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Sample records for endophytic fungus phomopsis

  1. Complete Genome Sequence of the Endophytic Fungus Diaporthe (Phomopsis) ampelina

    PubMed Central

    Bhargavi, S. D.; Praveen, V. K.

    2016-01-01

    Diaporthe ampelina was isolated as an endophytic fungus from the root of Commiphora wightii, a medicinal plant collected from Dhanvantri Vana, Bangalore University, Bangalore, India. The whole genome is 59 Mb, contains a total of 905 scaffolds, and has a G+C content of 51.74%. The genome sequence of D. ampelina shows a complete absence of lovastatin (an anticholesterol drug) gene cluster. PMID:27257198

  2. A new biphenyl derivative from the mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis longicolla HL-2232.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Bao; Chen, Guang-Ying; Liu, Rui-Jie; Zheng, Cai-Juan; Song, Xin-Ming; Han, Chang-Ri

    2017-03-13

    A new biphenyl derivative 5,5'-dimethoxybiphenyl-2,2'-diol (1), together with five known compounds (2-5), was isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis longicolla HL-2232. The structures of these compounds were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of 4 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction for the first time. The inhibitory activities of all compounds against two Vibrio bacteria were evaluated.

  3. Phomopsichin A–D; Four New Chromone Derivatives from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Phomopsis sp. 33#

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Meixiang; Li, Jing; Liu, Lan; Yin, Sheng; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yongcheng

    2016-01-01

    Four new chromone derivatives, phomopsichins A–D (1–4), along with a known compound, phomoxanthone A (5), were isolated from the fermentation products of mangrove endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. 33#. Their structures were elucidated based on comprehensive spectroscopic analysis coupled with single-crystal X-ray diffraction or theoretical calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD). They feature a tricyclic framework, in which a dihydropyran ring is fused with the chromone ring. Compounds 1–5 showed weak inhibitory activities on acetylcholinesterase as well as α-glucosidase, weak radical scavenging effects on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) as well as OH, and weak antimicrobial activities. Compounds 1–4 showed no cytotoxic activity against MDA-MB-435 breast cancer cells. Their other bioactivities are worthy of further study, considering their unique molecular structures. PMID:27879655

  4. Biodegradation of the phytoestrogen luteolin by the endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Zhang, Wei; Su, Chun-Lun; Zhu, Hong; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2015-06-01

    Phytoestrogens are plant-derived hormonally-active compounds known to cause varied reproductive, immunosuppressive and behavioral effects in vertebrates. In this study, biodegradation of luteolin, a common phytoestrogen, was investigated during incubation with endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari. The optimum concentration of luteolin as sole carbon source supplied in culture was 200 mg L(-1), which allowed 97 and 99 % degradation of luteolin by P. liquidambari in liquid culture and soil conditions, respectively. The investigation of the fungal metabolic pathway showed that luteolin was first decomposed to caffeic acid and phloroglucinol. These intermediate products were degraded to protocatechuic acid and hydroxyquinol, respectively, and then rings were opened by ring-cleavage dioxygenases. Two novel genes encoding the protocatechuate 3,4-dioxygenase and hydroxyquinol 1,2-dioxygenase were successfully cloned. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction demonstrated that expression levels of mRNA of these two genes increased significantly after P. liquidambari was induced by the intermediate products caffeic acid and phloroglucinol, respectively. These results revealed that P. liquidambari can biodegrade luteolin efficiently and could potentially be used to bioremediate phytoestrogen contamination.

  5. Endophytic Phomopsis species: host range and implications for diversity estimates.

    PubMed

    Murali, T S; Suryanarayanan, T S; Geeta, R

    2006-07-01

    Foliar endophyte assemblages of teak trees growing in dry deciduous and moist deciduous forests of Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve were compared. A species of Phomopsis dominated the endophyte assemblages of teak, irrespective of the location of the host trees. Internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis of 11 different Phomopsis isolates (ten from teak and one from Cassia fistula) showed that they fall into two groups, which are separated by a relatively long branch that is strongly supported. The results showed that this fungus is not host restricted and that it continues to survive as a saprotroph in teak leaf, possibly by exploiting senescent leaves as well as the litter. Although the endophyte assemblage of a teak tree growing about 500 km from the forests was also dominated by a Phomopsis sp., it separated into a different group based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis. Our results with an endophytic Phomopsis sp. reinforce the earlier conclusions reached by others for pathogenic Phomopsis sp., i.e., that this fungus is not host specific, and the species concept of Phomopsis needs to be redefined.

  6. Isolation, structure elucidation and biological activity of metabolites from Sch-642305-producing endophytic fungus Phomopsis sp. CMU-LMA.

    PubMed

    Adelin, Emilie; Servy, Claudine; Cortial, Sylvie; Lévaique, Hélène; Martin, Marie-Thérèse; Retailleau, Pascal; Le Goff, Géraldine; Bussaban, Boonsom; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2011-12-01

    Eight polyketide compounds were isolated from the cultivation broth of Phomopsis sp. CMU-LMA. We have recently described LMA-P1, a bicyclic 10-membered macrolide, obtained as a bioconversion derivative of Sch-642305, the major compound isolated in this study. Benquinol is the ethyl ester derivative of the 13-dihydroxytetradeca-2,4,8-trienoic acid produced by Valsa ambiens. This compound is concomitantly produced with the 6,13-dihydroxytetradeca-2,4,8-trienoic acid (DHTTA) previously isolated from Mycosphaerellarubella. The absolute configuration of the new compound, (2R,3R,4S,5R)-3-hydroxy-2,4-dimethyl-5-[(S,Z)-3-methylpentenyl]-tetrahydro-pyranone LMA-P2 was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The δ-lactone 2,3-dihydroxytetradecan-5-olide (DHTO) was previously isolated from Seiridium unicorne. This compound may form through the cyclization of the methyl-2,3,5-trihydroxytridecanoate LMA-P3, a new linear polyketide isolated in this study. Benquoine, a new 14-membered lactone generated from the cyclization of benquinol, is proposed as the key precursor for the biosynthesis of Sch-642305. Antimicrobial activity and cancer cell viability inhibition by the new compounds were investigated. Benquoine exhibits antimicrobial activity against Gram positive bacteria, and cytotoxicity against HCT-116 cancer cell line.

  7. Endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari and different doses of N-fertilizer alter microbial community structure and function in rhizosphere of rice

    PubMed Central

    Siddikee, Md. Ashaduzzaman; Zereen, Mst Israt; Li, Cai-Feng; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Microbial community structure and functions of rhizosphere soil of rice were investigated after applying low and high doses of nitrogenous fertilizer and Phomopsis liquidambari. Average well color development, substrate richness, catabolic diversity and soil enzymes activities varied after applying N-fertilizer and P. liquidambari and were greater in P. liquidambari treated soil than only N-fertilization. Multivariate analysis distinctly separated the catabolic and enzymes activity profile which statistically proved alteration of microbial functional diversity. Nitrogen fertilizer altered microbial community structure revealed by the increased content of total PLFAs, specific subgroup marker PLFAs except fungal PLFAs and by the decreased ratio of G+/G−, sat/monunsat, iso/anteiso, F/B except trans/cis while P. liquidambari inoculation enhanced N-fertilization effect except increased fungal PLFA and decreased trans/cis. PCA using identified marker PLFAs revealed definite discrimination among the treatments which further statistically confirmed structural changed of microbial community. Nitrogenase activity representative of N-fixing community decreased in N-fertilizer treatment while P. liquidambari inoculation increased. In short, application of P. liquidambari with low doses of N-fertilizer improved rice growth and reduced N-fertilizer requirement by increasing enzymes activities involved in C, N and P cycling, structural and functional diversity of microbes, nitrogenase activity involved in N2 fixation and accumulation of total-N. PMID:27596935

  8. Endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari and different doses of N-fertilizer alter microbial community structure and function in rhizosphere of rice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddikee, Md. Ashaduzzaman; Zereen, Mst Israt; Li, Cai-Feng; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-09-01

    Microbial community structure and functions of rhizosphere soil of rice were investigated after applying low and high doses of nitrogenous fertilizer and Phomopsis liquidambari. Average well color development, substrate richness, catabolic diversity and soil enzymes activities varied after applying N-fertilizer and P. liquidambari and were greater in P. liquidambari treated soil than only N-fertilization. Multivariate analysis distinctly separated the catabolic and enzymes activity profile which statistically proved alteration of microbial functional diversity. Nitrogen fertilizer altered microbial community structure revealed by the increased content of total PLFAs, specific subgroup marker PLFAs except fungal PLFAs and by the decreased ratio of G+/G‑, sat/monunsat, iso/anteiso, F/B except trans/cis while P. liquidambari inoculation enhanced N-fertilization effect except increased fungal PLFA and decreased trans/cis. PCA using identified marker PLFAs revealed definite discrimination among the treatments which further statistically confirmed structural changed of microbial community. Nitrogenase activity representative of N-fixing community decreased in N-fertilizer treatment while P. liquidambari inoculation increased. In short, application of P. liquidambari with low doses of N-fertilizer improved rice growth and reduced N-fertilizer requirement by increasing enzymes activities involved in C, N and P cycling, structural and functional diversity of microbes, nitrogenase activity involved in N2 fixation and accumulation of total-N.

  9. Fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari affects nitrogen transformation processes and related microorganisms in the rice rhizosphere

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Bo; Wang, Xiao-Mi; Ma, Hai-Yan; Yang, Teng; Jia, Yong; Zhou, Jun; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2015-01-01

    The endophytic fungus Phomopsis liquidambari performs an important ecosystem service by assisting its host with acquiring soil nitrogen (N), but little is known regarding how this fungus influences soil N nutrient properties and microbial communities. In this study, we investigated the impact of P. liquidambari on N dynamics, the abundance and composition of N cycling genes in rhizosphere soil treated with three levels of N (urea). Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and diazotrophs were assayed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis at four rice growing stages (S0: before planting, S1: tillering stage, S2: grain filling stage, and S3: ripening stage). A significant increase in the available nitrate and ammonium contents was found in the rhizosphere soil of endophyte-infected rice under low N conditions. Moreover, P. liquidambari significantly increased the potential nitrification rates, affected the abundance and community structure of AOA, AOB, and diazotrophs under low N conditions in the S1 and S2 stages. The root exudates were determined due to their important role in rhizosphere interactions. P. liquidambari colonization altered the exudation of organic compounds by rice roots and P. liquidambari increased the concentration of soluble saccharides, total free amino acids and organic acids in root exudates. Plant-soil feedback mechanisms may be mediated by the rice-endophyte interaction, especially in nutrient-limited soil. PMID:26441912

  10. Anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of fungus Phomopsis stipata

    PubMed Central

    de Prince, Karina Andrade; Sordi, Renata; Pavan, Fernando Rogério; Barreto Santos, Adolfo Carlos; Araujo, Angela R.; Leite, Sergio R.A.; Leite, Clarice Q. F.

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to determine the anti-Mycobacterium tuberculosis activity of the metabolites produced by the endophitic fungus Phomopsis stipata (Lib.) B. Sutton, (Diaporthaceae), cultivated in different media. The antimycobacterial activity was assessed through the Resazurin Microtiter Assay (REMA) and the cytotoxicity test performed on macrophage cell line. The extracts derived from fungi grown on Corn Medium and Potato Dextrose Broth presented the smallest values of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and low cytotoxicity, which implies a high selectivity index. This is the first report on the chemical composition and antitubercular activity of metabolites of P. stipata, as well as the influence of culture medium on these properties. PMID:24031821

  11. Improvement of nitrogen accumulation and metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) by the endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bo; Ma, Hai-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Mi; Jia, Yong; Hu, Jing; Li, Xia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2014-09-01

    The fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari can enhance nitrogen (N) uptake and metabolism of rice plants under hydroponic conditions. To investigate the effects of P. liquidambari on N accumulation and metabolism in rice (Oryza sativa L.) under field conditions during the entire growing season (S1, the seedling stage; S2, the tillering stage; S3, the heading stage; S4, the ripening stage), we utilized pot experiments to examine metabolic and physiological levels in both shoot and root tissues of rice, with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-), in response to three different N levels. We found that under low-N treatment, P. liquidambari symbiosis increased the rice yield and N use efficiency by 12% and by 11.59%, respectively; that the total N contents in E+ rice plants at the four growth stages were separately increased by 29.05%, 14.65%, 21.06% and 18.38%, respectively; and that the activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase in E+ rice roots and shoots were significantly increased by fungal infection during the S1 to S3 stages. Moreover, P. liquidambari significantly increased the free NH4(+), NO3(-), amino acid and soluble protein contents in infected rice tissues under low-N treatment during the S1 to S3 stages. The obtained results offer novel data concerning the systemic changes induced by P. liquidambari in rice during the entire growth period and confirm the hypothesis that the rice-P. liquidambari interaction improved the N accumulation and metabolism of rice plants, consequently increasing rice N utilization in nutrient-limited soil.

  12. Enhanced nodulation of peanut when co-inoculated with fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari and bradyrhizobium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xing-Xiang; Xie, Xing-Guang; Siddikee, Md Ashaduzzaman; Xu, Ri-Sheng; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    In peanut continuous cropping soil, the application of fungal endophyte Phomopsis liquidambari B3 showed peanut pod yield promotion and root nodule number increase. P. liquidambari improved soil environment by degrading allelochemicals and thus promoted peanut pod yield. Furthermore, peanut yield promotion is in part due to the root nodule increase since nodular nitrogen fixation provides the largest source of nitrogen for peanut. However, it is unknown whether this nodule number increase is induced by fungal endophyte. We therefore conducted several pot experiments using vermiculite to investigate the effects of P. liquidambari on peanut-bradyrhizobium nodulation. Our results showed that P. liquidambari co-inoculated with bradyrhizobium increased root nodule number and shoot accumulated nitrogen by 28.25% and 29.71%, respectively. Nodulation dynamics analysis showed that P. liquidambari accelerated nodule initiation and subsequent nodule development. Meanwhile, P. liquidambari was able to colonize the peanut root as an endophyte. The dynamics of P. liquidambari and bradyrhizobial root colonization analysis showed that P. liquidambari inoculation significantly increased the rate of bradyrhizobial colonization. Furthermore, P. liquidambari inoculation significantly increased flavonoids synthesis-related enzymes activities, two common types of flavonoid (luteolin and quercetin-peanut rhizobial nod gene inducer) secretion and lateral root (peanut rhizobial infection site) formation, indicating that P. liquidambari altered the peanut nodulation-related physiological and metabolic activities. These obtained results confirmed the direct contribution of P. liquidambari in enhancing peanut-bradyrhizobium interaction, nodulation and yield.

  13. Biotransformation of limonene by an endophytic fungus using synthetic and orange residue-based media.

    PubMed

    Bier, Mário Cesar Jucoski; Medeiros, Adriane Bianchi Pedroni; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2017-02-01

    Aroma and fragrances have high commercial value for use in food, cosmetics and perfumes. The biotransformation of terpenes by microorganisms represents an attractive alternative method for production of flavourings. Endophytic fungi offer a great potential for the production of several groups of compounds; however, few studies have evaluated the biotransformation of limonene. Following preliminary studies on the biotransformation of limonene, submerged fermentation was carried out using an endophytic fungus isolated from Pinus taeda and identified as Phomopsis sp. The presence of several biotransformation products was detected and identified by mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The studied strain showed a divergent metabolic behaviour, as compounds of interest such as α-terpineol, carvone, and limoneno-1,2-diol were produced under different conditions. In addition to the minor metabolites terpinen-4-ol, menthol and carveol, this strain also produced major metabolites, including 0.536 g L(-1) carvone and 2.08 g L(-1) limonene-1,2-diol in synthetic medium and 2.10 g L(-1) limonene-1,2-diol in a natural orange extract medium with single fed-batch, while the cyclic fed-batch resulted in concentrations less than 1 g L(-1). Therefore, our study produced a wide variety of limonene derivatives at a high concentration using a natural medium and a newly isolated endophytic fungal strain.

  14. Asterogynins: Secondary Metabolites from a Costa Rican Endophytic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    An endophytic fungus isolated from the small palm Asterogyne martiana produced two unusual steroid-like metabolites, asterogynin A (1) and asterogynin B (2), along with the known compounds viridiol (3) and viridin (4). Asterogynins A and B were characterized by NMR and MS spectroscopic analysis. PMID:20839869

  15. Hormonemate Derivatives from Dothiora sp., an Endophytic Fungus.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bonilla, Mercedes; González-Menéndez, Víctor; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; de Pedro, Nuria; Martín, Jesús; Molero-Mesa, Joaquín; Casares-Porcel, Manuel; González-Tejero, María Reyes; Vicente, Francisca; Genilloud, Olga; Tormo, José R; Reyes, Fernando

    2017-03-09

    A search for cytotoxic agents from cultures of the endophytic fungus Dothiora sp., isolated from the endemic plant Launaea arborescens, led to the isolation of six new compounds structurally related to hormonemate, with moderate cytotoxic activity against different cancer cell lines. By using a bioassay-guided fractionation approach, hormonemates A-D (1-4), hormonemate (5), and hormonemates E (6) and F (7) were obtained from the acetone extract of this fungus. Their structures were determined using a combination of HRMS, ESI-qTOF-MS/MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and chemical degradation. The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated by microdilution colorimetric assays against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human liver cancer cells (HepG2), and pancreatic cancer cells (MiaPaca_2). Most of the compounds displayed cytotoxic activity against this panel.

  16. Volatile antimicrobials from Muscodor crispans, a novel endophytic fungus.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Angela M; Strobel, Gary A; Moore, Emily; Robison, Richard; Sears, Joe

    2010-01-01

    Muscodor crispans is a recently described novel endophytic fungus of Ananas ananassoides (wild pineapple) growing in the Bolivian Amazon Basin. The fungus produces a mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs); some of the major components of this mixture, as determined by GC/MS, are propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-; 1-butanol, 3-methyl-;1-butanol, 3-methyl-, acetate; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, 2-methylbutyl ester; and ethanol. The fungus does not, however, produce naphthalene or azulene derivatives as has been observed with many other members of the genus Muscodor. The mixture of VOCs produced by M. crispans cultures possesses antibiotic properties, as does an artificial mixture of a majority of the components. The VOCs of the fungus are effective against a wide range of plant pathogens, including the fungi Pythium ultimum, Phytophthora cinnamomi, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Mycosphaerella fijiensis (the black sigatoka pathogen of bananas), and the serious bacterial pathogen of citrus, Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri. In addition, the VOCs of M. crispans killed several human pathogens, including Yersinia pestis, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Staphylococcus aureus. Artificial mixtures of the fungal VOCs were both inhibitory and lethal to a number of human and plant pathogens, including three drug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The gaseous products of Muscodor crispans potentially could prove to be beneficial in the fields of medicine, agriculture, and industry.

  17. A new cytotoxic cytochalasin from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huiqin; Daletos, Georgios; Okoye, Festus; Lai, Daowan; Dai, Haofu; Proksch, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The new natural product 4]-hydroxy-deacetyl-18-deoxycytochalasin H (1), together with the known deacetyl-18-deoxycytochalasin H (2) and 18-deoxycytochalasin H (3) were obtained from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma harzianum isolated from leaves of Cola nitida. The structure of the new compound was unambiguously determined by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, and by HRESIMS measurements, as well as by comparison with the literature. Compounds 1-3 showed potent cytotoxic activity against the murine lymphoma (L5178Y) cell line and against human ovarian cancer (A2780 sens and A2780 CisR) cell lines (IC50 0.19-6.97 µM). The A2780 cell lines included cisplatin-sensitive (sens) and -resistant (R) cells.

  18. An extracellular glucoamylase produced by endophytic fungus EF6.

    PubMed

    Tangngamsakul, P; Karnchanatat, A; Sihanonth, P; Sangvanich, P

    2011-01-01

    A strain of endophytic fungus EF6 isolated from Thai medicinal plants was found to produce higher levels of extracellular glucoamylase. This strain produced glucoamylase of culture filtrate when grown on 1% soluble starch. The enzyme was purified and characterized. Purification steps involved (NH4)2SO4 precipitation, anion exchange, and gel filtration chromatography. Final purification fold was 14.49 and the yield obtained was 9.15%. The enzyme is monomeric with a molecular mass of 62.2 kDa as estimated by SDS-PAGE, and with a molecular mass of 62.031 kDa estimated by MALDI-TOF spectrometry. The temperature for maximum activity was 60 degrees C. After 30 min for incubation, glucoamylase was found to be stable lower than 50 degrees C. The activity decrease rapidly when residual activity was retained about 45% at 55 degrees C. The pH optimum of the enzyme activity was 6.0, and it was stable over a pH range of 4.0-7.0 at 50 degrees C. The activity of glucoamylase was stimulated by Ca2+, Co2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, glycerol, DMSO, DTT and EDTA, and strongly inhibited by Hg2+. Various types of starch were test, soluble starch proved to be the best substrate for digestion process. The enzyme catalyzes the hydrolysis of soluble starch and maltose as the substrate, the enzyme had Km values of 2.63, and 1.88 mg/ml and Vmax, values of 1.25, and 2.54 U/min/mg protein, and Vmax/Km values of 0.48 and 1.35, respectively. The internal amino acid sequences of endophytic fungus EF6 glucoamylase; RALAN HKQVV DSFRS have similarity to the sequence of the glucoamylase purified form Thermomyces lanuginosus. From all results indicated that this enzyme is a glucoamylase (1,4-alpha-D-glucan glucanohydrolase).

  19. Nigrosphaerin A., a new isachromene derivative from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sphaerica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nigrosphaerin A, a new isochromene derivative (1) was isolated from the endophytic fungus Nigrospora sphaerica and chemically identified as 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-4,6,8-trihydroxy-1H-isochromen-1-one-6-O-ß-D- glucopyranoside. In addition nineteen known compounds (2-20) isolated from the same fungus...

  20. Biological activities of ophiobolin K and 6-epi-ophiobolin K produced by the endophytic fungus Aspergillus calidoustus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The endophytic fungus, Aspergillus calidoustus, was isolated from the plant species Acanthospermum australe (Asteraceae). A dichloromethane extract of the fungus displayed antifungal, antiprotozoal, and cytotoxic activities. Aspergillus calidoustus was identified using molecular, physiological and m...

  1. Induced production of mycotoxins in an endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jieyin; Awakawa, Takayoshi; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Abe, Ikuro

    2012-10-15

    Epigenetic modifiers, including DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) or histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, are useful to induce the expression of otherwise dormant biosynthetic genes under standard laboratory conditions. We isolated several endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant Datura stramonium L., which produces pharmaceutically important tropane alkaloids, including scopolamine and hyoscyamine. Although none of the endophytic fungi produced the tropane alkaloids, supplementation of a DNMT inhibitor, 5-azacytidine, and/or a HDAC inhibitor, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, to the culture medium induced the production of mycotoxins, including alternariol, alternariol-5-O-methyl ether, 3'-hydroxyalternariol-5-O-methyl ether, altenusin, tenuazonic acid, and altertoxin II, by the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. This is the first report of a mycotoxin-producing endophytic fungus from the medicinal plant D. stramonium L. This work demonstrates that treatments with epigenetic modifiers induce the production of mycotoxins, thus providing a useful tool to explore the biosynthetic potential of the microorganisms.

  2. A novel sesquiterpene alcohol from Fimetariella rabenhorstii, an endophytic fungus of Aquilaria sinensis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Mei-Hua; Yan, Jian; Wei, Xiao-Yi; Li, Dong-Li; Zhang, Wei-Min; Tan, Jian-Wen

    2011-06-01

    A novel sesquiterpene alcohol, named frabenol (1), was isolated from liquid cultures of Fimetariella rabenhorstii A20, an endophytic fungus of the agarwood-forming plant Aquilaria sinensis (Lour.) Gilg. The structure of the new compound was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. The finding of a sesquiterpenoid compound in F. rabenhorstii A20 implied that endophytic fungi of agarwood-producing plants could also contribute to the generation of fragrant chemicals during the agarwood formation processes.

  3. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds from Muscodor yucatanensis, an endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscodor yucatanensis, a recently described endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba. In the present study we tested in vitro the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) produced by M. yucatanensis for the allelochemical effects against phytopathogenic fungi and fungo...

  4. Metabolites from the endophytic fungus Sporormiella minimoides isolated from Hintonia latiflora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An extract of the solid cultures of Sporormiella minimoides (Sporormiaceae) isolated as an endophytic fungus from Hintonia latiflora (Rubiaceae), yielded three polyketides, 3,6-dimethoxy-8-methyl-1H,6H-benzo[de]isochromene-1,9-dione, 3-hydroxy-1,6,10-trimethoxy-8-methyl-1H,3H-benzo[de]isochromen-9-o...

  5. Antileukemic alpha-pyrone derivatives from the endophytic fungus Alternaria phragmospora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new (1–4) and two known (5 and 6)a-pyrone derivatives have been isolated from Alternaria phragmospora, an endophytic fungus from Vinca rosea, leaves. The isolated compounds were chemically identi'ed to be 5-butyl-4-methoxy-6-methyl-2H-pyran-2-one (2) 5-butyl-6-(hydroxymethyl)-4-methoxy-2H-py...

  6. (+)-Ascosalitoxin and vermelhotin, a calmodulin inhibitor, from an endophytic fungus isolated from Hintonia latiflora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus 39140-2, isolated from the medicinal plant Hintonia latiflora, yielded the known polyketide vermelhotin (1) and a new salycilic aldehyde derivative, namely 9S,11R-(+)-ascosalitoxin (2). The structure and absolute configuration of the new compound was ...

  7. Naphthoquinone spiroketal with allelochemical activity from the new endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided isolation from the culture of Edenia gomezpompae, a new endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Callicarpa acuminata (Verbenaceae) from the ecological reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico, led to the isolation of four naphthoquinone spiroketals, including three new compounds. ...

  8. Phoma glomerata D14: An Endophytic Fungus from Salvia miltiorrhiza That Produces Salvianolic Acid C.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiuqing; Zhai, Xin; Shu, Zhiheng; Dong, Ruifang; Ming, Qianliang; Qin, Luping; Zheng, Chengjian

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, more and more researches focus on endophytic fungi derived from important medicinal plants, which can produce the same bioactive metabolites as their host plants. Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge is a traditional medicinal plant with versatile pharmacological effects. But the wild plant resource has been in short supply due to the overcollection for bioactive metabolites. Our study was therefore conducted to isolate endophytic fungi from S. miltiorrhiza and get candidate strains that produce the same bioactive compounds as the plant. As a result, an endophyte that produces salvianolic acid C was obtained and identified as Phoma glomerata D14 based on its morphology and internal transcribed spacer analysis. Salvianolic acid C was found present in both the mycelia and fermentation broth. Our study indicates that the endophytic fungus has significant industrial potential to meet the pharmaceutical demands for salvianolic acid C in a cost-effective, easily accessible, and reproducible way.

  9. Antifungal Depsidone Metabolites from Cordyceps dipterigena, an Endophytic Fungus Antagonistic to the Phytopathogen Gibberella fujikuroi

    PubMed Central

    Varughese, Titto; Riosa, Nivia; Higginbotham, Sarah; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Gerwick, William H.; Cubilla Rios, L.

    2012-01-01

    Among thirty four endophytic fungal strains screened for in vitro antagonism, the endophytic fungus Cordyceps dipterigena was found to strongly inhibit mycelial growth of the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. Two new depsidone metabolites, cordycepsidone A (1) and cordycepsidone B (2), were isolated from the PDA culture extract of C. dipterigena and identified as being responsible for the antifungal activity. Elucidation of their chemical structures was carried out using 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy in combination with IR and MS spectroscopic data. Cordycepsidone A displayed strong and dose-dependent antifungal activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Gibberella fujikuroi. The isolates were inactive in bioassays for malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani), Chagas’s disease (Trypanosoma cruzi), and cytotoxicity at 10 μg/mL. The compounds were also found to be inactive against several bacterial strains at 50 μg/mL. PMID:22707798

  10. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AN ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS PRODUCING PACLITAXEL FROM TAXUS WALLICHIANA VAR MAIREI.

    PubMed

    Zaiyou, Jian; Hongsheng, Wang; Ning, Wang; Li, Meng; Guifang, Xu

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate endophytic fungi producing paclitaxel from yew for the purpose of paclitaxel manufacture. Surface sterilized bark of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei was used as source material and potato dextrose agar culture medium was used in isolation of endophytic fungi. Fungal cultures were extracted with a mixture of chloroform / methanol (1:1, v/v) and the paclitaxel in the extracts was determined and authenticated with LC-MS. An endophytic fungus that produced paclitaxel was identified by ITS rDNA and 26S D1/D2 rDNA sequencing. The results showed that a total of 435 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from T. wallichiana var. mairei and purified. Only one of these strains produced paclitaxel and it belongs to Fusarium. The paclitaxel productivity in whole PDB culture and that in spent culture medium from this strain is 0.0153 mg/L and 0.0119 mg/L respectively. The paclitaxel content in dry mycelium is 0.27 mg/kg. This isolated endophytic fungus produced paclitaxel at a considerable level and shows potentiality as a producing strain for paclitaxel manufacture after strain improvement.

  11. Characterization of secondary metabolites of an endophytic fungus from Curcuma wenyujin.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jvfen; Qi, Ningbo; Wang, Suping; Gadhave, Kiran; Yang, Shulin

    2014-11-01

    Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous in the plant kingdom and they produce a variety of secondary metabolites to protect plant communities and to show some potential for human use. However, secondary metabolites produced by endophytic fungi in the medicinal plant Curcuma wenyujin are sparsely explored and characterized. The aim of this study was to characterize the secondary metabolites of an active endophytic fungus. M7226, the mutant counterpart of endophytic fungus EZG0807 previously isolated from the root of C. wenyujin, was as a target strain. After fermentation, the secondary metabolites were purified using a series of purification methods including thin layer chromatography, column chromatography with silica, ODS-C18, Sephadex LH-20, and macroporous resin, and were analyzed using multiple pieces of data (UV, IR, MS, and NMR). Five compounds were isolated and identified as curcumin, cinnamic acid, 1,4-dihydroxyanthraquinone, gibberellic acid, and kaempferol. Interestingly, curcumin, one of the main active ingredients of C. wenyujin, was isolated as a secondary metabolite from a fungal endophyte for the first time.

  12. Gymnemagenin-producing endophytic fungus isolated from a medicinal plant Gymnema sylvestre R.Br.

    PubMed

    Parthasarathy, Ramalingam; Sathiyabama, Muthukrishnan

    2014-03-01

    Gymnema sylvestre is a plant containing the triterpenoid gymnemagenin, which is used in the pharmaceutical industry as an antidiabetic agent. The objective of this study was to determine whether endophytic fungi, isolated from G. sylvestre, produce gymnemagenin. We isolated an endophytic fungal strain from the leaves of G. sylvestre which produces gymnemagenin in the medium. The fungus was identified as Penicillium oxalicum based on morphological and molecular methods. The strain had a component with the same TLC Rf value and HPLC retention time as authentic gymnemagenin. The presence of gymnemagenin was further confirmed by FTIR, UV, and (1)H NMR analyses.

  13. Chemical characterization of bioactive compounds from the endophytic fungus Diaporthe helianthi isolated from Luehea divaricata

    PubMed Central

    Specian, Vânia; Sarragiotto, Maria Helena; Pamphile, João Alencar; Clemente, Edmar

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms, defined as fungi or bacteria that colonize the interior of plants without causing any immediate negative effects or damages, have reciprocal relationships with host plants. In some cases their presence is beneficial to the host due to the synthesis of bioactive compounds, among which several alcohols, esters, ketones and others that may react with other compounds and may be lethal to pathogenic microorganisms. Diaporthe helianthi (Phomopsis helianthi in its anamorphic phase) is available worldwide, especially in Europe, Asia and America. Isolated in Europe as an agent of the sunflower stem cancer, it has also been endophytically isolated from tropical and temperate plants. A D. helianthi strain isolated from Luehea divaricata has been employed in current research. An investigation of the secondary metabolite from D. helianthi by CC and NMR of 1H and 13C yielded the separation of 10 fractions and the identification of the phenolic compound 2(-4 hydroxyphenyl)-ethanol (Tyrosol). Its antimicrobial reaction was tested and the ensuing antagonistic effects on the human pathogenic bacteria Enterococcus hirae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus, phytopathogenic Xanthomonas asc. phaseoli and phytopathogenic fungi were demonstrated. Results show that bioactive compounds and Tyrosol produced by D. helianthi have a biotechnological potential. PMID:24031942

  14. Lethality of cytochalasin B and other compounds isolated from fungus Aspergillus sp. (Trichocomaceae) endophyte of Bauhinia guianensis (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Feitosa, André de O; Dias, Amanda Cristina S; Ramos, Gisele da C; Bitencourt, Heriberto R; Siqueira, José Edson S; Marinho, Patrícia Santana B; Barison, Andersson; Ocampos, Fernanda M M; Marinho, Andrey Moacir do R

    Endophytic fungi are fungi that colonize internal tissues of plants; several biologically active compounds have been isolated from these fungi. There are few studies of compounds isolated from endophytic fungi of Amazon plants. Thus, this study aimed the isolation and structural identification of ergosterol (1), ergosterol peroxide (2), mevalonolactone (3), cytochalasin B (4) and cytochalasin H (5) from Aspergillus sp. EJC 04, an endophytic fungus from Bauhinia guianensis. The cytochalasin B (4) and the diacetate derivative of cytochalasin B (4a) showed high lethality in the brine shrimp assay. This is the first occurrence of cytochalasins in Amazonian endophytic fungi from B. guianensis.

  15. Carbon translocation from a plant to an insect-pathogenic endophytic fungus.

    PubMed

    Behie, Scott W; Moreira, Camila C; Sementchoukova, Irina; Barelli, Larissa; Zelisko, Paul M; Bidochka, Michael J

    2017-01-18

    Metarhizium robertsii is a common soil fungus that occupies a specialized ecological niche as an endophyte and an insect pathogen. Previously, we showed that the endophytic capability and insect pathogenicity of Metarhizium are coupled to provide an active method of insect-derived nitrogen transfer to a host plant via fungal mycelia. We speculated that in exchange for this insect-derived nitrogen, the plant would provide photosynthate to the fungus. By using (13)CO2, we show the incorporation of (13)C into photosynthate and the subsequent translocation of (13)C into fungal-specific carbohydrates (trehalose and chitin) in the root/endophyte complex. We determined the amount of (13)C present in root-associated fungal biomass over a 21-day period by extracting fungal carbohydrates and analysing their composition using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These findings are evidence that the host plant is providing photosynthate to the fungus, likely in exchange for insect-derived nitrogen in a tripartite, and symbiotic, interaction.

  16. Carbon translocation from a plant to an insect-pathogenic endophytic fungus

    PubMed Central

    Behie, Scott W.; Moreira, Camila C.; Sementchoukova, Irina; Barelli, Larissa; Zelisko, Paul M.; Bidochka, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Metarhizium robertsii is a common soil fungus that occupies a specialized ecological niche as an endophyte and an insect pathogen. Previously, we showed that the endophytic capability and insect pathogenicity of Metarhizium are coupled to provide an active method of insect-derived nitrogen transfer to a host plant via fungal mycelia. We speculated that in exchange for this insect-derived nitrogen, the plant would provide photosynthate to the fungus. By using 13CO2, we show the incorporation of 13C into photosynthate and the subsequent translocation of 13C into fungal-specific carbohydrates (trehalose and chitin) in the root/endophyte complex. We determined the amount of 13C present in root-associated fungal biomass over a 21-day period by extracting fungal carbohydrates and analysing their composition using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. These findings are evidence that the host plant is providing photosynthate to the fungus, likely in exchange for insect-derived nitrogen in a tripartite, and symbiotic, interaction. PMID:28098142

  17. A Bilobalide-Producing Endophytic Fungus, Pestalotiopsis uvicola from Medicinal Plant Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yi-Xin; Kang, Ji-Chuan; Luo, Yi-Kai; Zhao, Jun-Jie; He, Jun; Geng, Kun

    2016-08-01

    For screening bilobalide (BB)-producing endophytic fungi from medicinal plant Ginkgo biloba, a total of 57 fungal isolates were isolated from the internal stem, root, leaf, and bark of the plant G. biloba. Fermentation processes using BB-producing fungi other than G. biloba may become a novel way to produce BB, which is a terpene trilactones exhibiting neuroprotective effects. In this study, a BB-producing endophytic fungal strain GZUYX13 was isolated from the leaves of G. biloba grown in the campus of Guizhou University, Guiyang city, Guizhou province, China. The strain produced BB when grown in potato dextrose liquid medium. The amount of BB produced by this endophytic fungus was quantified to be 106 μg/L via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), substantially lower than that produced by the host tissue. The fungal BB which was analyzed by thin layer chromatography (TLC) and HPLC was proven to be identical to authentic BB. The strain GZUYX13 was identified as Pestalotiopsis uvicola via morphology and ITS rDNA phylogeny. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report concerning the isolation and identification of endophytic BB-producing Pestalotiopsis spp. from the host plant, which further proved that endophytic fungi have the potential to produce bioactive compounds.

  18. Hexacyclopeptides secreted by an endophytic fungus Fusarium solani N06 act as crosstalk molecules in Narcissus tazetta.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen-Xuan; Kusari, Souvik; Sezgin, Selahaddin; Lamshöft, Marc; Kusari, Parijat; Kayser, Oliver; Spiteller, Michael

    2015-09-01

    The basis of chemical crosstalk in plants and associated endophytes lies in certain so-called communication molecules that are responsible for plant-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. Consequently, elucidating the factors that affect the nature, distribution, and amount of these molecules and how they impact the interaction among endophytes and associated organisms is essential to understand the true potential of endophytes. In the present study, we report the discovery of nine hexacyclopeptides from an endophytic fungus, Fusarium solani, isolated from the bulb of Narcissus tazetta, and their selective accumulation by an endophytic bacterium, Achromobacter xylosoxidans isolated from the same tissue. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging high-resolution mass spectrometry (MALDI-imaging-HRMS) to firstly identify and visualize the spatial distribution of the hexacyclopeptides produced by endophytic F. solani. After culture condition optimization, their sequence was identified to be cyclo((Hyp or Dhp)-Xle-Xle-(Ala or Val)-Thr-Xle) (Dhp: dehydroproline) by the characteristic a, b, or y ions using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS(n)). These hexacyclopeptides were confirmed to be fungal biosynthetic products by deuterium labeling experiments. Finally, in order to understand the plausible ecological relevance of one or more of the discovered hexacyclopeptides within the contexts of microbial "neighbor communication," we devised a dual-culture setup to visualize using MALDI-imaging-HRMS how the hexacyclopeptides released by the endophytic fungus are accumulated by another endophytic bacterium, A. xylosoxidans, isolated from the same bulb tissue. This work exemplifies the relevance of cyclopeptides in endophyte-endophyte interspecies neighbor communication occurring in nature. Such communication strategies are evolved by coexisting endophytes to survive and function in their distinct ecological niches.

  19. Antifungal activity of metabolites of the endophytic fungus Trichoderma brevicompactum from garlic

    PubMed Central

    Shentu, Xuping; Zhan, Xiaohuan; Ma, Zheng; Yu, Xiaoping; Zhang, Chuanxi

    2014-01-01

    The endophytic fungus strain 0248, isolated from garlic, was identified as Trichoderma brevicompactum based on morphological characteristics and the nucleotide sequences of ITS1-5.8S- ITS2 and tef1. The bioactive compound T2 was isolated from the culture extracts of this fungus by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 4β-acetoxy-12,13- epoxy-Δ9-trichothecene (trichodermin) by spectral analysis and mass spectrometry. Trichodermin has a marked inhibitory activity on Rhizoctonia solani, with an EC50 of 0.25 μgmL−1. Strong inhibition by trichodermin was also found for Botrytis cinerea, with an EC50 of 2.02 μgmL−1. However, a relatively poor inhibitory effect was observed for trichodermin against Colletotrichum lindemuthianum (EC50 = 25.60 μgmL−1). Compared with the positive control Carbendazim, trichodermin showed a strong antifungal activity on the above phytopathogens. There is little known about endophytes from garlic. This paper studied in detail the identification of endophytic T. brevicompactum from garlic and the characterization of its active metabolite trichodermin. PMID:24948941

  20. Piperine production by endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from Piper nigrum.

    PubMed

    Chithra, S; Jasim, B; Sachidanandan, P; Jyothis, M; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2014-03-15

    Many endophytic fungi have been reported with the biosynthetic potential to produce same or similar metabolites present in host plants. The adaptations that might have acquired by these fungi as a result of the long-term association with their host plants can be the possible basis of their biosynthetic potential. The bioactive compounds originated from endophytes are currently explored for their potential applications in pharmaceutical, agriculture and food industries. Piper nigrum, a plant of the Piperaceae is very remarkable because of the presence of the alkaloid piperine. Piperine has been reported to have broad bioactive properties ranging from antimicrobial, antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative to anticancer activities. Interestingly, piperine also plays a vital role in increasing the bioavailability of many drugs which again is a promising property. The current study was carried out to identify piperine producing endophytic fungus from Piper nigrum L. By screening various endophytic fungi, the isolate which was identified as member of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides was found to have the ability to form piperine and was confirmed by HPLC and LCMS. Considering the broad bioactive potential of piperine, the piperine producing fungi identified in the study can expect to have much industrial potential.

  1. High expression level of antioxidants and pharmaceutical bioactivities of endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum JN711454.

    PubMed

    Selim, Khaled A; El-Beih, Ahmed A; Abdel-Rahman, Tahany M; El-Diwany, Ahmed I

    2016-01-01

    In order to maximize antioxidant activity of pharmaceutical bioactive endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum JN711454 during fermentation process, designed fermentation experiments of culture media for three levels of eight culture factors were performed using a Taguchi orthogonal array (OA) design with layout L18 (2(1) × 3(7)). The agitation and the potato extract were the most significant affecting factors, and their interaction contributed significantly to fungus activity. The production of antioxidants was more favorable for static condition with 25 g potato extract/100 m. The remaining factors had no strong impact when considered individually. The validation of statistically optimized medium indicated the improvement of antioxidant activity to a level of twofold with approximately overall 40% enhancement in activity. The extract of optimized medium was investigated for various pharmaceutical bioactivities; it revealed a moderate antimicrobial activity, strong anticancer activity against HepG-2, UACC62 cell lines, an antiviral activity against HSV-2 virus, and strong inhibitory activity to butyrylcholinesterase enzyme, one of the neurohydrolase enzymes that play a major role in development of Alzheimer's disease. As a result of applying statistical fermentation designs, the optimized conditions of endophytic fungus C. globosum JN711454 developed a cost-effective production medium by using inexpensive commercial potato extracts statically, which can lower the energy requirement and could become an efficient, economic, and viable fermentation process for production of pharmaceutical secondary metabolites.

  2. Polyketides with Immunosuppressive Activities from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium sp. ZJ-SY2

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hongju; Chen, Senhua; Liu, Weiyang; Liu, Yayue; Huang, Xishan; She, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Nine polyketides, including two new benzophenone derivatives, peniphenone (1) and methyl peniphenone (2), along with seven known xanthones (3–9) were obtained from mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium sp. ZJ-SY2 isolated from the leaves of Sonneratia apetala. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of MS, 1D, and 2D NMR data. Compounds 1, 3, 5, and 7 showed potent immunosuppressive activity with IC50 values ranging from 5.9 to 9.3 μg/mL. PMID:27897975

  3. Bioactive metabolites produced by Chaetomium globosum, an endophytic fungus isolated from Ginkgo biloba.

    PubMed

    Qin, Jian-Chun; Zhang, Ya-Mei; Gao, Jin-Ming; Bai, Ming-Sheng; Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Laatsch, Hartmut; Zhang, An-Ling

    2009-03-15

    A novel cytotoxic chlorinated azaphilone derivative named chaetomugilin D (1), together with three known metabolites, chaetomugilin A (2), chaetoglobosins A (3) and C (4), has been isolated by a bioassay-guided fractionation from the EtOAc extract of the cultures of Chaetomium globosum, an endophytic fungus found in the leaves of Ginkgo biloba. Structure of 1 was established by analyses of spectroscopic methods, including 2D-NMR experiments (COSY, NOESY, HMQC, and HMBC). Compounds 1-4 displayed significant growth inhibitory activity against the brine shrimp (Artemia salina) and Mucor miehei.

  4. Pestalofones A-E, bioactive cyclohexanone derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ling; Liu, Shuchun; Chen, Xulin; Guo, Liangdong; Che, Yongsheng

    2009-01-15

    Pestalofones A-E (1-5), five new cyclohexanone derivatives, have been isolated from cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici, along with the known compounds, isosulochrin (6), isosulochrin dehydrate (7), and iso-A82775C (8). The structures of 1-5 were determined by NMR spectroscopy, and the absolute configuration of 1 was assigned using the modified Mosher method. Compounds 1, 2, and 5 displayed inhibitory effects on HIV-1 replication in C8166 cells, whereas 3 and 5 showed significant antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus.

  5. Bridged Epipolythiodiketopiperazines from Penicillium raciborskii, an Endophytic Fungus of Rhododendron tomentosum Harmaja.

    PubMed

    Kajula, Marena; Ward, Joshua M; Turpeinen, Ari; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Hokkanen, Juho; Tolonen, Ari; Häkkänen, Heikki; Picart, Pere; Ihalainen, Janne; Sahl, Hans-Georg; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Mattila, Sampo

    2016-04-22

    Three new epithiodiketopiperazine natural products [outovirin A (1), outovirin B (2), and outovirin C (3)] resembling the antifungal natural product gliovirin have been identified in extracts of Penicillium raciborskii, an endophytic fungus isolated from Rhododendron tomentosum. The compounds are unusual for their class in that they possess sulfide bridges between α- and β-carbons rather than the typical α-α bridging. To our knowledge, outovirin A represents the first reported naturally produced epimonothiodiketopiperazine, and antifungal outovirin C is the first reported trisulfide gliovirin-like compound. This report describes the identification and structural elucidation of the compounds by LC-MS/MS and NMR.

  6. Microsporols A-C from the Plant Endophytic Fungus Pestalotiopsis microspore.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xianfu; Wang, Yadan; Liu, Shuchun; Liu, Xinzhong; Guo, Liangdong

    2015-10-01

    Three new ambuic acid derivatives, microsporols A-C (1-3) and the known compound ambuic acid (4), were isolated from the solid-substrate fermentation cultures of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora. Their structures were elucidated primarily by NMR experiments. The absolute configurations of the 6,7-diol moiety in 1 and 2 were assigned using the Snatzke's method, whereas that of 3 was deduced by circular dichroism (CD) exciton chirality method. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 showed moderate 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) inhibitory effects.

  7. The complete nucleotide sequence and genomic organization of a novel victorivirus with two non-overlapping ORFs, identified in the plant-pathogenic fungus Phomopsis vexans.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ru Jia; Zhong, Jie; Shang, Hong Hong; Pan, Xian Ting; Zhu, Hong Jian; Gao, Bi Da

    2015-07-01

    In this study, a novel virus designated Phomopsis vexans RNA virus 1 (PvRV1) was identified in a strain of Phomopsis vexans. The complete genomic nucleotide sequence was determined and analyzed. Sequence analysis indicated that PvRV1 is closely related to viruses in the genus Victorivirus of the family Totiviridae. Two open reading frames (ORF1 and 2) were found in the PvRV1 sequence, and these showed significant similarity to the capsid protein (CP) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), respectively, of members of the family Totiviridae. The two ORFs were spaced 98 nt apart, which is unique to PvRV1 and different from the overlapping arrangement in most victoriviruses. The expression strategies of the CP and RdRp are discussed based on in silico RNA secondary structure analysis.

  8. Elicitors from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma atroviride promote Salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root growth and tanshinone biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ming, Qianliang; Su, Chunyan; Zheng, Chengjian; Jia, Min; Zhang, Qiaoyan; Zhang, Hong; Rahman, Khalid; Han, Ting; Qin, Luping

    2013-12-01

    Biotic elicitors can be used to stimulate the production of secondary metabolites in plants. However, limited information is available on the effects of biotic elicitors from endophytic fungi on their host plant. Trichoderma atroviride D16 is an endophytic fungus isolated from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza and previously reported to produce tanshinone I (T-I) and tanshinone IIA (T-IIA). Here, the effects of extract of mycelium (EM) and the polysaccharide fraction (PSF), produced by T. atroviride D16, on the growth and secondary metabolism of S. miltiorrhiza hairy roots are reported. The results indicated that both EM and PSF promoted hairy root growth and stimulated the biosynthesis of tanshinones in hairy roots. EM slightly suppressed the accumulation of phenolic acids, while PSF had no significant influence on the accumulation of these compounds. When comparing the effects of EM versus PSF, it was concluded that PSF is one of the main active constituents responsible for promoting hairy root growth, as well as stimulating biosynthesis of tanshinones in the hairy root cultures. Moreover, the transcriptional activity of genes involved in the tanshinone biosynthetic pathway increased significantly with PSF treatment. Thus, PSF from endophytic T. atroviride D16 affected the chemical composition of the host plant by influencing the expression of genes related to the secondary metabolite biosynthetic pathway. Furthermore, treatment with PSF can be effectively utilized for large-scale production of tanshinones in the S. miltiorrhiza hairy root culture system.

  9. Taxol production by an endophytic fungus, Fusarium redolens, isolated from Himalayan yew.

    PubMed

    Garyali, Sanjog; Kumar, Anil; Reddy, M Sudhakara

    2013-10-28

    Different endophytic fungi isolated from Himalayan Yew plants were tested for their ability to produce taxol. The BAPT gene (C-13 phenylpropanoid side chain-CoA acetyl transferase) involved in the taxol biosynthetic pathway was used as a molecular marker to screen taxol-producing endophytic fungi. Taxol extracted from fungal strain TBPJ-B was identified by HPLC and MS analysis. Strain TBPJ-B was identified as Fusarium redolens based on the morphology and internal transcribed spacer region of nrDNA analysis. HPLC quantification of fungal taxol showed that F. redolens was capable of producing 66 μg/l of taxol in fermentation broth. The antitumour activity of the fungal taxol was tested by potato disc tumor induction assay using Agrobacterium tumefaciens as the tumor induction agent. The present study results showed that PCR amplification of genes involved in taxol biosynthesis is an efficient and reliable method for prescreening taxol-producing fungi. We are reporting for the first time the production of taxol by F. redolens from Taxus baccata L. subsp. wallichiana (Zucc.) Pilger. This study offers important information and a new source for the production of the important anticancer drug taxol by endophytic fungus fermentation.

  10. Use of the Endophytic Fungus Daldinia cf. concentrica and Its Volatiles as Bio-Control Agents

    PubMed Central

    Liarzi, Orna; Bar, Einat; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Ezra, David

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are organisms that spend most of their life cycle within plant tissues without causing any visible damage to the host plant. Many endophytes were found to secrete specialized metabolites and/or emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which may be biologically active and assist fungal survival inside the plant as well as benefit their hosts. We report on the isolation and characterization of a VOCs-emitting endophytic fungus, isolated from an olive tree (Olea europaea L.) growing in Israel; the isolate was identified as Daldinia cf. concentrica. We found that the emitted VOCs were active against various fungi from diverse phyla. Results from postharvest experiments demonstrated that D. cf. concentrica prevented development of molds on organic dried fruits, and eliminated Aspergillus niger infection in peanuts. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of the volatiles led to identification of 27 VOCs. On the basis of these VOCs we prepared two mixtures that displayed a broad spectrum of antifungal activity. In postharvest experiments these mixtures prevented development of molds on wheat grains, and fully eliminated A. niger infection in peanuts. In light of these findings, we suggest use of D. cf. concentrica and/or its volatiles as an alternative approach to controlling phytopathogenic fungi in the food industry and in agriculture. PMID:27977739

  11. Bioactive Chaetoglobosins from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chrysogenum

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Song; Chen, Haiyan; Li, Wensheng; Zhu, Xinwei; Ding, Weijia; Li, Chunyuan

    2016-01-01

    A novel chaetoglobosin named penochalasin I (1) with a unprecedented six-cyclic 6/5/6/5/6/13 fused ring system, and another new chaetoglobosin named penochalasin J (2), along with chaetoglobosins G, F, C, A, E, armochaetoglobosin I, and cytoglobosin C (3–9) were isolated from the culture of Penicillium chrysogenum V11. Their structures were elucidated by 1D, 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis and high resolution mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by comparing the theoretical electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculation with the experimental CD. Compound 1 was the first example, with a six-cyclic fused ring system formed by the connection of C-5 and C-2′ of the chaetoglobosin class. Compounds 5–8 remarkably inhibited the plant pathogenic fungus R. solani (minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) = 11.79–23.66 μM), and compounds 2, 6, and 7 greatly inhibited C. gloeosporioides (MICs = 23.58–47.35 μM), showing an antifungal activity higher than that of carbendazim. Compound 1 exhibited marked cytotoxicity against MDA-MB-435 and SGC-7901 cells (IC50 < 10 μM), and compounds 6 and 9 showed potent cytotoxicity against SGC-7901 and A549 cells (IC50 < 10 μM). PMID:27690061

  12. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Jingfeng; Yu, Ruiting; Wang, Xiaohan; Mao, Ziling; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75 μg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27 μg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18 μg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17 μg/mL and 74.62 μg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms. PMID:26887231

  13. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Lou, Jingfeng; Yu, Ruiting; Wang, Xiaohan; Mao, Ziling; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang

    2016-01-01

    One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75μg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27μg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18μg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17μg/mL and 74.62μg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms.

  14. Endophytic fungus Purpureocillium sp. A5 protect mangrove plant Kandelia candel under copper stress.

    PubMed

    Gong, Bin; Liu, Guixiang; Liao, Rquan; Song, Jingjing; Zhang, Hong

    2017-02-09

    Mangrove is an important ecosystem in the world. Mangrove ecosystems have a large capacity in retaining heavy metals, and now they are usually considered as sinks for heavy metals. However, the mechanism of why the soil of mangrove ecosystems can retain heavy metal is not certain. In this research, endophytic fungus Purpureocillium sp. A5 was isolated and identified from the roots of Kandelia candel. When this fungus was added, it protected the growth of K. candel under Cu stress. This can be illustrated by analyzing chlorophyll A and B, RWC and WSD to leaves of K. candel. Purpureocillium sp. A5 reduces uptake of Cu in K. candel and changes the pH characterization of soil. Furthermore, A5 increase the concentration of Cu complexes in soil, and it enhanced the concentration of carbonate-bound Cu, Mn-Fe complexes Cu and organic-bound Cu in soil. Nevertheless, a significant reduction of the Cu ion was noted among A5-treated plants. This study is significant and illustrates a promising potential use for environmental remediation of endophytes, and also may partially explain the large capacity of mangrove ecosystems in retaining heavy metals.

  15. Pseudosigmoidea ibarakiensis sp. nov., a dark septate endophytic fungus from a cedar forest in Ibaraki, Japan.

    PubMed

    Diene, Ousmane; Wang, Wei; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    A dark septate fungus of Pseudosigmoidea, Hyphomycetes, was recovered from forest soil in Ibaraki prefecture, Japan. The isolate is characterized by pale to brown conidia with up to 8 septa measuring 68-132 × 4-7.9 mm. It is also unique in producing conidia borne by long conidogenious cells in agar medium with or without water, compared to P. cranei, which must be immersed in water to sporulate. Morphological analysis indicated that the isolate is distinct from P. cranei and is described as a new species, P. ibarakiensis sp. nov. Pathogenicity tests of Chinese cabbage and cucumber seedlings indicated that the fungus grows as an endophyte and colonizes, inter and intracellularly, the root epidermal and cortical layers without causing apparent disease symptoms in the host. This endophyte showed the ability to support cucumber plant growth under conditions where NaNO3 was replaced by organic nitrogen but also conferred to Chinese cabbage the ability to grow at low pH. It also became successfully established in six other plants, including the Brassicae, Solanaceae, Poaceae, and Liliacea families, suggesting its adaptability to a broad range of host plants.

  16. A New Antifungal Isocoumarin from The Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma Sp. 09 of Myoporum bontioides A. Gray

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wensheng; Xu, Jiaxin; Li, Fenqi; Xu, Li; Li, Chunyuan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Myoporum bontioides A. Gray is a commonly used medicinal plant in China. Recently, the chemical and bioactive investigations to the endophytic fungi of this plant have led to several new compounds with antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities. To find out more active molecules, the metabolites of an endophytic fungus, Trichoderma sp. 09 from the root of Myoporum bontioides were investigated. Materials and Methods: The metabolites were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, and their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis[one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D)-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Mass spectrometry (MS)], and by comparison with the published data. The dilution method was used for the evaluation of antifungal activity. Results: Four metabolites were isolated and identified as: dichlorodiaportinolide (1), dichlorodiaportin (2), diaportinol (3), and diaportin (4). Compounds 1 and 2 showed weak to high antifungal activities against Colletotrichum musae (Berk. and M. A. Curtis) Arx and Rhizoctonia solani Kühn, as compared with the positive control. Conclusions: Compound 1 was a new isocoumarin being worthy of consideration for the development and research of antifungal agents. SUMMARY A new isocoumarin named dichlorodiaportinolide, along with dichlorodiaportin, diaportinol, and diaportin were isolated from the endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 09 of the root of Myoporum bontioides.Dichlorodiaportinolide and dichlorodiaportin showed weak to high antifungal activities against musae and R. solani (MIC values from 6.25 to 150 μg/mL).Dichlorodiaportinolide and dichlorodiaportin were inactive to P. italic and F. graminearum (MIC values > 200 μg/mL). Abbreviations used: IR: Infrared Radiation, HR-ESI-MS: High resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy, LCMS-IT-TOF: Liquid chromatography mass spectroscopy-Ion trap-Time-of-flight, UV: Ultraviolet-visible, HMBC: Heteronuclear multiple bond correlation

  17. Allelochemical effects of volatile compounds and organic extracts from Muscodor yucatanensis, a tropical endophytic fungus from Bursera simaruba

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Muscodor yucatanensis, a recently described endophytic fungus, was isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba (Burseraceae) growing in the dry, semideciduous tropical forest of the Ecological Reserve El Eden, Quintana Roo, Mexico. In the present study we tested in vitro the mixture of volatile org...

  18. Dihydroberkleasmin A: a new eremophilane sesquiterpenoid from the fermentation broth of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis photiniae.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Long; Zhang, Su; Zhu, Hua-Jie; Luo, Du-Qiang

    2011-02-23

    Dihydroberkleasmin A (1), a new ester-substituted sesquiterpenoid related to the eremophilane class, together with the known compound berkleasmin C (2), were isolated from the fermentation broth of the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis photiniae. The structure of dihydroberkleasmin A (1) was elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The stereochemistry was assigned by comparison of the NMR spectroscopic data with those of berkleasmin A.

  19. Microdiplanol and microdiplane: a new m-anisaldehyde and a new 24-methylcholestanol derivative from the endophytic fungus Microdiplodia sp.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Hidayat; Krohn, Karsten; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Kouam, Simeon F; Abbas, Gulam; Raees, Muhammad Adil; Dzeha, Thomas; Ullah, Riaz; Zahoor, Aqib; Shah, Afzal; Badshah, Amin; Khan, Amjad; Ali, Iftikhar; Schulz, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the endophytic fungus Microdiplodia sp. afforded a new m-anisaldehyde derivative named microdiplanol (1) and a new 24-methylcholestanol derivative named microdiplane (2). Their structures were confirmed by a comprehensive analysis of 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectrometric data.

  20. Coniochaeta ligniaria: antifungal activity of the cryptic endophytic fungus associated with autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (Asteraceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Few studies have addressed the presence and bioactivity of endophytic fungi living in plantlets growing under in vitro conditions. We isolated a fungus UM 109 from autotrophic cultures of the medicinal plant Smallanthus sonchifolius (yacon). The species was identified as Coniochaeta ligniaria using ...

  1. Thielavins A, J and K: alpha-glucosidase inhibitors from MEXU 27095, an endophytic fungus from Hintonia latiflora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the bio-active organic extract obtained from solid-media culture of MEXU 27095, an endophytic fungus isolated from the Mexican medicinal plant Hintonia latiflora (Rubiaceae), led to separation of three tridepsides which were identified as thielavins A, J and K. All ...

  2. Determination of the absolute configuration of Chaetoviridins and other bioactive Azaphilones from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical investigation of an endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum isolated from leaves of Wikstroemia uva-ursi led to the isolation of a new azaphilone, chaetoviridin J (1), and a new stereoisomer, chaetoviridin K (2), along with four known derivatives (3–6). The structures of azaphilones were dete...

  3. Cytotoxic effects of oosporein isolated from endophytic fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi

    PubMed Central

    Ramesha, Alurappa; Venkataramana, M.; Nirmaladevi, Dhamodaran; Gupta, Vijai K.; Chandranayaka, S.; Srinivas, Chowdappa

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, oosporein, a fungal toxic secondary metabolite known to be a toxic agent causing chronic disorders in animals, was isolated from fungus Cochliobolus kusanoi of Nerium oleander L. Toxic effects of oosporein and the possible mechanisms of cytotoxicity as well as the role of oxidative stress in cytotoxicity to Madin-Darby canine kidney kidney cells and RAW 264.7 splene cells were evaluated in vitro. Also to know the possible in vivo toxic effects of oosporein on kidney and spleen, Balb/C mouse were treated with different concentrations of oosporein ranging from 20 to 200 μM). After 24 h of exposure histopathological observations were made to know the effects of oosporein on target organs. Oosporein induced elevated levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and high levels of malondialdehyde, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, induced glutathione hydroxylase (GSH) production was observed in a dose depended manner. Effects oosporein on chromosomal DNA damage was assessed by Comet assay, and increase in DNA damage were observed in both the studied cell lines by increasing the oosporein concentration. Further, oosporein treatment to studied cell lines indicated significant suppression of oxidative stress related gene (Superoxide dismutase1 and Catalase ) expression, and increased levels of mRNA expression in apoptosis or oxidative stress inducing genes HSP70, Caspase3, Caspase6, and Caspase9 as measured by quantitative real time-PCR assay. Histopathological examination of oosporein treated mouse kidney and splenocytes further revealed that, oosporein treated target mouse tissues were significantly damaged with that of untreated sam control mice and these effects were in directly proportional to the the toxin dose. Results of the present study reveals that, ROS is the principle event prompting increased oosporein toxicity in studied in vivio and in vitro animal models. The high previlance of these fungi in temperate climates further

  4. Endophytic Fungus Nigrospora oryzae from a Medicinal plant Coccinia grandis, a High Yielding New Source of Phenazine-1-carboxamide.

    PubMed

    Thanabalasingam, Dharushana; Kumar, N Savitri; Jayasinghe, Lalith; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2015-10-01

    Nigrospora oryzae was isolated as an endophytic fungus from the leaves of Coccinia grandis, a popular medicinal plant used to control diabetes. Fermentation of the fungus in potato dextrose broth and chromatographic purification of the ethyl acetate extracts of the broth and mycelium yielded two phenazine secondary metabolites, which were identified as phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (1) and phenazine-1-carboxamide (2) by comparing their spectral data with those reported in the literature. Compound 2, isolated in high yield (1 g/4 L medium), showed strong antifungal activity against the plant pathogen Cladosporium cladosporioides. This is the first report of the isolation of N. oryzae as an endophytic fungus of C. grandis. These phenazines have never been isolated from any fungal source. Antifungal activity of 2 against C. cladosporioides is reported for the first time.

  5. Muscodor kashayum sp. nov. – a new volatile anti-microbial producing endophytic fungus

    PubMed Central

    Meshram, Vineet; Kapoor, Neha; Saxena, Sanjai

    2014-01-01

    Muscodor kashayum (MycoBank no.: MB 803800; GenBank no.: KC481680) is a newly described endophytic fungus of a medicinal plant Aegle marmelos (Bael tree), growing in the tropical conserved rainforest in the Western Ghats of India. Muscodor kashayum possesses distinct morphological, molecular and physiological features from the earlier reported Muscodor species. The fungus forms characteristic rings of the ropy mycelium on potato dextrose agar medium. This sterile fungus is characterised by the presence of a pungent smell which is attributable to a blend of more than 23 volatile organic constituents, predominantly 3-cyclohexen-1-ol,1-(1,5-dimethyl-4-hexenyl)-4-methyl; 1,6-dioxacyclododecane-7,12-dione; 2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl)-4-(1-oxopropyl) phenol; 2,4-di-tert-butylthiophenol and 4-octadecylmorpholine. In the in vitro anti-microbial assay using M. kashayum, growth of 75% of test fungi/yeasts and 72% of the test bacteria were completely inhibited. Therefore, M. Kashayum holds potential for future application to be used as a myco-fumigation agent. PMID:24587960

  6. Chamigrane Sesquiterpenes from a Basidiomycetous Endophytic Fungus XG8D Associated with Thai Mangrove Xylocarpus granatum

    PubMed Central

    Choodej, Siwattra; Teerawatananond, Thapong; Mitsunaga, Tohru; Pudhom, Khanitha

    2016-01-01

    Six new chamigrane sesquiterpenes, merulinols A‒F (1‒6), and four known metabolites (7‒10) were isolated from the culture of the basidiomycetous fungus XG8D, a mangrove-derived endophyte. Their structures were elucidated mainly by 1D and 2D NMR, while the structures of 1 and 2 were further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. The in vitro cytotoxicity of all compounds was evaluated against three human cancer cell lines, MCF-7, Hep-G2, and KATO-3. Compounds 3 and 4 selectively displayed cytotoxicity against KATO-3 cells with IC50 values of 35.0 and 25.3 μM, respectively. PMID:27428984

  7. Six New Polyketide Decalin Compounds from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum 328#

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Yanhong; Li, Jing; Huang, Meixiang; Liu, Lan; Wang, Jun; Lin, Yongcheng

    2015-01-01

    Six new compounds with polyketide decalin ring, peaurantiogriseols A–F (1–6), along with two known compounds, aspermytin A (7), 1-propanone,3-hydroxy-1-(1,2,4a,5,6,7,8,8a-octahydro-2,5-dihydroxy-1,2,6-trimethyl-1-naphthalenyl) (8), were isolated from the fermentation products of mangrove endophytic fungus Penicillium aurantiogriseum 328#. Their structures were elucidated based on their structure analysis. The absolute configurations of compounds 1 and 2 were determined by 1H NMR analysis of their Mosher esters; the absolute configurations of 3–6 were determined by using theoretical calculations of electronic circular dichroism (ECD). Compounds 1–8 showed low inhibitory activity against human aldose reductase, no activity of inducing neurite outgrowth, nor antimicrobial activity. PMID:26473887

  8. A novel antibacterial and antifungal phenolic compound from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis mangiferae.

    PubMed

    Subban, Kamalraj; Subramani, Ramesh; Johnpaul, Muthumary

    2013-01-01

    A novel phenolic compound, 4-(2,4,7-trioxa-bicyclo[4.1.0]heptan-3-yl) phenol (1), was isolated from Pestalotiopsis mangiferae, an endophytic fungus associated with Mangifera indica Linn. The structure of the compound was elucidated on the basis of comprehensive spectral analysis (UV, IR, ¹H-, ¹³C- and 2D-NMR, as well as HRESI-MS). Compound (1) shows potent antibacterial and antifungal activity against Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. The transmission electron microscope study for the mode of inhibition of compound (1) on bacterial pathogens revealed the destruction of bacterial cells by cytoplasm agglutination with the formation of pores in cell wall membranes.

  9. Naphthoquinone spiroketals and organic extracts from the endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae as potential herbicides.

    PubMed

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha L; Ruiz-Velasco Sobrino, M Emma; Meléndez-González, Claudio; Hernández-Ortega, Simón

    2014-04-23

    From the fermentation mycelium of the endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae were obtained several phytotoxic compounds including two new members of the naphthoquinone spiroketal family, namely, palmarumycin EG1 (1) and preussomerin EG4 (4). In addition, preussomerins EG1-EG3 (7-9) and palmarumycins CP19 (2), CP17 (3), and CP2 (6), as well as ergosta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (5), were obtained. Compounds 2, 3, and 5 are new to this species. The structures of palmarumycins CP19 (2) and CP17 (3) were unambiguously determined by X-ray analysis. The isolates and mycelium organic extracts from four morphological variants of E. gomezpompae caused significant inhibition of seed germination, root elongation, and seedling respiration of Amaranthus hypochondriacus, Solanum lycopersicum, and Echinochloa crus-galli. The treatments also affected respiration on intact mitochondria isolated from spinach.

  10. Three new highly-oxygenated metabolites from the endophytic fungus Cytospora rhizophorae A761.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hong-Xin; Tan, Hai-Bo; Liu, Yuan; Chen, Yu-Chan; Li, Sai-Ni; Sun, Zhang-Hua; Li, Hao-Hua; Qiu, Sheng-Xiang; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2017-03-01

    Cytosporaphenones A-C, one new polyhydric benzophenone and two new naphtopyrone derivatives, along with eight known ones, were isolated from Cytospora rhizophorae, an endophytic fungus from Morinda officinalis. Their structures were fully characterized by means of detailed spectroscopic analysis and X-ray single crystal diffraction. To our knowledge, the three new compounds were the most highly oxygenated metabolites of their families discovered in nature. Moreover, all of the compounds were evaluated for in vitro cytotoxic activities against MCF-7, NCI-H460, HepG-2 and SF-268 tumor cell lines, and the new compound 1 exhibited weak growth inhibitory activity against the tumor cell lines MCF-7 and HepG-2 with IC50 values of 70 and 60μM, respectively.

  11. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of the endophytic fungus Acremonium implicatum associated with Brachiaria grasses.

