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Sample records for endoscopic ultrasonography magnetic

  1. Linear endoscopic ultrasonography vs magnetic resonance imaging in ampullary tumors

    PubMed Central

    Manta, Raffaele; Conigliaro, Rita; Castellani, Danilo; Messerotti, Alessandro; Bertani, Helga; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Vetruccio, Elena; Losi, Luisa; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Bassotti, Gabrio

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To assess linear endoscopic ultrasound (L-EUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in biliary tract dilation and suspect small ampullary tumor. METHODS: L-EUS and MRI data were compared in 24 patients with small ampullary tumors; all with subsequent histological confirmation. Data were collected prospectively and the accuracy of detection, histological characterization and N staging were assessed retrospectively using the results of surgical or endoscopic treatment as a benchmark. RESULTS: A suspicion of ampullary tumor was present in 75% of MRI and all L-EUS examinations, with 80% agreement between EUS and histological findings at endoscopy. However, L-EUS and histological TN staging at surgery showed moderate agreement (κ = 0.54). CONCLUSION: L-EUS could be a useful adjunct as a diagnostic tool in the evaluation of patients with suspected ampullary tumors. PMID:21105192

  2. Complications of endoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, C; Luigiano, C; Cennamo, V; Ferrara, F; Pellicano, R; Polifemo, A M; Tarantino, I; Barresi, L; Morace, C; Consolo, P; D'Imperio, N

    2011-06-01

    Since its development in the 1980s, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has undergone a great deal of technological modifications. EUS has become an important tool in the evaluation of patients with various clinical disorders and is increasingly being utilized in many centers. EUS has been evolving over the years; EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) for cytological and/or histological diagnosis has become standard practice and a wide array of interventional and therapeutic procedures are performed under EUS guidance for diseases which otherwise would have needed surgery, with its associated morbidities. EUS shares the risks and complications of other endoscopic procedures. This article addresses the specific adverse effects and risks associated with EUS, EUS-FNA and interventional EUS, namely perforation, bleeding, pancreatitis and infection. Measures to help minimizing these risks will also be discussed.

  3. [Tridimensional (3D) endoscopic ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Varas Lorenzo, M J; Muñoz Agel, F; Abad Belando, R

    2007-01-01

    A review and update on 3D endoscopic ultrasonography is included regarding all of this technique s aspects, technical details, and current indications. Images from our own clinical experience are presented.

  4. Endoscopic ultrasonography: equipment and technique.

    PubMed

    Röesch, Thomas

    2005-01-01

    By definition, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) combines endoscopy and high-frequency ultrasound, incorporating a small ultrasonic transducer into the tip of endoscopes. For the upper gastrointestinal tract, mostly oblique-viewing endoscopes are used, although recently, forward viewing instruments have become available. For colorectal EUS, rigid probes for the rectum and a flexible forward-viewing echocolonoscope are available. EUS generates ultrasound either mechanically or electronically, depending on the type of instrument used. The electronic technique potentially allows the incorporation of (color) Doppler ultrasound, which allows for additional processing and postprocessing functions. This generally is considered the EUS technique of the future.

  5. Annular pancreas complicated by carcinoma of the bile duct: diagnosis by MR cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Y; Sugiyama, M; Sato, Y; Mine, Y; Yamato, T; Ishida, H; Takahashi, S

    2003-01-01

    It has been reported that annular pancreas should be evaluated for coexisting malignant tumors. However, no cases have been reported in which magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography clearly demonstrated an annular pancreas complicated by bile duct carcinoma. We present a case that emphasizes the importance of magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography in directly confirming a diagnosis of annular pancreas complicated by bile duct carcinoma.

  6. Endoscopic Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Gastric Subepithelial Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Eun Jeong; Kim, Do Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Subepithelial lesions occasionally found in the stomach of patients undergoing endoscopy may be either benign lesions or tumors with malignant potential. They may also appear due to extrinsic compression. Discrimination of gastric subepithelial lesions begins with meticulous endoscopic examination for size, shape, color, mobility, consistency, and appearance of the overlying mucosa. Accurate diagnosis can be achieved with endoscopic ultrasonography, which provides useful information on the exact size, layer-of-origin, and characteristic morphologic features to support a definitive diagnosis. Endoscopic ultrasonography also aids in the prediction of malignant potential, especially in gastrointestinal stromal tumors. Features of subepithelial lesions identified on endoscopic ultrasonography can be used to determine whether further diagnostic procedures such as endoscopic resection, fine needle aspiration, or core biopsy are required. Endoscopic ultrasonography is a valuable tool for diagnosis and clinical decision making during follow-up of gastric subepithelial lesions. PMID:27744661

  7. Diagnosis of pancreatic tumors by endoscopic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Hiroki; Kitano, Masayuki; Kamata, Ken; El-Masry, Muhammad; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2010-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors are highly diverse, as they can be solid or cystic, and benign or malignant. Since their imaging features overlap considerably, it is often difficult to characterize these tumors. In addition, small pancreatic tumors, especially those less than 2 cm in diameter, are difficult to detect and diagnose. For characterizing pancreatic tumors and detecting small pancreatic tumors, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the most sensitive of the imaging procedures currently available. This technique also provides good results in terms of the preoperative staging of pancreatic tumors. EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has also proved to be a safe and useful method for tissue sampling of pancreatic tumors. Despite these advantages, however, it is still difficult to differentiate between benign and malignant, solid or cystic pancreatic tumors, malignant neoplasms, and chronic pancreatitis using EUS, even when EUS-FNA is performed. Recently, contrast-enhanced EUS with Doppler mode (CE-EUS) employing ultrasound contrast agents, which indicate vascularization in pancreatic lesions, has been found to be useful in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic tumors, especially small pancreatic tumors. However, Doppler ultrasonography with contrast-enhancement has several limitations, including blooming artifacts, poor spatial resolution, and low sensitivity to slow flow. Consequently, an echoendoscope was developed recently that has a broad-band transducer and an imaging mode that was designed specifically for contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CEH-EUS) with a second-generation ultrasound contrast agent. The CEH-EUS technique is expected to improve the differential diagnosis of pancreatic disease in the future. This review describes the EUS appearances of common solid and cystic pancreatic masses, the diagnostic accuracy of EUS-FNA, and the relative efficacies and advantages of CE-EUS and CEH-EUS along with their relative advantages and their complementary roles

  8. Training in endoscopic ultrasonography: An Asian perspective.

    PubMed

    Wong, Jennie Y Y; Kongkam, Pradermchai; Ho, Khek Yu

    2017-01-09

    Training of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in Asia faces two major challenges: (i) the ever-increasing demand for skills to handle a growing range of interventional EUS procedures; and (ii) a continual shortage of EUS training programs. As the therapeutic application of EUS continues to expand, the need to train more new endosonographers and upgrade skills of existing ones has become more critical than ever before. A formal fellowship to acquire EUS knowledge and skills in an advanced endoscopy center has always been perceived as the best way of training novices, but such opportunities remain limited in most Asian countries. To keep up with the pace of development in EUS, more short-term EUS programs have been conducted across Asia in recent years. Such programs are generally intensive and may combine didactic lectures, live-case demonstrations, and hands-on training on phantoms, or live animal models for teaching. Although not as rigorous as conventional full-time EUS fellowships, such short-term programs are not necessarily inferior in quality. With courses offered from basic to advanced levels, and at regular intervals, busy practising endoscopists have the flexibility to attend the course that best matches their individual levels of experience, learn at their own pace and acquire EUS knowledge and skills over as many courses as desired. This open-ended progressive learning model is more agile than established fixed-term learning models and is expected to adapt better to future needs.

  9. Endoscopic ultrasonography for gastric submucosal lesions

    PubMed Central

    Papanikolaou, Ioannis S; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Kourikou, Anastasia; Rösch, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Gastric submucosal tumors (SMTs) are a rather frequent finding, occurring in about 0.36% of routine upper GI-endoscopies. EUS has emerged as a reliable investigative procedure for evaluation of these lesions. Diagnostic Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has the ability to differentiate intramural tumors from extraluminal compressions and can also show the layer of origin of gastric SMTs. Tumors can be further characterized by their layer of origin, echo pattern and margin. EUS-risk criteria of their malignant potential are presented, although the emergence of EUS-guided fne needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has opened new indications for transmural tissue diagnosis and expanded the possibilities of EUS in SMTs of the stomach. Tissue diagnosis should address whether the SMT is a Gastrointestinal stromal tumour (GIST) or another tumor type and evaluate the malignant potential of a given GIST. However, there seems to be a lack of data on the optimal strategy in SMTs suspected to be GISTs with a negative EUS-FNA tissue diagnosis. The current management strategies, as well as open questions regarding their treatment are also presented. PMID:21772939

  10. [The application of digestive endoscopic ultrasonography in the gallbladder pathology].

    PubMed

    Roseau, Gilles

    2004-08-28

    A WELL DEFINED PATHOLOGY: Bilary lithiasis and vesicular parietal abnormalities constitute the totality of the gallbladder pathology. The surgical experience and widely current use of digestive imaging, notably ultrasonography, have contributed to enlightening our knowledge of this pathology. POTENTIAL DIAGNOSTIC PROBLEMS: There is no particular problem in the diagnosis of gallbladder lithiasis and its treatment is currently codified. However the discovery of thickened gallbladder wall or polyps increases the fear of gallbladder cancer. A FUNDAMENTAL ROLE FOR ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY: Within the framework of screening for cancer, endoscopic ultrasonography, the performance of which in gallbladder pathology has rarely been studied, appears promising. Other than its role in the control of the extension of gallbladder cancers, it provides reliable characterisation of most of the polyps. Hence its place today is unavoidable in the therapeutic decision trees of such affections.

  11. Clinical application of endoscopic ultrasonography for esophageal achalasia.

    PubMed

    Minami, Hitomi; Inoue, Haruhiro; Isomoto, Hajime; Urabe, Shigetoshi; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2015-04-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has been widely used for evaluating the nature of diseases of various organs. The possibility of applying EUS for esophageal motility diseases has not been well discussed despite its versatility. At present, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) for esophageal achalasia and related diseases has brought new attention to esophageal diseases because POEM provides a more direct approach to the inner structures of the esophageal wall. In the present study, we discuss the clinical utility of EUS in evaluating and treating esophageal motility diseases such as esophageal achalasia and related diseases.

  12. Endoscopic ultrasonography: Challenges and opportunities in the developing world.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Furqaan

    2014-05-06

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has become a vital diagnostic modality for the evaluation of mediastinal lymphadenopathy, pancreatic cysts and masses, anorectal pathology, subepithelial gastrointestinal lesions, and for the staging of many gastrointestinal and pulmonary malignancies. Establishing a EUS program in a developing country presents many challenges. Doing so in Pakistan has led to the identification of the following challenges: initial investment, ongoing costs (particularly fine needle aspiration needle costs), awareness and cytopathology. Endoscopic ultrasonography has revolutionized aspects of the practice of gastroenterology and oncology in the West. This technique is becoming increasingly available in the developing world, where it poses unique challenges to its practice. These challenges include those relating to service initiation and maintenance costs, physician awareness, and on-site cytopathology access. If these issues are anticipated and addressed in ways appropriate to local circumstances, obstacles to the institution of EUS programs can be overcome.

  13. Endoscopic ultrasonography in the management of pancreatic cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trowers, Eugene A.

    2001-05-01

    Pancreatic cancer diagnosis and management has been enhanced with the application of endoscopic ultrasound. The close proximity of the pancreas to the stomach and duodenum permits detailed imaging with intraluminal ultrasonography and staging of pancreatic tumors. EUS directed fine needle aspiration and injection may be successfully employed with patients with pancreatic cancer. Expandable metal stents can palliate patients with obstruction of the pancreaticobiliary tract as well as the gastroduodenum. The efficacy of EUS in the management of pancreatic cancer is critically reviewed.

  14. [Interventionist endoscopic ultrasonography. A retrospective analysis of 60 procedures].

    PubMed

    Varas, M J; Miquel, J M; Abad, R; Espinós, J C; Cañas, M A; Fabra, R; Bargalló, D

    2007-03-01

    interventionist endoscopic ultrasonography is increasingly used because of its growing indications. We present here our retrospective and initial experience (60 procedures) with endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) both for diagnosis (EUS-FNA) and therapy (EUS-guided tumorectomy and mucosectomy). in a group with 27 cases including 10 submucosal tumors (SMTs), 2 adenopathies, and 15 potential pancreatic tumors (8 pancreatic cancers), a sectorial EUS-FNA at 7.5 MHz was performed for diagnosis prior to therapy (mainly surgical). A pancreatic pseudocyst was drained. In 21 cases with 27 SMTs (10 patients with 13 carcinoids) a tumorectomy was carried out using the standard loop or assisted polypectomy technique with submucosal injection, and in a few cases (two) using elastic band ligation following a radial EUS at 7.5, 12, or 20 MHz. In 6 cases of superficial gastroesophageal cancer or gastric dysplasia an endoscopic mucosal resection (classic EMR) was performed after EUS or MPs at 7.5 and 20 MHz. Fifty-five patients with 60 lesions, 29 femaes and 26 males with a mean age of 60 years (30-88 years) were retrospectively analyzed. diagnostic precision (P), sensitivity (S), specificity (Sp), positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) for EUS-FNA was 85, 83, 100, 100, and 43%, respectively, when comparing results with specimen histology. P was higher for adenopathies (100%) and pancreatic tumors (87%) than for SMTs (80%). No complications arose, except for one episode of upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) (3.7%) that was endoscopically and satisfactorily treated in a gastric SMT. In the group with 21 patients (10 carcinoids with 13 tumors) 27 SMTs were endoscopically treated by tumorectomy with no perforation and only 2 UGIBs (7.4%), one of them self-limited, recorded. Endoscopic resection was complete in 92% of cases. No complications occurred with classic EMR, and all patients are still alive with no evidence of relapse, either local or metastatic

  15. Accuracy of endoscopic ultrasonography for diagnosing ulcerative early gastric cancers

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Seok; Kim, Hyungkil; Bang, Byongwook; Kwon, Kyesook; Shin, Youngwoon

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Although endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the first-choice imaging modality for predicting the invasion depth of early gastric cancer (EGC), the prediction accuracy of EUS is significantly decreased when EGC is combined with ulceration. The aim of present study was to compare the accuracy of EUS and conventional endoscopy (CE) for determining the depth of EGC. In addition, the various clinic-pathologic factors affecting the diagnostic accuracy of EUS, with a particular focus on endoscopic ulcer shapes, were evaluated. We retrospectively reviewed data from 236 consecutive patients with ulcerative EGC. All patients underwent EUS for estimating tumor invasion depth, followed by either curative surgery or endoscopic treatment. The diagnostic accuracy of EUS and CE was evaluated by comparing the final histologic result of resected specimen. The correlation between accuracy of EUS and characteristics of EGC (tumor size, histology, location in stomach, tumor invasion depth, and endoscopic ulcer shapes) was analyzed. Endoscopic ulcer shapes were classified into 3 groups: definite ulcer, superficial ulcer, and ill-defined ulcer. The overall accuracy of EUS and CE for predicting the invasion depth in ulcerative EGC was 68.6% and 55.5%, respectively. Of the 236 patients, 36 patients were classified as definite ulcers, 98 were superficial ulcers, and 102 were ill-defined ulcers, In univariate analysis, EUS accuracy was associated with invasion depth (P = 0.023), tumor size (P = 0.034), and endoscopic ulcer shapes (P = 0.001). In multivariate analysis, there is a significant association between superficial ulcer in CE and EUS accuracy (odds ratio: 2.977; 95% confidence interval: 1.255–7.064; P = 0.013). The accuracy of EUS for determining tumor invasion depth in ulcerative EGC was superior to that of CE. In addition, ulcer shape was an important factor that affected EUS accuracy. PMID:27472672

  16. Role of Endoscopic Ultrasonography and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography in the Clinical Assessment of Pancreatic Neoplasms.

    PubMed

    Varadarajulu, Shyam; Bang, Ji Young

    2016-04-01

    Accurate diagnosis and staging of pancreatic neoplasms is essential for surgical planning and identification of locally advanced and metastatic disease that is incurable by surgery. The ability to position the endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) transducer close to the pancreas combined with the use of fine-needle aspiration enables the accurate diagnosis of pancreatic cysts and solid masses. EUS is also increasingly being used to procure core tissue for molecular analysis that facilitates personalized treatment of pancreatic cancer. Various therapeutic interventions can be undertaken under EUS guidance. This article focuses on the applications of EUS and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in pancreatic neoplasms.

  17. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography in digestive diseases.

    PubMed

    Hirooka, Yoshiki; Itoh, Akihiro; Kawashima, Hiroki; Ohno, Eizaburo; Itoh, Yuya; Nakamura, Yosuke; Hiramatsu, Takeshi; Sugimoto, Hiroyuki; Sumi, Hajime; Hayashi, Daijiro; Ohmiya, Naoki; Miyahara, Ryoji; Nakamura, Masanao; Funasaka, Kohei; Ishigami, Masatoshi; Katano, Yoshiaki; Goto, Hidemi

    2012-10-01

    Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography (CE-EUS) was introduced in the early 1990s. The concept of the injection of carbon dioxide microbubbles into the hepatic artery as a contrast material (enhanced ultrasonography) led to "endoscopic ultrasonographic angiography". After the arrival of the first-generation contrast agent, high-frequency (12 MHz) EUS brought about the enhancement of EUS images in the diagnosis of pancreatico-biliary diseases, upper gastrointestinal (GI) cancer, and submucosal tumors. The electronic scanning endosonoscope with both radial and linear probes enabled the use of high-end ultrasound machines and depicted the enhancement of both color/power Doppler flow-based imaging and harmonic-based imaging using second-generation contrast agents. Many reports have described the usefulness of the differential diagnosis of pancreatic diseases and other abdominal lesions. Quantitative evaluation of CE-EUS images was an objective method of diagnosis using the time-intensity curve (TIC), but it was limited to the region of interest. Recently developed Inflow Time Mapping™ can be generated from stored clips and used to display the pattern of signal enhancement with time after injection, offering temporal difference of contrast agents and improved tumor characterization. On the other hand, three-dimensional CE-EUS images added new information to the literature, but lacked positional information. Three-dimensional CE-EUS with accurate positional information is awaited. To date, most reports have been related to pancreatic lesions or lymph nodes. Hemodynamic analysis might be of use for diseases in other organs: upper GI cancer diagnosis, submucosal tumors, and biliary disorders, and it might also provide functional information. Studies of CE-EUS in diseases in many other organs will increase in the near future.

  18. Regional differences in use of endoscopic ultrasonography in Ontario: a population-based retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    James, Paul D.; Hegagi, Mae; Antonova, Lilia; Tinmouth, Jill; Heitman, Steven J.; Simone, Carmine; Yeung, Elaine; Yong, Elaine

    2017-01-01

    Background: Endoscopic ultrasonography is a safe and accurate modality for evaluating and managing hepatobiliary and gastrointestinal conditions (malignant and nonmalignant); its use is increasing. The aim of this study was to describe regional trends in the use of endoscopic ultrasonography in Ontario. Methods: We conducted a population-based retrospective cohort study using health administrative databases. We identified all patients who underwent an endoscopic ultrasound procedure in Ontario from 2003 to 2011 using physician billing data. Patient, physician and institution characteristics were examined. The primary outcome was use of endoscopic ultrasonography. Results: We identified 9076 endoscopic ultrasound procedures performed in 8001 patients (3858 women [48.2%]; median patient age at first procedure 59 years). A total of 3066 procedures (33.8%) involved fine-needle aspiration. Use of endoscopic ultrasonography increased 17-fold over the study period. In 2011, people living in the health region with the highest rate of use of endoscopic ultrasonography were more than 4 times more likely to undergo the procedure than people living in the health region with the lowest rate of use (standardized rate 61.6 v. 12.9 per 100 000). About 7 in 10 endoscopic ultrasound procedures were performed in an academic institution or regional cancer centre. All 17 endoscopists performing endoscopic ultrasonography during the study period practised in urban areas. Interpretation: Although the use of endoscopic ultrasonography increased over time in Ontario, there were marked regional differences in use. Provincial needs- and evidence-based initiatives may be needed to narrow the regional gaps in provision of endoscopic ultrasound services in the province. PMID:28600449

  19. Role of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer; comparison with multidetector row computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and endoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Ergul, N; Gundogan, C; Tozlu, M; Toprak, H; Kadıoglu, H; Aydin, M; Cermik, T F

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to analyze the contribution of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) imaging to the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer compared with multidetector row computed tomography (MDCT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). We retrospectively scanned the data of 52 patients who were referred for FDG PET/CT imaging for evaluation of pancreatic lesions greater than 10mm. The diagnostic performances of 4 imaging methods and the impact of PET/CT on the management of pancreatic cancer were defined. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma was diagnosed in 33 of 52 patients (63%), 15 patients had benign diseases of pancreas (29%), and 4 patients were normal (8%). Sensitivity and NPV of EUS and PET/CT were equal (100%) and higher than MDCT and MRI. Specificity, PPV and NPV of PET/CT were significantly higher than MDCT. However, sensitivities of two imaging methods were not significantly different. There was no significant difference between PET/CT and MRI and EUS for these values. When the cut-off value of SUVmax was 3.2, the most effective sensitivity and specificity values were obtained. PET/CT contributed to the management of pancreatic cancer in 30% of patients. FDG PET/CT is a valuable imaging method for the diagnosis and management of pancreatic cancer, especially when applied along with EUS as first line diagnostic tools. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. The diagnostic value of endoscopic ultrasonography and contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography in gastrointestinal stromal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yanchao; Qian, Linxue; Li, Peng; Zhang, Shutian

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and contrast-enhanced harmonic (CEH) EUS in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Patients and Methods: About 19 patients with suspected GISTs underwent EUS and CEH-EUS before tumor resection. The malignant potential was assessed according to the modified Fletcher classification system. Patients were divided into lower (Group I) and higher (Group II) malignant potential group. The clinical characteristics and EUS/CEH-EUS features were compared between two groups. Results: The tumor size in Group II was significantly larger than that in Group I (14.6 ± 5.8 mm vs. 32.1 ± 8.4 mm, P < 0.05). Heterogeneous echogenicity was observed in 4 (4/8) cases in Group II and none in Group I (P < 0.05). Irregular intratumoral vessels were detected in 6 cases in Group II and none in Group I (P < 0.05). The sensitivity and specificity of irregular vessel detection for discriminating higher from lower malignant potential GISTs were 75% and 100%, respectively. The positive predictive value and negative predictive value of detection of irregular vessels to high malignant potential GISTs were 33% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: Detection of irregular intratumoral vessels can predict higher malignant potential before tumor resection. The tumor size and echogenicity are assistant factors for malignant potential assessment. Endoscopic resection is an efficacious treatment with good security for appropriate patients. PMID:27080610

  1. Usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for selecting carcinoid tumors as candidates to endoscopic resection.

    PubMed

    Varas, M J; Gornals, J B; Pons, C; Espinós, J C; Abad, R; Lorente, F J; Bargalló, D

    2010-10-01

    Carcinoid tumors (CTs) represent the most common type of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs). Digestive CTs in the gastroduodenal and colorectal tracts may be assessed using endoscopy and echoendoscopy or endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) with the goal of attempting local resection with curative intent without having recourse to surgery. Endpoints in this study included:--Assessing the usefulness of EUS for selecting CTs as candidates to endoscopic excision. --Assessing the effectiveness of local resection (complete carcinoid resection) and the safety (complications) of the technique involved. OUr series included 18 patients (12 males and 6 females) with 23 tumors. Sixteen patients (10 males and 6 females) were selected, with age ranging from 40 to 81 years (mean: 57 years), biopsied, endoscopically treated digestive carcinoid tumors, and a previous negative extension study. Twenty-one 2-to-20-mm (mean size 8 mm) tumors were resected in 23 procedures. After endoscopy plus biopsy and echoendoscopy (EUS), excision was carried out with conventional polypectomy snare mucosectomy and submucosal injection with saline and/or adrenaline in most cases (15), and mucosectomy technique following lesion ligation with elastic bands for six cases. Two cases underwent transanal endoscopic surgery (TEM), one of them following non-curative polypectomy. A total of 23 local procedures were performed with the key goal of assessing efficacy (complete resection: CR) and safety (complications). There were no severe complications except for the last gastric mucosectomy for a 6-mm carcinoid, where a miniperforation occurred that was solved by using 3 clips (1/23: 4.3%).EUS sensitivity was 94%. Complete resection was 90.5% (19/21). The endoscopic mucosal resection of selected carcinoid tumors is a safe, effective technique. EUS is the technique of choice to select patients eligible for endoscopic resection (carcinoids smaller than 20 mm in superficial layers, with an unscathed muscularis propria and

  2. [Impact of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of aberrant right subclavian artery: a case report].

    PubMed

    Maeder, M; Binek, J

    2004-08-01

    Aberrant right subclavian artery (ARSA) is the most common anomaly of the aortic arch. We present the successful use of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the diagnosis of ARSA. A 65-year-old woman was admitted because of dyspnoea and inspiratory stridor. Bronchoscopy revealed a subglottic tracheal stenosis. To exclude an underlying malignancy, endoscopy was performed showing an oesophageal impression, which subsequently was identified as ARSA by EUS. Computed tomography excluded neoplasm and confirmed the diagnosis of ARSA. After laser resection of subglottic tissue the stridor resolved and could therefore not be attributed to the co-existence of ARSA. In most cases the ARSA crosses between the oesophagus and the spine from the descending aortic arch to the right and may seldom cause dysphagia due to oesophageal compression. Diagnosis is usually based upon computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, whereas angiography is only rarely needed. Endoscopic ultrasonography offers a convenient alternative diagnostic tool and can be performed even as a bedside examination. The diagnosis can be easily assessed in all patients referred for EUS of the upper gastrointestinal tract for any reason. Especially in patients undergoing invasive procedures in the upper thorax or neck, knowledge of an abnormal course of the great vessels is important. Arteria lusoria is often found by chance. EUS is a simple and excellent tool for assessing the diagnosis and usually does not require confirmation through other investigation methods.

  3. Interventional endoscopic ultrasonography: an overview of safety and complications.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Sánchez, María Victoria; Jenssen, Christian; Faiss, Siegbert; Napoléon, Bertrand

    2014-03-01

    In recent years, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided techniques have been developed as alternatives to surgical, radiologic, or conventional endoscopic approaches for the treatment or palliation of several digestive diseases. The use of EUS guidance allows the therapeutic area to be targeting more precisely, with a possible clinical benefit and less morbidity. Nevertheless, the risks persist and must be taken into consideration. This review gives an overview of the complications observed with the most established procedures of therapeutic EUS. The PubMed and Embase databases were used to search English language articles on interventional EUS. The studies considered for inclusion were those reporting on complications of EUS-guided celiac plexus block (EUS-CPB), EUS-guided celiac plexus neurolysis (EUS-CPN), drainage of fluid pancreatic and pelvic collections, and EUS-guided biliary and pancreatic drainage (EUS-BD and EUS-PD). Variations in methodology and design in most studies made a thorough statistical analysis difficult. Instead, a frequency analysis of complications and a critical discussion were performed. Although EUS-guided celiac plexus injection causes mainly mild and transient complications, growing experience shows that EUS-CPN is not as benign a procedure as previously thought. Most of the major complications have been observed in patients with chronic pancreatitis. The findings show that EUS-guided drainage of fluid collections is a safe procedure. Complications occur more often after the drainage of pancreatic abscesses and necrosis. Although the heterogeneity of studies dealing with pancreatobiliary drainage makes the evaluation of risks after these procedures difficult, complications after EUS-BD and EUS-PD are relatively frequent and can be severe. The technical complexity and the lack of specifically designed devices may account for their complication rates. Clinicians can consider EUS-guided celiac injection and EUS-guided drainage of fluid

  4. Diagnostic endoscopic ultrasonography: Assessment of safety and prevention of complications

    PubMed Central

    Jenssen, Christian; Alvarez-Sánchez, Maria Victoria; Napoléon, Bertrand; Faiss, Siegbert

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has gained wide acceptance as an important, minimally invasive diagnostic tool in gastroenterology, pulmonology, visceral surgery and oncology. This review focuses on data regarding risks and complications of non-interventional diagnostic EUS and EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB). Measures to improve the safety of EUS und EUS-FNB will be discussed. Due to the specific mechanical properties of echoendoscopes in EUS, there is a low but noteworthy risk of perforation. To minimize this risk, endoscopists should be familiar with the specific features of their equipment and their patients’ specific anatomical situations (e.g., tumor stenosis, diverticula). Most diagnostic EUS complications occur during EUS-FNB. Pain, acute pancreatitis, infection and bleeding are the primary adverse effects, occurring in 1% to 2% of patients. Only a few cases of needle tract seeding and peritoneal dissemination have been reported. The mortality associated with EUS and EUS-FNB is 0.02%. The risks associated with EUS-FNB are affected by endoscopist experience and target lesion. EUS-FNB of cystic lesions is associated with an increased risk of infection and hemorrhage. Peri-interventional antibiotics are recommended to prevent cyst infection. Adequate education and training, as well consideration of contraindications, are essential to minimize the risks of EUS and EUS-FNB. Restricting EUS-FNB only to patients in whom the cytopathological results may be expected to change the course of management is the best way of reducing the number of complications. PMID:23002335

  5. Diagnostic endoscopic ultrasonography: assessment of safety and prevention of complications.

    PubMed

    Jenssen, Christian; Alvarez-Sánchez, Maria Victoria; Napoléon, Bertrand; Faiss, Siegbert

    2012-09-14

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has gained wide acceptance as an important, minimally invasive diagnostic tool in gastroenterology, pulmonology, visceral surgery and oncology. This review focuses on data regarding risks and complications of non-interventional diagnostic EUS and EUS-guided fine-needle biopsy (EUS-FNB). Measures to improve the safety of EUS und EUS-FNB will be discussed. Due to the specific mechanical properties of echoendoscopes in EUS, there is a low but noteworthy risk of perforation. To minimize this risk, endoscopists should be familiar with the specific features of their equipment and their patients' specific anatomical situations (e.g., tumor stenosis, diverticula). Most diagnostic EUS complications occur during EUS-FNB. Pain, acute pancreatitis, infection and bleeding are the primary adverse effects, occurring in 1% to 2% of patients. Only a few cases of needle tract seeding and peritoneal dissemination have been reported. The mortality associated with EUS and EUS-FNB is 0.02%. The risks associated with EUS-FNB are affected by endoscopist experience and target lesion. EUS-FNB of cystic lesions is associated with an increased risk of infection and hemorrhage. Peri-interventional antibiotics are recommended to prevent cyst infection. Adequate education and training, as well consideration of contraindications, are essential to minimize the risks of EUS and EUS-FNB. Restricting EUS-FNB only to patients in whom the cytopathological results may be expected to change the course of management is the best way of reducing the number of complications.

  6. Incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotic patients undergoing upper endoscopic ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Esparrach, Gloria; Sendino, Oriol; Araujo, Isis; Pellisé, Maria; Almela, Manel; González-Suárez, Begoña; López-Cerón, María; Córdova, Henry; Sanabria, Erwin; Uchima, Hugo; Llach, Josep; Ginès, Àngels

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of bacteremia after endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) or EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is between 0% and 4%, but there are no data on this topic in cirrhotic patients. To prospectively assess the incidence of bacteremia in cirrhotic patients undergoing EUS and EUS-FNA. We enrolled 41 cirrhotic patients. Of these, 16 (39%) also underwent EUS-FNA. Blood cultures were obtained before and at 5 and 30 min after the procedure. When EUS-FNA was used, an extra blood culture was obtained after the conclusion of radial EUS and before the introduction of the sectorial echoendoscope. All patients were clinically followed up for 7 days for signs of infection. Blood cultures were positive in 16 patients. In 10 patients, blood cultures grew coagulase-negative Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium species, Propionibacterium species or Acinetobacterium Lwoffii, which were considered contaminants (contamination rate 9.8%, 95% CI: 5.7-16%). The remaining 6 patients had true positive blood cultures and were considered to have had true bacteremia (15%, 95% CI: 4-26%). Blood cultures were positive after diagnostic EUS in five patients but were positive after EUS-FNA in only one patient. Thus, the frequency of bacteremia after EUS and EUS-FNA was 12% and 6%, respectively (95% CI: 2-22% and 0.2-30%, respectively). Only one of the patients who developed bacteremia after EUS had a self-limiting fever with no other signs of infection. Asymptomatic Gram-positive bacteremia developed in cirrhotic patients after EUS and EUS-FNA at a rate higher than in non-cirrhotic patients. However, this finding was not associated with any clinically significant infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and AEEH y AEG. All rights reserved.

  7. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography of solid pancreatic lesions.

    PubMed

    Kwek, Boon Eu Andrew; Ang, Tiing Leong; Seo, Dong Wan; Imazu, Hiroo

    2013-07-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography is the best modality for pancreatic lesion evaluation as its superior spatial resolution allows small lesions to be identified and fine needle aspiration (FNA) cytology performed under ultrasound-guidance. Despite this, differentiating benign from malignant lesions remains a challenge as conventional ultrasound imaging is unable to differentiate lesions accurately and tissue yield is poorly diagnostic or limited in patients with the chronic inflammation. Contrast-harmonic technology uses a wide-band transducer capable of inducing sufficient acoustic energy to create harmonic microbubble oscillations of the newer second-generation ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs). These microbubbles are more stable, remaining within the intravascular component longer and emit significantly more harmonic content than surrounding tissue, thus allowing pancreatic parenchymal differentiation and microvascular architecture visualization. The use of UCAs is generally safe, but should be especially avoided in patients with unstable ischemic heart disease. During CH endosonography, pancreatic adenocarcinoma is commonly seen as an inhomogenous hypoenhancing lesion, focal pancreatitis as a hypo- or iso-enhancing lesion and neuroendocrine tumor as a hyperenhancing lesion. The presence of hyperenhancement is a strong predictor of non-adenocarcinoma etiology. Furthermore, in patients with the chronic pancreatitis or biliary stents that may obscure pancreatic inspection, the addition of contrast-harmonic endosonography to guide FNA cytology improves its diagnostic yield and accuracy. Quantitative analysis of perfusion through the time intensity curve is promising as an objective and accurate method to differentiate pancreatic lesions. Furthermore, studies are required to fully determine the role of contrast harmonic endosonography in the differential diagnosis of solid pancreatic lesions.

  8. [Laparoscopic cholecystectomy and lithiasis of the common bile duct: prospective study on the importance of preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography].

    PubMed

    Meduri, B; Aubert, A; Chiche, R; Fritsch, J

    1998-10-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the standard treatment of symptomatic gallstones. At present, no consensus has been reached on the diagnostic and therapeutic methods of concomitant common bile duct stones. Systematic preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography followed, if necessary, by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and sphincterotomy during the same anesthetic procedure could be a diagnostic and therapeutic alternative for common bile duct stones making possible a laparoscopic cholecystectomy without intraoperative investigation of the common bile duct. One hundred and twenty-five patients underwent a prospective endoscopic ultrasonographic evaluation prior to laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallstones. Fourty-four patients (35%) had at least one predictive factor for common bile duct stones. Endoscopic ultrasonography and cholecystectomy were performed on the same day. Endoscopic ultrasonography was followed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiography and sphincterotomy by the same endoscopist in case of common bile duct stones on endoscopic ultrasonography. Patients were routinely followed up between 3 and 6 months and one year after cholecystectomy. Endoscopic ultrasonography suggested common bile duct stones in 21 patients (17%). Endoscopic ultrasonography identified a stone in 17 of 44 patients (38.6%) with predictor of common bile duct stones and only in 4 of 81 patients (4.9%) without predictor of common bile duct stone. Among these 21 patients, one patient was not investigated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography because of the high risk of sphincterotomy, 19 patients had a stone removed after sphincterotomy, one patient had no visible stone neither on endoscopic retrograde cholangiography, nor on exploration of the common bile duct after sphincterotomy. Endoscopic ultrasonography was normal in 104 patients (83%). However, two patients in this group were investigated with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography because endoscopic

  9. Is endoscopic ultrasonography essential for endoscopic resection of small rectal neuroendocrine tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Park, Su Bum; Kim, Dong Jun; Kim, Hyung Wook; Choi, Cheol Woong; Kang, Dae Hwan; Kim, Su Jin; Nam, Hyeong Seok

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the importance of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for small (≤ 10 mm) rectal neuroendocrine tumor (NET) treatment. METHODS Patients in whom rectal NETs were diagnosed by endoscopic resection (ER) at the Pusan National University Yangsan Hospital between 2008 and 2014 were included in this study. A total of 120 small rectal NETs in 118 patients were included in this study. Histologic features and clinical outcomes were analyzed, and the findings of endoscopy, EUS and histology were compared. RESULTS The size measured by endoscopy was not significantly different from that measured by EUS and histology (r = 0.914 and r = 0.727 respectively). Accuracy for the depth of invasion was 92.5% with EUS. No patients showed invasion of the muscularis propria or metastasis to the regional lymph nodes. All rectal NETs were classified as grade 1 and demonstrated an L-cell phenotype. Mean follow-up duration was 407.54 ± 374.16 d. No patients had local or distant metastasis during the follow-up periods. CONCLUSION EUS is not essential for ER in the patient with small rectal NETs because of the prominent morphology and benign behavior. PMID:28373770

  10. Duodenal Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphomas: Two Cases and the Evaluation of Endoscopic Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Jin; Choi, Choel Woong; Ha, Jong Kun; Hong, Young Mi; Park, Jin Hyun; Park, Soo Bum; Kang, Dae Hwan

    2013-01-01

    Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma mainly arises in the stomach, with fewer than 30% arising in the small intestine. We describe here two cases of primary duodenal mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma which were evaluated by endoscopic ultrasonography. A 52-year-old man underwent endoscopy due to abdominal pain, which demonstrated a depressed lesion on duodenal bulb. Endoscopic ultrasonographic finding was hypoechoic lesion invading the submucosa. The other case was a previously healthy 51-year-old man. Endoscopy showed a whitish granular lesion on duodenum third portion. Endoscopic ultrasonography image was similar to the first case, whereas abdominal computed tomography revealed enlargement of multiple lymph nodes. The first case was treated with eradication of Helicobacter pylori, after which the mucosal change and endoscopic ultrasound finding were normalized in 7 months. The second case was treated with cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisolone, and rituximab every 3 weeks. After 6 courses of chemotherapy, the patient achieved complete remission. PMID:24143321

  11. Significance of telemedicine for video image transmission of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography procedures.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Shuji; Itaba, Soichi; Yada, Shinichiro; Takahata, Shunichi; Nakashima, Naoki; Okamura, Koji; Rerknimitr, Rungsun; Akaraviputh, Thawatchai; Lu, Xinghua; Tanaka, Masao

    2011-05-01

    cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) procedures.

  12. Endoscopic ultrasonography for pancreatic cancer: current and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Brizzi, Rosario Francesco; Pellicano, Rinaldo

    2013-01-01

    A suspected pancreatic lesion can be a difficult challenge for the clinician. In the last years we have witnessed tumultuous technological improvements of the radiological and nuclear medicine imaging. Taking this into account, we will try to delineate the new role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in pancreatic imaging and to place it in a shareable diagnostic and staging algorithm of pancreatic cancer (PC). To date the most accurate imaging techniques for the PC remain contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) and EUS. The latter has the highest accuracy in detecting small lesions, in assessing tumor size and lymph nodes involvement, but helical CT or an up-to-date magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) must be the first choice in patients with a suspected pancreatic lesion. After this first step there is place for EUS as a second diagnostic level in several cases: negative results on CT/MRI scans and persistent strong clinical suspicion of PC, doubtful results on CT/MRI scans or need for cyto-histological confirmation. In the near future there will be great opportunities for the development of diagnostic and therapeutic EUS and pancreatic pathology could be the best testing bench. PMID:23730519

  13. Role of endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of acute and chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Tyler

    2013-10-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) can be a useful tool for detecting underlying causes of acute pancreatitis and establishing the severity of fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis. Ancillary techniques include fine needle aspiration and core biopsy, bile collection for crystal analysis, pancreatic function testing, and celiac plexus block. This review focuses on the role of EUS in the diagnosis of acute and chronic pancreatitis.

  14. Diagnosis of Nipple Discharge: Value of Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonography in Comparison with Ductoscopy.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz, Ravza; Bender, Ömer; Çelik Yabul, Fatma; Dursun, Menduh; Tunacı, Mehtap; Acunas, Gülden

    2017-04-05

    Pathologic nipple discharge, which is a common reason for referral to the breast imaging service, refers to spontaneous or bloody nipple discharge that arises from a single duct. The most common cause of nipple discharge is benign breast lesions, such as solitary intraductal papilloma and papillomatosis. Nevertheless, in rare cases, a malignant cause of nipple discharge can be found. To study the diagnostic value of ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ductoscopy in patients with pathologic nipple discharge, compare their efficacy, and investigate the importance of magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of intraductal pathologies. Diagnostic accuracy study. Fifty patients with pathologic nipple discharge were evaluated by ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Of these, 44 ductoscopic investigations were made. The patients were classified according to magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, and ductoscopy findings. A total of 25 patients, whose findings were reported as intraductal masses, underwent surgery oincluding endoscopic excision for two endoscopic excision. Findings were compared with the pathology results that were accepted as the gold standard in the description of the aetiology of nipple discharge. In addition, magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and ductoscopy findings were analysed comparatively in patients who had no surgery. Intraductal masses were reported in 26 patients, 20 of whom operated and established accurate diagnosis of 18 patients on magnetic resonance imaging. According to the ultrasonography, intraductal masses were identified in 22 patients, 17 of whom underwent surgery. Ultrasonography established accurate diagnoses in 15 patients. Intraductal mass was identified in 22 patients and ductoscopy established accurate diagnoses based on histopathologic results in 16 patients. The sensitivities of methods were 75% in ultrasonography, 90% in magnetic resonance imaging, and 94.6% in ductoscopy. The

  15. Efficacy of Endoscopic Ultrasonography in Evaluation of Undetermined Etiology of Common Bile Duct Dilatation on Abdominal Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Nejati, Naimeh; Farsinejad, Maryam; Kolahdoozan, Shadi

    2016-10-01

    BACKGROUND The cause of common bile duct (CBD) dilatation cannot be determined by imaging modalities in many patients. The aim of this study was to assess the value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in detecting the cause of CBD dilatation in patients in whom ultrasonography could not demonstrate the cause of dilation. METHODS Prospectively, 152 consecutive patients who were referred for evaluation of dilated CBD (diameter ≥7 mm) of undetermined origin by ultrasonography were included in this study. All the patients underwent EUS. Final diagnoses were determined by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA), surgical exploration, or follow-up for at least 10 months. Patients with choledocholithiasis were referred for ERCP and sphincterotomy, and patients with operable tumors were referred for surgery.Patients with inoperable tumors underwent biliary stenting with or without tchemoradiotherapy. RESULTS 152 patients (54% female) with dilated CBD were included. Mean (±SD) age of the patients was 60.4 (±17.3) years. The mean CBD diameter for all study group in transabdominal ultrasonography and EUS were 11.7 millimeter and 10.1 millimeter, respectively. Most of the patients with dilated CBD and abnormal liver function test (LFT) had an important finding in EUS and follow-up diagnosis including peri-ampullary tumors. Mean diameter of CBD in patients with and without abnormal LFT were 10.5 IU/L and 12.1 IU/L, respectively. Final diagnoses included choledocholithiasis in 32 (21.1%),passed CBD stone in 35 (23%), opium-induced CBD dilation in 14 (9.2%), post-cholecystectomy states in 20 (13.1%), ampullary adenoma/carcinoma in 15 (15.8%), cholangiocarcinoma in 14 (9.2%), and pancreatic head cancer in9 (5.9%) patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of EUS for patients with abnormal EUS were 89.5%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 91.2%, and 90.9%, respectively

  16. Efficacy of Endoscopic Ultrasonography in Evaluation of Undetermined Etiology of Common Bile Duct Dilatation on Abdominal Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Sotoudehmanesh, Rasoul; Nejati, Naimeh; Farsinejad, Maryam; Kolahdoozan, Shadi

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The cause of common bile duct (CBD) dilatation cannot be determined by imaging modalities in many patients. The aim of this study was to assess the value of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in detecting the cause of CBD dilatation in patients in whom ultrasonography could not demonstrate the cause of dilation. METHODS Prospectively, 152 consecutive patients who were referred for evaluation of dilated CBD (diameter ≥7 mm) of undetermined origin by ultrasonography were included in this study. All the patients underwent EUS. Final diagnoses were determined by using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (FNA), surgical exploration, or follow-up for at least 10 months. Patients with choledocholithiasis were referred for ERCP and sphincterotomy, and patients with operable tumors were referred for surgery.Patients with inoperable tumors underwent biliary stenting with or without tchemoradiotherapy. RESULTS 152 patients (54% female) with dilated CBD were included. Mean (±SD) age of the patients was 60.4 (±17.3) years. The mean CBD diameter for all study group in transabdominal ultrasonography and EUS were 11.7 millimeter and 10.1 millimeter, respectively. Most of the patients with dilated CBD and abnormal liver function test (LFT) had an important finding in EUS and follow-up diagnosis including peri-ampullary tumors. Mean diameter of CBD in patients with and without abnormal LFT were 10.5 IU/L and 12.1 IU/L, respectively. Final diagnoses included choledocholithiasis in 32 (21.1%),passed CBD stone in 35 (23%), opium-induced CBD dilation in 14 (9.2%), post-cholecystectomy states in 20 (13.1%), ampullary adenoma/carcinoma in 15 (15.8%), cholangiocarcinoma in 14 (9.2%), and pancreatic head cancer in9 (5.9%) patients. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value and accuracy of EUS for patients with abnormal EUS were 89.5%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 91.2%, and 90.9%, respectively

  17. Utility of endoscopic ultrasonography in the evaluation of dilated common bile duct of undetermined etiology.

    PubMed

    Sotoudehmanesh, R; Nejati, N; Farsinejad, M; Kolahdoozan, S; Rahimi, R

    2014-04-01

    Occasionally, common bile duct (CBD) dilatation is discovered while working up patients for various causes. Not infrequently, the usual imaging modalities fail to identify the cause and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) becomes necessary. The aim of this study is to assess the value of EUS in identifying the cause of CBD dilatation undiagnosed by transabdominal ultrasonography. During 1 year, 152 consecutive patients who were referred for evaluation of dilated CBD (diameter ≥7 mm) discovered incidentally during transabdominal ultrasonography were included. Final diagnoses were confirmed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration, surgical exploration, or clinical follow-up of at least 10 months. One hundred and fifty two patients (54% female) with dilated CBD were included. Mean age of patients was 60 ± 17 years. The final diagnoses was choledocholithiasis in 32 (21.1%), passed CBD stone in 35 (23%), opium-induced CBD dilation in 14 (9.2%), post-cholecystectomy states in 20 (13.1%), ampullary neoplasia in 15 (15.8%), cholangiocarcinoma in 14 (9.2%) and pancreatic head cancer in 9 (5.9%). Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and accuracy of EUS for patients with abnormal EUS was 89.5%, 100.0%, 100.0%, 91.2%, and 90.9%, respectively. After diagnosis of CBD dilation by transabdominal ultrasonography, EUS may be a reasonable next choice for determining the etiology of dilated CBD.

  18. Role of Endoscopic Ultrasonography in the Evaluation of Extrahepatic Cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Strongin, Anna; Singh, Harkirat; Eloubeidi, Mohamad A.; Siddiqui, Ali A.

    2013-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma is a malignancy that arises from biliary epithelium and is associated with a poor prognosis. Accurate preopera-tive diagnosis and staging of cholangiocarcinoma continues to remain difficult. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is the most commonly performed procedure for cholangiocarcinoma and can provide a tissue diagnosis through brush cytology of the bile duct. However, the sensitivity of biliary brush cytology to diagnose cholangiocarcinoma may be as low as 30%. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is a diagnostic modality which may overcome the limitations of other imaging and biopsy techniques in this setting. EUS can complement the role of ERCP and provide a tissue diagnosis through fine needle aspiration (FNA) and staging through ultrasound imaging. There is currently a paucity of data about the exact role of EUS for the diagnosis of cholan-giocarcinoma in patients with indeterminate extrahepatic biliary strictures. Although multiple studies have shown that EUS is more accurate than ERCP and radiologic imaging for identifying a biliary mass and diagnosing cholangiocarcinoma, the sensitivities are variable. More importantly, the incidence of false negative results is not negligible, though the specificity is close to 100%. There is also controversy regarding the role of EUS-FNA, since even though this may increase diagnosis, it can also lead to tumor seeding. PMID:24949368

  19. Imaging of pancreas divisum by linear-array endoscopic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Malay; Pathak, Amit; Rameshbabu, Chittapuram Srinivasan; Rai, Praveer; Kirnake, Vijendra; Shoukat, Abid

    2016-01-01

    Pancreas divisum (PD) is the most common developmental anatomic variant of pancreatic duct. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is often performed to evaluate idiopathic pancreatitis and has been shown to have high accuracy in diagnosis of PD. The different techniques to identify PD by linear EUS have been described differently by different authors. If EUS is done with a proper technique it can be a valuable tool in the diagnosis of PD. The anatomical and technical background of different signs has not been described so far. This article summarizes the different techniques of imaging of pancreatic duct in a suspected case of PD and gives a technical explanation of various signs. The common signs seen during evaluation of pancreatic duct in PD are stack sign of linear EUS, crossed duct sign on linear EUS, the dominant duct and ventral dorsal duct (VD) transition. Few other signs are described which include duct above duct, short ventral duct /absent ventral duct, separate opening of ducts with no communication, separate opening of ducts with filamentous communication, stacking of duct of Santorini and indirect signs like santorinecele. The principles of the sign have been explained on an anatomical basis and the techniques and the principles described in the review will be helpful in technical evaluation of PD during EUS. PMID:26879163

  20. Effectiveness of Endoscopic Ultrasonography during Double Balloon Enteroscopy for characterization and management of small bowel submucosal tumours.

    PubMed

    Murino, Alberto; Nakamura, Masanao; Watanabe, Osamu; Yamamura, Takeshi; Nagura, Asuka; Yoshimura, Toru; Nakano, Arihiro; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2016-10-01

    Characterization of small bowel submucosal tumours is challenging, requiring additional investigations. Endoscopic Ultrasonography performed during Double Balloon Enteroscopy, appeared a promising technique although it has not been fully evaluated. The aim was to determine the effectiveness of this technique for characterization and management of sub mucosal tumours in a large cohort of patients. Patients with suspected small bowel tumours, who underwent Endoscopic Ultrasonography performed during Double Balloon Enteroscopy in our Institution between 2005 and 2013, were reviewed. Demographic data, clinical, endoscopic and radiological findings, therapeutic management, final diagnosis and follow-up were analyzed. 30 patients (19 male; median age 61.5) affected by submucosal tumours were included in the study. Endoscopic Ultrasonography performed during Double Balloon Enteroscopy was successfully performed in all cases providing a correct characterization of 19 submucosal tumours (63%). Based on the ultrasonographic characteristics 8 patients were treated endoscopically, 16 were referred to surgery, and 6 were managed conservatively. Our results suggest that Endoscopic Ultrasonography performed during Double Balloon Enteroscopy is a safe and useful technique for submucosal tumours characterization. This procedure may be applied in clinical practice when small bowel tumours are encountered, to confirm the diagnosis and provide the most appropriate management. Copyright © 2016 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Biliary and pancreatic stenting: Devices and insertion techniques in therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Mangiavillano, Benedetto; Pagano, Nico; Baron, Todd H; Arena, Monica; Iabichino, Giuseppe; Consolo, Pierluigi; Opocher, Enrico; Luigiano, Carmelo

    2016-01-01

    Stents are tubular devices made of plastic or metal. Endoscopic stenting is the most common treatment for obstruction of the common bile duct or of the main pancreatic duct, but also employed for the treatment of bilio-pancreatic leakages, for preventing post- endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography pancreatitis and to drain the gallbladder and pancreatic fluid collections. Recent progresses in techniques of stent insertion and metal stent design are represented by new, fully-covered lumen apposing metal stents. These stents are specifically designed for transmural drainage, with a saddle-shape design and bilateral flanges, to provide lumen-to-lumen anchoring, reducing the risk of migration and leakage. This review is an update of the technique of stent insertion and metal stent deployment, of the most recent data available on stent types and characteristics and the new applications for biliopancreatic stents. PMID:26862364

  2. What types of early gastric cancer are indicated for endoscopic ultrasonography staging of invasion depth?

    PubMed

    Watari, Jiro; Ueyama, Shigemitsu; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ikehara, Hisatomo; Hori, Kazutoshi; Hara, Ken; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Okugawa, Takuya; Kondo, Takashi; Kono, Tomoaki; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Oshima, Tadayuki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Miwa, Hiroto

    2016-08-25

    To clarify the diagnostic efficacy and limitations of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and the characteristics of early gastric cancers (EGCs) that are indications for EUS-based assessment of cancer invasion depth. We retrospectively investigated the cases of 153 EGC patients who underwent conventional endoscopy (CE) and EUS (20 MHz) before treatment. We found that 13.7% were "inconclusive" cases with low-quality EUS images, including all nine of the cases with protruded (0-I)-type EGCs. There was no significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy between CE and EUS. Two significant independent risk factors for misdiagnosis by EUS were identified-ulcer scarring [UL(+); odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, P = 0.003] and non-indication criteria for endoscopic resection (ER) (OR = 3.02, P = 0.03). In the subgroup analysis, 23.1% of the differentiated-type cancers exhibiting SM massive invasion (SM2) invasion (submucosal invasion ≥ 500 μm) by CE were correctly diagnosed by EUS, and 23.1% of the undifferentiated-type EGCs meeting the expanded-indication criteria for ER were correctly diagnosed by EUS. There is no need to perform EUS for UL(+) EGCs or 0-I-type EGCs, but EUS may enhance the pretreatment staging of differentiated-type EGCs with SM2 invasion without UL or undifferentiated-type EGCs revealed by CE as meeting the expanded-indication criteria for ER.

