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Sample records for endophyte-infected tall fescue

  1. Novel endophyte-infected tall fescue for growing beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Gunter, S A; Beck, P A

    2004-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea, Shreb.) is the predominant cool-season, perennial grass in the eastern half of the United States, and the majority is infected with the endemic endophyte (E+) Neotyphodium coenophialum, resulting in millions of dollars in revenues lost to the beef industry. Endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue was initially tapped as a "silver bullet" for the solution to fescue toxicosis, but drought intolerance and overgrazing have often resulted in nearly complete stand losses in 3 to 4 yr. Recently, the discovery of new endophytes that do not produce ergot alkaloids has resulted in the development of novel-endophyte-infected (NE+), stress-tolerant tall fescue plants. These NE+ tall fescue plants combine the plant persistence advantages of E+ (infected) tall fescue with the animal performance advantages of an E- tall fescue. Controlled studies from several locations in the southern United States have shown that the three commercially available cultivars of NE+ tall fescue persist as well as E+ tall fescues. Stocker cattle performance trials from five states have shown that the ADG in cattle grazing NE+ tall fescue was 47% greater than in cattle grazing E+ tall fescue and that cattle show no signs of fescue toxicosis. Economic evaluations of establishment cost and improved animal performance indicate that a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 7 yr to pay off and begin to return profit to the enterprise if calves grazing E+ pasture are not discounted in price for fescue toxicosis at marketing. Average discounts at marketing for cattle showing signs of fescue toxicosis are $7.49/45.4 kg of BW. Assuming E+ cattle are discounted at sale and the quality of cattle is not decreased by the use of NE+ tall fescue, a stand of NE+ tall fescue would require 3 yr to pay the expense of establishment and begin to return profit to the enterprise.

  2. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a large 2-year study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate the effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and ser...

  3. Vasoactivity and vasoconstriction changes in cattle related to time off toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has indicated that serotonergic and a-adrenergic receptors in peripheral vasculature are affected by exposure of cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected (E+; Epichlöe coenophialia) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). The objective of this experiment was to determine the period of ti...

  4. Performance of Endophyte Infected Tall Fescue in Europe and North America.

    PubMed

    Saikkonen, Kari; Phillips, Timothy D; Faeth, Stanley H; McCulley, Rebecca L; Saloniemi, Irma; Helander, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    Human assisted plant invasions from Europe to North America have been more common than the reverse. We tested endophyte-mediated performance of tall fescue in parallel three year experiments in Europe and the USA using endophyte infected and uninfected wild and cultivated plants. Experimental plants were subjected to nutrient and water treatments. Whereas endophyte infection increased tall fescue performance in general, the effects of endophytes on plant growth and reproduction varied among plant origins under different environmental conditions. Naturally endophyte-free Finnish cultivar 'Retu' performed equally well as 'Kentucky-31' in both geographic locations. All Eurasian origin plants performed well in the US. In Finland, plants established well and both cultivars survived over the first winter. However, winter mortality of 'Kentucky-31' plants was higher, particularly in fertilized soils in the subsequent winters. Our results suggest that tall fescue ecotype 'Kentucky-31' that flourishes in North America is poorly adapted to Northern European conditions. PMID:27284909

  5. Effects of fescue toxicosis induced by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on forestomach epithelial gene expression in Angus steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A previous report demonstrated that steers exposed to an endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract had altered rumen epithelial blood flow and decreased ruminal flux of VFA. Thus, this study was conducted to determine whether there are differences in gene expression related to VFA absorption betwe...

  6. Chemical suppression of seedhead emergence in toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue for improving cattle weight gain and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures that were either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide to determine if suppression of seedhead emergence and maturity can increase average daily gain (ADG) and alleviate fescue toxicosis....

  7. Performance of Endophyte Infected Tall Fescue in Europe and North America

    PubMed Central

    Saikkonen, Kari; Phillips, Timothy D.; Faeth, Stanley H.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Saloniemi, Irma; Helander, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    Human assisted plant invasions from Europe to North America have been more common than the reverse. We tested endophyte-mediated performance of tall fescue in parallel three year experiments in Europe and the USA using endophyte infected and uninfected wild and cultivated plants. Experimental plants were subjected to nutrient and water treatments. Whereas endophyte infection increased tall fescue performance in general, the effects of endophytes on plant growth and reproduction varied among plant origins under different environmental conditions. Naturally endophyte-free Finnish cultivar ‘Retu’ performed equally well as ‘Kentucky-31’ in both geographic locations. All Eurasian origin plants performed well in the US. In Finland, plants established well and both cultivars survived over the first winter. However, winter mortality of ‘Kentucky-31’ plants was higher, particularly in fertilized soils in the subsequent winters. Our results suggest that tall fescue ecotype ‘Kentucky-31’ that flourishes in North America is poorly adapted to Northern European conditions. PMID:27284909

  8. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    PubMed

    Hall, Sarah L; McCulley, Rebecca L; Barney, Robert J; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e

  9. Ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease reticulo-ruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption from a washed reticulorumen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experiment was conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen. Steers (n = 8) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes and received ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed (E+; 0.015 mg ergovaline•kg BW-1•d-1) or endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-) via r...

  10. Preference by sheep for endophyte-infected tall fescue grown adjacent to or at a distance from alfalfa.

    PubMed

    Friend, M A; Provenza, F D; Villalba, J J

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess preference by sheep for endophyte-infected tall fescue growing in monoculture at least 5 m away from alfalfa (fescue-middle (FM)) over endophyte-infected tall fescue growing adjacent (0.2 to 1 m; fescue-alfalfa (FA)) to alfalfa (FA), and the effect of legume scent on preference for endophyte-infected tall fescue. In Experiment 1, 10 six-month-old lambs were offered for 12 days a choice of freshly harvested FA and FM. On days 13 and 14, lambs were offered the same choice, except cages (to allow access only to scent) containing freshly harvested alfalfa were put in the feeders containing FA, whereas cages containing freshly harvested FM were included with the feeders containing FM. Forage intake was measured 1 h after feeding and at three consecutive 2-h intervals thereafter. FA contained greater (P<0.002) concentrations of the alkaloid ergovaline (360 ± 27 ppm) and CP (8 ± 0.4%) than FM (219 ± 27 ppm and 6 ± 0.4%, respectively). Lambs preferred (P<0.05) FA to FM during the 1st hour of feeding, but the differences became smaller and disappeared in later feeding periods (P<0.005). Lambs offered FA with alfalfa scent or FM with FM scent preferred (P<0.05) FA but only on the 2nd day. In Experiment 2, 10 six-month-old lambs were offered a choice of FM with cages (to allow access only to scent) containing freshly harvested alfalfa or FM for 8 days. During the following 4 days, FM in the cages was replaced with freshly harvested sainfoin. Preference was greater (P<0.05) for FM offered with alfalfa scent than for FM offered with FM scent only on days 4 and 8. When lambs were offered FM with alfalfa or sainfoin in cages, they preferred (P<0.05) tall fescue with sainfoin scent over fescue with alfalfa scent, but intake was variable across hours and days (P<0.001). It is concluded that (1) lambs adjusted their intake of and preference for FA and FM over successive feeding bouts within each day, likely owing to an attempt to balance

  11. Vasoactivity and Vasoconstriction Changes in Cattle Related to Time off Toxic Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, James L.; Aiken, Glen E.; Bussard, Jessica R.; Foote, Andrew P.; Harmon, David L.; Goff, Ben M.; Schrick, F. Neal; Strickland, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that serotonergic and α-adrenergic receptors in peripheral vasculature are affected by exposure of cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected (E+; Epichlöe coenophialia) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). The objective of this experiment was to determine the period of time necessary for the vascular effects of ergot alkaloids to subside. Two experiments were conducted to investigate changes in vascular contractile response and vasoconstriction over time relative to removal from an ergot alkaloid-containing E+ tall fescue pasture. In Experiment 1, lateral saphenous vein biopsies were conducted on 21 predominantly Angus steers (357 ± 3 kg body weight) at 0 (n = 6), 7 (n = 6), 14 (n = 5), or 28 days (n = 4) after removal from grazing pasture (3.0 ha; endpoint ergovaline + ergovalinine = 1.35 mg/kg DM) for 126 days. In Experiment 2, lateral saphenous veins were biopsied from 24 Angus-cross steers (361 ± 4 kg body weight) at 0, 21, 42, and 63 days (n = 6 per time point) following removal from grazing tall fescue pastures (3.0 ha; first 88 days endpoint ergovaline + ergovalinine = 0.15 mg/kg DM; last 18 days endpoint ergovaline + ergovalinine = 0.57 mg/kg DM) for 106 total days. Six steers (370 ± 18 kg body weight) off of bermudagrass pasture for the same time interval were also biopsied on Day 0 and Day 63 (n = 3 per time point). Additionally, in Experiment 2, cross-sectional ultrasound scans of caudal artery at the fourth coccygeal vertebra were taken on Days 0, 8, 15, 21, 29, 36, 42, and 45 to determine mean artery luminal area to evaluate vasoconstriction. In both experiments, steers were removed from pasture and housed in a dry lot and fed a corn silage diet for the duration of biopsies and ultrasound scans. Biopsied vessels used to evaluate vasoactivity were cleaned, incubated in a multimyograph, and exposed to increasing concentrations of 4-Bromo-3,6-dimethoxybenzocyclobuten-1-yl) methylamine hydrobromide (TCB2; 5HT2A agonist

  12. Vasoactivity and Vasoconstriction Changes in Cattle Related to Time off Toxic Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue.

    PubMed

    Klotz, James L; Aiken, Glen E; Bussard, Jessica R; Foote, Andrew P; Harmon, David L; Goff, Ben M; Schrick, F Neal; Strickland, James R

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that serotonergic and α-adrenergic receptors in peripheral vasculature are affected by exposure of cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected (E+; Epichlöe coenophialia) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). The objective of this experiment was to determine the period of time necessary for the vascular effects of ergot alkaloids to subside. Two experiments were conducted to investigate changes in vascular contractile response and vasoconstriction over time relative to removal from an ergot alkaloid-containing E+ tall fescue pasture. In Experiment 1, lateral saphenous vein biopsies were conducted on 21 predominantly Angus steers (357 ± 3 kg body weight) at 0 (n = 6), 7 (n = 6), 14 (n = 5), or 28 days (n = 4) after removal from grazing pasture (3.0 ha; endpoint ergovaline + ergovalinine = 1.35 mg/kg DM) for 126 days. In Experiment 2, lateral saphenous veins were biopsied from 24 Angus-cross steers (361 ± 4 kg body weight) at 0, 21, 42, and 63 days (n = 6 per time point) following removal from grazing tall fescue pastures (3.0 ha; first 88 days endpoint ergovaline + ergovalinine = 0.15 mg/kg DM; last 18 days endpoint ergovaline + ergovalinine = 0.57 mg/kg DM) for 106 total days. Six steers (370 ± 18 kg body weight) off of bermudagrass pasture for the same time interval were also biopsied on Day 0 and Day 63 (n = 3 per time point). Additionally, in Experiment 2, cross-sectional ultrasound scans of caudal artery at the fourth coccygeal vertebra were taken on Days 0, 8, 15, 21, 29, 36, 42, and 45 to determine mean artery luminal area to evaluate vasoconstriction. In both experiments, steers were removed from pasture and housed in a dry lot and fed a corn silage diet for the duration of biopsies and ultrasound scans. Biopsied vessels used to evaluate vasoactivity were cleaned, incubated in a multimyograph, and exposed to increasing concentrations of 4-Bromo-3,6-dimethoxybenzocyclobuten-1-yl) methylamine hydrobromide (TCB2; 5HT2A agonist

  13. Milk production in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing common bermuda grass or endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1996-09-01

    Milk yield and quality were measured on 139 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing common bermuda grass or endophyte-infected tall fescue for 4 yr to evaluate interactions of direct and maternal breed effects and heterosis for these traits with forage environment. Milk yield was estimated by method of milking machine, and milk fat, protein, and somatic cell counts were evaluated in a commercial dairy laboratory. Monthly estimates were made beginning on an average d 61 of lactation and continued monthly for six estimates in 3 yr and five estimates in 1 yr. Data were averaged over month within year, and the model included sire breed, sire in sire breed, dam breed, forage, and age averages. Somatic cell counts were transformed using natural logarithms prior to analyses. Forage effects for milk yield were dissimilar among sire breed x dam breed subclasses (P < .10), resulting in higher levels of heterosis on common bermuda grass than on tall fescue. Maternal breed effects for milk yield favored Angus on bermuda grass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue, whereas direct breed effects were similar on both forages and favored Brahman. Milk fat was reduced on tall fescue compared to bermuda grass by an average of .6% (P < .01), and direct breed effects were similar across forages and averaged 1.04% (P < .01) in favor of Brahman. Heterosis and maternal breed effects for milk fat were not important. There was little evidence of direct and maternal breed effects or heterosis for milk protein or somatic cell counts. These data suggest that heterosis for milk yield is larger on common bermuda grass than on tall fescue and that grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue is detrimental to milk fat. PMID:8880406

  14. The effects of steroid implant and dietary soybean hulls on estrogenic activity of sera of steers grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean hulls (SBHs), a co-product of soybean meal milling, have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants contain...

  15. Endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract induces constriction of bovine vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline (ERV) has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However preliminary in vitro tests show that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ERV alone indicating other compoun...

  16. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Genetic resistance to the effects of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Cassady, J P

    2015-12-01

    Forages are the base source of nutrition for any cow-calf operation. Forage types vary based on soil type and climate. Tall fescue () is the most commonly used cultivated grass for grazing beef cattle in the United States. This cool-season perennial is easily established; is resistant to drought, insects, and nematodes; and has the ability to withstand heavy grazing pressure. Most tall fescue varieties are infected with the endophyte fungus () that is essential for the plant's survival but detrimental to cattle performance. Ergot alkaloids are the generally accepted toxic agents produced by the fescue endophyte. Cattle that consume forages infected with this endophyte can develop fescue foot, fat necrosis, or fescue toxicosis. It is estimated that the beef industry loses over US$500 million annually due to fescue toxicosis through heat stress, reduced weight gain, suppressed appetite, and decreased reproductive performance. Other symptoms include a retained or rough hair coat and increased body temperature, which can be detrimental when animals are located in hot and or humid environments. Different forages and forage systems, feed additives, and animal management strategies have been tested through the years allowing the use of tall fescue in beef production systems while minimizing the adverse effects. An animal genetics approach needs to identify and select animals less susceptible to the ergot alkaloids. Research in this area reports that different cattle within the same herd can respond differently when grazing tall fescue, and evidence exists that breed type may also play a role in genetic tolerance to the negative effects on performance. Some studies have looked at the potential of identifying genetic markers that may assist in the selection of more resistant animals. From these studies, there is evidence that genetic variation does exist for resistance to the ergot alkaloids present when grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. Forage management coupled with

  17. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated ruminal epithelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in VFA absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extr...

  18. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  19. Ecophysiological responses of tall fescue genotypes to fungal endophyte infection and elevated temperature and precipitation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) can form a symbiosis with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala, whose presence can benefit the plant, depending on plant and fungal genetics and prevailing environmental conditions. Despite this symbiosis having agricultural, economic and ecological impor...

  20. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs' feeding behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Villalba, J J; Spackman, C; Goff, B M; Klotz, J L; Griggs, T; MacAdam, J W

    2016-02-01

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume such as sainfoin attenuates the negative postingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-mo-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 legume species, sainfoin (SAN; 2.9% condensed tannins) or cicer milkvetch (CIC; without tannins) and a mixed ration containing tall fescue seed (50:30:20 seed:beet pulp:alfalfa) with 2 levels of endophyte infection (endophyte-infected tall fescue seed [E+; 3,150 ug/L ergovaline] or endophyte-free tall fescue seed [E-]). For a 10-d baseline period, half of the lambs were fed SAN and half were fed CIC and all lambs had ad libitum amounts of E-. In an ensuing 10-d experimental period, the protocol was the same except half of the lambs fed SAN or CIC received E+ instead of E-. Subsequently, all lambs could choose between their respective legume and seed-containing ration and between E+ and E-. Finally, an in vitro radial diffusion assay was conducted to determine whether tannins isolated from SAN would bind to alkaloids isolated from E+. All groups consumed similar amounts of E- during baseline period ( > 0.10), but lambs ate more E- than E+ during the experimental period ( < 0.05) and lambs offered SAN ate more E+ than lambs offered CIC ( < 0.05). Groups fed E- during the baseline and experimental periods had similar rectal temperatures ( > 0.10), but lambs fed E+ had lower rectal temperatures per gram of feed ingested when supplemented with SAN than with CIC ( < 0.05). Lambs fed E+ had greater concentrations of hemoglobin and more red blood cells than lambs fed E- ( < 0.05), but plasmatic concentrations of cortisol and prolactin did not differ among treatments ( > 0.10). All lambs preferred their treatment ration over their treatment legume, but lambs in the SAN and E+ treatment ate more legume + ration than lambs in the CIC and E+ (CIC-E+; < 0.05) treatment. All lambs preferred E- over E+, but lambs in the CIC

  1. Alkaloid Quantities in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue are Affected by the Plant-Fungus Combination and Environment.

    PubMed

    Helander, M; Phillips, T; Faeth, S H; Bush, L P; McCulley, R; Saloniemi, I; Saikkonen, K

    2016-02-01

    Many grass species are symbiotic with systemic, vertically-transmitted, asymptomatic Epichloë endophytic fungi. These fungi often produce alkaloids that defend the host against herbivores. We studied how environmental variables affect alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) from three Northern European wild origins and the widely planted US cultivar 'Kentucky-31' (KY31). The plants were grown in identical common garden experiments in Finland and Kentucky for two growing seasons. Plants were left as controls (C) or given water (W), nutrient (N) or water and nutrient (WN) treatments. For 8-10 replications of each plant origin and treatment combination in both experiments, we analyzed ergot alkaloids, lysergic acid, and lolines. In Finland, tall fescue plants produced 50 % more ergot alkaloids compared to plants of the same origin and treatments in Kentucky. Origin of the plants affected the ergot alkaloid concentration at both study sites: the wild origin plants produced 2-4 times more ergot alkaloids than KY31, but the ergot alkaloid concentration of KY31 plants was the same at both locations. Overall lysergic acid content was 60 % higher in plants grown in Kentucky than in those grown in Finland. Nutrient treatments (N, WN) significantly increased ergot alkaloid concentrations in plants from Finland but not in plants from Kentucky. These results suggest that the success of KY31 in US is not due to selection for high ergot alkaloid production but rather other traits associated with the endophyte. In addition, the environmental effects causing variation in alkaloid production of grass-endophyte combinations should be taken into account when using endophyte-infected grasses agriculturally. PMID:26815170

  2. Effects of endophyte-infected tall fescue on indicators of thermal status and growth in Hereford and Senepol steers.

    PubMed

    Browning, R

    2004-02-01

    Poor growth often occurs in cattle consuming ergot alkaloids associated with endophyte-infected (EI) tall fescue. Hyperthermia may contribute significantly to poor growth resulting from fescue toxicosis. This study examined indicators of thermal status and growth in Hereford (n = 30; heat-sensitive Bos taurus; H) and Senepol (n = 28; heat-tolerant Bos taurus; S) steers fed EI tall fescue (TF) or orchardgrass (OG) in 2 x 2 factorial experiments. Respiration rates, daytime shade use, tail skin temperatures, and body weights were measured during the summer and fall of 2000 (Exp. 1) and 2001 (Exp. 2). Experimental diets consisted of hay and seed for 12 wk in 2000, hay for 6 wk during the summer of 2001, and hay plus seed for 6 wk during the fall of 2001. In Exp. 1, EI tall fescue increased (P < 0.01) respiration rates, shade use, and skin temperatures in both breeds. Breed x diet affected (P < 0.01) 12-wk ADG in Exp. 1. Growth rate was lower for H-TF (262 g/d) than for S-TF, S-OG, and H-OG (475, 497, and 524 g/d, respectively). In Exp. 2, Senepol had lower (P < 0.01) respiration rates, shade use, and skin temperatures compared with Hereford, but diet did not alter (P > 0.14) these indicator traits in either breed. Breed x diet affected (P < 0.01) summer growth rates. Growth rate was lower for H-TF (88 g/d) than for H-OG, S-TF, and S-OG (508, 555, and 566 g/d, respectively). Adding seed to the diets in Exp. 2 decreased (P < 0.01) ADG for both breeds on TF during the fall. Thermal status indicator traits in Senepol and Hereford steers were similarly altered by TF; however, only Hereford showed consistently poor growth. Senepol showed resilience in their capacity for growth under conditions of fescue toxicosis. Senepol influence may enhance cattle performance in production systems that use EI tall fescue as the base forage. PMID:14974565

  3. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1997-04-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 233 Angus (A), Brahman (B), and reciprocal-cross cows (AB, BA) and 455 two- and three-breed cross calves managed on common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991 and calves from 15 Polled Hereford sires were born from 1991 to 1994. Heterosis for calving rate was similar and important on both forages (P < .01), but maternal effects were small on each forage. Maternal heterosis for birth weight differed between common bermudagrass and tall fescue (P < .10) and grandmaternal effects were evident on bermudagrass (P < .05) but not tall fescue. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, weaning hip height, and weaning weight:height ratio (P < .01), and maternal heterosis for these traits was larger on tall fescue than on common bermudagrass (P < .01). Grandmaternal effects were in favor of Angus for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio on common bermudagrass (P < .05) but not on tall fescue. Heterosis for 205-d weight per cow exposed was substantial on both forages (P < .01) and was numerically larger on tall fescue than on bermudagrass, but maternal effects were not significant. These results suggest more advantage for Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on endophyte-infected tall fescue than a similar comparison on common bermudagrass. They also suggest an advantage for Angus in grandmaternal effects on bermudagrass but not tall fescue. PMID:9110202

  4. Effects of consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue on growth, reproduction and lactation in mice selected for high fecundity.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, V B; Washburn, S P; Eisen, E J; Johnson, B H

    1994-01-01

    Effects of a diet containing endophyte-infected tall fescue seed (83% infected) were investigated using 2 lines of mice, one line selected for fecundity (L(+)) and the other a randomly selected control line (K). Treatments included a commercial stock diet (C), 50% stock plus 50% non-infected tall fescue seed (N), and 50% stock plus 50% infected tall fescue seed (I). The experiment was conducted using mice on respective treatments in 2 phases (successive generations), with 15 to 23 mated females per line and diet subgroups. Mated females of Phase 1 were assigned at random within line to experimental diets which were fed during gestation and through 21 d of lactation. Litters were standardized to 10 pups 1 d after birth. Stock diets were fed to all groups from Day 21 to weaning on Day 28. Weaned male and female pups were allotted to previous diets. Mated females in Phase 2 were managed as in Phase 1 through weaning at 28 d. Diets of males did not affect reproduction and data were pooled within female diets. Selected (L(+)) dams gave birth to more live pups than K dams (P<0.05) during both phases (+3.4 and +2.8 +/- 0.4 pups, respectively). Diet but not line affected littering rate of mated females in Phase 1 (71.3%, I; < 87.1%, C or 93.0%, N; P<0.05) and Phase 2 (82.1%, I < 93.8%, N or 97.1%, C; P<0.05). Diet had no effect on fecundity during Phase 1 but females on I diet had reduced (P<0.05) litter size by 1.9 and 3.2 +/- 0.5 pups compared with the females on N and C diets, respectively, in Phase 2. Feed consumption and weights of dams during lactation generally ranked C>N>I. Growth of pups during both phases also ranked C>N>I. Vaginal opening at 28 d differed by line (71.4%, K < 89.3%, L(+), P<0.05) and diet (56.8%, I < 92.0%, C or 92.2%, N, P<0.05). These results suggest both acute and chronic effects of consumption of endophyte-infected diets. Absence of line-by-diet interactions demonstrates that adverse effects were unrelated to genetic differences between lines.

  5. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs' feeding behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Villalba, J J; Spackman, C; Goff, B M; Klotz, J L; Griggs, T; MacAdam, J W

    2016-02-01

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume such as sainfoin attenuates the negative postingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-mo-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 legume species, sainfoin (SAN; 2.9% condensed tannins) or cicer milkvetch (CIC; without tannins) and a mixed ration containing tall fescue seed (50:30:20 seed:beet pulp:alfalfa) with 2 levels of endophyte infection (endophyte-infected tall fescue seed [E+; 3,150 ug/L ergovaline] or endophyte-free tall fescue seed [E-]). For a 10-d baseline period, half of the lambs were fed SAN and half were fed CIC and all lambs had ad libitum amounts of E-. In an ensuing 10-d experimental period, the protocol was the same except half of the lambs fed SAN or CIC received E+ instead of E-. Subsequently, all lambs could choose between their respective legume and seed-containing ration and between E+ and E-. Finally, an in vitro radial diffusion assay was conducted to determine whether tannins isolated from SAN would bind to alkaloids isolated from E+. All groups consumed similar amounts of E- during baseline period ( > 0.10), but lambs ate more E- than E+ during the experimental period ( < 0.05) and lambs offered SAN ate more E+ than lambs offered CIC ( < 0.05). Groups fed E- during the baseline and experimental periods had similar rectal temperatures ( > 0.10), but lambs fed E+ had lower rectal temperatures per gram of feed ingested when supplemented with SAN than with CIC ( < 0.05). Lambs fed E+ had greater concentrations of hemoglobin and more red blood cells than lambs fed E- ( < 0.05), but plasmatic concentrations of cortisol and prolactin did not differ among treatments ( > 0.10). All lambs preferred their treatment ration over their treatment legume, but lambs in the SAN and E+ treatment ate more legume + ration than lambs in the CIC and E+ (CIC-E+; < 0.05) treatment. All lambs preferred E- over E+, but lambs in the CIC

  6. Constriction of bovine vasculature by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline has been extensively used to study vasoactive effects of endophyte- (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). However, preliminary in vitro tests indicated that an extract of toxic tall fescue seed (E+EXT) is more potent than ergovaline alone in a right rumin...

  7. Steer and plant responses to chemical suppression of seedhead emergence in toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaparral® herbicide (Dow AgroSciences; Indianapolis, IN) has shown to suppress seedhead emergence in tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] and potentially mitigate the adverse effects of fescue toxicosis. A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infec...

  8. Use of different levels of ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed during heat stress to separate characteristics of fescue toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Spiers, D E; Wax, L E; Eichen, P A; Rottinghaus, G E; Evans, T J; Keisler, D H; Ellersieck, M R

    2012-10-01

    Studies of fescue toxicosis using whole seed diets show reduced feed intake and thermoregulatory ability, but much of the seed passes undigested through the animal. Cattle were fed ground tall fescue seed at different levels to potentially facilitate digestion and absorption of toxins and identify toxin sensitivity for major characteristics of the condition [i.e., hyperthermia, reduced feed intake (FI), reduced blood prolactin]. Steers (n = 18; 350 kg BW) were housed in the Brody Climatology Laboratory at thermoneutrality (TN; 19°C) and randomly assigned to daily diet treatments with either ground endophyte-infected [E+; low and high doses at 20 and 40 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d), respectively] or endophyte-free [E-; control at 0 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d)] tall fescue seed. After 12 d at TN, animals received 2 d of transition to heat stress (HS; 36°C daytime, 25°C nighttime) and maintained for 14 more days. Cattle were fed twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h, with water ad libitum. Feed intake was measured at 0700 h, with skin and rectal temperatures, and respiration rate at 0600, 1100, 1600, and 2100 h. Blood was sampled on selected days for prolactin and leptin determinations. Steers fed ground E+ diet decreased (P ≤ 0.0001) FI below controls at TN, with no dose effect. Maximum FI reduction with E+ treatment was 25% at TN, with an additional 46% decrease during HS (P ≤ 0.05). By the end of HS, E+ FI increased (P > 0.05) to that of E-, suggesting recovery. Prolactin was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) in high E+ cattle below controls at study end. Leptin blood concentrations were unaffected by E+ treatment (P > 0.05) but was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) by the end of HS. Pattern of rectal temperature response to HS showed a more rapid initial increase and decline for both E+ groups compared with controls (P ≤ 0.05). Skin temperature was the only variable that identified E+ dose differences. Although there were no treatment differences at TN, skin temperature was lower (P ≤ 0

  9. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated bovine ruminal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Penner, G B; Walpole, M E; Klotz, J L; Brown, K R; Bush, L P; Harmon, D L

    2014-07-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in volatile fatty acids (VFA) absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extract of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed causes an increase in the amount of VFA absorbed per unit of blood flow, which could result from an alteration in the absorptive or barrier function of the rumen epithelium. An experiment was conducted to determine the acute effects of an endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract (EXT) on total, passive or facilitated acetate and butyrate flux across the isolated bovine rumen as well as the barrier function measured by inulin flux and tissue conductance (G t ). Flux of ergovaline across the rumen epithelium was also evaluated. Rumen tissue from the caudal dorsal sac of Holstein steers (n=6), fed a common diet, was collected and isolated shortly after slaughter and mounted between two halves of Ussing chambers. In vitro treatments included vehicle control (80% methanol, 0.5% of total volume), Low EXT (50 ng ergovaline/ml) and High EXT (250 ng ergovaline/ml). Results indicate that there is no effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on total, passive or facilitated flux of acetate or butyrate across the isolate bovine rumen epithelium (P>0.51). Inulin flux (P=0.16) and G t (P>0.17) were not affected by EXT treatment, indicating no alteration in barrier function due to acute ergot alkaloid exposure. Ergovaline was detected in the serosal buffer of the High EXT treatment indicating that the flux rate is ~0.25 to 0.44 ng/cm2 per hour. Data indicate that specific pathways for VFA absorption and barrier function of the rumen epithelium are not affected by acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue at the concentrations tested. Ergovaline has the potential to be absorbed from the rumen of cattle that

  10. Interaction of breed type and endophyte-infected tall fescue on milk production and quality in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Burke, J M; Coleman, S W; Chase, C C; Riley, D G; Looper, M L; Brown, M A

    2010-08-01

    Decreased milk production of beef cattle grazing endophyte-infected (EI) tall fescue (TF), an important cool season grass in the southeastern United States, can affect calf growth. The objective was to determine whether a thermal or heat-tolerant Bos taurus breed of cattle, Romosinuano (RO), would tolerate EI TF toxins relative to Angus (AN) cattle. Milk production and quality were examined on AN and RO cows grazing endophyte-free (EF; variety K-31; n = 36) or EI TF (variety K-31; n = 37) along with growth of their Charolais-sired calves in 2007 and 2008 in west central Arkansas. Cows calved between early February and late March (spring). Milk yield and quality, BW, rectal temperature, and serum prolactin were determined at 57.1 +/- 2.6 d postpartum and every 28 d thereafter between April and August. Milk yield was greater in AN compared with RO cows (P < 0.001), but not influenced by forage type (P > 0.88). Percent milk fat was greater in cows grazing EF TF in April, but greater for cows grazing EI TF in July (forage x month, P < 0.001). Percent milk fat was greater for RO than AN cows (P < 0.001). Percent milk protein (P < 0.001) was greater and somatic cell counts (log-transformed; P < 0.001) were less in RO than AN cows. Milk lactose was greater for RO compared with AN cows in June through August (breed x month, P = 0.004). Adjusted weaning BW of calves was similar between EF and EI TF in 2007, but greater for calves from EF than EI TF in 2008 (forage x year, P = 0.03). Rectal temperature was similar between RO cows grazing EF and EI TF, but greater in AN cows grazing EI compared with EF TF in most months (forage x breed x month x year, P < 0.001). Serum prolactin was reduced in both breeds of cows grazing EI TF between April and July of both years and greatest in RO cows grazing EF TF (breed, P < 0.001; forage x month, P < 0.001). These data suggest that RO cows were more thermal-tolerant, but still susceptible to toxins in EI TF as shown by a reduction in

  11. Effects of Bale Diameter, Storage Location, and Sampling Depth on the Nutritive Value, Ruminal Disappearance Kinetics of DM, and Concentrations of Ergovaline for Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Hay Packaged in Large Round Bale

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During 2004, endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) was packaged in large-round bales made at three diameters in Fayetteville (1.11, 1.35, or 1.59 m) and Batesville (1.14, 1.39, or 1.67 m), and then stored over winter either inside or outside on wooden pallets. Bales were then ...

  12. Constriction of bovine vasculature caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mixture of ergot alkaloids does not increase the contractile response of peripheral bovine vasculature, but may increase the contractile response of foregut vasculature. Preliminary data indicated that an extract of tall fescue seed induced a greater contractile response in ruminal artery and vein...

  13. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative post-ingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial arrangement with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SAN; ' 3% condens...

  14. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative postingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 3-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial experimental design with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SF; tannin...

  15. Postgraze assessment of toxicosis symptoms for steers grazed on toxic and novel endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2-yr pen experiment was conducted using 18 crossbred Angus steers each year to evaluate changes in body temperature, vasoconstriction, and prolactin concentrations in steers previously grazed on toxic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) as c...

  16. The Effects of Steroid Implant and Dietary Soybean Hulls on Estrogenic Activity of Sera of Steers Grazing Toxic Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Shappell, Nancy W.; Flythe, Michael D.; Aiken, Glen E.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean hulls (SBHs) have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants containing estradiol (E2) and progesterone [implantation (IMP)], feeding SBHs, or the combination of the two. While the mechanism for amelioration was unclear, the SBHs were postulated as acting as a diluent of the toxic factors of the fescue. Alternatively, estradiol and phytoestrogens of SBHs might be acting through relaxation of the persistent vasoconstriction found in animals ingesting ergot alkaloids of endophyte-infected fescue. If so, estrogenic activity of serum of steers receiving SBHs, IMP, or a combination of the two should be elevated. Using the cellular proliferation assay of estrogenicity (E-Screen), estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs) were determined on both SBHs and the serum of steers from a previously reported study. Range of SBHs was 5.0–8.5 ng Eqs g−1 DM (mean 6.5, n = 4 from different commercial sources of SBHs). At the rate fed, theoretically calculated blood E2Eq could be physiologically relevant (~80 pg mL−1, based on 2.3 kg SBHs d−1, 300 kg steer, 5.7% blood volume, and 10% absorption). Serum E2Eqs did increase in steers (P ≤ 0.05) with steroidal implants or fed SBHs by 56 and 151% over control, respectively, and treatments were additive (211% increase). Serum prolactin was also greatest for the SBH + IMP group (188 ng mL−1, P < 0.05), concentrations comparable to values reported for steers grazing endophyte-free fescue. Prolactin in the SBH group was higher than IMP or control groups (146 versus 76 and 60 ng mL−1, respectively). Still unknown is if additional E2Eqs from dietary phytoestrogens or exogenous sources of estradiol can further reduce symptoms of fescue toxicosis. The E-Screen assay was an effective tool in monitoring serum for estrogenic effects

  17. Genetic x environment interactions on blood constituents of Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and calves grazing common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Cole, N A; Brown, M A; Phillips, W A

    2001-05-01

    Over a 2-yr period, effects of genotype and forage on blood metabolites, enzymes, and minerals were determined in Angus, Brahman, Angus x Brahman (sire x dam), and Brahman x Angus cows, and 129 calves from these cows sired by Hereford bulls. Cows and calves continuously grazed either common bermudagrass or endophyte-infected 'Kentucky-31' tall fescue pastures throughout the year. Blood samples were collected via jugular venipuncture in April, August, October (weaning), and November (after 30 d in a feedlot) of each year. Plasma urea N concentrations of cows and calves were affected by forage (P < 0.01) and breed (P < 0.05). Plasma cholesterol and FFA concentrations of cows were affected by forage (P < 0.01) and breed (P < 0.05). In calves, antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were not affected by forage but were affected by breed. Serum inorganic P concentrations of calves and cows were affected by forage (P < 0.05). Serum P concentrations and alkaline phosphatase activity of calves were affected by breed (P < 0.05). Calves grazing bermudagrass had higher (P < 0.05) serum concentrations of Fe and total iron binding capacity (TIBC). There was evidence of maternal heterosis for concentrations of free fatty acids, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase, Ca, Mg, alkaline phosphatase, ceruloplasmin, Fe, and TIBC. There was evidence of grandmaternal effects for plasma concentrations of urea N, cholesterol, Ca, P, Mg, and alkaline phosphatase. These results suggest that calves and cows grazing tall fescue are generally on a lower plane of nutrition than those grazing bermudagrass and that Brahman x Angus and Angus x Brahman crossbred cows and their calves seen to be more tolerant of the negative effects of tall fescue than the average of their purebred contemporaries. PMID:11374533

  18. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Klotz, J L; Aiken, G E; Johnson, J M; Brown, K R; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2013-09-01

    Pharmacologic profiling of serotonin (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline, 5HT, 5HT2A, and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT receptor activity of tall fescue alkaloids is affected by grazing endophyte-free (EF), wild-type [Kentucky-31 (KY31)], novel endophyte AR542-infected (MAXQ), or novel endophyte AR584-infected (AR584) tall fescue, contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing these different fescue-endophyte combinations were evaluated in presence or absence of antagonists for 5HT2A (ketanserin) or 5HT7 (SB-269970) receptors. Biopsies were conducted over 2 yr on 35 mixed-breed steers (361.5 ± 6.3 kg) grazing EF (n = 12), KY31 (n = 12), MAXQ (n = 6), or AR584 (n = 5) pasture treatments (3 ha) between 84 and 98 d (Yr 1) or 108 to 124 d (Yr 2). Segments (2 to 3 cm) of vein were surgically biopsied, sliced into 2- to 3-mm cross-sections, and suspended in a myograph chamber containing 5 mL of oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer (95% O2/5% CO2; pH = 7.4; 37°C). Veins were exposed to increasing concentrations of 5HT, ergovaline, and ergovaline + 1 × 10(-5) M ketanserin or + 1 × 10(-6) M SB-269970 in Yr 1. In Yr 2, ergotamine and ergocornine were evaluated in presence or absence of 1 × 10(-5) M ketanserin. Contractile response data were normalized to a reference addition of 1 × 10(-4) M norepinephrine. In Yr 1, contractile response to 5HT and ergovaline were least (P < 0.05) in KY31 pastures and the presence of ketanserin greatly reduced (P < 0.05) the response to ergovaline in all pastures. However, presence of SB-269970 did not (P = 0.91) alter contractile response to ergovaline. In Yr 2, there was no difference in contractile response to ergotamine (P = 0.13) or ergocornine (P = 0.99) across pasture treatments, but ketanserin reduced (P < 0.05) the contractile response to

  19. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (P<.10), had lighter starting and finished weights on feed (P< .01), lighter carcass weights (P<.01), and smaller longissimus muscle areas (P<.05) than calves from BG. Calves from E+ were similar to calves from BG in feedlot ADG, percentage kidney, heart, and pelvic fat, fat thickness over 12th rib, yield grade, marbling score, and dressing percentage. Maternal heterosis was larger in calves from E+ for starting weight on feed (P<.01), finished weight (P<.10), and carcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows. PMID:10064024

  20. Postweaning performance of calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue or common bermudagrass.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Phillips, W A; Brown, A H; Coleman, S W; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    1999-01-01

    Data from 403 Polled Hereford-sired calves from Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows were used to evaluate the effects of preweaning forage environment on postweaning performance. Calves were spring-born in 1991 to 1994 and managed on either endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or common bermudagrass (BG) during the preweaning phase. After weaning, calves were shipped to the Grazinglands Research Laboratory, El Reno, OK and stratified to one of two winter stocker treatments by breed and preweaning forage; stocker treatments were winter wheat pasture (WW) or native range plus supplemental CP (NR). Each stocker treatment was terminated in March, calves grazed cool-season grasses, and calves were then moved to a feedlot phase in June. In the feedlot phase, calves were fed to approximately 10 mm fat over the 12th rib and averaged approximately 115 d on feed. When finished, calves were weighed and shipped to Amarillo, TX for slaughter. Averaged over calf breed group, calves from E+ gained faster during the stocker phase (P<.10), had lighter starting and finished weights on feed (P< .01), lighter carcass weights (P<.01), and smaller longissimus muscle areas (P<.05) than calves from BG. Calves from E+ were similar to calves from BG in feedlot ADG, percentage kidney, heart, and pelvic fat, fat thickness over 12th rib, yield grade, marbling score, and dressing percentage. Maternal heterosis was larger in calves from E+ for starting weight on feed (P<.01), finished weight (P<.10), and carcass weight (P<.16). These data suggest that few carryover effects from tall fescue preweaning environments exist, other than lighter, but acceptable, weights through slaughter. These data further suggest that the tolerance to E+ in calves from reciprocal-cross cows, expressed in weaning weights, moderated postweaning weight differences between E+ and BG compared to similar comparisons in calves from purebred cows.

  1. Gene expression profiling indicates an increased capacity for proline, serine, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial mass by the liver of steers grazing high vs. low endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Liao, S F; Boling, J A; Matthews, J C

    2015-12-01

    Grazing -infected forages results in a variety of reduced animal performance parameters, collectively known as "fescue toxicosis." The initial, limited evaluations of hepatic mechanisms affected by fescue toxicosis have used transcriptomic expression profiling of experimental phenotypes developed by short-term feeding of concentrated ergot alkaloids or fescue seeds to rodents and steers. To assess the effects of fescue toxicosis in growing cattle using a commercially relevant phenotype, we induced fescue toxicosis in beef steers by summer-long grazing (89 to 105 d) of a single high toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture (HE; 0.746 μg/g ergot alkaloids; 5.7 ha; = 10; BW = 267 ± 14.5 kg) vs. a low toxic endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture (LE; 0.023 μg/g ergot alkaloids; 5.7 ha; = 9; BW = 266 ± 10.9 kg). High toxic endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture steers had decreased BW (313 vs. 338 kg) and an increased potential for hepatic gluconeogenesis from AA-derived carbons. To gain a greater perspective into fescue toxicosis-induced hepatic metabolism and identify candidate regulatory mechanisms, the goal of the current research was to examine liver samples for changes in gene (mRNA) expression profiles using a Bovine Affymetrix microarray and selected reverse-transcription PCR and immunoblot analyses. The expression (false discovery rate < 10%; < 0.01) of 147 genes was increased (7 to 268%) and that of 227 was decreased (4 to 87%) in livers of HE vs. LE steers. The top (1) functional gene category was cell-mediated immune response (33 genes; ≤ 0.012), (2) canonical cell signaling pathway was primary immunodeficiency signaling (8 genes; ≤ 0.0003), and (3) canonical metabolic pathways were oxidative phosphorylation (5 genes; ≤ 0.016) and purine metabolism (8 genes; ≤ 0.029). High toxic endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture steers had increased ( ≤ 0.022) expression of genes critical for increased (1) Pro () and Ser () synthesis, (2) shunting of AA carbons

  2. Ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption from the washed reticulorumen.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Kristensen, N B; Klotz, J L; Kim, D H; Koontz, A F; McLeod, K R; Bush, L P; Schrick, F N; Harmon, D L

    2013-11-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen. Steers (n=8) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes and received ground endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum; E+) seed (0.015 mg ergovaline·kg BW(-1)·d(-1)) or endophyte-free tall fescue (E-) seed via the rumen cannula 2x daily for 7 d at thermoneutral (TN; 22°C) and heat stress (HS; 32°C) conditions. On d 8, the rumen was emptied and rinsed. A buffer containing VFA was incubated in the following sequence: control (CON), 15 μg ergovaline·kg BW(-1) (1×EXT) from a tall fescue seed extract, and 45 μg ergovaline·kg BW(-1) (3×EXT). For each buffer treatment there were two 30-min incubations: a 30-min incubation of a treatment buffer with no sampling followed by an incubation of an identical sampling buffer with the addition of Cr-EDTA and deuterium oxide (D2O). Epithelial blood flow was calculated as ruminal clearance of D2O corrected for influx of physiological water and liquid outflow. Feed intake decreased with dosing E+ seed at HS but not at thermoneutral conditions (TN; P<0.02). Dosing E+ seed decreased serum prolactin (P<0.005) at TN. At HS, prolactin decreased in both groups over the 8-d experiment (P<0.0001), but there was no difference in E+ and E- steers (P=0.33). There was a seed treatment×buffer treatment interaction at TN (P=0.038), indicating that E+ seed treatment decreased reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow at TN during the CON incubation, but the two groups of steers were not different during 1×EXT and 3×EXT (P>0.05). Inclusion of the extract in the buffer caused at least a 50% reduction in epithelial blood flow at TN (P=0.004), but there was no difference between 1×EXT and 3×EXT. There was a seed × buffer treatment interaction at HS (P=0.005), indicating that the reduction of blood flow induced by incubating the extract was larger for steers receiving E- seed than E+ seed. Volatile

  3. Genotype x environment interactions in Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows and their calves grazing common bermudagrass, endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures, or both forages.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H; Jackson, W G; Miesner, J R

    2000-03-01

    Reproductive and preweaning data on 190 Angus (A x A), Brahman (B x B), and reciprocal-cross cows (A x B and B x A) and 434 two- and three-breed-cross calves managed on common bermudagrass (BG), endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), or a combination of both forages (ROT) were used to evaluate the interaction of forage type with individual and maternal heterosis and maternal and grandmaternal breed effects. Cows were born from 1988 to 1991, and calves sired by 13 Polled Hereford bulls were born from 1995 to 1997. Heterosis for calving rate was larger on E+ than on BG or ROT (P < .05), whereas maternal effects were larger on BG than on ROT (P < .10). Maternal heterosis for birth weight was negative on BG (P < .11) but positive on E+ and ROT (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects were evident on BG (P < .10) and E+ (P < .01) but not on ROT. Forage effects were generally substantial for 205-d weight, calf weaning hip height, and calf weaning weight:height ratio; BG was highest, ROT was intermediate, and E+ was lowest. Maternal heterosis for these traits was generally greater on E+ than on BG (P < .10). Grandmaternal effects for 205-d weight, hip height, and weight:height ratio were not important on any forage. Heterosis for weaning weight per cow exposed was substantial on all forages (P < .01) and was significantly greater on E+ (P < .01) than on BG or ROT, but maternal effects were not significant. Thus, we observed more advantage to Brahman-cross cows over purebreds on E+ than on BG. We also observed that moving cows and calves from E+ to BG in the summer will alleviate some, but not all, of the deleterious effects of E+ on calf growth, although it may be more beneficial for reproductive traits in purebred cows. PMID:10764060

  4. Effects of endophyte-infected fescue seed on physiological parameters of mature female meat goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the study were to determine if consumption of endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue seed would affect thermoregulation and dry matter intake (DMI) in mature female meat goats. During the 4 week study, goats (n = 18) were assigned to one of three treatments (n = 6 per treatment) and f...

  5. Vascular activity increases with time off of tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle continue to recover from depressed vasoactivity (vasoconstriction) beyond 60 days after removal from endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture and after prolactin (an indicator of fescue toxicosis) had returned to physiologic levels. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of...

  6. Chaparral Herbicide Application for Suppression of Seedhead Emergence in Tall Fescue Pastures and Possible Alleviation of Fescue Toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaparral® herbicide has shown in small-plot experiments to suppress seed head emergence in tall fescue. A two-yr grazing experiment is being conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures that are either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide. The objective of the...

  7. Cellular composition and expression of potential stem cell markers in mammary tissue of cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and early lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the impact of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late pregnancy on parameters of mammary development in Holstein cows. Cows (N = 16) were fed 10% of their ration as tall fescue seed that was free from (CON) or infected with endophyte (INF) from 90d before expected calving until ...

  8. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  9. Chemotais disruption in protylenchus scribneri by tall fescue root extracts and alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. One objective of this work was to determine if root extracts of tall fescue...

  10. Animal and pasture responses to grazing management of chemically suppressed tall fescue in mixed pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Treatment of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] with metsulfuran-methyl can mitigate fescue toxicosis and enhance forage nutritive value by suppressing seedhead emergence. A grazing experiment was conducted with steers (2013) and heifers (2014) to evaluate a...

  11. Chemical Suppression of Seedhead Emergence in Endohyte-Infested Tall Fescue for Improving Steer Weight Gain and Physiology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chaparral® herbicide has shown in small-plot experiments to suppress seedhead emergence in tall fescue. A grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue that were either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide. The objective of the experiment was to de...

  12. Does Fungal Endophyte Infection Improve Tall Fescue’s Growth Response to Fire and Water Limitation?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sarah L.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Barney, Robert J.; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue’s ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E−), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E−>E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e

  13. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation ...

  14. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Coping with tall fescue toxicosis: Solutions and realities.

    PubMed

    Kallenbach, R L

    2015-12-01

    Beef cattle consume more tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.] than any other perennial cool-season grass in North America. Tall fescue forms a mutualistic relationship with the fungus (Morgan-Jones and W. Cams) C.W. Bacon & Schardl, comb. nov.; these plants are often referred to as endophyte-infected tall fescue. Agronomically, endophyte infection is good; endophyte-infected plants resist biotic and abiotic stresses better than do endophyte-free plants. However, tall fescue plants infected with a common toxic endophyte produce the ergot alkaloids that cause tall fescue toxicosis. Several agronomic practices can eliminate or reduce the effects of tall fescue toxicosis. Renovating tall fescue fields infected with a common toxic endophyte to new cultivars infected with a novel (or nontoxic) endophyte eliminates the problem for that field. Although the cost to renovate currently exceeds US$600/ha, most economic analyses show it to be a good long-term investment, especially on fields with high forage production potential. Less effective, but popular, methods of dealing with tall fescue toxicosis include adding clovers ( spp.) or other forage species to the pastures to dilute the effects of the toxins, avoiding the use of high rates of nitrogen fertilizers, feeding supplements, and rotating cattle to warm-season forages in summer. Also, the alkaloid concentration in forage can be reduced by making it (drying) into hay. Recent research shows that animal tolerance to tall fescue toxicosis is possible, although there is still much to learn about this topic. Tall fescue toxicosis is likely a reality in the beef industry for some time to come. We contend that renovation of the most productive fields to cultivars infected with a novel endophyte coupled with the prospect of using tolerant livestock in scenarios where renovation is not possible will give innovative producers a competitive edge. PMID:26641158

  15. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    McCulley, Rebecca L.; Bush, Lowell P.; Carlisle, Anna E.; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim A.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue's ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause “fescue toxicosis” in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3°C) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009–2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30–40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue

  16. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcculley, Rebecca; Bush, Lowell; Carlisle, Anna; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim

    2014-10-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009 - 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue

  17. Chemotaxis disruption in Pratylenchus scribneri by tall fescue root extracts and alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. The objectives of this work were to identify effects from ergot and lolin...

  18. From the Lab Bench: Why the heat and cold stresses on tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column is written to provide information on why cattle that graze toxic endophyte infected tall fescue are vulnerable to both heat and cold stress. Peer reviewed research conducted by scientists at the USDA-ARS Forage-Animal Production Research Unit demonstrated that ergot alkaloids produced by t...

  19. From the Lab Bench: Can cattle meet their nutrient needs on toxic tall fescue pasture?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column is written to provide information on nutrient utilization by cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. We have considerable knowledge and understanding of ergot alkaloid-induced constriction of blood flow to peripheral tissues, but what about blood flow to other parts of the bod...

  20. Novel endophyte provides fescue toxicosis relief

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is extremely persistent and productive in the climatic and soil conditions in the fescue belt, which makes it extremely challenging to replace toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue with non-toxic grass alternatives. There is another option, which is to replace toxic endophyte-infected ta...

  1. Performance and physiology of yearling steers grazing toxic tall fescue as influenced by feeding soybean hulls and implanting with steroidal horomones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) adversely affect cattle weight gain and physiology. Sixty-four steers were grazed on endophyte-infected (E+) KY-31 tall fescue for 77 days in 2007 and sixty steers were grazed for 86 ...

  2. The effect of feeding endophyte-infected fescue on the metabolic response to a provocative immune challenge in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To determine the effect of endophyte-infected fescue on the metabolic response of beef heifers to a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge, Angus heifers (n=22; 292 +/- 9.0 kg body weight) were paired by body weight and randomly placed on either an endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) diet for...