    PubMed

    Abello, Javier; Kelemu, Segenet; García, Celsa

    2008-03-01

    Acremonium implicatum is a seed-transmitted endophytic fungus that forms symbiotic associations with the economically significant tropical forage grasses, Brachiaria species. To take advantage of the endophyte's plant protective properties, we developed an efficient Agrobacterium-mediated transformation system for Acremonium implicatum, using green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression and vector pSK1019 (trpC promoter) or pCAMBIA1300 (CaMV35S promoter). We found that transformation efficiency doubled for both mycelial and conidial transformation as the co-cultivation period for Agrobacterium tumefaciens and Acremonium implicatum was increased from 48 to 72h. Significantly, optimal results were obtained for either mycelial or conidial transformation with Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain AGL-1 and vector pSK1019 under the control of the trpC promoter. However, mycelial transformation consistently generated a significantly higher number of transformants than did conidial transformation. The mitotic stability of the transferred DNA was confirmed by growing ten transformants in liquid and agar media for six generations. In all cases, resistance to the selection pressure (hygromycin B) was maintained. Fluorescence emission was retained by the transformants and also expressed in Brachiaria tissues from plants inoculated with GFP-transformed A. implicatum. This technology will help in the transfer and expression of agronomically important genes in host plants.

  12. Electrochemical biosensor for carbofuran pesticide based on esterases from Eupenicillium shearii FREI-39 endophytic fungus.

    PubMed

    Grawe, Gregory Ferreira; de Oliveira, Tássia Regina; de Andrade Narciso, Esther; Moccelini, Sally Katiuce; Terezo, Ailton José; Soares, Marcos Antonio; Castilho, Marilza

    2015-01-15

    In this work, a biosensor was constructed by physical adsorption of the isolated endophytic fungus Eupenicillium shearii FREI-39 esterase on halloysite, using graphite powder, multi-walled carbon nanotubes and mineral oil for the determination of carbofuran pesticide by inhibition of the esterase using square-wave voltammetry (SWV). Specific esterase activities were determined each 2 days over a period of 15 days of growth in four different inoculation media. The highest specific activity was found on 6th day, with 33.08 U on PDA broth. The best performance of the proposed biosensor was obtained using 0.5 U esterase activity. The carbofuran concentration response was linear in the range from 5.0 to 100.0 µg L(-1) (r=0.9986) with detection and quantification limits of 1.69 µg L(-1) and 5.13 µg L(-1), respectively. A recovery study of carbofuran in spiked water samples showed values ranging from 103.8±6.7% to 106.7±9.7%. The biosensor showed good repeatability and reproducibility and remained stable for a period of 20 weeks. The determination of carbofuran in spiked water samples using the proposed biosensor was satisfactory when compared to the chromatographic reference method. The results showed no significant difference at the 95% confidence level with t-test statistics. The application of enzymes from endophytic fungi in constructing biosensors broadens the biotechnological importance of these microorganisms.

  13. Endophytic fungus strain 28 isolated from Houttuynia cordata possesses wide-spectrum antifungal activity.

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Liu, Zheng-Qiong; Chen, Que; Xu, Ying-Wen; Hou, Kai; Wu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify and investigate an endophytic fungus (strain 28) that was isolated from Houttuynia cordata Thunb, a famous and widely-used Traditional Chinese Medicine. Based on morphological methods and a phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequences, this strain was identified as Chaetomium globosum. An antifungal activity bioassay demonstrated that the crude ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts of strain 28 had a wide antifungal spectrum and strong antimicrobial activity, particularly against Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard et Suggs, Botrytis cinerea persoon and Botrytis cinerea Pers. ex Fr. Furthermore, the fermentation conditions, extraction method and the heat stability of antifungal substances from strain 28 were also studied. The results showed that optimal antifungal activity can be obtained with the following parameters: using potato dextrose broth (PDB) as the base culture medium, fermentation for 4-8d (initial pH: 7.5), followed by extraction with EtOAc. The extract was stable at temperatures up to 80°C. This is the first report on the isolation of endophytic C. globosum from H. cordata to identify potential alternative biocontrol agents that could provide new opportunities for practical applications involving H. cordata.

  14. A chitin deacetylase from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. efficiently inactivates the elicitor activity of chitin oligomers in rice cells

    PubMed Central

    Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; Melcher, Rebecca L. J.; Kolkenbrock, Stephan; Moerschbacher, Bruno M.

    2016-01-01

    To successfully survive in plants, endophytes need strategies to avoid being detected by the plant immune system, as the cell walls of endophytes contain easily detectible chitin. It is possible that endophytes “hide” this chitin from the plant immune system by modifying it, or oligomers derived from it, using chitin deacetylases (CDA). To explore this hypothesis, we identified and expressed a CDA from Pestalotiopsis sp. (PesCDA), an endophytic fungus, in E. coli and characterized this enzyme and its chitosan oligomer products. We found that when PesCDA modifies chitin oligomers, the products are partially deacetylated chitosan oligomers with a specific acetylation pattern: GlcNAc-GlcNAc-(GlcN)n-GlcNAc (n ≥ 1). Then, in a bioactivity assay where suspension-cultured rice cells were incubated with the PesCDA products (processed chitin hexamers), we found that, unlike the substrate hexamers, chitosan oligomer products no longer elicited the plant immune system. Thus, this endophytic enzyme can prevent the endophyte from being recognized by the plant immune system; this might represent a more general hypothesis for how certain fungi are able to live in or on their hosts. PMID:27901067

  15. Biological Evaluation of Endophytic Fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 of Justicia adhatoda L.: A Potential Candidate for Drug Discovery

    PubMed Central

    Fatima, Nighat; Mukhtar, Usman; Ihsan-Ul-Haq; Ahmed Qazi, Muneer; Jadoon, Muniba; Ahmed, Safia

    2016-01-01

    Background The endophytes of medicinal plants, such as Justicia adhatoda L., represent a promising and largely underexplored domain that is considered as a repository of biologically active compounds. Objectives The aim of present study was isolation, identification, and biological evaluation of endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant for the production of antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic compounds Materials and Methods Endophytic fungi associated with the J. adhatoda L. plant were isolated from healthy plant parts and taxonomically characterized through morphological, microscopic, and 18S rDNA sequencing methods. The screening for bioactive metabolite production was achieved using ethyl acetate extracts, followed by the optimization of different parameters for maximum production of bioactive metabolites. Crude and partially purified extracts were used to determine the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic potential Results Out of six endophytic fungal isolates, Chaetomium sp. NF15 showed the most promising biological activity and was selected for detailed study. The crude ethyl acetate extract of NF15 isolate after cultivation under optimized culture conditions showed promising antimicrobial activity, with significant inhibition of the clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (87%, n=42), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (> 85%, n = 41), and Candida albicans (62%, n = 24). Conclusions The present study confirms the notion of selecting endophytic fungi of medicinal plant Justicia for the bioassay-guided isolation of its bioactive compounds, and demonstrates that endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. NF15 could be a potential source of bioactive metabolites PMID:27635208

  16. A chitin deacetylase from the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis sp. efficiently inactivates the elicitor activity of chitin oligomers in rice cells.

    PubMed

    Cord-Landwehr, Stefan; Melcher, Rebecca L J; Kolkenbrock, Stephan; Moerschbacher, Bruno M

    2016-11-30

    To successfully survive in plants, endophytes need strategies to avoid being detected by the plant immune system, as the cell walls of endophytes contain easily detectible chitin. It is possible that endophytes "hide" this chitin from the plant immune system by modifying it, or oligomers derived from it, using chitin deacetylases (CDA). To explore this hypothesis, we identified and expressed a CDA from Pestalotiopsis sp. (PesCDA), an endophytic fungus, in E. coli and characterized this enzyme and its chitosan oligomer products. We found that when PesCDA modifies chitin oligomers, the products are partially deacetylated chitosan oligomers with a specific acetylation pattern: GlcNAc-GlcNAc-(GlcN)n-GlcNAc (n ≥ 1). Then, in a bioactivity assay where suspension-cultured rice cells were incubated with the PesCDA products (processed chitin hexamers), we found that, unlike the substrate hexamers, chitosan oligomer products no longer elicited the plant immune system. Thus, this endophytic enzyme can prevent the endophyte from being recognized by the plant immune system; this might represent a more general hypothesis for how certain fungi are able to live in or on their hosts.

  17. Fusaroside, a unique glycolipid from Fusarium sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Melia azedarach.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sheng-Xiang; Wang, Hong-Peng; Gao, Jin-Ming; Zhang, Qiang; Laatsch, Hartmut; Kuang, Yi

    2012-01-28

    Fusaroside (1), a unique trehalose-containing glycolipid composed of the 4-hydroxyl group of a trehalose unit attached to the carboxylic carbon of a long-chain fatty acid, was isolated from the organic extract of fermentation broths of an endophytic fungus, Fusarium sp. LN-11 isolated from the leaves of Melia azedarach. Six known compounds, phalluside (2), (9R*,10R*,7E)-6, 9,10-trihydroxyoctadec-7-enoic acid (3), porrigenic acid (4), (9Z)-2,3-dihydroxypropyl octadeca-9-enoate (5), cerevisterol (6) and ergokonin B (7), were also isolated from this fungus. The glycolipid contains a rare branched long-chain fatty acid (C(20:4)) with a conjugated diene moiety and a conjugated ketone moiety. The structure of the new compound 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic methods (1D and 2D NMR experiments, MS) and chemical degradations. The metabolites 1-5 were shown to have moderate to weak active against the brine shrimp larvae. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation of the first representative of a new family of glycolipids from natural sources.

  18. The role of a dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, in Fusarium disease suppression in Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Khastini, Rida O; Ohta, Hiroyuki; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2012-08-01

    The soil-inhabiting fungal pathogen Fusarium oxysporum has been an increasing threat to Chinese cabbage (Brassica campestris L.). A dark septate endophytic fungus, Veronaeopsis simplex Y34, isolated from Yaku Island, Japan, was evaluated in vitro for the ability to suppress Fusarium disease. Seedlings grown in the presence of the endophyte showed a 71% reduction in Fusarium wilt disease and still had good growth. The disease control was achieved through a synergetic effect involving a mechanical resistance created by a dense network of V. simplex Y34 hyphae, which colonized the host root, and siderophore production acting indirectly to induce a resistance mechanism in the plant. Changes in the relative abundance of the fungal communities in the soil as determined by fluorescently labelled T-RFs (terminal restriction fragments), appeared 3 weeks after application of the fungus. Results showed the dominance of V. simplex Y34, which became established in the rhizosphere and out-competed F. oxysporum.

  19. Endophytic fungus decreases plant virus infections in meadow ryegrass (Lolium pratense)

    PubMed Central

    Lehtonen, Päivi T; Helander, Marjo; Siddiqui, Shahid A; Lehto, Kirsi; Saikkonen, Kari

    2006-01-01

    We studied the effects of fungal endophyte infection of meadow ryegrass (Lolium pratense=Festuca pratensis) on the frequency of the barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV). The virus is transferred by aphids, which may be deterred by endophyte-origin alkaloids within the plant. In our experiment, we released viruliferous aphid vectors on endophyte-infected and endophyte-free plants in a common garden. The number of aphids and the percentage of BYDV infections were lower in endophyte-infected plants compared to endophyte-free plants, indicating that endophyte infection may protect meadow ryegrass from BYDV infections. PMID:17148304

  20. Acremoxanthone E, a Novel Member of Heterodimeric Polyketides with a Bicyclo[3.2.2]nonene Ring, Produced by Acremonium camptosporum W. Gams (Clavicipitaceae) Endophytic Fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungus Acremonium camptosporum was isolated as an endophyte from the leaves of the plant Bursera simaruba. Extracts from cultures of the fungus were shown to have inhibitory effects on the growth of plant pathogenic oomycetes. The chemical compounds in the extracts were identified, and a group...

  1. Microbial Biotransformation of Gentiopicroside by the Endophytic Fungus Penicillium crustosum 2T01Y01

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Wen-Liang; Li, Wan-Kui; Han, Han; Tao, Yan-Yan; Yang, Li; Chen, Kai-Xian

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are symbiotic with plants and possess multienzyme systems showing promising metabolite potency with region selectivity and stereoselectivity. The aim of this study was to use these special microorganisms as an in vitro model to mimic the potential mammalian metabolites of a natural iridoid gentiopicroside (GPS, compound 1). The fungi isolated from a medicinal plant, Dendrobium candidum Wall. ex Lindl., were screened for their biotransformation abilities with GPS as the substrate, and one strain with high converting potency was identified as Penicillium crustosum 2T01Y01 on the basis of the sequence of the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA region. Upon the optimized incubation of P. crustosum 2T01Y01 with the substrate, seven deglycosylated metabolites were detected by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC/Q-TOF MS). Preparative-scale biotransformation with whole cells of the endophytic fungus resulted in the production of five metabolites, including three novel ones, 5α-(hydroxymethyl)-6β-methyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydropyrano[3,4-c]pyran-1(8H)-one (compound 2), (Z)-4-(1-hydroxybut-3-en-2-yl)-5,6-dihydropyran-2-one (compound 3), and (E)-4-(1-hydroxybut-3-en-2-yl)-5,6-dihydropyran-2-one (compound 4), along with two known ones, 5α-(hydroxymethyl)-6β-methyl-1H,3H-5,6-dihydropyrano[3,4-c]pyran-1(3H)-one (compound 5) and 5α-(hydroxymethyl)-6α-methyl-5,6-dihydropyrano[3,4-c]pyran-1(3H)-one (compound 6), aided by nuclear magnetic resonance and high-resolution mass spectral analyses. The other two metabolites were tentatively identified by online UPLC/Q-TOF MS as 5-hydroxymethyl-5,6-dihydroisochromen-1-one (compound 7) and 5-hydroxymethyl-3,4,5,6-tetrahydroisochromen-1-one (compound 8), and compound 8 is a new metabolite. To test the metabolic mechanism, the β-glucosidase activity of the fungus P. crustosum 2T01Y01 was assayed with ρ-nitrophenyl-β-d-glucopyranoside as a probe substrate

  2. Control of Verticillium Yellows in Chinese Cabbage by the Dark Septate Endophytic Fungus LtVB3.

    PubMed

    Narisawa, K; Usuki, F; Hashiba, T

    2004-05-01

    ABSTRACT Three hundred forty-nine fungal endophytes were obtained from a total of 1,214 root segments of eggplant, melon, barley, and Chinese cabbage grown as bait plants in a mixed soil made up of samples from different forest soils in Alberta and British Columbia, Canada. Three of the 349 isolates, when inoculated in axenically reared Chinese cabbage seedlings grown in petri dishes, almost completely suppressed the effects of a postinoculated and virulent strain of Verticillium longisporum. Two isolates effective against the pathogen were Phialocephala fortinii, which had been obtained from the roots of eggplant and Chinese cabbage. The third isolate was a dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungus obtained from barley roots. Hyphae of P. fortinii grew along the surface of the root and formed microsclerotia on or in the epidermal layer. Hyphae of the DSE fungus heavily colonized root cells of the cortex. Seedlings grown for 1 week in the presence of the endophytes were then challenged with the Verticillium pathogen. In DSE-treated roots, some of cell walls in the epidermal and cortical layers showed cell wall appositions and thickenings, which appeared to limit the ingress of the pathogen into adjacent cells. Such marked host reactions were not observed in the root cells colonized by P. fortinii. Chinese cabbage preinoculated with the above endophytes and, for comparison, a previously reported disease-suppressive fungal endophyte, Heteroconium chaetospira, were transplanted into the field and disease symptoms were assessed. The DSE could most effectively inhibit the development of Verticillium yellows, with reductions in the percentages of external and internal disease symptoms of 84 and 88%, respectively. The protective values against the disease are extremely high compared with those of other isolates. Most of the DSE-treated plants in the plots achieved marketable quality.

  3. Secondary metabolites from a marine-derived endophytic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum QEN-24S.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shu-Shan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Du, Feng-Yu; Li, Chun-Shun; Proksch, Peter; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2010-12-27

    Penicillium chrysogenum QEN-24S, an endophytic fungus isolated from an unidentified marine red algal species of the genus Laurencia, displayed inhibitory activity against the growth of pathogen Alternaria brassicae in dual culture test. Chemical investigation of this fungal strain resulted in the isolation of four new (1-3 and 5) and one known (4) secondary metabolites. Their structures were identified as two polyketide derivatives penicitides A and B (1 and 2), two glycerol derivatives 2-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoyl)-glycerol (3) and 1-(2,4-dihydroxy-6-methylbenzoyl)- glycerol (4), and one monoterpene derivative penicimonoterpene (5). Penicitides A and B (1 and 2) feature a unique 10-hydroxy- or 7,10-dihydroxy-5,7-dimethylundecyl moiety substituting at C-5 of the α-tetrahydropyrone ring, which is not reported previously among natural products. Compound 5 displayed potent activity against the pathogen A. brassicae, while compound 1 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity against the human hepatocellular liver carcinoma cell line.

  4. New furoisocoumarins and isocoumarins from the mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. 085242

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Runlin; Lin, Shao’e

    2016-01-01

    Summary The chemical investigation of the mangrove endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. 085242 afforded eight isocoumarin derivatives 1–8 and one isoquinoline 9. Asperisocoumarins A and B (1 and 2) were new furoisocoumarins, and asperisocoumarins E and F (5 and 6) were new isocoumarins. Their structures were established by analysis of their spectroscopic data and the absolute configuration of compound 2 was unambiguously determined by X-ray structure analysis and ECD calculation. Moreover, the absolute configurations of compounds 3–5 were assigned by comparison of their ECD spectra with isocoumarins described in the literature. Asperisocoumarins C and D (3 and 4) were fully characterized spectroscopically and isolated from a natural source for the first time. Asperisocoumarins A–D (1–4) related to the class of furo[3,2-h]isocoumarins are rarely occurring in natural sources. Compounds 2, 5, and 6 showed moderate α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 of 87.8, 52.3, and 95.6 μM, respectively. In addition, compounds 1 and 3 exhibited weak radical scavenging activity with EC50 values of 125 and 138 μM, respectively. PMID:27829913

  5. Secondary Metabolites of the Endophytic Fungus Lachnum abnorme from Ardisia cornudentata

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Lin, Chu-Hung; Chen, Yi-Shuan; Wang, Hui-Chun; Chan, Hing-Yuen; Hsieh, Sung-Yuan; Wu, Ho-Cheng; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Yuan, Gwo-Fang; Lin, Shan-Yu; Lin, Yue-Jin; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Fractionation of an EtOAc-soluble fraction of the solid fermentate of an endophytic fungus, Lachnum abnorme Mont. BCRC 09F0006, derived from the endemic plant, Ardisia cornudentata Mez. (Myrsinaceae), resulted in the isolation of three new chromones, lachnochromonins D–F (1–3), one novel compound, lachabnormic acid (4), along with nine known compounds (5–13). Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. Alternariol-3,9-dimethyl ether (6) was given the correct data as well as 2D spectral analyses for the first time. This is the first report of the isolation of one unprecedented compound 4 from Lachnum genus, while all known compounds were also found for the first time from Lachnum. The effects of some isolates (3, 4, 7–9, 10, and 13) on the inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW 264.7 murine macrophages were also evaluated. Several compounds exhibited weak inhibitory activity on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages. PMID:27618025

  6. Protein kinase and HDAC inhibitors from the endophytic fungus Epicoccum nigrum.

    PubMed

    El Amrani, Mustapha; Lai, Daowan; Debbab, Abdessamad; Aly, Amal H; Siems, Karsten; Seidel, Carole; Schnekenburger, Michael; Gaigneaux, Anthoula; Diederich, Marc; Feger, Daniel; Lin, Wenhan; Proksch, Peter

    2014-01-24

    A chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus Epicoccum nigrum isolated from leaves of Mentha suaveolens collected in Morocco resulted in the isolation of five new polyketides, epicocconigrones A and B (1 and 2), 3-methoxyepicoccone B (3), 3-methoxyepicoccone (4), and 2,3,4-trihydroxy-6-(methoxymethyl)-5-methylbenzaldehyde (5), together with five known compounds (6-10). The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously determined by extensive analysis of the 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopic data. Compounds 1 and 10 showed potent inhibition of at least 15 protein kinases with IC50 values ranging from 0.07 to 9.00 μM. Moreover, compounds 1 and 10 inhibited histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities with IC50 values of 9.8 and 14.2 μM, respectively. A preliminary structure-activity relationship is discussed. Interestingly, compounds 1 and 10 exert mainly cytostatic effects in human lymphoma RAJI and U-937 cell lines.

  7. Selected phytotoxins and organic extracts from endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae as light reaction of photosynthesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia; Ruiz-Velasco Sobrino, María Emma; Meléndez-González, Claudio; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Lotina-Hennsen, Blas

    2014-09-05

    In a search for natural herbicides, we investigated the action mechanism of the naphthoquinone spiroketals, isolated from the endophytic fungus Edenia gomezpompae: preussomerins EG1 (1) and EG4 (2), and palmarumycins CP17 (3), and CP2 (4) on the photosynthesis light reactions. The naphthoquinone spiroketals 1-4 inhibited the ATP synthesis in freshly lysed spinach thylakoids from water to MV, and they also inhibited the non-cyclic electron transport in the basal, phosphorylating and uncoupled conditions from water to MV. Therefore, they act as Hill reaction inhibitors. The results suggested that naphthoquinone spiroketals 1-4 have two interactions and inhibition site on the PSII electron transport chain. The first one involves the water splitting enzyme inhibition; and, the second on the acceptor site of PSII in a similar way that herbicide Diuron, studied by polaroghaphy and corroborated by fluorescence of the chlorophyll a of PSII. The culture medium and mycelium organic extracts from four morphological variants of E. gomezpompae were phytotoxic, and the culture medium extracts were more potent than mycelium extracts. They also act as Hill reaction inhibitors.

  8. Bioactive Metabolites from Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5B

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yayue; Chen, Senhua; Liu, Zhaoming; Lu, Yongjun; Xia, Guoping; Liu, Hongju; He, Lei; She, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. 16-5B cultured on Czapek’s medium led to the isolation of four new metabolites, aspergifuranone (1), isocoumarin derivatives (±) 2 and (±) 3, and (R)-3-demethylpurpurester A (4), together with the known purpurester B (5) and pestaphthalides A (6). Their structures were determined by analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of Compound 1 was determined by comparison of the experimental and calculated electronic circular dichroism (ECD) spectra, and that of Compound 4 was revealed by comparing its optical rotation data and CD with those of the literature. The structure of Compound 6 was further confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiment using CuKα radiation. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activities, and Compound 1 showed significant inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 9.05 ± 0.60 μM. Kinetic analysis showed that Compound 1 was a noncompetitive inhibitor of α-glucosidase. Compounds 2 and 6 exhibited moderate inhibitory activities. PMID:25996099

  9. Novel small molecule 11β-HSD1 inhibitor from the endophytic fungus Penicillium commune

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weiguang; Chen, Xintao; Tong, Qingyi; Zhu, Hucheng; He, Yan; Lei, Liang; Xue, Yongbo; Yao, Guangmin; Luo, Zengwei; Wang, Jianping; Li, Hua; Zhang, Yonghui

    2016-01-01

    Two new phenone derivatives penicophenones A (1) and B (2), a new cyclic tetrapeptide penicopeptide A (3), and five known compounds were isolated from the culture broth of Penicillium commune, an endophytic fungus derived from Vitis vinifera. Compounds 1–3 were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses including 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS. The absolute configurations of 1 and 3 were determined by comparing its ECD with related molecules and modified Marfey’s analysis, respectively. Penicophenone A (1) possesses a rare benzannulated 6,6-spiroketal moiety, which is a new member of the unusual structural class with peniphenone A as the representative. Compound 3 exhibited significant inhibition activities against 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) in vitro and showed strong binding affinity to 11β-HSD1. Moreover, compound 3 treatments decreased the lipid droplet accumulation associate with the inhibition of 11β-HSD1 expression in differentiate-induced 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Furthermore, the molecular docking demonstrated that compound 3 coordinated in the active site of 11β-HSD1 is essential for the ability of diminishing the enzyme activity. PMID:27194583

  10. Chemical constituents of marine mangrove-derived endophytic fungus Alternaria tenuissima EN-192

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Gao, Shushan; Li, Xiaoming; Li, Chunshun; Wang, Bingui

    2013-03-01

    A chemical investigation of the ethyl acetate extract of the fermentation broth of Alternaria tenuissima EN-192, an endophytic fungus obtained from the stems of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa, resulted in the isolation of nine known secondary metabolites, including four indole-diterpenoids: penijanthine A ( 1), paspaline ( 2), paspalinine ( 3), and penitrem A ( 4); three tricycloalternarene derivatives: tricycloalternarene 3a ( 5), tricycloalternarene 1b ( 6), and tricycloalternarene 2b ( 7); and two alternariol congeners: djalonensone ( 8) and alternariol ( 9). The chemical structures of these metabolites were characterized through a combination of detailed spectroscopic analyses and their comparison with reports from the literature. The inhibitory activities of each isolated compound against four bacteria were evaluated and compounds 5 and 8 displayed moderate activity against the aquaculture pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum, with inhibition zone diameters of 8 and 9 mm, respectively, at 100 μg/disk. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the secondary metabolites of mangrove-derived A lternaria tenuissima and also the first report of the isolation of indole-diterpenoids from fungal genus A lternaria.

  11. The root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica requires host cell death for proliferation during mutualistic symbiosis with barley

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Sachin; Hückelhoven, Ralph; Schäfer, Patrick; Imani, Jafargholi; Sharma, Monica; Weiss, Michael; Waller, Frank; Kogel, Karl-Heinz

    2006-01-01

    Fungi of the recently defined order Sebacinales (Basidiomycota) are involved in a wide spectrum of mutualistic symbioses (including mycorrhizae) with various plants, thereby exhibiting a unique potential for biocontrol strategies. The axenically cultivable root endophyte Piriformospora indica is a model organism of this fungal order. It is able to increase biomass and grain yield of crop plants. In barley, the endophyte induces local and systemic resistance to fungal diseases and to abiotic stress. To elucidate the lifestyle of P. indica, we analyzed its symbiotic interaction and endophytic development in barley roots. We found that fungal colonization increases with root tissue maturation. The root tip meristem showed no colonization, and the elongation zone showed mainly intercellular colonization. In contrast, the differentiation zone was heavily infested by inter- and intracellular hyphae and intracellular chlamydospores. The majority of hyphae were present in dead rhizodermal and cortical cells that became completely filled with chlamydospores. In some cases, hyphae penetrated cells and built a meshwork around plasmolyzed protoplasts, suggesting that the fungus either actively kills cells or senses cells undergoing endogenous programmed cell death. Seven days after inoculation, expression of barley BAX inhibitor-1 (HvBI-1), a gene capable of inhibiting plant cell death, was attenuated. Consistently, fungal proliferation was strongly inhibited in transgenic barley overexpressing GFP-tagged HvBI-1, which shows that P. indica requires host cell death for proliferation in differentiated barley roots. We suggest that the endophyte interferes with the host cell death program to form a mutualistic interaction with plants. PMID:17116870

  12. Chemical Constituents of the New Endophytic Fungus Mycosphaerella sp. nov. and Their Anti-Parasitic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, Eufemio; Varughese, Titto; Spadafora, Carmenza; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.; Gerwick, William H.; Cubilla-Rios, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Chemical investigation of a new endophytic fungus, Mycosphaerella sp. nov. strain F2140 associated with the foliage of the plant Psychotria horizontalis (Rubiaceae) in Panama, resulted in the isolation of cercosporin (1) and a new cercosporin analogue (3) as the major components. The structures of minor compounds in the extract were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis as 2-(2-butyl)-3-hydroxy-6-ethyl-6-methylcyclohex-2-ene-1,5-dione (4), 3-(2-butyl)-6-ethyl-6-methyl-5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-cyclohex-2-eneone (5), and an isomer of 5 (6). To study the influence of the hydroxy groups on the anti-parasitic activity of cercosporin, compound 1 was acetylated to obtain derivative 2. The isolated compounds 1–6 were tested in vitro to determine their anti-parasitic activity against the causal agents of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani), and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi). Also, the cytotoxicity and potential anticancer activity of these compounds were evaluated using mammalian Vero cells and MCF7 cancer cell lines, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed high potency against L. donovani (IC50 0.46 and 0.64 μM), T. cruzi (IC50 1.08 and 0.78 μM), P. falciparum (IC50 1.03 and 2.99 μM), and MCF7 cancer cell lines (IC50 4.68 and 3.56 μM). Compounds 3–6 were not active in these assays at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. PMID:21815421

  13. Chemical constituents of the new endophytic fungus Mycosphaerella sp. nov. and their anti-parasitic activity.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Eufemio; Varughese, Titto; Spadafora, Carmenza; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Coley, Phyllis D; Kursar, Thomas A; Gerwick, William H; Cubilla-Rios, Luis

    2011-06-01

    Chemical investigation of a new endophytic fungus, Mycosphaerella sp. nov. strain F2140, associated with the foliage of the plant Psychotria horizontalis (Rubiaceae) in Panama, resulted in the isolation of cercosporin (1) and a new cercosporin analog (3) as the major components. The structures of minor compounds in the extract were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analysis as 2-(2-butyl)-6-ethyl-3-hydroxy-6-methylcyclohex-2-ene-1,5-dione (4), 3-(2-butyl)-6-ethyl-5-hydroxy-2-methoxy-6-methyl-cyclohex-2-enone (5), and an isomer of 5 (6). To study the influence of the hydroxy groups on the anti-parasitic activity of cercosporin, compound 1 was acetylated to obtain derivative 2. The isolated compounds 1- 6 were tested in vitro to determine their anti-parasitic activity against the causal agents of malaria (Plasmodium falciparum), leishmaniasis (Leishmania donovani), and Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi). Cytotoxicity and potential anticancer activity of these compounds were evaluated using mammalian Vero cells and MCF7 cancer cell lines, respectively. Compounds 1 and 2 displayed high potency against L. donovani (IC50 0.46 and 0.64 microM), T. cruzi (IC50 1.08 and 0.78 microM), P. falciparum (IC50 1.03 and 2.99 microM), and MCF7 cancer cell lines (IC50 4.68 and 3.56 microM). Compounds 3-6 were not active in these assays at a concentration of 10 microg/mL.

  14. A mutualistic symbiosis between a dark septate endophytic fungus, Heteroconium chaetospira, and a nonmycorrhizal plant, Chinese cabbage.

    PubMed

    Usuki, Fumiaki; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2007-01-01

    Symbiotic microorganisms, such as mycorrhizal fungi, are known to associate with most plants; however members of the Cruciferae are an exception. We investigated nutrient exchange between a dark septate endophytic fungus, Heteroconium chaetospira, and Chinese cabbage plants (Cruciferae) in vitro. Chinese cabbage could not use some amino acids, while the fungus-treated plants were able to use all of the nitrogen forms provided. To demonstrate that nitrogen transfer occurs between the fungus and the host plant, we used a hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membrane compartment system, which restricts diffusion and mass flow of ions and allows only fungal penetration. Our results strongly suggest that H. chaetospira provided nitrogen to the plant, rather than the plant mineralizing available organic nitrogen. In addition carbon transfer from the host plant to the fungus was demonstrated with HPLC and (l3)CO2-labeling experiments. When H. chaetospira colonized host plant roots under low glucose condition, ergosterol content in culture pot (as an index of fungal biomass) increased significantly compared to the fungal treatment without a host plant. Sucrose concentration in the host root significantly decreased as a result of fungal colonization, and mannitol (a specific carbon source to fungal cells) increased in the roots. Sucrose and mannitol in the host root treated with the fungus were labeled clearly by 13C after 1C-labeled CO2 was provided to the plant. These results suggest that the fungus obtained carbon, mainly as sucrose, from the host plant. We show for the first time the existence of a fungus establishing a mutualistic association with a nonmycorrhizal Cruciferae plant.

  15. Four new steroids from the endophytic fungus Chaetomium sp. M453 derived of Chinese herbal medicine Huperzia serrata.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei-Xue; Li, Zhe; Chen, Yao; Yang, Yin-He; Li, Guo-Hong; Zhao, Pei-Ji

    2017-03-01

    An endophytic fungus, Chaetomium sp. M453, was isolated from Huperzia serrata (Thunb. ex Murray) Trev. and subjected to phytochemical investigation. Three unusual C25 steroids, neocyclocitrinols E-G (1-3), and 3β-hydroxy-5,9-epoxy-(22E,24R)-ergosta-7,22-dien-6-one (4) together with three known steroids were isolated from solid fermentation products of the fungus, which were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, including 1D-, 2D-NMR, and HR-ESI-MS experiments. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by X-ray crystallographic analysis and CD analyses. The acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities of compounds 1-4 were tested in vitro. Compound 4 showed weak acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity.

  16. Thorium(IV) removal from aqueous medium by citric acid treated mangrove endophytic fungus Fusarium sp. #ZZF51.

    PubMed

    Yang, S K; Tan, N; Yan, X M; Chen, F; Long, W; Lin, Y C

    2013-09-15

    Thorium(IV) biosorption is investigated by citric acid treated mangrove endophytic fungus Fussarium sp. #ZZF51 (CA-ZZF51) from South China Sea. The biosorption process was optimized at pH 4.5, equilibrium time 90 min, initial thorium(IV) concentration 50 mg L(-1) and adsorbent dose 0.6 g L(-1) with 90.87% of removal efficiency and 75.47 mg g(-1) of adsorption capacity, which is obviously greater than that (11.35 mg g(-1)) of the untreated fungus Fussarium sp. #ZZF51 for thorium(IV) biosorption under the condition of optimization. The experimental data are analyzed by using isotherm and kinetic models. Kinetic data follow the pseudo-second-order model and equilibrium data agree very well with the Langmuir model. In addition, FTIR analysis indicates that hydroxyl, amino, and carbonyl groups act as the important roles in the adsorption process.

  17. Biosynthesis of archetypal plant self-defensive oxylipins by an endophytic fungus residing in mangrove embryos.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ling; Peschel, Gundela; Hertweck, Christian

    2012-12-21

    A tree's travel companion: a fungal endophyte (Fusarium incarnatum) isolated from a viviparous propagule (embryo) of a mangrove tree produces typical plant defense oxylipins. Stable-isotope labeling experiments revealed that the endophyte biosynthesizes coriolic acid, didehydrocoriolic acid, and an epoxy fatty acid derived from linoleic acid by a process involving Δ(15)-desaturation and 13-lipoxygenation.

  18. A novel exopolysaccharide elicitor from endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 on volatile oils accumulation in Atractylodes lancea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Fei; Ren, Cheng-Gang; Zhou, Tong; Wei, Yu-Jia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-10-01

    Endophytes and plants can establish specific long-term symbiosis through the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 can stimulate Atractylodes lancea to produce volatile oils. The purpose of this report is to investigate key factors involved in the stimulation of A. lancea by AL12 and reveal the mechanism. We identified the active component from AL12 as an extracellular mannan with a polymerization degree of 26–42. Differential membrane proteomics of A. lancea was performed by 2D electrophoresis. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression of 83 proteins. Based on these results, we conclude that AL12 secreted mannan contributes to the antagonistic balance seen in interactions between AL12 and A. lancea. One portion of the mannan was degraded to mannose for hexokinase activation, promoting photosynthesis and energy metabolism, with a potential metabolic fluxes flowing towards terpenoid biosynthesis. The other portion of the mannan directly enhanced autoimmunity of A. lancea through G protein-mediated signal transduction and the mannan-binding lectin pathway. Volatile oil accumulation was ultimately promoted in subsequent defense reactions. This study provides a new perspective on the regulation of secondary metabolites by endophytic fungal elicitors in medicinal plants.

  19. Specific in situ visualization of the pathogenic endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take, the cause of witches' broom in bamboo.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiji

    2009-07-01

    The endophytic fungus Aciculosporium take (Ascomycota; Clavicipitaceae) causes continuous shoot growth in bamboo. The colonized shoot eventually results in witches' broom formation but maintains normal leaf arrangement and branching pattern. To analyze the mechanism of well-regulated symptom development, the location of the fungal endophytic hyphae in host tissues was visualized. A colorimetric in situ hybridization technique using a species-specific oligonucleotide probe targeting the 18S rRNA of A. take was used. In situ hybridization was performed on tissue sections of diseased shoots with or without external signs of fungal colonization. Specific signals were detected in intercellular spaces of the bamboo tissues. Most signals were detected in the shoot apical meristem and the leaf primordia. In addition, fewer signals were detected in the lateral buds, juvenile leaves, and stems. These results indicate that A. take grows endophytically, particularly in the shoot apical meristem of the host. The location of A. take hyphae suggests that the mechanism of symptom development can be explained by the action of exogenous fungal auxin, which continuously induces primordium initiation within the host.

  20. A novel exopolysaccharide elicitor from endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 on volatile oils accumulation in Atractylodes lancea

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fei; Ren, Cheng-Gang; Zhou, Tong; Wei, Yu-Jia; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes and plants can establish specific long-term symbiosis through the accumulation of secondary metabolites. Previous studies have shown that the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 can stimulate Atractylodes lancea to produce volatile oils. The purpose of this report is to investigate key factors involved in the stimulation of A. lancea by AL12 and reveal the mechanism. We identified the active component from AL12 as an extracellular mannan with a polymerization degree of 26–42. Differential membrane proteomics of A. lancea was performed by 2D electrophoresis. The results showed that there were significant differences in the expression of 83 proteins. Based on these results, we conclude that AL12 secreted mannan contributes to the antagonistic balance seen in interactions between AL12 and A. lancea. One portion of the mannan was degraded to mannose for hexokinase activation, promoting photosynthesis and energy metabolism, with a potential metabolic fluxes flowing towards terpenoid biosynthesis. The other portion of the mannan directly enhanced autoimmunity of A. lancea through G protein-mediated signal transduction and the mannan-binding lectin pathway. Volatile oil accumulation was ultimately promoted in subsequent defense reactions. This study provides a new perspective on the regulation of secondary metabolites by endophytic fungal elicitors in medicinal plants. PMID:27703209

  1. Effect of precursors feeding and media manipulation on production of novel anticancer pro-drug camptothecin from endophytic fungus.

    PubMed

    Amna, Touseef; Amina, Musarat; Sharma, P R; Puri, S C; Al-Youssef, Hanan M; Al-Taweel, Areej M; Qazi, G N

    2012-10-01

    We have established methodology for the isolation and characterization of a novel endophytic fungus from the inner bark of medicinal plant Nothapodytes foetida, which produced camptothecin in Sabouraud broth (SB) under shake flask conditions. Camptothecin and its related compounds are at present obtained by extraction from intact plants, but fungal endopytes may be an alternative source of production. In present study we have observed the effect of different nutrient combinations and precursors (tryptophan, tryptamine, geraniol, citral, mevalonic acid and leucine) on the accumulation of camptothecin by endophytic fungus Entrophospora infrequens. The precursors were fed either alone or in combinations (tryptophan and geraniol, tryptophan and citral, tryptophan and mevalonic acid, tryptophan and leucine). The highest camptothecin content was observed in the range of 503 ± 25µg/100g dry cell mass in Sabouraud medium. Camptothecin content in the medium was increased by 2.5 folds by the presence of tryptophan and leucine whereas the production with trytophan was also significantly different from other treatments. Furthermore, the effect of fungal camptothecin on the morphology of human cancer cell lines was also studied. The treated cells showed reduction in size, condensation of nucleus and the protoplasmic extensions were reduced. All these characteristics are found in apoptotic cells.

  2. Variable effects of endophytic fungus on seedling establishment of fine fescues.

    PubMed

    Wäli, Piippa R; Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Ahlholm, Jouni; Saikkonen, Kari

    2009-02-01

    Seedborne systemic endophytic fungi of grasses are thought to be plant mutualists, because they have been shown to improve their host's resistance against biotic and abiotic stresses. The interactions in plant-endophyte associations vary from mutualistic to parasitic with environmental conditions and the genotypes of interacting species. The possible pros and cons of endophytic fungi are expected to be most evident during the seedling establishment, where host fitness is most directly affected. If this holds true, endophytes may play a focal role in local adaptation of hosts to different environments. We examined if endophyte-infected and uninfected seeds and seedlings of two native grass species, Festuca rubra and F. ovina, differ in seed germination and seedling growth rates under greenhouse conditions. The germination of F. rubra seeds was also studied in the field. This is the first time that the effects of Epichloë endophyte on seedling establishment of fine fescues from natural populations have been experimentally evaluated. Mother plant (seed family) had a marked effect on many response variables in both grass species. Length and mean biomass of tillers of endophyte-infected (E+) F. ovina seedlings were lower, but root:shoot ratios were higher than in endophyte-free (E-) seedlings. In F. rubra, the effects of the endophyte were dependent on the habitat where the seeds were collected. The E+ seeds from river banks germinated faster than E+ seeds from meadows, and E+ seedlings from the river banks produced fewer but taller and heavier tillers than the other seedlings. Our data suggest that the effects of the endophyte infection on the seedling stage of fine fescues are dependent the species of grass, host genetic background and mother plant habitat. The germination strategy and growth form of E+ red fescue seedlings from river banks may be beneficial to surviving in the harsh conditions of that habitat.

  3. The root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica leads to early flowering, higher biomass and altered secondary metabolites of the medicinal plant, Coleus forskohlii

    PubMed Central

    Das, Aparajita; Kamal, Shwet; Shakil, Najam Akhtar; Sherameti, Irena; Oelmüller, Ralf; Dua, Meenakshi; Tuteja, Narendra; Johri, Atul Kumar; Varma, Ajit

    2012-01-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the influence of plant probiotic fungus Piriformospora indica on the medicinal plant C. forskohlii. Interaction of the C. forskohlii with the root endophyte P. indica under field conditions, results in an overall increase in aerial biomass, chlorophyll contents and phosphorus acquisition. The fungus also promoted inflorescence development, consequently the amount of p-cymene in the inflorescence increased. Growth of the root thickness was reduced in P. indica treated plants as they became fibrous, but developed more lateral roots. Because of the smaller root biomass, the content of forskolin was decreased. The symbiotic interaction of C. forskohlii with P. indica under field conditions promoted biomass production of the aerial parts of the plant including flower development. The plant aerial parts are important source of metabolites for medicinal application. Therefore we suggest that the use of the root endophyte fungus P. indica in sustainable agriculture will enhance the medicinally important chemical production. PMID:22301976

  4. Growth Promotion-Related miRNAs in Oncidium Orchid Roots Colonized by the Endophytic Fungus Piriformospora indica

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuling; Chen, Peng-Jen; Xu, Xuming; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2014-01-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica. PMID:24409313

  5. Growth promotion-related miRNAs in Oncidium orchid roots colonized by the endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Ye, Wei; Shen, Chin-Hui; Lin, Yuling; Chen, Peng-Jen; Xu, Xuming; Oelmüller, Ralf; Yeh, Kai-Wun; Lai, Zhongxiong

    2014-01-01

    Piriformospora indica, an endophytic fungus of Sebacinales, colonizes the roots of a wide range of host plants and establishes various benefits for the plants. In this work, we describe miRNAs which are upregulated in Oncidium orchid roots after colonization by the fungus. Growth promotion and vigorous root development were observed in Oncidium hybrid orchid, while seedlings were colonized by P. indica. We performed a genome-wide expression profiling of small RNAs in Oncidium orchid roots either colonized or not-colonized by P. indica. After sequencing, 24,570,250 and 24744,141 clean reads were obtained from two libraries. 13,736 from 17,036,953 unique sequences showed homology to either 86 miRNA families described in 41 plant species, or to 46 potential novel miRNAs, or to 51 corresponding miRNA precursors. The predicted target genes of these miRNAs are mainly involved in auxin signal perception and transduction, transcription, development and plant defense. The expression analysis of miRNAs and target genes demonstrated the regulatory functions they may participate in. This study revealed that growth stimulation of the Oncidium orchid after colonization by P. indica includes an intricate network of miRNAs and their targets. The symbiotic function of P. indica on Oncidium orchid resembles previous findings on Chinese cabbage. This is the first study on growth regulation and development of Oncidium orchid by miRNAs induced by the symbiotic fungus P. indica.

  6. Endophytic colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by the nematophagous fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia reveals plant growth promotion and a general defense and stress transcriptomic response.

    PubMed

    Larriba, Eduardo; Jaime, María D L A; Nislow, Corey; Martín-Nieto, José; Lopez-Llorca, Luis Vicente

    2015-07-01

    Plant crop yields are negatively conditioned by a large set of biotic and abiotic factors. An alternative to mitigate these adverse effects is the use of fungal biological control agents and endophytes. The egg-parasitic fungus Pochonia chlamydosporia has been traditionally studied because of its potential as a biological control agent of plant-parasitic nematodes. This fungus can also act as an endophyte in monocot and dicot plants, and has been shown to promote plant growth in different agronomic crops. An Affymetrix 22K Barley GeneChip was used in this work to analyze the barley root transcriptomic response to P. chlamydosporia root colonization. Functional gene ontology (GO) and gene set enrichment analyses showed that genes involved in stress response were enriched in the barley transcriptome under endophytism. An 87.5% of the probesets identified within the abiotic stress response group encoded heat shock proteins. Additionally, we found in our transcriptomic analysis an up-regulation of genes implicated in the biosynthesis of plant hormones, such as auxin, ethylene and jasmonic acid. Along with these, we detected induction of brassinosteroid insensitive 1-associated receptor kinase 1 (BR1) and other genes related to effector-triggered immunity (ETI) and pattern-triggered immunity (PTI). Our study supports at the molecular level the growth-promoting effect observed in plants endophytically colonized by P. chlamydosporia, which opens the door to further studies addressing the capacity of this fungus to mitigate the negative effects of biotic and abiotic factors on plant crops.

  7. A fungus among us: broad patterns of endophyte distribution in the grasses.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, Jennifer A; Afkhami, Michelle E; Rúa, Megan A; Davitt, Andrew J; Hammer, Samantha; Huguet, Valérie M

    2009-06-01

    Plant-associated microbes have been increasingly recognized for influencing host populations, plant communities, and even herbivores and predators. Thus, understanding factors that affect the distribution and abundance of microbial symbioses may be important for predicting the ecological dynamics of communities. Using endophytic fungi-grass symbioses, we explored how intrinsic traits of the symbiosis, specifically transmission mode, may influence symbiont frequencies in host populations. Combining published literature with new field surveys, we compared Epichloë endophytes, which had mixed horizontal and vertical transmission, with Neotyphodium endophytes, which were exclusively vertically transmitted from host plants to seeds. Exclusively vertical transmission should select against pathogenicity because symbionts depend entirely on hosts for reproduction. Across 118 host species, we found that Neotyphodium hosts had 40-130% higher symbiont frequencies than Epichloë hosts. In field surveys, endophyte frequency was positively correlated with the local density of hosts, but only for Epichloë, suggesting that contagiously spread Epichloë may attain higher frequencies when hosts are more abundant. Epichloë endophytes were also more likely than Neotyphodium to have imperfect vertical transmission; thus, hosts may reduce the transmission of more pathogenic symbionts to seeds. Results are consistent with the conclusion that the evolutionary transition to exclusively vertical transmission can alter patterns of symbiont frequency in nature.

  8. Indolediketopiperazine Alkaloids from Eurotium cristatum EN-220, an Endophytic Fungus Isolated from the Marine Alga Sargassum thunbergii

    PubMed Central

    Du, Feng-Yu; Li, Xin; Li, Xiao-Ming; Zhu, Li-Wei; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2017-01-01

    Four new indolediketopiperazine derivatives (1–4), along with nine known congeners (5–13), were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Eurotium cristatum EN-220, an endophytic fungus obtained from the marine alga Sargassum thunbergii. The structures of thesecompounds were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis and the absolute configurations of compounds 1–4 were established by NOESY experiments and by chiral HPLC analyses of their acid hydrolysates. The absolute configuration of C-8 (a quaternary carbon substituted with a hydroxyl group) in 5 of preechinulin class was firstly determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) calculations. All these compounds were evaluatedfor brine shrimp (Artemia salina) lethality and nematicidal activity as well as antioxidativeand antimicrobial potency. PMID:28125012

  9. Polyketides from the Mangrove-Derived Endophytic Fungus Nectria sp. HN001 and Their α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Hui; Liu, Yayue; Nie, Yang; Liu, Zhaoming; Chen, Senhua; Zhang, Zhengrui; Lu, Yongjun; He, Lei; Huang, Xishan; She, Zhigang

    2016-01-01

    Four new polyketides: nectriacids A–C (1–3) and 12-epicitreoisocoumarinol (4), together with three known compounds: citreoisocoumarinol (5), citreoisocoumarin (6), and macrocarpon C (7) were isolated from the culture of the endophytic fungus Nectria sp. HN001, which was isolated from a fresh branch of the mangrove plant Sonneratia ovata collected from the South China Sea. Their structures were determined by the detailed analysis of NMR and mass spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of the stereogenic carbons for compound 4 was further assigned by Mosher’s ester method. All of the isolated compounds were tested for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity by UV absorbance at 405 nm, and new compounds 2 and 3 exhibited potent inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 23.5 and 42.3 μM, respectively, which were more potent than positive control (acarbose, IC50, 815.3 μM). PMID:27136568

  10. Aromatase inhibitory, radical scavenging, and antioxidant activities of depsidones and diaryl ethers from the endophytic fungus Corynespora cassiicola L36.

    PubMed

    Chomcheon, Porntep; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Sriubolmas, Nongluksna; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Kengtong, Surapong; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2009-02-01

    Isolation of a broth extract of the endophytic fungus Corynespora cassiicola L36 afforded three compounds, corynesidones A (1) and B (3), and corynether A (5), together with a known diaryl ether 7. Compounds 1, 3, 5, and 7 were relatively non-toxic against cancer cells, and inactive toward normal cell line, MRC-5. Corynesidone B (3) exhibited potent radical scavenging activity in the DPPH assay, whose activity was comparable to ascorbic acid. Based on the ORAC assay, compounds 1, 3, 5, and 7 showed potent antioxidant activity. However, the isolated natural substances and their methylated derivatives (1-8) neither inhibited superoxide anion radical formation in the XXO assay nor suppressed TPA-induced superoxide anion generation in HL-60 cell line. Corynesidone A (1) inhibited aromatase activity with an IC(50) value of 5.30 microM.

  11. Avertoxins A-D, Prenyl Asteltoxin Derivatives from Aspergillus versicolor Y10, an Endophytic Fungus of Huperzia serrata.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mingzi; Sun, Mingwei; Hao, Huilin; Lu, Chunhua

    2015-12-24

    Aspergillus versicolor Y10 is an endophytic fungus isolated from Huperzia serrata, which showed inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase. An investigation of the chemical constituents of Y10 led to the isolation of four new prenylated asteltoxin derivatives, named avertoxins A-D (2-5), together with the known mycotoxin asteltoxin (1). In the present study, we report structure elucidation for 2-5 and the revised NMR assignments for asteltoxin and demonstrated that avertoxin B (3) is an active inhibitor against human acetylcholinesterase with the IC50 value of 14.9 μM (huperzine A as the positive control had an IC50 of 0.6 μM). In addition, the cytotoxicity of asteltoxin (1) and avertoxins A-D (2-5) against MDA-MB-231, HCT116, and HeLa cell lines was evaluated.

  12. An Endophytic Fungus, Talaromyces radicus, Isolated from Catharanthus roseus, Produces Vincristine and Vinblastine, Which Induce Apoptotic Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi isolated from Catharanthus roseus were screened for the production of vincristine and vinblastine. Twenty-two endophytic fungi isolated from various tissues of C. roseus were characterized taxonomically by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA and grouped into 10 genera: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Colletotrichum, Dothideomycetes, Eutypella, Eutypa, Flavodon, Fusarium and Talaromyces. The antiproliferative activity of these fungi was assayed in HeLa cells using the MTT assay. The fungal isolates Eutypella sp—CrP14, obtained from stem tissues, and Talaromyces radicus—CrP20, obtained from leaf tissues, showed the strongest antiproliferative activity, with IC50 values of 13.5 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml, respectively. All 22 endophytic fungi were screened for the presence of the gene encoding tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), the key enzyme in the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathway, though this gene could only be amplified from T. radicus—CrP20 (NCBI GenBank accession number KC920846). The production of vincristine and vinblastine by T. radicus—CrP20 was confirmed and optimized in nine different liquid media. Good yields of vincristine (670 μg/l) in modified M2 medium and of vinblastine (70 μg/l) in potato dextrose broth medium were obtained. The cytotoxic activity of partially purified fungal vincristine was evaluated in different human cancer cell lines, with HeLa cells showing maximum susceptibility. The apoptosis-inducing activity of vincristine derived from this fungus was established through cell cycle analysis, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation patterns. PMID:26697875

  13. An Endophytic Fungus, Talaromyces radicus, Isolated from Catharanthus roseus, Produces Vincristine and Vinblastine, Which Induce Apoptotic Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Palem, Padmini P C; Kuriakose, Gini C; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi isolated from Catharanthus roseus were screened for the production of vincristine and vinblastine. Twenty-two endophytic fungi isolated from various tissues of C. roseus were characterized taxonomically by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of rDNA and grouped into 10 genera: Alternaria, Aspergillus, Chaetomium, Colletotrichum, Dothideomycetes, Eutypella, Eutypa, Flavodon, Fusarium and Talaromyces. The antiproliferative activity of these fungi was assayed in HeLa cells using the MTT assay. The fungal isolates Eutypella sp--CrP14, obtained from stem tissues, and Talaromyces radicus--CrP20, obtained from leaf tissues, showed the strongest antiproliferative activity, with IC50 values of 13.5 μg/ml and 20 μg/ml, respectively. All 22 endophytic fungi were screened for the presence of the gene encoding tryptophan decarboxylase (TDC), the key enzyme in the terpenoid indole alkaloid biosynthetic pathway, though this gene could only be amplified from T. radicus--CrP20 (NCBI GenBank accession number KC920846). The production of vincristine and vinblastine by T. radicus--CrP20 was confirmed and optimized in nine different liquid media. Good yields of vincristine (670 μg/l) in modified M2 medium and of vinblastine (70 μg/l) in potato dextrose broth medium were obtained. The cytotoxic activity of partially purified fungal vincristine was evaluated in different human cancer cell lines, with HeLa cells showing maximum susceptibility. The apoptosis-inducing activity of vincristine derived from this fungus was established through cell cycle analysis, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA fragmentation patterns.

  14. Statistical optimization of culture medium for production of exopolysaccharide from endophytic fungus Bionectria ochroleuca and its antitumor effect in vitro.

    PubMed

    Li, Yun; Guo, Shoujun; Zhu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi have been recognized as possible useful sources of bioactive metabolites. However, exopolysaccharide (EPS) production from endophytic fungi and its antitumor activity have been less explored. In the present study, endophtic fungus Bionectria ochroleuca M21 was exploited for the production of EPS in submerged culture. Among tested medium components, glucose, yeast extract, MgSO4 and Tween80 were found to be effective and significant on EPS production. Response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize medium composition. The results showed that the significant factors were glucose, yeast extract and Tween80. The optimal medium was observed at the composition of glucose 55.7 g/L, yeast extract 6.04 g/L, MgSO4 0.25g/L and Tween80 0.1 % (v/v). Using the optimized medium, EPS production was achieve at 2.65 ± 0.16 g/L after 4 days fermentation in a 5L bioreactor. Examination of cytotoxicity showed that the EPS from B. ochroleuca M21 did not have cytotoxic activity on human liver HL-7702 cells at concentration 0.025-1.6 mg/mL. In contrast, the EPS exhibited antiproliferative activities against cell lines of liver cancer (HepG2), gastric cancer (SGC-7901) and colon cancer (HT29) in a dose- and time-dependent manner in the concentration ranges of 0.1-0.45 mg/mL.

  15. Enhancement of diosgenin production in Dioscorea zingiberensis cell cultures by oligosaccharides from its endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiqin; Mao, Ziling; Lou, Jingfeng; Li, Yan; Mou, Yan; Lu, Shiqiong; Peng, Youliang; Zhou, Ligang

    2011-12-19

    The effects of the oligosaccharides from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 as elicitors on diosgenin production in cell suspension cultures of its host Dioscorea zingiberensis were investigated. Three oligosaccharides, DP4, DP7 and DP10, were purified from the oligosaccharide fractions DP2-5, DP5-8 and DP8-12, respectively, which were prepared from the water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide of the endophytic fungus F. oxysporum Dzf17. When the cell cultures were treated with fraction DP5-8 at 20 mg/L on day 26 and harvested on day 32, the maximum diosgenin yield (2.187 mg/L) was achieved, which was 5.65-fold of control (0.387 mg/L). When oligosaccharides DP4, DP7 and DP10 were individually added to 26-day-old D. zingiberensis cell cultures at concentrations of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg/L in medium, DP7 at 6 mg/L was found to significantly enhance diosgenin production, with a yield of 3.202 mg/L, which was 8.27-fold of control. When the cell cultures were treated with DP7 twice on days 24 and 26, and harvested on day 30, both diosgenin content and yield were significantly increased and reached the maximums of 1.159 mg/g dw and 4.843 mg/L, both of which were higher than those of single elicitation, and were 9.19- and 12.38-fold of control, respectively.

  16. Metabolic and transcriptional response of central metabolism affected by root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica under salinity in barley.

    PubMed

    Ghaffari, Mohammad Reza; Ghabooli, Mehdi; Khatabi, Behnam; Hajirezaei, Mohammad Reza; Schweizer, Patrick; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2016-04-01

    The root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica enhances plant adaptation to environmental stress based on general and non-specific plant species mechanisms. In the present study, we integrated the ionomics, metabolomics, and transcriptomics data to identify the genes and metabolic regulatory networks conferring salt tolerance in P. indica-colonized barley plants. To this end, leaf samples were harvested at control (0 mM NaCl) and severe salt stress (300 mM NaCl) in P. indica-colonized and non-inoculated barley plants 4 weeks after fungal inoculation. The metabolome analysis resulted in an identification of a signature containing 14 metabolites and ions conferring tolerance to salt stress. Gene expression analysis has led to the identification of 254 differentially expressed genes at 0 mM NaCl and 391 genes at 300 mM NaCl in P. indica-colonized compared to non-inoculated samples. The integration of metabolome and transcriptome analysis indicated that the major and minor carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and ethylene biosynthesis pathway might play a role in systemic salt-tolerance in leaf tissue induced by the root-colonized fungus.

  17. Comparative research of chemical constituents, antifungal and antitumor properties of ether extracts of Panax ginseng and its endophytic fungus.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Li; Han, Ting; Wu, Jin-Zhong; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Zhang, Hong; Huang, Bao-Kang; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2009-06-01

    The chemical compositions and bioactivities of ether extracts of an endophytic fungus Paecilomyces sp. isolated from Panax ginseng were reported, and the comparative analysis of the constituents, antifungal and antitumor properties of the ether extracts from this fungus and its host ginseng were also conducted. By means of GC/MS technique, 51 compounds of Panax ginseng and 38 compounds of Paecilomyce sp. were determined. It is attractive that the extracts derived from Paecilomyce sp. and ginseng samples contained the same compound falcarinol, a natural pesticide and anti-cancer agent. The ether extracts of Paecilomyce sp., tested at 7.8 microg/ml, completely inhibited the visible growth of Pyricularia oryzae. Furthermore, both extracts were tested against four human pathogenic fungi and showed the IC(80) of Paecilomyce sp. was 4 microg/ml against Trichophyton rubrum, equally to the control. Finally, the in vitro antitumor experience showed that the most of the IC(50) values were all being below 20 microg/ml.

  18. Cytotoxic and Antifungal Constituents Isolated from the Metabolites of Endophytic Fungus DO14 from Dendrobium officinale.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ling-Shang; Jia, Min; Chen, Ling; Zhu, Bo; Dong, Hong-Xiu; Si, Jin-Ping; Peng, Wei; Han, Ting

    2015-12-22

    Two novel cytotoxic and antifungal constituents, (4S,6S)-6-[(1S,2R)-1, 2-dihydroxybutyl]-4-hydroxy-4-methoxytetrahydro-2H-pyran-2-one (1), (6S,2E)-6-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-oxodec-2-enoic acid (2), together with three known compounds, LL-P880γ (3), LL-P880α (4), and Ergosta-5,7,22-trien-3b-ol (5) were isolated from the metabolites of endophytic fungi from Dendrobium officinale. The chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic methods. All the isolated compounds 1-5 were evaluated by cytotoxicity and antifungal effects. Our present results indicated that compounds 1-4 showed notable anti-fungal activities (minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) ≤ 50 μg/mL) for all the tested pathogens including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton rubrum, Aspergillus fumigatus. In addition, compounds 1-4 possessed notable cytotoxcities against human cancer cell lines of HL-60 cells with the IC50 values of below 100 μM. Besides, compounds 1, 2, 4 and 5 showed strong cytotoxities on the LOVO cell line with the IC50 values were lower than 100 μM. In conclusion, our study suggested that endophytic fungi of D. officinale are great potential resources to discover novel agents for preventing or treating pathogens and tumors.

  19. Penialidins A-C with strong antibacterial activities from Penicillium sp., an endophytic fungus harboring leaves of Garcinia nobilis.

    PubMed

    Jouda, Jean-Bosco; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Mouafo Talontsi, Ferdinand; Douala Meli, Clovis; Wandji, Jean; Spiteller, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Three new polyketides named penialidins A-C (1-3), along with one known compound, citromycetin (4), were isolated from an endophytic fungus, Penicillium sp., harbored in the leaves of the Cameroonian medicinal plant Garcinia nobilis. Their structures were elucidated by means of spectroscopic and spectrometric methods (NMR and HRMS(n)). The antibacterial efficacies of the new compounds (1-3) were tested against the clinically-important risk group 2 (RG2) bacterial strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The ecologically imposing strains of E. coli (RG1), Bacillus subtilis and Acinetobacter sp. BD4 were also included in the assay. Compound 3 exhibited pronounced activity against the clinically-relevant S. aureus as well as against B. subtilis comparable to that of the reference standard (streptomycin). Compound 2 was also highly-active against S. aureus. By comparing the structures of the three new compounds (1-3), it was revealed that altering the substitutions at C-10 and C-2 can significantly increase the antibacterial activity of 1.

  20. Extraction optimization of water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide from endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 by response surface methodology.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiqin; Lu, Shiqiong; Shan, Tijiang; Mou, Yan; Li, Yan; Sun, Weibo; Zhou, Ligang

    2012-01-01

    Water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (WPS) from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis was found to be an efficient elicitor to enhance diosgenin accumulation in D. zingigerensis cultures, and also demonstrated antioxidant activity. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction process of WPS from F. oxysporum Dzf17 using Box-Behnken design (BBD). The ranges of the factors investigated were 1-3 h for extraction time (X(1)), 80-100 °C for extraction temperature (X(2)), and 20-40 (v/w) for ratio of water volume (mL) to raw material weight (g) (X(3)). The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. Statistical analysis showed that the polynomial regression model was in good agreement with the experimental results with the determination coefficient (R(2)) of 0.9978. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the response surface contour plots, the extraction parameters were optimized as 1.7 h for extraction time, 95 °C for extraction temperature, 39 (v/w) for ratio of water volume (mL) to raw material weight (g), and with 2 extractions. The maximum value (10.862%) of WPS yield was obtained when the WPS extraction process was conducted under the optimal conditions.

  1. Extraction Optimization of Water-Extracted Mycelial Polysaccharide from Endophytic Fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 by Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peiqin; Lu, Shiqiong; Shan, Tijiang; Mou, Yan; Li, Yan; Sun, Weibo; Zhou, Ligang

    2012-01-01

    Water-extracted mycelial polysaccharide (WPS) from the endophytic fungus Fusarium oxysporum Dzf17 isolated from Dioscorea zingiberensis was found to be an efficient elicitor to enhance diosgenin accumulation in D. zingigerensis cultures, and also demonstrated antioxidant activity. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the extraction process of WPS from F. oxysporum Dzf17 using Box-Behnken design (BBD). The ranges of the factors investigated were 1–3 h for extraction time (X1), 80–100 °C for extraction temperature (X2), and 20–40 (v/w) for ratio of water volume (mL) to raw material weight (g) (X3). The experimental data obtained were fitted to a second-order polynomial equation using multiple regression analysis. Statistical analysis showed that the polynomial regression model was in good agreement with the experimental results with the determination coefficient (R2) of 0.9978. By solving the regression equation and analyzing the response surface contour plots, the extraction parameters were optimized as 1.7 h for extraction time, 95 °C for extraction temperature, 39 (v/w) for ratio of water volume (mL) to raw material weight (g), and with 2 extractions. The maximum value (10.862%) of WPS yield was obtained when the WPS extraction process was conducted under the optimal conditions. PMID:22754306

  2. Potential of the Endophytic Fungus Phialocephala fortinii Rac56 Found in Rhodiola Plants to Produce Salidroside and p-Tyrosol.

    PubMed

    Cui, Jinlong; Guo, Tingting; Chao, Jianbin; Wang, Mengliang; Wang, Junhong

    2016-04-16

    2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)ehyl-β-D-glucopyranoside (salidroside) and 4-(2-hydroxyethyl)phenol (p-tyrosol) are famous food and medicine additives originally derived from alpine Rhodiola plants. Salidroside or p-tyrosol production by the endophytic fungus Rac56 (Phialocephala fortinii) was confirmed by UPLC/Q-TOF-MS and ¹H-NMR. The fermentation conditions were optimized by orthogonal design using data processing system software. The broth fermentation results showed that salidroside and p-tyrosol extraction yields from Rac56 were stable and reached 1.729 ± 0.06 mg and 1.990 ± 0.05 mg per mL of culture medium, respectively. The optimal conditions for salidroside and p-tyrosol production in fermentation culture of Rac56 were determined to be 25 °C, pH values of 7 and 5, Czapek-Dox culture medium volumes of 150 mL and 50 mL in 250 mL flasks, rotation speeds of 100× g and 200× g, and fermentation durations of 7 and 15 days, respectively. Under these optimal conditions, stable yields of 2.339 ± 0.1093 mg and 2.002 ± 0.0009 mg per mL of culture medium of salidroside and p-tyrosol, respectively, were obtained, indicating that the P. fortinii Rac56 strain is a promising source of these compounds.

  3. Endophytic fungi associated with cacti in Arizona.

    PubMed

    Suryanarayanan, Trichur S; Wittlinger, Sally K; Faeth, Stanley H

    2005-05-01

    21 cactus species occurring in various localities within Arizona were screened for the presence of fungal endophytes. 900 endophyte isolates belonging to 22 fungal species were isolated. Cylindropuntia fulgida had the maximum endophyte species diversity, while C. ramosissima harboured the maximum number of endophyte isolates. Alternaria sp., Aureobasidium pullulans, and Phoma spp. were isolated from several cactus species. The diversity of the endophyte assemblages was low and no host specificity among endophytes was observed. However, the frequencies of colonization of the few endophyte species recovered were high and comparable to those reported for tropical plant hosts. Species of Colletotrichum, Phomopsis, and Phyllosticta, which are commonly isolated as endophytes from plants of more mesic habitats, were absent from these cacti.

  4. Metabolites from Aspergillus fumigatus, an endophytic fungus associated with Melia azedarach, and their antifungal, antifeedant, and toxic activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Jun; Zhang, Qiang; Zhang, An-Ling; Gao, Jin-Ming

    2012-04-04

    Thirty-nine fungal metabolites 1-39, including two new alkaloids, 12β-hydroxy-13α-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6) and 3-hydroxyfumiquinazoline A (16), were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus fumigatus LN-4, an endophytic fungus isolated from the stem bark of Melia azedarach. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis (mass spectrometry and one- and two-dimensional NMR experiments) and by comparison of their NMR data with those reported in the literature. These isolated compounds were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activities against some phytopathogenic fungi, toxicity against brine shrimps, and antifeedant activities against armyworm larvae (Mythimna separata Walker). Among them, sixteen compounds showed potent antifungal activities against phytopathogenic fungi (Botrytis cinerea, Alternaria solani, Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium solani, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. niveum, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. vasinfectum, and Gibberella saubinettii), and four of them, 12β-hydroxy-13α-methoxyverruculogen TR-2 (6), fumitremorgin B (7), verruculogen (8), and helvolic acid (39), exhibited antifungal activities with MIC values of 6.25-50 μg/mL, which were comparable to the two positive controls carbendazim and hymexazol. In addition, of eighteen that exerted moderate lethality toward brine shrimps, compounds 7 and 8 both showed significant toxicities with median lethal concentration (LC(50)) values of 13.6 and 15.8 μg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, among nine metabolites that were found to possess antifeedant activity against armyworm larvae, compounds 7 and 8 gave the best activity with antifeedant indexes (AFI) of 50.0% and 55.0%, respectively. Structure-activity relationships of the metabolites were also discussed.

  5. Optimizing production of asperolide A, a potential anti-tumor tetranorditerpenoid originally produced by the algal-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus wentii EN-48

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Rui; Li, Xiaoming; Xu, Gangming; Wang, Bingui

    2016-07-01

    The marine algal-derived endophytic fungus Aspergillus wentii EN-48 produces the potential anti-tumor agent asperolide A, a tetranorlabdane diterpenoid active against lung cancer. However, the fermentation yield of asperolide A was very low and only produced in static cultures. Static fermentation conditions of A. wentii EN-48 were optimized employing response surface methodology to enhance the production of asperolide A. The optimized conditions resulted in a 13.9-fold yield enhancement, which matched the predicted value, and the optimized conditions were successfully used in scale-up fermentation for the production of asperolide A. Exogenous addition of plant hormones (especially 10 μmol/L methyl jasmonate) stimulated asperolide A production. To our knowledge, this is first optimized production of an asperolide by a marine-derived fungus. The optimization is Effective and valuable to supply material for further anti-tumor mechanism studies and preclinical evaluation of asperolide A and other norditerpenoids.

  6. Characterization of a novel dsRNA element in the pine endophytic fungus Diplodia scrobiculata.

    PubMed

    De Wet, Juanita; Bihon, Wubetu; Preisig, Oliver; Wingfield, Brenda D; Wingfield, Michael J

    2011-07-01

    Diplodia scrobiculata and Diplodia pinea are endophytic fungi associated with dieback and cankers of mainly Pinus spp. in many parts of the world. These two fungi are closely related and have, in the past, been considered to represent two morphological forms (A and B morphotypes) of D. pinea. dsRNA elements are known to occur in both D. scrobiculata and D. pinea. Two dsRNA elements from D. pinea, SsRV1 and SsRV2, have been characterized previously. The aim of this study was to characterize a third dsRNA element that is most commonly associated with D. scrobiculata and to determine its phylogenetic relationship to other mycoviruses. The 5018-bp genome of this element was sequenced, and it is referred to as D. scrobiculata RNA virus 1, or DsRV1. It has two open reading frames (ORFs), one of which codes for a putative polypeptide with a high degree of similarity to proteins of the vacuolar protein-sorting (VPS) machinery, and the other for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). Phylogenetic comparisons based on amino acid sequence alignments of the RdRp revealed that DsRV1 is closely related to a dsRNA element isolated from Phlebiopsis gigantea (PgV2), and they grouped separately from virus families in which mycoviruses have previously been described. Although D. pinea and D. scrobiculata are closely related, DsRV1 does not share high sequence identity with SsRV1 or SsRV2, and they probably have different recent evolutionary origins.

