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Sample records for endophyte-infected tall fescue

  1. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    As part of a large 2-year study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate the effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and ser...

  2. Vasoactivity and vasoconstriction changes in cattle related to time off toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research has indicated that serotonergic and a-adrenergic receptors in peripheral vasculature are affected by exposure of cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected (E+; Epichlöe coenophialia) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). The objective of this experiment was to determine the period of ti...

  3. Effects of fescue toxicosis induced by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on forestomach epithelial gene expression in Angus steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A previous report demonstrated that steers exposed to an endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract had altered rumen epithelial blood flow and decreased ruminal flux of VFA. Thus, this study was conducted to determine whether there are differences in gene expression related to VFA absorption betwe...

  4. Grazing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Alters Serotonin Receptor-Induced Contractility of Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Concurrent with grazing of endophyte-infected tall fescue is the consumption of toxic alkaloids that negatively affect cardiovascular function and result in fescue toxicosis. Vascular effects of ergopeptine alkaloids are mediated by stimulation of various biogenic amine receptors yet to be fully cha...

  5. Chemical suppression of seedhead emergence in toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue for improving cattle weight gain and physiology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures that were either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide to determine if suppression of seedhead emergence and maturity can increase average daily gain (ADG) and alleviate fescue toxicosis....

  6. Performance of Endophyte Infected Tall Fescue in Europe and North America

    PubMed Central

    Saikkonen, Kari; Phillips, Timothy D.; Faeth, Stanley H.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Saloniemi, Irma; Helander, Marjo

    2016-01-01

    Human assisted plant invasions from Europe to North America have been more common than the reverse. We tested endophyte-mediated performance of tall fescue in parallel three year experiments in Europe and the USA using endophyte infected and uninfected wild and cultivated plants. Experimental plants were subjected to nutrient and water treatments. Whereas endophyte infection increased tall fescue performance in general, the effects of endophytes on plant growth and reproduction varied among plant origins under different environmental conditions. Naturally endophyte-free Finnish cultivar ‘Retu’ performed equally well as ‘Kentucky-31’ in both geographic locations. All Eurasian origin plants performed well in the US. In Finland, plants established well and both cultivars survived over the first winter. However, winter mortality of ‘Kentucky-31’ plants was higher, particularly in fertilized soils in the subsequent winters. Our results suggest that tall fescue ecotype ‘Kentucky-31’ that flourishes in North America is poorly adapted to Northern European conditions. PMID:27284909

  7. Does fungal endophyte infection improve tall fescue's growth response to fire and water limitation?

    PubMed

    Hall, Sarah L; McCulley, Rebecca L; Barney, Robert J; Phillips, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue's ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E-), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E->E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e

  8. Fertility aspects in yearling beef bulls grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures.

    PubMed

    Schuenemann, G M; Edwards, J L; Hopkins, F M; Rohrbach, N R; Adair, H S; Scenna, F N; Waller, J C; Oliver, J W; Saxton, A M; Schrick, F N

    2005-01-01

    During a 2-year study, yearling beef bulls were used to determine the effects of grazing on endophyte-infected tall fescue on endocrine profiles, semen quality and fertilisation potential. Bulls were allotted to graze tall fescue pastures infected with Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+; n = 20 per year) or Jesup/MaxQ (Pennington Seed, Atlanta, GA, USA; NTE; n = 10 per year). Bulls were grouped by scrotal circumference (SC), bodyweight (BW), breed composites and age to graze tall fescue pastures from mid-November until the end of June (within each year). Blood samples, BW, SC and rectal temperatures (RT) were collected every 14 days. Semen was collected from bulls every 60 days by electroejaculation and evaluated for motility and morphology. The developmental competence of oocytes fertilised in vitro with semen from respective treatments was determined. Bulls grazing E+ pastures had decreased BW gain (P < 0.01), increased overall RT (P < 0.01) and decreased prolactin (P < 0.01) compared with animals grazing NTE pastures. Neither percentage of normal sperm morphology nor motility differed between bulls grazed on the two pasture types. Semen from E+ bulls demonstrated decreased cleavage rates (P = 0.02) compared with semen from NTE bulls. However, development of cleaved embryos to the eight-cell and blastocyst stages did not differ between the two groups. In conclusion, semen from bulls grazing E+ tall fescue resulted in decreased cleavage rates in vitro, which may lower reproductive performance owing to reduced fertilisation ability.

  9. Comparison of two ammoniation procedures to reduce the toxicity of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed fed to rats.

    PubMed

    Simeone, A; Boissonneault, G A; Bush, L P; Mitchell, G E

    1998-08-01

    To determine the effect of extending the duration of ammonia (2% dry matter basis) treatment from 1 to 5 wk on the toxicity of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed, 60 male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following six treatments during a 28-d trial: endophyte-free (E-), endophyte-infected (E+), 1 wk ammoniated endophyte-free (1AE-), 1 wk ammoniated endophyte-infected (1AE+), 5 wk ammoniated endophyte-free (5AE-), and 5 wk ammoniated endophyte-infected (5AE+) tall fescue seed. The concentration of total pyrrolizidine alkaloids (N-acetyl and N-formyl loline) of E+ fescue was reduced from 4203 micrograms/g to 3009 and 2533 micrograms/g by the 1AE+ and 5AE+ treatments, respectively. Ergovaline was lowered from 3.77 to 1.57 micrograms/g by 1AE+ and eliminated by 5AE+. Endophyte-infected treatment groups had depressed (P < 0.0001) daily feed intakes (DFI), daily weight gains (DWG), feed efficiencies (G/F), primary antibody responses, and T cell and B cell mitogenic responses than endophyte-free treatment groups. Ammoniation of endophyte-infected fescue seed improved DFI and DWG (P < 0.0001) and G/F (P < 0.05); however, there was no difference in performance criteria between the 1-wk and 5-wk ammoniation treatments. Endophyte-induced depressions in immune function were not alleviated by ammoniation.

  10. Horn fly larval survival in cattle dung is reduced by endophyte infection of tall fescue pasture.

    PubMed

    Parra, Leonardo; Mutis, Ana; Chacón, Manuel; Lizama, Marcelo; Rojas, Claudio; Catrileo, Adrián; Rubilar, Olga; Tortella, Gonzalo; Birkett, Michael A; Quiroz, Andrés

    2016-07-01

    The potential for using endophytic microorganisms in pest control has increased during the last 40 years. In this study, we investigated the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infection of cattle pasture upon the survival of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans, a major agricultural pest affecting livestock in many parts of the world. In laboratory assays, where cattle dung collected from endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue cultivar K-31 was used as the oviposition substrate, larval development was significantly reduced compared with development on cattle dung from steers that grazed uninfected (E-) tall fescue. Furthermore, studies with cattle dung supplemented with the alkaloid fraction extracted from the endophytic fungi revealed significant larval mortality, and HPLC analysis identified two alkaloids, peramine and lolitrem B. The development of larvae was shown to be significantly reduced in field-collected cattle dung. These results suggest that part of the toxicity of alkaloids contained in endophytes is transferred to faecal matter, causing an increase in mortality of H. irritans. These data suggest that endophyte infection of cattle pasture, i.e. modified pasture management, can significantly affect horn fly development. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. Comparison of two ammoniation procedures to reduce the toxicity of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed fed to rats.

    PubMed

    Simeone, A; Boissonneault, G A; Bush, L P; Mitchell, G E

    1998-02-01

    To determine the effect of extending the duration of ammonia (2% dry matter basis) treatment ti'om 1 to 5 wk on the toxicity of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed, 60 male Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following six treatments during a 28-d trial: endophyte-free (E-), endophyte-infected (E+), 1 wk ammoniated endophyte-fee (1AE-), 1 wk ammoniated endophyte-infected (1AE+), 5 wk ammoniated endophyte-free (5AE-), and 5 wk ammoniated endophyte-infected (5AE+) tall fescue seed. The concentration of total pyrrolizidine alkaloids (N-acetyl and N-formyl loline) or E+ rescue was reduced from 4203 12 g/g to 3009 and 2533 I-tg/g by the 1AE+ and 5AE+ treatments, respectively. Ergovaline was lowered from 3.77 to 1.57 12 g/g by 1AE+ and eliminated by 5AE+. Endophyte-infected treatment groups had depressed (P < 0.0001) dally feed intakes (DFI), daily weight gains (DWG), feed efficiencies (G/F), primary antibody responses, and T cell and B cell mitogenic responses than endophyte-free treatment groups. Ammoniation of endophyte-infected rescue seed improved DFI and DWG (P < 0.0001) and G/F (P < 0.05); however, there was no difference in performance criteria between the 1-wk and 5-wk ammoniation treatments. Endophyte-induced depressions in immune function were not alleviated by ammoniation.

  12. Postgraze assessment of toxicosis symptoms for steers grazed on toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture.

    PubMed

    Aiken, G E; Klotz, J L; Johnson, J M; Strickland, J R; Schrick, F N

    2013-12-01

    A 2-yr pen experiment was conducted using 12 different crossbred Angus steers each year to determine if short-term changes in prolactin concentrations, body temperature, and vasoconstriction reflect recovery from fescue toxicosis after steers that previously grazed toxic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] are placed on nontoxic feed. Groups of 6 steers from toxic endophyte-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue grazing treatments were blocked by BW for assignment to pens as a randomized complete block design with 2 replications. Two environments were implemented by initiating the experiment on 18 August in yr 1 and on 8 September in yr 2 for durations of 30 and 21 d, respectively. Rectal temperatures were recorded, jugular blood was collected for assaying serum prolactin, and cross sections of the caudal artery were ultrasonically imaged at selected time points to evaluate temporal changes in the response variables. Rectal temperatures in steers on the toxic endophyte pasture treatment declined (P < 0.05) linearly over time in yr 1 and 2 and were similar (P > 0.10) to those on endophyte-free treatment on d 30 in yr 1 and by d 15 in yr 2. Prolactin concentrations in steers on the toxic endophyte pasture treatment showed curvilinear increases (P < 0.05) over time and were similar (P > 0.10) to steers on the endophyte-free treatment by d 15 in yr 1 and by d 10 in yr 2. Luminal areas of the caudal artery in toxic endophyte steers were less (P < 0.05) than those in endophyte-free steers across all dates in both years. Results indicated that rectal temperatures in steers after they are removed from toxic fescue may decrease over time, but temporal changes in rectal temperatures could be affected more by prevailing ambient temperatures than by actual mitigation of fescue toxicosis. Prolactin concentrations in steers after they are removed from toxic endophyte tall fescue can increase and

  13. Ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease reticulo-ruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption from a washed reticulorumen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An experiment was conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen. Steers (n = 8) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes and received ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed (E+; 0.015 mg ergovaline•kg BW-1•d-1) or endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-) via r...

  14. Vasoactivity and Vasoconstriction Changes in Cattle Related to Time off Toxic Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue

    PubMed Central

    Klotz, James L.; Aiken, Glen E.; Bussard, Jessica R.; Foote, Andrew P.; Harmon, David L.; Goff, Ben M.; Schrick, F. Neal; Strickland, James R.

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has indicated that serotonergic and α-adrenergic receptors in peripheral vasculature are affected by exposure of cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected (E+; Epichlöe coenophialia) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). The objective of this experiment was to determine the period of time necessary for the vascular effects of ergot alkaloids to subside. Two experiments were conducted to investigate changes in vascular contractile response and vasoconstriction over time relative to removal from an ergot alkaloid-containing E+ tall fescue pasture. In Experiment 1, lateral saphenous vein biopsies were conducted on 21 predominantly Angus steers (357 ± 3 kg body weight) at 0 (n = 6), 7 (n = 6), 14 (n = 5), or 28 days (n = 4) after removal from grazing pasture (3.0 ha; endpoint ergovaline + ergovalinine = 1.35 mg/kg DM) for 126 days. In Experiment 2, lateral saphenous veins were biopsied from 24 Angus-cross steers (361 ± 4 kg body weight) at 0, 21, 42, and 63 days (n = 6 per time point) following removal from grazing tall fescue pastures (3.0 ha; first 88 days endpoint ergovaline + ergovalinine = 0.15 mg/kg DM; last 18 days endpoint ergovaline + ergovalinine = 0.57 mg/kg DM) for 106 total days. Six steers (370 ± 18 kg body weight) off of bermudagrass pasture for the same time interval were also biopsied on Day 0 and Day 63 (n = 3 per time point). Additionally, in Experiment 2, cross-sectional ultrasound scans of caudal artery at the fourth coccygeal vertebra were taken on Days 0, 8, 15, 21, 29, 36, 42, and 45 to determine mean artery luminal area to evaluate vasoconstriction. In both experiments, steers were removed from pasture and housed in a dry lot and fed a corn silage diet for the duration of biopsies and ultrasound scans. Biopsied vessels used to evaluate vasoactivity were cleaned, incubated in a multimyograph, and exposed to increasing concentrations of 4-Bromo-3,6-dimethoxybenzocyclobuten-1-yl) methylamine hydrobromide (TCB2; 5HT2A agonist

  15. Preference for tannin-containing supplements by sheep consuming endophyte-infected tall fescue hay.

    PubMed

    Bernard, M; Maughan, B; Villalba, J J

    2013-07-01

    Tannins may bind to alkaloids in endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue and attenuate fescue toxicosis. To test this hypothesis, thirty-two 4-mo-old lambs were randomly assigned to 4 treatments (8 lambs/treatment) in a 2 by 2 factorial design that included a basal diet of tall fescue hay [E+ or endophyte-free (E-)] supplemented with (TS) or without (CS) bioactive Quebracho tannins. The concentration of ergovaline in E+ fed in 2 successive phases was 65 ± 21 µg/kg (Phase 1) and 128 ± 4 µg/kg (Phase 2). After exposure to hays and supplements, all lambs were offered choices between TS and CS and between E+ and E- hays. During Phase 1, lambs offered E+ consumed more hay than lambs offered E- (P = 0.03). Lambs on E+/TS displayed the greatest intake of hay and the least intake of TS (P < 0.05). During Phase 2, when the concentration of ergovaline increased, lambs offered E+ consumed less hay than lambs fed E- (P < 0.0001). Lambs on E+/CS consumed less hay than lambs on E-/CS (P = 0.02), but hay intake by lambs on E-/TS and E+/TS did not differ (P = 0.96). Lambs preferred CS to TS during preference tests (P < 0.0001) and lambs on E+/TS ingested the least amounts of supplement TS and the greatest amounts of supplement CS (P = 0.001). Lambs offered E+ displayed greater body temperatures than lambs offered E- in both phases (P < 0.05). When offered a choice among the 3 hays, lambs previously exposed to E+ preferred E+ (low content of ergovaline) > E- > E+ (greater content of ergovaline; P < 0.001). Thus, decreased concentrations of ergovaline increased rectal temperatures, and affected intake of and preference for tannins and fescue hay. Quebracho tannins did not attenuate the effects of E+ on body temperature and feed intake. Ingestion of E+ reduced intake of quebracho tannins, suggesting that alkaloids in E+ antagonized ingestion of condensed tannins.

  16. The effects of steroid implant and dietary soybean hulls on estrogenic activity of sera of steers grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean hulls (SBHs), a co-product of soybean meal milling, have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants contain...

  17. Effects of cows grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue in late gestation on cow performance, reproduction, and progeny growth performance and carcass characteristics.

    PubMed

    Shoup, L M; Miller, L M; Srinivasan, M; Ireland, F A; Shike, D W

    2016-12-01

    Very little is known regarding the effects of cow exposure to toxic ergot alkaloids in late gestation and the subsequent, long-term effects on progeny. Therefore, the objectives were to determine the effects of grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue () or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue during late gestation on cow BW, BCS, hair coat score (HCS), respiration rates, milk production, and reproduction and on growth performance and carcass characteristics of progeny. Eighty gestating, Angus × Simmental cows (age = 6.68 ± 0.32 yr; 588 ± 16 kg initial BW; initial BCS = 5.66 ± 0.28) were stratified by initial BW and allocated into 8 pasture groups (10 cows/group) with 4 groups per treatment. Each group was allotted to 1 of 2 grazing treatments: toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue ('Kentucky-31'; E+) or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue ('Jesup MaxQ'; NOV). Cows were placed on grazing treatments at 110 ± 6 d prepartum (May 28, 2014) and remained on treatment until the end of the calving period (October 8, 2014; 23 ± 6 d postpartum). Cow BW and BCS did not diverge ( ≥ 0.15) at any time point among grazing treatments. However, cows grazing E+ had increased ( < 0.05) respiration rates and HCS and reduced ( < 0.05) prolactin concentration compared with cows grazing NOV. Calf birth BW, Julian calving date, milk production, AI conception rate, and overall pregnancy rate did not differ ( ≥ 0.23) by grazing treatment. In a subsequent grazing period of the progeny, dam grazing treatment did not affect ( ≥ 0.14) respiration rates, HCS, or prolactin concentration of the progeny when all progeny grazed E+ pastures. However, progeny born to dams grazing NOV tended ( > 0.06 to ≤0.10) to have increased BW at 70 ± 6 d of age, 205 d (adjusted weaning BW), and throughout the postweaning calf grazing period. Despite a tendency for BW to differ throughout the postweaning calf grazing period, finishing phase performance and carcass characteristics of progeny did

  18. The advantages of endophyte-infected over uninfected tall fescue in the growth and pathogen resistance are counteracted by elevated CO2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Liu, Hui; Wurihan; Gao, Yubao; Card, Stuart D; Ren, Anzhi

    2017-07-31

    Atmospheric CO2 concentrations are predicted to double within the next century. Despite this trend, the extent and mechanisms through which elevated CO2 affects grass-endophyte symbionts remain uncertain. In the present study, the growth, chemical composition and pathogen resistance of endophyte-infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tall fescue were compared under elevated CO2 conditions. The results showed that the effect of endophyte infection on the growth of tall fescue was significantly affected by elevated CO2. Significant advantage of E+ over E- tall fescue in tiller number, maximum net photosynthetic rate and shoot biomass occurred only under ambient CO2. With CO2 concentration elevated, the beneficial effect of endophyte infection on the growth disappeared. Similarly, endophyte infection reduced lesion number and spore concentration of Curvularia lunata only under ambient CO2. These results suggest that the beneficial effect of endophyte infection on the growth and pathogen resistance of tall fescue could be counteracted by elevated CO2. An explanation for the counteraction may be found in a change in photosynthesis and nutritive quality of leaf tissue.

  19. An Extract of Endophyte Infected Tall Fescue Seed Induces Vasoconstriction of Bovine Foregut Vasculature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An ethanol extract of tall fescue seed was produced to further understand the interactions of toxic compounds that cause fescue toxicosis. We hypothesized that the combination of alkaloids present in the extract would have a greater vasoconstrictive response than individual alkaloids. The objective ...

  20. Fungal endophyte infection increases carbon sequestration potential of southeastern USA tall fescue stands

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceous (Schreb.)) is often infected with a common toxic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) capable of producing alkaloids that affect grazing animal health, insect herbivory, plant production, and litter decomposition. The strength of these endophyte-associa...

  1. Metabolite and gene expression studies in endophyte infected and uninfected tall fescue under water deficit stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue plants symbiotic with the endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+), have better survivability and persistence under stressful conditions, especially under drought stress, than plants lacking the endophyte (E-). To understand more about the grass-endophyte interactions, how endop...

  2. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Genetic resistance to the effects of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Cassady, J P

    2015-12-01

    Forages are the base source of nutrition for any cow-calf operation. Forage types vary based on soil type and climate. Tall fescue () is the most commonly used cultivated grass for grazing beef cattle in the United States. This cool-season perennial is easily established; is resistant to drought, insects, and nematodes; and has the ability to withstand heavy grazing pressure. Most tall fescue varieties are infected with the endophyte fungus () that is essential for the plant's survival but detrimental to cattle performance. Ergot alkaloids are the generally accepted toxic agents produced by the fescue endophyte. Cattle that consume forages infected with this endophyte can develop fescue foot, fat necrosis, or fescue toxicosis. It is estimated that the beef industry loses over US$500 million annually due to fescue toxicosis through heat stress, reduced weight gain, suppressed appetite, and decreased reproductive performance. Other symptoms include a retained or rough hair coat and increased body temperature, which can be detrimental when animals are located in hot and or humid environments. Different forages and forage systems, feed additives, and animal management strategies have been tested through the years allowing the use of tall fescue in beef production systems while minimizing the adverse effects. An animal genetics approach needs to identify and select animals less susceptible to the ergot alkaloids. Research in this area reports that different cattle within the same herd can respond differently when grazing tall fescue, and evidence exists that breed type may also play a role in genetic tolerance to the negative effects on performance. Some studies have looked at the potential of identifying genetic markers that may assist in the selection of more resistant animals. From these studies, there is evidence that genetic variation does exist for resistance to the ergot alkaloids present when grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. Forage management coupled with

  3. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated ruminal epithelium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in VFA absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extr...

  4. Lateral saphenous vein responses to serotonergic and a-adrenergic receptor agonists increase with time off endophyte-infected tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research has indicated that serotonergic and a-adrenergic receptors in peripheral vasculature are affected by exposure of cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue (TF; Lolium arundinaceum). This study was conducted to investigate changes in vascular contractile response over...

  5. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  6. Case Study: Recovery from ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction for steers conditioned to grazing seedhead suppressed and unsuppressed pastures of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical seedhead suppression of toxic endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue can enhance steer performance and mitigate the adverse effects of ergot alkaloids on cattle physiology; however, it is not known if seedhead suppression can mitigate alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and improve post-graze pe...

  7. Vasoconstriction in horses caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed is detected with Doppler ultrasonography

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The hypotheses that endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (TF) seed causes vasoconstriction in horses in vivo and that ground seed would cause more pronounced vasoconstriction than whole seed were tested. Ten horses each received 1 of 3 treatments: endophyte-free ground (E–G; n ...

  8. Toxicity of Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Alkaloids and Grass Metabolites on Pratylenchus scribneri

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) is a perennial, cool-season turf and forage grass species in the United States that covers over 20 million hectares of pastureland. Neotyphodium coenophialum, an endophytic fungus associated with this cool-season grass, enhances host fitness and imparts pest resist...

  9. Ecophysiological responses of tall fescue genotypes to fungal endophyte infection and elevated temperature and precipitation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) can form a symbiosis with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala, whose presence can benefit the plant, depending on plant and fungal genetics and prevailing environmental conditions. Despite this symbiosis having agricultural, economic and ecological impor...

  10. Microarray Comparison of Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Tall Fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae: Tall fescue (Festuca arudinacea = Lolium arundinaceum) can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that are asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. In an effort to begin to dissect the hos...

  11. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs' feeding behavior and physiology.

    PubMed

    Villalba, J J; Spackman, C; Goff, B M; Klotz, J L; Griggs, T; MacAdam, J W

    2016-02-01

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume such as sainfoin attenuates the negative postingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-mo-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement with 2 legume species, sainfoin (SAN; 2.9% condensed tannins) or cicer milkvetch (CIC; without tannins) and a mixed ration containing tall fescue seed (50:30:20 seed:beet pulp:alfalfa) with 2 levels of endophyte infection (endophyte-infected tall fescue seed [E+; 3,150 ug/L ergovaline] or endophyte-free tall fescue seed [E-]). For a 10-d baseline period, half of the lambs were fed SAN and half were fed CIC and all lambs had ad libitum amounts of E-. In an ensuing 10-d experimental period, the protocol was the same except half of the lambs fed SAN or CIC received E+ instead of E-. Subsequently, all lambs could choose between their respective legume and seed-containing ration and between E+ and E-. Finally, an in vitro radial diffusion assay was conducted to determine whether tannins isolated from SAN would bind to alkaloids isolated from E+. All groups consumed similar amounts of E- during baseline period ( > 0.10), but lambs ate more E- than E+ during the experimental period ( < 0.05) and lambs offered SAN ate more E+ than lambs offered CIC ( < 0.05). Groups fed E- during the baseline and experimental periods had similar rectal temperatures ( > 0.10), but lambs fed E+ had lower rectal temperatures per gram of feed ingested when supplemented with SAN than with CIC ( < 0.05). Lambs fed E+ had greater concentrations of hemoglobin and more red blood cells than lambs fed E- ( < 0.05), but plasmatic concentrations of cortisol and prolactin did not differ among treatments ( > 0.10). All lambs preferred their treatment ration over their treatment legume, but lambs in the SAN and E+ treatment ate more legume + ration than lambs in the CIC and E+ (CIC-E+; < 0.05) treatment. All lambs preferred E- over E+, but lambs in the CIC

  12. Alkaloid Quantities in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue are Affected by the Plant-Fungus Combination and Environment.

    PubMed

    Helander, M; Phillips, T; Faeth, S H; Bush, L P; McCulley, R; Saloniemi, I; Saikkonen, K

    2016-02-01

    Many grass species are symbiotic with systemic, vertically-transmitted, asymptomatic Epichloë endophytic fungi. These fungi often produce alkaloids that defend the host against herbivores. We studied how environmental variables affect alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) from three Northern European wild origins and the widely planted US cultivar 'Kentucky-31' (KY31). The plants were grown in identical common garden experiments in Finland and Kentucky for two growing seasons. Plants were left as controls (C) or given water (W), nutrient (N) or water and nutrient (WN) treatments. For 8-10 replications of each plant origin and treatment combination in both experiments, we analyzed ergot alkaloids, lysergic acid, and lolines. In Finland, tall fescue plants produced 50 % more ergot alkaloids compared to plants of the same origin and treatments in Kentucky. Origin of the plants affected the ergot alkaloid concentration at both study sites: the wild origin plants produced 2-4 times more ergot alkaloids than KY31, but the ergot alkaloid concentration of KY31 plants was the same at both locations. Overall lysergic acid content was 60 % higher in plants grown in Kentucky than in those grown in Finland. Nutrient treatments (N, WN) significantly increased ergot alkaloid concentrations in plants from Finland but not in plants from Kentucky. These results suggest that the success of KY31 in US is not due to selection for high ergot alkaloid production but rather other traits associated with the endophyte. In addition, the environmental effects causing variation in alkaloid production of grass-endophyte combinations should be taken into account when using endophyte-infected grasses agriculturally.

  13. Effects of grazing stockpilied endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on growth and physiological indices of dairy heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] S. J. Darbyshire) is a cool-season grass grown on over 20 million acres of pasture land and hayfields in the Midwestern and Southeastern United States. A grazing trial was conducted to determine the effects of stockpiled tall fescue on the physiological and...

  14. The effects of a modified glucomannan on the performance of stocker cattle grazing endophyte infected tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To evaluate the efficacy of a modified glucomannan to mitigate fescue toxicosis, 45 Angus cross (BW = 281 ± 7.0 kg) steer calves were randomly assigned to nine 2-ha pastures of endemically-infected tall fescue in March of 2 yr and allowed to graze for 133 d. The 3 treatments were: non supplemented (...

  15. Steer and plant responses to chemical suppression of seedhead emergence in toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chaparral® herbicide (Dow AgroSciences; Indianapolis, IN) has shown to suppress seedhead emergence in tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] and potentially mitigate the adverse effects of fescue toxicosis. A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infec...

  16. Gene expression and metabolite analysis of endophyte infected and uninfected tall fescue clone pairs under water deficit conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) plants symbiotic with the endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+), have better survivability and persistence under stressful conditions, especially under drought stress, than plants lacking the endophyte (E-). To understand more about the grass-endophyte i...

  17. Use of different levels of ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed during heat stress to separate characteristics of fescue toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Spiers, D E; Wax, L E; Eichen, P A; Rottinghaus, G E; Evans, T J; Keisler, D H; Ellersieck, M R

    2012-10-01

    Studies of fescue toxicosis using whole seed diets show reduced feed intake and thermoregulatory ability, but much of the seed passes undigested through the animal. Cattle were fed ground tall fescue seed at different levels to potentially facilitate digestion and absorption of toxins and identify toxin sensitivity for major characteristics of the condition [i.e., hyperthermia, reduced feed intake (FI), reduced blood prolactin]. Steers (n = 18; 350 kg BW) were housed in the Brody Climatology Laboratory at thermoneutrality (TN; 19°C) and randomly assigned to daily diet treatments with either ground endophyte-infected [E+; low and high doses at 20 and 40 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d), respectively] or endophyte-free [E-; control at 0 μg ergovaline/(kg BW/d)] tall fescue seed. After 12 d at TN, animals received 2 d of transition to heat stress (HS; 36°C daytime, 25°C nighttime) and maintained for 14 more days. Cattle were fed twice daily at 0800 and 1600 h, with water ad libitum. Feed intake was measured at 0700 h, with skin and rectal temperatures, and respiration rate at 0600, 1100, 1600, and 2100 h. Blood was sampled on selected days for prolactin and leptin determinations. Steers fed ground E+ diet decreased (P ≤ 0.0001) FI below controls at TN, with no dose effect. Maximum FI reduction with E+ treatment was 25% at TN, with an additional 46% decrease during HS (P ≤ 0.05). By the end of HS, E+ FI increased (P > 0.05) to that of E-, suggesting recovery. Prolactin was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) in high E+ cattle below controls at study end. Leptin blood concentrations were unaffected by E+ treatment (P > 0.05) but was reduced (P ≤ 0.05) by the end of HS. Pattern of rectal temperature response to HS showed a more rapid initial increase and decline for both E+ groups compared with controls (P ≤ 0.05). Skin temperature was the only variable that identified E+ dose differences. Although there were no treatment differences at TN, skin temperature was lower (P ≤ 0

  18. Acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from endophyte-infected tall fescue does not alter absorptive or barrier function of the isolated bovine ruminal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Penner, G B; Walpole, M E; Klotz, J L; Brown, K R; Bush, L P; Harmon, D L

    2014-07-01

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in volatile fatty acids (VFA) absorption from the washed rumen of steers. Previous data also indicates that incubating an extract of endophyte-infected tall fescue seed causes an increase in the amount of VFA absorbed per unit of blood flow, which could result from an alteration in the absorptive or barrier function of the rumen epithelium. An experiment was conducted to determine the acute effects of an endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract (EXT) on total, passive or facilitated acetate and butyrate flux across the isolated bovine rumen as well as the barrier function measured by inulin flux and tissue conductance (G t ). Flux of ergovaline across the rumen epithelium was also evaluated. Rumen tissue from the caudal dorsal sac of Holstein steers (n=6), fed a common diet, was collected and isolated shortly after slaughter and mounted between two halves of Ussing chambers. In vitro treatments included vehicle control (80% methanol, 0.5% of total volume), Low EXT (50 ng ergovaline/ml) and High EXT (250 ng ergovaline/ml). Results indicate that there is no effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on total, passive or facilitated flux of acetate or butyrate across the isolate bovine rumen epithelium (P>0.51). Inulin flux (P=0.16) and G t (P>0.17) were not affected by EXT treatment, indicating no alteration in barrier function due to acute ergot alkaloid exposure. Ergovaline was detected in the serosal buffer of the High EXT treatment indicating that the flux rate is ~0.25 to 0.44 ng/cm2 per hour. Data indicate that specific pathways for VFA absorption and barrier function of the rumen epithelium are not affected by acute exposure to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue at the concentrations tested. Ergovaline has the potential to be absorbed from the rumen of cattle that

  19. Postgraze assessment of toxicosis symptoms for steers grazed on toxic and novel endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 2-yr pen experiment was conducted using 18 crossbred Angus steers each year to evaluate changes in body temperature, vasoconstriction, and prolactin concentrations in steers previously grazed on toxic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) as c...

  20. Disrupted hair follicle activity in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue in the summer insulates core body temperatures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids produced by an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects most plants of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) causes cattle to have rough hair coats during the summer and persistent vascular constriction that impedes heat dissipation via blood flow to peripheral tissues. Experi...

  1. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative post-ingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 4-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial arrangement with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SAN; ' 3% condens...

  2. Resistance of Endophyte-Infected Plants of Tall Fescue and Perennial Ryegrass to the Russian Wheat Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae)

    Treesearch

    S.L. Clement; K.S. Pike; W.J. Kaiser; A. Dan Wilson

    1991-01-01

    Fewer aphids of the Russian wheat aphid, (Mordvilko), were found on tall fescue and perennial ryegrass plants harboring systemic fungal endophytes than on endophyte-free plants in laboratory tests. These results indicate that enhanced resistance in some perennial grasses to D. noxia is associated with the presence of endophytic fungi.

  3. Interaction between a tannin-containing legume and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed on lambs’ feeding behavior and physiology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It was hypothesized that a tannin-rich legume like sainfoin reduces the negative postingestive effects of ergot alkaloids in tall fescue. Thirty-two 3-month-old lambs were individually penned and randomly assigned to a 2X2 factorial experimental design with two legume species (1-sainfoin [SF; tannin...

  4. Constriction of bovine vasculature caused by endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract is similar to pure ergovaline

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A mixture of ergot alkaloids does not increase the contractile response of peripheral bovine vasculature, but may increase the contractile response of foregut vasculature. Preliminary data indicated that an extract of tall fescue seed induced a greater contractile response in ruminal artery and vein...

  5. Effects of supplementing endophyte-infected tall fescue with sainfoin and polyethylene glycol on the physiology and ingestive behavior of sheep.

    PubMed

    Catanese, F; Distel, R A; Villalba, J J

    2014-02-01

    Tannins in sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) may bind to alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue [E+; Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] and attenuate toxicosis. If so, supplementing E+ with sainfoin will increase use of E+ by sheep, and polyethylene glycol (PEG)-a polymer that selectively binds to tannins-will reduce such response. To test these predictions, thirty-six 2-mo-old lambs were randomly assigned to 3 treatments (12 lambs/treatment). During exposure, all lambs were individually penned and fed E+ supplemented with beet pulp (CTRL), fresh-cut sainfoin and beet pulp (SAIN), or fresh-cut sainfoin plus PEG mixed in beet pulp (SAIN+PEG). Feed intake was measured daily. Rectal temperatures and jugular blood samples were taken at the beginning and end of exposure. After exposure, all lambs were offered choices between endophyte-free tall fescue (E-) and orchardgrass, and preference for E- was assessed. Then, all lambs were allowed to graze a choice of E+ and sainfoin or a monoculture of E+. The foraging behavior of lambs was recorded. When sainfoin was in mid-vegetative stage, lambs in SAIN ingested more E+ than lambs in CTRL (P = 0.05), but no differences were detected between lambs in SAIN+PEG and CTRL (P = 0.12). Sainfoin supplementation improved some physiological parameters indicative of fescue toxicosis. Lambs in SAIN had lower rectal temperatures (P = 0.02), greater numbers of leukocytes (P < 0.001) and lymphocytes (P = 0.03), and greater plasmatic concentrations of globulin (P = 0.009) and prolactin (P = 0.019) than lambs in CTRL. Some of these differences were offset by the SAIN+PEG treatment. When lambs were offered choices between E- and orchardgrass, only lambs in SAIN had greater intake of E- than lambs in CTRL (P < 0.001). When lambs were allowed to graze a choice of E+ and sainfoin, all treatments used E+ to the same extent (P > 0.05). On the other hand, when they grazed on a monoculture of E+, lambs in SAIN+PEG showed greater acceptance

  6. The Effects of Steroid Implant and Dietary Soybean Hulls on Estrogenic Activity of Sera of Steers Grazing Toxic Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pasture.

    PubMed

    Shappell, Nancy W; Flythe, Michael D; Aiken, Glen E

    2015-01-01

    Soybean hulls (SBHs) have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants containing estradiol (E2) and progesterone [implantation (IMP)], feeding SBHs, or the combination of the two. While the mechanism for amelioration was unclear, the SBHs were postulated as acting as a diluent of the toxic factors of the fescue. Alternatively, estradiol and phytoestrogens of SBHs might be acting through relaxation of the persistent vasoconstriction found in animals ingesting ergot alkaloids of endophyte-infected fescue. If so, estrogenic activity of serum of steers receiving SBHs, IMP, or a combination of the two should be elevated. Using the cellular proliferation assay of estrogenicity (E-Screen), estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs) were determined on both SBHs and the serum of steers from a previously reported study. Range of SBHs was 5.0-8.5 ng Eqs g(-1) DM (mean 6.5, n = 4 from different commercial sources of SBHs). At the rate fed, theoretically calculated blood E2Eq could be physiologically relevant (~80 pg mL(-1), based on 2.3 kg SBHs d(-1), 300 kg steer, 5.7% blood volume, and 10% absorption). Serum E2Eqs did increase in steers (P ≤ 0.05) with steroidal implants or fed SBHs by 56 and 151% over control, respectively, and treatments were additive (211% increase). Serum prolactin was also greatest for the SBH + IMP group (188 ng mL(-1), P < 0.05), concentrations comparable to values reported for steers grazing endophyte-free fescue. Prolactin in the SBH group was higher than IMP or control groups (146 versus 76 and 60 ng mL(-1), respectively). Still unknown is if additional E2Eqs from dietary phytoestrogens or exogenous sources of estradiol can further reduce symptoms of fescue toxicosis. The E-Screen assay was an effective tool in monitoring serum for estrogenic effects

  7. The Effects of Steroid Implant and Dietary Soybean Hulls on Estrogenic Activity of Sera of Steers Grazing Toxic Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Pasture

    PubMed Central

    Shappell, Nancy W.; Flythe, Michael D.; Aiken, Glen E.

    2015-01-01

    Soybean hulls (SBHs) have been fed to cattle pasturing on endophyte-infected tall fescue in attempts to increase rate of gain. Literature reports indicated some symptoms associated with fescue toxicosis were ameliorated by the use of steroidal implants containing estradiol (E2) and progesterone [implantation (IMP)], feeding SBHs, or the combination of the two. While the mechanism for amelioration was unclear, the SBHs were postulated as acting as a diluent of the toxic factors of the fescue. Alternatively, estradiol and phytoestrogens of SBHs might be acting through relaxation of the persistent vasoconstriction found in animals ingesting ergot alkaloids of endophyte-infected fescue. If so, estrogenic activity of serum of steers receiving SBHs, IMP, or a combination of the two should be elevated. Using the cellular proliferation assay of estrogenicity (E-Screen), estradiol equivalents (E2Eqs) were determined on both SBHs and the serum of steers from a previously reported study. Range of SBHs was 5.0–8.5 ng Eqs g−1 DM (mean 6.5, n = 4 from different commercial sources of SBHs). At the rate fed, theoretically calculated blood E2Eq could be physiologically relevant (~80 pg mL−1, based on 2.3 kg SBHs d−1, 300 kg steer, 5.7% blood volume, and 10% absorption). Serum E2Eqs did increase in steers (P ≤ 0.05) with steroidal implants or fed SBHs by 56 and 151% over control, respectively, and treatments were additive (211% increase). Serum prolactin was also greatest for the SBH + IMP group (188 ng mL−1, P < 0.05), concentrations comparable to values reported for steers grazing endophyte-free fescue. Prolactin in the SBH group was higher than IMP or control groups (146 versus 76 and 60 ng mL−1, respectively). Still unknown is if additional E2Eqs from dietary phytoestrogens or exogenous sources of estradiol can further reduce symptoms of fescue toxicosis. The E-Screen assay was an effective tool in monitoring serum for estrogenic effects

  8. Tall fescue ergot alkaloids are vasoactive in equine vasculature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mares grazing endophyte-infected (Epichloë coenophiala) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) typically exhibit reproductive dysfunction rather than problems associated with peripheral vasoconstriction as a primary sign of the fescue toxicosis syndrome. Research using Doppler ultrasonography demonstrate...

  9. Gene expression profiling indicates an increased capacity for proline, serine, and ATP synthesis and mitochondrial mass by the liver of steers grazing high vs. low endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Liao, S F; Boling, J A; Matthews, J C

    2015-12-01

    Grazing -infected forages results in a variety of reduced animal performance parameters, collectively known as "fescue toxicosis." The initial, limited evaluations of hepatic mechanisms affected by fescue toxicosis have used transcriptomic expression profiling of experimental phenotypes developed by short-term feeding of concentrated ergot alkaloids or fescue seeds to rodents and steers. To assess the effects of fescue toxicosis in growing cattle using a commercially relevant phenotype, we induced fescue toxicosis in beef steers by summer-long grazing (89 to 105 d) of a single high toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture (HE; 0.746 μg/g ergot alkaloids; 5.7 ha; = 10; BW = 267 ± 14.5 kg) vs. a low toxic endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture (LE; 0.023 μg/g ergot alkaloids; 5.7 ha; = 9; BW = 266 ± 10.9 kg). High toxic endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture steers had decreased BW (313 vs. 338 kg) and an increased potential for hepatic gluconeogenesis from AA-derived carbons. To gain a greater perspective into fescue toxicosis-induced hepatic metabolism and identify candidate regulatory mechanisms, the goal of the current research was to examine liver samples for changes in gene (mRNA) expression profiles using a Bovine Affymetrix microarray and selected reverse-transcription PCR and immunoblot analyses. The expression (false discovery rate < 10%; < 0.01) of 147 genes was increased (7 to 268%) and that of 227 was decreased (4 to 87%) in livers of HE vs. LE steers. The top (1) functional gene category was cell-mediated immune response (33 genes; ≤ 0.012), (2) canonical cell signaling pathway was primary immunodeficiency signaling (8 genes; ≤ 0.0003), and (3) canonical metabolic pathways were oxidative phosphorylation (5 genes; ≤ 0.016) and purine metabolism (8 genes; ≤ 0.029). High toxic endophyte tall fescue-mixed pasture steers had increased ( ≤ 0.022) expression of genes critical for increased (1) Pro () and Ser () synthesis, (2) shunting of AA carbons

  10. Interaction of Isoflavones and Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue Seed Extract on Vasoactivity of Bovine Mesenteric Vasculature

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yang; Harmon, David L.; Flythe, Michael D.; Klotz, James L.

    2015-01-01

    It was hypothesized that isoflavones may attenuate ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and possibly alleviate diminished contractility of vasculature after exposure to ergot alkaloids. The objective of this study was to determine if prior incubation of bovine mesenteric vasculature with the isoflavones formononetin (F), biochanin A (B), or an ergovaline-containing tall fescue seed extract (EXT) and their combinations affect ergotamine (ERT)-induced contractility. Multiple segments of mesenteric artery and vein supporting the ileal flange of the small intestine were collected from Angus heifers at slaughter (n = 5, bodyweight = 639 ± 39 kg). Duplicates of each vessel type were incubated in tissue culture flasks at 37°C with a 50-mL volume of Krebs–Henseleit buffer containing: only buffer (control); or 1 × 10−6 M EXT; F; or B; and combinations of 1 × 10−6 M EXT + F; 1 × 10−6 M EXT + B; 1 × 10−6 M F + B; or 1 × 10−6 M EXT + F + B. After incubation for 2 h, sections were mounted in a multimyograph chamber. The ERT dose responses were normalized to 0.12 M KCl. Pretreatment with F, B, and F + B without EXT resulted in similar contractile responses to ERT in mesenteric artery and all incubations containing EXT resulted in a complete loss of vasoactivity to ERT. In mesenteric artery pretreated with EXT, treatments that contained B had higher contractile responses (P < 0.05) at ERT concentrations of 1 × 10−7 and 5 × 10−7 M. Also, treatments containing B tended (P < 0.1) to have greater responses than treatments without B at ERT concentrations of 1 × 10−6, 5 × 10−6, and 5 × 10−5 M. In mesenteric vein pretreated with EXT, treatments containing F had greater contractile responses to ERT at 1 × 10−5, 5 × 10−5, and 1 × 10−4 M (P < 0.05). These data indicated that F and B at 1 × 10−6 M and their

  11. Case Study: Influence of Rough Hair Coats and Steroid Implants on the Performance and Physiology of Steers Grazing Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue in the Summer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixty-two steers were assigned to six, 3.0-ha pastures of toxic tall fescue to study the effects that implant progesterone and winter hair coat retention during the summer, a symptom of fescue toxicosis, has on weight gain and body heat dissapation. Either ten clipped or ten unclipped steers were ra...

  12. Effects of endophyte-infected fescue seed on physiological parameters of mature female meat goats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of the study were to determine if consumption of endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue seed would affect thermoregulation and dry matter intake (DMI) in mature female meat goats. During the 4 week study, goats (n = 18) were assigned to one of three treatments (n = 6 per treatment) and f...

  13. Feeding soyhulls on toxic tall fescue is option for stockers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poor weight gain and thriftiness of wean beef calves on toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue has resulted in most the 15 million hectares of tall fescue in the USA to be utilized for cow-calf and not stocker production. An article was written that discusses results of a grazing experiment with toxi...

  14. Tall fescue alkaloids cause vasoconstriction in equine medial palmar artery and vein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Mares grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) typically exhibit reproductive dysfunction rather than peripheral vasoconstriction as a primary sign of the fescue toxicosis syndrome. Recent work using Doppler ultrasonography demonstrated that consumptio...

  15. Pre- and post-weaning performance by cows and calves that grazed toxic or non-toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures prior to weaning

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The negative impacts on performance by cattle grazing tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] pastures infected with the wild-type endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+) are well documented and reviewed, but suitable remedies to mitigate these negative impacts are limited. Our objecti...

  16. Vascular activity increases with time off of tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle continue to recover from depressed vasoactivity (vasoconstriction) beyond 60 days after removal from endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture and after prolactin (an indicator of fescue toxicosis) had returned to physiologic levels. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of...

  17. Chaparral Herbicide Application for Suppression of Seedhead Emergence in Tall Fescue Pastures and Possible Alleviation of Fescue Toxicosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chaparral® herbicide has shown in small-plot experiments to suppress seed head emergence in tall fescue. A two-yr grazing experiment is being conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures that are either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide. The objective of the...

  18. Cellular composition and expression of potential stem cell markers in mammary tissue of cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and early lactation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We evaluated the impact of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late pregnancy on parameters of mammary development in Holstein cows. Cows (N = 16) were fed 10% of their ration as tall fescue seed that was free from (CON) or infected with endophyte (INF) from 90d before expected calving until ...

  19. Effect of rotation frequency and weaning date on forage measurements and growth performance by cows and calves grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures overseeded with crabgrass and legumes.

    PubMed

    Coffey, K P; Coblentz, W K; Scarbrough, D A; Humphry, J B; McGinley, B C; Turner, J E; Smith, T F; Hubbell, D S; Johnson, Z B; Hellwig, D H; Popp, M P; Rosenkrans, C F

    2005-11-01

    A grazing study was initiated in April 2000 and continued through three calving and weaning cycles (ending July 2003) to investigate the effects of rotational grazing management (twice monthly [2M] vs. twice weekly [2W]) and weaning date (mid-April [EARLY] vs. early June [LATE]) on production of fall-calving cow-calf pairs (495 +/- 9.6 kg initial BW) grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) overseeded with legumes and crabgrass. Secondary objectives of the experiment were to monitor differences in quantity and quality of available forage and to evaluate changes in forage species composition. Pastures were dominated by tall fescue throughout the study, and the proportion of basal cover was greater (P < 0.05) in 2M than in 2W pastures. The percentage of legumes was very low across all treatment combinations, but the percentage of crabgrass continued to increase (P < 0.05) linearly and quadratically across years for both summer and fall sampling periods, regardless of rotation or weaning program. In vitro DM disappearance and mineral concentrations varied minimally because of rotation frequency or weaning date. Rotation frequency did not substantially affect (P = 0.11 to 0.97) cow BW, hay offered, milk production, calving interval, calf birth weight, or actual or adjusted weaning weights; however, 2M cows had 0.3 units higher (P < 0.05) BCS at the time of breeding than 2W cows. Calves weaned late had greater (P < 0.05) actual weaning weight and weighed more (P < 0.05) on the LATE weaning date than on the EARLY weaning date, but 205-d adjusted weaning weights did not differ (P = 0.74) across weaning dates. Therefore, rotation frequency and/or weaning date had little effect on forage species composition or forage quality. In addition, the rapid rotation program offered little advantage with respect to animal performance, and weaning fall-born calves grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures at approximately 189 d of age

  20. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  1. USDA - Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG 8, Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Of the ergopeptine alkaloids produced by the endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) of tall fescue, ergovaline has been reported as the most abundant in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinacea). As a result much focus has been placed on ergovaline and its impact on grazing animal health (i...

  2. Additional hosts of Balansia-infected grasses in tall fescue pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In an effort to determine the host range of ergot alkaloid producing Balansia endophyte-infected weed grass species in pastures that might confound toxicity symptoms of cattle on tall fescue pastures during periods of drought and poor growing conditions of tall fescue. We report that two new weed g...

  3. Performance and Physiology of Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Concentrate Feeding and Steroidal Implants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fescue toxicosis has a negative impact on animal performance and physiology, but concentrate feeding and ear implantation with steroid hormones could mitigate problems in grazing yearling cattle on toxic tall fescue. Sixty-four steers were grazed on endophyte-infected (E+) ‘KY-31’ tall fescue for 7...

  4. Contractile response of bovine lateral saphenous vein to ergovaline serotonin2A a2A- and a2C-adrenergic receptor agonists relative to time off endophyte-infected tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research has demonstrated differences in contractile responses to ergot alkaloids, serotonin (5HT), and adrenergic agonists by lateral saphenous veins collected from cattle that grazed either endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected or endophyte-free tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum),...