  3. What types of early gastric cancer are indicated for endoscopic ultrasonography staging of invasion depth?

    PubMed Central

    Watari, Jiro; Ueyama, Shigemitsu; Tomita, Toshihiko; Ikehara, Hisatomo; Hori, Kazutoshi; Hara, Ken; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Okugawa, Takuya; Kondo, Takashi; Kono, Tomoaki; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Oshima, Tadayuki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Miwa, Hiroto

    2016-01-01

    AIM To clarify the diagnostic efficacy and limitations of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and the characteristics of early gastric cancers (EGCs) that are indications for EUS-based assessment of cancer invasion depth. METHODS We retrospectively investigated the cases of 153 EGC patients who underwent conventional endoscopy (CE) and EUS (20 MHz) before treatment. RESULTS We found that 13.7% were “inconclusive” cases with low-quality EUS images, including all nine of the cases with protruded (0-I)-type EGCs. There was no significant difference in the diagnostic accuracy between CE and EUS. Two significant independent risk factors for misdiagnosis by EUS were identified-ulcer scarring [UL(+); odds ratio (OR) = 4.49, P = 0.003] and non-indication criteria for endoscopic resection (ER) (OR = 3.02, P = 0.03). In the subgroup analysis, 23.1% of the differentiated-type cancers exhibiting SM massive invasion (SM2) invasion (submucosal invasion ≥ 500 μm) by CE were correctly diagnosed by EUS, and 23.1% of the undifferentiated-type EGCs meeting the expanded-indication criteria for ER were correctly diagnosed by EUS. CONCLUSION There is no need to perform EUS for UL(+) EGCs or 0-I-type EGCs, but EUS may enhance the pretreatment staging of differentiated-type EGCs with SM2 invasion without UL or undifferentiated-type EGCs revealed by CE as meeting the expanded-indication criteria for ER. PMID:27621768

  4. Endoscopic transpapillary biopsies and intraductal ultrasonography in the diagnostics of bile duct strictures: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Domagk, D; Poremba, C; Dietl, K-H; Senninger, N; Heinecke, A; Domschke, W; Menzel, J

    2002-01-01

    Background: In bile duct strictures, examination of wall layers by intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) performed during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be diagnostically useful. Methods: In the present study 60 patients with bile duct strictures of unknown aetiology were examined preoperatively by ERCP, including transpapillary biopsies and IDUS. Histopathological correlation was available for all patients undergoing these procedures. Results: Postoperative diagnosis revealed 30 pancreatic carcinomas, 17 bile duct cancers, three gall bladder cancers, and 10 benign bile duct strictures. Using endoscopic transpapillary forceps biopsies (ETP), a correct preoperative diagnosis was achieved in 36 of 60 patients (60% of cases). Among the 50 malignant tumours, preoperative diagnosis by ETP revealed a sensitivity of 52% and a specificity of 100%. ERCP supplemented by IDUS allowed for correct preoperative diagnosis in 83% of cases (50 of 60 patients), which was significantly higher than the accuracy of ETP (p=0.008). By combining ETP with IDUS, a correct preoperative diagnosis was made in 59 of 60 patients resulting in an accuracy rate of 98%. Conclusions: Because of its low accuracy, exclusive use of ETP is not a reliable diagnostic tool for a definitive preoperative diagnosis of bile duct strictures. By combining IDUS and ETP with ERCP however, preoperative diagnostic accuracy can be improved substantially. PMID:12117887

  5. Preoperative classification of submucosal fibrosis in colorectal laterally spreading tumors by endoscopic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Makino, Tomoaki; Kanmura, Shuji; Sasaki, Fumisato; Nasu, Yuichirou; Funakawa, Keita; Tanaka, Akihito; Arima, Shiho; Nakazawa, Junichi; Taguchi, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Numata, Masatsugu; Uto, Hirofumi; Tsubouchi, Hirohito; Ido, Akio

    2015-01-01

    Background and study aims: Although endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an established therapy for colon neoplasms including laterally spreading tumors (LSTs), its application to advanced fibrotic lesions is very difficult owing to the thin walls of the large intestine. We examined the ability of preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) to predict lesion fibrosis in patients undergoing colorectal ESD. Patients and methods: From 2009 to 2013, 58 LSTs were evaluated retrospectively with EUS and treated using colorectal ESD. The degree of submucosal fibrosis was determined during ESD and classified as F0 (no fibrosis), F1 (mild fibrosis), or F2 (severe fibrosis). Results: The sensitivity and specificity of fibrosis prediction by preoperative EUS of all cases were 77.8 % and 57.1 %, respectively. However, there was a high accuracy (97.2 %, 35/36) for only the 36 LSTs with clear and visible images. In one case, EUS diagnosed no fibrosis but significant fibrosis was found during ESD, the result of colon cancer invasion into the submucosa. Conclusions: Preoperative EUS before colorectal ESD successfully predicted the degree of fibrosis in a number of cases. PMID:26357682

  6. Significance of normal appearance on endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of early chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Ai; Irisawa, Atsushi; Bhutani, Manoop S; Shibukawa, Goro; Yamabe, Akane; Fujisawa, Mariko; Igarashi, Ryo; Arakawa, Noriyuki; Yoshida, Yoshitsugu; Abe, Yoko; Maki, Takumi; Hoshi, Koki; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2017-07-06

    The Rosemont classification (RC) was developed as a consensus-based standard for the diagnosis of chronic pancreatitis (CP) by endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), however, it is more complicated than the conventional scoring system. We have noticed that in the early stages of CP, it is not unusual to observe pancreas with abnormal appearance coexisting with the areas of normal parenchyma. The aim of this study was to investigate the validity of a "normal" pancreas appearance and to evaluate the usefulness of modified diagnostic criteria in comparison to the traditional EUS criteria and the RC. One hundred and seventy-seven patients who had undergone both EUS and endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) within 2 months were enrolled in the study, and patients with pancreatic cancer were excluded from the study. ERP findings were used as the gold standard for the diagnosis of CP. The EUS images obtained were classified according to both the RC and our new modified criteria. The latter includes an additional criterion to the modified traditional criteria: fine-reticular pattern (F-RP) was defined as a normal pancreatic parenchyma. We compared the accuracy between the new modified EUS criteria and the RC. (1) Normal or equivocal findings on ERP were obtained for 132 patients; 113 patients had F-RP on EUS. In contrast, F-RP was found in only 6 out of 45 CP cases on ERP (P < 0.0001). (2) We investigated the diagnostic capability of our new criteria for endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography normal/equivocal pancreas compared to the traditional criteria. In cases where fewer than two points were defined as normal, the incidence of normal pancreas was significantly higher based on the new criteria than on the traditional criteria (P = 0.002). (3) No significant differences were found between the new criteria and the RC across all ERP grades. Our new proposed "normal-added EUS criteria" for diagnosing CP was equivalent to the RC.

  7. Early endoscopic ultrasonography in acute biliary pancreatitis: A prospective pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Anderloni, Andrea; Galeazzi, Marianna; Ballarè, Marco; Pagliarulo, Michela; Orsello, Marco; Del Piano, Mario; Repici, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the clinical usefulness of early endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in the management of acute biliary pancreatitis (ABP). METHODS: All consecutive patients entering the emergency department between January 2010 and December 2012 due to acute abdominal pain and showing biochemical and/or radiological findings consistent with possible ABP were prospectively enrolled. Patients were classified as having a low, moderate, or high probability of common bile duct (CBD) stones, according to the established risk stratification. Exclusion criteria were: gastrectomy or patient in whom the cause of biliary obstruction was already identified by ultrasonography. All enrolled patients underwent EUS within 48 h of their admission. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography was performed immediately after EUS only in those cases with proven CBD stones or sludge. The following parameters were investigated: (1) clinical: age, sex, fever; (2) radiological: dilated CBD; and (3) biochemical: bilirubin, AST, ALT, gGT, ALP, amylase, lipasis, PCR. Association between presence of CBD stone at EUS and the individual predictors were assessed by univariate logistic regression. Predictors significantly associated with CBD stones (P < 0.05) were entered in a multivariate logistic regression model. RESULTS: A total of 181 patients with pancreatitis were admitted to the emergency department between January 2010 and December 2012. After exclusion criteria a total of 71 patients (38 females, 53.5%, mean age 58 ± 20.12 years, range 27-89 years; 33 males, 46.5%, mean age 65 ± 11.86 years, range 41-91 years) were included in the present study. The probability of CBD stones was considered low in 21 cases (29%), moderate in 26 (37%), and high in the remaining 24 (34%). The 71 patients included in the study underwent EUS, which allowed for a complete evaluation of the target sites in all the cases. The procedure was completed in a mean time of 14.7 min (range 9-34 min), without

  8. Role of endoscopic ultrasonography in evaluation of metastatic lesions to the pancreas: a tertiary cancer center experience.

    PubMed

    Atiq, Muslim; Bhutani, Manoop S; Ross, William A; Raju, Gottumukkala S; Gong, Yun; Tamm, Eric P; Javle, Milind; Wang, Xuemei; Lee, Jeffrey H

    2013-04-01

    Metastatic lesions to the pancreas pose diagnostic challenges with regards to their differentiation from primary pancreatic cancer. Data on the yield of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided fine-needle aspiration in detection of these lesions are limited. This is a retrospective review of 23 patients referred to a tertiary referral center for further evaluation of suspected pancreatic metastases. Main outcome measures were diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration in evaluation of metastatic lesions to the pancreas. Of 644 patients, 23 (3.6%) undergoing EUS of the pancreas were diagnosed to have metastatic disease to the pancreas based on clinical, radiological, and cytological results. Mean (SD) age was 64.3 (11.7) years. Of the 23 patients, 18 (78.3%) were asymptomatic. Mean (SD) size of lesion on EUS was 39.1 (19.9) mm. A diagnosis of malignant lesion was made in 21 of 23 cases, with a diagnostic accuracy of 91.3%. Metastatic lesions to the pancreas present as incidental, solitary mass lesions on staging or surveillance imaging. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration is an important tool in the characterization and further differentiation of metastatic lesions to the pancreas from primary pancreatic cancer.

  9. Autonomous Retroflexion of a Magnetic Flexible Endoscope.

    PubMed

    Slawinski, Piotr R; Taddese, Addisu Z; Musto, Kyle B; Obstein, Keith L; Valdastri, Pietro

    2017-07-01

    Retroflexion during colonoscopy is typically only practiced in the wider proximal and distal ends of the large intestine owing to the stiff nature of the colonoscope. This inability to examine the proximal side of the majority of colon folds contributes to today's suboptimal colorectal cancer detection rates. We have developed an algorithm for autonomous retroflexion of a flexible endoscope that is actuated magnetically from the tip. The magnetic wrench applied on the tip of the endoscope is optimized in real-time with data from pose detection to compute motions of the actuating magnet. This is the first example of a completely autonomous maneuver by a magnetic endoscope for exploration of the gastrointestinal tract. The proposed approach was validated in plastic tubes of various diameters with a success rate of 98.8% for separation distances up to 50 mm. Additionally, a set of trials was conducted in an excised porcine colon observing a success rate of 100% with a mean time of 19.7 s. In terms of clinical safety, the maximum stress that is applied on the colon wall with our methodology is an order of magnitude below what would damage tissue.

  10. Impact of endoscopic ultrasonography and physician specialty on the management of patients with esophagus cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gines, A.; Cassivi, S. D.; Martenson, J. A.; Schleck, C.; Deschamps, C.; Sinicrope, F. A.; Alberts, S. R.; Murray, J. A.; Zinsmeister, Alan R.; Vazquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Nichols, F. C.; Miller, R. C.; Quevedo, J. F.; Allen, M. S.; Alexander, J. A.; Zais, T.; Haddock, M. G.; Romero, Y.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY While endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) are the most accurate techniques for locoregional staging of esophageal cancer, little evidence exists that these innovations impact on clinical care. The objective on this study was to determine the frequency with which EUS and EUS-FNA alter the management of patients with localized esophageal cancer, and assess practice variation among specialists at a tertiary care center. Three gastroenterologists, three medical oncologists, three radiation oncologists and four thoracic surgeons were asked to independently report their management recommendations as the anonymized staging information of 50 prospectively enrolled patients from another study were sequentially disclosed on-line. Compared to initial management recommendations, that were based upon history, physical examination, upper endoscopy and CT scan results, EUS prompted a change in management 24% (95% CI: 12–36%) of the time; usually to a more resource-intensive approach (71%), for example from recommending palliation to recommending neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. EUS-FNA plus cytology results altered management an additional 8% (95% CI: 6–15%) of the time. Agreement between specialists ranged from fair (intraclass correlation [ICC = 0.32) to substantial (ICC = 0.65); improving with additional information. Among specialists, agreement was greatest for patients with stage I disease. EUS and EUS-FNA changed patient management the most for patients with stages IIA, IIB or III disease. EUS, with or without FNA, significantly impacts the management of patients with localized esophageal cancer. With respect to the optimal treatment for each patient, agreement among physicians incrementally increases with endoscopic ultrasound results. Specialty training appears to influence therapeutic decision-making behavior. PMID:18430106

  11. Impact of endoscopic ultrasonography and physician specialty on the management of patients with esophagus cancer.

    PubMed

    Gines, A; Cassivi, S D; Martenson, J A; Schleck, C; Deschamps, C; Sinicrope, F A; Alberts, S R; Murray, J A; Zinsmeister, Alan R; Vazquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Nichols, F C; Miller, R C; Quevedo, J F; Allen, M S; Alexander, J A; Zais, T; Haddock, M G; Romero, Y

    2008-01-01

    While endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and EUS-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) are the most accurate techniques for locoregional staging of esophageal cancer, little evidence exists that these innovations impact on clinical care. The objective on this study was to determine the frequency with which EUS and EUS-FNA alter the management of patients with localized esophageal cancer, and assess practice variation among specialists at a tertiary care center. Three gastroenterologists, three medical oncologists, three radiation oncologists and four thoracic surgeons were asked to independently report their management recommendations as the anonymized staging information of 50 prospectively enrolled patients from another study were sequentially disclosed on-line. Compared to initial management recommendations, that were based upon history, physical examination, upper endoscopy and CT scan results, EUS prompted a change in management 24% (95% CI: 12-36%) of the time; usually to a more resource-intensive approach (71%), for example from recommending palliation to recommending neoadjuvant chemoradiation therapy. EUS-FNA plus cytology results altered management an additional 8% (95% CI: 6-15%) of the time. Agreement between specialists ranged from fair (intraclass correlation [ICC=0.32) to substantial (ICC=0.65); improving with additional information. Among specialists, agreement was greatest for patients with stage I disease. EUS and EUS-FNA changed patient management the most for patients with stages IIA, IIB or III disease. EUS, with or without FNA, significantly impacts the management of patients with localized esophageal cancer. With respect to the optimal treatment for each patient, agreement among physicians incrementally increases with endoscopic ultrasound results. Specialty training appears to influence therapeutic decision-making behavior.

  12. Microlithiasis of the gallbladder: role of endoscopic ultrasonography in patients with idiopathic acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Ardengh, José Celso; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto; Rahal, Fares; Pereira, Victor; Ganc, Arnaldo José

    2010-01-01

    Causes may be found in most cases of acute pancreatitis, however no etiology is found by clinical, biological and imaging investigations in 30% of these cases. Our objective was to evaluate results from endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) for diagnosis of gallbladder microlithiasis in patients with unexplained (idiopathic) acute pancreatitis. Thirty-six consecutive non-alcoholic patients with diagnoses of acute pancreatitis were studied over a five-year period. None of them showed signs of gallstones on transabdominal ultrasound or tomography. We performed EUS within one week of diagnosing acute pancreatitis. Diagnosis of gallbladder microlithiasis on EUS was based upon findings of hyperechoic signals of 0.5-3.0 mm, with or without acoustic shadowing. All patients (36 cases) underwent cholecystectomy, in accordance with indication from the attending physician or based upon EUS diagnosis. Twenty-seven patients (75%) had microlithiasis confirmed by histology and nine did not (25%). EUS findings were positive in twenty-five. Two patients had acute cholecystitis diagnosed at EUS that was confirmed by surgical and histological findings. In two patients, EUS showed cholesterolosis and pathological analysis disclosed stones not detected by EUS. EUS diagnosed microlithiasis in four cases not confirmed by surgical treatment. In our study, sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values to identify gallbladder microlithiasis (with 95% confidence interval) were 92.6% (74.2-98.7%), 55.6% (22.7-84.7%), 86.2% (67.4-95.5%) and 71.4% (30.3-94.9%), respectively. Overall EUS accuracy was 83.2%. EUS is a very reliable procedure to diagnose gallbladder microlithiasis and should be used for the management of patients with unexplained acute pancreatitis. This procedure should be part of advanced endoscopic evaluation.

  13. Digital image analysis of endoscopic ultrasonography is helpful in diagnosing gastric mesenchymal tumors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a valuable imaging tool for evaluating subepithelial lesions in the stomach. However, there are few studies on differentiation between gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) and benign mesenchymal tumors, such as leiomyoma or schwannoma, with the use of EUS. In addition, there are limitations in the analysis of the characteristic features of such tumors due to poor interobserver agreement as a result of subjective interpretation of EUS images. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the role of digital image analysis in distinguishing the features of GISTs from those of benign mesenchymal tumors on EUS. Methods We enrolled 65 patients with histopathologically proven gastric GIST, leiomyoma or schwannoma on surgically resected specimens who underwent EUS examination at our endoscopic unit from January 2007 to September 2010. After standardization of the EUS images, brightness values including the mean (Tmean), indicative of echogenicity, and the standard deviation (TSD), indicative of heterogeneity, in the tumors were analyzed. Results The Tmean and TSD were significantly higher in GIST than in leiomyoma and schwannoma (p < 0.001). However, there was no significant difference in the Tmean or TSD between benign and malignant GISTs. The sensitivity and specificity were almost optimized for differentiating GIST from leiomyoma or schwannoma when the critical values of Tmean and TSD were 65 and 75, respectively. The presence of at least 1 of these 2 findings in a given tumor resulted in a sensitivity of 94%, specificity of 80%, positive predictive value of 94%, negative predictive value of 80%, and accuracy of 90.8% for predicting GIST. Conclusions Digital image analysis provides objective information on EUS images; thus, it can be useful in diagnosing gastric mesenchymal tumors. PMID:24400772

  14. Endoscopic ultrasonography: Transition towards the future of gastro-intestinal diseases

    PubMed Central

    De Lisi, Stefania; Giovannini, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is a technique with an established role in the diagnosis and staging of gastro-intestinal tumors. In recent years, the spread of new devices dedicated to tissue sampling has improved the diagnostic accuracy of EUS fine-needle aspiration. The development of EUS-guided drainage of the bilio-pancreatic region and abdominal fluid collections has allowed EUS to evolve into an interventional tool that can replace more invasive procedures. Emerging techniques applying EUS in pancreatic cancer treatment and in celiac neurolysis have been described. Recently, confocal laser endomicroscopy has been applied to EUS as a promising technique for the in vivo histological diagnosis of gastro-intestinal, bilio-pancreatic and lymph node lesions. In this state-of-the-art review, we report the most recent data from the literature regarding EUS devices, interventional EUS, EUS-guided confocal laser endomicroscopy and EUS pancreatic cancer treatment, and we also provide an overview of their principles, clinical applications and limitations. PMID:26855537

  15. Role of Endoscopic Ultrasonography in Guiding Treatment Plans for Upper Gastrointestinal Subepithelial Tumors.

    PubMed

    Moon, Jeong Seop

    2016-05-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) subepithelial tumors (SETs) are usually observed incidentally by endoscopy and have diverse prognoses, varying from benign to potentially malignant. When a GI SET is suspected, endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is the most accurate diagnostic method to differentiate it from extraluminal compression. To determine the nature of GI SETs, EUS is also the most accurate diagnostic method, and reveals the precise sonographic nature of the lesion. There are some SETs with typical EUS findings of GI SETs, but most hypoechoic lesions are difficult to diagnose based on EUS images alone. EUS is also helpful to determine GI wall involvement in SETs and optimal treatment methods. For the diagnosis of GI SETs, obtaining a proper specimen is essential. EUS-guided cytology or biopsy methods such as fine-needle aspiration, Tru-Cut biopsy, and the newly introduced fine-needle biopsy (FNB) provide good results. To increase the diagnostic yield for GI SETs, cytology with immunocytochemical staining is used for cytological interpretation, resulting in good diagnostic yields. Recently, EUS-FNB using cheese slicer technology has been introduced, and has been reported to provide good diagnostic results for GI SETs.

  16. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided placement of a transhepatic portal vein stent in a live porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Tae Young; Seo, Dong Wan; Kang, Hyeon-Ji; Cho, Min Keun; Song, Tae Jun; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Percutaneous portal vein (PV) stent placement is used to manage PV occlusion or stenosis caused by malignancy. The use of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has expanded to include vascular interventions. The aim of this study was to examine the technical feasibility and safety of EUS-guided transhepatic PV stent placement in a live porcine model. Materials and Methods: EUS-guided transhepatic PV stent placement was performed in six male miniature pigs under general anesthesia using forward-viewing echoendoscope. Under EUS guidance, the left intrahepatic PV was punctured with a 19-gauge fine-needle aspiration (FNA) needle and a 0.025 inch guidewire inserted through the needle and into the main PV. The FNA needle was then withdrawn and a needle-knife inserted to dilate the tract. Under EUS and fluoroscopic guidance, a noncovered metal stent was inserted over the guidewire and released into the main PV. Results: A PV stent was placed successfully in all six pigs with no technical problems or complications. The patency of the stent in the main PV was confirmed using color Doppler EUS and transhepatic portal venography. Necropsy of the first three animals revealed no evidence of bleeding and damage to intra-abdominal organs or vessels. No complications occurred in the remaining three animals during the 8 weeks observation period. Conclusions: EUS-guided transhepatic PV stent placement can be both technically feasible and safe in a live animal model. PMID:27803904

  17. Comparison of multidetector CT and endoscopic ultrasonography in malignant pancreatic mass lesions.

    PubMed

    Arabul, Mahmut; Karakus, Funda; Alper, Emrah; Kandemir, Altay; Celik, Mustafa; Karakus, Volkan; Yucel, Kamil; Unsal, Belkis

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has been shown to be superior to conventional CT in detecting and staging pancreatic cancer. We conducted a prospective trial to compare EUS and MDCT, in discriminating benign/malignant, in determining local and vascular invasion of a suspected pancreatic cancer and deciding its resectability. The study was performed at the Gastroenterology Department of Izmir Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, from June 2009 to June 2010, all patients with suspected pancreatic and periampullary tumors referred to our department were enrolled. A total of 56 patients were evaluated at the beginning. Five patients having distal CBD tumor (n=2), gallbladder tumor (n=1) and papillary tumor (n=2) were excluded from the study. Analysis was done for the remaining 51 patients. For the diagnosis of resectability/unresectability, EUS alone demonstrated a definite role in 4 (9%) of the 43 patients in confirming surgical and pathologic results and MDCT alone demonstrated a definite role in 6 (14%) of the 43 patients in confirming their results. An accurate diagnostic decision regarding resectability/unresectability was accomplished in 27 (63%) patients with EUS and MDCT. While MDCT is clinically quite effective, in terms of a correct resectability/unresectability decision, EUS should also be used.

  18. Efficacy of Contrast-enhanced Harmonic Endoscopic Ultrasonography in the Diagnosis of Pancreatic Ductal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Uekitani, Toshiyuki; Kaino, Seiji; Harima, Hirofumi; Suenaga, Shigeyuki; Sen-yo, Manabu; Sakaida, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Distinguishing pancreatic ductal carcinoma (DC) from other pancreatic masses remains challenging. This study aims at evaluating the efficacy of contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CEH-EUS) in the diagnosis of DC. Patients and Methods: Forty-nine patients with solid pancreatic mass lesions underwent CEH-EUS. EUS (B-mode) was used to evaluate the inner echoes, distributions, and borders of the masses. The vascular patterns of the masses were evaluated with CEH-EUS at 30–50 s (early phase) and 70–90 s (late phase) after the administration of Sonazoid®. Results: The final diagnoses included DCs (37), mass-forming pancreatitis (6), endocrine neoplasms (3), a solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (1), a metastatic carcinoma (1), and an acinar cell carcinoma (1). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of the diagnoses of DC in hypoechoic masses using EUS (B-mode) were 89.2%, 16.7%, and 71.4%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the diagnosis of DC in hypovascular masses using CEH-EUS were 73.0%, 91.7%, and 77.6% in the early phase and 83.8%, 91.7%, and 85.7% in the late phase, respectively. Conclusions: CEH-EUS for the diagnosis of DC is superior to EUS. CEH-EUS in the late phase was particularly efficacious in the diagnosis of DC. PMID:27184637

  19. Diagnostic role of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration of gallbladder lesions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hong Jun; Lee, Sung-Koo; Jang, Ji Woong; Kim, Tae Gyoon; Ryu, Choong Heon; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sang Soo; Seo, Dong Wan; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2012-09-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) is a well-established diagnostic technique for examining various organs of the gastrointestinal tract and pancreas, but little is known about its use in the diagnostic work-up of GB lesions. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of EUS-FNA of GB lesions. Twenty-eight patients who underwent EUS-FNA for evaluation of GB lesions were enrolled. The pathological results and complications were assessed. EUS-FNA of GB was performed in 13 patients and that of enlarged lymph nodes was done in 18. Of the 13 GB lesions sampled by EUS-FNA, 10 were diagnosed as malignant and 3 were negative for malignant cells. Of the latter 3, two were false negatives for malignancy. All 14 metastatic lymphadenopathy cases were diagnosed with EUS-FNA of lymph nodes. EUS-FNA could differentiate adenocarcinomas and other malignant diseases. Cholecystitis occurred in one patient after EUS-FNA of the GB. EUS-FNA is a feasible, safe and reliable method for obtaining samples from GB lesions. EUS-FNA of lymph nodes is complementary to EUS-FNA of the GB and provides nodal stage as well as histological diagnosis.

  20. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography in gallbladder cancer and pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Takagi, Tadayuki; Suzuki, Rei; Konno, Naoki; Asama, Hiroyuki; Watanabe, Ko; Nakamura, Jun; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Waragai, Yuichi; Takasumi, Mika; Sato, Yuki; Hikichi, Takuto; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2017-08-09

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) plays a major role in diagnosing gallbladder (GB) cancer and pancreatic cancer (PC). In cases of GB cancer, EUS allows for precise observations of morphology and wall layers. However, proficiency is required for the morphologic diagnosis of GB tumors. Therefore, contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS (CH-EUS) began to be performed to diagnose GB lesions. CH-EUS enables real-time observation of the hemodynamics of GB tumors. The enhanced patterns generated by CH-EUS improve precision in the diagnosis of such tumors.PC appears as a hypoechoic mass on EUS. However, distinguishing between PC and mass-forming pancreatitis or focal autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) is difficult via conventional EUS. CH-EUS allows for differentiating among these diseases (PC is hypoenhanced and heterogeneously enhanced, pancreatitis is isoenhanced, and a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor is hyperenhanced). EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) also contributes to pathological diagnoses of pancreatic lesions. However, certain PC patients cannot be diagnosed via EUS-FNA. PC is heterogeneously enhanced on CH-EUS, and unenhanced regions have been reported to be areas of fibrosis or necrosis. CH-EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (CH-EUS-FNA) permits puncturing of the enhanced area while avoiding necrotic and fibrotic regions. Moreover, as CH-EUS findings have been quantitatively analyzed, a time-intensity curve (TIC) has become usable for diagnosing solid pancreatic lesions. CH-EUS-related techniques have been developed and increasingly utilized in the pancreaticobiliary area.

  1. Catheter probe endoscopic ultrasonography by using cold lubricating jelly-filled method for esophageal subepithelial tumors.

    PubMed

    Ahn, H J; Lee, S J; Park, J K; Jun, B G; Seo, H I; Han, K H; Kim, Y D; Jeong, W J; Cheon, G J

    2017-08-01

    Catheter probe endoscopic ultrasonography (C-EUS) by ultrasonographic jelly-filled method has been used to evaluate esophageal subepithelial tumors (SETs). Ultrasonographic jelly is safe on the skin, but its internal safety has not been demonstrated. The jelly stored at room temperature is easily injected into the esophagus through the instrument channel of the endoscope. However, using jelly stored at room temperature remains problematic because the jelly is drained rapidly. We used cold lubricating jelly and an intravenous extension tube to resolve these problems. In this study, we evaluated the safety and efficacy of cold lubricating jelly-filled method. The medical records of patients who underwent C-EUS by using water or cold lubricating jelly-filled method for esophageal SETs from March 2013 to September 2016 in Gangneung Asan hospital were reviewed. Clinical characteristics and EUS findings were evaluated retrospectively. Image quality and procedure time between water and cold lubricating jelly-filled method were compared retrospectively. This study included 138 patients (74 males, 64 females) with esophageal SET with a mean age of 57.1 ± 11.1 years. Thirty-four patients had lesions in the upper esophagus, 58 patients had lesions in the middle esophagus, and 46 patients had lesions in the lower esophagus. The EUS diagnoses were leiomyoma (82.6%), hemangioma (4.3%), extrinsic compressive lesion (3.6%), granulosa cell tumor (2.9%), ectopic calcification (1.4%), cyst (1.4%), lipoma (0.7%), varix (0.7%), and inconclusive lesion (2.2%). The mean image score in the cold lubricating jelly filled-method group was higher than that in the water-filled method group (3.2 ± 0.7 vs. 2.8 ± 0.7, P = 0.002). The procedure time in the cold lubricating jelly filled-method group was shorter than that in the water-filled method group (10 minutes 27 seconds ± 4 minutes 22 seconds versus 13 minutes 20 seconds ± 6 minutes 20 seconds, P = 0.045). No procedure

  2. Scientific publications in endoscopic ultrasonography: changing trends in the third millennium.

    PubMed

    Fusaroli, Pietro; Kypreos, Dimitrios; Alma Petrini, Chiara Ada; Caletti, Giancarlo

    2011-01-01

    The literature about endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is still very prolific although it was introduced in the early 1980s. We aimed to review last decade's scientific production and to compare it with our earlier data about the period from 1980 to 2000. EUS publications of the period January 2001 to January 2010 were retrieved. Reviews, prospective, and retrospective studies, randomized controlled trials, meta-analyses, surveys, guidelines, and case-series were assessed. Data were collected on the subject-matter, type of publication, number of patients included, publishing journal, most recent impact factor, year of publication, and country accredited for publication. A total of 1763 relevant papers were published in more than 250 journals. The main areas of research were pancreatic disorders, tumors of the gastrointestinal wall, the extrahepatic biliary tree, submucosal lesions, lung cancer, and mediastinal masses. It is interesting to note that the therapeutic applications of EUS accounted for a new field of investigation. The majority of articles comprised retrospective trials and reviews, followed by prospective studies and case series. However, a considerable number of randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses was retrieved, which were absent in the earlier survey. United States, Europe, and Japan still possessed a pivotal role on EUS research, but an increasing number of publications has also emerged from other countries. The available literature on EUS keeps expanding, encompassing not only its well-established diagnostic role, but also novel indications and therapeutic interventions. EUS has evolved into a valuable implement of modern clinical practice, with a critical effect on patients' management. A trend toward well-structured studies is evident.

  3. Contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography for assessment of lymph node metastases in pancreatobiliary carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Miyata, Takeshi; Kitano, Masayuki; Omoto, Shunsuke; Kadosaka, Kumpei; Kamata, Ken; Imai, Hajime; Sakamoto, Hiroki; Nisida, Naoshi; Harwani, Yogesh; Murakami, Takamichi; Takeyama, Yoshifumi; Chiba, Yasutaka; Kudo, Masatoshi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess the usefulness of contrast-enhanced harmonic endoscopic ultrasonography (CH-EUS) for lymph node metastasis in pancreatobiliary carcinoma. METHODS: All patients suspected of pancreatobiliary carcinoma with visible lymph nodes after standard EUS between June, 2009 and January, 2012 were enrolled. In the primary analysis, patients with successful EUS-fine needle aspiration (FNA) were included. The lymph nodes were assessed by several standard EUS variables (short and long axis lengths, shape, edge characteristic and echogenicity), color Doppler EUS variable [central intranodal blood vessel (CIV) presence] and CH-EUS variable (heterogeneous/homogeneous enhancement patterns). The diagnostic accuracy relative to EUS-FNA was calculated. In the second analysis, N-stage diagnostic accuracy of CH-EUS was compared with EUS-FNA in patients who underwent surgical resection. RESULTS: One hundred and nine patients (143 lymph nodes) fulfilled the criteria. The short axis cut-off ≥ 13 mm predicted malignancy with a sensitivity and specificity of 72% and 85%, respectively. These values were 72% and 63% for the long axis cut-off ≥ 20 mm, 62% and 75% for the round shape variable, 81% and 30% for the sharp edge variable, 66% and 61% for the hypoechogenicity variable, 70% and 72% for the CIV-absent variable, and 83% and 91% for the heterogeneous CH-EUS-enhancement variable, respectively. CH-EUS was more accurate than standard and color Doppler EUS, except the short axis cut-off. Notably, three patients excluded because of EUS-FNA failure were correctly N-staged by CH-EUS. CONCLUSION: CH-EUS complements standard and color Doppler EUS and EUS-FNA for assessment of lymph node metastases. PMID:27022220

  4. Efficacy of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor grading

    PubMed Central

    Sugimoto, Mitsuru; Takagi, Tadayuki; Hikichi, Takuto; Suzuki, Rei; Watanabe, Ko; Nakamura, Jun; Kikuchi, Hitomi; Konno, Naoki; Waragai, Yuichi; Asama, Hiroyuki; Takasumi, Mika; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Obara, Katsutoshi; Ohira, Hiromasa

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) for grading pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs). METHODS: A total of 22 patients were diagnosed with PNET by EUS-FNA between October 2001 and December 2013 at Fukushima Medical University Hospital. Among these cases, we targeted 10 PNET patients who were evaluated according to the World Health Organization (WHO) 2010 classification. Surgery was performed in eight patients, and chemotherapy was performed in two patients due to multiple liver metastases.Specimens obtained by EUS-FNA were first stained with hematoxylin and eosin and then stained with chromogranin, synaptophysin, CD56, and Ki-67. The specimens were graded by the Ki-67 index according to the WHO 2010 classification. Specimens obtained by surgery were graded by the Ki-67 index and mitotic count (WHO 2010 classification). For the eight specimens obtained by EUS-FNA, the Ki-67 index results were compared with those obtained by surgery. In the two cases treated with chemotherapy, the effects and prognoses were evaluated. RESULTS: The sampling rate for histological diagnosis by EUS-FNA was 100%. No adverse effects were observed. The concordance rate between specimens obtained by EUS-FNA and surgery was 87.5% (7/8). For the two cases treated with chemotherapy, case 1 received somatostatin analog therapy and transcatheter arterial infusion (TAI) targeting multiple liver metastases. Subsequent treatment consisted of everolimus. During chemotherapy, the primary tumor remained unconfirmed, although the multiple liver metastases diminished dramatically. Case 2 was classified as neuroendocrine carcinoma (NEC) according to the Ki-67 index of a specimen obtained by EUS-FNA; therefore, cisplatin and irinotecan therapy was started. However, severe adverse effects, including renal failure and diarrhea, were observed, and the therapy regimen was changed to cisplatin and etoposide. TAI targeting multiple liver

  5. Electrocautery vs non-electrocautery dilation catheters in endoscopic ultrasonography-guided pancreatic fluid collection drainage

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Katsuya; Yamamiya, Akira; Ishii, Yu; Nomoto, Tomohiro; Honma, Tadashi; Yoshida, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety and utility of an electrocautery dilation catheter for endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided pancreatic fluid collection drainage. METHODS: A single-center, exploratory, retrospective study was conducted between August 2010 and August 2014. This study was approved by the Medical Ethics Committee of our institution. Informed, written consent was obtained from each patient prior to the procedure. The subjects included 28 consecutive patients who underwent EUS-guided transmural drainage (EUS-TD) for symptomatic pancreatic and peripancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) by fine needle aspiration using a 19-gauge needle. These patients were retrospectively divided into two groups based on the use of an electrocautery dilation catheter as a fistula dilation device; 15 patients were treated with an electrocautery dilation catheter (electrocautery group), and 13 patients were treated with a non-electrocautery dilation catheter (non-electrocautery group). We evaluated the technical and clinical successes and the adverse events associated with EUS-TD for the treatment of PFCs between the two groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, sex, type, location and diameter of PFCs between the groups. Thirteen patients (87%) in the electrocautery group and 10 patients (77%) in the non-electrocautery group presented with infected PFCs. The technical success rates of EUS-TD for the treatment of PFCs were 100% (15/15) and 100% (13/13) for the electrocautery and the non-electrocautery groups, respectively. The clinical success rates of EUS-TD for the treatment of PFCs were 67% (10/15) and 69% (9/13) for the electrocautery and the non-electrocautery groups, respectively (P = 0.794). The procedure time of EUS-TD for the treatment of PFCs in the electrocautery group was significantly shorter than that of the non-electrocautery group (mean ± SD: 30 ± 12 min vs 52 ± 20 min, P < 0.001). Adverse events associated with EUS-TD for the treatment

  6. Diagnostic Value of Endoscopic Ultrasonography in Symptomatic Patients with High and Intermediate Probabilities of Common Bile Duct Stones and a Negative Computed Tomography Scan

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Tae Joo; Cho, Jae Hee; Kim, Yeon Suk; Song, Si Young; Park, Ji Young

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims When computed tomography (CT) does not indicate choledocholithiasis in highly suspicious patients, there is no definite consensus on the subsequent modality. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) indicates fewer procedure-related complications than endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and has a lower cost than magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the diagnostic value of EUS in patients with suspected choledocholithiasis and negative CT findings. Methods Between March 2008 and November 2014, we retrospectively evaluated 200 patients with negative CT findings and high or intermediate probabilities of choledocholithiasis. All patients initially underwent EUS followed by ERCP as a confirmatory criterion standard. The primary outcome in these patients was the accuracy of EUS in the detection of choledocholithiasis. The secondary outcome was the clinical prediction of common bile duct (CBD) stones in this group. Results EUS indicated choledocholithiasis in 165 of the 200 patients, and ERCP confirmed choledocholithiasis in 161 patients (80.5%). The accuracy of EUS in the detection of choledocholithiasis was 94.0% (sensitivity, 97.5%; specificity, 79.5%; positive predictive value, 95.2%; negative predictive value, 88.6%). A multivariate analysis demonstrated that choledocholithiasis was strongly predicted by EUS detection of choledocholithiasis, an age >55 years and a clinical diagnosis of cholangitis. Conclusions An EUS-first approach is recommended for patients with suspected CBD stones and negative CT findings. PMID:27965473

  7. Diagnosis of asymptomatic common bile duct stones: preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography versus intraoperative cholangiography--a multicenter, prospective controlled study. French Associations for Surgical Research.

    PubMed

    Montariol, T; Msika, S; Charlier, A; Rey, C; Bataille, N; Hay, J M; Lacaine, F; Fingerhut, A

    1998-07-01

    In patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis, preoperative diagnosis of common bile duct (CBD) stones can modify the therapeutic strategy. The aims of this prospective, controlled multicenter study were to assess the feasibility, concordance, discordance, and indexes such as sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography compared with those of intraoperative cholangiography (IOC) in the diagnosis of asymptomatic CBD stones (i.e., patients undergoing cholecystectomy with no clinical or biologic evidence of CBD stones). From October 1993 to October 1995, 240 consecutive patients with symptomatic cholelithiasis, scheduled for cholecystectomy in 14 surgical centers, were enrolled in this study. All patients were selected for this study according to a preoperative high-risk CBD stone predictive score. Each patient underwent both endoscopic ultrasonography and IOC, as well as surgical exploration of the CBD when stones were detected during one or both preoperative investigations. All patients were seen 1 months and 1 year after operation to check for residual stones. The feasibility of endoscopic ultrasonography was significantly higher overall than that of IOC (99% vs 90%; p < 0.001), except when IOC was through a laparotomy (97% vs 93%; p = 0.16). The number of patients available for study was 215. In 198 cases (92%), results of both investigations were in concordance (161 negative and 37 positive values). Seventeen cases (8%) were discordant. There was overall concordance between the two investigations (kappa coefficient 0.764; 95% confidence interval 0.66 to 0.87), but the percentage of discordance was in favor of IOC. Sensitivity and specificity of IOC were significantly higher than those of endoscopic ultrasonography (1.00 and 0.98 vs 0.85 and 0.93, respectively). With a prevalence of CBD stones of 19%, positive and negative predictive values of IOC were significantly higher than those of

  8. Role of endoscopic ultrasonography in the loco-regional staging of patients with rectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Marone, Pietro; de Bellis, Mario; D’Angelo, Valentina; Delrio, Paolo; Passananti, Valentina; Di Girolamo, Elena; Rossi, Giovanni Battista; Rega, Daniela; Tracey, Maura Claire; Tempesta, Alfonso Mario

    2015-01-01

    The prognosis of rectal cancer (RC) is strictly related to both T and N stage of the disease at the time of diagnosis. RC staging is crucial for choosing the best multimodal therapy: patients with high risk locally advanced RC (LARC) undergo surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy (NAT); those with low risk LARC are operated on after a preoperative short-course radiation therapy; finally, surgery alone is recommended only for early RC. Several imaging methods are used for staging patients with RC: computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). EUS is highly accurate for the loco-regional staging of RC, since it is capable to evaluate precisely the mural infiltration of the tumor (T), especially in early RC. On the other hand, EUS is less accurate in restaging RC after NAT and before surgery. Finally, EUS is indicated for follow-up of patients operated on for RC, where there is a need for the surveillance of the anastomosis. The aim of this review is to highlight the impact of EUS on the management of patients with RC, evaluating its role in both preoperative staging and follow-up of patients after surgery. PMID:26140096

  9. Safety and Utility of Single-Session Endoscopic Ultrasonography and Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography for the Evaluation of Pancreatobiliary Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Kawakubo, Kazumichi; Kuwatani, Masaki; Haba, Shin; Kudo, Taiki; Abe, Yoko; Kawahata, Shuhei; Onodera, Manabu; Ehira, Nobuyuki; Yamato, Hiroaki; Eto, Kazunori; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) are essential for diagnosing and treating pancreatobiliary diseases. Single-session EUS and ERCP are considered to be essential in reducing the duration of hospital stays; however, complications are a primary concern. The aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of single-session EUS and ERCP. Sixty-eight patients underwent single-session EUS and ERCP at a tertiary referral center between June 2008 and December 2012. We retrospectively reviewed patient data from a prospectively maintained EUS-ERCP database and evaluated the procedural characteristics and complications. Thirty-eight patients (56%) underwent diagnostic EUS, and 30 patients (44%) underwent EUS fine-needle aspiration, which had an overall accuracy of 100%. Sixty patients (89%) underwent therapeutic ERCP, whereas the remaining eight procedures were diagnostic. Thirteen patients underwent biliary stone extraction, and 48 underwent biliary drainage. The median total procedural time was 75 minutes. Complications were observed in seven patients (10%). Six complications were post-ERCP pancreatitis, which were resolved using conservative management. One patient developed Mallory-Weiss syndrome, which required endoscopic hemostasis. No sedation-related cardiopulmonary complications were observed. Single-session EUS and ERCP provided accurate diagnosis and effective management with a minimal complication rate. PMID:24827632

  10. Endoscope-magnetic tracker calibration via trust region optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sargent, Dusty

    2010-02-01

    Minimally invasive surgical techniques and advanced imaging systems are gaining prevalence in modern clinical practice. Using miniaturized magnetic trackers in combination with these procedures can help physicians with the orientation and guidance of instruments in graphical displays, navigation during surgery, 3D reconstruction of anatomy, and other applications. Magnetic trackers are often used in conjunction with other sensors or instruments such as endoscopes and optical trackers. In such applications, complex calibration procedures are required to align the coordinate systems of the different devices in order to produce accurate results. Unfortunately, current calibration procedures developed for augmented reality are cumbersome and unsuitable for repeated use in a clinical setting. This paper presents an efficient automated endoscope-tracker calibration algorithm for clinical applications. The algorithm is based on a state-of-the-art trust region optimization method and requires minimal intervention from the endoscope operator. The only required input is a short video of a calibration grid taken with the endoscope and attached magnetic tracker prior to the procedure. The three stage calibration process uses a traditional camera calibration to determine the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of the endoscope, and then the endoscope is registered in the tracker's reference frame using a novel linear estimation method and a trust region optimization algorithm. This innovative method eliminates the need for complicated calibration procedures and facilitates the use of magnetic tracking devices in clinical settings.

  11. Magnetic anchor guidance for endoscopic submucosal dissection and other endoscopic procedures

    PubMed Central

    Mortagy, Mohamed; Mehta, Neal; Parsi, Mansour A; Abe, Seiichiro; Stevens, Tyler; Vargo, John J; Saito, Yutaka; Bhatt, Amit

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is a well-established, minimally invasive treatment for superficial neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. The universal adoption of ESD has been limited by its slow learning curve, long procedure times, and high risk of complications. One technical challenge is the lack of a second hand that can provide traction, as in conventional surgery. Reliable tissue retraction that exposes the submucosal plane of dissection would allow for safer and more efficient dissection. Magnetic anchor guided endoscopic submucosal dissection (MAG-ESD) has potential benefits compared to other current traction methods. MAG-ESD offers dynamic tissue retraction independent of the endoscope mimicking a surgeon’s “second hand”. Two types of magnets can be used: electromagnets and permanent magnets. In this article we review the MAG-ESD technology, published work and studies of magnets in ESD. We also review the use of magnetic anchor guidance systems in natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery and the idea of magnetic non-contact retraction using surface ferromagentization. We discuss the current limitations, the future potential of MAG-ESD and the developments needed for adoption of this technology. PMID:28522906

  12. Diagnostic potential of endoscopic ultrasonography-elastography for gastric submucosal tumors: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Yuichiro; Kusano, Chika; Gotoda, Takuji; Itokawa, Fumihide; Fukuzawa, Masakatsu; Sofuni, Atsushi; Matsubayashi, Jun; Nagao, Toshitaka; Itoi, Takao; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2016-03-01

    Qualitative diagnosis for gastric submucosal tumors (SMT) is not easy. Endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) in combination with EUS-elastography (EUS-EG) is reported useful for qualitatively diagnosing pancreatic tissues. We prospectively studied whether EUS-EG could be useful in qualitative diagnosis of gastric SMT. We prospectively registered 25 consecutive patients with gastric SMT diagnosed by esophagogastroduodenoscopy and carried out qualitative evaluations using EUS-EG (May 2013 to March 2015) followed by histopathological diagnosis using EUS-FNA or endoscopic mucosal cutting biopsy. Elastic scores of gastric SMT were compared to the cytological diagnosis. Of 25 patients, 22 had a confirmed cytological diagnosis. Regarding the Giovannini elastic score, of three patients with aberrant pancreas, one was score 1 and two were score 2; of eight patients with leiomyoma, seven were score 2 and one was score 3. Both of two patients with schwannoma were score 4. Of nine patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor, six were score 4 and three were score 5. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is harder than other types of gastric SMT, and our study's findings suggested the usefulness of EUS-EG, which can also assess tumor hardness of gastric SMT. EUS-EG might be helpful for the differential diagnosis of gastric SMT, especially to differentiate GIST from other SMT. © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  13. Role of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) in management of benign esophageal strictures

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder S.; Bhasin, Deepak K.; Singh, Kartar

    2011-01-01

    Background EUS, as it images the full thickness of the gastrointestinal tract wall, could provide more detailed information on benign esophageal strictures. Aim of this study was to evaluate the role of EUS in predicting the response to endoscopic dilatation in benign esophageal strictures. Methods 27 patients with benign strictures (corrosive 14, peptic 10 & post-radiation 3) were prospectively studied with radial EUS. Results The maximum esophageal wall thickness was significantly greater in patients with corrosive and post-radiation strictures in comparison to patients with peptic strictures. In patients with peptic stricture, the mucosal thickness involved either the mucosa (n=2) or submucosa (n=8) and in none of the patients was the muscularis propria involved. However, muscularis propria was involved in all 3 patients with post-radiation strictures and in 11/14 (78.5%) patients with corrosive strictures. Two peptic stricture patients with only mucosal thickening required a single session of dilatation whereas patients with involvement of submucosa required 2-4 sessions of dilatation. Patients with corrosive stricture having only involvement of submucosa required significantly fewer sessions in comparison to patients having muscularis propria involvement (2.67±0.58 vs. 6.30±1.16 sessions, respectively; p=0.0003). Conclusion EUS by delineating the extent of wall involvement in benign esophageal strictures predicts the response to endoscopic dilatation. PMID:24713797

  14. Current status of tissue harmonic imaging in endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and EUS-elastography in pancreatobiliary diseases.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Eizaburo; Kawashima, Hiroki; Hashimoto, Senju; Goto, Hidemi; Hirooka, Yoshiki

    2015-04-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) has high spatial and contrast resolution, and is thought to be one of the most reliable and efficient diagnostic modalities for pancreatobiliary diseases. Recent progress in EUS, especially in the development of the electronic scanning method, has enabled the application of several utilities and software of a high-end transabdominal ultrasound apparatus as an image-enhanced EUS. Tissue harmonic imaging (THI) is a novel US acquisition method that provides better US images by using second harmonic signals. The potential advantages of THI are improved lateral resolution, reduced side lobe artifact and an increased signal-to-noise ratio. EUS-elastography is another novel technique that provides information about the distributed pattern of tissue hardness. Clinical benefits of EUS-elastography for the differential diagnosis of pancreatic tumors and the evaluation of pancreatic fibrosis have been reported. It is necessary to develop a unified and objective method of imaging and analysis to increase the use of EUS-elastography in the future. © 2015 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2015 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  15. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided transmural drainage of an infected hepatic cyst due to Edwardsiella tarda: a case report.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Hiroki; Tamai, Tsutomu; Numata, Masatsugu; Maeda, Hitomi; Ohshige, Akihiko; Iwaya, Hiromichi; Hashimoto, Shinichi; Kanmura, Shuji; Funakawa, Keita; Fujita, Hiroshi; Ido, Akio; Tsubouchi, Hirohito

    2014-10-01

    Infected hepatic cysts are very rare compared to simple liver cysts and abscesses. We treated a 77-year-old man with an infected hepatic cyst in the lateral segment caused by Edwardsiella tarda, which has not been previously reported as a pathogenic organism associated with infected hepatic cysts. Percutaneous drainage was temporarily effective, but infection recurred after the drainage tube was removed. We then inserted two drainage tubes into the cyst using an endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided technique, which was developed from EUS-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). The internal drainage tube was a 7 Fr double pigtail stent, and the external tube was a 6 Fr nasobiliary drainage tube. Lavage through the external drainage tube was carried out for one week. The external drainage tube was discontinued when the patient's condition improved significantly. Sixteen days after tube insertion, he was discharged with the internal tube draining the hepatic cyst into the stomach. Fifteen months after EUS-guided drainage, CT examination showed no recurrence of the hepatic cyst. EUS-guided drainage is an effective treatment for infected hepatic cysts.

  16. Usefulness of abdominal ultrasonography in the analysis of endoscopic activity in patients with Crohn's disease: changes following treatment with immunomodulators and/or anti-TNF antibodies.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Nadia; Ripollés, Tomás; Paredes, José María; Ortiz, Inmaculada; Martínez, María Jesús; López, Antonio; Delgado, Fructuoso; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo

    2014-09-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the accuracy of abdominal ultrasonography (AUS) in the assessment of mucosal healing in patients with Crohn's disease (CD) receiving immunomodulators and/or biological treatment, with ileocolonoscopy as the reference standard. Thirty patients were included in a prospective longitudinal study. All patients underwent ileocolonoscopy and AUS before and after a minimum of one year of treatment. The Crohn's Disease Endoscopic Inflammatory Index of Severity (CDEIS) was used for endoscopic assessment whereas AUS was analyzed by means of bowel wall thickness, color Doppler grade and percentage of increase of parietal enhancement after contrast injection. In the segmental analysis, endoscopic healing was found in 71.2% of the segments and AUS findings were normalized in 62.8%, with a significant correlation between the two techniques (κ=0.76, p<0.001). In the overall assessment performed after treatment, 18 (60%) patients exhibited endoscopic remission (CDEIS <6 points); of these patients, 15 (83.3%) had normalized sonographic findings, with a good correlation between endoscopic remission and sonographic normalization (κ=0.73, p<0.001). Of the three variables assessed by AUS, parietal thickness was the best variable to predict mucosal healing in both analyses, segmental and global. Abdominal ultrasonography is a useful and reliable technique for the assessment of the endoscopic response to treatment with immunomodulators and/or biological drugs in Crohn's disease. AUS is a highly accurate technique for evaluating the healing of the intestinal mucosa. Copyright © 2014 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The therapeutic use of endoscopic ultrasonography in pediatric patients is safe: A case series.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yi; Maspons, Aldo; Othman, Mohammed O

    2015-01-01

    Despite the safety and high diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration (EUS FNA) for the evaluation of gastrointestinal diseases in adults, literature discussing the therapeutic use of EUS FNA in pediatrics remains limited. This study reports our experience with the use of EUS in children with pancreaticobiliary disorders. A retrospective study was conducted to evaluate safety, clinical utility, and impact of therapeutic EUS on the management of children (<18 years) at a tertiary referral center. Data were collected from January 1, 2011, to April 30, 2014. Patient demographics, clinical characteristics, and EUS procedure data were reviewed. Continuous variables were described using the mean and standard deviation. Categorical variables were described using frequencies and percentages. A total of 6 therapeutic EUS procedures were performed in 5 children (3 F/2 M). The mean age was 13 years (range 6-17) with a mean body mass index of 28.2 (range 18.5-38.8). The indications for EUS procedures were abdominal pain with chronic pancreatitis (3) and management of symptomatic pancreaticobiliary cysts/pseudocysts observed on previous imaging (3). All procedures were performed under general anesthesia. The 6 therapeutic procedures performed were celiac plexus block (3), cyst gastrostomy with stents placement (2), and cyst aspiration using EUS FNA (1). A celiac plexus block effectively relieved abdominal pain in 2 patients with chronic pancreatitis. Cyst gastrostomy successfully resulted in pseudocyst resolution in the follow up imaging of 2 patients (up to 6 months after the procedure). Cyst aspiration with EUS guided FNA resulted in cyst resolution and confirmation of the benign nature of the cyst in 1 patient. All the procedures were successfully completed with no reported complications. The therapeutic use of endoscopic ultrasound in the pediatric population is safe and has a high success rate.

  18. On localizing a capsule endoscope using magnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Moussakhani, Babak; Ramstad, Tor; Flåm, John T; Balasingham, Ilangko

    2012-01-01

    In this work, localizing a capsule endoscope within the gastrointestinal tract is addressed. It is assumed that the capsule is equipped with a magnet, and that a magnetic sensor network measures the flux from this magnet. We assume no prior knowledge on the source location, and that the measurements collected by the sensors are corrupted by thermal Gaussian noise only. Under these assumptions, we focus on determining the Cramer-Rao Lower Bound (CRLB) for the location of the endoscope. Thus, we are not studying specific estimators, but rather the theoretical performance of an optimal one. It is demonstrated that the CRLB is a function of the distance and angle between the sensor network and the magnet. By studying the CRLB with respect to different sensor array constellations, we are able to indicate favorable constellations.

  19. Wireless steering mechanism with magnetic actuation for an endoscopic capsule.

    PubMed

    Menciassi, A; Valdastri, P; Quaglia, C; Buselli, E; Dario, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper illustrates the design, development and testing of a miniature mechanism to be integrated in endoscopic capsules for precise steering capabilities (Magnetic Internal Mechanism, MIM). The mechanism consists of an electromagnetic motor connected to a couple of small permanent magnets and immersed in a static magnetic field produced by an external permanent magnet or a by an electromagnetic coil. The overall steering capsule, integrating the magnetic steering mechanism and the vision system is 15.6 mm in diameter, 48 mm in length, 14.4 g in weight and can be oriented with an accuracy of 0.01 degrees . As regards system scalability, the capsule size could be reduced down to 11 mm in diameter by optimizing some mechanical components. On the other hand, the magnets size cannot be reduced because the magnetic link between internal and external magnets at typical operation distances (about 15 mm) would be weak.