  7. A mutualistic interaction between a fungivorous nematode and a fungus within the endophytic community of Bromus tectorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In its invaded range in western North America, Bromus tectorum can host more than 100 sequence-based phylotypes of endophytic fungi of which an individual cheatgrass plant hosts a subset. In general, research suggests that recruitment of a particular subset of endophytes by an individual plant will...

  8. Screening for differentially expressed genes in endophytic fungus strain 39 during co-culture with herbal extract of its host Dioscorea nipponica Makino.

    PubMed

    Ding, Chang-Hong; Du, Xiao-Wei; Xu, Ying; Xu, Xiao-Meng; Mou, Jin-Chao; Yu, Dan; Wu, Jun-Kai; Meng, Fan-Jia; Liu, Yan; Wang, Wan-Li; Wang, Li-Juan

    2014-10-01

    Strain 39 is an endophytic fungus which was isolated from Dioscorea nipponica Makino (DNM). After Strain 39 co-cultured with ethanol extract of DNM rhizomes for several days, the content of saponins in this culture mixture would be obviously increased. To analyze the mechanism of this microbial transformation, we used the differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) method to compare the transcriptomes between Strain 39 cultured in normal PD medium and in PD medium which added ethanol extract of DNM rhizomes. We amplified 29 DDRT-PCR bands using 12 primer combinations of three anchored primers and five random primers, and six bands were re-amplified. Analysis of real-time PCR and sequence alignment showed that three clones were up-regulated in sample group: squalene epoxidase, squalene synthase, and catalase, one clone was expressed only in sample group. The possible roles and origins of the above genes were discussed, and the molecular mechanism of Strain 39 biotransformation was speculated. This study is the first report of the molecular biotransformation mechanism of saponins production by endophytic fungus of DNM.

  9. Whole-Genome Shotgun Sequence of Bacillus mojavensis Strain RRC101, an Endophytic Bacterium Antagonistic to the Mycotoxigenic Endophytic Fungus Fusrium verticillioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Here we report the whole genome shotgun sequence of Bacillus mojavensis strain RRC101, isolated from a maize kernel. This strain is antagonistic to the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen Fusarium verticillioides, and grows within maize tissue, suggesting potential as an endophytic biocontrol agent....

  10. Thielavins A, J and K: α-Glucosidase inhibitors from MEXU 27095, an endophytic fungus from Hintonia latiflora.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Chávez, José; González-Andrade, Martín; González, María del Carmen; Glenn, Anthony E; Mata, Rachel

    2013-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the bio-active organic extract obtained from solid-media culture of MEXU 27095, an endophytic fungus isolated from the Mexican medicinal plant Hintonia latiflora (Rubiaceae), led to separation of three tridepsides which were identified as thielavins A, J and K. All three compounds inhibited Saccharomyces cerevisieae α-glucosidase (αGHY) in a concentration-dependent manner with IC50 values of 23.8, 15.8, and 22.1μM, respectively. Their inhibitory action was higher than that of acarbose (IC50=545μM), used as a positive control. Kinetic analysis established that the three compounds acted as non-competitive inhibitors with ki values of 27.8, 66.2 and 55.4μM, respectively (α=1.0, 1.2, 0.7, respectively); acarbose behaved as competitive inhibitor with a ki value of 156.1μM. Thielavin J inhibited the activity of α-glucosidase from Bacillus stearothermophilus (αGHBs) with an IC50 of 30.5μM, being less active than acarbose (IC50=0. 015μM); in this case, compound (2) (ki=20.0μM and α=2.9) and acarbose (ki=0.008μM and α=1.9) behaved as non-competitive inhibitors. Docking analysis predicted that all three thielavins and acarbose bind to homologated αGHBs and to αGHY (PDB: 3A4A) in a pocket close to the catalytic site for maltose and isomaltose, respectively. The α-glucosidase inhibitory properties of thielavin K (3) were corroborated in vivo since it induced a noted antihyperglycemic action during an oral sucrose tolerance test (3.1, 10.0 and 31.6mg/kg) in normal and nicotinamide-streptozotocin diabetic mice. In addition, at a dose of 10mg/kg, it provoked a moderate hypoglycemic activity in diabetic mice.

  11. Identification of (+)-phyllocladene, (--)-sandaracopimaradiene, and (+)-kaurene as new fungal metabolites from fusicoccin-producing Phomopsis amygdali F6.

    PubMed

    Kenmoku, Hiromichi; Tanaka, Mio; Ogiyama, Koichi; Kato, Nobuo; Sassa, Takeshi

    2004-07-01

    A chemical analysis of the diterpene hydrocarbons produced by fusicoccin-producing fungus Phomopsis amygdali F6 identified five phyllocladene-related tri- and tetracyclic diterpene hydrocarbons. The presence of (+)-phyllocladene, (--)-sandaracopimaradiene, (+)-isopimara-8,15-diene, and (+)-pimara-8(14),15-diene in the fungus was demonstrated by GC-MS, 1H-NMR, and [alpha]D measurements. (+)-Kaurene was also identified by GC-MS and chiral capillary GC. The possible biosynthetic relationship of these metabolites is discussed.

  12. Gibberella moniliformis AH13 with antitumor activity, an endophytic fungus strain producing triolein isolated from Adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi: poaceae).

    PubMed

    Jia, Min; Ming, Qian-Liang; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Chen, Yu; Cheng, Nuo; Wu, Wen-wen; Han, Ting; Qin, Lu-Ping

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the isolation of an endophytic fungus from the leaves of the medicinal herb adlay (Coix lacryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is reported for the first time. The fungus produced Triolein (trioleoylglycerol), a major constituent of triacylglycerols (TAGs) of adlay, in rice medium under shake-flask and bench-scale fermentation conditions. The fungus was identified as Gibberella moniliformis (Fusarium verticillioides) by its morphology and authenticated by ITS analysis (ITS1 and ITS2 regions and the intervening 5.8S rDNA region). Triolein was identified by HPLC-ELSD coupled with APCI-MS and confirmed through comparison with authentic standard. The concentration of triolein produced by G. moniliformis AH13 reached 2.536 ± 0.006 mg/g dry weight of mycelium. Moreover, the EtOAc extract of G. moniliformis AH13 showed strong antitumor activity against four types of tumor cells (A549, HCT116, MDA-MB-231, and SW1990). These results suggest that G. moniliformis AH13 in adlay has significant scientific and industrial potential to meet the pharmaceutical demands and sustainable energy requirements for TAGs in a cost-effective, easily accessible, and reproducible way and is also a potential novel source of natural antitumor bioactive agents.

  13. Genome sequencing of phomopsis longicolla type strain twh p74 causing phomopsis seed decay in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis longicolla (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay in soybean. We report the de novo assembled draft genome sequence of P. longicolla type strain TWH P74. The resulting draft genome was estimated to be approximately 64 Mb in size with an overall G+C content...

  14. 4-Phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolone derivatives from Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus isolated from the mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa.

    PubMed

    An, Chun-Yan; Li, Xiao-Ming; Luo, Han; Li, Chun-Shun; Wang, Ming-Hui; Xu, Gang-Ming; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2013-10-25

    Six new 4-phenyl-3,4-dihydroquinolone derivatives (1-6) along with the related aflaquinolone A (7) were isolated and identified from the cultures of Aspergillus nidulans MA-143, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh leaves of the marine mangrove plant Rhizophora stylosa. Their structures including absolute configurations were determined by spectroscopic analysis and electronic circular dichroism experiments, and the structure of compound 1 was confirmed by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analysis. In bioscreening experiments, none of the isolated compounds showed potent antibacterial or cytotoxic activity. However, compounds 2, 3, and 7 exhibited lethality against brine shrimp (Artemia salina), with LD50 values of 7.1, 4.5, and 5.5 μM, respectively.

  15. Chermesins A-D: Meroterpenoids with a Drimane-Type Spirosesquiterpene Skeleton from the Marine Algal-Derived Endophytic Fungus Penicillium chermesinum EN-480.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hui; Li, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Jia-Ning; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2016-04-22

    Chermesins A-D (1-4), four new spiromeroterpenoids containing a drimane-type sesquiterpene skeleton, were isolated and identified from the culture extract of Penicillium chermesinum EN-480, an endophytic fungus obtained from the inner tissue of the marine red alga Pterocladiella tenuis. The structures of these new spiromeroterpenoids were elucidated based on detailed spectroscopic analyses, and their absolute configurations were confirmed by single-crystal X-ray diffraction experiments and by ECD data. This is the first report of the crystal structures of spiromeroterpenoids that contain a drimane-type sesquiterpene skeleton with a rare cyclohexa-2,5-dienone unit, which resulted in the unambiguous assignment of their relative and absolute configurations. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antibacterial activity against the opportunistic pathogen Micrococcus luteus, with an MIC value of 8 μg/mL.

  16. A novel stereo bioactive metabolite isolated from an endophytic fungus induces caspase dependent apoptosis and STAT-3 inhibition in human leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Pathania, Anup Singh; Guru, Santosh Kumar; Ul Ashraf, Nissar; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Ali, Asif; Abdullah Tasduq, Sheikh; Malik, Fayaz; Bhushan, Shashi

    2015-10-15

    The present study describes the anti-leukemic potential of a novel stereo bioactive secondary metabolite, (R)-5-hydroxy-2-methylchroman-4-one (HMC) isolated from a novel endophytic fungus source (Cryptosporiopsis sp. H2-1, NFCCI-2856), associated with Clidemia hirta. HMC inhibited cell proliferation of different cancer cell lines with IC50 values in the range of 8-55 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity window of HMC was 6-12 times lower in normal cells as compared to susceptible leukemic HL-60, MOLT-4 and K-562 cells. It persuades apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways in above leukemic cell lines, which was evident through Hoechst staining, Annexin-V binding, cell cycle analysis, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm), release of cytochrome c, Bax, Bid, over-expression of apical death receptors, activation of caspase-3,-8,-9 and PARP (poly ADP ribose polymerase) cleavage. HMC induced caspase dependent apoptosis and robustly attenuate transcription factor, p-STAT-3 in myeloid and lymphoid leukemia cells. The mechanism of HMC arbitrated inhibition of p-STAT-3 was due to the activation of ubiquitin dependent degradation of p-STAT-3. Therefore, our study not only describes the anti-leukemic potential of HMC but also provides insights into how endophytes can be useful in discovery and development of novel anticancer therapeutics.

  17. Pervasive effects of a dominant foliar endophytic fungus on host genetic and phenotypic expression in a tropical tree

    PubMed Central

    Mejía, Luis C.; Herre, Edward A.; Sparks, Jed P.; Winter, Klaus; García, Milton N.; Van Bael, Sunshine A.; Stitt, Joseph; Shi, Zi; Zhang, Yufan; Guiltinan, Mark J.; Maximova, Siela N.

    2014-01-01

    It is increasingly recognized that macro-organisms (corals, insects, plants, vertebrates) consist of both host tissues and multiple microbial symbionts that play essential roles in their host's ecological and evolutionary success. Consequently, identifying benefits and costs of symbioses, as well as mechanisms underlying them are research priorities. All plants surveyed under natural conditions harbor foliar endophytic fungi (FEF) in their leaf tissues, often at high densities. Despite producing no visible effects on their hosts, experiments have nonetheless shown that FEF reduce pathogen and herbivore damage. Here, combining results from three genomic, and two physiological experiments, we demonstrate pervasive genetic and phenotypic effects of the apparently asymptomatic endophytes on their hosts. Specifically, inoculation of endophyte-free (E−) Theobroma cacao leaves with Colletotrichum tropicale (E+), the dominant FEF species in healthy T. cacao, induces consistent changes in the expression of hundreds of host genes, including many with known defensive functions. Further, E+ plants exhibited increased lignin and cellulose content, reduced maximum rates of photosynthesis (Amax), and enrichment of nitrogen-15 and carbon-13 isotopes. These phenotypic changes observed in E+ plants correspond to changes in expression of specific functional genes in related pathways. Moreover, a cacao gene (Tc00g04254) highly up-regulated by C. tropicale also confers resistance to pathogen damage in the absence of endophytes or their products in host tissues. Thus, the benefits of increased pathogen resistance in E+ plants are derived in part from up-regulation of intrinsic host defense responses, and appear to be offset by potential costs including reduced photosynthesis, altered host nitrogen metabolism, and endophyte heterotrophy of host tissues. Similar effects are likely in most plant-endophyte interactions, and should be recognized in the design and interpretation of genetic

  18. Metabolite and gene expression studies in endophyte infected and uninfected tall fescue under water deficit stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue plants symbiotic with the endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum (E+), have better survivability and persistence under stressful conditions, especially under drought stress, than plants lacking the endophyte (E-). To understand more about the grass-endophyte interactions, how endop...

  19. Elucidating differences in gene expression of Epichloe coenophiala endophytic fungus in reproductive vs. vegetative tissues of tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The tall fescue – Epichloe coenophiala symbiotic system is the most extensively studied of any grass-microbe symbiosis, mainly because of its economic importance worldwide. This is also an extraordinarily stable and mutualistic symbiosis where the endophyte colonizes both vegetative and reproductive...

  20. Alkaloid Quantities in Endophyte-Infected Tall Fescue are Affected by the Plant-Fungus Combination and Environment.

    PubMed

    Helander, M; Phillips, T; Faeth, S H; Bush, L P; McCulley, R; Saloniemi, I; Saikkonen, K

    2016-02-01

    Many grass species are symbiotic with systemic, vertically-transmitted, asymptomatic Epichloë endophytic fungi. These fungi often produce alkaloids that defend the host against herbivores. We studied how environmental variables affect alkaloids in endophyte-infected tall fescue (Schedonorus phoenix) from three Northern European wild origins and the widely planted US cultivar 'Kentucky-31' (KY31). The plants were grown in identical common garden experiments in Finland and Kentucky for two growing seasons. Plants were left as controls (C) or given water (W), nutrient (N) or water and nutrient (WN) treatments. For 8-10 replications of each plant origin and treatment combination in both experiments, we analyzed ergot alkaloids, lysergic acid, and lolines. In Finland, tall fescue plants produced 50 % more ergot alkaloids compared to plants of the same origin and treatments in Kentucky. Origin of the plants affected the ergot alkaloid concentration at both study sites: the wild origin plants produced 2-4 times more ergot alkaloids than KY31, but the ergot alkaloid concentration of KY31 plants was the same at both locations. Overall lysergic acid content was 60 % higher in plants grown in Kentucky than in those grown in Finland. Nutrient treatments (N, WN) significantly increased ergot alkaloid concentrations in plants from Finland but not in plants from Kentucky. These results suggest that the success of KY31 in US is not due to selection for high ergot alkaloid production but rather other traits associated with the endophyte. In addition, the environmental effects causing variation in alkaloid production of grass-endophyte combinations should be taken into account when using endophyte-infected grasses agriculturally.

  1. An endophyte of Picrorhiza kurroa Royle ex. Benth, producing menthol, phenylethyl alcohol and 3-hydroxypropionic acid, and other volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Masroor; Deshidi, Ramesh; Shah, Bhawal Ali; Bindu, Kushal; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2015-10-01

    An endophytic fungus, PR4 was found in nature associated with the rhizome of Picrorhiza kurroa, a high altitude medicinal plant of Kashmir Himalayas. The fungus was found to inhibit the growth of several phyto-pathogens by virtue of its volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Molecular phylogeny, based on its ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 ribosomal gene sequence, revealed the identity of the fungus as Phomopsis/Diaporthe sp. This endophyte was found to produce a unique array of VOCs, particularly, menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, (+)-isomenthol, β-phellandrene, β-bisabolene, limonene, 3-pentanone and 1-pentanol. The purification of compounds from the culture broth of PR4 led to the isolation of 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HPA) as a major metabolite. This is the first report of a fungal culture producing a combination of biologically and industrially important metabolites—menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA. The investigation into the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway of PR4 led to the partial characterization of isopiperitenone reductase (ipr) gene, which seems to be significantly distinct from the plant homologue. The biosynthesis of plant-like-metabolites, such as menthol, is of significant academic and industrial significance. This study indicates that PR4 is a potential candidate for upscaling of menthol, phenylethyl alcohol, and 3-HPA, as well as for understanding the menthol/monoterpene biosynthetic pathway in fungi.

  2. There are many ways to be a mutualist: endophytic fungus reduces plant survival but increases population growth.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, Jennifer A; Miller, Tom E X; Ziegler, Shaun M; Craven, Kelly D

    2012-03-01

    One of the challenges to quantifying the costs and benefits of symbiosis is that symbionts can influence different components of host fitness. To improve understanding of the ecology of inherited symbionts, we developed general theory for a perennial host-hereditary symbiont interaction, in which symbionts can have independent and potentially opposing effects on host regeneration and survival. The model showed that negative effects on one component of fitness may be outweighed by positive effects on another, leading to a net positive impact of symbiosis on population growth. Model predictions depended on the availability of suitable patches, which influenced the relative contributions of survival vs. regeneration to host fitness. We then used experimental symbiont removal to quantify effects of a hereditary, fungal endophyte on a grass host. Endophyte presence strongly reduced host survival but increased regeneration. Application of the model revealed that negative effects on plant survival were overwhelmed by beneficial effects on regeneration, resulting in stable endophyte persistence at 100% frequency, consistent with field observations. Our work demonstrates the utility of a demographic perspective for predicting the dynamics of symbioses and supports the hypothesis that symbionts function as mutualists when host and symbiont fitness are coupled through vertical transmission.

  3. The bZIP transcription factor PfZipA regulates secondary metabolism and oxidative stress response in the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuna; Wu, Fan; Liu, Ling; Liu, Xingzhong; Che, Yongsheng; Keller, Nancy P; Guo, Liyun; Yin, Wen-Bing

    2015-08-01

    The bZIP transcription factors are conserved in all eukaryotes and play critical roles in organismal responses to environmental challenges. In filamentous fungi, several lines of evidence indicate that secondary metabolism (SM) is associated with oxidative stress mediated by bZIP proteins. Here we uncover a connection with a bZIP protein and oxidative stress induction of SM in the plant endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis fici. A homology search of the P. fici genome with the bZIP protein RsmA, involved in SM and the oxidative stress response in Aspergillus nidulans, identified PfZipA. Deletion of PfzipA resulted in a strain that displayed resistant to the oxidative reagents tert-butylhydroperoxide (tBOOH), diamide, and menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB), but increased sensitivity to H2O2 as compared to wild type (WT). Secondary metabolite production presented a complex pattern dependent on PfzipA and oxidative reagents. Without oxidative treatment, the ΔPfzipA strain produced less isosulochrin and ficipyroneA than WT; addition of tBOOH further decreased production of iso-A82775C and pestaloficiol M in ΔPfzipA; diamide treatment resulted in equivalent production of isosulochrin and ficipyroneA in the two strains; MSB treatment further decreased production of RES1214-1 and iso-A82775C but increased pestaloficiol M production in the mutant; and H2O2 treatment resulted in enhanced production of isosulochrin, RES1214-1 and pestheic acid but decreased ficipyroneA and pestaloficiol M in ΔPfzipA compared to WT. Our results suggest that PfZipA regulation of SM is modified by oxidative stress pathways and provide insights into a possible role of PfZipA in mediating SM synthesis in the endophytic lifestyle of P. fici.

  4. Abiotic stresses and endophyte effects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Abiotic stresses consist of nonorganismal, nonpathogenic factors that inhibit plant function. Tall fescue [Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) Darbysh.] is widely symbiotic with a naturally occurring endophytic fungus [Neotyphodium coenophialum (Morgan-Jones and Gams) Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin], which con...

  5. PiHOG1, a stress regulator MAP kinase from the root endophyte fungus Piriformospora indica, confers salinity stress tolerance in rice plants

    PubMed Central

    Jogawat, Abhimanyu; Vadassery, Jyothilakshmi; Verma, Nidhi; Oelmüller, Ralf; Dua, Meenakshi; Nevo, Eviatar; Johri, Atul Kumar

    2016-01-01

    In this study, yeast HOG1 homologue from the root endophyte Piriformospora indica (PiHOG1) was isolated and functionally characterized. Functional expression of PiHOG1 in S. cerevisiae ∆hog1 mutant restored osmotolerance under high osmotic stress. Knockdown (KD) transformants of PiHOG1 generated by RNA interference in P. indica showed that genes for the HOG pathway, osmoresponse and salinity tolerance were less stimulated in KD-PiHOG1 compared to the wild-type under salinity stress. Furthermore, KD lines are impaired in the colonization of rice roots under salinity stress of 200 mM NaCl, and the biomass of the host plants, their shoot and root lengths, root number, photosynthetic pigment and proline contents were reduced as compared to rice plants colonized by WT P. indica. Therefore, PiHOG1 is critical for root colonisation, salinity tolerance and the performance of the host plant under salinity stress. Moreover, downregulation of PiHOG1 resulted not only in reduced and delayed phosphorylation of the remaining PiHOG1 protein in colonized salinity-stressed rice roots, but also in the downregulation of the upstream MAP kinase genes PiPBS2 and PiSSK2 involved in salinity tolerance signalling in the fungus. Our data demonstrate that PiHOG1 is not only involved in the salinity response of P. indica, but also helping host plant to overcome salinity stress. PMID:27849025

  6. Epigenetic modifier induced enhancement of fumiquinazoline C production in Aspergillus fumigatus (GA-L7): an endophytic fungus from Grewia asiatica L.

    PubMed

    Magotra, Ankita; Kumar, Manjeet; Kushwaha, Manoj; Awasthi, Praveen; Raina, Chand; Gupta, Ajai Prakash; Shah, Bhahwal A; Gandhi, Sumit G; Chaubey, Asha

    2017-12-01

    Present study relates to the effect of valproic acid, an epigenetic modifier on the metabolic profile of Aspergillus fumigatus (GA-L7), an endophytic fungus isolated from Grewia asiatica L. Seven secondary metabolites were isolated from A. fumigatus (GA-L7) which were identified as: pseurotin A, pseurotin D, pseurotin F2, fumagillin, tryprostatin C, gliotoxin and bis(methylthio)gliotoxin. Addition of valproic acid in the growth medium resulted in the alteration of secondary metabolic profile with an enhanced production of a metabolite, fumiquinazoline C by tenfolds. In order to assess the effect of valproic acid on the biosynthetic pathway of fumiquinazoline C, we studied the expression of the genes involved in its biosynthesis, both in the valproic acid treated and untreated control culture. The results revealed that all the genes i.e. Afua_6g 12040, Afua_6g 12050, Afua_6g 12060, Afua_6g 12070 and Afua_6g 12080, involved in the biosynthesis of fumiquinazoline C were overexpressed significantly by 7.5, 8.8, 3.4, 5.6 and 2.1 folds respectively, resulting in overall enhancement of fumiquinazoline C production by about tenfolds.

  7. Transcriptome Analysis Reveals the Genetic Basis of the Resveratrol Biosynthesis Pathway in an Endophytic Fungus (Alternaria sp. MG1) Isolated from Vitis vinifera

    PubMed Central

    Che, Jinxin; Shi, Junling; Gao, Zhenhong; Zhang, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Alternaria sp. MG1, an endophytic fungus previously isolated from Merlot grape, produces resveratrol from glucose, showing similar metabolic flux to the phenylpropanoid biosynthesis pathway, currently found solely in plants. In order to identify the resveratrol biosynthesis pathway in this strain at the gene level, de novo transcriptome sequencing was conducted using Illumina paired-end sequencing. A total of 22,954,434 high-quality reads were assembled into contigs and 18,570 unigenes were identified. Among these unigenes, 14,153 were annotated in the NCBI non-redundant protein database and 5341 were annotated in the Swiss-Prot database. After KEGG mapping, 2701 unigenes were mapped onto 115 pathways. Eighty-four unigenes were annotated in major pathways from glucose to resveratrol, coding 20 enzymes for glycolysis, 10 for phenylalanine biosynthesis, 4 for phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and 4 for stilbenoid biosynthesis. Chalcone synthase was identified for resveratrol biosynthesis in this strain, due to the absence of stilbene synthase. All the identified enzymes indicated a reasonable biosynthesis pathway from glucose to resveratrol via glycolysis, phenylalanine biosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, and stilbenoid pathways. These results provide essential evidence for the occurrence of resveratrol biosynthesis in Alternaria sp. MG1 at the gene level, facilitating further elucidation of the molecular mechanisms involved in this strain's secondary metabolism. PMID:27588016

  8. Two New Diphenylketones and a New Xanthone from Talaromyces islandicus EN-501, an Endophytic Fungus Derived from the Marine Red Alga Laurencia okamurai

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Lei; Li, Xiao-Ming; Liu, Hui; Meng, Ling-Hong; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2016-01-01

    Two new diphenylketones (1 and 2), a new xanthone (3), and a known xanthone analogue (4) were isolated and identified from Talaromyces islandicus EN-501, an endophytic fungus obtained from the fresh collected marine red alga Laurencia okamurai. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of NMR spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic analysis. The joint isolation of benzophenones and xanthones from the same fungal strain supports the biogenesis of xanthones via a benzophenone intermediate. It is worth mentioning that xanthones 3 and 4 have a methyl group at C-6 and C-2, respectively, which is uncommon compared with typical xanthones usually having a methyl group at C-8. Compounds 1–4 exhibited potent antioxidative activities against DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate) radicals with IC50 values ranging from 0.58 to 6.92 μg/mL, which are stronger than that of the positive controls BHT (butylated hydroxytoluene) and ascorbic acid. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 also showed inhibitory activities against several pathogenic bacteria. PMID:27941601

  9. Effect of formulated root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica and plant growth promoting rhizobacteria fluorescent pseudomonads R62 and R81 on Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Vinod; Sarma, M V R K; Saharan, Krishna; Srivastava, Rashmi; Kumar, Lalit; Sahai, Vikram; Bisaria, V S; Sharma, A K

    2012-02-01

    In the present investigation, the effect of three beneficial organisms (root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica (Pi) and pseudomonads strains R62 and R81) and their four different consortia (Pi+R62, Pi+R81, R62+R81, Pi+R62+R81) was investigated on the plant Vigna mungo through their inorganic carrier-based (talcum powder and vermiculite) formulations. All the treatments resulted in significant increase in growth parameters under glasshouse as well as field conditions and showed a consistency in their performance on moving from glasshouse to field conditions. In glasshouse conditions, a maximum increase of 4.5-fold in dry root weight and 3.9-fold in dry shoot weight compared to control was obtained with vermiculite-based consortium formulation of Pi+R81. In field studies using vermiculite as carrier, a maximum enhancement of 3.2-fold in dry root weight, 3.0-fold in dry shoot weight, 8.4-fold in number of nodules and 4.0-fold in number of pods in comparison to control was obtained with the bio-inoculant formulation containing consortium of Pi+R81. The same treatment also caused the highest improvement of 1.9-fold in nitrogen content and 1.7-fold in phosphorus content, while the highest increase of 1.4-fold in potassium content was obtained with Pi alone.

  10. Induction of Diverse Bioactive Secondary Metabolites from the Mangrove Endophytic Fungus Trichoderma sp. (Strain 307) by Co-Cultivation with Acinetobacter johnsonii (Strain B2)

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Liuhong; Niaz, Shah Iram; Khan, Dilfaraz; Wang, Zhen; Zhu, Yonghong; Zhou, Haiyun; Lin, Yongcheng; Li, Jing; Liu, Lan

    2017-01-01

    Two new sesquiterpenes, microsphaeropsisin B (1) and C (2), and two new de-O-methyllasiodiplodins, (3R, 7R)-7-hydroxy-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (4) and (3R)-5-oxo-de-O-methyllasiodiplodin (5), together with one new natural product (6) and twelve known compounds (3, 7–17), were isolated from the co-cultivation of mangrove endophytic fungus Trichoderma sp. 307 and aquatic pathogenic bacterium Acinetobacter johnsonii B2. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data, electronic circular dichroism, Mo2(AcO)4-induced circular dichroism, and comparison with reported data. All of the isolated compounds were tested for their α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity. New compounds 4 and 5 exhibited potent α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 25.8 and 54.6 µM, respectively, which were more potent than the positive control (acarbose, IC50 = 703.8 µM). The good results of the tested bioactivity allowed us to explore α-glucosidase inhibitors in lasiodiplodins. PMID:28208607

  11. A searchable database for the genome of Phomopsis longicolla (isolate MSPL 10-6).

    PubMed

    Darwish, Omar; Li, Shuxian; May, Zane; Matthews, Benjamin; Alkharouf, Nadim W

    2016-01-01

    Phomopsis longicolla (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is an important seed-borne fungal pathogen that primarily causes Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) in most soybean production areas worldwide. This disease severely decreases soybean seed quality by reducing seed viability and oil quality, altering seed composition, and increasing frequencies of moldy and/or split beans. To facilitate investigation of the genetic base of fungal virulence factors and understand the mechanism of disease development, we designed and developed a database for P. longicolla isolate MSPL 10-6 that contains information about the genome assemblies (contigs), gene models, gene descriptions and GO functional ontologies. A web-based front end to the database was built using ASP.NET, which allows researchers to search and mine the genome of this important fungus. This database represents the first reported genome database for a seed borne fungal pathogen in the Diaporthe- Phomopsis complex. The database will also be a valuable resource for research and agricultural communities. It will aid in the development of new control strategies for this pathogen.

  12. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%. PMID:15951847

  13. Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease.

    PubMed

    Rubini, Marciano R; Silva-Ribeiro, Rute T; Pomella, Alan W V; Maki, Cristina S; Araújo, Welington L; Dos Santos, Deise R; Azevedo, João L

    2005-01-01

    The basidiomycete fungus Crinipellis perniciosa (Stahel) Singer is the causal agent of Witches' Broom Disease of Cacao (Theobromacacao L.) which is the main factor limiting cacao production in the Americas. Pod losses of up to 90% are experienced in affected areas as evidenced by the 50% drop in production in Bahia province, Brazil following the arrival of the C. perniciosa in the area in 1989. The disease has proven particularly difficult to control and many farmers in affected areas have given up cacao cultivation. In order to evaluate the potential of endophytes as a biological control agent of this phytopathogen, the endophytic fungal community of resistant and susceptible cacao plants as well as affected branches was studied between 2001 and 2002. The fungal community was identified by morphological traits and rDNA sequencing as belonging to the genera Acremonium, Blastomyces, Botryosphaeria, Cladosporium, Colletotrichum, Cordyceps, Diaporthe, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gibberella, Gliocladium, Lasiodiplodia, Monilochoetes, Nectria, Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Pleurotus, Pseudofusarium, Rhizopycnis, Syncephalastrum, Trichoderma, Verticillium and Xylaria. These fungi were evaluated both in vitro and in vivo by their ability to inhibit C. perniciosa. Among these, some were identified as potential antagonists, but only one fungus (Gliocladium catenulatum) reduced the incidence of Witches' Broom Disease in cacao seedlings to 70%.

  14. Melanin is required for the formation of the multi-cellular conidia in the endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xi; Huo, Liang; Liu, Heng; Chen, Longfei; Wang, Yu; Zhu, Xudong

    2015-10-01

    Melanin plays an important role in regulating various biological processes in many fungi. However, its biological role in conidiation remains largely elusive. We report here that conidia production, morphogenesis, integrity, germination and their viability in Pestalotiopsis microspora require the polyketide-derived melanin. A polyketide synthase gene, pks1, was identified and demonstrated responsible for melanin biosynthesis in this fungus. A targeted deletion mutant strain Δpks1 displayed a defect in pigmentation of conidia and had an albino colonial phenotype. Interestingly, Δpks1 produced approximately 6-fold as many conidia as the wild type did, suggesting a negative modulation of melanin on conidia production in this fungus. Moreover, the conidia failed to develop into the normal five-cell morphology, rather the three main-body cells separated via constriction at the original septum position to generate three independent mutant conidia. This result suggests a novel role of melanin in the formation of the multi-cellular conidia. Germ tubes could develop from the three different types of mutant conidia and kept elongating, despite a significantly lower germination rate was observed for them. Still more, the unpigmented conidia became permeable to Calcofluor White and DAPI, suggesting the integrity of the conidia was impaired. Deliberate inhibition of melanin biosynthesis by a specific inhibitor, tricyclazole, led to a similar phenotypes. This work demonstrates a new function of fungal melanin in conidial development.

  15. Hydroxylated 2-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one derivatives as products of 2-hydroxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one (HBOA) biotransformation by Chaetosphaeria sp., an endophytic fungus from Aphelandra tetragona.

    PubMed

    Zikmundová, Martina; Drandarov, Konstantin; Hesse, Manfred; Werner, Christa

    2002-01-01

    The biotransformation of the phytoanticipin HBOA and its major degradation metabolites 2-hydroxy-N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide (7) and N-(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetamide (8) by Chaetosphaeria sp., an endophytic fungus isolated from Aphelandra tetragona, was studied. Three new metabolites could be identified as 2-amino-7-hydroxy-3H-phenoxazin-3-one (12), 2-acetylamino-7-hydroxy-3H-phenoxazin-3-one (13) and 7-hydroxy-2-(2-hydroxyacetyl)-amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one (14). Structure elucidation of 12 and 13 was performed by MS, 1H, 13C NMR and 2D NMR techniques and confirmed by chemical transformation.

  16. Exploitation of endophytic fungus, Guignardia mangiferae for extracellular synthesis of silver nanoparticles and their in vitro biological activities.

    PubMed

    Balakumaran, M D; Ramachandran, R; Kalaichelvan, P T

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize highly biocompatible and functionalized silver nanoparticles using endophytic fungi isolated from the leaves of medicinal plants. Among 13 fungi tested, the isolate, Guignardia mangiferae (Bios PTK 4) extracellularly synthesized well-dispersed and extremely stable silver nanoparticles under optimized reaction conditions within 12 h. These nanoparticles were characterized by HR-TEM, SAED, XRD and EDX analyses. G. mangiferae synthesized 5-30 nm sized, spherical shaped silver nanoparticles. Effect of pH on the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was studied using well diffusion assay; on the basis of particle stability and antibacterial activity, pH 7 was found to be optimum. The leakage of intracellular components has clearly demonstrated that silver nanoparticles damage the bacterial cells by formation of pores, which affect the membrane permeability and finally leads to cell death. In addition, silver nanoparticles exhibited excellent antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. Cytotoxic effects of silver nanoparticles showed IC50 values of 63.37, 27.54 and 23.84 μg/mL against normal African monkey kidney (Vero), HeLa (cervical) and MCF-7 (breast) cells, respectively, at 24 h incubation period. Thus, the obtained results convincingly suggest that silver nanoparticles synthesized from G. mangiferae are highly biocompatible and have wider applicability and they could be explored as promising candidates for a variety of biomedical/pharmaceutical and agricultural applications.

  17. Trienylfuranol A and trienylfuranone A-B: metabolites isolated from an endophytic fungus, Hypoxylon submoniticulosum, in the raspberry Rubus idaeus.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Kevin M N; Ibrahim, Ashraf; Sørensen, Dan; Sumarah, Mark W

    2017-03-01

    A strain of Hypoxylon submonticulosum was isolated as an endophyte from a surface-sterilized leaf of a cultivated raspberry (Rubus idaeus). The liquid culture extract displayed growth inhibition activity against Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a disc diffusion assay. The extract's major component was identified as a new natural product, trienylfuranol A (1S,2S,4R)-1-((1'E,3'E)-hexa-1',3',5'-trienyl)-tetrahydro-4-methylfuran-2-ol (1), by high-resolution LC-MS and 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Two additional new metabolites, trienylfuranones A (2) and B (3), were isolated as minor components of the extract and their structure elucidation revealed that they were biosynthetically related to 1. Absolute stereochemical configurations of compounds 1-3 were confirmed by NOE NMR experiments and by the preparation of Mosher esters. Complete hydrogenation of 1 yielded tetrahydrofuran 7 that was used for stereochemical characterization and assessment of antifungal activity.The Journal of Antibiotics advance online publication, 1 March 2017; doi:10.1038/ja.2017.18.

  18. Effect of phytotoxic secondary metabolites and semisynthetic compounds from endophytic fungus Xylaria feejeensis strain SM3e-1b on spinach chloroplast photosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia; García-Méndez, Marbella Claudia; King-Díaz, Beatriz; Macías-Ruvalcaba, Norma Angélica

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the mechanism of action on the photosynthesis light reactions of three major secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Xylaria feejeensis strain SM3e-1b, isolated from Sapium macrocarpum; and four novel derivatives of coriloxine, a major compound produced by X. feejeensis. The natural phytotoxins include one epoxycyclohexenone derivative, coriloxine (1), and two quinone derivatives (2-3). The semisynthetic derivatives of coriloxine are two cyclohexenone (4-6) and two quinone compounds (5-7). Cyclohexenone (4), (4R,5S,6R)-6-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylcyclohex-2-enone, inhibited ATP synthesis in freshly lysed spinach chloroplasts from water to MV; it also partly inhibited the basal and uncoupled photosynthetic electron transport, and significantly enhanced the phosphorylating electron transport and Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, thus demonstrating its action as an uncoupler agent. On the other hand, quinone (7), 2-((4-butylphenyl)amino)-5-methoxy-3-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, inhibited ATP synthesis, and non-cyclic electron transport from water to MV in basal, phosphorylating and uncoupled conditions in a concentration-dependent manner. Hence, (7) behaves as a Hill reaction inhibitor at the PSII electron transport on the water splitting enzyme (OEC), and on the acceptor side between P680 and QA. This mechanism of action was confirmed by chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements. These results indicate that coriloxine derivatives 4 and 7 could work as prototype structures for the development of new herbicides. Contrastingly, natural products 1-3, and derivatives 5 and 6 did not show a significant inhibitory effect on ATP synthesis.

  19. Phytotoxic Potential of Secondary Metabolites and Semisynthetic Compounds from Endophytic Fungus Xylaria feejeensis Strain SM3e-1b Isolated from Sapium macrocarpum.

    PubMed

    García-Méndez, Marbella Claudia; Macías-Ruvalcaba, Norma A; Lappe-Oliveras, Patricia; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Macías-Rubalcava, Martha Lydia

    2016-06-01

    Bioactivity-directed fractionation of the combined culture medium and mycelium extract of the endophytic fungus Xylaria feejeensis strain SM3e-1b, isolated from Sapium macrocarpum, led to the isolation of three known natural products: (4S,5S,6S)-4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methyl-5,6-epoxycyclohex-2-enone or coriloxine, 1; 2-hydroxy-5-methoxy-3-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, 2; and 2,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxy-3-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione or fumiquinone B, 3. This is the first report of compound 3 being isolated from this species. Additionally, four new derivatives of coriloxine were prepared: (4R,5S,6R)-6-chloro-4,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methylcyclohex-2-enone, 4; 6-hydroxy-5-methyl-3-(methylamino)cyclohexa-2,5- diene-1,4-dione, 5; (4R,5R,6R)-4,5-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-5-methyl-6-(phenylamino)cyclohex-2-enone, 6; and 2-((4-butylphenyl)amino)-5-methoxy-3-methylcyclohexa-2,5-diene-1,4-dione, 7. X-ray analysis allowed us to unambiguously determine the structures and absolute configuration of semisynthetic derivatives 4, 5, and 6. The phytotoxic activity of the three isolated natural products and the coriloxine derivatives is reported. Germination of the seed, root growth, and oxygen uptake of the seedlings of Trifolium pratense, Medicago sativa, Panicum miliaceum, and Amaranthus hypochondriacus were significantly inhibited by all of the tested compounds. In general, they were more effective inhibiting root elongation than suppressing the germination and seedling oxygen uptake processes as shown by their IC50 values.

  20. Chaetoglobosin Fex from the marine-derived endophytic fungus inhibits induction of inflammatory mediators via Toll-like receptor 4 signaling in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dou, Huan; Song, Yuxian; Liu, Xianqin; Gong, Wei; Li, Erguang; Tan, Renxiang; Hou, Yayi

    2011-01-01

    Chaetoglobosin Fex (Cha Fex), a cytochalasan-based alkaloid, was isolated from marine-derived endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum QEN-14. The knowledge of its biological function is still limited. We investigated the effects and mechanism of Cha Fex on inflammatory mediators via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in macrophages. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TLR4 ligand, was therefore designed to active TLR4 signaling pathway, and Cha Fex significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in peritoneal macrophages and murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7. Real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) detection also found that Cha Fex down-regulated the mRNA expressions of these pro-inflammtory cytokines. Moreover, Cha Fex significantly attenuated the LPS-stimulated degradation of inhibitory kappa B-alpha and the subsequent translocation of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) to the nucleus. Cha Fex also reduced the phosphorylations of extracellular-signal-related kinase (ERK1/2), p38, and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/2). Furthermore, we confirmed that Cha Fex didn't affect LPS binding to the RAW264.7 cells and human monocytes, while Cha Fex was able to inhibit the increase of membrane-associated CD14 (mCD14) expression both on RAW cells and human monocytes induced by LPS to a certain degree. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory property of Cha Fex may be attributed to NF-κB inhibition as well as the negative regulation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK1/2 phosphorylations. On the other hand, these inhibitory effects may also be due to the blocking of mCD14 expression.

  1. Camptothecin-producing endophytic fungus Trichoderma atroviride LY357: isolation, identification, and fermentation conditions optimization for camptothecin production.

    PubMed

    Pu, Xiang; Qu, Xixing; Chen, Fei; Bao, Jinku; Zhang, Guolin; Luo, Yinggang

    2013-11-01

    Camptothecin (CPT), the third largest anticancer drug, is produced mainly by Camptotheca acuminata and Nothapodytes foetida. CPT itself is the starting material for clinical CPT-type drugs, but the plant-derived CPT cannot support the heavy demand from the global market. Research efforts have been made to identify novel sources for CPT. In this study, three CPT-producing endophytic fungi, Aspergillus sp. LY341, Aspergillus sp. LY355, and Trichoderma atroviride LY357, were isolated and identified from C. acuminata. Most CPT produced by these fungi was found in the fermentation broth, and their corresponding CPT yields were 7.93, 42.92, and 197.82 μg l(-1), respectively. The CPT-producing capability of LY341 and LY355 was completely lost after repeat subculturing. A substantial decrease of CPT production was also observed in the second generation of LY357. However, a stable and sustainable production of CPT was found from the second generation through the eighth generation of LY357. The fermentation medium, time, pH, temperature, and agitation rate were optimized for CPT production. Methyl jasmonate and XAD16 were proven to be an optimum elicitor and adsorbent resin, respectively, in view of that CPT yield was increased 3.4- and 11-fold through their use. A 50- to 75-fold increase of CPT yield was obtained when the optimized fermentation conditions, elicitor, and adsorbent resin were combined and applied to the culture of the seventh and eighth generations of LY357, and the highest CPT yield was 142.15 μg l(-1). The CPT-producing T. atroviride LY357 paves a potential to uncover the mysteries of CPT biosynthesis.

  2. Draft genome sequence of Phomopsis longicolla MSPL 10-6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis longicolla T.W. Hobbs is the primary cause of Phomopsis seed decay in soybean. We report the de novo assembled draft genome sequence of P. longicolla isolate MSPL10-6 with a 54.8-fold depth of coverage. The resulting draft genome was estimated to be approximately 64 Mb in size with an over...

  3. Genome Sequencing and Analysis of Phomopsis longicolla Isolate MSPL 10-6 Causing Phomopsis Seed Decay in Soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay of soybean is caused primarily by the seed-borne fungal pathogen Phomopsis longicolla (syn. Diaporthe longicolla). This disease causes poor seed quality, reduces seedling vigor and stand establishment, and suppresses yield in most soybean production regions, especially in southe...

  4. Biogenesis of silver nanoparticles using endophytic fungus Pestalotiopsis microspora and evaluation of their antioxidant and anticancer activities

    PubMed Central

    Netala, Vasudeva Reddy; Bethu, Murali Satyanarayana; Pushpalatha, Bobbu; Baki, Vijaya Bhaskar; Aishwarya, Sani; Rao, J Venkateswara; Tartte, Vijaya

    2016-01-01

    An endophytic fungal strain isolated from the leaves of Gymnema sylvestre was identified as Pestalotiopsis microspora VJ1/VS1 based on nucleotide sequencing of internal transcribed spacer region (ITS 1-5.8S-ITS 2) of 18S rRNA gene (NCBI accession number KX213894). In this study, an efficient and ecofriendly approach has been reported for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) using aqueous culture filtrate of P. microspora. Ultraviolet-visible analysis confirmed the synthesis of AgNPs by showing characteristic absorption peak at 435 nm. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed the presence of phenolic compounds and proteins in the fungal filtrate, which are plausibly involved in the biosynthesis and capping of AgNPs. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the AgNPs were spherical in shape of 2–10 nm in size. Selected area electron diffraction and X-ray diffraction studies determined the crystalline nature of AgNPs with face-centered cubic (FCC) lattice phase. Dynamic light scattering analysis showed that the biosynthesized AgNPs possess high negative zeta potential value of −35.7 mV. Biosynthesized AgNPs were proved to be potential antioxidants by showing effective radical scavenging activity against 2,2′-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and H2O2 radicals with IC50 values of 76.95±2.96 and 94.95±2.18 µg/mL, respectively. The biosynthesized AgNPs exhibited significant cytotoxic effects against B16F10 (mouse melanoma, IC50 =26.43±3.41 µg/mL), SKOV3 (human ovarian carcinoma, IC50 =16.24±2.48 µg/mL), A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma, IC50 =39.83±3.74 µg/mL), and PC3 (human prostate carcinoma, IC50 =27.71±2.89 µg/mL) cells. The biosynthesized AgNPs were found to be biocompatible toward normal cells (Chinese hamster ovary cell line, IC50 =438.53±4.2 µg/mL). Cytological observations on most susceptible SKOV3 cells revealed concentration-dependent apoptotic changes that include cell membrane blebbing, cell shrinkage, pyknotic

  5. Transcriptome response in different tissues of Lolium arundinaceum to the fungal endophyte Epichloe coenophiala

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) plants symbiotic with the endophytic fungus, Epichloe coenophiala , (E+), have been shown to have better survivability and persistence than plants lacking the endophyte (E-). To understand more about the grass-endophyte interactions and how endophyte affects the ho...

  6. High energy biofuel from endophytic fungi?

    PubMed

    Stadler, Marc; Schulz, Barbara

    2009-07-01

    A paper entitled 'The production of myco-diesel hydrocarbons and their derivatives by the endophytic fungus Gliocladium roseum (NRRL 50072)' (Strobel et al., Microbiology 154, 3319-3328, 2008) demonstrated for the first time that a fungal endophyte can produce volatile hydrocarbons, which are major constituents of diesel fuel. The possible implications of this finding with regards to potential commercial applications and the ecological role of volatiles in endophyte-host relationships are discussed.

  7. De novo Transcriptome Assembly of Phomopsis liquidambari Provides Insights into Genes Associated with Different Lifestyles in Rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jun; Li, Xin; Chen, Yan; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms that trigger the switch from endophytic fungi to saprophytic fungi are largely unexplored. Broad host range Phomopsis liquidambari is established in endophytic and saprophytic systems with rice (Oryza sativa L.). Endophytic P. liquidambari promotes rice growth, increasing rice yield and improving the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. This species's saprophytic counterpart can decompose rice litterfall, promoting litter organic matter cycling and the release of nutrients and improving the soil microbial environment. Fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and quantitative PCR investigated the colonization dynamics and biomass of P. liquidambari in rice in vivo. P. liquidambari formed infection structures similar to phytopathogens with infected vascular tissues that systematically spread to acrial parts. However, different from pathogenic infection, P. liquidambari colonization exhibits space restriction and quantity restriction. Direct comparison of a fungal transcriptome under three different habitats provided a better understanding of lifestyle conversion during plant-fungi interactions. The isolated total RNA of Ck (pure culture), EP (endophytic culture) and FP (saprophytic culture) was subjected to Illumina transcriptome sequencing. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate Phomopsis sp. using RNA-seq technology to obtain whole transcriptome information. A total of 27,401,258 raw reads were generated and 22,700 unigenes were annotated. Functional annotation indicated that carbohydrate metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites played important roles. There were 2522 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the saprophytic and endophytic lifestyles. Quantitative PCR analysis validated the DEGs of RNA-seq. Analysis of DEGs between saprophytic and endophytic lifestyles revealed that most genes from amino acids metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, secondary

  8. De novo Transcriptome Assembly of Phomopsis liquidambari Provides Insights into Genes Associated with Different Lifestyles in Rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Jun; Li, Xin; Chen, Yan; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2017-01-01

    The mechanisms that trigger the switch from endophytic fungi to saprophytic fungi are largely unexplored. Broad host range Phomopsis liquidambari is established in endophytic and saprophytic systems with rice (Oryza sativa L.). Endophytic P. liquidambari promotes rice growth, increasing rice yield and improving the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer. This species's saprophytic counterpart can decompose rice litterfall, promoting litter organic matter cycling and the release of nutrients and improving the soil microbial environment. Fluorescence microscopy, confocal laser scanning microscopy and quantitative PCR investigated the colonization dynamics and biomass of P. liquidambari in rice in vivo. P. liquidambari formed infection structures similar to phytopathogens with infected vascular tissues that systematically spread to acrial parts. However, different from pathogenic infection, P. liquidambari colonization exhibits space restriction and quantity restriction. Direct comparison of a fungal transcriptome under three different habitats provided a better understanding of lifestyle conversion during plant-fungi interactions. The isolated total RNA of Ck (pure culture), EP (endophytic culture) and FP (saprophytic culture) was subjected to Illumina transcriptome sequencing. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate Phomopsis sp. using RNA-seq technology to obtain whole transcriptome information. A total of 27,401,258 raw reads were generated and 22,700 unigenes were annotated. Functional annotation indicated that carbohydrate metabolism and biosynthesis of secondary metabolites played important roles. There were 2522 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between the saprophytic and endophytic lifestyles. Quantitative PCR analysis validated the DEGs of RNA-seq. Analysis of DEGs between saprophytic and endophytic lifestyles revealed that most genes from amino acids metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, fatty acid biosynthesis, secondary

  9. Targeting high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance analysis with high-resolution radical scavenging profiles-Bioactive secondary metabolites from the endophytic fungus Penicillium namyslowskii.

    PubMed

    Wubshet, Sileshi G; Nyberg, Nils T; Tejesvi, Mysore V; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Kajula, Marena; Mattila, Sampo; Staerk, Dan

    2013-08-09

    The high-resolution radical scavenging profile of an extract of the endophytic fungus Penicillium namyslowskii was used to target analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry-solid-phase extraction-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, i.e., HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR, for identification of anti-oxidative secondary metabolites. This revealed the two chromatographic peaks with the highest relative response in the radical scavenging profile to be griseophenone C and peniprequinolone. The HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR analysis was performed in the tube-transfer mode using a cryogenically cooled NMR probe designed for 1.7mm NMR tubes. To further explore the potential of the above HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR platform for analysis of endophytic extracts, six peaks displaying no radical scavenging activity were also analyzed. This allowed unambiguous identification of six metabolites, i.e., dechlorogriseofulvin, dechlorodehydrogriseofulvin, griseofulvin, dehydrogriseofulvin, mevastatin acid, and mevastatin. The high mass sensitivity of the 1.7mm cryogenically cooled NMR probe allowed for the first time acquisition of direct detected (13)C NMR spectra of fungal metabolites, i.e., dechlorogriseofulvin and griseofulvin, directly from crude extract via HPLC-HRMS-SPE-NMR. Dechlorodehydrogriseofulvin was reported for the first time from nature.

  10. Molecular diversity of fungal endophytes isolated from Garcinia mangostana and Garcinia parvifolia.

    PubMed

    Sim, Jiun-Horng; Khoo, Chai-Hoon; Lee, Learn-Han; Cheah, Yoke-Kqueen

    2010-04-01

    Garcinia is commonly found in Malaysia, but limited information is available regarding endophytic fungi associated with this plant. In this study, 24 endophytic fungi were successfully recovered from different parts of two Garcinia species. Characterization of endophytic fungi was performed based on the conserved internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequence analysis and the antimicrobial properties. Results revealed that fruits of the plant appeared to be the highest inhabitation site (38 %) as compared with others. Glomerella sp., Guignardia sp., and Phomopsis sp. appeared to be the predominant endophytic fungi group in Garcinia mangostana and Garcinia parvifolia. Phylogenetic relationships of the isolated endophytic fungi were estimated from the sequences of the ITS region. On the other hand, antibacterial screening showed 11 of the isolates possessed positive response towards pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria. However, there was no direct association between certain antibacterial properties with the specific genus observed.

  11. Isolation and characterization of Stemphylium sedicola SBU-16 as a new endophytic taxol-producing fungus from Taxus baccata grown in Iran.

    PubMed

    Mirjalili, Mohammad Hossein; Farzaneh, Mohsen; Bonfill, Mercedes; Rezadoost, Hassan; Ghassempour, Alireza

    2012-03-01

    In this study, a total of 25 endophytic fungi were successfully isolated from the inner bark of Taxus baccata grown in Iran by the aseptic technique. Genomic DNA was extracted from isolated endophytic fungi and subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for the presence of the Taxus taxadiene synthase (ts) gene, which encodes the enzyme catalyzing the first committed step of taxol biosynthesis. Four of 25 isolated endophytic fungi isolates showed PCR positive for the ts gene. Subsequently, taxol and 10-deacetylbaccatin III (10-DAB III) were extracted from culture filtrates and mycelia of the PCR positive isolates and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The analysis showed that one isolate (SBU-16) produced taxol (6.9 ± 0.2 μg L(-1) ) and its intermediate compound, 10-DAB III (2.2 ± 0.1 μg L(-1) ). The isolate SBU-16 was identified as Stemphylium sedicola SBU-16, according to its morphological characteristics as well as the internal transcribed spacer nuclear rDNA gene sequence analysis. Interestingly, this is the first report of the genus Stemphylium as a taxol-producing taxon.

  12. L-Asparaginase Activity of Fungal Endophytes from Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall. (Apocynaceae), Endemic to the Western Ghats (India)

    PubMed Central

    Manasa, Chandramouli; Nalini, Monnanda Somaiah

    2014-01-01

    Endophytes,” the microbes residing within the plant tissues, are important sources of secondary metabolites. Tabernaemontana heyneana Wall., a medicinal tree, endemic to the Western Ghats with rich ethnobotanical history and unique chemical diversity, was selected to study fungal endophytes and evaluate them for L-asparaginase activity. Healthy plant parts were selected for the isolation of endophytes following standard isolation protocols. A total of 727 isolates belonging to 20 taxa were obtained. The isolates comprised of bark (11%), twig (22%), leaf (43%), fruit (12.0%), and seeds (12%). Endophytes such as Colletotrichum, Curvularia, Fusarium, Phomopsis, Verticillium, and Volutella colonized T. heyneana plant parts. Fusarium sp., Phomopsis spp., isolate Thlf01, and Fusarium solani were the dominant genera of bark, twig, leaf, fruits, and seed samples, respectively. The endophytes were screened for their ability to utilize L-asparagine by plate assay method. Fusarium spp. exhibited a high level of activity among the nine endophytes tested positive for L-asparaginase activity. Studies underline the potentials of endophyte-derived fungal L-asparaginases as sources of chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:27382605

  13. Guignardones P-S, New Meroterpenoids from the Endophytic Fungus Guignardia mangiferae A348 Derived from the Medicinal Plant Smilax glabra.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhang-Hua; Liang, Fa-Liang; Wu, Wen; Chen, Yu-Chan; Pan, Qing-Ling; Li, Hao-Hua; Ye, Wei; Liu, Hong-Xin; Li, Sai-Ni; Tan, Guo-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Min

    2015-12-21

    Four new meroterpenoids, guignardones P-S (1-4), and three known analogues (5-7) were isolated from the endophytic fungal strain Guignardia mangiferae A348. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis and single crystal X-ray diffraction. All the isolated compounds were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on SF-268, MCF-7, and NCI-H460 human cancer cell lines. Compounds 2 and 4 exhibited weak inhibitions of cell proliferation against MCF-7 cell line.

  14. Thielavialides A-E, nor-spiro-azaphilones, and a bis-spiro-azaphilone from Thielavia sp. PA0001, an endophytic fungus isolated from aeroponically grown Physalis alkekengi.

    PubMed

    Wijeratne, E M Kithsiri; Espinosa-Artiles, Patricia; Gruener, Raphael; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2014-06-27

    Four new nor-spiro-azaphilones, thielavialides A-D (1- 4), a new bis-spiro-azaphilone, thielavialide E (5), together with pestafolide A (6), were isolated from the endophytic fungal strain, Thielavia sp. PA0001, occurring in the healthy leaf tissue of aeroponically grown Physalis alkekengi. The structures and relative configurations of 1-5 were established on the basis of their MS and NMR data. Possible biosynthetic pathways to thielavialides A-E (1- 5) from pestafolide A (6), some involving a Favorskii-like rearrangement, are proposed.

  15. Phomopsis bougainvilleicola prepatellar bursitis in a renal transplant recipient

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pre-patellar bursitis is typically a monomicrobial bacterial infection. Rarely is a fungal cause identified. We describe a 61 year-old man who had received a renal transplant 21 months prior to presentation whose synovial fluid and surgical specimens grew Phomopsis bougainvilleicola, a pycnidial coe...

  16. Phomopsis bougainvilleicola prepatellar bursitis in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Cariello, Paloma F; Wickes, Brian L; Sutton, Deanna A; Castlebury, Lisa A; Levitz, Stuart M; Finberg, Robert W; Thompson, Elizabeth H; Daly, Jennifer S

    2013-02-01

    Prepatellar bursitis is typically a monomicrobial bacterial infection. A fungal cause is rarely identified. We describe a 61-year-old man who had received a renal transplant 21 months prior to presentation whose synovial fluid and surgical specimens grew Phomopsis bougainvilleicola, a pycnidial coelomycete.

  17. An update of research on Phomopsis Seed Decay in soybean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) is one of the most important soybean diseases that causes poor seed quality and further poor germination/vigor in most soybean production areas, especially in southern states. Very few soybean cultivars currently available for planting have resistance to PSD. To identify n...

  18. Occurrence and characterization of peptaibols from Trichoderma citrinoviride, an endophytic fungus of cork oak, using electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Maddau, Lucia; Cabras, Annalisa; Franceschini, Antonio; Linaldeddu, Benedetto T; Crobu, Salvatore; Roggio, Tonina; Pagnozzi, Daniela

    2009-10-01

    A cork oak endophytic strain of Trichoderma citrinoviride, previously selected for its antagonistic potential against various fungal pathogens involved in oak decline, was screened for the production of bioactive secondary metabolites. From liquid culture a mixture of polypeptide antibiotics (peptaibols) belonging to the paracelsin family was isolated and characterized. This peptide mixture was purified by column chromatography and preparative TLC on silica gel, and separated by analytical HPLC. It was analysed by MALDI-TOF MS and nano-ESI-QTOF MS. Tandem mass experiments were performed to determine the amino acid sequences based on the fragmentation pattern of selected parent ions. The mixture comprised 20-residue peptides with C-terminal phenylalaninol and N-terminal acetylation. Twenty-eight amino acid sequences were identified, and amino acid exchanges were located in positions 6, 9, 12 and 17. Among them, seven sequences are new as compared to those reported in the database specifically for peptaibols and in the literature. In addition, we obtained experimental evidence suggesting the existence of non-covalent dimeric forms (homo- and hetero-) of the various peptaibol species. The peptide mixture showed strong antifungal activity toward seven important forest tree pathogens, and it was highly toxic in an Artemia salina (brine shrimp) bioassay. These results emphasize the cryptic role of endophytic fungi as a source of novel bioactive natural products and biocontrol agents.

  19. Anticancer activity of fungal taxol derived from Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., an endophytic fungus, against 7, 12 dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Pandi, M; Manikandan, R; Muthumary, J

    2010-01-01

    Breast cancer is the second most prevalent cancer worldwide and their incidence increases gradually. Taxol (paclitaxel), a potent anticancer drug, is naturally isolated from the bark of the Pacific yew. Taxol is widely used in the treatment of ovarian, lung and breast cancer. The increased demand for taxol, coupled with its limited availability from the protected Pacific yew, has had researchers scrambling for alternate sources. The purpose of the present study is to investigate chemopreventive effect of fungal taxol derived from a novel endophytic fungus Botryodiplodia theobromae Pat., isolated from a medicinal plant Morinda citrifolia Linn. The fungal taxol is found to be active against the 7, 12 dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in Sprague dawley rats. The enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants i.e. superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutatione peroxidase (GPx), glutatione-S-transferase (GST), reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin C and vitamin E were evaluated in control and experimental groups. Lipid peroxides levels (LPO) were also tested. Histological analysis of breast tissue was analyzed by haematoxylin and eosin staining to assess the cytoprotective role of fungal taxol active against breast cancer. Immunohistochemical analyses were also performed to evaluate the effect of fungal taxol on the inflammatory marker such as Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in control and experimental groups. The results showed that the fungal taxol significantly suppresses the DMBA-induced breast cancer in Sprague dawley rats.

  20. Brocazines A-F, Cytotoxic Bisthiodiketopiperazine Derivatives from Penicillium brocae MA-231, an Endophytic Fungus Derived from the Marine Mangrove Plant Avicennia marina.

    PubMed

    Meng, Ling-Hong; Li, Xiao-Ming; Lv, Cui-Ting; Huang, Cai-Guo; Wang, Bin-Gui

    2014-08-22

    Six new disulfide-bridged diketopiperazine derivatives, brocazines A-F (1-6), along with one known analogue (7), were isolated and identified from the cytotoxic extract of Penicillium brocae MA-231, a fungus obtained from the fresh tissue of the marine mangrove plant Avicennia marina. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of detailed interpretation of NMR and mass spectroscopic data. X-ray crystallographic analysis confirmed the structure of 1 and established the structure and absolute configuration of 5, while the absolute configurations for compounds 1, 4, and 6 were deduced by comparison of the CD data with those of 5. Compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 showed cytotoxic activities against several tumor cell lines.

  1. Neuraminidase inhibitory terpenes from endophytic Cochliobolus sp.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gao-Fei; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Wang, Wei; Cui, Jiang-Tao; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Ge, Hui-Ming

    2011-08-01

    The chemical study of endophytic fungus of Cochliobolus led to the isolation of 10 terpenes (1-10), including one new compound named isocochlioquinone B (1). Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, including 2D NMR techniques. Compounds 5-7 showed significant neuraminidase inhibitory activity with IC(50) values of 0.79-1.75 μM.

  2. Identification of glutathione S-transferase (GST) genes from a dark septate endophytic fungus (Exophiala pisciphila) and their expression patterns under varied metals stress.

    PubMed

    Shen, Mi; Zhao, Da-Ke; Qiao, Qin; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun-Ling; Cao, Guan-Hua; Li, Tao; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) compose a family of multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and the oxidative stress response. In the present study, twenty four GST genes from the transcriptome of a metal-tolerant dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila, were identified based on sequence homology, and their responses to various heavy metal exposures were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 24 GST genes from E. pisciphila (EpGSTs) were divided into eight distinct classes, including seven cytosolic classes and one mitochondrial metaxin 1-like class. Moreover, the variable expression patterns of these EpGSTs were observed under different heavy metal stresses at their effective concentrations for inhibiting growth by 50% (EC50). Lead (Pb) exposure caused the up-regulation of all EpGSTs, while cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) treatments led to the significant up-regulation of most of the EpGSTs (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Furthermore, although heavy metal-specific differences in performance were observed under various heavy metals in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) transformed with EpGSTN-31, the over-expression of this gene was able to enhance the heavy metal tolerance of the host cells. These results indicate that E. Pisciphila harbored a diverse of GST genes and the up-regulated EpGSTs are closely related to the heavy metal tolerance of E. pisciphila. The study represents the first investigation of the GST family in E. pisciphila and provides a primary interpretation of heavy metal detoxification for E. pisciphila.

  3. Identification of Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) Genes from a Dark Septate Endophytic Fungus (Exophiala pisciphila) and Their Expression Patterns under Varied Metals Stress

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Qin; Liu, Lei; Wang, Jun-Ling; Cao, Guan-Hua; Li, Tao; Zhao, Zhi-Wei

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) compose a family of multifunctional enzymes that play important roles in the detoxification of xenobiotics and the oxidative stress response. In the present study, twenty four GST genes from the transcriptome of a metal-tolerant dark septate endophyte (DSE), Exophiala pisciphila, were identified based on sequence homology, and their responses to various heavy metal exposures were also analyzed. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the 24 GST genes from E. pisciphila (EpGSTs) were divided into eight distinct classes, including seven cytosolic classes and one mitochondrial metaxin 1-like class. Moreover, the variable expression patterns of these EpGSTs were observed under different heavy metal stresses at their effective concentrations for inhibiting growth by 50% (EC50). Lead (Pb) exposure caused the up-regulation of all EpGSTs, while cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) treatments led to the significant up-regulation of most of the EpGSTs (p < 0.05 to p < 0.001). Furthermore, although heavy metal-specific differences in performance were observed under various heavy metals in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) transformed with EpGSTN-31, the over-expression of this gene was able to enhance the heavy metal tolerance of the host cells. These results indicate that E. Pisciphila harbored a diverse of GST genes and the up-regulated EpGSTs are closely related to the heavy metal tolerance of E. pisciphila. The study represents the first investigation of the GST family in E. pisciphila and provides a primary interpretation of heavy metal detoxification for E. pisciphila. PMID:25884726

  4. Inhibitory effects of constituents of an endophytic fungus Hypoxylon investiens on nitric oxide and interleukin-6 production in RAW264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Wei; Chang, Hsun-Shuo; Cheng, Ming-Jen; Liu, Ta-Wei; Hsieh, Sung-Yuan; Yuan, Gwo-Fang; Chen, Ih-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    Three new compounds, hypoxyloamide (1), 8-methoxynaphthalene-1,7-diol (2), and hypoxylonol (3), together with seven compounds isolated from nature for the first time, investiamide (4), hypoxypropanamide (5), hypoxylonol A (6), investienol (7), 2-heptylfuran (8), (3S)-5-methyl-8-O-methylmellein (9), (4R)-O-methylsclerone (10), along with 19 known compounds, 11-29, were isolated from the culture broth of Hypoxylon investiens BCRC 10F0115, a fungal endophyte residing in the stems of an endemic Formosan plant Litsea akoensis var. chitouchiaoensis. The structures of the new compounds were established by spectroscopic methods, including UV, IR, HR-ESI-MS, and extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR techniques. Of these isolates, 2, 8-methoxynaphthalen-1-ol (15), and 1,8-dimethoxynaphthalene (16) showed nitric oxide (NO) inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 11.8±0.9, 17.8±1.1, and 13.3±0.5 μM, respectively, stronger than the positive control quercetin (IC50 36.8±1.3 μM). Compounds 2, 15, and 16 also showed interleukin-6 (IL-6) inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 9.2±1.7, 18.0±0.6, and 2.0±0.1 μM, stronger than the positive control quercetin (IC50 31.3±1.6 μM). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on guaiane sesquiterpene metabolites, 3, 6, and 7, from the genus Hypoxylon.

  5. Phomopsis stem canker: a re-emerging threat to sunflowers (Helianthus annuus) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis stem canker frequently causes yield reductions on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Russia, Europe and North America. Between 2001 and 2012, the incidence of Phomopsis stem canker has increased 16 fold in the Northern Great Plains of the United...

  6. A searchable database for the genome of Phomopsis longicolla (isolate MSPL 10-6)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis longicolla (syn. Diaporthe longicolla) is an important seed-borne fungal pathogen that primarily causes Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) in most soybean production areas worldwide. This disease severely decreases soybean seed quality by reducing seed viability and oil quality, altering seed com...

  7. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the soybean pathogen Phomopsis longicolla

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) of soybean is caused primarily by the fungal pathogen Phomopsis longicolla. PSD impairs seed germination, reduces seedling vigor, and can substantially reduce stand establishment. In hot and humid conditions, PSD can cause significant yield losses. Few studies have explore...

  8. Phomopsis Stem Canker: A Reemerging Threat to Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis stem canker causes yield reductions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Europe, and North America. In the United States, Phomopsis stem canker incidence has increased 16-fold in the Northern Great Plains between 2001 and 2012. Although Diaporthe ...

  9. Evaluating soybean breeding lines developed from differenct sources of resistance to phomopsis seed decay

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) causes poor soybean seed quality worldwide. The primary causal agent of PSD is Phomopsis longicolla (syn. Diaporthe longicolla). Breeding for PSD-resistance is the most effective long-term strategy to control this disease. To develop soybean lines with resistance to PSD, m...

  10. Genome-wide functional annotation of Phomopsis longicolla isolate MSPL 10-6

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay of soybean is caused primarily by the seed-borne fungal pathogen Phomopsis longicolla (syn. Diaporthe longicolla). This disease severely decreases soybean seed quality, reduces seedling vigor and stand establishment, and suppress yield. It is one of the most economically import...

  11. Impact of endophytic microorganisms on plants, environment and humans.

    PubMed

    Nair, Dhanya N; Padmavathy, S

    2014-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms (bacteria or fungi or actinomycetes) that dwell within robust plant tissues by having a symbiotic association. They are ubiquitously associated with almost all plants studied till date. Some commonly found endophytes are those belonging to the genera Enterobacter sp., Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Phyllosticta sp., Cladosporium sp., and so forth. Endophytic population is greatly affected by climatic conditions and location where the host plant grows. They produce a wide range of compounds useful for plants for their growth, protection to environmental conditions, and sustainability, in favour of a good dwelling place within the hosts. They protect plants from herbivory by producing certain compounds which will prevent animals from further grazing on the same plant and sometimes act as biocontrol agents. A large amount of bioactive compounds produced by them not only are useful for plants but also are of economical importance to humans. They serve as antibiotics, drugs or medicines, or the compounds of high relevance in research or as compounds useful to food industry. They are also found to have some important role in nutrient cycling, biodegradation, and bioremediation. In this review, we have tried to comprehend different roles of endophytes in plants and their significance and impacts on man and environment.

