173 - Water removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Water removal. 193.2173 Section 193.2173...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Design Impoundment Design and Capacity § 193.2173 Water removal. (a) Impoundment areas must be constructed such that all areas drain completely to prevent water collection....

  6. Dynamic removal of oral biofilms by bubbles.

    PubMed

    Parini, Michael R; Pitt, William G

    2006-09-01

    A novel approach to the removal of biofilms from solid surfaces is to pass large numbers of air bubbles over the surfaces. Such a phenomenon occurs when teeth are brushed with some types of powered toothbrushes that accelerate bubbly fluid against or across teeth surfaces. Video recordings of air bubbles propelled against a mature biofilm of Streptococcus mutans showed that the bubbles removed the biofilm at the point of collision. A mathematical model of the removal process was proposed and was able to simulate the kinetics of the biofilm removal process. Removal rate was modeled to be proportional to the bubble footprint area and the number of collisions per time. The fraction of biofilm removed per bubble collision is on the order of 0.4, a value much larger than would have been expected based on previous research employing bubbles that moved slowly along a surface that was partially covered with adherent bacteria. The higher removal efficiency is attributed to fluid dynamic shear forces that occur in conjunction with the thermodynamic forces that pull bacteria from a surface as a bubble contacts the biofilm. Fast bubbly flow is expected to remove bacterial biofilm from hard surfaces such as teeth.

  7. 50 CFR 600.230 - Removal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Removal. 600.230 Section 600.230 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MAGNUSON-STEVENS ACT PROVISIONS Council Membership § 600.230 Removal. The...

  8. Method And Apparatus For Arbitrarily Large Capacity Removable Media

    DOEpatents

    Milligan, Charles A.; Hughes, James P.; Debiez; Jacques

    2003-04-08

    A method and apparatus to handle multiple sets of removable media within a storage system. A first set of removable media are mounted on a set of drives. Data is accepted until the first set of removable media is filled. A second set of removable media is mounted on the drives, while the first set of removable media is removed. When the change in removable media is complete, writing of data proceeds on the second set of removable media. Data may be buffered while the change in removable media occurs. Alternatively, two sets of removable media may be mounted at the same time. When the first set of removable media is filled to a selected amount, the second set of removable media may then be used to write the data. A third set of removable media is set up or mounted for use, while the first set of removable media is removed.

  9. Effectiveness of decanter modifications on organic removal

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D.P.

    1992-08-20

    A series of runs were planned in the Precipitate Hydrolysis Experimental Facility (PHEF) at the Savannah River Plant to determine the effectiveness of equipment and process modifications on the PHEF decanter organic removal efficiency. Runs 54-59 were planned to test the effectiveness of spray recirculation, a new decanter, heated organic recirculation and aqueous drawoff on organic removal efficiency in the revised HAN flowsheet. Runs 60-63 were planned to provide a comparison of the original and new decanter designs on organic removal efficiency in the late wash flowsheet without organic recirculation. Operational problems were experienced in both the PHEF and IDMS pilot facilities because of the production of high boiling organics and the low organic removal efficiency of the PHEF decanters. To prevent these problems in the DWPF Salt and Chemical Cells, modifications were proposed to the decanter and flowsheet to maximize the organic removal efficiency and minimize production of high boiling organics.

  10. Tritium Removal from Carbon Plasma Facing Components

    SciTech Connect

    C.H. Skinner; J.P. Coad; G. Federici

    2003-11-24

    Tritium removal is a major unsolved development task for next-step devices with carbon plasma-facing components. The 2-3 order of magnitude increase in duty cycle and associated tritium accumulation rate in a next-step tokamak will place unprecedented demands on tritium removal technology. The associated technical risk can be mitigated only if suitable removal techniques are demonstrated on tokamaks before the construction of a next-step device. This article reviews the history of codeposition, the tritium experience of TFTR (Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor) and JET (Joint European Torus) and the tritium removal rate required to support ITER's planned operational schedule. The merits and shortcomings of various tritium removal techniques are discussed with particular emphasis on oxidation and laser surface heating.

  11. Catalyst regeneration process including metal contaminants removal

    DOEpatents

    Ganguli, Partha S.

    1984-01-01

    Spent catalysts removed from a catalytic hydrogenation process for hydrocarbon feedstocks, and containing undesired metals contaminants deposits, are regenerated. Following solvent washing to remove process oils, the catalyst is treated either with chemicals which form sulfate or oxysulfate compounds with the metals contaminants, or with acids which remove the metal contaminants, such as 5-50 W % sulfuric acid in aqueous solution and 0-10 W % ammonium ion solutions to substantially remove the metals deposits. The acid treating occurs within the temperature range of 60.degree.-250.degree. F. for 5-120 minutes at substantially atmospheric pressure. Carbon deposits are removed from the treated catalyst by carbon burnoff at 800.degree.-900.degree. F. temperature, using 1-6 V % oxygen in an inert gas mixture, after which the regenerated catalyst can be effectively reused in the catalytic process.

  12. The Effects of Removable Denture on Swallowing

    PubMed Central

    Son, Dae-Sik; Seong, Jin Wan; Kim, Younghoon; Chee, Youngjoon

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between removable dentures and swallowing and describe risks. Methods Twenty-four patients with removable dentures who were referred for videofluoroscopic swallowing study (VFSS) were enrolled. We evaluated the change of swallowing function using VFSS before and after the removal of the removable denture. The masticatory performance by Kazunori's method, sensation of oral cavity by Christian's method, underlying disease, and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale for level of consciousness were collected. Functional dysphagia scales, including the oral transit time (OTT), pharyngeal transit time (PTT), percentage of oral residue, percentage of pharyngeal residue, oropharyngeal swallow efficiency (OPSE), and presence of aspiration were measured. Results Four patients dropped out and 20 patients were analyzed (stroke, 13 patients; pneumonia, 3 patients; and others, 4 patients). The mean age was 73.3±11.4 years. There were significant differences before and after the removal of the denture for the OTT. OTT was significantly less after the removal of the denture (8.87 vs. 4.38 seconds, p=0.01). OPSE increased remarkably after the removal of the denture, but without significance (18.24%/sec vs. 25.26%/sec, p=0.05). The OTT and OPSE, while donning a removable denture, were correlated with the masticatory performance (OTT, p=0.04; OPSE, p=0.003) and sensation of oral cavity (OTT, p=0.006; OPSE, p=0.007). Conclusion A removable denture may have negative effects on swallowing, especially OTT and OPSE. These affects may be caused by impaired sensation of the oral cavity or masticatory performance induced by the removable denture. PMID:23705121

  13. Test Plan for the overburden removal demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, P.; Thompson, D.; Winberg, M.; Skaggs, J.

    1993-06-01

    The removal of soil overburdens from contaminated pits and trenches involves using equipment that will remove a small layer of soil from 3 to 6 in. at any time. As a layer of soil is removed, overburden characterization techniques perform surveys to a depth that exceeds each overburden removal layer to ensure that the removed soil will be free of contamination. It is generally expected that no contamination will be found in the soil overburden, which was brought in after the waste was put in place. It is anticipated that some containers in the waste zone have lost their integrity, and the waste leakage from those containers has migrated by gravity downward into the waste zone. To maintain a safe work environment, this method of overburden removal should allow safe preparation of a pit or trench for final remediation. To demonstrate the soil overburden techniques, the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration Program has contracted vendor services to provide equipment and techniques demonstrating soil overburden removal technology. The demonstration will include tests that will evaluate equipment performance and techniques for removal of overburden soil, control of contamination spread, and dust control. To evaluate the performance of these techniques, air particulate samples, physical measurements of the excavation soil cuts, maneuverability measurements, and time versus volume (rate) of soil removal data will be collected during removal operations. To provide a medium for sample evaluation, the overburden will be spiked at specific locations and depths with rare earth tracers. This test plan will be describe the objectives of the demonstration, data quality objectives, methods to be used to operate the equipment and use the techniques in the test area, and methods to be used in collecting data during the demonstration.

  14. Removal processes for arsenic in constructed wetlands.

    PubMed

    Lizama A, Katherine; Fletcher, Tim D; Sun, Guangzhi

    2011-08-01

    Arsenic pollution in aquatic environments is a worldwide concern due to its toxicity and chronic effects on human health. This concern has generated increasing interest in the use of different treatment technologies to remove arsenic from contaminated water. Constructed wetlands are a cost-effective natural system successfully used for removing various pollutants, and they have shown capability for removing arsenic. This paper reviews current understanding of the removal processes for arsenic, discusses implications for treatment wetlands, and identifies critical knowledge gaps and areas worthy of future research. The reactivity of arsenic means that different arsenic species may be found in wetlands, influenced by vegetation, supporting medium and microorganisms. Despite the fact that sorption, precipitation and coprecipitation are the principal processes responsible for the removal of arsenic, bacteria can mediate these processes and can play a significant role under favourable environmental conditions. The most important factors affecting the speciation of arsenic are pH, alkalinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen, the presence of other chemical species--iron, sulphur, phosphate--,a source of carbon, and the wetland substrate. Studies of the microbial communities and the speciation of arsenic in the solid phase using advanced techniques could provide further insights on the removal of arsenic. Limited data and understanding of the interaction of the different processes involved in the removal of arsenic explain the rudimentary guidelines available for the design of wetlands systems.

  15. Efficacy of Biofilm Removal From Hemodialysis Piping

    PubMed Central

    Isakozawa, Yutaka; Migita, Heihachi; Takesawa, Shingo

    2016-01-01

    Background Central dialysate fluid delivery systems (CDDS) are used by dialysis centers in Japan, and although these systems are effective at delivering dialysate, they have a complex piping network with numerous sites where contamination can develop. In Japan, cleaning disinfectants have been clinically evaluated based on endotoxin levels and bacterial counts, but there have been no published studies evaluating the biofilm removal efficacy of these agents at the electron microscope level. Objectives In this study, we used electron microscopy to evaluate the effectiveness of various cleaning disinfectants in removing biofilms from hemodialysis piping. Methods Liquid nitrogen was used to sever a section of dialysis piping on which a biofilm had formed during clinical use. Sodium hypochlorite, acetic acid, and peracetic acid were used at stock-solution concentrations as cleaning disinfectants. These disinfectants were tested at room temperature and when heated (80°C). After cleaning and disinfection, biofilm removal from the surface of the piping was evaluated using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results Sodium hypochlorite did not show good biofilm removal at room temperature or when heated. Acetic acid was more effective at biofilm removal when heated than at room temperature. Peracetic acid was highly effective at biofilm removal at both room temperature and when heated Conclusions Cleaning and disinfection using a disinfectant at a high temperature and high concentration effectively removes biofilms from hemodialysis piping. However, long-term exposure to disinfectants may affect the piping material. PMID:27878114

  16. Removal of metals in constructed wetlands

    SciTech Connect

    Crites, R.W.; Watson, R.C.; Williams, C.R.

    1996-12-31

    Trace metals are difficult to remove from municipal wastewater by conventional wastewater treatment methods. Constructed wetlands have the potential to trap and remove metals from the water column. Long term removal is expected to occur by accumulation and burial in the plant detritus in a manner similar to the removal of phosphorus. Few data are available in the literature on removal of metals by constructed wetlands. A free water surface constructed wetland at Sacramento Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant treating secondary municipal effluent has been operating since the spring of 1994. Removal data for 13 metals are presented for the period from August 1994 to May 1995. About 3,785 m{sup 3}/d (1 mgd) of pure oxygen activated sludge effluent, disinfected using UV light, is further treated through a 8 ha (20 acre) constructed wetlands Ten separate, parallel treatment cells are available to demonstrate the effects of detention time, vegetation management, and application frequency on the removal of metals, organics and ammonia. Detention time can be varied from 3 to 13 days by varying the flow and the water depth. The vegetation, primarily bulrush with some cattails, will be managed by different techniques to minimize mosquito production. Application frequency varies from continuous flow to batch flow (1 to 2 days of loading with 1 day of discharge).

  17. Metals removal and recovery from municipal sludge

    SciTech Connect

    Jenkins, R.L.; Scheybeler, B.J.; Smith, M.L.; Baird, R.; Lo, M.P.; Haug, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of metals removal from municipal sludges that may be disposed of on agricultural land was studied. Heavy metal accumulation in such vegetables as lettuce and heavy metal toxicity to such crops as oats, beans, corn, and radishes is of concern. The purpose of the study was to assess metal removal systems for sludges obtained from the Joint Water Pollution Control Plant, Carson, Calif. Primary sludge, waste activated sludge, and their anaerobically digested counterparts were dosed with sulfuric acid and the chelating agent, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), to effect metal solubilization. Seven metals were examined for removal from sludge: Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn. Recovery of metals from the sludges was also examined. Using an acid dosage to effect pH decrease to pH 2 and a-stirring time of 24 hours, the removal efficiencies for Fe, Zn, Ni, and Cr were found to be upwards of 75%. Removal efficiencies for Pb and Cd were less, at about 30 to 70%. At less than 10%, Cu was hardly removed. Metal extraction using EDTA gave slightly higher removal efficiencies for Cd, Pb, and Cu. The recovery of solubilized metals from solution with lime was very successful at greater than 90% efficiencies. Examination of the dewaterability of the acid-treated sludge found no significant difference between treated and untreated. Preliminary estimates indicated that about 0.5 metric ton of acid would be required for each dry metric ton of sludge solids to effect significant metal removal of better than 50% of the cadmium and 33% of the lead. To precipitate the metals from the acid filtrate, 1 metric ton of lime per dry metric ton of sludge would be needed. Considering the chemical costs and metal removal efficiency by sludge acidification, it would seem that industrial source control would be a more practical approach, although its full economic impact on the industries has not been estimated.

  18. Heavy metal removal from sediments by biosurfactants.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, C N; Yong, R N; Gibbs, B F

    2001-07-30

    Batch washing experiments were used to evaluate the feasibility of using biosurfactants for the removal of heavy metals from sediments. Surfactin from Bacillus subtilis, rhamnolipids from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and sophorolipid from Torulopsis bombicola were evaluated using a metal-contaminated sediment (110mg/kg copper and 3300mg/kg zinc). A single washing with 0.5% rhamnolipid removed 65% of the copper and 18% of the zinc, whereas 4% sophorolipid removed 25% of the copper and 60% of the zinc. Surfactin was less effective, removing 15% of the copper and 6% of the zinc. The technique of ultrafiltration and zeta potential measurements were used to determine the mechanism of metal removal by the surfactants. It was then postulated that metal removal by the biosurfactants occurs through sorption of the surfactant on to the soil surface and complexation with the metal, detachment of the metal from the soil into the soil solution and hence association with surfactant micelles. Sequential extraction procedures were used on the sediment to determine the speciation of the heavy metals before and after surfactant washing. The carbonate and oxide fractions accounted for over 90% of the zinc present in the sediments. The organic fraction constituted over 70% of the copper. Sequential extraction of the sediments after washing with the various surfactants indicated that the biosurfactants, rhamnolipid and surfactin could remove the organically-bound copper and that the sophorolipid could remove the carbonate and oxide-bound zinc. Therefore, heavy metal removal from sediments is feasible and further research will be conducted.

  19. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    SciTech Connect

    Lindgren, Eric R.; Brady, Patrick V.

    1997-01-01

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination, and further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed.

  20. In situ removal of contamination from soil

    DOEpatents

    Lindgren, E.R.; Brady, P.V.

    1997-10-14

    A process of remediation of cationic heavy metal contamination from soil utilizes gas phase manipulation to inhibit biodegradation of a chelating agent that is used in an electrokinesis process to remove the contamination. The process also uses further gas phase manipulation to stimulate biodegradation of the chelating agent after the contamination has been removed. The process ensures that the chelating agent is not attacked by bioorganisms in the soil prior to removal of the contamination, and that the chelating agent does not remain as a new contaminant after the process is completed. 5 figs.