  20. Pretreatment Dysphagia in Esophageal Cancer Patients May Eliminate the Need for Staging by Endoscopic Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Ripley, R Taylor; Sarkaria, Inderpal S; Grosser, Rachel; Sima, Camelia S; Bains, Manjit S; Jones, David R; Adusumilli, Prasad S; Huang, James; Finley, David J; Rusch, Valerie W; Rizk, Nabil P

    2016-01-01

    Neoadjuvant therapy is commonly administered to patients with localized disease who have T3-4 esophageal disease as staged by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). Previously, we noted that patients who present with dysphagia have a higher EUS T stage. We hypothesized that the presence of dysphagia is predictive of EUS T3-4 disease and that staging EUS could be forgone for esophageal cancer patients with dysphagia. We performed a prospective, intent-to-treat, single-cohort study in which patients with potentially resectable esophageal cancer completed a standardized four-tier dysphagia score survey. EUS was performed as part of our standard evaluation. To determine whether the presence of dysphagia predicted EUS T3-4 disease, the dysphagia score was compared with EUS T stage. The study enrolled 114 consecutive patients between August 2012 and February 2014: 77% (88 of 114) received neoadjuvant therapy, 18% (20 of 114) did not, and 5% (6 of 114) pursued treatment elsewhere. In total, 70% (80 of 114) underwent esophagectomy; of these, 54% (61 of 114) had dysphagia and 46% (53 of 114) did not. Dysphagia scores were 66% (40 of 61) grade 1, 25% (15 of 61) grade 2, and 10% (6 of 61) grade 3 to 4. Among patients with dysphagia, 89% (54 of 61) had T3-4 disease by EUS; among those without dysphagia, only 53% (28 of 53) had T3-4 disease by EUS (p < 0.001). The presence of dysphagia in patients with esophageal cancer was highly predictive of T3-4 disease by EUS. On the basis of this finding, approximately 50% of patients currently undergoing staging EUS at our institution could potentially forgo EUS before neoadjuvant therapy. Patients without dysphagia, however, should still undergo EUS. Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Endoscopic ultrasonography for surveillance of individuals at high risk for pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lami, Gabriele; Biagini, Maria Rosa; Galli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal disease with a genetic susceptibility and familial aggregation found in 3%-16% of patients. Early diagnosis remains the only hope for curative treatment and improvement of prognosis. This can be reached by the implementation of an intensive screening program, actually recommended for individuals at high-risk for pancreatic cancer development. The aim of this strategy is to identify pre-malignant precursors or asymptomatic pancreatic cancer lesions, curable by surgery. Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with or without fine needle aspiration (FNA) seems to be the most promising technique for early detection of pancreatic cancer. It has been described as a highly sensitive and accurate tool, especially for small and cystic lesions. Pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia, a precursor lesion which is highly represented in high-risk individuals, seems to have characteristics chronic pancreatitis-like changes well detected by EUS. Many screening protocols have demonstrated high diagnostic yields for pancreatic pre-malignant lesions, allowing prophylactic pancreatectomies. However, it shows a high interobserver variety even among experienced endosonographers and a low sensitivity in case of chronic pancreatitis. Some new techniques such as contrast-enhanced harmonic EUS, computer-aided diagnostic techniques, confocal laser endomicroscopy miniprobe and the detection of DNA abnormalities or protein markers by FNA, promise improvement of the diagnostic yield of EUS. As the resolution of imaging improves and as our knowledge of precursor lesions grows, we believe that EUS could become the most suitable method to detect curable pancreatic neoplasms in correctly identified asymptomatic at-risk patients. PMID:25031786

  2. Variation in Aptitude of Trainees in Endoscopic Ultrasonography, Based on Cumulative Sum Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wani, Sachin; Hall, Matthew; Keswani, Rajesh N; Aslanian, Harry R; Casey, Brenna; Burbridge, Rebecca; Chak, Amitabh; Chen, Ann M; Cote, Gregory; Edmundowicz, Steven A; Faulx, Ashley L; Hollander, Thomas G; Lee, Linda S; Mullady, Daniel; Murad, Faris; Muthusamy, V Raman; Pfau, Patrick R; Scheiman, James M; Tokar, Jeffrey; Wagh, Mihir S; Watson, Rabindra; Early, Dayna

    2015-07-01

    Studies have reported substantial variation in the competency of advanced endoscopy trainees, indicating a need for more supervised training in endoscopic ultrasound (EUS). We used a standardized, validated, data collection tool to evaluate learning curves and measure competency in EUS among trainees at multiple centers. In a prospective study performed at 15 centers, 17 trainees with no prior EUS experience were evaluated by experienced attending endosonographers at the 25th and then every 10th upper EUS examination, over a 12-month training period. A standardized data collection form was used (using a 5-point scoring system) to grade the EUS examination. Cumulative sum analysis was applied to produce a learning curve for each trainee; it tracked the overall performance based on median scores at different stations and also at each station. Competency was defined by a median score of 1, with acceptable and unacceptable failure rates of 10% and 20%, respectively. Twelve trainees were included in the final analysis. Each of the trainees performed 265 to 540 EUS examinations (total, 4257 examinations). There was a large amount of variation in their learning curves: 2 trainees crossed the threshold for acceptable performance (at cases 225 and 245), 2 trainees had a trend toward acceptable performance (after 289 and 355 cases) but required continued observation, and 8 trainees needed additional training and observation. Similar results were observed at individual stations. A specific case load does not ensure competency in EUS; 225 cases should be considered the minimum caseload for training because we found that no trainee achieved competency before this point. Ongoing training should be provided for trainees until competency is confirmed using objective measures. Copyright © 2015 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison of intraductal ultrasonography-directed and cholangiography-directed endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage in patients with a biliary obstruction

    PubMed Central

    Rew, Soo-Jung; Lee, Du-Hyeon; Park, Chang-Hwan; Jeon, Jin; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Endoscopic retrograde biliary drainage (ERBD) has become a standard procedure in patients with a biliary obstruction. Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) has emerged as a new tool for managing extrahepatic biliary diseases. IDUS-directed ERBD can be performed without conventional cholangiography (CC). The goal of this study was to assess the effectiveness and safety of IDUS-directed ERBD compared to CC-directed ERBD in patients with an extrahepatic biliary obstruction. Methods: A total of 210 patients who had undergone IDUS-directed ERBD (IDUS-ERBD, n = 105) and CC-directed ERBD (CC-ERBD, n = 105) between October 2013 and April 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. The primary outcome measure was the procedural success rate. Secondary outcome measures included clinical outcomes, total procedure time, radiation exposure time, and overall complication rates. Results: The total technical success rate of ERBD was 100% (105/105) in the IDUS-ERBD and CC-ERBD groups. Mean procedure time was slightly prolonged in the IDUS-ERBD group than that in the CC-ERBD group (32.1 ± 9.9 minutes vs. 28.4 ± 11.6 minutes, p = 0.023). Mean radiation exposure time was one-third less in the IDUS-ERBD group than that in the CC-ERBD group (28.0 ± 49.3 seconds vs. 94.2 ± 57.3 seconds, p < 0.001). No significant differences in complication rates were detected between the groups. Conclusions: IDUS-ERBD was equally effective and safe as CC-ERBD in patients with an extrahepatic biliary obstruction. Although IDUS-ERBD increased total procedure time, it significantly decreased radiation exposure. PMID:27097771

  4. Endoscopic Ultrasonography-Guided Biopsy for Differentiation of Benign and Malignant Pelvic Lesions: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Han, Chaoqun; Lin, Rong; Liu, Jun; Hou, Xiaohua; Qian, Wei; Ding, Zhen

    2015-12-01

    Preoperative diagnosis of pelvic lesions remains challenging despite advances in imaging technologies. Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided biopsy is an effective diagnostic modality for sampling the digestive tract and surrounding areas. However, a meta-analysis summarizing the diagnostic efficacy of EUS-guided biopsy for pelvic lesions has not been published. We aimed to evaluate the utility of EUS-guided biopsy in the diagnosis of pelvic lesions. Articles were identified via structured database search; only studies where pelvic lesions were confirmed by surgery or clinical follow-up were included. Data extracted were selected with strict criteria. A fixed-effects model was used to estimate the sensitivity, specificity, positive likelihood ratio (PLR), negative likelihood ratio (NLR), and diagnostic odds ratio (DOR). A summary receiver operating characteristic curve (SROC) was also constructed. Ten studies containing a total of 246 patients were included. The pooled sensitivity of EUS-guided biopsy for differential diagnosis of pelvic masses was 0.89 (95% CI 0.83-0.94), and the specificity was 0.93 (95% CI 0.86-0.97). The area under the SROC was 0.9631. The combined PLR, NLR, and DOR were 11.75 (95% CI 5.90-23.43), 0.12 (95% CI 0.07-0.20), and 100.06 (95% CI 37.48-267.10) respectively. There is potential presence of publication bias in this meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis shows that EUS-guided biopsy is a powerful tool for differentiating pelvic masses with a high sensitivity and specificity. Furthermore, it is a safe procedure with low rate of complication, although more high-quality prospective studies are required to be done.

  5. Endoscopic ultrasonography guided-fine needle aspiration for the diagnosis of solid pancreaticobiliary lesions: Clinical aspects to improve the diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Matsubayashi, Hiroyuki; Matsui, Toru; Yabuuchi, Yohei; Imai, Kenichiro; Tanaka, Masaki; Kakushima, Naomi; Sasaki, Keiko; Ono, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) has been applied to pancreaticobiliary lesions since the 1990s and is in widespread use throughout the world today. We used this method to confirm the pathological evidence of the pancreaticobiliary lesions and to perform suitable therapies. Complications of EUS-FNA are quite rare, but some of them are severe. Operators should master conventional EUS observation and experience a minimum of 20-30 cases of supervised EUS-FNA on non-pancreatic and pancreatic lesions before attempting solo EUS-FNA. Studies conducted on pancreaticobiliary EUS-FNA have focused on selection of suitable instruments (e.g., needle selection) and sampling techniques (e.g., fanning method, suction level, with or without a stylet, optimum number of passes). Today, the diagnostic ability of EUS-FNA is still improving; the detection of pancreatic cancer (PC) currently has a sensitivity of 90%-95% and specificity of 95%-100%. In addition to PC, a variety of rare pancreatic tumors can be discriminated by conducting immunohistochemistry on the FNA materials. A flexible, large caliber needle has been used to obtain a large piece of tissue, which can provide sufficient histological information to be helpful in classifying benign pancreatic lesions. EUS-FNA can supply high diagnostic yields even for biliary lesions or peri-pancreaticobiliary lymph nodes. This review focuses on the clinical aspects of EUS-FNA in the pancreaticobiliary field, with the aim of providing information that can enable more accurate and efficient diagnosis. PMID:26811612

  6. Endoscope

    MedlinePlus

    An endoscope is a medical device with a light attached. It is used to look inside a body cavity ... sigmoidoscopy . A medical procedure using any type of endoscope is called an endoscopy . See also: Colonoscopy Cystourethroscopy ...

  7. Endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery with intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Theodore H; Stieg, Phillip E; Anand, Vijay K

    2006-02-01

    The two most recent significant advances in pituitary surgery have been the endonasal endoscopic approach and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (IMRI). Each provides improved visualization of intra- and parasellar anatomy with the goal of attaining a complete resection. The combination of the two techniques has not been previously reported in the literature. We performed endoscopic, endonasal resection of pituitary macroadenomas in 15 patients using the Polestar N-10 (0.12T) IMRI (Odin Medical Technologies, Inc., Newton, MA). Eleven patients had nonfunctioning tumors, three had acromegaly, and one had a medication-resistant prolactinoma. The effect of the magnetic field on the cathode ray tube screen and the image quality of the IMRI images were assessed. The presence of residual tumor on IMRI was noted and then re-examined with the endoscope. Although the Polestar N-10 is a low Tesla magnet, the IMRI caused significant distortion of the cathode ray tube screen regardless of the viewing angle. This was overcome with the use of a wall-mounted plasma screen. IMRI images were obtained in all cases and were of sufficiently high quality to demonstrate adequate decompression of the optic chiasm and the removal of all suprasellar tumor. In three cases, residual tumor was found with IMRI that was resected endoscopically before the completion of surgery. In four other cases, potential residual tumor was examined endoscopically and found to be normal postoperative change. In eight cases no residual intrasellar tumor was seen on the IMRI. Preresection visual deficits improved in all cases and the insulin-like growth factor levels normalized in two of three cases. There were no delayed cerebrospinal fluid leaks. Combining intraoperative endoscopy and IMRI is feasible and distortion of the cathode ray tube screen can be overcome with the use of either a plasma or liquid crystal display screen. Each technology provides complementary information, which can assist the

  8. The Role of Endoscopic Biliary Drainage without Sphincterotomy in Gallstone Patients with Cholangitis and Suspected Common Bile Duct Stones Not Detected by Cholangiogram or Intraductal Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Goong, Hyeon Jeong; Moon, Jong Ho; Lee, Yun Nah; Choi, Hyun Jong; Choi, Seo-Youn; Choi, Moon Han; Kim, Min Jin; Lee, Tae Hoon; Park, Sang-Heum; Lee, Hae Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Treatment for cholangitis without common bile duct (CBD) stones has not been established in patients with gallstones. We investigated the usefulness of endoscopic biliary drainage (EBD) without endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) in patients diagnosed with gallstones and cholangitis without CBD stones by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS). Methods EBD using 5F plastic stents without EST was performed prospectively in patients with gallstones and cholangitis if CBD stones were not diagnosed by ERCP and IDUS. After ERCP, all patients underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. The primary outcomes were clinical and technical success. The secondary outcomes were recurrence rate of biliary events and procedure-related adverse events. Results Among 187 patients with gallstones and cholangitis, 27 patients without CBD stones according to ERCP and IDUS received EBD using 5F plastic stents without EST. The stents were maintained in all patients until laparoscopic cholecystectomy, and recurrence of cholangitis was not observed. After cholecystectomy, the stents were removed spontaneously in 12 patients and endoscopically in 15 patients. Recurrence of CBD stones was not detected during the follow-up period (median, 421 days). Conclusions EBD using 5F plastic stents without EST may be safe and effective for the management of cholangitis accompanied by gallstones in patients without CBD stones according to ERCP and IDUS. PMID:28104896

  9. Closed Loop Control of a Tethered Magnetic Capsule Endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Taddese, Addisu Z.; Slawinski, Piotr R.; Obstein, Keith L.; Valdastri, Pietro

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic field gradients have repeatedly been shown to be the most feasible mechanism for gastrointestinal capsule endoscope actuation. An inverse quartic magnetic force variation with distance results in large force gradients induced by small movements of a driving magnet; this necessitates robotic actuation of magnets to implement stable control of the device. A typical system consists of a serial robot with a permanent magnet at its end effector that actuates a capsule with an embedded permanent magnet. We present a tethered capsule system where a capsule with an embedded magnet is closed loop controlled in 2 degree-of-freedom in position and 2 degree-of-freedom in orientation. Capitalizing on the magnetic field of the external driving permanent magnet, the capsule is localized in 6-D allowing for both position and orientation feedback to be used in a control scheme. We developed a relationship between the serial robot's joint parameters and the magnetic force and torque that is exerted onto the capsule. Our methodology was validated both in a dynamic simulation environment where a custom plug-in for magnetic interaction was written, as well as on an experimental platform. The tethered capsule was demonstrated to follow desired trajectories in both position and orientation with accuracy that is acceptable for colonoscopy. PMID:28286886

  10. Diagnostic yield of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided single-incision needle knife biopsy for gastric subepithelial tumors: comparison with resected specimens.

    PubMed

    Kim, Joon Sung; Kim, Byung-Wook; Kim, Gi Jun; Kim, Young Wook; Ryu, Seung Ji; Park, Sung Min; Ji, Jeong-Seon; Jun, Sun Young

    2016-12-01

    Several techniques are recommended for the histologic diagnosis of gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs). The purpose of our study was to evaluate the diagnostic yield and safety of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided single-incision needle knife (SINK) biopsy for the diagnosis of gastric SETs. A retrospective review of patients who received biopsy for gastric SETs from August 2012 to May 2015 was conducted. Patients who received endoscopic ultrasonography and were found to have a SET originating from the muscularis propria of the stomach were included in the study. The aim of our study was to investigate the safety and diagnostic yield of SINK biopsy for gastric SETs. A total of 31 patients received SINK biopsy for SETs. The diagnostic yield of SINK biopsy was 87 % (95 % CI 75-100 %), and the diagnostic accuracy was 89 % (95 % CI 74-105 %). The sensitivity of SINK biopsy to identify gastrointestinal stromal tumors was 83 % (95 % CI 52-98 %); the specificity was 100 % (95 % CI 59-100 %); the positive predictive value was 100 % (95 % CI 69-100 %); and the negative predictive value was 78 % (95 % CI 40-97 %). There were no procedure-related adverse events during and after procedure. The use of SINK biopsy technique in patients with SETs is a good diagnostic tool with high diagnostic yield and accuracy. The method is simple, safe, and associated with few complications.

  11. Understanding EUS (Endoscopic Ultrasonography)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Industry Training ASGE Endorsed Activities ASGE Masterclasses Clinical Courses DDW / Digestive Disease Week ® GI Outlook (GO) Practice Management Conference Practice Management Courses Practice Management Trifecta Quality & Safety STAR Certificate Programs ...

  12. Neurilemmoma of the glans penis: ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dae Chul; Hwang, Sung Il; Jung, Sung Il; Kim, Sun Ho; Kim, Seung Hyup

    2006-01-01

    Neurilemmoma of the glans penis is rare, and no imaging findings have been reported. A case of neurilemmoma of the glans penis is presented. Ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a well-defined small mass in the glans penis. The mass appeared hypoechoic on gray-scale US and hypervascular on color Doppler US. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed high signal intensity of the mass on a T2-weighted image and strong enhancement on a contrast-enhanced T1-weighted image.

  13. Diagnostic value of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in ulnar neuropathy at the elbow.

    PubMed

    Ayromlou, Hormoz; Tarzamni, Mohammad K; Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Pezeshki, Mohammad Zakaria; Yazdchi, Mohammad; Sadeghi-Hokmabadi, Elyar; Sharifipour, Ehsan; Ghabili, Kamyar

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE). Methods. We prospectively performed electrodiagnostic, ultrasonographic, and MRI studies in UNE patients and healthy controls. Three cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements of the ulnar nerve at multiple levels along the arm and maximum CSA(-max) were recorded. Results. The ulnar nerve CSA measurements were different between the UNE severity grades (P < 0.05). CSA-max had the greatest sensitivity (93%) and specificity (68%). Moreover, CSA-max ≥10 mm(2) defined the severe UNE cases (sensitivity/specificity: 82%/72%). In MRI, ulnar nerve hyperintensity had the greatest sensitivity (90%) and specificity (80%). Conclusion. Ultrasonography using CSA-max is sensitive and specific in UNE diagnosis and discriminating the severe UNE cases. Furthermore, MRI particularly targeting at increased signal of the ulnar nerve can be a useful diagnostic test of UNE.

  14. Diagnostic Value of Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Ulnar Neuropathy at the Elbow

    PubMed Central

    Ayromlou, Hormoz; Tarzamni, Mohammad K.; Daghighi, Mohammad Hossein; Pezeshki, Mohammad Zakaria; Yazdchi, Mohammad; Sadeghi-Hokmabadi, Elyar; Sharifipour, Ehsan; Ghabili, Kamyar

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To evaluate the diagnostic value of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with ulnar neuropathy at the elbow (UNE). Methods. We prospectively performed electrodiagnostic, ultrasonographic, and MRI studies in UNE patients and healthy controls. Three cross-sectional area (CSA) measurements of the ulnar nerve at multiple levels along the arm and maximum CSA(-max) were recorded. Results. The ulnar nerve CSA measurements were different between the UNE severity grades (P < 0.05). CSA-max had the greatest sensitivity (93%) and specificity (68%). Moreover, CSA-max ≥10 mm2 defined the severe UNE cases (sensitivity/specificity: 82%/72%). In MRI, ulnar nerve hyperintensity had the greatest sensitivity (90%) and specificity (80%). Conclusion. Ultrasonography using CSA-max is sensitive and specific in UNE diagnosis and discriminating the severe UNE cases. Furthermore, MRI particularly targeting at increased signal of the ulnar nerve can be a useful diagnostic test of UNE. PMID:22888452

  15. Comparing Magnetic Resonance Imaging and High-Resolution Dynamic Ultrasonography for Diagnosis of Plantar Plate Pathology: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Donegan, Ryan J; Stauffer, Anthony; Heaslet, Michael; Poliskie, Michael

    Plantar plate pathology has gained noticeable attention in recent years as an etiology of lesser metatarsophalangeal joint pain. The heightened clinical awareness has led to the need for more effective diagnostic imaging accuracy. Numerous reports have established the accuracy of both magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography for the diagnosis of plantar plate pathology. However, no conclusions have been made regarding which is the superior imaging modality. The present study reports a case series directly comparing high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. A multicenter retrospective comparison of magnetic resonance imaging versus high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography to evaluate plantar plate pathology with surgical confirmation was conducted. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for magnetic resonance imaging were 60%, 100%, 100%, and 33%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy compared with the intraoperative findings was 66%. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values for high-resolution dynamic ultrasound imaging were 100%, 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The overall diagnostic accuracy compared with the intraoperative findings was 100%. The p value using Fisher's exact test for magnetic resonance imaging and high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography was p = .45, a difference that was not statistically significant. High-resolution dynamic ultrasonography had greater accuracy than magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing lesser metatarsophalangeal joint plantar plate pathology, although the difference was not statistically significant. The present case series suggests that high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography can be considered an equally accurate imaging modality for plantar plate pathology at a potential cost savings compared with magnetic resonance imaging. Therefore, high-resolution dynamic ultrasonography warrants further investigation in

  16. Role of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the diagnosis of intramuscular cysticercosis.

    PubMed

    Tripathy, Sujit Kumar; Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Akkina, Narendranadh; Hampannavar, Aravind; Tahasildar, Naveen; Limaye, Rajiv

    2012-09-01

    Nonspecific clinical presentations often lead to misdiagnosis of focal cysticercal myositis. This report emphasizes the role of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of solitary intramuscular cysticercosis. Six patients with persistent post-traumatic isolated muscular swelling were treated with analgesic and antibiotics, but the swelling did not subside. Radiographs showed soft tissue swelling with no bony abnormalities. Laboratory markers were inconclusive. Ultrasonographic and magnetic resonance images (MRI) showed typical features of intramuscular cysticercosis. Clinical, radiological, and fundoscopic evaluation of brain and eyes could not isolate any cysticercosis focus in these organs. Patients were treated with 3 weeks albendazole therapy. The identifying sonographic features of intramuscular cysticercosis, as evident from this case series, included an intramuscular elliptical or oval anechoic lesion with echogenic intralesional focus likely to be scolex. Magnetic resonance images showed orientation of the cyst along the direction of muscle fibers with T2W hyperintense signal and post-contrast perilesional enhancement. All patients responded to medical treatment. Cysticercosis may manifest as isolated muscular swelling without neurological or ocular involvement. Clinicians should be aware of this clinical condition to avoid misdiagnosis. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging are good diagnostic aids to establish soft tissue cysticercosis.

  17. Current status of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography fusion software platforms for guidance of prostate biopsies.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jennifer K; Rais-Bahrami, Soroush; Turkbey, Baris; Gomella, Andrew; Amalou, Hayet; Choyke, Peter L; Wood, Bradford J; Pinto, Peter A

    2014-11-01

    Prostate MRI is currently the best diagnostic imaging method for detecting PCa. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/ultrasonography (US) fusion allows the sensitivity and specificity of MRI to be combined with the real-time capabilities of transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS). Multiple approaches and techniques exist for MRI/US fusion and include direct 'in bore' MRI biopsies, cognitive fusion, and MRI/US fusion via software-based image coregistration platforms. © 2013 The Authors. BJU International © 2013 BJU International.

  18. A magnetically actuated anchoring system for a wireless endoscopic capsule.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Alici, Gursel; Munoz, Fredy

    2016-12-01

    In this study, we propose a new magnetically actuated anchoring system for wireless capsule endoscopes (WCE) by employing the principle of a switchable magnetic spring. A force model is derived to predict the magnetic force needed to support the interaction between the anchors and the intestinal lumen. The theoretical and experimental analysis conducted shows that the magnetic spring is capable of providing the force needed to activate the anchoring mechanism, which consists of four foldable legs. A prototype capsule with a size comparable with the size of a commercial WCE was designed, fabricated, and tested. The in-vitro tests with a real small intestine show that the proposed anchoring mechanism is able to raise the friction force between the anchoring legs and inner wall of the intestine by more than two times after its activation using an external magnetic field. Experimental results presented demonstrate that the proposed anchoring system, which has a low foot-print not taking up too much space on the capsule, can provide a reliable anchoring capability with the capsule inside the intestinal lumen.

  19. [Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosing recurrent and metastatic ovarian cancer].

    PubMed

    Bulanova, I M; Bulanova, T V; Burenchev, D V

    2006-01-01

    The paper deals with the capacities of ultrasonography (USG) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in diagnosing recurrent and metastatic ovarian cancer along with routine clinical and laboratory studies (physical examination, measurement of the tumor-associated serum antigen CA-125) in 95 patients with ovarian cancer after primary special treatment. MRI is preferable to USG in evaluating the extent of a tumorous process and the invasion of a tumor into the adjacent tissues, which is of great value in defining a further treatment policy.

  20. Design and implementation of magnetically maneuverable capsule endoscope system with direction reference for image navigation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhen-Jun; Ye, Bo; Sun, Yi; Zhang, Hong-Hai; Liu, Sheng

    2014-07-01

    This article describes a novel magnetically maneuverable capsule endoscope system with direction reference for image navigation. This direction reference was employed by utilizing a specific magnet configuration between a pair of external permanent magnets and a magnetic shell coated on the external capsule endoscope surface. A pair of customized Cartesian robots, each with only 4 degrees of freedom, was built to hold the external permanent magnets as their end-effectors. These robots, together with their external permanent magnets, were placed on two opposite sides of a "patient bed." Because of the optimized configuration based on magnetic analysis between the external permanent magnets and the magnetic shell, a simplified control strategy was proposed, and only two parameters, yaw step angle and moving step, were necessary for the employed robotic system. Step-by-step experiments demonstrated that the proposed system is capable of magnetically maneuvering the capsule endoscope while providing direction reference for image navigation.

  1. Histological diagnosis of gastric submucosal tumors: A pilot study of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy vs mucosal cutting biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Ikehara, Hisatomo; Li, Zhaoliang; Watari, Jiro; Taki, Masato; Ogawa, Tomohiro; Yamasaki, Takahisa; Kondo, Takashi; Toyoshima, Fumihiko; Kono, Tomoaki; Tozawa, Katsuyuki; Ohda, Yoshio; Tomita, Toshihiko; Oshima, Tadayuki; Fukui, Hirokazu; Matsuda, Ikuo; Hirota, Seiichi; Miwa, Hiroto

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To compare the usefulness of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration biopsy (EUS-FNAB) without cytology and mucosal cutting biopsy (MCB) in the histological diagnosis of gastric submucosal tumor (SMT). METHODS: We prospectively compared the diagnostic yield, feasibility, and safety of EUS-FNAB and those of MCB based on endoscopic submucosal dissection. The cases of 20 consecutive patients with gastric SMT ≥ 1 cm in diameter. who underwent both EUS-FNAB and MCB were investigated. RESULTS: The histological diagnoses were gastrointestinal stromal tumors (n = 7), leiomyoma (n = 6), schwannoma (n = 2), aberrant pancreas (n = 2), and one case each of glomus tumor, metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma, and no-diagnosis. The tumors’ mean size was 23.6 mm. Histological diagnosis was made in 65.0% of the EUS-FNABs and 60.0% of the MCBs, a nonsignificant difference. There were no significant differences in the diagnostic yield concerning the tumor location or tumor size between the two methods. However, diagnostic specimens were significantly more frequently obtained in lesions with intraluminal growth than in those with extraluminal growth by the MCB method (P = 0.01). All four SMTs with extraluminal growth were diagnosed only by EUS-FNAB (P = 0.03). No complications were found in either method. CONCLUSION: MCB may be chosen as an alternative diagnostic modality in tumors showing the intraluminal growth pattern regardless of tumor size, whereas EUS-FNAB should be performed for SMTs with extraluminal growth. PMID:26468338

  2. Clinical evaluation of endoscopic ultrasonography-guided drainage using a novel flared-type biflanged metal stent for pancreatic fluid collection.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Shuntaro; Itoi, Takao; Sofuni, Atsushi; Tsuchiya, Takayoshi; Gotoda, Takuji; Moriyasu, Fuminori

    2015-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)-guided transluminal drainage for pancreatic fluid collections (PFCs) has become the standard therapy worldwide as a minimally invasive therapy compared with surgical drainage. Recently, a novel flared-type biflanged metal stent (BFMS) designed specifically for the treatment of PFCs has been developed. The aim of this study was to retrospectively assess the feasibility and safety of EUS-guided drainage and direct endoscopic necrosectomy (DEN) for PFCs using the novel flared-type BFMS. Twenty-one patients were treated by EUS-guided drainage using a flared-type BFMS for PFCs (pancreatic pseudocyst, 2 patients; walled-off necrosis, 19 patients). The present study showed a technical success rate of 100%, a final clinical success rate of 100%, a procedure-related adverse event (AE) rate of 0%, an early AE rate of 28.6% (moderate and severe AE rate of 9.5%), a mortality rate of 0%, and a recurrence rate of 9.5%. DEN (mean, 2.3 sessions) was required in 38% of the patients. The present study clarified that the EUS-guided drainage using the flared-type BFMS is an effective and safe treatment approach for PFCs. Further studies using randomized controlled multicenter trials are warranted.

  3. Non-invasive diagnosis and grading of postsurgical endoscopic recurrence in Crohn's disease: usefulness of abdominal ultrasonography and (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropylene amineoxime-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Paredes, José María; Ripollés, Tomás; Cortés, Xavier; Reyes, María Dolores; López, Antonio; Martínez, María Jesús; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo

    2010-11-01

    Non-invasive techniques aim to be an alternative to endoscopy in the assessment of postsurgical recurrence of Crohn's disease (CD). The object of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of abdominal ultrasonography (AUS) and (99m)Tc-hexamethylpropylene amineoxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO)-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy (LLS) compared with endoscopy in the diagnosis and grading of postsurgical recurrence of CD. Between January 2006 and May 2007, all patients with CD and resection with ileocolic anastomosis were included prospectively. Within three days they underwent an ileocolonoscopy, AUS with evaluation of bowel wall thickness and the presence of Doppler flow, and LLS. Forty patients who met the study conditions were included; 5 patients did not agree to have the ileocolonoscopy and it was not possible to assess the anastomosis in 2 patients. Endoscopic recurrence was detected in 26 patients (78.8%), in 15 of whom it was moderate-severe. For the diagnosis of recurrence, both AUS and LLS showed acceptable sensitivity and positive predictive value, with an accuracy of 72.7% and 78.1%, respectively. The results of the AUS and LLS for diagnosing moderate-severe recurrence were better, with an accuracy of 78.8% and 81.3%, respectively. The best assessment of the severity of the recurrence was obtained with the combination of both techniques (sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, accuracy and kappa index were, respectively: 93.3%, 72.2%, 73.7%, 92.9%, 81.8% and 0.64). The variables evaluated, both sonographic and scintigraphic, had areas under the curve that were similar and significantly different from 0.5. Abdominal ultrasonography and (99m)Tc-HMPAO-labelled leucocyte scintigraphy are two useful non-invasive techniques for the assessment of postsurgical recurrence of Crohn's disease. Copyright © 2010 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Pediatric hydrocephalus: systematic literature review and evidence-based guidelines. Part 3: Endoscopic computer-assisted electromagnetic navigation and ultrasonography as technical adjuvants for shunt placement.

    PubMed

    Flannery, Ann Marie; Duhaime, Ann-Christine; Tamber, Mandeep S; Kemp, Joanna

    2014-11-01

    This systematic review was undertaken to answer the following question: Do technical adjuvants such as ventricular endoscopic placement, computer-assisted electromagnetic guidance, or ultrasound guidance improve ventricular shunt function and survival? The US National Library of Medicine PubMed/MEDLINE database and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews were queried using MeSH headings and key words specifically chosen to identify published articles detailing the use of cerebrospinal fluid shunts for the treatment of pediatric hydrocephalus. Articles meeting specific criteria that had been delineated a priori were then examined, and data were abstracted and compiled in evidentiary tables. These data were then analyzed by the Pediatric Hydrocephalus Systematic Review and Evidence-Based Guidelines Task Force to consider evidence-based treatment recommendations. The search yielded 163 abstracts, which were screened for potential relevance to the application of technical adjuvants in shunt placement. Fourteen articles were selected for full-text review. One additional article was selected during a review of literature citations. Eight of these articles were included in the final recommendations concerning the use of endoscopy, ultrasonography, and electromagnetic image guidance during shunt placement, whereas the remaining articles were excluded due to poor evidence or lack of relevance. The evidence included 1 Class I, 1 Class II, and 6 Class III papers. An evidentiary table of relevant articles was created. CONCLUSIONS/RECOMMENDATION: There is insufficient evidence to recommend the use of endoscopic guidance for routine ventricular catheter placement. Level I, high degree of clinical certainty. The routine use of ultrasound-assisted catheter placement is an option. Level III, unclear clinical certainty. The routine use of computer-assisted electromagnetic (EM) navigation is an option. Level III, unclear clinical certainty.

  5. Contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography can predict a higher malignant potential of gastrointestinal stromal tumors by visualizing large newly formed vessels.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Yasunobu; Kato, Jun; Ueda, Kazuki; Nakamura, Yasushi; Abe, Hiroko; Tamura, Takashi; Itonaga, Masahiro; Yoshida, Takeichi; Maeda, Hiroki; Moribata, Kosaku; Niwa, Toru; Maekita, Takao; Iguchi, Mikitaka; Tamai, Hideyuki; Ichinose, Masao

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the histologic and clinical implications of detection of intratumoral vessels on contrast-enhanced endoscopic ultrasonography (CE-EUS) in gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Thirteen patients with a GIST, all of whom were referred for surgery, underwent presurgical CE-EUS. The malignant potential, assessed according to the modified Fletcher risk classification system, and the histologic degree of angiogenesis were compared with the presence or absence of intratumoral vessels on CE-EUS. Of the six tumors with intratumoral vessels observed on CE-EUS, five were intermediate- or high-risk GISTs, and the remaining seven negative cases were categorized as very low risk or low risk. The presence of intratumoral vessels on CE-EUS was significantly correlated with a higher-risk classification (p = 0.005). On histologic examination, all GISTs having visualized vessels incorporated vessels of more than 500 μm in diameter. The large intratumoral vessels of the five intermediate- or high-risk GISTs lacked elastic fibers, suggesting that they were neovascular in nature. These higher-risk tumors were also found, by immunohistochemical analysis, to have high expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. Intratumoral vessels observed in GISTs on CE-EUS are correlated with a higher degree of angiogenesis, resulting in higher malignant potential. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm with expansile invasive carcinoma of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Furuhata, Ayako; Minamiguchi, Sachiko; Mikami, Yoshiki; Kodama, Yuzo; Sumiyoshi, Shinji; Adachi, Souichi; Haga, Hironori

    2014-04-01

    Intraductal tubulopapillary neoplasm (ITPN) of the pancreas, a novel entity included in the World Health Organization 2010 classification, accounts for <1% of all pancreatic exocrine neoplasms and the number of reported cases is limited in the English literature. Herein we describe the cytologic features of ITPN with invasive carcinoma showing expansile growth on endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) cytology. A 74-year-old male patient is presented with a 6.2 cm irregular mass in the head of the pancreas. Microscopic examination of EUS-FNA material showed abundant branching clusters of cells, with some scattered discohesive cells. High power magnification revealed tubular and cribriform patterns with central lumina, containing mucinous or proteinaceous secretions. The constituent cells were relatively uniform and showed mild to intermediate nuclear atypia. Intracytoplasmic mucin was not identified. On cell-block preparation, luminal spaces of clusters contained wispy luminal mucin. Immunohistochemically, constituent cells were positive for MUC1 and MUC6, and were negative for MUC5AC. The large cribriform and tubular clusters with luminal spaces containing wispy mucin were considered to be diagnostic clues for the cytologic diagnosis of ITPN by EUS-FNA. MUC1, MUC6, and MUC5AC immunohistochemistry for cell-block preparation appears to be a useful adjunctive tool to confirm the diagnosis. On EUS-FNA, ITPN should be included in the differential diagnosis of a pancreatic mass lesion showing good circumscription.

  7. Study on a magnetic spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope controlled by rotational external permanent magnet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Bo; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Zhen-jun; Guo, Lin; Deng, Chao; Chen, Ya-qi; Zhang, Hong-hai; Liu, Sheng

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, the authors propose rotating an external permanent magnet (EPM) to manipulate the synchronous rotation of a magnetic spiral-type wireless capsule endoscope (WCE), and the synchronous rotation of the WCE is converted to its translational motion in intestinal tract. In order to preliminarily verify the feasibility of this method, a handheld actuator (HA) controlled by micro controller unit, a magnetic spiral-type WCE and a bracket were fabricated, theoretical analysis and simulations about the control distance of this method were performed, and in ex-vivo tests were examined in porcine small intestine to verify the control distance and control performances of this method. It was demonstrated that this method showed good performances in controlling the translational motion of the magnetic spiral-type WCE, and this method has great potential to be used in clinical application.

  8. Pancreatic Metastasis from Rectal Cancer that was Diagnosed by Endoscopic Ultrasonography-guided Fine Needle Aspiration (EUS-FNA)

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Itsuki; Katanuma, Akio; Yane, Kei; Kin, Toshifumi; Nagai, Kazumasa; Yamazaki, Hajime; Koga, Hideaki; Kitagawa, Koh; Yokoyama, Kensuke; Ikarashi, Satoshi; Takahashi, Kuniyuki; Maguchi, Hiroyuki; Omori, Yuko; Shinohara, Toshiya

    2017-01-01

    Pancreatic metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare, and there have been only a few reports of its preoperative diagnosis by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) with immunohistochemical staining. We herein describe the case of a 77-year-old woman in whom a solitary mass in the pancreatic tail was detected 11 years after rectal cancer resection. The patient also had a history of pulmonary tumor resection. We performed EUS-FNA and a histopathological examination showed adenocarcinoma with CD20+, CD7-, and CDX2+ (similar to her rectal cancer). EUS-FNA enabled a histopathological examination, including immunohistochemical staining, which helped to confirm the diagnosis of pancreatic and pulmonary metastasis from rectal cancer. PMID:28154274

  9. A Timely Intervention: Endoscopic Retrieval of a Swallowed Magnetized Activity Watch.

    PubMed

    Radowsky, Jason S; Lee, Joseph S; Schlussel, Andrew T

    2016-01-01

    The accidental ingestion of a foreign object often presents a difficult scenario for the clinician. This includes not only the decision to retrieve the material but also the appropriate technique to use. We present the case of a young asymptomatic girl who swallowed a magnetic activity watch, which was then successfully retrieved with an endoscopic snare. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of salvaging an operational watch from the stomach using an endoscopic technique.

  10. ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN ESOPHAGEAL CANCER LEADS TO IMPROVED SURVIVAL RATES: RESULTS FROM A POPULATION-BASED STUDY

    PubMed Central

    Wani, Sachin; Das, Ananya; Rastogi, Amit; Drahos, Jennifer; Ricker, Winifred; Parsons, Ruth; Bansal, Ajay; Yen, Roy; Hosford, Lindsay; Jankowski, Meghan; Sharma, Prateek; Cook, Michael B.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The advantages of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and computed tomography-positron emission tomography (CT-PET) in relation to survival in esophageal cancer (EC) patients are unclear. This study aimed to assess the effect of EUS, CT-PET and its combination on overall survival relative to cases not receiving these procedures. Methods Patients aged ≥ 66 years diagnosed with EC were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database. Cases were split into four analytic groups: EUS only (n=318), CT-PET only (853), EUS+CT-PET (189) and “no EUS or CT-PET” (2,439). Survival times were estimated by Kaplan-Meier method and compared by using log-rank test for each group versus the “no EUS or CT-PET” group. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare 1, 3 and 5-year survival rates. Results Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that patients undergoing EUS, CT-PET and EUS+CT-PET had improved survival for all stages, all compared with “no EUS or CT-PET”, with the exception of stage 0 disease. Receipt of EUS increased the likelihood of receiving endoscopic therapies, esophagectomy and chemoradiation. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards models showed that receipt of EUS was a significant predictor for improved 1-year (HR 0.49, 95% CI 0.39–0.59, p<0.0001), 3-year (HR 0.57, 95% CI 0.48–0.66, p<0.0001) and 5-year (HR 0.59, 95% CI 0.50–0.68) survival. Similar results were noted when results were stratified based on histology, as well as for CT-PET and EUS+CT-PET groups. Conclusions Receipt of either EUS or CT-PET alone in EC patients is associated with improved 1, 3 and 5-year survival. Future studies should identify barriers to dissemination of these staging modalities. PMID:25236485

  11. Endoscopic ultrasonography in esophageal cancer leads to improved survival rates: results from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Wani, Sachin; Das, Ananya; Rastogi, Amit; Drahos, Jennifer; Ricker, Winifred; Parsons, Ruth; Bansal, Ajay; Yen, Roy; Hosford, Lindsay; Jankowski, Meghan; Sharma, Prateek; Cook, Michael B

    2015-01-15

    The advantages of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and computed tomography (CT)-positron emission tomography (PET) with respect to survival for esophageal cancer patients are unclear. This study aimed to assess the effects of EUS, CT-PET, and their combination on overall survival with respect to cases not receiving these procedures. Patients who were ≥66 years old when diagnosed with esophageal cancer were identified in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results-Medicare linked database. Cases were split into 4 analytic groups: EUS only (n = 318), CT-PET only (n = 853), EUS+CT-PET (n = 189), and no EUS or CT-PET (n = 2439). Survival times were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method and were compared with the log-rank test for each group versus the no EUS or CT-PET group. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival rates. Kaplan-Meier analyses showed that EUS, CT-PET, and EUS+CT-PET patients had improved survival for all stages (with the exception of stage 0 disease) in comparison with patients undergoing no EUS or CT-PET. Receipt of EUS increased the likelihood of receiving endoscopic therapies, esophagectomy, and chemoradiation. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards models showed that receipt of EUS was a significant predictor of improved 1- (hazard ratio [HR], 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.39-0.59; P < .0001), 3- (HR, 0.57; 95% CI, 0.48-0.66; P < .0001), and 5-year survival (HR, 0.59; 95% CI, 0.50-0.68). Similar results were noted when the results were stratified on the basis of histology and for the CT-PET and EUS+CT-PET groups. Receipt of either EUS or CT-PET alone in esophageal cancer patients was associated with improved 1-, 3-, and 5-year survival. Future studies should identify barriers to the dissemination of these staging modalities. © 2014 American Cancer Society.

  12. Prediction of adherent placenta in pregnancy with placenta previa using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Tanimura, Kenji; Yamasaki, Yui; Ebina, Yasuhiko; Deguchi, Masashi; Ueno, Yoshiko; Kitajima, Kazuhiro; Yamada, Hideto

    2015-04-01

    Adherent placenta is a life-threatening condition in pregnancy, and is often complicated by placenta previa. The aim of this prospective study was to determine prenatal imaging findings that predict the presence of adherent placenta in pregnancies with placenta previa. The study included 58 consecutive pregnant women with placenta previa who underwent both ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging prenatally. Ultrasonographic findings of anterior placental location, grade 2 or higher placental lacunae (PL≥G2), loss of retroplacental hypoechoic clear zone (LCZ) and the presence of turbulent blood flow in the arteries were evaluated, in addition to MRI findings. Forty-three women underwent cesarean section alone; 15 women with adherent placenta underwent cesarean section followed by hysterectomy with pathological examination. To determine imaging findings that predict adherent placenta, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. Univariate logistic regression analyses demonstrated that anterior placental location, PL≥G2, LCZ, and MRI were associated with the presence of adherent placenta. Multivariate analyses revealed that LCZ (p<0.01, odds ratio 15.6, 95%CI 2.1-114.6) was a single significant predictor of adherent placenta in women with placenta previa. This prospective study demonstrated for the first time that US findings, especially LCZ, might be useful for identifying patients at high risk for adherent placenta among pregnant women with placenta previa. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Localization and Retrieval of an Eyelid Metallic Foreign Body With an Oscillating Magnet and High-Resolution Ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Sylvia H; Rootman, Dan B; Goh, Alice; Savar, Aaron; Goldberg, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    A patient was found to have a metallic foreign body in the left anterior orbit on CT imaging, but the foreign body was not evident on clinical examination. On high-resolution ultrasonography, an object was identified in the left upper eyelid; however, the typical shadow with metallic foreign bodies was not seen. A high-power oscillating magnet was then applied to the eyelid, which revealed a subcutaneous metallic foreign body in the left upper eyelid. When used in conjunction, the high-resolution ultrasound and oscillating magnet successfully localized and facilitated retrieval of the metallic foreign body from the left upper eyelid.

  14. Ultrasonography Detects Ulnar Nerve Dislocation Despite Normal Electrophysiology and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Pisapia, Jared M; Ali, Zarina S; Hudgins, Eric D; Khoury, Viviane; Heuer, Gregory G; Zager, Eric L

    2017-03-01

    Dislocation of the ulnar nerve (UN) occurs in a subset of patients with ulnar neuropathy. Electrodiagnostic and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are performed to support the clinical diagnosis. We report the case of a patient with ulnar neuropathy with normal electrodiagnostic and MRI studies but with ultrasonography (US) showing UN dislocation, which prompted successful treatment by UN submuscular transposition. A healthy 15-year-old female softball player presented with right medial elbow pain and paresthesias of the fourth and fifth digits. She had 4+/5 strength in the right hand intrinsic muscles and a Tinel sign at the right elbow. A snap was palpated at the elbow upon flexion. MRI showed mild common flexor tendonitis, and electrodiagnostic studies showed normal motor responses and no conduction block at the elbow. High-resolution US showed dislocation of the UN over the medial epicondyle. UN dislocation was confirmed intraoperatively, and, after UN submuscular transposition, the patient reported complete resolution of her preoperative symptoms at 6-week follow-up and continued resolution at 1 year. Normal findings on electrodiagnostic or MRI studies should not immediately dissuade surgeons from operating on a symptomatic patient with a clinical examination supporting ulnar neuropathy and with US evidence of UN dislocation, because such a patient may experience postoperative symptom relief. Furthermore, the dynamic capability of US imaging complements data obtained from electrodiagnostic and MRI studies, especially when these tests are normal, and it should be considered by clinicians when evaluating patients with medial elbow pain or signs of ulnar neuropathy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging of heel fat pad inflammatory-oedematous lesions in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Falsetti, P; Frediani, B; Acciai, C; Baldi, F; Filippou, G; Galeazzi, M; Marcolongo, R

    2006-01-01

    To study heel fat pad (HFP) inflammatory-oedematous lesions in selected patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) using ultrasonography (US) and power Doppler US (PDUS), to describe and compare US features of these lesions with those obtained with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to describe changes in the lesions after a short-term follow-up with conventional or anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFalpha) therapy. Twelve heels of eight RA outpatients with HFP inflammatory-oedematous lesions were studied by US, PDUS, and unenhanced MRI. All the patients were followed up and US was performed after 3 months. Five patients started on anti-TNFalpha therapy. HFP lesions appeared at US as a heterogeneous and hypoechoic subcalcaneal mass, with loss of normal lobular structure and increased thickness of HFP, because of focal rupture of fibrous septae with oedema and fluid. PDUS showed peripheral vascularization of HFP lesions in 9/12 heels. In 3/12 heels some vascular signals was also detectable inside the lesion, always along the residual echoic septa. No detectable flow was observed within the central fluid-filled spaces. MRI of the HFP lesions showed areas of mean intensity in T1-weighted sequences and high intensity in T2-weighted sequences, with poorly or well-defined margins. After 3 months, PDUS showed reduction in HFP lesion vascularity (associated with reduction in pain) in 10/12 heels, while poor regression of grey-scale US abnormalities was observed. Both US and MRI are capable of demonstrating structural abnormalities in the HFP. PDUS is useful to assess and monitor inflammatory vascularization of the HFP lesions.

  16. Feasibility and Diagnostic Yield of Endoscopic Ultrasonography-Guided Fine Needle Biopsy With a New Core Biopsy Needle Device in Patients With Gastric Subepithelial Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Minju; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Hyuk; Ahn, Sangjeong; Lee, Jun Haeng; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J.; Sohn, Tae Sung; Kim, Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract As treatment decisions for patients with gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs) largely depend on the histopathologic diagnosis, noninvasive and effective tissue acquisition methods are definitely required for proper management of gastric SETs. Recently, a new endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) device with ProCore reverse bevel technology was developed. We aimed to elucidate the feasibility and diagnostic yield of EUS-FNB with this new core biopsy needle device in patients with gastric SETs. A prospectively maintained database was retrospectively reviewed to identify consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNB with a 22-gauge ProCore needle for gastric SETs 2 cm or larger. The main outcome measurement was the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNB. Procedure results were categorized into diagnostic, suggestive, or nondiagnostic. Of the 43 patients, needle punctures were successful in all cases irrespective of tumor location. EUS-FNB procedure results were diagnostic in 86.0%, suggestive in 4.7%, and nondiagnostic in 9.3% of cases, respectively. The diagnostic yield was the highest in fundus (100.0%), followed by body (89.5%), cardia (83.3%), and antrum (50.0%). All 18 patients with cardiac SET were finally diagnosed to have leiomyoma, and 16 patients with diagnostic or suggestive results avoided surgery. A heterogeneous echo pattern on EUS was found in 33.3% of cases with nondiagnostic or suggestive results and in 5.4% with diagnostic results. In multivariate analysis, no independent predictor of unsuccessful EUS-FNB with nondiagnostic or suggestive results was identified. Agreement between EUS-FNB and surgical pathology was 100% with respect to the diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor. However, there was a significant discrepancy in mitotic counts observed between the EUS-FNB and surgical specimens in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor. There were no significant procedure-related adverse events during and after the

  17. Feasibility and Diagnostic Yield of Endoscopic Ultrasonography-Guided Fine Needle Biopsy With a New Core Biopsy Needle Device in Patients With Gastric Subepithelial Tumors.

    PubMed

    Lee, Minju; Min, Byung-Hoon; Lee, Hyuk; Ahn, Sangjeong; Lee, Jun Haeng; Rhee, Poong-Lyul; Kim, Jae J; Sohn, Tae Sung; Kim, Sung; Kim, Kyoung-Mee

    2015-10-01

    As treatment decisions for patients with gastric subepithelial tumors (SETs) largely depend on the histopathologic diagnosis, noninvasive and effective tissue acquisition methods are definitely required for proper management of gastric SETs. Recently, a new endoscopic ultrasonography-guided fine needle biopsy (EUS-FNB) device with ProCore reverse bevel technology was developed. We aimed to elucidate the feasibility and diagnostic yield of EUS-FNB with this new core biopsy needle device in patients with gastric SETs. A prospectively maintained database was retrospectively reviewed to identify consecutive patients who underwent EUS-FNB with a 22-gauge ProCore needle for gastric SETs 2 cm or larger. The main outcome measurement was the diagnostic yield of EUS-FNB. Procedure results were categorized into diagnostic, suggestive, or nondiagnostic. Of the 43 patients, needle punctures were successful in all cases irrespective of tumor location. EUS-FNB procedure results were diagnostic in 86.0%, suggestive in 4.7%, and nondiagnostic in 9.3% of cases, respectively. The diagnostic yield was the highest in fundus (100.0%), followed by body (89.5%), cardia (83.3%), and antrum (50.0%). All 18 patients with cardiac SET were finally diagnosed to have leiomyoma, and 16 patients with diagnostic or suggestive results avoided surgery. A heterogeneous echo pattern on EUS was found in 33.3% of cases with nondiagnostic or suggestive results and in 5.4% with diagnostic results. In multivariate analysis, no independent predictor of unsuccessful EUS-FNB with nondiagnostic or suggestive results was identified. Agreement between EUS-FNB and surgical pathology was 100% with respect to the diagnosis of gastrointestinal stromal tumor. However, there was a significant discrepancy in mitotic counts observed between the EUS-FNB and surgical specimens in patients with gastrointestinal stromal tumor. There were no significant procedure-related adverse events during and after the procedures. EUS

  18. Fetal neuroblastoma: ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings in the prenatal and postnatal IV-S stage

    PubMed Central

    Werner, Heron; Daltro, Pedro; Davaus, Taisa

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a fetus with an ultrasonography diagnosis of a neuroblastoma during a routine third trimester fetal scan, which presented as a hyperechogenic nodule located above the right kidney. No other abnormalities were found in the ultrasonography scan; however, the follow-up ultrasonography during the 36th week of gestation revealed that the lesion had doubled in size. At the same time, magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a round mass in the topography of the right adrenal gland with a low signal on T1-weighted images and slightly high signal on T2-weighted images, causing a slight inferior displacement of the kidney. The liver had enlarged and had heterogeneous signal intensity, predominantly hypointense on T2-weighted sequences. Based on these findings, a diagnosis of congenital adrenal neuroblastoma with liver metastases was suggested. A newborn male was delivered by cesarean section 2 weeks later. The physical examination of the neonate revealed abdominal distention and hepatomegaly. The infant had a clinical follow-up in which no surgical or medical intervention was required. At 5 months of age, the infant was asymptomatic with a normal physical examination. PMID:27668206

  19. Magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography and histology of the suspensory ligament origin: a comparative study of normal anatomy of warmblood horses.

    PubMed

    Bischofberger, A S; Konar, M; Ohlerth, S; Geyer, H; Lang, J; Ueltschi, G; Lischer, C J

    2006-11-01

    The diagnosis of lameness caused by proximal metacarpal and metatarsal pain can be challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers the possibility for further diagnosis but there have been no studies on the normal MRI appearance of the origin of the suspensory ligament (OSL) in conjunction with ultrasonography and histology. To describe the MRI appearance of the OSL in fore- and hindlimbs of sound horses and compare it to the ultrasonographic and histological appearance. The findings can be used as reference values to recognise pathology in the OSL. The OSL in the fore- and hindlimbs of 6 sound horses was examined by ultrasonography prior to death, and MRI and histology post mortem. Qualitative evaluation and morphometry of the OSL were performed and results of all modalities compared. Muscular tissue, artefacts, variable SL size and shape complicated ultrasonographic interpretation. In MRI and histology the forelimb OSL consisted of 2 portions, the lateral being significantly thicker than medial. The hindlimb SL had a single large area of origin. In fore- and hindlimbs, the amount of muscular tissue was significantly larger laterally than medially. Overall SL measurements using MRI were significantly higher than using histology and ultrasonography and histological higher than ultrasonographic measurements. Morphologically, there was a good correlation between MRI and histology. MRI provides more detailed information than ultrasonography regarding muscle fibre detection and OSL dimension and correlates morphologically well with histology. Therefore, ultrasonographic results should be regarded with caution. MRI may be a diagnostic aid when other modalities fail to identify clearly the cause of proximal metacarpal and metatarsal pain; and may improve selection of adequate therapy and prognosis for injuries in this region.

  20. Diagnostic sensitivity of radiography, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging for detecting shoulder osteochondrosis/osteochondritis dissecans in dogs.

    PubMed

    Wall, Corey R; Cook, Cristi R; Cook, James L

    2015-01-01

    Radiography, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasonography are commonly used for diagnosis of shoulder osteochondrosis and osteochondritis dissecans (OC/OCD) in dogs, however there is a lack of published information on the relative diagnostic sensitivities of these modalities. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare diagnostic sensitivities of these modalities for detecting shoulder OC/OCD in a group of dogs, using arthroscopy as the reference standard. Inclusion criteria were history and clinical findings consistent with osteochondrosis and/or osteochondritis dissecans involving at least one shoulder. With informed client consent, both shoulders for all included dogs were examined using standardized radiography, ultrasonography, MRI, and arthroscopy protocols. One of three veterinary surgeons recorded clinical and arthroscopic findings without knowledge of diagnostic imaging findings. One of two veterinary radiologists recorded diagnostic imaging findings without knowledge of clinical and arthroscopic findings. Eighteen client-owned dogs (n = 36 shoulders) met inclusion criteria. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy (correct classification rate) values for detecting presence or absence of shoulder osteochondrosis/osteochondritis dissecans were as follows: radiography (88.5%, 90%, 88.9%), ultrasonography (92%, 60%, 82.6%), and MRI (96%, 88.9%, 94.4%). Odds of a correct diagnosis for MRI were 3.2 times more than ultrasonography and two times more than radiography. For MRI detection of lesions, the sagittal T2 or PD-FAT SAT sequences were considered to be most helpful. For radiographic detection of lesions, the additional supinated-mediolateral and pronated-mediolateral projections were considered to be most helpful. Findings from the current study support more evidence-based diagnostic imaging recommendations for dogs with clinically suspected shoulder osteochondrosis or osteochondritis dissecans. © 2014 American College of

  1. The Value of Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Endoscopic and Microsurgical Transsphenoidal Pituitary Adenoma Resection.