  5. Animal and pasture responses to grazing management of chemically suppressed tall fescue in mixed pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Treatment of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] with metsulfuran-methyl can mitigate fescue toxicosis and enhance forage nutritive value by suppressing seedhead emergence. A grazing experiment was conducted with steers (2013) and heifers (2014) to evaluate a...

  6. Chemical Suppression of Seedhead Emergence in Endohyte-Infested Tall Fescue for Improving Steer Weight Gain and Physiology

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chaparral® herbicide has shown in small-plot experiments to suppress seedhead emergence in tall fescue. A grazing experiment was conducted with steers grazed on endophyte-infected tall fescue that were either treated or untreated with Chaparral® herbicide. The objective of the experiment was to de...

  7. Does Fungal Endophyte Infection Improve Tall Fescue’s Growth Response to Fire and Water Limitation?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Sarah L.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; Barney, Robert J.; Phillips, Timothy D.

    2014-01-01

    Invasive species may owe some of their success in competing and co-existing with native species to microbial symbioses they are capable of forming. Tall fescue is a cool-season, non-native, invasive grass capable of co-existing with native warm-season grasses in North American grasslands that frequently experience fire, drought, and cold winters, conditions to which the native species should be better-adapted than tall fescue. We hypothesized that tall fescue’s ability to form a symbiosis with Neotyphodium coenophialum, an aboveground fungal endophyte, may enhance its environmental stress tolerance and persistence in these environments. We used a greenhouse experiment to examine the effects of endophyte infection (E+ vs. E−), prescribed fire (1 burn vs. 2 burn vs. unburned control), and watering regime (dry vs. wet) on tall fescue growth. We assessed treatment effects for growth rates and the following response variables: total tiller length, number of tillers recruited during the experiment, number of reproductive tillers, tiller biomass, root biomass, and total biomass. Water regime significantly affected all response variables, with less growth and lower growth rates observed under the dry water regime compared to the wet. The burn treatments significantly affected total tiller length, number of reproductive tillers, total tiller biomass, and total biomass, but treatment differences were not consistent across parameters. Overall, fire seemed to enhance growth. Endophyte status significantly affected total tiller length and tiller biomass, but the effect was opposite what we predicted (E−>E+). The results from our experiment indicated that tall fescue was relatively tolerant of fire, even when combined with dry conditions, and that the fungal endophyte symbiosis was not important in governing this ecological ability. The persistence of tall fescue in native grassland ecosystems may be linked to other endophyte-conferred abilities not measured here (e

  8. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Coping with tall fescue toxicosis: Solutions and realities.

    PubMed

    Kallenbach, R L

    2015-12-01

    Beef cattle consume more tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.] than any other perennial cool-season grass in North America. Tall fescue forms a mutualistic relationship with the fungus (Morgan-Jones and W. Cams) C.W. Bacon & Schardl, comb. nov.; these plants are often referred to as endophyte-infected tall fescue. Agronomically, endophyte infection is good; endophyte-infected plants resist biotic and abiotic stresses better than do endophyte-free plants. However, tall fescue plants infected with a common toxic endophyte produce the ergot alkaloids that cause tall fescue toxicosis. Several agronomic practices can eliminate or reduce the effects of tall fescue toxicosis. Renovating tall fescue fields infected with a common toxic endophyte to new cultivars infected with a novel (or nontoxic) endophyte eliminates the problem for that field. Although the cost to renovate currently exceeds US$600/ha, most economic analyses show it to be a good long-term investment, especially on fields with high forage production potential. Less effective, but popular, methods of dealing with tall fescue toxicosis include adding clovers ( spp.) or other forage species to the pastures to dilute the effects of the toxins, avoiding the use of high rates of nitrogen fertilizers, feeding supplements, and rotating cattle to warm-season forages in summer. Also, the alkaloid concentration in forage can be reduced by making it (drying) into hay. Recent research shows that animal tolerance to tall fescue toxicosis is possible, although there is still much to learn about this topic. Tall fescue toxicosis is likely a reality in the beef industry for some time to come. We contend that renovation of the most productive fields to cultivars infected with a novel endophyte coupled with the prospect of using tolerant livestock in scenarios where renovation is not possible will give innovative producers a competitive edge.

  9. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation ...

  10. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    McCulley, Rebecca L.; Bush, Lowell P.; Carlisle, Anna E.; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim A.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue's ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause “fescue toxicosis” in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3°C) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009–2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30–40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue

  11. Effects of Selected Combinations of Tall Fescue Alkaloids on the Vasoconstrictive Capacity of Fescue-Naive Bovine Lateral Saphenous Veins

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vasoconstriction is a response associated with consumption of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is not known if endophyte-produced alkaloids act alone or collectively in mediating the response. Therefore, objective of this study was to examine the vasoconstrictive potentials of selected ergot...

  12. Warming reduces tall fescue abundance but stimulates toxic alkaloid concentrations in transition zone pastures of the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mcculley, Rebecca; Bush, Lowell; Carlisle, Anna; Ji, Huihua; Nelson, Jim

    2014-10-01

    Tall fescue pastures cover extensive acreage in the eastern half of the United States and contribute to important ecosystem services, including the provisioning of forage for grazing livestock. Yet little is known concerning how these pastures will respond to climate change. Tall fescue’s ability to persist and provide forage under a warmer and wetter environment, as is predicted for much of this region as a result of climate change, will likely depend on a symbiotic relationship the plant can form with the fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala. While this symbiosis can confer environmental stress tolerance to the plant, the endophyte also produces alkaloids toxic to insects (e.g., lolines) and mammals (ergots; which can cause ‘fescue toxicosis’ in grazing animals). The negative animal health and economic consequences of fescue toxicosis make understanding the response of the tall fescue symbiosis to climate change critical for the region. We experimentally increased temperature (+3oC) and growing season precipitation (+30% of the long-term mean) from 2009 - 2013 in a mixed species pasture, that included a tall fescue population that was 40% endophyte-infected. Warming reduced the relative abundance of tall fescue within the plant community, and additional precipitation did not ameliorate this effect. Warming did not alter the incidence of endophyte infection within the tall fescue population; however, warming significantly increased concentrations of ergot alkaloids (by 30-40%) in fall-harvested endophyte-infected individuals. Warming alone did not affect loline alkaloid concentrations, but when combined with additional precipitation, levels increased in fall-harvested material. Although future warming may reduce the dominance of tall fescue in eastern U.S. pastures and have limited effect on the incidence of endophyte infection, persisting endophyte-infected tall fescue will have higher concentrations of toxic alkaloids which may exacerbate fescue

  13. Novel endophyte provides fescue toxicosis relief

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue is extremely persistent and productive in the climatic and soil conditions in the fescue belt, which makes it extremely challenging to replace toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue with non-toxic grass alternatives. There is another option, which is to replace toxic endophyte-infected ta...

  14. From the Lab Bench: Why the heat and cold stresses on tall fescue pasture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A column is written to provide information on why cattle that graze toxic endophyte infected tall fescue are vulnerable to both heat and cold stress. Peer reviewed research conducted by scientists at the USDA-ARS Forage-Animal Production Research Unit demonstrated that ergot alkaloids produced by t...

  15. From the Lab Bench: Can cattle meet their nutrient needs on toxic tall fescue pasture?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A column is written to provide information on nutrient utilization by cattle grazing toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue. We have considerable knowledge and understanding of ergot alkaloid-induced constriction of blood flow to peripheral tissues, but what about blood flow to other parts of the bod...

  16. Steer responses to feeding soybean hulls and steroid hormone implantation on toxic tall fescue pasture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yearling steers were grazed on endophyte-infected ‘Kentucky-31’ tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) pastures for 77 days in 2007 and for 86 days in 2008 to evaluate effects of feeding pelleted soybean hulls (PSBH) and steroid hormone implants (SHI) on steer performance and physiology. Steers were str...

  17. Chemotaxis disruption in Pratylenchus scribneri by tall fescue root extracts and alkaloids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. The objectives of this work were to identify effects from ergot and lolin...

  18. Effects of Tall Fescue and Its Fungal Endophyte on the Development and Survival of Tawny-Edged Skippers (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

    PubMed

    Jokela, Karin J; Debinski, Diane M; Mcculley, Rebecca L

    2016-02-01

    Invasive, exotic grasses are increasing in tallgrass prairie and their dominance may be contributing to the decline of grassland butterflies through alterations in forage quality. Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort.), an exotic grass covering millions of acres in the United States, can host a fungal endophyte, Epichloë coenophiala (Morgan-Jones & Gams). Alkaloids produced by the endophyte are known to be toxic to some foliar-feeding pest insects. Endophyte-infected tall fescue is commonly planted in hayfields, pastures, lawns, and is invading natural areas, but effects of the endophyte on nonpest insects such as butterflies are relatively unknown. Our objective was to investigate the role that tall fescue and its endophyte might play in the decline of grass skippers (Hesperiidae). We examined growth and survival parameters of tawny-edged skippers (Polites themistocles (Latreille)) that were reared on endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+), endophyte-free tall fescue (E-), and Kentucky bluegrass (KBG). KBG was included as a comparison because it is a cool season grass known to be palatable to P. themistocles larvae. Interestingly, results showed that the endophyte did not affect growth and survival of larvae compared to uninfected tall fescue, even though significant amounts of loline alkaloids (average 740 ppm) were measured in endophyte-infected plant material. Larvae feeding on KBG grew faster with greater survival rates than larvae on both tall fescue treatments. These results confirm that tall fescue invasion and dominance may be deteriorating the quality of grassland habitats for native pollinators; however, this effect does not appear to be linked to endophyte infection. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Intake, digestion, and N metabolism in steers fed endophyte-free, ergot alkaloid-producing endophyte-infected, or nonergot alkaloid-producing endophyte-infected fescue hay.

    PubMed

    Matthews, A K; Poore, M H; Huntington, G B; Green, J T

    2005-05-01

    A digestion and N balance trial was conducted to compare effects of traditional endophyte-infected (E+), endophyte-free (E-), and nontoxic endophyte infected (NE; MaxQ; Pennington Seed, Inc., Madison, GA) Jesup tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) hay on digestion and N retention in steers. Hay composition (DM basis) was as follows: E+ (10.8% CP, 59.9% NDF, and 29.4% ADF), E- (11.8% CP, 58.5% NDF, and 28.4% ADF), and NE (11.6% CP, 58.6% NDF, and 28.3% ADF). Eight Polled Hereford steers (initial BW 240 +/- 9 kg) were used in a replicated, 3 x 3 Latin square design, with an extra steer allotted to each square. Steers were fed ad libitum for 14 d, followed by a 9-d adaptation to restricted intake (based on the animal with the lowest ad libitum intake for the square) and a 5-d fecal and urine collection. Water intake (20.2 L/d) and urine output (7.40 L/d) did not differ (P > 0.10) during the collection period. Plasma prolactin concentration was less (P < 0.05) for steers on the E+ hay (8.83 ng/mL) than for those on the E- hay (18.03 ng/mL) and intermediate for steers on the NE hay (12.65 ng/mL). Endophyte-infected hay differed (P < 0.05) from E- and NE in ad libitum DMI (5.02 vs. 5.62 and 5.61 kg/d, respectively) and ad libitum DMI as a percentage of BW (1.86 vs. 2.06 and 2.06%, respectively). Restricted DMI during the fecal and urine collection was lower (P < 0.05) for E+ hay than for E- (5.04 vs. 5.24 kg/d), and NE was intermediate (5.19 kg/d). Dry matter digestibility was lower (P < 0.05) for E+ compared with E- and NE (62.3 vs. 67.0 and 65.9%, respectively). Digestibility of ADF was lower (P < 0.05) for E+ than for E-, and was intermediate for NE (61.5, 66.0, and 63.9%, respectively). There were no differences for NDF, cellulose, or hemicellulose digestibilities among hay types. Crude protein digestibility was higher (P < 0.05) for E- and NE than for E+ (54.3 and 52.5 vs. 48.1%, respectively). Nitrogen retention was lower (P < 0.01) for E+ than for E- or NE

  20. Genotypic evaluation of tall fescue dihaploids by capillary electrophoresis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Recent innovations in tall fescue breeding and selection allow for the generation of dihaploid tall fescue lines. During the dihaploid generation process, two possible products can be generated. These being tall fescue hybrids generated from outcrossing and homozygous dihaploid tall fescue lines. As...

  1. Intake estimation of horses grazing tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) or fed tall fescue hay.

    PubMed

    Chavez, S J; Siciliano, P D; Huntington, G B

    2014-05-01

    Six mature geldings of light horse breeds (557 ± 37 kg) were randomly assigned to a nontoxic endophyte-infected tall fescue hay (n = 3) or pasture treatment (n = 3) in a crossover design with 14-d periods to estimate DMI with alkane markers and to compare DMI of hay and pasture. When fed pasture, horses were housed in stalls from 0700 to 1300 h daily with access to water and then grazed pasture as a group in a single 0.4 ha pasture from 1300 to 0700 h. When fed hay, horses were maintained individually in stalls and given access to hay ad libitum from 1300 to 0700 h. All horses were individually fed 225 g oats twice daily treated with hexatriacontane (C36; external marker) and fecal samples were collected at 0700 and 1900 h on d 10 to 14. Fecal samples were mixed, dried, subsampled, and analyzed for tritriacontane (C33) and hentriacontane (C31) as internal markers and C36 as the external marker using gas chromatography. Estimated hay DMI using either C33 (1.75 kg/100 kg BW) or C31 (1.74 kg/100 kg BW) as internal alkane marker did not differ (P = 0.55) from measured hay DMI (1.70 kg/100 kg BW). Pasture DMI and DM digestibility (DMD) estimated with C31 (2.24 kg/100 kg BW and 53.1 g/100 g DMI) or with C33 (2.34 kg/100 kg BW and 56.2 g/100 g DMI) was greater (P = 0.05) than hay DMI and DMD (1.74 kg/100 kg BW and 44.5 g/100 g DMI). Intake estimated with C33 or C31 did not differ (P = 0.35) during hay or pasture. In conclusion, alkanes can be used to estimate pasture or hay DMI and DMD, and pasture intake exceeded hay intake when offered ad libitum.

  2. Identification of dihaploids in tall fescue utilizing capillary electrophresis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Innovations in tall fescue selection allow for the generation of dihaploid tall fescue lines. During the dihaploid generation process, two products are generated. These are tall fescue hybrids generated from outcrossing and homozygous dihaploid lines resulting from a parthenogenic, chromosome doubli...

  3. How planting configuration influences plant secondary metabolites and total N in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Theories suggest that incorporating alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.; Alf) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.; BFT) into endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinaceas Schreb.; E+TF) pasturelands may improve livestock production. We investigated how planting configuration might influence p...

  4. Mapping Drought QTL in Tall Fescue Populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinacetum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] growth and persistence are adversely affected by the hot-dry summers in the Southern Great Plains (Hopkins, 2005). Both forage yield and drought tolerance are difficult to select for because of large genotype-by-environment interactions. The ob...

  5. Selection of Shade Tolerant Tall Fescue Genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is genetically variable for many agronomic traits, so it might be possible to increase its persistence and productivity in shaded agroforestry applications. The objective of this research was to identify high yielding, shade-tolerant genotypes. Seed was obtai...

  6. Ergovaline recovery from digested tall fescue seedheads

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed heads typically contain high concentrations of ergot alkaloids, which makes them a highly toxic source of ergot alkaloids. Unfortunately, cattle selectively graze tall fescue seedheads. Seedheads were collected from pastures grazed by Angus-cross steers from early-May until mid-June. Pasture...

  7. Quantification of ergovaline using HPLC and mass spectrometry in Iranian Neotyphodium infected tall fescue

    PubMed Central

    Najafabadi, A. Sobhani; Mofid, M.R.; Mohammadi, R.; Moghim, S.

    2010-01-01

    Ergovaline, the main ergopeptine alkaloid produced in tall fescue (Fescue arundinacea Schreb.) infected with endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum Morgan- Jones & Gams), is known to cause tall fescue toxicosis. This study was conducted to examine the presence of fungal endophytes in five populations of tall fescue collected from various regions of Iran. The existence of Neotyphodium mycelia in the tissues of the samples was confirmed by microscopic examination, and the isolation was performed from leaf tissues of the hosts on potato dextrose agar. All isolates were confirmed as the Neotyphodium species by PCR, using specific primers. Mass detection and determination of ergovaline were performed by HPLC at three plant growth stages. Ergovaline was detected in all isolates, with the mean concentrations of 0.24 to 3.48 μg/g dry matter of different populations for the whole three plant growth stages. The differences in ergovaline content between plant populations and sampling time were statistically significant. This is the first report of ergovaline content in endophyte infected Fescue arundinacea from natural grasslands in Iran. PMID:22049272

  8. From the Lab Bench: Why Control Tall Fescue Seed Heads?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A column was written to discuss controlling emergence of tall fescue seed heads for improving cattle performance and mitigation of fescue toxicosis. Cattle selectively graze seed heads of tall fescue soon after they emerge from the “boot,” which is a concern because seed heads can contain high conc...

  9. Genotype x environmental interaction for mature size and rate of maturing for Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte infected fescue.

    PubMed

    Sandelin, B A; Brown, A H; Brown, M A; Johnson, Z B; Kellogg, D W; Stelzleni, A M

    2002-12-01

    Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated in 177 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected tall fescue over a 4-yr period to evaluate genotype x environment interactions. Data were collected every 28 d until cows were approximately 18 mo of age and then at prebreeding, postcalving, and weaning of calf. All cows with weight data to at least 42 mo of age were included in the analysis. Mature weight and rate of maturing were estimated using the three-parameter growth curve model described by Brody (1945). Data were pooled over year and analyzed by the general linear model procedure of SAS. Included in the models for mature weight and rate of maturing were the independent variables of genotype, environment, and genotype x environment interaction. There was a genotype x environment interaction (P < 0.01) for mature body weight (BW) but not for rate of maturing. Angus cows grazing fescue pastures had greater (P < 0.01) mean mature BW than Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (611 +/- 17 vs 546 +/- 16 kg). Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass had lower (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than Brahman x Angus cows grazing bermudagrass or endophyte-infected fescue and Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass (546 +/- 16 vs 624 +/- 19, 614 +/- 22 and 598 +/- 20 kg, respectively). Brahman cows grazing endophyte-infected fescue had smaller (P < 0.05) mean mature BW than all genotype x forage combinations except for Angus x Brahman cows grazing bermudagrass. Angus cows had a smaller (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Angus x Brahman and Brahman x Angus cows (0.039 +/- 0.002 vs 0.054 +/- 0.002 and 0.049 +/- 0.002%/mo, respectively), respectively, and Angus x Brahman cows had a larger (P < 0.05) mean rate of maturing than Brahman x Angus and Brahman cows (0.054 +/- 0.002 vs 0.049 +/- 0.002 and 0.041 +/- 0.002 %/mo, respectively). There was a direct breed x forage interaction (P < 0.05) for mature BW. These data suggest that the

  10. Further investigation of equine fescue oedema induced by Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala).

    PubMed

    Finch, S C; Munday, J S; Sutherland, B L; Vlaming, J B; Fletcher, L R

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To determine if equine fescue oedema (EFO) induced by grazing Mediterranean-type tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala) could be prevented by treatment with the corticosteroid, methylprednisolone, and anti-histamine, cetirizine, and to determine concentrations of lolines, specifically N-acetyl norloline (NANL), in grasses grazed by horses that did and did not develop EFO. METHODS Four horses were grazed on AR542-infected Mediterranean tall fescue pasture (from Day 0) for 7 days prior to being subjected to euthanasia. Two of these horses were treated with 250 mg methylprednisolone and 300 mg cetirizine hydrochloride every 12 hours orally from Days 0-7. Two more horses grazed meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) infected with the naturally-occurring, common endophyte (Epichloë uncinata) for 21 days before euthanasia. All horses were observed closely for signs of EFO, and blood samples were taken daily for measurement of concentrations of total protein (TP) in serum. Following euthanasia post-mortem examinations were conducted on all horses. Pasture samples of meadow fescue and Mediterranean tall fescue from the current study, and endophyte-infected Mediterranean tall fescue from a previous study that were associated with EFO, were analysed for concentrations of lolines using gas chromatography. RESULTS By Day 7, the treated and untreated horses grazing AR542-infected Mediterranean tall fescue all developed signs of EFO, and concentrations of TP in serum of all horses were <45 g/L. No signs of EFO were observed in horses grazing meadow fescue and concentrations of TP remained above 60 g/L. Necropsy showed marked oedema and eosinophilic inflammation in the intestines of all horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue. In the sample of meadow fescue, concentrations of total lolines and N-acetyl norloline (NANL) were 2,402 and 543 mg/kg, respectively. In the three samples of Mediterranean tall fescue

  11. Tall fescue cultivar and fungal endophyte combinations influence plant growth and root exudate composition

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jingqi; McCulley, Rebecca L.; McNear, David H.

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.)] is a cool-season perennial grass used in pastures throughout the Southeastern United States. The grass can harbor a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala) thought to provide the plant with enhanced resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. Because alkaloids produced by the common variety of the endophyte cause severe animal health issues, focus has been on replacing the common-toxic strain with novel varieties that do not produce the mammal-toxic alkaloids but maintain abiotic and biotic stress tolerance benefits. Little attention has been given to the influence of the plant-fungal symbiosis on rhizosphere processes. Therefore, our objective was to study the influence of this relationship on plant biomass production and root exudate composition in tall fescue cultivars PDF and 97TF1, which were either not infected with the endophyte (E-), infected with the common toxic endophyte (CTE+) strain or with one of two novel endophytes (AR542E+, AR584E+). Plants were grown sterile for 3 weeks after which plant biomass, total organic carbon, total phenolic content and detailed chemical composition of root exudates were determined. Plant biomass production and exudate phenolic and organic carbon content were influenced by endophyte status, tall fescue cultivar, and their interaction. GC-TOF MS identified 132 compounds, including lipids, carbohydrates and carboxylic acids. Cluster analysis showed that the interaction between endophyte and cultivar resulted in unique exudate profiles. This is the first detailed study to assess how endophyte infection, notably with novel endophytes, and tall fescue cultivar interact to influence root exudate composition. Our results illustrate that tall fescue cultivar and endophyte status can influence plant growth and root exudate composition, which may help explain the observed influence of this symbiosis on rhizosphere biogeochemical processes. PMID:25914697

  12. Nematode suppression by endophyte-associated tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue is planted as a forage and turf grass and a postplant ground cover for reducing soil erosion. It withstands drought and is resistant to various pests, including some plant-parasitic nematodes. The presence of the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum can increase tall fescue grow...

  13. Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall Fescue for the Twenty-first Century is a comprehensive monograph by experts from around the world about the science of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. = Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort., formerly Fes¬tuca arundinacea Schreb. var. arundinacea] and its applications. ...

  14. Registration and Release of Syn1RR tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Agricultural Research Service of the United States DepaRRment of Agriculture announces the release of the new tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (syn., Lolium arundinaceum Darbyshire; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub)] cultivar Syn1RR. Syn1RR is a rust tolerant tall fescue cultivar that exhibits...

  15. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  16. Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry.

    SciTech Connect

    Brosi, Glade; McCulley, Rebecca L; Bush, L P; Nelson, Jim A; Classen, Aimee T; Norby, Richard J

    2011-01-01

    Climate change (altered CO{sub 2}, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant-microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum-Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing climate manipulation experiment in a constructed old-field community in Tennessee (USA). Endophyte infection frequency (EIF) was determined, and infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) tillers were analysed for tissue chemistry. The EIF of tall fescue was higher under elevated CO{sub 2} (91% infected) than with ambient CO{sub 2} (81%) but was not affected by warming or precipitation treatments. Within E+ tillers, elevated CO{sub 2} decreased alkaloid concentrations of both ergovaline and loline, by c. 30%; whereas warming increased loline concentrations 28% but had no effect on ergovaline. Independent of endophyte infection, elevated CO{sub 2} reduced concentrations of nitrogen, cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin. These results suggest that elevated CO{sub 2}, more than changes in temperature or precipitation, may promote this grass-fungal symbiosis, leading to higher EIF in tall fescue in old-field communities. However, as all three climate factors are likely to change in the future, predicting the symbiotic response and resulting ecological consequences may be difficult and dependent on the specific atmospheric and climatic conditions encountered.

  17. Infection with a Shoot-Specific Fungal Endophyte (Epichloë) Alters Tall Fescue Soil Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Xavier; Guo, Jingqi; Leff, Jonathan W; McNear, David H; Fierer, Noah; McCulley, Rebecca L

    2016-07-01

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is a widespread grass that can form a symbiotic relationship with a shoot-specific fungal endophyte (Epichloë coenophiala). While the effects of fungal endophyte infection on fescue physiology and ecology have been relatively well studied, less attention has been given to how this relationship may impact the soil microbial community. We used high-throughput DNA sequencing and phospholipid fatty acid analysis to determine the structure and biomass of microbial communities in both bulk and rhizosphere soils from tall fescue stands that were either uninfected with E. coenophiala or were infected with the common toxic strain or one of several novel strains of the endophyte. We found that rhizosphere and bulk soils harbored distinct microbial communities. Endophyte presence, regardless of strain, significantly influenced soil fungal communities, but endophyte effects were less pronounced in prokaryotic communities. E. coenophiala presence did not change total fungal biomass but caused a shift in soil and rhizosphere fungal community composition, increasing the relative abundance of taxa within the Glomeromycota phylum and decreasing the relative abundance of genera in the Ascomycota phylum, including Lecanicillium, Volutella, Lipomyces, Pochonia, and Rhizoctonia. Our data suggests that tripartite interactions exist between the shoot endophyte E. coenophiala, tall fescue, and soil fungi that may have important implications for the functioning of soils, such as carbon storage, in fescue-dominated grasslands.

  18. Laser-induced Breakdown Spectroscopy used to Detect Endophyte-mediated Accumulation of Metals by Tall Fescue

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z; Stewart, Arthur J; Gwinn, Dr. Kimberley; Waller, John C

    2010-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by ICP-MS. Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough to reliably compare. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP-MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  19. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy used to detect endophyte-mediated accumulation of metals by tall fescue

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Madhavi Z.; Stewart, Arthur J.; Gwinn, Kimberley D.; Waller, John C.

    2010-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was used to determine the impact of endophyte (Neotyphodium sp.) infection on elemental composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Leaf material from endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) tall fescue populations in established plots was examined. Leaf-tissue digestates were also tested for metals, by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) mass spectrometry (MS). Seven of eleven metals (Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn, Cu, Ni, and Zn) were measured by both techniques at concentrations great enough for a reliable comparison. Mg, Zn, and Cd, a toxic metal that can be present in forage, were readily detected by LIBS, even though Cd concentrations in the plants were below levels typically achieved using ICP MS detection. Implications of these results for research on forage analysis and phytoremediation are discussed.

  20. Endophyte status of tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) affects seed predation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In a preliminary study seed of a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) variety ‘Jesup’ without endophyte were consumed at a slightly higher rate by common cricket (Acheta domesticus L.) in a standard feeding trial than the same fescue variety with the endophyte. Although, the preference for the...

  1. Endophyte-infected fescue alters components of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in beef heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixteen Angus and 8 Hereford X Angus (334.7 +/- 10.7 kilograms body weight) heifers were stratified by sire breed, temperament (using weaning exit velocity), and body weight and randomly assigned within strata to either an endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) diet for 10 days to determine ...

  2. Chemotaxis disruption in Pratylenchus scribneri by tall fescue root extracts and alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Bacetty, Ada A; Snook, Maurice E; Glenn, Anthony E; Noe, James P; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Bacon, Charles W

    2009-07-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. One objective of this work was to determine if root extracts of tall fescue effected chemoreceptor activity of Pratylenchus scribneri by using an in vitro chemoreception bioassay. Another objective was to determine if specific ergot alkaloids (ergovaline, ergotamine, a-ergocryptine, ergonovine), and loline alkaloids, all produced by the fungal endophyte, altered chemotaxis with this bioassay. Methanolic extract from roots altered chemotaxis activities in this nematode but only from roots of plants cultured 45 > or = d, which repelled nematodes. Extracts prepared from noninfected grasses were attractants. This assay indicated that the alkaloids were either repellents or attractants. N-formylloline was an attractant at concentrations of 20 microg/ml and lower, while at higher concentrations it was a repellent. Ergovaline, the major ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte, was repellent at both high and low concentrations and caused complete death of the nematodes.

  3. Managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. While certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, e...

  4. Effects of feeding endophyte-infected fescue seed to Holstein cows during the dry period on plasma nitric oxide (NO), xanthine oxidase (XO) and haptoglobin (Hp) status in newborn calves.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fescue toxicosis in cattle, caused by ingestion of endophyte-infected fescue (EIF), is associated with decreased feed intake, growth, milk production and reproductive efficiency as well as decreased resistance to heat, transportation and immune stress. Increased inflammatory response to immune chal...

  5. Timing and rate of Chaparral treatment affects tall fescue seedhead development and pasture plant densities

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The herbicide Chaparral™ has been shown to suppress seedhead development in tall fescue (Neotyphodium coenophialum) pastures and reduce the symptoms of tall fescue toxicosis in cattle. However, little is known about the logistics of herbicide treatment on tall fescue pastures. The objective of thi...

  6. Genetic diversity in a world germplasm collection of tall fescue

    PubMed Central

    Cuyeu, Romina; Rosso, Beatriz; Pagano, Elba; Soto, Gabriela; Fox, Romina; Ayub, Nicolás Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Festuca arundinacea Schreb., commonly known as tall fescue, is a major forage crop in temperate regions. Recently, a molecular analysis of different accessions of a world germplasm collection of tall fescue has demonstrated that it contains different species from the genus Festuca and allowed their rapid classification into the three major morphotypes (Continental, Mediterranean and Rhizomatous). In this study, we explored the genetic diversity of 161 accessions of Festuca species from 29 countries, including 28 accessions of INTA (Argentina), by analyzing 15 polymorphic SSR markers by capillary electrophoresis. These molecular markers allowed us to detect a total of 214 alleles. The number of alleles per locus varied between 5 and 24, and the values of polymorphic information content ranged from 0.627 to 0.840. In addition, the accessions analyzed by flow cytometry showed different ploidy levels (diploid, tetraploid, hexaploid and octaploid), placing in evidence that the world germplasm collection consisted of multiple species, as previously suggested. Interestingly, almost all accessions of INTA germplasm collection were true hexaploid tall fescue, belonging to two eco-geographic races (Continental and Mediterranean). Finally, the data presented revealed an ample genetic diversity of tall fescue showing the importance of preserving the INTA collection for future breeding programs. PMID:23885206

  7. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because...

  8. Notice of release of Syn1 Tall Fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture announces the release of Syn1 tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea (syn., Lolium arundinaceum Darbyshire; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub)] (PI xxxx, PI xxxx) germplasm developed by Dr. Bryan K. Kindiger at the USDA-ARS Grazinglands Res...

  9. IMPROVING TALL FESCUE SHADE TOLERANCE: IDENTIFYING CANDIDATE GENOTYPES

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is genetically variable for many agronomic traits, so it might be possible to increase its persistence and productivity in shaded agroforestry applications. The objective of this research was to identify high yielding, shade-tolerant genotypes. Seed was obtaine...

  10. Improving Tall Fescue Shade Tolerance: Identifying Candidate Genotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) is genetically variable for many agronomic traits, so it might be possible to increase its persistence and productivity in shaded agroforestry applications. The objective of this research was to identify high yielding, shade-tolerant genotypes. Seed was obtai...

  11. Ergovaline recovery from digested residues of grazed tall fescue seedheads

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by livestock producers. While these toxins are often concentrated within the seedheads, there has...

  12. Ergovaline recovery from digested residues of grazed tall fescue seedheads

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum] induce a toxicosis in cattle that is a common problem in the southeastern USA. While these toxins are heavily concentrated within the seedheads, there is a lack of information on the degree th...

  13. From the Lab Bench: Should you plant a non-toxic endophyte tall fescue?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A column was written to discuss planting novel endophyte tall fescue for alleviating fescue toxicosis. Endophyte-free tall fescue cultivars can be grazed as a non-toxic alternative, but it maust be understood that it is the endophyte, through production of alkaloids other than ergot alkaloids, that...

  14. Effects of Fescue Type and Sampling Date on the N Disappearance Kinetics of Autumn-Stockpiled Tall Fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] forages, one an experimental host plant/endophyte association containing a novel endophyte that produces low or nil concentrations of ergot alkaloids (HM4), and the other a typical association of Kentucky 31 tall fescue and the wild-type endoph...

  15. A simple thin-layer chromatographic method for the detection of ergovaline in leaf sheaths of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) infected with Neotyphodium coenophialum.

    PubMed

    Salvat, A E; Godoy, H M

    2001-09-01

    A relatively simple and inexpensive thin-layer chromatographic (TLC) method is described for the detection and semiquantitative measurement of ergovaline in leaf sheaths of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). Samples were finely ground and extracted with methanol. The extracts were filtered and the methanol was evaporated. The aqueous residue was extracted with hexane, followed by chloroform at pH 9. The chloroform extract was concentrated and further purified on a preparative silica gel TLC plate, developed with toluene/ethyl acetate/acetonitrile (50:10:40). The ergovaline band was scraped and eluted with methanol. The eluant was concentrated and an aliquot was applied to a silica gel TLC plate. The plate was developed successively with chloroform/acetone/acetic acid (90:10:5) and chloroform/ethanol (9:1). Ergovaline was visualized with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde and sulfuric acid. Semiquantitation of ergovaline was achieved by comparison with a known standard of ergotamine, which was shown to have the same Rf as ergovaline in this system. Spike recovery of ergotamine averaged 60%, with a limit of detection of 200 microg/kg of dry tall fescue leaf sheaths. The method was applied to 15 tall fescue samples with varying degrees of fungal infection, and ergovaline was identified in all contaminated samples with endophyte infection above 15%. Thin-layer chromatography may be also applicable for tall fescue seed, where the ergovaline content is usually higher and the amount of interfering pigments is much lower.

  16. Effect of simulated acid rain on the mutualism between tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and an endophytic fungus (Acremonium coenophialum)

    SciTech Connect

    Cheplick, G.P. )

    1993-03-01

    Biotic interactions between plants and microorganisms have the potential to be affected by acidic precipitation. I examined the effect of simulated sulfuric acid rain on the mutualism between a perennial forage grass (Festuca arundinacea) and a fungal endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum). Acid water was supplied as mists sprayed onto leaf surfaces or as water added to the soil for two groups in a greenhouse: one group had high levels of endophyte infection, while the other was predominantly noninfected. Control plants received distilled water (pH 6), while others received sulfuric acid water at pH 4.5 or pH 3. Plants were harvested after 4, 6, 8, and 23 wk. Leaf endophyte infection intensity as measured by hyphal counts was not affected by acid water treatment. Root mass and root: shoot ratios generally decreased with increasing acidity of both foliar sprays and soil water, but shoot mass was mostly not affected. There was a significant pH x infection interaction for plants exposed to acidic foliar sprays for 4 wk; root and shoot mass decreased with acidity, but only for infected plants. It was found that acid rain may be deleterious to tall fescue growth at specific stages of development, but biomass production in response to acid rain is not likely to be influenced by fungal endophytes within mature plants. 55 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. The Effect of Endophytic Fungi on Nematode Populations in Summer-dormant and Summer-active Tall Fescue

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, James K.; Walker, Nathan R.; Young, Carolyn A.

    2016-01-01

    Summer-active (continental) and summer-dormant (Mediterranean) tall fescue morphotypes are each adapted to different environmental conditions. Endophyte presence provides plant parasitic nematode resistance, but not with all endophyte strains and cultivar combinations. This study sought to compare effects of four nematode genera on continental and Mediterranean cultivars infected with common toxic or novel endophyte strains. A 6-mon greenhouse study was conducted with continental cultivars, Kentucky 31 (common toxic) and Texoma MaxQ II (novel endophyte) and the Mediterranean cultivar Flecha MaxQ (novel endophyte). Endophyte-free plants of each cultivar were controls. Each cultivar × endophyte combination was randomly assigned to a control, low or high inoculation rate of a mixed nematode culture containing stunt nematodes (Tylenchorhynchus spp.), ring nematodes (Criconemella spp.), spiral nematodes (Helicotylenchus spp.), and lesion nematodes (Pratylenchus spp.). Endophyte infection had no effect on nematode population densities. The cultivar × endophyte interaction was significant. Population densities of stunt nematode, spiral nematode, and ring nematodes were higher for Flecha MaxQ than other cultivar × endophyte combinations. Novel endophyte infection enhances suitability of Flecha MaxQ as a nematode host. PMID:27418701

  18. Performance by Fall-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures With Different Proportions Stockpiled

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire.] is often stockpiled to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. Over two consecutive years, a total of 158 Gelbvieh × Angus fall-calving cows (1318 plus/minus 13.2 lb) were allocated randomly to one of eight 24-acre tall fescue pastures on 18 ...

  19. Performance by Fall-Calving Cows Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] is often stockpiled to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. Over two consecutive years, a total of 158 Gelbvieh × Angus fall-calving cows (599 ± 6.0 kg) were allocated randomly to one of eight 10-ha tall fescue pastures (subdivided into six 1.6-h...

  20. Tall fescue management: Pasture and cattle responses to endophyte and fertilization

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Yearling heifers grazing tall fescue pastures had greatest performance in winter and spring on endophyte-free and novel endophyte associations, because of high forage quality and lack of ergot alkaloids produced by a common “wild” tall fescue-endophyte association. Pasture and cattle responses were...

  1. Host suitability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) cultivars to Meloidogyne ethiopica and M. graminicola.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Considering the importance of the perennial grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) having as forage potential and its resistance to many pests, including some phytoparasitic nematodes, the host reaction of three tall fescue cultivars (cvs. Bulldogs 51, Georgia 5 and Jesup AR542 ) were evaluated for...

  2. From the Lab Bench: Season Changes in Ergot Alkaloid Concentrations of Toxic Tall Fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A column was written to discuss seasonal trends in ergot alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte that infects most plants of tall fescue. Tall fescue is the predominant grass utilized for forage in the U.S. transition zone between the temperature northeast and subtropical southeast; however, erg...

  3. Steer and tall fescue pasture responses to grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is the principal cool-season species within pastures of the southeastern USA and is known to have a mutualistic relationship with a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that produces the ergot alkaloids responsible for tall fescue toxicosis. Management of t...

  4. Nutrient source and tillage impacts on tall fescue production and soil properties

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grass provides a major forage base for many livestock production systems in the southeastern United States. Forage production with manure helps recycle nutrients with less environmental impacts. This two year study examined tall fescue forage production and ...

  5. Stocking strategies as related to animal and pasture productivity of endophyte-free tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue [Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a well adapted perennial grass used for pasture across the north-south transition zone in the USA. This 3-yr trial evaluated three stocking strategies to utilize well-fertilized spring (April to July) growth of endophyte-free tall fescue for steer and pas...

  6. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    To understand more about the enhanced drought tolerance conferred by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue, we analyzed the effect of the endophyte on genetically identical tall fescue clones with (E+) and without the endophyte (E-), by generating E- plants through fungicide trea...

  7. Steer consumption and ergovaline recovery from in vitro digested residues of tall fescue seedheads

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin] of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a common problem faced by cattle producers. These toxins are concentrated within seedheads of tall fescue tillers, which...

  8. Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is the principal cool-season species within pastures of the southeastern USA and is known to have a mutualistic relationship with a fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that produces the ergot alkaloids responsible for tall fescue toxicosis. Management of t...

  9. Tasco-Forage: II. Monocyte immune cell response and performance of beef steers grazing tall fescue treated with a seaweed extract.

    PubMed

    Saker, K E; Allen, V G; Fontenot, J P; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Evans, R R; Wester, D B

    2001-04-01

    Effects of applying Tasco-Forage, an Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed-based product prepared by a proprietary process, to endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum [Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin)-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) were studied in each of 3 yr (1995, 1996, and 1997) in Virginia and in 1996 and 1997 in Mississippi. There were 48 steers at each location in each year (n = 240) in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement with two replications at each location. Steers in Virginia were Angus and Angus x Hereford with initial weights of 245 kg (SD = 20), 234 kg (SD = 9), and 265 kg (SD = 5) in yr 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Steers in Mississippi were 3/4 Angus and 1/4 Brahman and weighed 230 kg (SD = 8) and 250 kg (SD = 2) in yr 2 and 3, respectively. Tasco (3.4 kg/ha) was dissolved in water and applied to pastures in April before grazing was begun and again in July at the same rate. The grazing period was from mid-April to late September or mid-October. Total gains were higher (P < 0.05) for steers grazing uninfected than for those grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. Rectal temperatures were increased (P < 0.05) due to endophyte infection at both locations; Tasco application decreased temperature of steers grazing infected fescue in Virginia (interaction, P < 0.07) but increased temperatures of steers grazing infected fescue in Mississippi (interaction, P < 0.05). Presence of the endophyte resulted in rough hair coats and loss of hair color, but the effect was partially offset (P < 0.05) by Tasco application in Virginia in 1995. Both monocyte phagocytic activity (all years and locations) and major histocompatibility complex class II expression (1995 only) were decreased (P < 0.05) in steers due to endophyte infection, but this effect was reversed (P < 0.05) by application of Tasco to pastures. Application of the extract from A. nodosum seems to have use in alleviating adverse effects of endophyte on immune function

  10. Influence of stocking rate and steroidal implants on growth rate of steers grazing toxic tall fescue and subsequent physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Aiken, G E; Looper, M L; Tabler, S F; Brauer, D K; Strickland, J R; Schrick, F N

    2006-06-01

    An 84-d grazing experiment was conducted in 2 growing seasons to evaluate interactions of stocking rate and steroidal implants with BW gain and symptoms of toxicosis in yearling steers grazing endemic endophyte-infected (E+) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). A 4 x 2 factoral design was used to evaluate 4 stocking rates (3.0, 4.0, 5.0, and 6.0 steers/ ha) with or without steroidal implants (200 mg of progesterone + 20 mg of estradiol benzoate). Treatment combinations were randomly assigned to eight 1-ha pastures of E+ Kentucky-31 tall fescue (i.e., treatments were not replicated). Treatment effects were analyzed for ADG, total BW gain per hectare, forage availability, and hair coat ratings. At the conclusion of grazing in the second year (22 June), steers were placed on a bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] pasture, and rectal temperatures and serum prolactin concentrations were monitored for 10 d to assess carryover effects of stocking rate and steroidal implants on recovery from toxicosis-related heat stress. Forage availability differed (P < 0.001) between years, but there were no year x treatment interactions (P > 0.10). There was an implant x stocking rate interaction (P < 0.05) on ADG. Differences between the slopes in the regression equations indicated that ADG responded to implantation when stocking rates were low, but the response diminished as stocking rate increased. Stocking rate did not influence (P = 0.89) postgraze rectal temperature, but the regression intercept for implanted steers was 0.4 degrees C greater (P < 0.05) than for nonimplanted steers, and the difference was consistent across the entire 10-d fescue-free grazing period. Concentrations of prolactin increased during the 10-d fescue-free grazing period, but trends differed due to an implantation x stocking rate interaction (P < 0.05). Results indicate that implantation with progesterone + estradiol benzoate increases ADG with lower stocking rates, but the effect diminishes

  11. Tall fescue genomic SSR markers: development and transferability across multiple grass species.

    PubMed

    Saha, Malay C; Cooper, John D; Mian, M A Rouf; Chekhovskiy, Konstantin; May, Gregory D

    2006-11-01

    Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers are highly informative and widely used for genetic and breeding studies. Currently, a very limited number of SSR markers are available for tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and other forage grass species. A tall fescue genomic library enriched in (GA/CT)( n ) repeats was used to develop primer pairs (PPs) flanking SSRs and assess PP functionality across different forage, cereal, and turf grass species. A total of 511 PPs were developed and assessed for their utility in six different grass species. The parents and a subset of a tall fescue mapping population were used to select PPs for mapping in tall fescue. Survey results revealed that 48% (in rice) to 66% (in tall fescue) of the PPs produced clean SSR-type amplification products in different grass species. Polymorphism rates were higher in tall fescue (68%) compared to other species (46% ryegrass, 39% wheat, and 34% rice). A set of 194 SSR loci (38%) were identified which amplified across all six species. Loci segregating in the tall fescue mapping population were grouped as loci segregating from the female parent (HD28-56, 37%), the male parent (R43-64, 37%), and both parents (26%). Three percent of the loci that were polymorphic between parents were monomorphic in the pseudo F1 mapping population and the remaining loci segregated. Sequencing of amplified products obtained from PP NFFAG428 revealed a very high level of sequence similarity among the grass species under study. Our results are the first report of genomic SSR marker development from tall fescue and they demonstrate the usefulness of these SSRs for genetic linkage mapping in tall fescue and cross-species amplification.

  12. Tall fescue seed extraction and partial purification of ergot alkaloids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Lowell

    2014-12-01

    Many substances in the tall fescue/endophyte association (Schedonorus arundinaceus/Epichloë coenophiala) have biological activity. Of these compounds only the ergot alkaloids are known to have significant mammalian toxicity and the predominant ergot alkaloids are ergovaline and ergovalinine. Because synthetically produced ergovaline is difficult to obtain, we developed a seed extraction and partial purification protocol for ergovaline/ergovalinine that provided a biologically active product. Tall fescue seed was ground and packed into several different sized columns for liquid extraction. Smaller particle size and increased extraction time increased efficiency of extraction. Our largest column was a 114 × 52 × 61 cm (W×L×D) stainless steel tub. Approximately 150 kg of seed could be extracted in this tub. The extraction was done with 80% ethanol. When the solvent front migrated to bottom of the column, flow was stopped and seed was allowed to steep for at least 48 h. Light was excluded from the solvent from the beginning of this step to the end of the purification process. Following elution, ethanol was removed from the eluate by evaporation at room temperature. Resulting syrup was freeze-dried. About 80% recovery of alkaloids was achieved with 18-fold increase in concentration of ergovaline. Initial purification of the dried product was accomplished by extracting with hexane/water (6:1, v/v) and the hexane fraction was discarded. The aqueous fraction was extracted with chloroform, the aqueous layer discarded, after which the chloroform was removed with a resulting 20-fold increase of ergovaline. About 65% of the ergovaline was recovered from the chloroform residue for an overall recovery of 50%. The resultant partially purified ergovaline had biological activities in in vivo and in vitro bovine bioassays that approximate that of synthetic ergovaline.

  13. Ergot alkaloids produced by endophyte-infected tall fescue decrease rumen epithelial blood flow of cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids have been shown to induce vasoconstriction of both peripheral and ruminal vessels. Constriction of ruminal vessels could lead to a reduction in epithelial blood flow thereby reducing nutrient absorption. The objectives of this experiment were to determine if steers receiving endophyt...

  14. Analysis of tall fescue ESTs representing different abiotic stresses, tissue types and developmental stages

    PubMed Central

    Mian, MA Rouf; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zeng-Yu; Zhang, Ji-Yi; Cheng, Xiaofei; Chen, Lei; Chekhovskiy, Konstantin; Dai, Xinbin; Mao, Chunhong; Cheung, Foo; Zhao, Xuechun; He, Ji; Scott, Angela D; Town, Christopher D; May, Gregory D

    2008-01-01

    Background Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is a major cool season forage and turf grass species grown in the temperate regions of the world. In this paper we report the generation of a tall fescue expressed sequence tag (EST) database developed from nine cDNA libraries representing tissues from different plant organs, developmental stages, and abiotic stress factors. The results of inter-library and library-specific in silico expression analyses of these ESTs are also reported. Results A total of 41,516 ESTs were generated from nine cDNA libraries of tall fescue representing tissues from different plant organs, developmental stages, and abiotic stress conditions. The Festuca Gene Index (FaGI) has been established. To date, this represents the first publicly available tall fescue EST database. In silico gene expression studies using these ESTs were performed to understand stress responses in tall fescue. A large number of ESTs of known stress response gene were identified from stressed tissue libraries. These ESTs represent gene homologues of heat-shock and oxidative stress proteins, and various transcription factor protein families. Highly expressed ESTs representing genes of unknown functions were also identified in the stressed tissue libraries. Conclusion FaGI provides a useful resource for genomics studies of tall fescue and other closely related forage and turf grass species. Comparative genomic analyses between tall fescue and other grass species, including ryegrasses (Lolium sp.), meadow fescue (F. pratensis) and tetraploid fescue (F. arundinacea var glaucescens) will benefit from this database. These ESTs are an excellent resource for the development of simple sequence repeat (SSR) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) PCR-based molecular markers. PMID:18318913

  15. Tall fescue management in the Piedmont: Sequestration of soil organic and total nitrogen

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High quality soil-surface characteristics are important for developing environmentally sustainable agroecosystems. We evaluated the factorial combination of fertilization regime (inorganic and broiler litter) and tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.]-endophyte association (free, nove...

  16. Nutrition and In Vitro Digestibility of Tall Fescue for White-Tailed Deer, May Through November

    Treesearch

    G.E. Probasco; A.J. Bjugstad

    1978-01-01

    Describes a study of the nutritive quality and digestibility of ferilized and unfertilized tall fescue in spring, summer, and fall. The grass may be most valuable as food in early spring and late fall, and on unfertilized sites.