  12. Impact of Endophytic Microorganisms on Plants, Environment and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Dhanya N.; Padmavathy, S.

    2014-01-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms (bacteria or fungi or actinomycetes) that dwell within robust plant tissues by having a symbiotic association. They are ubiquitously associated with almost all plants studied till date. Some commonly found endophytes are those belonging to the genera Enterobacter sp., Colletotrichum sp., Phomopsis sp., Phyllosticta sp., Cladosporium sp., and so forth. Endophytic population is greatly affected by climatic conditions and location where the host plant grows. They produce a wide range of compounds useful for plants for their growth, protection to environmental conditions, and sustainability, in favour of a good dwelling place within the hosts. They protect plants from herbivory by producing certain compounds which will prevent animals from further grazing on the same plant and sometimes act as biocontrol agents. A large amount of bioactive compounds produced by them not only are useful for plants but also are of economical importance to humans. They serve as antibiotics, drugs or medicines, or the compounds of high relevance in research or as compounds useful to food industry. They are also found to have some important role in nutrient cycling, biodegradation, and bioremediation. In this review, we have tried to comprehend different roles of endophytes in plants and their significance and impacts on man and environment. PMID:24587715

  13. Rethinking production of Taxol® (paclitaxel) using endophyte biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Kusari, Souvik; Singh, Satpal; Jayabaskaran, Chelliah

    2014-06-01

    Taxol® (generic name paclitaxel) represents one of the most clinically valuable natural products known to mankind in the recent past. More than two decades have elapsed since the notable discovery of the first Taxol®-producing endophytic fungus, which was followed by a plethora of reports on other endophytes possessing similar biosynthetic potential. However, industrial-scale Taxol® production using fungal endophytes, although seemingly promising, has not seen the light of the day. In this opinion article, we embark on the current state of knowledge on Taxol® biosynthesis focusing on the chemical ecology of its producers, and ask whether it is actually possible to produce Taxol® using endophyte biotechnology. The key problems that have prevented the exploitation of potent endophytic fungi by industrial bioprocesses for sustained production of Taxol® are discussed.

  14. [Effects of applying endophytic fungi on the soil biological characteristics and enzyme activities under continuously cropped peanut].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xing-Xiang; Lü, Li-Xin; Xiao, Yi; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2012-10-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of applying endophytic fungi Phomopsis liquidambari strain B3, Phomopsis sp. strain NJ4.1, and Ceratobasidum stevensii strain B6 on the soil biological characteristics and enzyme activities under continuously cropped peanut at its different growth stages. Compared with the control, applying B3 increased the peanut yield significantly by 19.8%, and applying NJ4.1, B3 and B6 increased the peanut nodule number significantly by 20.4%, 29.3% and 27.6%, respectively. In the three treatments of applying endophytic fungi, the average population of soil bacteria and actinomycetes in the whole growth period of peanut was higher than that of the control, and the soil microbial biomass carbon was significantly greater at germination and seedling stages. The soil microbial biomass nitrogen increased at germination stage, but decreased at flowering stage. The DGGE analysis indicated that at flowering stage, the soil bacteria and fungi in treatment B3 had the largest band number and diversity. From germination stage to maturing stage, the three treatments of applying endophytic fungi had higher activities of soil invertase and catalase than the control, but less difference in soil urease activity. It was suggested that applying endophytic fungi could improve the peanut continuous cropping soil environment, and applying B3 had the best effect.

  15. Distribution and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi associated with ethnomedicinal plant Melastoma malabathricum L.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Vineet Kumar; Singh, Garima; Passari, Ajit Kumar; Yadav, Mukesh Kumar; Gupta, Vijai Kumar; Singh, Bhim Pratap

    2016-03-01

    Distributions of endophytic fungi associated with ethnomedicinal plant Melastoma malabathricum L. was studied and 91 isolates belonging to 18 genera were recovered. The isolates were distributed to sordariomycetes (62.63%), dothideomycetes (19.78%), eurotiomycetes (7.69%), zygomycetes (4.19%), agaricomycetes (1.09%), and mycelia sterilia (4.39%). Based on colony morphology and examination of spores, the isolates were classified into 18 taxa, of which Colletotrichum, Phomopsis and Phoma were dominant, their relative frequencies were 23.07%, 17.58% and 12.08% respectively. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi was determined and found to be significantly higher in leaf segments (50.76%), followed by root (41.53%) and stem tissues (27.69%). All the isolates were screened for antimicrobial activity and revealed that 26.37% endophytic fungi were active against one or more pathogens. Twenty four isolates showing significant antimicrobial activity were identified by sequencing the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region of rRNA gene. Results indicated that endophytic fungi associated with leaf were functionally versatile as they showed antimicrobial activity against most of the tested pathogens. The endophytic fungi Diaporthe phaseolorum var. meridionalis (KF193982) inhibited all the tested bacterial pathogens, whereas, Penicillium chermesinum (KM405640) displayed most significant antifungal activity. This seems to be the first hand report to understand the distribution and antimicrobial ability of endophytic fungi from ethno-medicinal plant M. malabathricum.

  16. Endohyphal Bacterium Enhances Production of Indole-3-Acetic Acid by a Foliar Fungal Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Michele T.; Gunatilaka, Malkanthi K.; Wijeratne, Kithsiri; Gunatilaka, Leslie; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Numerous plant pathogens, rhizosphere symbionts, and endophytic bacteria and yeasts produce the important phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), often with profound effects on host plants. However, to date IAA production has not been documented among foliar endophytes -- the diverse guild of primarily filamentous Ascomycota that live within healthy, above-ground tissues of all plant species studied thus far. Recently bacteria that live within hyphae of endophytes (endohyphal bacteria) have been detected, but their effects have not been studied previously. Here we show not only that IAA is produced in vitro by a foliar endophyte (here identified as Pestalotiopsis aff. neglecta, Xylariales), but that IAA production is enhanced significantly when the endophyte hosts an endohyphal bacterium (here identified as Luteibacter sp., Xanthomonadales). Both the endophyte and the endophyte/bacterium complex appear to rely on an L-tryptophan dependent pathway for IAA synthesis. The bacterium can be isolated from the fungus when the symbiotic complex is cultivated at 36°C. In pure culture the bacterium does not produce IAA. Culture filtrate from the endophyte-bacterium complex significantly enhances growth of tomato in vitro relative to controls and to filtrate from the endophyte alone. Together these results speak to a facultative symbiosis between an endophyte and endohyphal bacterium that strongly influences IAA production, providing a new framework in which to explore endophyte-plant interactions. PMID:24086270

  17. A new endophytic ascomycete from El Eden Ecological Reserve, Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During a preliminary survey to report the biodiversity of endophytic fungi associated with leaves of some woody plants from El Eden Ecological Reserve in Mexico, a new fungus was isolated from Callicarpa acuminata leaves. Cultures of this fungus on PDA form a white floccose colony with a reddish-bro...

  18. Phomopsis seed infection and time of harvest effects on seed phenol, ligin, and isoflavones in maturity V soybean genotypes differing in phomopsis resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to evaluate phenolic compounds (total phenol, lignin, and isoflavones) in seed of susceptible (S), moderately resistant (MR), and resistant (R) soybean genotypes to phomopsis seed decay disease under irrigated and nonirrigated conditions. Seeds were evaluated at ph...

  19. The endophytic mycoflora of bark, leaf, and stem tissues of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (neem) from Varanasi (India).

    PubMed

    Verma, V C; Gond, S K; Kumar, A; Kharwar, R N; Strobel, Gary

    2007-07-01

    A systematic study was made of the endophytes of Azadirachta indica A. Juss (the neem tree) growing in several of its natural habitats in India. A total of 233 isolates of endophytic fungi representing 18 fungal taxa were obtained from segments of bark, stem, and leaves of this tree. Hyphomycetes (62.2%) were the most prevalent followed by the Coelomycetes (27.4%) and Mycelia Sterilia (7.7%). As mathematically determined, the maximum species richness and frequency of colonization of endophytes appeared in leaf segments rather than stem and bark tissues from each location. Endophytic colonization frequency was also greater in leaves (45.5%) than bark (31.5%). The leaf samples from all locations were nearly constant in their endophytic composition, whereas bark samples showed maximum diversity at different locations. Inter-site comparisons for endophytic diversity, however, were not significantly different with Loc1 and Loc2 having a maximum of 66.67% Jc. The smallest similarity was between Loc2 and Loc3 of 54.17% Jc. The dominant endophytic fungi isolated were Phomopsis oblonga, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Pestalotiopsis sp., Trichoderma sp, and Aspergillus sp. Genera such as Periconia, Stenella, and Drechslera are reported here for the first time as endophytes from this host plant. This report illustrates the value of sampling different tissues of a given plant in several locations to obtain the greatest species diversity of endophytes. The rich and sizeable collection of endophytic fungi from this specific plant may represent a unique source of one or more of the interesting and useful bioactive compounds normally associated with A. indica such as the azadirachtins and related tetranortriterpenoids.

  20. Spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).

    PubMed

    Ek-Ramos, María J; Zhou, Wenqing; Valencia, César U; Antwi, Josephine B; Kalns, Lauren L; Morgan, Gaylon D; Kerns, David L; Sword, Gregory A

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides) and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey provides

  1. Spatial and Temporal Variation in Fungal Endophyte Communities Isolated from Cultivated Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum)

    PubMed Central

    Ek-Ramos, María J.; Zhou, Wenqing; Valencia, César U.; Antwi, Josephine B.; Kalns, Lauren L.; Morgan, Gaylon D.; Kerns, David L.; Sword, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Studies of fungi in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the United States have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. Given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. We sampled multiple varieties of cotton in Texas, USA and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fungal endophyte diversity and community composition, as well as for differences associated with organic and conventional farming practices. Fungal isolates were identified by morphological and DNA identification methods. We found members of the genera Alternaria, Colletotrichum and Phomopsis, previously isolated as endophytes from other plant species. Other recovered species such as Drechslerella dactyloides (formerly Arthrobotrys dactyloides) and Exserohilum rostratum have not, to our knowledge, been previously reported as endophytes in cotton. We also isolated many latent pathogens, but some species such as Alternaria tennuissima, Epicoccum nigrum, Acremonium alternatum, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Chaetomium globosum and Paecilomyces sp., are known to be antagonists against plant pathogens, insects and nematode pests. We found no differences in endophyte species richness or diversity among different cotton varieties, but did detect differences over time and in different plant tissues. No consistent patterns of community similarity associated with variety, region, farming practice, time of the season or tissue type were observed regardless of the ecological community similarity measurements used. Results indicated that local fungal endophyte communities may be affected by both time of the year and plant tissue, but the specific community composition varies across sites. In addition to providing insights into fungal endophyte community structure, our survey provides

  2. Nitric oxide and brassinosteroids mediated fungal endophyte-induced volatile oil production through protein phosphorylation pathways in Atractylodes lancea plantlets.

    PubMed

    Ren, Cheng-Gang; Dai, Chuan-Chao

    2013-11-01

    Fungal endophytes have been isolated from almost every plant, infecting their hosts without causing visible disease symptoms, and yet have still proved to be involved in plant secondary metabolites accumulation. To decipher the possible physiological mechanisms of the endophytic fungus-host interaction, the role of protein phosphorylation and the relationship between endophytic fungus-induced kinase activity and nitric oxide (NO) and brassinolide (BL) in endophyte-enhanced volatile oil accumulation in Atractylodes lancea plantlets were investigated using pharmacological and biochemical approaches. Inoculation with the endophytic fungus Gilmaniella sp. AL12 enhanced the activities of total protein phosphorylation, Ca²⁺-dependent protein kinase, and volatile oil accumulation in A. lancea plantlets. The upregulation of protein kinase activity could be blocked by the BL inhibitor brassinazole. Furthermore, pretreatments with the NO-specific scavenger cPTIO significantly reduced the increased activities of protein kinases in A. lancea plantlets inoculated with endophytic fungus. Pretreatments with different protein kinase inhibitors also reduced fungus-induced NO production and volatile oil accumulation, but had barely no effect on the BL level. These data suggest that protein phosphorylation is required for endophyte-induced volatile oil production in A. lancea plantlets, and that crosstalk between protein phosphorylation and the NO pathway may occur and act as a downstream signaling event of the BL pathway.

  3. Butenolide and furandione from an endophytic Aspergillus terreus.

    PubMed

    Nuclear, Paulwatt; Sommit, Damrong; Boonyuen, Nattawut; Pudhom, Khanitha

    2010-09-01

    A new butenolide, aspernolide D (1), and furandione, asperterone (2), together with four known butenolides, butyrolactones I-IV and aspernolide B, were obtained from cultures of the endophytic fungus Aspergillus terreus, isolated from the flowering plant Mammea siamensis. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of NMR spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data.

  4. Diversity of endophytic fungi associated with the foliar tissue of a hemi-parasitic plant Macrosolen cochinchinensis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sheng-Liang; Yan, Shu-Zhen; Liu, Qi-Sha; Chen, Shuang-Lin

    2015-01-01

    Foliar fungal endophytes are an important plant-associated fungal group. However, little is known about these fungi in hemi-parasitic plants, a unique plant group which derive nutrients from living plants of its hosts by haustoria while are photosynthetic to some degree. In this paper, the endophytic fungi in the leaves of a species of hemi-parasitic plant, Macrosolen cochinchinensis, were studied by both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. By culture-dependent method, a total of 511 isolates were recovered from 452 of 600 leaf fragments (colonization rate = 75.3 %) and were identified to be 51 taxa. Valsa sp. was the most abundant (relative abundance = 38.4 %), followed by Cladosporium sp. 1 (13.5 %), Ulocladium sp. (4.3 %), Phomopsis sp. 2 (3.7 %), Hendersonia sp. (3.5 %), and Diaporthe sp. 4 (3.5 %). The Shannon index (H') of the isolated endophytic fungi was 2.628, indicating a moderate diversity. By culture-independent method, Aspergillus spp., Cladosporium sp., Mycosphaerella sp., Acremonium strictum, and Tremella sp. were detected. To our knowledge, the Tremella species have never been detected as endophytes so far. In addition, a cloned sequence was not similar with any current sequence in the Genbank, which may represent a novel species. Altogether, this study documented endophytic fungal assemble in the leaves of M. cochinchinensis which was worthy of our attention, and may expand our knowledge about endophytic fungi within the photosynthetic tissues of plants.

  5. Terpenoids from endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Jucimar Jorgeane; Vieira, Ivo José Curcino; Rodrigues-Filho, Edson; Braz-Filho, Raimundo

    2011-12-19

    This work reviews the production of terpenoids by endophytic fungi and their biological activities, in period of 2006 to 2010. Sixty five sesquiterpenes, 45 diterpenes, five meroterpenes and 12 other terpenes, amounting to 127 terpenoids were isolated from endophytic fungi.

  6. Diversity of endophytic fungi in Glycine max.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Elio Gomes; Pereira, Olinto Liparini; da Silva, Cynthia Cânedo; Bento, Claudia Braga Pereira; de Queiroz, Marisa Vieira

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic fungi are microorganisms that live within plant tissues without causing disease during part of their life cycle. With the isolation and identification of these fungi, new species are being discovered, and ecological relationships with their hosts have also been studied. In Glycine max, limited studies have investigated the isolation and distribution of endophytic fungi throughout leaves and roots. The distribution of these fungi in various plant organs differs in diversity and abundance, even when analyzed using molecular techniques that can evaluate fungal communities in different parts of the plants, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). Our results show there is greater species richness of culturable endophytic filamentous fungi in the leaves G. max as compared to roots. Additionally, the leaves had high values for diversity indices, i.e. Simpsons, Shannon and Equitability. Conversely, dominance index was higher in roots as compared to leaves. The fungi Ampelomyces sp., Cladosporium cladosporioides, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Diaporthe helianthi, Guignardia mangiferae and Phoma sp. were more frequently isolated from the leaves, whereas the fungi Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani and Fusarium sp. were prevalent in the roots. However, by evaluating the two communities by DGGE, we concluded that the species richness was higher in the roots than in the leaves. UPGMA analysis showed consistent clustering of isolates; however, the fungus Leptospora rubella, which belongs to the order Dothideales, was grouped among species of the order Pleosporales. The presence of endophytic Fusarium species in G. max roots is unsurprising, since Fusarium spp. isolates have been previously described as endophyte in other reports. However, it remains to be determined whether the G. max Fusarium endophytes are latent pathogens or non-pathogenic forms that benefit the plant. This study provides a broader knowledge of the distribution of the fungal

  7. Acid protease production in fungal root endophytes.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Michael S; Fraser, Erica; Kernaghan, Gavin

    2015-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are ubiquitous in healthy root tissue, but little is known about their ecosystem functions, including their ability to utilize organic nutrient sources such as proteins. Root-associated fungi may secrete proteases to access the carbon and mineral nutrients within proteins in the soil or in the cells of their plant host. We compared the protein utilization patterns of multiple isolates of the root endophytes Phialocephala fortinii s.l., Meliniomyces variabilis and Umbelopsis isabellina with those of two ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi, Hebeloma incarnatulum and Laccaria bicolor, and the wood-decay fungus Irpex lacteus at pH values of 2-9 on liquid BSA media. We also assessed protease activity using a fluorescently labeled casein assay and gelatin zymography and characterized proteases using specific protease inhibitors. I. lacteus and U. isabellina utilized protein efficiently, while the ECM fungi exhibited poor protein utilization. ECM fungi secreted metallo-proteases and had pH optima above 4, while other fungi produced aspartic proteases with lower pH optima. The ascomycetous root endophytes M. variabilis and P. fortinii exhibited intermediate levels of protein utilization and M. variabilis exhibited a very low pH optimum. Comparing proteolytic profiles between fungal root endophytes and fungi with well defined ecological roles provides insight into the ecology of these cryptic root associates.

  8. Genome-wide functional annotation of Phomopsis longicolla isolate MSPL 10-6.

    PubMed

    Darwish, Omar; Li, Shuxian; Matthews, Benjamin; Alkharouf, Nadim

    2016-06-01

    Phomopsis seed decay of soybean is caused primarily by the seed-borne fungal pathogen Phomopsis longicolla (syn. Diaporthe longicolla). This disease severely decreases soybean seed quality, reduces seedling vigor and stand establishment, and suppresses yield. It is one of the most economically important soybean diseases. In this study we annotated the entire genome of P. longicolla isolate MSPL 10-6, which was isolated from field-grown soybean seed in Mississippi, USA. This study represents the first reported genome-wide functional annotation of a seed borne fungal pathogen in the Diaporthe-Phomopsis complex. The P. longicolla genome annotation will enable research into the genetic basis of fungal infection of soybean seed and provide information for the study of soybean-fungal interactions. The genome annotation will also be a valuable resource for the research and agricultural communities. It will aid in the development of new control strategies for this pathogen. The annotations can be found from: http://bioinformatics.towson.edu/phomopsis_longicolla/download.html. NCBI accession number is: AYRD00000000.

  9. Identity of Phomopsis species recovered from wood cankers in eastern North American vineyards

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis cane and leaf spot is relatively common in eastern North American Vitis labruscana vineyards, from which P. viticola is consistently recovered from green shoot and berry lesions. Vitis vinifera vineyards, and associated training and pruning practices, are becoming more common. As such, pru...

  10. Characterisation of Phomopsis spp. associated with die-back of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) in South Africa.

    PubMed

    van Rensburg, Johan C Janse; Lamprecht, Sandra C; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Castlebury, Lisa A; Crous, Pedro W

    2006-01-01

    Die-back of rooibos (Aspalathus linearis) causes substantial losses in commercial Aspalathus plantations in South Africa. In the past, the disease has been attributed to Phomopsis phaseoli (teleomorph: Diaporthe phaseolorum). Isolates obtained from diseased plants, however, were highly variable with regard to morphology and pathogenicity. The aim of the present study was thus to identify the Phomopsis species associated with die-back of rooibos. Isolates were subjected to DNA sequence comparisons of the internal transcribed spacer region (ITS1, 5.8S, ITS2) and partial sequences of the translation elongation factor-1 alpha gene. Furthermore, isolates were also compared in glasshouse inoculation trials on 8-mo-old potted plants to evaluate their pathogenicity. Five species were identified, of which D. aspalathi (formerly identified as D. phaseolorum or D. phaseolorum var. meridionalis) proved to be the most virulent, followed by D. ambigua, Phomopsis theicola, one species of Libertella and Phomopsis, respectively, and a newly described species, P. cuppatea. A description is also provided for D. ambigua based on a newly designated epitype specimen.

  11. Evaluating soybean cultivars for resistance to Phomopsis seed decay in Mississippi

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) of soybean reduces seed quality, germination and seedling vigor. PSD has been problematic in most soybean production areas including Mississippi (MS). Planting resistant cultivars is one of the most effective means to control PSD. However, very few soybean cultivars resis...

  12. Phomopsis Stem Canker: A Reemerging Threat to Sunflower (Helianthus annuus) in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Febina M; Alananbeh, Kholoud M; Jordahl, James G; Meyer, Scott M; Castlebury, Lisa A; Gulya, Thomas J; Markell, Samuel G

    2015-07-01

    Phomopsis stem canker causes yield reductions on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) on several continents, including Australia, Europe, and North America. In the United States, Phomopsis stem canker incidence has increased 16-fold in the Northern Great Plains between 2001 and 2012. Although Diaporthe helianthi was assumed to be the sole causal agent in the United States, a newly described species, D. gulyae, was found to be the primary cause of Phomopsis stem canker in Australia. To determine the identity of Diaporthe spp. causing Phomopsis stem canker in the Northern Great Plains, 275 infected stems were collected between 2010 and 2012. Phylogenetic analyses of sequences of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region, elongation factor subunit 1-α, and actin gene regions of representative isolates, in comparison with those of type specimens, confirmed two species (D. helianthi and D. gulyae) in the United States. Differences in aggressiveness between the two species were determined using the stem-wound method in the greenhouse; overall, D. helianthi and D. gulyae did not vary significantly (P≤0.05) in their aggressiveness at 10 and 14 days after inoculation. These findings indicate that both Diaporthe spp. have emerged as sunflower pathogens in the United States, and have implications on the management of this disease.

  13. Identification of QTLs associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (Diaporthe toxica) in Lupinus albus

    PubMed Central

    Cowley, Raymond; Luckett, David J.; Ash, Gavin J.; Harper, John D.I.; Vipin, Cina A.; Raman, Harsh; Ellwood, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Phomopsis blight in Lupinus albus is caused by a fungal pathogen, Diaporthe toxica. It can invade all plant parts, leading to plant material becoming toxic to grazing animals, and potentially resulting in lupinosis. Identifying sources of resistance and breeding for resistance remains the best strategy for controlling Phomopsis and reducing lupinosis risks. However, loci associated with resistance to Phomopsis blight have not yet been identified. In this study, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis identified genomic regions associated with resistance to Phomopsis pod blight (PPB) using a linkage map of L. albus constructed previously from an F8 recombinant inbred line population derived from a cross between Kiev-Mutant (susceptible to PPB) and P27174 (resistant to PPB). Phenotyping was undertaken using a detached pod assay. In total, we identified eight QTLs for resistance to PPB on linkage group (LG) 3, LG6, LG10, LG12, LG17 and LG27 from different phenotyping environments. However, at least one QTL, QTL-5 on LG10 was consistently detected in both phenotyping environments and accounted for up to 28.2% of the total phenotypic variance. The results of this study showed that the QTL-2 on LG3 interacts epistatically with QTL-5 and QTL-6, which map on LG10 and LG12, respectively. PMID:24987293

  14. Evaluation of soybean breeding lines for resistance to phomopsis seed decay in stoneville mississippi 2014

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phomopsis seed decay (PSD) of soybean is a major cause of poor seed quality in most soybean production areas, especially in the mid-southern region of the United States. Breeding for PSD-resistance is the most effective long-term strategy to control this disease. To breed soybean lines with resistan...

  15. Diversity and cold adaptation of culturable endophytic fungi from bryophytes in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Liu, Hong-Yu; Wei, Yu-Zhen; Li, Hai-Long; Su, Jing; Zhao, Li-Xun; Yu, Li-Yan

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi associated with three bryophyte species in the Fildes Region, King George Island, maritime Antarctica, that is, the liverwort Barbilophozia hatcheri, the mosses Chorisodontium aciphyllum and Sanionia uncinata, were studied by culture-dependent method. A total of 128 endophytic fungi were isolated from 1329 tissue segments of 14 samples. The colonization rate of endophytic fungi in three bryophytes species were 12.3%, 12.1%, and 8.7%, respectively. These isolates were identified to 21 taxa, with 15 Ascomycota, 5 Basidiomycota, and 1 unidentified fungus, based on morphological characteristics and sequence analyses of ITS region and D1/D2 domain. The dominant fungal endophyte was Hyaloscyphaceae sp. in B. hatcheri, Rhizoscyphus sp. in C. aciphyllum, and one unidentified fungus in S. uncinata; and their relative frequencies were 33.3%, 32.1%, and 80.0%, respectively. Furthermore, different Shannon-Weiner diversity indices (0.91-1.99) for endophytic fungi and low endophytic fungal composition similarities (0.19-0.40) were found in three bryophyte species. Growth temperature tests indicated that 21 taxa belong to psychrophiles (9), psychrotrophs (11), and mesophile (1). The results herein demonstrate that the Antarctic bryophytes are an interesting source of fungal endophytes and the endophytic fungal composition is different among the bryophyte species, and suggest that these fungal endophytes are adapted to cold stress in Antarctica.

  16. Fungal root endophytes of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia.

    PubMed

    Quilliam, Richard S; Jones, David L

    2010-06-01

    As carnivorous plants acquire substantial amounts of nutrients from the digestion of their prey, mycorrhizal associations are considered to be redundant; however, fungal root endophytes have rarely been examined. As endophytic fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities, we aim to determine the extent of fungal root colonisation of the carnivorous plant Drosera rotundifolia at two points in the growing season (spring and summer). We have used a culture-dependent method to isolate fungal endophytes and diagnostic polymerase chain reaction methods to determine arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonisation. All of the roots sampled contained culturable fungal root endophytes; additionally, we have provided molecular evidence that they also host arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Colonisation showed seasonal differences: Roots in the spring were colonised by Articulospora tetracladia, two isolates of uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungi, an unidentified species of fungal endophyte and Trichoderma viride, which was present in every plant sampled. In contrast, roots in the summer were colonised by Alatospora acuminata, an uncultured ectomycorrhizal fungus, Penicillium pinophilum and an uncultured fungal clone. Although the functional roles of fungal endophytes of D. rotundifolia are unknown, colonisation may (a) confer abiotic stress tolerance, (b) facilitate the acquisition of scarce nutrients particularly at the beginning of the growing season or (c) play a role in nutrient signalling between root and shoot.

  17. Diverse and bioactive endophytic Aspergilli inhabit Cupressaceae plant family.

    PubMed

    Soltani, Jalal; Moghaddam, Mahdieh S Hosseyni

    2014-09-01

    Aspergilli are filamentous, cosmopolitan and ubiquitous fungi which have significant impact on human, animal and plant welfare worldwide. Due to their extraordinary metabolic diversity, Aspergillus species are used in biotechnology for the production of a vast array of biomolecules. However, little is known about Aspergillus species that are able to adapt an endophytic lifestyle in Cupressaceae plant family and are capable of producing cytotoxic, antifungal and antibacterial metabolites. In this work, we report a possible ecological niche for pathogenic fungi such as Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus flavus. Indeed, our findings indicate that A. fumigatus, A. flavus, Aspergillus niger var. niger and A. niger var. awamori adapt an endophytic lifestyle inside the Cupressaceous plants including Cupressus arizonica, Cupressus sempervirens var. fastigiata, Cupressus semipervirens var. cereiformis, and Thuja orientalis. In addition, we found that extracts of endophytic Aspergilli showed significant growth inhibition and cytotoxicity against the model fungus Pyricularia oryzae and bacteria such as Bacillus sp., Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae. These endophytic Aspergilli also showed in vitro antifungal effects on the cypress fungal phytopathogens including Diplodia seriata, Phaeobotryon cupressi and Spencermartinsia viticola. In conclusion, our findings clearly support the endophytic association of Aspergilli with Cupressaceae plants and their possible role in protection of host plants against biotic stresses. Observed bioactivities of such endophytic Aspergilli may represent a significant potential for bioindustry and biocontrol applications.

  18. The hidden habit of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana: first demonstration of vertical plant transmission.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Moraga, Enrique; López-Díaz, Cristina; Landa, Blanca Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain 04/01-Tip, obtained from a larva of the opium poppy stem gall wasp Iraella luteipes (Hymenoptera; Cynipidae), endophytically colonizes opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) plants and protects them against this pest. The goal of this study was to monitor the dynamics of endophytic colonization of opium poppy by B. bassiana after the fungus was applied to the seed and to ascertain whether the fungus is transmitted vertically via seeds. Using a species-specific nested PCR protocol and DNA extracted from surface-sterilised leaf pieces or seeds of B. bassiana-inoculated opium poppy plants, the fungus was detected within the plant beginning at the growth stage of rosette building and them throughout the entire plant growth cycle (about 120-140 days after sowing). The fungus was also detected in seeds from 50% of the capsules sampled. Seeds that showed positive amplification for B. bassiana were planted in sterile soil and the endophyte was again detected in more than 42% of the plants sampled during all plant growth stages. Beauveria bassiana was transmitted to seeds in 25% of the plants from the second generation that formed a mature capsule. These results demonstrate for the first time the vertical transmission of an entomopathogenic fungus from endophytically colonised maternal plants. This information is crucial to better understand the ecological role of entomopathogenic fungi as plant endophytes and may allow development of a sustainable and cost effective strategy for I. luteipes management in P. somniferum.

  19. The relationship of endophytic fungi to the gametophyte of the fern Schizaea pusilla.

    PubMed

    Swatzell, L J; Powell, M J; Kiss, J Z

    1996-01-01

    Schizaea pusilla is a rare and threatened fern restricted in North America to acidic bogs of Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, and New Jersey. The gametophyte lives in close association with two endophytic fungi. To characterize the nature of this fern's relationship with these fungi, we introduced axenic gametophytes to bog soil for colonization. Following colonization, the endophytic fungi were isolated and reintroduced to axenic gametophytes. The gametophytes introduced to bog soil were colonized by an aseptate fungus that formed vesicles and arbuscules within the gametophyte. However, culture of colonized gametophytes produced two fungal isolates: an aseptate fungus (fungus B) and a septate fungus (fungus A). Upon reintroduction of fungal isolates to axenically grown gametophytes, the aseptate fungus demonstrated a positive growth response to the presence of the gametophytes and colonized the gametophytes without harm to the host. The septate fungus did not exhibit any specific recognition but contacted the gametophytes randomly, leaving a large percentage of the host nonviable. We propose that the relationship of the septate fungus to the gametophyte of S. pusilla is nonmycorrhizal while the relationship of the aseptate fungus to the gametophyte is mycorrhizal. Furthermore, based on lack of nutrient availability in local soils, formation of specialized structures in the gametophyte for harboring fungi, and dependence of the fern on fungal presence for completion of its life cycle, we propose that S. pusilla maintains an obligatory relationship with the aseptate mycorrhizal fungus.

  20. Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 - Novel virus at the edge of myco- and plant viruses.

    PubMed

    Hrabáková, Lenka; Koloniuk, Igor; Petrzik, Karel

    2017-03-10

    The complete nucleotide sequence of a new RNA mycovirus in the KY isolate of Phomopsis longicolla Hobbs 1985 and its protoplasts subcultures p5, p9, and ME711 was discovered. The virus, provisionally named Phomopsis longicolla RNA virus 1 (PlRV1), was localized in mitochondria and was determined to have a genome 2822 nucleotides long. A single open reading frame could be translated in silico by both standard and mitochondrial genetic codes into a product featuring conservative domains for an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp). The RdRp of PlRV1 has no counterpart among mycoviruses, but it is about 30% identical with the RdRp of plant ourmiaviruses. Recently, new mycoviruses related to plant ourmiaviruses and forming one clade with PlRV1 have been discovered. This separate clade could represent the crucial link between plant and fungal viruses.

  1. Fungus Amongus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wakeley, Deidra

    2005-01-01

    This role-playing simulation is designed to help teach middle level students about the typical lifecycle of a fungus. In this interactive simulation, students assume the roles of fungi, spores, living and dead organisms, bacteria, and rain. As they move around a playing field collecting food and water chips, they discover how the organisms…

  2. Antimicrobial activity and biodiversity of endophytic fungi in Dendrobium devonianum and Dendrobium thyrsiflorum from Vietnam.

    PubMed

    Xing, Yong-Mei; Chen, Juan; Cui, Jin-Long; Chen, Xiao-Mei; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2011-04-01

    Endophytic fungi are rich in orchids and have great impacts on their host plants. 53 endophytes (30 isolates from Dendrobium devonianum and 23 endophytic fungi from D. thyrsiflorum) were isolated, respectively, from roots and stems of Dendrobium species. All the fungi were identified by way of morphological and/or molecular biological methods. 30 endophytic fungi in D. devonianum were categorized into 11 taxa and 23 fungal endophytes in D. thyrsiflorum were grouped into 11 genera, respectively. Fusarium was the dominant species of the two Dendrobium species in common. Antimicrobial activity of ethanol extract of fermentation broth of these fungi was explored using agar diffusion test. 10 endophytic fungi in D. devonianum and 11 in D. thyrsiflorum exhibited antimicrobial activity against at least one pathogenic bacterium or fungus among 6 pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Aspergillus fumigatus). Out of the fungal endophytes isolated from D. devonianum and D. thyrsiflorum, Phoma displayed strong inhibitory activity (inhibition zones in diameter >20 mm) against pathogens. Epicoccum nigrum from D. thyrsiflorum exhibited antibacterial activity even stronger than ampicillin sodium. Fusarium isolated from the two Dendrobium species was effective against the pathogenic bacterial as well as fungal pathogens. The study reinforced the assumption that endophytic fungi isolated from different Dendrobium species could be of potential antibacterial or antifungal resource.

  3. Recovery from drought stress in Lolium perenne (Poaceae): are fungal endophytes detrimental?

    PubMed

    Cheplick, Gregory P

    2004-12-01

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) is a cool-season, perennial species widely used for forage and turf. It is often infected by a clandestine, endophytic fungus (Neotyphodium lolii) that has the potential to affect host growth responses to abiotically stressful conditions. In some species, the grass-endophyte symbiosis is mutualistic, but the relationship is reported to be contingent on environmental conditions and host genotype in L. perenne. The objective of this research was to determine the potential effects of endophyte infection on recovery from severe drought stress in variable genotypes of a perennial ryegrass cultivar. Sixteen infected (+E) and 16 uninfected (-E) ramets were planted in the greenhouse for each of 10 ryegrass genotypes. Eight +E and eight -E plants per genotype were exposed to three sequential droughts where water was withheld for 11-14 d, resulting in <5% soil moisture; the others (control) were watered as needed. Response variables were tiller numbers 1 wk and 4 wk after drought, and leaf area and dry mass of shoots and roots 7 wk after drought. In both control and drought, -E plants had more tillers, and greater leaf area and total mass, than +E plants, suggesting a detrimental effect of endophytic fungi. Fungal hyphae survived the drought and were abundant in post-drought, +E plants. The effects of endophytes were specific for particular host genotypes, as exemplified by significant genotype × endophyte interactions. Root : shoot ratio and percent of mass allocated to tiller bases (a rough measure of resource storage) showed genotype × endophyte × drought interactions. There was plasticity for root : shoot ratio and genetic variation in the ability to restore root growth during recovery from drought. For 7 of 10 genotypes, -E plants showed an equal or greater allocation to tiller bases than +E plants following drought recovery, illustrating a cost to endophyte infection for some genotypes. The symbiotic relationship between L

  4. Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs.

    PubMed

    Hodgson, Susan; de Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

    2014-04-01

    To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed "horizontal transmission"). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants.

  5. Vertical transmission of fungal endophytes is widespread in forbs

    PubMed Central

    Hodgson, Susan; Cates, Catherine; Hodgson, Joshua; Morley, Neil J; Sutton, Brian C; Gange, Alan C

    2014-01-01

    To date, it has been thought that endophytic fungi in forbs infect the leaves of their hosts most commonly by air-borne spores (termed “horizontal transmission”). Here, we show that vertical transmission from mother plant to offspring, via seeds, occurs in six forb species (Centaurea cyanus, C. nigra,Papaver rhoeas,Plantago lanceolata,Rumex acetosa, and Senecio vulgaris), suggesting that this may be a widespread phenomenon. Mature seeds were collected from field-grown plants and endophytes isolated from these, and from subsequent cotyledons and true leaves of seedlings, grown in sterile conditions. Most seeds contain one species of fungus, although the identity of the endophyte differs between plant species. Strong evidence for vertical transmission was found for two endophyte species, Alternaria alternata and Cladosporium sphaerospermum. These fungi were recovered from within seeds, cotyledons, and true leaves, although the plant species they were associated with differed. Vertical transmission appears to be an imperfect process, and germination seems to present a bottleneck for fungal growth. We also found that A. alternata and C. sphaerospermum occur on, and within pollen grains, showing that endophyte transmission can be both within and between plant generations. Fungal growth with the pollen tube is likely to be the way in which endophytes enter the developing seed. The fact that true vertical transmission seems common suggests a more mutualistic association between these fungi and their hosts than has previously been thought, and possession of endophytes by seedling plants could have far-reaching ecological consequences. Seedlings may have different growth rates and be better protected against herbivores and pathogens, dependent on the fungi that were present in the mother plant. This would represent a novel case of trans-generational resistance in plants. PMID:24834319

  6. Diversity and biotransformative potential of endophytic fungi associated with the medicinal plant Kadsura angustifolia.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qian; An, Hongmei; Song, Hongchuan; Mao, Hongqiang; Shen, Weiyun; Dong, Jinyan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the diversity and host component-transforming activity of endophytic fungi in medicinal plant Kadsura angustifolia. A total of 426 isolates obtained were grouped into 42 taxa belonging to Fungi Imperfecti (65.96%), Ascomycota (27.00%), Zygomycota (1.64%), Basidiomycota (0.47%) and Mycelia Sterilia (4.93%). The abundance, richness, and species composition of endophytic assemblages were significantly dependent on the tissue and the sampling site. Many phytopathogenic species associated with healthy K. angustifolia were found prevalent. Among them, Verticillium dahliae was dominant with 16.43% abundance. From 134 morphospecies selected, 39 showed remarkable biocatalytic activity and were further identified as species belonging to the genera Colletotrichum, Eupenicillium, Fusarium, Hypoxylon, Penicillium, Phomopsis, Trametes, Trichoderma, Umbelopsis, Verticillium and Xylaria on the basis of the sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2). The results obtained in this work show that K. angustifolia is an interesting reservoir of pathogenic fungal species, and could be a community model for further ecological and evolutionary studies. Additionally, the converting potency screening of some endophytic fungi from this specific medicinal plant may provide an interesting niche on the search for novel biocatalysts.

  7. Endophytic fungi from Myrcia guianensis at the Brazilian Amazon: distribution and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Dos Banhos, Elissandro Fonseca; de Souza, Antonia Queiroz Lima; de Andrade, Juliano Camurça; de Souza, Afonso Duarte Leão; Koolen, Hector Henrique Ferreira; Albuquerque, Patrícia Melchionna

    2014-01-01

    Beneficial interactions between plants and microorganisms have been investigated under different ecological, physiological, biochemical, and genetic aspects. However, the systematic exploration of biomolecules with potential for biotechnological products from this interaction still is relatively scarce. Therefore, this study aimed the evaluation of the diversity and antimicrobial activity of the endophytic fungi obtained from roots, stems and leafs of Myrcia guianensis (Myrtaceae) from the Brazilian Amazon. 156 endophytic fungi were isolated and above 80% were identified by morphological examination as belonging to the genera Pestalotiopsis, Phomopsis, Aspergillus, Xylaria, Nectria, Penicillium and Fusarium. Fermented broth of those fungi were assayed for antimicrobial activity and four inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and Penicillium avellaneum. As the strain named MgRe2.2.3B (Nectria haematococca) had shown the most promising results against those pathogenic strains, its fermented broth was fractioned and only its two low polar fractions demonstrated to be active. Both fractions exhibited a minimum bactericidal concentration of 50 μg.mL(-1) against S. aureus and a minimum fungicidal concentration of 100 μg.mL(-1) against P. avellaneum. These results demonstrate the diversity of fungal genera in M. guianensis and the potential of these endophytic fungi for the production of new antibiotics.

  8. The indole alkaloid meleagrin, from the olive tree endophytic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum, as a novel lead for the control of c-Met-dependent breast cancer proliferation, migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Mady, Mohamed S; Mohyeldin, Mohamed M; Ebrahim, Hassan Y; Elsayed, Heba E; Houssen, Wael E; Haggag, Eman G; Soliman, Randa F; El Sayed, Khalid A

    2016-01-15

    Fungi of the genus Penicillium produce unique and chemically diverse biologically active secondary metabolites, including indole alkaloids. The role of dysregulated hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and its receptor, c-Met, in the development and progression of breast carcinoma is documented. The goal of this work is to explore the chemistry and bioactivity of the secondary metabolites of the endophytic Penicillium chrysogenum cultured from the leaf of the olive tree Olea europea, collected in its natural habitat in Egypt. This fungal extract showed good inhibitory activities against the proliferation and migration of several human breast cancer lines. The CH2Cl2 extract of P. chrysogenum mycelia was subjected to bioguided chromatographic separation to afford three known indole alkaloids; meleagrin (1), roquefortine C (2) and DHTD (3). Meleagrin inhibited the growth of the human breast cancer cell lines MDA-MB-231, MDA-468, BT-474, SK BR-3, MCF7 and MCF7-dox, while similar treatment doses were found to have no effect on the growth and viability of the non-tumorigenic human mammary epithelial cells MCF10A. Meleagrin also showed excellent ATP competitive c-Met inhibitory activity in Z-Lyte assay, which was further confirmed via molecular docking studies and Western blot analysis. In addition, meleagrin treatment caused a dose-dependent inhibition of HGF-induced cell migration, and invasion of breast cancer cell lines. Meleagrin treatment potently suppressed the invasive triple negative breast tumor cell growth in an orthotopic athymic nude mice model, promoting this unique natural product from hit to a lead rank. The indole alkaloid meleagrin is a novel lead c-Met inhibitory entity useful for the control of c-Met-dependent metastatic and invasive breast malignancies.

  9. Endophytic Colletrotrichum spp. from Cinchona calisaya wedd. and it's potential quinine production as antibacterial and antimalaria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radiastuti, Nani; Mutea, Dalli; Sumarlin, La Ode

    2017-02-01

    An endophytic fungus is microorganisms that live inside plant tissues without harming its host and is capable of producing the same secondary metabolites as its host plant. The endophytic fungus is very diverse and important group of microorganisms. The objectives of the study are to identify endophyte Colletotrichum spp. using ITS rDNA analyze, alkaloid cinchona and antibacterial characteristics. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS rDNA regions and morphology are used to identify the species. The Chloroform extracts of filtrate were analyzed using the High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) to determine the production of quinine. There were 13 isolates of Colletotrichum spp as endophytes with associated with Cinchona calisaya Wedd. from fruit (6 isolates), leaf (5 isolates), twig (1 isolate) and root (1 isolate). This is the first report as endophytes are associated with C. calisaya. Based on ITS phylogenetic analysis are introduced of 7 strains Colletotrichum sp, 1 strain closely with C. aegnigma, 2 strains closely C. cordylinicola, 1 strains C arxii, 2 strains nested C. karstii. The Colletotrichum sp. M1 (leaf), M3 (bark), M8 (fruit) and C. karstii M5 (fruit) are potential alkaloid quinine. Five strains of Colletotrichum spp. have antibacterial activity are selected against Staphylococcus aureus and nine Colletotrichum spp. against Escherichia coli. The endophyte identification of Colletotrichum species needs another gene other than ITS rDNA.

  10. Detection and localization of the endophyte Undifilum oxytropis in locoweed tissues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Poisoning of livestock due to grazing on locoweed results in significant economic losses in the western USA. Oxytropis spp. locoweeds are plants containing a seed-transmitted endophytic fungus, Undifilum oxytropis, that produces the toxic indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine. We sought to identify, lo...

  11. Acremonium camptosporum isolated as an endophyte of Bursera simaruba from Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper draws on morphological and molecular analyses to determinate the systematic position of an interesting endophytic fungus isolated from the leaves of Bursera simaruba, a tree of semideciduous dry tropical forest at El Eden Ecological Reserve. The cultured strain develops the characteristic...

  12. A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, promotes tomato growth under organic nitrogen conditions.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Rola S; Narisawa, Kazuhiko

    2013-01-01

    A new fungal endophyte, Scolecobasidium humicola, was identified as a common dark septate endophytic fungal (DSE) species under both natural and agricultural conditions. This fungus was found to grow endophylically in the roots of tomato seedlings. Light microscopy of cross-sections of colonized tomato roots showed that the intercellular, pigmented hyphae of the fungus were mostly limited to the epidermal layer and formed outer mantle-like structures. Two isolates of S. humicola, H2-2 and F1-3, have shown the ability to increase plant biomass with an organic nitrogen source. This finding is the first report of S. humicola as an endophyte and could help to improve plant growth with organic nitrogen sources.

  13. Screening and evaluation of antiparasitic and in vitro anticancer activities of Panamanian endophytic fungi

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Luis, Sergio; Cherigo, Lilia; Higginbotham, Sarah; Arnold, Elizabeth; Spadafora, Carmenza; Ibañez, Alicia; Gerwick, William H.; Cubilla-Rios, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Summary Many compounds produced by fungi have relevant pharmaceutical applications. The purpose of this study was to collect and isolate endophytic fungi from different regions of Panama and then to test their potential therapeutic activities against Leishmania donovani, Plasmodium falciparum, and Trypanosoma cruzi as well as their anticancer activities in MCF-7 cells. Of the 25 fungal isolates obtained, ten of them had good anti-parasitic potential, showing selective activity against L. donovani; four had significant anti-malarial activity; and three inhibited the growth of T. cruzi. Anticancer activity was demonstrated in four isolates. Of the active isolates, Edenia sp. strain F0755, Xylaria sp. strain F1220, Aspergillus sp. strain F1544, Mycoleptodiscus sp. strain F0194, Phomopsis sp. strain F1566, Pycnoporus sp. strain F0305, and Diaporthe sp. strain F1647 showed the most promise based on their selective bioactivity and lack of toxicity in the assays. PMID:22069153

  14. Phomalactone from a Phytopathogenic Fungus Infecting ZINNIA elegans (ASTERACEAE) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Meepagala, Kumudini M; Johnson, Robert D; Techen, Natascha; Wedge, David E; Duke, Stephen O

    2015-07-01

    Zinnia elegans Jacq. plants are infected by a fungus that causes dark red spots with necrosis on leaves, particularly in late spring to the middle of summer in the Mid-South of the United States. This fungal disease causes the leaves to wilt and eventually kills the plant. The fungus was isolated, cultured in potato dextrose broth, and identified as Nigrospora sphaerica by molecular techniques. Two major lactone metabolites (phomalactone and catenioblin A) were isolated from liquid culture of N. sphaerica isolated from Z. elegans. When injected into leaves of Z. elegans, phomalactone caused lesions similar to those of the fungus. The lesion sizes were proportional to the concentration of the phomalactone. Phomalactone, but not catenioblin A, was phytotoxic to Z. elegans and other plant species by inhibition of seedling growth and by causing electrolyte leakage from photosynthetic tissues of both Z. elegans leaves and cucumber cotyledons. This latter effect may be related to the wilting caused by the fungus in mature Z. elegans plants. Phomalactone was moderately fungicidal to Coletotrichum fragariae and two Phomopsis species, indicating that the compound may keep certain other fungi from encroaching into plant tissue that N. sphaerica has infected. Production of large amounts of phomalactone by N. sphaerica contributes to the pathogenic behavior of this fungus, and may have other ecological functions in the interaction of N. sphaerica with other fungi. This is the first report of isolation of catenioblin A from a plant pathogenic fungus. The function of catenioblin A is unclear, as it was neither significantly phyto- nor fungitoxic.

  15. Fungal endophyte N-acetylglucosaminidase expression in the infected host grass.

    PubMed

    Li, Huaijun Michael; Crouch, Jo Anne; Belanger, Faith C

    2005-03-01

    Fungal endophytes of the genera Neotyphodium and Epichlolë are important mutualistic symbionts and pathogens of many cool-season grass species. Here we report the characterization of a secreted N-acetylglucosaminidase from the Neotyphodium sp. endophyte that infects the grass Poa ampla. The enzyme was expressed at low levels within the host, and activity could be detected in the apoplastic protein fraction. Low-level expression could also be detected in endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne), Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra subsp. fallax), and tall fescue (L. arundinaceum). The enzyme may function in the recycling of chitin oligomers generated from turnover of the fungal cell wall. This is the first report of a secreted N-acetylglucosaminidase expressed by an endophytic fungus in the infected host plant.

  16. Use of new endophytic fungi as pretreatment to enhance enzymatic saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus.

    PubMed

    Martín-Sampedro, Raquel; Fillat, Úrsula; Ibarra, David; Eugenio, María E

    2015-11-01

    New endophytic fungi are assessed for the first time as pretreatment to enhance saccharification of Eucalyptus globulus wood. The fungi are all laccase-producing ascomycetes and were isolated from eucalyptus trees in Spain. After five endophytes had been assayed alone or in combination with white-rot fungus Trametes sp. I-62, three were pre-selected. To improve sugar production, an autohydrolysis pretreatment was performed before or after fungal treatment. Pretreatment increased sugar production 2.7 times compared to non-pretreated wood. When fungal and autohydrolysis pretreatments were combined, a synergistic increase in saccharification was observed in all cases. Endophytic fungi Ulocladium sp. and Hormonema sp. produced greater enhancements in saccharification than Trametes sp. I-62 (increase in sugar yields of 8.5, 8.0 and 6.0 times, respectively), demonstrating the high potential of these new endophytic fungi for saccharification enhancement.

  17. Bacterial endophytes from wild maize suppress Fusarium graminearum in modern maize and inhibit mycotoxin accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Mousa, Walaa K.; Shearer, Charles R.; Limay-Rios, Victor; Zhou, Ting; Raizada, Manish N.

    2015-01-01

    Wild maize (teosinte) has been reported to be less susceptible to pests than their modern maize (corn) relatives. Endophytes, defined as microbes that inhabit plants without causing disease, are known for their ability to antagonize plant pests and pathogens. We hypothesized that the wild relatives of modern maize may host endophytes that combat pathogens. Fusarium graminearum is the fungus that causes Gibberella Ear Rot (GER) in modern maize and produces the mycotoxin, deoxynivalenol (DON). In this study, 215 bacterial endophytes, previously isolated from diverse maize genotypes including wild teosintes, traditional landraces and modern varieties, were tested for their ability to antagonize F. graminearum in vitro. Candidate endophytes were then tested for their ability to suppress GER in modern maize in independent greenhouse trials. The results revealed that three candidate endophytes derived from wild teosintes were most potent in suppressing F. graminearum in vitro and GER in a modern maize hybrid. These wild teosinte endophytes could suppress a broad spectrum of fungal pathogens of modern crops in vitro. The teosinte endophytes also suppressed DON mycotoxin during storage to below acceptable safety threshold levels. A fourth, less robust anti-fungal strain was isolated from a modern maize hybrid. Three of the anti-fungal endophytes were predicted to be Paenibacillus polymyxa, along with one strain of Citrobacter. Microscopy studies suggested a fungicidal mode of action by all four strains. Molecular and biochemical studies showed that the P. polymyxa strains produced the previously characterized anti-Fusarium compound, fusaricidin. Our results suggest that the wild relatives of modern crops may serve as a valuable reservoir for endophytes in the ongoing fight against serious threats to modern agriculture. We discuss the possible impact of crop evolution and domestication on endophytes in the context of plant defense. PMID:26500660

  18. Environmental conditions and host genotype direct genetic diversity of Venturia ditricha, a fungal endophyte of birch trees.

    PubMed

    Ahlholm, Jouni U; Helander, Marjo; Henriksson, Janne; Metzler, Mary; Saikkonen, Kari

    2002-08-01

    We investigated whether genetic variation of a common foliar endophyte of birch trees, Venturia ditricha, is affected by environmental conditions or host genotype. Fungal samples were collected from 10 half-sibling families of mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp. czerepanovii) grown in two environmental conditions with different daily average temperatures: a forested river valley and an adjacent open tundra (altitudinal difference 180 m). Genetic analysis of V. ditricha isolates was done using random amplified microsatellite polymerase chain reaction. We found that host genotypes, along with prevailing environmental conditions, influence the probability of infection by particular endophyte genotypes. The most susceptible host genotypes were highly infected with genetically similar endophyte genotypes, whereas the most resistant trees were poorly infected and they were infected by genetically dissimilar endophytes. Our results also showed environment-host genotype interactions, suggesting that the susceptibility of the host to a particular endophyte genotype may change in natural environments when environmental conditions are changed. It appears that a particular endophyte genotype needs to find the right host genotype for a successful infection. There are many host genotypes in natural stands; this means, from the point of view of the fungus, the environment is heterogeneous. Thus, under the influence of birch tree genotypes, genetically differentiated subgroups of the endophytic fungus may be formed in different environments.

  19. Establishing fungal entomopathogens as endophytes: towards endophytic biological control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beauveria basssiana is a fungal entomopathogen with the ability to colonize plants endophytically. As an endophyte, B. bassiana may play a role in protecting plants from herbivory and disease. This protocol demonstrates two inoculation methods to establish B. bassiana endophytically in the common be...

  20. Fungal endophyte Penicillium janthinellum LK5 improves growth of ABA-deficient tomato under salinity.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Hussain, Javid; Kang, Sang-Mo; Gilani, Syed Abdullah; Hamayun, Muhammad; Shin, Jae-Ho; Kamran, Muhammad; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Yun, Byung-Wook; Adnan, Muhammad; Lee, In-Jung

    2013-11-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from the roots of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum Mill) and identified as Penicillium janthinellum LK5. The culture filtrate (CF) of P. janthinellum significantly increased the shoot length of gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant waito-c and normal Dongjin-beyo rice seedlings as compared to control. The CF of P. janthinellum contained GAs (GA3, GA4, GA7 and GA12). To assess endophyte-growth promoting and stress-tolerance potential, the CF along with the propagules of endophyte was applied to tomato-host and abscisic acid (ABA)-deficient mutant Sitiens plants under sodium chloride (NaCl) induced salinity stress. Sitiens plants had retarded growth under normal and salinity stress however its growth was much improved during P. janthinellum-association. The endophyte inoculation reduced the membrane injury by decreasing lipid peroxidation as compared to non-inoculated control under salinity. Endophyte-associated Sitiens plants have significantly higher catalase, peroxidase and glutathione activities as compared to control. Endophyte-infected host and Sitiens plants had low level of sodium ion toxicity and high calcium contents in its root as compared to control. P. janthinellum LK5 helped the Sitiens plants to synthesis significantly higher ABA and reduced the level of jasmonic acid to modulate stress responses. The results suggest that endophytes-association can resist salinity stress by producing gibberellins and activating defensive mechanisms of host and Sitiens plants to achieve improved growth.

  1. Symbiosis with systemic fungal endophytes promotes host escape from vector-borne disease.

    PubMed

    Perez, L I; Gundel, P E; Marrero, H J; Arzac, A González; Omacini, M

    2017-03-18

    Plants interact with a myriad of microorganisms that modulate their interactions within the community. A well-described example is the symbiosis between grasses and Epichloë fungal endophytes that protects host plants from herbivores. It is suggested that these symbionts could play a protective role for plants against pathogens through the regulation of their growth and development and/or the induction of host defences. However, other endophyte-mediated ecological mechanisms involved in disease avoidance have been scarcely explored. Here we studied the endophyte impact on plant disease caused by the biotrophic fungus, Claviceps purpurea, under field conditions through (1) changes in the survival of the pathogen´s resistance structure (sclerotia) during overwintering on the soil surface, and (2) effects on insects responsible for the transportation of pathogen spores. This latter mechanism is tested through a visitor exclusion treatment and the measurement of plant volatile cues. We found no significant effects of the endophyte on the survival of sclerotia and thus on disease inocula. However, both pathogen incidence and severity were twofold lower in endophyte-symbiotic plants than in non-symbiotic ones, though when insect visits were prevented this difference disappeared. Endophyte-symbiotic and non-symbiotic plots presented different emission patterns of volatiles suggesting that they can play a role in this protection. We show a novel indirect ecological mechanism by which endophytes can defend host grasses against diseases through negatively interacting with intermediary vectors of the epidemic process.

  2. Isolation and screening of endophytes from the rhizomes of some Zingiberaceae plants for L-asparaginase production.

    PubMed

    Krishnapura, Prajna Rao; Belur, Prasanna D

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes are described as microorganisms that colonize the internal tissues of healthy plants without causing any disease. Endophytes isolated from medicinal plants have been attracting considerable attention due to their high biodiversity and their predicted potential to produce a plethora of novel compounds. In this study, an attempt was made to isolate endophytes from rhizomes of five medicinal plants of Zingiberaceae family, and to screen the endophytes for L-asparaginase activity. In total, 50 endophytes (14 bacteria, 22 actinomycetes, and 14 fungi) were isolated from Alpinia galanga, Curcuma amada, Curcuma longa, Hedychium coronarium, and Zingiber officinale; of these, 31 endophytes evidenced positive for L-asparaginase production. All the L-asparaginase-positive isolates showed L-asparaginase activity in the range of 54.17-155.93 U/mL in unoptimized medium. An endophytic fungus isolated from Curcuma amada, identified as Talaromyces pinophilus, was used for further experiments involving studies on the effect of certain nutritional and nonnutritional factors on L-asparaginase production in submerged fermentation. Talaromyces pinophilus initially gave an enzyme activity of 108.95 U/mL, but gradually reduced to 80 U/mL due to strain degeneration. Perhaps this is the first report ever on the production of L-asparaginase from endophytes isolated from medicinal plants of Zingiberaceae family.

  3. Molecular Phylogeny, Diversity, and Bioprospecting of Endophytic Fungi Associated with wild Ethnomedicinal North American Plant Echinacea purpurea (Asteraceae).

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Camila R; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2016-07-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the ethnomedicinal plant Echinacea purpurea was investigated as well as its potential for providing antifungal compounds against plant pathogenic fungi. A total of 233 endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and classified into 42 different taxa of 16 genera, of which Alternaria alternata, Colletotrichum dematium, and Stagonosporopsis sp. 2 are the most frequent colonizers. The extracts of 29 endophytic fungi displayed activities against important phytopathogenic fungi. Eight antifungal extracts were selected for chemical analysis. Forty fatty acids were identified by gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) analysis. The compounds (-)-5-methylmellein and (-)-(3R)-8-hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin were isolated from Biscogniauxia mediterraneaEPU38CA crude extract. (-)-5-Methylmellein showed weak activity against Phomopsis obscurans, P. viticola, and Fusarium oxysporum, and caused growth stimulation of C. fragariae, C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botrytis cinerea. (-)-(3R)-8-Hydroxy-6-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-3,4-dihydroisocoumarin appeared slightly more active in the microtiter environment than 5-methylmellein. Our results indicate that E. purpurea lives symbiotically with different endophytic fungi, which are able to produce bioactive fatty acids and aromatic compounds active against important phytopathogenic fungi. The detection of the different fatty acids and aromatic compounds produced by the endophytic community associated with wild E. purpurea suggests that it may have intrinsic mutualistic resistance against phytopathogen attacks in its natural environment.

  4. Characterization of endophytic fungi from Acer ginnala Maxim. in an artificial plantation: media effect and tissue-dependent variation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fenghui; Jing, Tianzhong; Zhan, Yaguang

    2012-01-01

    The community of endophytic fungi associated with Acer ginnala, a common tree in northeastern China, was investigated. Four media, PDA, Czapek's, WA and Sabouraud's, were used to inoculate explants from seeds, annual twigs and perennial twigs (xylem and bark). Media strongly affected the isolated species number, but not colonization frequency (CF) or isolation frequency (IF). To investigate media effect further, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was done. As a result, two components accounted for 86.502% of the total variance were extracted. These two components were named as PDA-determined factor (accounted for 45.139% of the total variance) and Czapek's-determined factor (accounted for 41.363% of the total variance), respectively. This result suggested that only two media, PDA and Czapek's, could be used instead of all four media in this study without affecting the isolation results significantly. In total, ten taxa were isolated in this study. Alternaria sp., Phomopsis sp., Neurospora sp. and Phoma sp. were dominant endophytes while Pleosporales Incertae Sedis sp., Cladosporium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Epicoccum sp. were rare taxa. Different tissues/organs had different endophyte assemblages. All tissue/organ pairs had low Bray-Curtis indices (<0.3) except for bark and annual twigs (0.63). Compared to perennial twigs, annual twigs had a lower taxon number, lower isolate number, lower endophyte dominance and diversity indices. Seeds had distinct assemblage, lower similarity and similar low diversity indices to annual twigs. These results suggested that tissue type determines the endophyte assemblage while age determines the diversity.

  5. Characterization of Endophytic Fungi from Acer ginnala Maxim. in an Artificial Plantation: Media Effect and Tissue-Dependent Variation

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yaguang

    2012-01-01

    The community of endophytic fungi associated with Acer ginnala, a common tree in northeastern China, was investigated. Four media, PDA, Czapek’s, WA and Sabouraud’s, were used to inoculate explants from seeds, annual twigs and perennial twigs (xylem and bark). Media strongly affected the isolated species number, but not colonization frequency (CF) or isolation frequency (IF). To investigate media effect further, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was done. As a result, two components accounted for 86.502% of the total variance were extracted. These two components were named as PDA-determined factor (accounted for 45.139% of the total variance) and Czapek’s-determined factor (accounted for 41.363% of the total variance), respectively. This result suggested that only two media, PDA and Czapek’s, could be used instead of all four media in this study without affecting the isolation results significantly. In total, ten taxa were isolated in this study. Alternaria sp., Phomopsis sp., Neurospora sp. and Phoma sp. were dominant endophytes while Pleosporales Incertae Sedis sp., Cladosporium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Epicoccum sp. were rare taxa. Different tissues/organs had different endophyte assemblages. All tissue/organ pairs had low Bray-Curtis indices (<0.3) except for bark and annual twigs (0.63). Compared to perennial twigs, annual twigs had a lower taxon number, lower isolate number, lower endophyte dominance and diversity indices. Seeds had distinct assemblage, lower similarity and similar low diversity indices to annual twigs. These results suggested that tissue type determines the endophyte assemblage while age determines the diversity. PMID:23056451

  6. Molecular characterization by amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis and antimicrobial potential of endophytic fungi isolated from Luehea divaricata (Malvaceae) against plant pathogenic fungi and pathogenic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Bernardi-Wenzel, J; Garcia, A; Azevedo, J L; Pamphile, J A

    2013-10-29

    Luehea divaricata is an important plant in popular medicine; it is used for its depurative, anti-inflammatory, and other therapeutic activities. We evaluated the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi isolated from leaves of L. divaricata against phytopathogens and pathogenic bacteria, and characterized the isolates based on amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). The in vitro antagonistic activity of these endophytes against the phytopathogen Alternaria alternata was assayed by dual culture technique. Based on this evaluation of antimicrobial activity, we extracted secondary metabolites from nine endophytic fungi by partitioning in ethyl acetate and methanol. These were tested against the phytopathogens A. alternata, Colletotrichum sp and Moniliophthora perniciosa, and against the human pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular characterization by ARDRA technique was used for phylogenetic analysis, based on comparison with sequences in GenBank. The endophytes had varied effects on A. alternata. One isolate produced an inhibition halo against M. perniciosa and against E. coli. This antibiosis activity indicates a role in the protection of the plant against microbial pathogens in nature, with potential for pharmaceutical and agricultural applications. Based on ARDRA, the 13 isolates were grouped. We found three different haplotypes of Phomopsis sp, showing interspecific variability. It appears that examination of the microbial community associated with medicinal plants of tropical regions has potential as a useful strategy to look for species with biotechnological applications.

  7. Metabolites from the endophytic mitosporic Dothideomycete sp. LRUB20.

    PubMed

    Chomcheon, Porntep; Wiyakrutta, Suthep; Sriubolmas, Nongluksna; Ngamrojanavanich, Nattaya; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2009-01-01

    The endophytic mitosporic Dothideomycete sp. LRUB20 was found to produce pyrone derivatives, dothideopyrones A-D (1, 3, 4, and 5), together with seven known compounds, including questin (9), asterric acid (10), methyl asterrate (11), sulochrin (12), and eugenitin (13), 6-hydroxymethyleugenitin (14), and cis, trans-muconic acid (15). Dothideopyrone D (5) and its acetate derivative 6 exhibited moderate cytotoxic activity. This is the first report on a naturally occurring muconic acid, which is commonly known as a biomarker in environments after exposure to benzene and phenol (or derivatives). Interestingly, the LRUB20 fungus could produce muconic acid in relatively high yield (47.8mg/L). The utility of endophytic fungi in the field of white biotechnology is discussed.

  8. Isolation and identification of endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi from seeds and roots of Dendrobium (Orchidaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Juan; Wang, Hui; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2012-05-01

    The seed germination of orchids under natural conditions requires association with mycorrhizal fungi. Dendrobium nobile and Dendrobium chrysanthum are threatened orchid species in China where they are considered medicinal plants. For conservation and application of Dendrobium using symbiosis technology, we isolated culturable endophytic and mycorrhizal fungi colonized in the protocorms and adult roots of two species plants and identified them by morphological and molecular analyses (5.8S and nrLSU). Of the 127 endophytic fungi isolated, 11 Rhizoctonia-like strains were identified as Tulasnellales (three strains from protocorms of D. nobile), Sebacinales (three strains from roots of D. nobile and two strains from protocorms of D. chrysanthum) and Cantharellales (three strains from roots of D. nobile), respectively. In addition, species of Xylaria, Fusarium, Trichoderma, Colletotrichum, Pestalotiopsis, and Phomopsis were the predominant non-mycorrhizal fungi isolated, and their probable ecological roles in the Dendrobium plants are discussed. These fungal resources will be of great importance for the large-scale cultivation of Dendrobium plants using symbiotic germination technology and for the screening of bioactive metabolites from them in the future.

  9. Phylogenetic reconstruction of endophytic fungal isolates using internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) region.

    PubMed

    GokulRaj, Kathamuthu; Sundaresan, Natesan; Ganeshan, Enthai Jagan; Rajapriya, Pandi; Muthumary, Johnpaul; Sridhar, Jayavel; Pandi, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are inhabitants of plants, living most part of their lifecycle asymptomatically which mainly confer protection and ecological advantages to the host plant. In this present study, 48 endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves of three medicinal plants and characterized based on ITS2 sequence - secondary structure analysis. ITS2 secondary structures were elucidated with minimum free energy method (MFOLD version 3.1) and consensus structure of each genus was generated by 4SALE. ProfDistS was used to generate ITS2 sequence structure based phylogenetic tree respectively. Our elucidated isolates were belonging to Ascomycetes family, representing 5 orders and 6 genera. Colletotrichum/Glomerella spp., Diaporthae/Phomopsis spp., and Alternaria spp., were predominantly observed while Cochliobolus sp., Cladosporium sp., and Emericella sp., were represented by singletons. The constructed phylogenetic tree has well resolved monophyletic groups with >50% bootstrap value support. Secondary structures based fungal systematics improves not only the stability; it also increases the precision of phylogenetic inference. Above ITS2 based phylogenetic analysis was performed for our 48 isolates along with sequences of known ex-types taken from GenBank which confirms the efficiency of the proposed method. Further, we propose it as superlative marker for reconstructing phylogenetic relationships at different taxonomic levels due to their lesser length.

  10. Microbial endophytes: future challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Endophytes are represented by a diverse group of prokaryotic (bacteria or cyanobacteria) or eukaryotic (fungi or parasitic vascular plants) organisms that form life-long associations within tissues of plants. Ecologically, these associations are usually viewed as advantageous although in some insta...

  11. Phomentrioloxin: A phytotoxic pentasubstituted geranylcyclohexentriol produced by Phomopsis sp., a potential mycoherbicide for Carthamus lanatus Biocontrol.

    PubMed

    Cimmino, Alessio; Andolfi, Anna; Zonno, Maria C; Troise, Ciro; Santini, Antonello; Tuzi, Angela; Vurro, Maurizio; Ash, Gavin; Evidente, Antonio

    2012-06-22

    A new phytotoxic geranylcyclohexenetriol, named phomentrioloxin, was isolated from the liquid culture of Phomopsis sp., a fungal pathogen proposed for the biological control of Carthamus lanatus, a widespread and troublesome thistle weed belonging to the Asteraceae family causing severe crop and pastures losses in Australia. The structure of phomentrioloxin was established by spectroscopic, X-ray, and chemical methods as (1S,2S,3S,4S)-3-methoxy-6-(7-methyl-3-methylene-oct-6-en-1-ynyl)cyclohex-5-ene-1,2,4-triol. At a concentration of 6.85 mM, the toxin causes the appearance of necrotic spots when applied to leaves of both host and nonhost plants. It also causes growth and chlorophyll content reduction of fronds of Lemna minor and inhibition of tomato rootlet elongation. Finally, in preliminary bioassays, phomentrioloxin did not show any antibacterial, fungicidal, or zootoxic activities.