  1. The biomechanics of helmets and helmet removal.

    PubMed

    Meyer, R D; Daniel, W W

    1985-04-01

    To better understand motion in the cervical spine related to helmet wearing and removal, normal volunteers underwent videotaped fluoroscopy during helmet removal and lateral spine X-rays in various positions. There was a tendency towards increased flexion in the supine position in the helmeted volunteers which disappeared with minimal traction. In forced hyperextension, the posterior lip of the helmet did not guillotine the cervical spine. There was no significant difference in cervical spine motion between a one-person and two-person technique of helmet removal, and in both techniques, a minimum amount of flexion occurred in clearing the occiput.

  2. A chemomechanical method for caries removal.

    PubMed

    Morrow, L A; Hassall, D C; Watts, D C; Wilson, N H

    2000-10-01

    Over recent years the dental profession has shifted towards practising preventive dentistry and adopting more conservative and tooth-preserving procedures. Such progression is considered to be a response to the decline in the level of dental caries and advances in materials science. This shift in caries management will no doubt continue over the coming decades, based on rational clinical and scientific principles. Chemomechanical caries removal involves the application of a solution that selectively softens the carious dentine, thus facilitating its removal. This limits the removal of sound tooth structure, the cutting of open dentinal tubules, pulpal irritation and pain compared with conventional mechanical methods.

  3. Induced elephant (Loxodonta africana) tusk removal.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Martin; Gould, Alan R; Clark, Thomas J; Burns, Roy

    2003-03-01

    Elephant tusk removal usually requires costly surgical procedures that are time-consuming and present a significant risk to the animal when performed using general anesthesia. Such techniques require gauges, chisels, and forceps to remove the tusk. This article reports the simple removal of the tusk of an 18-yr-old African elephant (Loxodonta africana) without the use of surgical instruments and anesthesia. Rubber elastics were placed around a tusk, causing loss of alveolar bone with subsequent exfoliation of the tusk within 3 wk. The healing process was uneventful.

  4. Removal of hexavalent chromium using distillery sludge.

    PubMed

    Selvaraj, K; Manonmani, S; Pattabhi, S

    2003-09-01

    Batch mode experiments were conducted to study the removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous and industrial effluent using distillery sludge. Effects of pH, contact time, initial concentration and adsorbent dosage on the adsorption of Cr(VI) were studied. The data obeyed Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption isotherms. The Langmuir adsorption capacity was found to be 5.7 mg/g. Freundlich constants K(f) and n were 2.05 [mg/g(L/mg)(n)] and 3.9, respectively. Desorption studies indicated the removal of 82% of the hexavalent chromium. The efficiency of adsorbent towards the removal of chromium was also tested using chromium-plating wastewater.

  5. Affine Invariant Character Recognition by Progressive Removing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamura, Masakazu; Horimatsu, Akira; Niwa, Ryo; Kise, Koichi; Uchida, Seiichi; Omachi, Shinichiro

    Recognizing characters in scene images suffering from perspective distortion is a challenge. Although there are some methods to overcome this difficulty, they are time-consuming. In this paper, we propose a set of affine invariant features and a new recognition scheme called “progressive removing” that can help reduce the processing time. Progressive removing gradually removes less feasible categories and skew angles by using multiple classifiers. We observed that progressive removing and the use of the affine invariant features reduced the processing time by about 60% in comparison to a trivial one without decreasing the recognition rate.

  6. Enhancing biological phosphorus removal with glycerol.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Q; Sparling, R; Lagasse, P; Lee, Y M; Taniguchi, D; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2010-01-01

    An enhanced biological phosphorus removal process (EBPR) was successfully operated in presence of acetate. When glycerol was substituted for acetate in the feed the EBPR process failed. Subsequently waste activated sludge (WAS) from the reactor was removed to an off-line fermenter. The same amount of glycerol was added to the WAS fermenter which led to significant volatile fatty acids (VFA) production. By supplying the system with the VFA-enriched supernatant of the fermentate, biological phosphorus removal was enhanced. It was concluded that, if glycerol was to be used as an external carbon source in EBPR, the effective approach was to ferment glycerol with waste activated sludge.

  7. Laser tattoo removal, precautions, and unwanted effects.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Yvonne; Rubin, Agneta Troilius

    2015-01-01

    Laser tattoo removal uses the physical properties of photoselective thermolysis in order to remove tattoo pigment. The technique has gradually improved over the years with the development of Q-switched lasers, with overall good results and a relatively low degree of adverse effects. However, lasers cannot always erase the unwanted tattoo completely, and there are still risks of unwanted effects such as scarring, pigment changes, ink darkening, and potential aggravation of latent skin conditions. This chapter will discuss the precautions that have to be taken and what pitfalls to avoid before starting the procedure of laser tattoo removal.

  8. Waste treatment for removed protective coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Gat, U.; Crosley, S.M.; Gay, R.L.

    1993-07-01

    A molten salt oxidation process is proposed for treatment of removed protective coatings along with the media used for removal. The treatment chemically reduces the waste, leaving any metals associated with the coating as a residue in the salt treatment media. The residue and the salt can be further treated for recycle of the metals, thus all but eliminating metal disposal as a waste problem. The process is expected to be simple and may be integrated into the coatings removal operations on location. Therefore, waste shipment and handling can be significantly reduced, and, as a secondary benefit, other waste can be treated in the same unit.

  9. Actinide removal from nitric acid waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Muscatello, A.C.; Navratil, J.D.

    1986-01-01

    Actinide separations research at the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) has found ways to significantly improve plutonium secondary recovery and americium removal from nitric acid waste streams generated by plutonium purification operations. Capacity and breakthrough studies show anion exchange with Dowex 1x4 (50 to 100 mesh) to be superior for secondary recovery of plutonium. Extraction chromatography with TOPO(tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide) on XAD-4 removes the final traces of plutonium, including hydrolytic polymer. Partial neutralization and solid supported liquid membrane transfer removes americium for sorption on discardable inorganic ion exchangers, potentially allowing for non-TRU waste disposal.

  10. Hydrocyclones to remove sludge from coal fines

    SciTech Connect

    Shifrin, S.I.; Galka, B.A.; Keitel'gisser, I.N.; Zhuravel, V.A.; Nosov, R.E.; Nelepov, V.F.

    1980-01-01

    The adoption of the process of sludge removal from coal fines in hydrocyclones permits a reduction in the load on the jigging machines with a resulting improvement in the gravitational coal separation conditions in them. The product of sludge removal hydrocyclones consists of a slurry of good granulometric composition for flotation cleaning. The use of hydrocyclones for removing sludge from coal is practical due to their high erosion resistance (after a year of constant operation there were no signs of erosion), operating reliability, high capacity and the possibility of regulating the process.

  11. Removable bearing arrangement for a wind turbine generator

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2010-06-15

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  12. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee , Gadre; Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2008-04-22

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  13. Method for changing removable bearing for a wind turbine generator

    DOEpatents

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2008-04-22

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  14. Ovary Removal: A Risk Factor for Dementia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... removal (oophorectomy), often done in conjunction with a hysterectomy, has a dramatic effect on your body before ... oophorectomy or ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. Accessed July ...

  15. Superfund Removal Guidance for Preparing Action Memoranda

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Dated September 2009, this updates and replaces previous documents. An Action Memo (AM) should substantiate need for removal action based upon criteria in the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). Includes AM template.

  16. Catalyst removal demonstrations using radioactive materials

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, R.A.

    2000-07-19

    Tests examined the efficacy of a number of processing steps in reducing catalytic activity of High Level Waste tetraphenylborate slurries. These steps included removal of sludge, treatment with bismuthate and ferrous sulfide.

  17. Removing Pubic Hair (For Young Men)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical Conditions Nutrition & Fitness Emotional Health Removing Pubic Hair Posted under Health Guides . Updated 23 March 2017. +Related Content Some guys trim their pubic hair, others prefer to shave or wax, and most ...

  18. A new technique for removing intramedullary cement.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Jason A; Vosburg, Caleb; Murtha, Yvonne M; Della Rocca, Gregory J; Crist, Brett D

    2011-12-01

    Treatment of infected long bone fractures or nonunions requires stability for bony union, yet retained implants can lead to persistent infection. Antibiotic cement intramedullary nails, in addition to external fixation, are commonly used to deliver intramedullary antibiotics in infected long bone fractures and provide temporary stability. However, the retrieval of these nails can result in debonding of antibiotic cement, which can require significant time and effort to remove. A variety of methods, including intramedullary hooks, reverse curettes, flexible osteotomes, and stacked guide rods, are commonly used to remove cement fragments. When these methods fail to allow access to the entire length of the canal, the Reamer Irrigator Aspirator system (Synthes, Paoli, PA) serves as an effective method for removing retained intramedullary cement. The surgical technique is described, and three cases illustrate the successful use of the Reamer Irrigator Aspirator system for removal of an antibiotic cement intramedullary nail.

  19. Removing freon gas from hydraulic fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. B.; Mitchell, S. M.; State, T. S.

    1981-01-01

    Dissolved freon gas is removed from hydraulic fluid by raising temperature to 150 F and bubbling dry nitrogen gas through it, even while fluid circulates through hydraulic system. Procedure reduces parts corrosion, sludge formation, and contamination.

  20. Assessing removals for North Central forest inventories.

    Treesearch

    W. Brad Smith

    1991-01-01

    Discusses method used by the Forest Inventory and Analysis Unit for estimating timber removals. Presents the relationship of timber utilization studies, primary lumber mill studies, and forest inventory data.

  1. Removable preheater elements improve oxide induction furnace

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leipold, M. H.

    1964-01-01

    Heat and corrosion resistant preheater elements are used in oxide induction furnaces to raise the temperature to the level for conducting electricity. These preheater elements are then removed and the induction coil energized.

  2. Removal of hydrogen bubbles from nuclear reactors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jenkins, R. V.

    1980-01-01

    Method proposed for removing large hydrogen bubbles from nuclear environment uses, in its simplest form, hollow spheres of palladium or platinum. Methods would result in hydrogen bubble being reduced in size without letting more radioactivity outside reactor.

  3. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, Gus T.; Holshouser, Stephen K.; Coleman, Richard M.; Harless, Charles E.; Whinnery, III, Walter N.

    1983-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  4. REMOVAL OF RADIOACTIVE IONS FROM WATERS

    DOEpatents

    Silker, W.B.

    1962-04-10

    A process for removing neutron-reaction products, such as phosphorus, arsenic, manganese, copper, zinc, lanthanides, and actinides, from aqueous solutions by sorption on particles of aluminum metal is described. (AEC)

  5. Electrochemical Removal Of Selenate From Aqueous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Kitae; Kasem, Naji; Ciblak, Ali; Vesper, Dorothy; Padilla, Ingrid; Alshawabkeh, Akram N.

    2013-01-01

    Removal of selenate from solution is investigated in batch electrochemical systems using reactive iron anodes and copper plate cathode in a bicarbonate medium. Iron anodes produce ferrous hydroxide, which is a major factor in the removal of selenate from solution. Iron anodes also generate a significant decrease in the oxidation-reduction potential (ORP) of the solution because it prevents generation of oxygen gas at the anode by electrolysis. The removal rates varied from 45.1 to 97.4%, depending on current density and selenate concentration. The transformation of selenate by the process is modeled based on a heterogeneous reaction coupled with electrochemical generation of ferrous and hydroxide. The rates are optimized at lower initial concentrations, higher electrical currents, and the presence of anions. Presence of dissolved oxygen does not cause any significant effects the removal of selenate. PMID:23378820

  6. Removing the Shackles of Euclid: 1 Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David S.

    1981-01-01

    A new approach to classifying quadrilaterals is presented that tries to classify all possible combinations of shapes and angles by removing the traditional Euclidean viewpoints. The document concludes with a brief look at other types of polygons. (MP)

  7. Legality of Non-Cooperative Satellite Removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Siqing

    2013-09-01

    Uncontrolled growth of non-functional satellites has imposed significant threats on the space environment. However, out of various concerns, not all States are willing to adopt measures to minimize the debris caused by their own space activities. This article analyzes whether the threatened States are entitled to the right to remove space debris of another State without prior consent. Firstly, the author examines who exercises jurisdiction over the non-functional satellites; then, by analyzing Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty and the IADC Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines, the author finds that there is a forthcoming debris removal obligation under international law; further, the author suggests two legal basis for the non-cooperative removal: Article IX of the Outer Space Treaty and the Precautionary Principle. In conclusion, it is neither justifiable nor efficient to absolutely prohibit the threatened States to remove non-functional satellites without prior consent.

  8. Removing the Shackles of Euclid: 1 Classification.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David S.

    1981-01-01

    A new approach to classifying quadrilaterals is presented that tries to classify all possible combinations of shapes and angles by removing the traditional Euclidean viewpoints. The document concludes with a brief look at other types of polygons. (MP)

  9. Removing Ambiguities In Remotely Sensed Winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaffer, Scott J.; Dunbar, Roy S.; Hsiao, Shuchi V.; Long, David G.

    1991-01-01

    Algorithm removes ambiguities in choices of candidate ocean-surface wind vectors estimated from measurements of radar backscatter from ocean waves. Increases accuracies of estimates of winds without requiring new instrumentation. Incorporates vector-median filtering function.

  10. Chronic Diarrhea: A Concern After Gallbladder Removal?

    MedlinePlus

    ... six months ago, and I'm still having diarrhea. Is this normal? Answers from Michael F. Picco, ... develop the frequent loose, watery stools that characterize diarrhea after surgery to remove their gallbladders (cholecystectomy). Studies ...

  11. Method of removing polychlorinated biphenyl from oil

    DOEpatents

    Cook, G.T.; Holshouser, S.K.; Coleman, R.M.; Harless, C.E.; Whinnery, W.N. III

    1982-03-17

    Polychlorinated biphenyls are removed from oil by extracting the biphenyls into methanol. The mixture of methanol and extracted biphenyls is distilled to separate methanol therefrom, and the methanol is recycled for further use in extraction of biphenyls from oil.

  12. Antipollution system to remove nitrogen dioxide gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metzler, A. J.; Slough, J. W.

    1971-01-01

    Gas phase reaction system using anhydrous ammonia removes nitrogen dioxide. System consists of ammonia injection and mixing section, reaction section /reactor/, and scrubber section. All sections are contained in system ducting.

  13. Sediment Pond Removal and Enhanced Designs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment Pond Removal Considerations; Scheduling, Baseflow diversion, Dewatering provisions, Sediment handling, Potential to discharge sediment, Down‐gradient sediment control(s), Erosion control(s), Stream reconstruction, Riparian vegetation.

  14. Lead removal via soil washing and leaching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, H. K.; Man, X. D.; Walsh, D. E.

    2001-12-01

    A soil washing and leaching process was tested for removing lead from soils. A soil-washing circuit, including size and gravity separations, was employed to remove the coarse metallic lead particles, while the leaching was applied to remove fine metallic lead particles and other lead species. The soil-washing tests proved that the metallic lead particles larger than 0.15 mm (100 mesh) could be effectively removed. The sodium-chloride-based leaching solution with ferric chloride or sodium hypochlorite as oxidants was adopted in the leaching. The leaching experimental results indicated that under the pH of 2 and Eh of 1,300 mV, the metallic lead particles smaller than 0.15 mm and other lead species can be dissolved in the leaching solution within 60 minutes.

  15. Device removes hydrogen gas from enclosed spaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carson, W. N.

    1966-01-01

    Hydrogen-oxidant galvanic cell removes small amounts of hydrogen gas continually released from equipment, such as vented silver-zinc batteries, in enclosed compartments where air venting is not feasible. These cells are used in satellite compartments.