  3. The effect of feeding endophyte-infected fescue on the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Angus heifers (n = 22; 292 ± 9.0 kg body weight) were paired by body weight and randomly placed on either an endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) diet for 10 days to determine the influence of feeding endophyte-infected fescue on the physiological and acute phase responses of beef heifers ...

  4. Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue and its potential application in the phytoremediation of saline soils.

    PubMed

    Yin, L; Ren, A; Wei, M; Wu, L; Zhou, Y; Li, X; Gao, Y

    2014-01-01

    The growth response of endophyte-infected (EI) and endophyte-free (EF) tall fescue to salt stress was investigated under two growing systems (hydroponic and soil in pots). The hydroponic experiment showed that endophyte infection significantly increased tiller and leaf number, which led to an increase in the total biomass of the host grass. Endophyte infection enhanced Na accumulation in the host grass and improved Na transport from the roots to the shoots. With a 15 g l(-1) NaCl treatment, the phytoextraction efficiency of EI tall fescue was 2.34-fold higher than EF plants. When the plants were grown in saline soils, endophyte infection also significantly increased tiller number, shoot height and the total biomass of the host grass. Although EI tall fescue cannot accumulate Na to a level high enough for it to be termed a halophyte, the increased biomass production and stress tolerance suggested that endophyte/plant associations had the potential to be a model for endophyte-assisted phytoextraction in saline soils.

  5. Genotypic and Chemotypic Diversity of Neotyphodium Endophytes in Tall Fescue from Greece

    PubMed Central

    Takach, Johanna E.; Mittal, Shipra; Swoboda, Ginger A.; Bright, Sherrita K.; Trammell, Michael A.; Hopkins, Andrew A.

    2012-01-01

    Epichloid endophytes provide protection from a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses for cool-season grasses, including tall fescue. A collection of 85 tall fescue lines from 15 locations in Greece, including both Continental and Mediterranean germplasm, was screened for the presence of native endophytes. A total of 37 endophyte-infected lines from 10 locations were identified, and the endophytes were classified into five distinct groups (G1 to G5) based on physical characteristics such as colony morphology, growth rate, and conidial morphology. These classifications were supported by phylogenetic analyses of housekeeping genes tefA and tubB, and the endophytes were further categorized as Neotyphodium coenophialum isolates (G1, G4, and G5) or Neotyphodium sp. FaTG-2 (Festuca arundinacea taxonomic group 2 isolates (G2 and G3). Analyses of the tall fescue matK chloroplast genes indicated a population-wide, host-specific association between N. coenophialum and Continental tall fescue and between FaTG-2 and Mediterranean tall fescue that was also reflected by differences in colonization of host tillers by the native endophytes. Genotypic analyses of alkaloid gene loci combined with chemotypic (chemical phenotype) profiles provided insight into the genetic basis of chemotype diversity. Variation in alkaloid gene content, specifically the presence and absence of genes, and copy number of gene clusters explained the alkaloid diversity observed in the endophyte-infected tall fescue, with one exception. The results from this study provide insight into endophyte germplasm diversity present in living tall fescue populations. PMID:22660705

  6. Effects of selected endophyte and tall fescue cultivar combinations on steer grazing performance, indicators of fescue toxicosis, feedlot performance, and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Parish, J A; Parish, J R; Best, T F; Boland, H T; Young, C A

    2013-01-01

    Five tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] pastures [wild-type 'Kentucky-31' with 78.0% of plants infected with ergot alkaloid-producing endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (KY31 E+), 'Jesup' AR542 endophyte-infected contaminated with 30.3% tall fescue containing ergot alkaloid producing-endophyte (Jesup AR542 E+); 'GA-186' AR584 endophyte-infected contaminated with 11.8% tall fescue containing ergot alkaloid producing-endophyte (AGRFA 140); 'PDF' AR584 endophyte-infected contaminated with 5.5% tall fescue containing ergot alkaloid producing-endophyte (AGRFA 144); and 'KYFA 9301' AR584 endophyte-infected contaminated with 10.0% tall fescue containing ergot alkaloid producing-endophyte (AGRFA 150)] were compared for steer growth performance, toxicity, feedlot performance, and carcass traits. Steers (mean initial BW=322 kg) grazed pastures for 84 d in spring and 56 d in autumn for 2 yr. Steers were shipped after grazing in Prairie, MS, to Macedonia, IA, for finishing. Mean herbage mass was not different (P=0.15) among pastures. Posttreatment (d 28+) serum prolactin concentrations were depressed (P=0.013) on KY31 E+. Steers grazing KY31 E+ had greater (P<0.01) posttreatment rectal temperatures during spring. Spring hair coat scores were greatest (P<0.01) on KY31 E+ at d 56 and 84. Steer ADG was least (P<0.01) on KY31 E+ in spring and depressed (P=0.014) on KY31 E+ and Jesup AR542 E+ in autumn. Spring grazing ADG was greater (P=0.049) on AGRFA 150 than Jesup AR542 E+ and AGRFA 140. No BW differences (P=0.09) among pastures were seen at reimplant during feedlot finishing. Pasture had no effect on ADG after reimplant (P=0.68), days on feed (P=0.56), or final BW (P=0.55). Exposure to fescue toxicosis did not affect (P≥0.19) carcass traits. Hair coat price discounts applied for spring-grazed steers on KY-31 E+ affected (P<0.01) initial steer monetary values. There were no pasture differences for finishing costs (P≥0.61) or final carcass value (P=0.59). Elite tall

  7. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation.

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Ransom L; Capuco, Anthony V; Evock-Clover, Christina M; Grossi, Paolo; Choudhary, Ratan K; Vanzant, Eric S; Elsasser, Theodore H; Bertoni, Giuseppe; Trevisi, Erminio; Aiken, Glen E; McLeod, Kyle R

    2016-09-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming these grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation, and milk production. Twenty-four multiparous Holstein cows were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups. Starting at 90±4 d prepartum, cows were fed endophyte-free fescue seed (control; CON), endophyte-free fescue seed plus 3×/wk subcutaneous injections of bromocriptine (0.1mg/kg of body weight, positive control; BROMO), or endophyte-infected fescue seed (INF) as 10% of the diet on an as fed basis. Although milk yield of groups did not differ before treatment, at dry off (-60 d prepartum) INF and BROMO cows produced less milk than CON. Throughout the treatment period, basal concentrations of PRL and the prepartum increase in plasma PRL were reduced in INF and BROMO cows compared with CON cows. Three weeks after the end of treatment, circulating concentrations of PRL were equivalent across groups. In the subsequent lactation milk yield was not decreased; in fact, BROMO cows exhibited a 9% increase in milk yield relative to CON. Evaluation of mammary tissue during the dry period and the subsequent lactation, by quantitative histology and immunohistochemical analysis of proliferation markers and putative mammary stem or progenitor cell markers, indicated that feeding endophyte-infected fescue seed did not significantly affect mammary growth and development. Feeding endophyte-infected grasses during the dry period may permit effective utilization of feed resources without compromising milk production in the next lactation.

  8. Growing steers grazing high versus low endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue have reduced serum enzymes increased hepatic glucogenic enzymes and reduced liver and carcass mass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is well established that grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected forages results in reduced weight gain and serum prolactin levels of cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the potential effects of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue consumption on carcass characteristics, bloo...

  9. Ergovaline recovery from digested tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed heads typically contain high concentrations of ergot alkaloids, which makes them a highly toxic source of ergot alkaloids. Unfortunately, cattle selectively graze tall fescue seedheads. Seedheads were collected from pastures grazed by Angus-cross steers from early-May until mid-June. Pasture...

  10. Bioextraction of soil boron by tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Bañuelos, G S; Mackey, B; Wu, L; Zambrzuski, S; Akohoue, S

    1995-07-01

    High concentrations of soil B are detrimental to crop productivity in certain arid and semiarid regions of the western United States. Production of tall fescue on B-affected soils may be a viable strategy to reduce and maintain soil B concentrations at nontoxic levels for most agronomic crops. A 2-year field experiment was conducted to study B uptake in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) Schreb. cv. Au Triumph grown in soil containing potentially toxic levels of native soil B. The soil B concentrations (water-extractable B greater than 5 mg B liter-1) did not affect the dry matter (DM) yield of tall fescue. Boron concentrations in shoot tissue for both years ranged from 88 to 121 mg B kg-1 DM. whereas in root tissue, concentrations ranged from 50 to 60 mg B kg-1 DM. For both years of the study, soil samples were taken at depth of 0-45 and 45-90 cm at the beginning and end of the designated growing season and analyzed for water-extractable B. Summary data from all cropped plots at the two soil depths indicated that the mean water-extractable B concentrations were reduced by 35% after 2 years in the tall fescue plots, whereas losses of extractable B from bare plots did not exceed 13% for both years. Tall fescue apparently can be used as a component in an overall strategy to lower extractable soil native B levels in irrigated agriculture soils and potentially reduce leaching of B into shallow ground water. PMID:8521775

  11. Quantification of ergovaline using HPLC and mass spectrometry in Iranian Neotyphodium infected tall fescue

    PubMed Central

    Najafabadi, A. Sobhani; Mofid, M.R.; Mohammadi, R.; Moghim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Ergovaline, the main ergopeptine alkaloid produced in tall fescue (Fescue arundinacea Schreb.) infected with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum Morgan- Jones & Gams), is known to cause tall fescue toxicosis. This study was conducted to examine the presence of fungal endophytes in five populations of tall fescue collected from various regions of Iran. The existence of Neotyphodium mycelia in the tissues of the samples was confirmed by microscopic examination, and the isolation was performed from leaf tissues of the hosts on potato dextrose agar. All isolates were confirmed as the Neotyphodium species by PCR, using specific primers. Mass detection and determination of ergovaline were performed by HPLC at three plant growth stages. Ergovaline was detected in all isolates, with the mean concentrations of 0.24 to 3.48 μg/g dry matter of different populations for the whole three plant growth stages. The differences in ergovaline content between plant populations and sampling time were statistically significant. This is the first report of ergovaline content in endophyte infected Fescue arundinacea from natural grasslands in Iran. PMID:22049272

  12. Genotype x environmental interaction for mature size and rate of maturing for Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte infected fescue.

    PubMed

    Sandelin, B A; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Johnson, Z B; Kellogg, D W; Stelzleni, A M

    2002-12-01

    Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximately 18 mo of age and then at prebreeding, postcalving, and weaning of calf. All cows with weight data to at least 42 mo of age were included in the analysis. Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated using the three-parameter growth curve model described by Brody (1945). Data were pooled over year and analyzed by the general linear model procedure of SAS. Included in the models for mature weight and rate of maturing were the independent variables of genotype, environment, and genotype x environment interaction. There was a genotype x environment interaction (P < 0.01) for mature body weight (BW) but not for rate of maturing. Angus cows grazing fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.01) mean mature BW than Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (611 +/- 17 vs 546 +/- 16 kg). Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass had lower (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than Brahman x Angus cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected fescue and Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (546 +/- 16 vs 624 +/- 19, 614 +/- 22 and 598 +/- 20 kg, respectively). Brahman cows grazing endophyte-infected fescue had smaller (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than all genotype x forage combinations except for Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass. Angus cows had a smaller (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Angus x Brahman and Brahman x Angus cows (0.039 +/- 0.002 vs 0.054 +/- 0.002 and 0.049 +/- 0.002%/mo, respectively), respectively, and Angus x Brahman cows had a larger (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Brahman x Angus and Brahman cows (0.054 +/- 0.002 vs 0.049 +/- 0.002 and 0.041 +/- 0.002 %/mo, respectively). There was a direct breed x forage interaction (P < 0.05) for mature BW. These data suggest that the

  13. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L.; McNear, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes. PMID:25914697

  14. Seedling performance associated with live or herbicide treated tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue is an important forage grass which can host systemic fungal endophytes. The association of host grass and endophyte is known to influence herbivore behavior and host plant competition for resources. Establishing legumes into existing tall fescue sods is a desirable means to acquire nitro...

  15. Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry.

    SciTech Connect

    Brosi, Glade; McCulley, Rebecca L; Bush, L P; Nelson, Jim A; Classen, Aimee T; Norby, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Climate change (altered CO{sub 2}, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant-microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum-Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing climate manipulation experiment in a constructed old-field community in Tennessee (USA). Endophyte infection frequency (EIF) was determined, and infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tillers were analysed for tissue chemistry. The EIF of tall fescue was higher under elevated CO{sub 2} (91% infected) than with ambient CO{sub 2} (81%) but was not affected by warming or precipitation treatments. Within E+ tillers, elevated CO{sub 2} decreased alkaloid concentrations of both ergovaline and loline, by c. 30%; whereas warming increased loline concentrations 28% but had no effect on ergovaline. Independent of endophyte infection, elevated CO{sub 2} reduced concentrations of nitrogen, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2}, more than changes in temperature or precipitation, may promote this grass-fungal symbiosis, leading to higher EIF in tall fescue in old-field communities. However, as all three climate factors are likely to change in the future, predicting the symbiotic response and resulting ecological consequences may be difficult and dependent on the specific atmospheric and climatic conditions encountered.

  16. Performance, forage utilization, and ergovaline consumption by beef cows grazing endophyte fungus-infected tall fescue, endophyte fungus-free tall fescue, or orchardgrass pastures.

    PubMed

    Peters, C W; Grigsby, K N; Aldrich, C G; Paterson, J A; Lipsey, R J; Kerley, M S; Garner, G B

    1992-05-01

    Two 120-d trials (May to September, 1988 and 1989) determined the effects of grazing tall fescue (two varieties) or orchardgrass on forage intake and performance by beef cows. Each summer, 48 cow-calf pairs grazed endophyte-infected Kentucky-31 tall fescue (KY-31), endophyte-free Mozark tall fescue (MOZARK), or Hallmark orchardgrass (OG) pastures (16 pairs/treatment). Forage OM intakes and digestibilities were determined during June and August each year. Cow and calf BW and milk production were determined every 28 d. During June of both years, OM intakes did not differ (P greater than .10) among treatments. During August of 1988, intakes were 18% lower (P less than .05) by KY-31 cows (1.6% of BW) than by MOZARK or OG cows (average 1.95% of BW); however, no differences (P greater than .10) were measured in August of 1989. Estimates of ergovaline consumption during June from KY-31 were between 4.2 (1988) and 6.0 mg/d (1989), whereas August estimates were between 1.1 (1988) and 2.8 mg/d (1989). Ergovaline in MOZARK estrusa was below detection limits, except in August of 1989. Cows that grazed KY-31 lost three times (P less than .01) more BW than cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (42 vs 9 and 13 kg, respectively). Milk production by KY-31 cows was 25% lower (P less than .01) than that by cows that grazed MOZARK or OG (6.0 vs average of 8.0 kg/d). Similarly, slower (P less than .01) calf gains were noted for KY-31 than for MOZARK or OG (.72 vs .89 and .88 kg/d, respectively). Cows grazing KY-31 experienced accelerated BW loss and reduced milk production and weaned lighter calves than did cows grazing MOZARK or OG. Decreased performance was not explained by consistently reduced forage intakes; hence, altered nutrient utilization was suspected.

  17. Infection with a Shoot-Specific Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë) Alters Tall Fescue Soil Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Xavier; Guo, Jingqi; Leff, Jonathan W; McNear, David H; Fierer, Noah; McCulley, Rebecca L

    2016-07-01

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is a widespread grass that can form a symbiotic relationship with a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala). While the effects of fungal endophyte infection on fescue physiology and ecology have been relatively well studied, less attention has been given to how this relationship may impact the soil microbial community. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid analysis to determine the structure and biomass of microbial communities in both bulk and rhizosphere soils from tall fescue stands that were either uninfected with E. coenophiala or were infected with the common toxic strain or one of several novel strains of the endophyte. We found that rhizosphere and bulk soils harbored distinct microbial communities. Endophyte presence, regardless of strain, significantly influenced soil fungal communities, but endophyte effects were less pronounced in prokaryotic communities. E. coenophiala presence did not change total fungal biomass but caused a shift in soil and rhizosphere fungal community composition, increasing the relative abundance of taxa within the Glomeromycota phylum and decreasing the relative abundance of genera in the Ascomycota phylum, including Lecanicillium, Volutella, Lipomyces, Pochonia, and Rhizoctonia. Our data suggests that tripartite interactions exist between the shoot endophyte E. coenophiala, tall fescue, and soil fungi that may have important implications for the functioning of soils, such as carbon storage, in fescue-dominated grasslands.

  18. Infection with a Shoot-Specific Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë) Alters Tall Fescue Soil Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Xavier; Guo, Jingqi; Leff, Jonathan W; McNear, David H; Fierer, Noah; McCulley, Rebecca L

    2016-07-01

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is a widespread grass that can form a symbiotic relationship with a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala). While the effects of fungal endophyte infection on fescue physiology and ecology have been relatively well studied, less attention has been given to how this relationship may impact the soil microbial community. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid analysis to determine the structure and biomass of microbial communities in both bulk and rhizosphere soils from tall fescue stands that were either uninfected with E. coenophiala or were infected with the common toxic strain or one of several novel strains of the endophyte. We found that rhizosphere and bulk soils harbored distinct microbial communities. Endophyte presence, regardless of strain, significantly influenced soil fungal communities, but endophyte effects were less pronounced in prokaryotic communities. E. coenophiala presence did not change total fungal biomass but caused a shift in soil and rhizosphere fungal community composition, increasing the relative abundance of taxa within the Glomeromycota phylum and decreasing the relative abundance of genera in the Ascomycota phylum, including Lecanicillium, Volutella, Lipomyces, Pochonia, and Rhizoctonia. Our data suggests that tripartite interactions exist between the shoot endophyte E. coenophiala, tall fescue, and soil fungi that may have important implications for the functioning of soils, such as carbon storage, in fescue-dominated grasslands. PMID:26992401

  19. Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used to Detect Endophyte-mediated Accumulation of Metals by Tall Fescue

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Stewart, Arthur J; Gwinn, Dr. Kimberley; Waller, John C

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by ICP-MS. Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough to reliably compare. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP-MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  20. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used to detect endophyte-mediated accumulation of metals by tall fescue

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Gwinn, Kimberley D.; Waller, John C.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS). Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough for a reliable comparison. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  1. Endophyte-infected fescue alters components of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen Angus and 8 Hereford X Angus (334.7 +/- 10.7 kilograms body weight) heifers were stratified by sire breed, temperament (using weaning exit velocity), and body weight and randomly assigned within strata to either an endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) diet for 10 days to determine ...

  2. Forages and pastures symposium: fungal endophytes of tall fescue and perennial ryegrass: pasture friend or foe?

    PubMed

    Young, C A; Hume, D E; McCulley, R L

    2013-05-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. syn. Festuca arundinacea Schreb.] and perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) are important perennial forage grasses utilized throughout the moderate- to high-rainfall temperate zones of the world. These grasses have coevolved with symbiotic fungal endophytes (Epichloë/Neotyphodium spp.) that can impart bioactive properties and environmental stress tolerance to the grass compared with endophyte-free individuals. These endophytes have proven to be very important in pastoral agriculture in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia, where forage grasses are the principal feed for grazing ruminants. In this review, we describe the biology of these grass-endophyte associations and implications for the livestock industries that are dependent on these forages. Endophyte alkaloid production is put in context with endophyte diversity, and we illustrate how this has facilitated utilization of grasses infected with different endophyte strains that reduce livestock toxicity issues. Utilization of tall fescue and use of perennial ryegrass in the United States, New Zealand, and Australia are compared, and management strategies focused predominantly on the success of endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass in New Zealand and Australia are discussed. In addition, we consider the impact of grass-endophyte associations on the sustainability of pasture ecosystems and their likely response to future changes in climate. PMID:23307839

  3. Effects of the Fungal Endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on Nitrogen Accumulation and Metabolism in Tall Fescue

    PubMed Central

    Lyons, Philip C.; Evans, John J.; Bacon, Charles W.

    1990-01-01

    Infection by the fungal endophyte Acremonium coenophialum affected the accumulation of inorganic and organic N in leaf blades and leaf sheaths of KY 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown under greenhouse conditions. Total soluble amino acid concentrations were increased in either the blade or sheath of the leaf from infected plants. A number of amino acids were significantly increased in the sheath, but only asparagine increased in the blade. Infection resulted in higher sheath NH4+ concentrations, whereas NO3− concentrations decreased in both leaf parts. The effects on amino acid, NO3−, and NH4+ concentrations were dependent upon the level of N fertilization and were usually apparent only at the high rate (10 millimolar) of application. Administration of 14CO2 to the leaf blades increased the accumulation of 14C in their amino acid fraction but not in the sheaths of infected plants. This may indicate that infection increased amino acid synthesis in the blade but that translocation to the sheath, which is the site of fungal colonization, was not affected. Glutamine synthetase activity was greater in leaf blades of infected plants at high and low N rates of fertilization, but nitrate reductase activity was not affected in either part of the leaf. Increased activities of glutamine synthetase together with the other observed changes in N accumulation and metabolism in endophyte-infected tall fescue suggest that NH4+ reassimilation could also be affected in the leaf blade. PMID:16667341

  4. Managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. While certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, e...

  5. Effects of feeding endophyte-infected fescue seed to Holstein cows during the dry period on plasma nitric oxide (NO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and haptoglobin (Hp) status in newborn calves.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fescue toxicosis in cattle, caused by ingestion of endophyte-infected fescue (EIF), is associated with decreased feed intake, growth, milk production and reproductive efficiency as well as decreased resistance to heat, transportation and immune stress. Increased inflammatory response to immune chal...

  6. Timing and rate of Chaparral treatment affects tall fescue seedhead development and pasture plant densities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The herbicide Chaparral™ has been shown to suppress seedhead development in tall fescue (Neotyphodium coenophialum) pastures and reduce the symptoms of tall fescue toxicosis in cattle. However, little is known about the logistics of herbicide treatment on tall fescue pastures. The objective of thi...

  7. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because...

  8. Ergovaline recovery from digested residues of grazed tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum] induce a toxicosis in cattle that is a common problem in the southeastern USA. While these toxins are heavily concentrated within the seedheads, there is a lack of information on the degree th...

  9. Ergovaline recovery from digested residues of grazed tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by livestock producers. While these toxins are often concentrated within the seedheads, there has...

  10. Notice of release of Syn1 Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of Syn1 tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (syn., Lolium arundinaceum Darbyshire; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub)] (PI xxxx, PI xxxx) germplasm developed by Dr. Bryan K. Kindiger at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Res...

  11. A simple thin-layer chromatographic method for the detection of ergovaline in leaf sheaths of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) infected with Neotyphodium coenophialum.

    PubMed

    Salvat, A E; Godoy, H M

    2001-09-01

    A relatively simple and inexpensive thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) method is described for the detection and semiquantitative measurement of ergovaline in leaf sheaths of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Samples were finely ground and extracted with methanol. The extracts were filtered and the methanol was evaporated. The aqueous residue was extracted with hexane, followed by chloroform at pH 9. The chloroform extract was concentrated and further purified on a preparative silica gel TLC plate, developed with toluene/ethyl acetate/acetonitrile (50:10:40). The ergovaline band was scraped and eluted with methanol. The eluant was concentrated and an aliquot was applied to a silica gel TLC plate. The plate was developed successively with chloroform/acetone/acetic acid (90:10:5) and chloroform/ethanol (9:1). Ergovaline was visualized with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and sulfuric acid. Semiquantitation of ergovaline was achieved by comparison with a known standard of ergotamine, which was shown to have the same Rf as ergovaline in this system. Spike recovery of ergotamine averaged 60%, with a limit of detection of 200 microg/kg of dry tall fescue leaf sheaths. The method was applied to 15 tall fescue samples with varying degrees of fungal infection, and ergovaline was identified in all contaminated samples with endophyte infection above 15%. Thin-layer chromatography may be also applicable for tall fescue seed, where the ergovaline content is usually higher and the amount of interfering pigments is much lower.

  12. Effect of simulated acid rain on the mutualism between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and an endophytic fungus (Acremonium coenophialum)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheplick, G.P. )

    1993-03-01

    Biotic interactions between plants and microorganisms have the potential to be affected by acidic precipitation. I examined the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on the mutualism between a perennial forage grass (Festuca arundinacea) and a fungal endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum). Acid water was supplied as mists sprayed onto leaf surfaces or as water added to the soil for two groups in a greenhouse: one group had high levels of endophyte infection, while the other was predominantly noninfected. Control plants received distilled water (pH 6), while others received sulfuric acid water at pH 4.5 or pH 3. Plants were harvested after 4, 6, 8, and 23 wk. Leaf endophyte infection intensity as measured by hyphal counts was not affected by acid water treatment. Root mass and root: shoot ratios generally decreased with increasing acidity of both foliar sprays and soil water, but shoot mass was mostly not affected. There was a significant pH x infection interaction for plants exposed to acidic foliar sprays for 4 wk; root and shoot mass decreased with acidity, but only for infected plants. It was found that acid rain may be deleterious to tall fescue growth at specific stages of development, but biomass production in response to acid rain is not likely to be influenced by fungal endophytes within mature plants. 55 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. The Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Nematode Populations in Summer-dormant and Summer-active Tall Fescue.

    PubMed

    Rogers, James K; Walker, Nathan R; Young, Carolyn A

    2016-06-01

    Summer-active (continental) and summer-dormant (Mediterranean) tall fescue morphotypes are each adapted to different environmental conditions. Endophyte presence provides plant parasitic nematode resistance, but not with all endophyte strains and cultivar combinations. This study sought to compare effects of four nematode genera on continental and Mediterranean cultivars infected with common toxic or novel endophyte strains. A 6-mon greenhouse study was conducted with continental cultivars, Kentucky 31 (common toxic) and Texoma MaxQ II (novel endophyte) and the Mediterranean cultivar Flecha MaxQ (novel endophyte). Endophyte-free plants of each cultivar were controls. Each cultivar × endophyte combination was randomly assigned to a control, low or high inoculation rate of a mixed nematode culture containing stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus spp.), ring nematodes (Criconemella spp.), spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus spp.), and lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.). Endophyte infection had no effect on nematode population densities. The cultivar × endophyte interaction was significant. Population densities of stunt nematode, spiral nematode, and ring nematodes were higher for Flecha MaxQ than other cultivar × endophyte combinations. Novel endophyte infection enhances suitability of Flecha MaxQ as a nematode host.

  14. The Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Nematode Populations in Summer-dormant and Summer-active Tall Fescue.

    PubMed

    Rogers, James K; Walker, Nathan R; Young, Carolyn A

    2016-06-01

    Summer-active (continental) and summer-dormant (Mediterranean) tall fescue morphotypes are each adapted to different environmental conditions. Endophyte presence provides plant parasitic nematode resistance, but not with all endophyte strains and cultivar combinations. This study sought to compare effects of four nematode genera on continental and Mediterranean cultivars infected with common toxic or novel endophyte strains. A 6-mon greenhouse study was conducted with continental cultivars, Kentucky 31 (common toxic) and Texoma MaxQ II (novel endophyte) and the Mediterranean cultivar Flecha MaxQ (novel endophyte). Endophyte-free plants of each cultivar were controls. Each cultivar × endophyte combination was randomly assigned to a control, low or high inoculation rate of a mixed nematode culture containing stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus spp.), ring nematodes (Criconemella spp.), spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus spp.), and lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.). Endophyte infection had no effect on nematode population densities. The cultivar × endophyte interaction was significant. Population densities of stunt nematode, spiral nematode, and ring nematodes were higher for Flecha MaxQ than other cultivar × endophyte combinations. Novel endophyte infection enhances suitability of Flecha MaxQ as a nematode host. PMID:27418701

  15. The Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Nematode Populations in Summer-dormant and Summer-active Tall Fescue

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, James K.; Walker, Nathan R.; Young, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Summer-active (continental) and summer-dormant (Mediterranean) tall fescue morphotypes are each adapted to different environmental conditions. Endophyte presence provides plant parasitic nematode resistance, but not with all endophyte strains and cultivar combinations. This study sought to compare effects of four nematode genera on continental and Mediterranean cultivars infected with common toxic or novel endophyte strains. A 6-mon greenhouse study was conducted with continental cultivars, Kentucky 31 (common toxic) and Texoma MaxQ II (novel endophyte) and the Mediterranean cultivar Flecha MaxQ (novel endophyte). Endophyte-free plants of each cultivar were controls. Each cultivar × endophyte combination was randomly assigned to a control, low or high inoculation rate of a mixed nematode culture containing stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus spp.), ring nematodes (Criconemella spp.), spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus spp.), and lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.). Endophyte infection had no effect on nematode population densities. The cultivar × endophyte interaction was significant. Population densities of stunt nematode, spiral nematode, and ring nematodes were higher for Flecha MaxQ than other cultivar × endophyte combinations. Novel endophyte infection enhances suitability of Flecha MaxQ as a nematode host. PMID:27418701

  16. Steer consumption and ergovaline recovery from in vitro digested residues of tall fescue seedheads

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by cattle producers. These toxins are concentrated within seedheads of tall fescue tillers, which...

  17. From the Lab Bench: Season Changes in Ergot Alkaloid Concentrations of Toxic Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column was written to discuss seasonal trends in ergot alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte that infects most plants of tall fescue. Tall fescue is the predominant grass utilized for forage in the U.S. transition zone between the temperature northeast and subtropical southeast; however, erg...

  18. Nutrient source and tillage impacts on tall fescue production and soil properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grass provides a major forage base for many livestock production systems in the southeastern United States. Forage production with manure helps recycle nutrients with less environmental impacts. This two year study examined tall fescue forage production and ...

  19. Tasco-Forage: II. Monocyte immune cell response and performance of beef steers grazing tall fescue treated with a seaweed extract.

    PubMed

    Saker, K E; Allen, V G; Fontenot, J P; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Evans, R R; Wester, D B

    2001-04-01

    Effects of applying Tasco-Forage, an Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed-based product prepared by a proprietary process, to endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum [Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin)-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were studied in each of 3 yr (1995, 1996, and 1997) in Virginia and in 1996 and 1997 in Mississippi. There were 48 steers at each location in each year (n = 240) in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with two replications at each location. Steers in Virginia were Angus and Angus x Hereford with initial weights of 245 kg (SD = 20), 234 kg (SD = 9), and 265 kg (SD = 5) in yr 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Steers in Mississippi were 3/4 Angus and 1/4 Brahman and weighed 230 kg (SD = 8) and 250 kg (SD = 2) in yr 2 and 3, respectively. Tasco (3.4 kg/ha) was dissolved in water and applied to pastures in April before grazing was begun and again in July at the same rate. The grazing period was from mid-April to late September or mid-October. Total gains were higher (P < 0.05) for steers grazing uninfected than for those grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. Rectal temperatures were increased (P < 0.05) due to endophyte infection at both locations; Tasco application decreased temperature of steers grazing infected fescue in Virginia (interaction, P < 0.07) but increased temperatures of steers grazing infected fescue in Mississippi (interaction, P < 0.05). Presence of the endophyte resulted in rough hair coats and loss of hair color, but the effect was partially offset (P < 0.05) by Tasco application in Virginia in 1995. Both monocyte phagocytic activity (all years and locations) and major histocompatibility complex class II expression (1995 only) were decreased (P < 0.05) in steers due to endophyte infection, but this effect was reversed (P < 0.05) by application of Tasco to pastures. Application of the extract from A. nodosum seems to have use in alleviating adverse effects of endophyte on immune function

  20. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Ji, Huihua; Fannin, F; Klotz, J; Bush, Lowell

    2014-01-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W × L × D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature and the resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v). The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline. PMID:25566528

  1. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  2. Ergot alkaloids produced by endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease rumen epithelial blood flow of cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids have been shown to induce vasoconstriction of both peripheral and ruminal vessels. Constriction of ruminal vessels could lead to a reduction in epithelial blood flow thereby reducing nutrient absorption. The objectives of this experiment were to determine if steers receiving endophyt...

  3. Analysis of tall fescue ESTs representing different abiotic stresses, tissue types and developmental stages

    PubMed Central

    Mian, MA Rouf; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Zhang, Ji-Yi; Cheng, Xiaofei; Chen, Lei; Chekhovskiy, Konstantin; Dai, Xinbin; Mao, Chunhong; Cheung, Foo; Zhao, Xuechun; He, Ji; Scott, Angela D; Town, Christopher D; May, Gregory D

    2008-01-01

    Background Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a major cool season forage and turf grass species grown in the temperate regions of the world. In this paper we report the generation of a tall fescue expressed sequence tag (EST) database developed from nine cDNA libraries representing tissues from different plant organs, developmental stages, and abiotic stress factors. The results of inter-library and library-specific in silico expression analyses of these ESTs are also reported. Results A total of 41,516 ESTs were generated from nine cDNA libraries of tall fescue representing tissues from different plant organs, developmental stages, and abiotic stress conditions. The Festuca Gene Index (FaGI) has been established. To date, this represents the first publicly available tall fescue EST database. In silico gene expression studies using these ESTs were performed to understand stress responses in tall fescue. A large number of ESTs of known stress response gene were identified from stressed tissue libraries. These ESTs represent gene homologues of heat-shock and oxidative stress proteins, and various transcription factor protein families. Highly expressed ESTs representing genes of unknown functions were also identified in the stressed tissue libraries. Conclusion FaGI provides a useful resource for genomics studies of tall fescue and other closely related forage and turf grass species. Comparative genomic analyses between tall fescue and other grass species, including ryegrasses (Lolium sp.), meadow fescue (F. pratensis) and tetraploid fescue (F. arundinacea var glaucescens) will benefit from this database. These ESTs are an excellent resource for the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) PCR-based molecular markers. PMID:18318913

  4. Tall fescue management in the Piedmont: Sequestration of soil organic and total nitrogen

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High quality soil-surface characteristics are important for developing environmentally sustainable agroecosystems. We evaluated the factorial combination of fertilization regime (inorganic and broiler litter) and tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.]-endophyte association (free, nove...

  5. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  6. Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the US: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

    PubMed Central

    Young, Carolyn A.; Charlton, Nikki D.; Takach, Johanna E.; Swoboda, Ginger A.; Trammell, Michael A.; Huhman, David V.; Hopkins, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the US around the late 1800's. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines, and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the US, commonly referred to as “Kentucky-31” (KY31), harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3, or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental US. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder's seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental US across historical and current tall fescue samples. PMID:25408942

  7. Influence of toxic endophyte-infected fescue on sperm characteristics and endocrine factors of yearling Brahman-influenced bulls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen (mean age = 1.1 +/- 0.1 yr; mean BW = 478 +/- 34 kg) Brahman-influenced bulls were used to determine the influence of fescue type on sperm characteristics and serum concentrations of prolactin, cortisol, and testosterone. Bulls were blocked by BW, scrotal circumference (SC), and pregrazing...

  8. Diurnal Growth of Tall Fescue Leaf Blades 1

    PubMed Central

    Schnyder, Hans; Nelson, Curtis J.

    1988-01-01

    Tall fescue leaf blades elongate at near constant rates during most of the light and dark periods of the diurnal cycle, with the dark rate being higher by 60 to 65%. Our objective was to determine relationships among diurnal rates of leaf elongation, deposition of water and deposition of dry matter (DM) into the elongation zone. Two separate experiments were conducted, both with a 15-hour photoperiod and constant 21°C at the growth zone. Increased rates of leaf elongation in darkness were due to proportionally increased rates of elongation of 4-millimeter segments of the elongation zone. Length of the total elongation zone was 30 millimeters in both light and darkness. The spatial distribution of water contents in the elongation zone varied little during the diurnal cycle. Thus, dark stimulation of leaf elongation rate (+65%) and of water deposition (+77%) into elongation zones were similar. Water content per unit leaf length increased by 50% between the basal and distal limits of the elongation zone, indicating that tissue also grew in the lateral and vertical dimensions. Longitudinal growth of tissue, however, allowed 5 to 7 times more water deposition into the elongation zone than growth in cross-sectional area. This relationship was similar in light and darkness. In both light and darkness net rates of DM deposition (microgram per millimeter leaf length per hour) increased from the zone of cell division towards the region of most active elongation, 10 to 15 millimeters from the ligule, then decreased towards the distal end of the elongation zone. Net DM deposition rates (microgram per hour) integrated over the 30-millimeter elongation zone were similar during light and darkness. Thus, DM in the elongation zone was diluted during darkness as a result of increased water deposition. Net DM deposition rates at and above the distal end of the elongation zone were clearly positive during the light, but were close to zero or negative in darkness. Thus, DM deposition

  9. High Neotyphodium infection frequencies in tillers and seed of infected tall fescue plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research quantified frequencies of Neotyphodium infected (E+) tillers and mature seed from field-grown E+ plants of two wild tall fescue accessions from Morocco and Sardinia, Italy. Tiller infection rates were 100% (n = 50 from 10 E+ plants/accession) for each accession and over 99% of the seed...

  10. Ergovaline stability in tall fescue based on sample handling and storage methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) found in tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb.) Dumort.] and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objec...

  11. Effect of grazing seedhead-suppressed tall fescue pasture on the vasoactivity of serotonin receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to ergot alkaloids reduces vasoactivity of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Chemical suppression of tall fescue seedhead production is a tool to reduce the level of exposure to ergot alkaloids by a grazing animal. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate co...

  12. Tall fescue ‘Jesup (Max-Q)’: Meloidogyne incognita development in roots and nematotoxicity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue cv. Jesup (Max-Q) was recently recommended as a preplant ground cover for managing plant-parasitic nematodes on peach trees in the southeastern United States. Jesup (Max-Q) is associated with a strain of the endosymbiotic fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum that does not produce ergot alka...

  13. Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG8 Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A number of updates on research projects conducted within Kentucky concerning tall fescue (Lolium arundinacium) and its symbiotic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) were presented at the annual SERA-IEG 8 workshop including a number with Forage-Animal Production Research Unit scientist collaborat...

  14. Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The first year of a 2 yr grazing study was conducted to evaluate use of Chaparral™ to suppress reproductive growth in tall fescue grazed with low and moderate grazing intensities. Chaparral applications (0 and 2.0 oz/acre) and grazing intensities were arranged as RCBD with three replications. Variab...

  15. Steer responses to feeding soybean hulls on toxic tall fescue pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A grazing experiment was conducted in 2004 and 2005 to evaluate effects of feeding pelleted soybean hulls (SBH) on weight gain, hair coat rating, rectal temperature, and serum prolactin of steers grazed on toxic tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)]. Forty steers [initial BW in 2004 = 25...

  16. Hemodynamic Responses of the Caudal Artery to Toxic Tall Fescue in Beef Heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare blood flow characteristics in the caudal artery of heifers fed diets with either endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected (E+) or non-infected (E-) tall fescue seed. Eighteen crossbred (Angus x Brangus) heifers were assigned to six pens and were fed...

  17. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

    2015-03-21

    A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use.

  18. Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the U.S.: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Carolyn; Charlton, Nikki; Takach, Johanna; Swoboda, Ginger; Trammell, Michael; Huhman, David; Hopkins, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the U.S. around the late 1800’s. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the U.S., commonly referred to as KY31, harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3 or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to SSR and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental U.S. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder’s seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental U.S. across historical and current tall fescue samples.

  19. Digestibility, apparent mineral absorption, and voluntary intake by horses fed alfalfa, tall fescue, and caucasian bluestem.

    PubMed

    Crozier, J A; Allen, V G; Jack, N E; Fontenot, J P; Cochran, M A

    1997-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), low-endophyte (< 5%) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica [Trin.] C.E. Hubbard) were fed as chopped hay to six Arabian geldings (BW 441 kg; SE 2) in intake and digestibility experiments to determine nutritional value for horses at maintenance. Each experimental design was a replicated Latin square. Alfalfa was higher in DM and CP digestibility, IVDMD, apparent absorption of Ca, K, and S, and voluntary intake than the grasses (P < .05). Caucasian bluestem was higher in Zn but was lower in CP, TNC, Mg, P, K, S, and Cu concentrations than tall fescue. Crude protein digestibility and apparent absorption of Mg, K, and S were higher (P < .05) for tall fescue than for caucasian bluestem. Geldings fed alfalfa for ad libitum intake had higher serum concentrations of vitamin A, blood urea nitrogen, P, S, and Cu than geldings fed grass hays. Serum Zn was higher (P < .05), whole blood Se tended to be higher (P < .06), and BUN was lower (P < .05) in geldings fed caucasian bluestem than in those fed tall fescue. All forages met requirements for CP, Ca, Mg, K, and Fe when fed for ad libitum intake but were deficient in Cu for horses at maintenance. Caucasian bluestem was borderline in CP and was deficient in P but was the only forage that met the Zn requirement for the horses. Based on these results, caucasian bluestem could be a useful hay for horses but may require supplementation of CP and P. PMID:9250529

  20. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum, can enhance drought tolerance of its host grass, tall fescue. To investigate endophyte effects on plant responses to acute water deficit stress, we did comprehensive profiling of plant metabolite levels in both shoot and root tissues of genetically identical clone pairs of tall fescue with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-) in response to direct water deficit stress. The E- clones were generated by treating E+ plants with fungicide and selectively propagating single tillers. In time course studies on the E+ and E- clones, water was withheld from 0 to 5 days, during which levels of free sugars, sugar alcohols, and amino acids were determined, as were levels of some major fungal metabolites. Results After 2–3 days of withholding water, survival and tillering of re-watered plants was significantly greater for E+ than E- clones. Within two to three days of withholding water, significant endophyte effects on metabolites manifested as higher levels of free glucose, fructose, trehalose, sugar alcohols, proline and glutamic acid in shoots and roots. The fungal metabolites, mannitol and loline alkaloids, also significantly increased with water deficit. Conclusions Our results suggest that symbiotic N. coenophialum aids in survival and recovery of tall fescue plants from water deficit, and acts in part by inducing rapid accumulation of these compatible solutes soon after imposition of stress. PMID:24015904

  1. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  2. Competitive ability of tall fescue against alfalfa as a function of summer dormancy, endophyte infection and soil moisture availability

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summer-dormant cool-season grasses might be a viable component of pasture if Mediterranean and Mediterranean-type environments with relative mild winters and hot and dry summers. Management practices for summer-dormant forages are being developed, including production strategies with compatible leg...

  3. Interaction of isoflavones and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract on vasoactivity of bovine mesenteric vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It was hypothesized that isoflavones may attenuate ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and possibly alleviate diminished contractility of vasculature after exposure to ergot alkaloids. The objective of this study was to determine if prior incubation of bovine mesenteric vasculature with the isof...

  4. Expression of the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene in tall fescue confers resistance to gray leaf spot and brown patch diseases.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shujie; Shew, H David; Tredway, Lane P; Lu, Jianli; Sivamani, Elumalai; Miller, Eric S; Qu, Rongda

    2008-02-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an important turf and forage grass species worldwide. Fungal diseases present a major limitation in the maintenance of tall fescue lawns, landscapes, and forage fields. Two severe fungal diseases of tall fescue are brown patch, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, and gray leaf spot, caused by Magnaporthe grisea. These diseases are often major problems of other turfgrass species as well. In efforts to obtain tall fescue plants resistant to these diseases, we introduced the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene into tall fescue through Agrobacterium-mediated genetic transformation. In replicated experiments under controlled environments conducive to disease development, 6 of 13 transgenic events showed high resistance to inoculation of a mixture of two M. grisea isolates from tall fescue. Three of these six resistant plants also displayed significant resistance to an R. solani isolate from tall fescue. Thus, we have demonstrated that the bacteriophage T4 lysozyme gene confers resistance to both gray leaf spot and brown patch diseases in transgenic tall fescue plants. The gene may have wide applications in engineered fungal disease resistance in various crops.

  5. Tasco-Forage: I. Influence of a seaweed extract on antioxidant activity in tall fescue and in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Fike, J H; Allen, V G; Schmidt, R E; Zhang, X; Fontenot, J P; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Evans, R R; Coelho, R W; Wester, D B

    2001-04-01

    Seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) is a known source of plant growth regulators, and application to turfgrasses has increased activity of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and specific vitamin precursors. Increased antioxidant activity in both plants and animals diminishes oxidative stress. Two pasture experiments investigated effects of Tasco-Forage (a proprietary seaweed-based product) applied to tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) on antioxidant activity in plants and in ruminants that grazed the forage. In Exp. 1, fescue was 70 to 100% infected with the endophyte fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum ([Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin). Twenty-four wether lambs (initial BW 41 kg; SD = 5) grazed fescue treated with 0, 1.7, or 3.4 kg Tasco/ha applied in April and July, 1994, with four replications per treatment. Grazing occurred for 26 d beginning April 21 and for 22 d beginning July 19. In July, there was a linear increase in daily gains (P < 0.05), and serum vitamin A (P < 0.13) and whole-blood Se (P < 0.10) tended to increase in lambs grazing Tasco-treated fescue. In Exp. 2,48 Angus and Angus x Hereford steers (initial BW 245 kg; SD = 20) grazed infected or uninfected tall fescue in Virginia that was treated (3.4 kg/ ha) or untreated with Tasco in April and July, 1995. Steers that grazed infected tall fescue had lower (P < 0.02) serum vitamin A and E and tended (P < 0.07) to have lower whole-blood Se in September compared with steers that grazed uninfected tall fescue. Tasco decreased (P < 0.06) serum vitamin E but tended to increase whole-blood Se (P < 0.10) in September and serum vitamin A in July (P < 0.12). During 1996 and 1997, the experiment was repeated in Virginia with Angus steers and was replicated at Prairie, MS, where 1/4 Brahman x 3/4 Angus steers were used. Forty-eight steers were included at each location in each year (n = 192 total steers for 1996 and 1997). Steers that grazed infected tall fescue in Mississippi had lower (P < 0

  6. Biological Control of Bipolaris sorokiniana on Tall Fescue by Stenotrophomonas maltophilia Strain C3.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Yuen, G Y

    1999-09-01

    ABSTRACT Stenotrophomonas maltophilia strain C3 was evaluated for control of leaf spot on tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana. In growth chamber experiments, C3 inhibited conidial germination on leaf surfaces and reduced lesion frequency and percent diseased leaf area compared with nontreated controls. The amount of leaf spot suppression was related to the C3 dose applied. The highest dose tested, 10(9) CFU/ml, prevented nearly all B. sorokiniana conidia from germinating on treated leaf surfaces and provided nearly complete suppression of lesion development. When colloidal chitin was added to C3 cell suspensions of 10(7) or 10(8) CFU/ml, biocontrol efficacy was significantly increased over C3 applied alone, whereas addition of chitin to a C3 cell suspension of 10(9) CFU/ml had no effect. In field experiments, application of C3 to tall fescue turf resulted in significant reductions in infection frequency and disease severity compared with nontreated controls. Strain C3 applied at 10(9) CFU/ml was more effective than C3 applied at 10(7) CFU/ml, and amendment of the lower dose with colloidal chitin enhanced its efficacy. Populations sizes of C3 established on foliage in a growth chamber and in the field were directly related to dose applied. Chitin amendments did not affect C3 population size.

  7. Interaction of heavy metals and pyrene on their fates in soil and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea).

    PubMed

    Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jing-Xiu; Zhang, Min; Xu, Yu-Xin; Wu, Xue-Jiao

    2014-01-21

    90-Day growth chamber experiments were performed to investigate the interactive effect of pyrene and heavy metals (Cu, Cd, and Pb) on the growth of tall fescue and its uptake, accumulation, and dissipation of heavy metals and pyrene. Results show that plant growth and phytomass production were impacted by the interaction of heavy metals and pyrene. They were significantly decreased with heavy metal additions (100-2000 mg/kg), but they were only slightly declined with pyrene spiked up to 100 mg/kg. The addition of a moderate dosage of pyrene (100 mg/kg) lessened heavy metal toxicity to plants, resulting in enhanced plant growth and increased metal accumulation in plant tissues, thus improving heavy metal removal by plants. In contrast, heavy metals always reduced both plant growth and pyrene dissipation in soils. The chemical forms of Cu, Cd, and Pb in plant organs varied with metal species and pyrene addition. The dissipation and mineralization of pyrene tended to decline in both planted soil and unplanted soils with the presence of heavy metals, whereas they were enhanced with planting. The results demonstrate the complex interactive effects of organic pollutants and heavy metals on phytoremediation in soils. It can be concluded that, to a certain extent, tall fescue may be useful for phytoremediation of pyrene-heavy metal-contaminated sites. Further work is needed to enhance methods for phytoremediation of heavy metal-organics co-contaminated soil.

  8. Ergovaline in tall fescue and its effect on health, milk quality, biochemical parameters, oxidative status, and drug metabolizing enzymes of lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Zbib, N; Repussard, C; Tardieu, D; Priymenko, N; Domange, C; Guerre, P

    2014-11-01

    Ergovaline (EV) produced by symbiotic association of Epichloë coenophiala with tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) causes toxicoses in livestock. In this study, 16 lactating ewes (BW 76.0 ± 0.6 kg) were used to determine the effects of feeding endophyte-infected (FE+) or endophyte free (FE-) tall fescue hay on animal health and performances and to investigate the putative mechanisms of action of EV. The mean EV concentrations in FE+ and FE- diets were 497 ± 52 and <5 µg/kg DM, respectively. Decreased hay consumption and BW were observed in the FE+ group. Prolactin (PRL) concentrations decreased (P < 0.02) in the FE+ group from d 3 to 28 of the study compared to the FE- group, but no consequences were observed on milk quantity or quality. Skin temperature and the thermocirculation index were lower (P < 0.05) in the FE+ than in the FE- group from d 3 to 7, but this effect disappeared from d 14 to 28. Hematocrit, mineral and biochemical, and enzymatic analyses of plasma revealed no differences between the 2 groups. Measurement of oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activities revealed a decrease in the activities of plasma catalase (P < 0.05), kidney glutathione reductase and peroxidase and in kidney total glutathione and malondialdehyde contents (P < 0.02) in ewes fed FE+. Hepatic flavin monooxygenase enzyme activities decreased (P < 0.01) in ewes fed FE+, except for a marked increase in the demethylation of erythromycin. This activity is linked to cytochrome P4503A content and is known to be involved in ergot alkaloid metabolism. Glutathione S-transferase activity in the kidneys decreased (P < 0.02) in the FE+ group, whereas no difference was observed in uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase activity in the liver or kidneys. The reversibility of the effect of FE+ hay on skin temperature and the increase in erythromycin N-demethylase activity may contribute to the relative resistance of ewes to EV toxicity. PMID:25253811

  9. Tall fescue-Epichloë coenophiala associations affect belowground fungi and host, symbiont response to climate change

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants interact with myriad microorganisms, which influence ecosystem processes and can regulate ecosystem response to global change. One important symbiosis occurs between the grass, tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus), and the asexual fungal endophyte Epichloë coenophiala. Because the common to...

  10. Temperature influences the ability of tall fescue to control transpiration in response to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water availability for turfgrass systems is often limited, and likely to become more so in the future. These experiments examined the ability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) to control transpiration with increasing vapor pressure deficit and whether control was influenced by temperature...

  11. Competition between tall fescue and plantago under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide: Impact of endophytic fungi and mineral N inputs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is one of the most important perennial grasses as forage and turfgrass. It is usually associated with a systemic endophytic fungus (Neotyphodium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams). The endophytic fungus often increases the host resistance to stresses, thus e...

  12. Animal performance and economic comparison of novel and toxic endophyte tall fescues to cool-season annuals.

    PubMed

    Beck, P A; Gunter, S A; Lusby, K S; West, C P; Watkins, K B; Hubbell, D S

    2008-08-01

    Increased costs of annual establishment of small grain pasture associated with fuel, machinery, and labor are eroding the profitability of stocker cattle enterprises. Interest has therefore increased in development of cool-season perennial grasses that are persistent and high quality. This study occurred on 24 ha (divided into thirty 0.81-ha paddocks) located at the University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture Livestock and Forestry Branch Station, near Batesville. Two tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) cultivars infected with novel endophytes (NE), Jesup infected with AR542 endophyte (Jesup AR542), and HiMag infected with Number 11 endophyte (HM11) were established in September 2002. Jesup AR542 and HM11 were compared with endemic endophyte Kentucky 31 (KY-31) tall fescue; wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and cereal rye (WR, Secale cereale L.) planted in September 2003, 2004, and 2005; and annual ryegrass [RG, Lolium perenne L. ssp. multiflorum (Lam.) Husnot] planted in September 2004 and 2005. Each year, 3 steers (3.7 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for fall and winter grazing, and 5 steers (6.2 steers/ha) were placed on each pasture for spring grazing. Animal performance is presented by year in the presence of a year x treatment interaction (P < 0.01). Body weight gain per hectare of steers grazing NE tall fescue was greater (P < 0.01) than those of KY-31 and WR during 2003 to 2004, whereas in 2004 to 2005, BW gain per hectare of steers grazing NE and RG did not differ (P < or = 0.29) and was greater (P < 0.01) than that of WR, which was greater (P < 0.01) than that of KY-31. During 2005 to 2006, BW gain per hectare was greater (P < 0.01) for steers grazing RG than those of NE and WR, which did not differ (P > or = 0.14). Body weight gain per hectare was least (P < 0.01) for steers grazing KY-31. Average net return of NE tall fescue was greater (P < 0.01) than KY-31, but profitability of NE did not consistently differ from cool-season annuals. Across

  13. Ergovaline Stability in Tall Fescue Based on Sample Handling and Storage Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Krista; Smith, Lori; Gaskill, Cynthia; Coleman, Robert; Smith, S.