    PubMed

    Pal'a, Andrej; Knoll, Andreas; Brand, Christine; Etzrodt-Walter, Gwendolin; Coburger, Jan; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Hlaváč, Michal

    2017-06-01

    The routine use of intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) helps to achieve gross total resection in transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. We compared the added value of iMRI for extent of resection in endoscopic versus microsurgical transsphenoidal adenomectomy. A total of 96 patients with pituitary adenoma were included. Twenty-eight consecutive patients underwent endoscopic transsphenoidal tumor resection. For comparison, we used a historic cohort of 68 consecutive patients treated microsurgically. We evaluated the additional resection after conducting iMRI using intraoperative and late postoperative volumetric tumor analysis 3 months after surgery. Demographic data, clinical symptoms, and complications as well as pituitary function were evaluated. We found significantly fewer additional resections after conducting iMRI in the endoscopic group (P = 0.042). The difference was even more profound in Knosp grade 0-2 adenomas (P = 0.029). There was no significant difference in Knosp grade 3-4 adenomas (P = 0.520). The endoscopic approach was associated with smaller intraoperative tumor volume (P = 0.023). No significant difference was found between both techniques in postoperative tumor volume (P = 0.228). Satisfactory results of pituitary function were significantly more often associated with an endoscopic approach in the multiple regression analysis (P = 0.007; odds ratio, 17.614; confidence interval 95%, 2.164-143.396). With the endoscopic approach, significantly more tumor volume reduction was achieved before conducting iMRI, decreasing the need for further resection. This finding was even more pronounced in adenomas graded Knosp 0-2. In the case of extensive and invasive adenomas with infiltration of cavernous sinus and suprasellar or parasellar extension, additional tumor resection and increase in the extent of resection was achieved with iMRI in both groups. The endoscopic approach seems to result in better endocrine outcomes, especially in Knosp

  2. Measurement of cerebral blood flow using phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging and duplex ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Ayaz; Liu, Jie; Tarumi, Takashi; Lawley, Justin Stevan; Liu, Peiying; Zhu, David C; Lu, Hanzhang; Zhang, Rong

    2017-02-01

    Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) and color-coded duplex ultrasonography (CDUS) are commonly used for measuring cerebral blood flow in the internal carotid (ICA) and vertebral arteries. However, agreement between the two methods has been controversial. Recent development of high spatial and temporal resolution blood vessel wall edge-detection and wall-tracking methods with CDUS increased the accuracy and reliability of blood vessel diameter, hence cerebral blood flow measurement. The aim of this study was to compare the improved CDUS method with 3 T PC-MRI for cerebral blood flow measurements. We found that cerebral blood flow velocity measured in the ICA was lower using PC-MRI than CDUS (left ICA: PC-MRI, 18.0 ± 4.2 vs. CDUS, 25.6 ± 8.6 cm/s; right ICA: PC-MRI, 18.5 ± 4.8 vs. CDUS, 26.6 ± 6.7 cm/s, both p < 0.01). However, ICA diameters measured using PC-MRI were larger (left ICA: PC-MRI, 4.7 ± 0.50 vs. CDUS, 4.1 ± 0.46 mm; right ICA: PC-MRI, 4.5 ± 0.49 vs. CDUS, 4.0 ± 0.45 mm, both p < 0.01). Cerebral blood flow velocity measured in the left vertebral artery with PC-MRI was also lower than CDUS, but no differences in vertebral artery diameter were observed between the methods. Dynamic changes and/or intrinsic physiological fluctuations may have caused these differences in vessel diameter and velocity measurements between the methods. However, estimation of volumetric cerebral blood flow was similar and correlated between the methods despite the presence of large individual differences. These findings support the use of CDUS for cerebral blood flow measurements in the ICA and vertebral artery.

  3. Added Value of Multiparametric Ultrasonography in Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Ultrasonography Fusion-guided Biopsy of the Prostate in Patients With Suspicion for Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Maxeiner, Andreas; Stephan, Carsten; Durmus, Tahir; Slowinski, Torsten; Cash, Hannes; Fischer, Thomas

    2015-07-01

    To analyze whether magnetic resonance imaging-ultrasonography (MRI-US) fusion-guided biopsy detects more and clinical significant prostate cancer (PCa) in comparison to conventional transrectal US-guided prostate biopsy (PBX) and to investigate if multiparametric (mp) US during MRI-US fusion can further characterize mpMRI-suspected lesions according to the prostate MRI reporting and data system (PI-RADS). From January 2012 to January 2014, 169 patients with a median of 2 negative conventional PBX and/or initially or consistently elevated prostate-specific antigen levels were prospectively included and underwent 3 T mpMRI. Real-time MRI-US fusion scan was used to biopsy the mpMRI-targeted lesions (n = 316). Scanning by mpUS, including B-mode, power Doppler, strain elastography, and contrast-enhanced US was performed to further characterize those lesions and to score by US modalities resulting in an mpUS score. Afterward, a conventional 10-core PBX was performed. PCa detection based on the results of targeted and conventional PBX was estimated. Performances of single US modalities were analyzed. The mpUS score was also investigated for PCa and PI-RADS score prediction. Among 169 patients, 71 PCa (42%) were detected. From these 71 cases, clinically significant PCa (Gleason score ≥7) were detected exclusively by MRI-US fusion in 31 from 46 cases (67.4%). The highest sensitivity was observed in contrast-enhanced US (85%) and elastography (80%). The mpUS score predicts PCa and PI-RADS score with an overall accuracy of 86% and 80%, respectively. MRI-US fusion-guided PBX detects more clinically significant PCa compared with conventional TRUS. The mpUS score correlates with PI-RADS in PCa prediction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Focal Liver Lesions: Real-time 3-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography Compared With 2-Dimensional Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung-Chieh; Yan, Kun; Lee, San-Kan; Yang, Wei; Chen, Min-Hua

    2017-06-24

    This study sought to evaluate the application of real-time 3-dimensional (3D) contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US) to diagnose focal liver lesions and to compare these results with those from 2-dimensional (2D) contrast-enhanced US and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Patients with focal liver lesions were examined by 2D contrast-enhanced US, 3D contrast-enhanced US, and contrast-enhanced MRI for lesion characterization, and biopsies and comprehensive clinical diagnoses served as reference standards. The sensitivity, specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and intermodality agreement were assessed. The number of contrast agent injections and lesions observed per injection were calculated for 3D and 2D contrast-enhanced US. The number and display quality of the feeding arteries observed with 3D and 2D contrast-enhanced US were assessed. A total of 117 patients with 151 focal liver lesions were enrolled, including 67 cases of hepatocellular carcinoma, 51 cases of liver metastasis, and 33 cases of benign liver lesions. No significant differences were found among the modalities. The sensitivity values for 3D contrast-enhanced US, 2D contrast-enhanced US, and contrast-enhanced MRI were 96%, 95%, and 93%, respectively; the specificity values were 87%, 84%, and 89%; and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values were 0.92, 0.90, and 0.92. The intermodality agreement was excellent (κ > 0.77). Fewer contrast agent injections were needed, and more lesions and feeding arteries were more clearly displayed on 3D than 2D contrast-enhanced US (P < .001). Real-time 3D contrast-enhanced US is useful for diagnosing focal liver lesions and for observing feeding arteries with fewer contrast agent injections. © 2017 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  5. Establishment of a biophysical model to optimize endoscopic targeting of magnetic nanoparticles for cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Martin; Alizai, Patrick H; Schmeding, Maximilian; Guentherodt, Gernot; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Neumann, Ulf P

    2017-01-01

    Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) may be used for local tumor treatment by coupling them to a drug and accumulating them locally with magnetic field traps, that is, a combination of permanent magnets and coils. Thereafter, an alternating magnetic field generates heat which may be used to release the thermosensitively bound drug and for hyperthermia. Until today, only superficial tumors can be treated with this method. Our aim was to transfer this method into an endoscopic setting to also reach the majority of tumors located inside the body. To find the ideal endoscopic magnetic field trap, which accumulates the most SPION, we first developed a biophysical model considering anatomical as well as physical conditions. Entities of choice were esophageal and prostate cancer. The magnetic susceptibilities of different porcine and rat tissues were measured with a superconducting quantum interference device. All tissues showed diamagnetic behavior. The evaluation of clinical data (computed tomography scan, endosonography, surgical reports, pathological evaluation) of patients gave insight into the topographical relationship between the tumor and its surroundings. Both were used to establish the biophysical model of the tumors and their surroundings, closely mirroring the clinical situation, in which we could virtually design, place and evaluate different electromagnetic coil configurations to find optimized magnetic field traps for each tumor entity. By simulation, we could show that the efficiency of the magnetic field traps can be enhanced by 38-fold for prostate and 8-fold for esophageal cancer. Therefore, our approach of endoscopic targeting is an improvement of the magnetic drug-targeting setups for SPION tumor therapy as it holds the possibility of reaching tumors inside the body in a minimal-invasive way. Future animal experiments must prove these findings in vivo. PMID:28860758

  6. A real-time localization system for an endoscopic capsule using magnetic sensors.

    PubMed

    Pham, Duc Minh; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul

    2014-11-05

    Magnetic sensing technology offers an attractive alternative for in vivo tracking with much better performance than RF and ultrasound technologies. In this paper, an efficient in vivo magnetic tracking system is presented. The proposed system is intended to localize an endoscopic capsule which delivers biomarkers around specific locations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. For efficiently localizing a magnetic marker inside the capsule, a mathematical model has been developed for the magnetic field around a cylindrical magnet and used with a localization algorithm that provides minimum error and fast computation. The proposed tracking system has much reduced complexity compared to the ones reported in the literature to date. Laboratory tests and in vivo animal trials have demonstrated the suitability of the proposed system for tracking a magnetic marker with expected accuracy.

  7. A Real-Time Localization System for an Endoscopic Capsule Using Magnetic Sensors †

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Duc Minh; Aziz, Syed Mahfuzul

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic sensing technology offers an attractive alternative for in vivo tracking with much better performance than RF and ultrasound technologies. In this paper, an efficient in vivo magnetic tracking system is presented. The proposed system is intended to localize an endoscopic capsule which delivers biomarkers around specific locations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. For efficiently localizing a magnetic marker inside the capsule, a mathematical model has been developed for the magnetic field around a cylindrical magnet and used with a localization algorithm that provides minimum error and fast computation. The proposed tracking system has much reduced complexity compared to the ones reported in the literature to date. Laboratory tests and in vivo animal trials have demonstrated the suitability of the proposed system for tracking a magnetic marker with expected accuracy. PMID:25379813

  8. Biopsy using a Magnetic Capsule Endoscope Carrying, Releasing, and Retrieving Untethered Microgrippers

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Sehyuk; Gultepe, Evin; Gracias, David H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new wireless biopsy method where a magnetically actuated untethered soft capsule endoscope carries and releases a large number of thermo-sensitive, untethered microgrippers (μ-grippers) at a desired location inside the stomach and retrieves them after they self-fold and grab tissue samples. We describe the working principles and analytical models for the μ-gripper release and retrieval mechanisms, and evaluate the proposed biopsy method in ex vivo experiments. This hierarchical approach combining the advanced navigation skills of centimeter-scaled untethered magnetic capsule endoscopes with highly parallel, autonomous, submillimeter scale tissue sampling μ-grippers offers a multifunctional strategy for gastrointestinal capsule biopsy. PMID:24108454

  9. Accuracy of color Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of placenta accreta: A survey of 82 cases

    PubMed Central

    Ayati, Sedigheh; Leila, Leila; Pezeshkirad, Masoud; Seilanian Toosi, Farokh; Nekooei, Sirous; Shakeri, Mohammad Taghi; Golmohammadi, Mansoureh Sadat

    2017-01-01

    Background: Placenta adhesive disorder (PAD) is one of the most common causes of postpartum hemorrhage and peripartum hysterectomy. The main risk factors are placenta previa and prior uterine surgery such as cesarean section. Diagnosis of placenta adhesive disorders can lead to a decrease of maternal mortality and morbidities. Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of color Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of PADs. Materials and Methods: In this is cross-sectional study, Eighty-two pregnant women who were high risk for PAD underwent color Doppler ultrasound and MRI after 18 weeks of gestation. The sonographic and MRI findings were compared with the final pathologic or clinical findings. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: Mean maternal age was 31.42±4.2 years. The average gravidity was third pregnancy. 46% of patients had placenta previa. The history of the previous cesarean section was seen in 79 cases (96%). The diagnosis of placenta adhesive disorder was found in 17 cases (21%). Doppler sonography sensitivity was 87% and MRI sensitivity was 76% (p=0.37). Doppler sonography specificity was 63% and MRI specificity was 83% (p=0.01). Conclusion: Women with high-risk factors for PAD should undergo Doppler ultrasonography at first. When results on Doppler sonography are equivocal for PAD, MRI can be performed due to its high specificity. PMID:28835939

  10. Endoscopic intestinal bypass creation by using self-assembling magnets in a porcine model.

    PubMed

    Ryou, Marvin; Agoston, A Tony; Thompson, Christopher C

    2016-04-01

    A purely endoluminal method of GI bypass would be desirable for the treatment of obstruction, obesity, or metabolic syndrome. We have developed a technology based on miniature self-assembling magnets that create large-caliber anastomoses (Incisionless Anastomosis System [IAS]). The aim of this study was to evaluate procedural characteristics of IAS deployment and long-term anastomotic integrity and patency. We performed a 3-month survival study of Yorkshire pigs (5 interventions, 3 controls). Intervention pigs underwent simultaneous enteroscopy/colonoscopy performed with the animals under intravenous sedation. The IAS magnets were deployed and coupled with reciprocal magnets under fluoroscopy. Every 3 to 6 days pigs underwent endoscopy until jejunocolonic anastomosis (dual-path bypass) creation and magnet expulsion. Necropsies and histological evaluation were performed. The primary endpoints were technical success; secondary endpoints of anastomosis integrity, patency, and histological characteristics were weight trends. Under intravenous sedation, endoscopic bypass creation by using IAS magnets was successfully performed in 5 of 5 pigs (100%). Given porcine anatomy, the easiest dual-path bypass to create was between the proximal jejunum and colon. The mean procedure time was 14.7 minutes. Patent, leak-free anastomoses formed by day 4. All IAS magnets were expelled by day 12. All anastomoses were fully patent at 3 months with a mean diameter of 3.5 cm. The mean 3-month weight was 45 kg in bypass pigs and 78 kg in controls (P = .01). At necropsy, adhesions were absent. Histology showed full re-epithelialization across the anastomosis without fibrosis or inflammation. Large-caliber, leak-free, foreign body-free endoscopic intestinal bypass by using IAS magnets can be safely and rapidly performed in the porcine by model using only intravenous sedation. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Simplified magnetic anchor-guided endoscopic submucosal dissection in dogs (with videos).

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Ippei; Miyahara, Ryoji; Hirooka, Yoshiki; Funasaka, Kohei; Furukawa, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Eizaburo; Nakamura, Masanao; Kawashima, Hiroki; Maeda, Osamu; Watanabe, Osamu; Ando, Takafumi; Kobayashi, Makoto; Goto, Hidemi

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic anchor-guided endoscopic submucosal dissection (MAG-ESD) was developed to reduce adverse events such as bleeding and perforation and to facilitate ESD. However, the external electromagnet required miniaturization to make it suitable for daily clinical practice. To evaluate the feasibility of simplified MAG-ESD using permanent magnets. Case series. Nagoya University Hospital. Beagle dogs. The simplified MAG-ESD was performed on 10 representative areas of the stomachs of beagle dogs. The magnetic anchor consisted of an internal magnet attached to a hemoclip. The external and internal magnets were made from the rare earth neodymium. The feasibility of countertraction with good visualization using simplified MAG-ESD. The rate of perforation, the time required for preparation, and attaching the magnetic anchor were also evaluated. All lesions were successfully resected without perforation. The magnetic anchor could be controlled easily, and direct visualization was maintained by adequate counter traction. Preparing the magnetic anchor and grasping the mucosal edge using the hemoclip was easy and required a median of only 4 minutes (range, 2-7 minutes). Animal experiment, low number and lesion size. This simplified MAG-ESD is feasible and allowed excellent visualization in the dog stomach. The feasibility of this system should be assessed in humans. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-01-01

    Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis), tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis) and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy). In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis), and the spine (spondylitis). In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. PMID:27446601

  13. Diagnostic imaging of psoriatic arthritis. Part II: magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Sudoł-Szopińska, Iwona; Pracoń, Grzegorz

    2016-06-01

    Plain radiography reveals specific, yet late changes of advanced psoriatic arthritis. Early inflammatory changes are seen both on magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound within peripheral joints (arthritis, synovitis), tendons sheaths (tenosynovitis, tendovaginitis) and entheses (enthesitis, enthesopathy). In addition, magnetic resonance imaging enables the assessment of inflammatory features in the sacroiliac joints (sacroiliitis), and the spine (spondylitis). In this article, we review current opinions on the diagnostics of some selective, and distinctive features of psoriatic arthritis concerning magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasound and present some hypotheses on psoriatic arthritis etiopathogenesis, which have been studied with the use of magnetic resonance imaging. The following elements of the psoriatic arthritis are discussed: enthesitis, extracapsular inflammation, dactylitis, distal interphalangeal joint and nail disease, and the ability of magnetic resonance imaging to differentiate undifferentiated arthritis, the value of whole-body magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

  14. [Magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in dogs and cats with ocular and orbital diseases. Part 1: Ocular diseases].

    PubMed

    von Krosigk, F; Steinmetz, A; Ellenberger, C; Oechtering, G

    2012-01-01

    This two-part study describes the clinical usefulness and value of ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in dogs and cats with ocular (n=30) and orbital diseases (n=31). MRI and ultrasonography characteristics are described in single cases with ocular and orbital disease. Ultrasonography and MRI were performed in 15 dogs and 15 cats with intraocular neoplasia or intraocular inflammatory disease. In all patients with intraocular neoplasia, sonography revealed masses with increased echogenicity and fairly uniform echotexture, thus allowing the tentative diagnosis of an intraocular tumour. In these cases, MRI often proved to be a valuable diagnostic tool in showing the complete extent of intraocular lesion. An additional benefit of MRI was seen in the tissue characterization of tumours based on MRI signal characteristics and pattern of contrast enhancement. Discreet intraocular inflammatory alterations, in particular to the anterior and posterior segment of the eyeball, were more clearly shown by ultrasound than by MRI. Neoplasia could be excluded and inflammatory disease was successfully diagnosed using MRI due to the different image sequences with or without contrast medium administration. Traumatic ruptures of the lens capsule and the globe after trauma were depicted more clearly with MRI. When opacity of the anterior eye segment is present, various intraocular changes can be quickly diagnosed by ultrasound with high accuracy, without requiring anaesthesia of the patient. MRI of the globe allows differentiation of diverse pathologies, gives detailed information of infiltration in orbital structures and the exact degree of ocular lesions after trauma. This additional evidence often makes it easier to predict the correct prognosis and choose the best therapy.

  15. Miniaturized magnetic-driven scanning probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Pang, Ziwei; Wu, Jigang

    2015-06-01

    We designed and implemented a magnetic-driven scanning (MDS) probe for endoscopic optical coherence tomography (OCT). The probe uses an externally-driven tiny magnet in the distal end to achieve unobstructed 360-degree circumferential scanning at the side of the probe. The design simplifies the scanning part inside the probe and thus allows for easy miniaturization and cost reduction. We made a prototype probe with an outer diameter of 1.4 mm and demonstrated its capability by acquiring OCT images of ex vivo trachea and artery samples from a pigeon. We used a spectrometer-based Fourier-domain OCT system and the system sensitivity with our prototype probe was measured to be 91 dB with an illumination power of 850 μW and A-scan exposure time of 1 ms. The axial and lateral resolutions of the system are 6.5 μm and 8.1 μm, respectively.

  16. Comparison between 2D ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging for assessing brain and spine parameters in fetuses with spina bifida.

    PubMed

    Araujo Júnior, Edward; Nakano, Mayra Lemos; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Haratz, Karina Krajden; Oliveira, Patrícia Soares; Martins, Wellington P; Ajzen, Sérgio Aron; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2013-05-01

    To compare two-dimensional ultrasonography (2DUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for assessing brain and spine parameters in fetuses with spina bifida. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 15 fetuses with spina bifida (one with encephalocele, four with rachischisis and 10 with myelomeningocele). The size of the atrium of the lateral ventricle, percentage shortening of the cerebellum, degree of compromising of the first vertebra and total number of vertebras affected by herniation were assessed. The MRI examination was performed not more than 7 days after the 2DUS. To compare and correlate the parameters from the two techniques, the paired Student's t test and intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) were used. To assess the correlations of atrium measurements from 2DUS and MRI with other parameters, Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) was used. No significant difference was observed in any of the means of the parameters assessed using the two techniques (p > 0.05). Both 2DUS and MRI seemed to present satisfactory reliability in measurements on the size of the atrium of the lateral ventricle and the first vertebra affected (ICC = 0.88 and 0.75, respectively). Measurements on the atrium of the lateral ventricle from 2DUS correlated better with the other parameters than did measurements from MRI. In fetuses with spina bifida, 2DUS and MRI present similar results, but measurements on the atrium of the lateral ventricle from 2DUS correlated better with the other parameters.

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging and pathological characteristics of pure mucinous carcinoma in the breast according to echogenicity on ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this study was to explore the clinical and pathological characteristics of pure mucinous breast carcinoma (PMBC) according to internal echogenicity on ultrasonography (US). Methods Thirty-three patients with PMBC diagnosed at surgery were included in this study. Cases of PMBC were classified according to internal echogenicity on US. The imaging features on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and clinicohistopathological characteristics were compared between the hypoechogenic and the isoechogenic to hyperechogenic groups. Results Eleven cases of PMBC (33.3%) exhibited hypoechogenicity on US, while 22 cases (66.7%) exhibited isoechogenicity or hyperechogenicity. Of the isoechogenic to hyperechogenic PMBCs, 95.5% showed a high signal on T2-weighted images, which was a significantly greater percentage than was observed for the hypoechogenic group (54.5%) (P=0.010). Of the hypoechogenic PMBCs, 63.6% showed a washout pattern in the delayed phase, which was substantially more than the result of 23.8% observed for the isoechogenic to hyperechogenic PMBCs (P=0.053). Conclusion PMBCs with isoechogenicity or hyperechogenicity were more likely to show a high signal intensity on T2-weighted images than hypoechogenic PMBCs. However, other MR imaging and clinicohistopathological characteristics were not significantly different between the two groups. PMID:27764910

  18. Assessment of total placenta previa by magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography to detect placenta accreta and its variants.

    PubMed

    Peker, Nuri; Turan, Volkan; Ergenoglu, Mete; Yeniel, Ozgur; Sever, Ahmet; Kazandi, Mert; Zekioglu, Osman

    2013-03-01

    To evaluate the importance of ultrasonography (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in detecting placental adherence defects. Patients diagnozed with total placenta previa (n = 40) in whom hysterectomy was performed due to placental adherence defects (n = 20) or in whom the placenta detached spontaneously after a Cesarean delivery (n = 20) were included into the study between June 2008 and January 2011, at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Ege University (lzmir Turkey). Gray-scale US was used to check for any placental lacunae, sub-placental sonolucent spaces or a placental mass invading the vesicouterine plane and bladder Intra-placental lacunar turbulent blood flow and an increase in vascularization in the vesicouterine plane were evaluated with color Doppler mode. Subsequently all patients had MRI and the results were compared with the histopathologic examinations. The sensitivity of MRI for diagnosis of placental adherence defects before the operation was 95%, with a specificity of 95%. In the presence of at least one diagnostic criterion, the sensitivity and specificity of US were 87.5% and 100% respectively, while the sensitivity of color Doppler US was 62.5% with a specificity of 100%. Currently MRI appears to be the gold standard for the diagnosis of placenta accreta. None of the ultrasonographic criteria is solely sufficient to diagnose placental adherence defects, however they assist in the diagnostic process.

  19. Impact of magnetic resonance urography and ultrasonography on diagnosis and management of hydronephrosis and megaureter in paediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Wildbrett, Peer; Langner, Sönke; Lode, Holger; Abel, Jürgen; Otto, Sylke; Hosten, Norbert; Barthlen, Winfried

    2012-01-01

    (1) To evaluate the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance urography (MRU) in comparison with ultrasonography (US) to determine the extent of upper urinary tract dilation and (2) to evaluate the impact of MRU on therapy management. From January 2005 to December 2010, paediatric patients with hydronephrosis or megaureter who underwent MRU in addition to standard work-up imaging were included. Data were retrospectively collected and analysed in comparison with the data obtained from results by US. Forty-five patients with upper urinary tract dilatation were included into the study. Twenty-six patients (58%) had a hydronephrosis and 19 patients (42%) presented with a megaureter. Diagnosis was established in all patients by multimodulary imaging work-up including micturating cysto-urethrography, MAG3 renography, US and MRU and could be confirmed in all patients who underwent surgery (n = 28). Hydronephrosis was detected in 26 of 26 patients by US (100% sensitivity) and in 25 of 26 patients (96%) by MRU (Not significant (n.s.)). Megaureter was detected in 17 of 19 patients (sensitivity 89%) by US and in 18 of 19 patients (sensitivity 95%) by MRU (n.s.). In all 45 patients, MRU had no impact on surgical or conservative management of hydronephrosis or megaureter. In our experience, MRU was not superior to US in detecting hydronephrosis or megaureter and had no impact on the surgical or conservative management of upper urinary tract dilation.

  20. Is high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography better for prediction of clinical events induced by carotid vulnerable lesions?

    PubMed

    Qin, Haiqiang; Sui, Binbin; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Xingquan; Wang, Guihong; Zhou, Yong; Gao, Peiyi; Wang, Yongjun

    2008-05-01

    To find a better way to predict the clinical events caused by carotid vulnerable lesions via comparison study on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (US). Twenty-seven symptomatic stroke patients were recruited, all of which were given both high-resolution MRI and US at bilateral carotids. Respective correlations of high-resolution MRI and US outcomes with clinical events were performed and the lesion numbers identified by high-resolution MRI and US were statistically analysed. Six carotid arteries in six patients were excluded because of uninterpretable high-resolution MRI findings or patients' intolerance. In the remaining 48 carotids analysed, the number of carotid with vulnerable/stable lesion was 17/31 by high-resolution MRI and 25/23 by US, respectively. Contingency coefficient was 0.40 between vulnerable lesion by high-resolution MRI and clinical event (p=0.004), and 0.19 (p=0.221) by US and clinical event, respectively. The difference of detected lesion numbers between high-resolution MRI and US was statistically significant p=0.039) through matched chi-square test. High-resolution MRI may be a better way than US in predicting the clinical events caused by carotid vulnerable lesions.

  1. Application of phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging in endoscopic aqueductoplasty.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guoqiang; Zheng, Jiaping; Xiao, Qing; Liu, Yunsheng

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the application of phase-contrast cine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in endoscopic aqueductoplasty (EA) for patients with obstructive hydrocephalus. The clinical diagnosis of hydrocephalus caused by aqueduct obstruction in 23 patients was confirmed by phase-contrast cine MRI examination. The patients were treated with EA and MRI was repeated during the follow-up. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow velocity in the aqueduct was measured to determine whether the aqueduct was obstructed. The results of phase-contrast cine MRI examinations indicated that there was no CSF flow in the aqueduct for all patients prior to surgery. Aqueductoplasty was successfully performed in all patients. The results of phase-contrast cine MRI examinations performed a week after surgery demonstrated an average CSF flow velocity of 4.74±1.77 cm/sec. During the follow-up, intracranial hypertension recurred in two patients in whom CSF flow was not observed in the aqueduct by the phase-contrast cine MRI scan. Aqueduct re-occlusion was revealed by an endoscopic exploration. By measuring the CSF flow velocity, phase-contrast cine MRI accurately identifies aqueduct obstruction. Cine MRI is a nontraumatic, simple and reliable method for determining whether the aqueduct is successfully opened following aqueductoplasty.

  2. 3-D Localization Method for a Magnetically Actuated Soft Capsule Endoscope and Its Applications

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Sehyuk; Sitti, Metin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a 3-D localization method for a magnetically actuated soft capsule endoscope (MASCE). The proposed localization scheme consists of three steps. First, MASCE is oriented to be coaxially aligned with an external permanent magnet (EPM). Second, MASCE is axially contracted by the enhanced magnetic attraction of the approaching EPM. Third, MASCE recovers its initial shape by the retracting EPM as the magnetic attraction weakens. The combination of the estimated direction in the coaxial alignment step and the estimated distance in the shape deformation (recovery) step provides the position of MASCE in 3-D. It is experimentally shown that the proposed localization method could provide 2.0–3.7 mm of distance error in 3-D. This study also introduces two new applications of the proposed localization method. First, based on the trace of contact points between the MASCE and the surface of the stomach, the 3-D geometrical model of a synthetic stomach was reconstructed. Next, the relative tissue compliance at each local contact point in the stomach was characterized by measuring the local tissue deformation at each point due to the preloading force. Finally, the characterized relative tissue compliance parameter was mapped onto the geometrical model of the stomach toward future use in disease diagnosis. PMID:25383064

  3. Magnetic control system targeted for capsule endoscopic operations in the stomach--design, fabrication, and in vitro and ex vivo evaluations.

    PubMed

    Lien, Gi-Shih; Liu, Chih-Wen; Jiang, Joe-Air; Chuang, Cheng-Long; Teng, Ming-Tsung

    2012-07-01

    This paper presents a novel solution of a hand-held external controller to a miniaturized capsule endoscope in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. Traditional capsule endoscopes move passively by peristaltic wave generated in the GI tract and the gravity, which makes it impossible for endoscopists to manipulate the capsule endoscope to the diagnostic disease areas. In this study, the main objective is to present an endoscopic capsule and a magnetic field navigator (MFN) that allows endoscopists to remotely control the locomotion and viewing angle of an endoscopic capsule. The attractive merits of this study are that the maneuvering of the endoscopic capsule can be achieved by the external MFN with effectiveness, low cost, and operation safety, both from a theoretical and an experimental point of view. In order to study the magnetic interactions between the endoscopic capsule and the external MFN, a magnetic-analysis model is established for computer-based finite-element simulations. In addition, experiments are conducted to show the control effectiveness of the MFN to the endoscopic capsule. Finally, several prototype endoscopic capsules and a prototype MFN are fabricated, and their actual capabilities are experimentally assessed via in vitro and ex vivo tests using a stomach model and a resected porcine stomach, respectively. Both in vitro and ex vivo test results demonstrate great potential and practicability of achieving high-precision rotation and controllable movement of the capsule using the developed MFN.

  4. Pediatric ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Hayden, C.K. Jr.; Swischuk, L.E.

    1987-01-01

    Two leading experts explore the benefits and limitations of pediatric ultrasonography, explaining the latest techniques for optimal imaging of specific body regions: the head, chest, abdomen, pelvis, extremities, and soft tissues. Numerous illustrations emphasize significant points and combine with the text to show specifically what to look for when imaging children.

  5. Comparison of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography in the evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Amparo, E G; Hoddick, W K; Hricak, H; Sollitto, R; Justich, E; Filly, R A; Higgins, C B

    1985-02-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to evaluate abdominal aortic aneurysms in 27 patients. The findings were compared retrospectively with CT, ultrasound (US), and angiography in 17 cases and prospectively with US in 10 cases. MRI identified the renal arteries in all cases, demonstrated involvement at or above the origin of the renal arteries in eight patients, and showed extension of the aneurysm into the iliac arteries in 12 cases. The outer dimension of the aneurysm, the diameter of the residual lumen, and the length of the aneurysm were measured easily from the MR images. The measurements of transverse dimension of the abdominal aortic aneurysm were similar for MRI, CT, and US. MRI more accurately defined extension above the renal arteries and below the aortic bifurcation. It is concluded that MRI provides the necessary information for the surveillance and preoperative evaluation of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  6. Ultrasonography and Low-field Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Common Calcanean Tendon in a Rabbit Model for Tendinopathy Research: a Descriptive Study of Normal Anatomy.

    PubMed

    Skalec, A; Przyborowska-Zhalniarovich, P; Janus, I; Kirstein, K; Mieszkowska, M; Adamiak, Z; Chrószcz, A; Janeczek, M

    2016-09-01

    In spite of recent advances in treatment protocols, tendinopathies continue to challenge orthopaedists and surgeons. Due to the complexity of both tendon injuries and the healing processes, animal models are essential for addressing fundamental questions in tendinopathy research. Diagnostic imaging could contribute to the evaluation of animal models, thus providing information, which could be translated to human tendinopathies. The objective of our study was to evaluate in situ appearance of the rabbit common calcanean tendon with ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, we sought to assess and compare the feasibility and usefulness of these techniques in a rabbit model while focusing on the imaging of the particular structures involved in calcaneal tendon disorders. Eight California rabbits were used for post-mortem sonographic and low-field magnetic resonance examination. Morphometry was performed on longitudinal sonograms and sagittal MRI scans. The craniocaudal diameter of the tendon was measured at four points of interest. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance provided good visualisation of the tendon origin, the paratenon and the pre-Achilles fat pad. Magnetic resonance images presented in more detail the structure of the calcaneal insertion. Both modalities failed to visualise the individual components of the common calcanean tendon and the bursa of the calcaneal tendon. Statistical analysis of measurements obtained showed that the craniocaudal diameter of the common calcanean tendon in a rabbit increases significantly with a growing length from the calcaneal tuber. Both magnetic resonance and ultrasonography are feasible, and should be considered complementary, not alternative imaging techniques in a rabbit common calcanean tendon model.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging versus musculoskeletal ultrasonography in detecting inflammatory arthropathy in systemic sclerosis patients with hand arthralgia.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Magied, Rasha A; Lotfi, A; AbdelGawad, Ehab A

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the study was the detection of inflammatory arthropathy in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) with arthralgia using musculoskeletal ultrasonography (MSUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and to compare between MRI versus MSUS detecting musculoskeletal abnormalities and find out its relation with other clinical and laboratory parameters. Sixteen SSc patients with hand arthralgia had a baseline MSUS for their hands. Six months later, patients had a second MSUS and MRI with gadolinium of their most symptomatic hand. Of the 16 patients examined by MSUS, it was found that on baseline and second examination, tenosynovitis was seen in 8 (50 %) and 7 (43.7%) patients and synovitis was seen in 4 (25%) and 5 (31%) patients, respectively, indicating persistence synovial inflammation, and erosion was seen in only 1 (6.3%) patient on baseline and second examination. Regarding MRI, 81.3% (13) patients had tenosynovitis, 87.5% (14) patients had synovitis, and 62.5% (10) patients had erosions. Applying the RAMRIS system (a semiquantitative MRI scoring system used in RA), the mean values for synovitis, bone marrow edema, and erosions fell within the range seen in RA. Systemic sclerosis patients with arthralgia that have no obvious clinical inflammatory arthritis were found to have persistent inflammatory erosive arthropathy in their hands and wrists using MSUS and MRI. While both MRI and MSUS are useful in characterizing synovial inflammation in SSc, MRI is clearly more sensitive than MSUS in this setting. Further studies on larger number of SSc patients with arthralgia and a control group consisting of SSc patients without arthralgia to better establish the clinical and radiological findings in SSc.

  8. Detection of bone erosion in early rheumatoid arthritis: ultrasonography and conventional radiography versus non-contrast magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Maryam; Chegini, Hosein; Najafizadeh, Seyed Reza; Azimi, Mohammad; Habibollahi, Peiman; Shakiba, Madjid

    2010-08-01

    Nowadays, there is a trend toward early diagnosis and treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) especially in patients with early signs of bone erosion which can be detected by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The aim of following study is to compare the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography (US) and conventional radiography (CR) compared to MRI for early detection of bone erosion in RA patients. In 12 patients with RA diagnosis, 120 first to fifth metacarpophalangeal joints and 96 second to fifth proximal interphalangeal joints were examined. Non-contrast MRI, US and CR were performed for bone erosion evaluation. For further analysis, the patients were divided in two equal groups according to disease activity score (DAS28). The overall sensitivity and specificity of US compared to MRI in detecting bone erosion were 0.63 and 0.98, respectively with a considerable agreement (kappa = 0.68, p < 0.001). Sensitivity and specificity of CR compared to MRI in detecting bone erosion were 0.13 and 1.00, respectively (kappa = 0.20, p < 0.001). In patients with more active disease, the sensitivity and specificity were 0.67 and 0.99 (kappa = 0.74, p < 0.001) compared to 0.59 and 0.97 (kappa = 0.61, p < 0.001) for the rest of patients according to DAS28. Conclusively, these findings reveal an acceptable agreement between US and MRI for detection of bone erosion in patients with early RA but not CR. US might be considered as a valuable tool for early detection of bone erosion especially when MRI is not available or affordable. Besides, it seems the US could be more reliable when the disease is more active.

  9. Imaging modalities in hand osteoarthritis - status and perspectives of conventional radiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is very frequent in middle-aged and older women and men in the general population. Currently, owing to high feasibility and low costs, conventional radiography (CR) is the method of choice for evaluation of hand OA. CR provides a two-dimensional picture of bony changes, such as osteophytes, erosions, cysts, and sclerosis, and joint space narrowing as an indirect measure of cartilage loss. There are several standardized scoring methods for evaluation of radiographic hand OA. The scales have shown similar reliability, validity, and sensitivity to change, and no conclusion about the preferred instrument has been drawn. Patients with hand OA may experience pain, stiffness, and physical disability, but the associations between radiographic findings and clinical symptoms are weak to moderate and vary across studies. OA is, indeed, recognized to involve the whole joint, and modern imaging techniques such as ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could be valuable tools for better evaluation of hand OA. Standardized scoring methods have been proposed for both modalities. Several studies have examined the validity of US features in hand OA, whereas knowledge of the validity of MRI is more limited. However, both synovitis (detected by either US or MRI) and MRI-defined bone marrow lesions have been associated with pain, indicating that treatment of inflammation is important for pain management in hand OA. Both US and MRI have shown better sensitivity than CR in detection of erosions, and this may indicate that erosive hand OA may be more common than previously thought. PMID:22189142

  10. Prostate cancer detection on transrectal ultrasonography-guided random biopsy despite negative real-time magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasonography fusion-guided targeted biopsy: reasons for targeted biopsy failure.

    PubMed

    Cash, Hannes; Günzel, Karsten; Maxeiner, Andreas; Stephan, Carsten; Fischer, Thomas; Durmus, Tahir; Miller, Kurt; Asbach, Patrick; Haas, Matthias; Kempkensteffen, Carsten

    2016-07-01

    To examine the value of additional transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided random biopsy (RB) in patients with negative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)/ultrasonography (US) fusion-guided targeted biopsy (TB) and to identify possible reasons for TB failure. We conducted a subgroup analysis of 61 men with prostate cancer (PCa) detected by 10-core RB but with a negative TB, from a cohort of 408 men with suspicious multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) between January 2012 and January 2015. A consensus re-reading of mpMRI results (using Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System [PI-RADS] versions 1 and 2) for each suspicious lesion was performed, with the image reader blinded to the biopsy results, followed by an unblinded anatomical correlation of the lesion on mpMRI to the biopsy result. The potential reasons for TB failure were estimated for each lesion. We defined clinically significant PCa according to the Epstein criteria and stratified patients into risk groups according to the European Association of Urology guidelines. Our analysis showed that RB detected significant PCa in 64% of patients (39/61) and intermediate-/high-risk PCa in 57% of patients (35/61). The initial mpMRI reading identified 90 suspicious lesions in the cohort. Blinded consensus re-reading of the mpMRI led to PI-RADS score downgrading of 45 lesions (50%) and upgrading of 13 lesions (14%); thus, negative TB could be explained by falsely high initial PI-RADS scores for 32 lesions (34%) and sampling of the target lesion by RB in the corresponding anatomical site for 36 out of 90 lesions (40%) in 35 of 61 patients (57%). Sampling of the target lesion by RB was most likely for lesions with PI-RADS scores of 4/5 and Gleason scores (GS) of ≥7. A total of 70 PCa lesions (67% with GS 6) in 44 patients (72%) were sampled from prostatic sites with no abnormalities on mpMRI. In cases of TB failure, RB still detected a high rate of significant PCa. The main reason for a negative TB was

  11. A Magnetic Soft Endoscopic Capsule-Inflated Intragastric Balloon for Weight Management

    PubMed Central

    Do, Thanh Nho; Ho, Khek Yu; Phee, Soo Jay

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have been identified as a cause of high risk diseases like diabetes and cancer. Although conventional Intragastric Balloons (IGBs) have become an efficient and less invasive method for overweight and obesity treatment, the use of conventional tools such as catheter or endoscope to insert and remove the IGBs from the patient’s body causes nausea, vomiting, discomfort, and even gastric mucous damage. To eliminate these drawbacks, we develop a novel magnetic soft capsule device with gas-filled balloon inflation. The balloon is made from a thin and biocompatible material that can be inflated to a desired volume using biocompatible effervescent chemicals. In addition, both the outer balloon and inner capsule are designed to be soft and chemical resistance. The soft capsule shell is fabricated using scaffold-solvent approach while the outer balloon utilizes a novel fabrication approach for 3D spherical structure. A prototype of the proposed capsule and balloon is given. Experiments are successfully carried out in stimulated gastric environment and fresh porcine stomach to validate the effectiveness and reliability of the proposed approach. PMID:28000756

  12. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in evaluation of unexplained common bile duct dilatation on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography.

    PubMed

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Rao, Chalapathi; Gupta, Rajesh; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Dilated common bile duct (CBD) without obvious cause is a not uncommon finding on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in patients with unexplained dilated CBD on MRCP. Patients referred for EUS evaluation of a dilated CBD were retrospectively analyzed with respect to serum alkaline phosphatase prior to EUS and subsequent outcome after EUS. Over a 3-year period, 40 patients (24 males; mean age 38.9±9.9 years) with dilated CBD were retrospectively identified. Ten patients had elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. The diagnosis reached after EUS examination was: CBD stones in 15 (37.5%) with largest size of CBD stone being 9 mm, mass in CBD in 2 (5%), benign biliary stricture in 2 (5%), biliary stricture with underlying chronic pancreatitis in 1 (2.5%) patient respectively. EUS examination revealed normal CBD in 20 (50%) patients and two of these patients had periampullary diverticulum. All the patients with abnormal liver function tests had a detectable CBD pathology whereas 20/30 (66.6%) patients with normal liver biochemistry had normal EUS findings. There was no significant difference in the mean CBD diameter between the groups with demonstrable pathology compared with those without (P=0.64). EUS is a useful investigational modality for patients with unexplained dilated CBD on MRCP. The mean CBD diameter and the presence of normal liver function tests are not predictive of underlying pathology.

  13. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in evaluation of unexplained common bile duct dilatation on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Sharma, Vishal; Rao, Chalapathi; Gupta, Rajesh; Singh, Kartar

    2013-01-01

    Background Dilated common bile duct (CBD) without obvious cause is a not uncommon finding on magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP). The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in patients with unexplained dilated CBD on MRCP. Methods Patients referred for EUS evaluation of a dilated CBD were retrospectively analyzed with respect to serum alkaline phosphatase prior to EUS and subsequent outcome after EUS. Results Over a 3-year period, 40 patients (24 males; mean age 38.9±9.9 years) with dilated CBD were retrospectively identified. Ten patients had elevated serum alkaline phosphatase. The diagnosis reached after EUS examination was: CBD stones in 15 (37.5%) with largest size of CBD stone being 9 mm, mass in CBD in 2 (5%), benign biliary stricture in 2 (5%), biliary stricture with underlying chronic pancreatitis in 1 (2.5%) patient respectively. EUS examination revealed normal CBD in 20 (50%) patients and two of these patients had periampullary diverticulum. All the patients with abnormal liver function tests had a detectable CBD pathology whereas 20/30 (66.6%) patients with normal liver biochemistry had normal EUS findings. There was no significant difference in the mean CBD diameter between the groups with demonstrable pathology compared with those without (P=0.64). Conclusion EUS is a useful investigational modality for patients with unexplained dilated CBD on MRCP. The mean CBD diameter and the presence of normal liver function tests are not predictive of underlying pathology. PMID:24714761

  14. [Pancreatic ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rodríguez, T; Segura-Grau, A; Rodríguez-Lorenzo, A; Segura-Cabral, J M

    2015-04-01

    Despite the recent technological advances in imaging, abdominal ultrasonography continues to be the first diagnostic test indicated in patients with a suspicion of pancreatic disease, due to its safety, accessibility and low cost. It is an essential technique in the study of inflammatory processes, since it not only assesses changes in pancreatic parenchyma, but also gives an indication of the origin (bile or alcoholic). It is also essential in the detection and tracing of possible complications as well as being used as a guide in diagnostic and therapeutic punctures. It is also the first technique used in the study of pancreatic tumors, detecting them with a sensitivity of around 70% and a specificity of 90%. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Médicos de Atención Primaria (SEMERGEN). Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  15. Analysis of 137 Patients Who Underwent Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Pituitary Adenoma Resection Under High-Field Intraoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Navigation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaping; Wang, Fuyu; Zhou, Tao; Wang, Peng; Chen, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jiashu; Zhou, Dingbiao

    2017-08-01

    Pure endoscopic resection has become the most popular surgical approach for pituitary adenoma. Intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging (iMRI) systems have been in use for endoscopic resection of pituitary adenomas. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of iMRI and neuroimaging navigation techniques during endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery of pituitary adenomas. Data from 137 patients who underwent resection of endoscopic pituitary adenoma under 1.5T iMRI navigation were collected and analyzed. Of patients, 92 underwent complete resection and 45 had residual tumor on real-time iMRI. Twenty-three patients underwent further surgery, and total resection was achieved in 19. Extent of total resection increased from 67.15% to 81.02%. iMRI revealed 3 patients with bleeding in the surgical area, which was successfully treated during the surgery. Review images obtained 3 months after surgery showed 26 patients with residual tumor; 14 patients had the same volume as intraoperatively, and 12 patients had a volume less than that observed intraoperatively. Residual tumor volume in the suprasellar region was less than that seen intraoperatively in 11 of 15 (73.3%) patients. The use of iMRI and neuronavigation not only leads to a higher rate of tumor resection but also helps in detecting and removing hematomas in the surgical area. Follow-up examinations of extent of residual tumor at 3 months postoperatively were consistent with intraoperative results. Residual tumor volume in the suprasellar region was usually less than that observed intraoperatively. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Endoscopic ultrasound in mediastinal tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Malay; Ecka, Ruth Shifa; Somasundaram, Aravindh; Shoukat, Abid; Kirnake, Vijendra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Tubercular lymphadenitis is the commonest extra pulmonary manifestation in cervical and mediastinal locations. Normal characteristics of lymph nodes (LN) have been described on ultrasonography as well as by Endoscopic Ultrasound. Many ultrasonic features have been described for evaluation of mediastinal lymph nodes. The inter and intraobserver agreement of the endosonographic features have not been uniformly established. Methods and Results: A total of 266 patients underwent endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration and 134 cases were diagnosed as mediastinal tuberculosis. The endoscopic ultrasound location and features of these lymph nodes are described. Conclusion: Our series demonstrates the utility of endoscopic ultrasound guided fine needle aspiration as the investigation of choice for diagnosis of mediastinal tuberculosis and also describes various endoscopic ultrasound features of such nodes. PMID:27051097

  17. Subject-friendly entire gastrointestinal screening with a single capsule endoscope by magnetic navigation and the Internet.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Hidetoshi; Katsuki, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Ever since capsule endoscopy (CE) was introduced into clinical practice, we gastroenterologists have been dreaming of using this less invasive modality to explore the entire gastrointestinal (GI) tract. To realize this dream, we have developed a magnetic navigation system which includes real-time internet streaming of endoscopic video and some useful gadgets (position detection by means of magnetic impedance (MI) sensors and a modified capsule that is "weightless" in water). The design of the weightless capsule made it possible with 0.5T (Tesla) extracorporeal magnets to control the capsule beyond 20cm. A pair of MI sensors on the body surface could detect subtle magnetic flux generated by an intra-capsular magnet in the GI tract by utilizing the space diversity effect which eliminated the interference of terrestrial magnetism. Subjects underwent CE, during which they were free from confinement in the hospital, except for 1 hour when the capsule was manipulated in the stomach and colon. This study had a completion rate of 97.5%. The high completion rate indicates that our system (single capsule endoscopy-SCE) with further improvements could become a viable modality for screening of the entire GI tract.

  18. Ultrasonography-Assisted Arthroscopic Proximal Iliotibial Band Release and Trochanteric Bursectomy

    PubMed Central

    Weinrauch, Patrick; Kermeci, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    We describe arthroscopic iliotibial band release and trochanteric bursectomy assisted by intraoperative ultrasonography for accurate placement of arthroscopic portals and to ensure adequate decompression of the peritrochanteric space. We have found ultrasonography for endoscopic iliotibial band release a useful tool to assist with localizing the site and length of decompression. PMID:24400195

  19. Ultrasonography-assisted arthroscopic proximal iliotibial band release and trochanteric bursectomy.

    PubMed

    Weinrauch, Patrick; Kermeci, Sharon

    2013-01-01

    We describe arthroscopic iliotibial band release and trochanteric bursectomy assisted by intraoperative ultrasonography for accurate placement of arthroscopic portals and to ensure adequate decompression of the peritrochanteric space. We have found ultrasonography for endoscopic iliotibial band release a useful tool to assist with localizing the site and length of decompression.

  20. Incremental cancer detection using breast ultrasonography versus breast magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Plaxco, Jeri S; Wei, Wei; Huo, Lei; Candelaria, Rosalind P; Kuerer, Henry M; Yang, Wei T

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To compare the incremental cancer detection rate (ICDR) using bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBUS) vs dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with primary breast cancer. Methods: A retrospective database search in a single institution identified 259 patients with breast cancer diagnosed from January 2011 to August 2014 who underwent mammography, BWBUS and MRI before surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics and lesions seen on each imaging modality were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each modality were calculated. ICDRs according to index tumour histology and receptor status were also evaluated. The effect of additional cancer detection on surgical planning was obtained from the medical records. Results: A total of 266 additional lesions beyond 273 index malignancies were seen on at least 1 modality, of which 121 (45%) lesions were malignant and 145 (55%) lesions were benign. MRI was significantly more sensitive than BWBUS (p = 0.01), while BWBUS was significantly more accurate and specific than MRI (p < 0.0001). Compared with mammography, the ICDRs using BWBUS and MRI were significantly higher for oestrogen receptor-positive and triple-negative cancers, but not for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cancers. 22 additional malignant lesions in 18 patients were seen on MRI only. Surgical planning remained unchanged in 8 (44%) of those 18 patients. Conclusion: MRI was more sensitive than BWBUS, while BWBUS was more accurate and specific than MRI. MRI-detected additional malignant lesions did not change surgical planning in almost half of these patients. Advances in knowledge: BWBUS may be a cost-effective and practical tool in breast cancer staging. PMID:27384241

  1. Incremental cancer detection using breast ultrasonography versus breast magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of newly diagnosed breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    He, Hongying; Plaxco, Jeri S; Wei, Wei; Huo, Lei; Candelaria, Rosalind P; Kuerer, Henry M; Yang, Wei T

    2016-09-01

    To compare the incremental cancer detection rate (ICDR) using bilateral whole-breast ultrasonography (BWBUS) vs dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI in patients with primary breast cancer. A retrospective database search in a single institution identified 259 patients with breast cancer diagnosed from January 2011 to August 2014 who underwent mammography, BWBUS and MRI before surgery. Patient characteristics, tumour characteristics and lesions seen on each imaging modality were recorded. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy for each modality were calculated. ICDRs according to index tumour histology and receptor status were also evaluated. The effect of additional cancer detection on surgical planning was obtained from the medical records. A total of 266 additional lesions beyond 273 index malignancies were seen on at least 1 modality, of which 121 (45%) lesions were malignant and 145 (55%) lesions were benign. MRI was significantly more sensitive than BWBUS (p = 0.01), while BWBUS was significantly more accurate and specific than MRI (p < 0.0001). Compared with mammography, the ICDRs using BWBUS and MRI were significantly higher for oestrogen receptor-positive and triple-negative cancers, but not for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive cancers. 22 additional malignant lesions in 18 patients were seen on MRI only. Surgical planning remained unchanged in 8 (44%) of those 18 patients. MRI was more sensitive than BWBUS, while BWBUS was more accurate and specific than MRI. MRI-detected additional malignant lesions did not change surgical planning in almost half of these patients. BWBUS may be a cost-effective and practical tool in breast cancer staging.

  2. First Application of 7-T Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Endoscopic Endonasal Surgery of Skull Base Tumors.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Thomas F; Dyvorne, Hadrien A; Padormo, Francesco; Pawha, Puneet S; Delman, Bradley N; Shrivastava, Raj K; Balchandani, Priti

    2017-07-01

    Successful endoscopic endonasal surgery for the resection of skull base tumors is reliant on preoperative imaging to delineate pathology from the surrounding anatomy. The increased signal-to-noise ratio afforded by 7-T MRI can be used to increase spatial and contrast resolution, which may lend itself to improved imaging of the skull base. In this study, we apply a 7-T imaging protocol to patients with skull base tumors and compare the images with clinical standard of care. Images were acquired at 7 T on 11 patients with skull base lesions. Two neuroradiologists evaluated clinical 1.5-, 3-, and 7-T scans for detection of intracavernous cranial nerves and internal carotid artery (ICA) branches. Detection rates were compared. Images were used for surgical planning and uploaded to a neuronavigation platform and used to guide surgery. Image analysis yielded improved detection rates of cranial nerves and ICA branches at 7 T. The 7-T images were successfully incorporated into preoperative planning and intraoperative neuronavigation. Our study represents the first application of 7-T MRI to the full neurosurgical workflow for endoscopic endonasal surgery. We detected higher rates of cranial nerves and ICA branches at 7-T MRI compared with 3- and 1.5-T MRI, and found that integration of 7 T into surgical planning and guidance was feasible. These results suggest a potential for 7-T MRI to reduce surgical complications. Future studies comparing standardized 7-, 3-, and 1.5-T MRI protocols in a larger number of patients are warranted to determine the relative benefit of 7-T MRI for endonasal endoscopic surgical efficacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel magnetic countertraction device for endoscopic submucosal dissection significantly reduces procedure time and minimizes technical difficulty.

    PubMed

    Aihara, Hiroyuki; Ryou, Marvin; Kumar, Nitin; Ryan, Michele B; Thompson, Christopher C

    2014-05-01

    In endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), effective countertraction may overcome the current drawbacks of longer procedure times and increased technical demands. The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of ESD using a novel magnetic countertraction device with that of the traditional technique. Each ESD was performed on simulated gastric lesions of 30 mm diameter created at five different locations. In total, 10 ESDs were performed using this novel device and 10 were performed by the standard technique. The magnetic countertraction device allowed directional tissue manipulation and exposure of the submucosal space. The total procedure time was 605 ± 303.7 seconds in the countertraction group vs. 1082 ± 515.9 seconds in the control group (P = 0.021). This study demonstrated that using a novel magnetic countertraction device during ESD is technically feasible and enables the operator to dynamically manipulate countertraction such that the submucosal layer is visualized directly. Use of this device significantly reduced procedure time compared with conventional ESD techniques. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. An implantable smart magnetic nanofiber device for endoscopic hyperthermia treatment and tumor-triggered controlled drug release.