  17. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. ¼ Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a n...

  18. Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the US: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

    PubMed Central

    Young, Carolyn A.; Charlton, Nikki D.; Takach, Johanna E.; Swoboda, Ginger A.; Trammell, Michael A.; Huhman, David V.; Hopkins, Andrew A.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the US around the late 1800's. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines, and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the US, commonly referred to as “Kentucky-31” (KY31), harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3, or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental US. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder's seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental US across historical and current tall fescue samples. PMID:25408942

  19. Influence of toxic endophyte-infected fescue on sperm characteristics and endocrine factors of yearling Brahman-influenced bulls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Sixteen (mean age = 1.1 +/- 0.1 yr; mean BW = 478 +/- 34 kg) Brahman-influenced bulls were used to determine the influence of fescue type on sperm characteristics and serum concentrations of prolactin, cortisol, and testosterone. Bulls were blocked by BW, scrotal circumference (SC), and pregrazing...

  20. Effects of fescue type and sampling date on the nitrogen disappearance kinetics of autumn-stockpiled tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Flores, R; Coblentz, W K; Ogden, R K; Coffey, K P; Looper, M L; West, C P; Rosenkrans, C F

    2008-04-01

    Two tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh] forages, one an experimental host plant/endophyte association containing a novel endophyte that produces low or nil concentrations of ergot alkaloids (HM4) and the other a typical association of Kentucky 31 tall fescue and the wild-type endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum; E+), were autumn-stockpiled following late-summer clipping and fertilization with 56 kg/ha of N to assess N partitioning and ruminal disappearance kinetics of N for these autumn-stockpiled tall fescue forages. Beginning on December 4, 2003, sixteen 361 +/- 56.4-kg replacement dairy heifers were stratified by weight and breeding, and assigned to one of four 1.6-ha pastures (2 each of E+ and HM4) that were strip-grazed throughout the winter. Pastures were sampled before grazing was initiated (December 4), each time heifers were allowed access to a fresh pasture strip (December 26, January 15, and February 4), and when the study was terminated (February 26). Generally, fescue type and the fescue type x sampling date interaction exhibited only minor effects on total forage N, or partitioning of N within the cell solubles or the cell wall. For pregrazed forages, concentrations of N and N partitioned within the cell solubles both declined in a strongly linear relationship with sampling dates. In contrast, concentrations of cell-wall-associated N changed in erratic and often higher-ordered relationships with time, but the magnitude of these responses generally was limited. Unlike the partitioning of N within cell-wall and cell-soluble fractions, kinetic characteristics of ruminal N disappearance frequently exhibited interactions of fescue type and sampling date. For pregrazed forages, these included interactions for all response variables, and for postgrazed forages, fractions B and C, as well as rumen degradable protein. Ruminal disappearance rate for pregrazed E+ and HM4 exhibited quadratic (range = 0.057 to 0.082/h) and cubic (range = 0.057 to

  1. Effects of fescue type and sampling date on the ruminal disappearance kinetics of autumn-stockpiled tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Flores, R; Coblentz, W K; Ogden, R K; Coffey, K P; Looper, M L; West, C P; Rosenkrans, C F

    2007-06-01

    Two tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) forages, one an experimental host plant/endophyte association containing a novel endophyte (HM4) that produces low or nil concentrations of ergot alkaloids, and the other a typical association of Kentucky 31 tall fescue and the wild-type endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum; E+), were autumn-stockpiled following late-summer clipping and fertilization with 56 kg/ha of N to assess the nutritive value and ruminal disappearance kinetics of autumn-stockpiled tall fescue forages. Beginning on December 4, 2003, sixteen 361 +/- 56.4-kg replacement dairy heifers were stratified by weight and breeding and assigned to one of four 1.6-ha pastures (2 each of E+ and HM4) that were strip-grazed throughout the winter. Pastures were sampled before grazing was initiated (December 4), each time heifers were allowed access to a fresh strip (December 26, January 15, and February 4), and when the study was terminated (February 26). For fiber components, there were no interactions between fescue type and sampling date for either pregrazed or postgrazed forages. Over sampling dates, neutral detergent fiber (NDF; 56.5 to 67.8%), acid detergent fiber (27.7 to 34.9%), hemicellulose (28.8 to 34.0%), cellulose (25.0 to 28.1%), and lignin (3.61 to 10.05%) varied with sampling date, but patterns were almost exclusively curvilinear with time. Ruminal disappearance rate of dry matter (DM) was not affected by any treatment factor (overall mean for both pregrazed and postgrazed forages = 0.050 h(- 1)); similar responses were observed for NDF disappearance (overall mean = 0.048 h(- 1)). Interactions of fescue type and sampling date were observed for both pregrazed and postgrazed forages with respect to effective ruminal disappearance of DM; however, estimates were relatively high for all forages (overall mean = 64.0%). Effective disappearance of NDF was relatively extensive for all forages (overall mean = 55.4% of NDF). Based on the results of this trial

  2. Nitrogen rate and application timing affect the yield and risk associated with stockpiling tall fescue for winter grazing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide economical winter feed for grazing livestock in the mid-Atlantic of the United States. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of N rate and application timing on the yield of stockpiled tall fescue. Four N rates ranging from 0 to 120 lb N/acre wer...

  3. Hair Coat and Ear Implant Effects on Physiological Measurements of Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Research has shown cattle grazing toxic tall fescue have reduced weight gain, rough hair coats, and exhibit symptoms of heat stress during the summer. Sixty steers were grazed on toxic tall fescue to determine the effects of hair coats and steroidal ear implants on physiological measurements. Stee...

  4. Forages and pastures symposium: managing the tall fescue-fungal endophyte symbiosis for optimum forage-animal production.

    PubMed

    Aiken, G E; Strickland, J R

    2013-05-01

    Alkaloids produced by the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infects tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] are a paradox to cattle production. Although certain alkaloids impart tall fescue with tolerances to environmental stresses, such as moisture, heat, and herbivory, ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte can induce fescue toxicosis, a malady that adversely affects animal production and physiology. Hardiness and persistence of tall fescue under limited management can be attributed to the endophyte, but the trade-off is reduced cattle production from consumption of ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte. Improved understanding and knowledge of this endophyte-grass complex has facilitated development of technologies and management systems that can either mitigate or completely alleviate fescue toxicosis. This review discusses the research results that have led to development of 5 management approaches to either reduce the severity of fescue toxicosis or alleviate it altogether. Three approaches manipulate the endophyte-tall fescue complex to reduce or alleviate ergot alkaloids: 1) use of heavy grazing intensities, 2) replacing the toxic endophyte with nonergot alkaloid-producing endophytes, and 3) chemical suppression of seed head emergence. The remaining 2 management options do not affect ergot alkaloid concentrations in fescue tissues but are used 1) to avoid grazing of tall fescue with increased ergot alkaloid concentrations in the late spring and summer by moving cattle to warm-season grass pasture and 2) to dilute dietary alkaloids by interseeding clovers or feeding supplements.

  5. Herbage nutritive value of tall fescue fertilized with broiler litter and inorganic fertilizer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broiler litter is widely used as a fertilizer on tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbyshire], but little is known of forage quality responses to litter. Field studies were conducted to determine (1) the trends in crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), and in vitro digest...

  6. Carbon Isotope Discrimination, Selection Response, and Forage Production of Tall Fescue in Contrasting Environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) usually correlates with the dry matter to transpiration ratio (water use efficiency) in C3 species, but its heritability and relationship to forage production is less clear. In a four year study of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) at Pullman, WA and Ardmo...

  7. Using tall fescue in a complementary grazing program for spring calving beef cows in southern Arkansas

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of endophyte toxicity in clover additions to tall fescue pastures used as a limit-grazed complement to warm-season grass pastures. Over 3 years, beef cows (n = 108, Year 1; n = 72, Year 2 and 3; initial fall body weight = 480 ± 8.6 kg, bo...

  8. Runoff under natural rainfall from small tall fescue catchments in the Georgia Piedmont, United States

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The environmental outcomes of tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] pastures managed with different levels of endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) infection and alkaloid production are not known. Rainfall-runoff relationships need to be established as a first step in this evaluation....

  9. Arthropod abundance in tall fescue, Lolium arundinaceum, pastures containing novel ‘safe’ endophytes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Poor livestock performance on tall fescue is linked to infection by a fungal endophyte that enhances grass resistance to stress, including erbivory, while producing ergot alkaloids toxic to vertebrate grazers. Novel ‘safe’ endophyte/grass associations produce no ergot alkaloids yet etain stand persi...

  10. Effects of grazing intensity and chemical seedhead suppression on steers grazing tall fescue pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The first year of a 2 yr grazing study was conducted to evaluate use of Chaparral™ to suppress reproductive growth in tall fescue grazed with low and moderate grazing intensities. Chaparral applications (0 and 2.0 oz/acre) and grazing intensities were arranged as RCBD with three replications. Variab...

  11. An 11-year history of crop rotation into new perennial ryegrass and tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Converting multi-year remote sensing classification data into crop rotations is beneficial by defining the length of crop rotation cycles and the specific sequences of intervening crops grown between the final year of a grass seed stand and establishment of new perennial ryegrass and tall fescue see...

  12. Tennessee Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG8 Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A number of updates on research projects conducted within Tennessee concerning tall fescue (Lolium arundinacium) and its symbiotic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) were presented at the annual SERA-IEG 8 workshop including one with Forage-Animal Production Research Unit scientist collaborations...

  13. Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG8 Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A number of updates on research projects conducted within Kentucky concerning tall fescue (Lolium arundinacium) and its symbiotic endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) were presented at the annual SERA-IEG 8 workshop including a number with Forage-Animal Production Research Unit scientist collaborat...

  14. Combining nitrogen fertilizer with poultry litter in a binary mixture of tall fescue and bermudagrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A common problem when poultry litter is applied to pastures in the southeastern USA is the buildup of soil P because of the difference in N-P-K ratio of the litter and plant requirements. This 2-yr study tested the theory that if the N requirement of a tall fescue-bermudagrass binary mixture is only...

  15. Seasonal nitrogen effects on nutritive value in binary mixtures of tall fescue and bermudagrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Year-round forage production is feasible in much of the southeastern USA through utilization of cool- and warm-season forages. This study determined changes in herbage nutritive value in binary mixtures of cool-season, tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort], and warm-season, bermuda...

  16. Ruminal tryptophan-utilizing bacteria degrade ergovaline from tall fescue seed extract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate degradation of ergovaline in a tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] seed extract by rumen microflora ex vivo and to identify specific bacteria capable of ergovaline degradation in vitro. Rumen cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting ...

  17. Effects of spoil texture on growth of K-31 tall fescue

    Treesearch

    David H. Van Lear

    1971-01-01

    Growth of K-31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) was significantly affected by the particle-size distribution, or texture, of four spoils from eastern Kentucky. Growth on spoils having no toxic chemical properties generally was greatest where texture consisted of about equal quantities of soil-size material and a coarser fraction (2 mm. to 6.4 mm.),...

  18. Ergovaline stability in tall fescue based on sample handling and storage methods

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) found in tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb.) Dumort.] and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objec...

  19. Effect of grazing seedhead-suppressed tall fescue pasture on the vasoactivity of serotonin receptors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research has demonstrated that exposure to ergot alkaloids reduces vasoactivity of serotonin (5HT) receptors. Chemical suppression of tall fescue seedhead production is a tool to reduce the level of exposure to ergot alkaloids by a grazing animal. Therefore, the objective was to evaluate co...

  20. Comparison of growth and physiological characteristics between roughstalk bluegrass and tall fescue in response to simulated waterlogging

    PubMed Central

    Hulting, Andrew; Mallory-Smith, Carol

    2017-01-01

    Roughstalk bluegrass (Poa trivialis) is a weed in cool season grass seed production fields in Oregon. Populations of this weed are often greater in fields prone to waterlogging. A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the morphological and physiological differences between recently established roughstalk bluegrass and tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) plants in response to simulated waterlogging. Differences in root morphological development and root respiration were found between waterlogged tall fescue and roughstalk bluegrass. Plants after 4 weeks of waterlogging, leaf number, plant height, and root biomass were reduced more in tall fescue than in roughstalk bluegrass plants. The root length increased 6% in waterlogged tall fescue plants, and decreased 42% in waterlogged roughstalk bluegrass plants, which lead to a shallower root system in roughstalk bluegrass. Root aerenchyma area increased more in waterlogged roughstalk bluegrass than in tall fescue. Alcohol dehydrogenase and lactate dehydrogenase activities increased in the roots of both species, but not in the leaves. The increases were greater in tall fescue than in roughstalk bluegrass. Turf quality, aboveground biomass, photosynthetic capacity, and water-soluble carbohydrate concentrations were reduced by waterlogging, but there were no differences over time or species. Thus, the shallower root system, larger aerenchyma, and reduced fermentation rates were the characteristics most likely to contribute to better waterlogging tolerance in roughstalk bluegrass compared to tall fescue and invasion of roughstalk bluegrass in waterlogged cool season grass seed fields. PMID:28750041

  1. Early-vegetative tall fescue hay vs alfalfa hay as a supplement for cattle consuming low-quality roughages.

    PubMed

    Horney, M R; DelCurto, T; Stamm, M M; Bailey, R K; Brandyberry, S D

    1996-08-01

    Two studies were conducted to evaluate high-quality tall fescue hay as a supplement to beef cattle fed low-quality roughages. In Exp. 1, 15 ruminally cannulated Hereford x Angus steers (average weight 390 kg) were blocked by weight and assigned randomly to one of three treatments: 1) tall fescue straw, no supplement; 2) tall fescue straw plus tall fescue hay supplement; 3) tall fescue straw plus alfalfa hay supplement. The 28-d digestion study consisted of 14 d of adaption, 6 d of intake data, and 6 d of collection of feces, respectively, with a 1-d ruminal sampling (d 27) and ruminal evacuations (d 28). In Exp. 2, 90 gestating Hereford x Angus cows were stratified by age and body condition and, within stratum, assigned randomly to three replications of the same treatments as described for Exp. 1. In both studies, a basal diet of tall fescue straw was fed with ad libitum access, alfalfa hay was fed at .4% BW, and tall fescue hay was fed at a level isonitrogenous with the alfalfa hay (.61% BW). In Exp. 1, DMI was at least 13% greater (P < .01) for supplemented steers than for nonsupplemented steers and was 12% greater (P < .10) for steers receiving supplemental tall fescue hay than for alfalfa hay-supplemented steers. Digestibility of DM was greater for supplemented steers than for nonsupplemented steers (P < .05) and, between supplement treatments, greater for tall fescue hay-supplemented steers than for alfalfa hay-supplemented steers (P < .10). Ruminal ammonia values peaked at 3 h after feeding and were higher for steers fed supplement treatments than for those fed the control treatment from just before feeding through 6 h after feeding (P < .10). In Exp. 2, supplemented cows gained more BW than nonsupplemented cows (P < .01), and the tall fescue hay-supplemented cows gained more BW (P < .10) than cows supplemented with alfalfa hay. Likewise, supplemented cows lost less condition (P < .01) than their nonsupplemented counterparts during the 84-d supplementation

  2. Pathological changes seen in horses in New Zealand grazing Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) infected with selected endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala) causing equine fescue oedema.

    PubMed

    Munday, J S; Finch, S C; Vlaming, J B; Sutherland, B L; Fletcher, L R

    2017-05-01

    To investigate whether Mediterranean tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh. (syn Festuca arundinacea)) infected with selected fungal endophytes (Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum)) caused equine fescue oedema when grown in New Zealand, and to examine the pathological changes associated with this intoxication. Horses were grazed on Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected with the endophytes AR542 (n=2), or AR584 (n=3), or Mediterranean tall fescue that was endophyte-free (n=2). Blood samples were taken up to 7 days after the start of feeding to detect changes in concentrations of total protein in serum and packed cell volume. Any horse showing clinical evidence of disease was subject to euthanasia and necropsy. Within 6 days, both horses grazing fescue infected with AR542 became depressed and lethargic. One horse grazing fescue infected with endophyte AR584 became depressed within a 5-day feeding period while another horse in this group died shortly after being removed from the AR584 pasture. The third horse in this group did not develop clinical signs within the 5-day feeding period. However, haemoconcentration and hypoproteinaemia was detected in all horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected by AR542 or AR584 endophyte. No abnormalities were observed in horses grazing fescue that was endophyte-free. Necropsy examination was performed on two horses grazing fescue infected with AR542 and one horse grazing fescue infected with AR584. All three horses had marked oedema of the gastrointestinal tract. Histologically, the oedema was accompanied by large numbers of eosinophils, but no necrosis. Horses grazing Mediterranean tall fescue that was infected by AR542 or AR584 developed hypoproteinaemia and haemoconcentration, most likely due to leakage of plasma proteins into the gastrointestinal tract. This suggests that these selected endophytes produce a compound that is toxic to horses, although the toxic principle

  3. Performance and physiology of steers grazing toxic tall fescue as influenced by feeding soybean hulls and implanting with steroid hormones

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A grazing experiment with steers grazing toxic tall fescue indicated that feeding pelleted soybean hulls in conjunction with steroid hormone implants can increase steer weight gain, and feeding soyben hulls can reduce the severity of fescue toxicosis Ergot alkaloids produced by a fungal endophyte...

  4. Performance and Physiology of Yearling Steers Grazing Toxic Tall Fescue as Influenced by Feeding Soybean Hulls and Steroidal Implants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) that infests tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) produces ergot alkaloids that adversely affect performance and physiology of cattle to inflict a malady collectively termed ‘fescue toxicosis’. A two-yr grazing experiment was conducted with yearling steers graz...

  5. Effect of Endophyte Infection and Clipping Treatment on Resistance and Tolerance of Achnatherum sibiricum

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Junhua; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Ren, Anzhi; Gao, Yubao

    2016-01-01

    It is well-documented that endophytes can enhance the resistance of agronomical grasses, such as tall fescue and perennial ryegrass to herbivory. For native grasses, however, the related reports are limited, and the conclusions are variable. Achnatherum sibiricum is a grass native to the Inner Mongolian steppe. This grass is highly infected by endophytes but does not produce detectable endophyte-related alkaloids known under normal conditions. In this study, the contributions of endophytes to the resistance of A. sibiricum to Locusta migratoria were studied. We found that locusts preferred EF (endophyte-free) plants to EI (endophyte-infected) plants, and the weight of locusts fed on EI plants was significantly lower than those fed on EF plants. Hence, endophyte infection significantly enhanced the resistance of the host to L. migratoria. Endophyte infection significantly decreased the concentration of soluble sugar and amino acids while significantly increased the concentration of total phenolic content, and these metabolites may contribute to herbivore resistance of the host. The clipping treatment further strengthened the locust resistance advantage of EI over EF plants. After clipping, the weight of the locusts fed on EI plants significantly decreased compared with those fed on unclipped plants, whereas the weight of the locusts fed on EF plants increased significantly. The results suggested that endophyte infection could increase herbivore resistance while decreasing the tolerance of the host grass by mechanisms apart from endophyte-conferred alkaloid defense. PMID:28018319

  6. Remediation of PAH-contaminated soil by the combination of tall fescue, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus and epigeic earthworms.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Fei; Lu, Mang

    2015-03-21

    A 120-day experiment was performed to investigate the effect of a multi-component bioremediation system consisting of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus (AMF) (Glomus caledoniun L.), and epigeic earthworms (Eisenia foetida) for cleaning up polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)-contaminated soil. Inoculation with AMF and/or earthworms increased plant yield and PAH accumulation in plants. However, PAH uptake by tall fescue accounted for a negligible portion of soil PAH removal. Mycorrhizal tall fescue significantly enhanced PAH dissipation, PAH degrader density and polyphenol oxidase activity in soil. The highest PAH dissipation (93.4%) was observed in the combination treatment: i.e., AMF+earthworms+tall fescue, in which the soil PAH concentration decreased from an initial value of 620 to 41 mg kg(-1) in 120 days. This concentration is below the threshold level required for Chinese soil PAH quality (45 mg kg(-1) dry weight) for residential use.

  7. Characterization of Epichloë coenophiala within the U.S.: are all tall fescue endophytes created equal?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Carolyn; Charlton, Nikki; Takach, Johanna; Swoboda, Ginger; Trammell, Michael; Huhman, David; Hopkins, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is a valuable and broadly adapted forage grass that occupies approximately 14 million hectares across the United States. A native to Europe, tall fescue was likely introduced into the U.S. around the late 1800’s. Much of the success of tall fescue can be attributed to Epichloë coenophiala (formerly Neotyphodium coenophialum) a seed borne symbiont that aids in host persistence. Epichloë species are capable of producing a range of alkaloids (ergot alkaloids, indole-diterpenes, lolines and peramine) that provide protection to the plant host from herbivory. Unfortunately, most tall fescue within the U.S., commonly referred to as KY31, harbors the endophyte E. coenophiala that causes toxicity to grazing livestock due to the production of ergot alkaloids. Molecular analyses of tall fescue endophytes have identified four independent associations, representing tall fescue with E. coenophiala, Epichloë sp. FaTG-2, Epichloë sp. FaTG-3 or Epichloë sp. FaTG-4. Each of these Epichloë species can be further distinguished based on genetic variation that equates to differences in the alkaloid gene loci. Tall fescue samples were evaluated using markers to SSR and alkaloid biosynthesis genes to determine endophyte strain variation present within continental U.S. Samples represented seed and tillers from the Suiter farm (Menifee County, KY), which is considered the originating site of KY31, as well as plant samples collected from 14 states, breeder’s seed and plant introduction lines (National Plant Germplasm System, NPGS). This study revealed two prominent E. coenophiala genotypes based on presence of alkaloid biosynthesis genes and SSR markers and provides insight into endophyte variation within continental U.S. across historical and current tall fescue samples.

  8. Growing steers grazing high versus low endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue have reduced serum enzymes, increased hepatic glucogenic enzymes, and reduced liver and carcass mass.

    PubMed

    Brown, K R; Anderson, G A; Son, K; Rentfrow, G; Bush, L P; Klotz, J L; Strickland, J R; Boling, J A; Matthews, J C

    2009-02-01

    It is well established that grazing Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected forages results in reduced BW gain and serum prolactin concentrations of cattle. The objective of this study was to determine the potential effects of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue consumption on blood metabolites, carcass characteristics, and content of proteins critical for AA metabolism in the liver, kidney, and LM tissue of growing steers. Steers grazed a low toxic endophyte (LE; 0.023 microg/g ergot alkaloids) tall fescue-mixed grass pasture (n = 9; BW = 266 +/- 10.9 kg; 5.7 ha) or a high toxic endophyte (HE; 0.746 microg/g of ergot alkaloids) tall fescue pasture (n = 10; BW = 267 +/- 14.5 kg; 5.7 ha) from June 14 through at least September 11 (> or =89 d). No difference was observed for BW (P < 0.10) for the overall 85-d growth period. Also, no differences were observed for ribeye area/100 kg of HCW (P > 0.91), backfat (P > 0.95), or backfat/100 kg of HCW (P > 0.67). However, ADG (P < 0.01), final BW (P < 0.05), HCW (P < 0.01), dressing percentage (P < 0.01), ribeye area (P < 0.01), whole liver wet weight (P < 0.01), and whole liver wet weight/100 kg of end BW (P < 0.01) were greater for LE steers than HE steers. After 85 d of grazing, serum concentrations of alkaline phosphatase (P < 0.05), alanine aminotransferase (P < 0.01), aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.03), cholesterol (P < 0.01), lactate dehydrogenase (P < 0.01), and prolactin (P < 0.01) were less for HE than LE steers. At slaughter, hepatic content of cytosolic phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (P < 0.01) was greater in HE steers than LE steers. Hepatic content of aspartate aminotransferase (P < 0.01) also was greater, whereas renal and LM content were not (P > or = 0.42). No differences (P > or = 0.15) were observed for hepatic, renal, and LM content of alanine aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase, glutamine synthetase, and 3 glutamate transport proteins. These data indicate that the HE steers displayed classic

  9. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period and lactation affects mammary gland gene expression in dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and reduce milk production when fed to lactating cows. However, we have shown this affect is temporal in that pre-partum consumption of inflected seed throughout the dry period does not inhibit subsequent milk productio...

  10. Does mowing height influence alkaloid production in endophytic tall fescue and perennial ryegrass?

    PubMed

    Salminen, Seppo O; Grewal, Parwinder S; Quigley, Martin F

    2003-06-01

    The mutualistic symbiosis following infection of tall fescue, Festuca arundinacea, and perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne, by fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium spp.) results in the production of alkaloids that are feeding deterrents or toxic to insects and livestock. If the levels of the alkaloids can be manipulated by cultural practices in the grasses that are used for home lawns and golf courses, this could alleviate the need for pesticide applications in urban environments. We evaluated the influence of mowing height on the levels of some alkaloids in a greenhouse experiment for two consecutive months. In tall fescue, levels of four of the nine alkaloids, including one presumptive alkaloid, showed increased levels with increasing the mowing height from 2.5 to 7.5 cm. The alkaloids were ergonovine, ergocryptine, perloline methyl ether, and an unidentified alkaloid designated as unknown C. In perennial ryegrass, three out of six alkaloids, perloline methyl ether, chanoclavine, and unknown A, showed similar increases. The alkaloid levels in perennial ryegrass showed more variability than those in tall fescue between the two sampling dates. It was clear in both grasses that the relative levels of the alkaloids varied with mowing height, as well as over time.

  11. Metabolite analysis of the effects of elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization on the association between tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus) and its fungal symbiont Neotyphodium coenophialum.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Geraldine D; Rasmussen, Susanne; Xue, Hong; Parsons, Anthony J; Newman, Jonathan A

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric CO2 is expected to increase to between 550 ppm and 1000 ppm in the next century. CO2-induced changes in plant physiology can have ecosystem-wide implications and may alter plant-plant, plant-herbivore and plant-symbiont interactions. We examined the effects of three concentrations of CO2 (390, 800 and 1000 ppm) and two concentrations of nitrogen fertilizer (0.004 g N/week versus 0.2 g N/week) on the physiological response of Neotyphodium fungal endophyte-infected and uninfected tall fescue plants. We used quantitative PCR to estimate the concentration of endophyte under altered CO2 and N conditions. We found that elevated CO2 increased the concentration of water-soluble carbohydrates and decreased the concentration of plant total amino acids in plants. Fungal-derived alkaloids decreased in response to elevated CO2 and increased in response to nitrogen fertilization. Endophyte concentration (expressed as the number of copies of an endophyte-specific gene per total genomic DNA) increased under elevated CO2 and nitrogen fertilization. The correlation between endophyte concentration and alkaloid production observed at ambient conditions was not observed under elevated CO2. These results suggest that nutrient exchange dynamics important for maintaining the symbiotic relationship between fungal endophytes and their grass hosts may be altered by changes in environmental variables such as CO2 and nitrogen fertilization. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Evaluation of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures across multiple environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Binary grass-legume mixtures can benefit forage production systems in different ways helping growers cope both with increasing input costs (e.g., N fertilizer, herbicides) and potentially more variable weather. The main objective of this study was to evaluate alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) and tall f...

  13. Interaction of isoflavones and endophyte-infected tall fescue seed extract on vasoactivity of bovine mesenteric vasculature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    It was hypothesized that isoflavones may attenuate ergot alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction and possibly alleviate diminished contractility of vasculature after exposure to ergot alkaloids. The objective of this study was to determine if prior incubation of bovine mesenteric vasculature with the isof...

  14. Competitive ability of tall fescue against alfalfa as a function of summer dormancy, endophyte infection and soil moisture availability

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Summer-dormant cool-season grasses might be a viable component of pasture if Mediterranean and Mediterranean-type environments with relative mild winters and hot and dry summers. Management practices for summer-dormant forages are being developed, including production strategies with compatible leg...

  15. Seedling Establishment of Tall Fescue Exposed to Long-Term Starvation Stress

    PubMed Central

    Damiani, Claudia Roberta; Stefanini, Sara; Vernieri, Paolo; Huarancca Reyes, Thais; Volterrani, Marco; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    In germinating seeds under unfavorable environmental conditions, the mobilization of stores in the cotyledons is delayed, which may result in a different modulation of carbohydrates balance and a decrease in seedling vigor. Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) caryopses grown at 4°C in the dark for an extended period in complete absence of nutrients, showed an unexpected ability to survive. Seedlings grown at 4°C for 210 days were morphologically identical to seedlings grown at 23°C for 21 days. After 400 days, seedlings grown at 4°C were able to differentiate plastids to chloroplast in just few days once transferred to the light and 23°C. Tall fescue exposed to prolonged period at 4°C showed marked anatomical changes: cell wall thickening, undifferentiated plastids, more root hairs and less xylem lignification. Physiological modifications were also observed, in particular related to sugar content, GA and ABA levels and amylolytic enzymes pattern. The phytohormones profiles exhibited at 4 and 23°C were comparable when normalized to the respective physiological states. Both the onset and the completion of germination were linked to GA and ABA levels, as well as to the ratio between these two hormones. All plants showed a sharp decline in carbohydrate content, with a consequent onset of gradual sugar starvation. This explained the slowed then full arrest in growth under both treatment regimes. The analysis of amylolytic activity showed that Ca2+ played a central role in the stabilization of several isoforms. Overall, convergence of starvation and hormone signals meet in crosstalk to regulate germination, growth and development in tall fescue. PMID:27832166

  16. Tasco-Forage: I. Influence of a seaweed extract on antioxidant activity in tall fescue and in ruminants.

    PubMed

    Fike, J H; Allen, V G; Schmidt, R E; Zhang, X; Fontenot, J P; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Evans, R R; Coelho, R W; Wester, D B

    2001-04-01

    Seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) is a known source of plant growth regulators, and application to turfgrasses has increased activity of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD) and specific vitamin precursors. Increased antioxidant activity in both plants and animals diminishes oxidative stress. Two pasture experiments investigated effects of Tasco-Forage (a proprietary seaweed-based product) applied to tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) on antioxidant activity in plants and in ruminants that grazed the forage. In Exp. 1, fescue was 70 to 100% infected with the endophyte fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum ([Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin). Twenty-four wether lambs (initial BW 41 kg; SD = 5) grazed fescue treated with 0, 1.7, or 3.4 kg Tasco/ha applied in April and July, 1994, with four replications per treatment. Grazing occurred for 26 d beginning April 21 and for 22 d beginning July 19. In July, there was a linear increase in daily gains (P < 0.05), and serum vitamin A (P < 0.13) and whole-blood Se (P < 0.10) tended to increase in lambs grazing Tasco-treated fescue. In Exp. 2,48 Angus and Angus x Hereford steers (initial BW 245 kg; SD = 20) grazed infected or uninfected tall fescue in Virginia that was treated (3.4 kg/ ha) or untreated with Tasco in April and July, 1995. Steers that grazed infected tall fescue had lower (P < 0.02) serum vitamin A and E and tended (P < 0.07) to have lower whole-blood Se in September compared with steers that grazed uninfected tall fescue. Tasco decreased (P < 0.06) serum vitamin E but tended to increase whole-blood Se (P < 0.10) in September and serum vitamin A in July (P < 0.12). During 1996 and 1997, the experiment was repeated in Virginia with Angus steers and was replicated at Prairie, MS, where 1/4 Brahman x 3/4 Angus steers were used. Forty-eight steers were included at each location in each year (n = 192 total steers for 1996 and 1997). Steers that grazed infected tall fescue in Mississippi had lower (P < 0

  17. The effect of formulation and amount of potassium fertilizer on macromineral concentration and cation-anion difference in tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Swift, M L; Bittman, S; Hunt, D E; Kowalenko, C G

    2007-02-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of altering the dietary cation-anion difference (DCAD) in grass by altering the grass variety and the amount and formulation of K fertilizer application. In experiment 1, treatments were combinations of 2 varieties (Barcel and Hi-Mag) of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb); 2 rates of K (0 and 250 kg/ha), supplied as KCl; and 2 rates of Mg (0 and 60 kg/ha), supplied as MgO. In experiment 2, K fertilizer was applied at 0 or 125 kg/ha as KCl or K2SO4. There was no difference between HiMag and Barcel tall fescue in the concentrations of Mg, S, and Cl. Application of K fertilizer decreased concentrations of Mg, but the magnitude of the decrease was not consistent across harvests. Conversely, application of Mg fertilizer increased Mg concentrations, but again, the magnitude of the increase was not consistent across harvests. The concentrations of Ca were higher in HiMag than in Barcel tall fescue, with the magnitude of the difference increasing from first to last harvest. Potassium fertilizer decreased Ca concentrations in the first, fourth, and fifth harvests only. Calcium concentration was decreased by a greater magnitude in HiMag tall fescue as a result of Mg fertilization. The HiMag tall fescue contained lower concentrations of K than did Barcel tall fescue in the first, second, and third harvests. Application of K fertilizer increased the K concentration in all 5 harvests but did not affect Na concentrations except in the last harvest. The HiMag tall fescue contained less Na than did Barcel, but the magnitude of the difference was affected by K and Mg fertilization. Application of K fertilizer decreased S concentrations in first-harvest grass, increased concentrations in second-and third-harvest grasses, and had no effect in fourth-or fifth-harvest grasses. Application of Mg fertilizer decreased S concentrations of tall fescue. Application of K fertilizer increased DCAD values for grass harvested from the second through

  18. Interaction of heavy metals and pyrene on their fates in soil and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea).

    PubMed

    Lu, Mang; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Wang, Jing-Xiu; Zhang, Min; Xu, Yu-Xin; Wu, Xue-Jiao

    2014-01-21

    90-Day growth chamber experiments were performed to investigate the interactive effect of pyrene and heavy metals (Cu, Cd, and Pb) on the growth of tall fescue and its uptake, accumulation, and dissipation of heavy metals and pyrene. Results show that plant growth and phytomass production were impacted by the interaction of heavy metals and pyrene. They were significantly decreased with heavy metal additions (100-2000 mg/kg), but they were only slightly declined with pyrene spiked up to 100 mg/kg. The addition of a moderate dosage of pyrene (100 mg/kg) lessened heavy metal toxicity to plants, resulting in enhanced plant growth and increased metal accumulation in plant tissues, thus improving heavy metal removal by plants. In contrast, heavy metals always reduced both plant growth and pyrene dissipation in soils. The chemical forms of Cu, Cd, and Pb in plant organs varied with metal species and pyrene addition. The dissipation and mineralization of pyrene tended to decline in both planted soil and unplanted soils with the presence of heavy metals, whereas they were enhanced with planting. The results demonstrate the complex interactive effects of organic pollutants and heavy metals on phytoremediation in soils. It can be concluded that, to a certain extent, tall fescue may be useful for phytoremediation of pyrene-heavy metal-contaminated sites. Further work is needed to enhance methods for phytoremediation of heavy metal-organics co-contaminated soil.

  19. Highly efficient transformation and plant regeneration of tall fescue mediated by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhang-Hua; Chen, Jin-Qing; Wu, Guan-Ting; Jin, Wei; Lang, Chun-Xiu; Huang, Rui-Zhi; Wang, Fu-Lin; Liu, Zhi-Hong; Chen, Xiao-Yun

    2005-04-01

    An efficient and reproducible system has been developed for the production of transgenic plants in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) using A. tumefaciens-mediated transformation. Two-months-old suspension cultures served as excellent explants for transformation. The explants were inoculated with an A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 carrying a plasmid pDBA121 containing genes for hygromycin phosphotransferase (hpt) and phosphinotricin acetyltransferase (bar). The commercial herbicide Basta was used as a selective agent. Inclusion of acetosyringone (ACS) 20 mg/L in the co-culture medium led to an increase in transformation efficiency. The efficiency of transformation was highly dependent on the genotype, the explant, the culture medium and selective agent used. Tall fescue transformation efficiency is 2.85-10.9 plants per gram fresh weight (FW) of suspension cultures. This is much higher than the corresponding values reported before (2-5 plants). So far more than 300 transgenic plants have been obtained, the fertility of some transgenic plants had decreased. Stable integration and high expression of the transgenes were confirmed by PCR analysis and Southern blot hybridization or herbicide Basta spraying test.

  20. Steer Performance and pasture productivity of a tall fescue-bermudagrass system compared with yellow bluestem and coastal panicgrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Year-round grazing in animal production systems has potential in the mid-Atlantic USA. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S. J. Darbysh.] is generally the cool-season perennial and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] the warm-season perennial in these systems. This study evaluated yel...

  1. Competition between tall fescue and plantago under elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide: Impact of endophytic fungi and mineral N inputs

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) is one of the most important perennial grasses as forage and turfgrass. It is usually associated with a systemic endophytic fungus (Neotyphodium coenophialum Morgan-Jones and Gams). The endophytic fungus often increases the host resistance to stresses, thus e...

  2. Variable response of non-ergot-producing strains of Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue to lesion nematodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) is mutualistically associated with the endophytic fungus Neotyphodium coenophialum. The fungus confers resistance to several plant pests, including some plant-parasitic nematodes, but also produces ergot alkaloids which are toxic to livestock when ingested. To all...

  3. Management of Meloidogyne incognita with Jesup (Max-Q) tall fescue grass prior to peach orchard establishment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of two preplant Jesup (Max-Q) tall fescue grass ground cover systems as alternatives to chemical control of Meloidogyne incognita were investigated from 2006-2013. Ground cover establishment was initiated in 2006, in a site known to be infested with M. incognita. Treatments included tw...

  4. Herbage nutritive value of tall fescue-bermudagrass binary mixtures fertilized with combinations of nitrogen fertilizer and poultry litter

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Year-round forage production is feasible in much of the southeastern USA through utilization of cool- and warm-season forages. This study determined if productivity and nutritive value in binary mixtures of tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.) Dumort] and bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L...

  5. Expression of Russian Wheat Aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) Resistance in Genotypes of Tall Fescue Harboring Different Isolates of Acremonium Endophyte

    Treesearch

    S.L. Clement; D.G. Lester; A. Dan Wilson; R.C. Johnson; J.H. Bouton

    1996-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to compare the expression of Russian wheat aphid, Diurnphis noxia (Mordvilko), resistance in 2 genotypes of tall fescue grass, Festucn arundinacea Schreb., harboring different isolates of the endophytic fungus Acremonium coenophialum Morgan-Jones & cams. Aphids did not select...

  6. Temperature influences the ability of tall fescue to control transpiration in response to atmospheric vapor pressure deficit

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water availability for turfgrass systems is often limited, and likely to become more so in the future. These experiments examined the ability of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) to control transpiration with increasing vapor pressure deficit and whether control was influenced by temperature...

  7. Tall fescue-Epichloë coenophiala associations affect belowground fungi and host, symbiont response to climate change

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plants interact with myriad microorganisms, which influence ecosystem processes and can regulate ecosystem response to global change. One important symbiosis occurs between the grass, tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceus), and the asexual fungal endophyte Epichloë coenophiala. Because the common to...

  8. Elucidating differences in gene expression of Epichloe coenophiala endophytic fungus in reproductive vs. vegetative tissues of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The tall fescue – Epichloe coenophiala symbiotic system is the most extensively studied of any grass-microbe symbiosis, mainly because of its economic importance worldwide. This is also an extraordinarily stable and mutualistic symbiosis where the endophyte colonizes both vegetative and reproductive...

  9. Productivity and persistence of summer active and summer dormant tall fescue cultivars in the southern Great Plains

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lack of persistence arising from high temperature and drought stresses during the summer limits lifetime productivity of tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinacea Schreb. [Dumort]) pastures in the southern Great Plains (SGP). A summer dormancy characteristic common in genotypes originating from the Medit...

  10. Influence of protein supplementation and implant status on alleviating fescue toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Aiken, G E; Piper, E L; Miesner, C R

    2001-04-01

    Heat stress is a major problem in transporting stocker calves with symptoms of fescue toxicosis. Removing calves from tall fescue pastures and offering diets devoid of endophyte-infected tall fescue could reduce the severity of toxicosis and precondition calves for transport to the feedlot. In the present experiment, a pasture phase was used to condition yearling steers to grazing tall fescue and induce symptoms of fescue toxicosis, and a pen phase followed to determine effects of implanting at the start of grazing and protein supplementation (hay only vs hay plus supplement) on short-term changes in rectal temperature and serum prolactin concentration. Neither implant status nor protein supplementation affected (P > 0.10) white blood cell count or rectal temperature. White blood cell counts at the conclusion of the pasture phase averaged 8,778 cells/microL and were within a range indicating no immunological response. Changes in rectal temperature and serum prolactin concentration during the pen phase were not influenced (P > 0.10) by implanting or supplementation. Initial rectal temperatures for the pen phase were high (39.9 degrees C) but declined linearly (P < 0.001) over the first 106 h and were below a normal temperature (39.2 degrees C) by 82 h following removal from tall fescue pastures. Serum prolactin gradually increased (P < 0.001) to a peak by 82 h and stabilized thereafter. Results indicate that neither supplemental protein nor an estrogenic implant influenced recovery indices of fescue toxicosis, whereas removing calves from tall fescue pastures and excluding dietary tall fescue for 3 to 4 d may alleviate symptoms of fescue toxicosis.

  11. Ergovaline Stability in Tall Fescue Based on Sample Handling and Storage Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lea, Krista; Smith, Lori; Gaskill, Cynthia; Coleman, Robert; Smith, S.

    2014-09-01

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) found in tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb.) Dumort.) and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sample handling and storage on the stability of ergovaline in tall fescue samples. Fresh tall fescue was collected from a horse farm in central Kentucky at three harvest dates and transported on ice to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Plant material was frozen in liquid nitrogen, milled and mixed before being allocated into different sub-samples. Three sub-samples were assigned to each of 14 sample handling or storage treatments. Sample handling included increased heat and UV light to simulate transportation in a vehicle and on ice in a cooler per standard transportation recommendations. Storage conditions included storage at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC for up to 28 days. Each sub-sample was then analyzed for ergovaline concentration using HPLC with fluorescence detection and this experiment was repeated for each harvest date. Sub-samples exposed to UV light and heat lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in 2 hours, while sub-samples stored on ice in a cooler showed no change in ergovaline in 2 hours. All sub-samples stored at 22oC, 5oC and -20oC lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in the first 24 hours of storage. There was little change in ergovaline in the freezer (-20oC) after the first 24 hours up to 28 days of storage but intermittent losses were observed at 22oC and 5oC. To obtain results that most closely represent levels in the field, all samples should be transported on ice to the laboratory immediately after harvest for same day analysis. If immediate testing is not possible, samples should be stored at -20oC until analysis.

  12. Ergovaline stability in tall fescue based on sample handling and storage methods.

    PubMed

    Lea, Krista; Smith, Lori; Gaskill, Cynthia; Coleman, Robert; Smith, S Ray

    2014-01-01

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) found in tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinacea (Schreb.) Dumort.] and blamed for a multitude of livestock disorders. Ergovaline is known to be unstable and affected by many variables. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sample handling and storage on the stability of ergovaline in tall fescue samples. Fresh tall fescue was collected from a horse farm in central Kentucky at three harvest dates and transported on ice to the University of Kentucky Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory. Plant material was frozen in liquid nitrogen, milled and mixed before being allocated into different sub-samples. Three sub-samples were assigned to each of 14 sample handling or storage treatments. Sample handling included increased heat and UV light to simulate transportation in a vehicle and on ice in a cooler per standard transportation recommendations. Storage conditions included storage at 22°C, 5°C, and -20°C for up to 28 days. Each sub-sample was then analyzed for ergovaline concentration using HPLC with fluorescence detection and this experiment was repeated for each harvest date. Sub-samples exposed to UV light and heat lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in 2 h, while sub-samples stored on ice in a cooler showed no change in ergovaline in 2 h. All sub-samples stored at 22°C, 5°C, and -20°C lost a significant fraction of ergovaline in the first 24 h of storage. There was little change in ergovaline in the freezer (-20°C) after the first 24 h up to 28 days of storage but intermittent losses were observed at 22°C and 5°C. To obtain results that most closely represent levels in the field, all samples should be transported on ice to the laboratory immediately after harvest for same day analysis. If immediate testing is not possible, samples should be stored at -20°C until analysis.

  13. An SSR- and AFLP-based genetic linkage map of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    PubMed

    Saha, Malay C; Mian, Rouf; Zwonitzer, John C; Chekhovskiy, Konstantin; Hopkins, Andrew A

    2005-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is commonly grown as forage and turf grass in the temperate regions of the world. Here, we report the first genetic map of tall fescue constructed with PCR-based markers. A combination of amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeats (EST-SSRs) of both tall fescue and those conserved in grass species was used for map construction. Genomic SSRs developed from Festuca x Lolium hybrids were also mapped. Two parental maps were initially constructed using a two-way pseudo-testcross mapping strategy. The female (HD28-56) map included 558 loci placed in 22 linkage groups (LGs) and covered 2,013 cM of the genome. In the male (R43-64) map, 579 loci were grouped in 22 LGs with a total map length of 1,722 cM. The marker density in the two maps varied from 3.61 cM (female parent) to 2.97 (male parent) cM per marker. These differences in map length indicated a reduced level of recombination in the male parent. Markers that revealed polymorphism within both parents and showed 3:1 segregation ratios were used as bridging loci to integrate the two parental maps as a bi-parental consensus. The integrated map covers 1,841 cM on 17 LGs, with an average of 54 loci per LG, and has an average marker density of 2.0 cM per marker. Homoeologous relationships among linkage groups of six of the seven predicted homeologous groups were identified. Three small groups from the HD28-56 map and four from the R43-64 map are yet to be integrated. Homoeologues of four of those groups were detected. Except for a few gaps, markers are well distributed throughout the genome. Clustering of those markers showing significant segregation distortion (23% of total) was observed in four of the LGs of the integrated map.

  14. Lead Accumulation by Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) Grown on a Lead-Contaminated Soil

    PubMed Central

    Begonia, M. T.; Begonia, G. B.; Ighoavodha, M.; Gilliard, D.

    2005-01-01

    Phytoextraction is gaining acceptance as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly phytoremediation strategy for reducing toxic metal levels from contaminated soils. Cognizant of the potential of this phytoremediation technique as an alternative to expensive engineering-based remediation technologies, experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of some plants as phytoextraction species. From one of our preliminary studies, we found that tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. cv. Spirit) can tolerate and accumulate significant amounts of lead (Pb) in its shoots when grown in Pb-amended sand. To further evaluate the suitability of tall fescue as one of the potential crop rotation species for phytoextraction, a study was conducted to determine whether the addition of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) alone or in combination with acetic acid can further enhance the shoot uptake of Pb. Seeds were planted in 3.8 L plastic pots containing top soil, peat, and sand (4:2:1, v:v:v) spiked with various levels (0,1000, 2000 mg Pb/kg dry soil) of lead. At six weeks after planting, aqueous solutions (0, 5 mmol/kg dry soil) of EDTA and acetic acid (5 mmol/kg dry soil) were applied to the root zone, and all plants were harvested a week later. Results revealed that tall fescue was relatively tolerant to moderate levels of Pb as shown by non-significant differences in root and shoot biomass among treatments. An exception to this trend however, was the slight reduction in root and shoot biomass of plants exposed to the highest Pb level in combination with the two chelates. Root Pb concentration increased with increasing level of soil-applied Pb. Further increases in root Pb concentrations were attributed to chelate amendments. Translocation index, which is a measure of the partitioning of the metal to the shoots, was significantly enhanced with chelate addition especially when both EDTA and acetic acid were used. Chelate-induced increases in translocation indices

  15. Growth and metabolism of growing beef calves fed tall fescue haylage supplemented with protein and(or) energy.

    PubMed

    Smith, W L; Gay, N; Boling, J A; Muntifering, R B

    1987-10-01

    Endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum)-infected Kentucky 31 tall fescue was fertilized in mid-August, stockpiled, harvested November 4 to 6 and stored in a concrete stave silo. Ninety-six growing calves (189 kg) were assigned to the following treatments (24 calves/treatment): 1) corn silage (CS) plus .4 kg/d of soybean meal (SBM; 2) fescue haylage plus .4 kg/d of SBM; 3) fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn and 4) fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn and .4 kg/d of SBM. Daily gains and dry matter (DM) intakes during the 91-d trial were .52, 4.58; .51, 5.22; .59, 6.06; and .63, 6.18 kg for treatments 1 through 4, respectively. Daily gains of calves fed corn silage plus SBM and fescue haylage plus SBM were not different (P greater than .05). However, a difference (P less than .05) existed between treatments 1 and 2 vs 3 and 4. Feed conversion was improved (P less than .05) in calves fed corn silage. Calves in a metabolism trial were fed either 1) 6.2 kg November-ensiled fescue haylage or 2) 6.2 kg November-ensiled fescue haylage plus 1.6 kg/d of corn. Digestibility of DM, N-free extract (NFE) and TDN did not differ (P greater than .05) between treatments. Ether extract digestibility was greater (P less than .05) for the added corn diet, while that of CP was greater (P less than .05) for the fescue haylage diet. Nitrogen retained was higher (P less than .05) for calves fed added corn. A follow-up trial with 96 growing calves (190 kg) compared September- and November-harvested fescue haylages supplemented with either 1.3 or 2.6 kg corn/d.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Growth Performance by Fall-Calving Cow-Calf Pairs Grazing Tall Fescue Pastures with Different Proportions Stockpiled Until Late Fall

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stockpiling tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is a viable but variable management practice used to reduce winter feed costs for cattle. The objective of this 2-yr study was to determine the impact of stockpiling different proportions of total fescue acreage on growth performance of fall-calv...