  16. Removal of some impurities from carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Yongcheng; Zhou, Gumin; Wang, Guoping; Qu, Meizhen; Yu, Zuolong

    2003-07-01

    A non-destructive mild oxidation method of removing some impurities from as-grown carbon nanotubes (CNTs), including single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) and multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), by H 2O 2 oxidation and HCl treatment, has been investigated, and somewhat pure carbon nanotubes have been prepared. The CNTs from which some impurities were removed have been evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and temperature programmed oxidation and gas chromatography (TPO-GC).

  17. Laser removal of sludge from steam generators

    DOEpatents

    Nachbar, Henry D.

    1990-01-01

    A method of removing unwanted chemical deposits known as sludge from the metal surfaces of steam generators with laser energy is provided. Laser energy of a certain power density, of a critical wavelength and frequency, is intermittently focused on the sludge deposits to vaporize them so that the surfaces are cleaned without affecting the metal surface (sludge substrate). Fiberoptic tubes are utilized for laser beam transmission and beam direction. Fiberoptics are also utilized to monitor laser operation and sludge removal.

  18. Laser Tattoo Removal: A Clinical Update

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Stephanie GY; Goh, Chee Leok

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for tattoo removal have evolved significantly over the years. The commonly used Quality-switched (QS) ruby, alexandrite, and Nd:YAG lasers are the traditional workhorses for tattoo removal. Newer strategies using combination laser treatments, multi-pass treatments, and picosecond lasers offer promising results. The tattoo color and skin type of the patient are important considerations when choosing the appropriate laser. Standard protocols can be developed for the effective and safe treatment of tattoos. PMID:25949017

  19. Method for removing RFI from SAR images

    DOEpatents

    Doerry, Armin W.

    2003-08-19

    A method of removing RFI from a SAR by comparing two SAR images on a pixel by pixel basis and selecting the pixel with the lower magnitude to form a composite image. One SAR image is the conventional image produced by the SAR. The other image is created from phase-history data which has been filtered to have the frequency bands containing the RFI removed.

  20. Removing bonded skin from a substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chartier, E. N.

    1980-01-01

    Metal skin is peeled off like sardine-can cover with key. Method is useful in removing bonded skins from any substrate where substrate is strong enough not to buckle or tear when bonded skin is rolled free. Also, it is useful for removing sections of damaged skin where bladders of other equipment below substrate might be damaged if saw or router were used to cut completely through skin.

  1. Debris Removal: An Opportunity for Cooperative Research?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Nicholas L.

    2007-01-01

    Space debris mitigation practices will be insufficient to prevent the continued growth of the Earth satellite population. Removal of orbital debris can improve the reliability of present and future space systems. The challenges of developing an effective, affordable debris removal capability are considerable. The time is right for a new look at space remediation concepts. In concert with or following the current IAA study An international approach to the remediation of the near-Earth space environment will likely be required.

  2. Economic and environmental optimization of phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Clauson-Kaas, J; Poulsen, T Sander; Neergaard-Jacobsen, B; Guildal, T; Thirsing, C

    2004-01-01

    Do operating costs conform to environmental impact after introduction of charges on discharge of wastewater? A study on optimization of phosphorus removal at two Danish wastewater removal plants shows that this is actually the case. By measurement of inlet and outlet concentrations and of chemicals added it was possible to determine the relationships between chemical dosing and phosphorus discharge and thus calculate the operational cost and environmental impact of different dosing/discharge levels.

  3. Newer trends in laser tattoo removal.

    PubMed

    Shah, Swapnil D; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev J

    2015-01-01

    Q switched lasers are the current gold standard for laser tattoo removal. Though these systems are generally quite effective in clearing tattoos & have an established safety record, certain limitations exist while following the standard protocol. To overcome these limitation newer techniques such as multipass method, combination treatments with chemical agent and other laser have been introduced. These methods help in faster, less painful and complication free tattoo removal.

  4. Laser tattoo removal: a clinical update.

    PubMed

    Ho, Stephanie Gy; Goh, Chee Leok

    2015-01-01

    Techniques for tattoo removal have evolved significantly over the years. The commonly used Quality-switched (QS) ruby, alexandrite, and Nd:YAG lasers are the traditional workhorses for tattoo removal. Newer strategies using combination laser treatments, multi-pass treatments, and picosecond lasers offer promising results. The tattoo color and skin type of the patient are important considerations when choosing the appropriate laser. Standard protocols can be developed for the effective and safe treatment of tattoos.

  5. Newer Trends in Laser Tattoo Removal

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Swapnil D; Aurangabadkar, Sanjeev J

    2015-01-01

    Q switched lasers are the current gold standard for laser tattoo removal. Though these systems are generally quite effective in clearing tattoos & have an established safety record, certain limitations exist while following the standard protocol. To overcome these limitation newer techniques such as multipass method, combination treatments with chemical agent and other laser have been introduced. These methods help in faster, less painful and complication free tattoo removal. PMID:25949019

  6. Removable partial dentures: use of rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Lima, Julia Magalhaes Costa; Anami, Lilian Costa; Araujo, Rodrigo Maximo; Pavanelli, Carlos A

    2014-10-01

    The CAD/CAM technology associated with rapid prototyping (RP) is already widely used in the fabrication of all-ceramic fixed prostheses and in the biomedical area; however, the use of this technology for the manufacture of metal frames for removable dentures is new. This work reports the results of a literature review conducted on the use of CAD/CAM and RP in the manufacture of removable partial dentures. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  7. Magmatic expressions of continental lithosphere removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huilin; Currie, Claire A.

    2015-10-01

    Gravitational lithosphere removal in continental interior has been inferred from various observations, including anomalous surface deflections and magmatism. We use numerical models and a simplified theoretical analysis to investigate how lithosphere removal can be recognized in the magmatic record. One style of removal is a Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability, where removal occurs through dripping. The associated magmatism depends on the lithosphere thermal structure. Four types of magmatism are predicted: (1) For relatively hot lithosphere (e.g., back arcs), the lithosphere can be conductively heated and melted during removal, while the asthenosphere upwells and undergoes decompression melting. If removal causes significant lithospheric thinning, the deep crust may be heated and melted. (2) For moderately warm lithosphere (e.g., average Phanerozoic lithosphere) in which the lithosphere root has a low density, only the lithosphere may melt. (3) If the lithosphere root has a high density in moderately warm lithosphere, only asthenosphere melt is predicted. (4) For cold lithosphere (e.g., cratons), no magmatism is induced. An alternate style of removal is delamination, where dense lithosphere peels along Moho. In most cases, the lithosphere sinks too rapidly to melt. However, asthenosphere can upwell to the base of the crust, resulting in asthenospheric and crustal melts. In delamination, magmatism migrates laterally with the detachment point; in contrast, magmatism in Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability has a symmetric shape and converges toward the drip center. The models may explain the diversity of magmatism observed in areas with inferred lithosphere removal, including the Puna Plateau and the southern Sierra Nevada.

  8. The removal of Mr. Herbert's feeding tube.

    PubMed

    Steinbock, B

    1983-10-01

    The California case of Drs. Nejdl and Barber, charged with murder for removing the respirator and intravenous feeding line of a severely brain-damaged comatose patient, resulted in divided judicial opinion, delaying indictment or dismissal. Steinbock discusses the legal arguments and medical opinions presented in court, supports the conclusion that removal of all life-support apparatus from the irreversibly comatose is morally and legally permissible, and refutes the slippery slope argument of its opponents.

  9. Ureteroscopic removal of forgotten ureteral stent

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Takashi; Ishida, Hiroaki; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Matsuzaki, Junichi

    2012-01-01

    A 69-year-old female had a right ureteral stent placed due to ureteral stricture resulting from cervical cancer in March 2008. The ureteral stent migrated to the ureter and was not exchanged. A new ureteral stent was inserted, and was exchanged every 3 months. The patient was referred to our department to remove the forgotten ureteral stent. In January 2012, her old ureteral stent was removed ureteroscopically, and no ureteral stent encrustation was found. PMID:22707678

  10. Simultaneous removal of nitrate and heavy metals by iron metal.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhi-Wei; Xu, Xin-Hua; Jin, Jian; He, Ping; Liu, Yong; Wang, Da-Hui

    2005-05-01

    Great attention should be paid now to simultaneously removing common pollutants, especially inorganic pollutants such as nitrate and heavy metals, as individual removal has been investigated extensively. Removing common pollutants simultaneously by iron metal is a very effective alternative method. Near neutral pH, heavy metals, such as copper and nickel, can be removed rapidly by iron metal, while nitrate removal very much slower than that of copper and nickel, and copper can accelerate nitrate removal when both are removed simultaneously. Even a little amount of copper can enhance nitrate removal efficiently. Different mechanisms of these contaminants removal by iron metal were also discussed.

  11. Marmot Dam Removal: Predictions and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Y.; Orr, B. K.; Wilcox, A.; Vick, J.; Podolak, C.; Wilcox, P.

    2008-12-01

    The 14-m tall Marmot Dam on the Sandy River, Oregon was removed in the summer of 2007, allowing the approximately 730,000 cubic meters of sand and gravel to remain in the river for natural erosion by the flow. Pre-dam removal studies included sediment transport modeling that simulated several dam removal alternatives and provided key pieces of information that allowed a diverse stakeholder group to unanimously agree on the "blow-and-go" alternative, allowing a large amount of sediment to be released to a major salmonid-bearing river in the Columbia River basin. Although it is still too early to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the model performance because morphological responses in the downstream reaches, if any, are likely years away, observations to date (one year after dam removal) indicate that model predictions are generally accurate. Here we present some of the key findings of pre-dam-removal sediment transport modeling predictions and compare them with post-removal observations.

  12. Enzymes Enhance Biofilm Removal Efficiency of Cleaners.

    PubMed

    Stiefel, Philipp; Mauerhofer, Stefan; Schneider, Jana; Maniura-Weber, Katharina; Rosenberg, Urs; Ren, Qun

    2016-06-01

    Efficient removal of biofilms from medical devices is a big challenge in health care to avoid hospital-acquired infections, especially from delicate devices like flexible endoscopes, which cannot be reprocessed using harsh chemicals or high temperatures. Therefore, milder solutions such as enzymatic cleaners have to be used, which need to be carefully developed to ensure efficacious performance. In vitro biofilm in a 96-well-plate system was used to select and optimize the formulation of novel enzymatic cleaners. Removal of the biofilm was quantified by crystal violet staining, while the disinfecting properties were evaluated by a BacTiter-Glo assay. The biofilm removal efficacy of the selected cleaner was further tested by using European standard (EN) for endoscope cleaning EN ISO 15883, and removal of artificial blood soil was investigated by treating TOSI (Test Object Surgical Instrument) cleaning indicators. Using the process described here, a novel enzymatic endoscope cleaner was developed, which removed 95% of Staphylococcus aureus and 90% of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms in the 96-well plate system. With a >99% reduction of CFU and a >90% reduction of extracellular polymeric substances, this cleaner enabled subsequent complete disinfection and fulfilled acceptance criteria of EN ISO 15883. Furthermore, it efficiently removed blood soil and significantly outperformed comparable commercial products. The cleaning performance was stable even after storage of the cleaner for 6 months. It was demonstrated that incorporation of appropriate enzymes into the cleaner enhanced performance significantly.

  13. Boron removal from geothermal waters by electrocoagulation.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, A Erdem; Boncukcuoğlu, Recep; Kocakerim, M Muhtar; Yilmaz, M Tolga; Paluluoğlu, Cihan

    2008-05-01

    Most of the geothermal waters in Turkey contain extremely high concentration of boron when they are used for irrigation. The use of geothermal waters for irrigation can results in excess amount deposition of boron in soil. On the other hand, a minimal boron concentration is required for irrigational waters. In this study, electrocoagulation (EC) was selected as a treatment process for the removal of boron from thermal waters obtained from Ilica-Erzurum in Turkey. Current density (CD), pH of solution and temperature of solution were selected as operational parameters. The results showed that boron removal efficiency increased from pH 4.0 to 8.0 and decreased at pH 10.0. Although boron removal efficiency was highest at pH 8.0, energy consumption was very high at this pH value compared to other pH intervals. Boron removal efficiency reached to 95% with increasing current density from 1.5 to 6.0 mA/cm(2), but energy consumption was also increased in this interval. At higher temperatures of solution, such as 313 and 333 K, boron removal efficiency increased. At optimum conditions, boron removal efficiency in geothermal water reached up to 95%.

  14. Material removal processes: Engineering mechanics consideration

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.A.

    1993-01-01

    In the material removal process called machining, a layer of material of constant thickness is removed from the workpiece by a wedge-shaped tool that travels parallel to the workpiece at a preselected depth. Even though the speed of relative movement between workpiece and tool is low (typical 1--10 M/S), the strain-rates in the workpiece near the tool can be high, on the order of 10[sup 4]-10[sup 5] s[sup [minus]1]. When machining brittle materials or unlubricated ductile materials at low speed, the removed metal (or chip) will be discontinuous and made up of small fractured segments. On the other hand, when machining ductile material under lubricated conditions, the removed material forms a continuous coil. In this case, we can represent the material removal process as a steady-state process. In this presentation, we will restrict ourselves to orthogonal machining where the cutting edge is perpendicular to the relative motion-a situation also approximated by other material removal processes such as planing and broaching, and turning on a lathe.

  15. Material removal processes: Engineering mechanics consideration

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.A.

    1993-04-01

    In the material removal process called machining, a layer of material of constant thickness is removed from the workpiece by a wedge-shaped tool that travels parallel to the workpiece at a preselected depth. Even though the speed of relative movement between workpiece and tool is low (typical 1--10 M/S), the strain-rates in the workpiece near the tool can be high, on the order of 10{sup 4}-10{sup 5} s{sup {minus}1}. When machining brittle materials or unlubricated ductile materials at low speed, the removed metal (or chip) will be discontinuous and made up of small fractured segments. On the other hand, when machining ductile material under lubricated conditions, the removed material forms a continuous coil. In this case, we can represent the material removal process as a steady-state process. In this presentation, we will restrict ourselves to orthogonal machining where the cutting edge is perpendicular to the relative motion-a situation also approximated by other material removal processes such as planing and broaching, and turning on a lathe.

  16. Engineering Challenges for Active Debris Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi

    2011-01-01

    Recent modeling studies on the instability of the debris population in the low Earth orbit (LEO) region and the collision between Iridium 33 and Cosmos 2251 have underlined the need for active debris removal. A 2009 analysis by the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office shows that, in order to maintain the LEO debris population at a constant level for the next 200 years, an active debris removal of about five objects per year is needed. The targets identified for removal are those with the highest mass and collision probability products in the environment. Many of these objects are spent upper stages with masses ranging from 1 to more than 8 metric tons, residing in several altitude regions and concentrated in about 10 inclination bands. To remove five of those objects on a yearly basis, in a cost-effective manner, represents many challenges in engineering, technology development, and operations. This paper outlines a conceptual end-to-end debris removal operation, including launch, precision tracking, rendezvous, stabilization (of the tumbling targets), capture, and deorbit of the targets; and highlights major challenges associated with the operations. Pros and cons of several proposed removal techniques are also evaluated.