    PubMed

    Sasikala, Arathyram Ramachandra Kurup; Unnithan, Afeesh Rajan; Yun, Yeo-Heung; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2016-02-01

    The study describes the design and synthesis of an implantable smart magnetic nanofiber device for endoscopic hyperthermia treatment and tumor-triggered controlled drug release. This device is achieved using a two-component smart nanofiber matrix from monodisperse iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) as well as bortezomib (BTZ), a chemotherapeutic drug. The IONP-incorporated nanofiber matrix was developed by electrospinning a biocompatible and bioresorbable polymer, poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), and tumor-triggered anticancer drug delivery is realized by exploiting mussel-inspired surface functionalization using 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine (dopamine) to conjugate the borate-containing BTZ anticancer drug through a catechol metal binding in a pH-sensitive manner. Thus, an implantable smart magnetic nanofiber device can be exploited to both apply hyperthermia with an alternating magnetic field (AMF) and to achieve cancer cell-specific drug release to enable synergistic cancer therapy. These results confirm that the BTZ-loaded mussel-inspired magnetic nanofiber matrix (BTZ-MMNF) is highly beneficial not only due to the higher therapeutic efficacy and low toxicity towards normal cells but also, as a result of the availability of magnetic nanoparticles for repeated hyperthermia application and tumor-triggered controlled drug release. The current work report on the design and development of a smart nanoplatform responsive to a magnetic field to administer both hyperthermia and pH-dependent anticancer drug release for the synergistic anticancer treatment. The iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) incorporated nanofiber matrix was developed by electrospinning a biocompatible polymer, poly (d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), and tumor-triggered anticancer drug delivery is realized by surface functionalization using 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethylamine (dopamine) to conjugate the boratecontaining anticancer drug bortezomib through a catechol metal binding in a p

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Endoscopic Ultrasound versus Magnetic Resonance Cholangiopancreatography in Patients with Suspected Common Bile Duct Stones

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Stephen; Gurusamy, Kurinchi S.; Sheringham, Jessica; Davidson, Brian R.

    2015-01-01

    Background Patients with suspected common bile duct (CBD) stones are often diagnosed using endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), an invasive procedure with risk of significant complications. Using endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) or Magnetic Resonance CholangioPancreatography (MRCP) first to detect CBD stones can reduce the risk of unnecessary procedures, cut complications and may save costs. Aim This study sought to compare the cost-effectiveness of initial EUS or MRCP in patients with suspected CBD stones. Methods This study is a model based cost-utility analysis estimating mean costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) per patient from the perspective of the UK National Health Service (NHS) over a 1 year time horizon. A decision tree model was constructed and populated with probabilities, outcomes and cost data from published sources, including one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results Using MRCP to select patients for ERCP was less costly than using EUS to select patients or proceeding directly to ERCP ($1299 versus $1753 and $1781, respectively), with similar QALYs accruing to each option (0.998, 0.998 and 0.997 for EUS, MRCP and direct ERCP, respectively). Initial MRCP was the most cost-effective option with the highest monetary net benefit, and this result was not sensitive to model parameters. MRCP had a 61% probability of being cost-effective at $29,000, the maximum willingness to pay for a QALY commonly used in the UK. Conclusion From the perspective of the UK NHS, MRCP was the most cost-effective test in the diagnosis of CBD stones. PMID:25799113

  6. Ultrasonography of the shoulder with arthroscopic correlation.

    PubMed

    Yablon, Corrie M; Bedi, Asheesh; Morag, Yoav; Jacobson, Jon A

    2013-07-01

    Ultrasonography is a well-established and widely accepted modality for the evaluation of rotator cuff tears and injury to the biceps brachii tendon. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging have comparable sensitivity and specificity for diagnosing both full-thickness and partial-thickness rotator cuff tears. This article addresses the ultrasonographic diagnosis of abnormalities of the rotator cuff, rotator interval, and biceps brachii, with magnetic resonance imaging and arthroscopic correlation. Characteristic ultrasonographic findings as well as imaging pitfalls are reviewed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A randomized comparison of laparoscopic, flexible endoscopic, and wired and wireless magnetic cameras on ex vivo and in vivo NOTES surgical performance.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victoria C; Tang, Shou-Jiang; Swain, C Paul; Bergs, Richard; Paramo, Juan; Hogg, Deborah C; Fernandez, Raul; Cadeddu, Jeffrey A; Scott, Daniel J

    2013-08-01

    The influence of endoscopic video camera (VC) image quality on surgical performance has not been studied. Flexible endoscopes are used as substitutes for laparoscopes in natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery (NOTES), but their optics are originally designed for intralumenal use. Manipulable wired or wireless independent VCs might offer advantages for NOTES but are still under development. To measure the optical characteristics of 4 VC systems and to compare their impact on the performance of surgical suturing tasks. VC systems included a laparoscope (Storz 10 mm), a flexible endoscope (Olympus GIF 160), and 2 prototype deployable cameras (magnetic anchoring and guidance system [MAGS] Camera and PillCam). In a randomized fashion, the 4 systems were evaluated regarding standardized optical characteristics and surgical manipulations of previously validated ex vivo (fundamentals of laparoscopic surgery model) and in vivo (live porcine Nissen model) tasks; objective metrics (time and errors/precision) and combined surgeon (n = 2) performance were recorded. Subtle differences were detected for color tests, and field of view was variable (65°-115°). Suitable resolution was detected up to 10 cm for the laparoscope and MAGS camera but only at closer distances for the endoscope and PillCam. Compared with the laparoscope, surgical suturing performances were modestly lower for the MAGS camera and significantly lower for the endoscope (ex vivo) and PillCam (ex vivo and in vivo). This study documented distinct differences in VC systems that may be used for NOTES in terms of both optical characteristics and surgical performance. Additional work is warranted to optimize cameras for NOTES. Deployable systems may be especially well suited for this purpose.

  8. Magnetic resonance angiography in children with sickle cell disease and abnormal transcranial Doppler ultrasonography findings enrolled in the STOP study.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Miguel R; Cure, Joel; Granger, Suzanne; Gallagher, Dianne; Hsu, Lewis; Wang, Winfred; Woods, Gerald; Berman, Brian; Brambilla, Don; Pegelow, Charles; Lewin, Jonathan; Zimmermann, Robert A; Adams, Robert J

    2004-04-01

    The stroke prevention study in sickle cell disease (STOP) demonstrated a 90% reduction in stroke risk with transfusion among patients with time-averaged mean cerebral blood velocity (TAMV) of 200 cm/s or more as measured by transcranial Doppler (TCD). In STOP, 232 brain magnetic resonance angiograms (MRAs) were performed on 100 patients, 47 in the transfusion arm and 53 in the standard care arm. Baseline MRA findings were interpreted as normal in 75 patients and as indicating mild stenosis in 4 patients and severe stenosis in 21 patients. Among 35 patients who underwent magnetic resonance angiography within 30 days of random assignment, the TAMV was significantly higher in 7 patients with severe stenosis compared with 28 patients with normal MRA findings or mild stenosis (276.7 +/- 34 vs 215 +/- 15.6 cm/s; P<.001). In the standard care arm, 4 of 13 patients with abnormal MRA findings had strokes compared with 5 of 40 patients with normal MRA findings (P=.03). In this arm, TAMV became normal (less than 170 cm/s) or conditional (170-199 cm/s) in 26 of 38 patients with normal or mildly abnormal baseline MRA but remained abnormal in 8 of 10 patients with severely abnormal baseline MRA. These results suggest that TCD often detects flow abnormalities indicative of stroke risk before MRA lesions become evident. Furthermore, patients with abnormal MRA findings and higher TCD velocities are at higher risk for stroke, and their cerebral TAMVs are unlikely to decrease without transfusion.

  9. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography for Clinical Gastroenterology

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Tsung-Han; Fujimoto, James G.; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a real-time optical imaging technique that is similar in principle to ultrasonography, but employs light instead of sound waves and allows depth-resolved images with near-microscopic resolution. Endoscopic OCT allows the evaluation of broad-field and subsurface areas and can be used ancillary to standard endoscopy, narrow band imaging, chromoendoscopy, magnification endoscopy, and confocal endomicroscopy. This review article will provide an overview of the clinical utility of endoscopic OCT in the gastrointestinal tract and of recent achievements using state-of-the-art endoscopic 3D-OCT imaging systems. PMID:26852678

  10. Preoperative planning of renal transplantation: a comparison of non-contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance angiography with observations from surgery.

    PubMed

    Blankholm, Anne Dorte; Pedersen, Bodil G; Stausbøl-Grøn, Brian; Andersen, Gratien; Hørlyck, Arne; Østrat, Ernst Ø; Laustsen, Sussie; Ringgaard, Steffen

    2015-12-01

    Many candidates for kidney transplantation need to undergo vessel examination before the transplantation procedure. To identify the optimal preoperative modality for the examination of vessel status without the use of contrast agents in kidney transplant candidates. Fifty-three consecutive patients were examined and 31 patients were transplanted. Ultrasonography (US), non-contrast-enhanced computed tomography (NCCT), and non-contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (NCMRA) were compared using inspection during kidney transplantation (TX) as a reference standard. The sensitivity and specificity to severe arteriosclerotic changes and the accuracy were calculated. Kappa statistics were used to assess the agreement between TX and the different examination modalities, and McNemar's test was used to test for significant differences. US had higher sensitivity (1.0) and better agreement with observations from surgery (k = 0.89) than both NCCT (sensitivity = 0.60; k = 0.72) and NCMRA (sensitivity = 0.20; k = 0.30). No significant difference was found between TX and US (P = 0.3173) or TX and NCCT (P = 0.1573), but there was a significant difference between TX and NCMRA (P = 0.0455). US was inconclusive in 20% of cases, and the internal iliac artery could not be visualized in 69% of cases. Either US or NCCT can be used as the preferred preoperative imaging modality to examine vessel status before kidney transplantation, but a combination of the two is preferable. NCMRA should not be used as the sole imaging modality for preoperative imaging before kidney transplantation because of its low sensitivity in detecting severe arteriosclerotic disease without the presence of stenosis. © The Foundation Acta Radiologica 2014.

  11. Investigation of a multi-biomarker disease activity score in rheumatoid arthritis by comparison with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, ultrasonography, and radiography parameters of inflammation and damage.

    PubMed

    Krabbe, S; Bolce, R; Brahe, C H; Døhn, U M; Ejbjerg, B J; Hetland, M L; Sasso, E H; Chernoff, D; Hansen, M S; Knudsen, L S; Hansen, A; Madsen, O R; Hasselquist, M; Møller, J; Østergaard, M

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the multi-biomarker disease activity (MBDA) score by comparison with imaging findings in an investigator-initiated rheumatoid arthritis (RA) trial (HURRAH trial, NCT00696059). Fifty-two patients with established RA initiated adalimumab treatment and had magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT), and radiography performed at weeks 0, 26, and 52. Serum samples were analysed using MBDA score assays and associations between clinical measures, MBDA score, and imaging findings were investigated. The MBDA score correlated significantly with MRI synovitis (rho = 0.65, p < 0.001), MRI bone marrow oedema (rho = 0.36, p = 0.044), and US power Doppler (PD) score at week 26 (rho = 0.35, p = 0.039) but not at week 0 or week 52. In the 15 patients who had achieved a Disease Activity Score based on C-reactive protein (DAS28-CRP) < 2.6 at week 26, MRI and/or US detected subclinical inflammation and 13 (87%) had a moderate/high MBDA score. For the cohort with available data, none of the four patients in MBDA remission (score ≤ 25) at week 26 had progression of imaging damage from baseline to week 52 whereas progression was observed in three out of nine (33%) and seven out of 21 (33%) patients with moderate (30-44) and high (> 44) MBDA scores, respectively. In this cohort, the MBDA score correlated poorly with MRI/US inflammation. However, the MBDA score and MRI/US were generally concordant in showing signs of inflammation in most patients in clinical remission during anti-tumour necrosis factor (anti-TNF) therapy. MBDA scores were elevated in all patients with structural damage progression.

  12. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Enterography and Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Crohn’s Disease: An Observational Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Wilkens, Rune; Peters, David A.; Nielsen, Agnete H.; Hovgaard, Valeriya P.; Glerup, Henning; Krogh, Klaus

    2017-01-01

    Purpose e Cross-sectional imaging methods are important for objective evaluationof small intestinal inflammationinCrohn’sdisease(CD).The primary aim was to compare relative parameters of intestinal perfusion between contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) and dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance enterography (DCE-MRE) in CD. Furthermore, we aimed at testing the repeatability of regions of interest (ROIs) for CEUS. Methods This prospective study included 25 patients: 12 females (age: 37, range: 19–66) with moderate to severe CD and a bowel wall thickness>3mm evaluated with DCE-MRE and CEUS. CEUS bolus injection was performed twice for repeatability and analyzed in VueBox®. Correlations between modalities were described with Spearman’s rho, limits of agreement(LoA) and intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC). ROIrepeatability for CEUS was assessed. Results s The correlation between modalities was good and very good for bowel wall thickness (ICC=0.71, P<0.001) and length of the inflamed segment (ICC=0.89, P<0.001). Moderate-weak correlations were found for the time-intensity curve parameters: peak intensity (r=0.59, P=0.006), maximum wash-in-rate (r=0.62, P=0.004), and wash-in perfusion index (r=0.47, P=0.036). Best CEUS repeatability for peak enhancement was a mean difference of 0.73 dB (95% CI: 0.17 to 1.28, P=0.01) and 95% LoA from −3.8 to 5.3 dB. Good quality of curve fit improved LoA to −2.3 to 2.8 dB. Conclusion The relative perfusion of small intestinal CD assessed with DCE-MRE and CEUS shows only a moderate correlation. Applying strict criteria for ROIs is important and allows for good CEUS repeatability PMID:28286879

  13. The comparison of efficacy of different imaging techniques (conventional radiography, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance) in assessment of wrist joints and metacarpophalangeal joints in patients with psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Sankowski, Artur Jacek; Łebkowska, Urszula Maria; Ćwikła, Jarosław; Walecka, Irena; Walecki, Jerzy

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background: Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is a chronic inflammatory joint disease which develops in patients with psoriasis. The rheumatoid factor is characteristically absent in the serum of PsA patients. Etiology of the disease is still unclear but a number of genetic associations have been identified. Inheritance of the disease is multilevel and the role of environmental factors is emphasized. Immunology of PsA is also quite complex. Inflammation is caused by immunological reactions leading to a release of kinins. Destructive changes in bones usually appear after a few months from the onset of clinical symptoms. Material/Methods: PsA typically involves joints of the axial skeleton with an asymmetrical patern. The spectrum of symptoms includes inflammatory changes in attachments of articular capsules, tendons, and ligaments to bone surface. The disease can have a diverse clinical course but usually manifests as oligoarthritis. Results: Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of PsA. Classical radiography has been used for this purpose for over a hundred years. It allows to identify late stages of the disease, when bone tissue is affected. In the last 20 years however many new imaging modalities, such as ultrasonography (US), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR), have been developed and became important diagnostic tools for evaluating rheumatoid diseases. They enable the assessment and monitoring of early inflammatory changes. Conclusions: As a result, patients have earlier access to modern treatment and thus formation of destructive changes in joints can be markedly delayed or even avoided. PMID:23494635

  14. Accuracy of physical examination, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging in predicting response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Man; Zhan, Wei-Wei; Han, Bao-San; Fei, Xiao-Chun; Jin, Xiao-Long; Chai, Wei-Min; Wang, Deng-Bing; Shen, Kun-Wei; Wang, Wen-Ping

    2012-06-01

    Accurate evaluation of response following chemotherapy treatment is essential for surgical decision making in patients with breast cancer. Modalities that have been used to monitor response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) include physical examination (PE), ultrasound (US), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of PE, US, and MRI in predicting the response to NAC in patients with breast cancer. According to the response evaluation criteria in solid tumors guidelines, the largest unidimensional measurement of the tumor diameter evaluated by PE, US, and MRI before and after NAC was classified into four grades, including clinical complete response, clinical partial response, clinical progressive disease, clinical stable disease, and compared with the final histopathological examination. Of the 64 patients who received NAC, the pathologic complete response (pCR) was shown in 13 of 64 patients (20%). The sensitivity of PE, US, and MRI in predicting the major pathologic response was 73%, 75%, and 80%, respectively, and the specificity was 45%, 50%, and 50% respectively. For predicting a pCR, the sensitivity of PE, US, and MRI was 46%, 46%, and 39%, respectively, and the specificity was 65%, 98%, and 92% respectively. Compared with final pathologic findings, all these three clinical and imaging modalities tended to obviously underestimate the pCR rate. A more appropriate, universal, and practical standard by clinical and imaging modalities in predicting the response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in vivo is essential.

  15. Endoscopic removal of gastric ectopic pancreas: An initial experience with endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Dong Yup; Kim, Gwang Ha; Park, Do Youn; Lee, Bong Eun; Cheong, Jae Hoon; Kim, Dong Uk; Woo, Hyun Young; Heo, Jeong; Song, Geun Am

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the therapeutic usefulness and safety of endoscopic resection in patients with gastric ectopic pancreas. METHODS: A total of eight patients with ectopic pancreas were included. All of them underwent endoscopic ultrasonography before endoscopic resection. Endoscopic resection was performed by two methods: endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) by the injection-and-cut technique or endoscopic mucosal dissection (ESD). RESULTS: We planned to perform EMR in all eight cases but EMR was successful in only four cases. In the other four cases, saline spread into surrounding normal tissues and the lesions became flattened, which made it impossible to remove them by EMR. In those four cases, we performed ESD and removed the lesions without any complications. CONCLUSION: If conventional EMR is difficult to remove gastric ectopic pancreas, ESD is a feasible alternative method for successful removal. PMID:20857531

  16. Sensitivity of endoscopic ultrasound, multidetector computed tomography, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography in the diagnosis of pancreas divisum: a tertiary center experience.

    PubMed

    Kushnir, Vladimir M; Wani, Sachin B; Fowler, Kathryn; Menias, Christine; Varma, Rakesh; Narra, Vamsi; Hovis, Christine; Murad, Faris M; Mullady, Daniel K; Jonnalagadda, Sreenivasa S; Early, Dayna S; Edmundowicz, Steven A; Azar, Riad R

    2013-04-01

    There are limited data comparing imaging modalities in the diagnosis of pancreas divisum. We aimed to: (1) evaluate the sensitivity of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP), and multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) for pancreas divisum; and (2) assess interobserver agreement (IOA) among expert radiologists for detecting pancreas divisum on MDCT and MRCP. For this retrospective cohort study, we identified 45 consecutive patients with pancreaticobiliary symptoms and pancreas divisum established by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography who underwent EUS and cross-sectional imaging. The control group was composed of patients without pancreas divisum who underwent endoscopic retrograde pancreatography and cross-sectional imaging. The sensitivity of EUS for pancreas divisum was 86.7%, significantly higher than the sensitivity reported in the medical records for MDCT (15.5%) or MRCP (60%) (P < 0.001 for each). On review by expert radiologists, the sensitivity of MDCT increased to 83.3% in cases where the pancreatic duct was visualized, with fair IOA (κ = 0.34). Expert review of MRCPs did not identify any additional cases of pancreas divisum; IOA was moderate (κ = 0.43). Endoscopic ultrasound is a sensitive test for diagnosing pancreas divisum and is superior to MDCT and MRCP. Review of MDCT studies by expert radiologists substantially raises its sensitivity for pancreas divisum.

  17. Endoscopic management of esophagogastric varices in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Tatsuki; Taura, Naota; Miuma, Satoshi; Isomoto, Hajime; Nakao, Kazuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Esophagogastric varices are the most common complication in patients with portal hypertension, and endoscopy plays an important role in their diagnosis and in the prevention of acute bleeding from these structures. Recently, new modalities such as endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and narrow-band imaging have been introduced for the diagnosis of esophagogastric varices. In Japan, endoscopic therapy has become the first choice for the treatment of acutely bleeding esophageal or gastric varices. The two principal methods used to treat esophageal varices are endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) and endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL). Recently, combinations of EIS plus EVL and EVL plus argon plasma coagulation were reported to be more effective than EVL or EIS alone. Additionally, endoscopic cyanoacrylate injection is superior to EIS and EVL for the treatment of acutely bleeding gastric varices. PMID:25333017

  18. Endoscopic management of biliary hydatid disease

    PubMed Central

    Akkiz, Hikmet; Akinoglu, Alper; Çolakoglu, Salih; Demiryürek, Haluk; Yagmur, Özgür

    1996-01-01

    Objective To determine the effect of endoscopic sphincterotomy in the management of biliary hydatid disease. Design A case study between January 1992 and December 1994. Setting A university-affiliated hospital in Adana, Turkey. Patients Five patients with biliary hydatid disease, in which the cyst had ruptured into the biliary tree. The follow-up ranged from 3 to 12 months. Intervention Endoscopic sphincterotomy. Main Outcome Measures Morbidity, mortality and recurrence of the disease. Results All patients underwent successful endoscopic sphincterotomy, including removal of daughter cysts. During the follow-up period, ultrasonography and laboratory investigations showed complete cure in all patients. There were no complications due to endoscopic sphincterotomy. Conclusion Endoscopic sphincterotomy is the treatment of choice for the management of hydatid cysts that have ruptured into the biliary tract causing obstructive jaundice. PMID:8697318

  19. The value of magnetic resonance imaging and ultrasonography (MRI/US)-fusion biopsy platforms in prostate cancer detection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gayet, Maudy; van der Aa, Anouk; Beerlage, Harrie P; Schrier, Bart Ph; Mulders, Peter F A; Wijkstra, Hessel

    2016-03-01

    Despite limitations considering the presence, staging and aggressiveness of prostate cancer, ultrasonography (US)-guided systematic biopsies (SBs) are still the 'gold standard' for the diagnosis of prostate cancer. Recently, promising results have been published for targeted prostate biopsies (TBs) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography (MRI/US)-fusion platforms. Different platforms are USA Food and Drug Administration registered and have, mostly subjective, strengths and weaknesses. To our knowledge, no systematic review exists that objectively compares prostate cancer detection rates between the different platforms available. To assess the value of the different MRI/US-fusion platforms in prostate cancer detection, we compared platform-guided TB with SB, and other ways of MRI TB (cognitive fusion or in-bore MR fusion). We performed a systematic review of well-designed prospective randomised and non-randomised trials in the English language published between 1 January 2004 and 17 February 2015, using PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases. Search terms included: 'prostate cancer', 'MR/ultrasound(US) fusion' and 'targeted biopsies'. Extraction of articles was performed by two authors (M.G. and A.A.) and were evaluated by the other authors. Randomised and non-randomised prospective clinical trials comparing TB using MRI/US-fusion platforms and SB, or other ways of TB (cognitive fusion or MR in-bore fusion) were included. In all, 11 of 1865 studies met the inclusion criteria, involving seven different fusion platforms and 2626 patients: 1119 biopsy naïve, 1433 with prior negative biopsy, 50 not mentioned (either biopsy naïve or with prior negative biopsy) and 24 on active surveillance (who were disregarded). The Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS-2) tool was used to assess the quality of included articles. No clear advantage of MRI/US fusion-guided TBs was seen for cancer detection rates (CDRs) of all prostate

  20. A comparison of endoscopic ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging, and exam under anesthesia for evaluation of Crohn's perianal fistulas.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, D A; Wiersema, M J; Dudiak, K M; Fletcher, J G; Clain, J E; Tremaine, W J; Zinsmeister, A R; Norton, I D; Boardman, L A; Devine, R M; Wolff, B G; Young-Fadok, T M; Diehl, N N; Pemberton, J H; Sandborn, W J

    2001-11-01

    To determine accuracy of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for evaluation of Crohn's disease perianal fistulas. Thirty-four patients with suspected Crohn's disease perianal fistulas were prospectively enrolled in a blinded study comparing EUS, MRI, and examination under anesthesia (EUA). Fistulas were classified according to Parks' criteria, and a consensus gold standard was determined for each patient. Acceptable accuracy was defined as agreement with the consensus gold standard for > or =85% of patients. Three patients did not undergo MRI; 1 did not undergo EUS or EUA; and consensus could not be reached for 1. Thirty-two patients had 39 fistulas (20 trans-sphincteric, 5 extra-sphincteric, 6 recto-vaginal, 8 others) and 13 abscesses. The accuracy of all 3 modalities was > or =85%: EUS 29 of 32 (91%, confidence interval [CI] 75%-98%), MRI 26 of 30 (87%, CI 69%-96%), and EUA 29 of 32 (91%, CI 75%-98%). Accuracy was 100% when any 2 tests were combined. EUS, MRI, and EUA are accurate tests for determining fistula anatomy in patients with perianal Crohn's disease. The optimal approach may be combining any 2 of the 3 methods.

  1. Diagnostic accuracy of physical examination, transvaginal sonography, rectal endoscopic sonography, and magnetic resonance imaging to diagnose deep infiltrating endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Bazot, Marc; Lafont, Clarisse; Rouzier, Roman; Roseau, Gilles; Thomassin-Naggara, Isabelle; Daraï, Emile

    2009-12-01

    To compare the value of physical examination, transvaginal sonography (TVS), rectal endoscopic sonography (RES), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the assessment of different locations of deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE). Retrospective longitudinal study. Tertiary university gynecology unit. Ninety-two consecutive patients with clinical evidence of pelvic endometriosis. Physical examination, TVS, RES, and MRI, performed preoperatively. Descriptive statistics, calculation of likelihood ratios (LR(+) and LR(-)) of physical examination, TVS, RES, and MRI for DIE in specific locations confirmed by surgery/histology. The sensitivity and LR(+) and LR(-) values of physical examination, TVS, RES, and MRI were, respectively, 73.5%, 3.3, and 0.34, 78.3%, 2.34, and 0.32, 48.2%, 0.86, and 1.16, and 84.4%, 7.59, and 0.18 for uterosacral ligament endometriosis; 50%, 3.88, and 0.57, 46.7%, 9.64, and 0.56, 6.7%, -, and 0.93, and 80%, 5.51, and 0.23 for vaginal endometriosis; and 46%, 1.67, and 0.75, 93.6%, -, and 0.06, 88.9%, 12.89, and 0.12, and 87.3%, 12.66, and 0.14 for intestinal endometriosis. The MRI performs similarly to TVS and RES for the diagnosis of intestinal endometriosis but has higher sensitivity and likelihood ratios for uterosacral ligament and vaginal endometriosis.

  2. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in idiopathic acute pancreatitis with negative ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Surinder Singh; Bhasin, Deepak Kumar; Rao, Chalapathi; Singh, Kartar

    2012-01-01

    Background Idiopathic acute pancreatitis (IAP) is a diagnostic challenge. Finding a treatable cause after appropriate investigation may help to prevent recurrent pancreatitis and further management. The aim of our study was to retrospectively report our experience with endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) in investigating patients with IAP. Methods Forty patients (26 males; age range: 17-72 years) of IAP with no underlying cause identified on transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography were studied. In 23 patients (57.5%), it was the first attack of acute pancreatitis whereas in 17 patients (42.5%) there was at least one previous attack of documented acute pancreatitis. EUS examination was done using a radial echoendoscope. Results Twenty (50%) of the patients had biliary tract disease (cholelithiasis in 3, gallbladder sludge in 13, choledocholithiasis in 1 and common bile duct sludge in 3 patients). One each had an 8 mm tumor in the head of pancreas and pancreas divisum. No underlying cause could be found in 18 (45%) patients. Nine patients had features of chronic pancreatitis (CP) and the remaining had a normal pancreas. Conclusions Occult biliary pathology is the predominant cause of IAP. Half of the cases without identified etiology already had an underlying CP. EUS is a very important tool in evaluating IAP especially after an initial negative diagnostic workup. PMID:24714266

  3. Ultrasonography in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Whitson, Micah R; Mayo, Paul H

    2016-08-15

    Point-of-care ultrasonography (POCUS) is a useful imaging technique for the emergency medicine (EM) physician. Because of its growing use in EM, this article will summarize the historical development, the scope of practice, and some evidence supporting the current applications of POCUS in the adult emergency department. Bedside ultrasonography in the emergency department shares clinical applications with critical care ultrasonography, including goal-directed echocardiography, echocardiography during cardiac arrest, thoracic ultrasonography, evaluation for deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, screening abdominal ultrasonography, ultrasonography in trauma, and guidance of procedures with ultrasonography. Some applications of POCUS unique to the emergency department include abdominal ultrasonography of the right upper quadrant and appendix, obstetric, testicular, soft tissue/musculoskeletal, and ocular ultrasonography. Ultrasonography has become an integral part of EM over the past two decades, and it is an important skill which positively influences patient outcomes.

  4. Detection of carotid artery stenosis using histological specimens: a comparison of CT angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, digital subtraction angiography and Doppler ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Netuka, David; Belšán, Tomáš; Broulíková, Karolina; Mandys, Václav; Charvát, František; Malík, Josef; Coufalová, Lucie; Bradáč, Ondřej; Ostrý, Svatopluk; Beneš, Vladimír

    2016-08-01

    Carotid endarterectomy (CEA) is accepted as a primary modality to treat carotid stenosis. The accuracy of measuring carotid stenosis is important for indication of the CEA procedure. Different diagnostic tools have been developed and used in the past 2 decades for the diagnosis of carotid stenosis. Only a few studies, however, have focused on the comparison of different diagnostic tools to histological findings of carotid plaque. Patients with internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis were investigated primarily by computed tomography angiography (CTA). Digital subtraction angiography (DSA), Doppler ultrasonography (DUS) and magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were performed as well. Atherosclerotic plaque specimens were transversally cut into smaller segments and histologically processed. The slides were scanned and specimens showing maximal stenosis were determined; the minimal diameter and the diameter of the whole plaque were measured. High quality histological specimen and histological measurement was considered to be the prerequisite for inclusion into the analysis. The preoperative findings were compared with histological measurement. CTA and histological measurements were obtained from 152 patients. DSA measurements were available in 138 of these cases, MRA in 107 and DUS in 88. A comparison between preoperative and histological findings was performed. In addition, correlation coefficients were computed and tested. A significant correlation was found for each of the diagnostic procedures. The strongest correlation coefficient and the best allocation of stenosis into clinical significant groups (<50 %, 50-69 %, ≥70 %) was observed for CTA. Mean differences in the whole cohort between preoperative and histological measurements were as follows: CTA underestimated histological measurement by 2.4 % (based on European Carotid Surgery Trial [ECST] methodology) and 11.9 % (based on North American Symptomatic Carotid Endarterectomy Trial [NASCET] methodology

  5. Endoscopic septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Getz, Anne E; Hwang, Peter H

    2008-02-01

    Successful septoplasty involves accurate assessment of septal pathology and sound technique to avoid persistent symptoms and new complications. This review highlights endoscopic septoplasty techniques and instrumentation, as well as the indications for and advantages of endoscopic septoplasty as compared with traditional headlight septoplasty. Isolated lesions such as septal spurs and contact points may be better addressed with limited endoscopic techniques. Powered instrumentation has been utilized with reported success. Operative time and outcomes of endoscopic septoplasty are at least commensurate with, and at times superior to, traditional techniques. Endoscopic technology greatly enhances visualization during septoplasty. Discrete septal pathologies such as isolated deflection, spurs, perforations, and contact points can be addressed in a directed fashion. These advantages can be especially important in revision cases. Endoscopic technique in conjunction with video imaging is valuable for the education of residents and staff.

  6. Dynamic magnetic resonance imaging of endoscopic third ventriculostomy patency with differently acquired fast imaging with steady-state precession sequences.

    PubMed

    Lucic, Milos A; Koprivsek, Katarina; Kozic, Dusko; Spero, Martina; Spirovski, Milena; Lucic, Silvija

    2014-08-16

    The aim of the study was to determine the possibilities of two differently acquired two-dimensional fast imaging with steady-state precession (FISP 2D) magnetic resonance sequences in estimation of the third ventricle floor fenestration patency after endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) in the subjects with aqueductal stenosis/obstruction.Fifty eight subjects (37 males, 21 females, mean age 27 years) with previously successfully performed ETV underwent brain MRI on 1.5T MR imager 3-6 months after the procedure. Two different FISP 2D sequences (one included in the standard vendor provided software package, and the other, experimentally developed by our team) were performed respectively at two fixed slice positions: midsagittal and perpendicular to the ETV fenestration, and displayed in a closed-loop cinematographic format in order to estimate the patency. The ventricular volume reduction has been observed as well.Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) flow through the ETV fenestration was observed in midsagittal plane with both FISP 2D sequences in 93.11% subjects, while in 6.89% subjects the dynamic CSF flow MRI was inconclusive. In the perpendicular plane CSF flow through the ETV fenestration was visible only by use of experimentally developed FISP 2D (TR30/FA70) sequence. Postoperative volume reduction of lateral and third ventricle was detected in 67.24% subjects.Though both FISP 2D sequences acquired in midsagittal plane may be used to estimate the effects of performed ETV, due to achieved higher CSF pulsatile flow sensitivity, only the use of FISP 2D (TR30/FA70) sequence enables the estimation of the treatment effect in perpendicular plane in the absence of phase-contrast sequences. 

  7. Primary Endoscopic Transnasal Transsphenoidal Surgery for Magnetic Resonance Image-Positive Cushing Disease: Outcomes of a Series over 14 Years.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Chao-Hung; Yen, Yu-Shu; Wu, Jau-Ching; Chen, Yu-Chun; Huang, Wen-Cheng; Cheng, Henrich

    2015-09-01

    There are scant data of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery (ETS) with adjuvant therapies of Cushing disease (CD). To report the remission rate, secondary management, and outcomes of a series of CD patients. Patients with CD with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-positive adenoma who underwent ETS as the first and primary treatment were included. The diagnostic criteria were a combination of 24-hour urine-free cortisol, elevated serum cortisol levels, or other tests (e.g., inferior petrosal sinus sampling). All clinical and laboratory evaluations and radiological examinations were reviewed. Forty consecutive CD patients, with an average age of 41.0 years, were analyzed with a mean follow-up of 40.2 ± 29.6 months. These included 22 patients with microadenoma and 18 with macroadenoma, including 9 cavernous invasions. The overall remission rate of CD after ETS was 72.5% throughout the entire follow-up. Patients with microadenoma or noninvasive macroadenoma had a higher remission rate than those who had macroadenoma with cavernous sinus invasion (81.8% or 77.8% vs. 44.4%, P = 0.02). After ETS, the patients who had adrenocorticotropic hormone-positive adenoma had a higher remission rate than those who had not (76.5% vs. 50%, P = 0.03). In the 11 patients who had persistent/recurrent CD after the first ETS, 1 underwent secondary ETS, 8 received gamma-knife radiosurgery (GKRS), and 2 underwent both. At the study end point, two (5%) of these CD patients had persistent CD and were under the medication of ketoconazole. For MRI-positive CD patients, primary (i.e., the first) ETS yielded an overall remission rate of 72.5%. Adjuvant therapies, including secondary ETS, GKRS, or both, yielded an ultimate remission rate of 95%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Ultrasonography in ocular trauma.

    PubMed

    Dastevska-Djosevska, Emilija

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, simple and effective diagnostic method which enables visualization and evaluation of intraocular injury degree in cloudy eye media. The basic aim of this investigation was to find out the frequency of various types of ocular injuries using ultrasonography and to make an analysis of their frequency in relation to gender and age. This retrospective study included 182 patients hospitalized at the Clinic of Ophthalmology in Skopje due to mechanical eye trauma. The patients underwent ultrasonography on the Alcon Ultrascan Imagining System apparatus and Sonomed EZ Scan AB 5500+. B scan technique was used primarily, while the A scan had a positive and correlative role. Ocular trauma was more present in males (85.2%) compared to females (14.8%). 49.5% of the patients had open, and 50.5% had closed globe injuries. The most represented age group in ocular injuries was the age ranged from 51 to 60 years. There was no significant difference between the type of mechanical injury and the age (Chi-Squares=5.52 p=0.47895025). Ultrasonography showed that the most frequent pathologic result, both in open and closed globe injuries, was vitreous hemorrhage. Ultrasonography has an irreplaceable role in the clinical evaluation and management of ocular trauma. It showed that the most frequent finding in ocular trauma was vitreous haemorrhage, and the male gender was more frequently exposed to ocular trauma.

  9. Real-time magnetic resonance imaging driven by electromagnetic locator for interventional procedure and endoscopic therapy.

    PubMed

    Hong, Jaesung; Hata, Nobuhiko; Konishi, Kozo; Hashizume, Makoto

    2008-02-01

    Surgical navigation systems using an optical position sensor have the occlusion problem due to a person or instrument in the line of sight of the camera. In this study, occlusion-free real-time magnetic resonance (MR) scanning with a passive electromagnetic locator is proposed. A newly developed converter transforms the data of an electromagnetic locator into that of an optical sensor. Registration between the two different coordinate systems is performed for the electromagnetic locator to substitute the optical sensor without modifying the MRI system. An oil marker attached to the electromagnetic locator was identified in real-time MR images. Preliminary results demonstrated the high usability of the electromagnetic locator as an alternative position tracking method in the MR gantry. The occlusion problem of optical sensors is resolved by the proposed method.

  10. Endoscopic septoplasty.

    PubMed

    Sautter, Nathan B; Smith, Timothy L

    2009-04-01

    Endoscopic septoplasty has gained popularity since Lanza and colleagues and Stammberger first described the technique. This technique has several advantages over the traditional "headlight" septoplasty. These advantages include superior visualization, accommodation of limited and minimally invasive septoplasty, and usefulness as an effective teaching tool. This article reviews and illustrates the endoscopic septoplasty technique and discusses its limitations and advantages.

  11. Penile Doppler ultrasonography revisited.

    PubMed

    Jung, Dae Chul; Park, Sung Yoon; Lee, Joo Yong

    2017-06-10

    Penile Doppler ultrasonography is a high-performing, noninvasive or minimally-invasive imaging modality that allows the depiction of the normal anatomy and macroscopic pathologic changes in real time. Moreover, functional changes in penile blood flow, as seen in erectile dysfunction (ED), can be analyzed using color Doppler ultrasonography (CDUS). This review article describes the normal sonographic anatomy of the penis, the sonographic technique for evaluating ED, the normal phases of erection, and the various causes of ED. Additionally, we describe the interpretation of different parameters and findings on penile CDUS for the diagnosis and classification of ED, priapism, and Peyronie disease.

  12. Direct comparison of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results with final histopathology in patients with proven prostate cancer in MRI/ultrasonography-fusion biopsy.

    PubMed

    Borkowetz, Angelika; Platzek, Ivan; Toma, Marieta; Renner, Theresa; Herout, Roman; Baunacke, Martin; Laniado, Michael; Baretton, Gustavo; Froehner, Michael; Zastrow, Stefan; Wirth, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    To compare multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) of the prostate and histological findings of both targeted MRI/ultrasonography-fusion prostate biopsy (PBx) and systematic PBx with final histology of the radical prostatectomy (RP) specimen. A total of 105 patients with prostate cancer (PCa) histopathologically proven using a combination of fusion Pbx and systematic PBx, who underwent RP, were investigated. All patients had been examined using mpMRI, applying the European Society of Urogenital Radiology criteria. Histological findings from the RP specimen were compared with those from the PBx. Whole-mount RP specimen and mpMRI results were directly compared by a uro-pathologist and a uro-radiologist in step-section analysis. In the 105 patients with histopathologically proven PCa by combination of fusion PBx and systematic PBx, the detection rate of PCa was 90% (94/105) in fusion PBx alone and 68% (72/105) in systematic PBx alone (P = 0.001). The combination PBx detected 23 (22%) Gleason score (GS) 6, 69 (66%) GS 7 and 13 (12%) GS ≥8 tumours. Fusion PBx alone detected 25 (26%) GS 6, 57 (61%) GS 7 and 12 (13%) GS ≥8 tumours. Systematic PBx alone detected 17 (24%) GS 6, 49 (68%) GS 7 and 6 (8%) GS ≥8 tumours. Fusion PBx alone would have missed 11 tumours (4% [4/105] of GS 6, 6% [6/105] of GS 7 and 1% [1/105] of GS ≥8 tumours). Systematic PBx alone would have missed 33 tumours (10% [10/105] of GS 6, 20% [21/105] of GS 7 and 2% [2/105] of GS ≥8 tumours). The rates of concordance with regard to GS between the PBx and RP specimen were 63% (n = 65), 54% (n = 56) and 75% (n = 78) in fusion, systematic and combination PBx (fusion and systematic PBx combined), respectively. Upgrading of the GS between PBx and RP specimen occurred in 33% (n = 34), 44% (n = 46) and 18% (n = 19) in fusion, systematic and combination PBx, respectively. γ-correlation for detection of any cancer was 0.76 for combination PBx, 0.68 for fusion PBx alone and 0.23 for systematic

  13. High concordance of findings obtained from transgluteal magnetic resonance imaging - and transrectal ultrasonography-guided biopsy as compared with prostatectomy specimens.

    PubMed

    Steurer, Stefan; Rico, Sebastian Dwertmann; Simon, Ronald; Minner, Sarah; Tsourlakis, Maria Christina; Krech, Till; Koop, Christina; Graefen, Markus; Heinzer, Hans; Adam, Meike; Huland, Hartwig; Schlomm, Thorsten; Sauter, Guido; Lumiani, Agron

    2017-09-01

    To determine the utility of our transgluteal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-guided prostate biopsy approach. A total of 960 biopsy series, taken within the period of 1 year, were evaluated, including 301 MRI-guided and 659 transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS)-guided biopsies. The positivity rate and proportion of high grade cancers were significantly higher in MRI-guided than in TRUS-guided biopsies. Of 301 MRI-guided biopsies, 65.4% contained cancer while 57.2% of 659 TRUS biopsies contained cancer (P = 0.016). Gleason grade 3 + 3 = 6 disease was observed in 16.8% of 197 MRI-guided and in 36.1% of 377 TRUS-guided biopsies (P < 0.001). There was also a markedly higher quantity of cancer tissue in MRI-guided biopsies. In all cancers, the mean cancer surface area was 64.8 ± 51.6 mm(2) in MRI-guided biopsies as compared with 23.0 ± 31.4 mm(2) in non-MRI-guided biopsies (P < 0.001). With respect to the tissue quantity, superiority of MRI-guided biopsy was highest in Gleason grade 3 + 3 = 6 cancers (20.9 ± 27.9 vs 5.1 ± 10.2 mm(2) ; P < 0.001) and in Gleason grade 3 + 4 = 7 cancers (59.7 ± 38.0 vs 17.7 ± 18.4 mm(2) ; P < 0.001). Comparison of biopsy Gleason grades with findings in prostatectomy specimens was possible in 80 patients with MRI-guided and in 170 patients with non-MRI-guided biopsies. This comparison showed a very high but almost identical concordance of TRUS- and MRI-guided biopsies with the prostatectomy specimen findings. With both approaches, undetected high-risk cancers were present in ~10% of patients with low-risk biopsy results. A significant difference was observed, however, in the proportion of patients who had clinically insignificant cancers and who underwent surgery. The proportion of patients with Gleason grade 3 + 3 = 6 carcinoma in their prostatectomy specimen was 11.2% in the post-TRUS biopsy cohort, but only 2.5% in the post-MRI biopsy cohort (P = 0.021). MRI-guided transgluteal prostate biopsy has a high detection rate for high

  14. Endoscopic laser therapy in gastroenterology.

    PubMed

    Pritikin, J; Weinman, D; Harmatz, A; Young, H

    1992-07-01

    Endoscopic laser therapy has become an important and widely used tool in gastroenterology. It has become important for outpatient palliative therapy for ablating obstructing gastrointestinal neoplasms. This method has often circumvented the need for major palliative surgical resections. Caution must be applied to laser therapy for potentially curable malignant neoplasms because, with vaporization of the target tissue, no tissue specimen is available to assure that local or invasive residual carcinoma is excluded. Therefore, in good surgical candidates, surgical resection of potentially curable cancers is always recommended. In the future, however, the combination of refined endoscopic ultrasonography and laser fluorescence techniques may lead to earlier detection, more precise localization, and even curative ablation of gastrointestinal malignancy.

  15. Endoscopic laser therapy in gastroenterology.

    PubMed Central

    Pritikin, J; Weinman, D; Harmatz, A; Young, H

    1992-01-01

    Endoscopic laser therapy has become an important and widely used tool in gastroenterology. It has become important for outpatient palliative therapy for ablating obstructing gastrointestinal neoplasms. This method has often circumvented the need for major palliative surgical resections. Caution must be applied to laser therapy for potentially curable malignant neoplasms because, with vaporization of the target tissue, no tissue specimen is available to assure that local or invasive residual carcinoma is excluded. Therefore, in good surgical candidates, surgical resection of potentially curable cancers is always recommended. In the future, however, the combination of refined endoscopic ultrasonography and laser fluorescence techniques may lead to earlier detection, more precise localization, and even curative ablation of gastrointestinal malignancy. Images PMID:1413743

  16. Magnetic Resonance Imaging/Transrectal Ultrasonography Fusion Prostate Biopsy Significantly Outperforms Systematic 12–Core Biopsy for Prediction of Total Magnetic Resonance Imaging Tumor Volume in Active Surveillance Patients

    PubMed Central

    Okoro, Chinonyerem; George, Arvin K.; Siddiqui, M. Minhaj; Rais–Bahrami, Soroush; Walton–Diaz, Annerleim; Shakir, Nabeel A.; Rothwax, Jason T.; Raskolnikov, Dima; Stamatakis, Lambros; Su, Daniel; Turkbey, Baris; Choyke, Peter L.; Merino, Maria J.; Parnes, Howard L.; Wood, Bradford J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To correlate the highest percentage core involvement (HPCI) and corresponding tumor length (CTL) on systematic 12-core biopsy (SBx) and targeted magnetic resonance imaging/transrectal ultrasonography (MRI/TRUS) fusion biopsy (TBx), with total MRI prostate cancer (PCa) tumor volume (TV). Patients and Methods: Fifty patients meeting criteria for active surveillance (AS) based on outside SBx, who underwent 3.0T multiparametric prostate MRI (MP–MRI), followed by SBx and TBx during the same session at our institution were examined. PCa TVs were calculated using MP-MRI and then correlated using bivariate analysis with the HPCI and CTL for SBx and TBx. Results: For TBx, HPCI and CTL showed a positive correlation (R2=0.31, P<0.0001 and R2=0.37, P<0.0001, respectively) with total MRI PCa TV, whereas for SBx, these parameters showed a poor correlation (R2=0.00006, P=0.96 and R2=0.0004, P=0.89, respectively). For detection of patients with clinically significant MRI derived tumor burden greater than 500 mm3, SBx was 25% sensitive, 90.9% specific (falsely elevated because of missed tumors and extremely low sensitivity), and 54% accurate in comparison with TBx, which was 53.6% sensitive, 86.4% specific, and 68% accurate. Conclusions: HPCI and CTL on TBx positively correlates with total MRI PCa TV, whereas there was no correlation seen with SBx. TBx is superior to SBx for detecting tumor burden greater than 500 mm3. When using biopsy positive MRI derived TVs, TBx better reflects overall disease burden, improving risk stratification among candidates for active surveillance. PMID:25897467

  17. Endoscopic ultrasound

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pancreatitis References Lee LS. Endoscopic ultrasound. In: McNalley PR, ed. GI/Liver Secrets Plus . 5th ed. Philadelphia, ... member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www. ...

  18. Role of endoscopic ultrasound in the diagnosis of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalo-Marin, Juana; Vila, Juan Jose; Perez-Miranda, Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) with or without fine needle aspiration has become the main technique for evaluating pancreatobiliary disorders and has proved to have a higher diagnostic yield than positron emission tomography, computed tomography (CT) and transabdominal ultrasound for recognising early pancreatic tumors. As a diagnostic modality for pancreatic cancer, EUS has proved rates higher than 90%, especially for lesions less than 2-3 cm in size in which it reaches a sensitivity rate of 99% vs 55% for CT. Besides, EUS has a very high negative predictive value and thus EUS can reliably exclude pancreatic cancer. The complication rate of EUS is as low as 1.1%-3.0%. New technical developments such as elastography and the use of contrast agents have recently been applied to EUS, improving its diagnostic capability. EUS has been found to be superior to the recent multidetector CT for T staging with less risk of overstaying in comparison to both CT and magnetic resonance imaging, so that patients are not being ruled out of a potentially beneficial resection. The accuracy for N staging with EUS is 64%-82%. In unresectable cancers, EUS also plays a therapeutic role by means of treating oncological pain through celiac plexus block, biliary drainage in obstructive jaundice in patients where endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is not affordable and aiding radiotherapy and chemotherapy. PMID:25232461

  19. Proliferation of prenatal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    You, John J.; Alter, David A.; Stukel, Therese A.; McDonald, Sarah D.; Laupacis, Andreas; Liu, Ying; Ray, Joel G.

    2010-01-01

    Background The extent to which temporal increases in the use of prenatal ultrasonography reflect changes in maternal risk is unknown. In this population-based study, we examined the use of prenatal ultrasonography from 1996 to 2006 in Ontario. Methods With fiscal year 1996/97 as the baseline, we evaluated the relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the change in rates of ultrasonography for each subsequent year. The RR was adjusted for maternal age, income, rural residence, maternal comorbidities, receipt of genetics consultation or amniocentesis — all in the index pregnancy — and history of complications in a prior pregnancy. Results The study sample consisted of 1 399 389 singleton deliveries. The rate of prenatal ultrasonography increased from 2055 per 1000 pregnancies in 1996 to 3264 per 1000 in 2006 (adjusted RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.54–1.55). The rate increased among both women with low-risk pregnancies (adjusted RR 1.54, 95% CI 1.53–1.55) and those with high-risk pregnancies (adjusted RR 1.55, 95% CI 1.54–1.57). The proportion of pregnancies with at least four ultrasound examinations in the second or third trimesters rose from 6.4% in 1996 to 18.7% in 2006 (adjusted RR 2.68, 95% CI 2.61–2.74). Paradoxically, this increase was more pronounced among low-risk pregnancies (adjusted RR 2.92, 95% CI 2.83–3.01) than among high-risk pregnancies (adjusted RR 2.25, 95% CI 2.16–2.35). Interpretation Substantial increases in the use of prenatal ultrasonography over the past decade do not appear to reflect changes in maternal risk. Nearly one in five women now undergo four or more ultrasound examinations during the second and third trimesters. Efforts to promote more appropriate use of prenatal ultrasonography for singleton pregnancies appear warranted. PMID:20048009

  20. Ultrasonography of intrauterine devices.

    PubMed

    Nowitzki, Kristina M; Hoimes, Matthew L; Chen, Byron; Zheng, Larry Z; Kim, Young H

    2015-07-01

    The intrauterine device (IUD) is gaining popularity as a reversible form of contraception. Ultrasonography serves as first-line imaging for the evaluation of IUD position in patients with pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, or absent retrieval strings. This review highlights the imaging of both properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs. The problems associated with malpositioned IUDs include expulsion, displacement, embedment, and perforation. Management considerations depend on the severity of the malposition and the presence or absence of symptoms. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has proven to be more sensitive in the evaluation of more subtle findings of malposition, particularly side-arm embedment. Familiarity with the ultrasonographic features of properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs is essential.

  1. Ultrasonography of intrauterine devices

    PubMed Central

    Nowitzki, Kristina M.; Hoimes, Matthew L.; Chen, Byron; Zheng, Larry Z.; Kim, Young H.

    2015-01-01

    The intrauterine device (IUD) is gaining popularity as a reversible form of contraception. Ultrasonography serves as first-line imaging for the evaluation of IUD position in patients with pelvic pain, abnormal bleeding, or absent retrieval strings. This review highlights the imaging of both properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs. The problems associated with malpositioned IUDs include expulsion, displacement, embedment, and perforation. Management considerations depend on the severity of the malposition and the presence or absence of symptoms. Three-dimensional ultrasonography has proven to be more sensitive in the evaluation of more subtle findings of malposition, particularly side-arm embedment. Familiarity with the ultrasonographic features of properly positioned and malpositioned IUDs is essential. PMID:25985959

  2. [Diagnosing pneumothorax with ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Lasarte Izcue, A; Navasa Melado, J M; Blanco Rodríguez, G; Fidalgo González, I; Parra Blanco, J A

    2014-01-01

    The ultrasonographic diagnosis of pneumothorax is based on the analysis of artifacts. It is possible to confirm or rule out pneumothorax by combining the following signs: lung sliding, the A and B lines, and the lung point. One fundamental advantage of lung ultrasonography is its easy access in any critical situation, especially in patients in the intensive care unit. For this reason, chest ultrasonography can be used as an alternative to plain-film X-rays and computed tomography in critical patients and in patients with normal plain films in whom pneumothorax is strongly suspected, as well as to evaluate the extent of the pneumothorax and monitor its evolution. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Recent Developments in the Endoscopic Treatment of Patients with Peptic Ulcer Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae-Young

    2016-01-01

    Peptic ulcer bleeding is an internal medical emergency. Endoscopic hemostasis has been shown to improve the survival rate of patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. Although the established hemostatic modalities, including injection, thermal therapy, and mechanical therapy, are effective in controlling peptic ulcer bleeding, hemostasis can be difficult to achieve in some cases. As a result, recent, new endoscopic hemostatic modalities, including over-the-scope clips, topical hemostatic sprays, and endoscopic ultrasonography-guided angiotherapy, have been developed. PMID:27744666

  4. [Carotid ultrasonography: evaluation of carotid ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Taniuchi, Ryosui

    2007-02-01

    Carotid ultrasonography is a laboratory procedure showing how arteriosclerosis screening can diagnose carotid artery occlusion and high-grade stenosis. It is useful for inspection in general practice because of its non-invasiveness, development of sonography equipment, laboratory methods and the establishment of an evaluation method. We generally use a linear array probe of around 7-8MHz for carotid observation and combine the B mode method, color and power Doppler method, and pulsed Doppler method for inspection. At vessel analysis, the intima-media thickness, the property of plaque and stenotic ratio are evaluated. We observe the direction of bloodstream and presence of stricture by Doppler color flow imaging and measure flow velocity and the wave pattern by pulsed Doppler method and, with the B mode method, evaluate the extent or degree of stricture. This can be depicted well using a convex array probe and sector array probe when the mental change caused by disease is deep, and depiction is difficult by linear array probe.

  5. [Endoscopic submucosal excavation (ESE) is a safe and useful technique for endoscopic removal of submucosal tumors of the stomach and the esophagus in selected cases].

    PubMed

    Reinehr, R

    2015-06-01

    Submucosal tumors of stomach and esophagus are often detected incidentally during endoscopy and further characterized by endoscopic ultrasonography. After risk estimation such submucosal tumors are either controlled by watchful waiting or surgically resected. Nevertheless, symptomatic submucosal tumors should be treated. Endoscopic submucosal excavation (ESE) and submucosal tunneling endoscopic resection (STER) may represent an alternative non-surgical therapeutic option. Two cases of complete endoscopic resection of symptomatic submucosal tumors are reported: a small gastrointestinal stroma tumor (GIST) of the antrum and a 12  cm long esophageal lipoma. For selected cases, ESE of symptomatic submucosal tumors of stomach and esophagus represents a useful alternative compared to surgical removal particularly if mass is located in antrum or corpus, sized < 20  mm and clearly defined by endoscopic ultrasonography.

  6. SENSITIVITY OF ENDOSCOPIC ULTRASOUND, MULTIDETECTOR COMPUTER TOMOGRAPHY AND MAGNETIC RESONANCE CHOLANGIOPANCREATOGRAPHY IN THE DIAGNOSIS OF PANCREAS DIVISUM: A TERTIARY CENTER EXPERIENCE

    PubMed Central

    Kushnir, Vladimir M.; Wani, Sachin B.; Fowler, Kathryn; Menias, Christine; Varma, Rakesh; Narra, Vamsi; Hovis, Christine; Murad, Faris; Mullady, Daniel; Jonnalagadda, Sreenivasa S.; Early, Dayna S.; Edmundowicz, Steven A.; Azar, Riad R.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES There are limited data comparing imaging modalities in the diagnosis of pancreas divisum. We aimed to: 1. Evaluate the sensitivity of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) and multi-detector computed tomography (MDCT) for pancreas divisum. 2. Assess interobserver agreement (IOA) among expert radiologists for detecting pancreas divisum on MDCT and MRCP. METHODS For this retrospective cohort study, we identified 45 consecutive patients with pancreaticobiliary symptoms and pancreas divisum established by endoscopic retrograde pancreatography (ERP) who underwent EUS and cross-sectional imaging. The control group was composed of patients without pancreas divisum who underwent ERP and cross-sectional imaging. RESULTS The sensitivity of EUS for pancreas divisum was 86.7%, significantly higher than sensitivity reported in the medical records for MDCT (15.5%) or MRCP (60%) [p<0.001 for each]. On review by expert radiologists the sensitivity of MDCT increased to 83.3% in cases where the pancreatic duct was visualized, with fair IOA (қ=0.34). Expert review of MRCPs did not identify any additional cases of pancreas divisum; IOA was moderate (қ=0.43). CONCLUSIONS EUS is a sensitive test for diagnosing pancreas divisum and is superior to MDCT and MRCP. Review of MDCT studies by expert radiologists substantially raises its sensitivity for pancreas divisum. PMID:23211370

  7. Endoscopic findings on alimentary lymphoma in 7 dogs.

    PubMed

    Miura, Teruhisa; Maruyama, Haruhiko; Sakai, Manabu; Takahashi, Tomoko; Koie, Hiroshi; Yamaya, Yoshiki; Shibuya, Hisashi; Sato, Tsuneo; Watari, Toshihiro; Tokuriki, Mikihiko; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2004-05-01

    Alimentary lymphoma was evaluated endoscopically in 7 dogs and a histopathological examination was made to detect the origin of neoplastic lymphocytes in 5 dogs. A solitary mass in the rectum (1 case), irregular cobblestone appearance in the duodenum (4 cases) and a moderate irregular appearance resembling lymphocytic-plasmacytic enteritis (2 cases) were endoscopically detected. Endoscopic ultrasonography demonstrated increased thickness of the duodenal wall in 2 cases examined. Neoplastic lymphocytes of alimentary lymphoma proved to originate in T cells in all 5 cases examined by immunohistochemical analysis.