    2014-09-01

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) found in tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb.) Dumort.) and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sample handling and storage on the stability of ergovaline in tall fescue samples. Fresh tall fescue was collected from a horse farm in central Kentucky at three harvest dates and transported on ice to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Plant material was frozen in liquid nitrogen, milled and mixed before being allocated into different sub-samples. Three sub-samples were assigned to each of 14 sample handling or storage treatments. Sample handling included increased heat and UV light to simulate transportation in a vehicle and on ice in a cooler per standard transportation recommendations. Storage conditions included storage at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC for up to 28 days. Each sub-sample was then analyzed for ergovaline concentration using HPLC with fluorescence detection and this experiment was repeated for each harvest date. Sub-samples exposed to UV light and heat lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in 2 hours, while sub-samples stored on ice in a cooler showed no change in ergovaline in 2 hours. All sub-samples stored at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in the first 24 hours of storage. There was little change in ergovaline in the freezer (-20oC) after the first 24 hours up to 28 days of storage but intermittent losses were observed at 22oC and 5oC. To obtain results that most closely represent levels in the field, all samples should be transported on ice to the laboratory immediately after harvest for same day analysis. If immediate testing is not possible, samples should be stored at -20oC until analysis.

  14. Alleviation of heat damage to photosystem II by nitric oxide in tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Chen, Liang; Fan, Jibiao; Fu, Jinmin

    2013-09-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been found to mediate plant responses to heat stress. The objective of this study was to investigate the protective role of NO in the recovery process of photosystem II (PSII) in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) against heat stress. Treatment of tall fescue leaves with NO donor sodium nitroprusside significantly improved the overall behavior of PSII probed by the chlorophyll a fluorescence transients, while the inhibition of NO accumulation by 2-phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethyl-imidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO, a NO scavenger) plus N (G)-nitro-L-arginine-methyl ester (L-NAME, NO synthase inhibitor) dramatically disrupted the operation of PSII. Specifically, under heat stress, the exogenous NO reduced the initial fluorescence (F 0), increased the maximal quantum yield (F V/F M), and disappeared the K-step of 0.3 ms. By the analysis of the JIP-test, the exogenous NO improved the quantum yield of the electron transport flux from Q A to Q B (ET0/ABS), and decreased the trapped excitation flux per reaction center (RC) (TR0/RC), electron transport flux per RC (ET0/RC), and electron flux reducing end electron acceptors per RC (RE0/RC). In addition, the exogenous NO reduced the content of H2O2, O 2 (•-) , and malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage of tall fescue leaves. These data suggest that exogenous NO could protect plants, increase the amount of activated RC and improve the electron transport from oxygen evolving complex to D1 protein. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that, in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, NO induced the gene expression of psbA, psbB, and psbC, which encode proteins belonging to subunits of PSII core reaction center (Psb) complex. These findings indicate that, as an important strategy to protect plants against heat stress, NO could improve the recovery process of PSII by the up regulation of the transcriptions of genes encoding PSII core proteins. PMID:23832593

  15. Hemodynamic responses of the caudal artery to toxic tall fescue in beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Aiken, G E; Kirch, B H; Strickland, J R; Bush, L P; Looper, M L; Schrick, F N

    2007-09-01

    Color Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare blood flow characteristics in the caudal artery of heifers fed diets with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infected (E+) or noninfected (E-) tall fescue seed. Eighteen crossbred (Angus x Brangus) heifers were assigned to 6 pens and were fed chopped alfalfa hay for 5 d and chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate that contained E-tall fescue seed for 9 d during an adjustment period. An 11-d experimental period followed, with animals in 3 pens fed chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate with E+ seed and those in the other 3 pens fed chopped hay plus concentrate with E E- seed. Color Doppler ultrasound measurements (caudal artery area, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, mean velocity, heart rate, stroke volume, and flow rate) and serum prolactin were monitored during the adjustment (baseline measures) and during the experimental period. Three baseline measures were collected on d 3, 5, and 6 during the adjustment period for comparison to post E+ seed exposure. Statistical analyses compared the proportionate differences between baseline and response at 4, 28, 52, 76, 100, 172, and 268 h from initial feeding of E+ seed. Serum prolactin concentrations on both diets were lower (P <0.001) than baseline beginning at 4 h from the start of the experimental period. However, trends in serum prolactin concentrations for heifers on the E- diet suggested ambient temperature was affecting these concentrations. Caudal artery area in E+ heifers had declined (P <0.10) from baseline by 4 h and was consistently lower (P <0.05) for the remainder of the period. Heart rates for E+ heifers were lower than the baseline rate from 4 (P <0.10) to 100 (P <0.001) h, but were similar (P >0.10) to the baseline for 172 and 268 h measures. Blood flow in E+ heifers was consistently lower than the baseline from 4 (P <0.05) to 172 (P <0.001) h, but was similar to the baseline at 268 h when heart rate was similar to the baseline rate

  16. Procedure for isolating the endophyte from tall fescue and screening isolates for ergot alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Bacon, C W

    1988-11-01

    A procedure was developed to isolate and determine ergot alkaloid production by Acremonium coenophialum, the endophytic fungus of tall fescue. The procedure established that macerated leaf sheath or pith from inflorescence stem placed either in a liquid medium or on a corn meal-malt extract agar medium produced isolated mycelium and characteristic conidia within a 3- to 3.5-week period. Once isolated, each fungus was placed in another liquid medium, M104T, where competent strains produced total ergot alkaloids ranging from 38 to 797 mg/liter. Several isolates were negative for ergot alkaloid synthesis. The production of ergot alkaloids by individual isolates was unstable; isolates rapidly degenerated in their ability to produce ergot alkaloids during subculture. However, the procedure as presented allows the assessment of an isolate for ergot alkaloid synthesis during its initial isolation.

  17. Promoting late-fall establishment of tall fescue with artificial soil covers to minimise soil erosion.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, A J

    1994-03-01

    Frequently, turfgrass seedings have been sown in the late fall, which usually results in a poor vegetative stand and the possibility of soil erosion the following spring. This study evaluates the effects of a spun-bonded polyester soil cover placed over a late-fall seeding on subsequent seedling growth and overwintering. Clemfine, Mustang, Rebel, and Rebel II cultivars of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were sown on a silt loam soil in late fall (on 17 October in 1989 and 19 October in 1990) and allowed to grow with and without a soil cover until June. In the spring the temperature under the soil cover was greater than 2°C warmer than the uncovered soil from mid-April through May. Over the winter, leaf and root weights showed no detrimental effects from being under the cover. Individual cultivars grown under the cover produced 2 to 11 times greater leaf yields and 38 to 270% better stand establishment than those sown on the exposed soil. However, plant winter injury was observed under the soil cover in small soil depressions which accumulated water originating from thawing. All cultivars had similar amounts of growth under the cover. However, leaf yields for Rebel were 30-55% less than the other cultivars when grown under the cover and this was probably related to a low seed germination rate. The covers also promoted weed growth, which comprised from 34-65% of total leaf weights and was found to be negatively correlated (r = -0.66) to the yields of the sown grass. The soil cover was found to be beneficial to improving the success of seedling establishment of late seedings of tall fescue in cold areas.

  18. Influence of Rough Hair Coats and Steroidal Implants on Hair Growth, Rectal Temperatures, and Sweating by Steers Grazed on Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cattle grazing toxic tall fescue months [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)] typically retain their rough hair coats into the summer, which can exacerbate heat stress induced by fescue toxicosis. Further, previous research has indicated that progesterone and estradiol implants may increase body tem...

  19. Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.) is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This study aims to clarify the evolutionary relationships between each tall fescue morphotype through phylogenetic analysis using two low-copy nuclear genes (encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase [Acc1] and centroradialis [CEN]), the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) and the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) genome-located matK gene. Other taxa within the closely related Lolium-Festuca species complex were also included in the study, to increase understanding of evolutionary processes in a taxonomic group characterised by multiple inter-specific hybridisation events. Results Putative homoeologous sequences from both nuclear genes were obtained from each polyploid species and compared to counterparts from 15 diploid taxa. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed F. pratensis and F. arundinacea var. glaucescens as probable progenitors to Continental tall fescue, and these species are also likely to be ancestral to the rhizomatous morphotype. However, these two morphotypes are sufficiently distinct to be located in separate clades based on the ITS-derived data set. All four of the generated data sets suggest independent evolution of the Mediterranean and Continental morphotypes, with minimal affinity between cognate sequence haplotypes. No obvious candidate progenitor species for Mediterranean tall fescues were identified, and only two putative sub-genome-specific haplotypes were identified for this morphotype. Conclusions This study describes the first phylogenetic analysis of

  20. Association Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers with Agronomic Traits in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yong; Liu, Hongmei; Xu, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue is widely used in temperate regions throughout the world as a dominant forage grass as well as a turfgrass, in pastoral and turf industry. However, the utilization of tall fescue was limited because of its leaf roughness, poor regeneration ability and poor stress resistance. New cultivars were desirable in modern pastoral industries exceed the potential of existing cultivars. Therefore, well understanding the agronomic traits and describing germplasms would help to overcome these constraints, and morphological evaluation of tall fescue germplasm is the key component in selecting rational parents for hybridization breeding. However, describing the morphological traits of tall fescue germplasm is costly and time-consuming. Fortunately, biotechnology approaches can supplement conventional breeding efforts for tall fescue improvement. Association mapping, as a powerful approach to identify association between agronomic traits and molecular markers has been widely used for enhancing the utilization, conservation and management of the tall fescue germplasms. Therefore, in the present research, 115 tall fescue accessions from different origins (25 accessions are cultivars; 31 accessions from America; 32 accessions from European; 7 accessions from Africa; 20 accessions from Asia), were evaluated for agronomic traits and genetic diversity with 90 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The panel displayed significant variation in spike count per plant (SCP) and spike weight (SW). However, BCS performed the lowest CV among all the observed agronomic traits. Three subpopulations were identified within the collections but no obvious relative kinship (K) was found. The GLM model was used to describe the association between SSR and agronomic traits. Fifty-one SSR markers associated with agronomic traits were observed. Twelve single-associated markers were associated with PH; six single-associated markers were associated with BCS; eight single-associated markers were

  1. Comparative analysis of transgenic tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) plants obtained by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment.

    PubMed

    Gao, Caixia; Long, Danfeng; Lenk, Ingo; Nielsen, Klaus Kristian

    2008-10-01

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and particle bombardment are the two most widely used methods for genetically modifying grasses. Here, these two systems are compared for transformation efficiency, transgene integration and transgene expression when used to transform tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). The bar gene was used as a selectable marker and selection during tissue culture was performed using 2 mg/l bialaphos in both callus induction and regeneration media. Average transformation efficiency across the four callus lines used in the experiments was 10.5% for Agrobacterium-mediated transformation and 11.5% for particle bombardment. Similar transgene integration patterns and co-integration frequencies of bar and uidA were observed in both gene transfer systems. However, while GUS activity was detected in leaves of 53% of the Agrobacterium transformed lines, only 20% of the bombarded lines showed GUS activity. Thus, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation appears to be the preferred method for producing transgenic tall fescue plants.

  2. Ascorbic Acid Enhances the Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Roots of Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Hui; Gong, Shuaishuai

    2012-01-01

    Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA) significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT). The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality. PMID:23185628

  3. Biosolids applications to tall fescue have long-term influence on soil nitrogen, carbon, and phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Cogger, Craig G; Bary, Andy I; Myhre, Elizabeth A; Fortuna, Ann-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Repeated applications of biosolids provide long-term benefits by increasing soil organic matter and N supply but can cause excess accumulation of P. Our objective was to determine the residual effects of repeated surface applications of biosolids on N availability and fate, tall fescue ( Schreb.) response, soil C, and P. A field experiment was started in 1993 to compare two biosolids products, each applied at three rates (6.7, 13.4, and 20.1 Mg ha yr), with synthetic N fertilizer (0 and 403 kg N ha yr as ammonium nitrate). Treatments were surface applied for 10 yr, followed by a 9-yr residual period where all plots received a reduced rate of inorganic N (202 kg N ha yr). Annual measurements included forage yield, N uptake, and soil nitrate N. Soil samples collected in 2002 and 2011 were analyzed for total C and N and Bray-1 P. Cumulative apparent N recoveries in harvested grass (1993-2010) were 51% for biosolids N and 72% for ammonium nitrate. Net fall soil nitrate N summed for the period 1993-2002 ranged from <1 to 3% of N applied. The N applied that was accounted for in forage and soil averaged 74% for biosolids and 73% for ammonium nitrate. Soil C increased in the biosolids treatments, and the increase was equivalent to 27% of biosolids C. Bray-1 P remained at excessive levels (338-629 mg P kg soil) 9 yr after the last biosolids application.

  4. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Does tall fescue toxicosis negatively impact bull growth and breeding potential?

    PubMed

    Pratt, S L; Andrae, J G

    2015-12-01

    The predominant cool-season forage in the southeastern United States is the tall fescue cultivar Kentucky 31 (KY31). Kentucky 31 possesses an endophyte (), which produces a family of toxins called ergot alkaloids. These toxins negatively affect the physiology of animals on consumption and result in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. Currently, the United States annually produces approximately 11.4 billion kg of beef, of which 25% originates in the southeastern region of the United States where forage systems frequently are tall fescue based. Cattle within this forage system exhibit reduced gains and reproductive performance. The result is a reduction in the nation's beef supply with annual revenue losses recently estimated at approximately US$1 billion. Our hypothesis is that exposure to these ergot alkaloids in conjunction with limited availability of nutrients decreases bull semen quality and fertility. Although the literature is clear that these toxins affect BW, body temperature, blood flow, hair growth, and female reproduction in cattle, their effect on bull reproduction and the mechanisms through which the toxins act are not well defined. Six studies published from 2004 to 2015 assessed bull growth, body composition, and semen quality of young beef bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids. If semen quality or fertility is altered, the mechanisms involved may be either direct effects of ergot alkaloids through neurotransmitter receptors or indirect effects such as inhibiting the release of prolactin (PRL). The possible effects of ergot alkaloids or PRL require establishing the presence or absence of dopamine, adrenergic, serotonin, or PRL receptors in the testis, epididymis, and sperm cell of the bull. The objective of this review is to relate our findings to the few previous studies conducted that evaluated the impact of fescue toxicosis on bull reproduction and to propose possible mechanisms of action for lowered semen quality. PMID:26641162

  5. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress. PMID:26925085

  6. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum).

    PubMed

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress.

  7. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum).

    PubMed

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress. PMID:26925085

  8. Endogenous nitric oxide mediates He-Ne laser-induced adaptive responses in salt stressed-tall fescue leaves.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfeng; Gao, Limei; Han, Rong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endogenous nitric oxide in protective effects of He-Ne laser on salt stressed-tall fescue leaves. Salt stress resulted in significant increases of membrane injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, polyamine accumulation, and activities of SOD, POD, and APX, while pronounced decreases of antioxidant contents, CAT activity and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in seedlings leaves. He-Ne laser illumination caused a distinct alleviation of cellular injury that was reflected by the lower MDA amounts, polyamine accumulation and ROS levels at the stress period. In contrast, the laser treatment displayed a higher Ca(2+) concentration, antioxidant amounts, NO release, antioxidant enzyme, and NOS activities. These responses could be blocked due to the inhibition of NO biosynthesis by PTIO (NO scavenger) or LNNA (NOS inhibitor). The presented results demonstrated that endogenous NO might be involved in the progress of He-Ne laser-induced plant antioxidant system activation and ROS degradation in order to enhance adaptive responses of tall fescue to prolonged saline conditions. PMID:27309569

  9. Effects of ultrasonication on increased germination and improved seedling growth of aged grass seeds of tall fescue and Russian wildrye

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Quanzhen; Karagić, Đura; Liu, Xv; Cui, Jian; Gui, Jing; Gu, Muyu; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ultrasonic treatments on the germination and seedling growth of aged tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and Russian wild rye (Psathyrostaehys juncea Nevski) seeds were determined using orthogonal matrix experimental design with four ultrasonic factors. The multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences and coupling effects of the pair-wise factors. The activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Peroxidase (POD) and the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content were affected. The ultrasonic treatments had positive effects on the germination percentage (GP) of the aged seeds and the growth of the seedlings (GS) and therefore we provided a basic evidence for the application of ultrasonic treatment to pretreat aged grass seeds. For the four ultrasonic factors, the optimal conditions were a sonication time of 36.7 min, a sonication temperature of 35 °C, an output power of 367 W and a seed soaking time 4.1 h after binary quadratic regressions analyses. The ultrasonic treatment has the potential to improve seedling growth. Moreover, the longevity of the tall fescue and the Russian wild rye seeds was approximately 9.5 and 11.5 years, respectively, under natural conditions of storage. The physiological mechanisms that might contribute to the improved GP and GS were discussed. PMID:26928881

  10. Effects of Poultry litter and dairy manure applications on forage yield and quality in conventional and no-till established tall fescue (Scheonourous phoenix [Scop.] Holub) sward.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An endophyte-free tall fescue cultivar, ‘Bronson’ was seeded at a rate of 28kg per ha in the fall of 2010. Two establishment methods were utilized; conventional tillage and no-till establishment. Treatments included conventional fertilizer, poultry litter, and dairy manure along with an untreated co...

  11. Meadow Fescue: The Forgotten Grass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the early 1900s, before tall fescue was introduced to the USA, meadow fescue was a major pasture crop east of the Mississippi River, with millions of acres of seed production in the mid-south. Most of those acres are long gone with the spread of its high-yielding cousin, tall fescue. We have d...

  12. Effect of protein supplementation and forage allowance on the growth and reproduction of beef heifers grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Lyons, S E; Shaeffer, A D; Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H; Poole, D H

    2016-04-01

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide adequate winter forage for beef cattle, although unsupplemented replacement heifers may display marginal performance before breeding. The objective of this study was to determine if protein supplementation and/or additional forage improves growth and reproductive performance of replacement heifers grazing stockpiled fescue. Cattle averaging 272 ± 1.59 kg were stratified by BW and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 plots within a pasture replication. Treatment combinations were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and included 1) a conservative forage allocation ("normal," targeting 85% forage use) and mineral supplement (normal forage allocation with mineral supplement [FM]), 2) normal forage allocation with protein tub (FT), 3) more liberal forage allocation ("extra," targeting 70% forage use) and mineral supplement (extra forage allocation with mineral supplement [EM]), and 4) "extra forage allocation with protein tub (ET). Treatments were administered for 8 wk from early November to early January. Heifers were fed fescue hay for 1 wk before breeding in late January. Heifers were synchronized with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release device protocol and inseminated in late January. Heifers were checked for pregnancy by ultrasonography at 35 and 90 d after AI. Main and interaction effects between the 2 treatments were determined. Total supplement intake was greater for protein tub than mineral supplement (0.36 vs. 0.11 kg·heifer·d, respectively; < 0.0001), and the additional dietary protein in the tub groups resulted in greater serum urea N concentrations ( < 0.0001; 8.15 vs. 10.4 mg/dL for mineral and protein tub, respectively). Forage utilization efficiency was greater for normal than extra forage allocation (74.7 vs. 65.8%, respectively; < 0.0001). Main effects of both treatments on ADG were significant ( < 0.0001; 0.28, 0.43, 0.43, and 0.51 kg·heifer·d for FM, FT, EM, and ET, respectively). There was

  13. Characterization of Proanthocyanidins from Seeds of Perennial Ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea) by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Karl; Collette, Vern; Hancock, Kerry R

    2016-09-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) are forage species of the grass family (Poaceae) that are key components of temperate pasture-based agricultural systems. Proanthocyanidins (PAs) are oligomeric flavonoids that, when provided as part of a farm animal's diet, have been reported to improve animal production and health. Up to now, forage grasses have been deemed not to produce PAs. This paper reports for the first time the detection of polymerized PAs in aqueous methanolic extracts of seed tissue of both perennial ryegrass and tall fescue, using LC-MS/MS. We have determined the structure of the PAs to be trans-flavan-3-ol-based, consisting predominately of afzelechin and catechin and linked primarily by B-type bonds. Investigations into the leaf tissue of both species failed to detect any PAs. This discovery opens the possibility of using genetic engineering tools to achieve tannin accumulation in leaf tissue of perennial ryegrass and tall fescue. PMID:27532250

  14. Cloning and characterization of a Phragmites australis phytochelatin synthase (PaPCS) and achieving Cd tolerance in tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Cuizhu; Xu, Jin; Li, Qiang; Li, Shuo; Wang, Peng; Xiang, Fengning

    2014-01-01

    The production of phytochelatins (PCs) provides an important means for plants to achieve tolerance to cadmium (Cd) toxicity. A reed gene encoding PC synthase (PaPCS) was isolated and its function tested through its heterologous expression in a strain of yeast sensitive to Cd. Subsequently, the Cd sensitive and high biomass accumulating species tall fescue was transformed either with PaPCS or PaGCS (a glutamyl cysteine synthetase gene of reed) on their own (single transformants), or with both genes together in the same transgene cassette (double transformant). The single and double transformants showed greater Cd tolerance and accumulated more Cd and PC than wild type plants, and their Cd leaf/root ratio content was higher. The ranking in terms of Cd and PC content for the various transgenic lines was double transformants>PaGCS single transformants>PaPCS single transformants>wild type. Thus PaGCS appears to exert a greater influence than PaPCS over PC synthesis and Cd tolerance/accumulation. The double transformant has interesting potential for phytoremediation. PMID:25133575

  15. Impacts of Sustained Use of Dairy Manure Slurry and Fertilizers on Populations of Pratylenchus penetrans under Tall Fescue

    PubMed Central

    Forge, T. A.; Bittman, S.; Kowalenko, C. G.

    2005-01-01

    Various manures and composts have been reported to reduce population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Dairy manure slurry is often used as a primary source of nitrogen for forage crops. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dairy manure on population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans parasitizing tall fescue. Beginning in 1994, dairy manure and inorganic fertilizer were applied after each harvest (2 to 4 times/year) at rates of 50 and 100 kg NH₄-N/ha; control plots were not treated. Nematode populations in soil and roots were determined at 19 sample dates during the fourth (1997), fifth (1998), and sixth (1999) years of manure and fertilizer applications. The sustained use of dairy manure and fertilizer increased population densities of P. penetrans. Our results contrast with many previous studies demonstrating that application of manures decreases population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Frequent applications of moderate amounts of manure to a perennial grass crop may have prevented the development of nematode-toxic levels of ammonia or other toxic substances such as nitrous acid or volatile fatty acids. Two years with no additional manure applications were required for P. penetrans population densities to return to levels similar to fertilized or untreated soil. PMID:19262862

  16. Responses of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) to growth in naphthalene-contaminated sand: xenobiotic stress versus water stress.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniyam, Anuluxshy; Chapman, Mark M; Harvey, Patricia J

    2015-05-01

    The adaptations of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) arising from growth in naphthalene-contaminated sand (0.8 g kg(-1) sand dry weight (dw)) were investigated in the contexts of xenobiotic stress and water stress. The transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) across the root endodermis was investigated using the hydrophobic Nile red stain as a PAH homologue. Nile red was applied to the epidermis of a living root to visualise uptake into the root through the transpiration stream, and the distance travelled by the stain into the root tissues was investigated using epi-fluorescence microscopy (Nikon Eclipse 90i). The results showed that the Nile red applied to the roots grown in naphthalene-contaminated sand was unable to penetrate the roots beyond the endodermis, whereas those grown in 'clean' sand showed evidence of uptake into the xylem vessels beyond the endodermis. Furthermore, partial collapse was observed in the cortex of naphthalene-treated roots, suggesting drought stress. Interestingly, the treated plants showed visual resilience to drought stress whilst the leaves of the control plants showed signs of wilting.

  17. Cloning and Characterization of a Phragmites australis Phytochelatin Synthase (PaPCS) and Achieving Cd Tolerance in Tall Fescue

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Cuizhu; Xu, Jin; Li, Qiang; Li, Shuo; Wang, Peng; Xiang, Fengning

    2014-01-01

    The production of phytochelatins (PCs) provides an important means for plants to achieve tolerance to cadmium (Cd) toxicity. A reed gene encoding PC synthase (PaPCS) was isolated and its function tested through its heterologous expression in a strain of yeast sensitive to Cd. Subsequently, the Cd sensitive and high biomass accumulating species tall fescue was transformed either with PaPCS or PaGCS (a glutamyl cysteine synthetase gene of reed) on their own (single transformants), or with both genes together in the same transgene cassette (double transformant). The single and double transformants showed greater Cd tolerance and accumulated more Cd and PC than wild type plants, and their Cd leaf/root ratio content was higher. The ranking in terms of Cd and PC content for the various transgenic lines was double transformants>PaGCS single transformants>PaPCS single transformants>wild type. Thus PaGCS appears to exert a greater influence than PaPCS over PC synthesis and Cd tolerance/accumulation. The double transformant has interesting potential for phytoremediation. PMID:25133575

  18. Responses of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) to growth in naphthalene-contaminated sand: xenobiotic stress versus water stress.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniyam, Anuluxshy; Chapman, Mark M; Harvey, Patricia J

    2015-05-01

    The adaptations of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) arising from growth in naphthalene-contaminated sand (0.8 g kg(-1) sand dry weight (dw)) were investigated in the contexts of xenobiotic stress and water stress. The transfer of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) across the root endodermis was investigated using the hydrophobic Nile red stain as a PAH homologue. Nile red was applied to the epidermis of a living root to visualise uptake into the root through the transpiration stream, and the distance travelled by the stain into the root tissues was investigated using epi-fluorescence microscopy (Nikon Eclipse 90i). The results showed that the Nile red applied to the roots grown in naphthalene-contaminated sand was unable to penetrate the roots beyond the endodermis, whereas those grown in 'clean' sand showed evidence of uptake into the xylem vessels beyond the endodermis. Furthermore, partial collapse was observed in the cortex of naphthalene-treated roots, suggesting drought stress. Interestingly, the treated plants showed visual resilience to drought stress whilst the leaves of the control plants showed signs of wilting. PMID:25874421

  19. Effects of Nitrogen on Mesophyll Cell Division and Epidermal Cell Elongation in Tall Fescue Leaf Blades 1

    PubMed Central

    MacAdam, Jennifer W.; Volenec, Jeffrey J.; Nelson, Curtis J.

    1989-01-01

    Leaf elongation rate (LER) in grasses is dependent on epidermal cell supply (number) and on rate and duration of epidermal cell elongation. Nitrogen (N) fertilization increases LER. Longitudinal sections from two genotypes of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), which differ by 50% in LER, were used to quantify the effects of N on the components of epidermal cell elongation and on mesophyll cell division. Rate and duration of epidermal cell elongation were determined by using a relationship between cell length and displacement velocity derived from the continuity equation. Rate of epidermal cell elongation was exponential. Relative rates of epidermal cell elongation increased by 9% with high N, even though high N increased LER by 89%. Duration of cell elongation was approximately 20 h longer in the high- than in the low-LER genotype regardless of N treatment. The percentage of mesophyll cells in division was greater in the high- than in the low-LER genotype. This increased with high N in both genotypes, indicating that LER increased with cell supply. Division of mesophyll cells adjacent to abaxial epidermal cells continued after epidermal cell division stopped, until epidermal cells had elongated to a mean length of 40 micrometers in the high-LER and a mean length of 50 micrometers in the low-LER genotype. The cell cycle length for mesophyll cells was calculated to be 12 to 13 hours. Nitrogen increased mesophyll cell number more than epidermal cell number: in both genotypes, the final number of mesophyll cells adjacent to each abaxial epidermal cell was 10 with low N and 14 with high N. A spatial model is used to describe three cell development processes relevant to leaf growth. It illustrates the overlap of mesophyll cell division and epidermal cell elongation, and the transition from epidermal cell elongation to secondary cell wall deposition. PMID:16666581

  20. Stress memory induced rearrangements of HSP transcription, photosystem II photochemistry and metabolism of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) in response to high-temperature stress

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tao; Liu, Shu-Qian; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jin-Min

    2015-01-01

    When plants are pre-exposed to stress, they can produce some stable signals and physiological reactions that may be carried forward as “stress memory”. However, there is insufficient information about plants' stress memory responses mechanisms. Here, two tall fescue genotypes, heat-tolerant PI 574522 and heat-sensitive PI 512315, were subjected to recurring high-temperature pre-acclimation treatment. Two heat shock protein (HSP) genes, LMW-HSP and HMW-HSP, exhibited transcriptional memory for their higher transcript abundance during one or more subsequent stresses (S2, S3, S4) relative to the first stress (S1), and basal transcript levels during the recovery states (R1, R2, and R3). Activated transcriptional memory from two trainable genes could persist up to 4 days, and induce higher thermotolerance in tall fescue. This was confirmed by greater turf quality and lower electrolyte leakage. Pre-acclimation treatment inhibited the decline at steps of O-J-I-P and energy transport fluxes in active Photosystem II reaction center (PSII RC) for both tall fescue genotypes. The heat stress memory was associated with major shifts in leaf metabolite profiles. Furthermore, there was an exclusive increase in leaf organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, tris phosphoric acid, threonic acid), sugars (sucrose, glucose, idose, allose, talose, glucoheptose, tagatose, psicose), amino acids (serine, proline, pyroglutamic acid, glycine, alanine), and one fatty acid (butanoic acid) in pre-acclimated plants. These observations involved in transcriptional memory, PSII RC energy transport and metabolite profiles could provide new insights into the plant high–temperature response process. PMID:26136755

  1. Effect of ergot alkaloids associated with fescue toxicosis on hepatic cytochrome P450 and antioxidant proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Settivari, Raja S.; Evans, Tim J.; Rucker, Ed; Rottinghaus, George E.; Spiers, Donald E.

    2008-03-15

    Intake of ergot alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue grass is associated with decreased feed intake and reduction in body weight gain. The liver is one of the target organs of fescue toxicosis with upregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and downregulation of genes associated with antioxidant pathways. It was hypothesized that short-term exposure of rats to ergot alkaloids would change hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) and antioxidant expression, as well as reduce antioxidant enzyme activity and hepatocellular proliferation rates. Hepatic gene expression of various CYPs, selected nuclear receptors associated with the CYP induction, and antioxidant enzymes were measured using real-time PCR. Hepatic expression of CYP, antioxidant and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were measured using Western blots. The CYP3A1 protein expression was evaluated using primary rat hepatocellular cultures treated with ergovaline, one of the major ergot alkaloids produced by fescue endophyte, in order to assess the direct role of ergot alkaloids in CYP induction. The enzyme activities of selected antioxidants were assayed spectrophotometrically. While hepatic CYP and nuclear receptor expression were increased in ergot alkaloid-exposed rats, the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes were reduced. This could potentially lead to increased oxidative stress, which might be responsible for the decrease in hepatocellular proliferation after ergot alkaloid exposure. This study demonstrated that even short-term exposure to ergot alkaloids can potentially induce hepatic oxidative stress which can contribute to the pathogenesis of fescue toxicosis.

  2. Gibberellin-Regulation and Genetic Variations in Leaf Elongation for Tall Fescue in Association with Differential Gene Expression Controlling Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Krishnan, Sanalkumar; Merewitz, Emily; Xu, Jichen; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Leaf elongation rate (LER) is an important factor controlling plant growth and productivity. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in LER for a fast-growing (‘K-31’), and a dwarf cultivar (‘Bonsai’) of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and gibberellic acid (GA) regulation of LER were associated with differential expression of cell-expansion genes. Plants were treated with GA3, trinexapac-ethyl (TE) (GA inhibitor), or water (untreated control) in a hydroponic system. LER of ‘K-31’ was 63% greater than that of ‘Bonsai’, which corresponded with 32% higher endogenous GA4 content in leaf and greater cell elongation and production rates under the untreated control condition. Exogenous application of GA3 significantly enhanced LER while TE treatment inhibited leaf elongation due to GA3-stimulation or TE-inhibition of cell elongation and production rate in leaves for both cultivars. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that three α-expansins, one β-expansin, and three xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) genes were associated with GA-stimulation of leaf elongation, of which, the differential expression of EXPA4 and EXPA7 was related to the genotypic variation in LER of two cultivars. Those differentially-expressed expansin and XET genes could play major roles in genetic variation and GA-regulated leaf elongation in tall fescue. PMID:27457585

  3. Effect of root death and decay on dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the rhizosphere of yellow sweet clover and tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Parrish, Zakia D; Banks, M Katherine; Schwab, A Paul

    2005-01-01

    A 12-mo greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the contribution of root death and decay on the dissipation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in rhizosphere soil. The contaminated soil was previously treated by land-farming, but residual PAHs remained after treatment. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and yellow sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis Lam.) were the target plants. To specifically evaluate the effect of root decay on contaminant dissipation, plants were treated with glyphosate, a broad spectrum herbicide, to induce root decay. Although tall fescue treatments had the highest root and shoot biomass and root surface area, this plant did not result in the highest contaminant degradation rates. Significant differences were noted between treatments for seven PAHs, with the active yellow sweet clover resulting in 60 to 75% degradation of these compounds. Induced root death and decay did not produce a significant enhancement of PAH degradation. The PAH microbial degrader populations in the vegetated treatments were more than 100 times greater than those in the unvegetated control. The phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) structural group profile shifted over the growing period, indicating a change in the community structure. In conclusion, phytoremediation was shown to be an effective polishing tool for PAH-affected soil previously subjected to biological treatment.

  4. Gibberellin-Regulation and Genetic Variations in Leaf Elongation for Tall Fescue in Association with Differential Gene Expression Controlling Cell Expansion.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian; Krishnan, Sanalkumar; Merewitz, Emily; Xu, Jichen; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Leaf elongation rate (LER) is an important factor controlling plant growth and productivity. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in LER for a fast-growing ('K-31'), and a dwarf cultivar ('Bonsai') of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and gibberellic acid (GA) regulation of LER were associated with differential expression of cell-expansion genes. Plants were treated with GA3, trinexapac-ethyl (TE) (GA inhibitor), or water (untreated control) in a hydroponic system. LER of 'K-31' was 63% greater than that of 'Bonsai', which corresponded with 32% higher endogenous GA4 content in leaf and greater cell elongation and production rates under the untreated control condition. Exogenous application of GA3 significantly enhanced LER while TE treatment inhibited leaf elongation due to GA3-stimulation or TE-inhibition of cell elongation and production rate in leaves for both cultivars. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that three α-expansins, one β-expansin, and three xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) genes were associated with GA-stimulation of leaf elongation, of which, the differential expression of EXPA4 and EXPA7 was related to the genotypic variation in LER of two cultivars. Those differentially-expressed expansin and XET genes could play major roles in genetic variation and GA-regulated leaf elongation in tall fescue. PMID:27457585

  5. Determination of the Ergot Alkaloid Ergovaline in Tall Fescue Seed and Straw Using a QuEChERS Extraction Method with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detection.

    PubMed

    Walker, Karen; Duringer, Jennifer; Craig, A Morrie

    2015-04-29

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the symbiotic endophyte Epichloë coenophiala, which can colonize varieties of the cool-season grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). It is the principle toxicant responsible for the vasoconstrictive and reproductive sequelae seen in "fescue toxicosis" in livestock which consume forage exceeding the threshold of toxicity established for this compound. A new method for extraction of ergovaline from tall fescue seed and straw was optimized and validated, on the basis of the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method, with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Fourteen extraction solvents were tested; 2.1 mM ammonium carbonate/acetonitrile (50/50, v/v) had the highest and most consistent recovery (91-101%). Linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy,and intra- and interday precisions for tall fescue seed and straw were 100-3500 μg/kg, 37 and 30 μg/kg, 100 μg/kg, 98%, 3.0 and 1.6%, and 3.8 and 1.0%, respectively. When the currently used solid-phase extraction (SPE) and QuEChERS methods were applied to 17 tall fescue straw samples, there was good agreement (correlation coefficient 0.9978). The QuEChERS method achieved the goals of eliminating chlorinated solvents and developing a fast, efficient, reliable method for quantitating ergovaline in tall fescue forage that can be applied in a high-throughput food safety laboratory.

  6. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  7. Effects of partial replacement of corn and alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bender, R W; Lopes, F; Cook, D E; Combs, D K

    2016-07-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the effects of replacing either corn or alfalfa silage with tall fescue hay on total-tract neutral detergent fiber (NDF) digestibility and lactation performance in dairy cows. Twenty-four primiparous (75±35 d in milk) and 40 multiparous (68±19 d in milk) Holstein cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatment groups in a pen equipped with 32 feeding gates to record intake by cow. Each gate was randomly assigned to 1 treatment group; thus, each cow had access to all 8 gates within the respective treatment and cow was the experimental unit. Treatments were formulated to replace either corn silage (CS) or alfalfa silage (AS) with tall fescue hay (TF) as follows (DM basis): 33% AS and 67% CS (control; 33AS67CS), 60% TF and 40% AS (60TF40AS), 60% TF and 40% CS (60TF40CS), and 33% TF and 67% CS (33TF67CS). The experiment was a 7-wk continuous lactation trial with a 2-wk covariate period. Milk production did not differ among treatments and averaged 40.4 kg/d. Fat yield and concentration and protein yield and concentration did not differ among treatments and averaged 1.58 kg/d, 3.94%, 1.28 kg/d, and 3.15%, respectively. Dry matter intake was greater for 33AS67CS (24.5 kg/d) compared with 60TF40CS (22.1 kg/d) and 33TF67CS (22.7 kg/d), and tended to be greater than 60TF40AS (23.2 kg/d). In vivo total-tract dry matter digestibility did not differ among treatments and averaged 66.2%. In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility was lower for 33AS67CS (37.8%) compared with 60TF40AS (44.4%) and 33TF67CS (45.3%), and similar to 60TF40CS (42.4%). In vivo total-tract NDF digestibility and an estimate of in situ total-tract NDF digestibility were similar between techniques across all treatment diets (42.3 vs. 42.6%, respectively). Inclusion of tall fescue grass hay increased the total-tract NDF digestibility of the diet and has the potential to replace corn silage and alfalfa silage and maintain milk production if economically feasible

  8. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantification of Target Gene Expression with Quantitative Real-time PCR for Tall Fescue under Four Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Baoyun; Tan, Zhiqun; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is widely utilized as a major forage and turfgrass species in the temperate regions of the world and is a valuable plant material for studying molecular mechanisms of grass stress tolerance due to its superior drought and heat tolerance among cool-season species. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target gene expression is important for the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying improved growth traits and stress tolerance. The stability of nine potential reference genes (ACT, TUB, EF1a, GAPDH, SAND, CACS, F-box, PEPKR1 and TIP41) was evaluated using four programs, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The combinations of SAND and TUB or TIP41 and TUB were most stably expressed in salt-treated roots or leaves. The combinations of GAPDH with TIP41 or TUB were stable in roots and leaves under drought stress. TIP41 and PEPKR1 exhibited stable expression in cold-treated roots, and the combination of F-box, TIP41 and TUB was also stable in cold-treated leaves. CACS and TUB were the two most stable reference genes in heat-stressed roots. TIP41 combined with TUB and ACT was stably expressed in heat-stressed leaves. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays of the target gene FaWRKY1 using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes. The selection of suitable reference genes in tall fescue will allow for more accurate identification of stress-tolerance genes and molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this stress-tolerant species. PMID:25786207

  9. Differential Acclimation of Enzymatic Antioxidant Metabolism and Photosystem II Photochemistry in Tall Fescue under Drought and Heat and the Combined Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Aoyue; Fan, Jibiao; Hu, Zhengrong; Wang, Guangyang; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin; Hu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Quality inferiority in cool-season turfgrass due to drought, heat, and a combination of both stresses is predicted to be more prevalent in the future. Understanding the various response to heat and drought stress will assist in the selection and breeding of tolerant grass varieties. The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of antioxidant metabolism and photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in two tall fescue genotypes (PI 234881 and PI 578718) with various thermotolerance capacities. Wide variations were found between heat-tolerant PI 578718 and heat-sensitive PI 234881 for leaf relative water content, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage under drought, high-temperature or a combination of both stresses. The sensitivity of PI 234881 exposed to combined stresses was associated with lower superoxide dismutase activity and higher H2O2 accumulation than that in PI 578718. Various antioxidant enzymes displayed positive correlation with chlorophyll content, but negative with membrane injury index at most of the stages in both tall fescue genotypes. The JIP-test analysis in PI 578718 indicated a significant improvement in ABS/RC, TR0/RC, RE0/RC, RE0/ABS values as compared to the control regime, which indicated that PI 578718 had a high potential to protect the PSII system under drought and high temperature stress. And the PS II photochemistry in PI 234881 was damaged significantly compared with PI578718. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that heat and drought stresses deduced the gene expression of psbB and psbC, but induced the expression of psbA. These findings to some extent confirmed that the various adaptations of physiological traits may contribute to breeding in cold-season turfgrass in response to drought, high-temperature, and a combination of both stresses. PMID:27148288

  10. Differential Acclimation of Enzymatic Antioxidant Metabolism and Photosystem II Photochemistry in Tall Fescue under Drought and Heat and the Combined Stresses.

    PubMed

    Bi, Aoyue; Fan, Jibiao; Hu, Zhengrong; Wang, Guangyang; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin; Hu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Quality inferiority in cool-season turfgrass due to drought, heat, and a combination of both stresses is predicted to be more prevalent in the future. Understanding the various response to heat and drought stress will assist in the selection and breeding of tolerant grass varieties. The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of antioxidant metabolism and photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in two tall fescue genotypes (PI 234881 and PI 578718) with various thermotolerance capacities. Wide variations were found between heat-tolerant PI 578718 and heat-sensitive PI 234881 for leaf relative water content, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage under drought, high-temperature or a combination of both stresses. The sensitivity of PI 234881 exposed to combined stresses was associated with lower superoxide dismutase activity and higher H2O2 accumulation than that in PI 578718. Various antioxidant enzymes displayed positive correlation with chlorophyll content, but negative with membrane injury index at most of the stages in both tall fescue genotypes. The JIP-test analysis in PI 578718 indicated a significant improvement in ABS/RC, TR0/RC, RE0/RC, RE0/ABS values as compared to the control regime, which indicated that PI 578718 had a high potential to protect the PSII system under drought and high temperature stress. And the PS II photochemistry in PI 234881 was damaged significantly compared with PI578718. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that heat and drought stresses deduced the gene expression of psbB and psbC, but induced the expression of psbA. These findings to some extent confirmed that the various adaptations of physiological traits may contribute to breeding in cold-season turfgrass in response to drought, high-temperature, and a combination of both stresses.

  11. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantification of target gene expression with quantitative real-time PCR for tall fescue under four abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhimin; Chen, Yu; Hu, Baoyun; Tan, Zhiqun; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is widely utilized as a major forage and turfgrass species in the temperate regions of the world and is a valuable plant material for studying molecular mechanisms of grass stress tolerance due to its superior drought and heat tolerance among cool-season species. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target gene expression is important for the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying improved growth traits and stress tolerance. The stability of nine potential reference genes (ACT, TUB, EF1a, GAPDH, SAND, CACS, F-box, PEPKR1 and TIP41) was evaluated using four programs, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The combinations of SAND and TUB or TIP41 and TUB were most stably expressed in salt-treated roots or leaves. The combinations of GAPDH with TIP41 or TUB were stable in roots and leaves under drought stress. TIP41 and PEPKR1 exhibited stable expression in cold-treated roots, and the combination of F-box, TIP41 and TUB was also stable in cold-treated leaves. CACS and TUB were the two most stable reference genes in heat-stressed roots. TIP41 combined with TUB and ACT was stably expressed in heat-stressed leaves. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays of the target gene FaWRKY1 using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes. The selection of suitable reference genes in tall fescue will allow for more accurate identification of stress-tolerance genes and molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this stress-tolerant species.

  12. Differential Acclimation of Enzymatic Antioxidant Metabolism and Photosystem II Photochemistry in Tall Fescue under Drought and Heat and the Combined Stresses.

    PubMed

    Bi, Aoyue; Fan, Jibiao; Hu, Zhengrong; Wang, Guangyang; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin; Hu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Quality inferiority in cool-season turfgrass due to drought, heat, and a combination of both stresses is predicted to be more prevalent in the future. Understanding the various response to heat and drought stress will assist in the selection and breeding of tolerant grass varieties. The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of antioxidant metabolism and photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in two tall fescue genotypes (PI 234881 and PI 578718) with various thermotolerance capacities. Wide variations were found between heat-tolerant PI 578718 and heat-sensitive PI 234881 for leaf relative water content, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage under drought, high-temperature or a combination of both stresses. The sensitivity of PI 234881 exposed to combined stresses was associated with lower superoxide dismutase activity and higher H2O2 accumulation than that in PI 578718. Various antioxidant enzymes displayed positive correlation with chlorophyll content, but negative with membrane injury index at most of the stages in both tall fescue genotypes. The JIP-test analysis in PI 578718 indicated a significant improvement in ABS/RC, TR0/RC, RE0/RC, RE0/ABS values as compared to the control regime, which indicated that PI 578718 had a high potential to protect the PSII system under drought and high temperature stress. And the PS II photochemistry in PI 234881 was damaged significantly compared with PI578718. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that heat and drought stresses deduced the gene expression of psbB and psbC, but induced the expression of psbA. These findings to some extent confirmed that the various adaptations of physiological traits may contribute to breeding in cold-season turfgrass in response to drought, high-temperature, and a combination of both stresses. PMID:27148288

  13. Forage Fescues in the Northern USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue and meadow fescue are important components of livestock agriculture and soil conservation programs in Wisconsin. Meadow fescue was likely introduced into Wisconsin in sometime in the 1800s or early 1900s. Anecdotal, survey, and DNA evidence from the driftless region of southwestern Wis...

  14. Effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on performance of young beef cows grazing winter-stockpiled tall fescue-red clover pasture.

    PubMed

    Driskill, R; Russell, J R; Strohbehn, D R; Morrical, D G; Barnhart, S K; Lawrence, J D

    2007-06-01

    A winter grazing experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of stocking rate and corn gluten feed supplementation on forage mass and composition and the BW and BCS of bred 2-yr-old cows grazing stockpiled forage during winter. Two 12.2-ha blocks containing Fawn, endophyte-free, tall fescue and red clover were each divided into 4 pastures of 2.53 or 3.54 ha. Hay was harvested from the pastures in June and August of 2003 and 2004, and N was applied at 50.5 kg/ha at the initiation of stockpiling in August. On October 22, 2003, and October 20, 2004, twenty-four 30-mo-old Angus-Simmental and Angus cows were allotted by BW and BCS to strip-graze for 147 d at 0.84 or 1.19 cow/ha. Eight similar cows were allotted to 2 dry lots and fed tall fescue-red clover hay ad libitum. Corn gluten feed was fed to cows in 2 pastures to maintain a mean BCS of 5 (9-point scale) at each stocking rate and in the dry lots (high supplementation level) or when weather prevented grazing (low supplementation level) in the remaining 2 pastures at each stocking rate. Mean concentrations of CP in yr 1 and 2 and IVDMD in yr 2 were greater (P < 0.10) in hay than stockpiled forage over the winter. At the end of grazing, cows fed hay in dry lots had greater (P < 0.05) BCS in yr 1 and greater (P < 0.10) BW in yr 2 than grazing cows. Grazing cows in the high supplementation treatment had greater (P < 0.10) BW than cows grazing at the low supplementation level in yr 1. Cows in the dry lots were fed 2,565 and 2,158 kg of hay DM/cow. Amounts of corn gluten feed supplemented to cows in yr 1 and 2 were 46 and 60 kg/ cow and did not differ (P = 0.33, yr 1; P = 0.50, yr 2) between cows fed hay or grazing stockpiled forage in either year. Estimated production costs were greater for cows in the dry lots because of hay feeding.

  15. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing on reclaimed cool season tall fescue/legume pastures: II. Forage production, soil and plant tissue comparisons between grazed and ungrazed pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, K.E.; Erickson, W.R.; Bonine, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Midway Mine is located 50 miles south of Kansas City, Kansas straddling the border of Kansas and Missouri. The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co. mined the area until 1989, when the mine was closed and reclaimed. Approximately 3,750 acres were topsoiled and revegetated with a cool season tall fescue/legume pasture. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing has become the preferred management practice on these pastures. This study evaluated soil and vegetation data collected on 1,250 acres of pasture which was grazed by about 550 cow/calf units. Ongoing monitoring programs are evaluating the effects of rotational grazing. Soil testing includes macro-nutrients, micro-nutrients and microbial activity. Plant tissue analyses monitor levels of principal macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients. Vegetation monitoring consists of measuring forage production. Results were contrasted between pregrazing and postgrazing, and grazed and ungrazed pasture. Agronomic data from the grazed versus ungrazed treatments documented the following results: (1) higher levels of plant tissue nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur; (2) higher microbial activity; (3) similar levels of soil nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur; and (4) increased biomass production.

  16. Changes in the abundance of sugars and sugar-like compounds in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) due to growth in naphthalene-treated sand.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniyam, Anuluxshy; Harvey, Patricia J

    2015-04-01

    The hydrophilic metabolome of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) adapted to grow in naphthalene-treated sand (0.8 g kg(-1) sand dw) was analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and peaks corresponding to the more abundant compounds were tentatively identified from analysis of their mass spectral features and reference to the NIST Mass Spectral Database. Particular attention was paid to sugars as they are known to play important roles as stress regulators in plants. The results showed that the abundance of sugars was greater in the roots but lesser in the shoots of treated plants when compared to their control counterparts. The results for indole acetic acid (IAA) were notable: IAA was prominently less in the treated roots compared to shoots, and in treated shoots, IAA was particularly subdued compared to untreated shoots consistent with IAA degradation in treated plant tissues. The differences in the molecular phenotype between control and treated plants were expressed in root structural differences. The treated roots were modified to have greater suberisation, enhanced thickening in the endodermis and distortions in the cortical zone as demonstrated through scanning electron and epi-fluorescence microscopy.

  17. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: A meta-analysis of research efforts aimed at reducing the impact of fescue toxicosis on cattle weight gain and feed intake.