  17. Influence of Rough Hair Coats and Steroidal Implants on Hair Growth, Rectal Temperatures, and Sweating by Steers Grazed on Toxic Tall Fescue During the Summer

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle grazing toxic tall fescue months [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Schreb.)] typically retain their rough hair coats into the summer, which can exacerbate heat stress induced by fescue toxicosis. Further, previous research has indicated that progesterone and estradiol implants may increase body tem...

  18. Forage nutritive value and steer responses to grazing intensity and seed-head suppression of endophyte-free tall fescue in mixed pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A 2-yr grazing experiment was conducted with 8- to 10-mo old steers on pastures of endophyte-free tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) in mixture with other grasses to assess the effect of seed head suppression (SHS) of fescue on steer performance and forage nutritive values. With and without SHS were...

  19. Interactions between supplement energy source and tall fescue hay maturity on forage utilization by beef steers.

    PubMed

    Fieser, B G; Vanzant, E S

    2004-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of tall fescue hay maturity on intake, digestion, and ruminal fermentation responses to different supplemental energy sources fed to beef steers. Twelve ruminally cannulated, crossbred steers (initial BW = 228 +/- 21 kg) were used in a split-plot experiment with a 3 x 4 factorial treatment arrangement. Steers were assigned randomly to three supplement treatments: 1) no supplement, 2) pelleted soybean hulls, or 3) coarse cracked corn. The second treatment factor was fescue hay maturity: 1) vegetative (VEG), 2) boot-stage (BOOT), 3) heading-stage (HEAD), and 4) mature (MAT). Supplements were fed once daily at 0.67% of BW (OM basis) and tall fescue hay was offered once daily at 150% of average intake. Supplement type x forage maturity interactions were not detected (P > or = 0.25) for forage, total, or digestible OM intake, which generally decreased (P < 0.01) with advancing forage maturity. Supplementation decreased (P < 0.01) forage and increased (P < 0.01) total OM intake. Supplement type had no effect (P = 0.56) on substitution ratio (unit change in forage intake per unit of supplement intake). Digestible OM intake was increased (P < 0.01) by supplementation and was greater (P = 0.05) with soybean hulls than with corn. Supplement type x forage maturity interactions (P < or = 0.10) were observed for OM and NDF digestibilities and N retention. Increases in digestibility with soybean hulls relative to corn were greater and supplementation elicited greater increases in N retention with more mature forages. Compared with soybean hulls, corn supplementation resulted in greater (P < 0.01) negative associative effects on OM digestibility. Supplementation did not affect (P > or = 0.10) ruminal pH, total VFA concentrations, or acetate:propionate ratio. Corn supplementation decreased (P < or = 0.07) ruminal NH3-N concentrations compared with control and soybean hulls; however, decreases in ruminal NH3-N concentrations

  20. Evolutionary history of tall fescue morphotypes inferred from molecular phylogenetics of the Lolium-Festuca species complex

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The agriculturally important pasture grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb. syn. Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.) is an outbreeding allohexaploid, that may be more accurately described as a species complex consisting of three major (Continental, Mediterranean and rhizomatous) morphotypes. Observation of hybrid infertility in some crossing combinations between morphotypes suggests the possibility of independent origins from different diploid progenitors. This study aims to clarify the evolutionary relationships between each tall fescue morphotype through phylogenetic analysis using two low-copy nuclear genes (encoding plastid acetyl-CoA carboxylase [Acc1] and centroradialis [CEN]), the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (rDNA ITS) and the chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) genome-located matK gene. Other taxa within the closely related Lolium-Festuca species complex were also included in the study, to increase understanding of evolutionary processes in a taxonomic group characterised by multiple inter-specific hybridisation events. Results Putative homoeologous sequences from both nuclear genes were obtained from each polyploid species and compared to counterparts from 15 diploid taxa. Phylogenetic reconstruction confirmed F. pratensis and F. arundinacea var. glaucescens as probable progenitors to Continental tall fescue, and these species are also likely to be ancestral to the rhizomatous morphotype. However, these two morphotypes are sufficiently distinct to be located in separate clades based on the ITS-derived data set. All four of the generated data sets suggest independent evolution of the Mediterranean and Continental morphotypes, with minimal affinity between cognate sequence haplotypes. No obvious candidate progenitor species for Mediterranean tall fescues were identified, and only two putative sub-genome-specific haplotypes were identified for this morphotype. Conclusions This study describes the first phylogenetic analysis of

  1. SOLiD-SAGE of endophyte-infected red fescue reveals numerous effects on host transcriptome and an abundance of highly expressed fungal secreted proteins.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Karen V; Belanger, Faith C

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important plant-fungal symbiotic relationships is that of cool season grasses with endophytic fungi of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium. These associations often confer benefits, such as resistance to herbivores and improved drought tolerance, to the hosts. One benefit that appears to be unique to fine fescue grasses is disease resistance. As a first step towards understanding the basis of the endophyte-mediated disease resistance in Festuca rubra we carried out a SOLiD-SAGE quantitative transcriptome comparison of endophyte-free and Epichloë festucae-infected F. rubra. Over 200 plant genes involved in a wide variety of physiological processes were statistically significantly differentially expressed between the two samples. Many of the endophyte expressed genes were surprisingly abundant, with the most abundant fungal tag representing over 10% of the fungal mapped tags. Many of the abundant fungal tags were for secreted proteins. The second most abundantly expressed fungal gene was for a secreted antifungal protein and is of particular interest regarding the endophyte-mediated disease resistance. Similar genes in Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. have been demonstrated to have antifungal activity. Of the 10 epichloae whole genome sequences available, only one isolate of E. festucae and Neotyphodium gansuense var inebrians have an antifungal protein gene. The uniqueness of this gene in E. festucae from F. rubra, its transcript abundance, and the secreted nature of the protein, all suggest it may be involved in the disease resistance conferred to the host, which is a unique feature of the fine fescue-endophyte symbiosis.

  2. Differential Cadmium Distribution and Translocation in Roots and Shoots Related to Hyper-Tolerance between Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qin; Xu, PeiXian; Wang, ZhaoLong

    2017-01-01

    Phytoremediation efficiency mainly depends upon mechanisms in the uptake and translocation of soil contaminants. Cadmium (Cd) distribution and translocation in roots and shoots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) were observed using fluorescence spectroscopy with a laser confocal scanning microscope. No difference in root Cd accumulations was detected between these two turfgrass species. Kentucky bluegrass transported more Cd into the stele for root-to-shoot translocation and resulted in significantly higher Cd concentration in leaves. In tall fescue, less Cd was transported into the stele in roots and more Cd was excreted to the cuticle layer in leaves. These results suggested that both turfgrass species were hypertolerant to Cd through distinct distribution patterns in leaves and roots. PMID:28217136

  3. Association Analysis of Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) Markers with Agronomic Traits in Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liang; Sun, Xiaoyan; Yang, Yong; Liu, Hongmei; Xu, Qingguo

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue is widely used in temperate regions throughout the world as a dominant forage grass as well as a turfgrass, in pastoral and turf industry. However, the utilization of tall fescue was limited because of its leaf roughness, poor regeneration ability and poor stress resistance. New cultivars were desirable in modern pastoral industries exceed the potential of existing cultivars. Therefore, well understanding the agronomic traits and describing germplasms would help to overcome these constraints, and morphological evaluation of tall fescue germplasm is the key component in selecting rational parents for hybridization breeding. However, describing the morphological traits of tall fescue germplasm is costly and time-consuming. Fortunately, biotechnology approaches can supplement conventional breeding efforts for tall fescue improvement. Association mapping, as a powerful approach to identify association between agronomic traits and molecular markers has been widely used for enhancing the utilization, conservation and management of the tall fescue germplasms. Therefore, in the present research, 115 tall fescue accessions from different origins (25 accessions are cultivars; 31 accessions from America; 32 accessions from European; 7 accessions from Africa; 20 accessions from Asia), were evaluated for agronomic traits and genetic diversity with 90 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The panel displayed significant variation in spike count per plant (SCP) and spike weight (SW). However, BCS performed the lowest CV among all the observed agronomic traits. Three subpopulations were identified within the collections but no obvious relative kinship (K) was found. The GLM model was used to describe the association between SSR and agronomic traits. Fifty-one SSR markers associated with agronomic traits were observed. Twelve single-associated markers were associated with PH; six single-associated markers were associated with BCS; eight single-associated markers were

  4. Ascorbic Acid Enhances the Accumulation of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Roots of Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.)

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Hui; Gong, Shuaishuai

    2012-01-01

    Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA) significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT). The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality. PMID:23185628

  5. Ascorbic acid enhances the accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in roots of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.).

    PubMed

    Gao, Yanzheng; Li, Hui; Gong, Shuaishuai

    2012-01-01

    Plant contamination by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is crucial to food safety and human health. Enzyme inhibitors are commonly utilized in agriculture to control plant metabolism of organic components. This study revealed that the enzyme inhibitor ascorbic acid (AA) significantly reduced the activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), thus enhancing the potential risks of PAH contamination in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). POD and PPO enzymes in vitro effectively decomposed naphthalene (NAP), phenanthrene (PHE) and anthracene (ANT). The presence of AA reduced POD and PPO activities in plants, and thus was likely responsible for enhanced PAH accumulation in tall fescue. This conclusion is supported by the significantly enhanced uptake of PHE in plants in the presence of AA, and the positive correlation between enzyme inhibition efficiencies and the rates of metabolism of PHE in tall fescue roots. This study provides a new perspective, that the common application of enzyme inhibitors in agricultural production could increase the accumulation of organic contaminants in plants, hence enhancing risks to food safety and quality.

  6. Germination, Physiological Responses and Gene Expression of Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) Growing under Pb and Cd

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Yanhong; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Deling; Amombo, Erick; Sun, Xin; Wang, Hui; Zhuge, Yuping

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are recognized as the most toxic metal ions due to their detrimental effects not only to plants, but also to humans. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Cd and Pb treatments on seed germination, plant growth, and physiological response in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). We employed six treatments: CK (nutrient solution as control), T1 (1000 mg L-1 Pb), T2 (50 mg L-1 Cd), T3 (150 mg L-1 Cd), T4 (1000 mg L-1 Pb+50 mg L-1 Cd), T5 (1000 mg L-1 Pb+150 mg L-1 Cd). Antagonistic and synergistic actions were observed in tall fescue under Pb and Cd combined treatments. Under low Cd, plants exhibited higher relative germination rate, germ length, VSGR, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities. Additionally, in the shoots, the gene expression level of Cu/Zn SOD, FeSOD, POD, GPX, translocation factors, MDA, EL, and soluble protein contents were reduced under Pb stress. Conversely, under high Cd level, there was a decline in NRT, Pb content in shoots, Pb translocation factors, CAT activity; and an increase in VSGR, Pb content in roots, gene expression level of Cu/ZnSOD and POD in tall fescue exposed to Pb2+ regimes. On the other hand, tall fescue plants treated with low Cd exhibited lower relative germination rate, germination index, germ length, NRT, Cd content in roots. On the other hand there was higher Cd content, Cd translocation factor, CAT and POD activities, and gene expression level of Cu/Zn SOD, FeSOD, POD, GPX under Pb treatment compared with single Cd2+ treatment in the shoots. However, after high Cd exposure, plants displayed lower NRT, Cd content, CAT activity, and exhibited higher Cd contents, Cd translocation factor, MDA content, gene expression level of Cu/ZnSOD and GPX with the presence of Pb2+ relative to single Cd2+ treatment. These findings lead to a conclusion that the presence of low Cd level impacted positively towards tall fescue growth under Pb stress, while high level of Cd impacted

  7. Germination, Physiological Responses and Gene Expression of Tall Fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) Growing under Pb and Cd.

    PubMed

    Lou, Yanhong; Zhao, Peng; Wang, Deling; Amombo, Erick; Sun, Xin; Wang, Hui; Zhuge, Yuping

    2017-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) are recognized as the most toxic metal ions due to their detrimental effects not only to plants, but also to humans. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Cd and Pb treatments on seed germination, plant growth, and physiological response in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.). We employed six treatments: CK (nutrient solution as control), T1 (1000 mg L-1 Pb), T2 (50 mg L-1 Cd), T3 (150 mg L-1 Cd), T4 (1000 mg L-1 Pb+50 mg L-1 Cd), T5 (1000 mg L-1 Pb+150 mg L-1 Cd). Antagonistic and synergistic actions were observed in tall fescue under Pb and Cd combined treatments. Under low Cd, plants exhibited higher relative germination rate, germ length, VSGR, catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) activities. Additionally, in the shoots, the gene expression level of Cu/Zn SOD, FeSOD, POD, GPX, translocation factors, MDA, EL, and soluble protein contents were reduced under Pb stress. Conversely, under high Cd level, there was a decline in NRT, Pb content in shoots, Pb translocation factors, CAT activity; and an increase in VSGR, Pb content in roots, gene expression level of Cu/ZnSOD and POD in tall fescue exposed to Pb2+ regimes. On the other hand, tall fescue plants treated with low Cd exhibited lower relative germination rate, germination index, germ length, NRT, Cd content in roots. On the other hand there was higher Cd content, Cd translocation factor, CAT and POD activities, and gene expression level of Cu/Zn SOD, FeSOD, POD, GPX under Pb treatment compared with single Cd2+ treatment in the shoots. However, after high Cd exposure, plants displayed lower NRT, Cd content, CAT activity, and exhibited higher Cd contents, Cd translocation factor, MDA content, gene expression level of Cu/ZnSOD and GPX with the presence of Pb2+ relative to single Cd2+ treatment. These findings lead to a conclusion that the presence of low Cd level impacted positively towards tall fescue growth under Pb stress, while high level of Cd impacted

  8. SOLiD-SAGE of Endophyte-Infected Red Fescue Reveals Numerous Effects on Host Transcriptome and an Abundance of Highly Expressed Fungal Secreted Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Karen V.; Belanger, Faith C.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most important plant-fungal symbiotic relationships is that of cool season grasses with endophytic fungi of the genera Epichloë and Neotyphodium. These associations often confer benefits, such as resistance to herbivores and improved drought tolerance, to the hosts. One benefit that appears to be unique to fine fescue grasses is disease resistance. As a first step towards understanding the basis of the endophyte-mediated disease resistance in Festuca rubra we carried out a SOLiD-SAGE quantitative transcriptome comparison of endophyte-free and Epichloë festucae-infected F. rubra. Over 200 plant genes involved in a wide variety of physiological processes were statistically significantly differentially expressed between the two samples. Many of the endophyte expressed genes were surprisingly abundant, with the most abundant fungal tag representing over 10% of the fungal mapped tags. Many of the abundant fungal tags were for secreted proteins. The second most abundantly expressed fungal gene was for a secreted antifungal protein and is of particular interest regarding the endophyte-mediated disease resistance. Similar genes in Penicillium and Aspergillus spp. have been demonstrated to have antifungal activity. Of the 10 epichloae whole genome sequences available, only one isolate of E. festucae and Neotyphodium gansuense var inebrians have an antifungal protein gene. The uniqueness of this gene in E. festucae from F. rubra, its transcript abundance, and the secreted nature of the protein, all suggest it may be involved in the disease resistance conferred to the host, which is a unique feature of the fine fescue–endophyte symbiosis. PMID:23285269

  9. Characterization of Fructan from Mature Leaf Blades and Elongation Zones of Developing Leaf Blades of Wheat, Tall Fescue, and Timothy 1

    PubMed Central

    Spollen, William G.; Nelson, Curtis J.

    1988-01-01

    Water-soluble carbohydrate composition of mature (ceased expanding) leaf blades and the elongation zone of developing leaf blades was characterized in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and timothy (Phleum pratense L.). These species were chosen because they differ in mean degree of polymerization (DP) of fructan in the mature leaf blade. Our objective was to compare the nature and DP of the fructan. Vegetative plants were grown with a 14-hour photoperiod and constant 21°C at the leaf base. Gel permeation chromatography of leaf blade extracts showed that the apparent mean fructan DP increased in the order wheat < tall fescue < timothy. Apparent mean DP of elongation zone fructan was higher than that of leaf blade fructan in wheat and timothy, but the reverse occurred for tall fescue. Low DP (≤10) and high DP (>10) pools were found in both tissues of tall fescue and wheat, but concentration of low DP fructan was very low in either tissue of timothy. All three species have high DP fructan. Comigration with standards on thin-layer chromotography showed that wheat contained 1-kestose and a noninulin fructan oligomer series. Tall fescue contained neokestose, 1-kestose and higher oligosaccharides that comigrated with neokestose-based compounds and inulins. Thin-layer chromatography showed that small amounts of fructose-containing oligosaccharides were present in timothy. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:16666465

  10. Ruminal tryptophan-utilizing bacteria degrade ergovaline from tall fescue seed extract.

    PubMed

    Harlow, B E; Goodman, J P; Lynn, B C; Flythe, M D; Ji, H; Aiken, G E

    2017-02-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate degradation of ergovaline in a tall fescue [ (Schreb.) Darbysh.] seed extract by rumen microbiota ex vivo and to identify specific bacteria capable of ergovaline degradation in vitro. Rumen cell suspensions were prepared by harvesting rumen fluid from fistulated wether goats ( = 3), straining, and differential centrifugation. Suspensions were dispensed into anaerobic tubes with added Trypticase with or without extract (∼10 μg kg ergovaline). Suspensions were incubated for 48 h at 39°C. Samples were collected at 0, 24, and 48 h for ergovaline analysis and enumeration of hyper-ammonia producing (HAB) and tryptophan-utilizing bacteria. Ergovaline values were analyzed by repeated measures using the mixed procedure of SAS. Enumeration data were log transformed for statistical analysis. When suspensions were incubated with extract, 11 to 15% of ergovaline disappearance was observed over 48 h ( = 0.02). After 24 h, suspensions with added extract had 10-fold less HAB than controls ( = 0.04), but treatments were similar by 48 h ( = 1.00). However, after 24 h and 48 h, suspensions with extract had 10-fold more tryptophan-utilizing bacteria ( < 0.01) that were later isolated and identified by their 16S RNA gene sequence as . The isolates and other known rumen pure cultures ( JB1, B159, HD4, B, F, MD1, SR) were evaluated for the ability to degrade ergovaline in vitro. Pure culture cell suspensions were incubated as described above and samples were taken at 0 and 48 h for ergovaline analysis. Data were analyzed using the ANOVA procedure of SAS. All HAB, including the isolates, tested degraded ergovaline (54 to 75%; < 0.05). B14 was also able to degrade ergovaline but to a lesser capacity (12%; < 0.05), but all other bacteria tested did not degrade ergovaline. The results of this study indicate which rumen bacteria may play an important role in ergovaline degradation and that microbiological strategies for controlling their

  11. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Does tall fescue toxicosis negatively impact bull growth and breeding potential?

    PubMed

    Pratt, S L; Andrae, J G

    2015-12-01

    The predominant cool-season forage in the southeastern United States is the tall fescue cultivar Kentucky 31 (KY31). Kentucky 31 possesses an endophyte (), which produces a family of toxins called ergot alkaloids. These toxins negatively affect the physiology of animals on consumption and result in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. Currently, the United States annually produces approximately 11.4 billion kg of beef, of which 25% originates in the southeastern region of the United States where forage systems frequently are tall fescue based. Cattle within this forage system exhibit reduced gains and reproductive performance. The result is a reduction in the nation's beef supply with annual revenue losses recently estimated at approximately US$1 billion. Our hypothesis is that exposure to these ergot alkaloids in conjunction with limited availability of nutrients decreases bull semen quality and fertility. Although the literature is clear that these toxins affect BW, body temperature, blood flow, hair growth, and female reproduction in cattle, their effect on bull reproduction and the mechanisms through which the toxins act are not well defined. Six studies published from 2004 to 2015 assessed bull growth, body composition, and semen quality of young beef bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids. If semen quality or fertility is altered, the mechanisms involved may be either direct effects of ergot alkaloids through neurotransmitter receptors or indirect effects such as inhibiting the release of prolactin (PRL). The possible effects of ergot alkaloids or PRL require establishing the presence or absence of dopamine, adrenergic, serotonin, or PRL receptors in the testis, epididymis, and sperm cell of the bull. The objective of this review is to relate our findings to the few previous studies conducted that evaluated the impact of fescue toxicosis on bull reproduction and to propose possible mechanisms of action for lowered semen quality.

  12. Ion Uptake in Tall Fescue as Affected by Carbonate, Chloride, and Sulfate Salinity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Lei; Gao, Yang; Li, Deying

    2014-01-01

    Turfgrass nutrient uptake may be differentially affected by different salts. The objective of this study was to compare nutrient uptake in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) as affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate under iso-osmotic, iso-Na+ strength conditions. ‘Tar Heel II’ and ‘Wolfpack’ cultivars were subjected to NaCl, Na2CO3, Na2SO4, CaCl2, NaCl+ CaCl2, Na2CO3+ CaCl2, and Na2SO4+ CaCl2, in the range of 0 to 225 mM. There was no cultivar difference regarding K, Na, Mg, and Mn content in shoots. ‘Tar Heel II’ had higher shoot Ca content than ‘Wolfpack’, which were 6.9 and 5.7 g kg−1, respectively. In general, K+/Na+ ratio decreased with increasing salt concentrations, which reached <1 at about 87.5 mM in Na2CO3 treatment. All salt treatments decreased Mg content in shoot tissues, especially in Na2CO3 and treatments containing CaCl2. Both Ca and Mg content in shoot were higher in the NaCl treatment than the Na2SO4 and Na2CO3 treatments. All salt treatments except Na2CO3 had higher Mn content in shoots compared to the control. In conclusion, nutrient uptake was differently affected by carbonate, chloride, and sulfate which are different in pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and osmotic potential at the same concentration. Adding Ca to the sodium salts increased Ca content and balanced K+/Na+ in shoots, but did not increase Mg content, which was below sufficient level. Maintaining Mg content in shoots under salinity stress was recommended. The physiological impact of elevated Mn content in shoot under salinity stress requires further study. PMID:24626173

  13. Bulls grazing Kentucky 31 tall fescue exhibit impaired growth, semen quality, and decreased semen freezing potential.

    PubMed

    Pratt, S L; Stowe, H M; Whitlock, B K; Strickland, L; Miller, M; Calcatera, S M; Dimmick, M D; Aiken, G E; Schrick, F N; Long, N M; Duckett, S K; Andrae, J G

    2015-02-01

    Serum prolactin (PRL) and testosterone concentrations, body weight, body composition, semen quality, and semen freezing potential for bulls grazing the toxic tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum [Schreb.] Darbysh. = Schedonorous arundinaceum [Schreb.] Dumort.) cultivar Kentucky 31 (E+) compared with a novel endophyte cultivar lacking ergot alkaloids (E-) were evaluated. Angus bulls were allotted to treatment (Day 0) and grazed E+ or E- for 155 days. Treatment-by-day interaction was significant (P < 0.05) for serum PRL concentrations with E+treated bulls exhibiting reduced PRL values compared with E- control bulls, but no differences were observed for serum testosterone concentrations (P > 0.05). Further, bulls on the E+ treatment exhibited decreased total gain, average daily gain, and body weight by Day 140 (P < 0.05) compared with the E- bulls. Rump muscle depth was lower because the treatment in bulls grazing E+ compared with E- (P < 0.05) and intramuscular fat in the E- bulls compared with the E+ group was higher by Day 155 (P < 0.05). Analysis of ejaculates showed significant treatment × day effects for sperm concentration with lower values observed for bulls on the E+ treatment (P < 0.05). The percent normal morphology was reduced in ejaculates from E+ bulls compared with E- bulls (P < 0.05), and the difference was due to an increase in abnormal sperm present in the E+ ejaculates from Day 84 to 140 (P < 0.05). In addition, spermatozoa motility and progressive motility were decreased on thawing in semen samples from E+ bulls compared with E- bulls (P < 0.05). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Exogenous Application of Citric Acid Ameliorates the Adverse Effect of Heat Stress in Tall Fescue (Lolium arundinaceum)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Longxing; Zhang, Zhifei; Xiang, Zuoxiang; Yang, Zhijian

    2016-01-01

    Citric acid may be involved in plant response to high temperature. The objective of this study was to investigate whether exogenous citric acid could improve heat tolerance in a cool-season turfgrass species, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum), and to determine the physiological mechanisms of citric acid effects on heat stress tolerance. The grasses were subjected to four citric acid levels (0, 0.2, 2, and 20 mM) and two temperature levels (25/20 and 35/30 ± 0.5°C, day/night) treatments in growth chambers. Heat stress increased an electrolyte leakage (EL) and malonaldehyde (MDA) content, while reduced plant growth, chlorophyll (Chl) content, photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), root activity and antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, SOD; catalase, CAT; peroxidase, POD). External citric acid alleviated the detrimental effects of heat stress on tall fescue, which was evidenced by decreased EL and MDA content, and improved plant growth under stress conditions. Additionally, the reduction in Chl content, Fv/Fm, SOD, POD, CAT and root activity were ameliorated in citric acid treated plants under heat stressed conditions. High temperature induced the expression of heat shock protein (HSP) genes, which exhibited greater expression levels after citric acid treatment under heat stress. These results suggest that exogenous citric acid application may alleviate growth and physiological damage caused by high temperature. In addition, the exogenously applied citric acid might be responsible for maintaining membrane stability, root activity, and activation of antioxidant response and HSP genes which could contribute to the protective roles of citric acid in tall fescue responses to heat stress. PMID:26925085

  15. Hormone regulation of rhizome development in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) associated with proteomic changes controlling respiratory and amino acid metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiqing; Xu, Qian; Meyer, William A.; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Rhizomes are underground stems with meristematic tissues capable of generating shoots and roots. However, mechanisms controlling rhizome formation and growth are yet to be completely understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate whether rhizome development could be regulated by cytokinins (CKs) and gibberellic acids (GAs), and determine underlying mechanisms of regulation of rhizome formation and growth of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) by a CK or GA through proteomic and transcript analysis. Methods A rhizomatous genotype of tall fescue (‘BR’) plants were treated with 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP, a synthetic cytokinin) or GA3 in hydroponic culture in growth chambers. Furthermore, comparative proteomic analysis of two-dimensional electrophoresis and mass spectrometry were performed to investigate proteins and associated metabolic pathways imparting increased rhizome number by BAP and rhizome elongation by GA3. Key Results BAP stimulated rhizome formation while GA3 promoted rhizome elongation. Proteomic analysis identified 76 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) due to BAP treatment and 37 DEPs due to GA3 treatment. Cytokinin-related genes and cell division-related genes were upregulated in the rhizome node by BAP and gibberellin-related and cell growth-related genes in the rhizome by GA3. Conclusions Most of the BAP- or GA-responsive DEPs were involved in respiratory metabolism and amino acid metabolism. Transcription analysis demonstrated that genes involved in hormone metabolism, signalling pathways, cell division and cell-wall loosening were upregulated by BAP or GA3. The CK and GA promoted rhizome formation and growth, respectively, by activating metabolic pathways that supply energy and amino acids to support cell division and expansion during rhizome initiation and elongation in tall fescue. PMID:27443301

  16. Modification of esterified cell wall phenolics increases vulnerability of tall fescue to herbivory by the fall armyworm.

    PubMed

    de O Buanafina, Marcia M; Fescemyer, Howard W

    2012-08-01

    Feruloylation of arabinoxylan in grass cell walls leads to cross-linked xylans. Such cross-linking appears to play a role in plant resistance to pathogens and insect herbivores. In this study, we investigated the effect of ferulate cross-linking on resistance to herbivory by fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda) making use of genetically modified tall fescue [Schedonorus arundinaceus (Festuca arundinacea)] expressing a ferulic acid esterase gene. Mature leaves of these plants have significant reduced levels of cell wall ferulates and diferulates but no change in acid detergent lignin. These reduced levels of esterified cell wall ferulates in transgenic plants had a positive effect on all measures of armyworm larval performance examined. More larvae survived (89 vs. 57 %) and grew faster (pupated 2.1 days sooner) when fed transgenic leaves with reduced levels of cell wall ferulates, than when fed control tall fescue leaves where levels of cell wall ferulates were not altered. Overall, mortality, growth and food utilization were negatively associated with level of esterified cell wall ferulates and diferulates in leaves they were fed. This study is the first to use transgenic plants with modified level of cell wall esterified ferulates to test the role of feruloylation in plant resistance to insects. It is concluded that the accumulation of ferulates and the cross-linking of arabinoxylans via diferulate esters in the leaves of tall fescue underlies the physical barrier to insect herbivory. Reducing ferulate cross-linking in grass cell walls could increase susceptibility of these plants to insect folivores.

  17. He-Ne laser preillumination improves the resistance of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) seedlings to high saline conditions.

    PubMed

    Gao, Li-Mei; Li, Yong-Feng; Han, Rong

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we explored the protective effect and physiochemical mechanism of He-Ne laser preillumination in enhancement of tall fescue seedlings tolerance to high salt stress. The results showed that salt stress greatly reduced plant growth, plant height, biomass, leaf development, ascorbate acid (AsA) and glutathione (GSH) concentration, the enzymatic activities, and gene expression levels of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GR) and enhanced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content, superoxide radical (O2 (·-)) generation rates, membrane lipid peroxidation, relative electrolyte leakage, the enzymatic activities, and gene expression levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD), compared with controls. However, He-Ne laser preillumination significantly reversed plant growth retardation, biomass loss, and leaves development decay induced by salt stress. And the values of the physiochemical parameters observed in salt-stressed plants were partially reverted or further increased by He-Ne laser. Salt stress had no obvious effect on the transcriptional activity of phytochromeB, whereas He-Ne laser markedly enhanced its transcriptional level. Preillumination with white fluorescent lamps (W), red light (RL) of the same wavelength, or RL, then far-red light (FRL) had not alleviated the inhibitory effect of salt stress on plant growth and antioxidant enzymes activities, suggesting that the effect of He-Ne laser on improved salt tolerance was most likely attributed to the induction of phytochromeB transcription activities by the laser preillumination, but not RL, FRL or other light sources. In addition, we also utilized sodium nitroprusside (SNP) as NO donor to pre-treat tall fescue seedlings at the same conditions, and further evaluated the differences of physiological effects between He-Ne laser and NO in increasing salt resistance of tall fescue. Taken together, our data illustrated that He

  18. Male-sterile and cleistogamous phenotypes in tall fescue induced by chimeric repressors of SUPERWOMAN1 and OsMADS58.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroko; Yoshida, Kouki; Mitsuda, Nobutaka; Ohme-Takagi, Masaru; Takamizo, Tadashi

    2012-02-01

    Since tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is an anemophilous (wind-pollinated) grass species, male sterility is strongly desired for transgenic tall fescue to prevent pollen dispersal. To create male-sterile tall fescue, we applied Chimeric REpressor gene-Silencing Technology (CRES-T) based on rice APETALA3 (AP3) and AGAMOUS (AG) orthologues that specify the formation of stamens. We fused the coding regions of rice AP3 orthologue SUPERWOMAN1 (SPW1), and rice AG orthologues, Os12g0207000, Os01g0886200 and OsMADS58, respectively with the artificial sequence encoding the modified EAR-like motif repression domain (SRDX). We first introduced Os12g0207000SRDX, Os01g0886200SRDX and OsMADS58SRDX into rice for evaluation of their abilities to induce male sterility. The transgenic rice expressing OsMADS58SRDX had reiterated formation of lodicule-like organs instead of stamens and carpel, a typical phenotype of ag mutant. Thus, we found that OsMADS58SRDX was most suitable for our purpose. Next, we introduced SPW1SRDX and OsMADS58SRDX into tall fescue. Although the transgenic tall fescue did not have the stamen alterations seen in SPW1SRDX and OsMADS58SRDX rice, they either produced no pollen or produced immature pollen; thus, the anthers were not dehiscent and the plants were male-sterile. In addition to the male sterility, SPW1SRDX tall fescue showed a cleistogamous (closed) phenotype in which anthers were not observed outside the glumes, with thin, abnormally elongated lodicules. Some lines of OsMADS58SRDX tall fescue showed a cleistogamous phenotype in which the lodicules were homeotically transformed into lemma-like organs. In both cases, cleistogamous phenotype was associated with morphological changes to the lodicules. We also obtained a mild phenotype of OsMADS58SRDX tall fescue, which exhibited only the male sterility. In this study, we produced novel male-sterile phenotypes using chimeric repressors and thus suggest CRES-T as a tool for transgenic improvement

  19. Effect of Lactobacillus inoculants and forage dry matter on the fermentation and aerobic stability of ensiled mixed-crop tall fescue and meadow fescue.

    PubMed

    Guo, X S; Undersander, D J; Combs, D K

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum with or without Lactobacillus buchneri on the fermentation and aerobic stability of mixed tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis Huds.) silage ensiled at different dry matter (DM) contents. The first cut was harvested at boot stage and second-cut grasses were harvested when 30- to 35-cm tall. Four DM content treatments of the first cut were 17.9, 24.9, 34.6, and 48.7%; and of the second cut were 29.1, 36.3, 44.1, and 49.2%. Chopped grasses at each DM content were treated with (1) deionized water (control), (2) Lb. plantarum MTD-1 (LP), or (3) a combination of Lb. plantarum MTD-1 and Lb. buchneri 40788 (LP+LB). The application amount of each inoculant to the fresh forage was 1 × 10(6) cfu/g. Grasses were ensiled in vacuum-sealed polyethylene bags containing 150 g of DM for 60 d, with 4 replicates for each treatment. Silages inoculated with LP+LB had greater pH compared with untreated or LP-treated silages. Lactate was greater in LP silage than control or LP+LB silages. As silage DM increased, lactate in untreated and LP-treated silages decreased, but increased in LP+LB-treated silage. Acetate concentration decreased with increased DM in all silages. The LP+LB-treated silage had the longest and control silage the shortest aerobic stability for both harvests. The greatest values in aerobic stability were observed in silages with highest DM content. In this study, aerobic stability of grass mixes ensiled between 18 and 44% DM content increased as the percentage of DM increased. The LP and LP+LB inoculants improved aerobic stability of silages harvested between 18 and 44% DM content.

  20. Effects of fescue type, sampling date, and grazing by dairy replacement heifers on nitrogen partitioning and in situ disappearance kinetics of N for autumn-stockpiled tall fescue forages.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) forages, one containing a novel endophyte (HM4), and the other containing the Kentucky-31 wild-type endophyte (E+), were autumn stockpiled following late-summer clipping and fertilization with 56 kg N/ha. Beginning on 4 Dec 2003, sixteen 361 ± 56.4-kg re...

  1. Endogenous nitric oxide mediates He-Ne laser-induced adaptive responses in salt stressed-tall fescue leaves.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongfeng; Gao, Limei; Han, Rong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of endogenous nitric oxide in protective effects of He-Ne laser on salt stressed-tall fescue leaves. Salt stress resulted in significant increases of membrane injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, polyamine accumulation, and activities of SOD, POD, and APX, while pronounced decreases of antioxidant contents, CAT activity and intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in seedlings leaves. He-Ne laser illumination caused a distinct alleviation of cellular injury that was reflected by the lower MDA amounts, polyamine accumulation and ROS levels at the stress period. In contrast, the laser treatment displayed a higher Ca(2+) concentration, antioxidant amounts, NO release, antioxidant enzyme, and NOS activities. These responses could be blocked due to the inhibition of NO biosynthesis by PTIO (NO scavenger) or LNNA (NOS inhibitor). The presented results demonstrated that endogenous NO might be involved in the progress of He-Ne laser-induced plant antioxidant system activation and ROS degradation in order to enhance adaptive responses of tall fescue to prolonged saline conditions.

  2. Genomic and metabolic characterisation of alkaloid biosynthesis by asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes of tall fescue pasture grasses.

    PubMed

    Ekanayake, Piyumi N; Kaur, Jatinder; Tian, Pei; Rochfort, Simone J; Guthridge, Kathryn M; Sawbridge, Timothy I; Spangenberg, German C; Forster, John W

    2017-01-04

    Symbiotic associations between tall fescue grasses and asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes exhibit biosynthesis of alkaloid compounds causing both beneficial and detrimental effects. Candidate novel endophytes with favourable chemotypic profiles have been identified in germplasm collections by screening for genetic diversity, followed by metabolite profile analysis in endogenous genetic backgrounds. A subset of candidates was subjected to genome survey sequencing to detect the presence or absence and structural status of known genes for biosynthesis of the major alkaloid classes. The capacity to produce specific metabolites was directly predictable from metabolic data. In addition, study of duplicated gene structure in heteroploid genomic constitutions provided further evidence for the origin of such endophytes. Selected strains were inoculated into meristem-derived callus cultures from specific tall fescue genotypes to perform isogenic comparisons of alkaloid profile in different host backgrounds, revealing evidence for host-specific quantitative control of metabolite production, consistent with previous studies. Certain strains were capable of both inoculation and formation of longer-term associations with a nonhost species, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Discovery and primary characterisation of novel endophytes by DNA analysis, followed by confirmatory metabolic studies, offers improvements of speed and efficiency and hence accelerated deployment in pasture grass improvement programs.

  3. Effects of ultrasonication on increased germination and improved seedling growth of aged grass seeds of tall fescue and Russian wildrye

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Quanzhen; Karagić, Đura; Liu, Xv; Cui, Jian; Gui, Jing; Gu, Muyu; Gao, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The effects of ultrasonic treatments on the germination and seedling growth of aged tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and Russian wild rye (Psathyrostaehys juncea Nevski) seeds were determined using orthogonal matrix experimental design with four ultrasonic factors. The multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences and coupling effects of the pair-wise factors. The activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Peroxidase (POD) and the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content were affected. The ultrasonic treatments had positive effects on the germination percentage (GP) of the aged seeds and the growth of the seedlings (GS) and therefore we provided a basic evidence for the application of ultrasonic treatment to pretreat aged grass seeds. For the four ultrasonic factors, the optimal conditions were a sonication time of 36.7 min, a sonication temperature of 35 °C, an output power of 367 W and a seed soaking time 4.1 h after binary quadratic regressions analyses. The ultrasonic treatment has the potential to improve seedling growth. Moreover, the longevity of the tall fescue and the Russian wild rye seeds was approximately 9.5 and 11.5 years, respectively, under natural conditions of storage. The physiological mechanisms that might contribute to the improved GP and GS were discussed. PMID:26928881

  4. Effects of ultrasonication on increased germination and improved seedling growth of aged grass seeds of tall fescue and Russian wildrye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Quanzhen; Karagić, Đura; Liu, Xv; Cui, Jian; Gui, Jing; Gu, Muyu; Gao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The effects of ultrasonic treatments on the germination and seedling growth of aged tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and Russian wild rye (Psathyrostaehys juncea Nevski) seeds were determined using orthogonal matrix experimental design with four ultrasonic factors. The multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences and coupling effects of the pair-wise factors. The activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Peroxidase (POD) and the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content were affected. The ultrasonic treatments had positive effects on the germination percentage (GP) of the aged seeds and the growth of the seedlings (GS) and therefore we provided a basic evidence for the application of ultrasonic treatment to pretreat aged grass seeds. For the four ultrasonic factors, the optimal conditions were a sonication time of 36.7 min, a sonication temperature of 35 °C, an output power of 367 W and a seed soaking time 4.1 h after binary quadratic regressions analyses. The ultrasonic treatment has the potential to improve seedling growth. Moreover, the longevity of the tall fescue and the Russian wild rye seeds was approximately 9.5 and 11.5 years, respectively, under natural conditions of storage. The physiological mechanisms that might contribute to the improved GP and GS were discussed.

  5. Effects of ultrasonication on increased germination and improved seedling growth of aged grass seeds of tall fescue and Russian wildrye.

    PubMed

    Liu, Juan; Wang, Quanzhen; Karagić, Đura; Liu, Xv; Cui, Jian; Gui, Jing; Gu, Muyu; Gao, Wei

    2016-03-01

    The effects of ultrasonic treatments on the germination and seedling growth of aged tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and Russian wild rye (Psathyrostaehys juncea Nevski) seeds were determined using orthogonal matrix experimental design with four ultrasonic factors. The multivariate analysis of variance detected significant differences and coupling effects of the pair-wise factors. The activities of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) and Peroxidase (POD) and the Malondialdehyde (MDA) content were affected. The ultrasonic treatments had positive effects on the germination percentage (GP) of the aged seeds and the growth of the seedlings (GS) and therefore we provided a basic evidence for the application of ultrasonic treatment to pretreat aged grass seeds. For the four ultrasonic factors, the optimal conditions were a sonication time of 36.7 min, a sonication temperature of 35 °C, an output power of 367 W and a seed soaking time 4.1 h after binary quadratic regressions analyses. The ultrasonic treatment has the potential to improve seedling growth. Moreover, the longevity of the tall fescue and the Russian wild rye seeds was approximately 9.5 and 11.5 years, respectively, under natural conditions of storage. The physiological mechanisms that might contribute to the improved GP and GS were discussed.

  6. Comparative study of diversity based on heat tolerant-related morpho-physiological traits and molecular markers in tall fescue accessions.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Xie, Yan; Bi, Yufang; Liu, Jianping; Amombo, Erick; Hu, Tao; Fu, Jinmin

    2015-12-15

    Heat stress is a critical challenge to tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) in many areas of the globe and variations in genetic structure and functional traits is for the efficient breeding programs on developing heat tolerant cultivars. Tolerant-related morpho-physiological traits and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were employed to survey genetic diversity in greenhouse and growth chamber trials. 100 tall fescue accessions, including 8 commercial cultivars and 92 natural genotypes, showed a high variation in phenotypic performance under heat stress. Based on standardized heat tolerant-related morpho-physiological data, all tall fescue accessions were clustered into five groups. The accessions with similar heat tolerance were likely to be clustered in the same group. The highest genetic diversity was obtained for accessions from Africa judged by Nei's gene diversity (0.2640) and PIC (0.2112). All grass accessions could be divided into three major groups based on SSR markers, which was partially congruous to the geographical regions and history of introduction. A low correlation was found between morpho-physiological traits and SSR markers by Mantel test. The patterns in morpho-physiological trait variations and genetic diversity associated with heat tolerance were useful to design breeding programs for developing heat stress resistance in tall fescue.

  7. Effects of Poultry litter and dairy manure applications on forage yield and quality in conventional and no-till established tall fescue (Scheonourous phoenix [Scop.] Holub) sward.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An endophyte-free tall fescue cultivar, ‘Bronson’ was seeded at a rate of 28kg per ha in the fall of 2010. Two establishment methods were utilized; conventional tillage and no-till establishment. Treatments included conventional fertilizer, poultry litter, and dairy manure along with an untreated co...

  8. Isolation of Burkholderia cepacia JB12 from lead- and cadmium-contaminated soil and its potential in promoting phytoremediation with tall fescue and red clover.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhong Min; Sha, Wei; Zhang, Yan Fu; Zhao, Jing; Ji, Hongyang

    2013-07-01

    Phytoremediation combined with suitable microorganisms and biodegradable chelating agents can be a means of reclaiming lands contaminated by toxic heavy metals. We investigated the ability of a lead- and cadmium-resistant bacterial strain (JB12) and the biodegradable chelator ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS) to improve absorption of these metals from soil by tall fescue and red clover. Strain JB12 was isolated from contaminated soil samples, analysed for lead and cadmium resistance, and identified as Burkholderia cepacia. Tall fescue and red clover were grown in pots to which we added JB12, (S,S)-EDDS, combined JB12 and EDDS, or water only. Compared with untreated plants, the biomass of plants treated with JB12 was significantly increased. Concentrations of lead and cadmium in JB12-treated plants increased significantly, with few exceptions. Plants treated with EDDS responded variably, but in those treated with combined EDDS and JB12, heavy metal concentrations increased significantly in tall fescue and in the aboveground parts of red clover. We conclude that JB12 is resistant to lead and cadmium. Its application to the soil improved the net uptake of these heavy metals by experimental plants. The potential for viable phytoremediation of lead- and cadmium-polluted soils with tall fescue and red clover combined with JB12 was further enhanced by the addition of EDDS.

  9. Microsite conditions influence nutritive value characteristics of a common tall fescue cultivar infected with either a native or a novel non-ergogenic endophyte

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue [Schenodorus phoenix Holub] often benefits in terms of productivity and persistence when infected with Neotyphodium coenophialum [Morgan-Jones and Gams], Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin) endophyte. The influence of novel, non-ergogenic endophytes on nutritive value is unclear, especially when ...

  10. Effect of endophyte type on carcass traits, meat quality, and fatty acid composition of beef cattle grazing tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Duckett, S K; Hill, N S; Hoveland, C S; Lyon, B G; Sackmann, J R; Gillis, M H

    2005-02-01

    Fourteen Hereford steers were used to compare carcass traits, meat quality, and fatty acid composition of beef from cattle grazing tall fescue infected with either wild-type (E+; n = 6) or novel, nil ergot alkaloid (AR542; n = 8) endophyte for 209 d. Average daily gain, live weight, and HCW were greater (P < 0.05) for AR542 cattle than for E+. No differences in LM color or pH were observed between AR542 and E+. Steaks from E+ cattle tended (P = 0.10) to have higher L* and b* than those from AR542 cattle at 0 d of display. Ground beef from E+ cattle also had higher (P < 0.05) L* than AR542 cattle, with no differences in a* or b* at 0 d of display. Color changes during display did not differ for both steaks and ground beef from E+ and AR542. Lipid oxidation levels increased (P < 0.05) during simulated retail display, but they did not differ between endophyte treatments. Adipose tissues from E+ cattle had a higher (P < 0.05) percentage of SFA, and a lower (P < 0.05) percentage of MUFA than adipose from AR542 cattle. Ground beef and i.m. fat had higher (P < 0.05) concentrations of SFA, MUFA, and cis-9, trans-11 isomer of conjugated linoleic acid, and lower (P < 0.05) concentrations of PUFA and PUFA:SFA ratio than s.c. fat. The n-6:n-3 fatty acid ratio did not differ among fat depots. Ergot-alkaloids were detected in s.c. adipose tissues, and alkaloid concentration was greater (P < 0.05) for E+ than AR542. Warner-Bratzler shear force values did not differ between endophyte types, but it decreased (P < 0.01) across the postmortem aging period. Conversely, sensory panel evaluation detected greater (P < 0.01) chewiness and lower (P < 0.05) juiciness for AR542 than for E+ steaks aged for 14 d. Although grazing cattle on tall fescue pastures infected with nil ergot alkaloid endophyte improved cattle performance, these results suggest that endophyte type has minor effects on carcass traits and meat quality of pasture-fed beef. Moreover, finishing cattle on tall fescue

  11. Accumulation of Ergopeptide Alkaloids in Symbiotic Tall Fescue Grown under Deficits of Soil Water and Nitrogen Fertilizer

    PubMed Central

    Arechavaleta, M.; Bacon, C. W.; Plattner, R. D.; Hoveland, C. S.; Radcliffe, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    The fungus Acremonium coenophialum is endophytically associated with tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreber). Within this symbiotum the fungus produces ergopeptide alkaloids, which are associated with livestock toxicoses. Environmental effects on the production of ergot alkaloids within the symbiotum are unknown. We conducted a greenhouse study of the effects of flooding, nitrogen rate during fertilization (11, 73, and 220 mg of N per pot weekly), nitrogen form (3.4 and 34 mg of N as NH4+ or NO3- per pot), and drought stress (-0.03, -0.05, and -0.50 MPa) on ergopeptide alkaloid concentrations in one genotype of nonsymbiotic and symbiotic tall fescue grown in plastic pots. It was determined that the concentration of ergovaline, the major type of ergopeptide alkaloid, was increased but was not as high as that in nonflooded controls. Total ergopeptide and ergovaline concentrations in plants receiving high (220 mg of N per pot) and low (11 mg of N per pot) levels of NH4NO3 fertilization were not affected by flooding. The form of nitrogen was important since all concentrations of NO3--N increased ergopeptide alkaloid content, as opposed to the effects of NH4+-N, which was effective only at high concentrations (34 mg of N per pot). Ergopeptide concentrations were highest in drought-stressed plants grown at -0.50 MPa and fertilized at the moderate or high N rate. The results suggest that within this genotype, ergopeptide alkaloid biosynthesis by the fungus is not appreciably affected by flooding but is greatly increased by high rates of N fertilization and moderate water deficit. PMID:16348675

  12. Meadow Fescue: The Forgotten Grass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In the early 1900s, before tall fescue was introduced to the USA, meadow fescue was a major pasture crop east of the Mississippi River, with millions of acres of seed production in the mid-south. Most of those acres are long gone with the spread of its high-yielding cousin, tall fescue. We have d...

  13. Behavior, preference for, and use of alfalfa, tall fescue, white clover, and buffalograss by pregnant gilts in an outdoor production system.