  17. Removal of cypermethrin with seaweed Gracilaria lemaneiformis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhaohui; Yue, Wenjie

    2015-10-01

    The removal of cypermethrin with a red macroalga, Gracilaria lemaneiformis, was studied under laboratory conditions. Results showed that the residue contents with G. lemaneiformis were significantly lower than those corresponding groups without the algal thalli after 96 h treatment. The removal rates decreased with increasing concentrations, which were about 50% without G. lemaneiformis after 96 h exposure, and increased to 89%, 73%, and 66% in flasks with G. lemaneiformis at the concentrations of 10, 100, and 1000 µg L-1, respectively. The amount of biosorption (absorption and adsorption) by G. lemaneiformis increased with the increasing concentration and exposure time. Adsorption was the main process for the removal by G. lemaneiformis, which accounted for 75%-97% of the total biosorption. However, biosorption only contributed 0.5%-19.3% to the total losses of cypermethrin, which was more efficient under the low concentration. Natural losses contributed the largest portion of losses, which was over 65% in all treatments during the experiment. The unknown pathway of removal, which might be the bio-decomposed by microorganisms attaching the algal thalli, also contributed a lot to the total removal. The results suggested that cultivation of G. lemaneiformis could significantly remove cypermethrin, especially at low concentrations, and large-scale cultivation of G. lemaneiformis has considerable potential of biorestoration of eutrophic and cypermethrin-polluted coastal sea areas.

  18. Importance of clothing removal in scalds.

    PubMed

    Lau, Edgar Y K; Tam, Yvonne Y W; Chiu, T W

    2016-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that prompt removal of clothing after scalds lessens the severity of injury. This experimental study and case series was carried out in the Burn Centre of a tertiary hospital in Hong Kong. An experimental burn model using Allevyn (Smith & Nephew Medical Limited, Hull, England) as a skin substitute was designed to test the effect of delayed clothing removal on skin temperature using hot water and congee. Data of patients admitted with scalding by congee over a 10-year period (January 2005 to December 2014) were also studied. A significant reduction in the temperature of the skin model following a hot water scald was detected only if clothing was removed within the first 10 seconds of injury. With congee scalds, the temperature of the skin model progressively increased with further delay in clothing removal. During the study period, 35 patients were admitted with congee scalds to our unit via the emergency department. The majority were children. Definite conclusions supporting the importance of clothing removal could not be drawn due to our small sample size. Nonetheless, our data suggest that appropriate prehospital burn management can reduce patient morbidity. Prompt removal of clothing after scalding by congee may reduce post-burn morbidity.

  19. Beam shaping for cosmetic hair removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizotte, Todd E.; Tuttle, Tracie

    2007-09-01

    Beam shaping has the potential to provide comfort to people who require or seek laser based cosmetic skin procedures. Of immediate interest is the procedure of aesthetic hair removal. Hair removal is performed using a variety of wavelengths from 480 to 1200 nm by means of filtered Xenon flash lamps (pulsed light) or 810 nm diode lasers. These wavelengths are considered the most efficient means available for hair removal applications, but current systems use simple reflector designs and plane filter windows to direct the light to the surface being exposed. Laser hair removal is achieved when these wavelengths at sufficient energy levels are applied to the epidermis. The laser energy is absorbed by the melanin (pigment) in the hair and hair follicle which in turn is transformed into heat. This heat creates the coagulation process, which causes the removal of the hair and prevents growth of new hair [1]. This paper outlines a technique of beam shaping that can be applied to a non-contact based hair removal system. Several features of the beam shaping technique including beam uniformity and heat dispersion across its operational treatment area will be analyzed. A beam shaper design and its fundamental testing will be discussed in detail.

  20. 27 CFR 25.195 - Removals for analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Removals for analysis. 25..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removals for Analysis, Research, Development Or Testing § 25.195 Removals for analysis. A brewer may remove beer, without payment of tax, to a...

  1. 27 CFR 25.195 - Removals for analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Removals Without Payment of Tax Removals for Analysis, Research, Development Or Testing § 25.195 Removals for analysis. A brewer may remove beer, without payment of tax, to a... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Removals for analysis....

  2. A clinical overview of removable prostheses: 1. Factors to consider in planning a removable partial denture.

    PubMed

    McCord, J Fraser; Grey, Nick J A; Winstanley, Raymond B; Johnson, Anthony

    2002-10-01

    This is the first article in a series on the prescription of removable partial dentures. It addresses basic clinical and patient-related factors involved in decision-making before commencing active prosthodontic treatment. Further papers will outline a variety of impression techniques for primary and definitive impression, discuss designing principles, give an overview of some technological aspects of removable partial denture-making and provide guidelines on how to diagnose and manage common clinical problems associated with removable partial dentures.

  3. Removal of PAHs with surfactant-enhanced soil washing: influencing factors and removal effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Peng, Sheng; Wu, Wei; Chen, Jiajun

    2011-02-01

    PAH removal with surfactant enhanced washing was investigated through a series of laboratory tests to examine the effect of stirring speed, washing time, surfactant concentration, liquid/solid ratio, temperature, and on-and-off mode. The first four factors show significant influence on the PAH removal while the latter two do not. Total removal ratio and a new proposed parameter, solubilization percentage, are used to evaluate the effectiveness quantitatively. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Economic impact of syndesmosis hardware removal.

    PubMed

    Lalli, Trapper A J; Matthews, Leslie J; Hanselman, Andrew E; Hubbard, David F; Bramer, Michelle A; Santrock, Robert D

    2015-09-01

    Ankle syndesmosis injuries are commonly seen with 5-10% of sprains and 10% of ankle fractures involving injury to the ankle syndesmosis. Anatomic reduction has been shown to be the most important predictor of clinical outcomes. Optimal surgical management has been a subject of debate in the literature. The method of fixation, number of screws, screw size, and number of cortices are all controversial. Postoperative hardware removal has also been widely debated in the literature. Some surgeons advocate for elective hardware removal prior to resuming full weightbearing. Returning to the operating room for elective hardware removal results in increased cost to the patient, potential for infection or complication(s), and missed work days for the patient. Suture button devices and bioabsorbable screw fixation present other options, but cortical screw fixation remains the gold standard. This retrospective review was designed to evaluate the economic impact of a second operative procedure for elective removal of 3.5mm cortical syndesmosis screws. Two hundred and two patients with ICD-9 code for "open treatment of distal tibiofibular joint (syndesmosis) disruption" were identified. The medical records were reviewed for those who underwent elective syndesmosis hardware removal. The primary outcome measurements included total hospital billing charges and total hospital billing collection. Secondary outcome measurements included average individual patient operative costs and average operating room time. Fifty-six patients were included in the study. Our institution billed a total of $188,271 (USD) and collected $106,284 (55%). The average individual patient operating room cost was $3579. The average operating room time was 67.9 min. To the best of our knowledge, no study has previously provided cost associated with syndesmosis hardware removal. Our study shows elective syndesmosis hardware removal places substantial economic burden on both the patient and the healthcare system

  5. Symptomatic Hardware Removal After First Tarsometatarsal Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Kyle S; McAlister, Jeffrey E; Hyer, Christopher F; Thompson, John

    2016-01-01

    Severe hallux valgus deformity with proximal instability creates pain and deformity in the forefoot. First tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis is performed to reduce the intermetatarsal angle and stabilize the joint. Dorsomedial locking plate fixation with adjunctive lag screw fixation is used because of its superior construct strength and healing rate. Despite this, questions remain regarding whether this hardware is more prominent and more likely to need removal. The purpose of the present study was to determine the incidence of symptomatic hardware at the first tarsometatarsal joint and to determine the incidence of hardware removal resulting from prominence and/or discomfort. A review of 165 medical records of consecutive patients who had undergone first tarsometatarsal joint arthrodesis with plate fixation was conducted. The outcome of interest was the incidence of symptomatic hardware removal in patients with clinical union. The mean age was 55 (range 18.4 to 78.8) years. The mean follow-up duration was 65.9 ± 34.0 (range 7.0 to 369.0) weeks. In our cohort, 25 patients (15.2%) had undergone hardware removed because of pain and irritation. Of these patients, 18 (72.0%) had a locking plate and lag screw removed, and 7 (28.0%) had crossing lag screws removed. The fixation of a first tarsometatarsal joint fusion poses a difficult situation owing to minimal soft tissue coverage and the inherent need for robust fixation to promote fusion. Hardware can become prominent postoperatively and can become painful and/or induce cutaneous compromise. The results of the present observational investigation imply that surgeons can reasonably inform patients that the incidence of symptomatic hardware removal after first tarsometatarsal arthrodesis is approximately 15% within a median duration of 9.0 months after surgery. Copyright © 2016 American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Advanced CO2 Removal Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, John E.; Verma, Sunita; Forrest, Kindall; LeVan, M. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced CO2 Removal Technical Task Agreement covers three active areas of research and development. These include a study of the economic viability of a hybrid membrane/adsorption CO2 removal system, sorbent materials development, and construction of a database of adsorption properties of important fixed gases on several adsorbent material that may be used in CO2 removal systems. The membrane/adsorption CO2 removal system was proposed as a possible way to reduce the energy consumption of the four-bed molecular sieve system now in use. Much of the energy used by the 4BMS is used to desorb water removed in the device s desiccant beds. These beds might be replaced by a desiccating membrane that moves the water from [he incoming stream directly into the outlet stream. The approach may allow the CO2 removal beds to operate at a lower temperature. A comparison between models of the 4BMS and hybrid systems is underway at Vanderbilt University. NASA Ames Research Center has been investigating a Ag-exchanged zeolites as a possible improvement over currently used Ca and Na zeolites for CO2 removal. Silver ions will complex with n:-bonds in hydrocarbons such as ethylene, giving remarkably improved selectivity for adsorption of those materials. Bonds with n: character are also present in carbon oxides. NASA Ames is also continuing to build a database for adsorption isotherms of CO2, N2, O2, CH4, and Ar on a variety of sorbents. This information is useful for analysis of existing hardware and design of new processes.

  7. Advanced CO2 Removal Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finn, John E.; Verma, Sunita; Forrest, Kindall; LeVan, M. Douglas

    2001-01-01

    The Advanced CO2 Removal Technical Task Agreement covers three active areas of research and development. These include a study of the economic viability of a hybrid membrane/adsorption CO2 removal system, sorbent materials development, and construction of a database of adsorption properties of important fixed gases on several adsorbent material that may be used in CO2 removal systems. The membrane/adsorption CO2 removal system was proposed as a possible way to reduce the energy consumption of the four-bed molecular sieve system now in use. Much of the energy used by the 4BMS is used to desorb water removed in the device s desiccant beds. These beds might be replaced by a desiccating membrane that moves the water from [he incoming stream directly into the outlet stream. The approach may allow the CO2 removal beds to operate at a lower temperature. A comparison between models of the 4BMS and hybrid systems is underway at Vanderbilt University. NASA Ames Research Center has been investigating a Ag-exchanged zeolites as a possible improvement over currently used Ca and Na zeolites for CO2 removal. Silver ions will complex with n:-bonds in hydrocarbons such as ethylene, giving remarkably improved selectivity for adsorption of those materials. Bonds with n: character are also present in carbon oxides. NASA Ames is also continuing to build a database for adsorption isotherms of CO2, N2, O2, CH4, and Ar on a variety of sorbents. This information is useful for analysis of existing hardware and design of new processes.

  8. REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER DURING IRON REMOVAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation provides an overview of iron removal technology for the removal of arsenic from drinking water. The presentation is divided into several topic topics: Arsenic Chemistry, Treatment Selection, Treatment Options, Case Studies and Iron Removal Processes. Each topic i...

  9. 21 CFR 882.4200 - Clip removal instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4200 Clip removal instrument. (a) Identification. A clip removal instrument is a device used to remove surgical clips from the patient....

  10. Removal of organics from drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Lykins, B.W.

    1988-01-01

    Organic contamination of drinking water is basically caused by two general classes of organics; man-made synthetic organics and disinfection of naturally occurring organics (disinfection by-products). Many volatile and non-volatile synthetic organics at trace concentrations are being detected in surface and ground waters. Contaminated ground water usually contains two or more predominant organic compounds and several other identifiable ones at lesser concentrations. Surface waters, such as rivers, generally contain many organic compounds in low concentrations. The document summarizes the treatment technologies that EPA's Drinking Water Research Division (DWRD) is evaluating for removal of VOCs, SOCs, and disinfection by-products from water supplies. Carbon adsorption is effective for removing both VOCs and SOCs. Packed-tower and diffused aeration are best suited for removing VOCs. Of the technologies that show promise and are being tested at the bench and pilot scales, conventional treatment with powdered activated carbon (PAC) is effective for removing a few of the SOCs, ozone oxidation is effective for removing certain classes of VOCs and SOCs, and certain reverse osmosis membranes and ultraviolet treatment are also potentially effective against VOCs and SOCs.

  11. Design of equipment for lunar dust removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belden, Lacy; Cowan, Kevin; Kleespies, Hank; Ratliff, Ryan; Shah, Oniell; Shelburne, Kevin

    1991-01-01

    NASA has a long range goal of constructing a fully equipped, manned lunar base on the near side of the moon by the year 2015. During the Apollo Missions, lunar dust coated and fouled equipment surfaces and mechanisms exposed to the lunar environment. In addition, the atmosphere and internal surfaces of the lunar excursion module were contaminated by lunar dust which was brought in on articles passed through the airlock. Consequently, the need exists for device or appliance to remove lunar dust from surfaces of material objects used outside of the proposed lunar habitat. Additionally, several concepts were investigated for preventing the accumulation of lunar dust on mechanisms and finished surfaces. The character of the dust and the lunar environment present unique challenges for the removal of contamination from exposed surfaces. In addition to a study of lunar dust adhesion properties, the project examines the use of various energy domains for removing the dust from exposed surfaces. Also, prevention alternatives are examined for systems exposed to lunar dust. A concept utilizing a pressurized gas is presented for dust removal outside of an atmospherically controlled environment. The concept consists of a small astronaut/robotic compatible device which removes dust from contaminated surfaces by a small burst of gas.

  12. Low Temperature Catalyst for NH3 Removal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monje, Oscar; Melendez, Orlando

    2013-01-01

    Air revitalization technologies maintain a safe atmosphere inside spacecraft by the removal of C02, ammonia (NH3), and trace contaminants. NH3 onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is produced by crew metabolism, payloads, or during an accidental release of thermal control refrigerant. Currently, the ISS relies on removing NH3 via humidity condensate and the crew wears hooded respirators during emergencies. A different approach to cabin NH3 removal is to use selective catalytic oxidation (SCO), which builds on thermal catalytic oxidation concepts that could be incorporated into the existing TCCS process equipment architecture on ISS. A low temperature platinum-based catalyst (LTP-Catalyst) developed at KSC was used for converting NH3 to H20 and N2 gas by SCO. The challenge of implementing SCO is to reduce formation of undesirable byproducts like NOx (N20 and NO). Gas mixture analysis was conducted using FTIR spectrometry in the Regenerable VOC Control System (RVCS) Testbed. The RVCS was modified by adding a 66 L semi-sealed chamber, and a custom NH3 generator. The effect of temperature on NH3 removal using the LTP-Catalyst was examined. A suitable temperature was found where NH3 removal did not produce toxic NO, (NO, N02) and N20 formation was reduced.