    PubMed

    Gadberry, M S; Hawley, J; Beck, P A; Jennings, J A; Kegley, E B; Coffey, K P

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this paper is to present a systematic review and meta-analysis of research efforts aimed at recovering cattle production losses attributed to toxic endophyte-infected [ (Morgan-Jones & Gams.) Glenn, Bacon, & Hanlin comb. Nov.] tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.]. The strategies presented include those 1) applied with forage systems, 2) based on pharmacological compounds and functional foods, and 3) based on supplemental dietary nutrients. Cattle BW gain and DM intake was the dependent response evaluated. Among the forage systems reviewed, studies with nontoxic, endophyte-infected tall fescue as a total replacement forage system demonstrated the greatest improvement in per-hectare (152 ± 27.5 kg/ha) and per-animal (0.29 ± 0.03 kg/d) BW gain. Studies with interseeded legumes have exhibited a small and highly variable BW gain effect size per hectare (52 ± 24.1 kg/ha) and per animal (0.11 ± 0.03 kg/d). The legume response was seasonal, with summer exhibiting the greatest benefit. Studies with chemicals that suppress plant growth demonstrated BW gain responses (0.17 ± 0.06 kg/d) equal to or greater than the response observed with legume studies. Cattle grazing toxic tall fescue responded well to anthelmentics, antimicrobial feed additives, and steroid implants, and the use of these technologies may additively help recover production losses. As a group, functional foods have not improved BW gain ( = 0.85). Studies with cattle supplemented with highly digestible fiber supplements observed a 0.15 kg greater BW gain compared with studies using starch- and sugar-based supplements ( < 0.05). Weight gain was positively impacted by the level of supplementation (0.06 kg/DM intake as percent BW). Supplement feed conversion was estimated at 6:1 for the highly digestible fiber supplements compared with 11:1 for starch-based supplements. Tall fescue forage DM intake was predicted to maximize at a supplemental feeding rate of 0.24% BW with a breakpoint at 0.5% BW

  18. Ascorbic acid mitigation of water stress-inhibition of root growth in association with oxidative defense in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yi; Xu, Qian; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Root growth inhibition by water stress may be related to oxidative damages. The objectives of this study were to determine whether exogenous application of ascorbic acid (ASA) could mitigate root growth decline due to water stress and whether ASA effects on root growth could be regulated through activating non-enzymatic or enzymatic antioxidant systems in perennial grass species. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. “K-31”) plants were grown in nutrient solution, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-8000 was added into the solution to induce water stress. For exogenous ASA treatment, ASA (5 mM) was added into the solution with or without PEG-8000. Plants treated with ASA under water stress showed significantly increased root growth rate, and those roots had significantly lower content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (H2O2 and O2− content) than those without ASA treatment. Malondialdehyde content in root tips treated with ASA under water stress was also significantly reduced compared with those under water stress alone. In addition, free ascorbate and total ascorbate content were significantly higher in roots treated with ASA under water stress than those without ASA treatment. The enzymatic activities for ROS scavenging-related genes were not significantly altered by ASA treatment under water stress, while transcript abundances of genes encoding superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, dehydroascorbate reductase, and monohydroascorbate reductase showed significant decreases in the root elongation zone and significant increases in the root maturation zone treated with ASA under water stress. Transcripts of genes for expansins and xyloglucan endotransglycosylases showed increased abundances in ASA-treated root maturation zone under water stress, indicating that ASA could accelerated cell wall loosening and cell expansion. The results suggested that exogenous treatment of roots with ASA enhanced root elongation under water

  19. Fertilizer placement to maximize nitrogen use by fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The method of fertilizer nitrogen(N) application can affect N uptake in tall fescue and therefore its yield and quality. Subsurface-banding (knife) of fertilizer maximizes fescue N uptake in the poorly-drained clay–pan soils of southeastern Kansas. This study was conducted to determine if knifed N r...

  20. Mutagenesis of beta-1,3-Glucanase Genes in Lysobacter enzymogenes Strain C3 Results in Reduced Biological Control Activity Toward Bipolaris Leaf Spot of Tall Fescue and Pythium Damping-Off of Sugar Beet.

    PubMed

    Palumbo, Jeffrey D; Yuen, Gary Y; Jochum, C Christine; Tatum, Kristin; Kobayashi, Donald Y

    2005-06-01

    ABSTRACT Lysobacter enzymogenes produces extracellular lytic enzymes capable of degrading the cell walls of fungi and oomycetes. Many of these enzymes, including beta-1,3-glucanases, are thought to contribute to the biological control activity expressed by several strains of the species. L. enzymogenes strain C3 produces multiple extracellular beta-1,3-glucanases encoded by the gluA, gluB, and gluC genes. Analysis of the genes indicates they are homologous to previously characterized genes in the related strain N4-7, each sharing >95% amino acid sequence identity to their respective counterparts. The gluA and gluC gene products encode enzymes belonging to family 16 glycosyl hydrolases, whereas gluB encodes an enzyme belonging to family 64. Mutational analysis indicated that the three genes accounted for the total beta-1,3-glucanase activity detected in culture. Strain G123, mutated in all three glucanase genes, was reduced in its ability to grow in a minimal medium containing laminarin as a sole carbon source. Although strain G123 was not affected in antimicrobial activity toward Bipolaris sorokiniana or Pythium ultimum var. ultimum using in vitro assays, it was significantly reduced in biological control activity against Bipolaris leaf spot of tall fescue and Pythium damping-off of sugar beet. These results provide direct supportive evidence for the role of beta-1,3-glucanases in biocontrol activity of L. enzymogenes strain C3.

  1. Regional differences in the fescue toxicosis response of Bos taurus cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. S.; Bryant, J. K.; Scharf, B.; Kishore, D. K.; Coate, E. A.; Eichen, P. A.; Keisler, D. H.; Spiers, D. E.

    2015-04-01

    Cattle of the same breed from different regions of the USA may have altered responses to heat stress and fescue toxicosis. Angus steers from Missouri (MO ANG, n = 10, 513.6 ± 13.6 kg BW) and Oklahoma (OK ANG, n = 10, 552.8 ± 12.0 kg BW) were fed a diet containing either endophyte-infected (E+, 30 μg ergovaline/kg BW/day) or endophyte-uninfected (E-, 0 μg ergovaline/kg BW/day) tall fescue seed for 23 days. Diet treatment began on day 2. Animals were maintained at thermoneutrality (TN, 19-22 °C, days 1-8) and then exposed to heat stress (HS, cycling 26-36 °C, days 9-22). On day 23, ambient temperature was returned to TN and used as a recovery day. Feed intake (FI) was measured daily, with rectal and skin temperatures determined six times daily. Feed intake reduction from pretreatment levels was greater ( P < 0.01) for E + (13.9 ± 0.9 versus 11.9 ± 0.3 kg/day) compared to E - (12.6 ± 0.9 versus 12.4 ± 0.3 kg/day) steers over the entire TN period, regardless of Angus group. During HS, E + cattle had reduced FI ( P < 0.02; 6.9 ± 0.2 versus 8.4 ± 0.2 kg/day) compared to E - animals, independent of region of origin. A greater decrease in FI ( P < 0.01) was observed for OK (12.1 ± 0.3 versus 6.2 ± 0.2 kg/day) compared to MO ANG (12.2 ± 0.3 versus 7.9 ± 0.2 kg/day) when ambient temperature was increased from TN to HS. On day 13 and days 15-22, OK ANG (E+) had reduced FI ( P < 0.01, -2.21 kg) compared to OK ANG (E-), while there was no effect on MO ANG. From day 12 to day 22 of HS, daily minimum temperatures for ear, rump, and tail skin were less for E + ( P < 0.05) when compared with E-treated steers, signifying peripheral vasoconstriction in E + animals. This was supported by reduced shoulder and lower tail temperatures ( P < 0.01) for E + compared to E-treated OK ANG on the recovery day. In summary, regional differences in the response to fescue toxicosis exist, with peripheral vasomotor effects becoming most evident when animals are subjected to rapid

  2. Enhanced resistance to Spodoptera litura in endophyte infected cauliflower plants.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of disease, are important mediators of plant-herbivore interactions. These endophytes enhance resistance of host plant against insect herbivores mainly by productions of various alkaloid based defensive compounds in the plant tissue or through alterations of plant nutritional quality. Two endophytic fungi, i.e., Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium sp., were isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, a traditional indian medicinal plant. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plants were inoculated with these two endophytic fungi. The effect of endophyte infected and uninfected cauliflower plants were measured on the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Endophyte infected cauliflower plants showed resistance to S. litura in the form of significant increase in larval and pupal mortality in both the fungi. Inhibitory effects of endophytic fungi also were observed on adult emergence, longevity, reproductive potential, as well as hatchability of eggs. Thus, it is concluded that antibiosis to S. litura could be imparted by artificial inoculation of endophytes and this could be used to develop alternative ecologically safe control strategies.

  3. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes; a good or bad thing?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column was written to discuss the advantages of complex mixtures of grasses and legumes. Historically, Kentucky pastures have been primarily composed of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue, but Kentucky bluegrass and other grasses are presently encroaching tall fescue pastures. These other gras...

  4. Fungal endophyte infection of ryegrass reprograms host metabolism and alters development.

    PubMed

    Dupont, Pierre-Yves; Eaton, Carla J; Wargent, Jason J; Fechtner, Susanne; Solomon, Peter; Schmid, Jan; Day, Robert C; Scott, Barry; Cox, Murray P

    2015-12-01

    Beneficial associations between plants and microbes play an important role in both natural and agricultural ecosystems. For example, associations between fungi of the genus Epichloë, and cool-season grasses are known for their ability to increase resistance to insect pests, fungal pathogens and drought. However, little is known about the molecular changes induced by endophyte infection. To study the impact of endophyte infection, we compared the expression profiles, based on RNA sequencing, of perennial ryegrass infected with Epichloë festucae with noninfected plants. We show that infection causes dramatic changes in the expression of over one third of host genes. This is in stark contrast to mycorrhizal associations, where substantially fewer changes in host gene expression are observed, and is more similar to pathogenic interactions. We reveal that endophyte infection triggers reprogramming of host metabolism, favouring secondary metabolism at a cost to primary metabolism. Infection also induces changes in host development, particularly trichome formation and cell wall biogenesis. Importantly, this work sheds light on the mechanisms underlying enhanced resistance to drought and super-infection by fungal pathogens provided by fungal endophyte infection. Finally, our study reveals that not all beneficial plant-microbe associations behave the same in terms of their effects on the host. PMID:26305687

  5. Alteration of basal metabolic rate in Holstein steers during fescue toxicosis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The results of this study indicate that consumption of E+ tall fescue by cattle results in a reduction in basal metabolic rate. Six ruminally cannulated steers were weight-matched and pair-fed during a two period crossover experiment. Each period consisted of two temperatures (22°C and 30°C). During...

  6. From the Lab Bench: Soy Hulls: A Special Feed for Cattle on Toxic Endophyte Fescue Pasture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soy hulls have a nutritive value that is comparable to a moderate quality hay and is often fed as a hay substitute. However, based on results of published research we conducted, it may offer more than the typical hay if fed to cattle grazing toxic endophyte tall fescue. A grazing experiment was co...

  7. Comparison of nutrient source and forage quality as it relates to microbial survival in fescue soils.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This field experiment was designed to look at survival rates of bacterial groups after addition of three nutrient sources to tall fescue fields. The nutrient sources were inorganic fertilizer (I), poultry littler (PL) and dairy manure (DM) along with a control treatment (C). P and K concentrations ...

  8. Ergot Alkaloids Produced by Endophytic Fungi of the Genus Epichloë

    PubMed Central

    Guerre, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The development of fungal endophytes of the genus Epichloë in grasses results in the production of different groups of alkaloids, whose mechanism and biological spectrum of toxicity can differ considerably. Ergot alkaloids, when present in endophyte-infected tall fescue, are responsible for “fescue toxicosis” in livestock, whereas indole-diterpene alkaloids, when present in endophyte-infected ryegrass, are responsible for “ryegrass staggers”. In contrast, peramine and loline alkaloids are deterrent and/or toxic to insects. Other toxic effects in livestock associated with the consumption of endophyte-infected grass that contain ergot alkaloids include the “sleepy grass” and “drunken horse grass” diseases. Although ergovaline is the main ergopeptine alkaloid produced in endophyte-infected tall fescue and is recognized as responsible for fescue toxicosis, a number of questions still exist concerning the profile of alkaloid production in tall fescue and the worldwide distribution of tall fescue toxicosis. The purpose of this review is to present ergot alkaloids produced in endophyte-infected grass, the factors of variation of their level in plants, and the diseases observed in the mammalian species as relate to the profiles of alkaloid production. In the final section, interactions between ergot alkaloids and drug-metabolizing enzymes are presented as mechanisms that could contribute to toxicity. PMID:25756954

  9. Ergot alkaloids produced by endophytic fungi of the genus Epichloë.

    PubMed

    Guerre, Philippe

    2015-03-01

    The development of fungal endophytes of the genus Epichloë in grasses results in the production of different groups of alkaloids, whose mechanism and biological spectrum of toxicity can differ considerably. Ergot alkaloids, when present in endophyte-infected tall fescue, are responsible for "fescue toxicosis" in livestock, whereas indole-diterpene alkaloids, when present in endophyte-infected ryegrass, are responsible for "ryegrass staggers". In contrast, peramine and loline alkaloids are deterrent and/or toxic to insects. Other toxic effects in livestock associated with the consumption of endophyte-infected grass that contain ergot alkaloids include the "sleepy grass" and "drunken horse grass" diseases. Although ergovaline is the main ergopeptine alkaloid produced in endophyte-infected tall fescue and is recognized as responsible for fescue toxicosis, a number of questions still exist concerning the profile of alkaloid production in tall fescue and the worldwide distribution of tall fescue toxicosis. The purpose of this review is to present ergot alkaloids produced in endophyte-infected grass, the factors of variation of their level in plants, and the diseases observed in the mammalian species as relate to the profiles of alkaloid production. In the final section, interactions between ergot alkaloids and drug-metabolizing enzymes are presented as mechanisms that could contribute to toxicity.

  10. Effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on short-chain fatty acid absorption and barrier function of isolated bovine ruminal epithelium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids present in endophyte-infected tall fescue are the causative agents for fescue toxicosis in cattle. Ergot alkaloids have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption from the washed rumen of ste...

  11. Ergovaline disappearance from a ruminally incubated buffer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline (ERV) is an alkaloid present in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) that is thought to contribute to fescue toxicosis in cattle. To determine the disappearance of ERV in the temporarily washe reticulorumen, steer (n=8) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes at 1.5× NEM and received ...

  12. Ergovaline-induced vasoconstriction in an isolated bovine lateral saphenous vein bioassay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline has been proposed as a toxic component of endophyte-infected tall fescue. As many of the symptoms of fescue toxicosis are a result of compromised circulation, the objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of ergovaline and a more documented ergopeptine, ergota...

  13. New Hosts for Balansia epichloe in tall fescue pastures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Clavicipitalean fungi consist of a relatively small group of genera that are parasitic on grasses and sedges. These fungi consist of five genera including Claviceps, Epichloe, and Balansia, all of which are biotrophic and some are mutualistic, and endophytic in their association with grasses. Seve...

  14. Gamete selection for forage quality improvement in tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Within the Festuca-Lolium genome complex there is a need for modern breeding approaches that facilitate the rapid development of improved germplasm or cultivars. Traditional recurrent or mass-selection methods for population or synthetic development are labor intensive and time consuming. The use ...

  15. Relationship of soil nutrient content from poultry litter and dairy manure on microbial survival in fescue soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This field experiment was designed to measure survival rates of select bacterial groups after addition of three nutrient sources to tall fescue fields. The nutrient sources were inorganic fertilizer (I), poultry littler (PL) and dairy manure (DM) along with a control treatment (C). Phosphorus and K...

  16. Effects of Na₂CO₃ stress on photosynthesis and antioxidative enzymes in endophyte infected and non-infected rice.

    PubMed

    Bu, Ning; Li, Xuemei; Li, Yueying; Ma, Chunyan; Ma, Lianju; Zhang, Chi

    2012-04-01

    Endophyte infected and uninfected seedlings of rice (Oryza sativa L.) were subjected to five different levels of Na(2)CO(3) for 2 weeks. Under both Na(2)CO(3) stress as well as no stress, endophyte-infected plants were higher for above-ground dry weight and shoot length, but lower for root length compared to non-infected controls, and there was no significant difference for below-ground dry weight. Chlorophylls and carotenoid contents, net photosynetic rate, transpiration rate, catalase and peroxidase activities increased, but malondialdehyde content declined in the infected plants compared to non-infected controls under Na(2)CO(3) stress. Compared to non-infected controls, water use efficiency, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters (F(v)/F(m), F(v)/F(o)) and superoxide dismutase activity in infected plants increased under high concentrations of Na(2)CO(3) while there was no significant difference under low concentrations of Na(2)CO(3). Endophyte infection was concluded to be beneficial to the growth and antioxidative mechanisms in Oryza sativa under Na(2)CO(3) stress.

  17. Pasture Management Strategies for Sequestering Soil Carbon - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franzluebbers, Alan J.

    2006-03-15

    Pasturelands account for 51 of the 212 Mha of privately held grazing land in the USA. Tall fescue is the most important cool-season perennial forage for many beef cattle producers in the humid region of the USA. A fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, infects the majority of tall fescue stands with a mutualistic association. Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte have negative impacts on cattle performance. However, there are indications that endophyte infection of tall fescue is a necessary component of productive and persistent pasture ecology. The objectives of this research were to characterize and quantify changes in soil organic carbon and associated soil properties under tall fescue pastures with and without endophyte infection of grass. Pastures with high endophyte infection had greater concentration of soil organic carbon, but lower concentration of biologically active soil carbon than pastures with low endophyte infection. A controlled experiment suggested that endophyte-infected leaf tissue may directly inhibit the activity of soil microorganisms. Carbon forms of soil organic matter were negatively affected and nitrogen forms were positively affected by endophyte addition to soil. The chemical compounds in endophyte-infected tall fescue (ergot alkaloids) that are responsible for animal health disorders were found in soil, suggesting that these chemicals might be persistent in the environment. Future research is needed to determine whether ergot alkaloids or some other chemicals are responsible for increases in soil organic matter. Scientists will be able to use this information to better understand the ecological impacts of animals grazing tall fescue, and possibly to identify and cultivate other similar associations for improving soil organic matter storage. Another experiment suggested that both dry matter production and soil microbial activity could be affected by the endophyte. Sampling of the cumulative effects of 20 years of tall fescue

  18. Loline alkaloid production by fungal endophytes of Fescue species select for particular epiphytic bacterial microflora

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Elizabeth; Lindow, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The leaves of fescue grasses are protected from herbivores by the production of loline alkaloids by the mutualist fungal endophytes Neotyphodium sp. or Epichloë sp. Most bacteria that reside on the leaf surface of such grasses can consume these defensive chemicals. Loline-consuming bacteria are rare on the leaves of other plant species. Several bacterial species including Burkholderia ambifaria recovered from tall fescue could use N-formyl loline as a sole carbon and nitrogen source in culture and achieved population sizes that were about eightfold higher when inoculated onto plants harboring loline-producing fungal endophytes than on plants lacking such endophytes or which were colonized by fungal variants incapable of loline production. In contrast, mutants of B. ambifaria and other bacterial species incapable of loline catabolism achieved similarly low population sizes on tall fescue colonized by loline-producing Neotyphodium sp. and on plants lacking this endophytic fungus. Lolines that are released onto the surface of plants benefiting from a fungal mutualism thus appear to be a major resource that can be exploited by epiphytic bacteria, thereby driving the establishment of a characteristic bacterial community on such plants. PMID:24108329

  19. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  20. The Tall Tale Ladies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zingher, Gary

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the value of tall tales for children and focuses on tall tale heroines that have become more prevalent and offer models of strong, resourceful, undaunted women. Includes examples of popular tall tale heroines and offers suggestions for class activities. (LRW)

  1. Toxicity of endophyte-infected ryegrass hay containing high ergovaline level in lactating ewes.

    PubMed

    Zbib, N; Repussard, C; Tardieu, D; Priymenko, N; Domange, C; Guerre, P

    2015-08-01

    The symbiotic association of var. (formerly named ) with perennial ryegrass () leads to the production of ergovaline (EV) and lolitrem B (LB) that are toxic for livestock. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding endophyte-infected ryegrass (SE+) hay on 16 lactating ewes (BW 80 ± 10 kg) in comparison with endophyte-free ryegrass (SE-) hay to investigate the putative mechanisms of action of EV and LB and to evaluate their persistence in milk and animal tissues. The mean EV and LB concentrations in SE+ hay were 851 and 884 μg/kg DM, respectively, whereas these alkaloids were below the limit of detection in SE- hay. No effect of SE+ was observed on animal health and skin temperature whereas prolactin decreased and significant differences between hays were observed from d 7 to 28 of the study ( < 0.03) but had no effect on milk production. Hematocrit and biochemical analyses of plasma revealed no significant difference between SE+ and SE-, whereas cortisol concentration differed significantly on d 28 ( = 0.001). Measurement of oxidative damage and antioxidant enzyme activities in plasma, liver, and kidneys revealed a slight increase in some enzyme activities involved in defense against oxidative damage in the SE+ fed ewes. Slight variations in the activities of hepatic and kidney flavin monooxygenase enzymes were observed, whereas in the kidney, glutathione -transferase activity decreased significantly ( = 0.002) in the SE+ fed ewes, whereas uridine diphosphate glucuronosyltransferase activity increased ( = 0.001). After 28 d of exposure of ewes to the SE+ hay, low EV and LB concentrations were measured in tissues. The highest concentration of EV was observed in the liver (0.68 μg/kg) whereas fat contained the highest concentration of LB (2.39 μg/kg). Both toxins were also identified at the trace level in milk. PMID:26440189

  2. Dietary exposure to ergot alkaloids decreases contractility of bovine mesenteric vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids are hypothesized to cause vasoconstriction in the midgut, and prior exposure may affect vasoactivity of these compounds. Objectives were to profile vasoactivity of ergot alkaloids in mesenteric artery and vein and determine if previous exposure to endophyte-infected tall fescue affec...

  3. Equine palmar artery, palmar vein and uterine artery express different populations of vasoactive biogenic amine receptors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) seed by horses causes constriction of the palmar artery (PA), palmar vein (PV) and reduced blood flow to the corpus luteum that can be measured in vivo by Doppler ultrasonography. In addition, myograph st...

  4. From the Lab Bench: Differences in annual and perennial grasses in meeting cattle production goals

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column was written that provided the advantages and disadvantages of annual warm- and cool-season grasses. Warm-season annual grasses can increase the supply of forage during the summer slump in cool-season perennial grass growth. Utilization of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures can ...

  5. Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Sperm Motility In Vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids are synthesized by endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire). Our objective was to determine direct effects of ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine and ergonovine) on the motility of bovine spermatozoa in vit...

  6. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes accross warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production in the southeastern U.S. offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Other breeds, such as the Criollo breed Romosinuano, may provide similar adaptative characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate Romosinuano...

  7. Genetic effects for reproductive performance of straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano and Angus cows in a temperate zone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this work were to: 1) estimate heterosis and breed direct effects for cow reproduction traits of Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows in a temperate climate, and 2) assess the effects of the type of forage grazed (bermudagrass, endophyte-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue) durin...

  8. Forage and breed effects on behavior and temperament of pregnant beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Integration of behavioral observations with traditional selection schemes may lead to enhanced animal well-being and more profitable forage-based cattle production systems. Brahman-influenced (BR; n=64) and Gelbvieh x Angus (GA; n=64) heifers consumed either toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+)...

  9. Identification and Quantification of Loline-Type Alkaloids in Endophyte-Infected Grasses by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Khem B; Boelt, Birte; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2016-08-10

    Lolines, fungal metabolites of the grass-endophyte association, were identified and quantified using newly developed LC-MS/MS methods in endophyte-infected grasses belonging to the Lolium and Festuca genera after extraction with three different solvents using two extraction methods. The shaking extraction method with isopropanol/water was superior to the other methods due to its high sensitivity, high accuracy (recovery within or close to the range of 80-120%), and high precision (coefficient of variation of <10%). Seven loline alkaloids were identified and quantified using our newly established LC-MS/MS methods, and N-formylloline was the most abundant (5 mg/g dry matter), followed by N-acetylloline. These LC-MS/MS methods used the shortest sample handling time and the fewest sample preparation steps and proved to be good alternatives to existing GC and GC-MS analytical methods without compromising analytical efficiency. In conclusion, we developed for the first time a highly sensitive quantitative LC-MS/MS analytical method for the accurate and reproducible quantification and a LightSight-assisted LC-QTRAP/MS qualitative method for the tentative identification of loline-type alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses. PMID:27434508

  10. Biomass production by fescue and switchgrass alone and in mixed swards with legumes. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M.

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the role of biomass in alleviating potential global warming, the absence of information on the sustainability of biomass production on soils of limited agricultural potential is cited as a major constraint to the assessment of the role of biomass. Research on the sustainability of yields, recycling of nutrients, and emphasis on reduced inputs of agricultural chemicals in the production of biomass are among the critical research needs to clarify optimum cropping practice in biomass production. Two field experiments were conducted between 1989 and 1993. One study evaluated biomass production and composition of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown alone and with bigflower vetch (Vicia grandiflora L.) and the other assessed biomass productivity and composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown alone and with perennial legumes. Switchgrass received 0, 75 or 150 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} or was interseeded with vetch. Tall fescue received 0, 75, 150 or 225 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually or was interseeded with alfalfa (Medicago L.) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). It is hoped that production systems can be designed to produce high yields of biomass with minimal inputs of fertilizer N. Achievement of this goal would reduce the potential for movement of NO{sub 3} and other undesirable N forms outside the biomass production system into the environment. In addition, management systems involving legumes could reduce the cost of biomass production.

  11. Exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation reduces fetal growth in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Duckett, Susan K.; Andrae, John G.; Pratt, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] is the primary cool season perennial grass in the eastern U.S. Most tall fescue contains an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum), which produces ergot alkaloids that cause vasoconstriction and could restrict blood flow to the fetus in pregnant animals. The objective of this study was to examine fetal growth during maternal exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation. Pregnant ewes (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: (1) endophyte-infected (N. coenophialum) tall fescue seed (E+; 0.8 ug of ergovaline /g diet DM) and (2) endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E−; 0.0 ug of ergovaline/g diet DM). Birth weight of lambs was reduced by 37% for E+ compared to E−. Organ and muscle weights were also lighter for E+ than E−. Exposure to ergot alkaloids in utero reduces fetal growth and muscle development. PMID:25191653

  12. Exposure to Ergot Alkaloids During Gestation Reduces Fetal Growth in Sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duckett, Susan; Pratt, Scott; Andrae, John

    2014-08-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] is the primary cool season perennial grass in the eastern U.S. Most tall fescue contains an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum), which produces ergot alkaloids that cause vasoconstriction and could restrict blood flow to the fetus in pregnant animals. The objective of this study was to examine fetal growth during maternal exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation. Pregnant ewes (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue seed (E+; 0.8 ug of ergovaline /g diet DM) and 2) endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-; 0.0 ug of ergovaline/g diet DM). Birth weight of lambs was reduced by 37% for E+ compared to E-. Organ and muscle weights were also lighter for E+ than E-. Exposure to ergot alkaloids in utero reduces fetal growth and muscle development.

  13. Meadow Fescue in the Driftless Region

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified meadow fescue on over 250 farms in the driftless region of SW Wisconsin, NW Illinois, NE Iowa, and SE Minnesota. Most plants are similar in appearance and their habitats range from wet bottomlands to dry hilltops, dense monocultures to highly degraded pastures with few meadow fes...

  14. Registration of 'Hidden Valley' meadow fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Hidden Valley' (Reg. No. CV-xxxx, PI xxxxxx) meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.; syn. Festuca pratensis Huds.; syn. Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh.] is a synthetic population originating from 561 parental genotypes. The original germplasm is of unknown central or northern Europ...

  15. American Hyperbole: The Tall Tale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavonetti, Linda M.; Combs, Christine M.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the historic derivation and the format and characteristics of traditional tall tales, and modern adaptations of these stories. Describes a selection of tall tales for modern young adult readers; notes titles and authors of original tall tales and those with female heroes. Discusses the enduring appeal of traditional and modern tall…

  16. The Bull Sperm MicroRNAome and the Effect of Fescue Toxicosis on Sperm MicroRNA Expression

    PubMed Central

    Stowe, Heather M.; Calcatera, Samantha M.; Dimmick, Marcy A.; Andrae, John G.; Duckett, Susan K.; Pratt, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue [Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] accounts for nearly 16 million hectares of pasture in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic U.S. due to its heat, drought, and pest resistance, conferred to the plant by its symbiotic relationship with the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. The endophyte produces ergot alkaloids that have negative effects on the growth and reproduction of animals, resulting in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. The objectives of our study were to identify microRNA (miRNA) present in bovine sperm and to evaluate the effects of fescue toxicosis on sperm miRNA expression. Angus bulls were assigned to treatments of either toxic or non-toxic fescue seed diets. Semen was collected and subjected to RNA isolation. Three samples from each treatment group were chosen and pooled for deep sequencing. To compare miRNA expression between treatment groups, a microarray was designed and conducted. For each of the top ten expressed miRNA, target prediction analysis was conducted using TargetScan. Gene ontology enrichment was assessed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Sequencing results elucidated the presence of 1,582 unique small RNA present in sperm. Of those sequences, 382 were known Bos taurus miRNA, 22 were known but novel to Bos taurus, and 816 were predicted candidate miRNA that did not map to any currently reported miRNA. Of the sequences chosen for microarray, twenty-two showed significant differential expression between treatment groups. Gene pathways of interest included: regulation of transcription, embryonic development (including blastocyst formation), Wnt and Hedgehog signaling, oocyte meiosis, and kinase and phosphatase activity. MicroRNA present in mature sperm appears to not only be left over from spermatogenic processes, but may actually serve important regulatory roles in fertilization and early developmental processes. Further, our results indicate the possibility that environmental

  17. The bull sperm microRNAome and the effect of fescue toxicosis on sperm microRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Heather M; Calcatera, Samantha M; Dimmick, Marcy A; Andrae, John G; Duckett, Susan K; Pratt, Scott L

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue [Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] accounts for nearly 16 million hectares of pasture in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic U.S. due to its heat, drought, and pest resistance, conferred to the plant by its symbiotic relationship with the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. The endophyte produces ergot alkaloids that have negative effects on the growth and reproduction of animals, resulting in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. The objectives of our study were to identify microRNA (miRNA) present in bovine sperm and to evaluate the effects of fescue toxicosis on sperm miRNA expression. Angus bulls were assigned to treatments of either toxic or non-toxic fescue seed diets. Semen was collected and subjected to RNA isolation. Three samples from each treatment group were chosen and pooled for deep sequencing. To compare miRNA expression between treatment groups, a microarray was designed and conducted. For each of the top ten expressed miRNA, target prediction analysis was conducted using TargetScan. Gene ontology enrichment was assessed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Sequencing results elucidated the presence of 1,582 unique small RNA present in sperm. Of those sequences, 382 were known Bos taurus miRNA, 22 were known but novel to Bos taurus, and 816 were predicted candidate miRNA that did not map to any currently reported miRNA. Of the sequences chosen for microarray, twenty-two showed significant differential expression between treatment groups. Gene pathways of interest included: regulation of transcription, embryonic development (including blastocyst formation), Wnt and Hedgehog signaling, oocyte meiosis, and kinase and phosphatase activity. MicroRNA present in mature sperm appears to not only be left over from spermatogenic processes, but may actually serve important regulatory roles in fertilization and early developmental processes. Further, our results indicate the possibility that environmental

  18. Tiller production in cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) growing along a light gradient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pasture managers seek to balance leaf appearance with leaf utilization to meet livestock nutritional needs and sustain sward productivity. Achieving this balance when managing forages in silvopasture, requires techniques that account for the influence of light and defoliation on tiller appearance a...

  19. Urea Metabolism in Beef Steers Fed Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass, or Gamagrass Hays

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to assess effects of endophyte treatments (Exp. 1), forage species, and supplementation (Exp. 2) on urea production, excretion, and recycling in beef steers. Infusion of 15,15N-urea and enrichment of urea in urine samples were used to calculate urea N entry and recyc...

  20. USDA - Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG 8, Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A method is being developed that permits the evaluation of contractile responses of ruminal arteries and veins to various compounds, with particular interest in ergot alkaloids. Because these blood vessels are different from peripheral vessels that have been previously investigated, certain asp...

  1. Forage yield, weed suppression and fertilizer nitrogen replacement value (FNRV) of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Adding plant diversity to forage systems may help growers deal with increasing fertilizer costs and a more variable climate. Maintaining highly diverse forage mixtures in forage-livestock production is difficult and may warrant a closer reexamination of simpler grass-legume mixtures to achieve simi...

  2. Variability in nitrogen uptake and utilization among accessions of annual ryegrass and tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Efficient use of nitrogen (N) applied to grassland is important, both for ensuring economic viability of N use and to minimize the amount of unrecovered N that is susceptible to loss from the agricultural system to the broader environment. Comparison was made of N uptake efficiency and of utilizatio...

  3. A validated method for gas chromatographic analysis of gamma-aminobutyric acid in tall fescue herbage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in animals that is also found in plants and has been associated with plant responses to stress. A simple and relatively rapid method of GABA separation and quantification was developed from a commercially available kit for serum amino...

  4. Sport for tall.

    PubMed

    Khosla, T

    1983-09-10

    Eight new events (handball, basketball, and six rowing events) were introduced for women in the Olympic Games at Montreal in 1976. Of 187 women rowers who competed at Montreal, none was shorter than the mean height (162 cm, 64 in) of women aged 18-24 in the United States. In team events only two out of 250 participants were shorter than the reference mean. Even among the tall, it was the taller participants who won medals. What does the slogan "Sport for All" mean in this context? Moreover, the physical size required of champion rowers and basketball players is not to be found in some Asian, African, and Latin American populations. International contests in many such events therefore seem to be at variance with the first charter of the Olympic Games. An independent reviewing body is urgently needed to examine the merits of man made rules in many sporting contests. PMID:6412804

  5. Sport for tall.

    PubMed

    Khosla, T

    1983-09-10

    Eight new events (handball, basketball, and six rowing events) were introduced for women in the Olympic Games at Montreal in 1976. Of 187 women rowers who competed at Montreal, none was shorter than the mean height (162 cm, 64 in) of women aged 18-24 in the United States. In team events only two out of 250 participants were shorter than the reference mean. Even among the tall, it was the taller participants who won medals. What does the slogan "Sport for All" mean in this context? Moreover, the physical size required of champion rowers and basketball players is not to be found in some Asian, African, and Latin American populations. International contests in many such events therefore seem to be at variance with the first charter of the Olympic Games. An independent reviewing body is urgently needed to examine the merits of man made rules in many sporting contests.

  6. A toxic endophyte-infected grass helps reverse degradation and loss of biodiversity of over-grazed grasslands in northwest China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiang; Christensen, Michael J; Bao, Gensheng; Zhang, Chunping; Li, Xiuzhang; Li, Chunjie; Nan, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Overgrazing of China's grasslands is increasingly causing biodiversity to decline. In degenerated grasslands of northwest China endophyte (Epichloё gansuensis) infected Achnatherum inebrians (drunken horse grass) is becoming widely distributed because of its toxicity to livestock. In this study, we investigated the ecological consequences of endophyte toxicity in this native grass, at three sites in northwest China, by comparing seed production of plant species and arthropod abundance in overgrazed grasslands with and without the presence of A. inebrians. Our findings demonstrate that the presence of endophyte infected A. inebrians reduces the loss of plant and arthropod biodiversity by providing a protected nursery free of animal grazing. Therefore, A. inebrians, typically regarded as an unwanted toxic invader by pastoralists, should be viewed as beneficial for grasslands as its presence maintains plant and arthropod biodiversity, and provides a foundation stone in the reconstruction and restoration of these grassland ecosystems. PMID:26679518

  7. A toxic endophyte-infected grass helps reverse degradation and loss of biodiversity of over-grazed grasslands in northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiang; Christensen, Michael J.; Bao, Gensheng; Zhang, Chunping; Li, Xiuzhang; Li, Chunjie; Nan, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Overgrazing of China’s grasslands is increasingly causing biodiversity to decline. In degenerated grasslands of northwest China endophyte (Epichloё gansuensis) infected Achnatherum inebrians (drunken horse grass) is becoming widely distributed because of its toxicity to livestock. In this study, we investigated the ecological consequences of endophyte toxicity in this native grass, at three sites in northwest China, by comparing seed production of plant species and arthropod abundance in overgrazed grasslands with and without the presence of A. inebrians. Our findings demonstrate that the presence of endophyte infected A. inebrians reduces the loss of plant and arthropod biodiversity by providing a protected nursery free of animal grazing. Therefore, A. inebrians, typically regarded as an unwanted toxic invader by pastoralists, should be viewed as beneficial for grasslands as its presence maintains plant and arthropod biodiversity, and provides a foundation stone in the reconstruction and restoration of these grassland ecosystems. PMID:26679518

  8. Yee-e-e-Haw!: Tall Tales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the characteristics of "tall tales." Fills in the historical background of tall tales, from the ancient myth of Gilgamesh to Baron Munchausen, the closest European progenitor of American tall tales. Opines that tall tales appear to have been created as a response to challenges posed by building a new nation. Lists 11 characteristics of…

  9. Evaluation of fine fescue grasses identifies resources for improved ecological function under rangeland stress environments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fine-leaved fescue (Festuca ssp.) grasses have potential for contributing to increased rangeland productivity given their comparatively high drought and heat tolerance. Therefore, plant performance trials were developed to evaluate geographically diverse fine fescue materials for their application ...

  10. From the Lab Bench: The fescue belt is cow-calf country

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column was written to discuss the importance of cow-calf production to the fescue belt, which overlays what is commonly called the transition zone between the subtropical southeast and the temperate northeast (see figure). Undeniably, the “Fescue Belt” is cow-calf country. The Fescue Belt is goo...

  11. Twisters, Tall Tales, & Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Dawn Renee; Sterling, Donna R.

    2006-01-01

    Legends and tall tales have been part of the American culture for ages. Students are probably already familiar with the tales of how Pecos Bill fearlessly tamed a ferocious tornado, or Paul Bunyan effortlessly restrained a great river. Such tales have been passed down from generation to generation to explain humanity, the natural world, and…

  12. Meadow Fescue in the Driftless Region, Part Two

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified meadow fescue on over 250 farms in the driftless region of SW Wisconsin, NW Illinois, NE Iowa, and SE Minnesota. Most plants are similar in appearance and their habitats range from wet bottomlands to dry hilltops, dense monocultures to highly degraded pastures with few meadow fes...

  13. WT1 mutations in T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Tosello, Valeria; Mansour, Marc R; Barnes, Kelly; Paganin, Maddalena; Sulis, Maria Luisa; Jenkinson, Sarah; Allen, Christopher G; Gale, Rosemary E; Linch, David C; Palomero, Teresa; Real, Pedro; Murty, Vundavalli; Yao, Xiaopan; Richards, Susan M; Goldstone, Anthony; Rowe, Jacob; Basso, Giuseppe; Wiernik, Peter H; Paietta, Elisabeth; Pieters, Rob; Horstmann, Martin; Meijerink, Jules P P; Ferrando, Adolfo A

    2009-07-30

    The molecular mechanisms involved in disease progression and relapse in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) are poorly understood. We used single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis to analyze paired diagnostic and relapsed T-ALL samples to identify recurrent genetic alterations in T-ALL. This analysis showed that diagnosis and relapsed cases have common genetic alterations, but also that relapsed samples frequently lose chromosomal markers present at diagnosis, suggesting that relapsed T-ALL emerges from an ancestral clone different from the major leukemic population at diagnosis. In addition, we identified deletions and associated mutations in the WT1 tumor suppressor gene in 2 of 9 samples. Subsequent analysis showed WT1 mutations in 28 of 211 (13.2%) of pediatric and 10 of 85 (11.7%) of adult T-ALL cases. WT1 mutations present in T-ALL are predominantly heterozygous frameshift mutations resulting in truncation of the C-terminal zinc finger domains of this transcription factor. WT1 mutations are most prominently found in T-ALL cases with aberrant rearrangements of the oncogenic TLX1, TLX3, and HOXA transcription factor oncogenes. Survival analysis demonstrated that WT1 mutations do not confer adverse prognosis in pediatric and adult T-ALL. Overall, these results identify the presence of WT1 mutations as a recurrent genetic alteration in T-ALL. PMID:19494353

  14. Safe Emergency Evacuation From Tall Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Emergency egress system allows people to be evacuated quickly from tall structures. New emergency system applicable to rescues from fires in tall hotels and other buildings. System consists of basket on slide wire. Basket descends by gravity on sloped slide wire staked to ground.

  15. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) INDIRECT FOOD... obtained commercially from the waste liquors of pinewood pulp mills and consists mainly of tall oil...

  16. A method to differentiate summer-dormant from summer-active tall fescue and orchardgrass accessions at germination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Summer-dormant, cool-season perennial grasses are being used in place of traditional, summer-active cultivars for high quality winter forage. One reason for this change is the ability of cultivars with summer-dormant attributes to tolerate increasing annual temperature, decreasing precipitation, an...

  17. Effects of pseudo-microgravity on symbiosis between endophyte, Neotyphodium, and its host plant, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hiraishi, K.; Yoshida, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Shinozaki, S.; Yamashita, M.

    Endophyte is a group of microbes that symbiotically live in plant body Endophyte provides host plant its metabolites that protect the plant from insect pests In addition to this host plants are resistive against environmental stress In general endophyte lives in seeds to seeds of the infected plants through multiple generations The infection of fungi has never been observed and their original pathway is still unknown in nature The aim of this study is to examine whether this stable symbiosis between endophytes and its host plant would be modified under pseudo-microgravity or not We also aim to observe the infection under an exotic environment in terms of gravity We found that the internal hyphae of both the incubated plant under pseudo-microgravity and the ground control became indistinct with the number of incubation days A part of the endophyte in the seed under its autolysis was suggested because the amount of fungi in the base of the shoot that was observed with the incubated plant under the ground control was far less than that in the seed before sowing Hyphae began to grow in the germinating seed after a 3-day incubation period However a lot of aggregated fungi still existed in the 3-day incubated seed under pseudo-microgravity Moreover hyphae in the 3-day incubated seed under pseudo-microgravity were more indistinctly than that under the ground control The fungi were observed in the boundary of the seed and the shoot of the 5-day incubated seed under the ground control but not under pseudo-microgravity By this observation it was suggested that

  18. Heat Shock Factor Genes of Tall Fescue and Perennial Ryegrass in Response to Temperature Stress by RNA-Seq Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Dai, Ya; Tao, Xiang; Wang, Jia-Zhen; Cheng, Hai-Yang; Yang, Hong; Ma, Xin-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are important regulators of stress-response in plants. However, our understanding of Hsf genes and their responses to temperature stresses in two Pooideae cool-season grasses, Festuca arundinacea, and Lolium perenne, is limited. Here we conducted comparative transcriptome analyses of plant leaves exposed to heat or cold stress for 10 h. Approximately, 30% and 25% of the genes expressed in the two species showed significant changes under heat and cold stress, respectively, including subsets of Hsfs and their target genes. We uncovered 74 Hsfs in F. arundinacea and 52 Hsfs in L. perenne, and categorized these genes into three subfamilies, HsfA, HsfB, and HsfC based on protein sequence homology to known Hsf members in model organisms. The Hsfs showed a strong response to heat and/or cold stress. The expression of HsfAs was elevated under heat stress, especially in class HsfA2, which exhibited the most dramatic responses. HsfBs were upregulated by the both temperature conditions, and HsfCs mainly showed an increase in expression under cold stress. The target genes of Hsfs, such as heat shock protein (HSP), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), inositol-3-phosphate synthase (IPS), and galactinol synthase (GOLS1), showed strong and unique responses to different stressors. We comprehensively detected Hsfs and their target genes in F. arundinacea and L. perenne, providing a foundation for future gene function studies and genetic engineering to improve stress tolerance in grasses and other crops. PMID:26793208

  19. Vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular and caudal arteries in bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Color Doppler ultasonography was used to evaluate vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular artery in yearling bulls to ergot alkaloids. Ergot alkaloid-induced constriction of the testicular artery could disrupt thermoregulation of the testes and reduce bull fertility. Luminal areas of the test...

  20. Investigation and management of tall stature.

    PubMed

    Davies, Justin H; Cheetham, Tim

    2014-08-01

    Referral for an assessment of tall stature is much less common than for short stature. Although the commonest cause is an underlying familial tendency to tallness, there are important disorders that should be considered at the initial assessment. Distinguishing these conditions from normal variations of growth is the key objective when managing the child and family. In some children, further targeted investigations will be needed and in rare instances intervention to limit final height may be appropriate. This article discusses a structured approach to the assessment and management of a child with tall stature. PMID:24833789

  1. Investigation and management of tall stature.

    PubMed

    Davies, Justin H; Cheetham, Tim

    2014-08-01

    Referral for an assessment of tall stature is much less common than for short stature. Although the commonest cause is an underlying familial tendency to tallness, there are important disorders that should be considered at the initial assessment. Distinguishing these conditions from normal variations of growth is the key objective when managing the child and family. In some children, further targeted investigations will be needed and in rare instances intervention to limit final height may be appropriate. This article discusses a structured approach to the assessment and management of a child with tall stature.

  2. Mutational spectrum of adult T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Martin; Vosberg, Sebastian; Schlee, Cornelia; Heesch, Sandra; Schwartz, Stefan; Gökbuget, Nicola; Hoelzer, Dieter; Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Bartram, Isabelle; Blum, Helmut; Brüggemann, Monika; Hecht, Jochen; Bohlander, Stefan K; Greif, Philipp A; Baldus, Claudia D

    2015-02-20

    Novel target discovery is warranted to improve treatment in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients. We provide a comprehensive study on mutations to enhance the understanding of therapeutic targets and studied 81 adult T-ALL patients. NOTCH1 exhibitedthe highest mutation rate (53%). Mutation frequencies of FBXW7 (10%), WT1 (10%), JAK3 (12%), PHF6 (11%), and BCL11B (10%) were in line with previous reports. We identified recurrent alterations in transcription factors DNM2, and RELN, the WNT pathway associated cadherin FAT1, and in epigenetic regulators (MLL2, EZH2). Interestingly, we discovered novel recurrent mutations in the DNA repair complex member HERC1, in NOTCH2, and in the splicing factor ZRSR2. A frequently affected pathway was the JAK/STAT pathway (18%) and a significant proportion of T-ALL patients harboured mutations in epigenetic regulators (33%), both predominantly found in the unfavourable subgroup of early T-ALL. Importantly, adult T-ALL patients not only showed a highly heterogeneous mutational spectrum, but also variable subclonal allele frequencies implicated in therapy resistance and evolution of relapse. In conclusion, we provide novel insights in genetic alterations of signalling pathways (e.g. druggable by γ-secretase inhibitors, JAK inhibitors or EZH2 inhibitors), present in over 80% of all adult T-ALL patients, that could guide novel therapeutic approaches.

  3. Mutational spectrum of adult T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Martin; Vosberg, Sebastian; Schlee, Cornelia; Heesch, Sandra; Schwartz, Stefan; Gökbuget, Nicola; Hoelzer, Dieter; Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Bartram, Isabelle; Blum, Helmut; Brüggemann, Monika; Hecht, Jochen; Bohlander, Stefan K; Greif, Philipp A; Baldus, Claudia D

    2015-02-20

    Novel target discovery is warranted to improve treatment in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients. We provide a comprehensive study on mutations to enhance the understanding of therapeutic targets and studied 81 adult T-ALL patients. NOTCH1 exhibitedthe highest mutation rate (53%). Mutation frequencies of FBXW7 (10%), WT1 (10%), JAK3 (12%), PHF6 (11%), and BCL11B (10%) were in line with previous reports. We identified recurrent alterations in transcription factors DNM2, and RELN, the WNT pathway associated cadherin FAT1, and in epigenetic regulators (MLL2, EZH2). Interestingly, we discovered novel recurrent mutations in the DNA repair complex member HERC1, in NOTCH2, and in the splicing factor ZRSR2. A frequently affected pathway was the JAK/STAT pathway (18%) and a significant proportion of T-ALL patients harboured mutations in epigenetic regulators (33%), both predominantly found in the unfavourable subgroup of early T-ALL. Importantly, adult T-ALL patients not only showed a highly heterogeneous mutational spectrum, but also variable subclonal allele frequencies implicated in therapy resistance and evolution of relapse. In conclusion, we provide novel insights in genetic alterations of signalling pathways (e.g. druggable by γ-secretase inhibitors, JAK inhibitors or EZH2 inhibitors), present in over 80% of all adult T-ALL patients, that could guide novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25595890

  4. Typhoon effects on super-tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Q. S.; Xiao, Y. Q.; Wu, J. R.; Fu, J. Y.; Li, Z. N.

    2008-06-01

    Full-scale measurement is considered to be the most reliable method for evaluating wind effects on buildings and structures. This paper presents selected results of wind characteristics and structural responses measured from four super-tall buildings, The Center (350 m high, 79 floors) in Hong Kong, Di Wang Tower (384 m high, 78 floors) in Shenzhen, CITIC Plaza Tower (391 m high, 80 floors) in Guangzhou and Jin Mao Building (421 m high, 88 floors) in Shanghai, during the passages of three typhoons. The field data such as wind speed, wind direction and acceleration responses, etc., were continuously measured from the super-tall buildings during the typhoons. Detailed analysis of the field data was conducted to investigate the characteristics of typhoon-generated wind and wind-induced vibrations of these super-tall buildings under typhoon conditions. The dynamic characteristics of the tall buildings were determined from the field measurements and comparisons with those calculated from the finite element (FE) models of the structures were made. Furthermore, the full-scale measurements were compared with wind tunnel results to evaluate the accuracy of the model test results and the adequacy of the techniques used in the wind tunnel tests. The results presented in this paper are expected to be of considerable interest and of use to researchers and professionals involved in designing super-tall buildings.

  5. To be or not to be "TALL"?

    PubMed

    Laron, Zvi

    2012-08-01

    Constitutional tall stature can be anticipated from neonatal length (1) and measurement at age 4 and 8 years (2). Mainly of genetic origin (3) it has been shown that tall children and parents have high normal or higher than normal serum hGH and/or IGF-I levels. (4-6). Also in a healthy adult population a significant (p<0.005) association between height and serum IGF-I has been reported (7). These within normal variations in "healthy" individuals should be distinguished from "gigantism" due to excessive GHR-H or hGH secretion (8, 9) and other pathological conditions leading to tall stature (3). PMID:23304805

  6. A Tall Tale: Laura Amy Schlitz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Mary Grace

    2008-01-01

    In this article, American author, children's librarian, and storyteller Laura Amy Schlitz is profiled. Schlitz is the winner of this year's Newbery Medal for her tall tale about the Mongols called "Gulnara the Tartar Warrior." Like her award-winning book, "Good Masters! Sweet Ladies!" (Candlewick, 2007), the tale takes place in the Middle Ages.…

  7. Extremely tall convection: characteristics and controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbitt, S. W.; Rasmussen, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Tall continental convective structures are observed in several climatological regions, and have been shown to be related with severe weather and extreme hydrologic events. Recent work has defined tall convection as regions with precipitation structures observed with spaceborne radar echo extending into the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. While these climatological regions are known for these tall convective structures (subtropical South America, equatorial Africa, southcentral USA, South Asia), not all observed convective eventsin these regions contain strong structures, and the characteristics of the meteorological environments, including sounding profiles, that dictate the strength of the spectrum of convective systems are poorly constrained. In this study, precipitation radar (PR) data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellites will be examined alongside composites of atmospheric reanalysis data to examine the structural and meteorological environments surrounding observed tall convective systems. Environments of convective systems of various vertical extents will be contrasted with less extreme convection to infer physical causal mechanisms and to examine issues of predictability of these events.

  8. Forage and breed effects on behavior and temperament of pregnant beef heifers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Integration of behavioral observations with traditional selection schemes may lead to enhanced animal well-being and more profitable forage-based cattle production systems. Brahman-influenced (BR; n = 64) and Gelbvieh × Angus (GA; n = 64) heifers consumed either toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or one of two nontoxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (NT) cultivars during two yr. Heifers were weighed at midpoint and termination of grazing. Grazing behavior (grazing, resting in the shade, lying, or standing without grazing) was recorded (n = 13 visual observations per yr in June and July) for each pasture. During yr 2, exit velocity (EV) and serum prolactin (PRL) were determined. Results Grazing behavior was influenced (P < 0.05) by an interaction between fescue cultivar and breed type. Gelbvieh × Angus heifers assigned to E+ pastures had the lowest percentage of animals grazing and the largest percentage of animals resting in the shade. Brahman-influenced heifers had faster EV (P < 0.001) than GA heifers (0.52 vs. 0.74 ± 0.04 s/m, respectively). Body weight (BW) was affected (P < 0.01) by an interaction of tall fescue cultivar and d, and an interaction of tall fescue cultivar and breed type. Heifers grazing NT pastures were heavier (P < 0.01) than heifers grazing E+ pastures at midpoint and termination. Gelbvieh × Angus heifers grazing NT pastures were heavier (P < 0.01) than GA and BR heifers grazing E+ and BR heifers grazing NT pastures. An interaction of forage cultivar and breed type occurred on serum PRL (P < 0.01). Conclusion Collectively fescue cultivar, EV, and concentrations of serum PRL were associated with grazing behavior. Heifers grazing NT pastures were observed to be grazing more than heifers assigned to E+ pastures, regardless of breed type, which may have contributed to changes in BW and average daily gain (ADG) in heifers. Integration of behavioral observations along with

  9. Resistance of closely-mown fine fescue and bentgrass species to snow mold pathogens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) is the primary species used on golf courses in temperate regions but requires prophylactic fungicide treatment to prevent snow mold diseases. We hypothesized that fine fescues (Festuca spp.) and colonial bentgrass (A. capillaris) have superior resistance to...