    PubMed

    Rachuonyo, H A; Allen, V G; McGlone, J J

    2005-09-01

    Sustainable outdoor pig production requires vegetation that can maintain ground cover, assimilate manure nutrients, and prevent soil erosion. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the suitability of four forages: alfalfa (Medicago sativa), tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), white clover (Trifolium repens), and buffalograss (Buchloe dactyloides) for grazing or ground cover in pastures for pigs. Each forage plot covered 7.5 m2, with nine replicates in a randomized block design. In Exp. 1, eight pregnant gilts had free access to all forages during a 2-d adjustment period. Immediately thereafter, pairs of gilts were assigned randomly to one of each of four blocks of the four forages during a 2-d measurement period. The percentage of ground cover for each forage was visually estimated at 0, 24, and 48 h of study. Behavioral data, including walking, eating, grazing, rooting, drinking, standing, lying, and time spent in hut were video-monitored continuously for 48 h. Initial percentage of ground cover was 100% for all species. By 48 h, percentage of ground cover decreased (P < 0.001) for white clover (11.3 +/- 0.88%) and alfalfa (36.3 +/- 0.88%), but not for tall fescue (98.0 +/- 0.88%) or buffalograss (98.0 +/- 0.88%). Gilts spent more (P < 0.01) time grazing white clover (16.3 +/- 1.97 min/d) and alfalfa (11.2 +/- 1.97) than tall fescue (0.8 +/- 1.97) or buffalograss (0.3 +/- 1.97), and rooted more (P < 0.04) white clover than other forages. In Exp. 2, six gilts from the initial group were put on six blocks of the four forages. Each gilt was assigned randomly to three replicates of each forage, including alfalfa, tall fescue, or buffalograss (white clover was excluded because of damage by gilts during Exp. 1), and gilts grazed single forages for 2 d. After this grazing period, the percentage of ground cover was less (P < 0.01) for alfalfa than for buffalograss or tall fescue (37.5 +/- 0.38, 96.7 +/- 0.39, 96.3 +/- 0.39%, respectively). With access to a single

  14. Comparison of alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil, and cicer milkvetch in combination with 25, 50, or 75% tall fescue in a continuous-culture system

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A continuous culture experiment was performed to investigate the effects of tall fescue (TF)-to-legume ratios (TF: = 75:25, 50:50, or 25:75 on a DM basis) of 3 different TF-legume mixed diets [TF-alfalfa (TF+AF), TF-birdsfoot trefoil (TF+BT), or TF-cicer milkvetch (TF+CM)] on in vitro fermentation c...

  15. Effect of protein supplementation and forage allowance on the growth and reproduction of beef heifers grazing stockpiled tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Lyons, S E; Shaeffer, A D; Drewnoski, M E; Poore, M H; Poole, D H

    2016-04-01

    Stockpiled tall fescue can provide adequate winter forage for beef cattle, although unsupplemented replacement heifers may display marginal performance before breeding. The objective of this study was to determine if protein supplementation and/or additional forage improves growth and reproductive performance of replacement heifers grazing stockpiled fescue. Cattle averaging 272 ± 1.59 kg were stratified by BW and then randomly assigned to 1 of 4 plots within a pasture replication. Treatment combinations were assigned in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement and included 1) a conservative forage allocation ("normal," targeting 85% forage use) and mineral supplement (normal forage allocation with mineral supplement [FM]), 2) normal forage allocation with protein tub (FT), 3) more liberal forage allocation ("extra," targeting 70% forage use) and mineral supplement (extra forage allocation with mineral supplement [EM]), and 4) "extra forage allocation with protein tub (ET). Treatments were administered for 8 wk from early November to early January. Heifers were fed fescue hay for 1 wk before breeding in late January. Heifers were synchronized with the 7-d CO-Synch + controlled internal drug release device protocol and inseminated in late January. Heifers were checked for pregnancy by ultrasonography at 35 and 90 d after AI. Main and interaction effects between the 2 treatments were determined. Total supplement intake was greater for protein tub than mineral supplement (0.36 vs. 0.11 kg·heifer·d, respectively; < 0.0001), and the additional dietary protein in the tub groups resulted in greater serum urea N concentrations ( < 0.0001; 8.15 vs. 10.4 mg/dL for mineral and protein tub, respectively). Forage utilization efficiency was greater for normal than extra forage allocation (74.7 vs. 65.8%, respectively; < 0.0001). Main effects of both treatments on ADG were significant ( < 0.0001; 0.28, 0.43, 0.43, and 0.51 kg·heifer·d for FM, FT, EM, and ET, respectively). There was

  16. Ascorbic Acid Alleviates Damage from Heat Stress in the Photosystem II of Tall Fescue in Both the Photochemical and Thermal Phases.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Zhang, Minna; Zhu, Huihui; Huang, Meiyu; Zhu, Qing; Tang, Diyong; Han, Xiaole; Li, Jinlin; Sun, Jie; Fu, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    L-Ascorbate (Asc) plays important roles in plant development, hormone signaling, the cell cycle and cellular redox system, etc. The higher content of Asc in plant chloroplasts indicates its important role in the photosystem. The objective of this study was to study the roles of Asc in tall fescue leaves against heat stress. After a heat stress treatment, we observed a lower value of the maximum quantum yield for primary photochemistry (φPo), which reflects the inhibited activity of the photochemical phase of photosystem II (PSII). Moreover, we observed a higher value of efficiency of electron transfer from QB to photosystem I acceptors (δR0), which reflects elevated activity of the thermal phase of the photosystem of the tall fescue. The addition of Asc facilitate the behavior of the photochemical phase of the PSII by lowering the ROS content as well as that of the alternative electron donor to provide electron to the tyrosine residue of the D1 protein. Additionally, exogenous Asc reduces the activity of the thermal phase of the photosystem, which could contribute to the limitation of energy input into the photosystem in tall fescue against heat stress. Synthesis of the Asc increased under heat stress treatment. However, under heat stress this regulation does not occur at the transcription level and requires further study.

  17. Enhanced salt tolerance of transgenic progeny of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) expressing a vacuolar Na+/H+ antiporter gene from Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junsheng; Zhi, Daying; Xue, Zheyong; Liu, Heng; Xia, Guangmin

    2007-10-01

    Salinity is a major abiotic stress factor limiting crop production. To generate salt-tolerant turf and forage, we had transformed tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) with AtNHX1, a vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene from Arabidopsis thaliana. In this paper, we report that overexpression of the AtNHX1 gene confers enhanced salt tolerance to the transformed tall fescue progenies. DNA gel blot analysis and reverse transcription (RT) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were carried out to confirm the inheritance and expression of the AtNHX1 gene in transgenic T(1) and T(2) lines. These transgenic lines showed no phenotypic changes or yield reduction. Plants carrying the AtNHX1 gene were more resistant to a 20 mM NaCl solution than control plants. The roots of the transgenic lines had a higher sodium content than controls, due to an increased Na(+)/H(+) antiporter activity in tonoplast vesicles. Our results suggest that this accumulation of sodium in vacuoles of root cells, mediated by vacuolar Na(+)/H(+) antiporters, reduced the toxic effects of salinity to tall fescue and thus enhanced its salt tolerance.

  18. Ascorbic Acid Alleviates Damage from Heat Stress in the Photosystem II of Tall Fescue in Both the Photochemical and Thermal Phases

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Zhang, Minna; Zhu, Huihui; Huang, Meiyu; Zhu, Qing; Tang, Diyong; Han, Xiaole; Li, Jinlin; Sun, Jie; Fu, Jinmin

    2017-01-01

    L-Ascorbate (Asc) plays important roles in plant development, hormone signaling, the cell cycle and cellular redox system, etc. The higher content of Asc in plant chloroplasts indicates its important role in the photosystem. The objective of this study was to study the roles of Asc in tall fescue leaves against heat stress. After a heat stress treatment, we observed a lower value of the maximum quantum yield for primary photochemistry (φPo), which reflects the inhibited activity of the photochemical phase of photosystem II (PSII). Moreover, we observed a higher value of efficiency of electron transfer from QB to photosystem I acceptors (δR0), which reflects elevated activity of the thermal phase of the photosystem of the tall fescue. The addition of Asc facilitate the behavior of the photochemical phase of the PSII by lowering the ROS content as well as that of the alternative electron donor to provide electron to the tyrosine residue of the D1 protein. Additionally, exogenous Asc reduces the activity of the thermal phase of the photosystem, which could contribute to the limitation of energy input into the photosystem in tall fescue against heat stress. Synthesis of the Asc increased under heat stress treatment. However, under heat stress this regulation does not occur at the transcription level and requires further study. PMID:28848577

  19. Molecular regulation and physiological functions of a novel FaHsfA2c cloned from tall fescue conferring plant tolerance to heat stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuyun; Huang, Wanlu; Liu, Jun; Yang, Zhimin; Huang, Bingru

    2017-02-01

    Heat stress transcription factors (HSFs) compose a large gene family, and different members play differential roles in regulating plant responses to abiotic stress. The objectives of this study were to identify and characterize an A2-type HSF, FaHsfA2c, in a cool-season perennial grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) for its association with heat tolerance and to determine the underlying physiological functions and regulatory mechanisms of FaHsfA2c imparting plant tolerance to heat stress. FaHsfA2c was localized in nucleus and exhibited a rapid transcriptional increase in leaves and roots during early phase of heat stress. Ectopic expression of FaHsfA2c improved basal and acquired thermotolerance in wild-type Arabidopsis and also restored heat-sensitive deficiency of hsfa2 mutant. Overexpression of FaHsfA2c in tall fescue enhanced plant tolerance to heat by triggering transcriptional regulation of heat-protective gene expression, improving photosynthetic capacity and maintaining plant growth under heat stress. Our results indicated that FaHsfA2c acted as a positive regulator conferring thermotolerance improvement in Arabidopsis and tall fescue, and it could be potentially used as a candidate gene for genetic modification and molecular breeding to develop heat-tolerant cool-season grass species. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Water and phosphorus content affect PAH dissipation in spiked soil planted with mycorrhizal alfalfa and tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Zhou, X B; Cébron, A; Béguiristain, T; Leyval, C

    2009-10-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) dissipation efficiency can be increased in the plant rhizosphere, but may be affected by various environmental factors. We investigated the effects of the watering regime and phosphorus concentration on PAH dissipation in the rhizosphere of mycorrhizal plants in a pot experiment. Two plant species, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea), were co-cultured and inoculated with an arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungus (Glomus intraradices) in PAH (phenanthrene (PHE)=500 mg kg(-1), pyrene (PYR)=500 mg kg(-1), dibenzo(a,h)anthracene (DBA)=65 mg kg(-1)) spiked agricultural soil for 6 weeks. Treatments with different phosphorus concentrations and watering regimes were compared. The PHE dissipation reached 90% in all treatments and was not affected by the treatments. The major finding was the significant positive impact of mycorrhizal plants on the dissipation of high molecular weight PAH (DBA) in high-water low-phosphorus treatment. Such an effect was not observed in high-water high-phosphorus and low-water low-phosphorus treatments, where AM colonization was very low. A positive linear relationship was detected between PYR dissipation and the percentage of Gram-positive PAH-ring hydroxylating dioxygenase genes in high-water high-phosphorus treatments, but not in the other two treatments with lower phosphorus concentrations and water contents. Such results indicated that the phosphorus and water regime were important parameters for the dissipation of HMW-PAH.

  1. Impacts of Sustained Use of Dairy Manure Slurry and Fertilizers on Populations of Pratylenchus penetrans under Tall Fescue

    PubMed Central

    Forge, T. A.; Bittman, S.; Kowalenko, C. G.

    2005-01-01

    Various manures and composts have been reported to reduce population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Dairy manure slurry is often used as a primary source of nitrogen for forage crops. This study was conducted to determine the effects of dairy manure on population densities of Pratylenchus penetrans parasitizing tall fescue. Beginning in 1994, dairy manure and inorganic fertilizer were applied after each harvest (2 to 4 times/year) at rates of 50 and 100 kg NH₄-N/ha; control plots were not treated. Nematode populations in soil and roots were determined at 19 sample dates during the fourth (1997), fifth (1998), and sixth (1999) years of manure and fertilizer applications. The sustained use of dairy manure and fertilizer increased population densities of P. penetrans. Our results contrast with many previous studies demonstrating that application of manures decreases population densities of plant-parasitic nematodes. Frequent applications of moderate amounts of manure to a perennial grass crop may have prevented the development of nematode-toxic levels of ammonia or other toxic substances such as nitrous acid or volatile fatty acids. Two years with no additional manure applications were required for P. penetrans population densities to return to levels similar to fertilized or untreated soil. PMID:19262862

  2. Effects of environmental heat and intake of tall fescue seed infested with Acremonium coenophialum on the acid-base status of young bulls.

    PubMed

    Wallace, L L; Vogt, D W; Lipsey, R J; Garner, G B; Cornell, C N

    1996-04-01

    Effects of high environmental temperature and dietary intake of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) seed containing the endophyte Acremonium coenophialum on bovine acid-base status were studied using 3 groups of bull calves (2 Simmental, 1 Angus). Experimental animals were housed in controlled-climate chambers and subjected to gradual increases in environmental temperature, first while being fed an endophyte-free diet and then while being fed a diet containing 17% endophyte-infested fescue seed. Marked acid-base disturbances were not observed in any animals. In general, Pco2, HCO3-, base excess, and arterial blood pH values were reduced in response to heat stress, both with endophyte-free and endophyte-containing diets. In most individuals anion gap increased. These results reflected metabolic compensation for mild chronic alveolar hyperventilation and retention of organic acids. These findings suggest that, under conditions similar to those found during the summer in central Missouri, normal cattle should not be at great risk of developing respiratory alkalosis or other severe acid-base disturbances as a result of heat stress and/or intake of tall fescue endophyte.

  3. Stress memory induced rearrangements of HSP transcription, photosystem II photochemistry and metabolism of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) in response to high-temperature stress

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Tao; Liu, Shu-Qian; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jin-Min

    2015-01-01

    When plants are pre-exposed to stress, they can produce some stable signals and physiological reactions that may be carried forward as “stress memory”. However, there is insufficient information about plants' stress memory responses mechanisms. Here, two tall fescue genotypes, heat-tolerant PI 574522 and heat-sensitive PI 512315, were subjected to recurring high-temperature pre-acclimation treatment. Two heat shock protein (HSP) genes, LMW-HSP and HMW-HSP, exhibited transcriptional memory for their higher transcript abundance during one or more subsequent stresses (S2, S3, S4) relative to the first stress (S1), and basal transcript levels during the recovery states (R1, R2, and R3). Activated transcriptional memory from two trainable genes could persist up to 4 days, and induce higher thermotolerance in tall fescue. This was confirmed by greater turf quality and lower electrolyte leakage. Pre-acclimation treatment inhibited the decline at steps of O-J-I-P and energy transport fluxes in active Photosystem II reaction center (PSII RC) for both tall fescue genotypes. The heat stress memory was associated with major shifts in leaf metabolite profiles. Furthermore, there was an exclusive increase in leaf organic acids (citric acid, malic acid, tris phosphoric acid, threonic acid), sugars (sucrose, glucose, idose, allose, talose, glucoheptose, tagatose, psicose), amino acids (serine, proline, pyroglutamic acid, glycine, alanine), and one fatty acid (butanoic acid) in pre-acclimated plants. These observations involved in transcriptional memory, PSII RC energy transport and metabolite profiles could provide new insights into the plant high–temperature response process. PMID:26136755

  4. Meadow Fescue: Back to the Future

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.] was introduced to North America in the 18th century, well over 100 years before tall fescue [Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub]. The introduction of the higher-yielding tall fescue in the early 20th century, particularly the release of ‘KY-31’...

  5. Effect of ergot alkaloids associated with fescue toxicosis on hepatic cytochrome P450 and antioxidant proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Settivari, Raja S.; Evans, Tim J.; Rucker, Ed; Rottinghaus, George E.; Spiers, Donald E.

    2008-03-15

    Intake of ergot alkaloids found in endophyte-infected tall fescue grass is associated with decreased feed intake and reduction in body weight gain. The liver is one of the target organs of fescue toxicosis with upregulation of genes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and downregulation of genes associated with antioxidant pathways. It was hypothesized that short-term exposure of rats to ergot alkaloids would change hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) and antioxidant expression, as well as reduce antioxidant enzyme activity and hepatocellular proliferation rates. Hepatic gene expression of various CYPs, selected nuclear receptors associated with the CYP induction, and antioxidant enzymes were measured using real-time PCR. Hepatic expression of CYP, antioxidant and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) proteins were measured using Western blots. The CYP3A1 protein expression was evaluated using primary rat hepatocellular cultures treated with ergovaline, one of the major ergot alkaloids produced by fescue endophyte, in order to assess the direct role of ergot alkaloids in CYP induction. The enzyme activities of selected antioxidants were assayed spectrophotometrically. While hepatic CYP and nuclear receptor expression were increased in ergot alkaloid-exposed rats, the expression and activity of antioxidant enzymes were reduced. This could potentially lead to increased oxidative stress, which might be responsible for the decrease in hepatocellular proliferation after ergot alkaloid exposure. This study demonstrated that even short-term exposure to ergot alkaloids can potentially induce hepatic oxidative stress which can contribute to the pathogenesis of fescue toxicosis.

  6. Determination of the Ergot Alkaloid Ergovaline in Tall Fescue Seed and Straw Using a QuEChERS Extraction Method with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography-Fluorescence Detection.

    PubMed

    Walker, Karen; Duringer, Jennifer; Craig, A Morrie

    2015-04-29

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid produced by the symbiotic endophyte Epichloë coenophiala, which can colonize varieties of the cool-season grass tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea). It is the principle toxicant responsible for the vasoconstrictive and reproductive sequelae seen in "fescue toxicosis" in livestock which consume forage exceeding the threshold of toxicity established for this compound. A new method for extraction of ergovaline from tall fescue seed and straw was optimized and validated, on the basis of the QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method, with high-performance liquid chromatography-fluorescence detection. Fourteen extraction solvents were tested; 2.1 mM ammonium carbonate/acetonitrile (50/50, v/v) had the highest and most consistent recovery (91-101%). Linearity, limit of detection, limit of quantitation, accuracy,and intra- and interday precisions for tall fescue seed and straw were 100-3500 μg/kg, 37 and 30 μg/kg, 100 μg/kg, 98%, 3.0 and 1.6%, and 3.8 and 1.0%, respectively. When the currently used solid-phase extraction (SPE) and QuEChERS methods were applied to 17 tall fescue straw samples, there was good agreement (correlation coefficient 0.9978). The QuEChERS method achieved the goals of eliminating chlorinated solvents and developing a fast, efficient, reliable method for quantitating ergovaline in tall fescue forage that can be applied in a high-throughput food safety laboratory.

  7. Growth responses of Kentucky-31, Kenhy, and Kenwell tall fescues established under differing rates of wood fiber and hardwood bark mulches on eastern Kentucky surface mines

    SciTech Connect

    Koon, D.L.; Graves, D.H.

    1980-12-01

    In August, 1977 Kentucky-31, Kenwell, and the newly released Kenhy variety of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea (L.) Schreb.) were planted on Falcon Coal Company land in eastern Kentucky to evaluate their establishment and vegetative responses to wood fiber mulch (WFM) and hardwood tree bark. Each of the one-half acre plots were fertilized at a constant rate of four hundred (400) pounds of 16-32-8 fertilizer and seeded at the rate of twenty (20) pounds and four (4) pounds per acre with a tall fescue variety and sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam.) respectively. Plot mulch treatments included a control, 35 and 70 cubic yards per acre of hardwood bark, and 300 and 750 pounds per acre of WFM. Percent total ground cover and percent cover occupied by grasses and by legumes were collected for two growing seasons. Reduced seeding rates were utilized to increase the length of time for establishment so that each variety could be easily compared over several growing seasons, indicating adaptability for establishment on eastern Kentucky mine spoil.

  8. Gibberellin-Regulation and Genetic Variations in Leaf Elongation for Tall Fescue in Association with Differential Gene Expression Controlling Cell Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qian; Krishnan, Sanalkumar; Merewitz, Emily; Xu, Jichen; Huang, Bingru

    2016-01-01

    Leaf elongation rate (LER) is an important factor controlling plant growth and productivity. The objective of this study was to determine whether genetic variation in LER for a fast-growing (‘K-31’), and a dwarf cultivar (‘Bonsai’) of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and gibberellic acid (GA) regulation of LER were associated with differential expression of cell-expansion genes. Plants were treated with GA3, trinexapac-ethyl (TE) (GA inhibitor), or water (untreated control) in a hydroponic system. LER of ‘K-31’ was 63% greater than that of ‘Bonsai’, which corresponded with 32% higher endogenous GA4 content in leaf and greater cell elongation and production rates under the untreated control condition. Exogenous application of GA3 significantly enhanced LER while TE treatment inhibited leaf elongation due to GA3-stimulation or TE-inhibition of cell elongation and production rate in leaves for both cultivars. Real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed that three α-expansins, one β-expansin, and three xyloglucan endotransglycosylase (XET) genes were associated with GA-stimulation of leaf elongation, of which, the differential expression of EXPA4 and EXPA7 was related to the genotypic variation in LER of two cultivars. Those differentially-expressed expansin and XET genes could play major roles in genetic variation and GA-regulated leaf elongation in tall fescue. PMID:27457585

  9. Broiler litter application method and runoff timing effects on nutrient and Escherichia coli losses from tall fescue pasture.

    PubMed

    Sistani, K R; Torbert, H A; Way, T R; Bolster, C H; Pote, D H; Warren, J G

    2009-01-01

    The inability to incorporate manure into permanent pasture leads to the concentration of nutrients near the soil surface with the potential to be transported off site by runoff water. In this study, we used rainfall simulations to examine the effect of broiler chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) litter application method and the runoff timing on nutrient and E. coli losses from tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) pasture on a Hartsells sandy loam soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, subactive, thermic Typic Hapludults)) in Crossville, AL. Treatments included two methods of litter application (surface broadcast and subsurface banding), commercial fertilizer, and control. Litter was applied at a rate of 8.97 Mg ha(-1). Treatments were assigned to 48 plots with four blocks (12 plots each) arranged in a randomized complete block design to include three replications in each block. Simulated rainfall was applied to treatments as follows: Day 1, block 1 (runoff 1); Day 8, block 2 (runoff 2); Day 15, block 3 (runoff 3); and Day 22, block 4 (runoff 4). Total phosphorus (TP), inorganic N, and Escherichia coli concentrations in runoff from broadcast litter application were all significantly greater than from subsurface litter banding. The TP losses from broadcast litter applications averaged 6.8 times greater than those from subsurface litter applications. About 81% of the runoff TP was in the form of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) for both litter-application methods. The average losses of NO(3)-N and total suspended solids (TSS) from subsurface banding plots were 160 g ha(-1) and 22 kg ha(-1) compared to 445 g ha(-1) and 69 kg ha(-1) for the broadcast method, respectively. Increasing the time between litter application and the first runoff event helped decrease nutrient and E. coli losses from surface broadcast litter, but those losses generally remained significantly greater than controls and subsurface banded, regardless of runoff timing. This study shows that subsurface

  10. Nitrogen metabolism of beef steers fed endophyte-free tall fescue hay: effects of ruminally protected methionine supplementation.

    PubMed

    Archibeque, S L; Burns, J C; Huntington, G B

    2002-05-01

    Level of nitrogen (N) intake and ruminally protected methionine supplementation were evaluated in eight Angus growing steers (initial BW 253+/-21 kg, final BW 296+/-21 kg) in a replicated 4+/-4 Latin square design. The steers were fed two endophyte-free tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) hays that contained 2.2 (LO) or 2.8% (HI) of DM as N and were either supplemented or not with ruminally protected methionine (10 g metabolizable methionine/d). Diets were fed to provide adequate energy for 0.5 kg ADG and sufficient protein for maintenance (LO), or protein to support 0.5 kg ADG (HI). Following at least 14 d of adjustment, N balance was measured for 6 d. Isotopic urea was infused (15N15N-urea, 0.164 mmol urea N/h) via a jugular catheter for 56 h and urine was collected from 48 to 56 h to measure urea kinetics. Jugular blood was collected during the balance trial, and serum was analyzed for serum urea N (SUN). By design, daily N intake was greater (P < 0.05) for HI (112 g) than for LO (89 g). Compared with LO, steers when fed HI had greater (P < 0.05) daily DMI (4,217 vs 4,151 g), fecal N (34.4 vs 31.2 g), N digested (77.1 vs 57.7 g), urine N (48.3 vs 37.5 g), urine urea N excretion (34.6 vs 24.8 g), and N retained (29.8 vs 21.1 g). When fed HI steers also had higher (P < 0.05) urine urea N concentration (276 vs 219 mM), SUN (8.7 vs 6.7 mM), N digestibility (69.1 vs 64.9%), percentage of urinary N present as urea (71.5 vs 66.7%, P < 0.053), and rate of urea N production (59.6 vs 49.2 g/d) but lower (P < 0.05) percentage of urea N produced that was returned to the ornithine cycle (15.03 vs 19.2 1%) than when fed LO. Methionine supplementation decreased daily urine N (41.2 vs 44.6 g, P = 0.10) and increased both the amount of N retained daily (27.9 vs 23.7 g, P < 0.089) and the percentage of N digested that was retained (40.4 vs 34.6%, P < 0.094). In summary, supplemental methionine met a specific dietary limitation by increasing the amount of digested N that was

  11. Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers.

    PubMed

    Koontz, A F; Kim, D H; Foote, A P; Bush, L P; Klotz, J L; McLeod, K R; Harmon, D L

    2013-08-01

    E+ treatment. These data suggest that consumption of endophyte-infected tall fescue by cattle results in a reduction in basal metabolic rate.

  12. Identification and Validation of Reference Genes for Quantification of Target Gene Expression with Quantitative Real-time PCR for Tall Fescue under Four Abiotic Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Baoyun; Tan, Zhiqun; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is widely utilized as a major forage and turfgrass species in the temperate regions of the world and is a valuable plant material for studying molecular mechanisms of grass stress tolerance due to its superior drought and heat tolerance among cool-season species. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target gene expression is important for the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying improved growth traits and stress tolerance. The stability of nine potential reference genes (ACT, TUB, EF1a, GAPDH, SAND, CACS, F-box, PEPKR1 and TIP41) was evaluated using four programs, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The combinations of SAND and TUB or TIP41 and TUB were most stably expressed in salt-treated roots or leaves. The combinations of GAPDH with TIP41 or TUB were stable in roots and leaves under drought stress. TIP41 and PEPKR1 exhibited stable expression in cold-treated roots, and the combination of F-box, TIP41 and TUB was also stable in cold-treated leaves. CACS and TUB were the two most stable reference genes in heat-stressed roots. TIP41 combined with TUB and ACT was stably expressed in heat-stressed leaves. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays of the target gene FaWRKY1 using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes. The selection of suitable reference genes in tall fescue will allow for more accurate identification of stress-tolerance genes and molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this stress-tolerant species. PMID:25786207

  13. Differential Acclimation of Enzymatic Antioxidant Metabolism and Photosystem II Photochemistry in Tall Fescue under Drought and Heat and the Combined Stresses

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Aoyue; Fan, Jibiao; Hu, Zhengrong; Wang, Guangyang; Amombo, Erick; Fu, Jinmin; Hu, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Quality inferiority in cool-season turfgrass due to drought, heat, and a combination of both stresses is predicted to be more prevalent in the future. Understanding the various response to heat and drought stress will assist in the selection and breeding of tolerant grass varieties. The objective of this study was to investigate the behavior of antioxidant metabolism and photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry in two tall fescue genotypes (PI 234881 and PI 578718) with various thermotolerance capacities. Wide variations were found between heat-tolerant PI 578718 and heat-sensitive PI 234881 for leaf relative water content, malondialdehyde and electrolyte leakage under drought, high-temperature or a combination of both stresses. The sensitivity of PI 234881 exposed to combined stresses was associated with lower superoxide dismutase activity and higher H2O2 accumulation than that in PI 578718. Various antioxidant enzymes displayed positive correlation with chlorophyll content, but negative with membrane injury index at most of the stages in both tall fescue genotypes. The JIP-test analysis in PI 578718 indicated a significant improvement in ABS/RC, TR0/RC, RE0/RC, RE0/ABS values as compared to the control regime, which indicated that PI 578718 had a high potential to protect the PSII system under drought and high temperature stress. And the PS II photochemistry in PI 234881 was damaged significantly compared with PI578718. Moreover, quantitative RT-PCR revealed that heat and drought stresses deduced the gene expression of psbB and psbC, but induced the expression of psbA. These findings to some extent confirmed that the various adaptations of physiological traits may contribute to breeding in cold-season turfgrass in response to drought, high-temperature, and a combination of both stresses. PMID:27148288

  14. Identification and validation of reference genes for quantification of target gene expression with quantitative real-time PCR for tall fescue under four abiotic stresses.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhimin; Chen, Yu; Hu, Baoyun; Tan, Zhiqun; Huang, Bingru

    2015-01-01

    Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) is widely utilized as a major forage and turfgrass species in the temperate regions of the world and is a valuable plant material for studying molecular mechanisms of grass stress tolerance due to its superior drought and heat tolerance among cool-season species. Selection of suitable reference genes for quantification of target gene expression is important for the discovery of molecular mechanisms underlying improved growth traits and stress tolerance. The stability of nine potential reference genes (ACT, TUB, EF1a, GAPDH, SAND, CACS, F-box, PEPKR1 and TIP41) was evaluated using four programs, GeNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and RefFinder. The combinations of SAND and TUB or TIP41 and TUB were most stably expressed in salt-treated roots or leaves. The combinations of GAPDH with TIP41 or TUB were stable in roots and leaves under drought stress. TIP41 and PEPKR1 exhibited stable expression in cold-treated roots, and the combination of F-box, TIP41 and TUB was also stable in cold-treated leaves. CACS and TUB were the two most stable reference genes in heat-stressed roots. TIP41 combined with TUB and ACT was stably expressed in heat-stressed leaves. Finally, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assays of the target gene FaWRKY1 using the identified most stable reference genes confirmed the reliability of selected reference genes. The selection of suitable reference genes in tall fescue will allow for more accurate identification of stress-tolerance genes and molecular mechanisms conferring stress tolerance in this stress-tolerant species.

  15. Forage Fescues in the Northern USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall fescue and meadow fescue are important components of livestock agriculture and soil conservation programs in Wisconsin. Meadow fescue was likely introduced into Wisconsin in sometime in the 1800s or early 1900s. Anecdotal, survey, and DNA evidence from the driftless region of southwestern Wis...

  16. Meadow Fescue: The Forgotten Grass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In 1990, we found an unknown grass growing on a farm in southwestern Wisconsin. We have identified this grass as meadow fescue, popular in the late 19th century and early 20th century before tall fescue was imported into the USA. The grass was established throughout the Charles Opitz farm by harve...

  17. Performance by spring and fall-calving cows grazing with full, limited, or no access to toxic Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Caldwell, J D; Coffey, K P; Jennings, J A; Philipp, D; Young, A N; Tucker, J D; Hubbell, D S; Hess, T; Looper, M L; West, C P; Savin, M C; Popp, M P; Kreider, D L; Hallford, D M; Rosenkrans, C F

    2013-01-01

    Replacing toxic, wild-type Neotyphodium coenophialum-infected tall fescue (E+) with nontoxic, N. coenophialum-infected tall fescue (NE+) has improved cow performance, but producer acceptance of NE+ has been slow. The objective was to compare performance by spring- and fall-calving cows grazing either E+ or NE+ at different percentages of the total pasture area. Gelbvieh×Angus crossbred cows (n=178) were stratified by BW and age within calving season and allocated randomly to 1 of 14 groups representing 5 treatments for a 3-yr study: i) Fall-calving on 100% E+ (F100); ii) Spring-calving on 100% E+ (S100); iii) Fall-calving on 75% E+ and 25% NE+ (F75); iv) Spring-calving on 75% E+ and 25% NE+ (S75); and v) Spring-calving on 100% NE+ (SNE100). Groups allocated to F75 and S75 grazed E+ until approximately 28 d before breeding and weaning, then were then moved to their respective NE+ pasture area for 4 to 6 wk; those allocated to F100, S100, and SNE100 grazed their pastures throughout the entire year. Samples of tall fescue were gathered from specific cells within each pasture at the time cows were moved into that particular cell (∼1 sample/mo). Blood samples were collected from the cows at the start and end of the breeding season. Stocking rate for each treatment was 1 cow/ha. Forage IVDMD, CP, and total ergot alkaloid concentrations were affected (P<0.05) by the treatment×sampling date interaction. Hay offered, cow BW, and BCS at breeding, end of breeding, and at weaning were greater (P<0.05) from fall-calving vs. spring-calving. Cow BW at weaning was greater (P<0.05) from F75 and S75 vs. F100 and S100. The calving season×NE+ % interaction affected (P<0.05) calving rates. Preweaning calf BW gain, actual and adjusted weaning BW, ADG, sale price, and calf value at weaning were greater (P<0.05) from fall-calving vs. spring-calving and from SNE100 vs. S75 except for sale price which was greater (P<0.05) from S75 vs. SNE100. Cow concentrations of serum prolactin at

  18. Tasco-Forage: IV. Influence of a seaweed extract applied to tall fescue pastures on sensory characteristics, shelf-life, and vitamin E status in feedlot-finished steers.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, J L; Allen, V G; Pond, K R; Miller, M F; Wester, D B; Brown, C P; Evans, R; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Fontenot, J P

    2001-04-01

    Tasco-Forage is an Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed-based product that has increased antioxidant activity in both plants and animals. Endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum ([Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin)-infected and uninfected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) pastures in Virginia and Mississippi during 1997 were treated or not with 3.4 kg Tasco/ha in April and July. There were two replications of each treatment at each location. Forty-eight steers (6/replication) grazed pastures at each location (n = 96) from April to October prior to transportation to Texas Tech, Lubbock, for finishing during a 160-d period in the feedlot. Blood (antemortem) and liver (postmortem) samples were collected. After slaughter and chilling, the left strip loins (IMPS #180) were collected from three randomly selected steers from within each pasture replication (n = 48). Strip loins were vacuum-packaged and stored at 2 degrees C. At postmortem d 7, 14, 21, and 28, strip loins were removed from packaging and fabricated into 2.54-cm steaks. Following each fabrication day postmortem, the strip loins were repackaged and stored at 2 degrees C until the following postmortem time. After the prescribed fabrication, steaks were overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film, subjected to simulated retail display at 2 degrees C for up to 3 d, and subjective and objective color were evaluated daily by a trained panel. Steaks from Mississippi steers that had grazed Tasco-treated fescue retained higher (P < 0.05) CIE a* color scores throughout retail display. Steaks were more uniform and had less discoloration and less browning (P < 0.05) if they were from steers that had grazed Tasco-treated fescue, and the effect was greatest for steers from Mississippi (location x Tasco interaction; P < 0.05). The endophyte in tall fescue may decrease uniformity and increase lean discoloration and two-toning of beef steaks when removed from vacuum packaging on or beyond d 21 postmortem (endophyte x

  19. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing on reclaimed cool season tall fescue/legume pastures: II. Forage production, soil and plant tissue comparisons between grazed and ungrazed pastures

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, K.E.; Erickson, W.R.; Bonine, R.C.

    1995-09-01

    The Midway Mine is located 50 miles south of Kansas City, Kansas straddling the border of Kansas and Missouri. The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co. mined the area until 1989, when the mine was closed and reclaimed. Approximately 3,750 acres were topsoiled and revegetated with a cool season tall fescue/legume pasture. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing has become the preferred management practice on these pastures. This study evaluated soil and vegetation data collected on 1,250 acres of pasture which was grazed by about 550 cow/calf units. Ongoing monitoring programs are evaluating the effects of rotational grazing. Soil testing includes macro-nutrients, micro-nutrients and microbial activity. Plant tissue analyses monitor levels of principal macro-nutrients and micro-nutrients. Vegetation monitoring consists of measuring forage production. Results were contrasted between pregrazing and postgrazing, and grazed and ungrazed pasture. Agronomic data from the grazed versus ungrazed treatments documented the following results: (1) higher levels of plant tissue nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur; (2) higher microbial activity; (3) similar levels of soil nitrate, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium and sulfur; and (4) increased biomass production.

  20. Corn oil supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. I. Effects on in vivo digestibility, performance, and carcass traits.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K; Andrae, J G

    2007-05-01

    Eighteen Angus steers (438 +/- 4 kg of BW) were supplemented with varying levels of corn oil (0 g/kg of BW, none; 0.75 g/kg of BW, MED; or 1.5 g/kg of BW, HI) on rotationally stocked, endophyte-free tall fescue to determine the effect of supplemental oil level on in vivo digestibility, intake, performance, and carcass traits. Pelleted cottonseed hulls were used as a carrier for the oil supplements, and all supplements were offered to steers using Calan gate feeders for individual intake determination. On d 49, each steer was dosed with a controlled-release capsule containing chromium sesquioxide, and fecal samples were obtained 12 d later over a 7-d period to estimate fecal output that, with forage, supplement, and fecal indigestible NDF concentration, was used to estimate DMI and in vivo total diet digestibility. Steers were slaughtered at the end of the 116-d grazing period, and carcass data were collected at 24 h postmortem. Total fatty acid intake linearly increased with corn oil supplementation, and forage DMI, total DMI, and total DE intake were linearly decreased (P < 0.01). The decrease in total DMI was reflected in forage substitution rates greater (P < or = 0.01) than 1, with a trend (P = 0.09) for a greater substitution rate in HI than in MED. In vivo DM, OM, and NDF digestibility were linearly decreased (P < 0.01) by corn oil supplementation. Average daily gain and final BW tended (P = 0.09) to increase linearly in response to oil level. Oil conversion (0.36 kg of BW gain/kg of corn oil) was greater (P < or = 0.05) than zero and did not differ (P = 0.15) between MED and HI. Dressing percent (P = 0.09), carcass weight (P = 0.01), and carcass backfat thickness (P = 0.01) increased linearly with oil supplementation. No treatment effect was observed for carcass LM area, KPH percentage, marbling score, or yield grade (P > 0.10). Oil supplementation to grazing steers linearly reduced forage DMI intake; however, animal performance was maintained and tended to

  1. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. I. Effects on in vivo digestibility, performance, and carcass quality.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K

    2008-11-01

    Twenty-eight Angus (289 +/- 3.8 kg) steers were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the effect of isocaloric supplementation of 2 different energy sources to steers rotationally grazing tall fescue pastures for 197 d in comparison to positive and negative controls. Steers were supplemented with either corn grain (0.52% BW on a DM basis; PC) or soybean hulls plus corn oil (0.45% BW on a DM basis + 0.10% BW on an as-fed basis; PO) using Calan gates for individual intake measurement. Negative, pasture only (PA), and positive, high-concentrate control diets (85% concentrate:15% roughage on DM basis; C) were also included in the study. Steers on PC, PO, and PA treatments were managed together under a rotational grazing system, whereas C steers were fed a high-concentrate diet for the final 113 d using Calan gates. Forage DMI and apparent DM and NDF digestibility for the grazing treatments were evaluated using Cr(2)O(5) and indigestible NDF as digesta markers. Energy supplementation decreased (P = 0.02) forage DMI (% of BW) with respect to PA, but not (P = 0.58) total DMI. There were no differences (P = 0.53) among grazing treatments on apparent total DM digestibility. However, NDF digestibility was less (P < or = 0.05) in PC than in PO and PA; the latter 2 treatments did not differ (P > 0.05). Overall ADG was greater (P < 0.01) in supplemented, regardless of type, than in nonsupplemented grazing treatments. During the final 113 d, ADG was greater (P < 0.01) in C than in the grazing treatments. Overall supplement conversion did not differ (P = 0.73) between supplement types and was less (P = 0.006) than C. Carcass traits did not differ (P > 0.05) between energy sources. Dressing percentage and HCW were greater (P < 0.01) in supplemented cattle than in PA. Fat thickness and KPH percentage for PA were less (P < 0.05) than for PO but did not differ (P > 0.14) from PC. Marbling score, LM area, and quality grade did not differ (P > 0.05) between grazing

  2. Corn oil or corn grain supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on subcutaneous fatty acid content and lipogenic gene expression.

    PubMed

    Duckett, S K; Pratt, S L; Pavan, E

    2009-03-01

    Twenty-eight Angus steers (289 kg) were finished on a high-concentrate diet (85% concentrate: 15% roughage; CONC), or endophyte-free tall fescue pastures with corn grain supplement (0.52% of BW; PC), corn oil plus soybean hull supplement (0.10% of BW corn oil plus 0.45% of BW soybean hulls; PO), or no supplement (pasture only; PA). Subcutaneous adipose tissues were processed for total cellular RNA extraction and fatty acid composition by GLC. Relative expression of genes involved in lipogenesis [fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase, lipoprotein lipase, stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD)] and activators of transcription [(peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma), C/EBPalpha, sterol regulatory binding protein-1, signal transducer and activator of transcription-5, and Spot-14] was determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Housekeeping gene (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase and beta-actin) expression was used in analysis to normalize expression data. Total fatty acid content was greatest (P < 0.001) for CONC and least (P < 0.001) for PA. Supplementation of grazing cattle increased (P < 0.001) total fatty acid content compared with PA, but concentrations were less (P < 0.001) than for CONC. Myristic and palmitic acid contents were greater (P < 0.001) for CONC than for PO and PC, which were greater (P < 0.001) than for PA. Stearic acid content was greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for CONC, PC, and PA. Finishing on CONC increased (P < 0.001) total MUFA content by 68% compared with PA. Corn grain supplementation increased (P < 0.001) MUFA content compared with PA; in contrast, MUFA content did not differ (P > 0.05) between PO and PA. Corn oil supplementation increased (P < 0.001) trans-11 vaccenic acid content in subcutaneous fat by 1.2-, 1.7- and 5.6-fold relative to PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Concentrations of the cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer were 54, 58, and 208% greater (P < 0.01) for PO than for PA, PC, and CONC, respectively. Corn grain

  3. From the Lab Bench: It’s Spring time and the fescue is productive and hot with alkaloids

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    An article was written that discussed options in alleviating or mitigating fescue toxicosis in the spring and summer. Seedheads of tall fescue are highly concentrated with toxic ergot alkaloids and the cattle selectively graze immature seedheads of tall fescue. Removal of the seedheads is an appro...

  4. Fertilizer placement to maximize nitrogen use by fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The method of fertilizer nitrogen(N) application can affect N uptake in tall fescue and therefore its yield and quality. Subsurface-banding (knife) of fertilizer maximizes fescue N uptake in the poorly-drained clay–pan soils of southeastern Kansas. This study was conducted to determine if knifed N r...

  5. Regional differences in the fescue toxicosis response of Bos taurus cattle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. S.; Bryant, J. K.; Scharf, B.; Kishore, D. K.; Coate, E. A.; Eichen, P. A.; Keisler, D. H.; Spiers, D. E.

    2015-04-01

    Cattle of the same breed from different regions of the USA may have altered responses to heat stress and fescue toxicosis. Angus steers from Missouri (MO ANG, n = 10, 513.6 ± 13.6 kg BW) and Oklahoma (OK ANG, n = 10, 552.8 ± 12.0 kg BW) were fed a diet containing either endophyte-infected (E+, 30 μg ergovaline/kg BW/day) or endophyte-uninfected (E-, 0 μg ergovaline/kg BW/day) tall fescue seed for 23 days. Diet treatment began on day 2. Animals were maintained at thermoneutrality (TN, 19-22 °C, days 1-8) and then exposed to heat stress (HS, cycling 26-36 °C, days 9-22). On day 23, ambient temperature was returned to TN and used as a recovery day. Feed intake (FI) was measured daily, with rectal and skin temperatures determined six times daily. Feed intake reduction from pretreatment levels was greater ( P < 0.01) for E + (13.9 ± 0.9 versus 11.9 ± 0.3 kg/day) compared to E - (12.6 ± 0.9 versus 12.4 ± 0.3 kg/day) steers over the entire TN period, regardless of Angus group. During HS, E + cattle had reduced FI ( P < 0.02; 6.9 ± 0.2 versus 8.4 ± 0.2 kg/day) compared to E - animals, independent of region of origin. A greater decrease in FI ( P < 0.01) was observed for OK (12.1 ± 0.3 versus 6.2 ± 0.2 kg/day) compared to MO ANG (12.2 ± 0.3 versus 7.9 ± 0.2 kg/day) when ambient temperature was increased from TN to HS. On day 13 and days 15-22, OK ANG (E+) had reduced FI ( P < 0.01, -2.21 kg) compared to OK ANG (E-), while there was no effect on MO ANG. From day 12 to day 22 of HS, daily minimum temperatures for ear, rump, and tail skin were less for E + ( P < 0.05) when compared with E-treated steers, signifying peripheral vasoconstriction in E + animals. This was supported by reduced shoulder and lower tail temperatures ( P < 0.01) for E + compared to E-treated OK ANG on the recovery day. In summary, regional differences in the response to fescue toxicosis exist, with peripheral vasomotor effects becoming most evident when animals are subjected to rapid

  6. Corn oil supplementation to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue. II. Effects on longissimus muscle and subcutaneous adipose fatty acid composition and stearoyl-CoA desaturase activity and expression.

    PubMed

    Pavan, E; Duckett, S K

    2007-07-01

    Eighteen steers were used to evaluate the effect of supplemental corn oil level to steers grazing endophyte-free tall fescue on fatty acid composition of LM, stearoyl CoA desaturase (SCD) activity and expression as well as cellularity in s.c. adipose. Corn oil was supplemented (g/kg of BW) at 0 (none), 0.75 (medium), and 1.5 (high). Cottonseed hulls were used as a carrier for the corn oil and were supplemented according to pasture availability (0.7 to 1% of BW). Steers were finished on a rotationally grazed, tall fescue pasture for 116 d. Fatty acid composition of LM, s.c. adipose, and diet was determined by GLC. Total linoleic acid intake increased linearly (P < 0.01) with corn oil supplementation (90.7, 265.1, and 406.7 g in none, medium, and high, respectively). Oil supplementation linearly reduced (P < 0.05) myristic, palmitic, and linolenic acid percentage in LM and s.c. adipose. Vaccenic acid (C18:1 t11; VA) percentage was 46 and 32% greater (linear, P = 0.02; quadratic, P = 0.01) for medium and high, respectively, than none, regardless of tissue. Effect of oil supplementation on CLA cis-9, trans-11 was affected by type of adipose tissue (P < 0.01). In the LM, CLA cis-9, trans-11 isomer was 25% greater for medium than for none and intermediate for high, whereas CLA cis-9, trans-11 CLA isomer was 48 and 33% greater in s.c. adipose tissue for medium and high than for none, respectively. Corn oil linearly increased (P 0.05) the percentage of total SFA, MUFA, or PUFA but linearly increased (P = 0.03) n-6:n-3 ratio from 2.4 to 2.9 in none and high, respectively. Among tissues, total SFA and MUFA were greater in s.c. adipose than LM, whereas total PUFA, n-6, and n-3 fatty acids and the n-6:n-3 ratio were lower. Trans-10 octadecenoic acid, VA, and CLA trans-10, cis-12 were greater (P

  7. Post-graze recovery of blood circulation in steers exhibiting fescue toxicosis as influenced by seed head suppression

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Seed heads of tall fescue can be chemically suppressed and eliminated as a source of toxic ergot alkaloids, but a reduction in alkaloid-induced vasoconstriction has not been determined in seed head suppressed tall fescue. A preliminary pen experiment was conducted with 30 steers to compare vasoconst...

  8. Behavior Performance of Diuraphis noxia (Homoptera: Aphididae) on Fungal Endophyte-Infected and Uninfected Perennial Ryegrass

    Treesearch

    S.L. Clement; D.G. Lester; A. Dan Wilson; K.S. Pike

    1992-01-01

    The behavior and performance of the Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko), on fungal endophyte-infected and endophyte-free perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L., was investigated in the laboratory and field. Aphids did not select endophyte-free over endophyte-infected leaf sheaths and stem segments in petri dish preference tests....

  9. Incidence of viruses in fescue (Festuca sp.) seed production fields in the Willamette Valley in 2016

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tall Fescue seed production fields of Western Oregon were sampled and tested for the presence or absence of three viruses, Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV) -MAV and -PAV, and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV). There was no BYDV-MAV detected in any of the Fescue seed fields. The BYDV-PAV occurred in ...

  10. Generation of paternal dihaploids in tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    There is a need for modern breeding approaches in the Lolium/Festuca genus to facilitate the rapid development of improved germplasm or cultivars and take advantage of modern molecular based mapping methods. Traditional recurrent or mass-selection methods for population or synthetic development are ...

  11. Enhanced resistance to Spodoptera litura in endophyte infected cauliflower plants.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of disease, are important mediators of plant-herbivore interactions. These endophytes enhance resistance of host plant against insect herbivores mainly by productions of various alkaloid based defensive compounds in the plant tissue or through alterations of plant nutritional quality. Two endophytic fungi, i.e., Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium sp., were isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, a traditional indian medicinal plant. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plants were inoculated with these two endophytic fungi. The effect of endophyte infected and uninfected cauliflower plants were measured on the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Endophyte infected cauliflower plants showed resistance to S. litura in the form of significant increase in larval and pupal mortality in both the fungi. Inhibitory effects of endophytic fungi also were observed on adult emergence, longevity, reproductive potential, as well as hatchability of eggs. Thus, it is concluded that antibiosis to S. litura could be imparted by artificial inoculation of endophytes and this could be used to develop alternative ecologically safe control strategies.