  13. Removal of ciprofloxacin from water by birnessite.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Teh; Chang, Po-Hsiang; Wang, Ya-Siang; Tsai, Yolin; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Li, Zhaohui; Krukowski, Keith

    2013-04-15

    With more pharmaceuticals and personal care products detected in the surface and waste waters, studies on interactions between these contaminants and soils or sediments have attracted great attention. In this study, the removal of ciprofloxacin (CIP), a fluoroquinolone antibiotic, by birnessite, a layered manganese oxide, in aqueous solution was investigated by batch studies supplemented by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared analyses. Stoichiometric release of exchangeable cations accompanying CIP removal from water confirmed cation exchange as the major mechanism for CIP uptake by birnessite. Interlayer expansion after CIP adsorption on birnessite as revealed by XRD analyses indicated that intercalation contributed significantly to CIP uptake in addition to external surface adsorption. Correlation of CIP adsorption to specific surface area and cation exchange capacity suggested that the former was the limiting factor for CIP uptake. At the adsorption maximum, CIP molecules formed a monolayer on the birnessite surfaces. The adsorbed CIP could be partially removed using a cationic surfactant at a low initial concentration and mostly removed by AlCl3 at a higher initial concentration, which further supported the cation exchange mechanism for CIP removal by birnessite. The results indicated that the presence of layered Mn-oxide in the soil and waste water treatment systems may provide host for CIP accumulation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Current update of chemomechanical caries removal methods.

    PubMed

    Hamama, H; Yiu, C; Burrow, M

    2014-12-01

    Chemomechanical caries removal is an excellent method for minimally invasive caries excavation, and the removal agents are either sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl)- or enzyme-based. The NaOCl-based agents include GK-101, GK-101E (Caridex) and Carisolv, and the enzyme-based agents include Papacarie and the experimental material, Biosolv. This review outlines the changes in chemomechanical caries removal methods and focuses on recently published laboratory and clinical studies. The historical development, mechanism of action, excavation time and biological effects on pulp and dental hard tissues are described. Based on existing evidence, the currently available chemomechanical caries removal methods are viable alternatives to conventional rotary instrument methods. Chemomechanical methods could be extremely useful in very anxious, disabled and paediatric patients. It does seem some of these agents would still benefit from quicker excavation times in order to achieve more universal acceptance. However, as a means of conserving the caries-affected dentine, chemomechanical caries removal is possibly much more successful than conventional rotary instrumentation. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  15. Lasers for tattoo removal: a review.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Sonal; Elsaie, Mohamed L; Leiva, Angel; Nouri, Keyvan

    2010-09-01

    Tattoos have existed and have been used as an expression of art by man for ages-and so have the techniques to remove them. Lasers based on the principle of selective photothermolysis are now being used to remove black as well as colorful tattoos with varying successes. The commonly used lasers for tattoo removal are the Q-switched 694-nm ruby laser, the Q-switched 755-nm alexandrite laser, the 1,064-nm Nd:YAG laser, and the 532-nm Nd:YAG laser. Newer techniques and methods are evolving in tattoo removal with lasers. Choosing the right laser for the right tattoo color is necessary for a successful outcome. Our review aims to understand the principles of laser tattoo removal and their applications for different types and colors of tattoos. The review also highlights the complications that can occur such as dyspigmentation, allergic reactions, epidermal debris, ink darkening, and so on, in this process and how to prevent them.

  16. Automatic eyeglasses removal from face images.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chenyu; Liu, Ce; Shum, Heung-Yueng; Xu, Ying-Qing; Zhang, Zhengyou

    2004-03-01

    In this paper, we present an intelligent image editing and face synthesis system that automatically removes eyeglasses from an input frontal face image. Although conventional image editing tools can be used to remove eyeglasses by pixel-level editing, filling in the deleted eyeglasses region with the right content is a difficult problem. Our approach works at the object level where the eyeglasses are automatically located, removed as one piece, and the void region filled. Our system consists of three parts: eyeglasses detection, eyeglasses localization, and eyeglasses removal. First, an eye region detector, trained offline, is used to approximately locate the region of eyes, thus the region of eyeglasses. A Markov-chain Monte Carlo method is then used to accurately locate key points on the eyeglasses frame by searching for the global optimum of the posterior. Subsequently, a novel sample-based approach is used to synthesize the face image without the eyeglasses. Specifically, we adopt a statistical analysis and synthesis approach to learn the mapping between pairs of face images with and without eyeglasses from a database. Extensive experiments demonstrate that our system effectively removes eyeglasses.

  17. Healon5: comparison of 2 removal techniques.

    PubMed

    Zetterström, Charlotta; Wejde, Gisela; Taube, Mikaela

    2002-09-01

    To evaluate the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) of the rock 'n roll and behind-the-lens techniques of removing Healon(R)5 (sodium hyaluronate 2.3%). St. Erik's Eye Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden. In a prospective randomized study of 159 patients, 2 techniques to remove Healon5--rock 'n roll and behind-the-lens--were compared during cataract surgery. Cataract surgery included identical phacoemulsification performed by 1 surgeon and implantation of a silicone intraocular lens (IOL) in the capsular bag. The removal time of Healon5 was recorded. The IOP was measured preoperatively and 5 and 24 hours postoperatively. The mean IOP before surgery was 15.7 mm Hg +/- 2.8 (SD) in the rock 'n roll group and 15.9 +/- 2.7 mm Hg in the behind-the-lens group. Five hours postoperatively, the mean IOP was 25.6 +/- 10.4 mm Hg and 22.4 +/- 7.6 mm Hg, respectively; the difference between the groups was statistically significant. By 24 hours postoperatively, the mean IOP was at preoperative levels in both groups. The mean removal time of Healon5 was 50 seconds in the rock 'n roll group and 39 seconds in the behind-the-lens group; the difference between the groups was statistically significant. Results indicate that the behind-the-lens technique for removing Healon5 is quicker and safer than the rock 'n roll technique.

  18. Caries removal techniques and instrumentation: a review.

    PubMed

    Yip, H K; Samaranayake, L P

    1998-12-01

    The invention of rotary instruments not only improved the speed of caries removal but also the destruction of sound tooth substance. Hence, as early as the 1950s, there were attempts to develop a less invasive technique, such as the air-abrasive and ultrasonic technique, for the purpose of caries removal. The proposed use of air-polishing was published in the early 1980s. Subsequent better understanding of the carious process saw the introduction of the enzyme technique in the late 1980s. Other techniques, such as chemomechanical caries removal and laser systems, have also been attempted and researched during the last four decades to minimise the unnecessary removal of sound tooth substance, although these and other techniques reviewed in this article have not yet superseded the use of rotary instruments. Furthermore, the concept of micro-cavity preparation developed in recent years and the introduction of acid-etch techniques, resin bonding and the use of glass-ionomer cements have also revolutionised the principles of cavity preparation in conservative dentistry. This article reviews the development of these various caries removal techniques and instrumentation and the evolutionary philosophies of cavity preparation promulgated over the last century or so.

  19. Remote sensing imaging simulation and cloud removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xifang; Wu, Feng; Wu, Tao; Zhao, Chunyu

    2017-07-01

    Cloud obstacles obscure ground information frequently during remote sensing imaging which leads to valuable information losses. Removing clouds from a single image becomes challenging since no reference images containing cloud-free regions are available. In order to study cloud removal technologies and evaluate their performances, a method to simulate evenly and unevenly distributed clouds was proposed by analyzing the physical model of remote sensing imaging. Dual tree complex wavelet transform (DTCWT) and its features were introduced briefly. According to the frequency relationships between clouds and ground objects in remote sensing images, a novel cloud removal algorithm was proposed. The algorithm divided the cloud-contaminated image into low-level high frequency sub-bands, high-level high frequency sub-bands and low frequency sub-band by DTCWT. Low-level high frequency sub-bands were filtered to enhance the ground object information by Laplacian sharpening. The other two types of sub-bands were processed to remove clouds by cloud cover coefficient weighting (CCCW). The experiments were implemented to process cloud disturbed images produced by the proposed simulation method. The results of cloud removal from remote sensing images were analyzed. It proved the proposed algorithm is greatly superior to algorithms based on traditional wavelet transform and dark channel prior.

  20. Stability and removal of spironolactone from wastewater.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Saleh; Khamis, Mustafa; Nir, Shlomo; Lelario, Filomena; Scrano, Laura; Bufo, Sabino A; Karaman, Rafik

    2015-01-01

    Stability and removal of spironolactone (SP) from wastewater produced at Al-Quds University Campus were investigated. Kinetic studies on both pure water and wastewater coming from secondary treatment (activated sludge) demonstrated that the potassium-sparing diuretic (water pill), spironolactone, underwent degradation to its hydrolytic derivative, canrenone, in both media. The first-order hydrolysis rate of SP in activated sludge at 25°C (3.80 × 10(-5) s(-1)) was about 49-fold larger than in pure water (7.4 × 10(-7) s(-1)). The overall performance of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) installed in the University Campus was assessed showing that more than 90% of spiked SP was removed together with its newly identified metabolites. In order to look for a technology to supplement or replace ultra-filtration membranes, the effectiveness of adsorption and filtration by micelle-clay filters for removing SP was tested in comparison with activated charcoal. Batch adsorption in aqueous suspensions was well described by Langmuir isotherms, showing a better removal by the micelle-clay material. Filtration of SP water solutions by columns filled with a mixture of sand and a micelle-clay complex showed complete removal of the drug at concentrations higher than in sand/activated-charcoal filled filters.

  1. Trunnion Collar Removal Machine - Gap Analysis Table

    SciTech Connect

    M. Johnson

    2005-06-27

    The purpose of this document is to review the existing the trunnion collar removal machine against the ''Nuclear Safety Design Bases for License Application'' (NSDB) [Ref. 10] requirements and to identify codes and standards and supplemental requirements to meet these requirements. If these codes and standards can not fully meet these requirements then a ''gap'' is identified. These gaps will be identified here and addressed using the ''Trunnion Collar Removal Machine Design Development Plan'' [Ref. 15]. The codes and standards, supplemental requirements, and design development requirements for the trunnion collar removal machine are provided in the gap analysis table (Appendix A, Table 1). Because the trunnion collar removal machine is credited with performing functions important to safety (ITS) in the NSDB [Ref. 10], design basis requirements are applicable to ensure equipment is available and performs required safety functions when needed. The gap analysis table is used to identify design objectives and provide a means to satisfy safety requirements. To ensure that the trunnion collar removal machine performs required safety functions and meets performance criteria, this portion of the gap analysis tables supplies codes and standards sections and the supplemental requirements and identifies design development requirements, if needed.

  2. Arsenic removal using a biopolymer chitosan sorbent.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiing-Chang; Chung, Ying-Chien

    2006-01-01

    An agricultural waste, chitosan, was converted to bead form to evaluate the feasibility of its use to remove As(III) and As(V) from water in both batch and continuous operations. In batch tests, the effect of pH, temperature, coexisting ions, and arsenic concentrations were studied. Studies of kinetic adsorption, recovery of arsenic by desorption solution, and reuse of chitosan beads were also carried out. Additionally, wastewater containing arsenic discharged from the manufacturing of GaAs supports was treated in a continuous operation. Results indicated that chitosan beads favored the adsorption of As(V), but not As(III). The optimal pH value for As(III) and As(V) removal was near 5. The insignificant difference for As(V) and As(III) adsorption by chitosan beads was found in the 25-40 degrees C range. Ion coexistence below 50 mg/L did not affect arsenic removal. The optimal desorption solution for the arsenic recovery was H2SO4 with a 71% efficiency for As(V), which was amenable to efficient regeneration for multiple reuse (about 15 times). In continuous tests, the chitosan bead column exhibited excellent arsenic removal from actual wastewater without any pretreatment. The results provide strong evidence of the promise the application of chitosan bead has for arsenic removal.

  3. Biomass fermentation to augment biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Q; Oleszkiewicz, J A

    2010-01-01

    A combination of a lab scale biological phosphorus removal sequencing batch reactor (called mother reactor) and a side-stream biomass fermenter was setup. It was found that when fermented biomass was recirculated back into the mother reactor as volatile fatty acid (VFA) supplement, the phosphate concentration in the effluent decreased from 6 in the control reactor to 4.5 mgL(-1) in the effluent from mother reactor. The addition of the fermentation effluent into the mother reactor increased the phosphate and ammonium loads and resulted in deterioration of nitrification. Phosphorus removal and nitrification improved when the fermented biomass was separated from the liquid phase using an up-flow system, followed by the addition of MgO to the supernatant to precipitate phosphate and ammonium. Phosphorus removal was further improved by delaying the time of VFA addition into mother reactor during the anaerobic period as soon as denitrification ceased. Biomass fermentation was found to generate 157 mg VFA-COD by fermenting 1g of biomass at a solids retention time of 5d. Acetate (78% of generated COD) and propionic acid (10%) were the major components of the produced VFA. It was concluded that biomass fermentation to augment a biological nutrient removal process can be effective if generated phosphate and ammonia are removed, e.g. through struvite precipitation.

  4. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors from Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Gregory J

    1997-05-12

    Column biooxidation tests with Kentucky coal confirmed results of earlier shake flask tests showing significant removal from the coal of arsenic, selenium, cobalt, manganese, nickel and cadmium. Rates of pyrite biooxidation in Kentucky coal were only slightly more than half the rates found previously for Indiana and Pittsburgh coals. Removal of pyrite from Pittsburgh coal by ferric ion oxidation slows markedly as ferrous ions accumulate in solution, requiring maintenance of high redox potentials in processes designed for removal of pyrite and hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors by circulation of ferric solutions through coal. The pyrite oxidation rates obtained in these tests were used by Unifield Engineering to support the conceptual designs for alternative pyrite and HAP precursor bioleaching processes for the phase 2 pilot plant. Thermophilic microorganisms were tested to determine if mercury could be mobilized from coal under elevated growth temperatures. There was no evidence for mercury removal from coal under these conditions. However, the activity of the organisms may have liberated mercury physically. It is also possible that the organisms dissolved mercury and it readsorbed to the clay preferentially. Both of these possibilities are undergoing further testing. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory's (INEEL) slurry column reactor was operated and several batches of feed coal, product coal, waste solids and leach solutions were submitted to LBL for HAP precursor analysis. Results to date indicate significant removal of mercury, arsenic and other HAP precursors in the combined physical-biological process.

  5. Adsorption and removal of graphene dispersants.

    PubMed

    Irin, Fahmida; Hansen, Matthew J; Bari, Rozana; Parviz, Dorsa; Metzler, Shane D; Bhattacharia, Sanjoy K; Green, Micah J

    2015-05-15

    We demonstrate three different techniques (dialysis, vacuum filtration, and spray drying) for removal of dispersants from liquid-exfoliated graphene. We evaluate these techniques for elimination of dispersants from both the bulk liquid phase and from the graphene surface. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) confirms dispersant removal by these treatments. Vacuum filtration (driving by convective mass transfer) is the most effective method of dispersant removal, regardless of the type of dispersant, removing up to ∼95 wt.% of the polymeric dispersant with only ∼7.4 wt.% decrease in graphene content. Dialysis also removes a significant fraction (∼70 wt.% for polymeric dispersants) of un-adsorbed dispersants without disturbing the dispersion quality. Spray drying produces re-dispersible, crumpled powder samples and eliminates much of the unabsorbed dispersants. We also show that there is no rapid desorption of dispersants from the graphene surface. In addition, electrical conductivity measurements demonstrate conductivities one order of magnitude lower for graphene drop-cast films (where excess dispersants are present) than for vacuum filtered films, confirming poor inter-sheet connectivity when excess dispersants are present.

  6. Value analysis for orbital debris removal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vance, Leonard; Mense, Allan

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents methods for deriving first order monetary benefits from removing individual debris objects in high value sun-synchronous orbits. These analyses are intended to serve as an economic metric by which competing debris removal methods can be evaluated. Orbital debris flux level estimates from NASA’s updated ORDEM2000 model are used to establish small debris population estimates. When combined with the replacement cost of satellites in sun-synchronous orbit, the present value of removing individual small (0.5 cm-2.0 cm) objects from orbit is derived. Large object removal value is more complicated due to the necessity of incorporating effects of impact fragmentation observed with any object about 10 cm or larger. Breakup models published by NASA (Johnson, N.L., Krisko, P.H., Liou, J.C., Anz-Meador, P.D. NASA’s new breakup model of evolve 4.0. Adv. Space Res. 28 (9), 1377-1384, 2001.) provide a basis for establishing fragmentation statistics. Assuming the current population of operational sun-synchronous satellites, removal value is then derived via present value analysis.