  10. Effect of fescue toxicosis on ruminal kinetics, nitrogen and energy balance in Holstein steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was designed to examine alteration of ruminal kinetics, as well as N and energy balance during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=217 ±7 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and pair-fed throughout a cross-over design experiment with a 2x2 factorial treatment str...

  11. Effect of fescue toxicosis on nitrogen and energy balance in Holstein steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Animals consuming infected fescue exhibit reduced weight gain and feed intake, with the most severe effects occurring during summer months. Heat stress and plane of nutrition have independent effects on metabolic activity (Birkelo, et al., 1991; O’Brien, et al., 2010). While, ergot alkaloids reduce ...

  12. Relationship of milk yield and quality to preweaning gain of calves from Angus, Brahman and reciprocal-cross cows on different forage systems.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; Brown, A H

    2002-10-01

    Interactions of the regression of preweaning ADG on dam milk yield and quality with breed group and forage environment were evaluated in a two-phase study. Phase I consisted of milk yield and quality and calf gain records from 1989 to 1991 for purebred Angus (n = 64) and Brahman (n = 62) cows mated to sires of both breeds. Phase II consisted of milk yield and quality and calf gain records from 1991 to 1997 for Angus (n = 94), Brahman (n = 85), Angus x Brahman (n = 86) and Brahman x Angus (n = 93) mated to Polled Hereford sires. In Phase I, forage environments included common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue. In Phase II, forage environments included common bermudagrass and endophyte-infected tall fescue (1991 to 1995) and a rotational system of both forages (1995 to 1997) in which each forage was grazed during its appropriate growing season, usually June through October for bermudagrass and November through May for tall fescue. Milk yield was estimated monthly six times during lactation from spring through fall and converted to a 24-h basis. Milk fat, milk protein, and somatic cell count were analyzed by a commercial laboratory. In Phase I, the relation of preweaning ADG to milk yield, milk fat yield, and protein yield was greater (P < 0.05) in Brahman cows on bermudagrass than Angus on bermudagrass. The regression of preweaning ADG on milk yield in Phase I was greater (P < 0.05) for cows on tall fescue than cows which grazed bermudagrass. In Phase II, the relation of preweaning ADG to milk yield, milk fat yield, and milk protein yield was greater or tended to be greater (P < 0.01, P < 0.11, P < 0.01, respectively) in purebred cows compared to reciprocal-cross cows. The regression of preweaning ADG on milk yield and milk protein yield was greater (P < 0.05) on tall fescue than bermudagrass in Phase II. These results suggest that the influence of milk yield and quality on calf growth may differ among breed types and production system, and the efficacy

  13. Charlemagne was very tall, but not robust.

    PubMed

    Rühli, Frank J; Blümich, Bernhard; Henneberg, Maciej

    2010-07-01

    The left tibia of Charlemagne, the Medieval "Father of Europe" has been X-rayed and CT scanned to determine his still highly debated stature. We found the healthy bone to be long (430 mm) but rather not robust (total mid-shaft cross-sectional area 473 mm(2), cortical area 352 mm(2)). Reconstructed stature of 1.84 m falls at about 99% of Medieval heights, which would be ca. 1.95 m in present-day Europe. Thus, tall stature indeed could have contributed to the success of "Charles the Great" as a king emperor and soldier. PMID:20153271

  14. Larger than Life: Reading and Writing Tall Tales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunks, Karyn

    2008-01-01

    The genre of tall tales is characterized by fictional, often intentionally ridiculous, stories that provide a reason for or origin of a natural phenomenon. Tall tales are often based on characters who are unusually adept or powerful; they are particularly appealing to children who are cognitively capable of understanding the tongue-in-cheek humor…

  15. Analysis of twist and lean of tall towers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A method for analytically determining the amount of twist and lean of a tall tower of equilateral triangular cross section is described. This method is also applicable to tall structures of other shapes and cross-sectional areas. A BASIC computer program that determines the angle of twist and amount of lean is provided.

  16. Tall girls: the social shaping of a medical therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joyce M; Howell, Joel D

    2006-10-01

    During the latter half of the 20th century, estrogen therapy was administered to prevent otherwise healthy girls with tall stature from becoming tall adults by inhibiting further linear growth. We explore how decisions to treat tall girls with estrogen were influenced by both scientific knowledge and sociologic norms. Estrogen therapy represented the logical application of scientific knowledge regarding the role of estrogen for closure of the growth plates, but it also reflected prevailing societal and political beliefs about what it meant to be a tall girl. We discuss the rise and fall in popularity of this therapy and suggest that insight into the present-day treatment of short stature can be gained by comparing the use of estrogen therapy for tall girls with the use of growth hormone therapy for short boys. We suggest that this case study illustrates how scientific knowledge is always created and applied within a particular social context. PMID:17018462

  17. Effects of bovine cytochrome P450 single-nucleotide polymorphism, forage type and body condition on production traits in cattle.

    PubMed

    Sales, M A; Larson, M J; Reiter, S T; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Looper, M L; Coffey, K P; Rosenkrans, C F

    2012-08-01

    Relating single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) to cows with acceptable productivity could benefit cattle breeders in areas where tall fescue is the predominant forage. This study aimed to (i) identify SNPs in bovine cytochrome P450 3A28 (CYP3A28) and (ii) determine the associations between SNP genotype, forage and cow body condition (BC). Genotype (CC, CG or GG) and forage [Kentucky-31 wild-type endophyte-infected tall fescue (KY+) vs. bermudagrass] effects on milk volume and quality were determined in Herd 1 cows (123 cows); in Herd 2 (99 cows), genotype and BC (low vs. moderate) effects on ovarian follicle size, calving date and calving per cent were determined; and in Herd 3 (114 cows), effects of genotype and fescue cultivar [KY+ vs. non-toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (HiMag4)] were related to calving per cent, calving date and weaning weights of both cow and her calf. A cytosine (C) to guanine (G) transversion at base 994 (C994G) in CYP3A28 was identified. There was a genotype × forage type interaction (p < 0.05) on milk protein in Herd 1 cows; CC cows grazing bermudagrass had greater milk protein percentage in relation to other cows in the herd. In Herd 2, BC and genotype × BC tended (p < 0.10) to influence follicle size and Julian calving date respectively. Diameter of the largest follicle tended to be larger in moderate BC than in low-BC cows; whereas, CC and CG cows in moderate BC and homozygous (CC and GG) cows in low BC tended to calve 14 days earlier in relation to CG cows in low BC. In Herd 3, there was a genotype × forage type interaction (p < 0.05) on calving per cent, Julian calving date and calf weaning weight. In this study, genetic alterations (G allele at C994G) coupled with nutritional factors (low BC and toxic tall fescue) resulted in overall lower productivity in cows.

  18. Mitigating shear lag in tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Himanshu; Goliya, Ravindra K.

    2015-09-01

    As the height of building increases, effect of shear lag also becomes considerable in the design of high-rise buildings. In this paper, shear lag effect in tall buildings of heights, i.e., 120, 96, 72, 48 and 36 stories of which aspect ratio ranges from 3 to 10 is studied. Tube-in-tube structural system with façade bracing is used for designing the building of height 120 story. It is found that bracing system considerably reduces the shear lag effect and hence increases the building stiffness to withstand lateral loads. Different geometric patterns of bracing system are considered. The best effective geometric configuration of bracing system is concluded in this study. Lateral force, as wind load is applied on the buildings as it is the most dominating lateral force for such heights. Wind load is set as per Indian standard code of practice IS 875 Part-3. For analysis purpose SAP 2000 software program is used.

  19. meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengfang; Rehak, Ludmila; Jander, Georg

    2012-03-01

    m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Here we show that m-tyrosine biosynthesis in F. rubra occurs through direct hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the root tips, perhaps through the activity of a cytochrome P450 enzyme. Hence, E. myrsinites and F. rubra, the only two plant species known to produce m-tyrosine, use distinct biosynthetic pathways that likely arose independently in evolutionary history.

  20. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TALL FESCUE ON PAH DEGRADATION IN AN AGED CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOIL. (R828770C004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  1. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TALL FESCUE ON PAH DEGRADATAION IN AN AGED CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOIL. (R828770)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TALL FESCUE ON PAH DEGRADATION IN AN AGED CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOIL. (R828770)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  3. Propagation of seismic waves in tall buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    1998-01-01

    A discrete-time wave propagation formulation of the seismic response of tall buildings is introduced. The building is modeled as a layered medium, similar to a layered soil medium, and is subjected to vertically propagating seismic shear waves. Soil layers and the bedrock under the foundation are incorporated in the formulation as additional layers. Seismic response is expressed in terms of the wave travel times between the layers, and the wave reflection and transmission coefficients at the layer interfaces. The equations account for the frequency-dependent filtering effects of the foundation and floor masses. The calculation of seismic response is reduced to a pair of simple finite-difference equations for each layer, which can be solved recursively starting from the bedrock. Compared to the commonly used vibration formulation, the wave propagation formulation provides several advantages, including simplified calculations, better representation of damping, ability to account for the effects of the soil layers under the foundation, and better tools for identification and damage detection from seismic records. Examples presented show the versatility of the method. ?? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Belowground carbon trade among tall forest trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Tamir; Siegwolf, Rolf; Koerner, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Just imagine one tree could hand over large quantities of carbon to another tree. How would that change our thinking about carbon relations of forests, the single biggest biological C reservoir on earth? If such a tree-to-tree C shuttle would exist, it required a demand-supply gradient and a pipeline. Here we show that exactly this unthinkable does occur in overlapping root spheres of tall trees in a mixed temperate forest. Using canopy scale stable carbon isotope labelling applied from a construction crane, we demonstrate that carbon assimilated by spruce is traded over to neighbouring beech, larch, and pine in amounts so large that fine roots almost equilibrate the carbon source signature. The isotope mixing ratio indicated that the interspecific transfer accounted for 40% of the fine root carbon, which is ca. 280 kg ha-1 a-1. This is the first forest scale evidence of a large flux of carbon among mature trees from evolutionary distant taxa. Carbon transfer most likely occurred through common ectomycorrhiza networks, which also exhibited the labelled carbon signal. These observations indicate that while competition for resources (e.g. light, water, nutrients) is often considered the dominant tree-tree interaction in a forest, trees actually interact in more complex pathways including a massive carbon exchange.

  5. Interior of the second floor dance hall showing tall and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of the second floor dance hall showing tall and narrow window openings with 10-foot scale near center, looking south. - Bower Building, 409-413 East Weber Avenue, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  6. 7. View east from Ganson Street. Four tall buildings left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View east from Ganson Street. Four tall buildings left to right: elevator C, feed mill, pellet plant, elevator A. - Cooperative Grange League Federation Elevator, 385 Ganson Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  7. 2011 and 2012 Early Careers Achievement Awards: improving the production, environmental, and economic efficiency of the stocker cattle industry in the southeastern United States.

    PubMed

    Beck, P A; Anders, M; Watkins, B; Gunter, S A; Hubbell, D; Gadberry, M S

    2013-06-01

    Grazing forages on small-grain fields can be a profitable "second crop" for grain producers and an opportunity for cow-calf producers to retain ownership of weaned calves. The increasing costs of conventional tillage and movement of soil nutrients into surface water creates a need for more sustainable production practices to be incorporated by producers into wheat pasture production systems. Research at the Livestock and Forestry Research Station near Batesville, AR, and the Southwest Research and Extension Center near Hope, AR, has been conducted over a 9-yr span to characterize the impacts of pasture systems on forage production, animal performance, soil quality, water runoff, and the economics associated with the stocker cattle enterprises. Gains of growing cattle grazing nontoxic endophyte-infected tall fescue and small-grain forages can be increased by 80 and 150%, respectively, compared with grazing Bermuda grass or toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. Producers grazing spring-calving cowherds can use these improved forages to accelerate stocker performance when retaining calves in the fall and improve net returns by 99% with winter annual or nontoxic tall fescue production systems compared with Bermuda grass or toxic tall fescue. Rainfall simulation of small grain pastures indicates that runoff volume and nutrient load does not differ between conventionally tilled fields and no-till fields in the spring before tillage when soil surface cover is similar. In the fall after tillage, however, conventionally tilled fields had 4 times greater runoff; hence, there was 1.9 times greater N runoff and 3.2 times greater P runoff in conventionally tilled fields compared with no-till. Total natural rainfall runoff from conventionally tilled wheat fields were 2 times greater than from no-till fields with 25 mm rainfall events yet were 4 times greater with 62-mm rainfall events. Soil analysis shows that soil aggregate content was greater in no-till compared with

  8. Uptake of galaxolide, tonalide, and triclosan by carrot, barley, and meadow fescue plants.

    PubMed

    Macherius, André; Eggen, Trine; Lorenz, Wilhelm Georg; Reemtsma, Thorsten; Winkler, Ursula; Moeder, Monika

    2012-08-15

    Many xenobiotics entering wastewater treatment plants are known to be persistent during wastewater treatment and tend to adsorb to sewage sludge. The application of sewage sludge as fertilizer in agriculture may pose the risk of an incorporation of xenobiotics in the cultivated plants and, finally, an inclusion into the food chain. This study was performed to investigate the uptake of common sewage sludge contaminants, galaxolide, tonalide, and triclosan, by plants used for human consumption and livestock feeding. Barley, meadow fescue, and four carrot cultivars were sown and grown in spiked soils under greenhouse conditions. After harvesting the plants, roots and leaves were analyzed separately, and the respective bioconcentration factors were calculated. In carrots, a concentration gradient of the xenobiotics became evident that decreased from the root peel via root core to the leaves. A significant influence of the differing root lipid contents on the uptake rates cannot be supported by our data, but the crucial influence of soil organic carbon content was confirmed. Barley and meadow fescue roots incorporated higher amounts of the target substances than carrots, but translocation into the leaves was negligible. The results indicated that an introduction of persistent semi- and nonpolar xenobiotics into the food chain via edible plants like carrots could be of certain relevance when sludge is applied as fertilizer. Due to low rates found for the translocation of the xenobiotics into the aerial plant parts, the entrance pathway into food products via feeding livestock is less probable.

  9. Tall structure lightning induced by sprite-producing discharges.

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, M. A.; Heavner, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    The large and rapid charge transfer of some +CGs can initiate upward positive leaders from tall structures while simultaneously initiating downward positive streamers below the base of the ionosphere in the form of sprites . Structures with >400 m height have a significantly enhanced probability of launching upward positive leaders, the presence of which is readily detected later if a dart leader propagates down the channel to ground, generating a -CG return stroke. Such tall structures can be repeatedly struck if, as often happens, sprite-producing +CGs repeatedly occur .

  10. Refining and separation of crude tall-oil components

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-10-01

    Methods for crude tall-oil refining and fractionation evolving research studies of long-chain fatty and resinic acids separation are reviewed. Although several techniques have been applied since the 1940s with industrial aims, only distillation under high vacuum is economically practicable for crude tall-oil fractionation. Techniques such as adsorption and dissociation extraction seem to be the most industrially promising for implementation in the future for the separation of long-chain fatty and resinic acids fractions with a high purity level at low cost.

  11. Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-11-01

    The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

  12. Method for tall oil recovery and apparatus therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.R.; Smith, W.L.

    1982-08-31

    A system and apparatus are disclosed for removing particles from suspension in a liquid, particularly for removing tall oil soap particles from black liquor. The black liquor flows along a fluid flow path which runs between a source of black liquor and a skimming tank. Two electrodes are disposed one downstream of the other within the fluid flow path. A power supply applies an electrical potential between the electrodes. The downstream electrode is connected to earth ground. It has been found that this earth ground connection provides substantial improvements in the quality and quantity of recovered tall oil soap.

  13. 1. EAST END OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2. THE TALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST END OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2. THE TALL STRUCTURE IS THE VERTICAL FURNACE BUILDING, AND THE TWO-STORY BRICK BUILDING WAS THE HEAT TREATING AND FORGING OFFICE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Machine Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  14. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOEpatents

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  15. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-05

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

  16. 13. View looking south on Main Street. The tall building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View looking south on Main Street. The tall building in the background on the right is the Metals Bank Building (1906), designed by Cass Gilbert. - Butte Historic District, Bounded by Copper, Arizona, Mercury & Continental Streets, Butte, Silver Bow County, MT

  17. 4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING TALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING TALL RUSTIC STYLE CHIMNEY WITH GABLE FRAME, METAL ROOF, AND CONCRETE WALKWAY AND STEP TO OPEN SIDE-ENTRY DOOR AT PHOTO ENTER. ORIGINAL DECORATIVE WOOD SHIPLAP SIDING ON UPPER END GABLE HAS BEEN COVERED WITH ASPHALT SHINGLES. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  18. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-01-01

    The object of this study is to analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites in the Central Plains of the United States. The hub heights of modern turbines used for wind farm projects are now 70 meters (m) to 100 m above ground and some advanced turbines under development for deployment during the second half of this decade are rated at 2-5 megawatts of energy generation with rotor diameters near 100 m and hub heights of 100-120 m. These advanced turbines will take advantage of the higher wind speeds aloft to generate more wind energy. Specific knowledge of important wind shear characteristics near and at turbine hub height is needed to optimize turbine design and wind farm layout. Unfortunately, wind speed shear measurements at heights of 80-120 m were virtually nonexistent a few years ago and are still quite uncommon today. The Central Plains is a prime wind energy development region and knowledge about the wind shear characteristics will reduce uncertainty about the resource and enhance wind farm design. Previous analyses of tall tower data (Schwartz and Elliott, 2005) concentrated on data from specific states. The wind energy community has recognized the need to fill the gap of direct wind speed measurements at levels 70 m and higher above the ground. Programs instituted during the last 5 years at the state level and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) State Energy Program initiative have placed anemometers and vanes at several levels on existing tall (70 m+) communication towers. The Central Plains has a fairly high concentration of tall tower sites. The distribution of tall tower sites varies among the states in the Central Plains, because the tall tower program is new and the available state and federal funding to establish tall towers is variable. Our wind resource assessment group at DOE's National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has obtained much of these necessary measurement data from both individual state sources and regional

  19. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  20. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  1. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  2. Processes of recovering fatty acids and sterols from tall oil pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R. E.

    1985-06-18

    An improved process of enhancing the recovery of fatty acids from tall oil pitch is disclosed. The process includes a hydrolysis step for increasing the free fatty acid available for recovery from tall oil pitch during the distillation process. The hydrolysis step also enables the recovery of sterols where the tall oil pitch is of the type which is rich in sterol esters.

  3. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  7. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  8. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  9. XYY syndrome: a 13-year-old boy with tall stature.

    PubMed

    Jo, Won Ha; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Duk Hee; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2015-09-01

    When evaluating the underlying causes of tall stature, it is important to differentiate pathologic tall stature from familial tall stature. Various pathologic conditions leading to adult tall stature include excess growth hormone secretion, Marfan syndrome, androgen or estrogen deficiency, testicular feminization, and sex chromosome anomaly, such as Klinefelter syndrome and XYY syndrome. Men with 47,XYY syndrome can exhibit multiple phenotypes. A 13-year-old boy visited the hospital for evaluation of tall stature. The boy had no other physical abnormalities except tall stature. All biochemical and imaging studies were within the normal ranges. He was diagnosed with XYY syndrome in this chromosome study. When evaluating men with tall stature, XYY syndrome should be ruled out.

  10. An anti-herbivore defense mutualism under elevated CO2 levels

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E. )

    1994-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects typically consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO2 enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. On the other hand, Lepidopteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which produce toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to see how these two factors would interact to affect consumption and growth of Fall Armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were grown under CO2 concentrations of 400 and 700 ul/L. Larvae had increased relative growth in the high CO2 treatment, but decreased growth when fed infected tissue. Relative consumption of leaf tissue was greater in the high CO2 treatment, but was not effected by infection. CO2 level, infection, and their interaction all significantly reduced the efficiency of conversion of food ingested (ECI). It appears that tall fescue may not be as well defended against herbivores under CO2 enrichment, although insects may still avoid and be negatively effected by endophyte infected plants.

  11. Trib2 Suppresses Tumor Initiation in Notch-Driven T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Stein, Sarah J; Mack, Ethan A; Rome, Kelly S; Pajcini, Kostandin V; Ohtani, Takuya; Xu, Lanwei; Li, Yunlei; Meijerink, Jules P P; Faryabi, Robert B; Pear, Warren S

    2016-01-01

    Trib2 is highly expressed in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and is a direct transcriptional target of the oncogenic drivers Notch and TAL1. In human TAL1-driven T-ALL cell lines, Trib2 is proposed to function as an important survival factor, but there is limited information about the role of Trib2 in primary T-ALL. In this study, we investigated the role of Trib2 in the initiation and maintenance of Notch-dependent T-ALL. Trib2 had no effect on the growth and survival of murine T-ALL cell lines in vitro when expression was blocked by shRNAs. To test the function of Trib2 on leukemogenesis in vivo, we generated Trib2 knockout mice. Mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequencies without gross developmental anomalies. Adult mice did not develop pathology or shortened survival, and hematopoiesis, including T cell development, was unperturbed. Using a retroviral model of Notch-induced T-ALL, deletion of Trib2 unexpectedly decreased the latency and increased the penetrance of T-ALL development in vivo. Immunoblotting of primary murine T-ALL cells showed that the absence of Trib2 increased C/EBPα expression, a known regulator of cell proliferation, and did not alter AKT or ERK phosphorylation. Although Trib2 was suggested to be highly expressed in T-ALL, transcriptomic analysis of two independent T-ALL cohorts showed that low Trib2 expression correlated with the TLX1-expressing cortical mature T-ALL subtype, whereas high Trib2 expression correlated with the LYL1-expressing early immature T-ALL subtype. These data indicate that Trib2 has a complex role in the pathogenesis of Notch-driven T-ALL, which may vary between different T-ALL subtypes. PMID:27191957

  12. Trib2 Suppresses Tumor Initiation in Notch-Driven T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Sarah J.; Mack, Ethan A.; Rome, Kelly S.; Pajcini, Kostandin V.; Ohtani, Takuya; Xu, Lanwei; Li, Yunlei; Meijerink, Jules P. P.; Faryabi, Robert B.; Pear, Warren S.

    2016-01-01

    Trib2 is highly expressed in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and is a direct transcriptional target of the oncogenic drivers Notch and TAL1. In human TAL1-driven T-ALL cell lines, Trib2 is proposed to function as an important survival factor, but there is limited information about the role of Trib2 in primary T-ALL. In this study, we investigated the role of Trib2 in the initiation and maintenance of Notch-dependent T-ALL. Trib2 had no effect on the growth and survival of murine T-ALL cell lines in vitro when expression was blocked by shRNAs. To test the function of Trib2 on leukemogenesis in vivo, we generated Trib2 knockout mice. Mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequencies without gross developmental anomalies. Adult mice did not develop pathology or shortened survival, and hematopoiesis, including T cell development, was unperturbed. Using a retroviral model of Notch-induced T-ALL, deletion of Trib2 unexpectedly decreased the latency and increased the penetrance of T-ALL development in vivo. Immunoblotting of primary murine T-ALL cells showed that the absence of Trib2 increased C/EBPα expression, a known regulator of cell proliferation, and did not alter AKT or ERK phosphorylation. Although Trib2 was suggested to be highly expressed in T-ALL, transcriptomic analysis of two independent T-ALL cohorts showed that low Trib2 expression correlated with the TLX1-expressing cortical mature T-ALL subtype, whereas high Trib2 expression correlated with the LYL1-expressing early immature T-ALL subtype. These data indicate that Trib2 has a complex role in the pathogenesis of Notch-driven T-ALL, which may vary between different T-ALL subtypes. PMID:27191957

  13. Trib2 Suppresses Tumor Initiation in Notch-Driven T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Stein, Sarah J; Mack, Ethan A; Rome, Kelly S; Pajcini, Kostandin V; Ohtani, Takuya; Xu, Lanwei; Li, Yunlei; Meijerink, Jules P P; Faryabi, Robert B; Pear, Warren S

    2016-01-01

    Trib2 is highly expressed in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and is a direct transcriptional target of the oncogenic drivers Notch and TAL1. In human TAL1-driven T-ALL cell lines, Trib2 is proposed to function as an important survival factor, but there is limited information about the role of Trib2 in primary T-ALL. In this study, we investigated the role of Trib2 in the initiation and maintenance of Notch-dependent T-ALL. Trib2 had no effect on the growth and survival of murine T-ALL cell lines in vitro when expression was blocked by shRNAs. To test the function of Trib2 on leukemogenesis in vivo, we generated Trib2 knockout mice. Mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequencies without gross developmental anomalies. Adult mice did not develop pathology or shortened survival, and hematopoiesis, including T cell development, was unperturbed. Using a retroviral model of Notch-induced T-ALL, deletion of Trib2 unexpectedly decreased the latency and increased the penetrance of T-ALL development in vivo. Immunoblotting of primary murine T-ALL cells showed that the absence of Trib2 increased C/EBPα expression, a known regulator of cell proliferation, and did not alter AKT or ERK phosphorylation. Although Trib2 was suggested to be highly expressed in T-ALL, transcriptomic analysis of two independent T-ALL cohorts showed that low Trib2 expression correlated with the TLX1-expressing cortical mature T-ALL subtype, whereas high Trib2 expression correlated with the LYL1-expressing early immature T-ALL subtype. These data indicate that Trib2 has a complex role in the pathogenesis of Notch-driven T-ALL, which may vary between different T-ALL subtypes.

  14. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOEpatents

    Radke, Clayton J.

    1985-01-01

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  15. Short and tall stature: a new paradigm emerges

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Jeffrey; Sävendahl, Lars; De Luca, Francesco; Dauber, Andrew; Phillip, Moshe; Wit, Jan M.; Nilsson, Ola

    2016-01-01

    In the past, the growth hormone (GH) – insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis was thought to be the central system regulating childhood growth and therefore responsible for short stature and tall stature. However, recent findings have revealed that the GH-IGF-I axis is just one of many regulatory systems that control chondrogenesis in the growth plate, the biological process that drives height gain. Consequently, normal growth in children depends not only on GH and IGF-I but on multiple hormones, paracrine factors, extracellular matrix molecules, and intracellular proteins that regulate growth plate chondrocytes. Mutations in genes encoding many of these local proteins cause short stature or tall stature. Similarly genome-wide association studies have revealed that the normal variation in height appears to be due largely to genes outside the GH-IGF-I axis that affect growth at the growth plate through a wide variety of mechanisms. These findings point to a new conceptual framework for understanding short and tall stature, which is centered not on two particular hormones but rather on the growth plate, the structure responsible for height gain. PMID:26437621

  16. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing on reclaimed cool season fescue/legume pastures: I. System development

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, W.R.; Carlson, K.E.

    1995-09-01

    The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co.`s ({open_quotes}P&M{close_quotes}) Midway Mine lies 50 miles south of Kansas City, Kansas, straddling the border of Kansas and Missouri. P&M actively mined the area until 1989, when the mine was closed and reclaimed. Approximately 3,750 acres of surface mined land were topsoiled and revegetated to cool season fescue/legume pasture. Various pasture management methods are being utilized to meet reclamation success standards and achieve final bond release. The effectiveness and costs of various cool season fescue/legume pasture management methods are evaluated and contrasted. These methods include sharecropping, bush hogging, burning and livestock grazing. It presents guidelines used to develop a site specific rotational livestock grazing programs with land owners or contractors, and local, state and federal agencies. Rotational grazing uses both cow/calf or feeder livestock operations. Key managerial elements used to control grazing activities, either by the landowner or a contractor, are reviewed. Methods used to determine stocking levels for successful rotational grazing on this type of pasture are presented. Rotational grazing of livestock has proven to be the most effective method for managing established cool season fescue/legume pastures at this site. Initial stocking rates of 1 A.U.M. per 5 acres have been modified to a current stocking rate of 1 A.U.M. per 2.5 acres. Supporting physical and chemical data are presented and discussed.

  17. Phytoparasitic Nematode Populations in Festuca arundinacea Field Plots in Southwestern Missouri

    PubMed Central

    O'Day, M. H.; Niblack, T. L.; Bailey, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    Field plots of tall rescue (Festuca arundinacea) at two locations on the same experimental farm in southwestern Missouri were sampled (one in 1987-88, the other in 1988-89) to inventory root-parasitic nematodes and to determine whether cultivars or endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum) infection frequencies (EIF) affected nematode population densities within single growing seasons. Plots were planted with seven tall rescue cultivars: Kentucky-31, Kenhy, Johnstone, Martin, Mozark, Missouri-96, and Forager. Kentucky-31 seed with high and low EIF were planted in separate plots. Plant-parasitic nematodes were extracted from soil samples, identified to genus, and enumerated four and three times per year for the 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 studies, respectively. Several plant-parasitic genera were identified from both fields, including Helicotylenchus, Heterodera, Hoplolaimus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, and members of genera grouped in the family Tylenchidae. Densities of five of these seven groups of nematodes differed among tall fescue cultivars in the 1987-88 study, but only two out of eight groups did so in the 1988-89 study. Irrespective of tall rescue cultivar, EIF had no consistent impact on nematode densities. The putative suppressive effect of endophyte infection on infection by plant-parasitic nematodes is not detectable within single growing seasons and deserves long-term study in field situations. PMID:19279861

  18. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( < 0.05). Romosinuano direct effects (of the cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( < 0.05) for calves of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( < 0.05) than other groups. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( < 0.05) at all times but had more weight loss in late lactation. Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to

  19. Tall P waves associated with severe hypokalemia and combined electrolyte depletion.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Chiharu; Tamaru, Kosaku; Kuwahara, Hiroyasu

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa showing tall P waves on electrocardiogram (ECG) was reported. Her ECG showed tall P waves (5.5mm in voltage, lead II) at 2.2mEq/L of serum potassium. After the treatment, P waves decreased in voltage with the normalization of serum potassium. Tall P waves may be considered to be the so-called pseudo-P pulmonale, and added to the criteria of hypokalemia on ECG.

  20. Validation of a housekeeping gene for use in bovine vascular gene expression studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exposure of ungulate vasculature to ergot alkaloids while grazing endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) affects vasoactivity and causes vasoconstriction. Bovine vascular gene expression as affected by exposure to ergot alkaloids in tall fescue is largely un...

  1. Symbiotic grasses: A review of basic biology of forage grass fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal endophytes associated with grasses are the fundamental reason for the basic successes of several pasture grasses, notable tall fescues, and perennial ryegrass. Tall fescue and perennial ryegrass fungal endophytes, Neotyphodium coenophialum and N. lolii, respectively, and their relatives ...

  2. Ground motion issues for seismic analysis of tall buildings: A status report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bozorgnia, Y.; Campbell, K.W.; Luco, N.; Moehle, J.P.; Naeim, F.; Somerville, P.; Yang, T.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) is coordinating a major multidisciplinary programme, the Tall Buildings Initiative (TBI), to address critical technical issues related to the design and analysis of new tall buildings located in coastal California. The authors of this paper, listed alphabetically, are involved in various research studies related to ground motion modelling, selection, modification and simulation for analysis of tall buildings. This paper summarizes the scope and progress of ongoing activities related to ground motion issues for response history analysis of tall buildings.

  3. Reconstructing householder vectors from Tall-Skinny QR

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; Jacquelin, Mathias; Knight, Nicholas; Nguyen, Hong Diep

    2015-08-05

    The Tall-Skinny QR (TSQR) algorithm is more communication efficient than the standard Householder algorithm for QR decomposition of matrices with many more rows than columns. However, TSQR produces a different representation of the orthogonal factor and therefore requires more software development to support the new representation. Further, implicitly applying the orthogonal factor to the trailing matrix in the context of factoring a square matrix is more complicated and costly than with the Householder representation. We show how to perform TSQR and then reconstruct the Householder vector representation with the same asymptotic communication efficiency and little extra computational cost. We demonstrate the high performance and numerical stability of this algorithm both theoretically and empirically. The new Householder reconstruction algorithm allows us to design more efficient parallel QR algorithms, with significantly lower latency cost compared to Householder QR and lower bandwidth and latency costs compared with Communication-Avoiding QR (CAQR) algorithm. Experiments on supercomputers demonstrate the benefits of the communication cost improvements: in particular, our experiments show substantial improvements over tuned library implementations for tall-and-skinny matrices. Furthermore, we also provide algorithmic improvements to the Householder QR and CAQR algorithms, and we investigate several alternatives to the Householder reconstruction algorithm that sacrifice guarantees on numerical stability in some cases in order to obtain higher performance.

  4. Reconstructing householder vectors from Tall-Skinny QR

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; Jacquelin, Mathias; Knight, Nicholas; Nguyen, Hong Diep

    2015-08-05

    The Tall-Skinny QR (TSQR) algorithm is more communication efficient than the standard Householder algorithm for QR decomposition of matrices with many more rows than columns. However, TSQR produces a different representation of the orthogonal factor and therefore requires more software development to support the new representation. Further, implicitly applying the orthogonal factor to the trailing matrix in the context of factoring a square matrix is more complicated and costly than with the Householder representation. We show how to perform TSQR and then reconstruct the Householder vector representation with the same asymptotic communication efficiency and little extra computational cost. We demonstratemore » the high performance and numerical stability of this algorithm both theoretically and empirically. The new Householder reconstruction algorithm allows us to design more efficient parallel QR algorithms, with significantly lower latency cost compared to Householder QR and lower bandwidth and latency costs compared with Communication-Avoiding QR (CAQR) algorithm. Experiments on supercomputers demonstrate the benefits of the communication cost improvements: in particular, our experiments show substantial improvements over tuned library implementations for tall-and-skinny matrices. Furthermore, we also provide algorithmic improvements to the Householder QR and CAQR algorithms, and we investigate several alternatives to the Householder reconstruction algorithm that sacrifice guarantees on numerical stability in some cases in order to obtain higher performance.« less

  5. Development of Efficient Models of Corona Discharges Around Tall Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, J.; Pasko, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    This work concerns with numerical modeling of glow corona and sreamer corona discharges that occur near tall ground structures under thunderstorm conditions. Glow corona can occur when ambient electric field reaches modest values on the order of 0.2 kV/cm and when the electric field near sharp points of ground structure rises above a geometry dependent critical field required for ionization of air. Air is continuously ionized in a small region close to the surface of the structure and ions diffuse out into the surrounding air forming a corona. A downward leader approaching from a thundercloud causes a further increase in the electric field at the ground level. If the electric field rises to the point where it can support formation of streamers in air surrounding the tall structure, a streamer corona flash, or series of streamer corona flashes can be formed significantly affecting the space charge configuration formed by the preceding glow corona. The streamer corona can heat the surrounding air enough to form a self-propagating thermalized leader that is launched upward from the tall structure. This leader travels upward towards the thundercloud and connects with the downward approaching leader thus causing a lightning flash. Accurate time-dependent modeling of charge configuration created by the glow and streamer corona discharges around tall structure is an important component for understanding of the sequence of events leading to lightning attachment to the tall structure. The present work builds on principal modeling ideas developed previously in [Aleksandrov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1225, 2005; Bazelyan et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 17, 024015, 2008; Kowalski, E. J., Honors Thesis, Penn State Univ., University Park, PA, May 2008; Tucker and Pasko, NSF EE REU Penn State Annual Res. J., 10, 13, 2012]. The non-stationary glow and streamer coronas are modeled in spherical geometry up to the point of initiation of the upward leader. The model

  6. A Qualitative Perspective of Tall College Women's Intrinsic Dynamics Relating to Height

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Hoffman, Sarah J.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Lee, Alisha D.; Vorobyov, Yelana

    2013-01-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews with 24 tall college females for the present phenomenological, qualitative research study. As tall females in our study described the impact of height on their self-perceptions, two over-arching key height-related outcomes emerged, each of which contained sub-components. First, participants described themselves as…

  7. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  8. 75 FR 34936 - Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Tall Ships Fireworks, Chicago, IL in the Federal Register (75 FR 23209). We received 0 comments on the... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan... establishing a temporary safety zone on the waters of Lake Michigan within Chicago Harbor, Chicago,...

  9. Prolactin genomics and biology in herbivores

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Circulating prolactin concentrations are typically reduced in animals suffering from tall fescue toxicosis, and have become a standard biological marker for tall fescue toxicosis. Wild-type endophyte infestations of tall fescue pastures result in forage containing ergot alkaloids. Ergot alkaloids ...

  10. Belowground carbon trade among tall trees in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tamir; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Körner, Christian

    2016-04-15

    Forest trees compete for light and soil resources, but photoassimilates, once produced in the foliage, are not considered to be exchanged between individuals. Applying stable carbon isotope labeling at the canopy scale, we show that carbon assimilated by 40-meter-tall spruce is traded over to neighboring beech, larch, and pine via overlapping root spheres. Isotope mixing signals indicate that the interspecific, bidirectional transfer, assisted by common ectomycorrhiza networks, accounted for 40% of the fine root carbon (about 280 kilograms per hectare per year tree-to-tree transfer). Although competition for resources is commonly considered as the dominant tree-to-tree interaction in forests, trees may interact in more complex ways, including substantial carbon exchange.

  11. Physical Limits to Leaf Size in Tall Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf sizes in angiosperm trees vary by more than 3 orders of magnitude, from a few mm to over 1 m. This large morphological freedom is, however, only expressed in small trees, and the observed leaf size range declines with tree height, forming well-defined upper and lower boundaries. The vascular system of tall trees that distributes the products of photosynthesis connects distal parts of the plant and forms one of the largest known continuous microfluidic distribution networks. In biological systems, intrinsic properties of vascular systems are known to constrain the morphological freedom of the organism. We show that the limits to leaf size can be understood by physical constraints imposed by intrinsic properties of the carbohydrate transport network. The lower boundary is set by a minimum energy flux, and the upper boundary is set by a diminishing gain in transport efficiency.

  12. The watering of tall trees--embolization and recovery.

    PubMed

    Gouin, Henri

    2015-03-21

    We can propound a thermo-mechanical understanding of the ascent of sap to the top of tall trees thanks to a comparison between experiments associated with the cohesion-tension theory and the disjoining pressure concept for liquid thin-films. When a segment of xylem is tight-filled with crude sap, the liquid pressure can be negative although the pressure in embolized vessels remains positive. Examples are given that illustrate how embolized vessels can be refilled and why the ascent of sap is possible even in the tallest trees avoiding the problem due to cavitation. However, the maximum height of trees is limited by the stability domain of liquid thin-films.

  13. Belowground carbon trade among tall trees in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tamir; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Körner, Christian

    2016-04-15

    Forest trees compete for light and soil resources, but photoassimilates, once produced in the foliage, are not considered to be exchanged between individuals. Applying stable carbon isotope labeling at the canopy scale, we show that carbon assimilated by 40-meter-tall spruce is traded over to neighboring beech, larch, and pine via overlapping root spheres. Isotope mixing signals indicate that the interspecific, bidirectional transfer, assisted by common ectomycorrhiza networks, accounted for 40% of the fine root carbon (about 280 kilograms per hectare per year tree-to-tree transfer). Although competition for resources is commonly considered as the dominant tree-to-tree interaction in forests, trees may interact in more complex ways, including substantial carbon exchange. PMID:27081070

  14. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids...

  15. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The...

  16. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids...

  17. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The...

  18. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  3. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  6. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  8. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  9. 40 CFR 721.10629 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with modified fatty acids and polyalkanolamines (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  11. 75 FR 18451 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ..., 2008, issue of the Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010... safety and security zones around each Tall Ship visiting the Great Lakes during the Tall Ships...

  12. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies.

    PubMed

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  13. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  14. Decay resistance of wood treated with boric acid and tall oil derivates.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Ali; Alfredsen, Gry; Eikenes, Morten; Terziev, Nasko

    2008-05-01

    In this study, the effect of two boric acid concentrations (1% and 2%) and four derivates of tall oil with varying chemical composition were tested separately and in combination. The tall oil derivates were chosen in a way that they consist of different amounts of free fatty, resin acids and neutral compounds. Decay tests using two brown rot fungi (Postia placenta and Coniophora puteana) were performed on both unleached and leached test samples. Boric acid showed a low weight loss in test samples when exposed to fungal decay before leaching, but no effect after leaching. The tall oil derivates gave better efficacy against decay fungi compared to control, but are not within the range of the efficacy needed for a wood preservative. Double impregnation with boric acid and tall oil derivates gave synergistic effects for several of the double treatments both in unleached and leached samples. In the unleached samples the double treatment gave a better efficacy against decay fungi than tall oil alone. In leached samples a better efficacy against brown rot fungi were achieved than in samples with boron alone and a nearly similar or better efficacy than for tall oil alone. Boric acid at 2% concentration combined with the tall oil derivate consisting of 90% free resin acids (TO-III) showed the best performance against the two decay fungi with a weight loss less than 3% after a modified pure culture test.

  15. Chemical composition of tall oil-based cetane enhancer for diesel fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Y.; Wong, A.; Monnier, J.

    1993-12-31

    Tall oil is a co-product of the manufacture of kraft softwood pulp. The principal constituents of tall oil are unsaturated C{sub 18} fatty acids, resin acids and unsaponifiables such as diterpenic alcohols/aldehydes. Tall oil has been shown to be an economical feedstock for the manufacture of cetane enhancer for diesel fuels, using the proprietary CANMET (Canada Centre for Mineral and Energy Technology) technology. Under a joint R&D project between Arbokem Inc./BC Chemicals Ltd. and CANMET, pilot plant tests were conducted recently at the CANMET Energy Research Labs. in Ottawa. The results showed that tall oil could by hydroprocessed efficiently to yield a valuable fuel blending agent. When this product was mixed with conventional diesel fuel, the cetane number of the diesel fuel increased linearly with the addition of the product. Chemical analysis including chromatography-mass spectrometry has confirmed high conversion of tall oil components into straight-chain alkanes. A small amount of cyclic hydrocarbons and sulphur components were present in the tall oil-based diesel enhancer. Preliminary results indicate that this type of cetane enhancer would provide additional technical benefits. The low aromatics content of the tall oil-based cetane enhancer would significantly reduce aromatics in the final diesel fuel blend. Diesel engines operating on such fuel blends would have a lower propensity to form particulates and NO{sub x}.

  16. Ligand-receptor binding revealed by the TNF family member TALL-1.

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y. F.; Hong, X.; Kappler, J.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, R. G.; Xu, L. G.; Pan, C.-H.; Martin, W. E.; Murphy, R. C.; Shu, H.-B.; Dai, S. D.; Zhang, G. Y.; Biosciences Division; National Jewish Medical and Research Center; Howard Hughes Medical Inst.; Univ. of Colorado Health Science Center; Peking Univ.

    2003-05-01

    The tumour necrosis factor (TNF) ligand TALL-1 and its cognate receptors, BCMA, TACI and BAFF-R, were recently identified as members of the TNF superfamily, which are essential factors contributing to B-cell maturation. The functional, soluble fragment of TALL-1 (sTALL-1) forms a virus-like assembly for its proper function. Here we determine the crystal structures of sTALL-1 complexed with the extracellular domains of BCMA and BAFF-R at 2.6 and 2.5 {angstrom}, respectively. The single cysteine-rich domain of BCMA and BAFF-R both have saddle-like architectures, which sit on the horseback-like surface formed by four coil regions on each individual sTALL-1 monomer. Three novel structural modules, D2, X2 and N, were revealed from the current structures. Sequence alignments, structural modelling and mutagenesis revealed that one disulphide bridge in BAFF-R is critical for determining the binding specificity of the extracellular domain eBAFF-R to TALL-1 instead of APRIL, a closely related ligand of TALL-1, which was confirmed by binding experiments in vitro.

  17. Coconut genome size determined by flow cytometry: Tall versus Dwarf types.

    PubMed

    Freitas Neto, M; Pereira, T N S; Geronimo, I G C; Azevedo, A O N; Ramos, S R R; Pereira, M G

    2016-01-01

    Coconuts (Cocos nucifera L.) are tropical palm trees that are classified into Tall and Dwarf types based on height, and both types are diploid (2n = 2x = 32 chromosomes). The reproduction mode is autogamous for Dwarf types and allogamous for Tall types. One hypothesis for the origin of the Dwarf coconut suggests that it is a Tall variant that resulted from either mutation or inbreeding, and differences in genome size between the two types would support this hypothesis. In this study, we estimated the genome sizes of 14 coconut accessions (eight Tall and six Dwarf types) using flow cytometry. Nuclei were extracted from leaf discs and stained with propidium iodide, and Pisum sativum (2C = 9.07 pg DNA) was used as an internal standard. Histograms with good resolution and low coefficients of variation (2.5 to 3.2%) were obtained. The 2C DNA content ranged from 5.72 to 5.48 pg for Tall accessions and from 5.58 to 5.52 pg for Dwarf accessions. The mean genome sizes for Tall and Dwarf specimens were 5.59 and 5.55 pg, respectively. Among all accessions, Rennel Island Tall had the highest mean DNA content (5.72 pg), whereas West African Tall had the lowest (5.48 pg). The mean coconut genome size (2C = 5.57 pg, corresponding to 2723.73 Mbp/haploid set) was classified as small. Only small differences in genome size existed among the coconut accessions, suggesting that the Dwarf type did not evolve from the Tall type. PMID:26909966

  18. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    PubMed

    Swanson, David K

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies

  19. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska's Arctic National Parks.

    PubMed

    Swanson, David K

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies

  20. Carbon dioxide column abundances at the Wisconsin Tall Tower site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Washenfelder, R. A.; Toon, G. C.; Blavier, J.-F.; Yang, Z.; Allen, N. T.; Wennberg, P. O.; Vay, S. A.; Matross, D. M.; Daube, B. C.

    2006-11-01

    We have developed an automated observatory for measuring atmospheric column abundances of CO2 and O2 using near-infrared spectra of the Sun obtained with a high spectral resolution Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS). This is the first dedicated laboratory in a new network of ground-based observatories named the Total Carbon Column Observing Network. This network will be used for carbon cycle studies and validation of spaceborne column measurements of greenhouse gases. The observatory was assembled in Pasadena, California, and then permanently deployed to northern Wisconsin during May 2004. It is located in the heavily forested Chequamegon National Forest at the WLEF Tall Tower site, 12 km east of Park Falls, Wisconsin. Under clear sky conditions, ˜0.1% measurement precision is demonstrated for the retrieved column CO2 abundances. During the Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment-North America and CO2 Boundary Layer Regional Airborne Experiment campaigns in summer 2004, the DC-8 and King Air aircraft recorded eight in situ CO2 profiles over the WLEF site. Comparison of the integrated aircraft profiles and CO2 column abundances shows a small bias (˜2%) but an excellent correlation.

  1. FLUX MEASUREMENTS FROM A TALL TOWER IN A COMPLEX LANDSCAPE

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.; Weber, A.; Chiswell, S.; Parker, M.

    2010-07-22

    The accuracy and representativeness of flux measurements from a tall tower in a complex landscape was assessed by examining the vertical and sector variability of the ratio of wind speed to momentum flux and the ratio of vertical advective to eddy flux of heat. The 30-60 m ratios were consistent with theoretical predictions which indicate well mixed flux footprints. Some variation with sector was observed that were consistent with upstream roughness. Vertical advection was negligible compared with vertical flux except for a few sectors at night. This implies minor influence from internal boundary layers. Flux accuracy is a function of sector and stability but 30-60 m fluxes were found to be generally representative of the surrounding landscape. This paper will study flux data from a 300 m tower, with 4 levels of instruments, in a complex landscape. The surrounding landscape will be characterized in terms of the variation in the ratio of mean wind speed to momentum flux as a function of height and wind direction. The importance of local advection will be assessed by comparing vertical advection with eddy fluxes for momentum and heat.

  2. Planetary Boundary-Layer Modelling and Tall Building Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simiu, Emil; Shi, Liang; Yeo, DongHun

    2016-04-01

    Characteristics of flow in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) strongly affect the design of tall structures. PBL modelling in building codes, based as it is on empirical data from the 1960s and 1970s, differs significantly from contemporary PBL models, which account for both "neutral" flows, and "conventionally neutral" flows. PBL heights estimated in these relatively sophisticated models are typically approximately half as large as those obtained using the classical asymptotic similarity approach, and are one order of magnitude larger than those specified in North American and Japanese building codes. A simple method is proposed for estimating the friction velocity and PBL height as functions of specified surface roughness and geostrophic wind speed. Based on published results, it is tentatively determined that, even at elevations as high as 800 m above the surface, the contribution to the resultant mean flow velocity of the component V normal to the surface stress is negligible and the veering angle is of the order of only 5°. This note aims to encourage dialogue between boundary-layer meteorologists and structural engineers.

  3. Control of quality of fluidization in a tall bed using variance of pressure fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.L.; Chong, Y.O.; Leung, L.S.

    1985-01-01

    A quantitative relation was established experimentally between excess gas flow above minimum fluidization and the variance of differential pressure fluctuations in a bed. The variance was used as part of a computer control scheme to maintain the quality of fluidization in a tall bed constant. This was achieved by controlling the amount of gas bled from the fluidized bed at different bed levels. Successful demonstration of the control strategy in a 200mm diameter 2.7m tall fluidized bed is described.

  4. Prolyl-isomerase Pin1 controls Notch3 protein expression and regulates T-ALL progression

    PubMed Central

    Franciosa, G; Diluvio, G; Gaudio, F Del; Giuli, M V; Palermo, R; Grazioli, P; Campese, A F; Talora, C; Bellavia, D; D'Amati, G; Besharat, Z M; Nicoletti, C; Siebel, C W; Choy, L; Rustighi, A; Sal, G Del; Screpanti, I; Checquolo, S

    2016-01-01

    Deregulated Notch signaling is associated with T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) development and progression. Increasing evidence reveals that Notch pathway has an important role in the invasion ability of tumor cells, including leukemia, although the underlying molecular mechanisms remain mostly unclear. Here, we show that Notch3 is a novel target protein of the prolyl-isomerase Pin1, which is able to regulate Notch3 protein processing and to stabilize the cleaved product, leading to the increased expression of the intracellular domain (N3IC), finally enhancing Notch3-dependent invasiveness properties. We demonstrate that the combined inhibition of Notch3 and Pin1 in the Notch3-overexpressing human leukemic TALL-1 cells reduces their high invasive potential, by decreasing the expression of the matrix metalloprotease MMP9. Consistently, Pin1 depletion in a mouse model of Notch3-induced T-ALL, by reducing N3IC expression and signaling, impairs the expansion/invasiveness of CD4+CD8+ DP cells in peripheral lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs. Notably, in in silico gene expression analysis of human T-ALL samples we observed a significant correlation between Pin1 and Notch3 expression levels, which may further suggest a key role of the newly identified Notch3-Pin1 axis in T-ALL aggressiveness and progression. Thus, combined suppression of Pin1 and Notch3 proteins may be exploited as an additional target therapy for T-ALL. PMID:26876201

  5. Influence of canopy foliage on turbulence above tall deciduous vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapkalijevski, Metodija; Moene, Arnold; Ouwersloot, Huug; Patton, Edward; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the role of tree phenology on the atmospheric turbulence over tall vegetation is investigated. Our aim is to study dimensionless mean gradients, variances, and the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) within the roughness sublayer (RSL), and their dependence on the leaf state of the canopy and the stability regimes. To do this, we analyse observations, that are continuously collected over a whole season above and in a walnut tree orchard during the Canopy Horizontal Array Turbulence Study (CHATS) field experiment near Dixon, California. To support this data analysis, we compare profiles of vertical fluxes and co-variances, as well as vertical gradients of mean wind, temperature and humidity, with empirically derived dimensionless gradients from previous studies and results from a second-order closure turbulence diagnostic model. In doing so, we study the differences in the calculation of the dimensionless gradients between recently developed model approaches that account for the RSL effects on these gradients against representations that omit those effects. The observations and model results are non-dimensionalized using atmospheric surface layer scaling, paying special attention to the displacement height. The latter is calculated from the observations and depends on the variable under consideration and the leaf state. Our results for the dimensionless gradients of momentum, heat and moisture show a reduction of these variables closer to the canopy top compared to the standard Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (MOST) for both unstable and near neutral conditions. We find that the reduction is larger for canopy with leaves than for leafless canopy. This confirms the applicability of the aforementioned RSL models. Their results are in better agreement with the observations for the fully vegetated canopy then for the leafless canopy. With regard to the TKE-budget, our analysis shows that turbulent transport is increasingly important term of the budget when

  6. Wood-derived olefins by steam cracking of hydrodeoxygenated tall oils.

    PubMed

    Pyl, Steven P; Dijkmans, Thomas; Antonykutty, Jinto M; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Harlin, Ali; Van Geem, Kevin M; Marin, Guy B

    2012-12-01

    Tall oil fractions obtained from Norwegian spruce pulping were hydrodeoxygenated (HDO) at pilot scale using a commercial NiMo hydrotreating catalyst. Comprehensive two dimensional gas chromatography (GC×GC) showed that HDO of both tall oil fatty acids (TOFA) and distilled tall oil (DTO) produced highly paraffinic hydrocarbon liquids. The hydrotreated fractions also contained fatty acid methyl esters and norabietane and norabietatriene isomers. Steam cracking of HDO-TOFA in a pilot plant revealed that high light olefin yields can be obtained, with 35.4 wt.% of ethene and 18.2 wt.% of propene at a coil outlet pressure (COP) of 1.7 bara, a dilution of 0.45 kg(steam)/kg(HDO-TOFA) and a coil outlet temperature (COT) of 820 °C. A pilot plant coking experiment indicated that cracking of HDO-TOFA at a COT of 850 °C results in limited fouling in the reactor. Co-cracking of HDO tall oil fractions with a typical fossil-based naphtha showed improved selectivity to desired light olefins, further demonstrating the potential of large scale olefin production from hydrotreated tall oil fractions in conventional crackers.