  12. Screening of endophytic bacteria against fungal plant pathogens.

    PubMed

    Ohike, Tatsuya; Makuni, Kohei; Okanami, Masahiro; Ano, Takashi

    2013-12-01

    Bacterial endophytes were found from 6 plant leaves among 35 plant leaves screened. Two of the isolated bacteria showed antagonistic activity against fungal plant pathogens. An isolate named KL1 showed the clear inihibition against plant pathogens, Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani, on PDA as well as TSA plate. Supernatant of the bacterial culture also showed the clear inhibition against the fungal growth on the plate and the antibiotic substance was identified as iturin A by HPLC analysis. KL1 was identified as Bacillus sp. from the 16S rRNA gene analysis. Very thin hyphae of R. solani was miccroscopically observed when the fungus was co-cultivated with KL1.

  13. Grass fungal endophytes and uses thereof

    DOEpatents

    Craven, Kelly

    2015-03-10

    The invention provides isolated fungal endophytes and synthetic combinations thereof with host grass plants. Methods for inoculating grass plant with the endophytes, for propagating the grass-endophyte combinations, and for producing feeds and biofuels from grass-endophyte combinations are also provided.

  14. Mutualistic fungus promotes plant invasion into diverse communities.

    PubMed

    Rudgers, Jennifer A; Mattingly, W Brett; Koslow, Jennifer M

    2005-07-01

    Reducing the biological diversity of a community may decrease its resistance to invasion by exotic species. Manipulative experiments typically support this hypothesis but have focused mainly on one trophic level (i.e., primary producers). To date, we know little about how positive interactions among species may influence the relationship between diversity and invasibility, which suggests a need for research that addresses the question: under what conditions does diversity affect resistance to invasion? We used experimental manipulations of both plant diversity and the presence of an endophytic fungus to test whether a fungal mutualist of an invasive grass species (Lolium arundinaceum) switches the relationship between plant community diversity and resistance to invasion. Association with the fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) increased the ability of L. arundinaceum to invade communities with greater species diversity. In the absence of the endophyte, the initial diversity of the community significantly reduced the establishment of L. arundinaceum. However, establishment was independent of initial diversity in the presence of the endophyte. Fungal symbionts, like other key species, are often overlooked in studies of plant diversity, yet their presence may explain variation among studies in the effect of diversity on resistance to invasion.

  15. Endophytic and Epiphytic Microbes as ``Sources'' of Bioactive Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, David; Cragg, Gordon

    2015-05-01

    Beginning with the report by Stierle and Strobel in 1993 on taxol(R) production by an endophytic fungus 1, it is possible that a number of the agents now used as leads to treatments of diseases in man, are not produced by the plant or invertebrate host from which they were first isolated and identified.They are probably the product of a microbe in, on or around the macroorganism. At times there is an intricate “dance” between a precursor produced by a microbe, and interactions within the macroorganism, or in certain cases, a fungus, that ends up with the production of a novel agent that has potential as a treatment for a human disease. This report will give examples from insects, plants and marine invertebrates.

  16. Meroterpenoids with antiproliferative activity from a Hawaiian-plant associated fungus Peyronellaea coffeae-arabicae FT238

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three unusual polyketide-sesquiterpene metabolites peyronellins A-C (1-3), along with the new epoxyphomalin analog 11-dehydroxy epoxyphomalin A (4), have been isolated from the endophytic fungus Peyronellaea cof feae-arabicae FT238, which was isolated from the native Hawaiian plant Pritchardia lowre...

  17. [Screening and identification of endophytic fungi with growth promoting effect on Dendrobium officinale].

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiao-qiang; Guo, Shun-xing

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic fungi with plant growth promoting effects were screened by co-culture of each endophytic fungus and seedlings of Dendrobium officinale. Anatomical features of the inoculated roots were studied by paraffin sectioning. Morphological characteristics and rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 sequences were applied for the taxonomy of endophytic fungi. The results showed that 8 strains inoculated to D. officinale seedlings greatly enhanced plant height, stem diameter, new roots number and biomass. According to the anatomical features of the inoculated roots, each fungus could infect the velamina of seedlings. The hyphae or pelotons were existed in the exodermis passage cells and cortex cells. The effective fungi could not infect the endodermis and vascular bundle sheath, but which was exception for other fungi with harmful to seedlings. Combined with classic morphologic classification, 2 effective strains were identified which were subjected to Pestalotiopsis and Eurotium. Six species of fungi without conidiophore belonged to Pyrenochaeta, Coprinellus, Pholiota, Alternaria, Helotiales, which were identified by sequencing the PCR-amplified rDNA ITS1-5. 8S-ITS2 regions. The co-culture technology of effective endophytic fungi and plant can apply to cultivate the seedlings of D. officinale. It is feasible to shorten growth cycle of D. officinale and increase the resource of Chinese herbs.

  18. Biochemical and histochemical analyses revealing endophytic Alcaligenes faecalis mediated suppression of oxidative stress in Abelmoschus esculentus challenged with Sclerotium rolfsii.

    PubMed

    Ray, Shatrupa; Singh, Vivek; Singh, Surendra; Sarma, Birinchi Kumar; Singh, Harikesh Bahadur

    2016-12-01

    Sclerotium rolfsii is a highly aggressive pathogen that causes huge economic losses, especially in temperate climates. Alcaligenes faecalis, particularly in endophytic form, has rarely been used to control this fungus. In this study, endophytic Alcaligenes sp. strain BHU 12, BHU 16 (isolated from Abelmoschus esculentus leaf) and BHU M7 (isolated from Andrographis paniculata leaf) were reported to trigger a wide range of host defenses in Okra plant against the collar-rot pathogen S. rolfsii. Endophytic colonization of the strains in ten days old plants was assessed through re-isolation of the rif-tagged strains on rifampicin augmented nutrient agar media. The ability of the endophytic strains to induce systemic defense responses in above-ground organs was assessed by collecting leaf tissues of the Okra plants grown under non-gnotobiotic conditions at different time intervals post seedling bacterization with the endophytic biocontrol agents. The pathogen challenged unprimed plants exhibited flaccidity of the stem and leaves at 48 h post infection (hpi) in contrast to the bioprimed and challenged plants. Biochemical and histochemical analyses explained the above phenomenon as activation of phyto-peroxidases leading to an increased metabolism of the reactive oxygen species (ROS), accompanied by activation of the phenylpropanoid network and a subsequent enhancement in plant phenolics. Interestingly, though the maximum increase in the defense pathways was observed in treatments with native endophytes of Okra plant, yet the enhancement in antioxidant pathway due to A. paniculata borne endophytes was also quite significant. Thus, this work clearly demonstrates how Okra plants respond to the "non-hostile" colonization of bacterial endophytes and how induced defense response can contribute to the biocontrol activity of the endophytic strains.

  19. Selection of endophytic fungi from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) for in vitro biological control of the phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.)

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Rafaeli; da Luz, Daniela Eleutério; Engels, Cibelle; Pileggi, Sônia Alvim Veiga; de Souza Jaccoud Filho, David; Matiello, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Pileggi, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Biological control consists of using one organism to attack another that may cause economic damage to crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a very common strategy. The white mold produced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) causes considerable damage to bean crops. This fungus is a soil inhabitant, the symptoms of which are characterized by water-soaked lesions covered by a white cottony fungal growth on the soil surface and/or the host plant. Possible biological control agents taken from plants are being investigated as phytopathogen inhibitors. These are endophytic microorganisms that inhabit the intercellular spaces of vegetal tissues and are often responsible for antimicrobial production. The objective of the present study was to select endophytic fungi isolated from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) leaves with in vitro antagonist potential against the phytopathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum. Twelve isolates of endophytic fungi and a pathogenic strain of S. sclerotiorum were used in the challenge method. With the aid of this method, four endophytes with the best antagonistic activity against S. sclerotiorum were selected. Pathogen growth inhibition zones were considered indicative of antibiosis. The percentages of pathogenic mycelia growth were measured both with and without the antagonist, resulting in growth reductions of 46.7% to 50.0% for S. sclerotiorum. These analyses were performed by evaluating the endophytic/pathogenic mycelia growth in mm/day over an eight-day period of antagonistic tests. PMID:24031320

  20. Selection of endophytic fungi from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) for in vitro biological control of the phytopathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.).

    PubMed

    Rocha, Rafaeli; da Luz, Daniela Eleutério; Engels, Cibelle; Pileggi, Sônia Alvim Veiga; de Souza Jaccoud Filho, David; Matiello, Rodrigo Rodrigues; Pileggi, Marcos

    2009-01-01

    Biological control consists of using one organism to attack another that may cause economic damage to crops. Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is a very common strategy. The white mold produced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) causes considerable damage to bean crops. This fungus is a soil inhabitant, the symptoms of which are characterized by water-soaked lesions covered by a white cottony fungal growth on the soil surface and/or the host plant. Possible biological control agents taken from plants are being investigated as phytopathogen inhibitors. These are endophytic microorganisms that inhabit the intercellular spaces of vegetal tissues and are often responsible for antimicrobial production. The objective of the present study was to select endophytic fungi isolated from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) leaves with in vitro antagonist potential against the phytopathogenic fungus S. sclerotiorum. Twelve isolates of endophytic fungi and a pathogenic strain of S. sclerotiorum were used in the challenge method. With the aid of this method, four endophytes with the best antagonistic activity against S. sclerotiorum were selected. Pathogen growth inhibition zones were considered indicative of antibiosis. The percentages of pathogenic mycelia growth were measured both with and without the antagonist, resulting in growth reductions of 46.7% to 50.0% for S. sclerotiorum. These analyses were performed by evaluating the endophytic/pathogenic mycelia growth in mm/day over an eight-day period of antagonistic tests.

  1. Gliotoxin-producing endophytic Acremonium sp. from Zingiber officinale found antagonistic to soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum.

    PubMed

    Anisha, C; Radhakrishnan, E K

    2015-04-01

    Soft rot caused by Pythium sp. is a major cause of economic loss in ginger cultivation. Endophytic fungi isolated from Zingiber officinale were screened for its activity against the soft rot pathogen Pythium myriotylum. Among the isolates screened, an endophytic fungus which was identified as Acremonium sp. showed promising activity against the phytopathogen in dual culture. The selected fungus was cultured in large scale on solid rice media and was extracted with ethyl acetate. The crude extract was subjected to column chromatography and preparative HPLC to obtain the fraction with the antifungal activity. LC-QTOF-MS/MS analysis of this fraction done using water-acetonitrile gradient identified a mass of m/z 327 (M + H) corresponding to gliotoxin with specific fragments m/z 263, 245, 227, and 111. The result was reconfirmed in negative mode ionization. Gliotoxin is the major antagonistic peptide produced by the commercially used biocontrol agent, Trichoderma sp., which shows high antagonism against Pythium sp. The gliotoxin production by the isolated endophytic Acremonium sp. of Z. officinale shows the possible natural biocontrol potential of this endophytic fungus.

  2. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium coenophialum, can enhance drought tolerance of its host grass, tall fescue. To investigate endophyte effects on plant responses to acute water deficit stress, we did comprehensive profiling of plant metabolite levels in both shoot and root tissues of genetically identical clone pairs of tall fescue with endophyte (E+) and without endophyte (E-) in response to direct water deficit stress. The E- clones were generated by treating E+ plants with fungicide and selectively propagating single tillers. In time course studies on the E+ and E- clones, water was withheld from 0 to 5 days, during which levels of free sugars, sugar alcohols, and amino acids were determined, as were levels of some major fungal metabolites. Results After 2–3 days of withholding water, survival and tillering of re-watered plants was significantly greater for E+ than E- clones. Within two to three days of withholding water, significant endophyte effects on metabolites manifested as higher levels of free glucose, fructose, trehalose, sugar alcohols, proline and glutamic acid in shoots and roots. The fungal metabolites, mannitol and loline alkaloids, also significantly increased with water deficit. Conclusions Our results suggest that symbiotic N. coenophialum aids in survival and recovery of tall fescue plants from water deficit, and acts in part by inducing rapid accumulation of these compatible solutes soon after imposition of stress. PMID:24015904

  3. Endophytic fungal beta-1,6-glucanase expression in the infected host grass.

    PubMed

    Moy, Melinda; Li, Huaijun Michael; Sullivan, Ray; White, James F; Belanger, Faith C

    2002-11-01

    Mutualistic fungal endophytes infect many grass species and often confer benefits to the hosts such as reduced herbivory by insects and animals. The physiological interactions between the endophytes and their hosts have not been well characterized. Fungal-secreted proteins are likely to be important components of the interaction. In the interaction between Poa ampla and the endophyte Neotyphodium sp., a fungal beta-1,6-glucanase is secreted into the apoplast, and activity of the enzyme is detectable in endophyte-infected plants. Sequence analysis indicates the beta-1,6-glucanase is homologous to enzymes secreted by the mycoparasitic fungi Trichoderma harzianum and Trichoderma virens. DNA gel-blot analysis indicated the beta-1,6-glucanase was encoded by a single gene. As a secreted protein, the beta-1,6-glucanase may have a nutritional role for the fungus. In culture, beta-1,6-glucanase activity was induced in the presence of beta-1,6-glucans. From RNA gel blots, similar beta-1,6-glucanases were expressed in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra L. subsp. fallax [Thuill] Nyman) infected with the endophyte species Neotyphodium coenophialum and Epichloë festucae, respectively.

  4. Plant genotype-specific archaeal and bacterial endophytes but similar Bacillus antagonists colonize Mediterranean olive trees

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Henry; Berg, Christian; Landa, Blanca B.; Auerbach, Anna; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Endophytes have an intimate and often symbiotic interaction with their hosts. Less is known about the composition and function of endophytes in trees. In order to evaluate our hypothesis that plant genotype and origin have a strong impact on both, endophytes of leaves from 10 Olea europaea L. cultivars from the Mediterranean basin growing at a single agricultural site in Spain and from nine wild olive trees located in natural habitats in Greece, Cyprus, and on Madeira Island were studied. The composition of the bacterial endophytic communities as revealed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and the subsequent PCoA analysis showed a strong correlation to the plant genotypes. The bacterial distribution patterns were congruent with the plant origins in “Eastern” and “Western” areas of the Mediterranean basin. Subsequently, the endophytic microbiome of wild olives was shown to be closely related to those of cultivated olives of the corresponding geographic origins. The olive leaf endosphere harbored mostly Proteobacteria, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. The detection of a high portion of archaeal taxa belonging to the phyla Thaumarchaeota, Crenarchaeota, and Euryarchaeota in the amplicon libraries was an unexpected discovery, which was confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR revealing an archaeal portion of up to 35.8%. Although the function of these Archaea for their host plant remains speculative, this finding suggests a significant relevance of archaeal endophytes for plant–microbe interactions. In addition, the antagonistic potential of culturable endophytes was determined; all isolates with antagonistic activity against the olive-pathogenic fungus Verticillium dahliae Kleb. belong to Bacillus amyloliquefaciens. In contrast to the specific global structural diversity, BOX-fingerprints of the antagonistic Bacillus isolates were highly similar and independent of the olive genotype from which they were isolated. PMID:25784898

  5. Endophytic colonisation of opium poppy, Papaver somniferum, by an entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana strain.

    PubMed

    Quesada-Moraga, E; Landa, B B; Muñoz-Ledesma, J; Jiménez-Diáz, R M; Santiago-Alvarez, C

    2006-05-01

    Beauveria bassiana strain EABb 04/01-Tip isolated from stem-borer larvae of Timaspis papaveris (Hymenoptera: Cynipidae), a serious pest of opium poppy in Spain, was shown to be able to become established endophytically in this pharmaceutical crop. Microbiological, molecular and light and electron microscopic methods were used to study fungal colonisation and to describe its mode of penetration. After inoculation with a foliar spray of conidia, microbiological methods showed 100% of plants examined 24, 48, 72 and 144 h after treatment to be colonised endophytically by the fungus, although the percentage of previously surface sterilised leaf pieces showing fungal growth was 100% at 24 and 48 h, and 80 and 75% at 72 and 144 h after treatment, respectively. The fungus was also observed in leaf pieces obtained from newly formed leaves, indicating that it could spread from treated leaves to leaves formed after fungal application. For molecular studies, a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocol was used to amplify the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 regions of the rDNA of the plant and the fungus. This procedure allowed the detection of the fungus on the surface of the leaves and also endophytically, but only at 72 h after treatment. A nucleotide BLAST search revealed that the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequence of strain EABb 04/01-Tip showed 100% homology with a similar sequence from Cordyceps bassiana. SEM images revealed that although numerous conidia were observed on the leaf surface, few germinated and penetrated. Intracellular colonisation by B. bassiana was not observed, but hyphae were detected growing into the xylem vessels. The fungus was found to colonise 40.5 +/- 4.3% of seedlings (with two cotyledons and the two first real leaves) from seeds dressed with a fungal spore suspension. These results may have implications in the biological control of T. papaveris, including the possible systemic protection of the plant against this cynipid.

  6. Wood decomposition and fungal community dynamics mediated by temperature and endophytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Z.; Schilling, J. S.

    2013-12-01

    Wood decomposition is primarily fulfilled by brown rot and white rot fungi in temperate and boreal forests. The competition balance between these fungi determines the patterns of wood decomposition and carbon cycle in forests. But this balance may shift in a warmer future, especially in high latitude forests. Additionally, endophytes may assert influence over the fungal competition through priority effect and interact with the effect of climate change. In this study, we use paper birch and two common fungi to answer two questions 1) How does increased temperature affect the competition between brown rot and white rot fungi? 2) How do endophytes interact with fungi from the soil and influence wood decomposition? A microcosm system was used to simulate competition between Piptoporus betulinus (brown rot fungi) and Fomes fomentarius (white rot fungi) on small birch stem on the effect of increased temperature and endophytes. Activity of P. betulinus was slower in higher temperature, but F. fomentarius was not affected. Character of residue showed that when both fungi were present, wood tend to have white rot in higher temperature. Presence of endophytes significantly reduced the decay rate when they were competing with external fungi, indicating that part of their energy was allocated to interspecies antagonism from metabolizing wood. In the absence of external fungus, endophytes alone caused significant amount of wood decay. Higher temperature also tends to shift the community of endophyte toward more white rot fungi. Our results highlighted the role of endophytes in wood decomposition. Major wood decomposers, not just plant pathogen, may remain dormant in live trees and regain their activity right after tree death. The endophytes could be an important part of assembly history in forming microbial community in dead wood and may have complex interactions with fungi and bacteria in soil. An increased temperature obviously favors white rot fungi, which is in accordance

  7. Trichoderma gamsii (NFCCI 2177): a newly isolated endophytic, psychrotolerant, plant growth promoting, and antagonistic fungal strain.

    PubMed

    Rinu, K; Sati, Priyanka; Pandey, Anita

    2014-05-01

    An endophytic fungus has been isolated from the lateral roots of lentil (Lens esculenta Moench), growing under mountain ecosystem of Indian Himalayan Region (IHR). While the fungus was observed as fast growing with white scanty mycelium turning to turmeric brown in 5 days of incubation at 25 °C, it also produced a unique odor. The fungus exhibited growth between 4 and 30 °C (optimum 25 °C) and tolerated pH between 2.0 and 13.5 (optimum 4-6). Based on phenotypic (colony morphology and microscopy) and genotypic (18S rRNA analysis) characters, the fungus was identified as Trichoderma gamsii (99% similarity). The fungus was evaluated for its plant growth promotion and biocontrol properties. The fungus was found to be positive for phosphate solubilization, chitinase activity, and production of ammonia and salicylic acid, while the results for production of IAA, HCN, and siderophores were negative. Out of the seven phytopathogenic fungi tested, it showed antagonism against six. Bioassays conducted under green house using four test crops (two cereals and two legumes) showed its potential in plant growth promotion. The fungus has potential to be developed as a bioformulation for application under mountain ecosystem.

  8. A virus in a fungus in a plant: Three-way symbiosis required for thermal tolerance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marquez, L.M.; Redman, R.S.; Rodriguez, R.J.; Roossinck, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    A mutualistic association between a fungal endophyte and a tropical panic grass allows both organisms to grow at high soil temperatures. We characterized a virus from this fungus that is involved in the mutualistic interaction. Fungal isolates cured of the virus are unable to confer heat tolerance, but heat tolerance is restored after the virus is reintroduced. The virus-infected fungus confers heat tolerance not only to its native monocot host but also to a eudicot host, which suggests that the underlying mechanism involves pathways conserved between these two groups of plants.

  9. Establishing Fungal Entomopathogens as Endophytes: Towards Endophytic Biological Control

    PubMed Central

    Parsa, Soroush; Ortiz, Viviana; Vega, Fernando E.

    2013-01-01

    Beauveria bassiana is a fungal entomopathogen with the ability to colonize plants endophytically. As an endophyte, B. bassiana may play a role in protecting plants from herbivory and disease. This protocol demonstrates two inoculation methods to establish B. bassiana endophytically in the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris), in preparation for subsequent evaluations of endophytic biological control. Plants are grown from surface-sterilized seeds for two weeks before receiving a B. bassiana treatment of 108 conidia/ml (or water) applied either as a foliar spray or a soil drench. Two weeks later, the plants are harvested and their leaves, stems and roots are sampled to evaluate endophytic fungal colonization. For this, samples are individually surface sterilized, cut into multiple sections, and incubated in potato dextrose agar media for 20 days. The media is inspected every 2-3 days to observe fungal growth associated with plant sections and record the occurrence of B. bassiana to estimate the extent of its endophytic colonization. Analyses of inoculation success compare the occurrence of B. bassiana within a given plant part (i.e. leaves, stems or roots) across treatments and controls. In addition to the inoculation method, the specific outcome of the experiment may depend on the target crop species or variety, the fungal entomopathogen species strain or isolate used, and the plant's growing conditions. PMID:23603853

  10. The promoting role of an isolate of dark-septate fungus on its host plant Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir.

    PubMed

    Wu, Li-qin; Lv, Ya-li; Meng, Zhi-xia; Chen, Juan; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2010-02-01

    A dark-septate endophytic (DSE) fungus EF-37 was isolated from the roots of Saussurea involucrata Kar. et Kir., an endangered Chinese medicinal plant. The molecular identification of the fungus was based on internal transcribed spacer regions and the result showed that EF-37 was congeneric to Mycocentrospora. This study was conducted to clarify the influence of the root endophyte EF-37 on the host plant S. involucrata using material grown in a sterile culture bottle. After cultivation for 40 days, fungal hyphae were found to be branching repeatedly and forming "hyphae nets" in the epidermal layers. Significant differences were detected between the study groups in plant dry weight, plant height, root dry weight, shoot dry weight, and the number of hair root tips. There was a positive effect of endophyte EF-37 on plant root development, with results showing that cortical cells dissolved and formed aerate structures. There was a positive effect of endophyte EF-37 on plant growth, but chlorophyll fluorescence analysis showed that there were no significant differences between the study groups. In addition, analysis of the chemical composition of seedlings showed that the level of rutin was higher in plants cultivated with the EF-37 fungus compared to the controls. This study helps to establish a basis for germplasm conservation and for further investigation of the interaction between dark-septate fungi and this alpine plant.

  11. Hypoxylon pulicicidum sp. nov. (Ascomycota, Xylariales), a Pantropical Insecticide-Producing Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Bills, Gerald F.; González-Menéndez, Victor; Martín, Jesús; Platas, Gonzalo; Fournier, Jacques; Peršoh, Derek; Stadler, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Background Nodulisporic acids (NAs) are indole diterpene fungal metabolites exhibiting potent systemic efficacy against blood-feeding arthropods, e.g., bedbugs, fleas and ticks, via binding to arthropod specific glutamate-gated chloride channels. Intensive medicinal chemistry efforts employing a nodulisporic acid A template have led to the development of N-tert-butyl nodulisporamide as a product candidate for a once monthly treatment of fleas and ticks on companion animals. The source of the NAs is a monophyletic lineage of asexual endophytic fungal strains that is widely distributed in the tropics, tentatively identified as a Nodulisporium species and hypothesized to be the asexual state of a Hypoxylon species. Methods and Results Inferences from GenBank sequences indicated that multiple researchers have encountered similar Nodulisporium endophytes in tropical plants and in air samples. Ascomata-derived cultures from a wood-inhabiting fungus, from Martinique and closely resembling Hypoxylon investiens, belonged to the same monophyletic clade as the NAs-producing endophytes. The hypothesis that the Martinique Hypoxylon collections were the sexual state of the NAs-producing endophytes was tested by mass spectrometric analysis of NAs, multi-gene phylogenetic analysis, and phenotypic comparisons of the conidial states. We established that the Martinique Hypoxylon strains produced an ample spectrum of NAs and were conspecific with the pantropical Nodulisporium endophytes, yet were distinct from H. investiens. A new species, H. pulicicidum, is proposed to accommodate this widespread organism. Conclusions and Significance Knowledge of the life cycle of H. pulicicidum will facilitate an understanding of the role of insecticidal compounds produced by the fungus, the significance of its infections in living plants and how it colonizes dead wood. The case of H. pulicicidum exemplifies how life cycle studies can consolidate disparate observations of a fungal organism, whether

  12. Interaction between a dark septate endophytic isolate from Dendrobium sp. and roots of D. nobile seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xiao-Qiang; Guo, Shun-Xing

    2009-04-01

    Interactions between an isolate of dark septate endophytes (DSE) and roots of Dendrobium nobile Lindl. seedlings are reported in this paper. The isolate was obtained from orchid mycorrhizas on Dendrobium sp. in subtropical forest. The fungus formed typical orchid mycorrhiza in aseptic co-culture with D. nobile seedlings on modified Murashige-Skoog (MMS) medium. Anatomic observations of the infected roots showed that the DSE hyphae invaded the velamen layer, passed through passage cells in exodermis, entered the cortex cells, and then formed fungal pelotons of orchid mycorrhiza. D. nobile seedlings' plant height, stem diameter, new roots number and biomass were greatly enhanced by inoculating the fungus to seedlings. The fungus was identified as Leptodontidium by sequencing the polymerase chain reaction-amplified rDNA ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (internal transcribed spacer (ITS)) regions and comparison with similar taxa.

  13. Mutualistic fungal endophytes produce phytohormones and organic acids that promote japonica rice plant growth under prolonged heat stress*

    PubMed Central

    Waqas, Muhammad; Khan, Abdul Latif; Shahzad, Raheem; Ullah, Ihsan; Khan, Abdur Rahim; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-01-01

    This study identifies the potential role in heat-stress mitigation of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites produced by the endophytic fungus Paecilomyces formosus LWL1 in japonica rice cultivar Dongjin. The japonica rice was grown in controlled chamber conditions with and without P. formosus LWL1 under no stress (NS) and prolonged heat stress (HS) conditions. Endophytic association under NS and HS conditions significantly improved plant growth attributes, such as plant height, fresh weight, dry weight, and chlorophyll content. Furthermore, P. formosus LWL1 protected the rice plants from HS compared with controls, indicated by the lower endogenous level of stress-signaling compounds such as abscisic acid (25.71%) and jasmonic acid (34.57%) and the increase in total protein content (18.76%–33.22%). Such fungal endophytes may be helpful for sustainable crop production under high environmental temperatures. PMID:26642184

  14. Stromal Development and Mating System of Balansia epichloë, a Leaf-Colonizing Endophyte of Warm-Season Grasses

    PubMed Central

    White, James F.; Owens, James R.

    1992-01-01

    Studies of the stromal development and mating system of Balansia epichloë were conducted. Early development of the stroma consists of both endophytic and epiphytic phases of growth. As development progresses, the epiphytic stromal subiculum on the upper surface of leaves is linked with endophytic mycelium within leaves by hyphal bridges, which may provide carbohydrates for stromal development. Sugar utilization studies suggest that Balansia epichloë is excluded from growth within inflorescence primordia of grasses by the presence of high levels of sugars that are inhibitory to growth of the endophyte. Studies of the mating system of B. epichloë were conducted, and the fungus was shown to be heterothallic, with ephelidial conidia functioning as spermatia. Insect vectoring of ephelidial spermatia is suggested to account for the irregular pattern of perithecial development on stromata. Images PMID:16348643

  15. A New Metabolite with a unique 4-pyranone-ylactam-1,4-thiazine moiety from a Hawaiian-plant associated fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An endophytic fungus Paraphaeosphaeria neglecta FT462 isolated from the Hawaiian-plant Lycopodiella cernua (L.) Pic. Serm produced one unusual compound (1, paraphaeosphaeride A) with the 4-pyranone-'-lactam-1,4-thiazine moiety, along with two new compounds (2 and 3, paraphaeosphaerides B and C, resp...

  16. Helvolic acid, an antibacterial nortriterpenoid from a fungal endophyte, Xylaria sp. of orchid Anoectochilus setaceus endemic to Sri Lanka

    PubMed Central

    Ratnaweera, Pamoda B.; Williams, David E.; de Silva, E. Dilip; Wijesundera, Ravi L.C.; Dalisay, Doralyn S.; Andersen, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    An endophytic fungus was isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of Anoectochilus setaceus, an orchid endemic to Sri Lanka, and was identified as Xylaria sp. by morphological characters and DNA sequencing. Bioassay-guided chromatographic fractionation of the organic extract of a laboratory culture of this fungus led to the isolation of the known antibacterial helvolic acid. Helvolic acid was active against the Gram-positive bacteria, Bacillus subtilis [minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC), 2 μg mL−1] and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC, 4 μg mL−1). PMID:24772371

  17. Fungus Infections: Tinea

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share: Yes No, Keep Private Fungus Infections Share | Tinea is the name given to a fungal skin ... Sometime the susceptibility will run in the family. Tinea Pedis (Athlete's foot) This is the most common ...

  18. Fungus Infections: Preventing Recurrence

    MedlinePlus

    ... place for these spores to collect is in shoes. Therefore, after effective treatment, a fungus may recur ... feet clean, cool and dry. Change socks. Wear shoes that "breathe" like leather, rather than plastic. Make ...

  19. Isolation of (-)-avenaciolide as the antifungal and antimycobacterial constituent of a Seimatosporium sp. Endophyte from the medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum .

    PubMed

    Clark, Trevor N; Bishop, Amanda I; McLaughlin, Mark; Calhoun, Larry A; Johnson, John A; Gray, Christopher A

    2014-10-01

    An extract of Seimatosporium sp., an endophyte from the Canadian medicinal plant Hypericum perforatum, exhibited significant antifungal and antimycobacterial activity against Candida albicans and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra. Bioassay guided fractionation led to the isolation of (-)-avenaciolide as the only bioactive constituent of the extract. This is the first report of both the antimycobacterial activity of avenaciolide and its isolation from a Seimatosporium sp. fungus.

  20. Spatial segregation and aggregation of ectomycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi in the seedlings of two Quercus species.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S; Hidaka, Amane; Kadowaki, Kohmei; Toju, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Diverse clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi are potentially involved in competitive or facilitative interactions within host-plant roots. We investigated the potential consequences of these ecological interactions on the assembly process of root-associated fungi by examining the co-occurrence of pairs of fungi in host-plant individuals. Based on massively-parallel pyrosequencing, we analyzed the root-associated fungal community composition for each of the 249 Quercus serrata and 188 Quercus glauca seedlings sampled in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Pairs of fungi that co-occurred more or less often than expected by chance were identified based on randomization tests. The pyrosequencing analysis revealed that not only ectomycorrhizal fungi but also endophytic fungi were common in the root-associated fungal community. Intriguingly, specific pairs of these ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi showed spatially aggregated patterns, suggesting the existence of facilitative interactions between fungi in different functional groups. Due to the large number of fungal pairs examined, many of the observed aggregated/segregated patterns with very low P values (e.g., < 0.005) turned non-significant after the application of a multiple comparison method. However, our overall results imply that the community structures of ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi could influence each other through interspecific competitive/facilitative interactions in root. To test the potential of host-plants' control of fungus-fungus ecological interactions in roots, we further examined whether the aggregated/segregated patterns could vary depending on the identity of host plant species. Potentially due to the physiological properties shared between the congeneric host plant species, the sign of hosts' control was not detected in the present study. The pyrosequencing-based randomization analyses shown in this study provide a platform of the high-throughput investigation of fungus-fungus

  1. Diversity and antifungal activity of the endophytic fungi associated with the native medicinal cactus Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) from the United States.

    PubMed

    Silva-Hughes, Alice F; Wedge, David E; Cantrell, Charles L; Carvalho, Camila R; Pan, Zhiqiang; Moraes, Rita M; Madoxx, Victor L; Rosa, Luiz H

    2015-06-01

    The endophytic fungal community associated with the native cactus Opuntia humifusa in the United States was investigated and its potential for providing antifungal compounds. A hundred-eight endophytic fungal isolates were obtained and identified by molecular methods into 17 different taxa of the genera Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Biscogniauxia, Cladosporium, Cryptococcus, Curvularia, Diaporthe, Epicoccum, Paraconiothyrium, Pestalotiopsis and Phoma. The most frequent species associated with O. humifusa were Alternaria sp. 3, Aureobasidium pullulans and Diaporthe sp. The fungal community of O. humifusa had a high richness and diversity; additionally, the species richness obtained indicates that the sample effort was enough to recover the diversity pattern obtained. Six extracts of endophytes showed antifungal properties and (1)H NMR analyses of the extracts of Alternaria sp. 5 Ohu 8B2, Alternaria sp. 3 Ohu 30A, Cladosporium funiculosum Ohu 17C1 and Paraconiothyrium sp. Ohu 17A indicated the presence of functional groups associated with unsaturated fatty-acid olefinic protons and fatty acid methylene and methyl protons. GC-FID analysis of these extracts confirmed the presence of a mixture of different fatty acids. The (1)H NMR analyses of Biscogniauxia mediterranea Ohu 19B extracts showed the presence of aromatic compounds. From the extract of B. mediterranea we isolated the compound 5-methylmellein that displayed moderate antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi Phomopsis obscurans. Our results suggest that native medicinal cacti of the United States can live symbiotically with rich and diverse endophytic communities and may be a source of bioactive molecules, including those able to inhibit or control plant disease pathogens.

  2. Plant growth-promoting bacterial endophytes.

    PubMed

    Santoyo, Gustavo; Moreno-Hagelsieb, Gabriel; Orozco-Mosqueda, Ma del Carmen; Glick, Bernard R

    2016-02-01

    Bacterial endophytes ubiquitously colonize the internal tissues of plants, being found in nearly every plant worldwide. Some endophytes are able to promote the growth of plants. For those strains the mechanisms of plant growth-promotion known to be employed by bacterial endophytes are similar to the mechanisms used by rhizospheric bacteria, e.g., the acquisition of resources needed for plant growth and modulation of plant growth and development. Similar to rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria, endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria can act to facilitate plant growth in agriculture, horticulture and silviculture as well as in strategies for environmental cleanup (i.e., phytoremediation). Genome comparisons between bacterial endophytes and the genomes of rhizospheric plant growth-promoting bacteria are starting to unveil potential genetic factors involved in an endophytic lifestyle, which should facilitate a better understanding of the functioning of bacterial endophytes.

  3. Loline alkaloid production by fungal endophytes of Fescue species select for particular epiphytic bacterial microflora

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Elizabeth; Lindow, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The leaves of fescue grasses are protected from herbivores by the production of loline alkaloids by the mutualist fungal endophytes Neotyphodium sp. or Epichloë sp. Most bacteria that reside on the leaf surface of such grasses can consume these defensive chemicals. Loline-consuming bacteria are rare on the leaves of other plant species. Several bacterial species including Burkholderia ambifaria recovered from tall fescue could use N-formyl loline as a sole carbon and nitrogen source in culture and achieved population sizes that were about eightfold higher when inoculated onto plants harboring loline-producing fungal endophytes than on plants lacking such endophytes or which were colonized by fungal variants incapable of loline production. In contrast, mutants of B. ambifaria and other bacterial species incapable of loline catabolism achieved similarly low population sizes on tall fescue colonized by loline-producing Neotyphodium sp. and on plants lacking this endophytic fungus. Lolines that are released onto the surface of plants benefiting from a fungal mutualism thus appear to be a major resource that can be exploited by epiphytic bacteria, thereby driving the establishment of a characteristic bacterial community on such plants. PMID:24108329

  4. Characterization of Antifungal Natural Products Isolated from Endophytic Fungi of Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana).

    PubMed

    Mousa, Walaa Kamel; Schwan, Adrian L; Raizada, Manish N

    2016-09-03

    Finger millet is an ancient African-Indian crop that is resistant to many pathogens including the fungus, Fusarium graminearum. We previously reported the first isolation of putative fungal endophytes from finger millet and showed that the crude extracts of four strains had anti-Fusarium activity. However, active compounds were isolated from only one strain. The objectives of this study were to confirm the endophytic lifestyle of the three remaining anti-Fusarium isolates, to identify the major underlying antifungal compounds, and to initially characterize the mode(s) of action of each compound. Results of confocal microscopy and a plant disease assay were consistent with the three fungal strains behaving as endophytes. Using bio-assay guided fractionation and spectroscopic structural elucidation, three anti-Fusarium secondary metabolites were purified and characterized. These molecules were not previously reported to derive from fungi nor have antifungal activity. The purified antifungal compounds were: 5-hydroxy 2(3H)-benzofuranone, dehydrocostus lactone (guaianolide sesquiterpene lactone), and harpagoside (an iridoide glycoside). Light microscopy and vitality staining were used to visualize the in vitro interactions between each compound and Fusarium; the results suggested a mixed fungicidal/fungistatic mode of action. We conclude that finger millet possesses fungal endophytes that can synthesize anti-fungal compounds not previously reported as bio-fungicides against F. graminearum.

  5. Fungal Endophyte Diversity in Sarracenia

    PubMed Central

    Glenn, Anthony; Bodri, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from 4 species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, 8 within the Ascomycota and 4 within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer sequences of nuclear ribosomal DNA (ITS rDNA) with taxonomic identity assigned using the NCBI nucleotide megablast search tool. Endophytes are known to produce a large number of metabolites, some of which may contribute to the protection and survival of the host. We speculate that endophyte-infected Sarracenia may benefit from their fungal associates by their influence on nutrient availability from within pitchers and, possibly, by directly influencing the biota within pitchers. PMID:22427921

  6. Metabolic potential of endophytic bacteria☆

    PubMed Central

    Brader, Günter; Compant, Stéphane; Mitter, Birgit; Trognitz, Friederike; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial endophytic microbiome promotes plant growth and health and beneficial effects are in many cases mediated and characterized by metabolic interactions. Recent advances have been made in regard to metabolite production by plant microsymbionts showing that they may produce a range of different types of metabolites. These substances play a role in defense and competition, but may also be needed for specific interaction and communication with the plant host. Furthermore, few examples of bilateral metabolite production are known and endophytes may modulate plant metabolite synthesis as well. We have just started to understand such metabolic interactions between plants and endophytes, however, further research is needed to more efficiently make use of beneficial plant-microbe interactions and to reduce pathogen infestation as well as to reveal novel bioactive substances of commercial interest. PMID:24863894

  7. Phylogenetic Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Tephrosia purpurea

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Ze-Ping; Lin, Hai-Yan; Ding, Wen-Bing; He, Hua-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Sixty-one endophytic fungus strains with different colony morphologies were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Tephrosia purpurea with colonization rates of 66.95%, 37.50%, and 26.92%, respectively. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, 61 isolates were classified into 16 genera belonging to 3 classes under the phylum Ascomycota. Of the 61 isolates, 6 (9.84%) exhibited antifungal activity against one or more indicator plant pathogenic fungi according to the dual culture test. Isolate TPL25 had the broadest antifungal spectrum of activity, and isolate TPL35 was active against 5 plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, culture filtrates of TPL25 and TPL35 exhibited greater than 80% growth inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We conclude that the endophytic fungal strains TPL25 and TPL35 are promising sources of bioactive compounds. PMID:26839503

  8. Phylogenetic Diversity and Antifungal Activity of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Tephrosia purpurea.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ze-Ping; Lin, Hai-Yan; Ding, Wen-Bing; He, Hua-Liang; Li, You-Zhi

    2015-12-01

    Sixty-one endophytic fungus strains with different colony morphologies were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Tephrosia purpurea with colonization rates of 66.95%, 37.50%, and 26.92%, respectively. Based on internal transcribed spacer sequence analysis, 61 isolates were classified into 16 genera belonging to 3 classes under the phylum Ascomycota. Of the 61 isolates, 6 (9.84%) exhibited antifungal activity against one or more indicator plant pathogenic fungi according to the dual culture test. Isolate TPL25 had the broadest antifungal spectrum of activity, and isolate TPL35 was active against 5 plant pathogenic fungi. Furthermore, culture filtrates of TPL25 and TPL35 exhibited greater than 80% growth inhibition against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. We conclude that the endophytic fungal strains TPL25 and TPL35 are promising sources of bioactive compounds.

  9. The pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana: what happens after an endophytic phase in plants?

    PubMed

    Akello, J; Dubois, T; Coyne, D; Kyamanywa, S

    2010-01-01

    The banana weevil Cosmopolites sordidus (Germar) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is a serious constraint to banana (Musa spp.) production throughout the world. The entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (Ascomycota: Hypocreales) offers a potential weevil management option, but conventional delivery mechanisms have limited its success. As an endophyte, however, B. bassiana can be efficiently delivered to banana planting materials for the potential management of C. sordidus. However, entomopathogens can change morphology and efficacy against their target host when successively sub-cultured on artificial media or when exposed to certain physical and chemical environmental conditions. Whether such changes occur in B. bassiana after an endophytic phase inside a banana plant remains unknown. The primary aim of our study was to evaluate the viability, growth, sporulation and pathogenicity of endophytic B. bassiana. To attain this, two sets of experiments, namely morphological characterization and larval bioassays, were conducted under laboratory conditions. In these experiments, growth and pathogenicity of the wild-type B. bassiana strain G41, obtained originally from banana farms, was compared with the endophytic B. bassiana strain G41, re-isolated from the rhizome of B. bassiana-inoculated banana plants at one month post-inoculation. Morphological characterization, conidial germination, colony growth and sporulation rate was assessed on SDAY media while pathogenicity was determined 15 days after immersing the larvae of C. sordidus in different conidial doses. No differences were observed in colony appearance and growth rate between the endophytic and wild-type strain. Percentage conidial germination for the endophytic strain (91.4-94.0%) was higher than for the wild-type (86.6-89.7%). LD50 equated 1.76 x 10(5) and 0.71 x 10(5) conidia/ml for the wild-type and endophytic B. bassiana strains, respectively, but did not differ between strains. Our study

  10. Stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide: an investigation of rac-thioridazine biotransformation by some endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Borges, Keyller Bastos; De Souza Borges, Warley; Pupo, Mônica Tallarico; Bonato, Pierina Sueli

    2008-04-14

    The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the stereoselective analysis of thioridazine-2-sulfoxide (THD-2-SO) and thioridazine-5-sulfoxide (THD-5-SO) in culture medium and to study the biotransformation of rac-thioridazine (THD) by some endophytic fungi. The simultaneous resolution of THD-2-SO and THD-5-SO diastereoisomers was performed on a CHIRALPAK AS column using a mobile phase of hexane:ethanol:methanol (92:6:2, v/v/v)+0.5% diethylamine; UV detection was carried out at 262 nm. Diethyl ether was used as extractor solvent. The validated method was used to evaluate the biotransformation of THD by 12 endophytic fungi isolated from Tithonia diversifolia, Viguiera arenaria and Viguiera robusta. Among the 12 fungi evaluated, 4 of them deserve prominence for presenting an evidenced stereoselective biotransformation potential: Phomopsis sp. (TD2) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the form (S)-(SE) (12.1%); Glomerella cingulata (VA1) presented greater mono-5-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE)+(R)-(FE) (10.5%); Diaporthe phaseolorum (VR4) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE) and (R)-(FE) (84.4% and 82.5%, respectively) and Aspergillus fumigatus (VR12) presented greater mono-2-sulfoxidation to the forms (S)-(SE) and (R)-(SE) (31.5% and 34.4%, respectively).

  11. Fungal endophyte diversity in Sarracenia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes were isolated from four species of the carnivorous pitcher plant genus Sarracenia: S. minor, S. oreophila, S. purpurea, and S. psittacina. Twelve taxa of fungi, eight within the Ascomycota and four within the Basidiomycota, were identified based on PCR amplification and sequencing ...

  12. A-seco-oleane-type triterpenes from Phomopsis sp. (strain HKI0458) isolated from the mangrove plant Hibiscus tiliaceus.

    PubMed

    Li, Liya; Sattler, Isabel; Deng, Zhiwei; Groth, Ingrid; Walther, Grit; Klaus-Dieter Menzel; Peschel, Gudrun; Grabley, Susanne; Lin, Wenhan

    2008-01-01

    From the fermentation broth of an unidentified Phomopsis sp. (strain HKI0458) isolated from the mangrove plant Hibiscus tiliaceus, four A-seco-oleane-type triterpenes, namely 3,4-seco-olean-11,13-dien-4,15alpha, 22beta,24-tetraol-3-oic acid (1), 3,4-seco-olean-11,13-dien-4,7beta,22beta,24-tetraol-3-oic acid (2), 3,4-seco- olean-13-en-4,7,15,22,24-pentaol-3-oic acid (3), and 3,4-seco-olean-13-en-4,15,22,24-tetraol-3-oic acid (4) were obtained. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic (UV, IR, FABMS, and 2D NMR) data analyses.

  13. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn.

    PubMed

    Chowdhary, Kanika; Kaushik, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    activity of hexane extract. The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time.

  14. Bioprospecting of antimicrobial activity of extracts of endophytic fungi from Bauhinia guianensis.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Eduardo A A; Pina, Jeferson R S; Feitosa, André O; Carvalho, Josiwander M; Borges, Fábio C; Marinho, Patrícia S B; Marinho, Andrey M R

    Antibiotic resistance results in higher medical costs, prolonged hospital stays and increased mortality and is rising to dangerously high levels in all parts of the world. Therefore, this study aims to search for new antimicrobial agents through bioprospecting of extracts of endophytic fungi from Bauhinia guianensis, a typical Amazonian plant used in combating infections. Seventeen (17) fungi were isolated and as result the methanolic extract of the fungus Exserohilum rostratum showed good activity against the bacteria tested. The polyketide monocerin was isolated by the chromatographic technique, identified by NMR and MS, showing broad antimicrobial spectrum.

  15. Bioactive polyketides isolated from agar-supported fermentation of Phomopsis sp. CMU-LMA, taking advantage of the scale-up device, Platotex.

    PubMed

    Adelin, Emilie; Martin, Marie-Thérèse; Cortial, Sylvie; Retailleau, Pascal; Lumyong, Saisamorn; Ouazzani, Jamal

    2013-09-01

    Phomopsis sp. CMU-LMA was cultivated on agar-supported fermentation (Ag-SF) using the scale-up prototype Platotex. In total nine compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the culture. Among them, compounds LMA-P1, Sch-642305, DHTO and LMA-P2 had already been reported in our previous work on liquid state fermentation. The trihydroxybenzene lactone cytosporone D and dothiorelone A has been recently isolated from Phomopsis and Magnaporthe species. In addition, three compounds were isolated consisting in the reduced methoxy derivative of Sch-642305 (1), a hydroxylated derivative of LMA-P2 (2) and a linear ethyl ester polyketide (3) similar to the previously reported LMA-P3. Antimicrobial activity and inhibition of Escherichia coli DnaG primase were investigated. Cytosporone D inhibited the E. coli DnaG primase, a Gram-negative antimicrobial target, with an IC50 of 0.25 mM.

  16. Oxidative potential of some endophytic fungi using 1-indanone as a substrate.

    PubMed

    Fill, Taicia Pacheco; da Silva, Jose Vinicius; de Oliveira, Kleber Thiago; da Silva, Bianca Ferreira; Rodrigues-Fo, Edson

    2012-06-01

    The oxidative potential of the fungus Penicillium brasilianum, a strain isolated as an endophyte from a Meliaceae plant (Melia azedarach), was investigated using 1-indanone as a substrate to track the production of monooxygenases. The fungus produced the dihydrocoumarin from 1-indanone with the classical Baeyer-Villiger reaction regiochemistry, and (-)-(R)-3-hydroxy-1-indanone with 78% ee. Minor compounds resulting from lipase and SAM activities were also detected. The biotransformation procedures were also applied to a collection of Penicillium and Aspergillus fungi obtained from M. azedarach and Murraya paniculata. The results showed that Baeyer-Villiger were mostly active in fungi isolated from M. azedarach. Almost all of the fungi tested produced 3-hydroxy-1-indanone..

  17. Endophytic and epiphytic microbes as “sources” of bioactive agents

    PubMed Central

    Newman, David J.; Cragg, Gordon M.

    2015-01-01

    Beginning with the report by Stierle and Strobel in 1993 on taxol(R) production by an endophytic fungus (Stierle et al., 1993), it is possible that a number of the agents now used as leads to treatments of diseases in man, are not produced by the plant or invertebrate host from which they were first isolated and identified. They are probably the product of a microbe in, on or around the macroorganism. At times there is an intricate “dance” between a precursor produced by a microbe, and interactions within the macroorganism, or in certain cases, a fungus, that ends up with the production of a novel agent that has potential as a treatment for a human disease. This report will give examples from insects, plants, and marine invertebrates. PMID:26052511

  18. Fungal endophytes: diversity and functional roles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodriguez, R.J.; White, J.F.; Arnold, A.E.; Redman, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    All plants in natural ecosystems appear to be symbiotic with fungal endophytes. This highly diverse group of fungi can have profound impacts on plant communities through increasing fitness by conferring abiotic and biotic stress tolerance, increasing biomass and decreasing water consumption, or decreasing fitness by altering resource allocation. Despite more than 100 yr of research resulting in thousands of journal articles, the ecological significance of these fungi remains poorly characterized. Historically, two endophytic groups (clavicipitaceous (C) and nonclavicipitaceous (NC)) have been discriminated based on phylogeny and life history traits. Here, we show that NC-endophytes represent three distinct functional groups based on host colonization and transmission, in planta biodiversity and fitness benefits conferred to hosts. Using this framework, we contrast the life histories, interactions with hosts and potential roles in plant ecophysiology of C- and NC-endophytes, and highlight several key questions for future work in endophyte biology.

  19. Antibacterial activity of endophytic fungi from leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller (Fabaceae)

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Irailton Prazeres; da Silva, Luís Cláudio Nascimento; da Silva, Márcia Vanusa; de Araújo, Janete Magali; Cavalcanti, Marilene da Silva; Lima, Vera Lucia de Menezes

    2015-01-01

    Endophytic fungi were isolated from healthy leaves of Indigofera suffruticosa Miller, a medicinal plant found in Brazil which is used in folk medicine to treat various diseases. Among 65 endophytic fungi isolated, 18 fungi showed activity against at least one tested microorganism in preliminary screening, and the best results were obtained with Nigrospora sphaerica (URM-6060) and Pestalotiopsis maculans (URM-6061). After fermentation in liquid media and in semisolid media, only N. sphaerica demonstrated antibacterial activity (in Potato Dextrose Broth-PDB and in semisolid rice culture medium). In the next step, a methanolic extract from rice culture medium (NsME) and an ethyl acetate extract (NsEAE) from the supernatant of PDB were prepared and both exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The best result was observed against Staphylococcus aureus, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 1.56 mg/mL and 6.25 mg/mL, respectively, for NsME and MIC and MBC values of 0.39 mg/mL and 3.12 mg/mL, respectively, for NsEAE. This study is the first report about the antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi residing in I. suffruticosa leaves, in which the fungus N. sphaerica demonstrated the ability to produce bioactive agents with pharmaceutical potential, and may provide a new lead in the pursuit of new biological sources of drug candidates. PMID:25999918

  20. Endophytic infection alleviates Pb(2+) stress effects on photosystem II functioning of Oryza sativa leaves.

    PubMed

    Li, Xuemei; Zhang, Lihong

    2015-09-15

    The aims of this study were to examine the effect of Pb(2+) stress on the primary reaction of photosynthesis and to assess the potential benefits of endophytic infection on the Pb(2+) tolerance of rice seedlings. Rice inoculated with an endophytic fungus (E+) and non-inoculated (E-) were subjected to 0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 μM Pb(2+). The responses to Pb(2+) stress were characterized by the analysis of Chl a fluorescence. A comparison of E- with E+ rice seedlings, as evaluated by their performance index (PI(ABS) and PI(tot)), revealed the inhibitory effects of Pb(2+) on photosystem II (PSII) connectivity, the oxygen evolving complex (OEC), and on the J step of the induction curves, which is associated with an inhibition of electron transport from the quinone acceptor Q(A) to Q(B). Furthermore, the changes of the donor and the acceptor parameters of PSII were greater in E- than in E+ under Pb(2+) stress. These observations suggest that the efficiency and stability of PSII are markedly affected by Pb(2+) stress, and the photosynthetic energy conservation in E+ was more effective than in E-. We showed that endophytic infection plays an important role in enhancing the photosynthetic mechanism of rice seedlings exposed to Pb(2+) stress.

  1. Mechanisms of bamboo witches' broom symptom development caused by endophytic/epiphytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Eiji

    2010-04-01

    Aciculosporium take causes continuous shoot growth but maintains normal leaf-arrangement and branching patterns in the host plant, which eventually resulting in witches' broom disease of bamboo. An in situ hybridization technique with a species-specific oligonucleotide probe was recently used to demonstrate that endophytic mycelia of A. take is predominantly distributed in the intercellular spaces of the shoot apical meristem of the host. Endophytic hyphae in meristematic tissues, which may produce auxin, are responsible for continuous primordium initiation within the shoot apex. Here I examine another bamboo witches' broom causal fungus, Heteroepichloë sasae. Both species are biotrophic and belong to family Clavicipitaceae: however, H. sasae does not cause continuous shoot growth. Histological study showed that H. sasae mycelia were distributed superficially, even on shoot apical meristems. These observations suggest that when their stromata develop, endophytic A. take destroys shoot apical meristem and epiphytic H. sasae chokes the shoot apex of the host. Stromata formation consequently causes lateral bud outgrowth because of release from apical dominance. This process repeats and eventually results in the witches' broom symptoms.

  2. A fatty acid glycoside from a marine-derived fungus isolated from mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yan-Bo; Wang, Hui; Zuo, Wen-Jian; Zheng, Bo; Yang, Tao; Dai, Hao-Fu; Mei, Wen-Li

    2012-03-01

    To study the antimicrobial components from the endophytic fungus A1 of mangrove plant Scyphiphora hydrophyllacea Gaertn. F., a new fatty acid glucoside was isolated by column chromatography from the broth of A1, and its structure was identified as R-3-hydroxyundecanoic acid methylester-3-O-α-l-rhamnopyranoside (1) by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR (HMQC, (1)H-(1)H COSY and HMBC) and chemical methods. Antimicrobial assay showed compound 1 possessed modest inhibitory effect on Saphylococcus aureus and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) using the filter paper disc agar diffusion method.

  3. Comparison of the chemistry and diversity of endophytes isolated from wild-harvested and greenhouse-cultivated yerba mansa (Anemopsis californica)

    PubMed Central

    Bussey, Robert O.; Kaur, Amninder; Todd, Daniel A.; Egan, Joseph M.; El-Elimat, Tamam; Graf, Tyler N.; Raja, Huzefa A.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.; Cech, Nadja B.

    2015-01-01

    With this study, we explored the identity and chemistry of fungal endophytes from the roots of yerba mansa [Anemopsis californica (Nutt.) Hook. & Arn. (Saururaceae)], a botanical traditionally used to treat infection. We compared the diversity of fungal endophytes isolated from a wild-harvested A. californica population, and those from plants cultivated for one year in a greenhouse environment. The wild-harvested population yielded thirteen fungal strains (eleven unique genotypes). Of the extracts prepared from these fungi, four inhibited growth of Staphylococcus aureus by >25% at 20 µg/mL, and three inhibited growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by ≥20% at 200 µg/mL. By comparison, A. californica roots after one year of cultivation in the greenhouse produced only two unique genotypes, neither of which displayed significant antimicrobial activity. The fungus Chaetomium cupreum isolated from wild-harvested A. californica yielded a new antimicrobial spirolactone, chaetocuprum (1). An additional fourteen known compounds were identified using LC-MS dereplication of the various fungal endophytes. This study provides new insights into the identity and chemistry of A. californica fungal endophytes, and demonstrates the importance of considering growing conditions when pursuing natural product drug discovery from endophytic fungi. PMID:25642298

  4. Endophytic fungal compounds active against Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cristiane B; de Oliveira, Djalma M; Hughes, Alice Fs; Kohlhoff, Markus; LA Vieira, Mariana; Martins Vaz, Aline B; Ferreira, Mariana C; Carvalho, Camila R; Rosa, Luiz H; Rosa, Carlos A; Alves, Tânia Ma; Zani, Carlos L; Johann, Susana; Cota, Betania B

    2015-07-01

    Infections with Cryptococcus are invasive mycoses associated with significant morbidity and mortality, mainly in immunosuppressed patients. Several drugs have been introduced to combat these opportunistic infections. However, resistance of this organism to antifungal drugs has increased, causing difficulties in the treatment. The goal of this work was to evaluate the antifungal activity of ethanol extracts from endophytic fungi isolated from plants collected from different Brazilian ecosystems and to perform the fractionation of the most promising extract. Four-hundred fungal extracts were investigated by microdilution broth assays against Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii at a concentration of 500 μg ml(-1). Among them, the extract of Mycosphaerella sp. UFMGCB 2032, an endophytic fungus isolated from the plant Eugenia bimarginata DC. (Myrtaceae) exhibited outstanding antifungal activity against C. neoformans and C. gattii, with MIC values of 31.2 μg ml(-1) and 7.8 μg ml(-1), respectively. The fractionation of this extract using liquid-liquid partitioning and semi-preparative HPLC afforded two eicosanoic acids with antifungal activity, compound 1, (2S,3R,4R)-(E)-2-amino-3,4-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-14-oxoeicos-6,12-dienoic acid with MIC values ranging from 1.3-2.50 μg ml(-1), and compound 2, known as myriocin, with MIC values of 0.5 μg ml(-1) against C. neoformans and C. gattii. These compounds are reported for the first time in the Mycosphaerella genus.

  5. Mycorrhizal status and diversity of fungal endophytes in roots of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum).

    PubMed

    Likar, Matevz; Bukovnik, Urska; Kreft, Ivan; Chrungoo, Nikhil K; Regvar, Marjana

    2008-09-01

    To determine the mycorrhizal status and to identify the fungi colonising the roots of the plants, common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) and tartary buckwheat (F. tataricum) were inoculated with an indigenous fungal mixture from a buckwheat field. Root colonisation was characterised by the hyphae and distinct microsclerotia of dark septate endophytes, with occasional arbuscules and vesicles of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Sequences of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi colonising tartary buckwheat clustered close to the Glomus species group A. Sequences with similarity to the Ceratobasidium/Rhizoctonia complex, a putative dark septate endophyte fungus, were amplified from the roots of both common and tartary buckwheat. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonisation in tartary buckwheat and the first molecular characterisation of these fungi that can colonise both of these economically important plant species.

  6. Fungal endophytes for sustainable crop production.

    PubMed

    Lugtenberg, Ben J J; Caradus, John R; Johnson, Linda J

    2016-12-01

    This minireview highlights the importance of endophytic fungi for sustainable agriculture and horticulture production. Fungal endophytes play a key role in habitat adaptation of plants resulting in improved plant performance and plant protection against biotic and abiotic stresses. They encode a vast variety of novel secondary metabolites including volatile organic compounds. In addition to protecting plants against pathogens and pests, selected fungal endophytes have been used to remove animal toxicities associated with fungal endophytes in temperate grasses, to create corn and rice plants that are tolerant to a range of biotic and abiotic stresses, and for improved management of post-harvest control. We argue that practices used in plant breeding, seed treatments and agriculture, often caused by poor knowledge of the importance of fungal endophytes, are among the reasons for the loss of fungal endophyte diversity in domesticated plants and also accounts for the reduced effectiveness of some endophyte strains to confer plant benefits. We provide recommendations on how to mitigate against these negative impacts in modern agriculture.

  7. Volatile terpenoids of endophyte-free and infected peppermint (Mentha piperita L.): chemical partitioning of a symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Mucciarelli, Marco; Camusso, Wanda; Maffei, Massimo; Panicco, Paola; Bicchi, Carlo

    2007-11-01

    The study reports the effects on volatiles of an endophytic fungus inhabiting asymptomatically the leaves of peppermint. By means of headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gaschromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) terpenoids were sampled in time course from the head space of peppermint leaves and roots. After removal of the mycelium from peppermint tissues, fungal volatiles were analyzed and compared with those of pure fungal cultures. In the presence of the endophyte, the relative amount of all main compounds increased in leaves. Starting from the first 14 d of culture, (-)-menthone and (+)-neomenthol were consistently higher than in control plants. On the contrary, (+)-menthofuran increased only by 28 d of culture. Root volatiles were also dramatically altered by the presence of the fungus, with (+)-pulegone accounting for at least 44% of the total volatile emission. (+)-Pulegone was also the main compound of PGP-HSF mycelium isolated from peppermint roots. The sesquiterpenoid cuparene was found as a novel compound of peppermint leaf headspace and was a main volatile of ex planta and pure culture mycelia. The chemical spectrum of terpenoids and their distribution among peppermint roots, leaves, and mycelia are likely to account for a fine regulation of the mutualism in planta and for the acquisition by the fungus of novel metabolic competences.

  8. Antimicrobial activity of an endophytic Xylaria sp.YX-28 and identification of its antimicrobial compound 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoli; Dong, Mingsheng; Chen, Xiaohong; Jiang, Mei; Lv, Xin; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2008-02-01

    An endophytic Xylaria sp., having broad antimicrobial activity, was isolated and characterized from Ginkgo biloba L. From the culture extracts of this fungus, a bioactive compound P3 was isolated by bioactivity-guided fractionation and identified as 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin by nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and mass spectrometry spectral data. The compound showed strong antibacterial and antifungal activities in vitro against Staphylococcus aureus [minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) 16 microg.ml(-1)], Escherichia coli (MIC, 10 microg.ml(-1)), Salmonella typhia (MIC, 20 microg.ml(-1)), Salmonella typhimurium (MIC, 15 microg.ml(-1)), Salmonella enteritidis (MIC, 8.5 microg.ml(-1)), Aeromonas hydrophila (MIC, 4 microg.ml(-1)), Yersinia sp. (MIC, 12.5 microg.ml(-1)), Vibrio anguillarum (MIC, 25 microg.ml(-1)), Shigella sp. (MIC, 6.3 microg.ml(-1)), Vibrio parahaemolyticus (MIC, 12.5 microg.ml(-1)), Candida albicans (MIC, 15 microg.ml(-1)), Penicillium expansum (MIC, 40 microg.ml(-1)), and Aspergillus niger (MIC, 25 microg.ml(-1)). This is the first report of 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin in fungus and of the antimicrobial activity of this metabolite. The obtained results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this unusual endophytic fungus and its components in the control of food spoilage and food-borne diseases.

  9. Diversity of endophytic fungal and bacterial communities in Ilex paraguariensis grown under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Pérez, María Laura; Collavino, Mónica Mariana; Sansberro, Pedro Alfonso; Mroginski, Luis Amado; Galdeano, Ernestina

    2016-04-01

    The composition and diversity of the endophytic community associated with yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) was investigated using culture-depending methods. Fungi were identified based on their micromorphological characteristics and internal transcribed spacer rDNA sequence analysis; for bacteria 16S rDNA sequence analysis was used. Fungal and bacterial diversity did not show significant differences between organ age. The highest fungal diversity was registered during fall season and the lowest in winter. Bacterial diversity was higher in stems and increased from summer to winter, in contrast with leaves, which decreased. The most frequently isolated fungus was Fusarium, followed by Colletotrichum; they were both present in all the sampling seasons and organ types assayed. Actinobacteria represented 57.5 % of all bacterial isolates. The most dominant bacterial taxa were Curtobacterium and Microbacterium. Other bacteria frequently found were Methylobacterium, Sphingomonas, Herbiconiux and Bacillus. Nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization activity, ACC deaminase production and antagonism against plant fungal pathogens were assayed in endophytic bacterial strains. In the case of fungi, strains of Trichoderma, Penicillium and Aspergillus were assayed for antagonism against pathogenic Fusarium sp. All microbial isolates assayed showed at least one growth promoting activity. Strains of Bacillus, Pantoea, Curtobacterium, Methylobacterium, Brevundimonas and Paenibacillus had at least two growth-promoting activities, and Bacillus, Paenibacillus and the three endophytic fungi showed high antagonistic activity against Fusarium sp. In this work we have made a wide study of the culturable endophytic community within yerba mate plants and found that several microbial isolates could be considered as potential inoculants useful for improving yerba mate production.

  10. Exploitation of endophytes for sustainable agricultural intensification.

    PubMed

    Le Cocq, Kate; Gurr, Sarah J; Hirsch, Penny R; Mauchline, Tim H

    2016-08-25

    Intensive agriculture, which depends on unsustainable levels of agrochemical inputs, is environmentally harmful, and the expansion of these practices to meet future needs is not economically feasible. Other options should be considered to meet the global food security challenge. The plant microbiome has been linked to improved plant productivity and, in this microreview, we consider the endosphere - a subdivision of the plant microbiome. We suggest a new definition of microbial endophyte status, the need for synergy between fungal and bacterial endophyte research efforts, as well as potential strategies for endophyte application to agricultural systems.

  11. Exploitation of endophytes for sustainable agricultural intensification

    PubMed Central

    Le Cocq, Kate; Gurr, Sarah J.; Hirsch, Penny R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Intensive agriculture, which depends on unsustainable levels of agrochemical inputs, is environmentally harmful, and the expansion of these practices to meet future needs is not economically feasible. Other options should be considered to meet the global food security challenge. The plant microbiome has been linked to improved plant productivity and, in this microreview, we consider the endosphere – a subdivision of the plant microbiome. We suggest a new definition of microbial endophyte status, the need for synergy between fungal and bacterial endophyte research efforts, as well as potential strategies for endophyte application to agricultural systems. PMID:27559722

  12. Fungus Resistant XM205 Nonmetallic Cartridge Case,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CARTRIDGE CASES, *FUNGICIDES, FUNGUS PROOFING, FUNGUS DETERIORATION, RESISTANCE, NITROCELLULOSE, POLYMERS, FIBERS, SYNTHETIC FIBERS, MATERIALS, ZINC COMPOUNDS, ORGANIC COMPOUNDS, ORGANIC SULFUR COMPOUNDS.

  13. Spatial Segregation and Aggregation of Ectomycorrhizal and Root-Endophytic Fungi in the Seedlings of Two Quercus Species

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S.; Hidaka, Amane; Kadowaki, Kohmei; Toju, Hirokazu

    2014-01-01

    Diverse clades of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi are potentially involved in competitive or facilitative interactions within host-plant roots. We investigated the potential consequences of these ecological interactions on the assembly process of root-associated fungi by examining the co-occurrence of pairs of fungi in host-plant individuals. Based on massively-parallel pyrosequencing, we analyzed the root-associated fungal community composition for each of the 249 Quercus serrata and 188 Quercus glauca seedlings sampled in a warm-temperate secondary forest in Japan. Pairs of fungi that co-occurred more or less often than expected by chance were identified based on randomization tests. The pyrosequencing analysis revealed that not only ectomycorrhizal fungi but also endophytic fungi were common in the root-associated fungal community. Intriguingly, specific pairs of these ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi showed spatially aggregated patterns, suggesting the existence of facilitative interactions between fungi in different functional groups. Due to the large number of fungal pairs examined, many of the observed aggregated/segregated patterns with very low P values (e.g., < 0.005) turned non-significant after the application of a multiple comparison method. However, our overall results imply that the community structures of ectomycorrhizal and endophytic fungi could influence each other through interspecific competitive/facilitative interactions in root. To test the potential of host-plants' control of fungus–fungus ecological interactions in roots, we further examined whether the aggregated/segregated patterns could vary depending on the identity of host plant species. Potentially due to the physiological properties shared between the congeneric host plant species, the sign of hosts' control was not detected in the present study. The pyrosequencing-based randomization analyses shown in this study provide a platform of the high-throughput investigation of

  14. Occurrence and genetic structure of the systemic grass endophyte Epichloë festucae in fine fescue populations.

    PubMed

    Wäli, Piippa R; Ahlholm, Jouni U; Helander, Marjo; Saikkonen, Kari

    2007-01-01

    Epichloë species are systemic fungal endophytes that usually specialize in a certain group of related grass species. We examined the infection frequency of Epichloë festucae in populations of two fine fescue species (Festuca rubra and F. ovina) in natural and seminatural habitats at 86 study sites (total=2514 plants) across Finland and northern Norway. Infection incidence varied significantly among grass species and populations. A substantial number of the F. rubra and F. ovina populations (53 out of 77 and 25 out of 30, respectively) were either endophyte-free or had very low (<20%) infection frequencies. The highest infection frequencies were found in subarctic areas. Moreover, infection incidence differed between habitats. In the area with the highest infection frequencies, we used microsatellite markers to study genetic diversity and the rates of gene flow of E. festucae among 12 F. rubra populations. Twenty out of the 25 fungal genotypes detected with four microsatellite markers were carrying multiple alleles in at least one locus, indicating multiple infections or vegetative hybridization of the fungus. One dominant genotype occurred in all 12 populations, representing 63.5% of all isolates. We found a moderate level of average genotypic variation and a low level of genetic differentiation (Fst=0.0814). There was no correlation between infection frequency and genotypic diversity. Although the existence of a dominant genotype and the detected linkage disequilibrium suggest that the fungus is mainly asexual and vertically transmitted, the multiallelic loci and variation of genetic diversity among populations indicate occasional contagious spread and sexual or parasexual recombination of the fungus in some populations. Furthermore, the genotypes carrying multiallelic loci suggest the possibility of multiple infections or hybridization of the endophyte.

  15. The role of endophyte in determining swainsonine concentrations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Locoweeds contain the toxic indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine, which is produced by the endophytic fungi Undifilum species. Previously we reported that swainsonine concentrations differ between populations of Oxytropis sericea. We hypothesized that the genotype of the plant, endophyte, or an inter...