  7. Biofilm removal with a dental water jet.

    PubMed

    Gorur, Amita; Lyle, Deborah M; Schaudinn, Christoph; Costerton, John W

    2009-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a dental water jet on plaque biofilm removal using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Eight teeth with advanced aggressive periodontal disease were extracted. Ten thin slices were cut from four teeth. Two slices were used as the control. Eight were inoculated with saliva and incubated for 4 days. Four slices were treated using a standard jet tip, and four slices were treated using an orthodontic jet tip. The remaining four teeth were treated with the orthodontic jet tip but were not inoculated with saliva to grow new plaque biofilm. All experimental teeth were treated using a dental water jet for 3 seconds on medium pressure. The standard jet tip removed 99.99% of the salivary (ex vivo) biofilm, and the orthodontic jet tip removed 99.84% of the salivary biofilm. Observation of the remaining four teeth by the naked eye indicated that the orthodontic jet tip removed significant amounts of calcified (in vivo) plaque biofilm. This was confirmed by SEM evaluations. The Waterpik dental water jet (Water Pik, Inc, Fort Collins, CO) can remove both ex vivo and in vivo plaque biofilm significantly.

  8. Mercury removal from solid mixed waste

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.D.; Morrissey, M.; Chava, K.K.; Chao, K.

    1994-12-31

    The removal of mercury from mixed wastes is an essential step in eliminating the temporary storage of large inventories of mixed waste throughout the Department of Energy (DOE) complex. Currently thermal treatment has been identified as a baseline technology and is being developed as part of the DOE Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Since thermal treatment will not be applicable to all mercury containing mixed waste and the removal of mercury prior to thermal treatment may be desirable, laboratory studies have been initiated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop alternative remediation technologies capable of removing mercury from certain mixed waste. This paper describes laboratory investigations of the KI/I{sub 2} leaching processes to determine the applicability of this process to mercury containing solid mixed waste.

  9. Laser Removal of Protective Treatments on Limestone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Heras, M.; Rebollar, E.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.; Oujja, M.; Fort, R.; Castillejo, M.

    This work presents an investigation of the laser removal of polymeric materials acting as consolidants and water-repellents on limestone used on buildings of architectural and artistic value. The removal of the consolidant Paraloid B-72 and the water-repellent product Tegosivin HL-100, applied on samples of Colmenarand Bateig limestone, was studied as a function of the laser wavelength, by using the four harmonics of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (1064, 532, 355 and 266 nm). Elimination of the coatings and subsequent surface modifications were monitored through colorimetry, roughness measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The fundamental laser radiation was effective in removing the treatments, although thermal alteration processes were induced on the calcite crystals of the limestone. The best results were obtained by irradiation in the near UV at 355 nm.

  10. Bonded Invar Clip Removal Using Foil Heaters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pontius, James T.; Tuttle, James G.

    2009-01-01

    A new process uses local heating and temperature monitoring to soften the adhesive under Invar clips enough that they can be removed without damaging the composite underneath or other nearby bonds. Two 1x1 in. (approx.2.5x2.5 cm), 10-W/sq in. (approx.1.6-W/sq cm), 80-ohm resistive foil Kapton foil heaters, with pressure-sensitive acrylic adhesive backing, are wired in parallel to a 50-V, 1-A limited power supply. At 1 A, 40 W are applied to the heater pair. The temperature is monitored in the clip radius and inside the tube, using a dual thermocouple readout. Several layers of aluminum foil are used to speed the heat up, allowing clips to be removed in less than five minutes. The very local heating via the foil heaters allows good access for clip removal and protects all underlying and adjacent materials.

  11. Biochemical Removal of HAP Precursors From Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, G.; Tucker, L.; Richards, J.

    1997-07-01

    This project addresses DOE`s interest in advanced concepts for controlling emissions of air toxics from coal-fired utility boilers. We are determining the feasibility of developing a biochemical process for the precombustion removal of substantial percentages of 13 inorganic hazardous air pollutant (HAP) precursors from coal. These HAP precursors are Sb, As, Be, Cd, Cr, Cl, Co, F, Pb, Hg, Mn, Ni, and Se. Although rapid physical coal cleaning is done routinely in preparation plants, biochemical processes for removal of HAP precursors from coal potentially offer advantages of deeper cleaning, more specificity, and less coal loss. Compared to chemical processes for coal cleaning, biochemical processes potentially offer lower costs and milder process conditions. Pyrite oxidizing bacteria, most notably Thiobacillusferrooxidans, are being evaluated in this project for their ability to remove HAP precursors from U.S. coals.

  12. Nitrate removal from drinking water -- Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kapoor, A.; Viraraghavan, T.

    1997-04-01

    Nitrate concentrations in surface water and especially in ground water have increased in Canada, the US, Europe, and other areas of the world. This trend has raised concern because nitrates cause methemoglobiinemia in infants. Several treatment processes including ion exchange, biological denitrification, chemical denitrification, reverse osmosis, electrodialysis, and catalytic denitrification can remove nitrates from water with varying degrees of efficiency, cost, and ease of operation. Available technical data, experience, and economics indicate that ion exchange and biological denitrification are more acceptable for nitrate removal than reverse osmosis. Ion exchange is more viable for ground water while biological denitrification is the preferred alternative for surface water. This paper reviews the developments in the field of nitrate removal processes.

  13. Spinal subdural hematoma following meningioma removal operation.

    PubMed

    Jun, Hyo Sub; Oh, Jae Keun; Park, Young Seok; Song, Joon Ho

    2014-03-01

    Although blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after an intracranial operation can occur, the development of a symptomatic spinal hematoma after craniotomy has been anecdotally reported and it is uncommon reported after a supratentorial meningioma removal operation. We report a case of spinal subdural hematoma following a supratentorial meningioma removal operation and discuss the mechanism of spinal subdural hematoma (SSDH) development. A 54-year-old woman presented with lumbago and radicular pain on both legs 4 days after a right parietooccipital craniotomy for meningioma removal. Only the straight leg raising sign was positive on neurologic examination but the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a lumbosacral spinal subdural hematoma. The patient received serial lumbar tapping, after which her symptoms showed improvement.

  14. Spinal Subdural Hematoma Following Meningioma Removal Operation

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyo Sub; Oh, Jae Keun; Park, Young Seok

    2014-01-01

    Although blood contamination of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) after an intracranial operation can occur, the development of a symptomatic spinal hematoma after craniotomy has been anecdotally reported and it is uncommon reported after a supratentorial meningioma removal operation. We report a case of spinal subdural hematoma following a supratentorial meningioma removal operation and discuss the mechanism of spinal subdural hematoma (SSDH) development. A 54-year-old woman presented with lumbago and radicular pain on both legs 4 days after a right parietooccipital craniotomy for meningioma removal. Only the straight leg raising sign was positive on neurologic examination but the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a lumbosacral spinal subdural hematoma. The patient received serial lumbar tapping, after which her symptoms showed improvement. PMID:24891866

  15. Fatal Phenol Toxicity Following Attempted Tattoo Removal.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huang; Li, Shu-Hua; Byard, Roger W

    2016-07-01

    Tattoo removal is increasingly required as the number of, particularly young, people acquiring tattoos is increasing. A 21-year-old man is reported who underwent attempted removal of large dragon tattoo utilizing a tattoo machine that injected a phenol-containing solution. At the end of the 3-h procedure, he collapsed and died. At autopsy, large areas of white skin discoloration with focal necrosis and sloughing were present overlying areas of previous tattooing. Histological examination showed collections of eosinophilic fluid with a minimal chronic inflammatory infiltrate in better preserved areas, with focal areas of dermal necrosis. Toxicology was positive for phenol in cardiac blood and liver tissue. There were no underlying organic disease or injuries present which could have caused or contributed to death. This idiosyncratic method of tattoo removal involving subcutaneous injection of phenol had resulted in death most likely from cardiotoxicity. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  16. Removal of heavy metals from waste streams

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, M.D.; Kozaruk, J.M.; Melvin, M.; Gardocki, S.M.

    1988-07-19

    A method for removing heavy metals from effluent water is described comprising performing sequentially the following steps: (a) adding from 7-333 ppm of an anionic surfactant to the effluent water to provide coagulatable heavy metal ion; (b) adjusting the effluent water pH to within the range of 8 to 10, (c) providing from 10-200 ppm of a cationic coagulant to coagulate the heavy metal ion, (d) providing from 0.3 to 5.0 ppm of a polymeric flocculant whereby a heavy metal containing floc is formed for removal from the effluent water, and, (e) then removing the floc from the effluent water, wherein the anionic surfactant is sodium lauryl ether sulfate. The cationic coagulant is selected from the group consisting of diallyl dimethylammonium chloride polymer, epichlorohydrin dimethylamine polymer, ethylene amine polymer, polyaluminum chloride, and alum; and the flocculant is an acrylamide/sodium acrylate copolymer having an RSV greater than 23.

  17. Contamination removal using various solvents and methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeppsen, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Critical and non-critical bonding surfaces must be kept free of contamination that may cause potential unbonds. For example, an aft-dome section of a redesigned solid rocket motor that had been contaminated with hydraulic oil did not appear to be sufficiently cleaned when inspected by the optically stimulated electron emission process (Con Scan) after it had been cleaned using a hand double wipe cleaning method. As a result, current and new cleaning methodologies as well as solvent capability in removing various contaminant materials were reviewed and testing was performed. Bonding studies were also done to verify that the cleaning methods used in removing contaminants provide an acceptable bonding surface. The removal of contaminants from a metal surface and the strength of subsequent bonds were tested using the Martin Marietta and double-wipe cleaning methods. Results are reported.

  18. General technique of third molar removal.

    PubMed

    Farish, Sam E; Bouloux, Gary F

    2007-02-01

    The most commonly performed surgical procedure in most oral and maxillofacial surgery practices is the removal of impacted third molars. Extensive training, skill, and experience allow this procedure to be performed in an atraumatic fashion with local anesthesia, sedation, or general anesthesia. The decision to remove symptomatic third molars is not usually difficult, but the decision to remove asymptomatic third molars is sometimes less clear and requires clinical experience. A wide body of literature (discussed elsewhere in this issue) attempts to establish clinical practice guidelines for dealing with impacted teeth. Data is beginning to accumulate from third molar studies, which hopefully will provide surgeons and their patients with evidence-based guidelines regarding elective third molar surgery.

  19. System for removal of arsenic from water

    DOEpatents

    Moore, Robert C.; Anderson, D. Richard

    2004-11-23

    Systems for removing arsenic from water by addition of inexpensive and commonly available magnesium oxide, magnesium hydroxide, calcium oxide, or calcium hydroxide to the water. The hydroxide has a strong chemical affinity for arsenic and rapidly adsorbs arsenic, even in the presence of carbonate in the water. Simple and commercially available mechanical systems for removal of magnesium hydroxide particles with adsorbed arsenic from drinking water can be used, including filtration, dissolved air flotation, vortex separation, or centrifugal separation. A system for continuous removal of arsenic from water is provided. Also provided is a system for concentrating arsenic in a water sample to facilitate quantification of arsenic, by means of magnesium or calcium hydroxide adsorption.

  20. The removal of iron from molten aluminium

    SciTech Connect

    Donk, H.M. van der; Nijhof, G.H.; Castelijns, C.A.M.

    1995-12-31

    In this work an overview is given about the techniques available for the removal of metallic impurities from molten aluminium. The overview is focused on the removal of iron. Also, some experimental results are given about the creation of iron-rich intermetallic compounds in an aluminium system, which are subsequently removed by gravity segregation and filtration techniques. This work is part of an ongoing research project of three major European aluminium companies who are co-operating on the subject of recycling of aluminium packaging materials recovered from household waste by means of Eddy-Current techniques. Using this technique the pick-up of some contaminating metals, particularly iron, is almost unavoidable.

  1. Method of making thermally removable polyurethanes

    DOEpatents

    Loy, Douglas A.; Wheeler, David R.; McElhanon, James R.; Saunders, Randall S.; Durbin-Voss, Marvie Lou

    2002-01-01

    A method of making a thermally-removable polyurethane material by heating a mixture of a maleimide compound and a furan compound, and introducing alcohol and isocyanate functional groups, where the alcohol group and the isocyanate group reacts to form the urethane linkages and the furan compound and the maleimide compound react to form the thermally weak Diels-Alder adducts that are incorporated into the backbone of the urethane linkages during the formation of the polyurethane material at temperatures from above room temperature to less than approximately 90.degree. C. The polyurethane material can be easily removed within approximately an hour by heating to temperatures greater than approximately 90.degree. C. in a polar solvent. The polyurethane material can be used in protecting electronic components that may require subsequent removal of the solid material for component repair, modification or quality control.

  2. Removing of Mixed Coatings by Plasma Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassallo, E.; Caniello, R.; Deambrosis, S.; Dellasega, D.; Ghezzi, F.; Laguardia, L.; Miorin, E.; Passoni, M.

    2013-08-01

    Next generation tokamaks offer the possibility of highly efficient energy generation from the fusion reaction of hydrogen isotopes. In tokamak operation, the core plasma interaction with the wall materials could produce tiles erosion. Redeposition of the eroded materials (C-W-Be) leads to an increase in the allowable tritium load if the coatings are not periodically removed. Amongst removal methods, plasma based techniques employing Ar, H2 gas have been investigated. Plasma cleaning has been carried out on hydrogenated carbon and carbon-tungsten coatings. It has been shown that at a RF power density of 1.3 W/cm2 (pressure of 1 Pa), the plasma cleaning was effective in removing the coatings. Details of further work in this research activity will be presented.

  3. Gasless laparoscopic removal of retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Viani, M P; Poggi, R V; Pinto, A; Maruotti, R A

    1995-02-01

    Leiomyosarcoma is a rare malignant tumor originating from the smooth muscular tissue in any part of the organism. The only therapy is its complete removal. We describe herein the operative treatment of a retroperitoneal leiomyosarcoma with gasless laparoscopic complete removal. The procedure was successfully performed in a consenting woman with an abdominal mass. Gasless laparoscopic removal was performed with a mechanical retractor (Laparolift, Origin Medsystem Inc.), obviating the creation of the pneumoperitoneum and of the sealed environment. The technique is a simple, safe, and effective surgical method. Gasless technique guarantees a clear vision, makes possible continuous suction of smoke and fluids, and allows the use of conventional instruments and easy management of suturing. The present case has proved to be another abdominal procedure that can be carried out with all the advantages of gasless miniinvasive surgery.

  4. Successful laparoscopic removal of an ingested toothbrush.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Karim; Shaunak, Shalin; Kalsi, Sarandeep; Nehra, Dhiren

    2013-07-01

    Most ingested foreign bodies will pass through the gastrointestinal tract without any problems. On the other hand long, slender objects such as a toothbrush will rarely be able to negotiate the angulated and fixed retroperitoneal duodenal loop. Spontaneous toothbrush passage has never been described and therefore endoscopic or surgical removal is always required. Here we describe an asymptomatic young female presenting to out-patient clinic with a history of unintentional toothbrush ingestion 4 years prior. Endoscopic removal was unsuccessful because the toothbrush was partially embedded in to the gastric mucosa. We describe the second case to date of laparoscopic removal of a toothbrush via a gastrotomy with subsequent intra-corporeal repair of the defect.