  8. Endoscopic calcaneoplasty.

    PubMed

    Jerosch, Joerg

    2015-03-01

    Opinions differ regarding the surgical treatment of posterior calcaneal exostosis. After failure of conservative treatment, open surgical bursectomy and resection of the calcaneal prominence is indicated by many investigators. Clinical studies have shown high rates of unsatisfactory results and complications. Endoscopic calcaneoplasty (ECP) is a minimally invasive surgical option that can avoid some of these obstacles. ECP is an effective procedure for the treatment of patients with posterior calcaneal exostosis. The endoscopic exposure is superior to the open technique and has less morbidity, less operating time, fewer complications, and the disorders can be better differentiated.

  9. Color Doppler ultrasonography of the abdominal aorta.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, S; Danesino, G M; Danesino, V; Castellani, S

    2010-09-01

    Alterations of the abdominal aorta are relatively common, particularly in older people. Technological advances in the fields of ultrasonography, computed tomography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging have greatly increased the imaging options for the assessment of these lesions. Because it can be done rapidly and is also non-invasive, ultrasonography plays a major role in the exploration of the abdominal aorta, from its emergence from the diaphragm to its bifurcation. It is indicated for the diagnosis and follow-up of various aortic diseases, especially aneurysms. It can be used to define the shape, size, and location of these lesions, the absence or presence of thrombi and their characteristics. It is also useful for monitoring the evolution of the lesion and for postoperative follow-up. However, its value is limited in surgical planning and in emergency situations.

  10. Coregistration of ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging with a preliminary investigation of the spatial colocalization of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression and tumor perfusion in a murine tumor model.

    PubMed

    Loveless, Mary E; Whisenant, Jennifer G; Wilson, Kevin; Lyshchik, Andrej; Sinha, Tuhin K; Gore, John C; Yankeelov, Thomas E

    2009-01-01

    We present an ultrasonography (US)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) coregistration technique and examine its application in a preliminary multimodal, multiparametric study in a preclinical model of breast cancer. Nine mice were injected with 67NR breast cancer cells and imaged 6 and 9 days later with 4.7 T MRI and high-frequency US. Tumor volumes from each data set were segmented independently by two investigators and coregistered using an iterative closest point algorithm. In addition to anatomic images, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) distribution images from the central tumor slice using VEGFR2-targeted ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) and measurements of perfusion and extravascular-extracellular volume fraction using dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI were acquired from five mice for multiparametric coregistration. Parametric maps from each modality were coregistered and examined for spatial correlation. Average registration root mean square (RMS) error was 0.36 +/- 0.11 mm, less than approximately two voxels. Segmented volumes were compared between investigators to minimize interobserver variability; the average RMS error was 0.23 +/- 0.09 mm. In the preliminary study, VEGFR2-targeted UCA data did not demonstrate direct spatial correlation with magnetic resonance measures of vascular properties. In summary, a method for accurately coregistering small animal US and MRI has been presented that allows for comparison of quantitative metrics provided by the two modalities.

  11. [Endoscopic ultrasonography in determining resectability of the pancreatic adenocarcinoma].

    PubMed

    Solodinina, E N; Starkov, Yu G; Kurushkina, N A; Egorov, V I

    2014-01-01

    The publication presents the results of the examination and treatment of 82 patients with pancreatic adenocarcinoma. The main objective of the work is the evaluation of endosonography diagnostic significance in identifying tumor vascular invasion and determining resectability of the tumor. The paper describes an EUS methodology, type of echoendoscopes and ultrasound criteria for tumor invasion to the blood vessels. Vessel invasion during endosonography was suspected in 48 (58.5%) cases, according to surgery data, tumor invasion into upper abdomen vessels was detected in 51 patients (62.2%). Sensitivity of endosonography in detecting vessel invasion was 90.2%, specificity--93.5%, accuracy--91.5%. Endosonography being in trend of present day ideas about the criteria of pancreatic cancer resectability is the leading method in the selection of patients to surgery.

  12. The role of intraductal ultrasonography in pancreatobiliary diseases

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Bo; Hu, Bing

    2016-01-01

    Intraductal ultrasonography (IDUS) provides real-time, cross-sectional imaging of pancreatobiliary ducts and surrounding structures during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography using a high-frequency ultrasound (US) transducer. Hence, IDUS has been considered a sensitive tool in the evaluation of suspicious choledocholithiasis and neoplasms, to help distinguish between benign and malignant bile duct strictures or wall thickness, and to assess tumor extension and invasion depth. With the rapid development and enriched choices of sensitive diagnostic modalities include but are not limited to endoscopic US, peroral cholangioscopy, and confocal laser endomicroscopy, it is needed to systematically assess the role of IDUS in the investigation of pancreatobiliary diseases. Some new developments and innovative use of IDUS techniques will be discussed in this paper with the review of literature. PMID:27803901

  13. Artifacts in musculoskeletal ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Taljanovic, Mihra S; Melville, David M; Scalcione, Luke R; Gimber, Lana H; Lorenz, Eileen J; Witte, Russell S

    2014-02-01

    During the past 2 decades, high-resolution ultrasonography (US) has been increasingly utilized in the diagnosis of musculoskeletal trauma and diseases with results comparable with MR imaging. US has an advantage over other cross-sectional modalities in many circumstances due to its superior spatial resolution and ability to allow dynamic assessment. When performing musculoskeletal US, the examiner has to be knowledgeable in the complex anatomy of the musculoskeletal system and US imaging technique. Additionally, he or she must be familiar with several common imaging artifacts in musculoskeletal US that may be mistaken for pathology, as well as several artifacts that frequently accompany pathologic conditions. These artifacts may occur with both B-mode gray-scale and Doppler imaging. In this article, we discuss common artifacts seen in musculoskeletal US and techniques to avoid or minimize these artifacts during clinical US examinations. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  14. [Endoscopic surgery].

    PubMed

    Rushfeldt, Christian; Pham, Khanh Do-Cong; Aabakken, Lars

    2016-05-01

    Endoscopic surgery of the stomach/gastrointestinal tract was developed in the 1990s in Japan as a minimally invasive method of removing early-stage tumours, using a gastro-/coloscope instead of open or laparoscopic surgery. Its advantages are obvious, in that the patient is spared more major surgery, the hospital saves on resources as well as admission to a ward, and society is spared the costs of days of sickness absence. Endoscopic submucosal dissection is considered the most difficult technique, but it allows for the accurate dissection of large tumours. In 1999, Japanese surgeon Takuji Gotoda and his team were the first to perform these types of dissections of early cancers in the rectum using a diathermic needle and a flexible scope.

  15. Endoscopic Cyclophotocoagulation

    PubMed Central

    Seibold, Leonard K.; SooHoo, Jeffrey R.; Kahook, Malik Y.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, many new procedures and implants have been introduced as safer alternatives for the surgical treatment of glaucoma. The majority of these advances are implant-based with a goal of increased aqueous drainage to achieve lower intraocular pressure (IOP). In contrast, endoscopic cyclophotocoagulation (ECP) lowers IOP through aqueous suppression. Although ciliary body ablation is a well-established method of aqueous suppression, the novel endoscopic approach presents a significant evolution of this treatment with marked improvement in safety. The endoscope couples a light source, video imaging, and diode laser to achieve direct visualization of the ciliary processes during controlled laser application. The result is an efficient and safe procedure that can achieve a meaningful reduction in IOP and eliminate or reduce glaucoma medication use. From its initial use in refractory glaucoma, the indications for ECP have expanded broadly to include many forms of glaucoma across the spectrum of disease severity. The minimally-invasive nature of ECP allows for easy pairing with phacoemulsification in patients with coexisting cataract. In addition, the procedure avoids implant or device-related complications associated with newer surgical treatments. In this review, we illustrate the differences between ECP and traditional cyclophotocoagulation, then describe the instrumentation, patient selection, and technique for ECP. Finally, we summarize the available clinical evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of this procedure. PMID:25624669

  16. The Efficacy of Target Biopsy of Suspected Cancer Lesions Detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and/or Transrectal Ultrasonography during Initial Prostate Biopsies: Comparison of Outcomes between Two Physicians

    PubMed Central

    Iwamoto, Hideto; Yumioka, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Noriya; Inoue, Seiya; Masago, Toshihiko; Morizane, Shuichi; Yao, Akihisa; Honda, Masashi; Sejima, Takehiro; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    Background The efficacy of adding target prostate biopsy (PBx) of suspected cancer lesions identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) to initial systematic PBx was evaluated. Moreover, the outcomes were compared between 2 physicians. Methods We retrospectively investigated 238 patients who underwent first-time PBx in our hospital. All patients were examined with prostate MRI before PBx. Fourteen systematic biopsies were obtained in all patients. When a suspected lesion was present on MRI and/or TRUS, the lesion was the target of target PBx. Results The overall detection rate of prostate cancer (PCa) was 45% (106/238). With target PBx, the PCa detection rate was 32% overall, while that of suspected lesions seen only on MRI was 32%, that of suspected lesions seen only on TRUS was 8% and that of suspected lesions seen on both MRI and TRUS was 52%. The same tendency was shown for each physician. Comparing systematic PBx and target PBx, the overall rate of Gleason score (GS) upgrading with target PBx was 13%. The rate of PCa detected only by systematic PBx was 95%. There was no significant difference between the 2 physicians. Conclusion In initial PBx, the addition of target PBx of suspected cancer lesions detected by MRI and/or TRUS to systematic PBx might not be useful to improve the cancer detection rate. However, it may enable more accurate risk classification and detection of minute cancers with a high GS. PMID:25067878

  17. The Efficacy of Target Biopsy of Suspected Cancer Lesions Detected by Magnetic Resonance Imaging and/or Transrectal Ultrasonography during Initial Prostate Biopsies: Comparison of Outcomes between Two Physicians.

    PubMed

    Iwamoto, Hideto; Yumioka, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Noriya; Inoue, Seiya; Masago, Toshihiko; Morizane, Shuichi; Yao, Akihisa; Honda, Masashi; Sejima, Takehiro; Takenaka, Atsushi

    2014-03-01

    The efficacy of adding target prostate biopsy (PBx) of suspected cancer lesions identified on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and/or transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) to initial systematic PBx was evaluated. Moreover, the outcomes were compared between 2 physicians. We retrospectively investigated 238 patients who underwent first-time PBx in our hospital. All patients were examined with prostate MRI before PBx. Fourteen systematic biopsies were obtained in all patients. When a suspected lesion was present on MRI and/or TRUS, the lesion was the target of target PBx. The overall detection rate of prostate cancer (PCa) was 45% (106/238). With target PBx, the PCa detection rate was 32% overall, while that of suspected lesions seen only on MRI was 32%, that of suspected lesions seen only on TRUS was 8% and that of suspected lesions seen on both MRI and TRUS was 52%. The same tendency was shown for each physician. Comparing systematic PBx and target PBx, the overall rate of Gleason score (GS) upgrading with target PBx was 13%. The rate of PCa detected only by systematic PBx was 95%. There was no significant difference between the 2 physicians. In initial PBx, the addition of target PBx of suspected cancer lesions detected by MRI and/or TRUS to systematic PBx might not be useful to improve the cancer detection rate. However, it may enable more accurate risk classification and detection of minute cancers with a high GS.

  18. Endoscopic Ganglionectomy of the Elbow.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    Resection of the ganglion of the elbow is indicated if the size or location of the cyst impairs function or causes significant pain. Arthroscopic decompression or endoscopic resection of the cyst is the minimally invasive surgical option. It has the potential advantage of better cosmetic results and less soft-tissue dissection. Endoscopic resection is indicated if the cyst is not communicating with the joint or the communication is not identifiable arthroscopically or if there is a long and narrow communication placing the cyst away from the elbow joint. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging is essential for surgical planning.

  19. Standards for scrotal ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Tyloch, Janusz F.

    2016-01-01

    The paper presents a description of essential equipment requirements for scrotal ultrasonography, including current ultrasound techniques, as well as a review of the most common scrotal pathologies. Patient preparation for the examination as well as ultrasound methodology for the assessment of scrotal and inguinal canal structures are discussed. The standard for scrotal ultrasound examination includes a precise B-mode evaluation, including testicular volumetric assessment performed using automatic measurement options based on the formula of a rotating ellipsoid or three measurements perpendicular to one another. Also, criteria for morphological assessment of abnormalities within testicular or epididymal parenchyma, including a precise evaluation of lesion size, delineation, shape and vascular pattern obtained with Doppler US, have been proposed. Standard assessment further includes epididymal evaluation, including epididymal size in the case of enlargement. The paper additionally discusses the method of ultrasonographic examination and describes the most common pathologies occurring within scrotal structures, including a quantitative analysis of hydrocele and other abnormal fluid reservoirs. We have also presented criteria for the assessment of varicocele as well as color and spectral Doppler flows in scrotal pathologies. Furthermore, we have proposed key components of scrotal ultrasound documentation, so that the contained data could be used to establish appropriate diagnosis, allowing for both adequate clinical management and the reproducibility of subsequent US evaluations performed by either the same or a different examiner. The most common causes of diagnostic errors have also been discussed. PMID:28138410

  20. Ultrasonography of the hip.

    PubMed

    Nestorova, Rodina; Vlad, Violeta; Petranova, Tzvetanka; Porta, Francesco; Radunovic, Goran; Micu, Mihaela C; Iagnocco, Annamaria

    2012-09-01

    A complete physical examination of the hip is often difficult due to its size and deep position. During the last two decades, ultrasonography (US) of the hip has been widely accepted as a useful diagnostic tool in patients with hip pain and /or limited range of motion. It is commonly used in both adults and children. This technique allows evaluation of different anatomical structures and their pathological changes, such as joint recess (joint effusion, synovial hypertrophy), changes within the bursae (bursitis), tendons and muscles (tendinopathy, ruptures, calcifications), as well as changes in the bony profile of the joint surfaces, ischial tuberosity, and greater trochanter (erosions, osteophytes, calcific deposits). US is very useful for guided procedures in hip joint and periarticular soft tissues under direct visualization. The needle aspiration of synovial fluid and steroid injections are commonly-applied activities in daily rheumatology practice. The relatively limited acoustic windows available to the US beam are the principal limitations to hip US. Therefore, conducting a detailed examination of some important structures together with the interpretation of Doppler signal (sometimes undetectable) is not easy, requiring good knowledge of the modality. The aim of this review is to analyze the current literature about US of the hip and to describe the most frequently-observed normal and pathological findings.

  1. Intraoperative endovascular ultrasonography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eton, Darwin; Ahn, Samuel S.; Baker, J. D.; Pensabene, Joseph; Yeatman, Lawrence S.; Moore, Wesley S.

    1991-05-01

    The early experience using intra-operative endovascular ultrasonography (EU) is reported in eight patients undergoing lower extremity revasularization. In four patients, intra-operative EU successfully characterized inflow stenoses that were inadequately imaged with pre- operative arteriography. Two patients were found to have hemodynamically significant inflow stenoses, and were treated with intra-operative balloon angioplasty followed by repeat EU. The other two patients were found to have non-hemodynamically significant inflow stenoses requiring no treatment. Additional outflow procedures were required in all four patients. In the remaining four patients, EU was used to evaluate the completeness of TEC rotary atherectomy, of Hall oscillatory endarterectomy, of thrombectomy of the superficial femoral and popliteal arteries, and of valve lysis during in situ saphenous vein grafting, respectively. In the latter case, the valve leaflets were not clearly seen. In the other cases, EU assisted the surgeon. Angioscopy and angiography were available for comparison. In one case, angioscopy failed because of inability to clear the field while inspecting retrograde the limb of an aorto-bi-femoral graft. EU however was possible. No complications of EU occurred. EU is a safe procedure indicated when characterization of a lesion is needed prior to an intervention or when evaluation of the intervention's success is desired. We did not find it useful in valve lysis for in-site grafting.

  2. Emergency medicine ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Michael Y.; Nussbaum, Chris; Lee, A. Curtis

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To survey program directors of family medicine–emergency medicine (CCFP[EM]) training programs regarding current and future emergency medicine ultrasonography (EMUS) training. DESIGN A Web-based survey using a modified Dillman method. Two academic emergency physicians reviewed the validity and reliability of the survey. SETTING Canada. PARTICIPANTS Program directors of all 17 Canadian CCFP(EM) residency training programs in 2006. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES Characteristics of EMUS training currently offered and program directors’ perceptions of needs for future EMUS training. RESULTS The survey, performed in 2006, had a response rate of 100% (17/17), although not all respondents answered all questions. At the time of the study, 82.4% of respondents’ programs used EMUS. Although all program directors recommended that residents attend introductory EMUS courses, only 71.4% (10/14) of programs offered such courses; 60.0% (9/15) of those were mandatory. In one-third of the programs, more than 75% of the attending staff used EMUS. A total of 76.5% of program directors thought that introductory courses in EMUS should be mandatory; 62.5% (10/16) believed that residents were able to acquire sufficient experience to use EMUS independently to make practice decisions before completion of their residency; and 88.2% believed that EMUS should be a part of the scope of practice for emergency medicine physicians. Only 58.8% believed that there should be questions about EMUS on the CCFP(EM) Certification examination. Open responses indicated that funding, resources, and standardization were issues that needed to be addressed. CONCLUSION Formal EMUS training for CCFP(EM) programs is being introduced in Canada. Quality assurance needs to be strengthened. Most program directors thought that an introductory course in EMUS should be mandatory. Fewer directors, however, believed EMUS should be on the CCFP(EM) Certification examination until further funding, resources

  3. Endoscopic parathyroidectomy in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Prades, Jean-Michel; Asanau, Alexander; Timoshenko, Andrei P; Gavid, Marie; Martin, Christian

    2011-06-01

    During the past decade, endoscopic video-assisted parathyroidectomy (EP) for primary hyper parathyroidism (PHPT) has gained wider acceptance. The endoscopic gasless procedure described by P. Miccoli (1997-1998) offers an attractive technique. A routine preoperative localization study was performed with both ultrasonography and 99m TC-Sestamibi scintigraphy for each patient with sporadic PHPT. The criteria to select patients eligible for EP included absence of significant nodular goiter, a previous neck surgery, a need for concomitant thyroidectomy, a significant obesity, and multiple enlarged parathyroid glands. The surgical outcome and the use of preoperative localization together with the operative strategy were evaluated. From 2005 to 2009, 59 out of 75 patients (78%) were potentially candidates for this approach. An enlarged parathyroid gland was located by both types of imaging for 34 patients (57%) and by 99 m Tc-Sestamibi scintigraphy for 46 patients (77%). Conversion was required in 11 cases (18%). Nine patients had a negative preoperative imaging study and five underwent a successful EP. The operating time ranged from 35 to 120 min (median 45 min). Usually patients were discharged home at 48 h. There were no cases of permanent hypocalcemia or recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy. Postoperative review showed that all calcium and parathyroid hormone levels remained normal at 3 months except for 1 patient with a double adenoma. EP is a quick, safe, and effective procedure in a selected group of patients. Our results show that this technique can be easily introduced into a general head and neck practice.

  4. Jackhammer esophagus treated by a peroral endoscopic myotomy.

    PubMed

    Ko, Weon Jin; Lee, Byoung Moo; Park, Won Young; Kim, Jin Nyoung; Cho, Jun Hyung; Lee, Tae Hee; Hong, Su Jin; Cho, Joo Young

    2014-12-01

    A 49-year-old woman visited our hospital with dysphagia and chest pain. In another hospital, she was diagnosed as reflux esophagitis. Although she had taken proton pump inhibitor and prokinetics drugs for a long time, she was not relieved of any symptoms. On the basis of high resolution manometry and endoscopic ultrasonography findings, Jackhammer esophagus was diagnosed. In this patient, peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) was performed for long myotomy of thickened circular muscle. During the procedure, there were no significant complications and she was discharged uneventfully. Symptoms were completely improved during three months after POEM. Here, we report on a case of Jackhammer esophagus treated by POEM.

  5. [Ultrasonography of pancreatic neoplasms].

    PubMed

    Innocenti, P; Falchini, M; Stecco, A

    1999-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors are the fourth cause of death in Occident: the 5-year-survival rate is less than 5% because of diagnostic difficulties, low clinical expression at early stage, and complexity of the surgical treatment. The role of ultrasound (US) is in early diagnosis, because also in early cancer there could be lymphatic spread or peritoneal involvement. There are multiple modalities to study the pancreas with US: abdominal US, "contact" US (endosonography and intra-operative or laparoscopic US). The first is not invasive, cheap but limited by extrinsic and intrinsic factors, the latter are respectively characterized by high cost, and need of endoscopic specialists for endosonography, the complementarity to laparoscopy or surgery for the laparoscopic/intraoperative US. Abdominal US is the first diagnostic step for the pancreas, but it is not affordable in 15-25% of patients, because of meteorism. In all the other cases, it represents the pancreas with a good contrast between the normal parenchyma and tumoral tissues. Abdominal US, together with biopsy, can define the resectability. Ecoendoscopy is actually dedicated to small tumors staging, but recent studies demonstrate the same results achieved by spiral TC. Laparoscopic US is a second step imaging in patients already selected for surgery. The first finality in US evaluation of tumor masses is early diagnosis of pancreatic cancer; it can give to some of these patients the opportunity of undergoing to surgical treatment. This could be achieved by a proper use of the moititude of ultrasonic abdominal explorations that are requested in daily practice. US, together with CT and MR, can define the resectability of the tumor, with further supplementar evaluation by mean of laparoscopic US. Intraoperative US is now indicated for planning and guiding the surgeon in resection of the pancreatic cancer.

  6. Low-field magnetic resonance imaging or combined ultrasonography and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody improve correct classification of individuals as established rheumatoid arthritis: results of a population-based, cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Jens K; Lorenzen, Tove; Ejbjerg, Bo; Szkudlarek, Marcin; Voss, Anne; Østergaard, Mikkel; Svendsen, Anders J; Andersen, Lis S; Hørslev-Petersen, Kim

    2014-08-07

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the accuracy of two approaches using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or combined ultrasonography (US) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) for diagnosis and classification of individuals with established rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In 53 individuals from a population-based, cross-sectional study, historic fulfilment of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 1987 criteria ("classification") or RA diagnosed by a rheumatologist ("diagnosis") were used as standard references. The sensitivity, specificity and Area under Curve for Receiver Operating Characteristics curves (ROC-area: (sensitivity + specificity)/2) were calculated for "current fulfilment of the ACR 1987 criteria" (list format), "adapted ACR 1987 criteria" (list format, substituting IgM rheumatoid factor with ACPA and clinical joint swelling and erosions on radiography with synovitis and erosions detected by US on a semi-quantitative scale), and RA MRI scoring System (RAMRIS) scores on low-field MRI in the unilateral hand. For the ACR 1987 criteria the ROC-area was 75% (sensitivity/specificity = 50%/100%) (with "classification" as standard reference) and 69% (44%/94%) (with "diagnosis" as standard reference), while for the adapted ACR 1987 criteria it was 86% (75%/97%) (classification) and 82% (72%/91%) (diagnosis). For RAMRIS synovitis score in metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints only (cut-off ≥5), the ROC-area (sensitivity/specificity) was 78% (62%/94%) (classification) and 85% (69%/100%) (diagnosis), while for the total synovitis score of MCP joints plus wrist (cut-off ≥10) it was 78% (62%/94%) (both classification and diagnosis). Compared with the ACR 1987 criteria, low-field MRI alone or adapted criteria incorporating US and ACPA increased the correct classification and diagnosis of RA.

  7. Diagnostic accuracy of a five-point Likert scoring system for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) evaluated according to results of MRI/ultrasonography image-fusion targeted biopsy of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Shin, Toshitaka; Smyth, Thomas B; Ukimura, Osamu; Ahmadi, Nariman; de Castro Abreu, Andre Luis; Ohe, Chisato; Oishi, Masakatsu; Mimata, Hiromitsu; Gill, Inderbir S

    2017-07-27

    To evaluate the accuracy of a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based Likert scoring system in the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPC), using MRI/ultrasonography (US) image-fusion targeted biopsy (FTB) as a reference standard. We retrospectively reviewed 1218 MRI-detected lesions in 629 patients who underwent subsequent MRI/US FTB between October 2012 and August 2015. 3-Tesla MRI was independently reported by one of eight radiologists with varying levels of experience and scored on a five-point Likert scale. All lesions with Likert scores 1-5 were prospectively defined as targets for MRI/US FTB. CSPC was defined as Gleason score ≥7. The median patient age was 64 years, PSA level 6.97 ng/mL and estimated prostate volume 52.2 mL. Of 1218 lesions, 48% (n = 581) were rated as Likert 1-2, 35% (n = 428) were Likert 3 and 17% (n = 209) were Likert 4-5. For Likert scores 1-5, the overall cancer detection rates were 12%, 13%, 22%, 50% and 59%, respectively, and the CSPC detection rates were 4%, 4%, 12%, 33% and 48%, respectively. Grading using the five-point scale showed strong positive correlation with overall cancer detection rate (r = 0.949, P = 0.05) and CSPC detection rate (r = 0.944, P = 0.05). By comparison, in Likert 4-5 lesions, significant differences were noted in overall cancer detection rate (63% vs 35%; P = 0.001) and CSPC detection rate (47% vs 29%; P = 0.027) for the more experienced vs the less experienced radiologists. The detection rates of overall cancer and CSPC strongly correlated with the five-point grading of the Likert scale. Among radiologists with different levels of experience, there were significant differences in these cancer detection rates. © 2017 The Authors BJU International © 2017 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Endoscopic diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma: Advances and current limitations

    PubMed Central

    Tamada, Kiichi; Ushio, Jun; Sugano, Kentaro

    2011-01-01

    The accurate diagnosis of extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma is difficult, even now. When ultrasonography (US) shows dilatation of the bile duct, magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography followed by endoscopic US (EUS) is the next step. When US or EUS shows localized bile duct wall thickening, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography should be conducted with intraductal US (IDUS) and forceps biopsy. Fluorescence in situ hybridization increases the sensitivity of brush cytology with similar specificity. In patients with papillary type bile duct carcinoma, three biopsies are sufficient. In patients with nodular or infiltrating-type bile duct carcinoma, multiple biopsies are warranted, and IDUS can compensate for the limitations of biopsies. In preoperative staging, the combination of dynamic multi-detector low computed tomography (MDCT) and IDUS is useful for evaluating vascular invasion and cancer depth infiltration. However, assessment of lymph nodes metastases is difficult. In resectable cases, assessment of longitudinal cancer spread is important. The combination of IDUS and MDCT is useful for revealing submucosal cancer extension, which is common in hilar cholangiocarcinoma. To estimate the mucosal extension, which is common in extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma, the combination of IDUS and cholangioscopy is required. The utility of current peroral cholangioscopy is limited by the maneuverability of the “baby scope”. A new baby scope (10 Fr), called “SpyGlass” has potential, if the image quality can be improved. Since extrahepatic bile duct carcinoma is common in the Far East, many researchers in Japan and Korea contributed these studies, especially, in the evaluation of longitudinal cancer extension. PMID:21611097

  9. [Chest ultrasonography in pleurapulmonary disease].

    PubMed

    Gallego Gómez, M P; García Benedito, P; Pereira Boo, D; Sánchez Pérez, M

    2014-01-01

    Although the initial diagnosis and follow-up of pleuropulmonary disease are normally done with plain chest films and the gold standard for chest disease is computed tomography, diverse studies have established the usefulness of chest ultrasonography in the diagnosis of different pleuropulmonary diseases like pleural effusion and lung consolidation, among others. In this article, we show the different ultrasonographic patterns for pleuropulmonary disease. The availability of ultrasonography in different areas (ICU, recovery areas) makes this technique especially important for critical patients because it obviates the need to transfer the patient. Moreover, ultrasonography is noninvasive and easy to repeat. On the other hand, it enables the direct visualization of pleuropulmonary disease that is necessary for interventional procedures. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Approach

    PubMed Central

    Cappabianca, Paolo; Alfieri, Alessandra; Colao, Annamaria; Ferone, Diego; Lombardi, Gaetano; de Divitiis, Enrico

    1999-01-01

    The outcome of endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery in 10 patients with pituitary adenomas was compared with that of traditional transnasal transsphenoidal approach (TTA) in 20 subjects. Among the 10 individuals subjected to “pure endoscopy,” 2 had a microadenoma, 1 an intrasellar macroadenoma, 4 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 2 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 1 a residual tumor; 5 had acromegaly and 5 had a nonfunctioning adenoma (NFA). Among the patients subjected to TTA, 4 had a microadenoma, 2 had an intrasellar macroadenoma, 6 had a macroadenoma with suprasellar expansion, 4 had a macroadenoma with supra-parasellar expansion, and 4 had a residual tumor; 9 patients had acromegaly, 1 hyperprolactinemia, 1 Cushing's disease, and 9 a NFA. At the macroscopic evaluation, tumor removal was total (100%) after endoscopy in 9 patients and after TTA in 14 patients. Six months after surgery, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) confirmed the total tumor removal in 21 of 23 patients (91.3%). Circulating growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) significantly decreased 6 months after surgery in all 14 acromegalic patients: normalization of plasma IGF-I levels was obtained in 4 of 5 patients after the endoscopic procedure and in 4 of 9 patients after TTA. Before surgery, pituitary hormone deficiency was present in 14 out of 30 patients: pituitary function improved in 4 patients, remaining unchanged in the other 10 patients. Visual field defects were present before surgery in 4 patients, and improved in all. Early surgical results in the group of 10 patients who underwent endoscopic pituitary tumor removal were at least equivalent to those of standard TTA, with excellent postoperative course. Postsurgical hospital stay was significantly shorter (3.1 ± 0.4 vs. 6.2 ± 0.3 days, p < 0.001) after endoscopy as compared to TTA. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:17171126

  11. Esophageal carcinoid tumor treated by endoscopic resection.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Makoto; Abe, Yasuhiko; Sasaki, Yu; Nomura, Eiki; Sato, Takeshi; Iwano, Daisuke; Yoshizawa, Kazuya; Sakuta, Kazuhiro; Kanno, Nana; Nishise, Syouichi; Ueno, Yoshiyuki

    2015-05-01

    The present report describes a rare case of esophageal carcinoid tumor that was treated by endoscopic resection. A 43-year-old woman underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy at her family clinic for screening of the upper digestive tract and a small lesion resembling a submucosal tumor was detected in the lower esophagus. A biopsy sample from the lesion was diagnosed as esophageal carcinoid tumor and the patient visited our hospital for detailed examination. The tumor was approximately 3 mm in diameter and its surface appeared to be covered with normal squamous epithelium. The tumor had a shiny reddish surface without ulceration or erosion. Magnifying endoscopy with narrow-band imaging showed structures resembling reticular vessels under the epithelium. Endoscopic ultrasonography depicted the tumor as a low-echoic mass within the lamina propria. Computed tomography did not detect the tumor and no metastatic lesions were evident in other organs. With the patient's informed consent, the tumor was resected using endoscopic submucosal dissection, with a sufficient free margin in both the vertical and horizontal directions. Magnifying endoscopic examination showed the resected tumor to have abundant reticular vessels. Finally, the tumor was diagnosed immunopathologically as an esophageal carcinoid tumor (neuroendocrine cell tumor, grade 1), without lymphatic or vascular invasion.

  12. [Kidney obstruction: potential use of ultrasonography and Doppler color ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Bertolotto, M; Perrone, R; Rimondini, A

    2000-12-01

    Ultrasonography is the first imaging approach in evaluation of patients with urinary obstruction. Presence of hydronephrosis, urinomas and inflammatory complications can be assessed. Moreover, the level and the cause of obstruction are often identified. The major limits of ultrasonography are poor visibility of the lumbar portion of the urinary tract and lack of specificity in detection of pyelocaliectasis. These limits are partially overcome with Doppler studies. Several factors can bias diagnostic accuracy of colour Doppler ultrasonography in evaluating renal obstruction; in particular, partial or intermittent obstruction cause minimum hemodynamic changes in patients with renal colic. Sensitivity of colour Doppler ultrasonography to detect obstruction decreases following medical treatment with NSAID and increases following hydration and diuretics administration. Diuretic ultrasound, colour Doppler evaluation of ureteral jets and evaluation of the twinkling artefact of stones are useful imaging techniques as well. Tissue harmonic imaging is a new imaging technique available in most latest generation US equipments. Evaluation of the kidney and of the urinary tract improves using this technique due to artefact reduction and increased contrast resolution.

  13. Endoscopic orientation correction.

    PubMed

    Höller, Kurt; Penne, Jochen; Schneider, Armin; Jahn, Jasper; Guttiérrez Boronat, Javier; Wittenberg, Thomas; Feussner, Hubertus; Hornegger, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    An open problem in endoscopic surgery (especially with flexible endoscopes) is the absence of a stable horizon in endoscopic images. With our "Endorientation" approach image rotation correction, even in non-rigid endoscopic surgery (particularly NOTES), can be realized with a tiny MEMS tri-axial inertial sensor placed on the tip of an endoscope. It measures the impact of gravity on each of the three orthogonal accelerometer axes. After an initial calibration and filtering of these three values the rotation angle is estimated directly. Achievable repetition rate is above the usual endoscopic video frame rate of 30 Hz; accuracy is about one degree. The image rotation is performed in real-time by digitally rotating the analog endoscopic video signal. Improvements and benefits have been evaluated in animal studies: Coordination of different instruments and estimation of tissue behavior regarding gravity related deformation and movement was rated to be much more intuitive with a stable horizon on endoscopic images.

  14. Fatty meal ultrasonography in chronic acalculous cholecystitis

    PubMed Central

    Donen, Anna; Kantor, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Chronic acalculous cholecystits typically presents with biliary symptoms, normal blood tests and unremarkable ultrasound, computerized tomography and magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography. However, cholescintigraphy may show reduced gallbladder ejection fraction (GBEF). There are no reports on using ultrasound to measure GBEF in adults. Twenty-eight patients with the above presentation underwent ultrasound before and after ingestion of a standardized fatty meal. Consequently, GBEF was calculated. Seven patients had reduced GBEFs (<38%). Two of these patients underwent cholecystectomy and both were found to have chronic gallbladder inflammation. Three patients with normal GBEFs underwent cholecystectomy and were also found to have chronic gallbladder inflammation. There may be a role for fatty meal ultrasonography in the diagnosis of chronic acalculous cholecystitis, but it should be used more widely in this patient cohort for its role to be established. It ideally needs to performed alongside cholescintigraphy for the comparison of accuracy. PMID:25409675

  15. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Yad Ram; Parihar, Vijay; Pande, Sonjjay; Namdev, Hemant; Agarwal, Moneet

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is considered as a treatment of choice for obstructive hydrocephalus. It is indicated in hydrocephalus secondary to congenital aqueductal stenosis, posterior third ventricle tumor, cerebellar infarct, Dandy-Walker malformation, vein of Galen aneurism, syringomyelia with or without Chiari malformation type I, intraventricular hematoma, post infective, normal pressure hydrocephalus, myelomeningocele, multiloculated hydrocephalus, encephalocele, posterior fossa tumor and craniosynostosis. It is also indicated in block shunt or slit ventricle syndrome. Proper Pre-operative imaging for detailed assessment of the posterior communicating arteries distance from mid line, presence or absence of Liliequist membrane or other membranes, located in the prepontine cistern is useful. Measurement of lumbar elastance and resistance can predict patency of cranial subarachnoid space and complex hydrocephalus, which decides an ultimate outcome. Water jet dissection is an effective technique of ETV in thick floor. Ultrasonic contact probe can be useful in selected patients. Intra-operative ventriculo-stomography could help in confirming the adequacy of endoscopic procedure, thereby facilitating the need for shunt. Intraoperative observations of the patent aqueduct and prepontine cistern scarring are predictors of the risk of ETV failure. Such patients may be considered for shunt surgery. Magnetic resonance ventriculography and cine phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging are effective in assessing subarachnoid space and stoma patency after ETV. Proper case selection, post-operative care including monitoring of ICP and need for external ventricular drain, repeated lumbar puncture and CSF drainage, Ommaya reservoir in selected patients could help to increase success rate and reduce complications. Most of the complications develop in an early post-operative, but fatal complications can develop late which indicate an importance of long term follow

  16. Training methods and models for colonoscopic insertion, endoscopic mucosal resection, and endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Naohisa; Fernandopulle, Nilesh; Inada, Yutaka; Naito, Yuji; Itoh, Yoshito

    2014-09-01

    Colonoscopic examination is considered an effective examination for the detection of colorectal cancers. Additionally, early colorectal cancers can be resected using endoscopic techniques such as endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection. However, those examinations and treatments need special techniques. Various training methods are practiced to acquire such endoscopic techniques throughout the world. In clinical cases, magnetic positioning devices help endoscopic insertion by less experienced endoscopists. There is a physical model made by polyvinyl chloride and a virtual simulator for training of colonoscopic insertion. Various techniques including a method to apply pressure to the abdomen and consideration for patient's pain can be trained using these models. In view of extensive training of endoscopic mucosal resection and endoscopic submucosal dissection, animal models are useful and actually used. Live animal models of minipig, which entails blood flow, are ideal and used frequently, but are cumbersome to prepare. On the other hand, ex vivo animal models using intestine of porcine and bovine are convenient for preparation and less expensive. Unique ex vivo animal models with blood flow have been developed recently and techniques for hemostasis can be practiced. With respect to a method of training for colorectal endoscopic submucosal dissection, a stepwise system has been adopted throughout the world. Thus, first they observe the expert's technique, then practice training of animal models, and finally, they perform clinical rectal cases. The system is useful for a safe and definite procedure. In this review, we reveal various training methods for colonoscopic examinations and treatments.

  17. Multifunctional carbon-nanotube cellular endoscopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Riju; Orynbayeva, Zulfiya; Kalyana Sundaram, Ramalingam Venkat; Niu, Jun Jie; Bhattacharyya, Sayan; Vitol, Elina A.; Schrlau, Michael G.; Papazoglou, Elisabeth S.; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2011-01-01

    Glass micropipettes, atomic force microscope tips and nanoneedles can be used to interrogate cells, but these devices either have conical geometries that can damage cells during penetration or are incapable of continuous fluid handling. Here, we report a carbon-nanotube-based endoscope for interrogating cells, transporting fluids and performing optical and electrochemical diagnostics at the single organelle level. The endoscope, which is made by placing a multiwalled carbon nanotube (length, 50-60 µm) at the tip of a glass pipette, can probe the intracellular environment with a spatial resolution of ~100 nm and can also access organelles without disrupting the cell. When the nanotube is filled with magnetic nanoparticles, the endoscope can be remotely manoeuvered to transport nanoparticles and attolitre volumes of fluids to and from precise locations. Because they are mounted on conventional glass micropipettes, the endoscopes readily fit standard instruments, creating a broad range of opportunities for minimally invasive intracellular probing, drug delivery and single-cell surgery.

  18. Recent traction methods for endoscopic submucosal dissection

    PubMed Central

    Tsuji, Kunihiro; Yoshida, Naohiro; Nakanishi, Hiroyoshi; Takemura, Kenichi; Yamada, Shinya; Doyama, Hisashi

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is problematic with regard to en bloc and curable resection rates. Advancements in endoscopic techniques have enabled novel endoscopic approaches such as endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), which has overcome some EMR problems, and has become the standard treatment for gastrointestinal tumors. However, ESD is technically difficult. Procedure time is longer and complications such as intraoperative perforation and bleeding occur more frequently than in EMR. Recently various traction methods have been introduced to facilitate ESD procedures, such as clip with line, external forceps, clip and snare, internal traction, double scope, and magnetic anchor. Each method must be used appropriately according to the anatomical characteristics. In this review we discuss recently proposed traction methods for ESD based on the characteristics of various anatomical sites. PMID:27468186

  19. Automatic Registration between Real-Time Ultrasonography and Pre-Procedural Magnetic Resonance Images: A Prospective Comparison between Two Registration Methods by Liver Surface and Vessel and by Liver Surface Only.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ah Yeong; Lee, Min Woo; Cha, Dong Ik; Lim, Hyo Keun; Oh, Young-Taek; Jeong, Ja-Yeon; Chang, Jung-Woo; Ryu, Jiwon; Lee, Kyong Joon; Kim, Jaeil; Bang, Won-Chul; Shin, Dong Kuk; Choi, Sung Jin; Koh, Dalkwon; Seo, Bong Koo; Kim, Kyunga

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of and the time required for image fusion between real-time ultrasonography (US) and pre-procedural magnetic resonance (MR) images using automatic registration by a liver surface only method and automatic registration by a liver surface and vessel method. This study consisted of 20 patients referred for planning US to assess the feasibility of percutaneous radiofrequency ablation or biopsy for focal hepatic lesions. The first 10 consecutive patients were evaluated by an experienced radiologist using the automatic registration by liver surface and vessel method, whereas the remaining 10 patients were evaluated using the automatic registration by liver surface only method. For all 20 patients, image fusion was automatically executed after following the protocols and fused real-time US and MR images moved synchronously. The accuracy of each method was evaluated by measuring the registration error, and the time required for image fusion was assessed by evaluating the recorded data using in-house software. The results obtained using the two automatic registration methods were compared using the Mann-Whitney U-test. Image fusion was successful in all 20 patients, and the time required for image fusion was significantly shorter with the automatic registration by liver surface only method than with the automatic registration by liver surface and vessel method (median: 43.0 s, range: 29-74 s vs. median: 83.0 s, range: 46-101 s; p = 0.002). The registration error did not significantly differ between the two methods (median: 4.0 mm, range: 2.1-9.9 mm vs. median: 3.7 mm, range: 1.8-5.2 mm; p = 0.496). The automatic registration by liver surface only method offers faster image fusion between real-time US and pre-procedural MR images than does the automatic registration by liver surface and vessel method. However, the degree of accuracy was similar for the two methods. Copyright © 2016 World Federation for Ultrasound

  20. Defining the learning curve for multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the prostate using MRI-transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) fusion-guided transperineal prostate biopsies as a validation tool.

    PubMed

    Gaziev, Gabriele; Wadhwa, Karan; Barrett, Tristan; Koo, Brendan C; Gallagher, Ferdia A; Serrao, Eva; Frey, Julia; Seidenader, Jonas; Carmona, Lina; Warren, Anne; Gnanapragasam, Vincent; Doble, Andrew; Kastner, Christof

    2016-01-01

    To determine the accuracy of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) during the learning curve of radiologists using MRI targeted, transrectal ultrasonography (TRUS) guided transperineal fusion biopsy (MTTP) for validation. Prospective data on 340 men who underwent mpMRI (T2-weighted and diffusion-weighted MRI) followed by MTTP prostate biopsy, was collected according to Ginsburg Study Group and Standards for Reporting of Diagnostic Accuracy standards. MRI data were reported by two experienced radiologists and scored on a Likert scale. Biopsies were performed by consultant urologists not 'blinded' to the MRI result and men had both targeted and systematic sector biopsies, which were reviewed by a dedicated uropathologist. The cohorts were divided into groups representing five consecutive time intervals in the study. Sensitivity and specificity of positive MRI reports, prostate cancer detection by positive MRI, distribution of significant Gleason score and negative MRI with false negative for prostate cancer were calculated. Data were sequentially analysed and the learning curve was determined by comparing the first and last group. We detected a positive mpMRI in 64 patients from Group A (91%) and 52 patients from Group E (74%). The prostate cancer detection rate on mpMRI increased from 42% (27/64) in Group A to 81% (42/52) in Group E (P < 0.001). The prostate cancer detection rate by targeted biopsy increased from 27% (17/64) in Group A to 63% (33/52) in Group E (P < 0.001). The negative predictive value of MRI for significant cancer (>Gleason 3+3) was 88.9% in Group E compared with 66.6% in Group A. We demonstrate an improvement in detection of prostate cancer for MRI reporting over time, suggesting a learning curve for the technique. With an improved negative predictive value for significant cancer, decision for biopsy should be based on patient/surgeon factors and risk attributes alongside the MRI findings. © 2014 The Authors BJU International

  1. Hepatic metastases of hemangiopericytoma: contrast-enhanced MRI, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and angiography findings

    PubMed Central

    Aliberti, Camillo; Benea, Giorgio; Kopf, Barbara; De Giorgi, Ugo

    2006-01-01

    Hemangiopericytoma is a rare and characteristically hypervascular tumour. We report a case of hepatic metastases of hemangiopericytoma for which there was correlative imaging by ultrasonography, ultrasonography with second-generation contrast agent (BR1), computed tomography, gadolinium-enhanced, Gd-BOPTA-enhanced and ferumoxides-enhanced magnetic resonance, and angiography. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case in which all these modalities were used in the diagnostic evaluation. PMID:16766270

  2. Orbital endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Prabhakaran, Venkatesh C; Selva, Dinesh

    2008-01-01

    Minimally invasive "keyhole" surgery performed using endoscopic visualization is increasing in popularity and is being used by almost all surgical subspecialties. Within ophthalmology, however, endoscopic surgery is not commonly performed and there is little literature on the use of the endoscope in orbital surgery. Transorbital use of the endoscope can greatly aid in visualizing orbital roof lesions and minimizing the need for bone removal. The endoscope is also useful during decompression procedures and as a teaching aid to train orbital surgeons. In this article, we review the history of endoscopic orbital surgery and provide an overview of the technique and describe situations where the endoscope can act as a useful adjunct to orbital surgery.

  3. [ENDOSCOPIC REMOVAL OF TUBERCULUM SELLAE MENINGEOMA THROUGH ENDONASAL TRANSSPHENOIDAL APPROACH].

    PubMed

    Fülöp, Béla; Bella, Zsolt; Palágyi, Péter; Barzó, Pál

    2016-03-30

    Experiences acquired in our department with endoscope assisted microsurgical transsphenoidal pituitary surgery encouraged us to expanded the endoscopic approach to skull base lesions. The endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach proved to be less traumatic to the traditional microsurgical approaches, yet very effective. The endoscopic transsphenoidal technique was applied in a patient havin anterior skull base tumor. The patient was a 49-year-old woman with several months history of left visual defect. The magnetic resonance (MR) scans of the skull revealed a midline anterior fossa space-occupying lesion measuring 21 x 16 x 22 mm located on planum sphenoidale, tuberculum sellae and intrasellar. The tumor compressed both optic nerves and optic chiasm. Total resection of the tumor was achieved by use of endoscopic transnasal, transsphenoidal technique. This is the first reported case of an anterior fossa meningeoma being treated by an endoscopic transsphenoidal technique in Hungary.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging fluid-attenuated inversion recovery sequence signal reduction after endoscopic endonasal transcribiform total resection of olfactory groove meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Prevedello, Daniel M.; Ditzel Filho, Leo F. S.; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C.; Solari, Domenico; do Espírito Santo, Marcelo Prudente; Wehr, Allison M.; Carrau, Ricardo L.; Kassam, Amin B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Olfactory groove meningiomas grow insidiously and compress adjacent cerebral structures. Achieving complete removal without further damage to frontal lobes can be difficult. Microsurgical removal of large lesions is a challenging procedure and usually involves some brain retraction. The endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEAs) for tumors arising from the anterior fossa have been well described; however, their effect on the adjacent brain tissue has not. Herein, the authors utilized the magnetic resonance imaging fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) sequence signal as a marker for edema and gliosis on pre- and post-operative images of olfactory groove meningiomas, thus presenting an objective parameter for brain injury after surgical manipulation. Methods: Imaging of 18 olfactory groove meningiomas removed through EEAs was reviewed. Tumor and pre/postoperative FLAIR signal volumes were assessed utilizing the DICOM image viewer OsiriX®. Inclusion criteria were: (1) No previous treatment; (2) EEA gross total removal; (3) no further treatment. Results: There were 14 females and 4 males; the average age was 53.8 years (±8.85 years). Average tumor volume was 24.75 cm3 (±23.26 cm3, range 2.8–75.7 cm3), average preoperative FLAIR volume 31.17 cm3 (±39.38 cm3, range 0–127.5 cm3) and average postoperative change volume, 4.16 cm3 (±6.18 cm3, range 0–22.2 cm3). Average time of postoperative scanning was 6 months (range 0.14–20 months). In all cases (100%) gross total tumor removal was achieved. Nine patients (50%) had no postoperative FLAIR changes. In 2 patients (9%) there was minimal increase of changes postoperatively (2.2 cm3 and 6 cm3 respectively); all others demonstrated image improvement. The most common complication was postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leakage (27.8%); 1 patient (5.5%) died due to systemic complications and pulmonary sepsis. Conclusions: FLAIR signal changes tend to resolve after endonasal tumor resection and do not seem

  5. Gallstone Ileus following Endoscopic Stone Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Wakui, Noritaka; Asai, Yasutsugu; Dan, Nobuhiro; Takeda, Yuki; Ueki, Nobuo; Otsuka, Takahumi; Oba, Nobuyuki; Nisinakagawa, Shuta; Kojima, Tatsuya

    2014-01-01

    An 85-year-old woman was an outpatient treated at Tokyo Rosai Hospital for cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B. She had previously been diagnosed as having common bile duct stones, for which she underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). However, as stone removal was unsuccessful, a plastic stent was placed after endoscopic sphincterotomy. In October 2012, the stent was replaced endoscopically because she developed cholangitis due to stent occlusion. Seven days later, we performed ERCP to treat recurring cholangitis. During the procedure, the stone was successfully removed by a balloon catheter when cleaning the common bile duct. The next day, the patient developed abdominal pain, abdominal distension, and nausea and was diagnosed as having gallstone ileus based on abdominal computed tomography (CT) and abdominal ultrasonography findings of an incarcerated stone in the terminal ileum. Although colonoscopy was performed after inserting an ileus tube, no stone was visible. Subsequent CT imaging verified the disappearance of the incarcerated stone from the ileum, suggesting that the stone had been evacuated naturally via the transanal route. Although it is extremely rare for gallstone ileus to develop as a complication of ERCP, physicians should be aware of gallstone ileus and follow patients carefully, especially after removing huge stones. PMID:25328725

  6. Multicentric solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas diagnosed by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration: a case report.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Megumi; Fukuda, Toshikatsu; Nakahara, Masahiro; Amano, Mio; Takei, Daisuke; Kawashima, Masumi; Sumi, Yusuke; Amano, Hironobu; Yonehara, Shuji; Hanada, Keiji; Noriyuki, Toshio

    2015-12-01

    Solid pseudopapillary neoplasm (SPN) of the pancreas is a rare tumor. This neoplasm usually arises as a single mass; multicentricity is exceptionally rare. We report the preoperative diagnosis of multicentric SPNs by endoscopic ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (EUS-FNA). A 32-year-old woman presented to the hospital with a pancreatic tumor that was detected on abdominal echography. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans revealed a 5-mm low-density mass in the body of the pancreas and a 10-mm mass in the tail of the pancreas. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) also revealed two tumors in the body and tail of the pancreas. On endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS), two indistinct and heterogeneous echogenic masses were found, and EUS-FNA was performed for each of these tumors. Cytological analysis revealed that the two masses were highly cellular with papillary groups of small, uniform, oval cells surrounding a fibrovascular core. Immunohistochemistry was positive for α-1 antitrypsin, vimentin, neuron-specific enolase (NSE), CD10, and progesterone receptor. These features confirmed the preoperative diagnosis of multicentric SPNs. The patient underwent laparoscopic distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy. The final pathologic diagnosis was multicentric SPNs. During 2 years of follow-up, she has not developed any recurrence.

  7. Adrenal glands transabdominal ultrasonography - pictorial essay.

    PubMed

    Chira, Romeo Ioan; Chira, Alexandra; Manzat-Saplacan, Roberta Maria; Nagy, Georgiana; Valea, Ana; Silaghi, Alina Cristina; Mircea, Petru Adrian; Valean, Simona

    2017-05-03

    Adrenal gland ultrasonography is one of the corner stones of the abdominal ultrasonography examination for many medical specialties. The adrenal areas can be easily overlooked though adrenal gland pathology is diverse. We present the normal aspects and various transabdominal ultrasonography findings of the adrenal glands, both common and rare. Even though ultrasound examination is operator and patient dependent, we consider the examination of the adrenal glands very important, due to relatively frequent incidental detection of an adrenal mass.

  8. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography: usefulness in the assessment of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease.

    PubMed

    Paredes, José María; Ripollés, Tomás; Cortés, Xavier; Moreno, Nadia; Martínez, María Jesús; Bustamante-Balén, Marco; Delgado, Fructuoso; Moreno-Osset, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether the contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) can increase the value of the ultrasonography in the study of postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease (CD). 60 patients with CD who had previously undergone ileocolic resection underwent prospectively both CEUS and colonoscopy within a 3-day period. The sonographic examination included evaluation of bowel wall thickness, transmural complications, colour Doppler grade and contrast-enhanced US. In addition a sonographic score was established. The capacity of CEUS to diagnose endoscopic recurrence, as well as its severity, was assessed by calculating the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values, accuracy and odds ratio, with their respective 95% confidence intervals. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were also calculated. 49 out of 60 patients showed endoscopic postoperative recurrence. Severe endoscopic recurrence was present in 34 patients (57%). Classic ultrasound parameters (wall thickness >3mm and colour Doppler flow) revealed an accuracy of 88.3% for the diagnosis of recurrence. Sonographic score 2, including thickness >5mm or contrast enhancement >46%, improved the results with a sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 98%, 100% and 98.3%, respectively, in the diagnosis of endoscopic recurrence. The area under the ROC curve was 0.99, in remarkable agreement with endoscopy (k: 0.946). Sonographic score 3, including thickness >5mm, contrast enhancement >70% or fistula identified 32 out of 34 (94.1%) severe endoscopic recurrences. The area under the ROC curve was 0.836, in good agreement with endoscopy (k: 0.688). CEUS shows excellent sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of postoperative recurrence in CD and can also detect severe recurrences. Copyright © 2012 European Crohn's and Colitis Organisation. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Applicability of ultrasonography for evaluating trunk muscles size in athletes: a study focused on baseball batters.

    PubMed

    Wachi, Michio; Suga, Tadashi; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Misaki, Jun; Tsuchikane, Ryo; Tanaka, Daichi; Miyake, Yuto; Kanazawa, Nobuhiko; Isaka, Tadao

    2017-09-01

    [Purpose] Recently, we demonstrated that the thicknesses of trunk muscles measured using ultrasonography were correlated strongly with the cross-sectional areas measured using magnetic resonance imaging in untrained subjects. To further explore the applicability of ultrasonography in the clinical setting, the present study examined the correlation between ultrasonography-measured thicknesses and magnetic resonance imaging-measured cross-sectional areas of trunk muscles in athletes with trained trunk muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The thicknesses and cross-sectional areas at total 10 sites of the bilateral sides of the upper, central, and lower parts of the rectus abdominis, abdominal wall, and multifidus lumborum in 30 male baseball batters were measured. [Results] Overall thicknesses and cross-sectional areas of the trunk muscles in baseball batters were higher than those in untrained subjects who participated in our previous study. The ultrasonography-measured thicknesses at all 10 sites of the trunk muscles correlated highly with the magnetic resonance imaging-measured cross-sectional areas in baseball batters. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the thicknesses of the trunk muscles measured using ultrasonography can be used as a surrogate marker for the cross-sectional area measured using magnetic resonance imaging, in athletes who have larger trunk muscles than that of untrained subjects.