  16. Deciphering endophyte behaviour: the link between endophyte biology and efficacious biological control agents.

    PubMed

    Card, Stuart; Johnson, Linda; Teasdale, Suliana; Caradus, John

    2016-08-01

    Endophytes associate with the majority of plant species found in natural and managed ecosystems. They are regarded as extremely important plant partners that provide improved stress tolerance to the host compared with plants that lack this symbiosis. Fossil records of endophytes date back more than 400 million years, implicating these microorganisms in host plant adaptation to habitat transitions. However, it is only recently that endophytes, and their bioactive products, have received meaningful attention from the scientific community. The benefits some endophytes can confer on their hosts include plant growth promotion and survival through the inhibition of pathogenic microorganisms and invertebrate pests, the removal of soil contaminants, improved tolerance of low fertility soils, and increased tolerance of extreme temperatures and low water availability. Endophytes are extremely diverse and can exhibit many different biological behaviours. Not all endophyte technologies have been successfully commercialised. Of interest in the development of the next generation of plant protection products is how much of this is due to the biology of the particular endophytic microorganism. In this review, we highlight selected case studies of endophytes and discuss their lifestyles and behavioural traits, and discuss how these factors contribute towards their effectiveness as biological control agents.

  17. Host-to-Pathogen Gene Transfer Facilitated Infection of Insects by a Pathogenic Fungus

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong; Xu, Chuan; Lu, Hsiao-Ling; Chen, Xiaoxuan; St. Leger, Raymond J.; Fang, Weiguo

    2014-01-01

    Metarhizium robertsii is a plant root colonizing fungus that is also an insect pathogen. Its entomopathogenicity is a characteristic that was acquired during evolution from a plant endophyte ancestor. This transition provides a novel perspective on how new functional mechanisms important for host switching and virulence have evolved. From a random T-DNA insertion library, we obtained a pathogenicity defective mutant that resulted from the disruption of a sterol carrier gene (Mr-npc2a). Phylogenetic analysis revealed that Metarhizium acquired Mr-npc2a from an insect by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Mr-NPC2a binds to cholesterol, an animal sterol, rather than the fungal sterol ergosterol, indicating it retains the specificity of insect NPC2 proteins. Mr-NPC2a is an intracellular protein and is exclusively expressed in the hemolymph of living insects. The disruption of Mr-npc2a reduced the amount of sterol in cell membranes of the yeast-like hyphal bodies that facilitate dispersal in the host body. These were consequently more susceptible to insect immune responses than the wild type. Transgenic expression of Mr-NPC2a increased the virulence of Beauveria bassiana, an endophytic insect-pathogenic fungus that lacks a Mr-NPC2a homolog. PMID:24722668

  18. Fungal endophytes limit pathogen damage in a tropical tree

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Mejía, Luis Carlos; Kyllo, Damond; Rojas, Enith I.; Maynard, Zuleyka; Robbins, Nancy; Herre, Edward Allen

    2003-01-01

    Every plant species examined to date harbors endophytic fungi within its asymptomatic aerial tissues, such that endophytes represent a ubiquitous, yet cryptic, component of terrestrial plant communities. Fungal endophytes associated with leaves of woody angiosperms are especially diverse; yet, fundamental aspects of their interactions with hosts are unknown. In contrast to the relatively species-poor endophytes that are vertically transmitted and act as defensive mutualists of some temperate grasses, the diverse, horizontally transmitted endophytes of woody angiosperms are thought to contribute little to host defense. Here, we document high diversity, spatial structure, and host affinity among foliar endophytes associated with a tropical tree (Theobroma cacao, Malvaceae) across lowland Panama. We then show that inoculation of endophyte-free leaves with endophytes isolated frequently from naturally infected, asymptomatic hosts significantly decreases both leaf necrosis and leaf mortality when T. cacao seedlings are challenged with a major pathogen (Phytophthora sp.). In contrast to reports of fungal inoculation inducing systemic defense, we found that protection was primarily localized to endophyte-infected tissues. Further, endophyte-mediated protection was greater in mature leaves, which bear less intrinsic defense against fungal pathogens than do young leaves. In vitro studies suggest that host affinity is mediated by leaf chemistry, and that protection may be mediated by direct interactions of endophytes with foliar pathogens. Together, these data demonstrate the capacity of diverse, horizontally transmitted endophytes of woody angiosperms to play an important but previously unappreciated role in host defense. PMID:14671327

  19. Bioactive metabolites from an endophytic Cryptosporiopsis sp. inhabiting Clidemia hirta.

    PubMed

    Zilla, Mahesh K; Qadri, Masroor; Pathania, Anup S; Strobel, Gary A; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Kumar, Sunil; Guru, Santosh K; Bhushan, Shashi; Singh, Sanjay K; Vishwakarma, Ram A; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Ali, Asif

    2013-11-01

    An endophytic Cryptosporiopsis sp. was isolated from Clidemia hirta and analyzed for its secondary metabolites that lead to the isolation of three bioactive molecules. The compounds were purified from the culture broth of the fungus and their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods as (R)-5-hydroxy-2-methylchroman-4-one (1), 1-(2,6-dihydroxyphenyl)pentan-1-one (2) and (Z)-1-(2-(2-butyryl-3-hydroxyphenoxy)-6-hydroxyphenyl)-3-hydroxybut-2-en-1-one (3). Compound 1 exhibited significant cytotoxic activity against the human leukemia cell line, HL-60 with an IC50 of 4 μg/ml. This compound induced G2 arrest of the HL-60 cell cycle significantly. In addition, out of these compounds, 2 and 3 were active against several bacterial pathogens. Compound 2 was active against Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with IC50 values varying from 18 to 30 μg/ml, and compound 3 displayed activity against Pseudomonas fluorescens with an IC50 value of 6 μg/ml. Compounds 2 and 3 are novel whereas compound 1 was reported earlier but the stereochemistry of its C-2 methyl is established for the first time.

  20. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India.

  1. Functional Characterization of a Hexose Transporter from Root Endophyte Piriformospora indica

    PubMed Central

    Rani, Mamta; Raj, Sumit; Dayaman, Vikram; Kumar, Manoj; Dua, Meenakshi; Johri, Atul K.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the mechanism of photosynthate transfer at symbiotic interface by fungal monosaccharide transporter is of substantial importance. The carbohydrate uptake at the apoplast by the fungus is facilitated by PiHXT5 hexose transporter in root endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica. The putative PiHXT5 belongs to MFS superfamily with 12 predicted transmembrane helices. It possess sugar transporter PFAM motif (PF0083) and MFS superfamily domain (PS50850). It contains the signature tags related to glucose transporter GLUT1 of human erythrocyte. PiHXT5 is regulated in response to mutualism as well as glucose concentration. We have functionally characterized PiHXT5 by complementation of hxt-null mutant of Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW4000. It is involved in transport of multiple sugars ranging from D-glucose, D-fructose, D-xylose, D-mannose, D-galactose with decreasing affinity. The uncoupling experiments indicate that it functions as H+/glucose co-transporter. Further, pH dependence analysis suggests that it functions maximum between pH 5 and 6. The expression of PiHXT5 is dependent on glucose concentration and was found to be expressed at low glucose levels (1 mM) which indicate its role as a high affinity glucose transporter. Our study on this sugar transporter will help in better understanding of carbon metabolism and flow in this agro-friendly fungus. PMID:27499747

  2. Fungal Endophyte Diversity and Bioactivity in the Indian Medicinal Plant Ocimum sanctum Linn

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhary, Kanika; Kaushik, Nutan

    2015-01-01

    antiphytopathogenic activity of hexane extract. The production of 2H-pyran-2-one, 5,6-dihydro-6-pentyl from M. phaseolina, an endophytic fungus is being reported for the first time. PMID:26529087

  3. Fungal endophytes: unique plant inhabitants with great promises.

    PubMed

    Aly, Amal Hassan; Debbab, Abdessamad; Proksch, Peter

    2011-06-01

    Fungal endophytes residing in the internal tissues of living plants occur in almost every plant on earth from the arctic to the tropics. The endophyte-host relationship is described as a balanced symbiotic continuum ranging from mutualism through commensalism to parasitism. This overview will highlight selected aspects of endophyte diversity, host specificity, endophyte-host interaction and communication as well as regulation of secondary metabolite production with emphasis on advanced genomic methods and their role in improving our current knowledge of endophytic associations. Furthermore, the chemical potential of endophytic fungi for drug discovery will be discussed with focus on the detection of pharmaceutically valuable plant constituents as products of fungal biosynthesis. In addition, selected examples of bioactive metabolites reported in recent years (2008-2010) from fungal endophytes residing in terrestrial plants are presented grouped according to their reported biological activities.

  4. Endophytic fungi: resource for gibberellins and crop abiotic stress resistance.

    PubMed

    Khan, Abdul Latif; Hussain, Javid; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Lee, In-Jung

    2015-03-01

    The beneficial effects of endophytes on plant growth are important for agricultural ecosystems because they reduce the need for fertilizers and decrease soil and water pollution while compensating for environmental perturbations. Endophytic fungi are a novel source of bioactive secondary metabolites; moreover, recently they have been found to produce physiologically active gibberellins as well. The symbiosis of gibberellins producing endophytic fungi with crops can be a promising strategy to overcome the adverse effects of abiotic stresses. The association of such endophytes has not only increased plant biomass but also ameliorated plant-growth during extreme environmental conditions. Endophytic fungi represent a trove of unexplored biodiversity and a frequently overlooked component of crop ecology. The present review describes the role of gibberellins producing endophytic fungi, suggests putative mechanisms involved in plant endophyte stress interactions and discusses future prospects in this field.

  5. Mitigation of antagonistic effects on plant growth due to root co-colonization by dark septate endophytes and ectomycorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Reininger, Vanessa; Sieber, Thomas N

    2013-12-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are very common root colonizers of woody plant species. Ascomycetes of the Phialocephala fortinii s.l.-Acephala applanata species complex (PAC) are the main representatives of DSE fungi in forest ecosystems. PAC and mycorrhizal fungi share the same habitat, but interactions among PAC, mycorrhizal fungi and plants are poorly understood. We compared the effects of single and dual inoculation of Norway spruce seedlings with PAC and the ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungus Hebeloma crustuliniforme on host growth, degree of mycorrhization and density of endophytic PAC biomass. Single colonization by H. crustuliniforme or PAC significantly reduced plant biomass. Dual colonization reduced or neutralized plant growth depression caused by single fungal colonization. The degree of mycorrhization was independent on PAC colonization, and mycorrhization significantly reduced endophytic PAC biomass. Plant biomass of dually colonized plants positively correlated with PAC biomass. These results demonstrate the ability of dual inoculation of PAC and H. crustuliniforme to neutralize plant growth depression caused by single fungal inoculation. Our explanations of enhanced plant growth in dually inoculated plants are the inhibition of PAC during root colonization by the ECM mantle and ECM-mediated access to plant growth-promoting nutrients resulting from the mineralization of the potting medium by PAC.

  6. A new benzopyrans derivatives from a mangrove-derived fungus Penicillium citrinum from the South China Sea.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Cai-Juan; Huang, Guo-Lei; Xu, Yan; Song, Xin-Ming; Yao, Jun; Liu, Hui; Wang, Ruo-Ping; Sun, Xue-Ping

    2016-01-01

    One new benzopyran derivative (2R(*),4R(*))-3,4-dihydro-5-methoxy-2-methyl-2H-1-benzopyran-4-ol (1), together with five known compounds (2-6), were obtained from the EtOAc extract of the endophytic fungus Penicillium citrinum HL-5126 isolated from the mangrove Brguiera sexangula var. rhynchopetala collected in the South China Sea. Their structures were elucidated by the detailed analysis of comprehensive spectroscopic data. All compounds were evaluated for their antibacterial activities. Compound 6 exhibited potent inhibitory activity against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus and Micrococcus tetragenus with the same MIC values of 6.94 μM.

  7. Combresomyces cornifer gen. sp. nov., an endophytic peronosporomycete in Lepidodendron from the Carboniferous of central France.

    PubMed

    Dotzler, Nora; Krings, Michael; Agerer, Reinhard; Galtier, Jean; Taylor, Thomas N

    2008-09-01

    Structurally preserved periderm of the lycophyte Lepidodendron rhodumnense from the Visean (Mississippian) of central France contains a peronosporomycete (Combresomyces cornifer gen. sp. nov.) that occurs in the form of pyriform to subglobose terminal oogonia. On the surface is a conspicuous ornamentation, which may have formed through condensation of a mucilaginous extra-oogonial wall secretion. Some oogonia contain thin-walled spherules, which may represent (walled) oospheres or spores of an endoparasitic fungus (?chytrid), whereas single, large spheres in the interior are interpreted as oospores. Antheridia adpressed to several of the specimens are clavate and paragynous. This discovery sheds light on the morphology and biology of peronosporomycetes in a terrestrial ecosystem some 330My ago. Although the organism occurs exclusively in the periderm of L. rhodumnense, it is not known whether it represents a symptomless endophyte, pathogen, or saprotroph.

  8. Screening of liquid media and fermentation of an endophytic Beauveria bassiana strain in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Rieke; Jakobs-Schönwandt, Desiree; Patel, Anant V

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach for biological control of insect pests could be the use of the endophytic entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolate ATP-02. For the utilization of the endophyte as a commercial biocontrol agent, the fungus has to be mass-produced. B. bassiana was raised in shake flask cultures to produce high concentrations of total spores (TS), which include blastospores (BS) and submerged conidiospores (SCS). The highest concentration of 1.33×10(9) TS/mL and the highest yield of 5.32×10(10) TS/g sucrose was obtained in the TKI broth with 5% sugar beet molasses which consists of 50% sucrose as a carbon source. In spite of the lower sugar concentration (2.5%) the amount of TS could be increased up to 11-times in contrast to the cultivation with 5% sucrose. The scale-up to a 2 L stirred tank reactor was carried out at 25°C, 200-600 rpm and 1 vvm at pH 5.5. A TS yield of 5.2×10(10) TS/g sucrose corresponding to a SCS yield of 0.2×10(10) SCS/g sucrose was obtained after 216 h. With regards to the culture medium the cost of 10(12) TS amounts to 0.24 €. Plutella xylostella larvae, which were fed with oilseed rape leaves treated with spores from fermentation resulted in 77 ± 5% mortality. Moreover, spores from submerged cultivation were able to colonize oilseed rape leaves via leaf application. This is the first report of fermentation of an endophytic B. bassiana strain in a low-cost culture medium to very high yields of TS.

  9. Chromosome-End Knockoff Strategy to Reshape Alkaloid Profiles of a Fungal Endophyte

    PubMed Central

    Florea, Simona; Phillips, Timothy D.; Panaccione, Daniel G.; Farman, Mark L.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2016-01-01

    Molecular genetic techniques to precisely eliminate genes in asexual filamentous fungi require the introduction of a marker gene into the target genome. We developed a novel strategy to eliminate genes or gene clusters located in subterminal regions of chromosomes, and then eliminate the marker gene and vector backbone used in the transformation procedure. Because many toxin gene clusters are subterminal, this method is particularly suited to generating nontoxic fungal strains. We tested this technique on Epichloë coenophiala, a seed-transmissible symbiotic fungus (endophyte) of the important forage grass, tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum). The endophyte is necessary for maximal productivity and sustainability of this grass but can produce ergot alkaloids such as ergovaline, which are toxic to livestock. The genome sequence of E. coenophiala strain e19 revealed two paralogous ergot alkaloid biosynthesis gene clusters, designated EAS1 and EAS2. EAS1 was apparently subterminal, and the lpsB copy in EAS2 had a frame-shift mutation. We designed a vector with a fungal-active hygromycin phosphotransferase gene (hph), an lpsA1 gene fragment for homologous recombination at the telomere-distal end of EAS1, and a telomere repeat array positioned to drive spontaneous loss of hph and other vector sequences, and to stabilize the new chromosome end. We transformed E. coenophiala with this vector, then selected “knockoff” endophyte strains, confirmed by genome sequencing to lack 162 kb of a chromosome end including most of EAS1, and also to lack vector sequences. These ∆EAS1 knockoff strains produced no detectable ergovaline, whereas complementation with functional lpsB restored ergovaline production. PMID:27334939

  10. Screening of liquid media and fermentation of an endophytic Beauveria bassiana strain in a bioreactor

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach for biological control of insect pests could be the use of the endophytic entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana isolate ATP-02. For the utilization of the endophyte as a commercial biocontrol agent, the fungus has to be mass-produced. B. bassiana was raised in shake flask cultures to produce high concentrations of total spores (TS), which include blastospores (BS) and submerged conidiospores (SCS). The highest concentration of 1.33×109 TS/mL and the highest yield of 5.32×1010 TS/g sucrose was obtained in the TKI broth with 5% sugar beet molasses which consists of 50% sucrose as a carbon source. In spite of the lower sugar concentration (2.5%) the amount of TS could be increased up to 11-times in contrast to the cultivation with 5% sucrose. The scale-up to a 2 L stirred tank reactor was carried out at 25°C, 200–600 rpm and 1 vvm at pH 5.5. A TS yield of 5.2×1010 TS/g sucrose corresponding to a SCS yield of 0.2×1010 SCS/g sucrose was obtained after 216 h. With regards to the culture medium the cost of 1012 TS amounts to 0.24 €. Plutella xylostella larvae, which were fed with oilseed rape leaves treated with spores from fermentation resulted in 77 ± 5% mortality. Moreover, spores from submerged cultivation were able to colonize oilseed rape leaves via leaf application. This is the first report of fermentation of an endophytic B. bassiana strain in a low-cost culture medium to very high yields of TS. PMID:24949278

  11. Production of Destruxins from Metarhizium spp. Fungi in Artificial Medium and in Endophytically Colonized Cowpea Plants

    PubMed Central

    Golo, Patrícia S.; Gardner, Dale R.; Grilley, Michelle M.; Takemoto, Jon Y.; Krasnoff, Stuart B.; Pires, Marcus S.; Fernandes, Éverton K. K.; Bittencourt, Vânia R. E. P.; Roberts, Donald W.

    2014-01-01

    Destruxins (DTXs) are cyclic depsipeptides produced by many Metarhizium isolates that have long been assumed to contribute to virulence of these entomopathogenic fungi. We evaluated the virulence of 20 Metarhizium isolates against insect larvae and measured the concentration of DTXs A, B, and E produced by these same isolates in submerged (shaken) cultures. Eight of the isolates (ARSEF 324, 724, 760, 1448, 1882, 1883, 3479, and 3918) did not produce DTXs A, B, or E during the five days of submerged culture. DTXs were first detected in culture medium at 2–3 days in submerged culture. Galleria mellonella and Tenebrio molitor showed considerable variation in their susceptibility to the Metarhizium isolates. The concentration of DTXs produced in vitro did not correlate with percent or speed of insect kill. We established endophytic associations of M. robertsii and M. acridum isolates in Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas) and Cucumis sativus (cucumber) plants. DTXs were detected in cowpeas colonized by M. robertsii ARSEF 2575 12 days after fungal inoculation, but DTXs were not detected in cucumber. This is the first instance of DTXs detected in plants endophytically colonized by M. robertsii. This finding has implications for new approaches to fungus-based biological control of pest arthropods. PMID:25127450

  12. Endophytic Epichloë species and their grass hosts: from evolution to applications.

    PubMed

    Saikkonen, Kari; Young, Carolyn A; Helander, Marjo; Schardl, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    The closely linked fitness of the Epichloë symbiont and the host grass is presumed to align the coevolution of the species towards specialization and mutually beneficial cooperation. Ecological observations demonstrating that Epichloë-grass symbioses can modulate grassland ecosystems via both above- and belowground ecosystem processes support this. In many cases the detected ecological importance of Epichloë species is directly or indirectly linked to defensive mutualism attributable to alkaloids of fungal-origin. Now, modern genetic and molecular techniques enable the precise studies on evolutionary origin of endophytic Epichloë species, their coevolution with host grasses and identification the genetic variation that explains phenotypic diversity in ecologically relevant characteristics of Epichloë-grass associations. Here we briefly review the most recent findings in these areas of research using the present knowledge of the genetic variation that explains the biosynthetic pathways driving the diversity of alkaloids produced by the endophyte. These findings underscore the importance of genetic interplay between the fungus and the host in shaping their coevolution and ecological role in both natural grass ecosystems, and in the agricultural arena.

  13. Diversity of leaf endophytic fungi in mangrove plants of northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Wanderley Costa, Isabella P. M.; Maia, Leonor Costa; Cavalcanti, Maria Auxiliadora

    2012-01-01

    With the aim of increasing the knowledge about endophytic fungi, a group of microorganisms with high biotechnological potential and a valuable source of useful metabolites, a survey in leaves of mangrove plants (Avicennia schaueriana, Laguncularia racemosa, and Rhizophora mangle) was performed at the Itamaracá Island, PE, Brazil. Leaves were collected, during two seasons, dry and rainy, superficially sterilized and fragments maintained in Petri dishes with Potato dextrose agar (PDA) at 28o ± 2o C until isolation of the fungi. Fourty taxa were isolated: 25 species representing 19 genera and 15 morphotypes determined as Mycelia sterilia. Leaves of L. racemosa hosted the highest number of colony forming units (CFU) and taxa. Guignardia sp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides were the most frequently isolated, while Glomerella cingulata was the only species found in association with the three host plants. The proportional importance of each fungus differed among hosts. The similarity of fungi species between the two seasons reached only 4.2%, and that between the hosts was also low, with the maximum (A. schaueriana x L. racemosa) reaching 24.2%. Sphaerosporium, as well as Chloridium virescens var. virescens, Microsphaeropsis arundinis, Penicillium pinophilum, Periconia cambrensis, Phoma herbarum, P. diachenii, P. obscurans, Sordaria prolifica and Torula elisii are reported for the first time as endophytic in tropical regions. PMID:24031941

  14. Bioreactor with Ipomoea hederifolia adventitious roots and its endophyte Cladosporium cladosporioides for textile dye degradation.

    PubMed

    Patil, Swapnil M; Chandanshive, Vishal V; Rane, Niraj R; Khandare, Rahul V; Watharkar, Anuprita D; Govindwar, Sanjay P

    2016-04-01

    In vitro grown untransformed adventitious roots (AR) culture of Ipomoea hederifolia and its endophytic fungus (EF) Cladosporium cladosporioides decolorized Navy Blue HE2R (NB-HE2R) at a concentration of 20 ppm up to 83.3 and 65%, respectively within 96h. Whereas the AR-EF consortium decolorized the dye more efficiently and gave 97% removal within 36h. Significant inductions in the enzyme activities of lignin peroxidase, tyrosinase and laccase were observed in roots, while enzymes like tyrosinase, laccase and riboflavin reductase activities were induced in EF. Metabolites of dye were analyzed using UV-vis spectroscopy, FTIR and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Possible metabolic pathways of NB-HE2R were proposed with AR, EF and AR-EF systems independently. Looking at the superior efficacy of AR-EF system, a rhizoreactor was developed for the treatment of NB-HE2R at a concentration of 1000 ppm. Control reactor systems with independently grown AR and EF gave 94 and 85% NB-HE2R removal, respectively within 36h. The AR-EF rhizoreactor, however, gave 97% decolorization. The endophyte colonization additionally increased root and shoot lengths of candidate plants through mutualism. Combined bioreactor strategies can be effectively used for future eco-friendly remediation purposes.

  15. Complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7, an indigenous root endophyte from olive (Olea europaea L.) and effective biocontrol agent against Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 is a native endophyte of olive roots. Previous studies have shown this motile, Gram-negative, non-sporulating bacterium is an effective biocontrol agent against the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, the causal agent of one of the most devastating diseases for olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivation. Here, we announce and describe the complete genome sequence of Pseudomonas fluorescens strain PICF7 consisting of a circular chromosome of 6,136,735 bp that encodes 5,567 protein-coding genes and 88 RNA-only encoding genes. Genome analysis revealed genes predicting factors such as secretion systems, siderophores, detoxifying compounds or volatile components. Further analysis of the genome sequence of PICF7 will help in gaining insights into biocontrol and endophytism. PMID:25685259

  16. Genotype-specific responses of Bromus erectus to elevated CO{sub 2} at different levels of biodiversity and endophyte infection - a field experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Steinger, T.; Groppe, K.; Schmid, B. |

    1995-06-01

    In 1994 we initiated a long-term field experiment in a calcareous grassland to study the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on individuals, populations, and communities. Clonal replicates of 54 genotypes of the dominant grass Bromus erectus were grown in communities planted at three levels of biodiversity (5-, 12-, 31-species plots) and exposed to ambient and elevated CO{sub 2}. The same genotypes were also individually grown in tubes within the field plots. Some genotypes were infected by the endophytic fungus Epichloee typhina. Elevated CO{sub 2} had no significant effects on plant growth, however, there was large variation among genotypes in all measured characters. A significant CO{sub 2}-by-genotype interaction was found for leaf length in the competition-free tubes. Infection by the endophyte led to the abortion of all inflorescences but increased vegetative growth, especially under competitive conditions.

  17. Endophytic fungal association via gibberellins and indole acetic acid can improve plant growth under abiotic stress: an example of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endophytic fungi are little known for exogenous secretion of phytohormones and mitigation of salinity stress, which is a major limiting factor for agriculture production worldwide. Current study was designed to isolate phytohormone producing endophytic fungus from the roots of cucumber plant and identify its role in plant growth and stress tolerance under saline conditions. Results We isolated nine endophytic fungi from the roots of cucumber plant and screened their culture filtrates (CF) on gibberellins (GAs) deficient mutant rice cultivar Waito-C and normal GAs biosynthesis rice cultivar Dongjin-byeo. The CF of a fungal isolate CSH-6H significantly increased the growth of Waito-C and Dongjin-byeo seedlings as compared to control. Analysis of the CF showed presence of GAs (GA1, GA3, GA4, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA20 and GA24) and indole acetic acid. The endophyte CSH-6H was identified as a strain of Paecilomyces formosus LHL10 on the basis of phylogenetic analysis of ITS sequence similarity. Under salinity stress, P. formosus inoculation significantly enhanced cucumber shoot length and allied growth characteristics as compared to non-inoculated control plants. The hypha of P. formosus was also observed in the cortical and pericycle regions of the host-plant roots and was successfully re-isolated using PCR techniques. P. formosus association counteracted the adverse effects of salinity by accumulating proline and antioxidants and maintaining plant water potential. Thus the electrolytic leakage and membrane damage to the cucumber plants was reduced in the association of endophyte. Reduced content of stress responsive abscisic acid suggest lesser stress convened to endophyte-associated plants. On contrary, elevated endogenous GAs (GA3, GA4, GA12 and GA20) contents in endophyte-associated cucumber plants evidenced salinity stress modulation. Conclusion The results reveal that mutualistic interactions of phytohormones secreting endophytic fungi can ameliorate host

  18. Molecular Approaches to Screen Bioactive Compounds from Endophytic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Vasundhara, M.; Kumar, Anil; Reddy, M. Sudhakara

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are capable of producing plant associated metabolites and their analogs with therapeutic value. In order to identify the potential endophytic isolates producing bioactive compounds, one need to screen all isolated endophytes, which may run into hundreds. Isolation of endophytic fungi is relatively a simple process; but screening of the isolated fungi for required metabolite production is a cumbersome process. Endophytic fungi producing plant associated metabolites may contain genes involved in the entire biosynthetic pathway(s). Therefore, ascertaining the presence of key enzymes of a particular biosynthetic pathway could serve as a molecular marker for screening of these endophytes to produce that metabolite. In absence of entire biosynthetic pathways in endophytic fungi, plant genes associated with that metabolic pathway could serve as markers. This review focuses on the impact of molecular approaches to screen the endophytic fungi for the production of bioactive compounds. An attempt has been made on screening of anticancer compounds like taxol (paclitaxel), podophyllotoxin, and camptothecin using molecular markers. The advantages of molecular approaches over conventional methods to screen endophytic fungi and also identification of endophytic fungi are discussed. PMID:27895623

  19. Sharing of Diverse Mycorrhizal and Root-Endophytic Fungi among Plant Species in an Oak-Dominated Cool–Temperate Forest

    PubMed Central

    Toju, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Sato, Hirotoshi; Tanabe, Akifumi S.

    2013-01-01

    Most terrestrial plants interact with diverse clades of mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi in their roots. Through belowground plant–fungal interactions, dominant plants can benefit by interacting with host-specific mutualistic fungi and proliferate in a community based on positive plant–mutualistic fungal feedback. On the other hand, subordinate plant species may persist in the community by sharing other sets (functional groups) of fungal symbionts with each other. Therefore, revealing how diverse clades of root-associated fungi are differentially hosted by dominant and subordinate plant species is essential for understanding plant community structure and dynamics. Based on 454-pyrosequencing, we determined the community composition of root-associated fungi on 36 co-occurring plant species in an oak-dominated forest in northern Japan and statistically evaluated the host preference phenotypes of diverse mycorrhizal and root-endophytic fungi. An analysis of 278 fungal taxa indicated that an ectomycorrhizal basidiomycete fungus in the genus Lactarius and a possibly endophytic ascomycete fungus in the order Helotiales significantly favored the dominant oak (Quercus) species. In contrast, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were generally shared among subordinate plant species. Although fungi with host preferences contributed to the compartmentalization of belowground plant–fungal associations, diverse clades of ectomycorrhizal fungi and possible root endophytes were associated not only with the dominant Quercus but also with the remaining plant species. Our findings suggest that dominant-ectomycorrhizal and subordinate plant species can host different subsets of root-associated fungi, and diverse clades of generalist fungi can counterbalance the compartmentalization of plant–fungal associations. Such insights into the overall structure of belowground plant–fungal associations will help us understand the mechanisms that facilitate the coexistence of plant species

  20. The secret world of endophytes in perspective

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This work in Fungal Ecology is focused on the group of plant symbionts that have been termed collectively ‘microbial endophytes’. Broadly, microbial endophytes are commonly considered to be any of a diverse group of bacteria, cyanobacteria, or fungi that colonize internal tissues of plants. After ...

  1. Genomic DNA extraction and barcoding of endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Patricia L; Hennell, James R; Sucher, Nikolaus J

    2012-01-01

    Endophytes live inter- and/or intracellularly inside healthy aboveground tissues of plants without causing disease. Endophytic fungi are found in virtually every vascular plant species examined. The origins of this symbiotic relationship between endophytes go back to the emergence of vascular plants. Endophytic fungi receive nutrition and protection from their hosts while the plants benefit from the production of fungal secondary metabolites, which enhance the host plants' resistance to herbivores, pathogens, and various abiotic stresses. Endophytic fungi have attracted increased interest as potential sources of secondary metabolites with agricultural, industrial, and medicinal use. This chapter provides detailed protocols for isolation of genomic DNA from fungal endophytes and its use in polymerase chain reaction-based amplification of the internal transcribed spacer region between the conserved flanking regions of the small and large subunit of ribosomal RNA for barcoding purposes.

  2. Endophytic Fusarium spp. from Roots of Lawn Grass (Axonopus compressus)

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Latiffah; Ning, Chua Harn

    2013-01-01

    Fungal endophytes are found inside host plants but do not produce any noticeable disease symptoms in their host. In the present study, endophytic Fusarium species were isolated from roots of lawn grass (Axonopus compressus). A total of 51 isolates were recovered from 100 root segments. Two Fusarium species, F. oxysporum (53%) and F. solani (47%), were identified based on macroconidia and conidiogenous cell morphology. The detection of endophytic F. oxysporum and F. solani in the roots of lawn grass contributes to the knowledge of both the distribution of the two Fusarium species and the importance of roots as endophytic niches for Fusarium species. PMID:24575251

  3. Poplar and its bacterial endophytes: coexistence and harmony

    SciTech Connect

    van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Monchy, S.; Schwender, J.; Miller, L.; Ferrieri, R.; Rogers, A.; Zhu, W.; Weyens, N.; Vangronsveld, J.; Newman, L.

    2009-09-01

    Associations between plants and microorganisms are very complex and are the subject of an increasing number of studies. Here, we specifically address the relationship between poplar and its endophytic bacteria. The role and importance of endophytic bacteria in growth and development of their host plants is still underestimated. However, since many endophytes have a beneficial effect on their host, an improved understanding of the interaction between poplar and its endophytic bacteria has the potential to provide major breakthroughs that will improve the productivity of poplar. Endophytic bacteria can improve plant growth and development in a direct or indirect way. Direct plant growth promoting mechanisms may involve nitrogen fixation, production of plant growth regulators such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins, and suppression of stress ethylene synthesis by 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase activity. Endophytic bacteria can indirectly benefit the plant by preventing the growth or activity of plant pathogens through competition for space and nutrients, antibiosis, production of hydrolytic enzymes, inhibition of pathogen-produced enzymes or toxins, and through systemic induction of plant defense mechanisms. Examples of applications for custom endophyte-host partnerships include improved productivity and establishment of poplar trees on marginal soils and the phytoremediation of contaminated soils and groundwater. A systems biology approach to understand the synergistic interactions between poplar and its beneficial endophytic bacteria represents an important field of research, which is facilitated by the recent sequencing of the genomes of poplar and several of its endophytic bacteria.

  4. Plant-fungus mutualism affects spider composition in successional fields.

    PubMed

    Finkes, Laura K; Cady, Alan B; Mulroy, Juliana C; Clay, Keith; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2006-03-01

    Mutualistic symbionts are widespread in plants and may have strong, bottom-up influences on community structure. Here we show that a grass-endophyte mutualism shifts the composition of a generalist predator assemblage. In replicated, successional fields we manipulated endophyte infection by Neotyphodium coenophialum in a dominant, non-native plant (Lolium arundinaceum). We compared the magnitude of the endophyte effect with manipulations of thatch biomass, a habitat feature of known importance to spiders. The richness of both spider families and morphospecies was greater in the absence of the endophyte, although total spider abundance was not affected. Thatch removal reduced both spider abundance and richness, and endophyte and thatch effects were largely additive. Spider families differed in responses, with declines in Linyphiidae and Thomisidae due to the endophyte and declines in Lycosidae due to thatch removal. Results demonstrate that the community impacts of non-native plants can depend on plants' mutualistic associates, such as fungal endophytes.

  5. The abiotic and biotic plant stress tolerant and beneficial secondary metabolites produced by endophytic Bacillus species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of endophytic bacteria and their potential for protecting crops has targeted the endophytic species of Bacillus as a valued microorganism not only for disease protection but also for inducing plant defense mechanisms. Numerous strains of Bacillus, endophytic and non-endophytic, are widely...

  6. Antifungal activity against plant pathogens of metabolites from the endophytic fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of Cladosporium cladosporioides crude extracts led to the isolation of four compounds, including cladosporin (1), isocladosporin (2), 5'-hydroxyasperentin (3), cladosporin-8-methyl ether (4). The compound 6, 5'-diacetyl cladosporin (5) was synthesized by acetylation of ...

  7. Gene clusters for insecticidal loline alkaloids in the grass-endophytic fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum.

    PubMed

    Spiering, Martin J; Moon, Christina D; Wilkinson, Heather H; Schardl, Christopher L

    2005-03-01

    Loline alkaloids are produced by mutualistic fungi symbiotic with grasses, and they protect the host plants from insects. Here we identify in the fungal symbiont, Neotyphodium uncinatum, two homologous gene clusters (LOL-1 and LOL-2) associated with loline-alkaloid production. Nine genes were identified in a 25-kb region of LOL-1 and designated (in order) lolF-1, lolC-1, lolD-1, lolO-1, lolA-1, lolU-1, lolP-1, lolT-1, and lolE-1. LOL-2 contained the homologs lolC-2 through lolE-2 in the same order and orientation. Also identified was lolF-2, but its possible linkage with either cluster was undetermined. Most lol genes were regulated in N. uncinatum and N. coenophialum, and all were expressed concomitantly with loline-alkaloid biosynthesis. A lolC-2 RNA-interference (RNAi) construct was introduced into N. uncinatum, and in two independent transformants, RNAi significantly decreased lolC expression (P < 0.01) and loline-alkaloid accumulation in culture (P < 0.001) compared to vector-only controls, indicating involvement of lolC in biosynthesis of lolines. The predicted LolU protein has a DNA-binding site signature, and the relationships of other lol-gene products indicate that the pathway has evolved from various different primary and secondary biosynthesis pathways.

  8. Ermophilane sesquiterpenes from Hawaiian endophytic fungus Chaetoconis sp.FT087

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven sesquiterpene derivatives, including chaetopenoids A–F and dendryphiellin A1, and 6-methyl-(2E,4E, 6S) octadienoic acid were isolated from the culture broth of Chaetoconis sp. FT087. Their structures were determined through the analysis of HRMS and NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configur...

  9. Conversion of the pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum magna to a nonpathogenic, endophytic mutualist by gene disruption

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Redman, R.S.; Ranson, J.C.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Hygromycin-resistant transformants of the cucurbit pathogen Colletotrichum magna (teleomorph: Glomerella magna) were generated by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (REMI) transformation. A rapid pathogenicity assay involving watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedlings was developed and 14,400 REMI transformants were screened and assessed for their ability to cause disease, colonize plant tissues, and confer disease resistance against wild-type C. magna. A total of 176 nonpathogenic REMI mutants capable of colonizing cucurbit plants were isolated and assigned to three groups based on their ability to confer disease resistance: phenotype A, 80 to 100% disease protection; phenotype B, 10 to 65% disease protection; and phenotype C, 0 to 4% disease protection. Molecular and genetic analyses of one REMI mutant (R1) indicated that the nonpathogenic phenotype A resulted from a single-site integration. R1 showed a 1:1 segregation of hygromycin resistance and nonpathogenicity and all hygromycin-resistant progeny were nonpathogenic. The integrated vector and 5.5 kb of flanking fungal genomic DNA were isolated from R1 and designated pGMR1. To verify that pGMR1 contained pathogenicity gene sequences, a wild-type isolate of C. magna was transformed with pGMR1 to induce gene disruptions by homologous integration. Approximately 47% of the pGMR1 transformants expressed phenotype A, indicating homologous integration and gene disruption.

  10. New p-terphenyls from the endophytic fungus Aspergillus sp. YXf3.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Wuringege; Li, Sui-Jun; Guo, Zhi-Kai; Zhang, Wen-Jing; Wei, Wei; Tan, Ren-Xiang; Jiao, Rui-Hua

    2017-01-01

    Five new p-terphenyls named prenylterphenyllin D (1), prenylterphenyllin E (2), 2'-O-methylprenylterphenyllin (3), 4-O-methylprenylterphenyllin (4) and 3'-O-methylterphenyllin (5) together with seven known compounds (6-12), were isolated from cultures of Aspergillus sp. YXf3. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive MS and NMR analyses. The NMR and MS data of 5 is reported for the first time, as its structure was listed in SciFinder Scholar with no associated reference. Compounds 6 and 7 were distinguished from each other on the basis of 2D NMR experiments. Compounds 1, 2, 3 and 8 showed antibacterial activities against X. oryzae pv. oryzicola Swings and E. amylovora with the same MIC values of 20μg/mL while 10 exhibited activities against E. amylovora with an MIC value of 10μg/mL.

  11. Endophytic population of Pantoea agglomerans in citrus plants and development of a cloning vector for endophytes.

    PubMed

    Andreote, Fernando D; Rossetto, Priscilla B; Souza, Leonardo C A; Marcon, Joelma; Maccheroni, Walter; Azevedo, João L; Araújo, Welington L

    2008-10-01

    Harmless bacteria inhabiting inner plant tissues are termed endophytes. Population fluctuations in the endophytic bacterium Pantoea agglomerans associated with two species of field cultured citrus plants were monitored over a two-year period. The results demonstrated that populations of P. agglomerans fluctuated in Citrus reticulata but not C. sinensis. A cryptic plasmid pPA3.0 (2.9 kb) was identified in 35 out of 44 endophytic isolates of P. agglomerans and was subsequently sequenced. The origins of replication were identified and nine out of 18 open reading frames (ORFs) revealed homology with described proteins. Notably, two ORFs were related to cellular transport systems and plasmid maintenance. Plasmid pPA3.0 was cloned and the gfp gene inserted to generate the pPAGFP vector. The vector was introduced into P. agglomerans isolates and revealed stability was dependent on the isolate genotype, ninety-percent stability values were reached after 60 hours of bacterial cultivation in most evaluated isolates. In order to definitively establish P. agglomerans as an endophyte, the non-transformed bacterium was reintroduced into in vitro cultivated seedlings and the density of inner tissue colonization in inoculated plants was estimated by bacterium re-isolation, while the tissue niches preferred by the bacterium were investigated by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Cells from P. agglomerans (strain ARB18) at similar densities were re-isolated from roots, stems and leaves and colonization of parenchyma and xylem tissues were observed. Data suggested that P. agglomerans is a ubiquitous citrus endophyte harboring cryptic plasmids. These characteristics suggest the potential to use the bacterium as a vehicle to introduce new genes in host plants via endophytic bacterial transformation.

  12. Endophyte status of tall fescue (festuca arundinacea) affects seed predation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a preliminary study seed of a tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) variety ‘Jesup’ without endophyte were consumed at a slightly higher rate by common cricket (Acheta domesticus L.) in a standard feeding trial than the same fescue variety with the endophyte. Although, the preference for the...

  13. Endophytic bacterial community of a Mediterranean marine angiosperm (Posidonia oceanica)

    PubMed Central

    Garcias-Bonet, Neus; Arrieta, Jesus M.; de Santana, Charles N.; Duarte, Carlos M.; Marbà, Núria

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes are crucial for the survival of many terrestrial plants, but little is known about the presence and importance of bacterial endophytes of marine plants. We conducted a survey of the endophytic bacterial community of the long-living Mediterranean marine angiosperm Posidonia oceanica in surface-sterilized tissues (roots, rhizomes, and leaves) by Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE). A total of 26 Posidonia oceanica meadows around the Balearic Islands were sampled, and the band patterns obtained for each meadow were compared for the three sampled tissues. Endophytic bacterial sequences were detected in most of the samples analyzed. A total of 34 OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Units) were detected. The main OTUs of endophytic bacteria present in P. oceanica tissues belonged primarily to Proteobacteria (α, γ, and δ subclasses) and Bacteroidetes. The OTUs found in roots significantly differed from those of rhizomes and leaves. Moreover, some OTUs were found to be associated to each type of tissue. Bipartite network analysis revealed differences in the bacterial endophyte communities present on different islands. The results of this study provide a pioneering step toward the characterization of the endophytic bacterial community associated with tissues of a marine angiosperm and reveal the presence of bacterial endophytes that differed among locations and tissue types. PMID:23049528

  14. Mycoleptodiscus terrestris: An Endophyte Turned Latent Pathogen of Eurasian Watermilfoil

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    plants. Some fungal endophytes have also been reported to inhibit plant pathogens . Fewer lesions have been reported on Panicum agrostoides when the...and ecosystem dynamics: Biological aspects of plant pathogens , plant endophytes and saprophytes. Adv. in Bot. Res. 24:170–193. Shearer, J. F. 2001

  15. Enhanced resistance to Spodoptera litura in endophyte infected cauliflower plants.

    PubMed

    Thakur, Abhinay; Kaur, Sanehdeep; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Varinder

    2013-04-01

    Endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of disease, are important mediators of plant-herbivore interactions. These endophytes enhance resistance of host plant against insect herbivores mainly by productions of various alkaloid based defensive compounds in the plant tissue or through alterations of plant nutritional quality. Two endophytic fungi, i.e., Nigrospora sp. and Cladosporium sp., were isolated from Tinospora cordifolia (Thunb.) Miers, a traditional indian medicinal plant. Cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L.) plants were inoculated with these two endophytic fungi. The effect of endophyte infected and uninfected cauliflower plants were measured on the survival and development of Spodoptera litura (Fab.), a polyphagous pest. Endophyte infected cauliflower plants showed resistance to S. litura in the form of significant increase in larval and pupal mortality in both the fungi. Inhibitory effects of endophytic fungi also were observed on adult emergence, longevity, reproductive potential, as well as hatchability of eggs. Thus, it is concluded that antibiosis to S. litura could be imparted by artificial inoculation of endophytes and this could be used to develop alternative ecologically safe control strategies.

  16. Endophytic fungi with antitumor activities: Their occurrence and anticancer compounds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling; Zhang, Qiao-Yan; Jia, Min; Ming, Qian-Liang; Yue, Wei; Rahman, Khalid; Qin, Lu-Ping; Han, Ting

    2016-05-01

    Plant endophytic fungi have been recognized as an important and novel resource of natural bioactive products, especially in anticancer application. This review mainly deals with the research progress on the production of anticancer compounds by endophytic fungi between 1990 and 2013. Anticancer activity is generally associated with the cytotoxicity of the compounds present in the endophytic fungi. All strains of endophytes producing antitumor chemicals were classified taxonomically and the genera of Pestalotiopsis and Aspergillus as well as the taxol producing endophytes were focused on. Classification of endophytic fungi producing antitumor compounds has received more attention from mycologists, and it can also lead to the discovery of novel compounds with antitumor activity due to phylogenetic relationships. In this review, the structures of the anticancer compounds isolated from the newly reported endophytes between 2010 and 2013 are discussed including strategies for the efficient production of the desired compounds. The purpose of this review is to provide new directions in endophytic fungi research including integrated information relating to its anticancer compounds.

  17. 7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... aniline blue in 100 ml distilled water. (2) Prepare the endophyte staining solution of one part of 1... dilute with water if staining is too dark. (b) Procedure for determining levels of fungal endophyte in... (NaOH) solution or other temperature/time combination resulting in adequate seed softening. (3)...

  18. 7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... aniline blue in 100 ml distilled water. (2) Prepare the endophyte staining solution of one part of 1... dilute with water if staining is too dark. (b) Procedure for determining levels of fungal endophyte in... (NaOH) solution or other temperature/time combination resulting in adequate seed softening. (3)...

  19. A novel method to scale up fungal endophyte isolations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Estimations of species diversity are influenced by sampling intensity which in turn is influenced by methodology. For fungal endophyte diversity studies, the methodology includes surface-sterilization prior to isolation of endophytes. Surface-sterilization is an essential component of fungal endophy...

  20. Search for endophytic diazotrophs in barley seeds

    PubMed Central

    Zawoznik, Myriam S.; Vázquez, Susana C.; Díaz Herrera, Silvana M.; Groppa, María D.

    2014-01-01

    Eight endophytic isolates assigned to Pseudomonas, Azospirillum, and Bacillus genera according to pheno-genotypic features were retrieved from barley seeds under selective pressure for nitrogen-fixers. Genetic relationships among related isolates were investigated through RAPD. Six isolates displayed nitrogen-fixing ability, while all could biosynthesize indolacetic acid in vitro and showed no antibiosis effects against Azospirillum brasilense Az39, a recognized PGPR. PMID:25242949

  1. Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Weiß, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as ‘endophytes’ have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

  2. Eucalyptus growth promotion by endophytic Bacillus spp.

    PubMed

    Paz, I C P; Santin, R C M; Guimarães, A M; Rosa, O P P; Dias, A C F; Quecine, M C; Azevedo, J L; Matsumura, A T S

    2012-10-11

    Clonal eucalyptus plantings have increased in recent years; however, some clones with high production characteristics have vegetative propagation problems because of weak root and aerial development. Endophytic microorganisms live inside healthy plants without causing any damage to their hosts and can be beneficial, acting as plant growth promoters. We isolated endophytic bacteria from eucalyptus plants and evaluated their potential in plant growth promotion of clonal plantlets of Eucalyptus urophylla x E. grandis, known as the hybrid, E. urograndis. Eighteen isolates of E. urograndis, clone 4622, were tested for plant growth promotion using the same clone. These isolates were also evaluated for indole acetic acid production and their potential for nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. The isolates were identified by partial sequencing of 16S rRNA. Bacillus subtilis was the most prevalent species. Several Bacillus species, including B. licheniformis and B. subtilis, were found for the first time as endophytes of eucalyptus. Bacillus sp strain EUCB 10 significantly increased the growth of the root and aerial parts of eucalyptus plantlets under greenhouse conditions, during the summer and winter seasons.

  3. Maize endophytic bacteria as mineral phosphate solubilizers.

    PubMed

    de Abreu, C S; Figueiredo, J E F; Oliveira, C A; Dos Santos, V L; Gomes, E A; Ribeiro, V P; Barros, B A; Lana, U G P; Marriel, I E

    2017-02-16

    In the present study, we demonstrated the in vitro activity of endophytic phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB). Fifty-five endophytic PSB that were isolated from sap, leaves, and roots of maize were tested for their ability to solubilize tricalcium phosphate and produce organic acid. Partial sequencing of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene showed that the isolates were from the genus Bacillus and different species of Enterobacteriaceae. The phosphate solubilization index on solid medium and phosphate solubilization in liquid medium varied significantly among the isolates. There was a statistically significant difference (P ≤ 0.05) for both, the values of phosphate-solubilizing activity and pH of the growth medium, among the isolates. Pearson correlation was statistically significant (P ≤ 0.05) between P-solubilization and pH (R = -0.38), and between the gluconic acid production and the lowering of the pH of the liquid medium at 6 (R = 0.28) and 9 days (R = 0.39). Gluconic acid production was prevalent in all the PSB studied, and Bacillus species were most efficient in solubilizing phosphate. This is the first report on the characterization of bacterial endophytes from maize and their use as potential biofertilizers. In addition, this may provide an alternative strategy for improving the phosphorus acquisition efficiency of crop plants in tropical soils.

  4. Endophytic actinobacteria of medicinal plants: diversity and bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Golinska, Patrycja; Wypij, Magdalena; Agarkar, Gauravi; Rathod, Dnyaneshwar; Dahm, Hanna; Rai, Mahendra

    2015-08-01

    Endophytes are the microorganisms that exist inside the plant tissues without having any negative impact on the host plant. Medicinal plants constitute the huge diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of economical importance. These microbes have huge potential to synthesis of numerous novel compounds that can be exploited in pharmaceutical, agricultural and other industries. It is of prime importance to focus the present research on practical utilization of this microbial group in order to find out the solutions to the problems related to health, environment and agriculture. An extensive characterization of diverse population of endophytic actinobacteria associated with medicinal plants can provide a greater insight into the plant-endophyte interactions and evolution of mutualism. In the present review, we have discussed the diversity of endophytic actinobacteria of from medicinal plants their multiple bioactivities.

  5. Phytoremediation: plant-endophyte partnerships take the challenge

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Taghavi, S.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-04-01

    A promising field to exploit plant-endophyte partnerships is the remediation of contaminated soils and (ground) water. Many plant growth promoting endophytes can assist their host plant to overcome contaminant-induced stress responses, thus providing improved plant growth. During phytoremediation of organic contaminants, plants can further benefit from endophytes possessing appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic capabilities, leading to more efficient contaminant degradation and reduction of both phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of volatile contaminants. For phytoremediation of toxic metals, endophytes possessing a metal-resistance/sequestration system can lower metal phytotoxicity and affect metal translocation to the above-ground plant parts. Furthermore, endophytes that can degrade organic contaminants and deal with or, even better, improve extraction of the metals offer promising ways to improve phytoremediation of mixed pollution.

  6. Comparative study of endophytic and endophytic diazotrophic bacterial communities across rice landraces grown in the highlands of northern Thailand.

    PubMed

    Rangjaroen, Chakrapong; Rerkasem, Benjavan; Teaumroong, Neung; Sungthong, Rungroch; Lumyong, Saisamorn

    2014-01-01

    Communities of bacterial endophytes within the rice landraces cultivated in the highlands of northern Thailand were studied using fingerprinting data of 16S rRNA and nifH genes profiling by polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The bacterial communities' richness, diversity index, evenness, and stability were varied depending on the plant tissues, stages of growth, and rice cultivars. These indices for the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria within the landrace rice Bue Wah Bo were significantly the lowest. The endophytic bacteria revealed greater diversity by cluster analysis with seven clusters compared to the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria (three clusters). Principal component analysis suggested that the endophytic bacteria showed that the community structures across the rice landraces had a higher stability than those of the endophytic diazotrophic bacteria. Uncultured bacteria were found dominantly in both bacterial communities, while higher generic varieties were observed in the endophytic diazotrophic bacterial community. These differences in bacterial communities might be influenced either by genetic variation in the rice landraces or the rice cultivation system, where the nitrogen input affects the endophytic diazotrophic bacterial community.

  7. Fungal epiphytes and endophytes of coffee leaves (Coffea arabica).

    PubMed

    Santamaría, Johanna; Bayman, Paul

    2005-07-01

    Plants harbor diverse communities of fungi and other microorganisms. Fungi are known to occur both on plant surfaces (epiphytes) and inside plant tissues (endophytes), but the two communities have rarely been compared. We compared epiphytic and endophytic fungal communities associated with leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica) in Puerto Rico. We asked whether the dominant fungi are the same in both communities, whether endophyte and epiphyte communities are equally diverse, and whether epiphytes and endophytes exhibit similar patterns of spatial heterogeneity among sites. Leaves of naturalized coffee plants were collected from six sites in Puerto Rico. Epiphytic and endophytic fungi were isolated by placing leaf pieces on potato dextrose agar without and with surface sterilization, respectively. A total of 821 colonies were isolated and grouped into 131 morphospecies. The taxonomic affinities of the four most common nonsporulating fungi were determined by sequencing the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region: two grouped with Xylaria and one each with Botryosphaeria and Guignardia. Of the most common genera, Pestalotia and Botryosphaeria were significantly more common as epiphytes; Colletotrichum, Xylaria, and Guignardia were significantly more common as endophytes. Suprisingly, more morphospecies occurred as endophytes than as epiphytes. Differences among sites in number of fungi per plant were significant. Thus epiphytic and endophytic communities differed greatly on a single leaf, despite living only millimeters apart, and both communities differed from site to site. Significant correlations between occurrence of fungal morphospecies suggested that fungi may have positive or negative effects on their neighbors. This is the first quantitative comparison of epiphytic and endophytic fungal floras in any plant, and the first to examine endophytic fungi or epiphytic fungi in leaves of coffee, one of the world's most valuable crops.

  8. Evolutionary origins and ecological consequences of endophyte symbiosis with grasses.

    PubMed

    Clay, Keith; Schardl, Christopher

    2002-10-01

    Over the past 20 yr much has been learned about a unique symbiotic interaction between fungal endophytes and grasses. The fungi (Clavicipitaceae, Ascomycota) grow intercellularly and systemically in aboveground plant parts. Vertically transmitted asexual endophytes forming asymptomatic infections of cool-season grasses have been repeatedly derived from sexual species that abort host inflorescences. The phylogenetic distribution of seed-transmitted endophytes is strongly suggestive of cocladogenesis with their hosts. Molecular evidence indicates that many seed-transmitted endophytes are interspecific hybrids. Superinfection may result in hyphal fusion and parasexual recombination. Most endophytes produce one or more alkaloid classes that likely play some role in defending the host plant against pests. Hybridization may have led to the proliferation of alkaloid-production genes among asexual endophytes, favoring hybrids. The ergot alkaloid ergovaline, lolitrems, and lolines are produced by only a single sexual species, Epichloë festucae, but they are common in seed-transmitted endophytes, suggesting that E. festucae contributed genes for their synthesis. Asexual hybrids may also be favored by the counteracting of the accumulation of deleterious mutations (Muller's rachet). Endophyte infection can provide other benefits, such as enhanced drought tolerance, photosynthetic rate, and growth. Estimates of infection frequency have revealed variable levels of infection with especially high prevalence in the subfamily Pooideae. Longitudinal studies suggest that the prevalence of seed-transmitted endophytes can increase rapidly over time. In field experiments, infected tall fescue suppressed other grasses and forbs relative to uninfected fescue and supported lower consumer populations. Unlike other widespread plant/microbial symbioses based on the acquisition of mineral resources, grass/endophyte associations are based primarily on protection of the host from biotic and

  9. Promoting role of an endophyte on the growth and contents of kinsenosides and flavonoids of Anoectochilus formosanus Hayata, a rare and threatened medicinal Orchidaceae plant*

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fu-sheng; Lv, Ya-li; Zhao, Yue; Guo, Shun-xing

    2013-01-01

    Anoectochilus formosanus, commonly known as “Jewel Orchid”, is a Chinese folk medicine used to treat hypertension, diabetes, and heart disease. The existence of A. formosanus is currently threatened by habitat loss, human and animal consumption, etc. The highly potent medicinal activity of A. formosanus is due to its secondary metabolites, especially kinsenosides and flavonoids. This orchid also has a unique mycorrhizal relationship. Most adult orchids rely on endophytes for mineral nutrition and have complex interactions with them, which are related to plant growth, yield and changes in secondary metabolites. This study investigated the promoting role of F-23 fungus (genus Mycena) on the biomass and contents of kinsenosides and flavonoids of A. formosanus in pot culture. The following were observed after 10 weeks of symbiotic cultivation: increased shoot height, shoot dry weight, and leaf numbers by 16.6%, 31.3%, and 22.5%, respectively; increased contents of kinsenosides, isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-rutinoside, and isorhamnetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside by 85.5%, 226.1%, and 196.0%, respectively; some hyphae in epidermal cells dyed red and/or reddish brown by safranine; and, significantly reduced number of starch grains in cortical cells. Moreover, F-23 fungus significantly improved the kinsenoside and flavonoid contents of A. formosanus. These findings supported the reports that endophytes can alter the production of secondary metabolites in their plant hosts, although further physiological, genetic and ecological analyses are warranted. PMID:24009198

  10. Communities of Cultivable Root Mycobionts of the Seagrass Posidonia oceanica in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea Are Dominated by a Hitherto Undescribed Pleosporalean Dark Septate Endophyte.

    PubMed

    Vohník, Martin; Borovec, Ondřej; Kolařík, Miroslav

    2016-02-01

    Seagrasses, a small group of submerged marine macrophytes, were reported to lack mycorrhizae, i.e., the root-fungus symbioses most terrestrial plants use for nutrient uptake. On the other hand, several authors detected fungal endophytes in seagrass leaves, shoots, rhizomes, and roots, and an anatomically and morphologically unique dark septate endophytic (DSE) association has been recently described in the roots of the Mediterranean seagrass Posidonia oceanica. Nevertheless, the global diversity of seagrass mycobionts is not well understood, and it remains unclear what fungus forms the DSE association in P. oceanica roots. We isolated and determined P. oceanica root mycobionts from 11 localities in the northwest Mediterranean Sea with documented presence of the DSE association and compared our results with recent literature. The mycobiont communities were low in diversity (only three species), were dominated by a single yet unreported marine fungal species (ca. 90 % of the total 177 isolates), and lacked common terrestrial and freshwater root mycobionts. Our phylogenetic analysis suggests that the dominating species represents a new monotypic lineage within the recently described Aigialaceae family (Pleosporales, Ascomycota), probably representing a new genus. Most of its examined colonies developed from intracellular microsclerotia occupying host hypodermis and resembling microsclerotia of terrestrial DSE fungi. Biological significance of this hitherto overlooked seagrass root mycobiont remains obscure, but its presence across the NW Mediterranean Sea and apparent root intracellular lifestyle indicate an intriguing symbiotic relationship with the dominant Mediterranean seagrass. Our microscopic observations suggest that it may form the DSE association recently described in P. oceanica roots.

  11. Microarray Comparison of Endophyte-Infected and Endophyte-Free Tall Fescue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Many grasses have mutualistic symbioses with fungi of the family Clavicipitaceae: Tall fescue (Festuca arudinacea = Lolium arundinaceum) can harbor the obligate endophyte, Neotyphodium coenophialum that are asexually propagated and transmitted via host seeds. In an effort to begin to dissect the hos...

  12. Montagnuphilones A-G, Azaphilones from Montagnulaceae sp. DM0194, a Fungal Endophyte of Submerged Roots of Persicaria amphibia.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jian-Guang; Xu, Ya-Ming; Sandberg, Dustin C; Arnold, A Elizabeth; Gunatilaka, A A Leslie

    2017-01-27

    Seven azaphilones, montagnuphilones A-G (1-7), together with previously known azaphilones 8-11, were encountered in Montagnulaceae sp. DM0194, an endophytic fungus isolated from submerged roots of Persicaria amphibia. The structures of 1-7 were elucidated on the basis of their MS and NMR spectroscopic analysis. Compounds 1-8 were evaluated for their cytotoxicity and ability to inhibit nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophage cells. Among these, none were found to be cytotoxic to RAW264.7 cells up to 100.0 μM, but 8, 5, and 2 showed NO inhibitory activity with IC50 values of 9.2 ± 0.9, 25.5 ± 1.1, and 39.6 ± 1.8 μM, respectively.

  13. Effects of a dark-septate endophytic isolate LBF-2 on the medicinal plant Lycium barbarum L.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Tang, Ming; Chen, Hui; Wang, Ya-Jun

    2012-02-01

    Dark septate endophytes (DSE) are ubiquitous root associated fungi; however, our understanding of their ecological function remains unclear. Here, we investigated the positive effect of a DSE fungus on its host plant Lycium barbarum L. A DSE isolate, LBF-2, isolated from the roots of L. barbarum, was inoculated onto the roots of plants, which were grown under greenhouse conditions for five weeks. The result of molecular analyses of internal transcribed spacer regions indicated that LBF-2 was 96% similar to Paraphoma chrysanthemicola. Melanized septate hyphae were observed in the root cortical cells of L. barbarum using a light microscope. Inoculation with LBF-2 increased the total biomass by 39.2% and also enhanced chlorophyll fluorescence. Inoculation increased the concentration of total chlorophyll by 22.8% and of chlorophyll a by 21.3%, relative to uninoculated controls. These data indicate that the LBF-2 isolate might be used to facilitate the cultivation of L. barbarum, which has medicinal applications.

  14. The Dark Side Is Not Fastidious – Dark Septate Endophytic Fungi of Native and Invasive Plants of Semiarid Sandy Areas

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Dániel G.; Pintye, Alexandra; Kovács, Gábor M.

    2012-01-01

    Dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi represent a frequent root-colonizing fungal group common in environments with strong abiotic stress, such as (semi)arid ecosystems. This work aimed to study the DSE fungi colonizing the plants of semiarid sandy grasslands with wood steppe patches on the Great Hungarian Plain. As we may assume that fungi colonizing both invasive and native species are generalists, root associated fungi (RAF) were isolated from eight native and three invasive plant species. The nrDNA sequences of the isolates were used for identification. To confirm that the fungi were endophytes an artificial inoculation system was used to test the isolates: we considered a fungus as DSE if it colonized the roots without causing a negative effect on the plant and formed microsclerotia in the roots. According to the analyses of the ITS sequence of nrDNA the 296 isolates clustered into 41 groups. We found that 14 of these 41 groups were DSE, representing approximately 60% of the isolates. The main DSE groups were generalist and showed no specificity to area or season and colonized both native and invasive species, demonstrating that exotic plants are capable of using the root endophytic fungi of the invaded areas. The DSE community of the region shows high similarity to those found in arid grasslands of North America. Taking into account a previous hypothesis about the common root colonizers of those grasslands and our results reported here, we hypothesize that plants of (semi)arid grasslands share common dominant members of the DSE fungal community on a global scale. PMID:22393417

  15. The dark side is not fastidious--dark septate endophytic fungi of native and invasive plants of semiarid sandy areas.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Dániel G; Pintye, Alexandra; Kovács, Gábor M

    2012-01-01

    Dark septate endophytic (DSE) fungi represent a frequent root-colonizing fungal group common in environments with strong abiotic stress, such as (semi)arid ecosystems. This work aimed to study the DSE fungi colonizing the plants of semiarid sandy grasslands with wood steppe patches on the Great Hungarian Plain. As we may assume that fungi colonizing both invasive and native species are generalists, root associated fungi (RAF) were isolated from eight native and three invasive plant species. The nrDNA sequences of the isolates were used for identification. To confirm that the fungi were endophytes an artificial inoculation system was used to test the isolates: we considered a fungus as DSE if it colonized the roots without causing a negative effect on the plant and formed microsclerotia in the roots. According to the analyses of the ITS sequence of nrDNA the 296 isolates clustered into 41 groups. We found that 14 of these 41 groups were DSE, representing approximately 60% of the isolates. The main DSE groups were generalist and showed no specificity to area or season and colonized both native and invasive species, demonstrating that exotic plants are capable of using the root endophytic fungi of the invaded areas. The DSE community of the region shows high similarity to those found in arid grasslands of North America. Taking into account a previous hypothesis about the common root colonizers of those grasslands and our results reported here, we hypothesize that plants of (semi)arid grasslands share common dominant members of the DSE fungal community on a global scale.

  16. Ubiquity of insect-derived nitrogen transfer to plants by endophytic insect-pathogenic fungi: an additional branch of the soil nitrogen cycle.

    PubMed

    Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2014-03-01

    The study of symbiotic nitrogen transfer in soil has largely focused on nitrogen-fixing bacteria. Vascular plants can lose a substantial amount of their nitrogen through insect herbivory. Previously, we showed that plants were able to reacquire nitrogen from insects through a partnership with the endophytic, insect-pathogenic fungus Metarhizium robertsii. That is, the endophytic capability and insect pathogenicity of M. robertsii are coupled so that the fungus acts as a conduit to provide insect-derived nitrogen to plant hosts. Here, we assess the ubiquity of this nitrogen transfer in five Metarhizium species representing those with broad (M. robertsii, M. brunneum, and M. guizhouense) and narrower insect host ranges (M. acridum and M. flavoviride), as well as the insect-pathogenic fungi Beauveria bassiana and Lecanicillium lecanii. Insects were injected with (15)N-labeled nitrogen, and we tracked the incorporation of (15)N into two dicots, haricot bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max), and two monocots, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), in the presence of these fungi in soil microcosms. All Metarhizium species and B. bassiana but not L. lecanii showed the capacity to transfer nitrogen to plants, although to various degrees. Endophytic association by these fungi increased overall plant productivity. We also showed that in the field, where microbial competition is potentially high, M. robertsii was able to transfer insect-derived nitrogen to plants. Metarhizium spp. and B. bassiana have a worldwide distribution with high soil abundance and may play an important role in the ecological cycling of insect nitrogen back to plant communities.

  17. Atypical morphology of dark septate fungal root endophytes of Bouteloua in arid southwestern USA rangelands.

    PubMed

    Barrow, J R

    2003-10-01

    Native grasses of semi-arid rangelands of the southwestern USA are more extensively colonized by dark septate endophytes (DSE) than by traditional mycorrhizal fungi. Roots of dominant grasses ( Bouteloua sp.) native to arid southwestern USA rangelands were prepared and stained using stains specific for fungi (trypan blue) and for lipids (sudan IV). This revealed extensive internal colonization of physiologically active roots by atypical fungal structures that appear to function as protoplasts, without a distinguishable wall or with very thin hyaline walls that escape detection by methods staining specifically for fungal chitin. These structures were presumed to be active fungal stages that progressed to form stained or melanized septate hyphae and microsclerotia characteristic of DSE fungi within dormant roots. The most conspicuous characteristic of these fungi were the unique associations that formed within sieve elements and the accumulation of massive quantities of lipids. This interface suggests a biologically significant location for carbon transfer between the plant and fungus. The continuous intimate association with all sieve elements, cortical and epidermal cells as well as external extension on the root surface and into the soil indicates that they are systemic and considerably more prevalent than previously thought. A fungal network associated with a mucilaginous complex observed on the root surface and its potential role in root function in dry soil is discussed. It is suggested that those fungi that non-pathogenically and totally colonize plant cells be classed as systemic endophytic fungi (SEF). This would refine the broad designation of DSE fungi. The potential mutualistic benefit of SEF for native plants in arid ecosystems based on the extent of lipid accumulation and its apparent distribution is discussed.

  18. Seasonal variation of bacterial endophytes in urban trees

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shu Yi; Fulthorpe, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial endophytes, non-pathogenic bacteria residing within plants, contribute to the growth and development of plants and their ability to adapt to adverse conditions. In order to fully exploit the capabilities of these bacteria, it is necessary to understand the extent to which endophytic communities vary between species and over time. The endophytes of Acer negundo, Ulmus pumila, and Ulmus parvifolia were sampled over three seasons and analyzed using culture dependent and independent methods (culture on two media, terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism, and tagged pyrosequencing of 16S ribosomal amplicons). The majority of culturable endophytes isolated were Actinobacteria, and all the samples harbored Bacillus, Curtobacterium, Frigoribacterium, Methylobacterium, Paenibacilllus, and Sphingomonas species. Regardless of culture medium used, only the culturable communities obtained in the winter for A. negundo could be distinguished from those of Ulmus spp. In contrast, the nonculturable communities were dominated by Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria, particularly Erwinia, Ralstonia, and Sanguibacter spp. The presence and abundance of various bacterial classes and phyla changed with the changing seasons. Multivariate analysis on the culture independent data revealed significant community differences between the endophytic communities of A. negundo and Ulmus spp., but overall season was the main determinant of endophytic community structure. This study suggests studies on endophytic populations of urban trees should expect to find significant seasonal and species-specific community differences and sampling should proceed accordingly. PMID:26042095

  19. Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J.; White, Jr., James F.; Prado, Fernanda M.; Prieto, Katia R.; Yamaguchi, Lydia F.; Torres, Monica S.; Kato, Massuo J.; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from 15N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with 15NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of 15N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes. PMID:25374146

  20. Dark septate endophyte decreases stress on rice plants.

    PubMed

    Santos, Silvana Gomes Dos; Silva, Paula Renata Alves da; Garcia, Andres Calderin; Zilli, Jerri Édson; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro

    Abiotic stress is one of the major limiting factors for plant development and productivity, which makes it important to identify microorganisms capable of increasing plant tolerance to stress. Dark septate endophytes can be symbionts of plants. In the present study, we evaluated the ability of dark septate endophytes isolates to reduce the effects of water stress in the rice varieties Nipponbare and Piauí. The experiments were performed under gnotobiotic conditions, and the water stress was induced with PEG. Four dark septate endophytes were isolated from the roots of wild rice (Oryza glumaepatula) collected from the Brazilian Amazon. Plant height as well as shoot and root fresh and dry matter were measured. Leaf protein concentrations and antioxidant enzyme activity were also estimated. The dark septate endophytes were grown in vitro in Petri dishes containing culture medium; they exhibited different levels of tolerance to salinity and water stress. The two rice varieties tested responded differently to inoculation with dark septate endophytes. Endophytes promoted rice plant growth both in the presence and in the absence of a water deficit. Decreased oxidative stress in plants in response to inoculation was observed in nearly all inoculated treatments, as indicated by the decrease in antioxidant enzyme activity. Dark septate endophytes fungi were shown to increase the tolerance of rice plants to stress caused by water deficiency.