  5. Nasal foreign body removal in children.

    PubMed

    Kiger, James R; Brenkert, Timothy E; Losek, Joseph D

    2008-11-01

    Nasal foreign bodies in children are often managed in the pediatric emergency department. The child is usually between 2 and 4 years old, and the foreign body is most commonly a plastic toy or bead. Nasal foreign bodies are removed by a number of techniques. Positive-pressure expulsion is accomplished by orally applied pressure via a parent's mouth or an Ambu bag or by nasally applied pressure via a catheter or an oxygen source. The object can be washed out with nasally applied saline. Direct mechanical extraction is possible with a variety of tools, including forceps, hooks, or balloon-tipped catheters. Each method carries its own risks and benefits. Serious complications of nasal foreign bodies include posterior dislodgement and aspiration, trauma caused by the object itself or removal attempts, infection, and choanal stenosis. Magnets and button batteries require emergent removal as they carry the risk of septal perforation or necrosis, which may develop within a relatively short time.

  6. Iron removal from brackish water by electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Mourad Ben Sik; Ennigrou, Dorra Jellouli; Hamrouni, Béchir

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work is to study the removal of iron from brackish water using electrodialysis (ED). Experiments were carried out on synthetic brackish water solutions using a laboratory-scale ED cell. The influence of several parameters on process efficiency was studied. This efficiency is expressed by the removal rate, transport flux, current efficiency and power consumption. The applied voltage, the feed flow rate, the pH and iron initial concentration ofthe feed solution have a significant effect on the process efficiency and mainly on the iron transfer from dilute to concentrate compartment. Nevertheless, feed ionic strength does not have an effect on the iron removal. However, the effect is only noted on the specific power consumption.

  7. Pegasus International, Inc. coating removal systems

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The Pegasus Coating Removal System (PCRS) was demonstrated at Florida International University (FIU) where it was being evaluated for efficiency and cost. In conjunction with the FIU testing demonstration, a human factors assessment was conducted to assess the hazards and associated safety and health issues of concern for workers utilizing this technology. The PCRS is a chemical paste that is applied to the surface using a brush, roller, or airless sprayer. After the type of PCRS, thickness, and dwell time have been determined, a laminated backed material is placed on top of the chemical paste to slow down the drying process and to provide a mechanism to strip-off the chemical. After the dwell time is reached, the chemical substrate can be removed. Scrapers may be used to break-loose the layers as necessary or to break-loose the layers that are not removed when the laminated paper is picked up. Residue may also be cleaned off of the surface with a damp sponge with an agitating motion, absorbent sponges, or a vacuum, as needed. The paint and removal agent is then placed in drums for disposal at a later time. During the assessment sampling was conducted for organic vapors and general observational techniques were conducted for ergonomics. Recommendations for improved worker safety and health during application and removal of the PCRS include: (1) work practices that reflect avoidance of exposure or reducing the risk of exposure; (2) assuring all PPE and equipment are compatible with the chemicals being used; (3) work practices that reduce the worker`s need to walk on the slippery surface caused by the chemical or the use of special anti-slip soles; (4) careful control of overspray (if a spray application is used); and (5) the use of ergonomically designed long-handled tools to apply and remove the chemical (to alleviate some of the ergonomic concerns).

  8. Hydraulic gradient control for groundwater contaminant removal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Atwood D.; Gorelick, S.M.

    1985-01-01

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal near Denver, Colarado, U.S.A., is used as a realistic setting for a hypothetical test of a procedure that plans the hydraulic stabilization and removal of a groundwater contaminant plume. A two-stage planning procedure successfully selects the best wells and their optimal pumping/recharge schedules to contain the plume while a well or system of wells within the plume removes the contaminated water. In stage I, a combined groundwater flow and solute transport model is used to simulate contaminant removal under an assumed velocity field. The result is the approximated plume boundary location as a function of time. In stage II, a linear program, which includes a groundwater flow model as part of the set of constraints, determines the optimal well selection and their optimal pumping/recharge schedules by minimizing total pumping and recharge. The simulation-management model eliminates wells far from the plume perimeter and activates wells near the perimeter as the plume decreases in size. This successfully stablizes the hydraulic gradient during aquifer cleanup.The Rocky Mountain Arsenal near Denver, Colorado, USA, is used as a realistic setting for a hypothetical test of a procedure that plans the hydraulic stabilization and removal of a groundwater contaminant plume. A two-stage planning procedure successfully selects the best wells and their optimal pumping/recharge schedules to contain the plume while a well or system of wells within the plume removes the contaminated water. In stage I, a combined groundwater flow and solute transport model is used to simulate contaminant removal under an assumed velocity field. The result is the approximated plume boundary location as a function of time. In stage II, a linear program, which includes a groundwater flow model as part of the set of constraints, determines the optimal well selection and their optimal pumping/recharge schedules by minimizing total pumping and recharge. Refs.

  9. Boron removal by electrocoagulation and recovery.

    PubMed

    Isa, Mohamed Hasnain; Ezechi, Ezerie Henry; Ahmed, Zubair; Magram, Saleh Faraj; Kutty, Shamsul Rahman Mohamed

    2014-03-15

    This work investigated the removal of boron from wastewater and its recovery by electrocoagulation and hydrothermal mineralization methods respectively. The experimental design was developed using Box-Behnken Model. An initial study was performed based on four preselected variables (pH, current density, concentration and time) using synthetic wastewater. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to evaluate the effect of process variables and their interaction on boron removal. The optimum conditions were obtained as pH 6.3, current density 17.4 mA/cm(2), and time 89 min. At these applied optimum conditions, 99.7% boron removal from an initial concentration of 10.4 mg/L was achieved. The process was effectively optimized by RSM with a desirability value of 1.0. The results showed that boron removal efficiency enhanced with increase in current density and treatment time. Removal efficiency also increased when pH was increased from 4 to 7 and subsequently decreased at pH 10. Adsorption kinetics study revealed that the reaction followed pseudo second order kinetic model; evidenced by high correlation and goodness of fit. Thermodynamics study showed that mechanism of boron adsorption was chemisorption and the reaction was endothermic in nature. Furthermore, the adsorption process was spontaneous as indicated by negative values of the adsorption free energy. Treatment of real produced water using electrocoagulation resulted in 98% boron removal. The hydrothermal mineralization study showed that borate minerals (Inyoite, Takadaite and Nifontovite) can be recovered as recyclable precipitate from electrocoagulation flocs of produced water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Electrolytic removal of nitrate from crop residues.

    PubMed

    Colon, G; Sager, J C

    2001-01-01

    The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) resource recovery system, which is a waste-processing system,uses aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors to recover plants nutrients and secondary foods from the inedible biomass. Crop residues contain a significant amount of nitrate. There are actually two major problems concerning nitrate: 1) both CELSS biomass production and resource recovery consume large quantities of nitric acid, and 2) nitrate causes a variety of problems in both aerobic and anaerobic bioreactors. The nitrate anion causes several problems in the resource recovery system in such a way that removal prior to the process is highly desirable. The technique proposed to remove nitrate from potato inedible biomass leachate and to satisfy the nitric acid demand was a four-compartment electrolytic cell. In order to establish the electrolytic cell performance variables, experiments were carried out using potato crop residue aqueous leachate as the diluate solution. The variables studied were the potato biomass leachate composition and electrical properties, preparation of compartment solutions to be compatible with the electrolytic system, limiting current density, nutrients removal rates as a function of current density, fluid hydrodynamic conditions, applied voltage, and process operating time during batch recirculation operation. Results indicated that the limiting current density (maximum operating current density) was directly proportional to the solution electrical conductivity an a power function of the linear fluid velocity in the range between 0.083 and 0.403 m/s. During the electrolytic cell once-through operation, the nitrate, potassium, and other nutrient removal rates were proportional to the current density and were inversely proportional to fluid velocity. The removal of monovalent ions was found to be higher than divalent ones. Under batch recirculation operation at constant applied voltage of 4.5 and 8.5 V, it was found that the nutrient

  11. Paracetamol removal in subsurface flow constructed wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranieri, Ezio; Verlicchi, Paola; Young, Thomas M.

    2011-07-01

    SummaryIn this study two pilot scale Horizontal Subsurface Flow Constructed Wetlands (HSFCWs) near Lecce, Italy, planted with different macrophytes ( Phragmites australis and Typha latifolia) and an unplanted control were assessed for their effectiveness in removing paracetamol. Residence time distributions (RTDs) for the two beds indicated that the Typha bed was characterized by a void volume fraction (porosity) of 0.16 and exhibited more ideal plug flow behavior (Pe = 29.7) than the Phragmites bed (Pe = 26.7), which had similar porosity. The measured hydraulic residence times in the planted beds were 35.8 and 36.7 h when the flow was equal to 1 m 3/d. The Phragmites bed exhibited a range of paracetamol removals from 51.7% for a Hydraulic Loading Rate (HLR) of 240 mm/d to 87% with 120 mm/d HLR and 99.9% with 30 mm/d. The Typha bed showed a similar behavior with percentages of removal slightly lower, ranging from 46.7% (HLR of 240 mm/d) to >99.9% (hydraulic loading rate of 30 mm/d). At the same HLR values the unplanted bed removed between 51.3% and 97.6% of the paracetamol. In all three treatments the paracetamol removal was higher with flow of 1 m 3/d and an area of approx. 7.5 m 2 (half bed) than in the case of flow equal to 0.5 m 3/d with a surface treatment of approx. 3.75 m 2. A first order model for paracetamol removal was evaluated and half lives of 5.16 to 10.2 h were obtained.

  12. Method for biologically removing nitrogen from wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, P.

    1993-05-25

    An activated sludge process for biologically removing BOD and nitrogen from wastewater is described comprising the steps of: (a) forming mixed liquor; (b) transferring the mixed liquor through a first nitrogen removal stage by directing the mixed liquor into and through first anoxic and aerobic treatment zones including maintaining the mixed liquor under anoxic conditions within the first treatment zone for a specified period to permit denitrifying organisms to reduce a portion of the nitrates and nitrites present in the mixed liquor to elemental nitrogen, transferring a portion of the mixed liquor from the first anoxic zone to the first aerobic zone and aerating the mixed liquor for a sufficient time period for nitrifying organisms to convert a portion of the ammonia and organic nitrogen in the mixed liquor into nitrates and nitrites, and circulating the mixed liquor back and forth between the first anoxic zone and the first aerobic zone of the first nitrogen removal stage to effectuate denitrification and nitrification; (c) transferring mixed liquor from the first nitrogen removal stage to a second nitrogen removal stage having a second anoxic zone and a second aerobic zone, and circulating the mixed liquor back and forth between the second anoxic zone and the second aerobic zone of the second stage to effectuate further denitrification and nitrification; (d) transferring the mixed liquor treated in the first and second nitrogen removal stages to a final clarifier where settled sludge is separated from purified supernatant; and (e) recycling at least a portion of the settled sludge to form the mixed liquor.

  13. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. PROJECT SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at Climax, MN (EPA/600/R-06/152). The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico iron removal system in removing arsenic to meet the new arsenic maximum co...

  14. Removal of arsenic and iron removal from drinking water using coagulation and biological treatment.

    PubMed

    Pramanik, Biplob Kumar; Pramanik, Sagor Kumar; Suja, Fatihah

    2016-02-01

    Effects of biological activated carbon (BAC), biological aerated filter (BAF), alum coagulation and Moringa oleifera coagulation were investigated to remove iron and arsenic contaminants from drinking water. At an initial dose of 5 mg/L, the removal efficiency for arsenic and iron was 63% and 58% respectively using alum, and 47% and 41% respectively using Moringa oleifera. The removal of both contaminants increased with the increase in coagulant dose and decrease in pH. Biological processes were more effective in removing these contaminants than coagulation. Compared to BAF, BAC gave greater removal of both arsenic and iron, removing 85% and 74%, respectively. Longer contact time for both processes could reduce the greater concentration of arsenic and iron contaminants. The addition of coagulation (at 5 mg/L dosage) and a biological process (with 15 or 60 min contact time) could significantly increase removal efficiency, and the maximum removal was observed for the combination of alum and BAC treatment (60 min contact time), with 100% and 98.56% for arsenic and iron respectively. The reduction efficiency of arsenic and iron reduced with the increase in the concentration of dissolved organics in the feedwater due to the adsorption competition between organic molecules and heavy metals.

  15. EFFECTIVE REMOVAL METHOD OF ILLEGAL PARKING BICYCLES BASED ON THE QUANTITATIVE CHANGE AFTER REMOVAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toi, Satoshi; Kajita, Yoshitaka; Nishikawa, Shuichirou

    This study aims to find an effective removal method of illegal parking bicycles based on the analysis on the numerical change of illegal bicycles. And then, we built the time and space quantitative distribution model of illegal parking bicycles after removal, considering the logistic increase of illegal parking bicycles, several behaviors concerning of direct return or indirect return to the original parking place and avoidance of the original parking place, based on the investigation of real condition of illegal bicycle parking at TENJIN area in FUKUOKA city. Moreover, we built the simulation model including above-mentioned model, and calculated the number of illegal parking bicycles when we change the removal frequency and the number of removal at one time. The next interesting four results were obtained. (1) Recovery speed from removal the illegal parking bicycles differs by each zone. (2) Thorough removal is effective to keep the number of illegal parking bicycles lower level. (3) Removal at one zone causes the increase of bicycles at other zones where the level of illegal parking is lower. (4) The relationship between effects and costs of removing the illegal parking bicycles was clarified.

  16. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL. USEPA DEMONSTRATION PROJECT AT CLIMAX, MN. PROJECT SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This document is an eight page summary of the final report on arsenic demonstration project at Climax, MN (EPA/600/R-06/152). The objectives of the project are to evaluate the effectiveness of the Kinetico iron removal system in removing arsenic to meet the new arsenic maximum co...

  17. Dragline bucket wire rope terminations removal

    SciTech Connect

    Derby, G.K.

    1984-02-01

    Paper presents project results investigating current techniques for dragline wire rope removal and the development of less hazardous means of performing the task. The cannon is the most prevalent method used in American surface mines. A cannon test program was conducted that used 40-and 50-grain primer cord to establish force produced using a 56-pound projectile. Socket/wedges were separated to establish separation force data. Two alternative removal methods, pendulum ram and portable hydraulic pusher, were developed and tested. Both provide sufficient force to effect separations under normal conditions on draglines with up to 78cubic yard buckets.

  18. Non-Thermal Removal of Gaseous Pollutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srivastava, S.; McGowan, J. William; Chiu, K. C. Ray

    1995-01-01

    The removal of fluorine based exhaust gases such as CFC's, PFC's, NF3, and SF6 used for plasma etching of and deposition on semi-conductors is a subject of increasing interest because of safety, air pollution, and global warming issues. Conventional treatment methods for removing exhaust gas pollutants are wet scrubbing, carbon and resin adsorption, catalytic oxidation, and thermal incineration. However, there are drawbacks associated with each of these methods which include difficulties in implementation, problems with the disposal of solid and liquid pollutant waste, large water and fuel consumption, and additional pollutants such as NOx emissions which are generated in thermal incineration processes.

  19. Primer removal during mammalian mitochondrial DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Uhler, Jay P; Falkenberg, Maria

    2015-10-01

    The small circular mitochondrial genome in mammalian cells is replicated by a dedicated replisome, defects in which can cause mitochondrial disease in humans. A fundamental step in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) replication and maintenance is the removal of the RNA primers needed for replication initiation. The nucleases RNase H1, FEN1, DNA2, and MGME1 have been implicated in this process. Here we review the role of these nucleases in the light of primer removal pathways in mitochondria, highlight associations with disease, as well as consider the implications for mtDNA replication initiation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Sorbents for mercury removal from flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Granite, Evan J.; Hargis, Richard A.; Pennline, Henry W.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the various promoters and sorbents examined for the removal of mercury from flue gas is presented. Commercial sorbent processes are described along with the chemistry of the various sorbent-mercury interactions. Novel sorbents for removing mercury from flue gas are suggested. Since activated carbons are expensive, alternate sorbents and/or improved activated carbons are needed. Because of their lower cost, sorbent development work can focus on base metal oxides and halides. Additionally, the long-term sequestration of the mercury on the sorbent needs to be addressed. Contacting methods between the flue gas and the sorbent also merit investigation.