  12. Performance of beef heifers grazing stockpiled fescue as influenced by supplemental whole cottonseed.

    PubMed

    Poore, M H; Scott, M E; Green, J T

    2006-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the composition of stockpiled fescue from December through February over 2 yr and to determine the performance of heifers grazing stockpiled fescue with or without supplemental whole cottonseed. In early December, 36 heifers (initial BW 277 +/- 0.70 kg, yr 1; 266 +/- 2.2 kg, yr 2; and initial BCS of 5.0 +/- 0.04) were assigned randomly to 6 groups. Each group was assigned randomly to a 2.4-ha tall fescue pasture (98% endophyte infected), which had received 76 kg of N/ha on September 1. Group was the experimental unit for all measures. Forage DM available during grazing (to ground level) averaged 3,913 and 5,370 kg/ha in yr 1 and 2, respectively. The pasture was strip-grazed for 83 d, with daily forage allocation. Three groups were fed whole cottonseed (0.90 kg of DM/heifer; 24.4% CP, DM basis) daily at 0.33% of BW, and a small amount of a corn-based concentrate (0.19 kg of DM/heifer) to assure complete cottonseed consumption. Nutritive value of forage (dry basis) was determined each week by sampling each pasture to the 5-cm target grazing height. Forage disappearance was estimated every 2 wk from pre- and postgraze forage mass. Forage CP was 16.8% in yr 1 and 12.6% in yr 2. In vitro true organic matter digestibility (IVTOMD) was 82.0 and 71.9%, and ADF was 25.9 and 30.7% in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Most indicators of forage quality declined slightly through the winter, although they recovered in late winter in yr 1. The proportion of fescue that was green declined (P < 0.05) from December (79% in yr 1 and 64% in yr 2) to February (62% in yr 1 and 52% in yr 2). Green tissue averaged 20.4 and 15.2% CP, 91 and 87% IVTOMD, and 22.1 and 23.3% ADF in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Brown tissue averaged 10.3 and 8.5% CP, 64 and 62% IVTOMD, and 35.7 and 37.4% ADF in yr 1 and 2, respectively. Shrunk ADG (0.46 vs. 0.56 kg/d in yr 1 and 0.23 vs. 46 kg/d in yr 2) and change in BCS (- 0.03 vs. 0.33 in yr 1 and 0.13 vs. 0.5 in yr 2) was

  13. Variable effects of endophytic fungus on seedling establishment of fine fescues.

    PubMed

    Wäli, Piippa R; Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Ahlholm, Jouni; Saikkonen, Kari

    2009-02-01

    Seedborne systemic endophytic fungi of grasses are thought to be plant mutualists, because they have been shown to improve their host's resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. The interactions in plant-endophyte associations vary from mutualistic to parasitic with environmental conditions and the genotypes of interacting species. The possible pros and cons of endophytic fungi are expected to be most evident during the seedling establishment, where host fitness is most directly affected. If this holds true, endophytes may play a focal role in local adaptation of hosts to different environments. We examined if endophyte-infected and uninfected seeds and seedlings of two native grass species, Festuca rubra and F. ovina, differ in seed germination and seedling growth rates under greenhouse conditions. The germination of F. rubra seeds was also studied in the field. This is the first time that the effects of Epichloë endophyte on seedling establishment of fine fescues from natural populations have been experimentally evaluated. Mother plant (seed family) had a marked effect on many response variables in both grass species. Length and mean biomass of tillers of endophyte-infected (E+) F. ovina seedlings were lower, but root:shoot ratios were higher than in endophyte-free (E-) seedlings. In F. rubra, the effects of the endophyte were dependent on the habitat where the seeds were collected. The E+ seeds from river banks germinated faster than E+ seeds from meadows, and E+ seedlings from the river banks produced fewer but taller and heavier tillers than the other seedlings. Our data suggest that the effects of the endophyte infection on the seedling stage of fine fescues are dependent the species of grass, host genetic background and mother plant habitat. The germination strategy and growth form of E+ red fescue seedlings from river banks may be beneficial to surviving in the harsh conditions of that habitat.

  14. Gangrenous ergotism in cattle grazing fescue (Festuca elatior L.) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Botha, C J; Naudé, T W; Moroe, M L; Rottinghaus, G E

    2004-03-01

    The 1st outbreak of fescue toxicosis in South Africa was recently confirmed in a Brahman herd at Perdekop, near Standerton, in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Within 3 weeks of being placed on a fescue pasture in mid-winter, 50 of 385 cattle developed lameness and/or necrosis of the tail. The farmer had established Festuca elatior L. (tall fescue, Iewag variety) on c. 140 ha for winter grazing. Fescue may be infected by an endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, which produces ergot alkaloids, in particular ergovaline. Ergovaline concentrations in basal leaf sheaths and grass stems collected during the outbreak ranged from 1720-8170 ppb on a dry-matter basis.

  15. A vascular contractility bioassay using bovine right ruminal artery and vein

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) produces ergot alkaloids that are associated with peripheral vasoconstriction in grazing animals and ingestion of these alkaloids may affect splanchnic vasculature. Because of significant differences in morphological an...

  16. Validation of Right Ruminal Vein and Artery as Models of Bovine Foregut Vasculature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) produces alkaloids that have been associated with peripheral vasoconstriction in grazing animals and ingestion of these alkaloids may effect splanchnic vasculature. Because of significant differences in morphological an...

  17. From the Lab Bench: A special use for warm-season grasses

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A column was written to discuss the uses of warm-season annual and perennial grasses in Kentucky. These grasses are typically planted in small acreages on a farm to provide grazing during the summer slump in growth of tall fescue pastures. Moving cattle from toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pa...

  18. Ergot alkaloids decrease rumen epithelial blood flow

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to determine if ergot alkaloids affect blood flow to the absorptive surface of the rumen of steers. Steers (n=8 total) were pair-fed alfalfa cubes at 1.5× NEM and received ground endophyte-infected tall fescue seed (E+) or endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-) via rumen...

  19. From the lab bench: Mixtures of grasses and legumes; a good or bad thing?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A column was written to discuss the advantages of complex mixtures of grasses and legumes. Historically, Kentucky pastures have been primarily composed of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue, but Kentucky bluegrass and other grasses are presently encroaching tall fescue pastures. These other gras...

  20. Comparison of nutrient source and forage quality as it relates to microbial survival in fescue soils.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This field experiment was designed to look at survival rates of bacterial groups after addition of three nutrient sources to tall fescue fields. The nutrient sources were inorganic fertilizer (I), poultry littler (PL) and dairy manure (DM) along with a control treatment (C). P and K concentrations ...

  1. From the Lab Bench: Soy Hulls: A Special Feed for Cattle on Toxic Endophyte Fescue Pasture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soy hulls have a nutritive value that is comparable to a moderate quality hay and is often fed as a hay substitute. However, based on results of published research we conducted, it may offer more than the typical hay if fed to cattle grazing toxic endophyte tall fescue. A grazing experiment was co...

  2. Alteration of basal metabolic rate in Holstein steers during fescue toxicosis

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The results of this study indicate that consumption of E+ tall fescue by cattle results in a reduction in basal metabolic rate. Six ruminally cannulated steers were weight-matched and pair-fed during a two period crossover experiment. Each period consisted of two temperatures (22°C and 30°C). During...

  3. Ergot Alkaloids Produced by Endophytic Fungi of the Genus Epichloë

    PubMed Central

    Guerre, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The development of fungal endophytes of the genus Epichloë in grasses results in the production of different groups of alkaloids, whose mechanism and biological spectrum of toxicity can differ considerably. Ergot alkaloids, when present in endophyte-infected tall fescue, are responsible for “fescue toxicosis” in livestock, whereas indole-diterpene alkaloids, when present in endophyte-infected ryegrass, are responsible for “ryegrass staggers”. In contrast, peramine and loline alkaloids are deterrent and/or toxic to insects. Other toxic effects in livestock associated with the consumption of endophyte-infected grass that contain ergot alkaloids include the “sleepy grass” and “drunken horse grass” diseases. Although ergovaline is the main ergopeptine alkaloid produced in endophyte-infected tall fescue and is recognized as responsible for fescue toxicosis, a number of questions still exist concerning the profile of alkaloid production in tall fescue and the worldwide distribution of tall fescue toxicosis. The purpose of this review is to present ergot alkaloids produced in endophyte-infected grass, the factors of variation of their level in plants, and the diseases observed in the mammalian species as relate to the profiles of alkaloid production. In the final section, interactions between ergot alkaloids and drug-metabolizing enzymes are presented as mechanisms that could contribute to toxicity. PMID:25756954

  4. Ergot alkaloids produced by endophytic fungi of the genus Epichloë.

    PubMed

    Guerre, Philippe

    2015-03-06

    The development of fungal endophytes of the genus Epichloë in grasses results in the production of different groups of alkaloids, whose mechanism and biological spectrum of toxicity can differ considerably. Ergot alkaloids, when present in endophyte-infected tall fescue, are responsible for "fescue toxicosis" in livestock, whereas indole-diterpene alkaloids, when present in endophyte-infected ryegrass, are responsible for "ryegrass staggers". In contrast, peramine and loline alkaloids are deterrent and/or toxic to insects. Other toxic effects in livestock associated with the consumption of endophyte-infected grass that contain ergot alkaloids include the "sleepy grass" and "drunken horse grass" diseases. Although ergovaline is the main ergopeptine alkaloid produced in endophyte-infected tall fescue and is recognized as responsible for fescue toxicosis, a number of questions still exist concerning the profile of alkaloid production in tall fescue and the worldwide distribution of tall fescue toxicosis. The purpose of this review is to present ergot alkaloids produced in endophyte-infected grass, the factors of variation of their level in plants, and the diseases observed in the mammalian species as relate to the profiles of alkaloid production. In the final section, interactions between ergot alkaloids and drug-metabolizing enzymes are presented as mechanisms that could contribute to toxicity.

  5. Effect of acute exposure to ergot alkaloids on short-chain fatty acid absorption and barrier function of isolated bovine ruminal epithelium

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids present in endophyte-infected tall fescue are the causative agents for fescue toxicosis in cattle. Ergot alkaloids have been shown to cause a reduction in blood flow to the rumen epithelium as well as a decrease in short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) absorption from the washed rumen of ste...

  6. Efficacy of domperidone gel in an induced model of fescue toxicosis in periparturient mares.

    PubMed

    Cross, D L; Reinemeyer, C R; Prado, J C; Donnell, R L; Bond, K G; Farr, H; Longhofer, S L

    2012-10-01

    The objective was to evaluate the efficacy of domperidone in the prevention of reproductive complications of fescue toxicosis in periparturient mares. Pregnant mares at ≤310 days of gestation were fed ≥200 μg ergovaline per kg diet daily in endophyte-infected fescue hay and seed, starting ≥30 days before their expected foaling date (EFD: 340 days after breeding). Thirty-five mares were randomized to a treatment group to receive either domperidone gel (n = 20, 1.1 mg/kg, PO, once daily) or placebo (n = 15). Treatment was initiated 10 to 15 days before the EFD and continued for 5 days after foaling. "Treatment success" was defined as foaling within 14 days of the EFD, adequate mammary development on the day of foaling, and adequate lactation for 5 days postpartum. Twenty-seven mares were included in the effectiveness analysis. More mares in the domperidone group (12/13, P < 0.0001) were treatment successes than in the control group (1/14). Gestation length was shorter (P = 0.0011), and lactation at foaling (P = 0.0011) was better for the domperidone-group mares. Foals from two control mares were born dead and four others died or were euthanized within a few days after birth, compared with one foal death (an autolyzed twin) from a domperidone-treated mare. Plasma IgG concentrations were evaluated in 24 foals. Failure of passive transfer of immunoglobulins (IgG <800 mg/dL) occurred in 13/16 (81%) foals of domperidone-group mares and 7/8 (88%) foals of control mares. In conclusion, the reproductive complications of fescue toxicosis in periparturient mares induced by a fescue seed/hay model were prevented by treatment with domperidone.

  7. Endophytic infection alleviates Pb(2+) stress effects on photosystem II functioning of Oryza sativa leaves.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Lihong

    2015-09-15

    The aims of this study were to examine the effect of Pb(2+) stress on the primary reaction of photosynthesis and to assess the potential benefits of endophytic infection on the Pb(2+) tolerance of rice seedlings. Rice inoculated with an endophytic fungus (E+) and non-inoculated (E-) were subjected to 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μM Pb(2+). The responses to Pb(2+) stress were characterized by the analysis of Chl a fluorescence. A comparison of E- with E+ rice seedlings, as evaluated by their performance index (PI(ABS) and PI(tot)), revealed the inhibitory effects of Pb(2+) on photosystem II (PSII) connectivity, the oxygen evolving complex (OEC), and on the J step of the induction curves, which is associated with an inhibition of electron transport from the quinone acceptor Q(A) to Q(B). Furthermore, the changes of the donor and the acceptor parameters of PSII were greater in E- than in E+ under Pb(2+) stress. These observations suggest that the efficiency and stability of PSII are markedly affected by Pb(2+) stress, and the photosynthetic energy conservation in E+ was more effective than in E-. We showed that endophytic infection plays an important role in enhancing the photosynthetic mechanism of rice seedlings exposed to Pb(2+) stress.

  8. Relationship of soil nutrient content from poultry litter and dairy manure on microbial survival in fescue soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This field experiment was designed to measure survival rates of select bacterial groups after addition of three nutrient sources to tall fescue fields. The nutrient sources were inorganic fertilizer (I), poultry littler (PL) and dairy manure (DM) along with a control treatment (C). Phosphorus and K...

  9. Gamete selection for forage quality improvement in tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Within the Festuca-Lolium genome complex there is a need for modern breeding approaches that facilitate the rapid development of improved germplasm or cultivars. Traditional recurrent or mass-selection methods for population or synthetic development are labor intensive and time consuming. The use ...

  10. Broiler litter effects on forage quality in tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land application of broiler chicken (Gallus gallus) litter to forage crops is one of the most obvious methods of recycling nutrients. However, manure management remains one of the greatest challenges for livestock producers, particularly where animals are produced on relatively small land areas. Tal...

  11. New Hosts for Balansia epichloe in tall fescue pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Clavicipitalean fungi consist of a relatively small group of genera that are parasitic on grasses and sedges. These fungi consist of five genera including Claviceps, Epichloe, and Balansia, all of which are biotrophic and some are mutualistic, and endophytic in their association with grasses. Seve...

  12. Additional hosts for Balansia epichloe in tall fescue pastures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The clavicipitalean fungi consist of a group of closely related species that are parasitic on grasses and sedges. These fungi are biotrophic and regarded as mutualist since they argument the hosts defenses to both biotic and abiotic stresses. The fungi consisted of species of Epichloe and Balansia...

  13. Temporal Changes in Tall Fescue Straw Residue Degradation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In grass seed agriculture, straw residue is a byproduct. Traditionally it has been thought of as a “waste” product yielding little additional net income to the grower. Straw residue can be baled and sold to Asian or local markets, open field burned, or flailed and left on the soil surface or incorpo...

  14. Influence of nitrogen fertilizer and endophyte infection on ecophysiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass.

    PubMed

    Ren, An-Zhi; Gao, Yu-Bao; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jin-Long; Zhao, Nian-Xi

    2009-01-01

    An experiment was designed to determine the effect of the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium lolii on the growth, physiological parameters and mineral element content of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perennel L.), when growing at two N supply levels. Endophyte infection had a significant positive effect on both shoot and root growth of ryegrass, but this difference was only significant in the high N supply treatment. At high N supply, endophyte-infected (EI) plants accumulated more soluble sugar in the sheath and the root than endophyte-free (EF) plants. Endophyte infection affected mineral element concentrations in the root more than in the shoot. We found a significant effect of endophyte infection on B, Mn and Mg in the root, but significant effect was only found on B in the shoot. EI plants tended to accumulate less B in the shoot at both N levels, but accumulated more B, Mn and Mg in the root at low N levels. The difference of growth parameters in different periods was significant. The content of soluble sugar and crude protein in the sheath were also dependent on the growth stages of both EI and EF plants.

  15. Phylogenomics of fescue grass-derived fungal endophytes based on selected nuclear genes and the mitochondrial gene complement.

    PubMed

    Ekanayake, Piyumi N; Rabinovich, Maia; Guthridge, Kathryn M; Spangenberg, German C; Forster, John W; Sawbridge, Timothy I

    2013-12-12

    Tall fescue and meadow fescue are important as temperate pasture grasses, forming mutualistic associations with asexual Neotyphodium endophytes. The most frequently identified endophyte of Continental allohexaploid tall fescue is Neotyphodium coenophialum, while representatives of two other taxa (FaTG-2 and FaTG-3) have been described as colonising decaploid and Mediterranean hexaploid tall fescue, respectively. In addition, a recent study identified two other putatively novel endophyte taxa from Mediterranean hexaploid and decaploid tall fescue accessions, which were designated as uncharacterised Neotyphodium species (UNS) and FaTG-3-like respectively. In contrast, diploid meadow fescue mainly forms associations with the endophyte taxon Neotyphodium uncinatum, although a second endophyte taxon, termed N. siegelii, has also been described. Multiple copies of the translation elongation factor 1-a (tefA) and β-tubulin (tub2) 'house-keeping' genes, as well as the endophyte-specific perA gene, were identified for each fescue-derived endophyte taxon from whole genome sequence data. The assembled gene sequences were used to reconstruct evolutionary relationships between the heteroploid fescue-derived endophytes and putative ancestral sub-genomes derived from known sexual Epichloë species. In addition to the nuclear genome-derived genes, the complete mitochondrial genome (mt genome) sequence was obtained for each of the sequenced endophyte, and phylogenetic relationships between the mt genome protein coding gene complements were also reconstructed. Complex and highly reticulated evolutionary relationships between Epichloë-Neotyphodium endophytes have been predicted on the basis of multiple nuclear genes and entire mitochondrial protein-coding gene complements, derived from independent assembly of whole genome sequence reads. The results are consistent with previous studies while also providing novel phylogenetic insights, particularly through inclusion of data from the

  16. Registration of Azov meadow fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Azov' meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.; syn. Festuca pratensis Huds.; syn. Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh.] is a synthetic population originating from 1000 parental genotypes. The parents of Azov were selected from ten Russian plant introductions, mostly originating from the...

  17. Pasture Management Strategies for Sequestering Soil Carbon - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Franzluebbers, Alan J.

    2006-03-15

    Pasturelands account for 51 of the 212 Mha of privately held grazing land in the USA. Tall fescue is the most important cool-season perennial forage for many beef cattle producers in the humid region of the USA. A fungal endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum, infects the majority of tall fescue stands with a mutualistic association. Ergot alkaloids produced by the endophyte have negative impacts on cattle performance. However, there are indications that endophyte infection of tall fescue is a necessary component of productive and persistent pasture ecology. The objectives of this research were to characterize and quantify changes in soil organic carbon and associated soil properties under tall fescue pastures with and without endophyte infection of grass. Pastures with high endophyte infection had greater concentration of soil organic carbon, but lower concentration of biologically active soil carbon than pastures with low endophyte infection. A controlled experiment suggested that endophyte-infected leaf tissue may directly inhibit the activity of soil microorganisms. Carbon forms of soil organic matter were negatively affected and nitrogen forms were positively affected by endophyte addition to soil. The chemical compounds in endophyte-infected tall fescue (ergot alkaloids) that are responsible for animal health disorders were found in soil, suggesting that these chemicals might be persistent in the environment. Future research is needed to determine whether ergot alkaloids or some other chemicals are responsible for increases in soil organic matter. Scientists will be able to use this information to better understand the ecological impacts of animals grazing tall fescue, and possibly to identify and cultivate other similar associations for improving soil organic matter storage. Another experiment suggested that both dry matter production and soil microbial activity could be affected by the endophyte. Sampling of the cumulative effects of 20 years of tall fescue

  18. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  19. A Walk in the "Tall, Tall Grass"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaatz, Kathryn

    2008-01-01

    This inquiry-based lesson was inspired by Denise Fleming's book entitled, "In the Tall, Tall Grass" (1991). The author used the book and a real study of prairie grasses to teach kindergartners how to make careful observations and record what they see. In addition, they learn how to "draw as scientists." Here the author describes her class's yearly…

  20. Effects of multiple climate change factors on the tall fescue–fungal endophyte symbiosis: infection frequency and tissue chemistry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    •Climate change (altered CO2, warming, and precipitation) may affect plant–microbial interactions, such as the Lolium arundinaceum–Neotyphodium coenophialum symbiosis, to alter future ecosystem structure and function. •To assess this possibility, tall fescue tillers were collected from an existing c...

  1. Loline alkaloid production by fungal endophytes of Fescue species select for particular epiphytic bacterial microflora

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Elizabeth; Lindow, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The leaves of fescue grasses are protected from herbivores by the production of loline alkaloids by the mutualist fungal endophytes Neotyphodium sp. or Epichloë sp. Most bacteria that reside on the leaf surface of such grasses can consume these defensive chemicals. Loline-consuming bacteria are rare on the leaves of other plant species. Several bacterial species including Burkholderia ambifaria recovered from tall fescue could use N-formyl loline as a sole carbon and nitrogen source in culture and achieved population sizes that were about eightfold higher when inoculated onto plants harboring loline-producing fungal endophytes than on plants lacking such endophytes or which were colonized by fungal variants incapable of loline production. In contrast, mutants of B. ambifaria and other bacterial species incapable of loline catabolism achieved similarly low population sizes on tall fescue colonized by loline-producing Neotyphodium sp. and on plants lacking this endophytic fungus. Lolines that are released onto the surface of plants benefiting from a fungal mutualism thus appear to be a major resource that can be exploited by epiphytic bacteria, thereby driving the establishment of a characteristic bacterial community on such plants. PMID:24108329

  2. Equine palmar artery, palmar vein and uterine artery express different populations of vasoactive biogenic amine receptors

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Consumption of endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) seed by horses causes constriction of the palmar artery (PA), palmar vein (PV) and reduced blood flow to the corpus luteum that can be measured in vivo by Doppler ultrasonography. In addition, myograph st...

  3. Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Sperm Motility In Vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids are synthesized by endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire). Our objective was to determine direct effects of ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine and ergonovine) on the motility of bovine spermatozoa in vit...

  4. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes accross warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production in the southeastern U.S. offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Other breeds, such as the Criollo breed Romosinuano, may provide similar adaptative characteristics. The objectives were to evaluate Romosinuano...

  5. Effects of Heat Shock Protein-70 Gene and Forage System on Milk Yield and Composition of Beef Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Genomic DNA from 117 Angus, Brahman, and reciprocal-cross cows was used to determine the influence of heat shock protein 70 haplotype and forage type [endophyte-infected tall fescue (Neotyphodium coenophialum; E+) or common bermudagrass (Cynododactylon; BG)] on milk yield and composition (protein, f...

  6. From the Lab Bench: Differences in annual and perennial grasses in meeting cattle production goals

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A column was written that provided the advantages and disadvantages of annual warm- and cool-season grasses. Warm-season annual grasses can increase the supply of forage during the summer slump in cool-season perennial grass growth. Utilization of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures can ...

  7. Forage and breed effects on behavior and temperament of pregnant beef heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Integration of behavioral observations with traditional selection schemes may lead to enhanced animal well-being and more profitable forage-based cattle production systems. Brahman-influenced (BR; n=64) and Gelbvieh x Angus (GA; n=64) heifers consumed either toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+)...

  8. Genetic effects for reproductive performance of straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano and Angus cows in a temperate zone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this work were to: 1) estimate heterosis and breed direct effects for cow reproduction traits of Romosinuano, Angus, and F1 cows in a temperate climate, and 2) assess the effects of the type of forage grazed (bermudagrass, endophyte-infected and endophyte-free tall fescue) durin...

  9. Dietary exposure to ergot alkaloids decreases contractility of bovine mesenteric vasculature

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Ergot alkaloids are hypothesized to cause vasoconstriction in the midgut, and prior exposure may affect vasoactivity of these compounds. Objectives were to profile vasoactivity of ergot alkaloids in mesenteric artery and vein and determine if previous exposure to endophyte-infected tall fescue affec...

  10. Identification and Quantification of Loline-Type Alkaloids in Endophyte-Infected Grasses by LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Khem B; Boelt, Birte; Fomsgaard, Inge S

    2016-08-10

    Lolines, fungal metabolites of the grass-endophyte association, were identified and quantified using newly developed LC-MS/MS methods in endophyte-infected grasses belonging to the Lolium and Festuca genera after extraction with three different solvents using two extraction methods. The shaking extraction method with isopropanol/water was superior to the other methods due to its high sensitivity, high accuracy (recovery within or close to the range of 80-120%), and high precision (coefficient of variation of <10%). Seven loline alkaloids were identified and quantified using our newly established LC-MS/MS methods, and N-formylloline was the most abundant (5 mg/g dry matter), followed by N-acetylloline. These LC-MS/MS methods used the shortest sample handling time and the fewest sample preparation steps and proved to be good alternatives to existing GC and GC-MS analytical methods without compromising analytical efficiency. In conclusion, we developed for the first time a highly sensitive quantitative LC-MS/MS analytical method for the accurate and reproducible quantification and a LightSight-assisted LC-QTRAP/MS qualitative method for the tentative identification of loline-type alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses.

  11. Tall Tales on Tour.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renaud, Linda; Silk, Lynn

    "Tall Tales on Tour" consists of a mobile unit of books, posters, puppets, plays, videos, teachers' guides and other resources designed to kindle enthusiasm and love for tall tales in students in grades 3-8 and to establish links with rural Washington County, Maine, schools. The program consists of three main components: (1) immersing…

  12. Development of a fescue toxicosis model using a fescue seed extract

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed to examine the efficacy of a fescue seed extract for inducing fescue toxicosis in cattle. Four growing Holstein steers (BW = 309±36kg) surgically fitted with ruminal cannulas were utilized in a four phase crossover design experiment. The basal diet consisted of endophyte fr...

  13. Biomass production by fescue and switchgrass alone and in mixed swards with legumes. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, M.

    1994-06-01

    In assessing the role of biomass in alleviating potential global warming, the absence of information on the sustainability of biomass production on soils of limited agricultural potential is cited as a major constraint to the assessment of the role of biomass. Research on the sustainability of yields, recycling of nutrients, and emphasis on reduced inputs of agricultural chemicals in the production of biomass are among the critical research needs to clarify optimum cropping practice in biomass production. Two field experiments were conducted between 1989 and 1993. One study evaluated biomass production and composition of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) grown alone and with bigflower vetch (Vicia grandiflora L.) and the other assessed biomass productivity and composition of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) grown alone and with perennial legumes. Switchgrass received 0, 75 or 150 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually as NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} or was interseeded with vetch. Tall fescue received 0, 75, 150 or 225 kg ha{sup {minus}1} of N annually or was interseeded with alfalfa (Medicago L.) or birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.). It is hoped that production systems can be designed to produce high yields of biomass with minimal inputs of fertilizer N. Achievement of this goal would reduce the potential for movement of NO{sub 3} and other undesirable N forms outside the biomass production system into the environment. In addition, management systems involving legumes could reduce the cost of biomass production.

  14. Exposure to Ergot Alkaloids During Gestation Reduces Fetal Growth in Sheep

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duckett, Susan; Pratt, Scott; Andrae, John

    2014-08-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] is the primary cool season perennial grass in the eastern U.S. Most tall fescue contains an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum), which produces ergot alkaloids that cause vasoconstriction and could restrict blood flow to the fetus in pregnant animals. The objective of this study was to examine fetal growth during maternal exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation. Pregnant ewes (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: 1) endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue seed (E+; 0.8 ug of ergovaline /g diet DM) and 2) endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E-; 0.0 ug of ergovaline/g diet DM). Birth weight of lambs was reduced by 37% for E+ compared to E-. Organ and muscle weights were also lighter for E+ than E-. Exposure to ergot alkaloids in utero reduces fetal growth and muscle development.

  15. Exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation reduces fetal growth in sheep

    PubMed Central

    Duckett, Susan K.; Andrae, John G.; Pratt, Scott L.

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh; Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] is the primary cool season perennial grass in the eastern U.S. Most tall fescue contains an endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum), which produces ergot alkaloids that cause vasoconstriction and could restrict blood flow to the fetus in pregnant animals. The objective of this study was to examine fetal growth during maternal exposure to ergot alkaloids during gestation. Pregnant ewes (n = 16) were randomly assigned to one of two dietary treatments: (1) endophyte-infected (N. coenophialum) tall fescue seed (E+; 0.8 ug of ergovaline /g diet DM) and (2) endophyte-free tall fescue seed (E−; 0.0 ug of ergovaline/g diet DM). Birth weight of lambs was reduced by 37% for E+ compared to E−. Organ and muscle weights were also lighter for E+ than E−. Exposure to ergot alkaloids in utero reduces fetal growth and muscle development. PMID:25191653

  16. Tackle fescue toxicosis with spring strategies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Understanding times of the year when pastures are most toxic can be useful in developing management approaches to alleviate or reduce the severity of toxicosis. Content of ergot alkaloids in fescue vary considerably during the growing season, with the trends generally following the seasonal growth ...

  17. Registration of 'Hidden Valley' meadow fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    'Hidden Valley' (Reg. No. CV-xxxx, PI xxxxxx) meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.; syn. Festuca pratensis Huds.; syn. Lolium pratense (Huds.) Darbysh.] is a synthetic population originating from 561 parental genotypes. The original germplasm is of unknown central or northern Europ...

  18. The bull sperm microRNAome and the effect of fescue toxicosis on sperm microRNA expression.

    PubMed

    Stowe, Heather M; Calcatera, Samantha M; Dimmick, Marcy A; Andrae, John G; Duckett, Susan K; Pratt, Scott L

    2014-01-01

    Tall fescue [Schedonorus phoenix (Scop.) Holub] accounts for nearly 16 million hectares of pasture in the Southeastern and Mid-Atlantic U.S. due to its heat, drought, and pest resistance, conferred to the plant by its symbiotic relationship with the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. The endophyte produces ergot alkaloids that have negative effects on the growth and reproduction of animals, resulting in the syndrome known as fescue toxicosis. The objectives of our study were to identify microRNA (miRNA) present in bovine sperm and to evaluate the effects of fescue toxicosis on sperm miRNA expression. Angus bulls were assigned to treatments of either toxic or non-toxic fescue seed diets. Semen was collected and subjected to RNA isolation. Three samples from each treatment group were chosen and pooled for deep sequencing. To compare miRNA expression between treatment groups, a microarray was designed and conducted. For each of the top ten expressed miRNA, target prediction analysis was conducted using TargetScan. Gene ontology enrichment was assessed using the Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery. Sequencing results elucidated the presence of 1,582 unique small RNA present in sperm. Of those sequences, 382 were known Bos taurus miRNA, 22 were known but novel to Bos taurus, and 816 were predicted candidate miRNA that did not map to any currently reported miRNA. Of the sequences chosen for microarray, twenty-two showed significant differential expression between treatment groups. Gene pathways of interest included: regulation of transcription, embryonic development (including blastocyst formation), Wnt and Hedgehog signaling, oocyte meiosis, and kinase and phosphatase activity. MicroRNA present in mature sperm appears to not only be left over from spermatogenic processes, but may actually serve important regulatory roles in fertilization and early developmental processes. Further, our results indicate the possibility that environmental

  19. Host genotype overrides fungal endophyte infection in influencing tiller and spike production of Lolium perenne (Poaceae) in a common garden experiment.

    PubMed

    Cheplick, Gregory P

    2008-09-01

    Leaves of many cool-season grasses are infected by endophytic fungi that can impact their populations. A common garden experiment with Lolium perenne was established in a lawn in New Jersey, USA, to investigate the impact of endophyte infection and host genotype on tiller and spike production over three years. Infected (E+) and uninfected (E-) plants of each genotype were monitored every 2-3 mo. Infection intensity within plants varied significantly among genotypes and years, but there was no evidence of directional change over time. Tiller production varied significantly among genotypes and was affected by endophytes: E+ plants of several genotypes produced more tillers than E- plants during the third year. E+ plants had greater aboveground biomass, but host genotype explained a far greater proportion of variation in tiller production, number, and biomass than infection. Plant survival, percentage flowering, flowering date, number of spikes, and mean tiller mass were unaffected by endophytes. However, the last three variables showed significant variation among host genotypes. Although studies have demonstrated a positive growth effect of endophytes on several grass hosts, in this experiment host genotype accounted for far more of the variation in tiller and spike production and in biomass of Lolium perenne than endophyte infection.

  20. Sport for tall.

    PubMed

    Khosla, T

    1983-09-10

    Eight new events (handball, basketball, and six rowing events) were introduced for women in the Olympic Games at Montreal in 1976. Of 187 women rowers who competed at Montreal, none was shorter than the mean height (162 cm, 64 in) of women aged 18-24 in the United States. In team events only two out of 250 participants were shorter than the reference mean. Even among the tall, it was the taller participants who won medals. What does the slogan "Sport for All" mean in this context? Moreover, the physical size required of champion rowers and basketball players is not to be found in some Asian, African, and Latin American populations. International contests in many such events therefore seem to be at variance with the first charter of the Olympic Games. An independent reviewing body is urgently needed to examine the merits of man made rules in many sporting contests.

  1. Sport for tall.

    PubMed Central

    Khosla, T

    1983-01-01

    Eight new events (handball, basketball, and six rowing events) were introduced for women in the Olympic Games at Montreal in 1976. Of 187 women rowers who competed at Montreal, none was shorter than the mean height (162 cm, 64 in) of women aged 18-24 in the United States. In team events only two out of 250 participants were shorter than the reference mean. Even among the tall, it was the taller participants who won medals. What does the slogan "Sport for All" mean in this context? Moreover, the physical size required of champion rowers and basketball players is not to be found in some Asian, African, and Latin American populations. International contests in many such events therefore seem to be at variance with the first charter of the Olympic Games. An independent reviewing body is urgently needed to examine the merits of man made rules in many sporting contests. PMID:6412804

  2. Soil and water quality with tall fescue management in the Southern Piedmont

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pasture management not only affects plant and animal productivity, but also soil quality, carbon sequestration, and water quality. These additional ecosystem services need to be evaluated under a diversity of management approaches, including how nutrients are supplied (i.e. inorganic or broiler litt...

  3. Management of Meloidogyne incognita with tall fescue grass rotations prior to peach orchard establishment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne spp.) are important pests of peach in the USA. Preplant fumigant nematicides have been used to control Meloidogyne spp. associated with Southeastern peach production. Unfortunately, growers have increasingly faced economic challenges, making it difficult for them t...

  4. Preplanting tall fescue grass for controlling Meloidogyne incognita in a young peach orchard

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preplant fumigant nematicides have traditionally been used to control Meloidogyne spp. in peach in the southeastern United States. The current preplant nematicides recommended for managing Meloidogyne spp. in peach include the soil fumigants, 1,3-dichloropropene and metam sodium. Because the econo...

  5. Host susceptibility of tall fescue grass to Meloidogyne spp. and Mesocriconema xenoplax

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Preplant fumigant nematicides have traditionally been used to control Meloidogyne spp. and Mesocriconema xenoplax in peach in the Southeast. In recent years growers have faced economic hardships, making it difficult to afford costs associated with these chemicals. Finding an alternative to control...

  6. Tall fescue forage mass in a grass-legume mixture: predicted efficiency of indirect selection

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High fertilizer prices and improved environmental stewardship have increased interest in grass-legume mixed pastures. It has been hypothesized, but not validated, that the ecological combining ability between grasses and legumes can be improved by breeding specifically for mixture performance. Thi...

  7. Urea Metabolism in Beef Steers Fed Tall Fescue, Orchardgrass, or Gamagrass Hays

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two experiments were conducted to assess effects of endophyte treatments (Exp. 1), forage species, and supplementation (Exp. 2) on urea production, excretion, and recycling in beef steers. Infusion of 15,15N-urea and enrichment of urea in urine samples were used to calculate urea N entry and recyc...

  8. Effects of Soil Covers on Late-Fall Seedings of Four Tall Fescue Varieties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-06-01

    concentrations of fructans in leaves, but the levels were not sufficient to affect summer growth. No differences in carbohydrate concentrations between...lengths, known as fructans . tures 2°C lower than their present limit, they could Cultural practices that promote the rapid growth increase their growing...season by two weeks (Young of plants decrease the quantity of fructans (Okajima 1988). In a review on low-temperature stress in and Smith 1964, Younger

  9. Promoting Late-Fall Establishment of Tall Fescue with Soil Covers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    analysis of the carbohydrates glucose, fructose., Soil temperatures were measured at the soil sucrose and fructans using the methods reported surface at...Carbohydrate content (g) Year Cover Fructose Glucose Sucrose Fructans Total 1989 Yes 1.73 1.24 2.83 1.65 7.45 No 0.94 0.68 5.45 4.09 11.16 LSDo.U5 0.39

  10. Stocker performance and production in mixed tall fescue-bermudagrass pastures of the Southern Piedmont USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Stocker performance and production from mixed cool- and warm-season perennial pastures are important determinants of agricultural sustainability that can be influenced by management. We evaluated the factorial combination of three sources of nutrient application (inorganic only, organic + inorganic...

  11. Forage dynamics in mixed tall fescue-bermudagras pastures of the Southern Piedmont USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Botanical composition and forage productivity of mixed cool- and warm-season perennial pastures are important determinants of agricultural sustainability that can be influenced by management. We evaluated the factorial combination of three sources of nutrient application (inorganic only, organic + ...

  12. Environmental and production responses from tall fescue-endophyte associations in Georgia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This presentation reports on the 2011 activities from a long-term research experiment conducted at the USDA Agricultural Research Service in Watkinsville GA. Our general objective was to determine the dynamics of nutrient cycling, soil quality, and soil microbial biomass, activity, and community st...

  13. Variability in nitrogen uptake and utilization among accessions of annual ryegrass and tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Efficient use of nitrogen (N) applied to grassland is important, both for ensuring economic viability of N use and to minimize the amount of unrecovered N that is susceptible to loss from the agricultural system to the broader environment. Comparison was made of N uptake efficiency and of utilizatio...

  14. USDA - Kentucky Report (Annual Report to SERA-IEG 8, Tall Fescue Toxicosis/Endophyte Workshop)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A method is being developed that permits the evaluation of contractile responses of ruminal arteries and veins to various compounds, with particular interest in ergot alkaloids. Because these blood vessels are different from peripheral vessels that have been previously investigated, certain asp...

  15. Utilizing a dihaploid-gamete selection strategy for tall fescue development

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Gamete selection as originally defined by Stadler is based on the principal that selection exerted at the gametophytic level can increase desirable allelic frequencies detectable at the sporophytic level. If superior gametes can be recognized with certainty through a selection cycle, then such a sy...

  16. Evidence for Active Uptake and Deposition of Si-based Defenses in Tall Fescue

    PubMed Central

    McLarnon, Emma; McQueen-Mason, Simon; Lenk, Ingo; Hartley, Susan E.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is taken up from the soil as monosilicic acid by plant roots, transported to leaves and deposited as phytoliths, amorphous silica (SiO2) bodies, which are a key component of anti-herbivore defense in grasses. Silicon transporters have been identified in many plant species, but the mechanisms underpinning Si transport remain poorly understood. Specifically, the extent to which Si uptake is a passive process, driven primarily by transpiration, or has both passive and active components remains disputed. Increases in foliar Si concentration following herbivory suggest plants may exercise some control over Si uptake and distribution. In order to investigate passive and active controls on Si accumulation, we examined both genetic and environmental influences on Si accumulation in the forage grass Festuca arundinacea. We studied three F. arundinacea varieties that differ in the levels of Si they accumulate. Varieties not only differed in Si concentration, but also in increases in Si accumulation in response to leaf damage. The varietal differences in Si concentration generally reflected differences in stomatal density and stomatal conductance, suggesting passive, transpiration-mediated mechanisms underpin these differences. Bagging plants after damage was employed to minimize differences in stomatal conductance between varieties and in response to damage. This treatment eliminated constitutive differences in leaf Si levels, but did not impair the damage-induced increases in Si uptake: damaged, bagged plants still had more leaf Si than undamaged, bagged plants in all three varieties. Preliminary differential gene expression analysis revealed that the active Si transporter Lsi2 was highly expressed in damaged unbagged plants compared with undamaged unbagged plants, suggesting damage-induced Si defenses are regulated at gene level. Our findings suggest that although differences in transpiration may be partially responsible for varietal differences in Si uptake, they cannot explain damage-induced increases in Si uptake and deposition, suggesting that wounding causes changes in Si uptake, distribution and deposition that likely involve active processes and changes in gene expression. PMID:28769939

  17. Effects of seasonal nitrogen on binary mixtures of tall fescue and bermudagrass

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The nutrients in broiler litter, especially N, should be applied in phase with crop demands to reduce the potential for nutrient loss. A 2-yr field experiment studied broiler litter and inorganic N application timing effects on seasonal dry matter (DM) yield, total nutrient uptake, and soil P in mix...

  18. Forage yield, weed suppression and fertilizer nitrogen replacement value (FNRV) of alfalfa-tall fescue mixtures

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Adding plant diversity to forage systems may help growers deal with increasing fertilizer costs and a more variable climate. Maintaining highly diverse forage mixtures in forage-livestock production is difficult and may warrant a closer reexamination of simpler grass-legume mixtures to achieve simi...

  19. Evidence for Active Uptake and Deposition of Si-based Defenses in Tall Fescue.

    PubMed

    McLarnon, Emma; McQueen-Mason, Simon; Lenk, Ingo; Hartley, Susan E

    2017-01-01

    Silicon (Si) is taken up from the soil as monosilicic acid by plant roots, transported to leaves and deposited as phytoliths, amorphous silica (SiO2) bodies, which are a key component of anti-herbivore defense in grasses. Silicon transporters have been identified in many plant species, but the mechanisms underpinning Si transport remain poorly understood. Specifically, the extent to which Si uptake is a passive process, driven primarily by transpiration, or has both passive and active components remains disputed. Increases in foliar Si concentration following herbivory suggest plants may exercise some control over Si uptake and distribution. In order to investigate passive and active controls on Si accumulation, we examined both genetic and environmental influences on Si accumulation in the forage grass Festuca arundinacea. We studied three F. arundinacea varieties that differ in the levels of Si they accumulate. Varieties not only differed in Si concentration, but also in increases in Si accumulation in response to leaf damage. The varietal differences in Si concentration generally reflected differences in stomatal density and stomatal conductance, suggesting passive, transpiration-mediated mechanisms underpin these differences. Bagging plants after damage was employed to minimize differences in stomatal conductance between varieties and in response to damage. This treatment eliminated constitutive differences in leaf Si levels, but did not impair the damage-induced increases in Si uptake: damaged, bagged plants still had more leaf Si than undamaged, bagged plants in all three varieties. Preliminary differential gene expression analysis revealed that the active Si transporter Lsi2 was highly expressed in damaged unbagged plants compared with undamaged unbagged plants, suggesting damage-induced Si defenses are regulated at gene level. Our findings suggest that although differences in transpiration may be partially responsible for varietal differences in Si uptake, they cannot explain damage-induced increases in Si uptake and deposition, suggesting that wounding causes changes in Si uptake, distribution and deposition that likely involve active processes and changes in gene expression.

  20. Tiller production in cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata) and tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) growing along a light gradient

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pasture managers seek to balance leaf appearance with leaf utilization to meet livestock nutritional needs and sustain sward productivity. Achieving this balance when managing forages in silvopasture, requires techniques that account for the influence of light and defoliation on tiller appearance a...

  1. Grass species and endophyte effects on survival and development of fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Braman, S K; Duncan, R R; Engelke, M C; Hanna, W W; Hignight, K; Rush, D

    2002-04-01

    Grass selections including 10 zoysiagrasses, 18 paspalums, 34 Bermuda grasses, tall fescue, creeping red fescue, and perennial ryegrasses with and without endophyte were evaluated for potential resistance to fall armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), larvae. Laboratory evaluations assessed the degree of antibiosis among >70 grass lines to first-instar fall armvworms. When all parameters measured were considered, the trend in resistance to fall armyworm among endophyte-infected (E+) and endophyte-free (E-) cool season grasses from greatest to least was: 'Dawson' E+ > APR 1234 > 'Dawson' E- > 'Rosalin' E+ > Lp 5425, 'Rosalin' E-, ATF 480 > 'Tulsa' or: E+ slender creeping red fescue > E+ turf- type perennial ryegrass > E- slender creeping red fescue > E+ forage-type perennial ryegrass > E- forage-type perennial ryegrasses, and E+ tall fescue > E- turf-type tall fescue. Among warm season grasses larval weight gain was reduced on all zoysiagrasses. Larval weight gain also was lower on the Bermuda grasses 'Tifsport', 'Tifgreen', 97-4, 97-14, 97-22, 97-28, 97-39, 97-40,97-54, 98-15, 98-30, and 98-45 than when larvae were fed 'Tulsa' tall fescue or the diet control. Only APR1234 and 'Dawson' creeping red fescue reduced larval survival to the same extent that was observed for zoysiagrasses. Survival on Bermuda grasses was least on 97-8. Seashore paspalums were only rarely less susceptible to fall armyworm than tall fescue, although pupal weights were consistently lower on 'Temple 1' and 'Sea Isle 1' paspalums than that on 'Tulsa' tall fescue. Genetic resistance to key grass pests can reduce insecticide use and simplify management of these cultivars.

  2. Yee-e-e-Haw!: Tall Tales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the characteristics of "tall tales." Fills in the historical background of tall tales, from the ancient myth of Gilgamesh to Baron Munchausen, the closest European progenitor of American tall tales. Opines that tall tales appear to have been created as a response to challenges posed by building a new nation. Lists 11…

  3. Yee-e-e-Haw!: Tall Tales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, Anne Devereaux

    1997-01-01

    Outlines the characteristics of "tall tales." Fills in the historical background of tall tales, from the ancient myth of Gilgamesh to Baron Munchausen, the closest European progenitor of American tall tales. Opines that tall tales appear to have been created as a response to challenges posed by building a new nation. Lists 11…

  4. A toxic endophyte-infected grass helps reverse degradation and loss of biodiversity of over-grazed grasslands in northwest China.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiang; Christensen, Michael J; Bao, Gensheng; Zhang, Chunping; Li, Xiuzhang; Li, Chunjie; Nan, Zhibiao

    2015-12-18

    Overgrazing of China's grasslands is increasingly causing biodiversity to decline. In degenerated grasslands of northwest China endophyte (Epichloё gansuensis) infected Achnatherum inebrians (drunken horse grass) is becoming widely distributed because of its toxicity to livestock. In this study, we investigated the ecological consequences of endophyte toxicity in this native grass, at three sites in northwest China, by comparing seed production of plant species and arthropod abundance in overgrazed grasslands with and without the presence of A. inebrians. Our findings demonstrate that the presence of endophyte infected A. inebrians reduces the loss of plant and arthropod biodiversity by providing a protected nursery free of animal grazing. Therefore, A. inebrians, typically regarded as an unwanted toxic invader by pastoralists, should be viewed as beneficial for grasslands as its presence maintains plant and arthropod biodiversity, and provides a foundation stone in the reconstruction and restoration of these grassland ecosystems.

  5. A toxic endophyte-infected grass helps reverse degradation and loss of biodiversity of over-grazed grasslands in northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiang; Christensen, Michael J.; Bao, Gensheng; Zhang, Chunping; Li, Xiuzhang; Li, Chunjie; Nan, Zhibiao

    2015-01-01

    Overgrazing of China’s grasslands is increasingly causing biodiversity to decline. In degenerated grasslands of northwest China endophyte (Epichloё gansuensis) infected Achnatherum inebrians (drunken horse grass) is becoming widely distributed because of its toxicity to livestock. In this study, we investigated the ecological consequences of endophyte toxicity in this native grass, at three sites in northwest China, by comparing seed production of plant species and arthropod abundance in overgrazed grasslands with and without the presence of A. inebrians. Our findings demonstrate that the presence of endophyte infected A. inebrians reduces the loss of plant and arthropod biodiversity by providing a protected nursery free of animal grazing. Therefore, A. inebrians, typically regarded as an unwanted toxic invader by pastoralists, should be viewed as beneficial for grasslands as its presence maintains plant and arthropod biodiversity, and provides a foundation stone in the reconstruction and restoration of these grassland ecosystems. PMID:26679518

  6. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

  8. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1), the...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap... consists mainly of tall oil resin acids and tall oil fatty acids. (b) In accordance with § 186.1(b)(1),...

  10. Interaction between the endophytic fungus Epichloe bromicola and the grass bromus erectus: effects of endophyte infection, fungal concentration and environment on grass growth and flowering

    PubMed

    Groppe; Steinger; Sanders; Schmid; Wiemken; Boller

    1999-11-01

    Epichloe bromicola is an endophytic fungal species that systemically and perennially colonizes intercellular spaces of leaf blades, leaf sheaths and culms of Bromus grass species. E. bromicola causes choke disease in B. erectus, suppressing maturation of most, if not all, host inflorescences. In an investigation of the interaction between fungus and host, we used a quantitative polymerase chain reaction technique to estimate the amount of fungal DNA, and thereby fungal concentration, in host plants. Fungal concentration was directly correlated with vegetative vigour of the plant, as measured by longest leaf length, number of tillers and vegetative above-ground biomass, suggesting that, during vegetative growth, the endophytic fungus is most beneficial for the plant when present in high concentrations. In contrast, the reproduction of the plant, as measured by the number of functional inflorescences, was inversely correlated with fungal concentration: the majority of infected plants, and all that were associated with high concentrations of fungi, were diseased. Thus, the benefit of endophyte infection for the plant is coupled with the disadvantages of infertility. Fungal concentration was shown to be at least in part genetically determined because fungal concentration differed significantly in different plant-endophyte genotype combinations (symbiotum). In a field experiment with normal and CO2-enriched environments, elevated CO2 levels favoured fungal reproductive vigour over host reproductive vigour, suggesting that these plant endophytes would be at a selective advantage in a corresponding environmental-change scenario. We conclude that a dynamic and complex relationship between fungal endophyte infection, fungal concentration, genotype and environment affects growth and fecundity of B. erectus and should contribute to the evolution of these plant-fungal interactions.