  1. Nitrogen acquisition in Agave tequilana from degradation of endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Beltran-Garcia, Miguel J; White, James F; Prado, Fernanda M; Prieto, Katia R; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Torres, Monica S; Kato, Massuo J; Medeiros, Marisa H G; Di Mascio, Paolo

    2014-11-06

    Plants form symbiotic associations with endophytic bacteria within tissues of leaves, stems, and roots. It is unclear whether or how plants obtain nitrogen from these endophytic bacteria. Here we present evidence showing nitrogen flow from endophytic bacteria to plants in a process that appears to involve oxidative degradation of bacteria. In our experiments we employed Agave tequilana and its seed-transmitted endophyte Bacillus tequilensis to elucidate organic nitrogen transfer from (15)N-labeled bacteria to plants. Bacillus tequilensis cells grown in a minimal medium with (15)NH4Cl as the nitrogen source were watered onto plants growing in sand. We traced incorporation of (15)N into tryptophan, deoxynucleosides and pheophytin derived from chlorophyll a. Probes for hydrogen peroxide show its presence during degradation of bacteria in plant tissues, supporting involvement of reactive oxygen in the degradation process. In another experiment to assess nitrogen absorbed as a result of endophytic colonization of plants we demonstrated that endophytic bacteria potentially transfer more nitrogen to plants and stimulate greater biomass in plants than heat-killed bacteria that do not colonize plants but instead degrade in the soil. Findings presented here support the hypothesis that some plants under nutrient limitation may degrade and obtain nitrogen from endophytic microbes.

  2. Changes occurring in compositions and antioxidant properties of healthy soybean seeds [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] and soybean seeds diseased by Phomopsis longicolla and Cercospora kikuchii fungal pathogens.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hwan; Hwang, Seung-Ryul; Lee, Yeon-Hee; Kim, Kyun; Cho, Kye Man; Lee, Yong Bok

    2015-10-15

    Changes in the compositions (isoflavone, protein, oil, and fatty acid) and antioxidant properties were evaluated in healthy soybeans and soybeans diseased by Phomopsis longicolla and Cercospora kikuchii. The total isoflavone content (1491.3 μg/g) of healthy seeds was observed to be considerably different than that of diseased seeds (P. longicolla: 292.6, C. kikuchii: 727.2 μg/g), with malonlygenistin exhibiting the greatest decrease (726.1 → 57.1, 351.9 μg/g). Significantly, three isoflavones exhibited a slight increase, and their structures were confirmed as daidzein, glycitein, and genistein, based on their molecular ions at m/z 253.1, 283.0, and 269.1 using the negative mode of HPLC-DAD-ESI/MS. The remaining compositions showed slight variations. The effects against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) radicals in healthy seeds were stronger than the diseased soybeans, depending upon the isoflavone level. Our results may be useful in evaluating the relationship between composition and antioxidant activity as a result of changes caused by soybean fungal pathogens.

  3. Connecting plant-microbial interactions above and belowground: a fungal endophyte affects decomposition.

    PubMed

    Lemons, Alisha; Clay, Keith; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2005-10-01

    Mutualisms can strongly affect the structure of communities, but their influence on ecosystem processes is not well resolved. Here we show that a plant-microbial mutualism affects the rate of leaf litter decomposition using the widespread interaction between tall fescue grass (Lolium arundinaceum) and the fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. In grasses, fungal endophytes live symbiotically in the aboveground tissues, where the fungi gain protection and nutrients from their host and often protect host plants from biotic and abiotic stress. In a field experiment, decomposition rate depended on a complex interaction between the litter source (collected from endophyte-infected or endophyte-free plots), the decomposition microenvironment (endophyte-infected or endophyte-free plots), and the presence of mesoinvertebrates (manipulated by the mesh size of litter bags). Over all treatments, decomposition was slower for endophyte-infected fescue litter than for endophyte-free litter. When mesoinvertebrates were excluded using fine mesh and litter was placed in a microenvironment with the endophyte, the difference between endophyte-infected and endophyte-free litter was strongest. In the presence of mesoinvertebrates, endophyte-infected litter decomposed faster in microenvironments with the endophyte than in microenvironments lacking the endophyte, suggesting that plots differ in the detritivore assemblage. Indeed, the presence of the endophyte in plots shifted the composition of Collembola, with more Hypogastruridae in the presence of the endophyte and more Isotomidae in endophyte-free plots. In a separate outdoor pot experiment, we did not find strong effects of the litter source or the soil microbial/microinvertebrate community on decomposition, which may reflect differences between pot and field conditions or other differences in methodology. Our work is among the first to demonstrate an effect of plant-endophyte mutualisms on ecosystem processes under field

  4. Anti-rheumatoid Activity of Secondary Metabolites Produced by Endophytic Chaetomium globosum

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Azeem, Ahmed M.; Zaki, Sherif M.; Khalil, Waleed F.; Makhlouf, Noha A.; Farghaly, Lamiaa M.

    2016-01-01

    811080 in the NCBI Database. The present study revealed that the methanol extract of endophytic fungus C. globosum (KC811080) recovered from maidenhair fern has an inhibitory effect on inflammation, histopathology and morphological features of rheumatoid arthritis in an AIA rat model. PMID:27703452

  5. Do foliar endophytic bacteria fix nitrogen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kueppers, L. M.; Moyes, A. B.; Frank, C.; Pett-Ridge, J.; Carper, D.; Vandehey, N.; O'Neil, J.; Dekas, A.

    2015-12-01

    Endophytic microorganisms - bacteria and fungi that live inside healthy plant tissue - are a relatively unexplored source of functional diversity in natural ecosystems. Prior to modern sequencing technology, detecting uncultured endophytic bacteria and assessing their putative functions was challenging. However, recent work has revealed a remarkable diversity of as yet non-culturable endophytic taxa and is beginning to identify functional roles within plant microbiomes. We recently examined bacterial communities in the foliage of a long-lived, high-elevation conifer species, limber pine (Pinus flexilis), and discovered a community strongly dominated by acetic acid bacteria (Acetobacteraceae), with several taxa closely related to known nitrogen fixers. Given limber pine's status as a pioneer species that is able to grow in low fertility soils, we hypothesized that this bacterial community has a potential functional role in fixing atmospheric nitrogen, providing a source of this limiting nutrient to the host tree. We used the radioisotope 13N2 to confirm that N2 rapidly diffuses into pine needles, where it could potentially be fixed. With an acetylene reduction assay we confirmed nitrogenase enzyme activity inside excised twigs 4 times over a growing season, and estimate potential rates of N2 fixation at 0.1 nmol N2 g needle-1 hr-1. Scaled to the stand level, this N input could be on the order of ~20 mg N m-2 d-1 over a growing season. While these rates are low, the long lifespan of individual trees (~1000 years) makes them biologically meaningful. Still, measured rates of acetylene reduction and bulk 15N2 incorporation are quite variable in space and time. Much work remains to better characterize the plant-microbial interactions in this system, including the rates of nitrogen fixation and their variability over the growing season, across edaphic conditions, among host species, and through plant development; and to determine which community members are responsible

  6. Bioactive Volatiles from an Endophytic Daldinia cf. concentrica Isolate Affect the Viability of the Plant Parasitic Nematode Meloidogyne javanica

    PubMed Central

    Braun Miyara, Sigal; Ezra, David

    2016-01-01

    Plant-parasitic nematodes form one of the largest sources of biotic stress imposed on plants, and are very difficult to control; among them are the obligate parasites, the sedentary root-knot nematodes (RKNs)–Meloidogyne spp.–which are extremely polyphagous and exploit a very wide range of hosts. Endophytic fungi are organisms that spend most of their life cycle within plant tissue without causing visible damage to the host plant. Many endophytes secrete specialized metabolites and/or emit volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that exhibit biological activity. Recently, we demonstrated that the endophytic fungus Daldinia cf. concentrica secrets biologically active VOCs. Here we examined the ability of the fungus and its VOCs to control the RKN M. javanica both in vitro and greenhouse experiments. The D. cf. concentrica VOCs showed bionematicidal activity against the second-stage juveniles (J2s) of M. javanica. We found that exposure of J2s to fungal volatiles caused 67% reduction in viability, and that application of a synthetic volatile mixture (SVM), comprising 3-methyl-1-butanol, (±)-2-methyl-1-butanol, 4-heptanone, and isoamyl acetate, in volumetric ratio of 1:1:2:1 further reduced J2s viability by 99%. We demonstrated that, although each of the four VOCs significantly reduced the viability of J2s relative to the control, only 4-heptanone elicited the same effect as the whole mixture, with nematicidal activity of 90% reduction in viability of the J2s. Study of the effect of the SVM on egg hatching demonstrated that it decreased eggs hatching by 87%. Finally, application of the SVM to soil inoculated with M. javanica eggs or J2s prior to planting susceptible tomato plants resulted in a significantly reduced galling index and fewer eggs produced on each root system, with no effect on root weight. Thus, D. cf. concentrica and/or SVM based on fungal VOCs may be considered as a novel alternative approach to controlling the RKN M. javanica. PMID:27997626

  7. Endophytic establishment of Azorhizobium caulinodans in wheat

    PubMed Central

    Sabry, S. R. S.; Saleh, S. A.; Batchelor, C. A.; Jones, J.; Jotham, J.; Webster, G.; Kothari, S. L.; Davey, M. R.; Cocking, E. C.

    1997-01-01

    Nitrogen fixing nodules are formed on the roots and stems of the tropical legume Sesbania rostrata by Azorhizobium caulinodans as a result of crack entry invasion of emerging lateral roots. Advantage was taken of this invasion capability of A. caulinodans to determine whether inoculation of the non-legume wheat with A. caulinodans would result in the endophytic establishment of azorhizobia within wheat roots. Advantage was also taken of the oxygen tolerance of the nitrogenase of free-living azorhizobia to assess the extent to which the endophytic establishment of azorhizobia in wheat roots would provide a niche for nitrogen fixation of benefit to the plant. Wheat was inoculated with A. caulinodans and grown in pots under controlled conditions, without added growth reglators and without addition of fixed nitrogen. Microscopic examination of the short lateral roots of inocluated wheat showed invasion of azorhizobia between cells of the cortex, within the xylem and the root meristem Acetylene reduction assays combined with analysis of tissue nitrogen levels indicated the likelihood that colonization led to nitrogenase activity. Inoculated wheat showed significant increases in dry weight and nitrogen content as compared with uninoculated controls. We discuss the extent to which this nitrogen fixation is likely to involve symbiotic nitrogen fixation, and we indicate the need for field trials to determine the extent to which inolculation of wheat with A. caulinodans will reduce the requirement for inputs of nitrogenous fertilizers.

  8. BILL E. KUNKLE INTERDISCIPLINARY BEEF SYMPOSIUM: Genetic resistance to the effects of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    PubMed

    Smith, T; Cassady, J P

    2015-12-01

    Forages are the base source of nutrition for any cow-calf operation. Forage types vary based on soil type and climate. Tall fescue () is the most commonly used cultivated grass for grazing beef cattle in the United States. This cool-season perennial is easily established; is resistant to drought, insects, and nematodes; and has the ability to withstand heavy grazing pressure. Most tall fescue varieties are infected with the endophyte fungus () that is essential for the plant's survival but detrimental to cattle performance. Ergot alkaloids are the generally accepted toxic agents produced by the fescue endophyte. Cattle that consume forages infected with this endophyte can develop fescue foot, fat necrosis, or fescue toxicosis. It is estimated that the beef industry loses over US$500 million annually due to fescue toxicosis through heat stress, reduced weight gain, suppressed appetite, and decreased reproductive performance. Other symptoms include a retained or rough hair coat and increased body temperature, which can be detrimental when animals are located in hot and or humid environments. Different forages and forage systems, feed additives, and animal management strategies have been tested through the years allowing the use of tall fescue in beef production systems while minimizing the adverse effects. An animal genetics approach needs to identify and select animals less susceptible to the ergot alkaloids. Research in this area reports that different cattle within the same herd can respond differently when grazing tall fescue, and evidence exists that breed type may also play a role in genetic tolerance to the negative effects on performance. Some studies have looked at the potential of identifying genetic markers that may assist in the selection of more resistant animals. From these studies, there is evidence that genetic variation does exist for resistance to the ergot alkaloids present when grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue. Forage management coupled with

  9. Asexual endophytes in a native grass: Tradeoffs in mortality, growth, reproduction, and alkaloid production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neotyphodium endophytes are asexual, seed-borne fungal symbionts that are thought to interact mutualistically with their grass hosts. Benefits include increased growth, reproduction, and resistance of herbivores via endophytic alkaloids. Although these benefits are well established in infected int...

  10. Fungal endophyte infection increases carbon sequestration potential of southeastern USA tall fescue stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tall fescue (Schedonorus arundinaceous (Schreb.)) is often infected with a common toxic fungal endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum) capable of producing alkaloids that affect grazing animal health, insect herbivory, plant production, and litter decomposition. The strength of these endophyte-associa...

  11. Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae endophytically colonize cassava roots following soil drench inoculation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The fungal entomopathogens Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae were investigated to determine if endophytic colonization could be achieved in cassava. An inoculation method based on drenching the soil around cassava stems using conidial suspensions resulted in endophytic colonization of ca...

  12. Ungulate saliva inhibits a grass-endophyte mutualism.

    PubMed

    Tanentzap, Andrew J; Vicari, Mark; Bazely, Dawn R

    2014-07-01

    Fungal endophytes modify plant-herbivore interactions by producing toxic alkaloids that deter herbivory. However, studies have neglected the direct effects herbivores may have on endophytes. Antifungal properties and signalling effectors in herbivore saliva suggest that evolutionary pressures may select for animals that mitigate the effects of endophyte-produced alkaloids. Here, we tested whether saliva of moose (Alces alces) and European reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) reduced hyphal elongation and production of ergot alkaloids by the foliar endophyte Epichloë festucae associated with the globally distributed red fescue Festuca rubra. Both moose and reindeer saliva reduced the growth of isolated endophyte hyphae when compared with a treatment of distilled water. Induction of the highly toxic alkaloid ergovaline was also inhibited in plants from the core of F. rubra's distribution when treated with moose saliva following simulated grazing. In genotypes from the southern limit of the species' distribution, ergovaline was constitutively expressed, as predicted where growth is environmentally limited. Our results now present the first evidence, to our knowledge, that ungulate saliva can combat plant defences produced by a grass-endophyte mutualism.

  13. Exploring Arabidopsis thaliana Root Endophytes via Single-Cell Genomics

    SciTech Connect

    Lundberg, Derek; Woyke, Tanja; Tringe, Susannah; Dangl, Jeff

    2014-03-19

    Land plants grow in association with microbial communities both on their surfaces and inside the plant (endophytes). The relationships between microbes and their host can vary from pathogenic to mutualistic. Colonization of the endophyte compartment occurs in the presence of a sophisticated plant immune system, implying finely tuned discrimination of pathogens from mutualists and commensals. Despite the importance of the microbiome to the plant, relatively little is known about the specific interactions between plants and microbes, especially in the case of endophytes. The vast majority of microbes have not been grown in the lab, and thus one of the few ways of studying them is by examining their DNA. Although metagenomics is a powerful tool for examining microbial communities, its application to endophyte samples is technically difficult due to the presence of large amounts of host plant DNA in the sample. One method to address these difficulties is single-cell genomics where a single microbial cell is isolated from a sample, lysed, and its genome amplified by multiple displacement amplification (MDA) to produce enough DNA for genome sequencing. This produces a single-cell amplified genome (SAG). We have applied this technology to study the endophytic microbes in Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Extensive 16S gene profiling of the microbial communities in the roots of multiple inbred A. thaliana strains has identified 164 OTUs as being significantly enriched in all the root endophyte samples compared to their presence in bulk soil.

  14. Characterization of an endophytic bacterial community associated with Eucalyptus spp.

    PubMed

    Procópio, R E L; Araújo, W L; Maccheroni, W; Azevedo, J L

    2009-11-24

    Endophytic bacteria were isolated from stems of Eucalyptus spp (Eucalyptus citriodora, E. grandis, E. urophylla, E. camaldulensis, E. torelliana, E. pellita, and a hybrid of E. grandis and E. urophylla) cultivated at two sites; they were characterized by RAPD and amplified rDNA restriction analysis (ARDRA). Endophytic bacteria were more frequently isolated from E. grandis and E. pellita. The 76 isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequencing as Erwinia/Pantoea (45%), Agrobacterium sp (21%), Curtobacterium sp (9%), Brevibacillus sp (8%), Pseudomonas sp (8%), Acinetobacter sp (4%), Burkholderia cepacia (2.6%), and Lactococcus lactis (2.6%). Genetic characterization of these endophytic bacteria isolates showed at least eight ARDRA haplotypes. The genetic diversity of 32 Erwinia/Pantoea and 16 Agrobacterium sp isolates was assessed with the RAPD technique. There was a high level of genetic polymorphism among all the isolates and there was positive correlation between the clusters and the geographic origin of the strains. These endophytic bacteria were further analyzed for in vitro interaction with endophytic fungi from Eucalyptus spp. We found that metabolites secreted by Erwinia/Pantoea and B. cepacia isolates had an inhibitory growth effect on some endophytic fungi, suggesting that these metabolites play a role in bacterial-fungal interactions inside the host plant. Apparently, these bacteria could have an important role in plant development; in the future they may be useful for biological control of diseases and plant growth promotion, as well as for the production of new metabolites and enzymes.

  15. Endophytic fungi alter sucking bug responses to cotton reproductive structures.

    PubMed

    Sword, Gregory A; Tessnow, Ashley; Ek-Ramos, Maria Julissa

    2017-03-22

    All plants including cotton host a wide range of microorganisms as endophytes. There is a growing appreciation of the prevalence, ecological significance and management potential of facultative fungal endophytes in protecting plants from pests, pathogens and environmental stressors. Hemipteran sucking bugs have emerged as major pests across the US cotton belt, reducing yields directly by feeding on developing reproductive structures and indirectly by vectoring plant pathogens. We used no-choice and simultaneous choice assays to examine the host selection behavior of western tarnished plant bugs (Lygus hesperus) and southern green stink bugs (Nezara viridula) in response to developing flower buds and fruits from cotton plants colonized by one of two candidate beneficial fungal endophytes, Phialemonium inflatum or Beauveria bassiana. Both insect species exhibited strong negative responses to flower buds (L. hesperus) and fruits (N. viridula) from plants that had been colonized by candidate endophytic fungi relative to control plants under both no-choice and choice conditions. Behavioral responses of both species indicated that the insects were deterred prior to contact with plant tissues from endophyte-colonized plants, suggesting a putative role for volatile compounds in mediating the negative response. Our results highlight the role of fungal endophytes as plant mutualists that can have positive effects on plant resistance to pests. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Entomology: A Bee Farming a Fungus.

    PubMed

    Oldroyd, Benjamin P; Aanen, Duur K

    2015-11-16

    Farming is done not only by humans, but also by some ant, beetle and termite species. With the discovery of a stingless bee farming a fungus that provides benefits to its larvae, bees can be added to this list.

  17. Functionalized para-substituted benzenes as 1,8-cineole production modulators in an endophytic Nodulisporium species.

    PubMed

    Nigg, Jared; Strobel, Gary; Knighton, W Berk; Hilmer, Jonathan; Geary, Brad; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed; Harper, James K; Valenti, Domenic; Wang, Yuemin

    2014-08-01

    A Nodulisporium species (designated Ti-13) was isolated as an endophyte from Cassia fistula. The fungus produces a spectrum of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that includes ethanol, acetaldehyde and 1,8-cineole as major components. Initial observations of the fungal isolate suggested that reversible attenuation of the organism via removal from the host and successive transfers in pure culture resulted in a 50 % decrease in cineole production unrelated to an overall alteration in fungal growth. A compound (CPM1) was obtained from Betula pendula (silver birch) that increases the production of 1,8-cineole by an attenuated Ti-13 strain to its original level, as measured by a novel bioassay method employing a 1,8-cineole-sensitive fungus (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). The host plant produces similar compounds possessing this activity. Bioactivity assays with structurally similar compounds such as ferulic acid and gallic acid suggested that the CPM1 does not act as a simple precursor to the biosynthesis of 1,8-cineole. NMR spectroscopy and HPLC-ES-MS indicated that the CPM1 is a para-substituted benzene with alkyl and carboxyl substituents. The VOCs of Ti-13, especially 1,8-cineole, have potential applications in the industrial, fuel and medical fields.

  18. Leishmanicidal and antitumoral activities of endophytic fungi associated with the Antarctic angiosperms Deschampsia antarctica Desv. and Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Iara F; Alves, Tânia M A; Rabello, Ana; Sales Junior, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro J; Zani, Carlos L; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2012-01-01

    A total of 564 isolates of endophytic fungi were recovered from the plants Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis collected from Antarctica. The isolates were screened against parasites Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi and against the human tumour cell lines. Of the 313 fungal isolates obtained from D. antarctica and 251 from C. quitensis, 25 displayed biological activity. Nineteen extracts displayed leishmanicidal activity, and six inhibited the growth of at least one tumour cell line. These fungi belong to 19 taxa of the genera Alternaria, Antarctomyces, Cadophora, Davidiella, Helgardia, Herpotrichia, Microdochium, Oculimacula, Phaeosphaeria and one unidentified fungus. Extracts of 12 fungal isolates inhibited the proliferation of L. amazonesis at a low IC(50) of between 0.2 and 12.5 μg ml(-1). The fungus Phaeosphaeria herpotrichoides displayed only leishmanicidal activity with an IC(50) of 0.2 μg ml(-1), which is equivalent to the inhibitory value of amphotericin B. The extract of Microdochium phragmitis displayed specific cytotoxic activity against the UACC-62 cell line with an IC(50) value of 12.5 μg ml(-1). Our results indicate that the unique angiosperms living in Antarctica shelter an interesting bioactive fungal community that is able to produce antiprotozoal and antitumoral molecules. These molecules may be used to develop new leishmanicidal and anticancer drugs.

  19. Bioactivity of Fungal Endophytes as a Function of Endophyte Taxonomy and the Taxonomy and Distribution of Their Host Plants

    PubMed Central

    Higginbotham, Sarah J.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth; Ibañez, Alicia; Spadafora, Carmenza; Coley, Phyllis D.; Kursar, Thomas A.

    2013-01-01

    Fungal endophytes – fungi that grow within plant tissues without causing immediate signs of disease – are abundant and diverse producers of bioactive secondary metabolites. Endophytes associated with leaves of tropical plants are an especially exciting and relatively untapped source of novel compounds. However, one major challenge in drug discovery lies in developing strategies to efficiently recover highly bioactive strains. As part of a 15-year drug discovery project, foliar endophytes were isolated from 3198 plant samples (51 orders, 105 families and at least 232 genera of angiosperms and ferns) collected in nine geographically distinct regions of Panama. Extracts from culture supernatants of >2700 isolates were tested for bioactivity (in vitro percent inhibition of growth, % IG) against a human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) and the causative agents of malaria, leishmaniasis, and Chagas' disease. Overall, 32.7% of endophyte isolates were highly active in at least one bioassay, including representatives of diverse fungal lineages, host lineages, and collection sites. Up to 17% of isolates tested per assay were highly active. Most bioactive strains were active in only one assay. Fungal lineages differed in the incidence and degree of bioactivity, as did fungi from particular plant taxa, and greater bioactivity was observed in endophytes isolated from plants in cloud forests vs. lowland forests. Our results suggest that using host taxonomy and forest type to tailor plant collections, and selecting endophytes from specific orders or families for cultivation, will markedly increase the efficiency and efficacy of discovering bioactive metabolites for particular pharmaceutical targets. PMID:24066037

  20. Reduction of Growth and Reproduction of the Biotrophic Fungus Blumeria graminis in the Presence of a Necrotrophic Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    Orton, Elizabeth S.; Brown, James K. M.

    2016-01-01

    Crops are attacked by many potential pathogens with differing life-history traits, which raises the question of whether or not the outcome of infection by one pathogen may be modulated by a change in the host environment brought on by infection by another pathogen. We investigated the host-mediated interaction between the biotroph Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt), the powdery mildew pathogen of wheat, and the necrotroph Zymoseptoria tritici, which has a long latent, endophytic phase following which it switches to a necrotrophic phase, resulting in the disease symptoms of Septoria tritici blotch. Both diseases are potentially severe in humid temperate climates and are controlled by fungicides and by growing wheat varieties with partial resistance. The compatible interaction between Z. tritici and the host reduced the number, size, and reproductive capacity of mildew colonies that a normally virulent Bgt isolate would produce but did not significantly alter the early development of Bgt on the leaf. The effect on virulent Bgt was elicited only by viable spores of Z. tritici. Notably, this effect was seen before the necrotic foliar symptoms induced by Z. tritici were visible, which implies there is a physiological interaction during the latent, endophytic period of Z. tritici, which either takes place directly between this fungus and Bgt or is mediated by the wheat leaf. Information on how different pathogens interact in host plants may allow plant breeders and others to improve the design of screening trials and selection of germplasm. PMID:27303429

  1. Increased milk production by Holstein cows consuming endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We hypothesized that consumption of endophyte-infected fescue during the dry period inhibits mammary differentiation and subsequent milk produ...

  2. Tall fescue management: Pasture and cattle responses to endophyte and fertilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Yearling heifers grazing tall fescue pastures had greatest performance in winter and spring on endophyte-free and novel endophyte associations, because of high forage quality and lack of ergot alkaloids produced by a common “wild” tall fescue-endophyte association. Pasture and cattle responses were...

  3. Alkaloid variation among epichloid endophytes of sleepygrass (Achnatherum robustum) and consequences for resistance to insect herbivores.

    PubMed

    Shymanovich, Tatsiana; Saari, Susanna; Lovin, Mary E; Jarmusch, Alan K; Jarmusch, Scott A; Musso, Ashleigh M; Charlton, Nikki D; Young, Carolyn A; Cech, Nadja B; Faeth, Stanley H

    2015-01-01

    Epichloid endophytes are well known symbionts of many cool-season grasses that may alleviate environmental stresses for their hosts. For example, endophytes produce alkaloid compounds that may be toxic to invertebrate or vertebrate herbivores. Achnatherum robustum, commonly called sleepygrass, was aptly named due to the presence of an endophyte that causes toxic effects to livestock and wildlife. Variation in alkaloid production observed in two A. robustum populations located near Weed and Cloudcroft in the Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, suggests two different endophyte species are present in these populations. Genetic analyses of endophyte-infected samples revealed major differences in the endophyte alkaloid genetic profiles from the two populations, which were supported with chemical analyses. The endophyte present in the Weed population was shown to produce chanoclavine I, paspaline, and terpendoles, so thus resembles the previously described Epichloë funkii. The endophyte present in the Cloudcroft population produces chanoclavineI, ergonovine, lysergic acid amide, and paspaline, and is an undescribed endophyte species. We observed very low survival rates for aphids feeding on plants infected with the Cloudcroft endophyte, while aphid survival was better on endophyte infected plants in the Weed population. This observation led to the hypothesis that the alkaloid ergonovine is responsible for aphid mortality. Direct testing of aphid survival on oat leaves supplemented with ergonovine provided supporting evidence for this hypothesis. The results of this study suggest that alkaloids produced by the Cloudcroft endophyte, specifically ergonovine, have insecticidal properties.

  4. From the Lab Bench: Should you plant a non-toxic endophyte tall fescue?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A column was written to discuss planting novel endophyte tall fescue for alleviating fescue toxicosis. Endophyte-free tall fescue cultivars can be grazed as a non-toxic alternative, but it maust be understood that it is the endophyte, through production of alkaloids other than ergot alkaloids, that...

  5. Tall fescue endophyte effects on tolerance to water-deficit stress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To understand more about the enhanced drought tolerance conferred by the endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum in tall fescue, we analyzed the effect of the endophyte on genetically identical tall fescue clones with (E+) and without the endophyte (E-), by generating E- plants through fungicide trea...

  6. Isolation and identification of fungal endophytes from grasses on the Oregon coast

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fungal endophytes have been shown to improve abiotic and biotic stress response in plants. Grasses growing along the Oregon coast are exposed to harsh conditions and may harbor endophytes that enable them to survive and grow under these conditions. Endophytic fungi were isolated from thirty-four gra...

  7. FAD2-DGAT2 Genes Coexpressed in Endophytic Aspergillus fumigatus Derived from Tung Oilseeds

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yi-Cun; Wang, Yang-Dong; Cui, Qin-Qin; Zhan, Zhi-Yong

    2012-01-01

    Recent efforts to genetically engineer plants that contain fatty acid desaturases to produce valuable fatty acids have made only modest progress. Diacylglycerol acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2), which catalyzes the final step in triacylglycerol (TAG) assembly, might potentially regulate the biosynthesis of desired fatty acids in TAGs. To study the effects of tung tree (Vernicia fordii) vfDGAT2 in channeling the desired fatty acids into TAG, vfDGAT2 combined with the tung tree fatty acid desaturase-2 (vfFAD2) gene was co-introduced into Aspergillus fumigatus, an endophytic fungus isolated from healthy tung oilseed. Two transformants coexpressing vfFAD2 and vfDGAT2 showed a more than 6-fold increase in linoleic acid production compared to the original A. fumigatus strain, while a nearly 2-fold increase was found in the transformant expressing only vfFAD2. Our data suggest that vfDGAT2 plays a pivotal role in promoting linoleic acid accumulation in TAGs. This holds great promise for further genetic engineering aimed at producing valuable fatty acids. PMID:22919314

  8. Decolourisation of Synthetic Dyes by Endophytic Fungal Flora Isolated from Senduduk Plant (Melastoma malabathricum)

    PubMed Central

    Ngieng, Ngui Sing

    2013-01-01

    A total of twenty endophytic fungi successfully isolated from Melastoma malabathricum (Senduduk) were examined for their ability to decolourise azo dyes: Congo red, Orange G, and Methyl red and an anthraquinone dye, Remazol Brilliant Blue R. Initial screening on the glucose minimal media agar plates amended with 200 mg L−1 of each respective dye showed that only isolate MS8 was able to decolourise all of the four dyes. The isolate decolourised completely both the RBBR and Orange G in the agar medium within 8 days. Further quantitative analysis of the dye decolourisation by isolate MS8 in aqueous minimal medium showed that isolate MS8 was able to decolourise all the tested dyes at varying levels. Dye decolourisation by the isolate MS8 was determined to be 97% for RBBR, 33% for Orange G, 48% for Congo red, and 56% for Methyl red, respectively, within a period of 16 days. Molecular identification of the fungal isolate MS8 using primer ITS1 and ITS4 showed that isolate MS8 shared 99% sequence similarity with Marasmius cladophyllus, a Basidiomycete. The ability to decolourise different types of dyes by isolate MS8 thus suggested a possible application of this fungus in the decolourisation of dyestuff effluents. PMID:25937973

  9. Natural phenolic metabolites from endophytic Aspergillus sp. IFB-YXS with antimicrobial activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Wei, Wei; Shi, Jing; Chen, Chaojun; Zhao, Guoyan; Jiao, Ruihua; Tan, Renxiang

    2015-07-01

    Prompted by the pressing necessity to conquer phytopathogenic infections, the antimicrobial compounds were characterized with bioassay-guided method from the ethanol extract derived from the solid-substrate fermentation of Aspergillus sp. IFB-YXS, an endophytic fungus residing in the apparently healthy leave of Ginkgo biloba L. The aim of this work was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity and mechanism(s) of these bioactive compounds against phytopathogens. Among the compounds, xanthoascin (1) is significantly inhibitory on the growth of the phytopathogenic bacterium Clavibacter michiganense subsp. Sepedonicus with a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of 0.31μg/ml, which is more potent than streptomycin (MIC 0.62μg/ml), an antimicrobial drug co-assayed herein as a positive reference. Moreover, terphenyl derivatives 3, 5 and 6 are also found to be active against other phytopathogens including Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Swings, Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola Swings, Erwinia amylovora and Pseudomonas syringae pv. lachrymans etc. The antibacterial mechanism of xanthoascin (1) was addressed to change the cellular permeability of the phytopathogens, leading to the remarkable leakage of nucleic acids out of the cytomembrane. The work highlights the possibility that xanthoascin (1), an analogue of xanthocillin which is used to be an approved antibiotic, may find its renewed application as a potent antibacterial agrichemical. This study contributes to the development of new antimicrobial drugs, especially against C. michiganense subsp. Sepedonicus.

  10. Antimicrobial Potential of Thiodiketopiperazine Derivatives Produced by Phoma sp., an Endophyte of Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn.

    PubMed

    Arora, Palak; Wani, Zahoor A; Nalli, Yedukondalu; Ali, Asif; Riyaz-Ul-Hassan, Syed

    2016-11-01

    During the screening of endophytes obtained from Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn., the extract from a fungal culture designated as GG1F1 showed significant antimicrobial activity. The fungus was identified as a species of the genus Phoma and was most closely related to Phoma cucurbitacearum. The chemical investigation of the GG1F1 extract led to the isolation and characterization of two thiodiketopiperazine derivatives. Both the compounds inhibited the growth of several bacterial pathogens especially that of Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes, with IC50 values of less than 10 μM. The compounds strongly inhibited biofilm formation in both the pathogens. In vitro time kill kinetics showed efficient bactericidal activity of these compounds. The compounds were found to act synergistically with streptomycin while producing varying effects in combination with ciprofloxacin and ampicillin. The compounds inhibited bacterial transcription/translation in vitro, and also inhibited staphyloxanthin production in S. aureus. Although similar in structure, they differed significantly in some of their properties, particularly the effect on the expression of pathogenecity related genes in S. aureus at sub-lethal concentrations. Keeping in view the antimicrobial potential of these compounds, it would be needful to scale up the production of these compounds through fermentation technology and further explore their potential as antibiotics using in vivo models.

  11. Phenolic Compounds as Antiangiogenic CMG2 Inhibitors from Costa Rican Endophytic Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Shugeng; Cryan, Lorna; Habeshian, Kaiane A.; Murillo, Catalina; Tamayo-Castillo, Giselle; Rogers, Michael S.; Clardy, Jon

    2013-01-01

    Targeting and inhibiting CMG2 (Capillary Morphogenesis Gene protein 2) represents a new strategy for therapeutic agents for cancer and retinal diseases due to CMG2’s role in blood vessel growth (angiogenesis). A high throughput FRET (Förster Resonance Energy Transfer) assay was developed for the identification of CMG2 inhibitors as anti-angiogenetic agents. Bioassay-guided separation led to the isolation and identification of two new compounds (1 and 2) from CR252M, an endophytic fungus Coccomyces proteae collected from a Costa Rican rainforest, and one known compound (3) from CR1207B (Aurapex penicillata). Secondary in vitro assays indicated anti-angiogenic activity. Compound 3 inhibited the endothelial cell migration at 52 µM, but did not show any endothelial cell antiproliferative effect at 156 µM. The structure of the two new compounds, A (1) and B (2), were elucidated on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR experiments. PMID:22910038

  12. Volatiles produced by soil-borne endophytic bacteria increase plant pathogen resistance and affect tritrophic interactions.

    PubMed

    D'Alessandro, Marco; Erb, Matthias; Ton, Jurriaan; Brandenburg, Anna; Karlen, Danielle; Zopfi, Jakob; Turlings, Ted C J

    2014-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released by soil microorganisms influence plant growth and pathogen resistance. Yet, very little is known about their influence on herbivores and higher trophic levels. We studied the origin and role of a major bacterial VOC, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), on plant growth, pathogen and herbivore resistance, and the attraction of natural enemies in maize. One of the major contributors to 2,3-BD in the headspace of soil-grown maize seedlings was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes, an endophytic bacterium that colonizes the plants. The production of 2,3-BD by E. aerogenes rendered maize plants more resistant against the Northern corn leaf blight fungus Setosphaeria turcica. On the contrary, E. aerogenes-inoculated plants were less resistant against the caterpillar Spodoptera littoralis. The effect of 2,3-BD on the attraction of the parasitoid Cotesia marginiventris was more variable: 2,3-BD application to the headspace of the plants had no effect on the parasitoids, but application to the soil increased parasitoid attraction. Furthermore, inoculation of seeds with E. aerogenes decreased plant attractiveness, whereas inoculation of soil with a total extract of soil microbes increased parasitoid attraction, suggesting that the effect of 2,3-BD on the parasitoid is indirect and depends on the composition of the microbial community.

  13. Alkaloids and polyketides from Penicillium citrinum, an endophyte isolated from the Moroccan plant Ceratonia siliqua.

    PubMed

    El-Neketi, Mona; Ebrahim, Weaam; Lin, Wenhan; Gedara, Sahar; Badria, Farid; Saad, Hassan-Elrady A; Lai, Daowan; Proksch, Peter

    2013-06-28

    The endophytic fungus Penicillium citrinum was isolated from a fresh stem of the Moroccan plant Ceratonia siliqua. Extracts of P. citrinum grown on rice and white bean media yielded five new compounds, namely, citriquinochroman (1), tanzawaic acids G and H (2 and 3), 6-methylcurvulinic acid (4), 8-methoxy-3,5-dimethylisoquinolin-6-ol (5), and one new natural product, 1,2,3,11b-tetrahydroquinolactacide (6), which had previously been described as a synthetic compound. In addition, 13 known compounds including seven alkaloids and six polyketides were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were unambiguously determined on the basis of one- and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy as well as by high-resolution mass spectrometry. Citriquinochroman (1) features a new skeleton, consisting of quinolactacide and (3S)-6-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3,5-dimethylisochroman linked by a C-C bond. 1,2,3,11b-Tetrahydroquinolactacide (6) may be a biogenetic precursor of quinolactacide. Citriquinochroman (1) showed cytotoxicity against the murine lymphoma L5178Y cell line with an IC50 value of 6.1 μM, while the other compounds were inactive (IC50 >10 μM) in this assay.

  14. Endophytic Diaporthe sp. ED2 Produces a Novel Anti-candidal Ketone Derivative.

    PubMed

    Tong, Woei Yenn; Leong, Chean Ring; Tan, Wen Nee; Khairuddean, Melati; Zakaria, Latiffah; Ibrahim, Darah

    2017-03-15

    This study was aimed to ascertain the anti-candidal efficacy of a novel ketone derivative isolated from Diaporthe sp. ED2, an endophytic fungus residing in medicinal herb Orthosiphon stamieus Benth. The ethyl acetate extract of the fungal culture was separated by open column and reverse phase- high performance liquid chromatography. The eluent of the second peak at retention time 5.64 minute in the HPLC system was the only peak that exhibited anti-candidal activity on Kirby Bauer assay. The structure of the compound was also elucidated by nuclear magnetic resonance and spectroscopy techniques. The purified anti-candidal compound was obtained as a colorless solid and characterized as 3-hydroxy-5-methoxyhex-5-ene-2,4-dione. On broth microdilution assay, the compound also exhibited fungicidal activity on clinical strain of Candida albicans at minimal inhibitory concentration of 3.1 μg/ml. The killing kinetic analysis also revealed that the compound was fungicidal against C. albicans in a concentration and time-dependent manner. The compound was heat-stable up to 70 °C but its anti-candidal activity was affected at pH 2.

  15. Bioactive polyketides and alkaloids from Penicillium citrinum, a fungal endophyte isolated from Ocimum tenuiflorum.

    PubMed

    Lai, Daowan; Brötz-Oesterhelt, Heike; Müller, Werner E G; Wray, Victor; Proksch, Peter

    2013-12-01

    Chemical investigation of the endophytic fungus Penicillium citrinum cultured on white beans or on rice led to the isolation of two new alkaloids (1 and 2), along with fourteen known polyketides (6-12, 14-20) and four known alkaloids (3-5, and 13). The structures of the isolated compounds were determined by extensive analysis of the 1D, 2D NMR, and MS data, and by comparison with the literature. Compound 13, which had been previously obtained only by chemical synthesis, was isolated as a natural product for the first time, while compound 6 was firstly reported as a fungal metabolite. A re-isolation of sclerotinin A (14) revealed it to be a diastereoisomeric mixture (14a and 14b), whose stereochemistry was proposed for the first time based on ROESY experiment. All isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic and antibacterial activities. Compounds 12 and 17 showed significant cytotoxicity against the murine lymphoma cell line L5178Y with IC50 values of 1.0, and 0.78 μg/ml, respectively, while compounds 5, 11, and 15 were moderately active against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 (MIC 64 μg/ml).

  16. Hepatitis C virus NS3-NS4A protease inhibitors from the endophytic Penicillium chrysogenum isolated from the red alga Liagora viscida.

    PubMed

    Hawas, Usama W; El-Halawany, Ali M; Ahmed, Eman F

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) NS3-NS4A protease is an attractive target for anti-HCV agents because of its important role in replication. In this work, we demonstrated that the ethyl acetate extract of the endophytic fungus Penicillium chrysogenum exhibited a potent activity against HCV NS3-NS4A protease with an IC50 value of 20 microg/ml. The fungus was isolated from the red alga Liagora viscida and identified by its morphology and 18S rDNA. Large-scale fermentation of the fungus in Czapek's peptone liquid medium followed by chromatographic purification of the active extract from the liquid medium allowed the isolation of twelve known metabolites. The biological properties of the isolated compounds were explored for anti-HCV protease as well as antimicrobial and anticancer activities. A computational docking study of the active isolated compounds against HCV protease was used to formulate a hypothetical mechanism for the inhibitory activity of the active compounds on the tested enzymes.

  17. Endophytic fungi: a reservoir of antibacterials

    PubMed Central

    Deshmukh, Sunil K.; Verekar, Shilpa A.; Bhave, Sarita V.

    2015-01-01

    Multidrug drug resistant bacteria are becoming increasingly problematic particularly in the under developed countries of the world. The most important microorganisms that have seen a geometric rise in numbers are Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecium, Penicillin resistant Streptococcus pneumonia and multiple drug resistant tubercule bacteria to name a just few. New drug scaffolds are essential to tackle this every increasing problem. These scaffolds can be sourced from nature itself. Endophytic fungi are an important reservoir of therapeutically active compounds. This review attempts to present some data relevant to the problem. New, very specific and effective antibiotics are needed but also at an affordable price! A Herculean task for researchers all over the world! In the Asian subcontinent indigenous therapeutics that has been practiced over the centuries such as Ayurveda have been effective as “handed down data” in family generations. May need a second, third and more “in-depth investigations?” PMID:25620957

  18. The effects of fungal root endophytes on plant growth: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mayerhofer, Michael S; Kernaghan, Gavin; Harper, Karen A

    2013-02-01

    Fungal root endophytes are plant associates that colonize root tissue internally without causing any obvious harm to their host. Although ubiquitous, this relationship is not well understood. Our objectives were to determine the effects of fungal root endophyte inoculation on plant biomass and nitrogen concentration by conducting an extensive meta-analysis. We also explored the effects of experimental conditions on the host-endophyte relationship. We performed analyses weighted with non-parametric variance on plant response to root endophytes from the Ascomycetes (excluding the Clavacipitaceae), including categorical analyses of 21 experimental factors, ranging from the identity of the host and the endophyte, to the composition of the growing medium. The response of total biomass to endophyte inoculation was 18% lower than non-inoculated controls, while individually, root biomass, shoot biomass, and nitrogen concentration responses to endophyte inoculation were neutral. The identities of both the host and the endophyte had an influence, as did the original source of the endophyte (whether or not the isolate used originated from the same host species). Experimental conditions also influenced the plant-endophyte relationship, with the most important being the availability and sources of carbon and organic nitrogen, particularly peat moss. Although our analysis demonstrates that overall plant biomass and nitrogen concentration responses to ascomycetous root endophyte inoculation is neutral to negative, these results are somewhat confounded by among-study differences in experimental conditions, which undoubtedly contribute to the high levels of variability in plant response seen in the literature.

  19. Endophytic Fungi Isolated from Coleus amboinicus Lour Exhibited Antimicrobial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Astuti, Puji; Sudarsono, Sudarsono; Nisak, Khoirun; Nugroho, Giri Wisnu

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Coleus amboinicus is a medicinal plant traditionally used to treat various diseases such as throat infection, cough and fever, diarrhea, nasal congestion and digestive problems. The plant was explored for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents. Methods: Screening for endophytic fungi producing antimicrobial agents was conducted using agar plug method and antimicrobial activity of promising ethyl acetate extracts was determined by disc diffusion assay. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) - bioautography was performed to localize the bioactive components within the extract. TLC visualization detection reagents were used to preliminary analyze phytochemical groups of the bioactive compounds. Results: Three endophytic fungi were obtained, two of them showed promising potential. Agar diffusion method showed that endophytic fungi CAL-2 exhibited antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa, B. subtilis, S. aureus and S. thypi, whilst CAS-1 inhibited the growth of B. subtilis. TLC bioautography of ethyl acetate extract of CAL-2 revealed at least three bands exhibited antimicrobial activity and at least two bands showed inhibition of B. subtilis growth. Preliminary analysis of the crude extracts suggests that bioactive compounds within CAL-2 extract are terpenoids, phenolics and phenyl propanoid compounds whilst the antimicrobial agents within CAS-1 extract are terpenoids, propylpropanoids, alkaloids or heterocyclic nitrogen compounds. Conclusion: These data suggest the potential of endophytic fungi of C. amboinicus as source for antimicrobial agents. PMID:25671195

  20. Characterization of cellulases of fungal endophytes isolated from Espeletia spp.

    PubMed

    Cabezas, Luisa; Calderon, Carolina; Medina, Luis Miguel; Bahamon, Isabela; Cardenas, Martha; Bernal, Adriana Jimena; Gonzalez, Andrés; Restrepo, Silvia

    2012-12-01

    Endophytes are microorganisms that asymptomatically invade plant tissues. They can stimulate plant growth and/or provide defense against pathogen attacks through the production of secondary metabolites. Most endophyte species are still unknown, and because they may have several applications, the study of their metabolic capabilities is essential. We characterized 100 endophytes isolated from Espeletia spp., a genus unique to the paramo ecosystem, an extreme environment in the Andean mountain range. We evaluated the cellulolytic potential of these endophytes on the saccharification of the oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). The total cellulolytic activity was measured for each endophyte on filter paper (FPA). In addition, the specific carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase), exoglucanase, and β-glucosidase activities were determined. We found four fungi positive for cellulases. Of these fungi, Penicillium glabrum had the highest cellulolytic activity after partial purification, with maximal CMCase, exoglucanase and β-glucosidase enzyme activities of 44.5, 48.3, and 0.45 U/ml, respectively. Our data showed that the bioprospection of fungi and the characterization of their enzymes may facilitate the process of biofuel production.

  1. Fungi with multifunctional lifestyles: endophytic insect pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Barelli, Larissa; Moonjely, Soumya; Behie, Scott W; Bidochka, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    This review examines the symbiotic, evolutionary, proteomic and genetic basis for a group of fungi that occupy a specialized niche as insect pathogens as well as endophytes. We focus primarily on species in the genera Metarhizium and Beauveria, traditionally recognized as insect pathogenic fungi but are also found as plant symbionts. Phylogenetic evidence suggests that these fungi are more closely related to grass endophytes and diverged from that lineage ca. 100 MYA. We explore how the dual life cycles of these fungi as insect pathogens and endophytes are coupled. We discuss the evolution of insect pathogenesis while maintaining an endophytic lifestyle and provide examples of genes that may be involved in the transition toward insect pathogenicity. That is, some genes for insect pathogenesis may have been co-opted from genes involved in endophytic colonization. Other genes may be multifunctional and serve in both lifestyle capacities. We suggest that their evolution as insect pathogens allowed them to effectively barter a specialized nitrogen source (i.e. insects) with host plants for photosynthate. These ubiquitous fungi may play an important role as plant growth promoters and have a potential reservoir of secondary metabolites.

  2. Epichloë grass endophytes in sustainable agriculture.

    PubMed

    Kauppinen, Miia; Saikkonen, Kari; Helander, Marjo; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Wäli, Piippa R

    2016-02-03

    There is an urgent need to create new solutions for sustainable agricultural practices that circumvent the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides and increase the resilience of agricultural systems to environmental change. Beneficial microbial symbionts of plants are expected to play an important role in integrated pest management schemes over the coming decades. Epichloë endophytes, symbiotic fungi of many grass species, can protect plants against several stressors, and could therefore help to increase the productivity of forage grasses and the hardiness of turf grasses while reducing the use of synthetic pesticides. Indeed, Epichloë endophytes have successfully been developed and commercialized for agricultural use in the USA, Australia and New Zealand. Many of the host grass species originate from Europe, which is a biodiversity hotspot for both grasses and endophytes. However, intentional use of endophyte-enhanced grasses in Europe is virtually non-existent. We suggest that the diversity of European Epichloë endophytes and their host grasses should be exploited for the development of sustainable agricultural, horticultural and landscaping practices, and potentially for bioremediation and bioenergy purposes, and for environmental improvement.

  3. Quorum quenching is an antivirulence strategy employed by endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Kusari, Parijat; Kusari, Souvik; Lamshöft, Marc; Sezgin, Selahaddin; Spiteller, Michael; Kayser, Oliver

    2014-08-01

    Bacteria predominantly use quorum sensing to regulate a plethora of physiological activities such as cell-cell crosstalk, mutualism, virulence, competence, biofilm formation, and antibiotic resistance. In this study, we investigated how certain potent endophytic bacteria harbored in Cannabis sativa L. plants use quorum quenching as an antivirulence strategy to disrupt the cell-to-cell quorum sensing signals in the biosensor strain, Chromobacterium violaceum. We used a combination of high-performance liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-HRMS(n)) and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization imaging high-resolution mass spectrometry (MALDI-imaging-HRMS) to first quantify and visualize the spatial distribution of the quorum sensing molecules in the biosensor strain, C. violaceum. We then showed, both quantitatively and visually in high spatial resolution, how selected endophytic bacteria of C. sativa can selectively and differentially quench the quorum sensing molecules of C. violaceum. This study provides fundamental insights into the antivirulence strategies used by endophytes in order to survive in their ecological niches. Such defense mechanisms are evolved in order to thwart the plethora of pathogens invading associated host plants in a manner that prevents the pathogens from developing resistance against the plant/endophyte bioactive secondary metabolites. This work also provides evidence towards utilizing endophytes as tools for biological control of bacterial phytopathogens. In continuation, such insights would even afford new concepts and strategies in the future for combating drug resistant bacteria by quorum-inhibiting clinical therapies.

  4. Effects of dark septate endophytes on tomato plant performance.

    PubMed

    Andrade-Linares, Diana Rocio; Grosch, Rita; Restrepo, Silvia; Krumbein, Angelika; Franken, Philipp

    2011-07-01

    Non-mycorrhizal fungal root endophytes can be found in all natural and cultivated ecosystems, but little is known about their impact on plant performance. The impact of three mitosporic dark septate endophytes (DSE48, DSE49 and Leptodontidium orchidicola) on tomato plant characteristics was studied. Their effects on root and shoot growth, their influence on fruit yield and fruit quality parameters and their ability to diminish the impact of the pathogen Verticillium dahliae were investigated. While shoot biomass of young plants was enhanced between 10% and 20% by the endophytes DSE48 and L. orchidicola in one of two experiments and by DSE49 in both experiments, vegetative growth parameters of 24-week-old plants were not affected except a reproducible increase of root diameter by the isolate DSE49. Concerning fruit yield and quality, L. orchidicola could double the biomass of tomatoes and increased glucose content by 17%, but this was dependent on date of harvest and on root colonisation density. Additionally, the endophytes DSE49 and L. orchidicola decreased the negative effect of V. dahliae on tomato, but only at a low dosage of the pathogen. This indicates that the three dark septate endophytes can have a significant impact on tomato characters, but that the effects are only obvious at early stages of vegetative and generative development and currently too inconsistent to recommend the application of these DSEs in horticultural practice.

  5. Culturable endophytes of medicinal plants and the genetic basis for their bioactivity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Kristin I; Qing, Chen; Sze, Daniel Man-Yuen; Roufogalis, Basil D; Neilan, Brett A

    2012-08-01

    The bioactive compounds of medicinal plants are products of the plant itself or of endophytes living inside the plant. Endophytes isolated from eight different anticancer plants collected in Yunnan, China, were characterized by diverse 16S and 18S rRNA gene phylogenies. A functional gene-based molecular screening strategy was used to target nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) and type I polyketide synthase (PKS) genes in endophytes. Bioinformatic analysis of these biosynthetic pathways facilitated inference of the potential bioactivity of endophyte natural products, suggesting that the isolated endophytes are capable of producing a plethora of secondary metabolites. All of the endophyte culture broth extracts demonstrated antiproliferative effects in at least one test assay, either cytotoxic, antibacterial or antifungal. From the perspective of natural product discovery, this study confirms the potential for endophytes from medicinal plants to produce anticancer, antibacterial and antifungal compounds. In addition, PKS and NRPS gene screening is a valuable method for screening isolates of biosynthetic potential.

  6. Effect of Endophytic Fusarium oxysporum on Host Preference of Radopholus similis to Tissue Culture Banana Plants.

    PubMed

    Athman, Shahasi Y; Dubois, Thomas; Coyne, Daniel; Gold, Clifford S; Labuschagne, Nico; Viljoen, Altus

    2006-12-01

    The burrowing nematode Radopholus similis is one of the major constraints to banana (Musa spp.) production worldwide. Resource-poor farmers can potentially manage R. similis by using naturally occurring banana endophytes, such as nonpathogenic Fusarium oxysporum, that are inoculated into tissue culture banana plantlets. At present, it is unclear at what stage in the R. similis infection process the endophytes are most effective. In this study, the effect of three endophytic F. oxysporum isolates (V5w2, Eny1.31i and Eny7.11o) on R. similis host preference of either endophyte-treated or untreated banana plants was investigated. No differences were observed between the proportion of nematodes attracted to either root segments excised from endophyte-treated or untreated plants, or in experiments using endophyte-treated and untreated tissue culture banana plantlets. These results imply that the early processes of banana plant host recognition by R. similis are not affected by endophyte infection.

  7. Fungus-insect gall of Phlebopus portentosus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Xia; He, Ming-Xia; Cao, Yang; Liu, Jing; Gao, Feng; Wang, Wen-Bing; Ji, Kai-Ping; Shao, Shi-Cheng; Wang, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Phlebopus portentosus is a popular edible wild mushroom found in the tropical Yunnan, China, and northern Thailand. In its natural habitats, a gall often has been found on some plant roots, around which fungal fruiting bodies are produced. The galls are different from common insect galls in that their cavity walls are not made from plant tissue but rather from the hyphae of P. portentosus. Therefore we have termed this phenomenon "fungus-insect gall". Thus far six root mealy bug species in the family Pseudococcidae that form fungus-insect galls with P. portentosus have been identified: Formicococcus polysperes, Geococcus satellitum, Planococcus minor, Pseudococcus cryptus, Paraputo banzigeri and Rastrococcus invadens. Fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of more than 21 plant species, including Delonix regia, Citrus maxima, Coffea arabica and Artocarpus heterophyllus. Greenhouse inoculation trials showed that fungus-insect galls were found on the roots of A. heterophyllus 1 mo after inoculation. The galls were subglobose to globose, fulvous when young and became dark brown at maturation. Each gall harbored one or more mealy bugs and had a chimney-like vent for ventilation and access to the gall. The cavity wall had three layers. Various shaped mealy bug wax deposits were found inside the wall. Fungal hyphae invaded the epidermis of plant roots and sometimes even the cortical cells during the late stage of gall development. The identity of the fungus inside the cavity was confirmed by molecular methods.

  8. Bioprospecting for Microbial Endophytes and Their Natural Products

    PubMed Central

    Strobel, Gary; Daisy, Bryn

    2003-01-01

    Endophytic microorganisms are to be found in virtually every plant on earth. These organisms reside in the living tissues of the host plant and do so in a variety of relationships, ranging from symbiotic to slightly pathogenic. Because of what appears to be their contribution to the host plant, the endophytes may produce a plethora of substances of potential use to modern medicine, agriculture, and industry. Novel antibiotics, antimycotics, immunosuppressants, and anticancer compounds are only a few examples of what has been found after the isolation, culture, purification, and characterization of some choice endophytes in the recent past. The potential prospects of finding new drugs that may be effective candidates for treating newly developing diseases in humans, plants, and animals are great. PMID:14665674

  9. Endophytes: A Treasure House of Bioactive Compounds of Medicinal Importance

    PubMed Central

    Gouda, Sushanto; Das, Gitishree; Sen, Sandeep K.; Shin, Han-Seung; Patra, Jayanta Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Endophytes are an endosymbiotic group of microorganisms that colonize in plants and microbes that can be readily isolated from any microbial or plant growth medium. They act as reservoirs of novel bioactive secondary metabolites, such as alkaloids, phenolic acids, quinones, steroids, saponins, tannins, and terpenoids that serve as a potential candidate for antimicrobial, anti-insect, anticancer and many more properties. While plant sources are being extensively explored for new chemical entities for therapeutic purposes, endophytic microbes also constitute an important source for drug discovery. This review aims to comprehend the contribution and uses of endophytes as an impending source of drugs against various forms of diseases and other possible medicinal use. PMID:27746767

  10. Below-ground plant–fungus network topology is not congruent with above-ground plant–animal network topology

    PubMed Central

    Toju, Hirokazu; Guimarães, Paulo R.; Olesen, Jens M.; Thompson, John N.

    2015-01-01

    In nature, plants and their pollinating and/or seed-dispersing animals form complex interaction networks. The commonly observed pattern of links between specialists and generalists in these networks has been predicted to promote species coexistence. Plants also build highly species-rich mutualistic networks below ground with root-associated fungi, and the structure of these plant–fungus networks may also affect terrestrial community processes. By compiling high-throughput DNA sequencing data sets of the symbiosis of plants and their root-associated fungi from three localities along a latitudinal gradient, we uncovered the entire network architecture of these interactions under contrasting environmental conditions. Each network included more than 30 plant species and hundreds of mycorrhizal and endophytic fungi belonging to diverse phylogenetic groups. The results were consistent with the notion that processes shaping host-plant specialization of fungal species generate a unique linkage pattern that strongly contrasts with the pattern of above-ground plant–partner networks. Specifically, plant–fungus networks lacked a “nested” architecture, which has been considered to promote species coexistence in plant–partner networks. Rather, the below-ground networks had a conspicuous “antinested” topology. Our findings lead to the working hypothesis that terrestrial plant community dynamics are likely determined by the balance between above-ground and below-ground webs of interspecific interactions. PMID:26601279

  11. Isolation of pyrrolocins A-C: cis- and trans-decalin tetramic acid antibiotics from an endophytic fungal-derived pathway.

    PubMed

    Jadulco, Raquel C; Koch, Michael; Kakule, Thomas B; Schmidt, Eric W; Orendt, Anita; He, Haiyin; Janso, Jeffrey E; Carter, Guy T; Larson, Erica C; Pond, Christopher; Matainaho, Teatulohi K; Barrows, Louis R

    2014-11-26

    Three new decalin-type tetramic acid analogues, pyrrolocins A (1), B (2), and C (3), were defined as products of a metabolic pathway from a fern endophyte, NRRL 50135, from Papua New Guinea. NRRL 50135 initially produced 1 but ceased its production before chemical or biological evaluation could be completed. Upon transfer of the biosynthetic pathway to a model host, 1-3 were produced. All three compounds are structurally related to equisetin-type compounds, with 1 and 3 having a trans-decalin ring system, while 2 has a cis-fused decalin. All were active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the trans-decalin analogues 1 and 3 exhibiting lower MICs than the cis-decalin analogue 2. Here we report the isolation, structure elucidation, and antimycobacterial activities of 1-3 from the recombinant expression as well as the isolation of 1 from the wild-type fungus NRRL 50135.

  12. Isolation of Pyrrolocins A–C: cis- and trans-Decalin Tetramic Acid Antibiotics from an Endophytic Fungal-Derived Pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Three new decalin-type tetramic acid analogues, pyrrolocins A (1), B (2), and C (3), were defined as products of a metabolic pathway from a fern endophyte, NRRL 50135, from Papua New Guinea. NRRL 50135 initially produced 1 but ceased its production before chemical or biological evaluation could be completed. Upon transfer of the biosynthetic pathway to a model host, 1–3 were produced. All three compounds are structurally related to equisetin-type compounds, with 1 and 3 having a trans-decalin ring system, while 2 has a cis-fused decalin. All were active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, with the trans-decalin analogues 1 and 3 exhibiting lower MICs than the cis-decalin analogue 2. Here we report the isolation, structure elucidation, and antimycobacterial activities of 1–3 from the recombinant expression as well as the isolation of 1 from the wild-type fungus NRRL 50135. PMID:25351193

  13. Dentigerumycin: a bacterial mediator of an ant-fungus symbiosis.

    PubMed

    Oh, Dong-Chan; Poulsen, Michael; Currie, Cameron R; Clardy, Jon

    2009-06-01

    Fungus-growing ants engage in mutualistic associations with both the fungus they cultivate for food and actinobacteria (Pseudonocardia spp.) that produce selective antibiotics to defend that fungus from specialized fungal parasites. We have analyzed one such system at the molecular level and found that the bacterium associated with the ant Apterostigma dentigerum produces dentigerumycin, a cyclic depsipeptide with highly modified amino acids, to selectively inhibit the associated parasitic fungus (Escovopsis sp.).

  14. Arabidopsis thaliana as a tool to identify traits involved in Verticillium dahliae biocontrol by the olive root endophyte Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado-González, M. Mercedes; Bakker, Peter A. H. M.; Prieto, Pilar; Mercado-Blanco, Jesús

    2015-01-01

    The effective management of Verticillium wilts (VW), diseases affecting many crops and caused by some species of the soil-borne fungus Verticillium, is problematic. The use of microbial antagonists to control these pathologies fits modern sustainable agriculture criteria. Pseudomonas fluorescens PICF7 is an endophytic bacterium isolated from olive roots with demonstrated ability to control VW of olive caused by the highly virulent, defoliating (D) pathotype of Verticillium dahliae Kleb. However, the study of the PICF7-V. dahliae-olive tripartite interaction poses difficulties because of the inherent characteristics of woody, long-living plants. To overcome these problems we explored the use of the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Results obtained in this study showed that: (i) olive D and non-defoliating V. dahliae pathotypes produce differential disease severity in A. thaliana plants; (ii) strain PICF7 is able to colonize and persist in the A. thaliana rhizosphere but is not endophytic in Arabidopsis; and (iii) strain PICF7 controls VW in Arabidopsis. Additionally, as previously observed in olive, neither swimming motility nor siderophore production by PICF7 are required for VW control in A. thaliana, whilst cysteine auxotrophy decreased the effectiveness of PICF7. Moreover, when applied to the roots PICF7 controlled Botrytis cinerea infection in the leaves of Arabidopsis, suggesting that this strain is able to induce systemic resistance. A. thaliana is therefore a suitable alternative to olive bioassays to unravel biocontrol traits involved in biological control of V. dahliae by P. fluorescens PICF7. PMID:25904904

  15. Different Culture Metabolites of the Red Sea Fungus Fusarium equiseti Optimize the Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus NS3/4A Protease (HCV PR)

    PubMed Central

    Hawas, Usama W.; Al-Farawati, Radwan; Abou El-Kassem, Lamia T.; Turki, Adnan J.

    2016-01-01

    The endophytic fungus Fusarium equiseti was isolated from the brown alga Padina pavonica, collected from the Red Sea. The fungus was identified by its morphology and 18S rDNA. Cultivation of this fungal strain in biomalt-peptone medium led to isolation of 12 known metabolites of diketopeprazines and anthraquinones. The organic extract and isolated compounds were screened for their inhibition of hepatitis C virus NS3/4A protease (HCV PR). As a result, the fungal metabolites showed inhibition of HCV protease (IC50 from 19 to 77 μM), and the fungus was subjected to culture on Czapek’s (Cz) media, with a yield of nine metabolites with potent HCV protease inhibition ranging from IC50 10 to 37 μM. The Cz culture extract exhibited high-level inhibition of HCV protease (IC50 27.6 μg/mL) compared to the biomalt culture extract (IC50 56 μg/mL), and the most potent HCV PR isolated compound (Griseoxanthone C, IC50 19.8 μM) from the bio-malt culture extract showed less of an inhibitory effect compared to isolated ω-hydroxyemodin (IC50 10.7 μM) from the optimized Cz culture extract. Both HCV PR active inhibitors ω-hydroxyemodin and griseoxanthone C were considered as the lowest selective safe constituents against Trypsin inhibitory effect with IC50 48.5 and 51.3 μM, respectively. PMID:27775589

  16. Muscodor albus E-6, an endophyte of Guazuma ulmifolia making volatile antibiotics: isolation, characterization and experimental establishment in the host plant.

    PubMed

    Strobel, Gary A; Kluck, Katreena; Hess, Wilford M; Sears, Joe; Ezra, David; Vargas, Percy N

    2007-08-01

    Muscodor albus is an endophytic fungus, represented by a number of isolates from tropical tree and vine species in several of the world's rainforests, that produces volatile organic compounds (VOCs) with antibiotic activity. A new isolate, E-6, of this organism, with unusual biochemical and biological properties, has been obtained from the branches of a mature Guazuma ulmifolia (Sterculiaceae) tree growing in a dry tropical forest in SW Ecuador. This unique organism produces many VOCs not previously observed in other M. albus isolates, including butanoic acid, 2-methyl-; butanoic acid, 3-methyl-; 2-butenal, 2-methyl-; butanoic acid, 3-methylbutyl ester; 3-buten-1-ol, 3-methyl; guaiol; 1-octene, 3-ethyl-; formamide, N-(1-methylpropyl); and certain azulene and naphthalene derivatives. Some compounds usually seen in other M. albus isolates also appeared in the VOCs of isolate E-6, including caryophyllene; phenylethyl alcohol; acetic acid, 2-phenylethyl ester; bulnesene; and various propanoic acid, 2-methyl- derivatives. The biological activity of the VOCs of E-6 appears different from the original isolate of this fungus, CZ-620, since a Gram-positive bacterium was killed, and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Rhizoctonia solani were not. Scanning electron micrographs of the mycelium of isolate E-6 showed substantial intertwining of the hyphal strands. These strands seemed to be held together by an extracellular matrix accounting for the strong mat-like nature of the mycelium, which easily lifts off the agar surface upon transfer, unlike any other isolate of this fungus. The ITS-5.8S rDNA partial sequence data showed 99 % similarity to the original M. albus strain CZ-620. For the first time, successful establishment of M. albus into its natural host, followed by recovery of the fungus, was accomplished in seedlings of G. ulmifolia. Overall, isolates of M. albus, including E-6, have chemical, biological and structural characteristics that make them potentially useful in

  17. Identification of an Endophytic Antifungal Bacterial Strain Isolated from the Rubber Tree and Its Application in the Biological Control of Banana Fusarium Wilt.

    PubMed

    Tan, Deguan; Fu, Lili; Han, Bingyin; Sun, Xuepiao; Zheng, Peng; Zhang, Jiaming

    2015-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most disastrous plant diseases. Effective control methods are still under exploring. The endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 was isolated from the rubber tree, and identified as Serratia marcescens by morphological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses. This strain exhibited a high potential for biological control against the banana Fusarium disease. Visual agar plate assay showed that ITBB B5-1 restricted the mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4). Microscopic observation revealed that the cell wall of the FOC4 mycelium close to the co-cultured bacterium was partially decomposed, and the conidial formation was prohibited. The inhibition ratio of the culture fluid of ITBB B5-1 against the pathogenic fungus was 95.4% as estimated by tip culture assay. Chitinase and glucanase activity was detected in the culture fluid, and the highest activity was obtained at Day 2 and Day 3 of incubation for chitinase and glucanase, respectively. The filtrated cell-free culture fluid degraded the cell wall of FOC4 mycelium. These results indicated that chitinase and glucanase were involved in the antifungal mechanism of ITBB B5-1. The potted banana plants that were inoculated with ITBB B5-1 before infection with FOC4 showed 78.7% reduction in the disease severity index in the green house experiments. In the field trials, ITBB B5-1 showed a control effect of approximately 70.0% against the disease. Therefore, the endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 could be applied in the biological control of banana Fusarium wilt.

  18. Identification of an Endophytic Antifungal Bacterial Strain Isolated from the Rubber Tree and Its Application in the Biological Control of Banana Fusarium Wilt

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Xuepiao; Zheng, Peng; Zhang, Jiaming

    2015-01-01

    Banana Fusarium wilt (also known as Panama disease) is one of the most disastrous plant diseases. Effective control methods are still under exploring. The endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 was isolated from the rubber tree, and identified as Serratia marcescens by morphological, biochemical, and phylogenetic analyses. This strain exhibited a high potential for biological control against the banana Fusarium disease. Visual agar plate assay showed that ITBB B5-1 restricted the mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense race 4 (FOC4). Microscopic observation revealed that the cell wall of the FOC4 mycelium close to the co-cultured bacterium was partially decomposed, and the conidial formation was prohibited. The inhibition ratio of the culture fluid of ITBB B5-1 against the pathogenic fungus was 95.4% as estimated by tip culture assay. Chitinase and glucanase activity was detected in the culture fluid, and the highest activity was obtained at Day 2 and Day 3 of incubation for chitinase and glucanase, respectively. The filtrated cell-free culture fluid degraded the cell wall of FOC4 mycelium. These results indicated that chitinase and glucanase were involved in the antifungal mechanism of ITBB B5-1. The potted banana plants that were inoculated with ITBB B5-1 before infection with FOC4 showed 78.7% reduction in the disease severity index in the green house experiments. In the field trials, ITBB B5-1 showed a control effect of approximately 70.0% against the disease. Therefore, the endophytic bacterial strain ITBB B5-1 could be applied in the biological control of banana Fusarium wilt. PMID:26133557

  19. Methylobacterium-induced endophyte community changes correspond with protection of plants against pathogen attack.

    PubMed

    Ardanov, Pavlo; Sessitsch, Angela; Häggman, Hely; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Pirttilä, Anna Maria

    2012-01-01

    Plant inoculation with endophytic bacteria that normally live inside the plant without harming the host is a highly promising approach for biological disease control. The mechanism of resistance induction by beneficial bacteria is poorly understood, because pathways are only partly known and systemic responses are typically not seen. The innate endophytic community structures change in response to external factors such as inoculation, and bacterial endophytes can exhibit direct or indirect antagonism towards pathogens. Earlier we showed that resistance induction by an endophytic Methylobacterium sp. in potato towards Pectobacterium atrosepticum was dependent on the density of the inoculum, whereas the bacterium itself had no antagonistic activity. To elucidate the role of innate endophyte communities in plant responses, we studied community changes in both in vitro and greenhouse experiments using various combinations of plants, endophyte inoculants, and pathogens. Induction of resistance was studied in several potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) cultivars by Methylobacterium sp. IMBG290 against the pathogens P. atrosepticum, Phytophthora infestans and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000, and in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) by M. extorquens DSM13060 against Gremmeniella abietina. The capacities of the inoculated endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains to induce resistance were dependent on the plant cultivar, pathogen, and on the density of Methylobacterium spp. inoculum. Composition of the endophyte community changed in response to inoculation in shoot tissues and correlated with resistance or susceptibility to the disease. Our results demonstrate that endophytic Methylobacterium spp. strains have varying effects on plant disease resistance, which can be modulated through the endophyte community of the host.