  10. Applicability of ultrasonography for evaluating trunk muscles size in athletes: a study focused on baseball batters

    PubMed Central

    Wachi, Michio; Suga, Tadashi; Higuchi, Takatoshi; Misaki, Jun; Tsuchikane, Ryo; Tanaka, Daichi; Miyake, Yuto; Kanazawa, Nobuhiko; Isaka, Tadao

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose] Recently, we demonstrated that the thicknesses of trunk muscles measured using ultrasonography were correlated strongly with the cross-sectional areas measured using magnetic resonance imaging in untrained subjects. To further explore the applicability of ultrasonography in the clinical setting, the present study examined the correlation between ultrasonography-measured thicknesses and magnetic resonance imaging-measured cross-sectional areas of trunk muscles in athletes with trained trunk muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The thicknesses and cross-sectional areas at total 10 sites of the bilateral sides of the upper, central, and lower parts of the rectus abdominis, abdominal wall, and multifidus lumborum in 30 male baseball batters were measured. [Results] Overall thicknesses and cross-sectional areas of the trunk muscles in baseball batters were higher than those in untrained subjects who participated in our previous study. The ultrasonography-measured thicknesses at all 10 sites of the trunk muscles correlated highly with the magnetic resonance imaging-measured cross-sectional areas in baseball batters. [Conclusion] These results suggest that the thicknesses of the trunk muscles measured using ultrasonography can be used as a surrogate marker for the cross-sectional area measured using magnetic resonance imaging, in athletes who have larger trunk muscles than that of untrained subjects. PMID:28931982

  11. Shoulder ultrasonography performed by orthopedic surgeons increases efficiency in diagnosis of rotator cuff tears.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Chih-Hao; Chen, Poyu; Chen, Alvin Chao-Yu; Hsu, Kuo-Yao; Chang, Shih-Sheng; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Yeung-Jen

    2017-04-20

    Rotator cuff tears are very common and their incidence increases with age. Shoulder ultrasonography has recently gained popularity in detecting rotator cuff tears because of its efficiency, cost-effectiveness, time-saving, and real-time nature of the procedure. Well-trained orthopedic surgeons may utilize shoulder ultrasonography to diagnose rotator cuff tears. The wait time of patients planned to have shoulder MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) to rule in rotator cuff tears may decrease after orthopedic surgeon start doing shoulder ultrasonography as a screening tool for that. Patients with rotator cuff tears may be detected earlier by ultrasonography and have expedited surgical repair. The efficacy in determination of rotator cuff tears will also increase. Patients were retrospectively reviewed from January 2007 to December 2012. They were divided into 2 groups: Ultrasound (-) group and the Ultrasound (+) group. Age, gender, wait time from outpatient department (OPD) visit to MRI exam, MRI exam to operation (OP), and OPD visit to OP, patient number for MRI exam, and number of patients who finally had rotator cuff repair within two groups were compared. The wait time of OPD visit to OP and MRI to OP in patients who received shoulder ultrasonography was significantly less than that in patients did not receive shoulder ultrasonography screening. Only 23.8% of the patients with a suspected rotator cuff injury undergone arthroscopic rotator cuff repair before ultrasonography was applied as a screening tool. The percentage increased to 53.6% after orthopedic surgeon started using ultrasonography as a screening tool for rotator cuff tears. Office-based shoulder ultrasound examination can reduce the wait time for a shoulder MRI. The efficacy of determination of rotator cuff tears will also increase after the introduction of shoulder ultrasonography.

  12. Efficacy and Safety of Pancreatobiliary Endoscopic Procedures during Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jae Joon; Lee, Sung Koo; Kim, Sang Hyung; Kim, Ga Hee; Park, Do Hyun; Lee, Sangsoo; Seo, Dongwan; Kim, Myung-Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Endoscopic therapy with endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) has been suggested as an effective diagnostic and therapeutic tool for biliary and pancreatic disorders during pregnancy. In this report, we describe our experiences with pancreatobiliary endoscopic procedures during pregnancy. Methods We reviewed ERCP and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) procedures that were performed at a single tertiary care referral center between January 2002 and October 2013. Medical records were reviewed for the procedure indication, the duration of fluoroscopy, postprocedure complications, etc. Pregnancy outcomes and fetal complications were identified by chart review and phone calls to patients. Results A total of 10 ER-CPs and five EUSs were performed in 13 pregnant patients: four of whom underwent the procedure in the first trimester, eight in the second trimester, and one in the third trimester. Indications for endoscopic therapy included gallstone pancreatitis, obstructive jaundice with common bile duct (CBD) stone, asymptomatic CBD stone, pancreatic cyst, choledochal cyst, and acute cholecystitis. Only one patient had a complication, which was postprocedural hyperamylasemia. Two patients underwent an artificial abortion, one according to her own decision and the other due to an adverse drug reaction. Conclusions ERCP seems to be effective and safe for pregnant women. Additionally, EUS can be an alternative to ERCP during pregnancy. PMID:26087783

  13. Advances in the endoscopic management of pancreatic collections.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Clavijo, David; de la Higuera, Belen González; Vila, Juan J

    2015-04-16

    Treatment of pancreatic collections has experienced great progress in recent years with the emergence of alternative minimally invasive techniques comparing to the classic surgical treatment. Such techniques have been shown to improve outcomes of morbidity vs surgical treatment. The recent emergence of endoscopic drainage is noteworthy. The advent of endoscopic ultrasonography has been crucial for treatment of these specific lesions. They can be characterized, their relationships with neighboring structures can be evaluated and the drainage guided by this technique has been clearly improved compared with the conventional endoscopic drainage. Computed tomography is the technique of choice to characterize the recently published new classification of pancreatic collections. For this reason, the radiologist's role establishing and classifying in a rigorously manner the collections according to the new nomenclature is essential to making therapeutic decisions. Ideal scenario for comprehensive treatment of these collections would be those centers with endoscopic ultrasound and interventional radiology expertise together with hepatobiliopancreatic surgery. This review describes the different types of pancreatic collections: acute peripancreatic fluid collection, pancreatic pseudocysts, acute necrotic collection and walled-off necrosis; the indications and the contraindications for endoscopic drainage, the drainage technique and their outcomes. The integrated management of pancreatic collections according to their type and evolution time is discussed.

  14. Endoscopic features of submucosal deeply invasive colorectal cancer with NBI characteristics : S Saito et al. Endoscopic images of early colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Saito, Shoichi; Tajiri, Hisao; Ikegami, Masahiro

    2015-12-01

    In this review, we discuss the features of conventional endoscopy, magnified endoscopy involving image enhanced endoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) using illustrations for submucosal deeply invasive colorectal cancer (SM-Ca). First, the typical features of SM-Ca were observed, including fold convergence, stiffness, depression (ulceration) and elevated lesions in depressed areas. Magnified endoscopic findings using NBI showed dilated, irregularly shaped micro-capillary vessels. In addition, VI and VN pits were clearly visible using crystal violet staining. In contrast, using EUS, at the third layer we found a layer that was thin compared to the surrounding normal mucosa, which suggested the existence of SM-Ca.

  15. Efficiency of three-dimensional Doppler ultrasonography in assessing nodal metastasis of head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Hong, San-Fu; Lai, Yu-Shih; Lee, Kwo-Whei; Chen, Mu-Kuan

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) color Doppler ultrasonography with a novel predictive model in the detection of cervical metastasis of untreated head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. We assessed cervical lymph node metastasis in 52 head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients by 3D color Doppler ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, and [(18)F] fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography with computed tomography. Pathologic analysis was used as the gold standard for evaluation of these imaging modalities. The rate of correct N staging was 84.6% on ultrasonography, 55.8% on magnetic resonance imaging, and 71.2% on positron emission tomography/computed tomography. On a level-by-level basis, the ultrasonography had 78.9% sensitivity, 99.0% specificity, 93.8% positive predictive value, 96.0% negative predictive value, and 95.7% accuracy. It also showed the highest agreement to histology results as compared with magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography/computed tomography (kappa value = 0.832, 0.506, and 0.537, respectively). 3D Doppler ultrasonography with our prediction model provides a rapid, low-cost, noninvasive, and reliable method with low inter-observation variations for detecting neck metastasis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients.

  16. Design of embedded endoscopic ultrasonic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming; Zhou, Hao; Wen, Shijie; Chen, Xiodong; Yu, Daoyin

    2008-12-01

    Endoscopic ultrasonic imaging system is an important component in the endoscopic ultrasonography system (EUS). Through the ultrasonic probe, the characteristics of the fault histology features of digestive organs is detected by EUS, and then received by the reception circuit which making up of amplifying, gain compensation, filtering and A/D converter circuit, in the form of ultrasonic echo. Endoscopic ultrasonic imaging system is the back-end processing system of the EUS, with the function of receiving digital ultrasonic echo modulated by the digestive tract wall from the reception circuit, acquiring and showing the fault histology features in the form of image and characteristic data after digital signal processing, such as demodulation, etc. Traditional endoscopic ultrasonic imaging systems are mainly based on image acquisition and processing chips, which connecting to personal computer with USB2.0 circuit, with the faults of expensive, complicated structure, poor portability, and difficult to popularize. To against the shortcomings above, this paper presents the methods of digital signal acquisition and processing specially based on embedded technology with the core hardware structure of ARM and FPGA for substituting the traditional design with USB2.0 and personal computer. With built-in FIFO and dual-buffer, FPGA implement the ping-pong operation of data storage, simultaneously transferring the image data into ARM through the EBI bus by DMA function, which is controlled by ARM to carry out the purpose of high-speed transmission. The ARM system is being chosen to implement the responsibility of image display every time DMA transmission over and actualizing system control with the drivers and applications running on the embedded operating system Windows CE, which could provide a stable, safe and reliable running platform for the embedded device software. Profiting from the excellent graphical user interface (GUI) and good performance of Windows CE, we can not

  17. Endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection salvage technique for ulcerative early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyuk Soon; Chun, Hoon Jai; Seo, Min Ho; Kim, Eun Sun; Keum, Bora; Seo, Yeon Seok; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Um, Soon Ho; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang

    2014-07-21

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection is an effective treatment modality for early gastric cancer (EGC), though the submucosal fibrosis found in ulcerative EGC is an obstacle for successful treatment. This report presents two cases of ulcerative EGC in two males, 73- and 80-year-old, with severe fibrosis. As endoscopic ultrasonography suggested that the EGCs had invaded the submucosal layer, the endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection salvage technique was utilized for complete resection of the lesions. Although surgical gastrectomy was originally scheduled, the two patients had severe coronary heart disease, and surgeries were refused because of the risks associated with their heart conditions. The endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection salvage technique procedures described in these cases were performed under conscious sedation, and were completed within 30 min. The complete en bloc resection of EGC using endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection salvage technique was possible with a free resection margin, and no other complications were noted during the procedure. This is the first known report concerning the use of the endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection salvage technique salvage technique for treatment of ulcerative EGC. We demonstrate that endoscopic submucosal tunnel dissection salvage technique it is a feasible method showing several advantages over endoscopic submucosal dissection for cases of EGC with fibrosis.

  18. Endoscopic ultrasound: Elastographic lymph node evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Christoph F.; Jenssen, Christian; Arcidiacono, Paolo G.; Cui, Xin-Wu; Giovannini, Marc; Hocke, Michael; Iglesias-Garcia, Julio; Saftoiu, Adrian; Sun, Siyu; Chiorean, Liliana

    2015-01-01

    Different imaging techniques can bring different information which will contribute to the final diagnosis and further management of the patients. Even from the time of Hippocrates, palpation has been used in order to detect and characterize a body mass. The so-called virtual palpation has now become a reality due to elastography, which is a recently developed technique. Elastography has already been proving its added value as a complementary imaging method, helpful to better characterize and differentiate between benign and malignant masses. The current applications of elastography in lymph nodes (LNs) assessment by endoscopic ultrasonography will be further discussed in this paper, with a review of the literature and future perspectives. PMID:26374575

  19. Endoscopic necrosectomy under fluoroscopic guidance – a single center experience

    PubMed Central

    Smoczyński, Marian; Jabłońska, Anna; Adrych, Krystian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Our report presents a technique of necrotic tissue removal during transmural drainage of walled-off pancreatic necrosis (WOPN) that is an alternative to the one that has already been described in the literature. Aim To assess the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic necrosectomy performed during transmural drainage of symptomatic WOPN. Material and methods Within the years 2012–2013, 64 patients underwent endoscopic treatment of symptomatic WOPN in our center. Eight patients underwent endoscopic necrosectomy during transmural drainage. Fragments of necrotic tissues were removed from the collection's cavity under fluoroscopic guidance using a Dormia basket. The results and complications of treatment were compared retrospectively. Results Sixty-four patients with WOPN underwent transmural drainage under endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) guidance. Eight patients (12.5%, 5 women and 3 men, mean age 57.25 years) were qualified for endoscopic necrosectomy. Transmural transgastric access was made in 7 patients and transduodenal access in 1 patient. Additional percutaneous drainage was used in 2 patients. Active drainage was continued for 24 days (11–44 days). The mean number of endoscopic procedures was 4.75 (3–9). The average number of necrosectomy procedures during drainage was 1.75 (1–4). Complications of endotherapy occurred in 2/8 (25%) patients, and they were not directly connected with necrosectomy. Therapeutic success after the end of active drainage was achieved in all patients. During a 6-month follow-up no recurrence of the collection was observed. Conclusions Endoscopic necrosectomy under fluoroscopic guidance is an effective and safe method of minimally invasive treatment in a selected group of patients with symptomatic WOPN. PMID:26240624

  20. Endoanal ultrasonography in fecal incontinence: Current and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Albuquerque, Andreia

    2015-01-01

    Fecal incontinence has a profound impact in a patient’s life, impairing quality of life and carrying a substantial economic burden due to health costs. It is an underdiagnosed condition because many affected patients are reluctant to report it and also clinicians are usually not alert to it. Patient evaluation with a detailed clinical history and examination is very important to indicate the type of injury that is present. Endoanal ultrasonography is currently the gold standard for sphincter evaluation in fecal incontinence and is a simple, well-tolerated and non-expensive technique. Most studies revealed 100% sensitivity in identifying sphincter defect. It is better than endoanal magnetic resonance imaging for internal anal sphincter defects, equivalent for the diagnosis of external anal sphincter defects, but with a lower capacity for assessment of atrophy of this sphincter. The most common cause of fecal incontinence is anal sphincter injury related to obstetric trauma. Only a small percentage of women are diagnosed with sphincter tears immediately after vaginal delivery, but endoanal ultrasonography shows that one third of these women have occult sphincter defects. Furthermore, in patients submitted to primary repair of these tears, ultrasound revealed a high frequency of persistent sphincter defects after surgery. Three-dimensional endoanal ultrasonography is currently largely used and accepted for sphincter evaluation in fecal incontinence, improving diagnostic accuracy and our knowledge of physiologic and pathological sphincters alterations. Conversely, there is currently no evidence to support the use of elastography in fecal incontinence evaluation. PMID:26078826

  1. [Endoscopic submucosal dissection of a leiomyoma originating from the muscularis propria of upper esophagus].

    PubMed

    Kang, Myung Soo; Hong, Su Jin; Han, Jae Pil; Seo, Jung Yeon; Yoon, La Young; Choi, Moon Han; Kim, Hee Kyung

    2013-10-01

    The technique of endoscopic submucosal dissection is occasionally used for resection of myogenic tumors originating from muscularis mucosa or muscularis propria of stomach and esophagus. However, endoscopic treatments for esophageal myogenic tumors >2 cm have rarely been reported. Herein, we report a case of large leiomyoma originating from muscularis propria in the upper esophagus. A 59-year-old woman presented with dysphagia. Esophagoscopy and endoscopic ultrasonography revealed an esophageal subepithelial tumor which measured 25 × 20 mm in size, originated from muscularis propria, and was located at 20 cm from the central incisors. The tumor was successfully removed by endoscopic submucosal dissection and there were no complications after en bloc resection. Pathologic examination was compatible with leiomyoma.

  2. Endoscopic Management of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease: Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Nabi, Zaheer; Reddy, D. Nageshwar

    2016-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is defined by the presence of troublesome symptoms resulting from the reflux of gastric contents. The prevalence of GERD is increasing globally. An incompetent lower esophageal sphincter underlies the pathogenesis of GERD. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) form the core of GERD management. However, a substantial number of patients do not respond well to PPIs. The next option is anti-reflux surgery, which is efficacious, but it has its own limitations, such as gas bloating, inability to belch or vomit, and dysphagia. Laparoscopic placement of magnetic augmentation device is emerging as a useful alternative to conventional anti-reflux surgery. However, invasiveness of a surgical procedure remains a concern for the patients. The proportion of PPI non-responders or partial responders who do not wish for anti-reflux surgery defines the ‘treatment gap’ and needs to be addressed. The last decade has witnessed the fall and rise of many endoscopic devices for GERD. Major endoscopic strategies include radiofrequency ablation and endoscopic fundoplication devices. Current endoscopic devices score high on subjective improvement, but have been unimpressive in objective improvement like esophageal acid exposure. In this review, we discuss the current endoscopic anti-reflux therapies and available evidence for their role in the management of GERD. PMID:27744659

  3. [The role of intraoperative ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Yoko; Okayama, Yukinari; Matsuo, Shuji

    2008-06-01

    Intraoperative ultrasonography (US) is able to visualize the inside of the viscera in real time, and is also both noninvasive and simple to perform without influence of the bone or alimentary canal gas disturbing the propagation of the ultrasound. US has recently been widely used for neurosurgery or abdominal surgery, 1) to check the position and size of the tumor, which can not be directly visualized, and to evaluate the relationship between the tumor and blood vessel or tissue, 2) to search for lesions not detected before surgery, 3) to search for residual tumor, 4) to carry out ultrasound-guided biopsy or puncture. For effective intraoperative US, thorough knowledge of the US instrument and the local anatomy is necessary. The medical technologists who routinely perform US are qualified to assist with intraoperative US.

  4. [Carotid duplex ultrasonography for neurosurgeons].

    PubMed

    Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Oka, Fumiaki; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2011-12-01

    Carotid duplex ultrasonography (CDU) is one of the most well-known imaging methods for arteriosclerosis and ischemic stroke. For neurosurgeons, it is very important for the details of carotid plaque to be thoroughly investigated by CDU. Symptomatic carotid plaque is very fragile and easily changes morphologically, and so requires frequent CDU examination. Furthermore, after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS), restenosis is evaluated with CDU. CDU facilitates not only morphological imaging in the B mode, but also allows a flow study with color Doppler and duplex imaging. So, CDU can help assess the presence of proximal and intracranial artery lesions in spite of only having a cervical view, and the patency of the extracranial artery to intracranial artery bypass is revealed with CDU, which shows a rich velocity and low pulsatility index (PI) in duplex imaging. For the examiner, it is necessary to ponder on what duplex imaging means in examinations, and to summarize all imaging finding.

  5. Double Endoscopic Intraluminal Operation (DEILO) for Early Gastric Cancer: Outcome of Novel Procedure for Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Kyoichi; Yanai, Mitsuhiro; Kuriyama, Kengo; Suzuki, Masaki; Yanoma, Toru; Kimura, Akiharu; Kogure, Norimichi; Toyomasu, Yoshitaka; Ohno, Tetsuro; Mochiki, Erito; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been used to treat patients with early gastric cancer (EGC). Although several endoscopic devices have been developed to ensure easy and safe ESD, this technique still requires an experienced, highly skilled endoscopist, as it is performed through a single gastroscope, thus requiring one-handed surgical techniques. To overcome these limitations, many ESD procedures with counter-traction have been developed, such as the double scope, double channel scope, clip with line, magnetic anchor, percutaneous traction and external grasping forceps methods. We devised a double endoscopic intraluminal operation (DEILO). Two endoscopes were simultaneously inserted into the stomach. One endoscope was used to lift the lesion, and the other was used to excise the lesion. The DEILO procedure was performed on 122 cases of EGC. In this article, we report the efficacy and safety of DEILO in patients with EGC.

  6. Endoscopic Management of Esthesioneuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Roxbury, Christopher R; Ishii, Masaru; Gallia, Gary L; Reh, Douglas D

    2016-02-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma is a rare malignant tumor of sinonasal origin. These tumors typically present with unilateral nasal obstruction and epistaxis, and diagnosis is confirmed on biopsy. Over the past 15 years, significant advances have been made in endoscopic technology and techniques that have made this tumor amenable to expanded endonasal resection. There is growing evidence supporting the feasibility of safe and effective resection of esthesioneuroblastoma via an expanded endonasal approach. This article outlines a technique for endoscopic resection of esthesioneuroblastoma and reviews the current literature on esthesioneuroblastoma with emphasis on outcomes after endoscopic resection of these malignant tumors.

  7. Ultrasonography in the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guihua; Zou, Dazhong; Cai, Haiyun; Liu, Yajun

    2016-06-01

    Hashimoto's thyroiditis is a type of autoimmune thyroid disease with an increasing prevalence in past decades. Its diagnosisis mostly based on ultrasonography. Ultrasonography is a useful and essential tool to make this diagnosis based on the characteristics of the disease. In the differential diagnosis of thyroid nodules, ultrasound-guided fine-needle biopsy is an effective method to distinguish Hashimoto's thyroiditis from other thyroid disorders. One exciting and recent advance is that non-invasive ultrasound-based methods have supplemented fine-needle aspiration to diagnose Hashimoto's thyroiditis under more complex conditions. In this review, we discuss the recent advantages of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of Hashimoto's thyroiditis.

  8. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy

    MedlinePlus

    Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS) is surgery to treat sweating that is much heavier than normal. This condition ... hyperhidrosis . Usually the surgery is used to treat sweating in the palms or face. The sympathetic nerves ...

  9. Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... information in the popular media may not reflect reality. Although useful, balloon sinuplasty is not for everyone. In many cases standard endoscopic sinus surgery or medical therapy may be the best treatment. However, in some ...

  10. Endoscopic cubital tunnel release.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Tyson K

    2010-10-01

    A minimally invasive endoscopic approach has been successfully applied to surgical treatment of cubital tunnel syndrome. This procedure allows for smaller incisions with faster recovery time. This article details relevant surgical anatomy, indications, contraindications, surgical technique, complications, and postoperative management.

  11. Role of Ultrasonography in Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Oo, Win Min; Bo, Myat Thae

    2016-09-01

    Ultrasound has become popular among rheumatologists as the first-choice imaging investigation for the evaluation and monitoring of osteoarthritis (OA). Because of recent improvement in technology, ultrasound has the ability to demonstrate and assess the minimal structural abnormalities, which involve the pathophysiology and progression of OA, such as articular cartilage, synovial tissue, bony cortex, and other soft tissue. Nowadays, ultrasonography is a promising technique for assessing soft tissue abnormalities such as joint effusion, synovial hypertrophy, Baker cyst, and other structural changes including the decrease in cartilage thickness, meniscus bulging, and formation of osteophyte. Ultrasonography not only possesses diagnostic potential in knee OA but also reveals long-term predictability for disease progress as imaging biomarker. Ultrasonography has also been proven as a useful tool in guiding therapeutic interventions and monitoring treatment effectiveness. This review addresses the utility, reliability, and potential utilization of ultrasonography as an imaging technique in knee OA.

  12. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy.

    PubMed

    Moraites, Eleni; Vaughn, Olushola Akinshemoyin; Hill, Samantha

    2014-10-01

    Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy is a surgical technique most commonly used in the treatment of severe palmar hyperhidrosis in selected patients. The procedure also has limited use in the treatment axillary and craniofacial hyperhidrosis. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy is associated with a high rate of the development of compensatory hyperhidrosis, which may affect patient satisfaction with the procedure and quality of life. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Endoscopic ultrasound hemostasis techniques.

    PubMed

    Artifon, Everson L A; Aparicio, Dayse P S; Otoch, Jose P; Carvalho, Paulo B; Marson, Fernando P; Fernandes, Kaie; Tchekmedyian, Asadur J

    2014-04-01

    Since its development, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has evolved from a simple diagnostic technique to an important therapeutic tool for interventional endoscopy. EUS analysis provides real-time imaging of most major thoracic and abdominal vessels, and the possibility to use needle puncture with a curved linear array echoendoscope as a vascular intervention. In this review, we describe the endoscopic ultrasound approach to vascular therapy outside of the gastrointestinal wall.

  14. Sources of error in emergency ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Antonio; Pinto, Fabio; Faggian, Angela; Rubini, Giuseppe; Caranci, Ferdinando; Macarini, Luca; Genovese, Eugenio Annibale; Brunese, Luca

    2013-07-15

    To evaluate the common sources of diagnostic errors in emergency ultrasonography. The authors performed a Medline search using PubMed (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland) for original research and review publications examining the common sources of errors in diagnosis with specific reference to emergency ultrasonography. The search design utilized different association of the following terms : (1) emergency ultrasonography, (2) error, (3) malpractice and (4) medical negligence. This review was restricted to human studies and to English-language literature. Four authors reviewed all the titles and subsequent the abstract of 171 articles that appeared appropriate. Other articles were recognized by reviewing the reference lists of significant papers. Finally, the full text of 48 selected articles was reviewed. Several studies indicate that the etiology of error in emergency ultrasonography is multi-factorial. Common sources of error in emergency ultrasonography are: lack of attention to the clinical history and examination, lack of communication with the patient, lack of knowledge of the technical equipment, use of inappropriate probes, inadequate optimization of the images, failure of perception, lack of knowledge of the possible differential diagnoses, over-estimation of one's own skill, failure to suggest further ultrasound examinations or other imaging techniques. To reduce errors in interpretation of ultrasonographic findings, the sonographer needs to be aware of the limitations of ultrasonography in the emergency setting, and the similarities in the appearances of various physiological and pathological processes. Adequate clinical informations are essential. Diagnostic errors should be considered not as signs of failure, but as learning opportunities.

  15. Diagnostic performance and reliability of ultrasonography for fatty degeneration of the rotator cuff muscles.

    PubMed

    Wall, Lindley B; Teefey, Sharlene A; Middleton, William D; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Steger-May, Karen; Kim, H Mike; Wessell, Daniel; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2012-06-20

    Diagnostic evaluation of rotator cuff muscle quality is important to determine indications for potential operative repair. Ultrasonography has developed into an accepted and useful tool for evaluating rotator cuff tendon tears; however, its use for evaluating rotator muscle quality has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance and observer reliability of ultrasonography in grading fatty degeneration of the posterior and superior rotator cuff muscles. The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles were prospectively evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography in eighty patients with shoulder pain. The degree of fatty degeneration on MRI was graded by four independent raters on the basis of the modified Goutallier grading system. Ultrasonographic evaluation of fatty degeneration was performed by one of three radiologists with use of a three-point scale. The two scoring systems were compared to determine the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography. The interobserver and intraobserver reliability of MRI grading by the four raters were determined. The interobserver reliability of ultrasonography among the three radiologists was determined in a separate group of thirty study subjects. The weighted Cohen kappa, percentage agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. The accuracy of ultrasonography for the detection of fatty degeneration, as assessed on the basis of the percentage agreement with MRI, was 92.5% for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and 87.5% for the teres minor. The sensitivity was 84.6% for the supraspinatus, 95.6% for the infraspinatus, and 87.5% for the teres minor. The specificity was 96.3% for the supraspinatus, 91.2% for the infraspinatus, and 87.5% for the teres minor. The agreement between MRI and ultrasonography was substantial for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus (kappa = 0.78 and 0.71, respectively) and moderate for the teres

  16. Diagnostic Performance and Reliability of Ultrasonography for Fatty Degeneration of the Rotator Cuff Muscles

    PubMed Central

    Wall, Lindley B.; Teefey, Sharlene A.; Middleton, William D.; Dahiya, Nirvikar; Steger-May, Karen; Kim, H. Mike; Wessell, Daniel; Yamaguchi, Ken

    2012-01-01

    Background: Diagnostic evaluation of rotator cuff muscle quality is important to determine indications for potential operative repair. Ultrasonography has developed into an accepted and useful tool for evaluating rotator cuff tendon tears; however, its use for evaluating rotator muscle quality has not been well established. The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance and observer reliability of ultrasonography in grading fatty degeneration of the posterior and superior rotator cuff muscles. Methods: The supraspinatus, infraspinatus, and teres minor muscles were prospectively evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and ultrasonography in eighty patients with shoulder pain. The degree of fatty degeneration on MRI was graded by four independent raters on the basis of the modified Goutallier grading system. Ultrasonographic evaluation of fatty degeneration was performed by one of three radiologists with use of a three-point scale. The two scoring systems were compared to determine the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography. The interobserver and intraobserver reliability of MRI grading by the four raters were determined. The interobserver reliability of ultrasonography among the three radiologists was determined in a separate group of thirty study subjects. The weighted Cohen kappa, percentage agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated. Results: The accuracy of ultrasonography for the detection of fatty degeneration, as assessed on the basis of the percentage agreement with MRI, was 92.5% for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus muscles and 87.5% for the teres minor. The sensitivity was 84.6% for the supraspinatus, 95.6% for the infraspinatus, and 87.5% for the teres minor. The specificity was 96.3% for the supraspinatus, 91.2% for the infraspinatus, and 87.5% for the teres minor. The agreement between MRI and ultrasonography was substantial for the supraspinatus and infraspinatus (kappa = 0.78 and 0.71, respectively

  17. [Pineal cyst: usefulness of endoscopic treatment].

    PubMed

    Leveque, S; Derrey, S; Martinaud, O; Freger, P; Proust, F

    2007-06-01

    Glial cysts of the pineal gland are usually benign and asymptomatic. They develop from the pineal parenchyma and contain liquid. The diagnosis is made by magnetic resonance imaging. In contrast large cysts can be symptomatic due to compression of the aqueduct of Sylvius, compression of the midbrain tectum or mass effect in the posterior fossa. We report the case of a symptomatic cyst treated by an endoscopic procedure.

  18. Endoscope drying and its pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Kovaleva, J

    2017-07-17

    Inadequate drying of endoscope channels is a possible cause of replication and survival of remaining pathogens during storage. The presence during storage of potentially contaminated water in endoscope channels may promote bacterial proliferation and biofilm formation. An incomplete drying procedure or lack of drying and not storing in a vertical position are the most usual problems identified during drying and endoscope storage. Inadequate drying and storage procedures, together with inadequate cleaning and disinfection, are the most important sources of endoscope contamination and post-endoscopic infection. Flexible endoscopes may be dried in automated endoscope reprocessors (AERs), manually, or in drying/storage cabinets. Flushing of the endoscope channels with 70-90% ethyl or isopropyl alcohol followed by forced air drying is recommended by several guidelines. Current guidelines recommend that flexible endoscopes are stored in a vertical position in a closed, ventilated cupboard. Drying and storage cabinets have a drying system that circulates and forces the dry filtered air through the endoscope channels. Endoscope reprocessing guidelines are inconsistent with one another or give no exact recommendations about drying and storage of flexible endoscopes. There is no conclusive evidence on the length of time endoscopes can be safely stored before requiring re-disinfection and before they pose a contamination risk. To minimize the risk of disease transmission and nosocomial infection, modification and revision of guidelines are recommended as required to be consistent with one another. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diagnostic confidence of sonoelastography as adjunct to greyscale ultrasonography in lateral elbow tendinopathy.

    PubMed

    Park, Giyoung; Kwon, Dongrak; Park, Junghyun

    2014-01-01

    Conventional ultrasonography or magnetic resonance (MR) imaging is commonly performed to obtain information about the severity of the disease, location of the injury, and differential diagnosis. The aim of this research was to investigate the diagnostic confidence of sonoelastography as an adjunct to greyscale ultrasonography in lateral elbow tendinopathy. A single experienced physiatrist performed greyscale ultrasonography and sonoelastography in 28 patients (9 men, 19 women; mean age, 48.5 years; age range, 36-67 years) with unilateral symptoms of lateral elbow tendinopathy; the asymptomatic elbows were used as controls. Greyscale images were described as normal, tendinosis, partial-thickness tear, and full-thickness tear. Sonoelastographic images of the common extensor tendon were analyzed qualitatively (scoring of the elastic spectrum) and quantitatively (based on a color histogram). Both the imaging methods had high sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for diagnosing lateral elbow tendinopathy. Considering the clinical diagnosis of lateral elbow tendinopathy, sonoelastography showed significantly higher diagnostic accuracy (96.4%) than ultrasonography (89.5%, P < 0.01). Quantitative analysis showed objective interpretation of the sonoelastographic images that revealed greater intensity of green and blue pixels in symptomatic elbows (P < 0.01). Sonoelastography increases diagnostic confidence in tennis elbow pathology over greyscale ultrasonography alone and may be an additional powerful diagnostic tool in cases of lateral elbow tendinopathy with inconclusive greyscale ultrasonographic findings.

  20. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, Joseph P.

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part thereof, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases the utility thereof. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing.

  1. Sparse aperture endoscope

    DOEpatents

    Fitch, J.P.

    1999-07-06

    An endoscope is disclosed which reduces the volume needed by the imaging part, maintains resolution of a wide diameter optical system, while increasing tool access, and allows stereographic or interferometric processing for depth and perspective information/visualization. Because the endoscope decreases the volume consumed by imaging optics such allows a larger fraction of the volume to be used for non-imaging tools, which allows smaller incisions in surgical and diagnostic medical applications thus produces less trauma to the patient or allows access to smaller volumes than is possible with larger instruments. The endoscope utilizes fiber optic light pipes in an outer layer for illumination, a multi-pupil imaging system in an inner annulus, and an access channel for other tools in the center. The endoscope is amenable to implementation as a flexible scope, and thus increases it's utility. Because the endoscope uses a multi-aperture pupil, it can also be utilized as an optical array, allowing stereographic and interferometric processing. 7 figs.

  2. Endoscopic resection of esthesioneuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gallia, Gary L; Reh, Douglas D; Lane, Andrew P; Higgins, Thomas S; Koch, Wayne; Ishii, Masaru

    2012-11-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma, or olfactory neuroblastoma, is an uncommon malignant tumor arising in the upper nasal cavity. Surgical approaches to this and other sinonasal malignancies involving the anterior skull base have traditionally involved craniofacial resections. Over the past 10 years to 15 years, there have been advances in endoscopic approaches to skull base pathologies, including malignant tumors. In this study, we review our experience with purely endoscopic approaches to esthesioneuroblastomas. Between January 2005 and February 2012, 11 patients (seven men and four women, average age 53.3 years) with esthesioneuroblastoma were treated endoscopically. Nine patients presented with newly diagnosed disease and two were treated for tumor recurrence. The modified Kadish staging was: A, two patients (18.2%); B, two patients (18.2%); C, five patients (45.5%); and D, two patients (18.2%). All patients had a complete resection with negative intraoperative margins. Three patients had 2-deoxy-2-((18)F)fluoro-d-glucose avid neck nodes on their preoperative positron emission tomography-CT scan. These patients underwent neck dissections; two had positive neck nodes. Perioperative complications included an intraoperative hypertensive urgency and pneumocephalus in two different patients. Mean follow-up was over 28 months and all patients were free of disease. This series adds to the growing experience of purely endoscopic surgical approaches in the treatment of skull base tumors including esthesioneuroblastoma. Longer follow-up on larger numbers of patients is required to clarify the utility of purely endoscopic approaches in the management of this malignant tumor.

  3. Sterilization of endoscopic instruments.

    PubMed

    Sabnis, Ravindra B; Bhattu, Amit; Vijaykumar, Mohankumar

    2014-03-01

    Sterilization of endoscopic instruments is an important but often ignored topic. The purpose of this article is to review the current literature on the sterilization of endoscopic instruments and elaborate on the appropriate sterilization practices. Autoclaving is an economic and excellent method of sterilizing the instruments that are not heat sensitive. Heat sensitive instruments may get damaged with hot sterilization methods. Several new endoscopic instruments such as flexible ureteroscopes, chip on tip endoscopes, are added in urologists armamentarium. Many of these instruments are heat sensitive and hence alternative efficacious methods of sterilization are necessary. Although ethylene oxide and hydrogen peroxide are excellent methods of sterilization, they have some drawbacks. Gamma irradiation is mainly for disposable items. Various chemical agents are widely used even though they achieve high-level disinfection rather than sterilization. This article reviews various methods of endoscopic instrument sterilization with their advantages and drawbacks. If appropriate sterilization methods are adopted, then it not only will protect patients from procedure-related infections but prevent hypersensitive allergic reactions. It will also protect instruments from damage and increase its longevity.

  4. Microstructure inspection endoscope design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Jing, Chao; Zhang, Hongxia; Zhang, Yimo; Jing, Wencai; Zhou, Ge

    2005-02-01

    A microstructure inspection endoscope, based on directly imaging, is proposed. It is designed for detecting defects on the surface of optical fiber end. It is matched with FC or SC female fiber connector. The inspection head of the endoscope can be put into a 2.5-millimeter-diameter micro-pore. Its numerical aperture is not restricted by tiny dimension of object lenses. System resolution is increased to 600 line-pairs per millimeter. The endoscope consists of object lenses, scanner slab and kohler illumination system. The design provides possibility of various utilities such as aiming at a smaller subject by micro optical scanner and modeling the surface by tri-dimensional vision. And the optical system includes low-magnification lenses and high-magnification zoom lenses. Rough observation at low-magnification and particularly inspection at high-magnification are provided. The instrument has the advantages of high identification, compact configuration and flexible manipulation.

  5. Experimental measurement on movement of spiral-type capsule endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wanan; Dai, Houde; He, Yong; Qin, Fengqing

    2016-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscope achieved great success, however, the maneuvering of wireless capsule endoscope is challenging at present. A magnetic driving instrument, including two bar magnets, a stepper motor, a motor driver, a motor controller, and a power supplier, was developed to generate rotational magnetic fields. Permanent magnet ring, magnetized as S and N poles radially and mounted spiral structure on the surface, acted as a capsule. The maximum torque passing to the capsule, rotational synchronization of capsule and motor, and the translational speed of capsule, were measured in ex vivo porcine large intestine. The experimental results illustrate that the rotational movement of the spiral-type capsule in the intestine is feasible and the cost of the magnetic driving equipment is low. As a result, the solution is promising in the future controllability. PMID:26848279

  6. Experimental measurement on movement of spiral-type capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wanan; Dai, Houde; He, Yong; Qin, Fengqing

    2016-01-01

    Wireless capsule endoscope achieved great success, however, the maneuvering of wireless capsule endoscope is challenging at present. A magnetic driving instrument, including two bar magnets, a stepper motor, a motor driver, a motor controller, and a power supplier, was developed to generate rotational magnetic fields. Permanent magnet ring, magnetized as S and N poles radially and mounted spiral structure on the surface, acted as a capsule. The maximum torque passing to the capsule, rotational synchronization of capsule and motor, and the translational speed of capsule, were measured in ex vivo porcine large intestine. The experimental results illustrate that the rotational movement of the spiral-type capsule in the intestine is feasible and the cost of the magnetic driving equipment is low. As a result, the solution is promising in the future controllability.

  7. Advances in balloon endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Araki, Akihiro; Tsuchiya, Kiichiro; Watanabe, Mamoru

    2014-06-01

    In September 2003, a double-balloon endoscope (DBE) composed of balloons attached to a scope and an overtube was released in Japan prior to becoming available in other parts of the world. The DBE was developed by Dr. Yamamoto (1), and 5 different types of scopes with different uses have already been marketed. In April 2007, a single-balloon small intestinal endoscope was released with a balloon attached only to the overtube as a subsequent model. This article presents a detailed account of the development of these scopes up to the present time.

  8. Olecranon extrabursal endoscopic bursectomy.

    PubMed

    Tu, Chen G; McGuire, Duncan T; Morse, Levi P; Bain, Gregory I

    2013-09-01

    Olecranon bursitis is a common clinical problem. It is often managed conservatively because of the high rates of wound complications with the conventional open surgical technique. Conventional olecranon bursoscopy utilizes an arthroscope and an arthroscopic shaver, removing the bursa from inside-out. We describe an extrabursal endoscopic technique where the bursa is not entered but excised in its entirety under endoscopic vision. A satisfactory view is obtained with less morbidity than the open method, while still avoiding a wound over the sensitive point of the olecranon.

  9. Endoscopic Endonasal Odontoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Zoli, Matteo; Mazzatenta, Diego; Valluzzi, Adelaide; Mascari, Carmelo; Pasquini, Ernesto; Frank, Giorgio

    2015-07-01

    Odontoidectomy is the treatment of choice for irreducible ventral cervical-medullary compression. The endonasal endoscopic approach is an innovative approach for odontoidectomy. The aim of this article is to identify in which conditions this approach is indicated, discussing variants of the technique for selected cases of craniovertebral malformation with platybasia. We believe that the technical difficulties of this approach are balanced by the advantages for patients. Some conditions related to the patient and to the anatomy of the craniovertebral junction may favor adoption of the endoscopic endonasal approach, which should be considered complementary and not alternative to standard approaches.

  10. Ultrasonography of the hand, wrist, and elbow.

    PubMed

    Bodor, Marko; Fullerton, Brad

    2010-08-01

    High-frequency diagnostic ultrasonography of the hand, wrist and elbow has significant potential to improve the quality of diagnosis and care provided by neuromuscular and musculoskeletal specialists. In patients referred for weakness, pain and numbness of the hand, wrist or elbow, diagnostic ultrasonography can be an adjunct to electrodiagnosis and help in identifying ruptured tendons and treating conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome or trigger finger. Use of a small high-frequency (>10-15 MHz) transducer, an instrument with a blunt pointed tip to enhance sonopalpation and a model of the hand, wrist and elbow is advised to enhance visualization of small anatomical structures and complex bony contours. A range of conditions, including tendon and ligament ruptures, trigger finger, de Quervain tenosynovitis, intersection syndrome, lateral epicondylitis, and osteoarthritis, is described along with detailed ultrasonography-guided injection techniques for carpal tunnel syndrome and trigger finger.

  11. Ultrasonography in diagnosing chronic pancreatitis: New aspects

    PubMed Central

    Dimcevski, Georg; Erchinger, Friedemann G; Havre, Roald; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2013-01-01

    The course and outcome is poor for most patients with pancreatic diseases. Advances in pancreatic imaging are important in the detection of pancreatic diseases at early stages. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool has made, virtually speaking a technical revolution in medical imaging in the new millennium. It has not only become the preferred method for first line imaging, but also, increasingly to clarify the interpretation of other imaging modalities to obtain efficient clinical decision. We review ultrasonography modalities, focusing on advanced pancreatic imaging and its potential to substantially improve diagnosis of pancreatic diseases at earlier stages. In the first section, we describe scanning techniques and examination protocols. Their consequences for image quality and the ability to obtain complete and detailed visualization of the pancreas are discussed. In the second section we outline ultrasonographic characteristics of pancreatic diseases with emphasis on chronic pancreatitis. Finally, new developments in ultrasonography of the pancreas such as contrast enhanced ultrasound and elastography are enlightened. PMID:24259955

  12. Ultrasonography of the scrotum in adults

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the ideal noninvasive imaging modality for evaluation of scrotal abnormalities. It is capable of differentiating the most important etiologies of acute scrotal pain and swelling, including epididymitis and testicular torsion, and is the imaging modality of choice in acute scrotal trauma. In patients presenting with palpable abnormality or scrotal swelling, ultrasonography can detect, locate, and characterize both intratesticular and extratesticular masses and other abnormalities. A 12-17 MHz high frequency linear array transducer provides excellent anatomic detail of the testicles and surrounding structures. In addition, vascular perfusion can be easily assessed using color and spectral Doppler analysis. In most cases of scrotal disease, the combination of clinical history, physical examination, and information obtained with ultrasonography is sufficient for diagnostic decision-making. This review covers the normal scrotal anatomy as well as various testicular and scrotal lesions. PMID:26983766

  13. The diagnostic accuracy of ultrasonography versus endoscopy for primary nasopharyngeal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong; Liu, Jun-Jie; Zhu, Shang-Yong; Yi, Xiang

    2014-01-01

    To compare the accuracy of ultrasonography (US) with the current clinical standard of endoscopy for a diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). A total of 150 patients suspected of having NPC underwent US and endoscopy. A diagnosis was obtained from an endoscopic biopsy collected from each suspected tumor and was compared with a biopsy obtained from a normal nasopharynx. The diagnostic accuracy of US and endoscopy for NPC was evaluated using receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis performed by MedCalc Software. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of US versus endoscopy for this cohort were 90.1%, 84.8%, and 87.3% for US, and 88.7%, 97.5%, and 93.3% for endoscopy, respectively. Both US and endoscopy exhibited good diagnostic accuracy for NPC with area under the curve (AUC) values of 0.929 and 0.938, respectively. However, this difference was not significant (Z = 0.36, P = 0.72). US is a useful tool for the detection of tumors in endoscopically suspicious nasopharynx tissues, and also for the detection of subclinical tumors in endoscopically normal nasopharynx tissues.

  14. Endoscope field of view measurement

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Quanzeng; Khanicheh, Azadeh; Leiner, Dennis; Shafer, David; Zobel, Jurgen

    2017-01-01

    The current International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard (ISO 8600-3: 1997 including Amendment 1: 2003) for determining endoscope field of view (FOV) does not accurately characterize some novel endoscopic technologies such as endoscopes with a close focus distance and capsule endoscopes. We evaluated the endoscope FOV measurement method (the FOVWS method) in the current ISO 8600-3 standard and proposed a new method (the FOVEP method). We compared the two methods by measuring the FOV of 18 models of endoscopes (one device for each model) from seven key international manufacturers. We also estimated the device to device variation of two models of colonoscopes by measuring several hundreds of devices. Our results showed that the FOVEP method was more accurate than the FOVWS method, and could be used for all endoscopes. We also found that the labelled FOV values of many commercial endoscopes are significantly overstated. Our study can help endoscope users understand endoscope FOV and identify a proper method for FOV measurement. This paper can be used as a reference to revise the current endoscope FOV measurement standard. PMID:28663840

  15. Endoscope field of view measurement.

    PubMed

    Wang, Quanzeng; Khanicheh, Azadeh; Leiner, Dennis; Shafer, David; Zobel, Jurgen

    2017-03-01

    The current International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard (ISO 8600-3: 1997 including Amendment 1: 2003) for determining endoscope field of view (FOV) does not accurately characterize some novel endoscopic technologies such as endoscopes with a close focus distance and capsule endoscopes. We evaluated the endoscope FOV measurement method (the FOVWS method) in the current ISO 8600-3 standard and proposed a new method (the FOVEP method). We compared the two methods by measuring the FOV of 18 models of endoscopes (one device for each model) from seven key international manufacturers. We also estimated the device to device variation of two models of colonoscopes by measuring several hundreds of devices. Our results showed that the FOVEP method was more accurate than the FOVWS method, and could be used for all endoscopes. We also found that the labelled FOV values of many commercial endoscopes are significantly overstated. Our study can help endoscope users understand endoscope FOV and identify a proper method for FOV measurement. This paper can be used as a reference to revise the current endoscope FOV measurement standard.

  16. Management of incidental renal masses: Time to consider contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Di Vece, Francesca; Tombesi, Paola; Ermili, Francesca; Sartori, Sergio

    2016-02-01

    Proliferation of imaging studies for different clinical purposes and continuous improvement of imaging technology have led to an increasing number of incidental findings of renal masses. It is estimated that over 50% of patients older than 50 years have at least one renal mass. The majority of incidental renal masses are simple cysts that can be easily diagnosed by conventional ultrasonography. However, some incidental renal masses are not simple cysts, and differentiation between benign and malignant entities requires further imaging modalities. In the past, multiphase contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging were considered the primary imaging modalities used to characterize and stage complex cystic and solid renal lesions. Currently, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography represents a novel alternative to contrast-enhanced computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Contrast-enhanced ultrasonography employs microbubble contrast agents that allow the study of different enhancement phases of the kidney without risk of nephrotoxicity and radiation exposure. The diagnostic accuracy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography in the characterization of complex renal cysts is comparable to that of computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging, and several studies have demonstrated its reliability also in identifying solid lesions such as pseudotumors, typical angiomyolipomas, and clear cell renal carcinomas. Considering the high incidence of incidental renal masses and the need for rapid and reliable diagnosis, contrast-enhanced ultrasonography could be proposed as the first step in the diagnostic work-up of renal masses because of its safety and cost effectiveness. In this paper, we propose a diagnostic algorithm for the characterization of cystic and solid renal masses.

  17. Automatic fusion of freehand endoscopic brain images to three-dimensional surfaces: creating stereoscopic panoramas.

    PubMed

    Dey, Damini; Gobbi, David G; Slomka, Piotr J; Surry, Kathleen J M; Peters, Terence M

    2002-01-01

    A major limitation of the use of endoscopes in minimally invasive surgery is the lack of relative context between the endoscope and its surroundings. The purpose of this work was to fuse images obtained from a tracked endoscope to surfaces derived from three-dimensional (3-D) preoperative magnetic resonance or computed tomography (CT) data, for assistance in surgical planning, training and guidance. We extracted polygonal surfaces from preoperative CT images of a standard brain phantom and digitized endoscopic video images from a tracked neuro-endoscope. The optical properties of the endoscope were characterized using a simple calibration procedure. Registration of the phantom (physical space) and CT images (preoperative image space) was accomplished using fiducial markers that could be identified both on the phantom and within the images. The endoscopic images were corrected for radial lens distortion and then mapped onto the extracted surfaces via a two-dimensional 2-D to 3-D mapping algorithm. The optical tracker has an accuracy of about 0.3 mm at its centroid, which allows the endoscope tip to be localized to within 1.0 mm. The mapping operation allows multiple endoscopic images to be "painted" onto the 3-D brain surfaces, as they are acquired, in the correct anatomical position. This allows panoramic and stereoscopic visualization, as well as navigation of the 3-D surface, painted with multiple endoscopic views, from arbitrary perspectives.

  18. Endoscopic Optical Coherence Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chao; Fujimoto, James G.; Tsai, Tsung-Han; Mashimo, Hiroshi

    New gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are expected to affect more than 290,200 new patients and will cause more than 144,570 deaths in the United States in 2013 [1]. When detected and treated early, the 5-year survival rate for colorectal cancer increases by a factor of 1.4 [1]. For esophageal cancer, the rate increases by a factor of 2 [1]. The majority of GI cancers begin as small lesions that are difficult to identify with conventional endoscopy. With resolutions approaching that of histopathology, optical coherence tomography (OCT) is well suited for detecting the changes in tissue microstructure associated with early GI cancers. Since the lesions are not endoscopically apparent, however, it is necessary to survey a relatively large area of the GI tract. Tissue motion is another limiting factor in the GI tract; therefore, in vivo imaging must be performed at extremely high speeds. OCT imaging can be performed using fiber optics and miniaturized lens systems, enabling endoscopic OCT inside the human body in conjunction with conventional video endoscopy. An OCT probe can be inserted through the working channel of a standard endoscope, thus enabling depth-resolved imaging of tissue microstructure in the GI tract with micron-scale resolution simultaneously with the endoscopic view (Fig. 68.1).

  19. Transoral Endoscopic Adenoidectomy

    PubMed Central

    El-Badrawy, Amr; Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Adenoid curette guided by an indirect transoral mirror and a headlight is a simple and quick procedure that has already been in use for a long time, but this method carries a high risk of recurrence unless done by a well-experienced surgeon. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy in relieving the obstructive nasal symptoms. Methods. 300 children underwent transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy using the classic adenoid curette and St Claire Thomson forceps with a 70∘ Hopkins 4-mm nasal endoscope introduced through the mouth and the view was projected on a monitor. Telephone questionnaire was used to follow-up the children for one year. Flexible nasopharyngoscopy was carried out for children with recurrent obstructive nasal symptoms to detect adenoid rehypertrophy. Results. No cases presented with postoperative complications. Only one case developed recurrent obstructive nasal symptoms due to adenoid regrowth and investigations showed that he had nasal allergy which may be the cause of recurrence. Conclusion. Transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy is the recent advancement of classic curettage adenoidectomy with direct vision of the nasopharynx that enables the surgeon to avoid injury of important structures as Eustachian tube orifices, and also it gives him the chance to completely remove the adenoidal tissues. PMID:20111586

  20. Transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy.

    PubMed

    El-Badrawy, Amr; Abdel-Aziz, Mosaad

    2009-01-01

    Objective. Adenoid curette guided by an indirect transoral mirror and a headlight is a simple and quick procedure that has already been in use for a long time, but this method carries a high risk of recurrence unless done by a well-experienced surgeon. The purpose of this paper was to evaluate the efficacy of transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy in relieving the obstructive nasal symptoms. Methods. 300 children underwent transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy using the classic adenoid curette and St Claire Thomson forceps with a 70( composite function) Hopkins 4-mm nasal endoscope introduced through the mouth and the view was projected on a monitor. Telephone questionnaire was used to follow-up the children for one year. Flexible nasopharyngoscopy was carried out for children with recurrent obstructive nasal symptoms to detect adenoid rehypertrophy. Results. No cases presented with postoperative complications. Only one case developed recurrent obstructive nasal symptoms due to adenoid regrowth and investigations showed that he had nasal allergy which may be the cause of recurrence. Conclusion. Transoral endoscopic adenoidectomy is the recent advancement of classic curettage adenoidectomy with direct vision of the nasopharynx that enables the surgeon to avoid injury of important structures as Eustachian tube orifices, and also it gives him the chance to completely remove the adenoidal tissues.

  1. Portal biliopathy treated with endoscopic biliary stenting

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Sung Jin; Min, Jae Ki; Kwon, So Young; Kim, Jun Hyun; Moon, Sun Young; Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Jeong Han; Choe, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Hee Sun

    2016-01-01

    Portal biliopathy is defined as abnormalities in the extra- and intrahepatic ducts and gallbladder of patients with portal hypertension. This condition is associated with extrahepatic venous obstruction and dilatation of the venous plexus of the common bile duct, resulting in mural irregularities and compression of the biliary tree. Most patients with portal biliopathy remain asymptomatic, but approximately 10% of them advance to symptomatic abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are currently used as diagnostic tools because they are noninvasive and can be used to assess the regularity, length, and degree of bile duct narrowing. Management of portal biliopathy is aimed at biliary decompression and reducing the portal pressure. Portal biliopathy has rarely been reported in Korea. We present a symptomatic case of portal biliopathy that was complicated by cholangitis and successfully treated with biliary endoscopic procedures. PMID:27044769

  2. Portal biliopathy treated with endoscopic biliary stenting.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Sung Jin; Min, Jae Ki; Kwon, So Young; Kim, Jun Hyun; Moon, Sun Young; Lee, Kang Hoon; Kim, Jeong Han; Choe, Won Hyeok; Cheon, Young Koog; Kim, Tae Hyung; Park, Hee Sun

    2016-03-01

    Portal biliopathy is defined as abnormalities in the extra- and intrahepatic ducts and gallbladder of patients with portal hypertension. This condition is associated with extrahepatic venous obstruction and dilatation of the venous plexus of the common bile duct, resulting in mural irregularities and compression of the biliary tree. Most patients with portal biliopathy remain asymptomatic, but approximately 10% of them advance to symptomatic abdominal pain, jaundice, and fever. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography are currently used as diagnostic tools because they are noninvasive and can be used to assess the regularity, length, and degree of bile duct narrowing. Management of portal biliopathy is aimed at biliary decompression and reducing the portal pressure. Portal biliopathy has rarely been reported in Korea. We present a symptomatic case of portal biliopathy that was complicated by cholangitis and successfully treated with biliary endoscopic procedures.