  11. Evaluation of fine fescue grasses identifies resources for improved ecological function under rangeland stress environments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fine-leaved fescue (Festuca ssp.) grasses have potential for contributing to increased rangeland productivity given their comparatively high drought and heat tolerance. Therefore, plant performance trials were developed to evaluate geographically diverse fine fescue materials for their application ...

  12. From the Lab Bench: The fescue belt is cow-calf country

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A column was written to discuss the importance of cow-calf production to the fescue belt, which overlays what is commonly called the transition zone between the subtropical southeast and the temperate northeast (see figure). Undeniably, the “Fescue Belt” is cow-calf country. The Fescue Belt is goo...

  13. Twisters, Tall Tales, & Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Dawn Renee; Sterling, Donna R.

    2006-01-01

    Legends and tall tales have been part of the American culture for ages. Students are probably already familiar with the tales of how Pecos Bill fearlessly tamed a ferocious tornado, or Paul Bunyan effortlessly restrained a great river. Such tales have been passed down from generation to generation to explain humanity, the natural world, and…

  14. Twisters, Tall Tales, & Science Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilcox, Dawn Renee; Sterling, Donna R.

    2006-01-01

    Legends and tall tales have been part of the American culture for ages. Students are probably already familiar with the tales of how Pecos Bill fearlessly tamed a ferocious tornado, or Paul Bunyan effortlessly restrained a great river. Such tales have been passed down from generation to generation to explain humanity, the natural world, and…

  15. 21 CFR 186.1557 - Tall oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tall oil. 186.1557 Section 186.1557 Food and Drugs....1557 Tall oil. (a) Tall oil (CAS Reg. No. 8002-26-4) is essentially the sap of the pine tree. It is obtained commercially from the waste liquors of pinewood pulp mills and consists mainly of tall oil resin...

  16. Effect of Feeding Fescue Seed Containing Ergot Alkaloid Toxins on Stallion Spermatogenesis and Sperm Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fayrer-Hosken, R; Stanley, A; Hill, N; Heusner, G; Christian, M; Fuente, R De La; Baumann, C; Jones, L

    2012-01-01

    Contents The cellular effects of tall fescue grass–associated toxic ergot alkaloids on stallion sperm and colt testicular tissue were evaluated. This was a continuation of an initial experiment where the effects of toxic ergot alkaloids on the stallion spermiogram were investigated. The only spermiogram parameter in exposed stallions that was affected by the toxic ergot alkaloids was a decreased gel-free volume of the ejaculate. This study examined the effect of toxic ergot alkaloids on chilling and freezing of the stallion sperm cells. The effect of toxic ergot alkaloids on chilled extended sperm cells for 48 h at 5 °C was to make the sperm cells less likely to undergo a calcium ionophore–induced acrosome reaction. The toxic ergot alkaloids had no effect on the freezability of sperm cells. However, if yearling colts were fed toxic ergot alkaloids, then the cytological analysis of meiotic chromosome synapsis revealed a significant increase in the proportion of pachytene spermatocytes showing unpaired sex chromosomes compared to control spermatocytes. There was little effect of ergot alkaloids on adult stallions, but there might be a significant effect on yearling colts. PMID:22524585

  17. Increasing crude tall oil yield

    SciTech Connect

    Gupta, J.

    1983-10-01

    In the kraft pulping process for softwoods and hardwood, tall oil recovery is an important part of making profit. During the past 10 years, crude tall oil (CTO) production in the U.S. and Canada has dropped. Estimated CTO yield from fresh Canadian pine is 36-40 lb/a.d. ton and from Southern U.S. 70-80 lb/a.d. ton, while the average yield of CTO is approximately 40% of available tall oil in pine wood. Besides low yield, many pulp mills fail to achieve a CTO quality that lives up to market expectations. The moisture content of CTO is reported to vary widely (1.5-3.5%), whereas it should not exceed 1.5% for marketable quality. The acid number of CTO varies in the range of 135 to 150, whereas industry standards are 145-150. At present the average sale price of CTO is approximately $150/ton. By upgrading existing plants, the yield can be increased, resulting in additional revenues. Thus, if a batch acidulation plant is replaced by a continuous acidulation plant, the yield will increase by approximately 15-50%. The capital required for installing a continuous system is approximately $1.1-1.5 million for a 500-a.d. ton/day pulp mill, requiring a payback period of approximatley 5-7 years. 7 references.

  18. Green fescue grassland: 40 years of secondary succession.

    Treesearch

    Elbert H. Reid; Gerald S. Strickler; Wade B. Hall

    1980-01-01

    The 40-year succession of a depleted green fescue (Festuca viridula) sub-alpine grassland in the Wallowa Mountains, Oregon, was influenced by historic soil erosion. Range conditions of the grassland annually grazed by domestic sheep improved greatly between 1938 and 1978; most of the improvement occurred between the 30th and 40th years. Photographs illustrate the...

  19. Green fescue rangelands: changes over time in the Wallowa Mountains.

    Treesearch

    Charles G. Johnson

    2003-01-01

    This publication documents over 90 years of plant succession on green fescue grasslands in the subalpine ecological zone of the Wallowa Mountains in northeast Oregon. It also ties together the work of four scientists over a 60-year period. Arthur Sampson initiated his study of deteriorated rangeland in 1907. Elbert H. Reid began his studies of overgrazing in 1938. Both...

  20. Tree survival and growth on fescue-covered spoil banks

    Treesearch

    William T. Plass

    1968-01-01

    In spoil-bank revegetation the emphasis today is on site protection. Quick cover crops overplanted to trees or shrubs are recommended on many sites. In this study we tried to determine how an established fescue cover affects tree survival and growth. We found the ground cover did not affect survival but did reduce the height growth of sycamore and sweetgum. It had...

  1. The fescue toxicosis symposium: introduction to the proceedings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fescue Toxicosis was a symposium presented at the 2008 joint meetings of the Amercian Forage and Grssland Council and the Society for Range Management in Louisville, Kentucky. The purpose of the symposium was to: 1) provide updated information on toxic and non-toxic endophyte interactions with her...

  2. Livestock forage conditioning: bluebunch wheatgrass, Idaho fescue, and bottlebrush squirreltail.

    Treesearch

    Dave Ganskopp; Tony Svejcar; Marty. Vavra

    2004-01-01

    Research on Anderson and Scherzinger's hypothesis that spring cattle grazing can positively affect subsequent nutritional characteristics of grasses have generated mixed results. Our objectives were: 1) to evaluate fall/winter nutritional indices of bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum [Pursh] Scribn. & Smith), Idaho fescue (...

  3. Safe Emergency Evacuation From Tall Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Emergency egress system allows people to be evacuated quickly from tall structures. New emergency system applicable to rescues from fires in tall hotels and other buildings. System consists of basket on slide wire. Basket descends by gravity on sloped slide wire staked to ground.

  4. Safe Emergency Evacuation From Tall Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, E. S.

    1984-01-01

    Emergency egress system allows people to be evacuated quickly from tall structures. New emergency system applicable to rescues from fires in tall hotels and other buildings. System consists of basket on slide wire. Basket descends by gravity on sloped slide wire staked to ground.

  5. Connecting plant-microbial interactions above and belowground: a fungal endophyte affects decomposition.

    PubMed

    Lemons, Alisha; Clay, Keith; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2005-10-01

    Mutualisms can strongly affect the structure of communities, but their influence on ecosystem processes is not well resolved. Here we show that a plant-microbial mutualism affects the rate of leaf litter decomposition using the widespread interaction between tall fescue grass (Lolium arundinaceum) and the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. In grasses, fungal endophytes live symbiotically in the aboveground tissues, where the fungi gain protection and nutrients from their host and often protect host plants from biotic and abiotic stress. In a field experiment, decomposition rate depended on a complex interaction between the litter source (collected from endophyte-infected or endophyte-free plots), the decomposition microenvironment (endophyte-infected or endophyte-free plots), and the presence of mesoinvertebrates (manipulated by the mesh size of litter bags). Over all treatments, decomposition was slower for endophyte-infected fescue litter than for endophyte-free litter. When mesoinvertebrates were excluded using fine mesh and litter was placed in a microenvironment with the endophyte, the difference between endophyte-infected and endophyte-free litter was strongest. In the presence of mesoinvertebrates, endophyte-infected litter decomposed faster in microenvironments with the endophyte than in microenvironments lacking the endophyte, suggesting that plots differ in the detritivore assemblage. Indeed, the presence of the endophyte in plots shifted the composition of Collembola, with more Hypogastruridae in the presence of the endophyte and more Isotomidae in endophyte-free plots. In a separate outdoor pot experiment, we did not find strong effects of the litter source or the soil microbial/microinvertebrate community on decomposition, which may reflect differences between pot and field conditions or other differences in methodology. Our work is among the first to demonstrate an effect of plant-endophyte mutualisms on ecosystem processes under field

  6. Cluster fescue (Festuca paradoxa Desv.): A multipurpose native cool-season grass

    Treesearch

    Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; J.W. Van Sambeek; R.A. Pierce

    2005-01-01

    Native cool-season grasses (NCSG) are adapted to a wide range of habitats and environmental conditions, and cluster fescue (Festuca paradoxa Desv.) is no exception. Cluster fescue can be found in unplowed upland prairies, prairie draws, savannas, forest openings, and glades (Aiken et al. 1996). Although its range includes 23 states in the continental...

  7. Heat Shock Factor Genes of Tall Fescue and Perennial Ryegrass in Response to Temperature Stress by RNA-Seq Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Dai, Ya; Tao, Xiang; Wang, Jia-Zhen; Cheng, Hai-Yang; Yang, Hong; Ma, Xin-Rong

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock factors (Hsfs) are important regulators of stress-response in plants. However, our understanding of Hsf genes and their responses to temperature stresses in two Pooideae cool-season grasses, Festuca arundinacea, and Lolium perenne, is limited. Here we conducted comparative transcriptome analyses of plant leaves exposed to heat or cold stress for 10 h. Approximately, 30% and 25% of the genes expressed in the two species showed significant changes under heat and cold stress, respectively, including subsets of Hsfs and their target genes. We uncovered 74 Hsfs in F. arundinacea and 52 Hsfs in L. perenne, and categorized these genes into three subfamilies, HsfA, HsfB, and HsfC based on protein sequence homology to known Hsf members in model organisms. The Hsfs showed a strong response to heat and/or cold stress. The expression of HsfAs was elevated under heat stress, especially in class HsfA2, which exhibited the most dramatic responses. HsfBs were upregulated by the both temperature conditions, and HsfCs mainly showed an increase in expression under cold stress. The target genes of Hsfs, such as heat shock protein (HSP), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), inositol-3-phosphate synthase (IPS), and galactinol synthase (GOLS1), showed strong and unique responses to different stressors. We comprehensively detected Hsfs and their target genes in F. arundinacea and L. perenne, providing a foundation for future gene function studies and genetic engineering to improve stress tolerance in grasses and other crops. PMID:26793208

  8. Runoff water quality from broiler litter-amended tall fescue in response to natural precipitation in the Ozark Highlands.

    PubMed

    Menjoulet, B C; Brye, K R; Pirani, A L; Haggard, B E; Gbur, E E

    2009-01-01

    The Arkansas poultry industry produced more than 1.2 billion broiler chickens (Gallus gallus domesticus) and generated approximately 1.3 million Mg of broiler litter in 2002. High transportation costs of relocating broiler litter have led to annual land applications near poultry houses, increasing concern for potential surface water contamination from runoff. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of broiler litter application rate on runoff water quality in response to natural precipitation. Six plots (1.5 by 6.0 m), located on a Captina silt loam (finesilty, siliceous, active, mesic Typic Fragiudult), were amended with fresh broiler litter at 0, 5.6, and 11.2 Mg ha(-1) (control, low, and high litter treatments, respectively) once annually for 4 yr (May 2003 through April 2007). Runoff collected after each runoff-producing event was analyzed for soluble nutrients and metals. Cumulative runoff did not differ among litter treatments over the 4-yr study. At times, flow-weighted mean (FWM) concentrations of As from all litter treatments exceeded the maximum contaminant level for drinking water (0.01 mg As L(-1)). Four-year FWM Fe concentrations and runoff losses were greater (P < 0.05) from the high than from the low litter treatment and unamended control, and the 4-yr FWM P concentration from the low litter treatment (3.0 mg L(-1)) was greater than that from the unamended control (1.8 mg L(-1)). Since precipitation is temporally variable, evaluating runoff water quality in response to natural precipitation over several years is key to ascertaining the long-term impacts of surface-applied soil amendments like broiler litter.

  9. A method to differentiate summer-dormant from summer-active tall fescue and orchardgrass accessions at germination

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Summer-dormant, cool-season perennial grasses are being used in place of traditional, summer-active cultivars for high quality winter forage. One reason for this change is the ability of cultivars with summer-dormant attributes to tolerate increasing annual temperature, decreasing precipitation, an...

  10. Vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular and caudal arteries in bulls exposed to ergot alkaloids from tall fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Color Doppler ultasonography was used to evaluate vasoconstrictive responses of the testicular artery in yearling bulls to ergot alkaloids. Ergot alkaloid-induced constriction of the testicular artery could disrupt thermoregulation of the testes and reduce bull fertility. Luminal areas of the test...

  11. Influence of Poultry Litter Application Methods on the Longevity of Nutrient and E. coli in Runoff from Tall Fescue Pasture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Significant quantities of the broiler (chicken, Gallus gallus domesticus) litter produced in the U.S. are being applied to pasture lands. The traditional surface- broadcast application of animal manure onto permanent pasture, however, may lead to high concentration of nutrients and pathogenic micro...

  12. Effects of pseudo-microgravity on symbiosis between endophyte, Neotyphodium, and its host plant, tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Wakabayashi, K.; Hiraishi, K.; Yoshida, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Shinozaki, S.; Yamashita, M.

    Endophyte is a group of microbes that symbiotically live in plant body Endophyte provides host plant its metabolites that protect the plant from insect pests In addition to this host plants are resistive against environmental stress In general endophyte lives in seeds to seeds of the infected plants through multiple generations The infection of fungi has never been observed and their original pathway is still unknown in nature The aim of this study is to examine whether this stable symbiosis between endophytes and its host plant would be modified under pseudo-microgravity or not We also aim to observe the infection under an exotic environment in terms of gravity We found that the internal hyphae of both the incubated plant under pseudo-microgravity and the ground control became indistinct with the number of incubation days A part of the endophyte in the seed under its autolysis was suggested because the amount of fungi in the base of the shoot that was observed with the incubated plant under the ground control was far less than that in the seed before sowing Hyphae began to grow in the germinating seed after a 3-day incubation period However a lot of aggregated fungi still existed in the 3-day incubated seed under pseudo-microgravity Moreover hyphae in the 3-day incubated seed under pseudo-microgravity were more indistinctly than that under the ground control The fungi were observed in the boundary of the seed and the shoot of the 5-day incubated seed under the ground control but not under pseudo-microgravity By this observation it was suggested that

  13. Host Range Assessment of Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (Tylenchida: Hoplolaimidae) on Pasture Species

    PubMed Central

    Davis, L. T.; Bell, N. L.; Watson, R.N.; Rohan, T. C.

    2004-01-01

    The host status of 15 commonly occurring pasture species for Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus was tested in a greenhouse trial. Only tall fescue, with and without Neotyphodium endophyte infection, was a good host (Pf/Pi = final/initial population > 1). Inoculation survival was tested in a second trial, which showed that only 10% of the H. pseudorobustus nematodes survived the first 7 days after inoculation. When the Pf/Pi was adjusted to account for a 10% survival, all of the grass and clover hosts tested had a Pf/Pi > 1. Both trials showed a positive correlation between increased numbers of H. pseudorobustus and free-living nematodes. PMID:19262829

  14. Mutational spectrum of adult T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Martin; Vosberg, Sebastian; Schlee, Cornelia; Heesch, Sandra; Schwartz, Stefan; Gökbuget, Nicola; Hoelzer, Dieter; Graf, Alexander; Krebs, Stefan; Bartram, Isabelle; Blum, Helmut; Brüggemann, Monika; Hecht, Jochen; Bohlander, Stefan K.

    2015-01-01

    Novel target discovery is warranted to improve treatment in adult T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) patients. We provide a comprehensive study on mutations to enhance the understanding of therapeutic targets and studied 81 adult T-ALL patients. NOTCH1 exhibitedthe highest mutation rate (53%). Mutation frequencies of FBXW7 (10%), WT1 (10%), JAK3 (12%), PHF6 (11%), and BCL11B (10%) were in line with previous reports. We identified recurrent alterations in transcription factors DNM2, and RELN, the WNT pathway associated cadherin FAT1, and in epigenetic regulators (MLL2, EZH2). Interestingly, we discovered novel recurrent mutations in the DNA repair complex member HERC1, in NOTCH2, and in the splicing factor ZRSR2. A frequently affected pathway was the JAK/STAT pathway (18%) and a significant proportion of T-ALL patients harboured mutations in epigenetic regulators (33%), both predominantly found in the unfavourable subgroup of early T-ALL. Importantly, adult T-ALL patients not only showed a highly heterogeneous mutational spectrum, but also variable subclonal allele frequencies implicated in therapy resistance and evolution of relapse. In conclusion, we provide novel insights in genetic alterations of signalling pathways (e.g. druggable by γ-secretase inhibitors, JAK inhibitors or EZH2 inhibitors), present in over 80% of all adult T-ALL patients, that could guide novel therapeutic approaches. PMID:25595890

  15. A Tall Tale: Laura Amy Schlitz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallagher, Mary Grace

    2008-01-01

    In this article, American author, children's librarian, and storyteller Laura Amy Schlitz is profiled. Schlitz is the winner of this year's Newbery Medal for her tall tale about the Mongols called "Gulnara the Tartar Warrior." Like her award-winning book, "Good Masters! Sweet Ladies!" (Candlewick, 2007), the tale takes place in the Middle Ages.…

  16. Does turgor limit growth in tall trees?

    Treesearch

    D.R. Woodruff; B.J. Bond; F.C. Meinzer

    2004-01-01

    The gravitational component of water potential contributes a standing 0.01 MPa m1 to the xylem tension gradient in plants. In tall trees, this contribution can significantly reduce the water potential near the tree tops. The turgor of cells in buds and leaves is expected to decrease in direct proportion with leaf water potential along a height gradient unless osmotic...

  17. Tall oil precursors of Douglas fir

    Treesearch

    Daniel O. Foster; Duane F. Zinkel; Anthony H. Conner

    1980-01-01

    The sapwood and heartwood extractives of Douglas fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] and the tall oil in the kraft black liquor were characterized. On pulping, isomerization and conversion of conjugated resin acids to dehydroabietic acid was observed. Recovery of both fatty and resin acids from pulping was lower than predicted from the extractive composition....

  18. Extremely tall convection: characteristics and controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nesbitt, S. W.; Rasmussen, K. L.

    2015-12-01

    Tall continental convective structures are observed in several climatological regions, and have been shown to be related with severe weather and extreme hydrologic events. Recent work has defined tall convection as regions with precipitation structures observed with spaceborne radar echo extending into the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere. While these climatological regions are known for these tall convective structures (subtropical South America, equatorial Africa, southcentral USA, South Asia), not all observed convective eventsin these regions contain strong structures, and the characteristics of the meteorological environments, including sounding profiles, that dictate the strength of the spectrum of convective systems are poorly constrained. In this study, precipitation radar (PR) data from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and dual-frequency precipitation radar (DPR) from the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) satellites will be examined alongside composites of atmospheric reanalysis data to examine the structural and meteorological environments surrounding observed tall convective systems. Environments of convective systems of various vertical extents will be contrasted with less extreme convection to infer physical causal mechanisms and to examine issues of predictability of these events.

  19. Tall tower or mountain top measurements?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bamberger, Ines; Eugster, Werner; Oney, Brian; Brunner, Dominik; Leuenberger, Markus; Schanda, Rüdiger; Henne, Stephan; Buchmann, Nina

    2014-05-01

    Resolving the regional transport and distribution of greenhouse gases in the troposphere is a key topic that challenges both modelers and experimentalists. A dense network of measurement stations would be required, in particular including measurements at high elevation to better represent the entire lower troposphere, and not only small-scale local conditions in the near-surface atmosphere. While this can be achieved by tall towers, also mountain top stations (e.g. Schauinsland, Brocken) and other stations at high elevation (e.g., Mouna Loa, Jungfraujoch) are often appropriate, due to their extended concentration footprint. However, especially over complex, mountainous terrain, the transport of atmospheric gases and their spatio-temporal distribution is difficult to predict due to the development of thermally induced local wind patterns and boundary layer processes. Therefore, the main goal of our study is to test to what extend boundary layer processes at the surface and local wind patterns close to the ground at a mountain top site influence the ambient greenhouse gas patterns compared to measurements taken at a similar altitude but at a tall tower site. To this end we use measurements from the Zugerberg mountain top station, located at a pre-Alpine mountain ridge (987 m a.s.l., 4 m above ground) exposed to the prevailing synoptic winds in Switzerland, and compare these measurements with a neighboring tall tower site (Beromünster radio broadcast tower with its top at 1014 m a.s.l., 217 m above local ground level, and ≡500 m above the Swiss Plateau). The Beromünster tall tower is located at a distance of only 30 km from the mountain top station as the bird flies, and hence a direct comparison minimizes confounding factors that are not related to the tall tower vs. mountain top position of the measurements. Both stations are part of the CarboCount CH greenhouse gas observation network (http://www.carbocount.ch) initiated for long-term monitoring and modeling of

  20. Fungal endophyte N-acetylglucosaminidase expression in the infected host grass.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaijun Michael; Crouch, Jo Anne; Belanger, Faith C

    2005-03-01

    Fungal endophytes of the genera Neotyphodium and Epichlolë are important mutualistic symbionts and pathogens of many cool-season grass species. Here we report the characterization of a secreted N-acetylglucosaminidase from the Neotyphodium sp. endophyte that infects the grass Poa ampla. The enzyme was expressed at low levels within the host, and activity could be detected in the apoplastic protein fraction. Low-level expression could also be detected in endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra subsp. fallax), and tall fescue (L. arundinaceum). The enzyme may function in the recycling of chitin oligomers generated from turnover of the fungal cell wall. This is the first report of a secreted N-acetylglucosaminidase expressed by an endophytic fungus in the infected host plant.

  1. Tall oil precursors of Douglas-fir

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, D.O.; Zinkle, D.F.; Conner, A.H.

    1980-01-01

    The sapwood and heartwood extractives of Douglas fir and the tall oil in the kraft black liquor were characterized. On pulping, isomerization and conversion of conjugated resin acids to dehydroabietic acid was observed. Recovery of both fatty and resin acids from pulping was lower than predicted from the extractive composition. High contents of sterol esters (about 35%) and a new triterpene alcohol are reported. The lightwood-inducing effect of paraquat was limited.

  2. Collapse of tall granular columns in fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Krishna; Soga, Kenichi; Delenne, Jean-Yves

    2017-06-01

    Avalanches, landslides, and debris flows are geophysical hazards, which involve rapid mass movement of granular solids, water, and air as a multi-phase system. In order to describe the mechanism of immersed granular flows, it is important to consider both the dynamics of the solid phase and the role of the ambient fluid. In the present study, the collapse of a granular column in fluid is studied using 2D LBM - DEM. The flow kinematics are compared with the dry and buoyant granular collapse to understand the influence of hydrodynamic forces and lubrication on the run-out. In the case of tall columns, the amount of material destabilised above the failure plane is larger than that of short columns. Therefore, the surface area of the mobilised mass that interacts with the surrounding fluid in tall columns is significantly higher than the short columns. This increase in the area of soil - fluid interaction results in an increase in the formation of turbulent vortices thereby altering the deposit morphology. It is observed that the vortices result in the formation of heaps that significantly affects the distribution of mass in the flow. In order to understand the behaviour of tall columns, the run-out behaviour of a dense granular column with an initial aspect ratio of 6 is studied. The collapse behaviour is analysed for different slope angles: 0°, 2.5°, 5° and 7.5°.

  3. Forage and breed effects on behavior and temperament of pregnant beef heifers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Integration of behavioral observations with traditional selection schemes may lead to enhanced animal well-being and more profitable forage-based cattle production systems. Brahman-influenced (BR; n = 64) and Gelbvieh × Angus (GA; n = 64) heifers consumed either toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (E+) or one of two nontoxic endophyte-infected tall fescue (NT) cultivars during two yr. Heifers were weighed at midpoint and termination of grazing. Grazing behavior (grazing, resting in the shade, lying, or standing without grazing) was recorded (n = 13 visual observations per yr in June and July) for each pasture. During yr 2, exit velocity (EV) and serum prolactin (PRL) were determined. Results Grazing behavior was influenced (P < 0.05) by an interaction between fescue cultivar and breed type. Gelbvieh × Angus heifers assigned to E+ pastures had the lowest percentage of animals grazing and the largest percentage of animals resting in the shade. Brahman-influenced heifers had faster EV (P < 0.001) than GA heifers (0.52 vs. 0.74 ± 0.04 s/m, respectively). Body weight (BW) was affected (P < 0.01) by an interaction of tall fescue cultivar and d, and an interaction of tall fescue cultivar and breed type. Heifers grazing NT pastures were heavier (P < 0.01) than heifers grazing E+ pastures at midpoint and termination. Gelbvieh × Angus heifers grazing NT pastures were heavier (P < 0.01) than GA and BR heifers grazing E+ and BR heifers grazing NT pastures. An interaction of forage cultivar and breed type occurred on serum PRL (P < 0.01). Conclusion Collectively fescue cultivar, EV, and concentrations of serum PRL were associated with grazing behavior. Heifers grazing NT pastures were observed to be grazing more than heifers assigned to E+ pastures, regardless of breed type, which may have contributed to changes in BW and average daily gain (ADG) in heifers. Integration of behavioral observations along with

  4. Tall oil precursors in the sapwood of four southern pines

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkel, D.F.; Foster, D.O.

    1980-05-01

    The composition of the tall oil precursors in the sapwood of slash, longleaf, shortleaf, and Virginia pines has been determined. Qualitative and quantitative changes occur in these precursors during kraft pulping. In addition to isomerization of fatty acids and resin acids, significant losses of resin acids occur. These losses are of economic significance in tall oil recovery, particularly in potential future recovery of lightwood resin acids (rosin) as tall oil.

  5. Charlemagne was very tall, but not robust.

    PubMed

    Rühli, Frank J; Blümich, Bernhard; Henneberg, Maciej

    2010-07-01

    The left tibia of Charlemagne, the Medieval "Father of Europe" has been X-rayed and CT scanned to determine his still highly debated stature. We found the healthy bone to be long (430 mm) but rather not robust (total mid-shaft cross-sectional area 473 mm(2), cortical area 352 mm(2)). Reconstructed stature of 1.84 m falls at about 99% of Medieval heights, which would be ca. 1.95 m in present-day Europe. Thus, tall stature indeed could have contributed to the success of "Charles the Great" as a king emperor and soldier.

  6. Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting heat production (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW=348 ±13 kg) were weight-matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two temperature segments,...

  7. Alteration of fasting heat production during fescue toxicosis in Holstein steers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This study was designed to examine alteration of fasting heat production (FHP) during fescue toxicosis. Six ruminally cannulated Holstein steers (BW = 348±26kg) were weight matched into pairs and utilized in a two period crossover design experiment. Each period consisted of two segments, one each at...

  8. Resistance of closely-mown fine fescue and bentgrass species to snow mold pathogens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Creeping bentgrass (Agrostis stolonifera) is the primary species used on golf courses in temperate regions but requires prophylactic fungicide treatment to prevent snow mold diseases. We hypothesized that fine fescues (Festuca spp.) and colonial bentgrass (A. capillaris) have superior resistance to...

  9. Back to the future: the “discovery” and potential value of meadow fescue

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The landscape for temperate grass selection for management-intensive rotational grazing systems in North America is changing, partly due to the rediscovery of meadow fescue [Schedonorus pratensis (Huds.) P. Beauv.]. This grass was introduced from Europe to North America during European migrations of...

  10. Genetic characterization of Asian fine fescue identifies unique germplasm for forage and turf breeding

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evaluation of genetic structure and plant morphology are essential to better utilize introduced germplasm in fine-leaved fescue breeding. Recent collections (2006-2010) of fine-leaved Festuca valesiaca and Festuca rubra germplasm have been made by the USDA, ARS in Kyrgyzstan (KGZ) and the People's ...

  11. Evaluation of domperidone dosages and delivery methods for the treatment of fescue toxicosis in beef heifers

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to develop a practical method of domperidone delivery to ameliorate the symptoms of fescue toxicosis in beef heifers. Experiment 1 used 42 crossbred heifers assigned to 1 of 7 treatment groups (n = 6/trt); positive control (0.44 mg domperidone/kg BW daily s.c.), nega...

  12. Larger than Life: Reading and Writing Tall Tales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tunks, Karyn

    2008-01-01

    The genre of tall tales is characterized by fictional, often intentionally ridiculous, stories that provide a reason for or origin of a natural phenomenon. Tall tales are often based on characters who are unusually adept or powerful; they are particularly appealing to children who are cognitively capable of understanding the tongue-in-cheek humor…

  13. Mitigating shear lag in tall buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaur, Himanshu; Goliya, Ravindra K.

    2015-09-01

    As the height of building increases, effect of shear lag also becomes considerable in the design of high-rise buildings. In this paper, shear lag effect in tall buildings of heights, i.e., 120, 96, 72, 48 and 36 stories of which aspect ratio ranges from 3 to 10 is studied. Tube-in-tube structural system with façade bracing is used for designing the building of height 120 story. It is found that bracing system considerably reduces the shear lag effect and hence increases the building stiffness to withstand lateral loads. Different geometric patterns of bracing system are considered. The best effective geometric configuration of bracing system is concluded in this study. Lateral force, as wind load is applied on the buildings as it is the most dominating lateral force for such heights. Wind load is set as per Indian standard code of practice IS 875 Part-3. For analysis purpose SAP 2000 software program is used.

  14. Endophytic fungal beta-1,6-glucanase expression in the infected host grass.

    PubMed

    Moy, Melinda; Li, Huaijun Michael; Sullivan, Ray; White, James F; Belanger, Faith C

    2002-11-01

    Mutualistic fungal endophytes infect many grass species and often confer benefits to the hosts such as reduced herbivory by insects and animals. The physiological interactions between the endophytes and their hosts have not been well characterized. Fungal-secreted proteins are likely to be important components of the interaction. In the interaction between Poa ampla and the endophyte Neotyphodium sp., a fungal beta-1,6-glucanase is secreted into the apoplast, and activity of the enzyme is detectable in endophyte-infected plants. Sequence analysis indicates the beta-1,6-glucanase is homologous to enzymes secreted by the mycoparasitic fungi Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma virens. DNA gel-blot analysis indicated the beta-1,6-glucanase was encoded by a single gene. As a secreted protein, the beta-1,6-glucanase may have a nutritional role for the fungus. In culture, beta-1,6-glucanase activity was induced in the presence of beta-1,6-glucans. From RNA gel blots, similar beta-1,6-glucanases were expressed in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra L. subsp. fallax [Thuill] Nyman) infected with the endophyte species Neotyphodium coenophialum and Epichloë festucae, respectively.

  15. Influence of undegraded intake protein on reproductive performance of primiparous beef heifers maintained on stockpiled fescue pasture.

    PubMed

    Strauch, T A; Scholljegerdes, E J; Patterson, D J; Smith, M F; Lucy, M C; Lamberson, W R; Williams, J E

    2001-03-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effects of pre- and postpartum undegraded intake protein (UIP) supplementation on body condition score (BCS), BW, calf weight, milk production, serum IGF-I concentrations, and postpartum interval in primiparous beef heifers (n = 44). Heifers were maintained on endophyte-free stockpiled tall fescue (11.7% CP, 38% ADF) and individually fed supplement daily beginning 60 d prepartum. Pre- and postpartum supplements provided 19.3% CP, 83.4% TDN (UIP); 14.1% CP, 84.1% TDN (Control); 21.5% CP, 81.5% TDN (UIP); and 14.6% CP, 81.4% TDN (Control); respectively. Blood meal (146 g/d) was the source of UIP. Six heifers were removed from the study due to calf loss unrelated to treatment; therefore, postpartum measurements are based on 19 animals per treatment. Statistical analyses using ANOVA and a split-plot design revealed no effects of treatment (P > 0.2) on BCS, BW, calf weight, milk production, or postpartum interval. There tended to be a treatment x time interaction on BCS (P < 0.09) with UIP heifers having higher BCS than Control at wk 5, 7, and 9 postpartum. There was a treatment x time interaction on serum IGF-I (P < 0.06) during the first 35 d postpartum. In UIP heifers, serum IGF-I was greater at calving compared with Control heifers (117.5 vs 92.4 ng/mL, respectively); however, these differences were not related to changes in BCS or BW. Although serum IGF-I concentrations were increased at calving in heifers receiving UIP, there were no treatment effects on postpartum interval (P > 0.7). During the first 30 d postpartum, IGF-I differed (P < 0.01) among heifers with postpartum intervals defined as short, < 50 d (128.9 ng/mL); medium, 51 to 65 d (115.2 ng/mL); and long, 66 to 130 d (52.9 ng/mL). When analyzed as a regression, a 1 ng/mL increase in IGF-I (UIP and Control heifers) at calving (P < 0.05) and throughout the postpartum period (P < 0.01) corresponded to a decrease in postpartum interval of 0.13 d. Based on the

  16. Ergot alkaloid transport across ruminant gastric tissues.

    PubMed

    Hill, N S; Thompson, F N; Stuedemann, J A; Rottinghaus, G W; Ju, H J; Dawe, D L; Hiatt, E E

    2001-02-01

    Ergot alkaloids cause fescue toxicosis when livestock graze endophyte-infected tall fescue. It is generally accepted that ergovaline is the toxic component of endophyte-infected tall fescue, but there is no direct evidence to support this hypothesis. The objective of this study was to examine relative and potential transport of ergoline and ergopeptine alkaloids across isolated gastric tissues in vitro. Sheep ruminal and omasal tissues were surgically removed and placed in parabiotic chambers. Equimolar concentrations of lysergic acid, lysergol, ergonovine, ergotamine, and ergocryptine were added to a Kreb's Ringer phosphate (KRP) solution on the mucosal side of the tissue. Tissue was incubated in near-physiological conditions for 240 min. Samples were taken from KRP on the serosal side of the chambers at times 0, 30, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min and analyzed for ergot alkaloids by competitive ELISA. The serosal KRP remaining after incubation was freeze-dried and the alkaloid species quantified by HPLC. The area of ruminal and omasal tissues was measured and the potential transportable alkaloids calculated by multiplying the moles of transported alkaloids per square centimeter of each tissue type by the surface area of the tissue. Studies were conducted to compare alkaloid transport in reticular, ruminal, and omasal tissues and to determine whether transport was active or passive. Ruminal tissue had greater ergot alkaloid transport potential than omasal tissue (85 vs 60 mmol) because of a larger surface area. The ruminal posterior dorsal sac had the greatest potential for alkaloid transport, but the other ruminal tissues were not different from one another. Alkaloid transport was less among reticular tissues than among ruminal tissues. Transport of alkaloids seemed to be an active process. The alkaloids with greatest transport potential were lysergic acid and lysergol. Ergopeptine alkaloids tended to pass across omasal tissues in greater quantities than across ruminal

  17. meta-Tyrosine in Festuca rubra ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue) is synthesized by hydroxylation of phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Tengfang; Rehak, Ludmila; Jander, Georg

    2012-03-01

    m-Tyrosine is a non-protein amino acid that is structurally similar to the common protein amino acids p-tyrosine and phenylalanine. Copious amounts of m-tyrosine can be found in root exudates of the fine fescue cultivar, Festuca rubra L. ssp. commutata (Chewings fescue). The phytotoxicity of m-tyrosine may contribute to the allelopathic potential of F. rubra. m-Tyrosine in Euphorbia myrsinites (donkey-tail spurge), was previously shown to be synthesized via transamination of m-hydroxyphenylpyruvate. Here we show that m-tyrosine biosynthesis in F. rubra occurs through direct hydroxylation of phenylalanine in the root tips, perhaps through the activity of a cytochrome P450 enzyme. Hence, E. myrsinites and F. rubra, the only two plant species known to produce m-tyrosine, use distinct biosynthetic pathways that likely arose independently in evolutionary history.

  18. Propagation of seismic waves in tall buildings

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, E.

    1998-01-01

    A discrete-time wave propagation formulation of the seismic response of tall buildings is introduced. The building is modeled as a layered medium, similar to a layered soil medium, and is subjected to vertically propagating seismic shear waves. Soil layers and the bedrock under the foundation are incorporated in the formulation as additional layers. Seismic response is expressed in terms of the wave travel times between the layers, and the wave reflection and transmission coefficients at the layer interfaces. The equations account for the frequency-dependent filtering effects of the foundation and floor masses. The calculation of seismic response is reduced to a pair of simple finite-difference equations for each layer, which can be solved recursively starting from the bedrock. Compared to the commonly used vibration formulation, the wave propagation formulation provides several advantages, including simplified calculations, better representation of damping, ability to account for the effects of the soil layers under the foundation, and better tools for identification and damage detection from seismic records. Examples presented show the versatility of the method. ?? 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Belowground carbon trade among tall forest trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Tamir; Siegwolf, Rolf; Koerner, Christian

    2016-04-01

    Just imagine one tree could hand over large quantities of carbon to another tree. How would that change our thinking about carbon relations of forests, the single biggest biological C reservoir on earth? If such a tree-to-tree C shuttle would exist, it required a demand-supply gradient and a pipeline. Here we show that exactly this unthinkable does occur in overlapping root spheres of tall trees in a mixed temperate forest. Using canopy scale stable carbon isotope labelling applied from a construction crane, we demonstrate that carbon assimilated by spruce is traded over to neighbouring beech, larch, and pine in amounts so large that fine roots almost equilibrate the carbon source signature. The isotope mixing ratio indicated that the interspecific transfer accounted for 40% of the fine root carbon, which is ca. 280 kg ha-1 a-1. This is the first forest scale evidence of a large flux of carbon among mature trees from evolutionary distant taxa. Carbon transfer most likely occurred through common ectomycorrhiza networks, which also exhibited the labelled carbon signal. These observations indicate that while competition for resources (e.g. light, water, nutrients) is often considered the dominant tree-tree interaction in a forest, trees actually interact in more complex pathways including a massive carbon exchange.

  20. Tall shrub layer biomass in conifer plantations in northeastern Minnesota.

    Treesearch

    Lewis F. Ohmann

    1982-01-01

    Provides estimates of biomass (pounds/acre) for tall shrub species in 53 conifer plantations in northeastern Minnesota. The estimates are analyzed by plantation age and silvicultural practices used to establish and release the plantations.

  1. Interior of the second floor dance hall showing tall and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of the second floor dance hall showing tall and narrow window openings with 10-foot scale near center, looking south. - Bower Building, 409-413 East Weber Avenue, Stockton, San Joaquin County, CA

  2. 7. View east from Ganson Street. Four tall buildings left ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. View east from Ganson Street. Four tall buildings left to right: elevator C, feed mill, pellet plant, elevator A. - Cooperative Grange League Federation Elevator, 385 Ganson Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  3. Improved recovery of tall oil from black liquors

    SciTech Connect

    Zucker, J.

    1980-12-09

    Applying a d.c. of less than 15 V to acidified black liquor separates a significant amount of tall oil remaining in the black liquor sludge. An apparatus with graphite electrodes for this process is described.

  4. 77 FR 19534 - Special Local Regulations; Savannah Tall Ships Challenge, Savannah River, Savannah, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Savannah Tall Ships Challenge... Savannah Tall Ships Challenge. The Savannah Tall Ships Challenge will take place from Thursday, May 3, 2012... around vessels participating in the Savannah Tall Ships Challenge while the vessels are moored at their...

  5. 77 FR 6039 - Special Local Regulations; Savannah Tall Ships Challenge, Savannah River, Savannah, GA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Savannah Tall Ships Challenge... during the Savannah Tall Ships Challenge. The Savannah Tall Ships Challenge will take place from Thursday..., mooring zones would be established around vessels participating in the Savannah Tall Ships Challenge while...

  6. Flow Sorting and Sequencing Meadow Fescue Chromosome 4F1[C][W

    PubMed Central

    Kopecký, David; Martis, Mihaela; Číhalíková, Jarmila; Hřibová, Eva; Vrána, Jan; Bartoš, Jan; Kopecká, Jitka; Cattonaro, Federica; Stočes, Štěpán; Novák, Petr; Neumann, Pavel; Macas, Jiří; Šimková, Hana; Studer, Bruno; Asp, Torben; Baird, James H.; Navrátil, Petr; Karafiátová, Miroslava; Kubaláková, Marie; Šafář, Jan; Mayer, Klaus; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of large genomes is hampered by a high proportion of repetitive DNA, which makes the assembly of short sequence reads difficult. This is also the case in meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis), which is known for good abiotic stress resistance and has been used in intergeneric hybridization with ryegrasses (Lolium spp.) to produce Festulolium cultivars. In this work, we describe a new approach to analyze the large genome of meadow fescue, which involves the reduction of sample complexity without compromising information content. This is achieved by dissecting the genome to smaller parts: individual chromosomes and groups of chromosomes. As the first step, we flow sorted chromosome 4F and sequenced it by Illumina with approximately 50× coverage. This provided, to our knowledge, the first insight into the composition of the fescue genome, enabled the construction of the virtual gene order of the chromosome, and facilitated detailed comparative analysis with the sequenced genomes of rice (Oryza sativa), Brachypodium distachyon, sorghum (Sorghum bicolor), and barley (Hordeum vulgare). Using GenomeZipper, we were able to confirm the collinearity of chromosome 4F with barley chromosome 4H and the long arm of chromosome 5H. Several new tandem repeats were identified and physically mapped using fluorescence in situ hybridization. They were found as robust cytogenetic markers for karyotyping of meadow fescue and ryegrass species and their hybrids. The ability to purify chromosome 4F opens the way for more efficient analysis of genomic loci on this chromosome underlying important traits, including freezing tolerance. Our results confirm that next-generation sequencing of flow-sorted chromosomes enables an overview of chromosome structure and evolution at a resolution never achieved before. PMID:24096412

  7. Modeling of lightning incidence to tall structures; Part 1: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Rizk, F.A.M. )

    1994-01-01

    The paper generalizes a recent physical approach to assess negative downward lightning incidence to apply to tall masts and hilly regions. Criteria for occurrence of an upward flash from a tall structure under negative cloud are formulated, both for flat and hilly terrain. Finally the effect of structure on statistical stroke current distribution is analytically investigated. Extensive computer investigation to apply the theory as well as comparison with field observations are reported in a companion paper.

  8. Modeling of lightning incidence to tall structures; Part 2: Application

    SciTech Connect

    Rizk, F.A.M. )

    1994-01-01

    The present paper comprises an extensive computer investigation of lightning incidence to tall masts, based on a theory presented in a companion paper, for both flat and hilly regions. The investigation covers both downward negative lightning incidence and upward flash from tall masts under negative cloud. The factors investigated include: mast height, statistical distribution of the ground electric field, as well as mountain height and topology. Predicted lightning incidence and probability of upward flash are successfully verified against extensive field observations.

  9. Evaluation of Short and Tall Stature in Children.

    PubMed

    Barstow, Craig; Rerucha, Caitlyn

    2015-07-01

    Short stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations below the mean for age (less than the 3rd percentile). Tall stature is defined as a height more than two standard deviations above the mean for age (greater than the 97th percentile). The initial evaluation of short and tall stature should include a history and physical examination, accurate serial measurements, and determination of growth velocity, midparental height, and bone age. Common normal variants of short stature are familial short stature, constitutional delay of growth and puberty, and idiopathic short stature. Pathologic causes of short stature include chronic diseases; growth hormone deficiency; and genetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome. Tall stature has the same prevalence as short stature, but it is a much less common reason for referral to subspecialty care. Common causes of tall stature include familial tall stature, obesity, Klinefelter syndrome, Marfan syndrome, and precocious puberty. Although most children with short or tall stature have variants of normal growth, children who are more than three standard deviations from the mean for age are more likely to have underlying pathology. Evaluation for pathologic etiologies is guided by history and physical examination findings.

  10. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TALL FESCUE ON PAH DEGRADATION IN AN AGED CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOIL. (R828770C004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  11. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TALL FESCUE ON PAH DEGRADATION IN AN AGED CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOIL. (R828770)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  12. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TALL FESCUE ON PAH DEGRADATAION IN AN AGED CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOIL. (R828770)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. Expression of a fungal ferulic acid esterase in suspension cultures of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) decreases cell wall feruloylation and increases rates of cell wall digestion.

    PubMed

    Morris, Phillip; Dalton, Sue; Langdon, Tim; Hauck, Barbara; de Buanafina, Marcia M O

    2017-01-01

    In the cell walls of grasses ferulic acid is esterified to arabinosyl residues in arabinoxylans that can then undergo oxidative coupling reactions to form ferulate dehydrodimers, trimers and oligomers which function to cross-link cell-wall polysaccharides, limiting cell wall degradability. Fungal ferulic acid esterase can release both esterified monomeric and dimeric ferulic acids from these cell wall arabinoxylans making the cell wall more susceptible to further enzymatic attack and increasing cell wall degradability. Non-embryogenic cell suspension cultures of Festuca arundinacea expressing a Aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase (faeA) targeted to either the apoplast, or endoplasmic reticulum under the control of a constitutive actin promoter, or to the vacuole under the control of a soybean heat shock promoter, were established and FAE activity determined in the cells and medium during a growth cycle. Analysis of the ester-linked ferulates of the cell walls showed that all three transformed cell lines had both reduced ferulate levels and increased levels of xylanase mediated release of wall phenolics on autodigestion as well as increased rates of cell wall digestion in a simulated rumen environment, when compared to control non-transformed cells.

  14. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TALL FESCUE ON PAH DEGRADATION IN AN AGED CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOIL. (R828770)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  15. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TALL FESCUE ON PAH DEGRADATAION IN AN AGED CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOIL. (R828770)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  16. FIELD AND LABORATORY EVALUATION OF THE IMPACT OF TALL FESCUE ON PAH DEGRADATION IN AN AGED CREOSOTE-CONTAMINATED SURFACE SOIL. (R828770C004)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Profiling Sugars in Tall Fescue and Kentucky Bluegrass Extracts Assayed for Total Water- and Ethanol-Soluble Carbohydrates: Relationship of Chromatographic to Spectrophotometric Data

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and ethanol-soluble carbohydrates (ESC) of herbage are often quantified by spectrophotometric assays. To determine if quantifying individual sugars from chromatograms could yield results comparable to those obtained by the assays, WSC and ESC were extracted from fr...

  18. Increasing amounts of chemical weed control increase growth of white ash, white oak, and black walnut saplings in a tall fescue sod

    Treesearch

    Jonathan D. Carlisle; Wayne A. Geyer; J. W. Van Sambeek

    2003-01-01

    Effective weed control in young deciduous plantations is often prescribed to enhance survivability and growth (Bey and others 1975). Chemical weed control often employs broadcast, strip, and spot applications that markedly affect the ground surface area treated. Our study investigates the effect of four levels of treated surface area of a tank mix of glyphosate and...

  19. Chemical composition of biomass from tall perennial tropical grasses

    SciTech Connect

    Prine, G.M.; Stricker, J.A.; Anderson, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    The tall perennial tropical grasses, elephantgrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum.), sugarcane and energycane (Saccharum sp.) and erianthus (Erianthus arundenaceum (Retz) Jesw.) have given very high oven dry biomass yields in Florida and the warm Lower South USA. No good complete analyses of the chemical composition of these grasses for planning potential energy use was available. We sampled treatments of several tall grass demonstrations and experiments containing high-biomass yielding genotypes of the above tall grass crops at several locations in Florida over the two growing seasons, 1992 and 1993. These samples were analyzed for crude protein, NDF, ADF, cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and IVDMD or IVOMD. The analysis for the above constituents are reported, along with biomass yields where available, for the tall grass accessions in the various demonstrations and experiments. Particular attention is given to values obtained from the high-yielding tall grasses grown on phosphatic clays in Polk County, FL, the area targeted by a NREL grant to help commercialize bioenergy use from these crops.