  20. Endophytic bacteria: prospects and applications for the phytoremediation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Khan, Qaiser M; Sessitsch, Angela

    2014-12-01

    Recently, there has been an increased effort to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation of contaminated environments by exploiting plant-microbe interactions. The combined use of plants and endophytic bacteria is an emerging approach for the clean-up of soil and water polluted with organic compounds. In plant-endophyte partnerships, plants provide the habitat as well as nutrients to their associated endophytic bacteria. In response, endophytic bacteria with appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic activities enhance degradation of organic pollutants, and diminish phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of organic pollutants. Moreover, endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting activities enhance the plant's adaptation and growth in soil and water contaminated with organic pollutants. Overall, the application of endophytic bacteria gives new insights into novel protocols to improve phytoremediation efficiency. However, successful application of plant-endophyte partnerships for the clean-up of an environment contaminated with organic compounds depends on the abundance and activity of the degrading endophyte in different plant compartments. Although many endophytic bacteria have the potential to degrade organic pollutants and improve plant growth, their contribution to enhance phytoremediation efficiency is still underestimated. A better knowledge of plant-endophyte interactions could be utilized to increase the remediation of polluted soil environments and to protect the foodstuff by decreasing agrochemical residues in food crops.

  1. Pervasive effects of wildfire on foliar endophyte communities in montane forest trees

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yu-Ling; Devan, MM Nandi; U'Ren, Jana M.; Furr, Susan H.; Arnold, A. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Plants in all terrestrial ecosystems form symbioses with endophytic fungi that inhabit their healthy tissues. How these foliar endophytes respond to wildfires has not been studied previously, but is important given the increasing frequency and intensity of severe wildfires in many ecosystems, and because endophytes can influence plant growth and responses to stress. The goal of this study was to examine effects of severe wildfires on endophyte communities in forest trees, with a focus on traditionally fire-dominated, montane ecosystems in the southwestern USA. We evaluated the abundance, diversity, and composition of endophytes in foliage of Juniperus deppeana (Cupressaceae) and Quercus spp. (Fagaceae) collected contemporaneously from areas affected by recent wildfire and paired areas not affected by recent fire. Study sites spanned four mountain ranges in central and southern Arizona. Our results revealed significant effects of fires on endophyte communities, including decreases in isolation frequency, increases in diversity, and shifts in community structure and taxonomic composition among endophytes of trees affected by recent fires. Responses to fire were similar in endophytes of each host in these fire-dominated ecosystems and reflect regional fire-return intervals, with endophytes after fire representing subsets of the regional mycoflora. Together these findings contribute to an emerging perspective on the responses of diverse communities to severe fire, and highlight the importance of considering fire history when estimating endophyte diversity and community structure for focal biomes. PMID:26370111

  2. Effect of Endophyte Infection and Clipping Treatment on Resistance and Tolerance of Achnatherum sibiricum

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Junhua; Gao, Yuan; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Yong; Ren, Anzhi; Gao, Yubao

    2016-01-01

    It is well-documented that endophytes can enhance the resistance of agronomical grasses, such as tall fescue and perennial ryegrass to herbivory. For native grasses, however, the related reports are limited, and the conclusions are variable. Achnatherum sibiricum is a grass native to the Inner Mongolian steppe. This grass is highly infected by endophytes but does not produce detectable endophyte-related alkaloids known under normal conditions. In this study, the contributions of endophytes to the resistance of A. sibiricum to Locusta migratoria were studied. We found that locusts preferred EF (endophyte-free) plants to EI (endophyte-infected) plants, and the weight of locusts fed on EI plants was significantly lower than those fed on EF plants. Hence, endophyte infection significantly enhanced the resistance of the host to L. migratoria. Endophyte infection significantly decreased the concentration of soluble sugar and amino acids while significantly increased the concentration of total phenolic content, and these metabolites may contribute to herbivore resistance of the host. The clipping treatment further strengthened the locust resistance advantage of EI over EF plants. After clipping, the weight of the locusts fed on EI plants significantly decreased compared with those fed on unclipped plants, whereas the weight of the locusts fed on EF plants increased significantly. The results suggested that endophyte infection could increase herbivore resistance while decreasing the tolerance of the host grass by mechanisms apart from endophyte-conferred alkaloid defense. PMID:28018319

  3. Functional characterization of salicylate hydroxylase from the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae

    PubMed Central

    Ambrose, Karen V.; Tian, Zipeng; Wang, Yifei; Smith, Jordan; Zylstra, Gerben; Huang, Bingru; Belanger, Faith C.

    2015-01-01

    Epichloë spp. are symbiotic fungal endophytes of many cool season grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes often confers insect, drought, and disease tolerance to the host grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes within the host plants does not elicit host defense responses. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. Epichloë festucae, the endophyte of Festuca rubra, expresses a salicylate hydroxylase similar to NahG from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Few fungal salicylate hydroxylase enzymes have been reported. The in planta expression of an endophyte salicylate hydroxylase raised the possibility that degradation of plant-produced salicylic acid is a factor in the mechanism of how the endophyte avoids eliciting host plant defenses. Here we report the characterization of the E. festucae salicylate hydroxylase, designated Efe-shyA. Although the fungal enzyme has the expected activity, based on salicylic acid levels in endophyte-free and endophyte-infected plants it is unlikely that expression of the endophyte salicylate hydroxylase is a factor in the lack of a host defense response to the presence of the fungal endophyte. PMID:26055188

  4. Functional characterization of salicylate hydroxylase from the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Karen V; Tian, Zipeng; Wang, Yifei; Smith, Jordan; Zylstra, Gerben; Huang, Bingru; Belanger, Faith C

    2015-06-09

    Epichloë spp. are symbiotic fungal endophytes of many cool season grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes often confers insect, drought, and disease tolerance to the host grasses. The presence of the fungal endophytes within the host plants does not elicit host defense responses. The molecular basis for this phenomenon is not known. Epichloë festucae, the endophyte of Festuca rubra, expresses a salicylate hydroxylase similar to NahG from the bacterium Pseudomonas putida. Few fungal salicylate hydroxylase enzymes have been reported. The in planta expression of an endophyte salicylate hydroxylase raised the possibility that degradation of plant-produced salicylic acid is a factor in the mechanism of how the endophyte avoids eliciting host plant defenses. Here we report the characterization of the E. festucae salicylate hydroxylase, designated Efe-shyA. Although the fungal enzyme has the expected activity, based on salicylic acid levels in endophyte-free and endophyte-infected plants it is unlikely that expression of the endophyte salicylate hydroxylase is a factor in the lack of a host defense response to the presence of the fungal endophyte.

  5. Fungal endophytes in Mediterranean oak forests: a lesson from Discula quercina.

    PubMed

    Moricca, S; Ragazzi, A

    2008-04-01

    Fungal endophytes that colonize forest trees are widespread, but they are less well known than endophytes infecting grasses. The few studies on endophytes in trees mainly concern the tropical areas and the northernmost latitudes, while similar investigations in the Mediterranean region have so far been scarce and incidental. Endophytes are studied mostly in economically important forests suffering from diseases, such as oak forests. One common endophyte that has received some study on oak is the mitosporic Discula quercina. This paper, after first addressing some basic problems on tree endophytes, examines the ecology of D. quercina in Mediterranean oak stands. D. quercina is usually viewed as a symptomless colonizer of healthy Quercus cerris, infecting new leaves early in the growing season, in an unstable equilibrium between transient mutualism/neutralism and latent pathogenesis. It is postulated here that climatic factors can change the endophytic nature of D. quercina, turning it into a weak pathogen or an opportunistic invader of senescing and indeed healthy trees. It is argued more generally that stochastic events can cause the lifestyle of an endophyte to switch from beneficial/neutral to pathogenic, transforming the tree-endophyte interaction, an interaction that depends in part on the matching genomes of the tree and endophyte, and on the environmental context.

  6. Growth and photosynthetic efficiency promotion of sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) by endophytic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yingwu; Lou, Kai; Li, Chun

    2010-07-01

    Very little is known about the physiological interactions between plants and endophytic bacteria. We investigated the impact of three endophytic bacteria, Bacillus pumilus 2-1, Chryseobacterium indologene 2-2, and Acinetobacter johnsonii 3-1, on the photosynthetic capacity and growth of sugar beet. Endophyte-free plants were obtained first and infected with the bacteria. Measurements of total chlorophyll content revealed very significant differences between endophyte-free beet plants and some infected by endophytic bacteria. The maximum photochemical yield (Fv/Fm) was used to determine any photosynthetic effect on plants caused by biotic or abiotic factors. After 30 days of growth, there was significantly higher Fv/Fm for endophyte-infected than endophyte-free plants. The light response curves of beet showed that photosynthetic capacity was significantly increased in endophyte-infected plants. Photosynthesis of endophyte-free plants was saturated at 1,300 micromol m(-2) s(-1), whereas endophyte-infected plants were not saturated at the irradiance used. The effect seemed to be due to promotion of electron transport in the thylakoid membranes. Promotion of photosynthetic capacity in sugar beet was due to increased chlorophyll content, leading to a consequent increased carbohydrate synthesis. It is possible that the increased maximum yield of photosynthesis in sugar beet was promoted by phytohormones and produced by the bacteria.

  7. Fungal Endophytes from Three Cultivars of Panax ginseng Meyer Cultivated in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Un; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Park, Kee-Choon; Park, Young-Hwan; Bae, Hanhong

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the diversity of endophytes, fungal endophytes in Panax ginseng Meyer cultivated in Korea were isolated and identified using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of ribosomal DNA. Three cultivars of 3-year-old ginseng roots (Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong) were used to isolate fungal endophytes. Surface sterilized ginseng roots were placed on potato dextrose agar plates supplemented with ampicilin and streptomycin to inhibit bacterial growth. Overall, 38 fungal endophytes were isolated from 12 ginseng roots. According to the sequence analysis of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2, 38 fungal isolates were classified into 4 different fungal species, which were Phoma radicina, Fusarium oxysporum, Setophoma terrestris and Ascomycota sp. 2-RNK. The most dominant fungal endophyte was P. radicina in 3 cultivars. The percentage of dominant endophytes of P. radicina was 65.8%. The percentage of colonization frequency of P. radicina was 80%, 52.9%, and 75% in Chunpoong, Yunpoong, and Gumpoong, respectively. The second most dominant fungal endophyte was F. oxysporum. The diversity of the fungal endophytes was low and no ginseng cultivar specificity among endophytes was detected in this study. The identified endophytes can be potential fungi for the production of bioactive compounds and control against ginseng pathogens. PMID:23717111

  8. Pervasive Effects of Wildfire on Foliar Endophyte Communities in Montane Forest Trees.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Ling; Devan, M M Nandi; U'Ren, Jana M; Furr, Susan H; Arnold, A Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    Plants in all terrestrial ecosystems form symbioses with endophytic fungi that inhabit their healthy tissues. How these foliar endophytes respond to wildfires has not been studied previously, but is important given the increasing frequency and intensity of severe wildfires in many ecosystems, and because endophytes can influence plant growth and responses to stress. The goal of this study was to examine effects of severe wildfires on endophyte communities in forest trees, with a focus on traditionally fire-dominated, montane ecosystems in the southwestern USA. We evaluated the abundance, diversity, and composition of endophytes in foliage of Juniperus deppeana (Cupressaceae) and Quercus spp. (Fagaceae) collected contemporaneously from areas affected by recent wildfire and paired areas not affected by recent fire. Study sites spanned four mountain ranges in central and southern Arizona. Our results revealed significant effects of fires on endophyte communities, including decreases in isolation frequency, increases in diversity, and shifts in community structure and taxonomic composition among endophytes of trees affected by recent fires. Responses to fire were similar in endophytes of each host in these fire-dominated ecosystems and reflect regional fire-return intervals, with endophytes after fire representing subsets of the regional mycoflora. Together, these findings contribute to an emerging perspective on the responses of diverse communities to severe fire, and highlight the importance of considering fire history when estimating endophyte diversity and community structure for focal biomes.

  9. Geographic Variation in Festuca rubra L. Ploidy Levels and Systemic Fungal Endophyte Frequencies.

    PubMed

    Dirihan, Serdar; Helander, Marjo; Väre, Henry; Gundel, Pedro E; Garibaldi, Lucas A; Irisarri, J Gonzalo N; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy and symbiotic Epichloë fungal endophytes are common and heritable characteristics that can facilitate environmental range expansion in grasses. Here we examined geographic patterns of polyploidy and the frequency of fungal endophyte colonized plants in 29 Festuca rubra L. populations from eight geographic sites across latitudes from Spain to northernmost Finland and Greenland. Ploidy seemed to be positively and negatively correlated with latitude and productivity, respectively. However, the correlations were nonlinear; 84% of the plants were hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42), and the positive correlation between ploidy level and latitude is the result of only four populations skewing the data. In the southernmost end of the gradient 86% of the plants were tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28), whereas in the northernmost end of the gradient one population had only octoploid plants (2n = 8x = 56). Endophytes were detected in 22 out of the 29 populations. Endophyte frequencies varied among geographic sites, and populations and habitats within geographic sites irrespective of ploidy, latitude or productivity. The highest overall endophyte frequencies were found in the southernmost end of the gradient, Spain, where 69% of plants harbored endophytes. In northern Finland, endophytes were detected in 30% of grasses but endophyte frequencies varied among populations from 0% to 75%, being higher in meadows compared to riverbanks. The endophytes were detected in 36%, 30% and 27% of the plants in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Switzerland, respectively. Practically all examined plants collected from southern Finland and Greenland were endophyte-free, whereas in other geographic sites endophyte frequencies were highly variable among populations. Common to all populations with high endophyte frequencies is heavy vertebrate grazing. We propose that the detected endophyte frequencies and ploidy levels mirror past distribution history of F. rubra after the last glaciation period, and local

  10. Geographic Variation in Festuca rubra L. Ploidy Levels and Systemic Fungal Endophyte Frequencies

    PubMed Central

    Dirihan, Serdar; Helander, Marjo; Väre, Henry; Gundel, Pedro E.; Garibaldi, Lucas A.; Irisarri, J. Gonzalo N.; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2016-01-01

    Polyploidy and symbiotic Epichloë fungal endophytes are common and heritable characteristics that can facilitate environmental range expansion in grasses. Here we examined geographic patterns of polyploidy and the frequency of fungal endophyte colonized plants in 29 Festuca rubra L. populations from eight geographic sites across latitudes from Spain to northernmost Finland and Greenland. Ploidy seemed to be positively and negatively correlated with latitude and productivity, respectively. However, the correlations were nonlinear; 84% of the plants were hexaploids (2n = 6x = 42), and the positive correlation between ploidy level and latitude is the result of only four populations skewing the data. In the southernmost end of the gradient 86% of the plants were tetraploids (2n = 4x = 28), whereas in the northernmost end of the gradient one population had only octoploid plants (2n = 8x = 56). Endophytes were detected in 22 out of the 29 populations. Endophyte frequencies varied among geographic sites, and populations and habitats within geographic sites irrespective of ploidy, latitude or productivity. The highest overall endophyte frequencies were found in the southernmost end of the gradient, Spain, where 69% of plants harbored endophytes. In northern Finland, endophytes were detected in 30% of grasses but endophyte frequencies varied among populations from 0% to 75%, being higher in meadows compared to riverbanks. The endophytes were detected in 36%, 30% and 27% of the plants in Faroe Islands, Iceland and Switzerland, respectively. Practically all examined plants collected from southern Finland and Greenland were endophyte-free, whereas in other geographic sites endophyte frequencies were highly variable among populations. Common to all populations with high endophyte frequencies is heavy vertebrate grazing. We propose that the detected endophyte frequencies and ploidy levels mirror past distribution history of F. rubra after the last glaciation period, and local

  11. Solanapyrone analogues from a Hawaiian fungicolous fungus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Four new solanayrone analogues (solanapyrones J-M; 1-4) have been isolated from an unidentified fungicolous fungus collected in Hawaii. The structures and relative configurations of these compounds were determined by analysis of ID NMR, 2D NMR, and MS data. Solanapyrone J(1) showed antifungal acti...

  12. Screening for differentially expressed genes in Anoectochilus roxburghii (Orchidaceae) during symbiosis with the mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza sp.

    PubMed

    Li, Biao; Tang, Mingjuan; Tang, Kun; Zhao, Lifang; Guo, Shunxing

    2012-02-01

    Mycorrhizal fungi promote the growth and development of plants, including medicinal plants. The mechanisms by which this growth promotion occurs are of theoretical interest and practical importance to agriculture. Here, an endophytic fungus (AR-18) was isolated from roots of the orchid Anoectochilus roxburghii growing in the wild, and identified as Epulorhiza sp. Tissue-cultured seedlings of A. roxburghii were inoculated with AR-18 and co-cultured for 60 d. Endotrophic mycorrhiza formed and the growth of A. roxburghii was markedly promoted by the fungus. To identify genes in A. roxburghii that were differentially expressed during the symbiosis with AR-18, we used the differential display reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (DDRT-PCR) method to compare the transcriptomes between seedlings inoculated with the fungus and control seedlings. We amplified 52 DDRT-PCR bands using 15 primer combinations of three anchor primers and five arbitrary primers, and nine bands were re-amplified by double primers. Reverse Northern blot analyses were used to further screen the bands. Five clones were up-regulated in the symbiotic interaction, including genes encoding a uracil phosphoribosyltransferase (UPRTs; EC 2.4.2.9) and a hypothetical protein. One gene encoding an amino acid transmembrane transporter was down-regulated, and one gene encoding a tRNA-Lys (trnK) and a maturase K (matK) pseudogene were expressed only in the inoculated seedlings. The possible roles of the above genes, especially the UPRTs and matK genes, are discussed in relation to the fungal interaction. This study is the first of its type in A. roxburghii.

  13. Detection of Uncultured Seed Borne Endophytes in Atriplex canesens: Methods used in: “Seed Borne Endophyte Microbiomes are Associated with Vascular Plants”

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micropropagated systems provide controlled habitats in which complex plant-endophyte interactions can be studied with minimal interference from superficial microbes. The series of protocols described herein can be used to examine seed borne endophyte consortia associated with woody plant species. ...

  14. Symbiosis lost: imperfect vertical transmission of fungal endophytes in grasses.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Michelle E; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2008-09-01

    Vertically transmitted symbionts associate with some of the most ecologically dominant species on Earth, and their fixation has led to major evolutionary transitions (e.g., the development of mitochondria). Theory predicts that exclusive vertical transmission should favor mutualism and generate high frequencies of symbiosis in host populations. However, host populations often support lower-than-expected symbiont frequencies. Imperfect transmission (i.e., symbiont is not transmitted to all offspring) can reduce symbiont frequency, but for most beneficial symbionts it is unknown whether vertical transmission can be imperfect or during which life-history stage the symbiont is lost. Using quantitative natural history surveys of fungal endophytes in grasses, we show that transmission was imperfect in at least one stage for all seven host species examined. Endophytes were lost at all possible stages: within adult plants, from adult tillers to seeds, and from seeds to seedlings. Despite this loss, uninfected seeds failed to germinate in some species, resulting in perfect transmission to seedlings. The type and degree of loss differed among host populations and species and between endophyte genera. Populations with lower endophyte frequencies had higher rates of loss. Our results indicate new directions for understanding cooperation and conflict in symbioses and suggest mechanisms for host sanctions against costly symbionts.

  15. Endophytic microorganisms--promising applications in bioremediation of greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Stępniewska, Z; Kuźniar, A

    2013-11-01

    Bioremediation is a technique that uses microbial metabolism to remove pollutants. Various techniques and strategies of bioremediation (e.g., phytoremediation enhanced by endophytic microorganisms, rhizoremediation) can mainly be used to remove hazardous waste from the biosphere. During the last decade, this specific technique has emerged as a potential cleanup tool only for metal pollutants. This situation has changed recently as a possibility has appeared for bioremediation of other pollutants, for instance, volatile organic compounds, crude oils, and radionuclides. The mechanisms of bioremediation depend on the mobility, solubility, degradability, and bioavailability of contaminants. Biodegradation of pollutions is associated with microbial growth and metabolism, i.e., factors that have an impact on the process. Moreover, these factors have a great influence on degradation. As a result, recognition of natural microbial processes is indispensable for understanding the mechanisms of effective bioremediation. In this review, we have emphasized the occurrence of endophytic microorganisms and colonization of plants by endophytes. In addition, the role of enhanced bioremediation by endophytic bacteria and especially of phytoremediation is presented.

  16. Endophytic Phytoaugmentation: Treating Wastewater and Runoff Through Augmented Phytoremediation

    PubMed Central

    Redfern, Lauren K.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Limited options exist for efficiently and effectively treating water runoff from agricultural fields and landfills. Traditional treatments include excavation, transport to landfills, incineration, stabilization, and vitrification. In general, treatment options relying on biological methods such as bioremediation have the ability to be applied in situ and offer a sustainable remedial option with a lower environmental impact and reduced long-term operating expenses. These methods are generally considered ecologically friendly, particularly when compared to traditional physicochemical cleanup options. Phytoremediation, which relies on plants to take up and/or transform the contaminant of interest, is another alternative treatment method which has been developed. However, phytoremediation is not widely used, largely due to its low treatment efficiency. Endophytic phytoaugmentation is a variation on phytoremediation that relies on augmenting the phytoremediating plants with exogenous strains to stimulate associated plant-microbe interactions to facilitate and improve remediation efficiency. In this review, we offer a summary of the current knowledge as well as developments in endophytic phytoaugmentation and present some potential future applications for this technology. There has been a limited number of published endophytic phytoaugmentation case studies and much remains to be done to transition lab-scale results to field applications. Future research needs include large-scale endophytic phytoaugmentation experiments as well as the development of more exhaustive tools for monitoring plant-microbe-pollutant interactions. PMID:27158249

  17. Bioaugmentation with engineered endophytic bacteria improves contaminant fate in phytoremediation

    SciTech Connect

    Weyens, N.; van der Lelie, D.; Artois, T.; Smeets, K.; Taghavi, S.; Newman, L.; Carleer, R.; Vangronsveld, J.

    2009-12-01

    Phytoremediation of volatile organic contaminants often proves not ideal because plants and their rhizosphere microbes only partially degrade these compounds. Consequently, plants undergo evapotranspiration that contaminates the ambient air and, thus, undermines the merits of phytoremediation. Under laboratory conditions, endophytic bacteria equipped with the appropriate degradation pathways can improve in plant degradation of volatile organic contaminants. However, several obstacles must be overcome before engineered endophytes will be successful in field-scale phytoremediation projects. Here we report the first in situ inoculation of poplar trees, growing on a TCE-contaminated site, with the TCE-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE. In situ bioaugmentation with strain W619-TCE reduced TCE evapotranspiration by 90% under field conditions. This encouraging result was achieved after the establishment and enrichment of P. putida W619-TCE as a poplar root endophyte and by further horizontal gene transfer of TCE metabolic activity to members of the poplar's endogenous endophytic population. Since P. putida W619-TCE was engineered via horizontal gene transfer, its deliberate release is not restricted under European genetically modified organisms (GMO) regulations.

  18. Defensive functions and responsible metabolites of microbial endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing evidence indicates that plant microbiomes are influence by ecological successes of plant hosts. Further, endophytic microbes such as bacteria and fungi greatly affect plant stress tolerance and are responsible for defensive reaction to several forms of herbivory. What is not yet clear i...

  19. Endophytic Phytoaugmentation: Treating Wastewater and Runoff Through Augmented Phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Redfern, Lauren K; Gunsch, Claudia K

    2016-04-01

    Limited options exist for efficiently and effectively treating water runoff from agricultural fields and landfills. Traditional treatments include excavation, transport to landfills, incineration, stabilization, and vitrification. In general, treatment options relying on biological methods such as bioremediation have the ability to be applied in situ and offer a sustainable remedial option with a lower environmental impact and reduced long-term operating expenses. These methods are generally considered ecologically friendly, particularly when compared to traditional physicochemical cleanup options. Phytoremediation, which relies on plants to take up and/or transform the contaminant of interest, is another alternative treatment method which has been developed. However, phytoremediation is not widely used, largely due to its low treatment efficiency. Endophytic phytoaugmentation is a variation on phytoremediation that relies on augmenting the phytoremediating plants with exogenous strains to stimulate associated plant-microbe interactions to facilitate and improve remediation efficiency. In this review, we offer a summary of the current knowledge as well as developments in endophytic phytoaugmentation and present some potential future applications for this technology. There has been a limited number of published endophytic phytoaugmentation case studies and much remains to be done to transition lab-scale results to field applications. Future research needs include large-scale endophytic phytoaugmentation experiments as well as the development of more exhaustive tools for monitoring plant-microbe-pollutant interactions.

  20. Ergovaline, an endophytic alkaloid. 1. Animal physiology and metabolism

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergovaline is an ergot alkaloid found in some endophyte-infected ryegrasses and has been implicated in the expression of ergotism-like symptoms of grazing livestock, as well as in the protection of the plant against invertebrate predation and abiotic stresses. These selection pressures have resulted...

  1. Biosynthetic potential of phylogenetically unique endophytic actinomycetes from tropical plants.

    PubMed

    Janso, Jeffrey E; Carter, Guy T

    2010-07-01

    The culturable diversity of endophytic actinomycetes associated with tropical, native plants is essentially unexplored. In this study, 123 endophytic actinomycetes were isolated from tropical plants collected from several locations in Papua New Guinea and Mborokua Island, Solomon Islands. Isolates were found to be prevalent in roots but uncommon in leaves. Initially, isolates were dereplicated to the strain level by ribotyping. Subsequent characterization of 105 unique strains by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that 17 different genera were represented, and rare genera, such as Sphaerisporangium and Planotetraspora, which have never been previously reported to be endophytic, were quite prevalent. Phylogenetic analyses grouped many of the strains into clades distinct from known genera within Thermomonosporaceae and Micromonosporaceae, indicating that they may be unique genera. Bioactivity testing and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) profiling of crude fermentation extracts were performed on 91 strains. About 60% of the extracts exhibited bioactivity or displayed LC-MS profiles with spectra indicative of secondary metabolites. The biosynthetic potential of 29 nonproductive strains was further investigated by the detection of putative polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS) genes. Despite their lack of detectable secondary metabolite production in fermentation, most were positive for type I (66%) and type II (79%) PKS genes, and all were positive for NRPS genes. These results suggest that tropical plants from New Guinea and the adjacent archipelago are hosts to unique endophytic actinomycetes that possess significant biosynthetic potential.

  2. 7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... test may be used to determine the amount of fungal endophyte (Acremonium spp.) in certain grasses. (a) Method of preparation of aniline blue stain for use in testing grass seed and plant material for the... grass seed: (1) Take a sub-sample of seed (1 gram is sufficient) from the pure seed portion of the...

  3. Relationship between plant lipid bodies and fungal endophytes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lipid bodies are universal components of plant cells and provide a mobilized carbon source for essential biological processes. Plant oils harvested for food and fuel often reside in these lipid bodies. Plants also host diverse populations of endophytic fungi, which easily escape microscopic detect...

  4. Bacterial endophytic communities in the grapevine depend on pest management.

    PubMed

    Campisano, Andrea; Antonielli, Livio; Pancher, Michael; Yousaf, Sohail; Pindo, Massimo; Pertot, Ilaria

    2014-01-01

    Microbial plant endophytes are receiving ever-increasing attention as a result of compelling evidence regarding functional interaction with the host plant. Microbial communities in plants were recently reported to be influenced by numerous environmental and anthropogenic factors, including soil and pest management. In this study we used automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis (ARISA) fingerprinting and pyrosequencing of 16S rDNA to assess the effect of organic production and integrated pest management (IPM) on bacterial endophytic communities in two widespread grapevines cultivars (Merlot and Chardonnay). High levels of the dominant Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Pseudomonas genera were detected in all the samples We found differences in the composition of endophytic communities in grapevines cultivated using organic production and IPM. Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) assigned to the Mesorhizobium, Caulobacter and Staphylococcus genera were relatively more abundant in plants from organic vineyards, while Ralstonia, Burkholderia and Stenotrophomonas were more abundant in grapevines from IPM vineyards. Minor differences in bacterial endophytic communities were also found in the grapevines of the two cultivars.

  5. Bioaugmentation with engineered endophytic bacteria improves contaminant fate in phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Weyens, Nele; van der Lelie, Daniel; Artois, Tom; Smeets, Karen; Taghavi, Safiyh; Newman, Lee; Carleer, Robert; Vangronsveld, Jaco

    2009-12-15

    Phytoremediation of volatile organic contaminants often proves not ideal because plants and their rhizosphere microbes only partially degrade these compounds. Consequently, plants undergo evapotranspiration that contaminates the ambient air and, thus, undermines the merits of phytoremediation. Under laboratory conditions, endophytic bacteria equipped with the appropriate degradation pathways can improve in planta degradation of volatile organic contaminants. However, several obstacles must be overcome before engineered endophytes will be successful in field-scale phytoremediation projects. Here we report the first in situ inoculation of poplar trees, growing on a TCE-contaminated site, with the TCE-degrading strain Pseudomonas putida W619-TCE. In situ bioaugmentation with strain W619-TCE reduced TCE evapotranspiration by 90% under field conditions. This encouraging result was achieved after the establishment and enrichment of P. putida W619-TCE as a poplar root endophyte and by further horizontal gene transfer of TCE metabolic activity to members of the poplar's endogenous endophytic population. Since P. putida W619-TCE was engineered via horizontal gene transfer, its deliberate release is not restricted under European genetically modified organisms (GMO) regulations.

  6. Beneficial role of bacterial endophytes in heavy metal phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ying; Rajkumar, Mani; Zhang, Chang; Freitas, Helena

    2016-06-01

    Phytoremediation is an emerging technology that uses plants and their associated microbes to clean up pollutants from the soil, water and air. In recent years, phytoremediation assisted by bacterial endophytes has been highly recommended for cleaning up of metal polluted soils since endophytic bacteria can alleviate metal toxicity in plant through their own metal resistance system and facilitate plant growth under metal stress. Endophytic bacteria improve plant growth in metal polluted soils in two different ways: 1) directly by producing plant growth beneficial substances including solubilization/transformation of mineral nutrients (phosphate, nitrogen and potassium), production of phytohormones, siderophores and specific enzymes; and 2) indirectly through controlling plant pathogens or by inducing a systemic resistance of plants against pathogens. Besides, they also alter metal accumulation capacity in plants by excreting metal immobilizing extracellular polymeric substances, as well as metal mobilizing organic acids and biosurfactants. The present work aims to review the progress of recent research on the isolation, identification and diversity of metal resistant endophytic bacteria and illustrate various mechanisms responsible for plant growth promotion and heavy metal detoxification/phytoaccumulation/translocation in plants.

  7. Plant growth promotion induced by phosphate solubilizing endophytic Pseudomonas isolates

    PubMed Central

    Oteino, Nicholas; Lally, Richard D.; Kiwanuka, Samuel; Lloyd, Andrew; Ryan, David; Germaine, Kieran J.; Dowling, David N.

    2015-01-01

    The use of plant growth promoting bacterial inoculants as live microbial biofertilizers provides a promising alternative to chemical fertilizers and pesticides. Inorganic phosphate solubilization is one of the major mechanisms of plant growth promotion by plant associated bacteria. This involves bacteria releasing organic acids into the soil which solubilize the phosphate complexes converting them into ortho-phosphate which is available for plant up-take and utilization. The study presented here describes the ability of endophytic bacteria to produce gluconic acid (GA), solubilize insoluble phosphate, and stimulate the growth of Pisum sativum L. plants. This study also describes the genetic systems within three of these endophyte strains thought to be responsible for their effective phosphate solubilizing abilities. The results showed that many of the endophytic strains produced GA (14–169 mM) and have moderate to high phosphate solubilization capacities (~400–1300 mg L−1). When inoculated into P. sativum L. plants grown in soil under soluble phosphate limiting conditions, the endophytes that produced medium-high levels of GA displayed beneficial plant growth promotion effects. PMID:26257721

  8. 7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT...) Method of preparation of aniline blue stain for use in testing grass seed and plant material for the... aniline blue in 100 ml distilled water. (2) Prepare the endophyte staining solution of one part of...

  9. 7 CFR 201.58d - Fungal endophyte test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) FEDERAL SEED ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT...) Method of preparation of aniline blue stain for use in testing grass seed and plant material for the... aniline blue in 100 ml distilled water. (2) Prepare the endophyte staining solution of one part of...

  10. Different Growth Promoting Effects of Endophytic Bacteria on Invasive and Native Clonal Plants

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Zhi-Cong; Fu, Wei; Wan, Ling-Yun; Cai, Hong-Hong; Wang, Ning; Qi, Shan-Shan; Du, Dao-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The role of the interactions between endophytes and alien plants has been unclear yet in plant invasion. We used a completely germ-free culture system to quantify the plant growth-promoting (PGP) effects of endophytic bacteria Bacillus sp. on aseptic seedlings of Wedelia trilobata and of its native clonal congener W. chinensis. The endophytic bacteria did not affect the growth of W. chinensis, but they significantly promoted the growth of W. trilobata. With the PGP effects of endophytic bacteria, relative change ratios of the clonal traits and the ramets’ growth traits of W. trilobata were significantly greater than those of W. chinensis. Our results indicate that the growth-promoting effects of endophytes may differ between invasive and native clonal plants, and the endophytes of invasive plant may be host-specific to facilitate plant invasion. PMID:27252722

  11. Effects of the Epichloë fungal endophyte symbiosis with Schedonorus pratensis on host grass invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Kruti; Hager, Heather A; Yurkonis, Kathryn A; Newman, Jonathan A

    2015-07-01

    Initial studies of grass-endophyte mutualisms using Schedonorus arundinaceus cultivar Kentucky-31 infected with the vertically transmitted endophyte Epichloë coenophiala found strong, positive endophyte effects on host-grass invasion success. However, more recent work using different cultivars of S. arundinaceus has cast doubt on the ubiquity of this effect, at least as it pertains to S. arundinaceus-E. coenophiala. We investigated the generality of previous work on vertically transmitted Epichloë-associated grass invasiveness by studying a pair of very closely related species: S. pratensis and E. uncinata. Seven cultivars of S. pratensis and two cultivars of S. arundinaceus that were developed with high- or low-endophyte infection rate were broadcast seeded into 2 × 2-m plots in a tilled, old-field grassland community in a completely randomized block design. Schedonorus abundance, endophyte infection rate, and co-occurring vegetation were sampled 3, 4, 5, and 6 years after establishment, and the aboveground invertebrate community was sampled in S. pratensis plots 3 and 4 years after establishment. Endophyte infection did not enable the host grass to achieve high abundance in the plant community. Contrary to expectations, high-endophyte S. pratensis increased plant richness relative to low-endophyte cultivars. However, as expected, high-endophyte S. pratensis marginally decreased invertebrate taxon richness. Endophyte effects on vegetation and invertebrate community composition were inconsistent among cultivars and were weaker than temporal effects. The effect of the grass-Epichloë symbiosis on diversity is not generalizable, but rather specific to species, cultivar, infection, and potentially site. Examining grass-endophyte systems using multiple cultivars and species replicated among sites will be important to determine the range of conditions in which endophyte associations benefit host grass performance and have subsequent effects on co

  12. Effects of the Epichloë fungal endophyte symbiosis with Schedonorus pratensis on host grass invasiveness

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Kruti; Hager, Heather A; Yurkonis, Kathryn A; Newman, Jonathan A

    2015-01-01

    Initial studies of grass–endophyte mutualisms using Schedonorus arundinaceus cultivar Kentucky-31 infected with the vertically transmitted endophyte Epichloë coenophiala found strong, positive endophyte effects on host-grass invasion success. However, more recent work using different cultivars of S. arundinaceus has cast doubt on the ubiquity of this effect, at least as it pertains to S. arundinaceus–E. coenophiala. We investigated the generality of previous work on vertically transmitted Epichloë-associated grass invasiveness by studying a pair of very closely related species: S. pratensis and E. uncinata. Seven cultivars of S. pratensis and two cultivars of S. arundinaceus that were developed with high- or low-endophyte infection rate were broadcast seeded into 2 × 2-m plots in a tilled, old-field grassland community in a completely randomized block design. Schedonorus abundance, endophyte infection rate, and co-occurring vegetation were sampled 3, 4, 5, and 6 years after establishment, and the aboveground invertebrate community was sampled in S. pratensis plots 3 and 4 years after establishment. Endophyte infection did not enable the host grass to achieve high abundance in the plant community. Contrary to expectations, high-endophyte S. pratensis increased plant richness relative to low-endophyte cultivars. However, as expected, high-endophyte S. pratensis marginally decreased invertebrate taxon richness. Endophyte effects on vegetation and invertebrate community composition were inconsistent among cultivars and were weaker than temporal effects. The effect of the grass–Epichloë symbiosis on diversity is not generalizable, but rather specific to species, cultivar, infection, and potentially site. Examining grass–endophyte systems using multiple cultivars and species replicated among sites will be important to determine the range of conditions in which endophyte associations benefit host grass performance and have subsequent effects on

  13. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Ni, Xue; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Liu, Juan; Sun, Kai; Gao, Yanzheng

    2016-01-01

    Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P1 (Stenotrophomonas sp.) and P3 (Pseudomonas sp.), which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE) within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP), PHE, fluorene (FLR), pyrene (PYR), and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P1 degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(a)P, and strain P3 degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(a)P. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days). Compared with strain P1, strain P3 has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria. PMID:27517944

  14. Biodegradation of Mixed PAHs by PAH-Degrading Endophytic Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xuezhu; Ni, Xue; Waigi, Michael Gatheru; Liu, Juan; Sun, Kai; Gao, Yanzheng

    2016-08-09

    Endophytic bacteria can promote plant growth, induce plant defence mechanisms, and increase plant resistance to organic contaminants. The aims of the present study were to isolate highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria from plants growing at PAH-contaminated sites and to evaluate the capabilities of these bacteria to degrade polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vitro, which will be beneficial for re-colonizing target plants and reducing plant PAH residues through the inoculation of plants with endophytic bacteria. Two endophytic bacterial strains P₁ (Stenotrophomonas sp.) and P₃ (Pseudomonas sp.), which degraded more than 90% of phenanthrene (PHE) within 7 days, were isolated from Conyza canadensis and Trifolium pretense L., respectively. Both strains could use naphthalene (NAP), PHE, fluorene (FLR), pyrene (PYR), and benzo(a)pyrene (B(a)P) as the sole sources of carbon and energy. Moreover, these bacteria reduced the contamination of mixed PAHs at high levels after inoculation for 7 days; strain P₁ degraded 98.0% NAP, 83.1% FLR, 87.8% PHE, 14.4% PYR, and 1.6% B(a)P, and strain P₃ degraded 95.3% NAP, 87.9% FLR, 90.4% PHE, 6.9% PYR, and negligible B(a)P. Notably, the biodegradation of PAHs could be promoted through additional carbon and nitrogen nutrients; therein, beef extract was suggested as the optimal co-substrate for the degradation of PAHs by these two strains (99.1% PHE was degraded within 7 days). Compared with strain P₁, strain P₃ has more potential for the use in the removal of PAHs from plant tissues. These results provide a novel perspective in the reduction of plant PAH residues in PAH-contaminated sites through inoculating plants with highly PAH-degrading endophytic bacteria.

  15. Ant-fungus species combinations engineer physiological activity of fungus gardens.

    PubMed

    Seal, J N; Schiøtt, M; Mueller, U G

    2014-07-15

    Fungus-gardening insects are among the most complex organisms because of their extensive co-evolutionary histories with obligate fungal symbionts and other microbes. Some fungus-gardening insect lineages share fungal symbionts with other members of their lineage and thus exhibit diffuse co-evolutionary relationships, while others exhibit little or no symbiont sharing, resulting in host-fungus fidelity. The mechanisms that maintain this symbiont fidelity are currently unknown. Prior work suggested that derived leaf-cutting ants in the genus Atta interact synergistically with leaf-cutter fungi (Attamyces) by exhibiting higher fungal growth rates and enzymatic activities than when growing a fungus from the sister-clade to Attamyces (so-called 'Trachymyces'), grown primarily by the non-leaf cutting Trachymyrmex ants that form, correspondingly, the sister-clade to leaf-cutting ants. To elucidate the enzymatic bases of host-fungus specialization in leaf-cutting ants, we conducted a reciprocal fungus-switch experiment between the ant Atta texana and the ant Trachymyrmex arizonensis and report measured enzymatic activities of switched and sham-switched fungus gardens to digest starch, pectin, xylan, cellulose and casein. Gardens exhibited higher amylase and pectinase activities when A. texana ants cultivated Attamyces compared with Trachymyces fungi, consistent with enzymatic specialization. In contrast, gardens showed comparable amylase and pectinase activities when T. arizonensis cultivated either fungal species. Although gardens of leaf-cutting ants are not known to be significant metabolizers of cellulose, T. arizonensis were able to maintain gardens with significant cellulase activity when growing either fungal species. In contrast to carbohydrate metabolism, protease activity was significantly higher in Attamyces than in Trachymyces, regardless of the ant host. Activity of some enzymes employed by this symbiosis therefore arises from complex interactions between the

  16. Biodiversity, Phylogeny, and Antifungal Functions of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Zanthoxylum bungeanum

    PubMed Central

    Li, Peiqin; Wu, Zhou; Liu, Tao; Wang, Yanan

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Zanthoxylum bungeanum. A total of 940 isolates obtained were grouped into 93 morphotypes, 43 species, and 23 genera, which were authenticated by molecular identification based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. A high diversity of endophytic fungi from Z. bungeanum are observed with high species richness S (43), Margalef index D′ (6.1351), Shannon–Wiener index H′ (3.2743), Simpson diversity index Ds (0.9476), PIE index (0.9486), and evenness Pielou index J (0.8705) but a low dominant index λ (0.0524). Significant tissue specificity of the endophytic fungi was observed in Z. bungeanum, and the highest species richness and diversity indexes were obtained in the stem. Phylogenetic analyses of the 93 endophytic isolates were carried out by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method to demonstrate their evolutionary processes. Antifungal activities of endophytic fungi were assayed and eight endophytic isolates showed strong and long-lasting inhibition against host pathogenic fungi Fusarium sambucinum and Pseudocercospora zanthoxyli. Here, for the first time, we systematically demonstrate the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi associated with Z. bungeanum and reveal the value of sampling different tissues of a given plant to obtain the greatest endophyte species diversity, which might offer a framework for further investigation and utilization of endophytic fungi as aunique source of interesting and useful bioactive compounds. PMID:27649145

  17. Grass-herbivore interactions altered by strains of a native endophyte.

    PubMed

    Tintjer, Tammy; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2006-01-01

    Many plants support symbiotic microbes, such as endophytic fungi, that can alter interactions with herbivores. Most endophyte research has focused on agronomically important species, with less known about the ecological roles of native endophytes in native plants. In particular, whether genetic variation among endophyte symbionts affects herbivores of plant hosts remains unresolved for most native endophytes. Here, we investigate the importance of native isolates of the endophyte Epichloë elymi in affecting herbivory of the native grass host, Elymus hystrix. Experimental fungal isolate-plant genotype combinations and endophyte-free control plants were grown in a common garden and exposed to natural arthropod herbivory. Fungal isolates differed in their effects on two types of herbivory, chewing and scraping. Isolates exhibiting greater sexual reproduction were associated with greater herbivore damage than primarily asexual isolates. Endophyte infection also altered patterns of herbivory within plants, with stroma-bearing tillers experiencing up to 30% greater damage than nonstroma-bearing tillers. Results suggest that intraspecific genetic variation in endophytes, like plant genetic variation, can have important 'bottom-up' effects on herbivores in native systems.

  18. Host associations and beta diversity of fungal endophyte communities in New Guinea rainforest trees.

    PubMed

    Vincent, J B; Weiblen, G D; May, G

    2016-02-01

    Processes shaping the distribution of foliar fungal endophyte species remain poorly understood. Despite increasing evidence that these cryptic fungal symbionts of plants mediate interactions with pathogens and herbivores, there remain basic questions regarding the extent to which dispersal limitation and host specificity might shape fungal endophyte community composition in rainforests. To assess the relative importance of spatial pattern and host specificity, we isolated fungi from a sample of mapped trees in lowland Papua New Guinea. Sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region were obtained for 2079 fungal endophytes from three sites and clustered into molecular operational taxonomic units (MOTUs) at 95% similarity. Multivariate analyses suggest that host affinity plays a significant role in structuring endophyte community composition whereas there was no evidence of endophyte spatial pattern at the scale of tens to hundreds of metres. Differences in endophyte communities between sampled trees were weakly correlated with variation in foliar traits but not with tree species relatedness. The dominance of relatively few generalist endophytes and the presence of a large number of rare MOTUs was a consistent observation at three sites separated by hundreds of kilometres and regional turnover was low. Host specificity appears to play a relatively weak but more important role than dispersal limitation in shaping the distribution of fungal endophyte communities in New Guinea forests. Our results suggest that in the absence of strong ecological gradients and host turnover, beta diversity of endophyte communities could be low in large areas of contiguous forest.

  19. The Hidden World within Plants: Ecological and Evolutionary Considerations for Defining Functioning of Microbial Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    van Overbeek, Leonard S.; Berg, Gabriele; Pirttilä, Anna Maria; Compant, Stéphane; Campisano, Andrea; Döring, Matthias; Sessitsch, Angela

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY All plants are inhabited internally by diverse microbial communities comprising bacterial, archaeal, fungal, and protistic taxa. These microorganisms showing endophytic lifestyles play crucial roles in plant development, growth, fitness, and diversification. The increasing awareness of and information on endophytes provide insight into the complexity of the plant microbiome. The nature of plant-endophyte interactions ranges from mutualism to pathogenicity. This depends on a set of abiotic and biotic factors, including the genotypes of plants and microbes, environmental conditions, and the dynamic network of interactions within the plant biome. In this review, we address the concept of endophytism, considering the latest insights into evolution, plant ecosystem functioning, and multipartite interactions. PMID:26136581

  20. Endophyte-mediated interactions between cauliflower, the herbivore Spodoptera litura, and the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Tamanreet; Singh, Bahaderjeet; Kaur, Amarjeet; Kaur, Sanehdeep

    2015-10-01

    Fungal endosymbionts in plants may influence interactions among plants, herbivores and their parasitoids through the production of secondary metabolites. We used a lepidopteran pest and its generalist parasitoid to test the effect of endophyte-infected plants on a third trophic level. Endophytic fungi, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus niger, isolated from Acacia arabica, were used to infect cauliflower plants. We found that the presence of the endophyte in the plants significantly extended the development period of Spodoptera litura (Fab.) larvae. Feeding of the host on endophyte-infected plants further adversely affected the development and performance of its parasitoid, Bracon hebetor (Say). A negative impact was also recorded for longevity and fecundity of endophyte-naive parasitoid females due to the parasitization of host larvae fed on endophyte-infected plants. The presence of endophytes in the diet of the host larvae significantly prolonged the development of the parasitoid. A strong detrimental effect was also recorded for larval survival and emergence of parasitoid adults. The longevity and parasitism rate of female wasps were reduced significantly due to the ingestion of endophyte-infected cauliflower plants by S. litura larvae. Overall, we found that both endophytic fungi had a negative impact on the parasitoid.

  1. Generic and functional diversity in endophytic actinomycetes from wild Compositae plant species at South Sinai - Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Shatoury, Sahar A; El-Kraly, Omnia A; Trujillo, Martha E; El-Kazzaz, Waleed M; El-Din, El-Sayeda Gamal; Dewedar, Ahmed

    2013-09-01

    The diversity of culturable endophytic actinomycetes associated with wild Compositae plants is scantily explored. In this study, one hundred and thirty one endophytic actinobacteria were isolated from ten Compositae plant species collected from South Sinai in Egypt. Microscopic and chemotaxonomic investigation of the isolates indicated fourteen genera. Rare genera, such as Microtetraspora, and Intrasporangium, which have never been previously reported to be endophytic, were identified. Each plant species accommodated between three to eight genera of actinobacteria and unidentified strains were recovered from seven plant species. The generic diversity analysis of endophytic assemblages grouped the plant species into three main clusters, representing high, moderate and low endophytic diversity. The endophytes showed high functional diversity, based on forty four catabolic and plant growth promotion traits; providing some evidence that such traits could represent key criteria for successful residence of endophytes in the endosphere. Stress-tolerance traits were more predictive measure of functional diversity differences between the endophyte assemblages (Shannon's index, p = 0.01). The results indicate a potential prominent role of endophytes for their hosts and emphasize the potency of plant endosphere as a habitat for actinobacteria with promising future applications.

  2. Thaxtomin A-deficient endophytic Streptomyces sp. enhances plant disease resistance to pathogenic Streptomyces scabies.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lan; Ge, Hui Ming; Yan, Tong; Qin, Yan Hua; Tan, Ren Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Each plant species in nature harbors endophytes, a community of microbes living within host plants without causing any disease symptom. However, the exploitation of endophyte-based phytoprotectants is hampered by the paucity of mechanistic understandings of endophyte-plant interaction. We here reported two endophytic Streptomyces isolates IFB-A02 and IFB-A03 recovered from a stress-tolerant dicotyledonous plant Artemisia annua L. After the determination of their non-pathogenicity at the genomic level and from the toxin (thaxtomin A, TXT) level, the endophytism of both isolates was supported by their successful colonization in planta. Of the two endophytes, IFB-A03 was further studied for the mechanism of endophyte-conferred phytoprotection owing to its plant growth promotion in model eudicot Arabidopsis thaliana. Using the endophyte-Arabidopsis co-cultivation system into which pathogenic Streptomyces scabies was introduced, we demonstrated that IFB-A03 pre-inoculation could activate the salicylic acid (SA)-mediated plant defense responses upon pathogen challenge. Moreover, IFB-A03 was shown to partially rescue the defense deficiency in eds5 (enhanced disease susceptibility 5) Arabidopsis mutants, putatively acting at the upstream of SA accumulation in the defense signaling pathway associated with the systemic acquired resistance (SAR). These data suggest that endophytic Streptomyces sp. IFB-A03 could be a promising candidate for biocontrol agents against S. scabies--a causative pathogen of common scab diseases prevailing in agronomic systems.

  3. Biodiversity, Phylogeny, and Antifungal Functions of Endophytic Fungi Associated with Zanthoxylum bungeanum.

    PubMed

    Li, Peiqin; Wu, Zhou; Liu, Tao; Wang, Yanan

    2016-09-13

    This study investigated the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi isolated from Zanthoxylum bungeanum. A total of 940 isolates obtained were grouped into 93 morphotypes, 43 species, and 23 genera, which were authenticated by molecular identification based on rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequence analysis. A high diversity of endophytic fungi from Z. bungeanum are observed with high species richness S (43), Margalef index D' (6.1351), Shannon-Wiener index H' (3.2743), Simpson diversity index Ds (0.9476), PIE index (0.9486), and evenness Pielou index J (0.8705) but a low dominant index λ (0.0524). Significant tissue specificity of the endophytic fungi was observed in Z. bungeanum, and the highest species richness and diversity indexes were obtained in the stem. Phylogenetic analyses of the 93 endophytic isolates were carried out by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method to demonstrate their evolutionary processes. Antifungal activities of endophytic fungi were assayed and eight endophytic isolates showed strong and long-lasting inhibition against host pathogenic fungi Fusarium sambucinum and Pseudocercospora zanthoxyli. Here, for the first time, we systematically demonstrate the biodiversity, phylogeny, and antifungal activity of endophytic fungi associated with Z. bungeanum and reveal the value of sampling different tissues of a given plant to obtain the greatest endophyte species diversity, which might offer a framework for further investigation and utilization of endophytic fungi as aunique source of interesting and useful bioactive compounds.

  4. High nitrogen supply and carbohydrate content reduce fungal endophyte and alkaloid concentration in Lolium perenne.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Parsons, Anthony J; Bassett, Shalome; Christensen, Michael J; Hume, David E; Johnson, Linda J; Johnson, Richard D; Simpson, Wayne R; Stacke, Christina; Voisey, Christine R; Xue, Hong; Newman, Jonathan A

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between cool-season grasses and fungal endophytes is widely regarded as mutualistic, but there is growing uncertainty about whether changes in resource supply and environment benefit both organisms to a similar extent. Here, we infected two perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) cultivars (AberDove, Fennema) that differ in carbohydrate content with three strains of Neotyphodium lolii (AR1, AR37, common strain) that differ intrinsically in alkaloid profile. We grew endophyte-free and infected plants under high and low nitrogen (N) supply and used quantitative PCR (qPCR) to estimate endophyte concentrations in harvested leaf tissues. Endophyte concentration was reduced by 40% under high N supply, and by 50% in the higher sugar cultivar. These two effects were additive (together resulting in 75% reduction). Alkaloid production was also reduced under both increased N supply and high sugar cultivar, and for three of the four alkaloids quantified, concentrations were linearly related to endophyte concentration. The results stress the need for wider quantification of fungal endophytes in the grassland-foliar endophyte context, and have implications for how introducing new cultivars, novel endophytes or increasing N inputs affect the role of endophytes in grassland ecosystems.

  5. The defensive role of foliar endophytic fungi for a South American tree

    PubMed Central

    González-Teuber, Marcia

    2016-01-01

    Fungal endophytes colonize living internal plant tissues without causing any visible symptoms of disease. Endophytic fungi associated with healthy leaves may play an important role in the protection of hosts against herbivores and pathogens. In this study, the diversity of foliar endophytic fungi (FEF) of the southern temperate tree Embothrium coccineum (Proteaceae), as well as their role in plant protection in nature was determined. Fungal endophytes were isolated from 40 asymptomatic leaves by the culture method for molecular identification of the 18S rRNA gene. A relationship between FEF frequency and plant protection was evaluated in juveniles of E. coccineum. Fungal endophyte frequency was estimated using real-time PCR analyses to determine endophyte DNA content per plant. A total of 178 fungal isolates were identified, with sequence data revealing 34 different operational taxonomic units (OTUs). A few common taxa dominated the fungal endophyte community, whereas most taxa qualified as rare. A significant positive correlation between plant protection (evaluated in terms of percentage of leaf damage) and FEF frequency was found. Furthermore, in vitro confrontation assays indicated that FEF were able to inhibit the growth of fungal pathogens. The data showed a relatively high diversity of fungal endophytes associated with leaves of E. coccineum, and suggest a positive relationship between fungal endophyte frequencies in leaves and host protection in nature. PMID:27339046

  6. Seasonality of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and dark septate endophytes in a grassland site in southwest China.

    PubMed

    Lingfei, Li; Anna, Yang; Zhiwei, Zhao

    2005-11-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungal colonization in a grassland in Kunming, southwest China, was investigated monthly over one year. All plant roots surveyed were co-colonized by arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungi in this grassland. Both arbuscular mycorrhizal and dark septate endophytic fungal colonization fluctuated significantly throughout the year, and their seasonal patterns were different in each plant species. The relationships between environmental (climatic and edaphic) factors and fungal colonization were also studied. Correlation analysis demonstrated that arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization was significantly correlative with environmental factors (rainfall, sunlight hours, soil P, etc.), but dark septate endophytic fungal colonization was only correlative with relative humidity and sunlight hours.

  7. Antifungal activity of eicosanoic acids isolated from the endophytic fungus Mycosphaerella sp. against Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Cristiane Bigatti; Pereira de Sá, Nívea; Borelli, Beatriz Martins; Rosa, Carlos Augusto; Barbeira, Paulo Jorge Sanches; Cota, Betania Barros; Johann, Susana

    2016-11-01

    The antifungal effects of two eicosanoic acids, 2-amino-3,4-dihydroxy-2-25-(hydroxymethyl)-14-oxo-6,12-eicosenoic acid (compound 1) and myriocin (compound 2), isolated from Mycosphaerella sp. were evaluated against Cryptococcus neoformans and C. gattii. The compounds displayed antifungal activities against several isolates of C. neoformans and C. gattii, with minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values ranging from 0.49 to 7.82 μM for compound 1 and 0.48-1.95 μM for compound 2. In the checkerboard microtiter test, both compounds exhibited synergistic activity with amphotericin B against C. gattii. Ultrastructural analysis revealed several signs of damage in C. gattii and C. neoformans cells treated with compounds 1 and 2, including deformities in cell shape, depressions on the surface, and withered cells. The cells of C. gattii treated with compounds 1 and 2 showed less loss of cellular material in comparison to those treated with amphotericin B. The difference in cellular material loss increased in a test compound concentration-dependent manner. Consistent with this observation, compounds 1 and 2 were able to internalize propidium iodide (PI) in C. gattii cells. In addition, compound 2 induced the formation of several pseudohyphae, suggesting that it could reduce virulence in C. gattii cells. The study results show that these natural products led to membrane damage; however, this may not be the main target of action. These compounds have potential antifungal activity and could be useful in further studies for developing more effective combination therapies with amphotericin B and reducing side effects in patients.

  8. A spectroscopy approach to the study of virus infection in the endophytic fungus Epichloë festucae

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In this work we propose a rapid method based on visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) spectroscopy to determine the occurrence of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) viruses in Epichloë festucae strains isolated from Festuca rubra plants. In addition, we examined the incidence of infections by E. festucae in populations of F. rubra collected in natural grasslands of Western Spain. Methods Vis-NIR spectra (400-2498 nm) from 124 virus-infected and virus-free E. festucae isolates were recorded directly from ground and freeze-dried mycelium. To estimate how well the spectra for uninfected and infected fungal samples could be differentiated, we used partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS1-DA) and several data pre-treatments to develop calibration models. Results Applying the best regression model, obtained with two sampling years and using standard normal variate (SNV) combined with first derivative transformation to a new validating data set (42 samples), we obtained a correct classification for 75% of the uninfected isolates and up to 86% of the infected isolates. Conclusions The results obtained suggest that Vis-NIR spectroscopy is a promising technology for detection of viral infections in fungal samples when an alternative faster approach is desirable. It provides a tool adequately exact and more time- and cost-saving than the conventional reference analysis. PMID:21651818

  9. Plant functional traits and phylogenetic relatedness explain variation in associations with root fungal endophytes in an extreme arid environment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since root endophytes may ameliorate drought stress, understanding which plants associate with endophytes is important, especially in arid ecosystems. Here we characterized the root endophytes of 42 plants from an arid region of Argentina. We related colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF...

  10. Consumption of endophyte-infected fescue seed during the dry period does not decrease milk production in the following lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids in endophyte-infected grasses inhibit prolactin (PRL) secretion and may reduce milk production of cows consuming endophyte-infected grasses. We investigated the effects of consuming endophyte-infected fescue during late lactation and the dry period on mammary growth, differentiation ...

  11. Metabolites from the Fungal Endophyte Aspergillus austroafricanus in Axenic Culture and in Fungal-Bacterial Mixed Cultures.

    PubMed

    Ebrahim, Weaam; El-Neketi, Mona; Lewald, Laura-Isabell; Orfali, Raha S; Lin, Wenhan; Rehberg, Nidja; Kalscheuer, Rainer; Daletos, Georgios; Proksch, Peter

    2016-04-22

    The endophytic fungus Aspergillus austroafricanus isolated from leaves of the aquatic plant Eichhornia crassipes was fermented axenically on solid rice medium as well as in mixed cultures with Bacillus subtilis or with Streptomyces lividans. Chromatographic analysis of EtOAc extract of axenic cultures afforded two new metabolites, namely, the xanthone dimer austradixanthone (1) and the sesquiterpene (+)-austrosene (2), along with five known compounds (3-7). Austradixanthone (1) represents the first highly oxygenated heterodimeric xanthone derivative. When A. austroafricanus was grown in mixed cultures with B. subtilis or with S. lividans, several diphenyl ethers (8-11) including the new austramide (8) were induced up to 29-fold. The structures of new compounds were unambiguously elucidated using 1D- and 2D-NMR spectroscopy, HRESIMS, and chemical derivatization. Compound 7 exhibited weak cytotoxicity against the murine lymphoma L5178Y cell line (EC50 is 12.6 μM). In addition, compounds 9 and 10, which were enhanced in mixed fungal/bacterial cultures, proved to be active against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 700699) with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 25 μM each (6.6 μg/mL), whereas compound 11 revealed moderate antibacterial activity against B. subtilis 168 trpC2 with an MIC value of 34.8 μM (8 μg/mL).

  12. Effects of cutting frequency and height on alkaloid production in endophyte-infected drunken horse grass (Achnatherum inebrians).

    PubMed

    Zhang, XingXu; Li, ChunJie; Nan, ZhiBiao

    2011-06-01

    An evaluation was performed on the influence of mowing height (2.5, 5.0 or 7.5 cm) and mowing frequency (weekly or fortnightly) on levels of ergot alkaloids (ergine and ergonovine) formed in drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians, grown under greenhouse conditions. Samples were taken monthly and alkaloids were extracted and analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. Alkaloid levels increased more or less linearly with plant age over the first four months following establishment. Levels were higher in samples cut fortnightly compared to those cut weekly, and were higher when plants were cut at a mowing height of 7.5 cm vs. 2.5 cm. In most cases, the highest alkaloid levels observed were almost three times those of the lowest. If plant protection applications are developed for the endophytic fungus, Neotyphodium gansuense, it will be necessary to be aware of the potential role of plant husbandry practices (e.g., defoliation frequency and intensity) for reducing or enhancing levels of plant alkaloids. Similar husbandry factors may affect alkaloid levels in other Neotyphodium-grass associations, which would be interesting for further study.

  13. Biological control of Botrytis cinerea using the antagonistic and endophytic Burkholderia cepacia Cs5 for vine plantlet protection.

    PubMed

    Kilani-Feki, Olfa; Jaoua, Samir

    2011-11-01

    Antifungal activity of the Burkholderia cepacia Cs5 was tested in vitro and in vivo for the control of Botrytis cinerea . Bacterial biomass was significantly improved by the amendment of ZnSO(4), Mo(7)(NH(4))(6)O(24), and mannitol to the NBY medium; consequently, the amount of the secreted fungicides was increased. The quantification of B. cinerea inhibition, in liquid and solid conditions, showed an important sensitivity of this fungus to the strain Cs5 fungicides. Microscopic monitoring impact of these fungicides on mycelium structure showed an important increase in their diameter and ramifications in the presence of 0.75% supernatant. For the in vivo application of the strain Cs5, Vitis vinifera plantlets were inoculated with a Cs5 bacterial suspension, then with B. cinerea spores. The plantlets protection was total and durable when these two inoculations were made 3 weeks apart, which is the time for the endophytic bacterium to colonize the plantlets up to the top leaves. This protection is due to Cs5 antagonism and the elicitation of the plantlets self-defense via the root overgrowth.

  14. Characterization of endophytic Bacillus strains from tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum) displaying antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea Pers.

    PubMed

    Kefi, Asma; Ben Slimene, Imen; Karkouch, Ines; Rihouey, Christophe; Azaeiz, Sana; Bejaoui, Marwa; Belaid, Rania; Cosette, Pascal; Jouenne, Thierry; Limam, Ferid

    2015-12-01

    Eighty endophytic bacteria were isolated from healthy tissues of roots, stems, leaves and fruits of tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum). Four strains, named BL1, BT5, BR8 and BF11 were selected for their antagonism against Botrytis cinerea, a phytopathogenic fungus responsible of gray mold in several important crops, with growth inhibitory activity ranging from 27 to 53%. Morphological, biochemical, and molecular parameters as 16S rDNA sequencing demonstrated that the selected bacterial strains were related to Bacillus species which are known to produce and secrete a lot of lipopeptides with strong inhibitory effect against pathogen mycelial growth. Electrospray mass spectrometry analysis showed that these strains produced heterogeneous mixture of antibiotics belonging to fengycin and surfactin for BL1 and BT5, to iturin and surfactin for BR8, to bacillomycin D, fengycin and surfactin for BF11. Furthermore, these bacteria exhibited biocontrol potential by reducing the disease severity when tested on detached leaflets. Based on their antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea, these strains could be used for biological control of plant diseases.

  15. Anatomically and morphologically unique dark septate endophytic association in the roots of the Mediterranean endemic seagrass Posidonia oceanica.

    PubMed

    Vohník, Martin; Borovec, Ondřej; Župan, Ivan; Vondrášek, David; Petrtýl, Miloslav; Sudová, Radka

    2015-11-01

    Roots of terrestrial plants host a wide spectrum of soil fungi that form various parasitic, neutral and mutualistic associations. A similar trend is evident in freshwater aquatic plants and plants inhabiting salt marshes or mangroves. Marine vascular plants (seagrasses), by contrast, seem to lack specific root-fungus symbioses. We examined roots of two Mediterranean seagrasses, Posidonia oceanica and Cymodocea nodosa, in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea for fungal colonization using light and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. We found that P. oceanica, but not C. nodosa, is regularly associated with melanized septate hyphae in a manner resembling colonization by the ubiquitous dark septate endophytes (DSE) in roots of most terrestrial plants. P. oceanica roots were found to be colonized by sparse dematiaceous running hyphae as well as dense parenchymatous nets/hyphal sheaths on the root surface, intracellular melanized microsclerotia and occasionally also intra- and intercellular hyphae. The colonization was most prominent in the thick-walled hypodermis of the thinnest healthy looking roots, and the mycobiont seemed to colonize both living and dead host cells. Dark septate hyphae infrequently occurred also inside rhizodermal cells, but never colonized vascular tissues. The biological significance of this overlooked marine symbiosis remains unknown, but its morphology, extent, distribution across the NW Mediterranean Sea and absence in C. nodosa indicate an intriguing relationship between the dominant Mediterranean seagrass and its dark septate root mycobionts.

  16. Swainsonine-containing plants and their relationship to endophytic fungi.

    PubMed

    Cook, Daniel; Gardner, Dale R; Pfister, James A

    2014-07-30

    Swainsonine, an indolizidine alkaloid with significant physiological activity, is an α-mannosidase and mannosidase II inhibitor that alters glycoprotein processing and causes lysosomal storage disease. Swainsonine is present in a number of plant species worldwide and causes severe toxicosis in livestock grazing these plants. Consumption of these plants by grazing animals leads to a chronic wasting disease characterized by weight loss, depression, altered behavior, decreased libido, infertility, and death. This review focuses on the three plant families and the associated taxa that contain swainsonine; the fungi that produce swainsonine, specifically the fungal endophytes associated with swainsonine-containing taxa; studies investigating the plant, endophyte, and swainsonine relationship; the influence of environmental factors on swainsonine concentrations in planta; and areas of future research.

  17. Diversity and bioprospecting of actinomycete endophytes from the medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Nalini, M S; Prakash, H S

    2017-04-01

    The endophytic actinomycetes constitute one of the fascinating group of microorganisms associated with a wide range of plant species. The diversity of actinomycetes in plants and their tissue parts is a matter of debate as no consensus are derived between individual studies. Nevertheless, their diversity correlates with the occurrence in plant species harboured in unique regions of biologically diverse areas called "hot spots." Recent advances in the isolation techniques have facilitated the isolation of rare taxa from these environments. The biosynthetic ability of the endophytic actinomycetes has proven beyond doubt that these organisms have the potential to synthesize an array of compounds with novelty in structure and bioactivity and as a result are preferred in the natural product screening programs. In the years to come, the scientific world may await to discover many more novel actinomycete taxa with metabolic diversity and applications in therapeutics.

  18. Do the costs and benefits of fungal endophyte symbiosis vary with light availability?

    PubMed

    Davitt, Andrew J; Stansberry, Marcus; Rudgers, Jennifer A

    2010-11-01

    • Here, we examined whether fungal endophytes modulated host plant responses to light availability. First, we conducted a literature review to evaluate whether natural frequencies of endophyte symbiosis in grasses from shaded habitats were higher than frequencies in grasses occupying more diverse light environments. Then, in a glasshouse experiment, we assessed how four levels of light and the presence of endophyte symbioses affected the growth of six grass species. • In our literature survey, endophytes were more commonly present in grasses restricted to shaded habitats than in grasses from diverse light environments. • In the glasshouse, endophyte symbioses did not mediate plant growth in response to light availability. However, in the host grass, Agrostis perennans, symbiotic plants produced 53% more inflorescences than nonsymbiotic plants at the highest level of shade. In addition, under high shade, symbiotic Poa autumnalis invested more in specific leaf area than symbiont-free plants. Finally, shade increased the density of the endophyte in leaf tissues across all six grass species. • Our results highlight the potential for symbiosis to alter the plasticity of host physiological traits, demonstrate a novel benefit of endophyte symbiosis under shade stress for one host species, and show a positive association between shade-restricted grass species and fungal endophytes.

  19. Endophyte-infected fescue alters components of the acute phase response to lipopolysaccharide in beef heifers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen Angus and 8 Hereford X Angus (334.7 +/- 10.7 kilograms body weight) heifers were stratified by sire breed, temperament (using weaning exit velocity), and body weight and randomly assigned within strata to either an endophyte-infected (E+) or endophyte-free (E-) diet for 10 days to determine ...

  20. Endophytic fungi from plums (Prunus domestica) and their antifungal activity against Monilinia fructicola

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant endophytic microorganisms may play an important role in plant evolution, development, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, the use of these microorganisms to benefit agriculture is in its infancy. We isolated endophytic fungi from plum leaves, identified them using ITS1 an...