  7. Hemodynamics are altered in the caudal artery of beef heifers fed different ergot alkaloid concentrations.

    PubMed

    Aiken, G E; Strickland, J R; Looper, M L; Bush, L P; Schrick, F N

    2009-06-01

    Doppler ultrasonography was used to compare blood flow characteristics in the caudal artery of heifers fed diets with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) noninfected (E-, 0 microg of ergovaline/g of DM), a 1:1 mixture of endophyte-infected and E- (E+E-; 0.39 microg of ergovaline/g of DM), or endophyte-infected (E+, 0.79 microg of ergovaline/g of DM) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) seed. Eighteen crossbred (Angus x Brangus) heifers [345 +/- 19 kg (SD)] were assigned to individual pens and fed chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate that contained E- tall fescue seed for 7 d during an adjustment period. A 9-d experimental period followed with feeding treatments of chopped alfalfa hay plus a concentrate with E+, E-, or E+E- seed being assigned randomly to pens. Doppler ultrasound measurements (caudal artery luminal area, peak systolic velocity, end diastolic velocity, mean velocity, heart rate, and flow rate) and serum prolactin were monitored during the adjustment (3 baseline measures) and during the experimental period (7 measures). Statistical analyses compared proportionate differences between baseline and responses at 3, 27, 51, 75, 171, and 195 h from initial feeding of the experimental diets. Serum prolactin concentrations for E+ and E+E- diets were less (P < 0.001) than baseline concentrations beginning at 27 and 51 h, respectively, from initial feeding of the diets. Although baseline measures were taken when ambient temperatures were likely below thermoneutrality, caudal artery luminal cross-sectional area in E+ heifers had declined (P = 0.004) from baseline by 27 h and remained less (P < 0.02) until 195 h, and caudal artery luminal area declined (P = 0.004) in E+E- heifers from baseline by 51 h and remained less (P < 0.07) until 171 h. Blood flow rate was slower than the baseline rate at 51 h for E+ (P = 0.058) and E+E- (P = 0.02 heifers, but blood flow remained slower in E+E- heifers for 48 h, whereas it remained slower in E+ heifers for 96 h

  8. Effects of solids content, settling temperature, and liquor source on tall oil solubilities

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, R.W.; Kassebi, A.; Zinkel, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    Tall oil soap solubility in black liquors obtained from cooking pine and sweet gum, and in mixture of these liquors, was studied. As expected, solids content had a significant effect on the amount of soap remaining in settled liquors obtained from pine. Concentrating these liquors to about 30% solids reduced the soap concentration to approximately 0.8% of solids. Increasing the temperature at which the liquors were settled also increased residual tall oil soap content. Although mass balance calculations on mixtures of black liquors obtained from pine and gum show that the percentage recovery (solids basis) varies little with the inclusion of 12 to 50% hardwood black liquor, absolute recovery is increased with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. This is the result of decreased soap solubility with increased proportions of hardwood liquor. No discernable effect was observed on the proportion and composition of the acids and neutrals of the dissolved tall oil with respect to the solids content of the liquors.

  9. Endogenous dendritic cells from the tumor microenvironment support T-ALL growth via IGF1R activation.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Todd A; Cardenas, Kim T; Lancaster, Jessica N; Hu, Zicheng; Selden, Hilary J; Jasso, Guadalupe J; Balasubramanyam, Sadhana; Chan, Kathy; Li, LiQi; Chen, Xi; Marcogliese, Andrea N; Davé, Utpal P; Love, Paul E; Ehrlich, Lauren I R

    2016-02-23

    Primary T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cells require stromal-derived signals to survive. Although many studies have identified cell-intrinsic alterations in signaling pathways that promote T-ALL growth, the identity of endogenous stromal cells and their associated signals in the tumor microenvironment that support T-ALL remains unknown. By examining the thymic tumor microenvironments in multiple murine T-ALL models and primary patient samples, we discovered the emergence of prominent epithelial-free regions, enriched for proliferating tumor cells and dendritic cells (DCs). Systematic evaluation of the functional capacity of tumor-associated stromal cells revealed that myeloid cells, primarily DCs, are necessary and sufficient to support T-ALL survival ex vivo. DCs support T-ALL growth both in primary thymic tumors and at secondary tumor sites. To identify a molecular mechanism by which DCs support T-ALL growth, we first performed gene expression profiling, which revealed up-regulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (Pdgfrb) and insulin-like growth factor I receptor (Igf1r) on T-ALL cells, with concomitant expression of their ligands by tumor-associated DCs. Both Pdgfrb and Igf1r were activated in ex vivo T-ALL cells, and coculture with tumor-associated, but not normal thymic DCs, sustained IGF1R activation. Furthermore, IGF1R signaling was necessary for DC-mediated T-ALL survival. Collectively, these studies provide the first evidence that endogenous tumor-associated DCs supply signals driving T-ALL growth, and implicate tumor-associated DCs and their mitogenic signals as auspicious therapeutic targets. PMID:26862168

  10. Drivers of tall shrub proliferation adjacent to the Dempster Highway, Northwest Territories, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, Emily A.; Lantz, Trevor C.

    2016-04-01

    Arctic ecosystems are undergoing rapid changes as a result of climate warming and more frequent disturbances. Disturbances can have particularly large effects on high-latitude ecosystems when ecosystem structure and function is controlled by strong feedbacks between soil conditions, vegetation, and ground thermal regime. In this study we investigated the impact of road construction and maintenance on vegetation structure and biomass along the Dempster Highway where it crosses the Peel Plateau in the Northwest Territories. To explore drivers of tall shrub proliferation and to quantify shrub proliferation in this region of continuous permafrost, greyscale air photos (1975) and Quickbird satellite imagery (2008) were used to map landcover change within two 0.6 km2 belts next to the road and two 0.6 km2 belts 500 m away from the road. Maps showing areas where: 1) tall shrubs expanded, and 2) dwarf shrub tundra resisted invasion were then used to select field sites where a suite of biophysical variables were measured. Rapid tall shrub proliferation and greater biomass adjacent to the road indicate that disturbance can facilitate vegetation change in tundra environments. Our field data also suggests that increased shrub proliferation adjacent to the road was caused by greater soil moisture. Tall shrub proliferation adjacent to the road occurred at lower elevation sites characterized by wetter soils with thicker organic layers. Areas that resisted tall shrub encroachment were located at higher elevations and had drier soils with thin organic layers. Our observations also support previous work illustrating that tall shrub expansion next to the highway promotes strong positive feedbacks to ongoing shrub growth and proliferation.

  11. Leucaena and tall grasses as energy crops in humid lower south USA

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Woodard, K.R.; Cunilio, T.V.

    1994-12-31

    The tropical leguminous shrub/tree, leucaena (Leucaena spp. mainly leucocephala), and perennial tropical tall grasses such as elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum), sugarcane, and energycane (Saccharum spp.) are well adapted to the long growing seasons and high rainfall of the humid lower South. In much of the area the topgrowth is killed by frost during winter and plants regenerate from underground parts in spring. Selected accessions from a duplicated 373 accession leucaena nursery had an average annual woody stem dry matter production of 31.4 Mg ha{sup -1}. Average oven dry stem wood yields from selected accessions adjusted for environmental enrichment over the 4 growth seasons were 78.9 Mg ha{sup -1} total and average annual yield of 19.7 Mg ha{sup -1}. The tall perennial grasses have linear growth rates of 18 to 27 g m{sup 2}d{sup -1} for long periods (140 to 196 d and sometimes longer) each season. Oven dry biomass yields of tall grasses have varied from 20 to 45 Mg ha{sup -1} in mild temperature locations to over 60 Mg ha{sup -1} yr{sup -1} in warm subtropics of the lower Florida peninsula. Tall grasses and leucaena, once established, may persist for many seasons. A map showing the possible range of the crops in lower South is shown. Highest biomass yields of tall grasses have been produced when irrigated with sewage effluent or when grown on phosphatic clay and muck soils of south Florida. Several companies are considering using leucaena and/or tall grasses for bioenergy in the phosphatic mining area of Polk County, Florida.

  12. An additional case of breast tumor resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Colella, Renato; Guerriero, Angela; Giansanti, Michele; Sidoni, Angelo; Bellezza, Guido

    2015-05-01

    A type of breast tumor histopathologically similar to the papillary thyroid carcinoma has been described and named "Breast tumor resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma." Because breast is not an uncommon site for metastasis and about 5% of all such cases are of the thyroid origin, it is important to be aware of the existence of mammary tumors that can closely mimic a thyroid tumor representing a dangerous diagnostic pitfall that can also lead to unnecessary clinical investigations. Here, we describe a singular case of "Breast tumor resembling the tall cell variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma" showing an amazing macroscopic and microscopic resemblance with thyroid tissue harboring a papillary carcinoma.

  13. Probabilistic safety assessment of the design of a tall buildings under the extreme load

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Králik, Juraj

    2016-06-01

    The paper describes some experiences from the deterministic and probabilistic analysis of the safety of the tall building structure. There are presented the methods and requirements of Eurocode EN 1990, standard ISO 2394 and JCSS. The uncertainties of the model and resistance of the structures are considered using the simulation methods. The MONTE CARLO, LHS and RSM probabilistic methods are compared with the deterministic results. On the example of the probability analysis of the safety of the tall buildings is demonstrated the effectiveness of the probability design of structures using Finite Element Methods.

  14. Browse evaluation of tall shrubs based on direct measurement of a management objective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keigley, R.B.; Frisina, M.R.; Kitchen, Stanley G.; Pendleton, Rosemary L.; Monaco, Thomas A.; Vernon, Jason

    2008-01-01

    The monitoring of Geyer willow was based on the following management objective: Browsing will prevent fewer than 50 percent of Geyer willow shrubs from growing taller than 3 m . Three questions were addressed: (1) Is browsing a potential factor? (2) If so, can young plants grow taller than 3 meters? (3) If not, is browsing the dominant factor? All shrubs were intensely browsed. With a post-browsing growth rate of 5.0 cm per yr, no shrub could grow 3 m tall. Analyses of stem growth rate excluded dominant roles for climate and plant vigor. Browsing and stem age were the dominant factors that limited growth to 3 m tall.

  15. 77 FR 47624 - Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Tall Bear Group, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Tall Bear Group, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  16. EVIDENCE OF ENHANCED VERTICAL DISPERSION IN THE WAKES OF TALL BUILDINGS IN WIND TUNNEL SIMULATIONS OF LOWER MANHATTAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Observations of flow and dispersion in urban areas with tall buildings have revealed a phenomenon whereby contaminants can be transported vertically up the lee sides of tall buildings due to the vertical flow in the wake of the building. This phenomenon, which contributes to w...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10429 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids. 721.10429 Section 721.10429... Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids... identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10429 - Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids. 721.10429 Section 721.10429... Fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and tall-oil fatty acids... identified as fatty acids, C18-unsatd., dimers, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and...

  19. Spine Shape in Sagittal and Frontal Planes in Short- and Tall-Statured Children Aged 13 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichota, Malgorzata

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To assess spine curvatures, postural categories and scolioses in short and tall children aged 13 years. Material and methods: Short-statured (below Percentile 10) and tall-statured (above Percentile 90) boys (n = 13 and 18, respectively) and girls (n = 10 and 11, respectively) aged 13 years were studied. The following angles of spine…

  20. Exploring U.S. Westward Expansion in the Elementary and Middle School Curriculum through Tall Tales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almerico, Gina M.; Martin, Nicole; Masuck, William; Strickland, Cynthia; Thomas, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    Teaching social studies in the elementary and middle school curriculum is enhanced by incorporating quality children's and adolescent literature and strategies that bring the human element into play. American tall tales are a genre unique to the history of our nation and provide a glimpse into the way early settlers of the west envisioned heroism…

  1. 75 FR 23209 - Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan, Chicago, IL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not now plan to hold a public meeting. But you may... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Chicago Tall Ships Fireworks, Lake Michigan... fireworks display. This proposed safety zone is necessary to protect the surrounding public and...

  2. Elevated TRIB2 with NOTCH1 activation in paediatric/adult T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Maura M; Lohan, Fiona; Erbilgin, Yucel; Sayitoglu, Muge; O'Hagan, Kathleen; Mills, Ken; Ozbek, Ugur; Keeshan, Karen

    2012-09-01

    TRIB2 is a potent oncogene, elevated in a subset of human acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) with a mixed myeloid/lymphoid phenotype and NOTCH1 mutations. Although rare in AML, activating NOTCH1 mutations occur in 50% of all T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (T-ALL). TRIB2 is a NOTCH1 target gene that functions in the degradation of key proteins and modulation of MAPK signalling pathways, implicated in haematopoietic cell survival and proliferation. This study showed that TRIB2 expression level is highest in the lymphoid compartment of normal haematopoietic cells, specifically in T cells. Analysis of TRIB2 expression across 16 different subtypes of human leukaemia demonstrated that TRIB2 expression was higher in ALL phenotypes versus all other phenotypes including AML, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). A T cell profile was distinguished by high TRIB2 expression in normal and malignant haematopoiesis. High TRIB2 expression was seen in T-ALL with normal karyotype and correlated with NOTCH signalling pathways. High TRIB2 expression correlated with NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutations in a paediatric T-ALL cohort, strongly linking NOTCH1 activation and high TRIB2 expression in paediatric T-ALL. The relationship between TRIB2 and T cell signalling pathways uniquely identifies leukaemia subtypes and will be useful in the advancement of our understanding of T cell and ALL biology. PMID:22775572

  3. Genetic and epigenetic changes in somatic hybrid introgression lines between wheat and tall wheatgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how did these variations happened was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays ...

  4. Herbivory and competition slow down invasion of a tall grass along a productivity gradient.

    PubMed

    Kuijper, D P J; Nijhoff, D J; Bakker, J P

    2004-11-01

    Competition models including competition for light predict that small plant species preferred by herbivores will be outshaded by taller unpreferred plant species with increasing productivity. When the tall plant species is little grazed by the herbivores, it can easily invade and dominate short vegetation. The tall-growing grass Elymus athericus dominates the highly productive stages of a salt-marsh succession in Schiermonnikoog and is not preferred by the herbivores which occur there, hares and geese. We studied how interspecific competition and herbivory affected performance during early establishment of this species with increasing productivity. Seedlings were planted in the field in a full factorial design, manipulating both interspecific competition and herbivory. The experiment was replicated along a natural productivity gradient. Competition reduced above-ground biomass production and decreased the number of ramets that were produced but did not affect survival of seedlings. The negative effects of competition on seedling performance increased with increasing productivity. In contrast to our expectations, herbivory strongly reduced seedling survival, especially at the unproductive sites and had only small effects on seedling growth. The present study shows that unpreferred tall-growing species cannot easily invade vegetation composed of short preferred species. Grazing by (intermediate-sized) herbivores can prevent establishment at unproductive sites, and increased competition can prevent a rapid invasion of highly productive sites. Herbivores can have a long-lasting impact on vegetation succession by preventing the establishment of tall-growing species, such as E. athericus, in a window of opportunity at young unproductive successional stages.

  5. Conditioned flavor aversion and location avoidance in hamsters from toxic extract of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to address conditioned flavour aversion (CFA) and place avoidance learning in hamsters given injections of alkaloid extracts from tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi), to determine if larkspur had reinforcing or negative properties sufficient to cause place avoidance or preferen...

  6. 78 FR 44014 - Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of 1812 Bicentennial Commemoration, Great Lakes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-23

    ...-366-9826. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal... On May 1, 2013, the Coast Guard published an NPRM in the Federal Register (78 FR 25410), proposing to... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zones; Tall Ship Safety Zones; War of...

  7. Occupational asthma induced by tall oil in the rubber tyre industry.

    PubMed

    Tarlo, S M

    1992-01-01

    A worker in the rubber tyre industry is described with occupational asthma from exposure to a solution of tall oil, a pine resin, confirmed by specific inhalation challenge. This supports studies of contact dermatitis which have suggested abietic and dehydroabietic acid oxidants to be the cause of colophony induced allergic reactions. PMID:1551039

  8. 77 FR 6039 - Special Local Regulations; Savannah Tall Ships Challenge, Savannah River, Savannah, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... and would like to know that they reached the Facility, please enclose a stamped, self-addressed... Federal Register (73 FR 3316). Public Meeting We do not plan to hold a public meeting, but you may submit... participating in the Savannah Tall Ships Challenge and the identities of the lead safety vessel and the...

  9. 77 FR 39395 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... ability to proceed in a single file behind numerous other spectator craft viewing the moored Tall Ships... Homeland Security FR Federal Register LLNR Light List Number NEPA National Environmental Policy Act NPRM... Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI'' in the Federal Register (77 FR 16974). We received no comments on...

  10. View of worlds tallest totem pole, 136.5 feet tall. First ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of worlds tallest totem pole, 136.5 feet tall. First potlatch pole since 1904. Dedicated to all things and all peoples of southeast Alaska, 1971. Oct potlatch, looking northwest - Kake Salmon Cannery, Totem Pole, Kake, Wrangell-Petersburg Census Area, AK

  11. VIEW NORTHLEFTBUILDING 61 CARPENTER SHOP (1911) CENTERBUILDING 43ROPE WAREHOUSE (TALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH-LEFT-BUILDING 61 CARPENTER SHOP (1911) CENTER-BUILDING 43-ROPE WAREHOUSE (TALL BUILDING) (1941) RIGHT-BUILDING 77-HEMP STORAGE (1920) - John A. Roebling's Sons Company & American Steel & Wire Company, South Broad, Clark, Elmer, Mott & Hudson Streets, Trenton, Mercer County, NJ

  12. Simulation of wind effects on tall structures by finite element method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimi, Masood

    2016-06-01

    In the present study finite element method is used to predict the wind forces on a tall structure. The governing equations of mass and momentum with boundary conditions are solved. The κ- ɛ turbulence model is utilized to calculate the turbulence viscosity. The results are independent from the generated mesh. The numerical results are validated with American Society of Civil Engineering standards.

  13. Challenges of managing disease in tall orchard trees – pecan scab, a case study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Managing disease in tall orchard trees presents unique issues not found in relatively shorter horticultural and agronomic crops, simply due to height. Pecan scab (caused by Fusicladium effusum [G. Winter] Seyran et al.) is used as an example of a major disease of one of the tallest orchard crops in ...

  14. Elevated TRIB2 with NOTCH1 activation in paediatric/adult T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Maura M; Lohan, Fiona; Erbilgin, Yucel; Sayitoglu, Muge; O'Hagan, Kathleen; Mills, Ken; Ozbek, Ugur; Keeshan, Karen

    2012-09-01

    TRIB2 is a potent oncogene, elevated in a subset of human acute myeloid leukaemias (AML) with a mixed myeloid/lymphoid phenotype and NOTCH1 mutations. Although rare in AML, activating NOTCH1 mutations occur in 50% of all T cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemias (T-ALL). TRIB2 is a NOTCH1 target gene that functions in the degradation of key proteins and modulation of MAPK signalling pathways, implicated in haematopoietic cell survival and proliferation. This study showed that TRIB2 expression level is highest in the lymphoid compartment of normal haematopoietic cells, specifically in T cells. Analysis of TRIB2 expression across 16 different subtypes of human leukaemia demonstrated that TRIB2 expression was higher in ALL phenotypes versus all other phenotypes including AML, chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML). A T cell profile was distinguished by high TRIB2 expression in normal and malignant haematopoiesis. High TRIB2 expression was seen in T-ALL with normal karyotype and correlated with NOTCH signalling pathways. High TRIB2 expression correlated with NOTCH1/FBXW7 mutations in a paediatric T-ALL cohort, strongly linking NOTCH1 activation and high TRIB2 expression in paediatric T-ALL. The relationship between TRIB2 and T cell signalling pathways uniquely identifies leukaemia subtypes and will be useful in the advancement of our understanding of T cell and ALL biology.

  15. Particleboard Quality Characteristics of Saline Jose Tall Wheatgrass and Chemical Treatment Effect

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to characterize the qualities (mechanical properties and water resistance) of particleboard made from saline Jose Tall Wheatgrass (JTW), Agropyron elongatum. For the JTW particleboards made with 4% polymeric methane diphenyl diisocyanate (PMDI), the mechanical pro...

  16. PRDM14 promotes RAG-dependent Notch1 driver mutations in mouse T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Carofino, Brandi L.; Ayanga, Bernard; Tracey, Lauren J.; Brooke-Bisschop, Travis

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT PRDM14 is an epigenetic regulator known for maintaining embryonic stem cell identity and resetting potency in primordial germ cells. However, hematopoietic expression of Prdm14 at supraphysiological levels results in fully penetrant and rapid-onset T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) in the mouse. Here, we show that PRDM14-induced T-ALLs are driven by NOTCH1, a frequently mutated driver of human T-ALL. Notch1 is activated in this murine model via RAG-dependent promoter deletions and subsequent production of truncated, ligand-independent protein from downstream regions of the Notch1 locus. These T-ALLs also have focal changes in H3K4me3 deposition at the Notch1 locus and global increases in both H3K4me1 and H3K4me3. Using a PRDM14-FLAG mouse model, we show that PRDM14 binds within an intron of Notch1 prior to leukemia development. Our data support the idea that PRDM14 binding promotes a chromatin state that allows access of the RAG recombinase complex to cryptic RAG signal sequences embedded at the Notch1 locus. Indeed, breeding into a RAG recombination-deficient background abrogates T-ALL development and prevents Notch1 deletions, while allowing for transient hematopoietic stem cell (HSC)-like pre-leukemia cell expansion. Together, our data suggest that PRDM14 expands a progenitor cell population while promoting a permissive epigenetic state for the creation of driver mutations (here, in Notch1), enabling cancer development through the misappropriation of endogenous cellular DNA recombination machinery. PMID:27106930

  17. Aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the United States deduced from tall tower measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Millet, D. B.; Griffis, T. J.; Tessum, C.; Travis, K.

    2013-12-01

    Aromatic compounds including benzene (C6H6), toluene (C7H8), and xylenes (C8H10) are important anthropogenic precursors of secondary organic aerosol and ground-level ozone. In addition, benzene has been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). However, their emissions remain poorly constrained. Here we present a full year (2011) of continuous aromatic hydrocarbon measurements by PTR-MS at the University of Minnesota tall tower Tracer Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower, 244 m a.g.l, 44.689°N, 93.073°W). We interpret the tall tower data with a 0.5° ×0.667° GEOS-Chem nested grid simulation to constrain US sources of benzene, toluene, and xylenes. The tall tower observations reveal a clear high bias in the model, with model: measurement slopes of 1.8, 5.3, and 2.9 for benzene, toluene, and xylenes, respectively. The high bias reflects an overestimate of aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the model, which are based on the RETRO emission Inventory. In this work, we employ a Bayesian inversion to interpret the KCMP tall tower measurements in terms of quantitative constraints on US aromatic sources and the importance of sectors such as on-road transportation, waste treatment and disposal, solvent use, etc. We discuss our findings relative to other emission estimates (e.g., the EPA NEI) and in terms of their implications for air quality modeling.

  18. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  20. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9672 - Amides, tall-oil fatty, N-[2-[2-hydroxyethyl)amino]ethyl], reaction products with sulfur dioxide...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...], reaction products with sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 1-piperazineethanamine and sulfur dioxide; fatty acids, tall-oil reaction products with sulfur dioxide and... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9672 Amides, tall-oil fatty, N- ethyl], reaction products with...

  3. Effects of cottonseed meal supplementation time on ruminal fermentation and forage intake by Holstein steers fed fescue hay.

    PubMed

    Judkins, M B; Krysl, L J; Barton, R K; Holcombe, D W; Gunter, S A; Broesder, J T

    1991-09-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (average BW 303 kg) were used in a 4 x 4 Latin square design digestion trial to study the influence of daily cottonseed meal (CSM; 1.6 g of CP/kg of BW) supplementation time on forage intake and ruminal fluid kinetics and fermentation. Steers were housed individually in tie stalls and were fed chopped fescue hay on an ad libitum basis at 0600 and 1400. Treatments were 1) control, grass hay only (CON) and grass hay and CSM fed once daily at 2) 0600 (EAM) 3) 1000 (MAM), or 4) 1400 (PM). Ruminal NH3 N concentrations reflected a time of supplementation x sampling time interaction (P less than .05); CON steers had the lowest (P less than .05) ruminal NH3 N concentrations at all times other than at 0600, 1000, 1200, and 2400, when they did not differ (P greater than .05) from at least one of the supplemented groups. Forage intake, ratio of bacterial purine:N, rate of DM and NDF disappearance, and ruminal fluid kinetics were not influenced (P greater than .05) by supplementation time. Total ruminal VFA differed (P less than .05) between CON and supplemented steers, as well as among supplemented steers (linear and quadratic effects P less than .05). Acetate, propionate, and valerate proportions were influenced (P less than .05) by a sampling time X supplementation time interaction. Under the conditions of this study, greater peak ammonia concentrations with morning supplementation than with afternoon supplementation did not stimulate ruminal fermentation or rate of NDF disappearance.

  4. Some adverse effects of soil amendment with organic Materials-The case of soils polluted by copper industry phytostabilized with red fescue.

    PubMed

    Cuske, Mateusz; Karczewska, Anna; Gałka, Bernard; Dradrach, Agnieszka

    2016-08-01

    The study was aimed to examine the effects of soil amendment with organic waste materials on the growth of red fescue and the uptake of Cu and Zn by this grass, in view of its potential usage for phytostabilization of Cu-polluted soils. Five soils, containing 301-5180 mg/kg Cu, were collected from the surroundings of copper smelter Legnica, and amended with lignite (LG) and limed sewage sludge (SS). Plant growth and the concentrations of Cu and Zn in the shoots and roots of grass were measured in a pot experiment and related to the results of Pytotoxkit and Microtox® tests performed on soil solution. The effects of soil amendment with LG and SS differed greatly, and depended on soil properties. In some cases, the application of alkaline SS resulted in dramatic increase of Cu phytotoxicity and its enhanced uptake by plants, while application of LG to slightly acidic soil caused increased accumulation of Zn in plants, particularly in their roots. The study confirmed good suitability of red fescue for phytostabilization of Cu-contaminated soils except for those extremely polluted. Organic amendments to be used for metal immobilization should be thoroughly examined prior to application. PMID:26853183

  5. Tall shrub and tree expansion in Siberian tundra ecotones since the 1960s.

    PubMed

    Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E

    2014-04-01

    Circumpolar expansion of tall shrubs and trees into Arctic tundra is widely thought to be occurring as a result of recent climate warming, but little quantitative evidence exists for northern Siberia, which encompasses the world's largest forest-tundra ecotonal belt. We quantified changes in tall shrub and tree canopy cover in 11, widely distributed Siberian ecotonal landscapes by comparing very high-resolution photography from the Cold War-era 'Gambit' and 'Corona' satellite surveillance systems (1965-1969) with modern imagery. We also analyzed within-landscape patterns of vegetation change to evaluate the susceptibility of different landscape components to tall shrub and tree increase. The total cover of tall shrubs and trees increased in nine of 11 ecotones. In northwest Siberia, alder (Alnus) shrubland cover increased 5.3-25.9% in five ecotones. In Taymyr and Yakutia, larch (Larix) cover increased 3.0-6.7% within three ecotones, but declined 16.8% at a fourth ecotone due to thaw of ice-rich permafrost. In Chukotka, the total cover of alder and dwarf pine (Pinus) increased 6.1% within one ecotone and was little changed at a second ecotone. Within most landscapes, shrub and tree increase was linked to specific geomorphic settings, especially those with active disturbance regimes such as permafrost patterned-ground, floodplains, and colluvial hillslopes. Mean summer temperatures increased at most ecotones since the mid-1960s, but rates of shrub and tree canopy cover expansion were not strongly correlated with temperature trends and were better correlated with mean annual precipitation. We conclude that shrub and tree cover is increasing in tundra ecotones across most of northern Siberia, but rates of increase vary widely regionally and at the landscape scale. Our results indicate that extensive changes can occur within decades in moist, shrub-dominated ecotones, as in northwest Siberia, while changes are likely to occur much more slowly in the highly continental

  6. Seismic isolation technique for extra tall bushing of GIS using a pendulum type counterweight

    SciTech Connect

    Tsujiuchi, Nobutaka; Koizumi, Takayuki; Tomisawa, Masao; Murase, Seiichi; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    1995-12-31

    The purpose of the authors` investigation here is to adopt the seismic isolation technique by using a pendulum type counterweight as a new approach for seismic qualification of the extra tall bushing of Gas-Insulated-Substations. It has been definitely shown by the results of numerical simulation of this isolation type bushing that the stress of the lower end of bushing can be effectively reduced to about 50% as compared with non-isolated case.

  7. Tall shrub and tree expansion in Siberian tundra ecotones since the 1960s.

    PubMed

    Frost, Gerald V; Epstein, Howard E

    2014-04-01

    Circumpolar expansion of tall shrubs and trees into Arctic tundra is widely thought to be occurring as a result of recent climate warming, but little quantitative evidence exists for northern Siberia, which encompasses the world's largest forest-tundra ecotonal belt. We quantified changes in tall shrub and tree canopy cover in 11, widely distributed Siberian ecotonal landscapes by comparing very high-resolution photography from the Cold War-era 'Gambit' and 'Corona' satellite surveillance systems (1965-1969) with modern imagery. We also analyzed within-landscape patterns of vegetation change to evaluate the susceptibility of different landscape components to tall shrub and tree increase. The total cover of tall shrubs and trees increased in nine of 11 ecotones. In northwest Siberia, alder (Alnus) shrubland cover increased 5.3-25.9% in five ecotones. In Taymyr and Yakutia, larch (Larix) cover increased 3.0-6.7% within three ecotones, but declined 16.8% at a fourth ecotone due to thaw of ice-rich permafrost. In Chukotka, the total cover of alder and dwarf pine (Pinus) increased 6.1% within one ecotone and was little changed at a second ecotone. Within most landscapes, shrub and tree increase was linked to specific geomorphic settings, especially those with active disturbance regimes such as permafrost patterned-ground, floodplains, and colluvial hillslopes. Mean summer temperatures increased at most ecotones since the mid-1960s, but rates of shrub and tree canopy cover expansion were not strongly correlated with temperature trends and were better correlated with mean annual precipitation. We conclude that shrub and tree cover is increasing in tundra ecotones across most of northern Siberia, but rates of increase vary widely regionally and at the landscape scale. Our results indicate that extensive changes can occur within decades in moist, shrub-dominated ecotones, as in northwest Siberia, while changes are likely to occur much more slowly in the highly continental

  8. Notch3/Jagged1 circuitry reinforces notch signaling and sustains T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Pelullo, Maria; Quaranta, Roberta; Talora, Claudio; Checquolo, Saula; Cialfi, Samantha; Felli, Maria Pia; te Kronnie, Geertruy; Borga, Chiara; Besharat, Zein Mersini; Palermo, Rocco; Di Marcotullio, Lucia; Capobianco, Anthony J; Gulino, Alberto; Screpanti, Isabella; Bellavia, Diana

    2014-12-01

    Deregulated Notch signaling has been extensively linked to T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we show a direct relationship between Notch3 receptor and Jagged1 ligand in human cell lines and in a mouse model of T-ALL. We provide evidence that Notch-specific ligand Jagged1 is a new Notch3 signaling target gene. This essential event justifies an aberrant Notch3/Jagged1 cis-expression inside the same cell. Moreover, we demonstrate in Notch3-IC-overexpressing T lymphoma cells that Jagged1 undergoes a raft-associated constitutive processing. The proteolytic cleavage allows the Jagged1 intracellular domain to empower Notch signaling activity and to increase the transcriptional activation of Jagged1 itself (autocrine effect). On the other hand, the release of the soluble Jagged1 extracellular domain has a positive impact on activating Notch signaling in adjacent cells (paracrine effect), finally giving rise to a Notch3/Jagged1 auto-sustaining loop that supports the survival, proliferation, and invasion of lymphoma cells and contributes to the development and progression of Notch-dependent T-ALL. These observations are also supported by a study conducted on a cohort of patients in which Jagged1 expression is associated to adverse prognosis. PMID:25499214

  9. Gamma-secretase inhibitors reverse glucocorticoid resistance in T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Real, Pedro J.; Tosello, Valeria; Palomero, Teresa; Castillo, Mireia; Hernando, Eva; de Stanchina, Elisa; Sulis, Maria Luisa; Barnes, Kelly; Sawai, Catherine; Homminga, Irene; Meijerink, Jules; Aifantis, Iannis; Basso, Giuseppe; Cordon-Cardo, Carlos; Ai, Walden; Ferrando, Adolfo

    2009-01-01

    Summary Gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) block the activation of oncogenic NOTCH1 in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). However, limited antileukemic cytotoxicity and severe gastrointestinal toxicity have restricted the clinical application of these targeted drugs. Here we show that combination therapy with GSIs plus glucocorticoids can improve the antileukemic effects of GSIs and reduce their gut toxicity in vivo. Inhibition of NOTCH1 signaling in glucocorticoid-resistant T-ALL restored glucocorticoid receptor auto-up-regulation and induced apoptotic cell death through induction of BIM expression. GSI treatment resulted in cell cycle arrest and accumulation of goblet cells in the gut mediated by upregulation of Klf4, a negative regulator of cell cycle required for goblet cell differentiation. In contrast, glucocorticoid treatment induced transcriptional upregulation of Ccnd2 and protected mice from developing intestinal goblet cell metaplasia typically induced by inhibition of NOTCH signaling with GSIs. These results support a role for glucocorticoids plus GSIs in the treatment of glucocorticoid-resistant T-ALL. PMID:19098907

  10. Turner syndrome presented with tall stature due to overdosage of the SHOX gene

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Go Hun; Kang, Eungu; Cho, Ja Hyang; Lee, Beom Hee; Choi, Jin-Ho; Kim, Gu-Hwan; Seo, Eul-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Turner syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal disorders. It is caused by numerical or structural abnormalities of the X chromosome and results in short stature and gonadal dysgenesis. The short stature arises from haploinsufficiency of the SHOX gene, whereas overdosage contributes to tall stature. This report describes the first Korean case of Turner syndrome with tall stature caused by SHOX overdosage. The patient presented with primary amenorrhea and hypergonadotropic hypogonadism at the age of 17 years. Estrogen replacement therapy was initiated at that time. She displayed tall stature from childhood, with normal growth velocity, and reached a final height of 190 cm (standard deviation score, 4.3) at the age of 30 years. Her karyotype was 46,X, psu idic(X)(q21.2), representing partial monosomy of Xq and partial trisomy of Xp. Analysis by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification detected a duplication at Xp22.3-Xp22.2, encompassing the PPP2R3 gene near the 5'-end of the SHOX gene through the FANCD gene at Xp22.2. PMID:26191517

  11. Relative roles of different-sized herbivores and plant-plant interactions in tall shrub tundra vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravolainen, Virve; Ims, Rolf; Bårdsen, Bård-Jørgen; Stien, Audun; Kollstrøm, Julie; Lægreid, Eiliv; Bråthen, Kari Anne

    2013-04-01

    Tall shrubs play important roles in the ecology of Arctic tundra ecosystems, including support of high shrub-associated biodiversity and regulation of a range of ecosystem processes. Tall shrub patches and herbaceous vegetation surrounding them often form a two-state vegetation mosaic. Such tall shrub tundra vegetation is an important locus for current vegetation changes in the Arctic. Both abiotic and biotic drivers are known to influence the shrub component. However, although expansion of the shrub state has received much focus lately, relative strengths of the multiple drivers of vegetation state are currently not fully understood. We investigated the role of herbivory relative to temperature and relative to plant-plant interactions, conducting a field survey and experimental studies at large spatial scales in riparian tall shrub tundra in Norway. We found both summer temperatures and summer grazing by reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) to affect tall shrub distribution and expansion potential. Furthermore, we found strong and rapid shrub growth change in response to abundance of key arctic herbivores; small rodents. Finally, we quantified the relative importance of neighboring plants and both herbivore types to recruiting tall shrubs. The previously unforeseen rate at which tall shrub tundra responded to altered herbivore pressures further exemplifies its central role in the tundra ecosystems, promoting tall shrub tundra as a bell-whether of change with respect to both abiotic and biotic drivers. While many of the results clearly relate to herbivory, neighboring plants or climate as drivers, some variation remains unexplained warranting future research focus on this highly dynamic part of the tundra ecosystem. Our results suggest that spatially variable biotic interactions are likely to modify forcing by climate, calling for an ecosystem approach when studying change in tundra ecosystems.

  12. Diagnostic Work-up and Follow-up in Children with Tall Stature: A Simplified Algorithm for Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Stalman, Susanne E.; Pons, Anke; Wit, Jan M.; Kamp, Gerdine A.; Plötz, Frans B.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: No evidence-based guideline has been published about optimal referral criteria and diagnostic work-up for tall stature in children. The aim of our study was to describe auxological and clinical characteristics of a cohort of children referred for tall stature, to identify potential candidates for adult height reduction, and to use these observations for developing a simple algorithm for diagnostic work-up and follow-up in clinical practice. Methods: Data regarding family and medical history, auxological measurements, bone age development, physical examination, additional diagnostic work-up, and final diagnosis were collected from all children referred for tall stature, irrespective of their actual height standard deviation score (HSDS). Predicted adult height (PAH) was calculated in children above 10 years. Characteristics of patients with an indication for adult height reduction were determined. Results: Hundred thirty-two children (43 boys) with a mean ± SD age of 10.9±3.2 (range 0.5-16.9) years were included in the study. Fifty percent of the referred children had an HSDS ≤2.0 (n=66). Two pathological cases (1.5%) were found (HSDS 2.3 and 0.9). Tall children without pathology were diagnosed as idiopathic tall, further classified as familial tall stature (80%), constitutional advancement of growth (5%), or unexplained non-familial tall stature (15%). Of the 74 children in whom PAH was calculated, epiphysiodesis was considered in six (8%) and performed in four (5%) patients. Conclusion: The incidence of pathology was very low in children referred for tall stature, and few children were potential candidates for adult height reduction. We propose a simple diagnostic algorithm for clinical practice. PMID:26777036

  13. A cooperative microRNA-tumor suppressor gene network in acute T-cell lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL).

    PubMed

    Mavrakis, Konstantinos J; Van Der Meulen, Joni; Wolfe, Andrew L; Liu, Xiaoping; Mets, Evelien; Taghon, Tom; Khan, Aly A; Setty, Manu; Setti, Manu; Rondou, Pieter; Vandenberghe, Peter; Delabesse, Eric; Benoit, Yves; Socci, Nicholas B; Leslie, Christina S; Van Vlierberghe, Pieter; Speleman, Frank; Wendel, Hans-Guido

    2011-07-01

    The importance of individual microRNAs (miRNAs) has been established in specific cancers. However, a comprehensive analysis of the contribution of miRNAs to the pathogenesis of any specific cancer is lacking. Here we show that in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), a small set of miRNAs is responsible for the cooperative suppression of several tumor suppressor genes. Cross-comparison of miRNA expression profiles in human T-ALL with the results of an unbiased miRNA library screen allowed us to identify five miRNAs (miR-19b, miR-20a, miR-26a, miR-92 and miR-223) that are capable of promoting T-ALL development in a mouse model and which account for the majority of miRNA expression in human T-ALL. Moreover, these miRNAs produce overlapping and cooperative effects on tumor suppressor genes implicated in the pathogenesis of T-ALL, including IKAROS (also known as IKZF1), PTEN, BIM, PHF6, NF1 and FBXW7. Thus, a comprehensive and unbiased analysis of miRNA action in T-ALL reveals a striking pattern of miRNA-tumor suppressor gene interactions in this cancer.

  14. Application of Lidar Data and 3D-City Models in Visual Impact Simulations of Tall Buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czynska, K.

    2015-04-01

    The paper examines possibilities and limitations of application of Lidar data and digital 3D-city models to provide specialist urban analyses of tall buildings. The location and height of tall buildings is a subject of discussions, conflicts and controversies in many cities. The most important aspect is the visual influence of tall buildings to the city landscape, significant panoramas and other strategic city views. It is an actual issue in contemporary town planning worldwide. Over 50% of high-rise buildings on Earth were built in last 15 years. Tall buildings may be a threat especially for historically developed cities - typical for Europe. Contemporary Earth observation, more and more available Lidar scanning and 3D city models are a new tool for more accurate urban analysis of the tall buildings impact. The article presents appropriate simulation techniques, general assumption of geometric and computational algorithms - available methodologies and individual methods develop by author. The goal is to develop the geometric computation methods for GIS representation of the visual impact of a selected tall building to the structure of large city. In reference to this, the article introduce a Visual Impact Size method (VIS). Presented analyses were developed by application of airborne Lidar / DSM model and more processed models (like CityGML), containing the geometry and it's semantics. Included simulations were carried out on an example of the agglomeration of Berlin.

  15. Sources and seasonality of atmospheric methanol based on tall tower measurements in the US Upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Mohr, M.; Wells, K. C.; Griffis, T. J.; Helmig, D.; Millet, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    Methanol (CH3OH) plays an important role in the atmosphere as a source of carbon monoxide (CO) and formaldehyde (HCHO), however the magnitude and distribution of methanol emissions remain poorly constrained. Here we present over one year of continuous atmospheric methanol measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 185 m a.g.l.), and interpret the dataset in terms of constraints on regional methanol sources and seasonality. The seasonal cycle of methanol concentrations observed at the KCMP tall tower is generally similar to that simulated by a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, driven with MEGANv2.0 biogenic emissions) except the seasonal peak occurs ~1 month earlier in the observations, apparently reflecting a model underestimate of emission rates for younger versus older leaves. Based on a source tracer approach, which we evaluate using GEOS-Chem and with multiple tracers, we estimate that anthropogenic emissions account for approximately 40% of ambient methanol abundance during winter and 10% during summer. During daytime in summer, methanol concentrations increase exponentially with temperature, reflecting the temperature sensitivity of the biogenic source, and the observed temperature dependence is statistically consistent with that in the model. Nevertheless, summertime concentrations are underestimated by on average 35% in the model for this region. The seasonal importance of methanol as a source of HCHO and CO is highest in spring through early summer, when biogenic methanol emissions are high but isoprene emissions are still relatively low. During that time observed methanol concentrations account for on average 20% of the total CO and HCHO production rates as simulated by GEOS-Chem, compared to 12% later in the summer and 12% on an annual average basis. The biased seasonality in the model means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated.

  16. Sources and seasonality of atmospheric methanol based on tall tower measurements in the US Upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Millet, D. B.; Mohr, M. J.; Wells, K. C.; Griffis, T. J.; Helmig, D.

    2011-11-01

    We present over one year (January 2010-February 2011) of continuous atmospheric methanol measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 244 m a.g.l.), and interpret the dataset in terms of constraints on regional methanol sources and seasonality. The seasonal cycle of methanol concentrations observed at the KCMP tall tower is generally similar to that simulated by a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, driven with MEGANv2.0 biogenic emissions) except the seasonal peak occurs ~1 month earlier in the observations, apparently reflecting a model underestimate of emission rates for younger versus older leaves. Based on a source tracer approach, which we evaluate using GEOS-Chem and with multiple tracers, we estimate that anthropogenic emissions account for approximately 40% of ambient methanol abundance during winter and 10% during summer. During daytime in summer, methanol concentrations increase exponentially with temperature, reflecting the temperature sensitivity of the biogenic source, and the observed temperature dependence is statistically consistent with that in the model. Nevertheless, summertime concentrations are underestimated by on average 35% in the model for this region. The seasonal importance of methanol as a source of formaldehyde (HCHO) and carbon monoxide (CO) is highest in spring through early summer, when biogenic methanol emissions are high but isoprene emissions are still relatively low. During that time observed methanol concentrations account for on average 20% of the total CO and HCHO production rates as simulated by GEOS-Chem, compared to 12% later in the summer and 12% on an annual average basis. The biased seasonality in the model means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated.

  17. Sources and seasonality of atmospheric methanol based on tall tower measurements in the US Upper Midwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, L.; Mohr, M. J.; Wells, K. C.; Griffis, T. J.; Helmig, D.; Millet, D. B.

    2011-06-01

    We present over one year of continuous atmospheric methanol measurements from the University of Minnesota tall tower Trace Gas Observatory (KCMP tall tower; 244 m a.g.l.), and interpret the dataset in terms of constraints on regional methanol sources and seasonality. The seasonal cycle of methanol concentrations observed at the KCMP tall tower is generally similar to that simulated by a global 3-D chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem, driven with MEGANv2.0 biogenic emissions) except the seasonal peak occurs ~1 month earlier in the observations, apparently reflecting a model underestimate of emission rates for younger versus older leaves. Based on a source tracer approach, which we evaluate using GEOS-Chem and with multiple tracers, we estimate that anthropogenic emissions account for approximately 40 % of ambient methanol abundance during winter and 10 % during summer. During daytime in summer, methanol concentrations increase exponentially with temperature, reflecting the temperature sensitivity of the biogenic source, and the observed temperature dependence is statistically consistent with that in the model. Nevertheless, summertime concentrations are underestimated by on average 35 % in the model for this region. The seasonal importance of methanol as a source of formaldehyde (HCHO) and carbon monoxide (CO) is highest in spring through early summer, when biogenic methanol emissions are high but isoprene emissions are still relatively low. During that time observed methanol concentrations account for on average 20 % of the total CO and HCHO production rates as simulated by GEOS-Chem, compared to 12 % later in the summer and 12 % on an annual average basis. The biased seasonality in the model means that the photochemical role for methanol early in the growing season is presently underestimated.

  18. Grafting and gibberellin effects on the growth of tall and dwarf peas.

    PubMed

    Lockard, R G; Grunwald, C

    1970-02-01

    Tall peas var. Alaska and dwarf peas var. Progress No. 9 were grafted onto their own roots or reciprocally grafted to determine the rootstock effect on the growth of the stem. In all cases the grafted stems grew the same as their ungrafted controls regardless of which rootstock they were grown on. When similarly grafted plants were supplied with gibberellic acid, good graft unions did not inhibit its translocation. This evidence supports the thesis that the mechanism controlling stem growth in peas is located in the stem and that the roots have no direct control over this mechanism. PMID:16657295

  19. Impact of a Large San Andreas Fault Earthquake on Tall Buildings in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, S.; Ji, C.; Komatitsch, D.; Tromp, J.

    2004-12-01

    In 1857, an earthquake of magnitude 7.9 occurred on the San Andreas fault, starting at Parkfield and rupturing in a southeasterly direction for more than 300~km. Such a unilateral rupture produces significant directivity toward the San Fernando and Los Angeles basins. The strong shaking in the basins due to this earthquake would have had a significant long-period content (2--8~s). If such motions were to happen today, they could have a serious impact on tall buildings in Southern California. In order to study the effects of large San Andreas fault earthquakes on tall buildings in Southern California, we use the finite source of the magnitude 7.9 2001 Denali fault earthquake in Alaska and map it onto the San Andreas fault with the rupture originating at Parkfield and proceeding southward over a distance of 290~km. Using the SPECFEM3D spectral element seismic wave propagation code, we simulate a Denali-like earthquake on the San Andreas fault and compute ground motions at sites located on a grid with a 2.5--5.0~km spacing in the greater Southern California region. We subsequently analyze 3D structural models of an existing tall steel building designed in 1984 as well as one designed according to the current building code (Uniform Building Code, 1997) subjected to the computed ground motion. We use a sophisticated nonlinear building analysis program, FRAME3D, that has the ability to simulate damage in buildings due to three-component ground motion. We summarize the performance of these structural models on contour maps of carefully selected structural performance indices. This study could benefit the city in laying out emergency response strategies in the event of an earthquake on the San Andreas fault, in undertaking appropriate retrofit measures for tall buildings, and in formulating zoning regulations for new construction. In addition, the study would provide risk data associated with existing and new construction to insurance companies, real estate developers, and

  20. Dynamic response evaluation of tall noise barrier on high speed railway structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Munemasa; Sogabe, Masamichi; Santo, Tetsuo; Ono, Kiyoshi

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to obtain a fundamental understanding of the dynamic response of tall noise barriers during the passage of high speed train and to develop a practical method for evaluating this in anticipation of planned increases in running speed in the future. Tall noise barriers recently installed on Japanese high speed railway structures have a low natural frequency; therefore, they may resonate with the train draft pressure that up until now has not been a crucial condition for practical design. As a result of field measurements and numerical simulations, it was found that the dynamic response of noise barriers excited by passing trains can be explained by the resonance effect between pulse excitation of the train draft and the natural frequency of the noise barriers and by the tail-pulses overlap effect. Methods to generalize the resonance effect with the multi-body system and the tail-pulses overlap effect with the free vibration theory of the single-degree-of-freedom system were shown. Finally, two design methods were proposed: a precise method based on simulation and a simple method based on static design load. The simple method uses a design train draft pressure which is a function of noise barrier natural frequency when train speed is 260 m/h or 360 m/h.

  1. Baseline report - tall upland shrubland at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (Site) is located on the Colorado Piedmont east of the Front Range between Boulder and Golden. At an elevation of approximately 6,000 feet, the Site contains a unique ecotonal mixture of mountain and prairie plant species, resulting from the topography and close proximity to the mountain front. The Buffer Zone surrounding the Industrial Area is one of the largest remaining undeveloped areas of its kind along the Colorado Piedmont. A number of plant communities at the Site have been identified as increasingly rare and unique by Site ecologists and the Colorado Natural Heritage Program (CNHP). These include the xeric tallgrass prairie, tall upland shrubland, wetlands, and Great Plains riparian woodland communities. Many of these communities support populations of increasingly rare animals as well, including the Preble`s meadow jumping mouse, grasshopper sparrow, loggerhead shrike, Merriam`s shrew, black crowned night heron, and Hops blue and Argos skipper butterflies. One of the more interesting and important plant communities at the Site is the tall upland shrubland community. It has been generally overlooked by previous Site ecological studies, probably due to its relatively small size; only 34 acres total. Although mentioned in a plant community ordination study conducted by Clark et al. and also in the Site baseline ecological study, few data were available on this plant community before the present study.