  1. Removal of Burkholderia cepacia biofilms with oxidants.

    PubMed

    Koenig, D W; Mishra, S K; Pierson, D L

    1995-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect the water system aboard US space shuttles and is the anticipated biocide for the international space station. Water quality on spacecraft must be maintained at the highest possible levels for the safety of the crew. Furthermore, the treatment process used to maintain the quality of water on research must be robust and operate for long periods with minimal crew intervention. Biofilms are recalcitrant and pose a major threat with regard to chronic contamination of spacecraft water systems. We measured the effectiveness of oxidizing biocides on the removal and regrowth of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia biofilms. B. cepacia, isolated from the water distribution system of the space shuttle Discovery, was grown in continuous culture to produce a bacterial contamination source for biofilm formation and removal studies. A 10(7) CFU ml-1 B. cepacia suspension, in distilled water, was used to form biofilms on 3000 micrometers2 glass surfaces. Rates of attachment were measured directly with image analysis and were found to be 7.8, 15.2, and 22.8 attachment events h-1 for flow rates of 20.7, 15.2, and 9.8 ml min-1, respectively. After 18 h of formation, the B. cepacia biofilms were challenged with oxidants (ozone, chlorine, and iodine) and the rates of biofilm removal determined by image analysis. Fifty percent of the biofilm material was removed in the first hour of continous treatment with 24 mg l-1 chlorine or 2 mg l-1 ozone. Iodine (48 mg l-1) did not remove any measurable cellular material after 6 h continuous contact. After this first removal of biofilms by the oxidants, the surface was allowed to refoul and was again treated with the biocide. Iodine was the only compound that was unable to remove cellular debris from either primary or secondary biofilms. Moreover, treating primary biofilms with iodine increased the rate of formation of secondary biofilms, from 4.4 to 5.8 attachment events h-1. All the oxidants tested inactivated the B

  2. Tattoo Removal by Split Thickness Tangential Excision

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Ervin S.; Miller, Timothy A.

    1976-01-01

    Split thickness tangential excision is a simple means of tattoo removal with very acceptable cosmetic results. The technique has several advantages. (1) The depth of skin removal may accurately be controlled as the tattoo pigment is excised with a dermatome. The major portion, if not all of the remaining pigment, is extruded and sloughs with the crust. (2) Scar formation, if it occurs at all, is negligible. (3) No donor site is created. (4) The procedure may be carried out rapidly without admitting patients to hospital, is inexpensive for patients and conserves time for physicians. ImagesFigure 1. PMID:1266213

  3. Removable Window System for Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, James P. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A window system for a platform comprising a window pane, a retention frame, and a biasing system. The window pane may be configured to contact a sealing system. The retention frame may be configured to contact the sealing system and hold the window pane against the support frame. The biasing system may be configured to bias the retention frame toward the support frame while the support frame and the retention frame are in a configuration that holds the window pane. Removal of the biasing system may cause the retention frame and the window pane to be removable.

  4. Removal of Burkholderia cepacia biofilms with oxidants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koenig, D. W.; Mishra, S. K.; Pierson, D. L.

    1995-01-01

    Iodine is used to disinfect the water system aboard US space shuttles and is the anticipated biocide for the international space station. Water quality on spacecraft must be maintained at the highest possible levels for the safety of the crew. Furthermore, the treatment process used to maintain the quality of water on research must be robust and operate for long periods with minimal crew intervention. Biofilms are recalcitrant and pose a major threat with regard to chronic contamination of spacecraft water systems. We measured the effectiveness of oxidizing biocides on the removal and regrowth of Burkholderia (Pseudomonas) cepacia biofilms. B. cepacia, isolated from the water distribution system of the space shuttle Discovery, was grown in continuous culture to produce a bacterial contamination source for biofilm formation and removal studies. A 10(7) CFU ml-1 B. cepacia suspension, in distilled water, was used to form biofilms on 3000 micrometers2 glass surfaces. Rates of attachment were measured directly with image analysis and were found to be 7.8, 15.2, and 22.8 attachment events h-1 for flow rates of 20.7, 15.2, and 9.8 ml min-1, respectively. After 18 h of formation, the B. cepacia biofilms were challenged with oxidants (ozone, chlorine, and iodine) and the rates of biofilm removal determined by image analysis. Fifty percent of the biofilm material was removed in the first hour of continous treatment with 24 mg l-1 chlorine or 2 mg l-1 ozone. Iodine (48 mg l-1) did not remove any measurable cellular material after 6 h continuous contact. After this first removal of biofilms by the oxidants, the surface was allowed to refoul and was again treated with the biocide. Iodine was the only compound that was unable to remove cellular debris from either primary or secondary biofilms. Moreover, treating primary biofilms with iodine increased the rate of formation of secondary biofilms, from 4.4 to 5.8 attachment events h-1. All the oxidants tested inactivated the B

  5. Balanced ultrafiltration: inflammatory mediator removal capacity.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yulong; Wan, Caihong; Wang, Shigang; Sun, Peng; Long, Cun

    2012-10-01

    Ultrafiltration with a hemoconcentrator may remove excess fluid load and alleviate tissue edema and has been universally adopted in extracorporeal circulation protocols during pediatric cardiac surgery. Balanced ultrafiltration is advocated to remove inflammatory mediators generated during surgery. However, whether balanced ultrafiltration can remove all or a portion of the inflammatory mediator load remains unclear. The inflammatory mediator removal capacity of zero-balanced ultrafiltration was measured during pediatric extracorporeal circulation in vitro. Extracorporeal circulation was composed of cardiotomy reservoir, D902 Lilliput 2 membrane oxygenator, and Capiox AF02 pediatric arterial line filter. The Hemoconcentrator BC 20 plus was placed between arterial purge line and oxygenator venous reservoir. Fresh donor human whole blood was added into the circuit and mixed with Ringer's solution to obtain a final hematocrit of 24-28%. After 2 h of extracorporeal circulation, zero-balanced ultrafiltration was initiated and arterial line pressure was maintained at approximately 100 mmHg with Hoffman clamp. The rate of ultrafiltration (12 mL/min) was controlled by ultrafiltrate outlet pressure. Identical volume of plasmaslyte A was dripped into the circuit to maintain stable hematocrit during the 45 min of the experiment. Plasma and ultrafiltrate samples were drawn every 5 min, and concentrations of inflammatory mediators including interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, neutrophil elastase (NE), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were measured. All assayed inflammatory mediators were detected in the ultrafiltrate, demonstrating that the ultrafiltrator may remove inflammatory mediators. However, dynamic observations suggested that the concentration of NE was highest among the five inflammatory mediators in both plasma and ultrafiltrate (P < 0.001). IL-1β had the lowest concentration in plasma, whereas the concentration of TNF-α was the lowest in ultrafiltrate (P

  6. Cost estimates for removal of orbital debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petro, Andrew; Ashley, Howard

    1989-01-01

    While there are currently no active measures for the removal of nonfunctional satellites or spent rocket stages from earth orbit, it has been deemed prudent to begin to identify and economically evaluate potential approaches for such orbital decluttering. The methods presently considered encompass retrieval with an OMV, forcible deorbiting via attached propulsive devices, and deorbiting via passive, drag-augmentation devices; the increases in payload-delivery costs they represent are respectively $15-20 million/object, $7.8 million/vehicle, and $5.5-15.5 million/unit. OMV removal appears the least economically feasible method.

  7. Removal of uranium from aqueous HF solutions

    DOEpatents

    Pulley, Howard; Seltzer, Steven F.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is a simple and effective method for removing uranium from aqueous HF solutions containing trace quantities of the same. The method comprises contacting the solution with particulate calcium fluoride to form uranium-bearing particulates, permitting the particulates to settle, and separting the solution from the settled particulates. The CaF.sub.2 is selected to have a nitrogen surface area in a selected range and is employed in an amount providing a calcium fluoride/uranium weight ratio in a selected range. As applied to dilute HF solutions containing 120 ppm uranium, the method removes at least 92% of the uranium, without introducing contaminants to the product solution.

  8. Design of nutrient removal activated sludge systems.

    PubMed

    Manga, J; Ferrer, J; Seco, A; Garcia-Usach, F

    2003-01-01

    A mechanistic mathematical model for nutrient and organic matter removal was used to describe the behavior of a nitrification denitrification enhanced biological phosphorus removal (NDEBPR) system. This model was implemented in a user-friendly software DESASS (design and simulation of activated sludge systems). A 484-L pilot plant was operated to verify the model results. The pilot plant was operated for three years over three different sludge ages. The validity of the model was confirmed with data from the pilot plant. Also, the utility of DESASS as a valuable tool for designing NDEBPR systems was confirmed.

  9. Arsenic removal in conjunction with lime softening

    DOEpatents

    Khandaker, Nadim R.; Brady, Patrick V.; Teter, David M.; Krumhansl, James L.

    2004-10-12

    A method for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising adding lime to the aqueous medium, and adding one or more sources of divalent metal ions other than calcium and magnesium to the aqueous medium, whereby dissolved arsenic in the aqueous medium is reduced to a lower level than possible if only the step of adding lime were performed. Also a composition of matter for removing dissolved arsenic from an aqueous medium comprising lime and one or more sources of divalent copper and/or zinc metal ions.

  10. Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil

    SciTech Connect

    Lupton, Francis Stephen

    2016-09-27

    Methods for removing contaminants from algal oil are provided. In an embodiment, a method comprises the steps of combining a sulfuric acid-aqueous solution that has a pH of about 1 or less with a contaminant-containing algal oil at treatment conditions effective to form an effluent. The effluent comprises a treated algal oil phase and contaminants in an acidic aqueous phase. The contaminants comprise metals, phosphorus, or combinations thereof. The acidic aqueous phase is removed from the effluent to form a contaminant-depleted algal oil.

  11. Translabyrinthine approach for acoustic tumor removal. 1992.

    PubMed

    Brackmann, Derald E; Green, J Douglas

    2008-04-01

    The translabyrinthine approach is the most direct route to the cerebellopontine angle. It is the preferred approach for removal of all tumors in patients with poor hearing and for large tumors when the likelihood of hearing preservation is slight. This approach offers the advantages of minimum cerebellar retraction, identification of the facial nerve proximally and medially, and the ability to repair immediately the facial nerve if it is severed during acoustic tumor removal. This approach has the lowest morbidity with regard to spinal fluid leaks and also postoperative headaches.

  12. Symptom removal: the nineteenth century experience.

    PubMed

    Weitzenhoffer, Andre

    2002-10-01

    It has been said that traditional clinical hypnotists, essentially those practicing before 1900, made excessive use of symptom removal to the detriment of their patients. However, statements of this kind have never been documented. This article is based on a search of the relevant literature that examines the hypnotic methods and results of that era. One finding is that available clinical data support the claim that clinical hypnotists practicing before 1900 made considerable use of symptom removal. The data also indicate that they achieved substantial success without any detrimental effects. This information is considered relevant for the scientifically based practice of hypnosis.

  13. Integrated pollutant removal: modeling and experimentation

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Summers, Cathy A.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental and computational work at the Albany Research Center, USDOE is investigating an integrated pollutant removal (IPR) process which removes all pollutants from flue gas, including SOX, NOX, particulates, CO2, and Hg. In combination with flue gas recirculation, heat recovery, and oxy-fuel combustion, the process produces solid, gas, and liquid waste streams. The gas exhaust stream comprises O2 and N2. Liquid streams contain H2O, SOX, NOX, and CO2. Computer modeling and low to moderate pressure experimentation are defining system chemistry with respect to SOX and H2O as well as heat and mass transfer for the IPR process.

  14. Method of making thermally removable adhesives

    DOEpatents

    Aubert, James H.

    2004-11-30

    A method of making a thermally-removable adhesive is provided where a bismaleimide compound, a monomeric furan compound, containing an oxirane group an amine curative are mixed together at an elevated temperature of greater than approximately 90.degree. C. to form a homogeneous solution, which, when cooled to less than approximately 70.degree. C., simultaneously initiates a Diels-Alder reaction between the furan and the bismaleimide and a epoxy curing reaction between the amine curative and the oxirane group to form a thermally-removable adhesive. Subsequent heating to a temperature greater than approximately 100.degree. C. causes the adhesive to melt and allows separation of adhered pieces.

  15. Heat treatment of exchangers to remove coke

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, J.D.

    1990-02-20

    This patent describes a process for preparing furfural coke for removal from metallic surfaces. It comprises: heating the furfural coke without causing an evolution of heat capable of undesirably altering metallurgical properties of the surfaces in the presence of a gas containing molecular oxygen at a sufficient temperature below 800{degrees}F (427{degrees}C) for a sufficient time to change the crush strength of the coke so as to permit removal with a water jet at a pressure of five thousand pounds per square inch.

  16. Trace organics removal by advanced wastewater treatment

    SciTech Connect

    McCarty, P.L.; Reinhard, M.

    1980-07-01

    A statistical study was performed on data on trace organics removal at an advanced wastewater treatment plant in southern California. The log normal distribution was used for the statistical analysis. Among the substances investigated were: chemical oxygen demand, chloroethanes, chlorobenzenes, chloroethylenes, naphthalenes, xylenes, methylphthalates, butylphthalates, polychlorinated biphenyls, and lindane. Data for the period in which trickling filter effluent was the influent to the plant indicated removals of 90% or more, with small confidence intervals. During a period when activated sludge effluent was the plant influent, confidence intervals were wider; generally the quality of influent water improved but changes in advanced treatment effluent quality were variable.

  17. Process for removing metals from water

    DOEpatents

    Napier, John M.; Hancher, Charles M.; Hackett, Gail D.

    1989-01-01

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a flocculating agent, separating precipitate-containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions.

  18. Process for removing metals from water

    DOEpatents

    Napier, J.M.; Hancher, C.M.; Hackett, G.D.

    1987-06-29

    A process for removing metals from water including the steps of prefiltering solids from the water, adjusting the pH to between about 2 and 3, reducing the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water, increasing the pH to between about 6 and 8, adding water-soluble sulfide to precipitate insoluble sulfide- and hydroxide-forming metals, adding a containing floc, and postfiltering the resultant solution. The postfiltered solution may optionally be eluted through an ion exchange resin to remove residual metal ions. 2 tabs.

  19. Focused-Ion-Beam Material Removal Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-09-01

    AD-A270 852 SIll II 111111111 lillI I ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Focused -Ion-Beam Material Removal Rates by Bruce GeOl ARL-MR-1 14 September 1993 93...DATES COVERED September 1993 Summary, January 1991-present 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS Focused -Ion-Beam Material Removal Rates PE: 91A 6...AUTHOR( S ) Bruce Geil 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION U.S. Army Research Laboratory REPORT NUMBER Attn

  20. Rotational path removable partial denture design.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, T E; Krol, A J

    1982-10-01

    A detailed description of a rotational path of insertion design for removable partial dentures has been presented. By minimizing the use of conventional clasps, this technique offers some advantages. Rotational path designs may minimize adverse periodontal response to a removable partial denture by reducing plaque accumulation and may be applied in esthetically demanding situations. The design concept involves the use of rigid retentive components that gain access to undercut areas through a rotational path of insertion. These rigid components satisfy the basic requirements of conventional direct retained design.