  20. The role of NOTCH1 signaling in T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Adolfo A

    2009-01-01

    The identification of activating mutations in NOTCH1 in over 50% of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemias (T-ALL) has generated major interest in the elucidation of the mechanisms of transformation downstream of oncogenic NOTCH and in the targeting of the NOTCH signaling pathway in this disease. Small molecule gamma-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) block NOTCH1 signaling in T-ALL lymphoblasts, yet the clinical development of GSIs has been held back by the development of gastrointestinal toxicity and their weak antileukemic effects against human T-ALL. However, new therapeutic strategies aiming to optimize the use of anti-NOTCH1 therapies for T-ALL, including combination therapies with molecularly targeted drugs and glucocorticoids, have started to emerge as a result of improved understanding of the molecular mechanisms that mediate the effects of GSIs in leukemic cells and the intestinal epithelium. This review focuses on the molecular basis of NOTCH1-induced transformation, the mechanisms of action of oncogenic NOTCH1 and clinical significance of NOTCH1 mutations in T-ALL.

  1. The genetics and molecular biology of T-ALL

    PubMed Central

    Girardi, Tiziana; Vicente, Carmen; Cools, Jan; De Keersmaecker, Kim

    2017-01-01

    T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) is an aggressive malignancy caused by the accumulation of genomic lesions that affect the development of T-cells. Since many years, it has been established that deregulated expression of transcription factors, impairment of the CDKN2A/2B cell cycle regulators and hyperactive NOTCH1 signaling play prominent roles in the pathogenesis of this leukemia. In the past decade, systematic screening of T-ALL genomes by high resolution copy number arrays and next- generation sequencing technologies has revealed that T-cell progenitors accumulate additional mutations affecting JAK/STAT signaling, protein translation and epigenetic control, providing novel attractive targets for therapy. In this review, we provide an update on our knowledge on T-ALL pathogenesis, on the opportunities for the introduction of targeted therapy and on the challenges that are still ahead. PMID:28115373

  2. Common DNA variants predict tall stature in Europeans.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fan; Hendriks, A Emile J; Ralf, Arwin; Boot, Annemieke M; Benyi, Emelie; Sävendahl, Lars; Oostra, Ben A; van Duijn, Cornelia; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, André G; Drop, Stenvert L S; Kayser, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    Genomic prediction of the extreme forms of adult body height or stature is of practical relevance in several areas such as pediatric endocrinology and forensic investigations. Here, we examine 770 extremely tall cases and 9,591 normal height controls in a population-based Dutch European sample to evaluate the capability of known height-associated DNA variants in predicting tall stature. Among the 180 normal height-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) previously reported by the Genetic Investigation of ANthropocentric Traits (GIANT) genome-wide association study on normal stature, in our data 166 (92.2 %) showed directionally consistent effects and 75 (41.7 %) showed nominally significant association with tall stature, indicating that the 180 GIANT SNPs are informative for tall stature in our Dutch sample. A prediction analysis based on the weighted allele sums method demonstrated a substantially improved potential for predicting tall stature (AUC = 0.75; 95 % CI 0.72-0.79) compared to a previous attempt using 54 height-associated SNPs (AUC = 0.65). The achieved accuracy is approaching practical relevance such as in pediatrics and forensics. Furthermore, a reanalysis of all SNPs at the 180 GIANT loci in our data identified novel secondary association signals for extreme tall stature at TGFB2 (P = 1.8 × 10(-13)) and PCSK5 (P = 7.8 × 10(-11)) suggesting the existence of allelic heterogeneity and underlining the importance of fine analysis of already discovered loci. Extrapolating from our results suggests that the genomic prediction of at least the extreme forms of common complex traits in humans including common diseases are likely to be informative if large numbers of trait-associated common DNA variants are available.

  3. Refining and separation of crude tall-oil components

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-10-01

    Methods for crude tall-oil refining and fractionation evolving research studies of long-chain fatty and resinic acids separation are reviewed. Although several techniques have been applied since the 1940s with industrial aims, only distillation under high vacuum is economically practicable for crude tall-oil fractionation. Techniques such as adsorption and dissociation extraction seem to be the most industrially promising for implementation in the future for the separation of long-chain fatty and resinic acids fractions with a high purity level at low cost.

  4. Method for tall oil recovery and apparatus therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Joyce, E.R.; Smith, W.L.

    1982-08-31

    A system and apparatus are disclosed for removing particles from suspension in a liquid, particularly for removing tall oil soap particles from black liquor. The black liquor flows along a fluid flow path which runs between a source of black liquor and a skimming tank. Two electrodes are disposed one downstream of the other within the fluid flow path. A power supply applies an electrical potential between the electrodes. The downstream electrode is connected to earth ground. It has been found that this earth ground connection provides substantial improvements in the quality and quantity of recovered tall oil soap.

  5. Fatty and resinic acids extractions from crude tall oil

    SciTech Connect

    Nogueira, J.M.F.

    1996-11-01

    The separation of fatty and resinic acidic fractions from crude tall-oil soap solutions with n-heptane by the technique of dissociation extraction is discussed. The theory of the overall process is supported by a systematic study developed to cover the high selectivity demonstrated in the differential solubility and the aptness between fatty and diterpenic acids to both liquids phases. To study the main factors affecting those liquid-liquid extraction systems and the amphiphilic behavior of such molecules involved, sodium salts aqueous solutions of crude tall oil and synthetic mixtures as molecular acidic models were used.

  6. Wind Shear Characteristics at Central Plains Tall Towers (presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.; Elliott, D.

    2006-06-05

    The objectives of this report are: (1) Analyze wind shear characteristics at tall tower sites for diverse areas in the central plains (Texas to North Dakota)--Turbines hub heights are now 70-100 m above ground and Wind measurements at 70-100+ m have been rare. (2) Present conclusions about wind shear characteristics for prime wind energy development regions.

  7. 4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING TALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. EXTERIOR OF SOUTH END OF BUILDING 105 SHOWING TALL RUSTIC STYLE CHIMNEY WITH GABLE FRAME, METAL ROOF, AND CONCRETE WALKWAY AND STEP TO OPEN SIDE-ENTRY DOOR AT PHOTO ENTER. ORIGINAL DECORATIVE WOOD SHIPLAP SIDING ON UPPER END GABLE HAS BEEN COVERED WITH ASPHALT SHINGLES. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  8. Recent advances on NOTCH signaling in T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Tzoneva, Gannie; Ferrando, Adolfo A

    2012-01-01

    NOTCH1 receptor signaling plays a central role in T-cell lineage specification and in supporting the growth and proliferation of immature T-cell progenitors in the thymus during lymphoid development. In T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), a tumor resulting from the malignant transformation of T-cell progenitors, aberrant and constitutively active NOTCH1 signaling triggered by activating mutations in the NOTCH1 gene contributes to oncogenic transformation and is a hallmark of this disease. Most notably, small molecule γ-secretase inhibitors (GSIs) can effectively block NOTCH1 signaling in T-ALL, and could be exploited as a targeted therapy in this disease. In addition, a number of emerging anti-NOTCH therapeutic strategies including anti-NOTCH1 inhibitory antibodies, small peptide inhibitors of NOTCH signaling and combination therapies with GSIs and glucocorticoids, have recently been proposed. Finally, the identification of NOTCH1 mutations in solid tumors and chronic lymphocytic leukemias has increased even further the clinical relevance of NOTCH signaling as a therapeutic target in human cancer. Here we review our current understanding of NOTCH1-induced transformation, the mechanisms of action of oncogenic NOTCH1 in T-ALL and the therapeutic and prognostic implications of NOTCH1 mutations in T-ALL.

  9. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOEpatents

    Radke, C.J.

    1983-07-25

    A process and compositions for enhancing the recovery of acid crudes are disclosed. The process involves injecting caustic solutions into the reservoir to maintain a pH of 11 to 13. The fluid contains an effective amount of multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. A tall oil pitch soap is added as a polymeric mobility control agent. (DMC)

  10. Tall shrub dynamics in northern Minnesota aspen and conifer forests.

    Treesearch

    James C. Galogh; David F. Grigal

    1988-01-01

    Tall shrub dynamics were examined in upland stands in northern Minnesota. Mortality rates of shrub stems did not differ among the stands. Shrub stem regeneration did differ among the stands and was related to overstory characteristics, soil moisture, and soil nutrients. Stem density was regulated by annual regeneration.

  11. 1. EAST END OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2. THE TALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. EAST END OF MACHINE SHOP No. 2. THE TALL STRUCTURE IS THE VERTICAL FURNACE BUILDING, AND THE TWO-STORY BRICK BUILDING WAS THE HEAT TREATING AND FORGING OFFICE. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Machine Shop No. 2, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  12. Implications of an interrow fescue cover crop for below-canopy water dynamics in a North Carolina vineyard

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Vineyard production in the southeastern U.S. faces challenges including poor internal soil drainage, high precipitation, and warm temperatures. This environment leads to significant canopy humidity, in turn, creating ideal conditions for fungal diseases. Maintaining fescue in the vineyard interrow i...

  13. 77 FR 65834 - Residues of Fatty Acids, Tall-Oil, Ethoxylated Propoxylated; Tolerance Exemption

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-31

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Residues of Fatty Acids, Tall-Oil, Ethoxylated Propoxylated; Tolerance Exemption... an exemption from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of fatty acids, tall-oil, ethoxylated... residues of fatty ] acids, tall-oil, ethoxylated propoxylated on food or feed commodities. DATES: This...

  14. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  15. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as...

  16. 78 FR 38580 - Special Local Regulation; Tall Ships Celebration Bay City, Bay City, MI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulation; Tall Ships Celebration Bay... establishing a temporary special local regulation for a tall ships parade located in the Captain of the Port... this rule because doing so would be impracticable. The final details for this Tall Ships parade were...

  17. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  18. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and...

  19. Processes of recovering fatty acids and sterols from tall oil pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, R. E.

    1985-06-18

    An improved process of enhancing the recovery of fatty acids from tall oil pitch is disclosed. The process includes a hydrolysis step for increasing the free fatty acid available for recovery from tall oil pitch during the distillation process. The hydrolysis step also enables the recovery of sterols where the tall oil pitch is of the type which is rich in sterol esters.

  20. 21 CFR 172.862 - Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. 172... Multipurpose Additives § 172.862 Oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids. The food additive oleic acid derived from tall oil fatty acids may be safely used in food and as a component in the manufacture of...

  1. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  3. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  4. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  5. 40 CFR 721.9460 - Tall oil fatty acids, reaction products with polyamines, alkyl substituted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9460 Tall oil fatty acids, reaction... reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as tall oil fatty acids, reaction products...

  6. XYY syndrome: a 13-year-old boy with tall stature.

    PubMed

    Jo, Won Ha; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Duk Hee; Kwon, Ah Reum; Kim, Ho-Seong

    2015-09-01

    When evaluating the underlying causes of tall stature, it is important to differentiate pathologic tall stature from familial tall stature. Various pathologic conditions leading to adult tall stature include excess growth hormone secretion, Marfan syndrome, androgen or estrogen deficiency, testicular feminization, and sex chromosome anomaly, such as Klinefelter syndrome and XYY syndrome. Men with 47,XYY syndrome can exhibit multiple phenotypes. A 13-year-old boy visited the hospital for evaluation of tall stature. The boy had no other physical abnormalities except tall stature. All biochemical and imaging studies were within the normal ranges. He was diagnosed with XYY syndrome in this chromosome study. When evaluating men with tall stature, XYY syndrome should be ruled out.

  7. XYY syndrome: a 13-year-old boy with tall stature

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Won Ha; Jung, Mo Kyung; Kim, Ki Eun; Chae, Hyun Wook; Kim, Duk Hee; Kwon, Ah Reum

    2015-01-01

    When evaluating the underlying causes of tall stature, it is important to differentiate pathologic tall stature from familial tall stature. Various pathologic conditions leading to adult tall stature include excess growth hormone secretion, Marfan syndrome, androgen or estrogen deficiency, testicular feminization, and sex chromosome anomaly, such as Klinefelter syndrome and XYY syndrome. Men with 47,XYY syndrome can exhibit multiple phenotypes. A 13-year-old boy visited the hospital for evaluation of tall stature. The boy had no other physical abnormalities except tall stature. All biochemical and imaging studies were within the normal ranges. He was diagnosed with XYY syndrome in this chromosome study. When evaluating men with tall stature, XYY syndrome should be ruled out. PMID:26512355

  8. Trib2 Suppresses Tumor Initiation in Notch-Driven T-ALL.

    PubMed

    Stein, Sarah J; Mack, Ethan A; Rome, Kelly S; Pajcini, Kostandin V; Ohtani, Takuya; Xu, Lanwei; Li, Yunlei; Meijerink, Jules P P; Faryabi, Robert B; Pear, Warren S

    2016-01-01

    Trib2 is highly expressed in human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and is a direct transcriptional target of the oncogenic drivers Notch and TAL1. In human TAL1-driven T-ALL cell lines, Trib2 is proposed to function as an important survival factor, but there is limited information about the role of Trib2 in primary T-ALL. In this study, we investigated the role of Trib2 in the initiation and maintenance of Notch-dependent T-ALL. Trib2 had no effect on the growth and survival of murine T-ALL cell lines in vitro when expression was blocked by shRNAs. To test the function of Trib2 on leukemogenesis in vivo, we generated Trib2 knockout mice. Mice were born at the expected Mendelian frequencies without gross developmental anomalies. Adult mice did not develop pathology or shortened survival, and hematopoiesis, including T cell development, was unperturbed. Using a retroviral model of Notch-induced T-ALL, deletion of Trib2 unexpectedly decreased the latency and increased the penetrance of T-ALL development in vivo. Immunoblotting of primary murine T-ALL cells showed that the absence of Trib2 increased C/EBPα expression, a known regulator of cell proliferation, and did not alter AKT or ERK phosphorylation. Although Trib2 was suggested to be highly expressed in T-ALL, transcriptomic analysis of two independent T-ALL cohorts showed that low Trib2 expression correlated with the TLX1-expressing cortical mature T-ALL subtype, whereas high Trib2 expression correlated with the LYL1-expressing early immature T-ALL subtype. These data indicate that Trib2 has a complex role in the pathogenesis of Notch-driven T-ALL, which may vary between different T-ALL subtypes.

  9. Aphid genotypes vary in their response to the presence of fungal endosymbionts in host plants.

    PubMed

    Bieri, A P S; Härri, S A; Vorburger, C; Müller, C B

    2009-08-01

    Genetic variation for fitness-relevant traits may be maintained in natural populations by fitness differences that depend on environmental conditions. For herbivores, plant quality and variation in chemical plant defences can maintain genetic variation in performance. Apart from plant secondary compounds, symbiosis between plants and endosymbiotic fungi (endophytes) can produce herbivore-toxic compounds. We show that there is significant variation among aphid genotypes in response to endophytes by comparing life-history traits of 37 clones of the bird cherry-oat aphid Rhopalosiphum padi feeding on endophyte-free and endophyte-infected tall fescue Lolium arundinaceum. Clonal variation for life-history traits was large, and most clones performed better on endophyte-free plants. However, the clones differed in the relative performance across the two environments, resulting in significant genotype x environment interactions for all reproductive traits. These findings suggest that natural variation in prevalence of endophyte infection can contribute to the maintenance of genetic diversity in aphid populations.

  10. An anti-herbivore defense mutualism under elevated CO2 levels

    SciTech Connect

    Marks, S.; Lincoln, D.E. )

    1994-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that insects typically consume more when fed leaf tissue grown under CO2 enrichment, but with few negative effects on growth. On the other hand, Lepidopteran larvae fed tissue infected with Balansiae fungal endophytes (which produce toxic alkaloids) typically eat less but suffer negative effects on growth and survival. This study was carried out to see how these two factors would interact to affect consumption and growth of Fall Armyworm larvae (Spodoptera frugiperda). Infected and uninfected ramets of a single genotype of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) were grown under CO2 concentrations of 400 and 700 ul/L. Larvae had increased relative growth in the high CO2 treatment, but decreased growth when fed infected tissue. Relative consumption of leaf tissue was greater in the high CO2 treatment, but was not effected by infection. CO2 level, infection, and their interaction all significantly reduced the efficiency of conversion of food ingested (ECI). It appears that tall fescue may not be as well defended against herbivores under CO2 enrichment, although insects may still avoid and be negatively effected by endophyte infected plants.

  11. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Radke, C. J.

    1985-07-02

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  12. Process for tertiary oil recovery using tall oil pitch

    DOEpatents

    Radke, Clayton J.

    1985-01-01

    Compositions and process employing same for enhancing the recovery of residual acid crudes, particularly heavy crudes, by injecting a composition comprising caustic in an amount sufficient to maintain a pH of at least about 11, preferably at least about 13, and a small but effective amount of a multivalent cation for inhibiting alkaline silica dissolution with the reservoir. Preferably a tall oil pitch soap is included and particularly for the heavy crudes a polymeric mobility control agent.

  13. Prolongation technologies for campaign life of tall oven

    SciTech Connect

    Doko, Yoshiji; Saji, Takafumi; Kitayama, Yoshiteru; Yoshida, Shuhei

    1997-12-31

    In Kashima Steel Works, 25-year-old 7-meter-high coke ovens have damage on their walls. However, by using new methods of internal in-situ investigation, ceramic welding for the extended central and upper portions of coke ovens has prolonged the campaign life for over 40 years without large-scale hot repair. In this paper, introduction of these new methods, its application in Kashima and the policy of repairing the tall coke oven are reported.

  14. 75 FR 33506 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes, Cleveland, OH, Bay City, MI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-14

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010... temporary safety and security zones around each tall ship visiting the Great Lakes during the Tall Ships... each tall ship in the navigable waters of the United States. The Coast Guard is taking this action to...

  15. 75 FR 18451 - Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010, Great Lakes; Cleveland, OH; Bay City, MI...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA87 Safety and Security Zones; Tall Ships Challenge 2010... safety and security zones around each Tall Ship visiting the Great Lakes during the Tall Ships Challenge... the vicinity of each Tall Ship in the navigable waters of the United States. The Coast Guard is taking...

  16. Short and tall stature: a new paradigm emerges.

    PubMed

    Baron, Jeffrey; Sävendahl, Lars; De Luca, Francesco; Dauber, Andrew; Phillip, Moshe; Wit, Jan M; Nilsson, Ola

    2015-12-01

    In the past, the growth hormone (GH)-insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis was often considered to be the main system that regulated childhood growth and, therefore, determined short stature and tall stature. However, findings have now revealed that the GH-IGF-1 axis is just one of many regulatory systems that control chondrogenesis in the growth plate, which is the biological process that drives height gain. Consequently, normal growth in children depends not only on GH and IGF-1 but also on multiple hormones, paracrine factors, extracellular matrix molecules and intracellular proteins that regulate the activity of growth plate chondrocytes. Mutations in the genes that encode many of these local proteins cause short stature or tall stature. Similarly, genome-wide association studies have revealed that the normal variation in height seems to be largely due to genes outside the GH-IGF-1 axis that affect growth at the growth plate through a wide variety of mechanisms. These findings point to a new conceptual framework for understanding short and tall stature that is centred not on two particular hormones but rather on the growth plate, which is the structure responsible for height gain.

  17. Short and tall stature: a new paradigm emerges

    PubMed Central

    Baron, Jeffrey; Sävendahl, Lars; De Luca, Francesco; Dauber, Andrew; Phillip, Moshe; Wit, Jan M.; Nilsson, Ola

    2016-01-01

    In the past, the growth hormone (GH) – insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) axis was thought to be the central system regulating childhood growth and therefore responsible for short stature and tall stature. However, recent findings have revealed that the GH-IGF-I axis is just one of many regulatory systems that control chondrogenesis in the growth plate, the biological process that drives height gain. Consequently, normal growth in children depends not only on GH and IGF-I but on multiple hormones, paracrine factors, extracellular matrix molecules, and intracellular proteins that regulate growth plate chondrocytes. Mutations in genes encoding many of these local proteins cause short stature or tall stature. Similarly genome-wide association studies have revealed that the normal variation in height appears to be due largely to genes outside the GH-IGF-I axis that affect growth at the growth plate through a wide variety of mechanisms. These findings point to a new conceptual framework for understanding short and tall stature, which is centered not on two particular hormones but rather on the growth plate, the structure responsible for height gain. PMID:26437621

  18. Stabilization of metals in acidic mine spoil with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra L.) growth.

    PubMed

    Simon, László

    2005-12-01

    Stabilization of metals with amendments and red fescue (Festuca rubra, cv. Keszthelyi 2) growth was studied on an acidic and phytotoxic mine spoil (pH(KCl) 3.20-3.26; Cd 7.1 mg kg(-1), Cu 120 mg kg(-1), Pb 2154 mg kg(-1) and Zn 605 mg kg(-1)) from Gyöngyösoroszi, Hungary in a pot experiment. Raising the pH above 5.0 by lime (CaCO(3)), and supplementing with 40 mg kg(-1)nitrogen (NH(4)NO(3)) made this material suitable for plant growth. All cultures were limed with 0.5% (m/m) CaCO(3) (treatment 1), which was combined with 5% (m/m) municipal sewage sludge compost (treatment 2), 5% (m/m) peat (treatment 3), 7.5% (m/m) natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) (treatment 4), and 0.5 (m/m) KH(2)PO(4) (treatment 5). Treatments 1-5 were combined with each other (treatment 6). After 60 days of red fescue growth, pH of the limed mine spoil decreased in all cultures units. Application of peat caused the highest pH decrease (1.15), while decrease of pH was less than 0.23 in treatments 2, 5 or 6. Application of lime significantly reduced concentrations of metals in the 'plant available' fraction of mine spoil compared to non-limed mine spoil. Amendments added to limed mine spoil changed variously the ratio of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in exchangeable or 'plant available' fractions, differently influencing the phytoavailability of these metals. Most of the metals were captured in the roots of test plants. Treatment 2 caused the appearance of less Cd in shoots (<0.1 microg g(-1)) or roots (3.11 microg g(-1)), while treatment 5 resulted in the highest Cd concentration (2.13 microg g(-1)) in shoots. Treatments did not influence significantly the Cu accumulation in shoots. The Pb accumulation of roots (44.7 microg g(-1)) was most effectively inhibited by combined treatment, while the highest value (136 microg g(-1)) was found in the culture treated with potassium phosphate. Pb concentration in shoots was below the detection limit, except for treatments 5 and 6. Peat application resulted in higher

  19. Moisture conditions and the presence of bryophytes determine fescue species abundance in a dry calcareous grassland.

    PubMed

    Otsus, Merit; Zobel, Martin

    2004-01-01

    Festuca ovina is the abundant matrix-forming species and F. rubra a subordinate species in shallow-soil calcareous grasslands. F. pratensis is a transient species, occurring sparsely in this community. We hypothesised that the different abundances of these three species are primarily due to the differential effect of moisture conditions on their germination and early establishment, and that the effect of the pattern of rainfall intensity depends on the presence or absence of a bryophyte layer. We studied the dependence of the germination and establishment of the three fescue species on the moisture conditions both in the laboratory and in the patches of intact grassland community (microcosms). In a laboratory germination experiment, F. pratensis showed the highest, F. rubra, the intermediate and F. ovina, the lowest drought tolerance. In microcosms, the establishment of F. ovina was the highest. At the same time, the annual mortality of seedlings of F. ovina was the lowest. All three species responded positively to an increasing irrigation level. Differently from F. ovina, F. rubra showed a positive response only in plots from which the bryophyte layer had been removed, while F. pratensis responded positively to both irrigation and bryophyte removal. We conclude that moisture conditions have a differential effect on the three fescue species mainly in the seedling establishment, not in the germination phase. For the successful establishment of F. rubra and F. pratensis, the coincidence of high rainfall and local disturbance, removing bryophytes, is required. The presence or absence of bryophytes had no effect on establishment in dry years, while in rainy years the removal of bryophytes has a clear positive effect.

  20. Phytoparasitic Nematode Populations in Festuca arundinacea Field Plots in Southwestern Missouri

    PubMed Central

    O'Day, M. H.; Niblack, T. L.; Bailey, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    Field plots of tall rescue (Festuca arundinacea) at two locations on the same experimental farm in southwestern Missouri were sampled (one in 1987-88, the other in 1988-89) to inventory root-parasitic nematodes and to determine whether cultivars or endophyte (Acremonium coenophialum) infection frequencies (EIF) affected nematode population densities within single growing seasons. Plots were planted with seven tall rescue cultivars: Kentucky-31, Kenhy, Johnstone, Martin, Mozark, Missouri-96, and Forager. Kentucky-31 seed with high and low EIF were planted in separate plots. Plant-parasitic nematodes were extracted from soil samples, identified to genus, and enumerated four and three times per year for the 1987-1988 and 1988-1989 studies, respectively. Several plant-parasitic genera were identified from both fields, including Helicotylenchus, Heterodera, Hoplolaimus, Paratylenchus, Pratylenchus, Tylenchorhynchus, and members of genera grouped in the family Tylenchidae. Densities of five of these seven groups of nematodes differed among tall fescue cultivars in the 1987-88 study, but only two out of eight groups did so in the 1988-89 study. Irrespective of tall rescue cultivar, EIF had no consistent impact on nematode densities. The putative suppressive effect of endophyte infection on infection by plant-parasitic nematodes is not detectable within single growing seasons and deserves long-term study in field situations. PMID:19279861

  1. From the Lab Bench: Stocker production on tall fescue…It can be done!

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cattle production in the Fescue Belt, which overlays the transition zone between the temperate northeast and subtropical southeast, has been primarily cow-calf production. Other production systems, such as backgrounding post-weaned calves on pasture for the feedyard, commonly referred to as stocker...

  2. Heterosis and direct effects for Charolais-sired calf weight and growth, cow weight and weight change, and ratios of cow and calf weights and weight changes across warm season lactation in Romosinuano, Angus, and F cows in Arkansas.

    PubMed

    Riley, D G; Burke, J M; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W

    2016-01-01

    The use of Brahman in cow-calf production offers some adaptation to the harsh characteristics of endophyte-infected tall fescue. Criollo breeds, such as the Romosinuano, may have similar adaptation. The objectives were to estimate genetic effects in Romosinuano, Angus, and crossbred cows for their weights, weights of their calves, and ratios (calf weight:cow weight and cow weight change:calf weight gain) across lactation and to assess the influence of forage on traits and estimates. Cows ( = 91) were bred to Charolais bulls after their second parity. Calves ( = 214) were born from 2006 to 2009. Cows and calves were weighed in early (April and June), mid- (July), and late lactation (August and October). Animal was a random effect in analyses of calf data; sire was random in analyses of cow records and ratios. Fixed effects investigated included calf age, calf sex, cow age-year combinations, sire breed of cow, dam breed of cow, and interactions. Subsequent analyses evaluated the effect of forage grazed: endophyte-free or endophyte-infected tall fescue. Estimates of maternal heterosis for calf weight ranged from 9.3 ± 4.3 to 15.4 ± 5.7 kg from mid-lactation through weaning ( < 0.05). Romosinuano direct effects (of the cow) were -6.8 ± 3.0 and -8.9 ± 4.2 kg for weights recorded in April and June. Calf weights and weight gains from birth were greater ( < 0.05) for calves of cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue except in mid-summer. Cow weight change from April to each time was negative for Angus cows and lower ( < 0.05) than other groups. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue were heavier ( < 0.05) at all times but had more weight loss in late lactation. Angus cows had the lowest ( < 0.05) ratios (negative) of cow weight change:calf weight gain, indicating an energy-deficit condition. Cows grazing endophyte-free tall fescue had more negative ( < 0.05) values for this trait but not in early lactation ( < 0.05). Estimates of heterosis ranged from 12.8 ± 9.5 to

  3. High intensity, short duration rotational grazing on reclaimed cool season fescue/legume pastures: I. System development

    SciTech Connect

    Erickson, W.R.; Carlson, K.E.

    1995-09-01

    The Pittsburg & Midway Coal Mining Co.`s ({open_quotes}P&M{close_quotes}) Midway Mine lies 50 miles south of Kansas City, Kansas, straddling the border of Kansas and Missouri. P&M actively mined the area until 1989, when the mine was closed and reclaimed. Approximately 3,750 acres of surface mined land were topsoiled and revegetated to cool season fescue/legume pasture. Various pasture management methods are being utilized to meet reclamation success standards and achieve final bond release. The effectiveness and costs of various cool season fescue/legume pasture management methods are evaluated and contrasted. These methods include sharecropping, bush hogging, burning and livestock grazing. It presents guidelines used to develop a site specific rotational livestock grazing programs with land owners or contractors, and local, state and federal agencies. Rotational grazing uses both cow/calf or feeder livestock operations. Key managerial elements used to control grazing activities, either by the landowner or a contractor, are reviewed. Methods used to determine stocking levels for successful rotational grazing on this type of pasture are presented. Rotational grazing of livestock has proven to be the most effective method for managing established cool season fescue/legume pastures at this site. Initial stocking rates of 1 A.U.M. per 5 acres have been modified to a current stocking rate of 1 A.U.M. per 2.5 acres. Supporting physical and chemical data are presented and discussed.

  4. Validation of a housekeeping gene for use in bovine vascular gene expression studies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Exposure of ungulate vasculature to ergot alkaloids while grazing endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum)-infected tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) affects vasoactivity and causes vasoconstriction. Bovine vascular gene expression as affected by exposure to ergot alkaloids in tall fescue is largely un...

  5. Tall P waves associated with severe hypokalemia and combined electrolyte depletion.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Chiharu; Tamaru, Kosaku; Kuwahara, Hiroyasu

    2014-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman with anorexia nervosa showing tall P waves on electrocardiogram (ECG) was reported. Her ECG showed tall P waves (5.5mm in voltage, lead II) at 2.2mEq/L of serum potassium. After the treatment, P waves decreased in voltage with the normalization of serum potassium. Tall P waves may be considered to be the so-called pseudo-P pulmonale, and added to the criteria of hypokalemia on ECG.

  6. Tall oil fatty acid anhydrides as corrosion inhibitor intermediates

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, E.R.; Parker, J.E. III

    1995-12-01

    Electrochemical corrosion of carbon steel tubulars in producing oil wells causes lost production and necessitates costly repairs. Corrosive environments exists where hydrocarbons and an aqueous phase are being extracted from producing wells. Tubing life has been extended four fold with the development of organic corrosion inhibitors and concentric configuration treatment. Anhydrides derived from tall oil fatty acids offer enhanced corrosion inhibition properties as compared to traditional dimer/trimer acids. The chemistry of this intermediate and its use in corrosion inhibition for down hole applications, as well as the synthesis of novel oil and water-soluble derivatives will be discussed.

  7. Electromagnetic field radiation model for lightning strokes to tall structures

    SciTech Connect

    Motoyama, H.; Janischewskyj, W.; Hussein, A.M.; Chisholm, W.A.; Chang, J.S.; Rusan, R.

    1996-07-01

    This paper describes observation and analysis of electromagnetic field radiation from lightning strokes to tall structures. Electromagnetic field waveforms and current waveforms of lightning strokes to the CN Tower have been simultaneously measured since 1991. A new calculation model of electromagnetic field radiation is proposed. The proposed model consists of the lightning current propagation and distribution model and the electromagnetic field radiation model. Electromagnetic fields calculated by the proposed model, based on the observed lightning current at the CN Tower, agree well with the observed fields at 2km north of the tower.

  8. Ground motion issues for seismic analysis of tall buildings: A status report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bozorgnia, Y.; Campbell, K.W.; Luco, N.; Moehle, J.P.; Naeim, F.; Somerville, P.; Yang, T.Y.

    2007-01-01

    The Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) is coordinating a major multidisciplinary programme, the Tall Buildings Initiative (TBI), to address critical technical issues related to the design and analysis of new tall buildings located in coastal California. The authors of this paper, listed alphabetically, are involved in various research studies related to ground motion modelling, selection, modification and simulation for analysis of tall buildings. This paper summarizes the scope and progress of ongoing activities related to ground motion issues for response history analysis of tall buildings.

  9. Reconstructing householder vectors from Tall-Skinny QR

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; Jacquelin, Mathias; Knight, Nicholas; Nguyen, Hong Diep

    2015-08-05

    The Tall-Skinny QR (TSQR) algorithm is more communication efficient than the standard Householder algorithm for QR decomposition of matrices with many more rows than columns. However, TSQR produces a different representation of the orthogonal factor and therefore requires more software development to support the new representation. Further, implicitly applying the orthogonal factor to the trailing matrix in the context of factoring a square matrix is more complicated and costly than with the Householder representation. We show how to perform TSQR and then reconstruct the Householder vector representation with the same asymptotic communication efficiency and little extra computational cost. We demonstrate the high performance and numerical stability of this algorithm both theoretically and empirically. The new Householder reconstruction algorithm allows us to design more efficient parallel QR algorithms, with significantly lower latency cost compared to Householder QR and lower bandwidth and latency costs compared with Communication-Avoiding QR (CAQR) algorithm. Experiments on supercomputers demonstrate the benefits of the communication cost improvements: in particular, our experiments show substantial improvements over tuned library implementations for tall-and-skinny matrices. Furthermore, we also provide algorithmic improvements to the Householder QR and CAQR algorithms, and we investigate several alternatives to the Householder reconstruction algorithm that sacrifice guarantees on numerical stability in some cases in order to obtain higher performance.

  10. Reconstructing householder vectors from Tall-Skinny QR

    DOE PAGES

    Ballard, Grey Malone; Demmel, James; Grigori, Laura; ...

    2015-08-05

    The Tall-Skinny QR (TSQR) algorithm is more communication efficient than the standard Householder algorithm for QR decomposition of matrices with many more rows than columns. However, TSQR produces a different representation of the orthogonal factor and therefore requires more software development to support the new representation. Further, implicitly applying the orthogonal factor to the trailing matrix in the context of factoring a square matrix is more complicated and costly than with the Householder representation. We show how to perform TSQR and then reconstruct the Householder vector representation with the same asymptotic communication efficiency and little extra computational cost. We demonstratemore » the high performance and numerical stability of this algorithm both theoretically and empirically. The new Householder reconstruction algorithm allows us to design more efficient parallel QR algorithms, with significantly lower latency cost compared to Householder QR and lower bandwidth and latency costs compared with Communication-Avoiding QR (CAQR) algorithm. Experiments on supercomputers demonstrate the benefits of the communication cost improvements: in particular, our experiments show substantial improvements over tuned library implementations for tall-and-skinny matrices. Furthermore, we also provide algorithmic improvements to the Householder QR and CAQR algorithms, and we investigate several alternatives to the Householder reconstruction algorithm that sacrifice guarantees on numerical stability in some cases in order to obtain higher performance.« less

  11. Taking on the tall poles of autonomous robot navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenblum, Mark; Rajagopalan, Venkat; Steinbis, John; Haddon, John; Cannon, Paul

    2011-05-01

    The Holy Grail of autonomous ground robotics has been to make ground vehicles that behave like humans. Over the years, as a community, we have realized the difficulty of this task, and we have back pedaled from the initial Holy Grail and have constrained and narrowed the domains of operation in order to get robotic systems fielded. This has lead to phrases such as "operation in structured environments" and "open-and-rolling terrain" in the context of autonomous robot navigation. Unfortunately, constraining the problem in this way has only put off the inevitable, i.e., solving the myriad of difficult robotics problems that we identified as long ago as the 1980's on the Autonomous Land Vehicle Project and in most cases are still facing today. These "Tall Poles" have included but are not limited to navigation through complex terrain geometry, navigation through thick vegetation, the detection of geometry-less obstacles such as negative obstacles and thin obstacles, the ability to deal with diverse and dynamic environmental conditions, the ability to function in dynamic and cluttered environments alongside other humans, and any combination of the above. This paper is an overview of the progress we have made at Autonomous Systems over the last three years in trying to knock down some of the tall poles remaining in the field of autonomous ground robotics.

  12. Lightning initiation from a tall structure in the Basque Country

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, J.; Montanyà, J.; Maruri, M.; De la Vega, D.; Aranda, J. A.; Gaztelumendi, S.

    2012-11-01

    Lightning detection in the Spanish Basque Country is performed using the LF TOA, VHF interferometer and the VLF lightning detection technologies in which two independent networks are based, providing a better detection quality due to the combination of these different techniques. Total lightning activity related to the tall structure of the weather radar operated by the Basque Meteorology Agency (Euskalmet) is presented. The tall structure is a 50 m tower located on the top of Kapildui Mountain (at about 1169.48 m ASL). Remarkable electrical activity associated to this place has been witnessed in the last two years. Two particular flashes during November 30th 2009 caused damage to the weather radar. Two different lightning detection networks detected five and six cloud-to-ground strokes, respectively. Only nine VHF sources were detected in the first flash without any VLF detection classified as intracloud. But for the second flash non VHF source was detected and two detections were reported by the VLF system. In both cases some intracloud detections were reported before cloud-to-ground strokes and some others during the flash. This paper presents the study of a winter episode with a special impact in the tower, the research carried out for characterizing the lightning events and the measures taken in order to achieve a better protection mechanism for the radar site.

  13. A Qualitative Perspective of Tall College Women's Intrinsic Dynamics Relating to Height

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Hoffman, Sarah J.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Lee, Alisha D.; Vorobyov, Yelana

    2013-01-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews with 24 tall college females for the present phenomenological, qualitative research study. As tall females in our study described the impact of height on their self-perceptions, two over-arching key height-related outcomes emerged, each of which contained sub-components. First, participants described themselves as…

  14. 77 FR 16974 - Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012, Narragansett Bay, RI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-23

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Parts 100 RIN 1625-AA08 Special Local Regulations; Ocean State Tall Ships... of Narragansett Bay and Newport Harbor, Rhode Island, for the Ocean State Tall Ships Festival 2012. This action is necessary to provide for the safety of life and property on the navigable waters...

  15. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  16. A Qualitative Perspective of Tall College Women's Intrinsic Dynamics Relating to Height

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Hoffman, Sarah J.; Firmin, Ruth L.; Lee, Alisha D.; Vorobyov, Yelana

    2013-01-01

    We conducted in-depth interviews with 24 tall college females for the present phenomenological, qualitative research study. As tall females in our study described the impact of height on their self-perceptions, two over-arching key height-related outcomes emerged, each of which contained sub-components. First, participants described themselves as…

  17. Tall Poppies: Bullying Behaviors Faced by Australian High-Performance School-Age Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Maureen; Calder, Angela; Allen, Bill

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about Australian high-performance school-age athletes' experiences as victims of the tall poppy syndrome. Tall poppies are successful individuals bullied by those who are less successful in order to "normalize them." Nineteen current or previous national or international high-performance school-age athletes were…

  18. Isolation and culture of protoplasts from embryogenic suspension cultures of red fescue (Festuca rubva L.).

    PubMed

    Zaghmout, O M; Torello, W A

    1990-10-01

    Protoplasts were isolated from fast-growing embryogenic suspension cultures of red fescue cv. Dawson (Festuca rubra L.) without agitation. The enzyme isolation solution was highly efficient at releasing protoplasts of greater than 95% viability (5×10(6)-10(7) protoplasts per ml of packed cell volume). A three step procedure was followed for washing and transferring protoplasts from a solution high in inorganic salts to a medium containing glucose and sucrose. The addition of 30 mM sodium thiosulfate to the wash and culture media was found to be helpful in reducing the number of lysed protoplasts. Isolated protoplasts began to divide within 48-72 h when protoplasts were plated in agarose squares and surrounded by nurse cells (mixed nurse plating technique). Maximum colony formation (plating efficiency) was approximately 1%. Many of the colonies continued to grow and produced embryos when transferred to a medium consisting of half-strength MS salts, 4 mg/l 2,4-D, 3 g/l casein hydrolysate and 30 g/l sucrose. Upon transfer to hormone-free medium and exposure to light 16 h/day, many of the embryos germinated to produce green leaves and roots.

  19. Alternative fuel properties of tall oil fatty acid methyl ester-diesel fuel blends.

    PubMed

    Altiparmak, Duran; Keskin, Ali; Koca, Atilla; Gürü, Metin

    2007-01-01

    In this experimental work, tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends as alternative fuels for diesel engines were studied. Tall oil methyl ester was produced by reacting tall oil fatty acids with methyl alcohol under optimum conditions. The blends of tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel were tested in a direct injection diesel engine at full load condition. The effects of the new fuel blends on the engine performance and exhaust emission were tested. It was observed that the engine torque and power output with tall oil methyl ester-diesel fuel blends increased up to 6.1% and 5.9%, respectively. It was also seen that CO emissions decreased to 38.9% and NO(x) emissions increased up to 30% with the new fuel blends. The smoke opacity did not vary significantly.

  20. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: Diagnostic and therapeutic approach of tall stature.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, Edoarda Vasco de Albuquerque; Scalco, Renata C; Jorge, Alexander Augusto de Lima

    2017-03-08

    Tall stature is defined as a height of more than 2 standard deviations (SD) above average for same sex and age. Tall individuals are usually referred to endocrinologists so that hormonal disorders leading to abnormal growth are excluded. However, the majority of these patients have familial tall stature or constitutional advance of growth (generally associated with obesity), both of which are diagnoses of exclusion. It is necessary to have familiarity with a large number of rarer overgrowth syndromes, especially because some of them may have severe complications such as aortic aneurysm, thromboembolism and tumor predisposition and demand specific follow-up approaches. Additionally, endocrine disorders associated with tall stature have specific treatments and for this reason their recognition is mandatory. With this review, we intend to provide an up-to-date summary of the genetic conditions associated with overgrowth, to emphasize a practical diagnostic approach of patients with tall stature and to discuss the limitations of current growth interruption treatment options.

  1. Physical Limits to Leaf Size in Tall Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, Kaare H.; Zwieniecki, Maciej A.

    2013-01-01

    Leaf sizes in angiosperm trees vary by more than 3 orders of magnitude, from a few mm to over 1 m. This large morphological freedom is, however, only expressed in small trees, and the observed leaf size range declines with tree height, forming well-defined upper and lower boundaries. The vascular system of tall trees that distributes the products of photosynthesis connects distal parts of the plant and forms one of the largest known continuous microfluidic distribution networks. In biological systems, intrinsic properties of vascular systems are known to constrain the morphological freedom of the organism. We show that the limits to leaf size can be understood by physical constraints imposed by intrinsic properties of the carbohydrate transport network. The lower boundary is set by a minimum energy flux, and the upper boundary is set by a diminishing gain in transport efficiency.

  2. The watering of tall trees--embolization and recovery.

    PubMed

    Gouin, Henri

    2015-03-21

    We can propound a thermo-mechanical understanding of the ascent of sap to the top of tall trees thanks to a comparison between experiments associated with the cohesion-tension theory and the disjoining pressure concept for liquid thin-films. When a segment of xylem is tight-filled with crude sap, the liquid pressure can be negative although the pressure in embolized vessels remains positive. Examples are given that illustrate how embolized vessels can be refilled and why the ascent of sap is possible even in the tallest trees avoiding the problem due to cavitation. However, the maximum height of trees is limited by the stability domain of liquid thin-films.

  3. Tall oil as additive in gas drive hydrocarbon oil recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Djabbarah, N.F.

    1988-04-12

    A miscible displacement process for recovering oil from a subterranean, oil-containing formation penetrated by at least one injection well and at least one spaced-apart production well and having fluid communication between the injection and the production wells is described comprising: (a) injecting a slug of til oil into the formation through the injection well; (b) injecting a slug of a displacing fluid into the formation through the injection well, the displacing fluid being selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, methane, nitrogen, air, flue gas, combustion gas and mixtures thereof, the injection of the tall oil lowering the minimum miscibility pressure of the displacing fluid in the formation oil; and (c) recovering the oil through the production well.

  4. Belowground carbon trade among tall trees in a temperate forest.

    PubMed

    Klein, Tamir; Siegwolf, Rolf T W; Körner, Christian

    2016-04-15

    Forest trees compete for light and soil resources, but photoassimilates, once produced in the foliage, are not considered to be exchanged between individuals. Applying stable carbon isotope labeling at the canopy scale, we show that carbon assimilated by 40-meter-tall spruce is traded over to neighboring beech, larch, and pine via overlapping root spheres. Isotope mixing signals indicate that the interspecific, bidirectional transfer, assisted by common ectomycorrhiza networks, accounted for 40% of the fine root carbon (about 280 kilograms per hectare per year tree-to-tree transfer). Although competition for resources is commonly considered as the dominant tree-to-tree interaction in forests, trees may interact in more complex ways, including substantial carbon exchange. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Periodic orbits in tall laterally heated rectangular cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Net, Marta; Sánchez Umbría, Juan

    2017-02-01

    This study elucidates the origin of the multiplicity of stable oscillatory flows detected by time integration in tall rectangular cavities heated from the side. By using continuation techniques for periodic orbits, it is shown that initially unstable branches, arising at Hopf bifurcations of the basic steady flow, become stable after crossing Neimark-Sacker points. There are no saddle-node or pitchfork bifurcations of periodic orbits, which could have been alternative mechanisms of stabilization. According to the symmetries of the system, the orbits are either fixed cycles, which retain at any time the center symmetry of the steady flow, or symmetric cycles involving a time shift in the global invariance of the orbit. The bifurcation points along the branches of periodic flows are determined. By using time integrations, with unstable periodic solutions as initial conditions, we determine which of the bifurcations at the limits of the intervals of stable periodic orbits are sub- or supercritical.

  6. The predicted barrier effects in the proximity of tall buildings.

    PubMed

    Li, Kai Ming; Tang, Siu Hong

    2003-08-01

    A ray model is developed and validated for the prediction of the insertion loss of barriers that are placed in front of a tall building in high-rise cities. The model is based on the theory of geometrical acoustics for sound diffraction at the edge of a barrier and multiple reflections by the barrier and façade surfaces. It is crucial to include the diffraction and multiple reflection effects in the ray model, as they play important roles in determining the overall sound pressure levels for receivers located between the façade and barrier. Comparisons of the ray model with indoor experimental data and wave-based boundary element formulation show reasonably good agreement over a broad frequency range. Case studies are also presented that highlight the significance of positioning the barrier relative to the noise-sensitive receivers in order to achieve improved shielding efficiency of the barrier.

  7. Reducing stem bending increases the height growth of tall pines.

    PubMed

    Meng, Shawn X; Lieffers, Victor J; Reid, Douglas E B; Rudnicki, Mark; Silins, Uldis; Jin, Ming

    2006-01-01

    The hypothesis was tested that upper limits to height growth in trees are the result of the increasing bending moment of trees as they grow in height. The increasing bending moment of tall trees demands increased radial growth at the expense of height growth to maintain mechanical stability. In this study, the bending moment of large lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta Dougl. Ex Loud. var. latifolia Engelm.) was reduced by tethering trees at 10 m height to counter the wind load. Average bending moment of tethered trees was reduced to 38% of control trees. Six years of tethering resulted in a 40% increase in height growth relative to the period before tethering. By contrast, control trees showed decreased height growth in the period after tethering treatment. Average radial growth along the bole, relative to height growth, was reduced in tethered trees. This strongly suggests that mechanical constraints play a crucial role in limiting the height growth of tall trees. Analysis of bending moment and basal area increment at both 10 m and 1.3 m showed that the amount of wood added to the stem was closely related to the bending moment produced at these heights, in both control and tethered trees. The tethering treatment also resulted in an increase in the proportion of latewood at the tethering height, relative to 1.3 m height. For untethered control trees, the ratio of bending stresses at 10 m versus 1.3 m height was close to 1 in both 1998 and 2003, suggesting a uniform stress distribution along the outer surface of the bole.

  8. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions...

  9. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. The provisions...

  10. 40 CFR 454.40 - Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids subcategory. 454.40 Section 454.40 Protection of... WOOD CHEMICALS MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Tall Oil Rosin, Pitch and Fatty Acids Subcategory § 454.40 Applicability; description of manufacture of tall oil rosin, pitch and fatty acids...

  11. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  12. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  13. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10189 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde-phenol polymer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Substances § 721.10189 Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with (butoxymethyl) oxirane formaldehyde... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as fatty acids, tall-oil,...

  18. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  19. 40 CFR 721.10188 - Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction... Fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine (generic). (a... generically as fatty acids, tall-oil, reaction products with 4-methyl-2-pentanone and aliphatic polyamine...

  20. Expression of a novel chitinase by the fungal endophyte in Poa ampla.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaijun Michael; Sullivan, Ray; Moy, Melinda; Kobayashi, Donald Y; Belanger, Faith C

    2004-01-01

    Many wild and cultivated cool-season grass species are naturally infected with fungal endophytes of the genera Neotyphodium and Epichloë. These associations generally are considered mutualistic with the plants benefiting from reduced herbivory and the fungi benefiting from nutrients supplied by the plants. The fungi secrete proteins that might have a role in the interspecies symbiosis. In the interaction between Poa ampla Merr. and the endophyte Neotyphodium sp., a fungal chitinase was detected in the apoplastic protein fraction. The chitinase was also the major protein secreted in culture. Sequence analysis of the chitinase revealed it has a low level of amino acid sequence identity to other fungal chitinases and one of the conserved active site residues is altered. DNA gel-blot analysis indicated the chitinase was encoded by a single gene. Expression of similar chitinases also was detected in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra L. subsp. fallax [Thuill] Nyman). This is the first report of an endophyte chitinase expressed in the infected host grass. As a secreted hydrolytic enzyme, the chitinase might have roles in the nutrition, growth or defense of the endophyte.