  2. Population structures of Brazilian tall coconut (Cocos nucifera L.) by microsatellite markers

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Coconut palms of the Tall group were introduced to Brazil from the Cape Verde Islands in 1553. The present study sought to evaluate the genetic diversity among and within Brazilian Tall coconut populations. Samples were collected of 195 trees from 10 populations. Genetic diversity was accessed by investigating 13 simple sequence repeats (SSR) loci. This provided a total of 68 alleles, ranging from 2 to 13 alleles per locus, with an average of 5.23. The mean values of gene diversity (He ) and observed heterozygosity (Ho ) were 0.459 and 0.443, respectively. The genetic differentiation among populations was estimated at θ^P=0.1600and the estimated apparent outcrossing rate was ta = 0.92. Estimates of genetic distances between the populations varied from 0.034 to 0.390. Genetic distance and the corresponding clustering analysis indicate the formation of two groups. The first consists of the Baía Formosa, Georgino Avelino, and São José do Mipibu populations and the second consists of the Japoatã, Pacatuba, and Praia do Forte populations. The correlation matrix between genetic and geographic distances was positive and significant at a 1% probability. Taken together, our results suggest a spatial structuring of the genetic variability among the populations. Geographically closer populations exhibited greater similarities. PMID:21637579

  3. Genetic and Epigenetic Changes in Somatic Hybrid Introgression Lines Between Wheat and Tall Wheatgrass

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuwei; Li, Fei; Kong, Lina; Sun, Yang; Qin, Lumin; Chen, Suiyun; Cui, Haifeng; Huang, Yinghua; Xia, Guangmin

    2015-01-01

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how these variations occurred was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays and DNA profiling techniques to characterize six genetically stable somatic introgression lines. Karyotyping results show the six lines similar to their wheat parent, but GISH analysis identified the presence of a number of short introgressed tall wheatgrass chromatin segments. DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences, including sequences deletions, altered regulation of gene expression, changed patterns of cytosine methylation, and the reactivation of retrotransposons. Phenotypic variations appear to result from altered repetitive sequences combined with the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and/or retrotransposon transposition. The extent of genetic and epigenetic variation due to the maintenance of parent wheat cells in tissue culture was assessed and shown to be considerably lower than had been induced in the introgression lines. Asymmetric somatic hybridization provides appropriate material to explore the nature of the genetic and epigenetic variations induced by genomic shock. PMID:25670745

  4. Health monitoring system for a tall building with Fiber Bragg grating sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, D. S.; Li, H. N.; Ren, L.; Guo, D. S.; Song, G. B.

    2009-03-01

    Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors demonstrate great potentials for structural health monitoring of civil structures to ensure their structural integrity, durability and reliability. The advantages of applying fiber optic sensors to a tall building include their immunity of electromagnetic interference and multiplexing ability to transfer optical signals over a long distance. In the work, FBG sensors, including strain and temperature sensors, are applied to the construction monitoring of an 18-floor tall building starting from its construction date. The main purposes of the project are: 1) monitoring the temperature evolution history within the concrete during the pouring process; 2) measuring the variations of the main column strains on the underground floor while upper 18 floors were subsequently added on; and 3) monitoring the relative displacements between two foundation blocks. The FBG sensors have been installed and interrogated continuously for more than five months. Monitoring results of temperature and strains during the period are presented in the paper. Furthermore, the lag behavior between the concrete temperature and its surrounding air temperature is investigated.

  5. Genetic and epigenetic changes in somatic hybrid introgression lines between wheat and tall wheatgrass.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuwei; Li, Fei; Kong, Lina; Sun, Yang; Qin, Lumin; Chen, Suiyun; Cui, Haifeng; Huang, Yinghua; Xia, Guangmin

    2015-04-01

    Broad phenotypic variations were induced in derivatives of an asymmetric somatic hybridization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum Podp); however, how these variations occurred was unknown. We explored the nature of these variations by cytogenetic assays and DNA profiling techniques to characterize six genetically stable somatic introgression lines. Karyotyping results show the six lines similar to their wheat parent, but GISH analysis identified the presence of a number of short introgressed tall wheatgrass chromatin segments. DNA profiling revealed many genetic and epigenetic differences, including sequences deletions, altered regulation of gene expression, changed patterns of cytosine methylation, and the reactivation of retrotransposons. Phenotypic variations appear to result from altered repetitive sequences combined with the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and/or retrotransposon transposition. The extent of genetic and epigenetic variation due to the maintenance of parent wheat cells in tissue culture was assessed and shown to be considerably lower than had been induced in the introgression lines. Asymmetric somatic hybridization provides appropriate material to explore the nature of the genetic and epigenetic variations induced by genomic shock. PMID:25670745

  6. Evaluation of modal pushover-based scaling of one component of ground motion: Tall buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkan, Erol; Chopra, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear response history analysis (RHA) is now increasingly used for performance-based seismic design of tall buildings. Required for nonlinear RHAs is a set of ground motions selected and scaled appropriately so that analysis results would be accurate (unbiased) and efficient (having relatively small dispersion). This paper evaluates accuracy and efficiency of recently developed modal pushover–based scaling (MPS) method to scale ground motions for tall buildings. The procedure presented explicitly considers structural strength and is based on the standard intensity measure (IM) of spectral acceleration in a form convenient for evaluating existing structures or proposed designs for new structures. Based on results presented for two actual buildings (19 and 52 stories, respectively), it is demonstrated that the MPS procedure provided a highly accurate estimate of the engineering demand parameters (EDPs), accompanied by significantly reduced record-to-record variability of the responses. In addition, the MPS procedure is shown to be superior to the scaling procedure specified in the ASCE/SEI 7-05 document.

  7. Mixed columnar cell and tall cell variant of papillary carcinoma of thyroid: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Putti, T C; Bhuiya, T A

    2000-11-01

    Columnar cell and tall cell carcinomas are newly described variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma associated with aggressive clinical behaviour. Although several cases of tall cell and columnar cell variants have been reported, only a single detailed case report of a mixed tall cell and columnar cell variant has been described in the English-language literature. We report another such composite tumour with predominant columna cell features in an elderly female. The tumour showed extrathyroidal extension with intraluminal superior thyroid vein invasion and lymph node metastasis. DNA ploidy analysis showed a diploid DNA content with no increase of S-phase fraction. Immunohistochemistry showed focal positivity for p53 and Ki-67 at the infiltrating margins of the tumour and diffuse positivity for proliferating cell nuclear antigen. The adverse clinical course warrants aggressive treatment and careful follow-up.

  8. Salinity tolerance of foxtail barley (Hordeum jubatum) and desirable pasture grasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the relative salinity tolerance of foxtail barley and seven desirable pasture grasses. Grass species were reed canarygrass, timothy, altai wildrye, tall fescue, tall wheatgrass, orchardgrass, creeping meadow foxtail, and foxtail barley. Grasses were e...

  9. Dicer1 imparts essential survival cues in Notch-driven T-ALL via miR-21-mediated tumor suppressor Pdcd4 repression.

    PubMed

    Junker, Fabian; Chabloz, Antoine; Koch, Ute; Radtke, Freddy

    2015-08-20

    The modulatory function of individual microRNAs (miRNAs) in Notch-driven T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALLs) has recently been established. Although protumorigenic and tumor-suppressive miRNAs are implicated in disease onset in murine models of Notch-driven T-cell leukemia, whether Dicer1-processed miRNAs are essential for Notch-driven T-ALL is currently unknown. Here we used conditional and inducible genetic loss-of-function approaches to test whether the development and maintenance of Notch-driven T-ALL was dependent on Dicer1 function. Mice with specific inactivation of both Dicer1 alleles in the T-cell lineage did not develop Notch-driven T-ALL. In contrast, loss of 1 functional Dicer1 allele did not significantly perturb T-ALL onset and tumor progression. Inducible inactivation of Dicer1 in early stage polyclonal T-ALL cells was sufficient to abrogate T-ALL progression in leukemic mice, whereas late-stage monoclonal T-ALL cells were counterselected against loss of Dicer1. Lineage-tracing experiments revealed that Dicer1 deficiency led to the induction of apoptosis in T-ALL cells, whereas cell cycle progression remained unaltered. Through microarray-based miRNA profiling, we identified miR-21 as a previously unrecognized miRNA deregulated in both mouse and human T-ALL. Herein, we demonstrate that miR-21 regulates T-ALL cell survival via repression of the tumor suppressor Pdcd4.

  10. Are tall trees more sensitive to prolonged drought in tropical per-humid forests?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuldt, Bernhard; Horna, Viviana; Leuschner, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Seasonality of water flux was investigated for common tree species of a Central Sulawesi pre-montane perhumid forest located in the Lore Lindu National Park. Trees were exposed to reduced soil water levels under a rainfall exclusion experiment (Sulawesi Throughfall Displacement Experiment, STD), to simulate drought effects and to monitor species-specific short-term responses to extended water stress. Several climate scenarios predict more frequent occurrence of ENSO droughts with increasing severity induced by global warming. Detailed assessments of the ecological consequences of droughts in perhumid forests are scarce and knowledge whether and how these ecosystems are adapted to severe droughts is limited. Key research questions were: (1) how do tall rainforest trees cope with long pathways under low evaporative demand, (2) how sensitive are trees from tropical perhumid forests and how do they acclimate to drought-stress and 3) does wood density determine the drought sensitivity of perhumid forest trees? From June 2007 until October 2009 we monitored 95 trees from 8 common tree species. Half of them were located under the STD Experiment and the other half in control areas. We used the constant heated method to continuously monitor stem xylem flux density and conduct parallel measurements of xylem anatomy and hydraulic conductivity in twigs, stems and roots. After almost 22 months of experimental drought only 25% of xylem flux density reduction was observed in the experimental trees. But the reaction to water stress was species-specific and in some species xylem flux went down to 50 % compared to the individuals located at the control plots. Wood density did not correlate with any hydraulic measurement, but anatomy and hydraulic architecture observations showed a positive correlation between xylem conductivity and vessel size with tree height. These results reveal a well adapted hydraulic system of tall canopy trees allowing for highly efficient water flow under

  11. Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields in Swedish radio stations and tall FM/TV towers.

    PubMed

    Mild, K H

    1981-01-01

    Radiofrequency electric and magnetic fields have been measured around 11 large broadcast stations and tall FM/TV towers in Sweden. The results show that operating personnel may be exposed to fields exceeding by several times the present standard for occupational exposure to RF radiation. Maintenance personnel are especially vulnerable to exposure when climbing energized towers. The present study indicates that the transmitters should be switched off during the performance of certain tasks on the tower. Safe passage of maintenance personnel near energized antennas of certain types is impossible without a drastic reduction of the transmitted power. In the stations, the RF leakage radiation was generally low, but when work was done with the cabinet doors of the transmitter open, high strengths were found in the vicinity of the transmitter even though it was switched off. It was found that the transmitter acted as a tuned receiver of energy from the other transmitters.

  12. Computer assisted detection and analysis of tall cell variant papillary thyroid carcinoma in histological images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Edward; Baloch, Zubair; Kim, Caroline

    2015-03-01

    The number of new cases of thyroid cancer are dramatically increasing as incidences of this cancer have more than doubled since the early 1970s. Tall cell variant (TCV-PTC) papillary thyroid carcinoma is one type of thyroid cancer that is more aggressive and usually associated with higher local recurrence and distant metastasis. This variant can be identified through visual characteristics of cells in histological images. Thus, we created a fully automatic algorithm that is able to segment cells using a multi-stage approach. Our method learns the statistical characteristics of nuclei and cells during the segmentation process and utilizes this information for a more accurate result. Furthermore, we are able to analyze the detected regions and extract characteristic cell data that can be used to assist in clinical diagnosis.

  13. Net Ecosystem Exchange in a Tall Tower Footprint: Reconciling Observations, Modeling, and Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braswell, B.; Braswell, B.; Churkina, G.; Schimel, D.; Davis, K.

    2001-05-01

    In this study we investigate the controls on monthly-to-interannual terrestrial NEP within the footprint of the WLEF tall tower. This footprint is large enough (>1 km2) to be considered as a single example of a global ecosystem model or global remote sensing grid cell. We compare the observed NEE from 1997-1999 with predictions of the Biome-BGC model and attempt to associate discrepancies with specific processes, including plant phenology and soil respiration. The remote sensing observations are used in this exercise to help diagnose interannual variability in growing season length and to characterize the distribution of landcover within the footprint. We consider also inherent limitations in the data, especially the uncertainty associated with data gap-filling methods.

  14. Parallel Computations of Natural Convection Flow in a Tall Cavity Using an Explicit Finite Element Method

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, T.A.; McCallen, R.C.

    2000-10-17

    The Galerkin Finite Element Method was used to predict a natural convection flow in an enclosed cavity. The problem considered was a differentially heated, tall (8:1), rectangular cavity with a Rayleigh number of 3.4 x 10{sup 5} and Prandtl number of 0.71. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations were solved using a Boussinesq approximation for the buoyancy force. The algorithm was developed for efficient use on massively parallel computer systems. Emphasis was on time-accurate simulations. It was found that the average temperature and velocity values can be captured with a relatively coarse grid, while the oscillation amplitude and period appear to be grid sensitive and require a refined computation.

  15. Tall men with medium body fat mass percentage display more developmental stability.

    PubMed

    Özener, Bariş

    2010-12-01

    A symmetrical body may signal the ability of an individual to cope with developmental perturbations and may thus be considered a 'health certificate'. It is known that symmetrical men are considered more attractive by women and that their reproductive success is higher. This study examined the associations between measures of body structure and fluctuating asymmetry in young Turkish men. Weight, height, and bioelectrical impedance were measured in a sample of 250 men residing in Ankara (mean age=18.4, SD=0.6), and body mass index was calculated. Fluctuating asymmetry was measured using hand length, hand width, elbow width, wrist width, knee width, ankle width, foot length, foot width, ear length, and ear width. According to the obtained findings, there is a negative linear relationship between composite fluctuating asymmetry (CFA) and height, and a positive quadratic relationship between CFA and fat mass. These results might indicate that the tall Turkish men with medium body fat mass percentage display more developmental stability.

  16. 46 CFR 34.20-90 - Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1970-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1970-T/ALL. 34.20-90 Section 34.20-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Deck Foam System, Details § 34.20-90 Installations contracted for prior to January...

  17. 46 CFR 34.10-90 - Installations contracted for prior to May 26, 1965-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Installations contracted for prior to May 26, 1965-T/ALL. 34.10-90 Section 34.10-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-90 Installations contracted for prior to May 26,...

  18. 46 CFR 34.20-90 - Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1970-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1970-T/ALL. 34.20-90 Section 34.20-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Deck Foam System, Details § 34.20-90 Installations contracted for prior to January...

  19. 46 CFR 34.20-90 - Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1970-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1970-T/ALL. 34.20-90 Section 34.20-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Deck Foam System, Details § 34.20-90 Installations contracted for prior to January...

  20. 46 CFR 34.10-90 - Installations contracted for prior to May 26, 1965-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Installations contracted for prior to May 26, 1965-T/ALL. 34.10-90 Section 34.10-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-90 Installations contracted for prior to May 26,...

  1. 46 CFR 34.20-90 - Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1970-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1970-T/ALL. 34.20-90 Section 34.20-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Deck Foam System, Details § 34.20-90 Installations contracted for prior to January...

  2. 46 CFR 34.10-90 - Installations contracted for prior to May 26, 1965-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Installations contracted for prior to May 26, 1965-T/ALL. 34.10-90 Section 34.10-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Fire Main System, Details § 34.10-90 Installations contracted for prior to May 26,...

  3. 46 CFR 34.20-90 - Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1970-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1970-T/ALL. 34.20-90 Section 34.20-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Deck Foam System, Details § 34.20-90 Installations contracted for prior to January...

  4. 46 CFR 34.25-90 - Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1964-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1964-T/ALL. 34.25-90 Section 34.25-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Water Spray Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.25-90 Installations contracted for...

  5. 46 CFR 34.25-90 - Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1964-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1964-T/ALL. 34.25-90 Section 34.25-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Water Spray Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.25-90 Installations contracted for...

  6. 46 CFR 34.25-90 - Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1964-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1964-T/ALL. 34.25-90 Section 34.25-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Water Spray Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.25-90 Installations contracted for...

  7. 46 CFR 34.25-90 - Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1964-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1964-T/ALL. 34.25-90 Section 34.25-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Water Spray Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.25-90 Installations contracted for...

  8. 46 CFR 34.25-90 - Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1964-T/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Installations contracted for prior to January 1, 1964-T/ALL. 34.25-90 Section 34.25-90 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS FIREFIGHTING EQUIPMENT Water Spray Extinguishing Systems, Details § 34.25-90 Installations contracted for...

  9. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sam W; Prior, Lynda D; Stephens, Helen C; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  10. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Sam W.; Prior, Lynda D.; Stephens, Helen C.; Bowman, David M. J. S.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  11. Macroecology of Australian Tall Eucalypt Forests: Baseline Data from a Continental-Scale Permanent Plot Network.

    PubMed

    Wood, Sam W; Prior, Lynda D; Stephens, Helen C; Bowman, David M J S

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the response of forest ecosystems to climate change demands large (≥1 ha) monitoring plots that are repeatedly measured over long time frames and arranged across macro-ecological gradients. Continental scale networks of permanent forest plots have identified links between climate and carbon fluxes by monitoring trends in tree growth, mortality and recruitment. The relationship between tree growth and climate in Australia has been recently articulated through analysis of data from smaller forest plots, but conclusions were limited by (a) absence of data on recruitment and mortality, (b) exclusion of non-eucalypt species, and (c) lack of knowledge of stand age or disturbance histories. To remedy these gaps we established the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network: a continental scale network of 48 1 ha permanent plots in highly productive tall eucalypt forests in the mature growth stage. These plots are distributed across cool temperate, Mediterranean, subtropical and tropical climates (mean annual precipitation 850 to 1900 mm per year; mean annual temperature 6 to 21°C). Aboveground carbon stocks (AGC) in these forests are dominated by eucalypts (90% of AGC) whilst non-eucalypts in the understorey dominated species diversity and tree abundance (84% of species; 60% of stems). Aboveground carbon stocks were negatively related to mean annual temperature, with forests at the warm end of the temperature range storing approximately half the amount of carbon as forests at the cool end of the temperature range. This may reflect thermal constraints on tree growth detected through other plot networks and physiological studies. Through common protocols and careful sampling design, the Ausplots Forest Monitoring Network will facilitate the integration of tall eucalypt forests into established global forest monitoring initiatives. In the context of projections of rapidly warming and drying climates in Australia, this plot network will enable detection of links between

  12. Turbulent Transfer Coefficients and Calculation of Air Temperature inside Tall Grass Canopies in Land Atmosphere Schemes for Environmental Modeling.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mihailovic, D. T.; Alapaty, K.; Lalic, B.; Arsenic, I.; Rajkovic, B.; Malinovic, S.

    2004-10-01

    A method for estimating profiles of turbulent transfer coefficients inside a vegetation canopy and their use in calculating the air temperature inside tall grass canopies in land surface schemes for environmental modeling is presented. The proposed method, based on K theory, is assessed using data measured in a maize canopy. The air temperature inside the canopy is determined diagnostically by a method based on detailed consideration of 1) calculations of turbulent fluxes, 2) the shape of the wind and turbulent transfer coefficient profiles, and 3) calculation of the aerodynamic resistances inside tall grass canopies. An expression for calculating the turbulent transfer coefficient inside sparse tall grass canopies is also suggested, including modification of the corresponding equation for the wind profile inside the canopy. The proposed calculations of K-theory parameters are tested using the Land Air Parameterization Scheme (LAPS). Model outputs of air temperature inside the canopy for 8 17 July 2002 are compared with micrometeorological measurements inside a sunflower field at the Rimski Sancevi experimental site (Serbia). To demonstrate how changes in the specification of canopy density affect the simulation of air temperature inside tall grass canopies and, thus, alter the growth of PBL height, numerical experiments are performed with LAPS coupled with a one-dimensional PBL model over a sunflower field. To examine how the turbulent transfer coefficient inside tall grass canopies over a large domain represents the influence of the underlying surface on the air layer above, sensitivity tests are performed using a coupled system consisting of the NCEP Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model and LAPS.


  13. Transcriptome response of Lolium arundinaceum to the fungal endophyte Epichloe coenophiala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is one of the principal cool-season species used as a forage and turf within the USA. A number of benefits associated with the persistence of tall fescue have been attributed to the presence of its seed-transmissible symbiont, the fungal endophyte Epichloë coenophi...

  14. [Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls contaminated soil by leguminosae-gramineae intercropping: a field trial].

    PubMed

    Tu, Chen; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yong-Ming; Pan, Cheng; Sun, Xiang-Hui; Li, Zhen-Gao

    2010-12-01

    Phytoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) contaminated soil by leguminosae (alfalfa) and gramineae (ryegrass and tall fescue) was studied in a field trial. All planted treatments had significantly higher PCBs removal efficiency compared with those of unplanted control after 270 days of in-situ phytoremediation. Alfalfa monoculture received the highest removal efficiency of soil PCBs by 59.6%. Analysis of PCBs congeners composition showed that the percentage of di-chlorinated biphenyl decreased in all planted treatments. Alfalfa produced the maximum biomass among the 3 plants. Total PCBs concentration in alfalfa roots reached 355.1 microg/kg, which was significantly higher than those in ryegrass and tall fescue. The phytoextraction efficiency of different treatment was in order of alfalfa > alfalfa-ryegrass-tall fescue > alfalfa-ryegrass > ryegrass > alfalfa-tall fescue > tall fescue. The results suggest that alfalfa may be an ideal candidate for the phytoremediation of PCBs contaminated soil. PMID:21360900

  15. Genotoxic effects of fumes from asphalt modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Hanna K; Väänänen, Virpi; Järventaus, Hilkka; Suhonen, Satu; Nygren, Jonas; Hämeilä, Mervi; Valtonen, Jarkko; Heikkilä, Pirjo; Norppa, Hannu

    2008-05-31

    As the use of recycled materials and industrial by-products in asphalt mixtures is increasing, we investigated if recycled additives modify the genotoxicity of fumes emitted from asphalt. Fumes were generated in the laboratory at paving temperature from stone-mastic asphalt (SMA) and from SMA modified with waste plastic (90% polyethylene, 10% polypropylene) and tall oil pitch (SMA-WPT). In addition, fumes from SMA, SMA-WPT, asphalt concrete (AC), and AC modified with waste plastic and tall oil pitch (AC-WPT) were collected at paving sites. The genotoxicity of the fumes was studied by analysis of DNA damage (measured in the comet assay) and micronucleus formation in human bronchial epithelial BEAS 2B cells in vitro and by counting mutations in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and YG1024. DNA damage was also assessed in buccal leukocytes from road pavers before and after working with SMA, SMA-WPT, AC, and AC-WPT. The chemical composition of the emissions was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. The SMA-WPT fume generated in the laboratory induced a clear increase in DNA damage in BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. The laboratory-generated SMA fume increased the frequency of micronucleated BEAS 2B cells without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes collected at the paving sites produced DNA damage with or without metabolic activation. Fumes from SMA and SMA-WPT from the paving sites increased micronucleus frequency without metabolic activation. None of the asphalt fumes studied showed mutagenic activity in Salmonella. No statistically significant differences in DNA damage in buccal leukocytes were detected between the pre- and post-shift samples collected from the road pavers. However, a positive correlation was found between DNA damage and the urinary metabolites of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) after work shift, which suggested an association between occupational exposures during road paving and genotoxic effects. Our

  16. A novel method for measuring trace gas fluxes from tall vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keane, James; Phil, Ineson

    2014-05-01

    The nature of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) as greenhouse gases (GHGs) means that accurate measurement of their net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is extremely important to our ability to manage climate change. Manual static chambers are commonly used to measure soil fluxes of these trace gases, with landscape values extrapolated from point measurements of typically less than 1m2, at a weekly or monthly frequency. Moreover, due to the reliance upon manual sampling, data are typically biased towards day-time measurements, and use of opaque chambers halts photosynthesis. Automation of chambers, such as the Licor Li-8100 (Lincoln, NE) system, allows for measurement of soil respiration at a near-constant frequency, but does not solve the problem of measuring CH4 and N2O, neither does it allow measurements to be taken from over tall (more than 20 cm) vegetation. Eddy covariance (EC) techniques allow for high frequency measurements of CO2 and CH4 to be made at the landscape scale, and are increasingly available for N2O. However, the inability of EC to resolve to the plot scale hinders its use for manipulative experiments, and replication is rare. Additionally, stratification of the boundary layer creates difficulty in measuring night-time fluxes and it is common to discard large parts of data sets due to unsuitable wind direction or other meteorological conditions. Here we present a new technique for measuring trace gas fluxes from over tall vegetation. The system is capable of simultaneously delivering NEE of CO2, CH4 and N2O, automatically measuring at high temporal resolution (circa hourly) from replicated plots. We show the effect of green compost addition on trace gas fluxes from Miscanthus x giganteus, an important crop for bioenergy production. The ability to quantify NEE of GHGs from such crops forms an essential part of the lifecycle analysis of energy produced from biomass, which may play an important role in future mitigation of climate

  17. Environmental Limits of Tall Shrubs in Alaska’s Arctic National Parks

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, David K.

    2015-01-01

    We sampled shrub canopy volume (height times area) and environmental factors (soil wetness, soil depth of thaw, soil pH, mean July air temperature, and typical date of spring snow loss) on 471 plots across five National Park Service units in northern Alaska. Our goal was to determine the environments where tall shrubs thrive and use this information to predict the location of future shrub expansion. The study area covers over 80,000 km2 and has mostly tundra vegetation. Large canopy volumes were uncommon, with volumes over 0.5 m3/m2 present on just 8% of plots. Shrub canopy volumes were highest where mean July temperatures were above 10.5°C and on weakly acid to neutral soils (pH of 6 to 7) with deep summer thaw (>80 cm) and good drainage. On many sites, flooding helped maintain favorable soil conditions for shrub growth. Canopy volumes were highest where the typical snow loss date was near 20 May; these represent sites that are neither strongly wind-scoured in the winter nor late to melt from deep snowdrifts. Individual species varied widely in the canopy volumes they attained and their response to the environmental factors. Betula sp. shrubs were the most common and quite tolerant of soil acidity, cold July temperatures, and shallow thaw depths, but they did not form high-volume canopies under these conditions. Alnus viridis formed the largest canopies and was tolerant of soil acidity down to about pH 5, but required more summer warmth (over 12°C) than the other species. The Salix species varied widely from S. pulchra, tolerant of wet and moderately acid soils, to S. alaxensis, requiring well-drained soils with near neutral pH. Nearly half of the land area in ARCN has mean July temperatures of 10.5 to 12.5°C, where 2°C of warming would bring temperatures into the range needed for all of the potential tall shrub species to form large canopies. However, limitations in the other environmental factors would probably prevent the formation of large shrub canopies

  18. Performance of tall oil fatty acid salt as a steam-foam surfactant

    SciTech Connect

    Osterloh, W.T.; Jante, M.J. Jr.

    1995-12-31

    We report the results of laboratory experiments designed to evaluate the performance of the sodium salt of tall oil acid (TOA) as a steam-foam surfactant. The objective of the experiments was to determine if this inexpensive material could be used to reduce the chemical costs of the steam foam process. Tall oil acid is a commercially available blend of oleic and linoleic carboxylic acids obtained by distillation of the wastes from pine pulping mills. The sodium salt soap, TOA{sup -}Na{sup +}, is easily produced by one-step neutralization of TOA with sodium hydroxide. The performance of TOA{sup -}Na{sup +} was measured in terms of the rate and magnitude at which the foam pressure gradient, Vp, increased when TOA{sup -}Na{sup +} and nitrogen were injected into a linear sandpack. Performance was also measured as a function of temperature, TOA{sup -}Na{sub +} concentration, foam liquid volume fraction, foam velocity, salinity, pH, and oil saturation. Experimental results show that TOA{sup -}Na{sup +} is an effective foaming agent that can produce large pressure gradients in a sandpack. The dominant parameters found to control TOA{sup -}Na{sup +} performance were salinity, temperature, and pH. To generate a large Vp at high temperature and in the presence of oil, the salinity of the TOA{sup -}Na{sup +} solution had to be increased by adding between 1.0 and 1.5 wt% sodium chloride. The TOA{sup -}Na{sup +} was effective up to 204{degrees}C, but a large Vp could not be produced at 260{degrees}C. The pH of the TOA{sup -}Na{sup +} solution had to be greater than about nine to achieve a large Vp. Sodium sesquicarbonate was used to buffer the solution at a pH of ten. Other notable results include that TOA{sup -}Na{sup +}foam performance was not adversely affected by oil and that stable foams were produced at high and low foam velocities and at low liquid volume fractions.

  19. Factors associated with plant species richness in a coastal tall-grass prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grace, J.B.; Allain, L.; Allen, C.

    2000-01-01

    In this study we examine the factors associated with variations in species richness within a remnant tall-grass prairie in order to gain insight into the relative importance of controlling variables. The study area was a small, isolated prairie surrounded by wetlands and located within the coastal prairie region, which occurs along the northwestern Gulf of Mexico coastal plain. Samples were taken along three transects that spanned the prairie. Parameters measured included micro-elevation, soil characteristics, indications of recent disturbance, above-ground biomass (including litter), light penetration through the plant canopy, and species richness. Species richness was found to correlate with micro-elevation, certain soil parameters, and light penetration through the canopy, but not with above-ground biomass. Structural equation analysis was used to assess the direct and indirect effects of micro-elevation, soil properties, disturbance, and indicators of plant abundance on species richness. The results of this analysis showed that observed variations in species richness were primarily associated with variations in environmental effects (from soil and microtopography) and were largely unrelated to variations in measures of plant abundance (biomass and light penetration). These findings suggest that observed variations in species richness in this system primarily resulted from environmental effects on the species pool. These results fit with a growing body of information that suggests that environmental effects on species richness are of widespread importance.

  20. Intrinsic spatial knowledge about terrestrial ecology favors the tall for judging distance

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liu; Ooi, Teng Leng; He, Zijiang J.

    2016-01-01

    Our sense of vision reliably directs and guides our everyday actions, such as reaching and walking. This ability is especially fascinating because the optical images of natural scenes that project into our eyes are insufficient to adequately form a perceptual space. It has been proposed that the brain makes up for this inadequacy by using its intrinsic spatial knowledge. However, it is unclear what constitutes intrinsic spatial knowledge and how it is acquired. We investigated this question and showed evidence of an ecological basis, which uses the statistical spatial relationship between the observer and the terrestrial environment, namely, the ground surface. We found that in dark and reduced-cue environments where intrinsic knowledge has a greater contribution, perceived target location is more accurate when referenced to the ground than to the ceiling. Furthermore, taller observers more accurately localized the target. Superior performance was also observed in the full-cue environment, even when we compensated for the observers’ heights by having the taller observer sit on a chair and the shorter observers stand on a box. Although fascinating, this finding dovetails with the prediction of the ecological hypothesis for intrinsic spatial knowledge. It suggests that an individual’s accumulated lifetime experiences of being tall and his or her constant interactions with ground-based objects not only determine intrinsic spatial knowledge but also endow him or her with an advantage in spatial ability in the intermediate distance range.

  1. Recovery of tall cotton-grass following real and simulated feeding by snow geese

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hupp, J.W.; Robertson, Donna G.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    Lesser snow geese Anser caerulescens caerulescens from the western Canadian Arctic feed on underground parts of tall cotton-grass Eriophorum angustifolium during autumn staging on the coastal plain of the Beaufort Sea in Canada and Alaska. We studied revegetation of sites where cotton-grass had been removed either by human-imprinted snow geese or by hand to simulate snow goose feeding. Aerial cover of cotton-grass at sites (n = 4) exploited by human-imprinted snow geese averaged 60 and 39% lower than in undisturbed control plots during the first and second year after feeding, respectively. Underground biomass of cotton-grass stembases and rhizomes in hand-treated plots was 80 and 62% less than in control plots 2 and 4 yr after removal, respectively (n = 10 yr-1). Aerial cover and biomass of common non-forage species such as Carex aquatilis did not increase on treated areas. Removal of cotton-grass by geese likely reduces forage availability at exploited sites for at least 2-4 yr after feeding but probably does not affect long-term community composition. Temporal heterogeneity in forage abundance likely contributes to the large spatial requirement of snow geese during staging.

  2. Regional scale modelling of meteorology and CO2 for the Cabauw tall tower, The Netherlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolk, L. F.; Peters, W.; Meesters, A. G. C. A.; Groenendijk, M.; Vermeulen, A. T.; Steeneveld, G. J.; Dolman, A. J.

    2009-06-01

    We simulated meteorology and atmospheric CO2 transport over the Netherlands with the mesoscale model RAMS-Leaf3 coupled to the biospheric CO2 flux model 5PM. The results were compared with meteorological and CO2 observations, with particular attention to the tall tower of Cabauw. An analysis of the coupled exchange of energy, moisture and CO2 showed that the surface fluxes in the domain strongly influenced the atmospheric properties. The majority of the variability in the afternoon CO2 mixing ratio in the middle of the domain was determined by biospheric and fossil fuel CO2 fluxes in the limited area domain (640×640 km). Variation of the surface CO2 fluxes, reflecting the uncertainty of the parameters in the CO2 flux model 5PM, resulted in a range of simulated atmospheric CO2 mixing ratios of about 12 ppm in the well-mixed boundary layer. Additionally, we identified an uncertainty in the surface energy fluxes. The spread caused by this uncertainty in the simulated atmospheric vertical mixing caused a CO2 transport error of 1.7 ppm. This is an important source of uncertainty and should be accounted for to avoid biased estimates of the CO2 mixing ratio, but does not overwhelm the signal in the CO2 mixing ratio due to the spread in CO2 surface fluxes.

  3. Wind effects on `Z' plan-shaped tall building: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Rajdip; Dalui, Sujit Kumar

    2016-09-01

    The present paper is centered on the study to understand the behavior of various surfaces of a `Z' plan-shaped tall building under varying wind directions. For that purpose, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package of ANSYS is used. The length scale is considered as 1:300. Force coefficients both in the along and across wind direction as well as the external surface pressure coefficients for different faces of the object building are determined and listed for wind incidence angle 0°-150° with increment of 30°. The wind flow pattern around the building showing flow separation characteristics and vortices are presented. The variation of wind pressure on different surfaces of the building is clearly shown by contour plots. The nature of deviation of external pressure coefficients along the height of the building as well as along the perimeter of the building for different wind angles of attack is presented. The force coefficient ( C f) along the X direction is extreme for 15° wind angle and along Y direction it is maximum for 60° angle of attack. Unsteady vortices are generated in the wake region due to a combination of positive and negative pressure in the windward and leeward faces, respectively.

  4. Velocity statistics and spectra over a forested site measured with a tall mast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segalini, Antonio; Alfredsson, Henrik; Dellwik, Ebba; Arnqvist, Johan; Bergström, Hans

    2012-11-01

    In the large expansion of wind power it becomes necessary to use also non-ideal sites for the placement of turbines. Such sites may have a complex terrain in terms of surface elevation as well as being forested. The atmospheric boundary layer is assumed to be severely different as compared to the one over flat, low-vegetation areas, which changes the mean velocity distribution as well as the turbulence intensity, thereby negatively affecting both the power production and loads on the turbines. In this study we use data from a 140 m tall mast in a forest in South-Eastern Sweden, where a unique measurement campaign with sonic anemometers has been running since November 2010 for 16 months. The sonic anemometers give the three velocity components with a frequency resolution of about 10 Hz. The site is covered by approximately 20 m high trees and a 40 degree sector, representative of an approximately homogeneous forest flow, is selected for the analysis of the velocity statistics. The screening of the results indicates the presence of a constant stress layer up to 3-5 canopy heights from the ground. An evaluation of the turbulence statistics in this layer and the levels above is presented. In addition, the spectra are evaluated and compared with the commonly used turbulence models.

  5. A virtual tall tower network for understanding continental sources and sinks of CO2

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, K.J.; Richardson, S.J.; Miles, N.L.

    2007-03-09

    Our understanding of the North American terrestrial carbon cycle is limited by both a lack of continental atmospheric CO2 data, and by a need for methods to interpret these and other continental data with confidence. In response to this challenge a rapid expansion of the N. American carbon cycle observational network is underway. This expansion includes a network of continuous, continental CO2 mixing ratio observations being collected at a subset of AmeriFlux towers. Progress in developing this resource includes instrument development, site installation, calibration and intercalibration efforts, and initiation of a uniform data product. Progess in applying these data include proposed methods for interpreting surface layer measurements in atmospheric inversions (the virtual tall towers approach), examination of coherence patterns in continental mixing ratios in response to weather and climate, and application of these mixing ratio measurements in formal atmospheric inversions. Future work will merge these methods with interpretation of flux towers observations of terrestrial carbon fluxes in an effort to create a single coherent diagnosis of North American terrestrial carbon fluxes over a multi-year period.

  6. Physical Properties of Carbon Nanotube Sheets Dry-Drawn from Tall MWCNT Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykova, Julia; Holmes, William; Zakhidov, Anvar

    2010-03-01

    Highly aligned MWCNT forests can by grown by catalytic CVD process in a dry-spinable highly oriented form which allows to draw CNT sheets and twist spin yarns [1,2]. However the sheet resistance of such transparent CNT sheets with average height of 300 um is quite high: 500-700 Ohm/sq. Motivation of our study is to grow taller forests with optimal interbundle connectivity [3] which may result in lower sheet resistance of CNT sheets and higher optical transparency by optimized control of CCVD conditions. We have succeeded to grow tall CNT forest with h=1 μm and resulting sheet resistance about 200 Ohm/sq. To find the correlation between properties of CNT forests and CNT sheets we conducted SEM analysis combined with Raman, AFM and small-angle X-ray scattering. This study shows how the number, geometry, and mechanical strength of interconnects between bundles are related to the physical properties of CNT sheets. [4pt] [1] M.Zhang, S.Fang et al., Science, V.309 (2005) 1215 [0pt] [2] M.Zhang, K.Atkinson, R.Baughman, Science, V.306 (2004) 1358 [0pt] [3] A.Kuznetsov, A.Fonseca et al., Adv.Mat., (submitted)

  7. Intrinsic spatial knowledge about terrestrial ecology favors the tall for judging distance

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liu; Ooi, Teng Leng; He, Zijiang J.

    2016-01-01

    Our sense of vision reliably directs and guides our everyday actions, such as reaching and walking. This ability is especially fascinating because the optical images of natural scenes that project into our eyes are insufficient to adequately form a perceptual space. It has been proposed that the brain makes up for this inadequacy by using its intrinsic spatial knowledge. However, it is unclear what constitutes intrinsic spatial knowledge and how it is acquired. We investigated this question and showed evidence of an ecological basis, which uses the statistical spatial relationship between the observer and the terrestrial environment, namely, the ground surface. We found that in dark and reduced-cue environments where intrinsic knowledge has a greater contribution, perceived target location is more accurate when referenced to the ground than to the ceiling. Furthermore, taller observers more accurately localized the target. Superior performance was also observed in the full-cue environment, even when we compensated for the observers’ heights by having the taller observer sit on a chair and the shorter observers stand on a box. Although fascinating, this finding dovetails with the prediction of the ecological hypothesis for intrinsic spatial knowledge. It suggests that an individual’s accumulated lifetime experiences of being tall and his or her constant interactions with ground-based objects not only determine intrinsic spatial knowledge but also endow him or her with an advantage in spatial ability in the intermediate distance range. PMID:27602402

  8. Intrinsic spatial knowledge about terrestrial ecology favors the tall for judging distance.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Liu; Ooi, Teng Leng; He, Zijiang J

    2016-08-01

    Our sense of vision reliably directs and guides our everyday actions, such as reaching and walking. This ability is especially fascinating because the optical images of natural scenes that project into our eyes are insufficient to adequately form a perceptual space. It has been proposed that the brain makes up for this inadequacy by using its intrinsic spatial knowledge. However, it is unclear what constitutes intrinsic spatial knowledge and how it is acquired. We investigated this question and showed evidence of an ecological basis, which uses the statistical spatial relationship between the observer and the terrestrial environment, namely, the ground surface. We found that in dark and reduced-cue environments where intrinsic knowledge has a greater contribution, perceived target location is more accurate when referenced to the ground than to the ceiling. Furthermore, taller observers more accurately localized the target. Superior performance was also observed in the full-cue environment, even when we compensated for the observers' heights by having the taller observer sit on a chair and the shorter observers stand on a box. Although fascinating, this finding dovetails with the prediction of the ecological hypothesis for intrinsic spatial knowledge. It suggests that an individual's accumulated lifetime experiences of being tall and his or her constant interactions with ground-based objects not only determine intrinsic spatial knowledge but also endow him or her with an advantage in spatial ability in the intermediate distance range. PMID:27602402

  9. Gap between technically accurate information and socially appropriate information for structural health monitoring system installed into tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mita, Akira

    2016-04-01

    The importance of the structural health monitoring system for tall buildings is now widely recognized by at least structural engineers and managers at large real estate companies to ensure the structural safety immediately after a large earthquake and appeal the quantitative safety of buildings to potential tenants. Some leading real estate companies decided to install the system into all tall buildings. Considering this tendency, a pilot project for the west area of Shinjuku Station supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency was started by the author team to explore a possibility of using the system to provide safe spaces for commuters and residents. The system was installed into six tall buildings. From our experience, it turned out that viewing only from technological aspects was not sufficient for the system to be accepted and to be really useful. Safe spaces require not only the structural safety but also the soundness of key functions of the building. We need help from social scientists, medical doctors, city planners etc. to further improve the integrity of the system.

  10. Influence of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Ali; Gürü, Metin; Altiparmak, Duran

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate influences of tall oil biodiesel with Mg and Mo based fuel additives on diesel engine performance and emission. Tall oil resinic acids were reacted with MgO and MoO(2) stoichiometrically for the production of metal-based fuel additives (combustion catalysts). The metal-based additives were added into tall oil biodiesel (B60) at the rate of 4 micromol/l, 8 micromol/l and 12 micromol/l for preparing test fuels. In general, both of the metal-based additives improved flash point, pour point and viscosity of the biodiesel fuel, depending on the rate of additives. A single cylinder DI diesel engine was used in the tests. Engine performance values did not change significantly with biodiesel fuels, but exhaust emission profile was improved. CO emissions and smoke opacity decreased by 56.42% and by 30.43%, respectively. In general, low NO(x) and CO(2) emissions were measured with the biodiesel fuels.

  11. Building Integrated Active Flow Control: Improving the Aerodynamic Performance of Tall Buildings Using Fluid-Based Aerodynamic Modification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menicovich, David

    By 2050 an estimated 9 billion people will inhabit planet earth and almost all the growth in the next 40 years will be in urban areas putting tremendous pressure on creating sustainable cities. The rapid increase in population, rise in land value and decrease in plot sizes in cities around the world positions tall or more importantly slender buildings as the best suited building typology to address the increasingly critical demand for space in this pressing urbanization trend. However, the majority of new tall building urban developments have not followed principles of environmental and/or sustainable design and incentives to innovate, both technological and economic, are urgently required. The biggest climatic challenge to the design, construction and performance of tall buildings is wind sensitivity. This challenge is further emphasized seeing two market driven trends: on one hand as urban population grows, land value rises while plot sizes decrease; on the other, more cost effective modular construction techniques are introducing much lighter tall building structures. The combination of the two suggests a potential increase in the slenderness ratio of tall buildings (typically less than 6:1 but stretching to 20:1 in the near future) where not-so-tall but much lighter buildings will be the bulk of new construction in densely populated cities, providing affordable housing in the face of fast urbanization but also introducing wind sensitivity which was previously the problem of a very limited number of super tall buildings to a much larger number of buildings and communities. The proposed research aims to investigate a novel approach to the interaction between tall buildings and their environment. Through this approach the research proposes a new relationship between buildings and the flows around, through and inside them, where buildings could adapt to better control and manage the air flow around them, and consequently produce significant opportunities to reduce

  12. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety).

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.).

  13. Constraints on carbon monoxide emissions based on tall tower measurements in the US Upper Midwest.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Youn; Millet, Dylan B; Hu, Lu; Mohr, Michael J; Griffis, Tim J; Wen, Deyong; Lin, John C; Miller, Scot M; Longo, Marcos

    2013-08-01

    We interpret a full year of high-frequency CO measurements from a tall tower in the U.S. Upper Midwest with a time-reversed Lagrangian Particle Dispersion Model (STILT LPDM) and an Eulerian chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem CTM) to develop top-down constraints on U.S. CO sources in 2009. Our best estimate is that anthropogenic CO emissions in the U.S. Upper Midwest in 2009 were 2.9 Tg, 61% lower (a posteriori scale factor of 0.39) than our a priori prediction based on the U.S. EPA's National Emission Inventory for 2005 (NEI 2005). If the same bias applies across the contiguous U.S., the inferred CO emissions are 26 Tg/y, compared to the a priori estimate of 66 Tg/y. This discrepancy is significantly greater than would be expected based solely on emission decreases between 2005 and 2009 (EPA estimate: 23% decrease). Model transport error is an important source of uncertainty in the analysis, and we employ an ensemble of sensitivity runs using multiple meteorological data sets and model configurations to assess its impact on our results. A posteriori scale factors for the U.S. anthropogenic CO source from these sensitivity runs range from 0.22 to 0.64, corresponding to emissions of 1.6-4.8 Tg/y for the U.S. Upper Midwest and 15-42 Tg/y for the contiguous U.S. The data have limited sensitivity for constraining biomass + biofuel burning emissions and photochemical CO production from precursor organic compounds. Our finding of a NEI 2005 overestimate of CO emissions is consistent with recent assessments for individual cities and with earlier analyses based on the NEI 1999, implying the need for a better mechanism for refining such bottom-up emission estimates in response to top-down constraints.

  14. The Amazon tall tower observatory (ATTO) site - Multi-year aerosol observations and scientific key questions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pöhlker, C.; Barbosa, H. M.; Brito, J.; Carbone, S.; Chi, X.; Kesselmeier, J.; Ditas, F.; Pöhlker, M. L.; Manzi, A. O.; Moran, D.; Poeschl, U.; Ruckteschler, N.; Saturno, J.; Soergel, M.; Su, H.; Walter, D.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Z.; Weber, B.; Wolff, S.; Yanez-Serrano, A. M.; Artaxo, P.; Andreae, M. O.

    2015-12-01

    The Amazon tall tower observatory site is located 150 km NE of Manaus in undisturbed rain forest areas. It serves as a remote measurement station in the Amazon forest with continuous aerosol, trace gas, micrometeorological, and ecological measurements. During part of the rainy season, the atmospheric state approximates pre-industrial conditions, in strong contrast to the dry season, which is dominated by significant pollution from deforestation fires and urban emissions. This presentation will focus on aerosol studies of the past three years. It aims to provide a brief overview of the characteristic seasonality of the aerosol burden at the ATTO site. Moreover, it will discuss the following key questions and current results of the ongoing observations: (i) During the wet season and in the absence of long-range advection of African aerosols, atmospheric conditions at the ATTO site approximate a pristine state, which reveals the genuine contribution of biogenic aerosols. Biogenic particles in the super- and submicron range have been observed and their properties as well as potential sources will be discussed. (ii) In contrast to the classical new particle formation, the occurrence of ultrafine particles is comparably sparse and mainly occurs as short 'bursts', indicating a rather localized character. Our current understanding of this phenomenon and its significance for the overall aerosol burden will be addressed. (iii) Aerosol absorptivity is mainly caused by black carbon, however, indications for the presence of other light absorbing aerosol species have been found. Current results on light absorbing aerosol under clean and polluted conditions will be presented. (iv) Aerosol particles at the ATTO site are typically strongly aged and comprise pronounced internal mixtures, with important implications for their properties. Microspectroscopic analysis helps to obtain insights into atmospheric processing and its impact on particle morphology and phase state.

  15. Tall Tower Wind Energy Monitoring and Numerical Model Validation in Northern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Koracin, D.; Kaplan, M.; Smith, C.; McCurdy, G.; Wolf, A.; McCord, T.; King, K.; Belu, R.; Horvath, K.

    2015-10-01

    The main objectives of this project were to conduct a tall-tower and sodar field campaign in complex terrain, investigate wind properties relevant to wind energy assessment, and evaluate high-resolution models with fixed and adaptive grid structures. Two 60-m towers at Virginia Peak ridges near Washoe Valley, Nevada, were instrumented with cup and vane anemometers as well as sonic anemometers, and an acoustic sounder (hereafter sodar) was installed near one of the towers. The towers were located 2,700 m apart with a vertical distance of 140 m elevation between their bases. Each tower had a downhill exposure of rolling complex terrain, with the nearby valley floor 3,200 m to the west and 800 m below the summit. Cup anemometers were installed at both towers at 20, 40, and 60 m, wind vanes at 20 and 60 m, and sonic anemometers at 20 and 60 m. The sodar measurements were nominally provided every 10 m in vertical distance from 40 to 200 m with the quality of the data generally decreasing with height. Surface air temperature, atmospheric pressure, and radiation measurements were conducted at 1.5 m AGL at both of the towers. Although the plan was to conduct a 1-year period of data collection, we extended the period (October 5, 2012 through February 24, 2014) to cover for possible data loss from instrument or communication problems. We also present a preliminary analysis of the towers and sodar data, including a detailed inventory of available and missing data as well as outliers. The analysis additionally includes calculation of the Weibull parameters, turbulence intensity, and initial computation of wind power density at various heights.

  16. Measurements of greenhouse gases at Beromünster tall-tower station in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayalneh Berhanu, Tesfaye; Satar, Ece; Schanda, Rudiger; Nyfeler, Peter; Moret, Hanspeter; Brunner, Dominik; Oney, Brian; Leuenberger, Markus

    2016-06-01

    In order to constrain the regional flux of greenhouse gases, an automated measurement system was built on an old radio tower at Beromünster, Switzerland. The measurement system has been running since November 2012 as part of the Swiss greenhouse gases monitoring network (CarboCount-CH), which is composed of four measurement sites across the country. The Beromünster tall tower has five sampling lines with inlets at 12.5, 44.6, 71.5, 131.6, and 212.5 m above ground level, and it is equipped with a Picarro cavity ring-down spectrometer (CRDS) analyzer (G-2401), which continuously measures CO, CO2, CH4, and H2O. Sensors for detection of wind speed and direction, air temperature, barometric pressure, and humidity have also been installed at each height level. We have observed a non-negligible temperature effect in the calibration measurements, which was found to be dependent on the type of cylinder (steel or aluminum) as well as trace gas species (strongest for CO). From a target gas of known mixing ratio that has been measured once a day, we have calculated a long-term reproducibility of 2.79 ppb, 0.05 ppm, and 0.29 ppb for CO, CO2, and CH4, respectively, over 19 months of measurements. The values obtained for CO2 and CH4 are compliant with the WMO recommendations, while the value calculated for CO is higher than the recommendation. Since the installation of an air-conditioning system recently at the measurement cabin, we have acquired better temperature stability of the measurement system, but no significant improvement was observed in the measurement precision inferred from the target gas measurements. Therefore, it seems that the observed higher variation in CO measurements is associated with the instrumental noise, compatible with the precision provided by the manufacturer.

  17. Measurements of greenhouse gases at Beromünster tall tower station in Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berhanu, T. A.; Satar, E.; Schanda, R.; Nyfeler, P.; Moret, H.; Brunner, D.; Oney, B.; Leuenberger, M.

    2015-10-01

    In order to constrain the regional flux of greenhouse gases, an automated measurement system was built on an old radio tower at Beromünster, Switzerland. The measurement system has been running since November 2012 as part of the Swiss greenhouse gases monitoring network (CARBOCOUNT-CH), which is composed of four measurement sites across the country. The Beromünster tall tower has five sampling lines with inlets at 12.5, 44.6, 71.5, 131.6 and 212.5 m a.g.l., and it is equipped with a Picarro CRDS analyzer (G-2401), which continuously measures CO, CO2, CH4 and H2O. Sensors for detection of wind speed and direction, air temperature, barometric pressure, and humidity have also been installed at each height level. We have observed a non-negligible temperature effect in the calibration measurements, which was found to be dependent on the type of cylinder (steel or aluminum) as well as trace gas species (strongest for CO). From a target gas of known mixing ratio that has been measured once a day, we have calculated a long-term reproducibility of 2.79, 0.05 and 0.29 ppb for CO, CO2 and CH4, respectively over 19 months of measurements. The values obtained for CO2 and CH4 are compliant with the WMO recommendations, while the value calculated for CO is higher than the recommendation, which is mainly due to the above mentioned temperature effects.

  18. Wind load analysis of tall chimneys with piled raft foundation considering the flexibility of soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayalekshmi, B. R.; Jisha, S. V.; Shivashankar, R.

    2015-06-01

    Soil-structure interaction (SSI) analysis was carried out for tall reinforced concrete chimneys with piled raft foundation subjected to wind loads. To understand the significance of SSI, four types of soil were considered based on different material properties. Chimneys of different elevations and different ratios of height to base diameter of chimney were selected for the parametric study. The thickness of raft of piled raft foundation was also varied based on different ratios of outer diameter to thickness of raft. The chimneys were assumed to be located in open terrain and subjected to a maximum wind speed of 50 m/s. The along-wind and across-wind loads were computed according to IS: 4998 (Part 1)-1992 and applied along the height of the chimney. The analysis was carried out using three-dimensional finite element technique based on the direct method of SSI. The linear elastic material behaviour was assumed for the integrated chimney-foundation-soil system. The radial and tangential moments, lateral deflection and base moment of chimney were evaluated through SSI analysis and compared with the response obtained from chimney with fixed base. The base moment of chimney considerably reduces due to the effect of SSI. It is found that the variation of different responses in chimney due to the effect of SSI depends significantly on the geometrical properties of chimney and foundations. The response variation at base for a distance of 1/40th of the height of chimney should be considered for a safe design.

  19. Modern pollen-rain characteristics of tall terra firme moist evergreen forest, southern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosling, William D.; Mayle, Francis E.; Tate, Nicholas J.; Killeen, Timothy J.

    2005-11-01

    The paucity of modern pollen-rain data from Amazonia constitutes a significant barrier to understanding the Late Quaternary vegetation history of this globally important tropical forest region. Here, we present the first modern pollen-rain data for tall terra firme moist evergreen Amazon forest, collected between 1999 and 2001 from artificial pollen traps within a 500 × 20 m permanent study plot (14°34'50″S, 60°49'48″W) in Noel Kempff Mercado National Park (NE Bolivia). Spearman's rank correlations were performed to assess the extent of spatial and inter-annual variability in the pollen rain, whilst statistically distinctive taxa were identified using Principal Components Analysis (PCA). Comparisons with the floristic and basal area data of the plot (stems ≥10 cm d.b.h.) enabled the degree to which taxa are over/under-represented in the pollen rain to be assessed (using R-rel values). Moraceae/Urticaceae dominates the pollen rain (64% median abundance) and is also an important constituent of the vegetation, accounting for 16% of stems ≥10 cm d.b.h. and ca. 11% of the total basal area. Other important pollen taxa are Arecaceae (cf. Euterpe), Melastomataceae/Combretaceae, Cecropia, Didymopanax, Celtis, and Alchornea. However, 75% of stems and 67% of the total basal area of the plot ≥10 cm d.b.h. belong to species which are unidentified in the pollen rain, the most important of which are Phenakospermum guianensis (a banana-like herb) and the key canopy-emergent trees, Erisma uncinatum and Qualea paraensis.

  20. Tall shrub expansion facilitated by patterned ground in the northwest Siberian Low Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, G. V.; Epstein, H. E.; Walker, D. A.; Matyshak, G.; Ermokhina, K.

    2011-12-01

    We integrated field observations with a time-series of satellite imagery to identify key biophysical attributes associated with tall shrub expansion and increased vegetation productivity within a forest-tundra ecotone near Kharp, northwest Siberia. Comparison of high-resolution Corona and QuickBird satellite photography indicates that alder (Alnus fruticosa) cover increased by ~10% since 1968. Additionally, areas of sharply increasing productivity detected using a Landsat TM/ETM+ time-series for 1985-2009 are consistently co-located with expanding shrub stands. Field observations made in 2011 revealed that most of the shrub expansion has occurred in areas of patterned ground in which abundant mineral-dominated microsites ("circles") have been maintained by cryogenic disturbance. In order to test whether shrub expansion was facilitated by circles, we established a series of transects according to categories of alder stand age and circle density. Along the transects, we mapped the location of alders and circles, measured soil organic depth and leaf area index (LAI), and characterized plant communities. In recent expansion areas, young alders occur almost exclusively on silt-rich circles that lack vegetation and surface organic matter. Alder abundance and LAI increased with the total area occupied by exposed circles. Analyses using spatial statistics indicate that young alders tend to occur in evenly-spaced groups that mirror the spacing of circles. This distribution pattern persists in older alder stands, especially where circles are large and widely-spaced. Stands on closely-spaced circles quickly develop dense canopies and low species-diversity. Based on ground- and satellite-based observations, we conclude that the abundance of mineral-dominated circles at Kharp has facilitated rapid alder expansion and associated alterations in plant community structure, composition, and productivity. Physical processes in areas of patterned ground promote continuous, rather than

  1. Landscape-level terrestrial methane flux observed from a very tall tower

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Desai, Ankur R.; Xu, Ke; Tian, Hanqin; Weishampel, Peter; Thom, Jonthan; Baumann, Daniel D.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Cook, Bruce D.; King, Jennifer Y.; Kolka, Randall

    2015-01-01

    Simulating the magnitude and variability of terrestrial methane sources and sinks poses a challenge to ecosystem models because the biophysical and biogeochemical processes that lead to methane emissions from terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems are, by their nature, episodic and spatially disjunct. As a consequence, model predictions of regional methane emissions based on field campaigns from short eddy covariance towers or static chambers have large uncertainties, because measurements focused on a particular known source of methane emission will be biased compared to regional estimates with regards to magnitude, spatial scale, or frequency of these emissions. Given the relatively large importance of predicting future terrestrial methane fluxes for constraining future atmospheric methane growth rates, a clear need exists to reduce spatiotemporal uncertainties. In 2010, an Ameriflux tower (US-PFa) near Park Falls, WI, USA, was instrumented with closed-path methane flux measurements at 122 m above ground in a mixed wetland–upland landscape representative of the Great Lakes region. Two years of flux observations revealed an average annual methane (CH4) efflux of 785 ± 75 mg CCH4 m−2 yr−1, compared to a mean CO2 sink of −80 g CCO2 m−2 yr−1, a ratio of 1% in magnitude on a mole basis. Interannual variability in methane flux was 30% of the mean flux and driven by suppression of methane emissions during dry conditions in late summer 2012. Though relatively small, the magnitude of the methane source from the very tall tower measurements was mostly within the range previously measured using static chambers at nearby wetlands, but larger than a simple scaling of those fluxes to the tower footprint. Seasonal patterns in methane fluxes were similar to those simulated in the Dynamic Land Ecosystem Model (DLEM), but magnitude depends on model parameterization and input data, especially regarding wetland extent. The model was unable to simulate short

  2. Road pavers' occupational exposure to asphalt containing waste plastic and tall oil pitch.

    PubMed

    Väänänen, Virpi; Elovaara, Eivor; Nykyri, Erkki; Santonen, Tiina; Heikkilä, Pirjo

    2006-01-01

    Waste plastic (WP) and tall oil pitch (T), which are organic recycled industrial by-products, have been used as a binder with bitumen in stone mastic asphalt (SMA) and asphalt concrete (AC). We compared the exposure over one workday in 16 road pavers participating in a survey at four paving sites, using mixes of conventional asphalt (SMA, AC) or mixes containing waste material (SMA-WPT, AC-WPT). The concentrations of 11 aldehydes in air were 515 and 902 microg m(-3) at the SMA-WPT and AC-WPT worksites, being 3 and 13 times greater than at the corresponding worksites laying conventional asphalt. Resin acids (2-42 microg m(-3)), which are known sensitizers, were detected only during laying of AC-WPT. The emission levels (microg m(-3)) of total particulates (300-500), bitumen fumes (60-160), bitumen vapour (80-1120), naphthalene (0.59-1.2), phenanthrene (0.21-0.32), pyrene (<0.015-0.20), benzo(a)pyrene (<0.01) and the sum of 16 PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 1.28-2.00) were similar for conventional and WPT asphalts. The dermal deposition of 16 PAHs on exposure pads (on workers' wrist) was low in all pavers (0.7-3.5 ng cm(-2)). Eight OH-PAH biomarkers of naphthalene, phenanthrene and pyrene exposures were quantified in pre- and post-shift urine specimens. The post-shift concentrations (mean +/- SD, micromol mol(-1) creatinine) of 1- plus 2-naphthol; 1-,2-,3-,4- plus 9-phenanthrol; and 1-hydroxypyrene were, respectively, for asphalt workers: 18.1+/- 8.0, 2.41 +/- 0.71 and 0.66+/- 0.58 (smokers); 6.0+/- 2.3, 1.70+/- 0.72 and 0.27+/- 0.15 (non-smokers); WPT asphalt workers: 22.0+/- 9.2, 2.82+/- 1.11 and 0.76+/- 0.18 (smokers); 6.8+/- 2.6, 2.35+/- 0.69 and 0.46+/- 0.13 (non-smokers). The work-related uptake of PAHs was low in all pavers, although it was significantly greater in smokers than in non-smokers. The WPT asphalt workers complained of eye irritation and sore throat more than the pavers who had a much lower exposure to aldehydes and resin acids.

  3. Lightning electromagnetic environment in the presence of a tall grounded strike object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Yoshihiro; Rakov, Vladimir A.

    2005-05-01

    We have analyzed and compared distance dependences of electric and magnetic fields due to a lightning strike to a tall object and due to the same lightning strike to flat ground. In both cases, lightning was represented by a transmission line energized by a lumped voltage source connected at the channel attachment point. The resultant total charge transfer to ground was the same regardless of the presence of strike object. The electric field for the strike-object case is reduced relative to the flat-ground case at closer distances from the object. If we assume, in an idealized case, that the return stroke wave front speed is equal to the speed of light, v = c, the current reflection coefficient at the bottom of the strike object ρbot = 1 (grounding impedance Zgr = 0), and that at the top of the object for upward-propagating waves ρtop = 0 (characteristic impedance of the object is equal to that of the channel Zob = Zch), the ratio of the vertical electric fields on ground for the strike-object and flat-ground cases (electric field attenuation factor) will be d/√(d2 + h2), where h is the height of the strike object and d is the horizontal distance from the object. The corresponding ratio for the azimuthal magnetic field is equal to unity. We show that the ratio for either electric or magnetic field increases with decreasing ρbot (ρbot < 1), decreasing ρtop (ρtop < 0 except for the case of ρbot = 0), and decreasing v (v < c), and at larger distances can become greater than unity. We additionally show that the ratio of the far fields for the strike-object and flat-ground cases is given by (1 - ρtop) (c/v + 1)/(1 + ρgr), where ρgr is the current reflection coefficient at the lightning channel base when the channel terminates directly on ground. For realistic values of ρtop = -0.5, ρgr = 1, and v = 0.5c, this ratio (far field enhancement factor) is equal to 2.3.

  4. [Genetic variability of juniper tall (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) in the northern and southern limits of the natural distribution].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Nikolaeva, A V

    2013-01-01

    Genetic structure, subdivision and differentiation of six populations of juniper tall (Juniperus excelsa Bieb.) of the Crimean Mountains and of one population in Lebanon were investigated using 18 polymorphic allozyme loci as genetic markers. The high level of genetic variability of J. excelsa was established in the northern and the southern limits of its natural habitat. The mean values of the main indicators of genetic polymorphism were: P99 = 1,000, A = 3,167, H(E) = 0,370, H(o) = 0,405. Subdivision and differentiation of populations were low (F(ST) = 0,032, D(N) = 0,026) indicating similarity of their gene pools.

  5. Vasoconstrictive Responses by the Carotid and Auricular Arteries in goats to Ergot Alkaloid Exposure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiken, Glen; Flythe, Michael

    2014-11-01

    A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infects most plants of ‘Kentucky 31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and produces ergot alkaloids that cause persistent constriction of the vascular system in grazing livestock. Consequently, animals undergoing this toxicosis cannot regulate core body temperature and are vulnerable to heat and cold stresses. An experiment was conducted to determine if the caudal and auricular arteries in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) vasoconstrict in response to ergot alkaloids. Seven, rumen fistulated goats were fed ad libitum orchardgrass (Dactylis glomeratia) hay and ruminally infused with endophtye-free seed (E-) for a 7-day adjustment period. Two periods followed with E- and endophyte-infected (E+) seed being randomly assigned to the 2 goat groups in period 1 and then switching treatments between groups in period 2. Infused E+ and E- seed were in equal proportions to the hay such that concentrations of ergovaline and ergovalanine were 0.80 µg per g dry matter for the E+ treatment. Cross-sections of both arteries were imaged using Doppler ultrasonography on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 in period 1 and on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9 in period 2. Differences from average baseline areas were used to determine presence or absence of alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Carotid arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in both periods, and auricular arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in period 1 and on day 6 in period 2. Luminal areas of the carotid arteries in E+ goats were 46% less than baseline areas in both periods after vasoconstriction occurred, whereas auricular arteries in E+ goats were 52% less than baseline areas in period 1 and 38% in period 2. Both arteries in E+ goats in period 1 relaxed relative to baseline areas by imaging day 2 after they were switched to the E- treatment. Results indicated that goats can vasoconstrict when exposed to ergot alkaloids that could disrupt their thermoregulation.

  6. Variation in the expression of ergot alkaloids between individual tillers of perennial ryegrass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mace, Wade; Lunn, Kristy; Lloyd-West, Catherine

    2014-11-01

    Epichloë fungal endophytes of cool season grasses are well known to produce a range of alkaloids of benefit to the host. Some of these compounds are advantageous to agriculture due to qualities that promote pasture persistence (e.g. the loline class of alkaloids confer insect protection) while others are detrimental to the wellbeing of grazing livestock. The ergot alkaloids (e.g. ergovaline), produced in ryegrass and tall fescue associations, causes poor animal health in farming regions in many countries around the world and further study is required to improve our knowledge on this class of compounds. Here we present the application of a quantitative LC-MS/MS (liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry) method measuring eight ergot alkaloids (chanoclavine, agroclavine, elymoclavine, lysergol, lysergic acid, ergine, lysergyl alanine, ergovaline) produced by endophyte infected grasses, to monitor levels in individual tillers from multiple plants of a single cultivar of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne cv. ‘Grasslands Samson’) infected with a common toxic endophyte strain (Epichloë festucae var. lolii). Monitoring the expression in individual tillers allows an estimation of the variability within a plant (between tillers) as well as between plants. The study showed that there is significant variation in the concentration of the ergot alkaloids between tillers of a single plant, at or exceeding the level of variation observed between individual plants of a population. This result emphasizes the fundamental importance of robust experimental design and sampling procedures when alkaloid expression assessment is required and these need to be rigorously tailored to the hypothesis being tested.

  7. Vasoconstrictive responses by the carotid and auricular arteries in goats to ergot alkaloid exposure1

    PubMed Central

    Aiken, Glen E.; Flythe, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    A fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infects most plants of “Kentucky 31” tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) and produces ergot alkaloids that cause persistent constriction of the vascular system in grazing livestock. Consequently, animals undergoing this toxicosis cannot regulate core body temperature and are vulnerable to heat and cold stresses. An experiment was conducted to determine if the caudal and auricular arteries in goats (Capra aegagrus hircus) vasoconstrict in response to ergot alkaloids. Seven, rumen fistulated goats were fed ad libitum orchardgrass (Dactylis glomeratia) hay and ruminally infused with endophtye-free seed (E−) for a 7-day adjustment period. Two periods followed with E− and endophyte-infected (E+) seed being randomly assigned to the 2 goat groups in period 1 and then switching treatments between groups in period 2. Infused E+ and E− seed were in equal proportions to the hay such that concentrations of ergovaline and ergovalanine were 0.80 μg per g dry matter for the E+ treatment. Cross-sections of both arteries were imaged using Doppler ultrasonography on days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, and 12 in period 1 and on days 0, 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, and 9 in period 2. Differences from average baseline areas were used to determine presence or absence of alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction. Carotid arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in both periods, and auricular arteries initiated constriction on imaging day 2 in period 1 and on day 6 in period 2. Luminal areas of the carotid arteries in E+ goats were 46% less than baseline areas in both periods after vasoconstriction occurred, whereas auricular arteries in E+ goats were 52% less than baseline areas in period 1 and 38% in period 2. Both arteries in E+ goats in period 1 relaxed relative to baseline areas by imaging day 2 after they were switched to the E− treatment. Results indicated that goats can vasoconstrict when exposed to ergot alkaloids that could disrupt their

  8. FAK mediates a compensatory survival signal parallel to PI3K-AKT in PTEN-null T-ALL cells.

    PubMed

    You, Dewen; Xin, Junping; Volk, Andrew; Wei, Wei; Schmidt, Rachel; Scurti, Gina; Nand, Sucha; Breuer, Eun-Kyoung; Kuo, Paul C; Breslin, Peter; Kini, Ameet R; Nishimura, Michael I; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J; Zhang, Jiwang

    2015-03-31

    Mutations and inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted from chromosome 10 (PTEN) are observed in 15%-25% of cases of human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Pten deletion induces myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), acute myeloid leukemia (AML), and/or T-ALL in mice. Previous studies attributed Pten-loss-related hematopoietic defects and leukemogenesis to excessive activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mTOR signaling. Although inhibition of this signal dramatically suppresses the growth of PTEN-null T-ALL cells in vitro, treatment with inhibitors of this pathway does not cause a complete remission in vivo. Here, we report that focal adhesion kinase (Fak), a protein substrate of Pten, also contributes to T-ALL development in Pten-null mice. Inactivation of the FAK signaling pathway by either genetic or pharmacologic methods significantly sensitizes both murine and human PTEN-null T-ALL cells to PI3K/AKT/mTOR inhibition when cultured in vitro on feeder layer cells or a matrix and in vivo. PMID:25801032

  9. The clerodane diterpene casearin J induces apoptosis of T-ALL cells through SERCA inhibition, oxidative stress, and interference with Notch1 signaling.

    PubMed

    De Ford, C; Heidersdorf, B; Haun, F; Murillo, R; Friedrich, T; Borner, C; Merfort, I

    2016-01-28

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematologic malignancy that preferentially affects children and adolescents. Over 50% of human T-ALLs possess activating mutations of Notch1. The clerodane diterpene casearin J (CJ) is a natural product that inhibits the sarcoendoplasmatic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) pump and induces cell death in leukemia cells, but the molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity remains poorly understood. Here we show that owing to SERCA pump inhibition, CJ induces depletion of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium pools, oxidative stress, and apoptosis via the intrinsic signaling pathway. Moreover, Notch1 signaling is reduced in T-ALL cells with auto-activating mutations in the HD-domain of Notch1, but not in cells that do not depend on Notch1 signaling. CJ also provoked a slight activation of NF-κB, and consistent with this notion a combined treatment of CJ and the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide (Pt) led to a remarkable synergistic cell death in T-ALL cells. Altogether, our data support the concept that inhibition of the SERCA pump may be a novel strategy for the treatment of T-ALL with HD-domain-mutant Notch1 receptors and that additional treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide may have further therapeutic benefits.

  10. The clerodane diterpene casearin J induces apoptosis of T-ALL cells through SERCA inhibition, oxidative stress, and interference with Notch1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    De Ford, C; Heidersdorf, B; Haun, F; Murillo, R; Friedrich, T; Borner, C; Merfort, I

    2016-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive hematologic malignancy that preferentially affects children and adolescents. Over 50% of human T-ALLs possess activating mutations of Notch1. The clerodane diterpene casearin J (CJ) is a natural product that inhibits the sarcoendoplasmatic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) pump and induces cell death in leukemia cells, but the molecular mechanism of cytotoxicity remains poorly understood. Here we show that owing to SERCA pump inhibition, CJ induces depletion of the endoplasmic reticulum calcium pools, oxidative stress, and apoptosis via the intrinsic signaling pathway. Moreover, Notch1 signaling is reduced in T-ALL cells with auto-activating mutations in the HD-domain of Notch1, but not in cells that do not depend on Notch1 signaling. CJ also provoked a slight activation of NF-κB, and consistent with this notion a combined treatment of CJ and the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide (Pt) led to a remarkable synergistic cell death in T-ALL cells. Altogether, our data support the concept that inhibition of the SERCA pump may be a novel strategy for the treatment of T-ALL with HD-domain-mutant Notch1 receptors and that additional treatment with the NF-κB inhibitor parthenolide may have further therapeutic benefits. PMID:26821066

  11. Height and personality characteristics of 47, XYY males in a sample of tall non-institutionalized males.

    PubMed

    Dorus, E; Dorus, W; Telfer, M A; Litwin, S; Richardson, C E

    1976-12-01

    A sample of 471 enlisted men 183 cm or taller serving in the US Navy, Coast Guard, and Marine Corps was screened for Y-chromosome aneuploidy by use of quinacrine fluorescence of peripheral blood smears. Two 47,XYY males were detected, resulting in a prevalence of 00425 or approximately 1 in 236. The prevalence of 47,XYY males (00331) in a number of samples of tall, non-institutionalized males is significantly higher than the incidence in newborn males (00061), indicating that 47,XYY males are disproportionately represented in tall male populations. The 47,XYY males had significantly higher scores than 46,XY males on the Schizophrenia, Schizophrenia+1K, and Prejudice scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory and significantly lower scores on the Dominance scale. Since the probability that a randomly selected pair of subjects in the sample had four or more scale scores significantly different from the remainder of the group was greater than 05, it is possible that the differences between the 47,XYY and 46,XY males occurred by chance. On the other hand, one or more of these scales may measure personality dimensions on which non-institutionalized 47,XYY males may, in fact, differ from 46,XY males.

  12. Taci Is a Traf-Interacting Receptor for Tall-1, a Tumor Necrosis Factor Family Member Involved in B Cell Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xing-Zhong; Treanor, James; Senaldi, Giorgio; Khare, Sanjay D.; Boone, Tom; Kelley, Michael; Theill, Lars E.; Colombero, Anne; Solovyev, Irina; Lee, Frances; McCabe, Susan; Elliott, Robin; Miner, Kent; Hawkins, Nessa; Guo, Jane; Stolina, Marina; Yu, Gang; Wang, Judy; Delaney, John; Meng, Shi-Yuan; Boyle, William J.; Hsu, Hailing

    2000-01-01

    We and others recently reported tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and apoptosis ligand–related leukocyte-expressed ligand 1 (TALL-1) as a novel member of the TNF ligand family that is functionally involved in B cell proliferation. Transgenic mice overexpressing TALL-1 have severe B cell hyperplasia and lupus-like autoimmune disease. Here, we describe expression cloning of a cell surface receptor for TALL-1 from a human Burkitt's lymphoma RAJI cell library. The cloned receptor is identical to the previously reported TNF receptor (TNFR) homologue transmembrane activator and calcium modulator and cyclophilin ligand (CAML) interactor (TACI). Murine TACI was subsequently isolated from the mouse B lymphoma A20 cells. Human and murine TACI share 54% identity overall. Human TACI exhibits high binding affinities to both human and murine TALL-1. Soluble TACI extracellular domain protein specifically blocks TALL-1–mediated B cell proliferation without affecting CD40- or lipopolysaccharide-mediated B cell proliferation in vitro. In addition, when injected into mice, soluble TACI inhibits antibody production to both T cell–dependent and –independent antigens. By yeast two-hybrid screening of a B cell library with TACI intracellular domain, we identified that, like many other TNFR family members, TACI intracellular domain interacts with TNFR-associated factor (TRAF)2, 5, and 6. Correspondingly, TACI activation in a B cell line results in nuclear factor κB and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase activation. The identification and characterization of the receptor for TALL-1 provides useful information for the development of a treatment for B cell–mediated autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus. PMID:10880535

  13. A host plant genome (Zizania latifolia) after a century-long endophyte infection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longbiao; Qiu, Jie; Han, Zujing; Ye, Zihong; Chen, Chao; Liu, Chuanjun; Xin, Xiufang; Ye, Chu-Yu; Wang, Ying-Ying; Xie, Hongqing; Wang, Yu; Bao, Jiandong; Tang, She; Xu, Jie; Gui, Yijie; Fu, Fei; Wang, Weidi; Zhang, Xingchen; Zhu, Qianhua; Guang, Xuanmin; Wang, Chongzhi; Cui, Haifeng; Cai, Daguang; Ge, Song; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Qian, Qian; He, Sheng Yang; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Fan, Longjiang

    2015-08-01

    Despite the importance of host-microbe interactions in natural ecosystems, agriculture and medicine, the impact of long-term (especially decades or longer) microbial colonization on the dynamics of host genomes is not well understood. The vegetable crop 'Jiaobai' with enlarged edible stems was domesticated from wild Zizania latifolia (Oryzeae) approximately 2000 years ago as a result of persistent infection by a fungal endophyte, Ustilago esculenta. Asexual propagation via infected rhizomes is the only means of Jiaobai production, and the Z. latifolia-endophyte complex has been maintained continuously for two centuries. Here, genomic analysis revealed that cultivated Z. latifolia has a significantly smaller repertoire of immune receptors compared with wild Z. latifolia. There are widespread gene losses/mutations and expression changes in the plant-pathogen interaction pathway in Jiaobai. These results show that continuous long-standing endophyte association can have a major effect on the evolution of the structural and transcriptomic components of the host genome.

  14. A host plant genome (Zizania latifolia) after a century-long endophyte infection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Longbiao; Qiu, Jie; Han, Zujing; Ye, Zihong; Chen, Chao; Liu, Chuanjun; Xin, Xiufang; Ye, Chu-Yu; Wang, Ying-Ying; Xie, Hongqing; Wang, Yu; Bao, Jiandong; Tang, She; Xu, Jie; Gui, Yijie; Fu, Fei; Wang, Weidi; Zhang, Xingchen; Zhu, Qianhua; Guang, Xuanmin; Wang, Chongzhi; Cui, Haifeng; Cai, Daguang; Ge, Song; Tuskan, Gerald A; Yang, Xiaohan; Qian, Qian; He, Sheng Yang; Wang, Jun; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Fan, Longjiang

    2015-08-01

    Despite the importance of host-microbe interactions in natural ecosystems, agriculture and medicine, the impact of long-term (especially decades or longer) microbial colonization on the dynamics of host genomes is not well understood. The vegetable crop 'Jiaobai' with enlarged edible stems was domesticated from wild Zizania latifolia (Oryzeae) approximately 2000 years ago as a result of persistent infection by a fungal endophyte, Ustilago esculenta. Asexual propagation via infected rhizomes is the only means of Jiaobai production, and the Z. latifolia-endophyte complex has been maintained continuously for two centuries. Here, genomic analysis revealed that cultivated Z. latifolia has a significantly smaller repertoire of immune receptors compared with wild Z. latifolia. There are widespread gene losses/mutations and expression changes in the plant-pathogen interaction pathway in Jiaobai. These results show that continuous long-standing endophyte association can have a major effect on the evolution of the structural and transcriptomic components of the host genome. PMID:26072920

  15. Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K

    2010-02-22

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric stability exerts

  16. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs).

    PubMed

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E C; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O; Santos, Pedro Henrique A D; Ramos, Helaine Christine C; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics.

  17. Genetic Relationships among Tall Coconut Palm (Cocos nucifera L.) Accessions of the International Coconut Genebank for Latin America and the Caribbean (ICG-LAC), Evaluated Using Microsatellite Markers (SSRs).

    PubMed

    Loiola, Carina Mendes; Azevedo, Alinne Oliveira Nunes; Diniz, Leandro E C; Aragão, Wilson Menezes; Azevedo, Carlos Diego de O; Santos, Pedro Henrique A D; Ramos, Helaine Christine C; Pereira, Messias Gonzaga; Ramos, Semíramis R Ramalho

    2016-01-01

    The diversity and genetic relationships among two accessions of tall coconut palms collected in Brazil and seven accessions introduced from different geographic regions of the world were analyzed using 25 microsatellite primers, 19 of which were polymorphic and detected between 4 and 10 alleles per locus, with an average of 6.57. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.25 and 0.40 in the Rennell Islands Tall (RIT) accession to 0.54 and 0.62 in the Polynesian Tall (PYT) accession. The analysis of genetic structure resulted in the formation of five distinct groups. The first group was formed by the accessions Brazilian Tall-Praia do Forte (BRTPF), Brazilian Tall-Merepe (BRTMe) and West African Tall (WAT); the second group consisted of Malaysian Tall (MLT); the third group of RIT; the fourth group of Vanuatu Tall (VTT); and the fifth group of Rotuman Tall (RTMT), Tonga Tall (TONT) and PYT. The dendrogram based on the nearest-neighbor method detected the formation of two main groups and five subgroups, indicating that the genetic relationships of the accessions are based on their geographic regions of origin. The analyses revealed genetic relationships between the accessions collected in Brazil and the accession from Africa, and among palms from South East Asia and the South Pacific, confirming the common origin of these accessions. The information obtained in this study can guide decisions on germplasm conservation activities and the efficient selection of genetically divergent parents for use in coconut breeding programs in Brazil, which are attempting to select for disease resistance, mainly to lethal yellowing, among other characteristics. PMID:26974540

  18. Evaluation and comparison of dominant backscattering sources at 10 GHz in two treatments of tall-grass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoughi, Reza; Bredow, J.; Moore, R. K.

    1987-01-01

    A very-fine-range resolution Frequency Modulated-Continuous Wave radar, operating at X-band, was used to evaluate the primary backscattering contributors to the radar signal from a tall-grass prairie. Defoliation was used to help measure relative backscatter from various components of the canopy with both linear polarizations and at 30 deg and 50 deg incidence angles. Variation of the average returned power with incidence angle was greatest for the natural prairie at horizontal polarization and was the least for vertical polarization. Vertical polarization seemed to be more sensitive to the upper portions of the plants, whereas horizontal polarization was to the lower portions. Attenuation for horizontal polarization was only half that for vertical polarization. Dielectric measurements of the grass and some of the canopy components were conducted as well.

  19. Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I.; Su, H.

    1990-01-01

    The fraction, of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation, F sub ipar, is an important requirement for estimating vegetation biomass productivity and related quantities. This was an integral part of a large international effort; the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The main objective of FIFE was to study the effects of vegetation on the land atmosphere interactions and to determine if these interactions can be assessed from satellite spectral measurements. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well measurements of F sub ipar relate to ground, helicopter, and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F sub ipar and ground, helicopter, and satellite based measurements were taken at 13 tall grass prairie sites in Kansas. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements.

  20. Development, analysis and design of a 292 ft tall self-erecting flare tower for offshore application

    SciTech Connect

    Desai, V.; Srinivasan, N.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes the development of a 292 ft tall flare tower applicable for large offshore production facilities. First of its kind in a flare tower design, an innovative but well proven self-erecting technique is used. The technique aimed eliminating the transportation and erection costs. The structural concept is known as Self-Erecting Flare Tower (SEFT). In SEFT concept, the tower is segmented into a number of small manageable sections. A jacket type bottom section is used to support telescoping the tower sections. The design erection procedure, technical and functional feasibility of SEFT concept are discussed. At the end of this paper, a cost comparison study with conventional flare tower is given.

  1. Fuel additives from SO/sub 2/ treated mixtures of amides and esters derived from vegetable oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acid

    SciTech Connect

    Efner, H. F.; Schiff, S.

    1985-03-12

    Vegetable oils, particularly soybean oil, tall oil acid, or aralkyl acids, particularly phenylstearic acid, are reacted with multiamines, particularly tetraethylenepentamine, to form a product mixture for subsequent reaction with SO/sub 2/ to produce a product mix that has good detergent properties in fuels.

  2. Looking back in time: conducting a cohort study of the long-term effects of treatment of adolescent tall girls with synthetic hormones

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Public health research is an endeavour that often involves multiple relationships, far-reaching collaborations, divergent expectations and various outcomes. Using the Tall Girls Study as a case study, this paper will present and discuss a number of methodological, ethical and legal challenges that have implications for other public health research. Approach The Tall Girls Study was the first study to examine the long-term health and psychosocial effects of oestrogen treatment for tall stature. Results In undertaking this study the research team overcame many hurdles: in maintaining collaboration with treating clinicians and with the women they had treated as girls - groups with opposing points of view and different expectations; using private practice medical records to trace women who had been patients up to forty years earlier; and exploring potential legal issues arising from the collection of data related to treatment. Conclusion While faced with complex challenges, the Tall Girls Study demonstrated that forward planning, ongoing dialogue between all stakeholders, transparency of processes, and the strict adherence to group-developed protocols were keys to maintaining rigour while undertaking pragmatic research. Implications Public health research often occurs within political and social contexts that need to be considered in the planning and conduct of studies. The quality and acceptability of research findings is enhanced when stakeholders are engaged in all aspects of the research process. PMID:22168546

  3. Decrements in Children's Reponses to "Big" and "Tall": A Reconsideration of the Potential Cognitive and Semantic Causes. Kansas Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 5, No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gathercole, Virginia C. Mueller

    A decline exists in children's ability at ages 4 and 5 to accurately respond to the difference between polar adjectives such as "big" and "tall.""Taller" and "bigger" are both taken to mean "having a higher top point," rather than "bigger" meaning "greater overall mass." Two hypotheses are put forth to explain this. The "strong cognitive…

  4. Glyphosate resistance in tall waterhemp (Amaranthus tuberculatus) from Mississippi is due to both altered target-site and nontarget-site mechanisms

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A tall waterhemp population in a glyphosate-resistant soybean field, Washington County, Missisippi, was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate dose response experiments resulted in GR50 (glyphosate dose required to cause a 50% reduction in growth of treated plants) values of 1.28 and 0....

  5. Compositionality and Statistics in Adjective Acquisition: 4-Year-Olds Interpret "Tall" and "Short" Based on the Size Distributions of Novel Noun Referents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barner, David; Snedeker, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    Four experiments investigated 4-year-olds' understanding of adjective-noun compositionality and their sensitivity to statistics when interpreting scalar adjectives. In Experiments 1 and 2, children selected "tall" and "short" items from 9 novel objects called "pimwits" (1-9 in. in height) or from this array plus 4 taller or shorter distractor…

  6. Utilization of tall goldenrod by the tarnished plant bug (Hemiptera: Miridae) in the production of overwintering adults and as a possible winter food source

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tarnished plant bug, Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois), nymphs and adults were collected from tall goldenrod, Solidago canadensis L. var. scabra Torr. and Gray, in Washington County, MS during October and November 2008 and 2009. Adults were dissected to determine their reproductive status in o...

  7. 33 CFR 165.T09-0073 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010; Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010; Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI; Duluth, MN; Green Bay, WI; Sturgeon Bay...; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI; Duluth, MN; Green Bay, WI; Sturgeon Bay, WI; Chicago, IL; Erie, PA....

  8. Assessment of the spatial variability in tall wheatgrass forage using LANDSAT 8 satellite imagery to delineate potential management zones.

    PubMed

    Cicore, Pablo; Serrano, João; Shahidian, Shakib; Sousa, Adelia; Costa, José Luis; da Silva, José Rafael Marques

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available on the degree of within-field variability of potential production of Tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum) forage under unirrigated conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial variability of the accumulated biomass (AB) without nutritional limitations through vegetation indexes, and then use this information to determine potential management zones. A 27-×-27-m grid cell size was chosen and 84 biomass sampling areas (BSA), each 2 m(2) in size, were georeferenced. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers were applied after an initial cut at 3 cm height. At 500 °C day, the AB from each sampling area, was collected and evaluated. The spatial variability of AB was estimated more accurately using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), calculated from LANDSAT 8 images obtained on 24 November 2014 (NDVInov) and 10 December 2014 (NDVIdec) because the potential AB was highly associated with NDVInov and NDVIdec (r (2)  = 0.85 and 0.83, respectively). These models between the potential AB data and NDVI were evaluated by root mean squared error (RMSE) and relative root mean squared error (RRMSE). This last coefficient was 12 and 15 % for NDVInov and NDVIdec, respectively. Potential AB and NDVI spatial correlation were quantified with semivariograms. The spatial dependence of AB was low. Six classes of NDVI were analyzed for comparison, and two management zones (MZ) were established with them. In order to evaluate if the NDVI method allows us to delimit MZ with different attainable yields, the AB estimated for these MZ were compared through an ANOVA test. The potential AB had significant differences among MZ. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that NDVI obtained from LANDSAT 8 images can be reliably used for creating MZ in soils under permanent pastures dominated by Tall wheatgrass.

  9. Assessment of the spatial variability in tall wheatgrass forage using LANDSAT 8 satellite imagery to delineate potential management zones.

    PubMed

    Cicore, Pablo; Serrano, João; Shahidian, Shakib; Sousa, Adelia; Costa, José Luis; da Silva, José Rafael Marques

    2016-09-01

    Little information is available on the degree of within-field variability of potential production of Tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum) forage under unirrigated conditions. The aim of this study was to characterize the spatial variability of the accumulated biomass (AB) without nutritional limitations through vegetation indexes, and then use this information to determine potential management zones. A 27-×-27-m grid cell size was chosen and 84 biomass sampling areas (BSA), each 2 m(2) in size, were georeferenced. Nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizers were applied after an initial cut at 3 cm height. At 500 °C day, the AB from each sampling area, was collected and evaluated. The spatial variability of AB was estimated more accurately using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), calculated from LANDSAT 8 images obtained on 24 November 2014 (NDVInov) and 10 December 2014 (NDVIdec) because the potential AB was highly associated with NDVInov and NDVIdec (r (2)  = 0.85 and 0.83, respectively). These models between the potential AB data and NDVI were evaluated by root mean squared error (RMSE) and relative root mean squared error (RRMSE). This last coefficient was 12 and 15 % for NDVInov and NDVIdec, respectively. Potential AB and NDVI spatial correlation were quantified with semivariograms. The spatial dependence of AB was low. Six classes of NDVI were analyzed for comparison, and two management zones (MZ) were established with them. In order to evaluate if the NDVI method allows us to delimit MZ with different attainable yields, the AB estimated for these MZ were compared through an ANOVA test. The potential AB had significant differences among MZ. Based on these findings, it can be concluded that NDVI obtained from LANDSAT 8 images can be reliably used for creating MZ in soils under permanent pastures dominated by Tall wheatgrass. PMID:27510986

  10. Dependence of Wind Turbine Curves on Atmospheric Stability Regimes - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Tall Wind Farm

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K; Sharp, J; Zulauf, M

    2009-08-24

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, convective or neutral, mean wind speed (U) and turbulence ({sigma}{sub U}) may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 m to 120 m). This variation can cause a single turbine to produce difference amounts of power during time periods of identical hub height wind speeds. The study examines the influence that atmospheric mixing or stability has on power output at a West Coast North American wind farm. They first examine the accuracy and applicability of two, relatively simple stability parameters, the wind shear-exponent, {alpha}, and the turbulence intensity, I{sub u}, against the physically-based, Obukhov length, L, to describe the wind speed and turbulence profiles in the rotor area. In general, the on-site stability parameters {alpha} and I{sub u} are in high agreement with the off-site, L stability scale parameter. Next, they divide the measurement period into five stability classes (strongly stable, stable, neutral, convective, and strongly convective) to discern stability-effects on power output. When only the mean wind speed profile is taken into account, the dependency of power output on boundary layer stability is only subtly apparent. When turbulence intensity I{sub u} is considered, the power generated for a given wind speed is twenty percent higher during strongly stable conditions than during strongly convective conditions as observed in the spring and summer seasons at this North American wind farm.

  11. The molecular profile of adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia: mutations in RUNX1 and DNMT3A are associated with poor prognosis in T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Grossmann, Vera; Haferlach, Claudia; Weissmann, Sandra; Roller, Andreas; Schindela, Sonja; Poetzinger, Franziska; Stadler, Kathrin; Bellos, Frauke; Kern, Wolfgang; Haferlach, Torsten; Schnittger, Susanne; Kohlmann, Alexander

    2013-04-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive and heterogeneous disease. The diagnosis is predominantly based on immunophenotyping. In addition to known cytogenetic abnormalities molecular mutations were recently identified. Here, 90 adult T-ALL cases were investigated for mutations in NOTCH1, FBXW7, PHF6, CDKN2A, DNMT3A, FLT3, PTEN, and RUNX1 using 454 next-generation amplicon sequencing and melting curve analyses. These data were further complemented by FISH, chromosome banding, array CGH, and CDKN2B promoter methylation analyses. NOTCH1 was the most frequently mutated gene with a 71.1% frequency followed by FBXW7 (18.9%), PHF6 (39.5%), DNMT3A (17.8%), RUNX1 (15.5%), PTEN (10.0%), CDKN2A (4.4%), FLT3-ITD (2.2%), and FLT3-TKD (1.1%). In total, 84/90 (93.3%) cases harbored at least one mutation. Combining these data with CDKN2A/B deletions and CDKN2B methylation status, we detected minimum one aberration in 89/90 (98.9%) patients. Survival analyses revealed the subtype as defined by the immunophenotype as the strongest independent prognostic factor. When restricting the survival analysis to the early T-ALL subtype, a strong association of RUNX1 (P = 0.027) and DNMT3A (P = 0.005) mutations with shorter overall survival was observed. In conclusion, RUNX1 and DNMT3A are frequently mutated in T-ALL and are associated with poor prognosis in early T-ALL.

  12. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Messias, Carolina V.; Santana-Van-Vliet, Eliane; Lemos, Julia P.; Moreira, Otacilio C.; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius; Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5). S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL) did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM) did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000–10000 nM) through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts. PMID:26824863

  13. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Induces Dose-Dependent Chemotaxis or Fugetaxis of T-ALL Blasts through S1P1 Activation.

    PubMed

    Messias, Carolina V; Santana-Van-Vliet, Eliane; Lemos, Julia P; Moreira, Otacilio C; Cotta-de-Almeida, Vinicius; Savino, Wilson; Mendes-da-Cruz, Daniella Arêas

    2016-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a bioactive sphingolipid involved in several physiological processes including cell migration and differentiation. S1P signaling is mediated through five G protein-coupled receptors (S1P1-S1P5). S1P1 is crucial to the exit of T-lymphocytes from the thymus and peripheral lymphoid organs through a gradient of S1P. We have previously observed that T-ALL and T-LBL blasts express S1P1. Herein we analyzed the role of S1P receptors in the migratory pattern of human T-cell neoplastic blasts. S1P-triggered cell migration was directly related to S1P1 expression. T-ALL blasts expressing low levels of S1P1 mRNA (HPB-ALL) did not migrate toward S1P, whereas those expressing higher levels of S1P1 (MOLT-4, JURKAT and CEM) did migrate. The S1P ligand induced T-ALL cells chemotaxis in concentrations up to 500 nM and induced fugetaxis in higher concentrations (1000-10000 nM) through interactions with S1P1. When S1P1 was specifically blocked by the W146 compound, S1P-induced migration at lower concentrations was reduced, whereas higher concentrations induced cell migration. Furthermore, we observed that S1P/S1P1 interactions induced ERK and AKT phosphorylation, and modulation of Rac1 activity. Responding T-ALL blasts also expressed S1P3 mRNA but blockage of this receptor did not modify migratory responses. Our results indicate that S1P is involved in the migration of T-ALL/LBL blasts, which is dependent on S1P1 expression. Moreover, S1P concentrations in the given microenvironment might induce dose-dependent chemotaxis or fugetaxis of T-ALL blasts. PMID:26824863

  14. Low PKCa expression within the MRD-HR stratum defines a new subgroup of childhood T-ALL with very poor outcome

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Gloria; Rebora, Paola; Accordi, Benedetta; Galla, Luisa; Bresolin, Silvia; Cazzaniga, Gianni; Buldini, Barbara; Mura, Rossella; Ladogana, Saverio; Giraldi, Eugenia; Conter, Valentino; Kronnie, Geertruy Te; Valsecchi, Maria Grazia; Basso, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric T-cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (T-ALL) outcome has improved in the last decades, yet one patient in every four still relapses. Except treatment response and immunophenotype, few markers are reliably prognostic in pediatric T-ALL patients. Aiming to improve T-ALL risk stratification, we investigated a new candidate biomarker with potential prognostic relevance. A phosphoproteomic screening of 98 pediatric T-ALL samples at diagnosis had been performed using the high-throughput Reverse Phase Protein Arrays technique, which led to the identification of PKCαS657 as an activated protein with a broad variation among T-ALL samples. To evaluate PKCα potential as a prognostic biomarker, PKCα expression was analyzed using RQ-PCR in a cohort of 173 patients, representative of ALL2000-ALLR2006 AIEOP study. A threshold of PKCα expression with the highest discrimination for incidence of relapse was identified. Patients with PKCα down-regulation, compared to patients with PKCα levels above the threshold, presented a markedly increased cumulative incidence of relapse (43.8% vs. 10.9%, P<0.001), as well as a worse 4-year overall survival (66% vs. 87.9%, P=0.002) and event-free survival (53.1% vs. 85.2%, P=0.002). In particular, low PKCα expression identified cases with extremely poor outcome within the high-risk minimal residual disease (MRD) stratum, their incidence of relapse being of 69% vs. 15% in the high PKCα levels group. In a multivariate analysis adjusting for main prognostic features, PKCα proved to be an independent prognostic factor related to incidence of relapse. Very high risk patients within the high-risk MRD stratum, identified by PKCα expression, could be proposed for experimental therapeutic protocols. PMID:25026300

  15. Combined treatment with testosterone (T) and ethinylestradiol (EE2) in constitutionally tall boys: is treatment with T plus EE2 more effective in reducing final height in tall boys than T alone?

    PubMed

    Decker, Ralph; Partsch, Carl-Joachim; Sippell, Wolfgang G

    2002-04-01

    Estrogens have been shown to rapidly inhibit longitudinal growth in tall boys. To antagonize the initial growth accelerating effect of T, 41 boys with an initial height prediction in excess of 203 cm were treated prospectively with either T enanthate (TE) 250 mg/wk im in combination with ethinylestradiol (EE2) 0.1 mg/d taken orally for the first 5.8 +/- 0.47 wk (mean +/- SE) of treatment (group 1, n = 20) or with TE alone (group 2, n = 21). Patients were randomized to one or the other treatment regimen. Mean (+/-SE) predicted adult height was 206.8 +/- 0.7 cm in group 1 and 206.4 +/- 0.8 cm in group 2. Total duration of treatment was 16.1 +/- 0.8 months and 14.0 +/- 1.2 months in group 1 and 2, respectively (NS). EE2-induced side effects in group 1 (gynecomastia) were limited and fully reversible. No negative long-term sequelae were found at final height with respect to hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis activity and to testis volumes. Although there was a tendency to a lower initial growth velocity measured by knemometry in group 1 (0.30 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.38 +/- 0.05 mm/wk, NS), final height did not differ in both study groups (195.0 +/- 0.8 cm in group 1, 194.6 +/- 0.8 cm in group 2). Similarly, height reduction (initial predicted adult height minus final height) was not significantly different between the two groups (12.0 +/- 0.9 cm in group 1, 11.7 +/- 0.9 cm in group 2). In conclusion, the addition of EE2 during the initial treatment phase to high-dose T in tall boys has no significant effect on height reduction. The results of this clinical trial suggest that the initial growth inhibiting effect of EE2 on the epiphyseal growth plates is overridden by the long-term administration of high dose TE.

  16. Bovine lateral saphenous veins exposed to ergopeptine alkaloids do not relax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ergot alkaloid, ergovaline has demonstrated a persistent binding and sustained contractile response in several vascular models. It was hypothesized that different alkaloids isolated from tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) will contribute to this response differently. The objective was to compare ...

  17. Bovine lateral saphenous veins exposed to ergopeptine alkaloids do not relax

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The ergot alkaloid ergovaline has demonstrated a persistent and sustained contractile response in several different vascular models. It was hypothesized that different alkaloids isolated from tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) will contribute to this contractile response differently. The objective wa...

  18. Behavioral plasticity of a grass-feeding caterpillar in response to spiny- or smooth-edged leaf blades

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ontogenetic changes in feeding behavior of armyworms, Pseudaletia unipucta (Haworth), were compared on tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort] cultivars with spiny-, intermediate-, or smoothedged leaf blades to clarify whether the edge spines deter caterpillars, in which case release...

  19. Tall tower landscape scale N2O flux measurements in a Danish agricultural and urban, coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Lequy, Émeline; Loubet, Benjamin; Pilegaard, Kim; Ambus, Per

    2015-04-01

    Both technical and natural processes emit the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) into the atmosphere. The abundant use of nitrogen (N) as fertiliser increases the concentration of reactive nitrogen (Nr) in the atmosphere, the hydrosphere and in the biosphere, i.e. in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Surplus Nr is distributed across linkages to other spheres until most of it is emitted to the atmosphere as NO, N2O or N2. A complete estimate of the effects from human activities on N2O emissions must therefore include all emissions, the direct emissions and the indirect emissions that happen in interlinked spheres. For this it is necessary to assess the fluxes at least at the landscape scale. The episodic nature and the large spatial variability make it difficult to estimate the direct and indirect emissions in a landscape. Modelling requires not only to include the highly variable microbial processes in the ecosystems that produce N2O but as well the accurate simulation of lateral Nr fluxes and their effects on N2O fluxes in places remote from the primary Nr sources. In this context tall tower N2O flux measurements are particularly useful as they integrate over larger areas and can be run, continuously without disturbing the fluxes. On the other hand these measurements can be difficult to interpret due to difficulties to measure the small concentration fluctuations in the atmosphere at small flux rates and to accurately attribute the measured flux at the tower to the area that generates the flux, i.e. the source area. The Technical University of Denmark (DTU) has established eddy covariance N2O flux measurements on a 125 m tall tower at its Risø Campus as part of the EU research infrastructure project the 'Integrated non-CO2 Greenhouse gas Observing System' (InGOS). The eddy covariance system consisted of a N2O/CO quantum cascade laser, Los Gatos, Mountain View, CA, USA and a 3D sonic anemometer (USA-1), Metek, Elmshorn, Germany. The Risø peninsula lies at the

  20. Three years of vertically resolved CO2/CH4/CO measurements at the tallest tower in the Amazon - Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, Brazil)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valentin Lavrič, Jošt; Winderlich, Jan; Walter, David; Chi, Xuguang; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Heimann, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The 330 m-tall tower that is currently in its final phase of construction at the Amazonian Tall Tower Observatory (ATTO, Brazil; 2° 08'S, 59° 00'W), is the counterpart of the 304 m-tall tower of the Zotino Tall Tower Observatory tower (ZOTTO), located in central Siberia (Russia; 60° 48'N, 89° 21'E). The ATTO tall tower will extend above the atmospheric surface layer and the nocturnal stable boundary layer, and aims at delivering ground breaking findings that will be the basis for improved climate models. While awaiting the completion of the tall tower, a number of campaign or continuous pilot measurements are taking place on the ATTO site at and around the currently tallest Amazonian tower and mast (80 m a.g.l.). Since March 2012, we run continuous high precision CO2/CH4/CO measurements in an air-conditioned container at the foot of the 80 m tower. The sample air inlets are installed at five levels; 79, 53, 38, 24, and 4 m a.g.l. Two frequently calibrated CRDS analyzers (G1301 and G1302; Picarro Inc., USA) are used for measuring CO2/CH4 and CO/CO2, respectively. Even if due to proximity of our measurements to the canopy (~ 35 m a.g.l.) the data is influenced by local sources and sinks, it still provides a valuable insight into the diurnal and seasonal variations of the measured gas species. Additionally, the data set has proven to be also interesting combined with the parameters that are measured by other groups at the site in parallel either continuously or during intensive observation periods (e.g. VOCs, reactive trace gases, aerosols). A first analysis of the available data is presented. Our work was performed within the frame of the German-Brazilian project ATTO and supported by the federal government agencies BMBF and MCT (Grant number BMBF 01LB1001A). We acknowledge the fundamental support by the Max Planck Society, INPA and UEA. Special thanks go to the Amazonas State SDS/CEUC-RDS Uatumã.