  3. Magnetic Anastomosis for Glycemic Insulin Control (MAGIC): A Pilot Study of Minimally Invasive (Endoscopic/Laparoscopic) Side-to-Side Duodeno-Distal Ileal Anastomosis in Pigs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-08

    Compression Anastomosis Corrects Insulin Resistance in Diabetic Pigs. PURPOSE: Bariatric surgery corrects insulin resistance independent of weight loss...magnets (48% ± 3 vs 18% ± 14). No anastomotic leaks or strictures were observed in any animals. All animals took liquids on the day of surgery and were

  4. Ultrasonography alone for diagnosis of breast cancer in women under 40

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, DC; Hackney, L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Recent guidelines suggest that ultrasonography should be used as the primary imaging modality in women under 40 years of age with mammography being offered if further imaging is required. The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of ultrasonography and the utility of mammography in this patient group by reviewing the role these imaging techniques had in the diagnosis of breast cancer in our unit. Methods All breast cancers diagnosed in patients 39 years or younger from June 2009 to June 2011 were reviewed. This was a retrospective review of presentation, clinical findings, imaging modality (ultrasonography, mammography, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and histology. Mammography was the primary imaging modality until May 2011 in women between 35 and 39 years of age. Both invasive and intraductal carcinoma were included in the study but lobular carcinoma in situ was excluded. Results A total of 2,495 patients were referred to the symptomatic breast clinic in this age group during the study period. Thirty women were identified with either invasive cancer (n=27) or ductal carcinoma in situ (n=3). Twenty-eight patients underwent mammography, graded as uncertain, suspicious or malignant in the majority. Malignancy was missed in one patient. All 30 patients underwent ultrasonography, reported as uncertain, suspicious or malignant, an indication for diagnostic core biopsy. Ultrasonography alone did not miss any cancers but did fail to detect multifocal disease in one patient. Conclusions In this study group, ultrasonography was reliable as the primary imaging modality for women under 40, identifying all cancers in this cohort. Mammography and/or MRI remain essential adjuncts to accurately determine multifocality and/or the extent of disease. PMID:24780784

  5. Ultrasonography alone for diagnosis of breast cancer in women under 40.

    PubMed

    Appleton, D C; Hackney, L; Narayanan, S

    2014-04-01

    Recent guidelines suggest that ultrasonography should be used as the primary imaging modality in women under 40 years of age with mammography being offered if further imaging is required. The aim of this study was to assess the adequacy of ultrasonography and the utility of mammography in this patient group by reviewing the role these imaging techniques had in the diagnosis of breast cancer in our unit. All breast cancers diagnosed in patients 39 years or younger from June 2009 to June 2011 were reviewed. This was a retrospective review of presentation, clinical findings, imaging modality (ultrasonography, mammography, magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]) and histology. Mammography was the primary imaging modality until May 2011 in women between 35 and 39 years of age. Both invasive and intraductal carcinoma were included in the study but lobular carcinoma in situ was excluded. A total of 2,495 patients were referred to the symptomatic breast clinic in this age group during the study period. Thirty women were identified with either invasive cancer (n=27) or ductal carcinoma in situ (n=3). Twenty-eight patients underwent mammography, graded as uncertain, suspicious or malignant in the majority. Malignancy was missed in one patient. All 30 patients underwent ultrasonography, reported as uncertain, suspicious or malignant, an indication for diagnostic core biopsy. Ultrasonography alone did not miss any cancers but did fail to detect multifocal disease in one patient. In this study group, ultrasonography was reliable as the primary imaging modality for women under 40, identifying all cancers in this cohort. Mammography and/or MRI remain essential adjuncts to accurately determine multifocality and/or the extent of disease.

  6. Diagnostic vascular ultrasonography with the help of color Doppler and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The use of ultrasonography and especially of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in the diagnosis of vascular pathologies before and after interventions has significantly increased over the past years due to the broader availability of modern ultrasound systems with CEUS capabilities and more trained user experience in this imaging modality. For the preinterventional and postinterventional work-up of carotid diseases, duplex ultrasound as well as CEUS have been established as the standard-of-care examination procedures for diagnosis, evaluation, and follow-up. In addition to its use for carotid arterial diseases, ultrasonography has also become the primary modality for the screening of vascular pathologies. This review describes the most common pathologies found in ultrasonography of the carotid arteries, the abdominal aorta, and the femoral arteries. PMID:27669962

  7. Use of ultrasonography to make management decisions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Transrectal ultrasonography has been available for making management decisions since the mid 1980’s. This technology allows for the real-time visualization of internal structures (i.e. ovary and fetus) that are otherwise difficult to evaluate. The use of this technology in making reproductive manag...

  8. Transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe with B-flow imaging for extracranial internal carotid artery dissection.

    PubMed

    Sakima, Hirokuni; Isa, Katsunori; Anegawa, Takahiro; Kokuba, Kazuhito; Nakachi, Koh; Goya, Yoshino; Tokashiki, Takashi; Ishiuchi, Shogo; Ohya, Yusuke

    2012-11-01

    We report on transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe with B-flow imaging for determining spontaneous extracranial internal carotid artery dissection just below the petrous portion. A 49-year-old man suffered cortical and subcortical infarction in the region of the right middle cerebral artery. Magnetic resonance angiography on the third day of admission revealed spontaneous recanalization of the right internal carotid artery associated with an intimal flap-like structure at the petrous portion. Transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe revealed right extracranial internal carotid artery dissection, showing an increased diameter of the right extracranial internal carotid artery with double lumen formation, stenosis of the true lumen, and a mobile intimal flap in B-flow imaging. Transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe was helpful to attempt a self-expanding stent for recanalizing right extracranial internal carotid artery dissection. The patient recovered and was discharged ambulatory. The size of the micro convex probe was optimum for transoral carotid ultrasonography in our patient. Micro convex probe is more commonly used than the standard transoral carotid ultrasonography probe, which lacks versatility. We consider that transoral carotid ultrasonography using a micro convex probe could be routinely used for ultrasonographic evaluation of extracranial internal carotid artery dissection.

  9. A Comparison of Conventional Ultrasonography and Arthrosonography in the Assessment of Cuff Integrity after Rotator Cuff Repair

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kwang Won; Chun, Tong Jin; Bae, Kyoung Wan; Choy, Won Sik; Park, Hyeon Jong

    2014-01-01

    Background This study was designed to perform conventional ultrasonography, magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) and arthrosonography exams after rotator cuff repair to compare the results of conventional ultrasonography and arthrosonography with those of MRA as the gold standard. Methods We prospectively studied 42 consecutive patients (14 males, 28 females; average age, 59.4 years) who received arthroscopic rotator cuff repair due to full-thickness tears of the supraspinatus tendon from 2008 to 2010. The integrity assessment of the repaired rotator cuff was performed 6 months postoperatively using conventional ultrasonography, MRA, and arthrosonography. Results The diagnostic accuracy of the conventional ultrasonography compared to MRA was 78.6% and the McNemar test results were 0.016 in full-thickness tear and 0.077 in partial-thickness tear. The diagnostic accuracy of arthrosonography compared to MRA was 92.9% and the McNemar test results were 0.998 in full-thickness tear and 0.875 in partial-thickness tear. Conclusions It was found that the integrity assessment of the repaired rotator cuff by ultrasonography must be guarded against and that arthrosonography is an effective alternative method in the postoperative integrity assessment. Also, an arthrosonography seems to be a suitable modality to replace the conventional ultrasonography. PMID:25177461

  10. Endoscopic submucosal dissection for gastric adenomyoma

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sinan; Cao, Hailong; Zhang, Yujie; Xu, Mengque; Chen, Xue; Piao, Meiyu; Wang, Bangmao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Gastric adenomyoma (GA) is a kind of rare gastric submucosal eminence lesions. As the malignant transformation cannot be ruled out, surgery and laparoscopic resection are usually considered. The aim of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect and safety of endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for GA. All of the patients with gastric submucosal eminence lesions who underwent ESD from June 2008 to June 2015 in General Hospital, Tianjin Medical University, China, were identified, and patients with GA, which was confirmed by pathological evaluation, were enrolled for further analysis. Among the 571 patients who received ESD, 15 cases with uncertain diagnosis before the procedure were finally confirmed as GA. The mean age of these 15 patients was 46.93 ± 15.56 years (range: 18–73). Most of the lesions were located in antrum (12/15 patients), with 2 in the body of stomach and 1 in cardia, respectively. The mean size of the lesions was 1.47 ± 0.67 cm (range: 0.4–3.0). According to the endoscopic ultrasonography, the lesions of 14 patients originated from submucosa and 1 originated from superficial muscularis, totally with mixed echoes changes. En bloc complete resection was achieved in all of the lesions. No perforation, intraoperative bleeding, delayed bleeding, and mortalities occurred. No recurrence or metastasis was found during 1 to 67 months. ESD appears to be a feasible, safe, and effective treatment for GA with clinical presentation of gastric submucosal eminence lesions. PMID:28248886

  11. Endoscopic management for congenital esophageal stenosis: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Terui, Keita; Saito, Takeshi; Mitsunaga, Tetsuya; Nakata, Mitsuyuki; Yoshida, Hideo

    2015-01-01

    Congenital esophageal stenosis (CES) is an extremely rare malformation, and standard treatment have not been completely established. By years of clinical research, evidence has been accumulated. We conducted systematic review to assess outcomes of the treatment for CES, especially the role of endoscopic modalities. A total of 144 literatures were screened and reviewed. CES was categorized in fibromuscular thickening, tracheobronchial remnants (TBR) and membranous web, and the frequency was 54%, 30% and 16%, respectively. Therapeutic option includes surgery and dilatation, and surgery tends to be reserved for ineffective dilatation. An essential point is that dilatation for TBR type of CES has low success rate and high rate of perforation. TBR can be distinguished by using endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS). Overall success rate of dilatation for CES with or without case selection by using EUS was 90% and 29%, respectively. Overall rate of perforation with or without case selection was 7% and 24%, respectively. By case selection using EUS, high success rate with low rate of perforation could be achieved. In conclusion, endoscopic dilatation has been established as a primary therapy for CES except TBR type. Repetitive dilatation with gradual step-up might be one of safe ways to minimize the risk of perforation. PMID:25789088

  12. Various applications of endoscopic scissors in difficult endoscopic interventions.

    PubMed

    Kee, Won-Ju; Park, Chang-Hwan; Chung, Kyoung-Myeun; Park, Seon-Young; Jun, Chung-Hwan; Ki, Ho-seok; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

    2014-05-01

    Endoscopic scissors offer a benefit over other devices by avoiding potential complications related to thermal and mechanical injury of surrounding structures. We describe our experience with endoscopic scissors in three difficult endoscopic interventions. A fishbone embedded in the esophageal wall penetrated very close to the pulsating aorta and the bronchus. The fishbone was cut in half by endoscopic scissors and removed without injury to adjacent organs. A gastric submucosal tumor with an insulated core that could not be resected by electrosurgical devices was cut using endoscopic scissors following endoloop placement. Extravascular coil migration after transcatheter arterial embolization resulted in a duodenal ulcer. The metallic coil on the duodenal ulcer was cut by endoscopic scissors without mechanical or thermal injury.

  13. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography in Crohn's Disease Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Białecki, Marcin; Białecka, Agnieszka; Laskowska, Katarzyna; Liebert, Ariel; Kłopocka, Maria; Serafin, Zbigniew

    2015-06-01

    The chronic nature of Crohn's disease (CD) implicates necessity of multiple control assessments throughout patient's life. It is accepted that in patients with CD requiring disease monitoring, magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) and computed tomography enterography (CTE) are--apart from endoscopy--imaging studies of first choice. In practice, diagnostic imaging of patients with CD is troublesome, since MRE is an expensive and complicated study, and CTE exposes patients to high doses of ionizing radiation. Therefore, there is a need for new, both non-invasive and effective, methods of imaging in CD. Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography (CEUS) is a relatively new method using gas-filled microbubbles serving as contrast agent. It allows for detailed assessment of blood perfusion within intestine wall and peri-intestinal tissues, which enables detection and monitoring of inflammation and its qualitative assessment. The purpose of this paper is to describe CEUS examination technique and its clinical applications in patients with Crohn's disease.

  14. The current status of three-dimensional ultrasonography in gynaecology

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is the most recent cross-sectional imaging modality to acquire three-dimensional (3D) capabilities. The reconstruction of volumetric US data for multiplanar display took a significantly longer time to develop in comparison with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The current equipment for 3D-US is capable of producing high-resolution images in three different planes, including real-time surface-rendered images. The use of 3D-US in gynaecology was accelerated through the development of the endovaginal volume transducer, which allows the automated acquisition of volumetric US data. Although initially considered an adjunct to two-dimensional US, 3D-US is now the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of Müllerian duct anomalies and the location of intrauterine devices. PMID:26537304

  15. The current status of three-dimensional ultrasonography in gynaecology.

    PubMed

    Ong, Chiou Li

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is the most recent cross-sectional imaging modality to acquire three-dimensional (3D) capabilities. The reconstruction of volumetric US data for multiplanar display took a significantly longer time to develop in comparison with computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. The current equipment for 3D-US is capable of producing high-resolution images in three different planes, including real-time surface-rendered images. The use of 3D-US in gynaecology was accelerated through the development of the endovaginal volume transducer, which allows the automated acquisition of volumetric US data. Although initially considered an adjunct to two-dimensional US, 3D-US is now the imaging modality of choice for the assessment of Müllerian duct anomalies and the location of intrauterine devices.

  16. Future Development of Endoscopic Accessories for Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jae-Young

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has recently been accepted as a standard treatment for patients with early gastric cancer (EGC), without lymph node metastases. Given the rise in the number of ESDs being performed, new endoscopic accessories are being developed and existing accessories modified to facilitate the execution of ESD and reduce complication rates. This paper examines the history underlying the development of these new endoscopic accessories and indicates future directions for the development of these accessories. PMID:28609819

  17. Propofol use in endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Cheriyan, Danny G; Byrne, Michael F

    2014-01-01

    Compared to standard endoscopy, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) are often lengthier and more complex, thus requiring higher doses of sedatives for patient comfort and compliance. The aim of this review is to provide the reader with information regarding the use, safety profile, and merits of propofol for sedation in advanced endoscopic procedures like ERCP and EUS, based on the current literature. PMID:24833847

  18. Endoscopic vertical band gastroplasty with an endoscopic sewing machine.

    PubMed

    Awan, Amjad N; Swain, C P

    2002-02-01

    Vertical band gastroplasty is an accepted surgical operation for the treatment of obesity. It is performed by means of an open technique. This is a description of a new endoscopic technique for gastroplasty. An endoscopic sewing machine was mounted on a flexible upper endoscope. On a postmortem specimen of porcine gastroesophageal tissue an area of the stomach, about 8-cm long and 4-cm wide, extending from and in line with the esophagus, was marked. A flexible plastic ring about 3 cm in diameter was sutured to the stomach along the lesser curvature at 8 cm from the gastroesophageal junction with an endoscopic sewing machine. Vertical gastroplasty was accomplished by suturing together the anterior and posterior walls of the stomach with the endoscopic sewing machine. Hence, a gastroplasty was fashioned as an 8-cm-long tube along the lesser curvature of the stomach extending from the gastroesophageal junction to the outlet ring. An endoscopic gastroplasty for obesity was successfully performed by using an endoscopic sewing machine on a postmortem specimen of porcine stomach. The technical feasibility of endoscopic vertical ring gastroplasty should be tested in a live animal model. This will serve as the next phase in the development of this interventional endoscopic technique, which has potential for clinical applicability.

  19. Therapeutic endoscopic ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachalapathy, Suresh; Nayar, Manu K

    2017-01-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) is now firmly established as one of the essential tools for diagnosis in most gastrointestinal MDTs across the UK. However, the ability to provide therapy with EUS has resulted in a significant impact on the management of the patients. These include drainage of peripancreatic collections, EUS-guided endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatogram, EUS-guided coeliac plexus blocks, etc. The rapid development of this area in endoscopy is a combination of newer tools and increasing expertise by endosonographers to push the boundaries of intervention with EUS. However, the indications are limited and we are at the start of the learning curve for these high-risk procedures. These therapies should, therefore, be confined to centres with a robust multidisciplinary team, including interventional endoscopists, radiologists and surgeons. PMID:28261439

  20. Upper Digestive Endoscopic Scene Analyze

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-10-25

    Grant Number Program Element Number Author(s) Project Number Task Number Work Unit Number Performing Organization Name(s) and Address(es...one of endoscopic semiology (disease descriptions) and one of endoscopic exams (patients’ iconography). A Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) [2] whose...knowledge of these Scenes. B) Object Information Lesions or any element of interest, i.e. the "endoscopic findings", constitute the objects to be

  1. Instrumentation: endoscopes and equipment.

    PubMed

    Gaab, Michael R

    2013-02-01

    The technology and instrumentation for neuroendoscopy are described: endoscopes (principles, designs, applications), light sources, instruments, accessories, holders, and navigation. Procedures for cleaning, sterilizing, and storing are included. The description is based on the author's own technical development and neuroendoscopic experience, published technology and devices, and publications on endoscopic surgery. The main work horses in neuroendoscopy are rigid glass rod endoscopes (Hopkins optics) due to the optical quality, which allows full high-definition video imaging, different angles of view, and autoclavability, which is especially important in neuroendoscopy due to the risk of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease infection. Applications are endoscopy assistance to microsurgery, stand-alone endoscopy controlled approaches such as transnasal skull base, ventriculoscopy, and cystoscopy in the cranium. Rigid glass rod optics are also applicable in spinal endoscopy and peripheral nerve decompression using special tubes and cannulas. Rigid minifiberoptics with less resolution may be used in less complex procedures (ventriculoscopy, cystoscopy, endoscopy assistance with pen-designs) and have the advantages of smaller diameters and disposable designs. Flexible fiberoptics are usually used in combination with rigid scopes and can be steered, e.g. through the ventricles, in spinal procedures for indications including syringomyelia and multicystic hydrocephalus. Upcoming flexible chip endoscopes ("chip-in-the-tip") may replace flexible fiberoptics in the future, offering higher resolution and cold LED-illumination, and may provide for stereoscopic neuroendoscopy. Various instruments (mechanical, coagulation, laser guides, ultrasonic aspirators) and holders are available. Certified methods for cleaning and sterilization, with special requirements in neuroapplications, are important. Neuroendoscopic instrumentation is now an established technique in neurosurgical practice and

  2. Transanal Endoscopic Microsurgery

    PubMed Central

    Saclarides, Theodore John

    2015-01-01

    Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) was developed by Professor Gerhard Buess 30 years ago at the dawn of minimally invasive surgery. TEM utilizes a closed proctoscopic system whereby endoluminal surgery is accomplished with high-definition magnification, constant CO2 insufflation, and long-shafted instruments. The end result is a more precise excision and closure compared to conventional instrumentation. Virtually any benign lesion can be addressed with this technology; however, proper patient selection is paramount when using it for cancer. PMID:26491409

  3. Peroral endoscopic myotomy

    PubMed Central

    Kumbhari, Vivek; Khashab, Mouen A

    2015-01-01

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) incorporates concepts of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery and achieves endoscopic myotomy by utilizing a submucosal tunnel as an operating space. Although intended for the palliation of symptoms of achalasia, there is mounting data to suggest it is also efficacious in the management of spastic esophageal disorders. The technique requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of esophageal motility disorders as well as knowledge of surgical anatomy of the foregut. POEM achieves short term response in 82% to 100% of patients with minimal risk of adverse events. In addition, it appears to be effective and safe even at the extremes of age and regardless of prior therapy undertaken. Although infrequent, the ability of the endoscopist to manage an intraprocedural adverse event is critical as failure to do so could result in significant morbidity. The major late adverse event is gastroesophageal reflux which appears to occur in 20% to 46% of patients. Research is being conducted to clarify the optimal technique for POEM and a personalized approach by measuring intraprocedural esophagogastric junction distensibility appears promising. In addition to esophageal disorders, POEM is being studied in the management of gastroparesis (gastric pyloromyotomy) with initial reports demonstrating technical feasibility. Although POEM represents a paradigm shift the management of esophageal motility disorders, the results of prospective randomized controlled trials with long-term follow up are eagerly awaited. PMID:25992188

  4. Endoscopic valvuloplasty for GERD.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Serna, T; Davis, R E; Mason, R; Perdikis, G; Filipi, C J; Lehman, G; Nigro, J; Watson, P

    2000-11-01

    The transoral, endoscopic route has been suggested as a possible approach for the correction of severe gastroesophageal reflux. Such a procedure would involve no mobilization of the cardia or other structures. The optimal placement, number, and configuration of sutures remains undefined. With the use of a previously developed endoscopic sewing machine, this study was undertaken in baboons with two suture arrangements immediately below the lower esophageal sphincter. A linear arrangement (group I) and a circular arrangement (group II) were compared. During the 6 months after the procedure, the animals were evaluated using manometry, fluoroscopic barium swallow, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, and a pressure volume test. A significant increase in lower esophageal sphincter length was demonstrated only in group II (p = 0. 010). A significant increase in lower esophageal sphincter pressure was demonstrated only in group I animals (p = 0.008). The abdominal length increased in group I (p = 0.004) and group II (p = 0.004). The yield pressure and yield volume did not differ significantly from those measured previously in control animals. No evidence of reflux, stricture formation, esophagitis, or other pathology was noted. Some manometric parameters associated with gastroesophageal reflux are altered by the endoscopic placement of sutures below the gastroesophageal junction, with no associated serious complications.

  5. Peroral endoscopic myotomy.

    PubMed

    Kumbhari, Vivek; Khashab, Mouen A

    2015-05-16

    Peroral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) incorporates concepts of natural orifice translumenal endoscopic surgery and achieves endoscopic myotomy by utilizing a submucosal tunnel as an operating space. Although intended for the palliation of symptoms of achalasia, there is mounting data to suggest it is also efficacious in the management of spastic esophageal disorders. The technique requires an understanding of the pathophysiology of esophageal motility disorders as well as knowledge of surgical anatomy of the foregut. POEM achieves short term response in 82% to 100% of patients with minimal risk of adverse events. In addition, it appears to be effective and safe even at the extremes of age and regardless of prior therapy undertaken. Although infrequent, the ability of the endoscopist to manage an intraprocedural adverse event is critical as failure to do so could result in significant morbidity. The major late adverse event is gastroesophageal reflux which appears to occur in 20% to 46% of patients. Research is being conducted to clarify the optimal technique for POEM and a personalized approach by measuring intraprocedural esophagogastric junction distensibility appears promising. In addition to esophageal disorders, POEM is being studied in the management of gastroparesis (gastric pyloromyotomy) with initial reports demonstrating technical feasibility. Although POEM represents a paradigm shift the management of esophageal motility disorders, the results of prospective randomized controlled trials with long-term follow up are eagerly awaited.

  6. Endoscopic transmission of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Tytgat, G N

    1995-01-01

    The contamination of endoscopes and biopsy forceps with Helicobacter pylori occurs readily after endoscopic examination of H. pylori-positive patients. Unequivocal proof of iatrogenic transmission of the organism has been provided. Estimates for transmission frequency approximate to 4 per 1000 endoscopies when the infection rate in the endoscoped population is about 60%. Iatrogenic transmission has also been shown to be the cause of the so-called 'acute mucosal lesion' syndrome in Japan. Traditional cleaning and alcohol rinsing is insufficient to eliminate endoscope/forceps contamination. Only meticulous adherence to disinfection recommendations guarantees H. pylori elimination.

  7. Focused Real-Time Ultrasonography for Nephrologists

    PubMed Central

    Kaptein, Matthew J.

    2017-01-01

    We propose that renal consults are enhanced by incorporating a nephrology-focused ultrasound protocol including ultrasound evaluation of cardiac contractility, the presence or absence of pericardial effusion, inferior vena cava size and collapsibility to guide volume management, bladder volume to assess for obstruction or retention, and kidney size and structure to potentially gauge chronicity of renal disease or identify other structural abnormalities. The benefits of immediate and ongoing assessment of cardiac function and intravascular volume status (prerenal), possible urinary obstruction or retention (postrenal), and potential etiologies of acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease far outweigh the limitations of bedside ultrasonography performed by nephrologists. The alternative is reliance on formal ultrasonography, which creates a disconnect between those who order, perform, and interpret studies, creates delays between when clinical questions are asked and answered, and may increase expense. Ultrasound-enhanced physical examination provides immediate information about our patients, which frequently alters our assessments and management plans. PMID:28261499

  8. Bedside ultrasonography in the ICU: part 2.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Yanick; Marik, Paul E

    2005-09-01

    This is the second of a two-part review on the application of bedside ultrasonography in the ICU. In this part, the following procedures will be covered: (1) echocardiography and cardiovascular diagnostics (second part); (2) the use of bedside ultrasound to facilitate central-line placement and to aid in the care of patients with pleural effusions and intra-abdominal fluid collections; (3) the role of hand-carried ultrasound in the ICU; and (4) the performance of bedside ultrasound by the intensivist. The safety and utility of bedside ultrasonography performed by adequately trained intensivists has now been well demonstrated. This technology, as a powerful adjunct to the physical examination, will become an indispensable tool in the management of critically ill patients.

  9. [Chest ultrasonography in pediatric critical care practice].

    PubMed

    Riu, B; Ruiz, J; Mari, A; Silva, S

    2013-12-01

    An increasingly amount of evidence suggests that lung ultrasonography constitutes a relevant complementary diagnostic tool for adults patient in acute respiratory failure. A comprehensive and standardized ultrasonographic semiology has been described, relying on accurate and reproducible data directly obtained at patient's bedside. Therefore, pleural effusion, pneumothorax, pulmonary consolidation and interstitial lung disease can be diagnosed in a critical care environment with a similar level of performance than when reference diagnosis methods such as thoracic CT-scan are employed. Furthermore, lung ultrasonography seems to be able to contribute to an early therapeutic decision based on such online physiopathological data. Pioneers works in this field have suggested an attractive similarity between the ultrasonographic patterns described in adults and children. Nevertheless, the clinical usefulness of lung ultrasonographic approach in the pediatric critical care medicine still needs to be confirmed by specifically designed studies.

  10. Idiopathic non-hypertrophic pyloric stenosis in an infant successfully treated via endoscopic approach

    PubMed Central

    Karnsakul, Wikrom; Cannon, Mary L; Gillespie, Stacey; Vaughan, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Non-peptic, non-hypertrophic pyloric stenosis has rarely been reported in pediatric literature. Endoscopic pyloric balloon dilation has been shown to be a safe procedure in treating gastric outlet obstruction in older children and adults. Partial gastric outlet obstruction (GOO) was diagnosed in an infant by history and confirmed by an upper gastrointestinal series (UGI). Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography scan excluded idiopathic hypertrophic pyloric stenosis, abdominal tumors, gastrointestinal and hepato-biliary-pancreatic anomalies. Endoscopic findings showed a pinhole-sized pylorus and did not indicate peptic ulcer disease, Helicobacter pylori infection, antral web, or evidence of allergic and inflammatory bowel diseases. Three sessions of a step-wise endoscopic pyloric balloon dilation were conducted under general anesthesia and a fluoroscopy at two week intervals using catheter balloons (Boston Scientific Microvasive®, MA, USA) of increasing diameters. Repeat UGI after the first session revealed normal gastrointestinal transit and no intestinal obstruction. The patient tolerated solid food without any gastrointestinal symptoms since the first session. The endoscope was able to be passed through the pylorus after the last session. Although the etiology of GOO in this infant is unclear (proposed mechanisms are herein discussed), endoscopic pyloric balloon dilation was a safe procedure for treating this young infant with non-peptic, non-hypertrophic pyloric stenosis and should be considered as an initial approach before pyloroplasty in such presentations. PMID:21191516

  11. Ultrasonography of the hip and lower extremity.

    PubMed

    Malanga, Gerard A; Dentico, Richard; Halperin, Jonathan S

    2010-08-01

    Musculoskeletal ultrasonographic evaluation of the proximal lower limb includes the evaluation of the soft tissue structures, including tendons, ligaments, or muscles, and the bony structures of this region, include the hip, pubic symphysis, and sacroiliac joints. The evaluation of the hip or proximal lower limb region can be performed in an efficient and systematic manner. Ultrasonography of the lateral hip, intra-articular hip, medial thigh, and posterior thigh are discussed in the article.

  12. Vascular access: the impact of ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Saldanha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Vascular punctures are often necessary in critically ill patients. They are secure, but not free of complications. Ultrasonography enhances safety of the procedure by decreasing puncture attempts, complications and costs. This study reviews important publications and the puncture technique using ultrasound, bringing part of the experience of the intensive care unit of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo (SP), Brazil, and discussing issues that should be considered in future studies. PMID:28076607

  13. Critical care ultrasonography in circulatory shock.

    PubMed

    Koster, Geert; van der Horst, Iwan C C

    2017-08-01

    The objective was to define the role of ultrasound in the diagnosis and the management of circulatory shock by critical appraisal of the literature. Assessment of any patient's hemodynamic profile based on clinical examination can be sufficient in several cases, but many times unclarities remain. Arterial catheters and central venous lines are commonly used in critically ill patients for practical reasons, and offer an opportunity for advanced hemodynamic monitoring. Critical care ultrasonography may add to the understanding of the hemodynamic profile at hand. Improvements in ultrasound techniques, for example, smaller devices and improved image quality, may reduce limitations and increase its value as a complementary tool. Critical care ultrasonography has great potential to guide decisions in the management of shock, but operators should be aware of limitations and pitfalls as well. Current evidence comes from cohort studies with heterogeneous design and outcomes. Use of ultrasonography for hemodynamic monitoring in critical care expands, probably because of absence of procedure-related adverse events. Easy applicability and the capacity of distinguishing different types of shock add to its increasing role, further supported by consensus statements promoting ultrasound as the preferred tool for diagnostics in circulatory shock.

  14. Three-dimensional endoscopic visualization in functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Tobias; Baumann, Ingo; Plinkert, Peter K; Simon, Christian; Sertel, Serkan

    2016-11-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) stereoscopic vision in sinus surgery has been achieved with the microscope so far. The introduction of two-dimensional (2D) endoscopes set a milestone in the visualization of the surgical field and paved the way to functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS), although the 2D endoscopes cannot provide a stereoscopic visualization. The latest technology of 3D endoscopes allows stereoscopic vision. We provide a clinical investigation of all commercially available 3D endoscopes in FESS to compare their clinical value and efficacy to routinely used conventional 2D HD endoscopes. In this prospective, randomized, controlled clinical study, 46 patients with polypoid chronic rhinosinusitis underwent FESS with one of the following three endoscopes: 2D 0° high definition (HD), 3D 0° standard definition (SD) and 3D 0° HD. Four surgeons qualitatively assessed endoscopes on stereoscopic depth perception (SDP) of the surgeon, sharpness and brightness of the image, as well as their comfort in use during surgery. Surgeons assessed the brightness of the control (2D HD) significantly better than 3D SD (p = 0.009) and brightness of 3D HD was rated significantly better than 3D SD (p = 0.038). Stereoscopic depth perception (SDP) of 3D SD was assessed highly significantly better than the control (2D HD) (p = 0.021), whereas 3D HD displayed best SDP (p = 0.0001). The comfort in use was rated significantly higher in the 3D HD group compared to the control group (p = 0.025). No significant differences in sharpness could be seen among all endoscopes. 3D HD endoscopy provides an improvement in SDP and brightness of the surgical field. It enhances the intraoperative visualization and is therefore an important and efficient development in endoscopic sinus surgery.

  15. [Endoscopic treatments for Barrett oesophagus].

    PubMed

    Vienne, Ariane; Prat, Frédéric

    2011-05-01

    High grade dysplasia and superficial carcinomas (with no extension under muscularis mucosae) can be indications for endoscopic treatments of Barrett oesophagus. When an endoscopic treatment is considered, a gastroscopy with use of acetic acid and planimetry and the confirmation of high-grade dysplasia by a new examination after PPI treatment and a pathologic second confirmation is needed. For high-grade dysplasia in focalised and visible lesions, an endoscopic resection by EMR or ESD should be proposed: it allows a more accurate pathologic examination and can be an effective curative treatment. After endoscopic resection of visible high grade dysplasia lesions, a complete eradication of Barrett oesophagus may be proposed to prevent dysplasia recurrence. In case of extensive high-grade dysplasia or to eradicate Barrett oesophagus residual lesions, radiofrequency ablation is the preferred endoscopic technique. Photodynamic therapy may also be proposed for more invasive lesions or after other endoscopic techniques with mucosal scars. Surgical oesophagus resection is still recommended for diffuse high-grade dysplasia in young patients or in case of pathologic pejorative criteria in endoscopic resection specimen. In case of Low-grade dysplasia, either endoscopic surveillance should be performed every six or 12 months or radiofrequency ablation could be proposed in the yield of prospective studies.

  16. Endoscopic Gastrocnemius Intramuscular Aponeurotic Recession

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-01-01

    Gastrocnemius aponeurotic recession is the surgical treatment for symptomatic gastrocnemius contracture. Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession procedures has been developed recently and reported to have fewer complications and better cosmetic outcomes. Classically, this is performed at the aponeurosis distal to the gastrocnemius muscle attachment. We describe an alternative endoscopic approach in which the intramuscular portion of the aponeurosis is released. PMID:26900563

  17. Rinsability of Orthophthalaldehyde from Endoscopes

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Norman; Harris, Valerie; Lukomski, Natalie; Ebron, Towanda

    2012-01-01

    Orthophthalaldehyde high level disinfectants are contraindicated for use with urological instruments such as cystoscopes due to anaphylaxis-like allergic reactions during surveillance of bladder cancer patients. Allergic reactions and mucosal injuries have also been reported following colonoscopy, laryngoscopy, and transesophageal echocardiography with devices disinfected using orthophthalaldehyde. Possibly these endoscopes were not adequately rinsed after disinfection by orthophthalaldehyde. We examined this possibility by means of a zone-of-inhibition test, and also a test to extract residues of orthophthalaldehyde with acetonitrile, from sections of endoscope insertion tube materials, to measure the presence of alkaline glutaraldehyde, or glutaraldehyde plus 20% w/w isopropanol, or ortho-phthalaldehyde that remained on the endoscope materials after exposure to these disinfectants followed by a series of rinses in water, or by aeration overnight. Zones of any size indicated the disinfectant had not been rinsed away from the endoscope material. There were no zones of inhibition surrounding endoscope materials soaked in glutaraldehyde or glutaraldehyde plus isopropanol after three serial water rinses according to manufacturers' rinsing directions. The endoscope material soaked in orthophthalaldehyde produced zones of inhibition even after fifteen serial rinses with water. Orthophthalaldehyde was extracted from the rinsed endoscope material by acetonitrile. These data, and other information, indicate that the high level disinfectant orthophthalaldehyde, also known as 1,2-benzene dialdehyde, cannot be rinsed away from flexible endoscope material with any practical number of rinses with water, or by drying overnight. PMID:22665966

  18. Endoscopic Gastrocnemius Intramuscular Aponeurotic Recession.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-10-01

    Gastrocnemius aponeurotic recession is the surgical treatment for symptomatic gastrocnemius contracture. Endoscopic gastrocnemius recession procedures has been developed recently and reported to have fewer complications and better cosmetic outcomes. Classically, this is performed at the aponeurosis distal to the gastrocnemius muscle attachment. We describe an alternative endoscopic approach in which the intramuscular portion of the aponeurosis is released.

  19. Endoscopic drainage for duodenal hematoma following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ya-Min; Wang, Tian-Tian; Wu, Jun; Hu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    Intramural duodenal hematoma (IDH) is a rare complication following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). Blunt damage caused by the endoscope or an accessory has been suggested as the main reason for IDH. Surgical treatment of isolated duodenal hematoma after blunt trauma is traditionally reserved for rare cases of perforation or persistent symptoms despite conservative management. Typical clinical symptoms of IDH include abdominal pain and vomiting. Diagnosis of IDH can be confirmed by imaging techniques, such as magnetic resonance imaging or computed tomography and upper gastrointestinal endoscopy. Duodenal hematoma is mainly treated by drainage, which includes open surgery drainage and percutaneous transhepatic cholangial drainage, both causing great trauma. Here we present a case of massive IDH following ERCP, which was successfully managed by minimally invasive management: intranasal hematoma aspiration combined with needle knife opening under a duodenoscope. PMID:23599635

  20. Endoscopic retroauricular thyroidectomy: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Byeon, Hyung Kwon; Holsinger, F Christopher; Tufano, Ralph P; Park, Jae Hong; Sim, Nam Suk; Kim, Won Shik; Choi, Eun Chang; Koh, Yoon Woo

    2016-01-01

    We sought to seek the potential role of endoscopic thyroidectomy with the retroauricular (RA) approach prior to future comparative study with the robotic RA thyroidectomy. Therefore, this study aims to verify the surgical feasibility of endoscopic RA thyroidectomy. Eighteen patients who underwent endoscopic RA thyroidectomy for clinically suspicious papillary thyroid carcinoma or benign lesions from January to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. All endoscopic operations via RA or modified facelift approach were successfully performed, without any significant intraoperative complications or conversion to open surgery. Based on patient-reported outcome questionnaires, all patients were satisfied with their postoperative surgical scars. Endoscopic RA thyroidectomy is technically feasible and safe with satisfactory cosmetic results for patients where indicated.

  1. Endoscopic Management of Gastrointestinal Fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin; Larsen, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    A gastrointestinal fistula is a common occurrence, especially after surgery. Patients who develop a fistula may have an infection, surgically altered anatomy, nutritional deficiency, or organ failure, making surgical revision more difficult. With advancements in flexible endoscopic devices and technology, new endoscopic options are available for the management of gastrointestinal fistulae. Endoscopically deployable stents, endoscopic suturing devices, through-the-scope and over-the-scope clips, sealants, and fistula plugs can be used to treat fistulae. These therapies are even more effective in combination. Despite the inherent challenges in patients with fistulae, endoscopic therapies for treatment of fistulae have demonstrated safety and efficacy, allowing many patients to avoid surgical fistula repair. In this paper, we review the emerging role of endoscopy in the management of gastrointestinal fistulae. PMID:28845140

  2. [Endoscopic vacuum-assisted closure].

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer, J; Lankisch, T

    2013-03-01

    Anastomotic leakage in the upper and lower intestinal tract is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Within the last 10 years endoscopic treatment options have been accepted as sufficient treatment option of these surgical complications. Endoscopic vacuum assisted closure (E-VAC) is a new innovative endoscopic therapeutic option in this field. E-VAC transfers the positive effects of vacuum assisted closure (VAC) on infected cutaneous wounds to infected cavities that can only be reached endoscopically. A sponge connected to a drainage tube is endoscopically placed in the leakage and a continuous vacuum is applied. Sponge and vacuum allow removal of infected fluids and promote granulation of the leakage. This results in clean wound grounds and finally allows wound closure. Meanwhile the method was also successfully used in the treatment of necrotic pancreatitis.

  3. Endoscopic resection using band ligation for esophageal SMT in less than 10 mm.

    PubMed

    Hong, Joung Boom; Choi, Cheol Woong; Kim, Hyung Wook; Kang, Dae Hwan; Park, Su Bum; Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Dong Jun

    2015-03-14

    To evaluate the safety and feasibility of endoscopic resection using band ligation (EMR-B) for the diagnostic and therapeutic removal of tumors located in the esophageal subepithelial region having originated from the submucosa. From May 2009 to September 2014, after medical chart and endoscopic ultrasonography report review, a total of 15 esophageal tumors located in the submucosal layer were resected by EMR-B. Previous symptom, location, pathology, complete resection rate, incidence of complications, incidence of minor complication, size, length of procedures time and follow up months were evaluated. To evaluate local recurrence at the resection site, periodic follow-up endoscopic examination was undertaken in all of the patients. The first endoscopic examination was performed about 6 mo after the endoscopic resection. Thereafter, the endoscopic follow up were scheduled annually. The mean age was 50.3 ± 9.67 years. The mean tumor size was 6.93 ± 3.15 mm and most of the lesions size was between 5-10 mm in diameter (10/15, 66.6%). In all patients, endoscopic en bloc resection was achieved. In one patient, the vertical margin was involved. The mean procedural time was 8.86 ± 3.66 min. In all patients, no evidence of severe complications such as perforation or bleeding occurred. Minor complications such as chest pain (2/15, 13.3%) and heartburn (3/15, 13.3%) were reported but they symptoms were controlled by proton pump inhibitors, ulcermin and/or analgesics. Histologic assessments of the removed specimens revealed 10 granular cell tumors (66.6%), 4 leiomyomas (16.6%) and one lipoma (6.6%). No recurrence was observed during the mean follow up period of 45 ± 3.5 mo (range: 5-64 mo). EMR-B might be considered safe and effective for the diagnosis and treatment of lesions measuring less than 10 mm in diameter.

  4. Endoscopic mucosal resection.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Joo Ha; Konda, Vani; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Chauhan, Shailendra S; Enestvedt, Brintha K; Fujii-Lau, Larissa L; Komanduri, Sri; Maple, John T; Murad, Faris M; Pannala, Rahul; Thosani, Nirav C; Banerjee, Subhas

    2015-08-01

    EMR has become an established therapeutic option for premalignant and early-stage GI malignancies, particularly in the esophagus and colon. EMR can also aid in the diagnosis and therapy of subepithelial lesions localized to the muscularis mucosa or submucosa. Several dedicated EMR devices are available to facilitate these procedures. Adverse event rates, particularly bleeding and perforation, are higher after EMR relative to other basic endoscopic interventions but lower than adverse event rates for ESD. Endoscopists performing EMR should be knowledgeable and skilled in managing potential adverse events resulting from EMR.

  5. Endoscopic treatment of craniosynostosis.

    PubMed

    Stelnicki, Eric J

    2002-03-01

    We are entering a new era of craniosynostosis repair. When detected early, endoscopic skull remodeling, combined with a postoperative external skull-molding device, gives an excellent long-standing reconstruction of the cranial skeleton. This technique diminishes the morbidity of the operation and decreases the overall cost. It does not replace classic plate and screw cranial vault reconstruction in the older patient but is a useful weapon in the armamentarium of the craniofacial surgeon for the treatment of craniosynostosis in the neonatal period.

  6. Endoscopic Intermetatarsal Ligament Decompression.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2015-12-01

    Morton neuroma is an entrapment of the intermetatarsal nerve by the deep intermetatarsal ligament. It is usually treated conservatively. Surgery is considered if there is recalcitrant pain that is resistant to conservative treatment. The surgical options include resection of the neuroma or decompression of the involved nerve. Decompression of the nerve by release of the intermetatarsal ligament can be performed by either an open or minimally invasive approach. We describe 2-portal endoscopic decompression of the intermetatarsal nerve. The ligament is released by a retrograde knife through the toe-web portal under arthroscopic guidance through the plantar portal.

  7. In-vivo monitoring of development of cholangiocarcinoma induced with C. sinensis and N-nitrosodimethylamine in Syrian golen hamsters using ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Woo, Hyunsik; Han, Joon Koo; Kim, Jung Hoon; Hong, Sung-Tae; Uddin, Md Hafiz; Jang, Ja-June

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate high-resolution ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in monitoring of cholangiocarcinoma in the hamsters with C. sinensis infection and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA). Twenty-four male Syrian golden hamsters of were divided into four groups composed of five hamsters as control, five hamsters receiving 30 metacercariae of C. sinensis per each hamster, five hamsters receiving NDMA in drinking water, and nine hamsters receiving both metacercariae and NDMA. Ultrasound was performed every other week from baseline to the 12th week of infection. MRI and histopathologic examination was done from the 4th week to 12th week. Cholangiocarcinomas appeared as early as the 6th week of infection. There were 12 cholangiocarcinomas, nine and ten of which were demonstrated by ultrasound and MRI, respectively. Ultrasound and MRI findings of cholangiocarcinomas in the hamsters were similar to those of the mass-forming intrahepatic cholangiocarcinomas in humans. Ultrasound and MRI also showed other findings of disease progression such as periductal increased echogenicity or signal intensity, ductal dilatation, complicated cysts, and sludges in the gallbladder. High-resolution ultrasound and MRI can monitor and detect the occurrence of cholangiocarcinoma in the hamsters non-invasively. • High-resolution ultrasound and MRI can monitor occurrence of cholangiocarcinoma in the hamsters. • Cholangiocarcinomas were detected as early as the 6th week after C. sinensis infection. • Axial T2-weighted MRI demonstrated cholangiocarcinomas and various inflammatory findings in the hamsters.

  8. High grade anorectal stricture complicating Crohn's disease: endoscopic treatment using insulated-tip knife

    PubMed Central

    Chon, Hyung Ku; Shin, Ik Sang; Kim, Sang Wook

    2016-01-01

    Endoscopic treatments have emerged as an alternative to surgery, in the treatment of benign colorectal stricture. Unlike endoscopic balloon dilatation, there is limited data on endoscopic electrocautery incision therapy for benign colorectal stricture, especially with regards to safety and long-term patency. We present a case of a 29-year-old female with Crohn's disease who had difficulty in defecation and passing thin stools. A pelvic magnetic resonance imaging scan, gastrograffin enema, and sigmoidoscopy showed a high-grade anorectal stricture. An endoscopic insulated-tip knife incision was successfully performed to resolve the problem. From our experience, we suggest that endoscopic insulated-tip knife treatment may be a feasible and effective modality for patients with short-segment, very rigid, fibrotic anorectal stricture. PMID:27433152

  9. [Endoscopic ultrasonography in the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumors of the pancreas].

    PubMed

    Starkov, Iu G; Solodinina, E N; Egorov, A V; Shishkin, K V; Novozhilova, A V; Kurushkina, N A

    2010-01-01

    In this article presented results of examination and treatment of 30 patients with suspected neuroendocrine tumors (NEO) of the pancreas during the period from 2007 to 2010. In the 22 cases were identified solitary pancreatic tumor, and 4 observations--multiple. Functioning NEO were detected in 19 observations, dysfunctional--7. The main objective of endosonography was a differential diagnosis of NEO with adenocarcinoma and chronic pancreatitis, as well as the topical diagnosis of small tumors that are inaccessible by other imaging beam method. Among the 27 patients operated on NEO confirmed in 26. In 1 case was revealed adenocarcinoma. Endosonography in NEO-functioning method of diagnosis is a priority, having the highest sensitivity, specificity and accuracy among all modern radiological methods of diagnosis.

  10. Endoscopic simple prostatectomy

    PubMed Central

    Borkowski, Tomasz; Chłosta, Piotr; Dobruch, Jakub; Fiutowski, Marek; Jaskulski, Jarosław; Słojewski, Marcin; Szydełko, Tomasz; Szymański, Michał; Demkow, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Many options exist for the surgical treatment of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), including transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), laser surgery, and open adenomectomy. Recently, endoscopic techniques have been used in the treatment of BPH. Material and methods We reviewed clinical studies in PubMed describing minimally invasive endoscopic procedures for the treatment of BPH. Results Laparoscopic adenomectomy (LA) and robotic–assisted simple prostatectomy (RASP) were introduced in the early 2000s. These operative techniques have been standardized and reproducible, with some individual modifications. Studies analyzing the outcomes of LA and RASP have reported significant improvements in urinary flow and decreases in patient International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). These minimally invasive approaches have resulted in a lower rate of complications, shorter hospital stays, smaller scars, faster recoveries, and an earlier return to work. Conclusions Minimally invasive techniques such as LA and RASP for the treatment BPH are safe, efficacious, and allow faster recovery. These procedures have a short learning curve and offer new options for the surgeon treating BPH. PMID:25667758

  11. Endoscopic egomotion computation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergen, Tobias; Ruthotto, Steffen; Rupp, Stephan; Winter, Christian; Münzenmayer, Christian

    2010-03-01

    Computer assistance in Minimally Invasive Surgery is a very active field of research. Many systems designed for Computer Assisted Surgery require information about the instruments' positions and orientations. Our main focus lies on tracking a laparoscopic ultrasound probe to generate 3D ultrasound volumes. State-of-the-art tracking methods such as optical or electromagnetic tracking systems measure pose with respect to a fixed extra-body coordinate system. This causes inaccuracies of the reconstructed ultrasound volume in the case of patient motion, e.g. due to respiration. We propose attaching an endoscopic camera to the ultrasound probe and calculating the camera motion from the video sequence with respect to the organ surface. We adapt algorithms developed for solving the relative pose problem to recreate the camera path during the ultrasound sweep over the organ. By this image-based motion estimation camera motion can only be determined up to an unknown scale factor, known as the depth-speed-ambiguity. We show, how this problem can be overcome in the given scenario, exploiting the fact, that the distance of the camera to the organ surface is fixed and known. Preprocessing steps are applied to compensate for endoscopic image quality deficiencies.

  12. Endoscopic Treatment for Early Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Endoscopic resection has been accepted as a curative modality for early gastric cancer (EGC). Since conventional endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) has been introduced, many improvements in endoscopic accessories and techniques have been achieved. Recently, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) using various electrosurgical knives has been performed for complete resection of EGC and enables complete resection of EGC, which is difficult to completely resect in the era of conventional EMR. Currently, ESD is accepted as the standard method for endoscopic resection of EGC in indicated cases. In this review, the history of endoscopic treatment for EGC, overall ESD procedures, and indications and clinical results of endoscopic treatment will be presented. PMID:22076219

  13. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic aid in bovine musculoskeletal disorders.

    PubMed

    Kofler, Johann

    2009-11-01

    In the last 15 years, ultrasonography of the bovine musculoskeletal system has become an established diagnostic method used routinely in many veterinary teaching hospitals worldwide. Ultrasonography is ideal for the evaluation of musculoskeletal disorders because they are often associated with extensive soft tissue swelling and inflammatory exudation. The goal of this article is to encourage veterinarians to use ultrasonography for the evaluation of bovine orthopedic disorders. Not only does ultrasonography improve the likelihood of a definitive diagnosis, added use of the machine helps recoup expenses.

  14. Successful Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection of a Large Terminal Ileal Lipoma

    PubMed Central

    Noda, Hisatsugu; Ogasawara, Naotaka; Tamura, Yasuhiro; Kondo, Yoshihiro; Izawa, Shinya; Ebi, Masahide; Funaki, Yasushi; Sasaki, Makoto; Kasugai, Kunio

    2016-01-01

    A 78-year-old woman who had recurrent right lower abdominal pain for about 1 year underwent computed tomography (CT) because of a follow-up observation 1 year after right breast cancer surgery. CT revealed a tumor in the colon. The patient was referred to our hospital for detailed examinations. An abdominal CT showed a low-density tumor of approximately 30 mm in the ascending colon, and the CT density inside the tumor was same as that of fatty tissues. A subsequent colonoscopy showed a submucosal tumor (SMT) in the proximal ascending colon developing from the terminal ileum. A colonoscopic ultrasonography revealed that the SMT was a high-echoic mass mainly localized in the submucosal layer. Based on the findings from CT, colonoscopy, and colonoscopic ultrasonography, the SMT was diagnosed as a pedunculated lipoma originating from the terminal ileum and treated with endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) because of recurrent abdominal pain. The 40-mm tumor was resected en bloc without complications. ESD may be more appropriate than polypectomy and surgery for removal of small intestinal tumors, because ESD allows direct visualization of the cutting line and exactly dissects the submucosal layers without damaging the muscular layers. ESD is a potentially useful treatment to remove intestinal lipomas. PMID:27843426

  15. Clinical use of high-resolution ultrasonography for the diagnosis of type II accessory navicular bone.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Yi-Wen; Tsai, Wen-San; Chen, Kai-Hua; Hsu, Hung-Chih

    2012-02-01

    Medial foot pain is a common complaint in rehabilitation clinics. The differential diagnoses include many musculoskeletal disorders like tendonitis and inflammation of ossicles. Posterior tibialis tendonitis is a common cause of foot pain in adults. The accessory navicular (AN) bone is occasionally observed and considered as a secondary ossification center of the navicular bone. Occasionally, posterior tibialis tendonitis and AN bone may cause acute or chronic medial foot pain with varying degrees of dysfunction. Previously, the diagnosis of an AN bone in a painful medial foot was based on clinical presentation and radiographic examinations such as plain radiography, bone scintigraphy, and magnetic resonance imaging. However, the application of soft-tissue ultrasonography for the diagnosis of posterior tibialis tendonitis associated with an AN bone has not been documented. Here, we report the case of a 60-yr-old woman with painful medial foot which had a diagnosis of posterior tibialis tendonitis associated with an AN bone by high-resolution ultrasonography.

  16. Ultrasonography of Extravaginal Testicular Torsion in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Bombiński, Przemysław; Warchoł, Stanisław; Brzewski, Michał; Majkowska, Zofia; Dudek-Warchoł, Teresa; Żerańska, Maria; Panek, Małgorzata; Drop, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Extravaginal testicular torsion (ETT), also called prenatal or perinatal, occurs prenatally and is present at birth or appears within the first month of life. It has different etiology than intravaginal torsion, which appears later in life. Testicular torsion must be taken into consideration in differential diagnosis of acute scrotum and should be confirmed or ruled out at first diagnostic step. Ultrasonography is a basic imaging modality, however diagnostic pitfalls are still possible. There is still wide discussion concerning management of ETT, which varies from immediate orchiectomy to conservative treatment resulting in testicle atrophy. Material/Methods In this article we present ultrasonographic spectrum of ETT in neonates, which were diagnosed and treated in our hospital during the last 8 years (2008–2015), in correlation with clinical and intraoperative findings. Results Thirteen neonates with ETT were enrolled in the study – 11 patients with a single testicle affected and 2 patients with bilateral testicular torsion. Most common signs on clinical examination were: hardened and enlarged testicle and discoloration of the scrotum. Most common ultrasonographic signs were: abnormal size or echostructure of the affected testicle and absence of the blood flow in Doppler ultrasonography. In 3 patients ultrasound elastography was performed, which appeared very useful in testicle structure assessment. Conclusions Testicular torsion may concern boys even in the perinatal period. Ultrasonographic picture of acute scrotum in young boys may be confused. Coexistence of the abnormal size or echostructure of the torsed testicle with absence of the blood flow in Doppler ultrasonography appear as very specific but late ultrasonographic sings. Ultrasound elastography may be a very useful tool for visualisation of a very common clinical sign – hardening of the necrotic testicle. PMID:27757176

  17. Emerging technology in head and neck ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Holtel, Michael R

    2010-12-01

    Increased use of ultrasonography of the head and neck by clinicians has resulted from more compact, higher resolution ultrasound machines that can be more readily used in the office setting. Palm-sized machines are already used for vascular access and bladder assessment. As the resolution of these machines becomes adequate for head and neck assessment, ultrasonography is likely to become a routine adjunct to the office physical examination. Further techniques to reduce artifact beyond spatial compounding, second harmonics, and broadband inversion techniques are likely to be developed to improve ultrasound images. Manual palpation using the ultrasound transducer or "sound palpation," using sound to recreate vibration provides information on tissue "stiffness," which has been successfully used to distinguish between benign and malignant lesions in the head and neck (particularly thyroid nodules). Microbubble contrast-enhanced ultrasound provides improved resolution of ultrasound images. Three- and four-dimensional ultrasonography provides for more accurate diagnosis. The ability of microbubbles with ligands affixed to their outer surface to target specific tissue makes them excellent delivery vehicles. DNA plasmids, chemotherapy agents, and therapeutic drugs can be released at a specific anatomic site. The motion of microbubbles stimulated by ultrasound can be used to increase drug penetration through tissues and has been shown to be effective in breaking up clots in stroke patients (without increased risk). High-intensity focused ultrasound can be used to create coagulation necrosis without significant damage to adjacent tissue. It has been effectively used in neurosurgery and urology, but its effectiveness in the head and neck is still being determined. A prototype for surgical navigation with ultrasound has been developed for the head and neck, which allows real-time imaging of anatomic surgical changes. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... photographic accessories for endoscope, miscellaneous bulb adapter for endoscope, binocular attachment for endoscope, eyepiece attachment for prescription lens, teaching attachment, inflation bulb, measuring device...

  19. 21 CFR 876.1500 - Endoscope and accessories.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... photographic accessories for endoscope, miscellaneous bulb adapter for endoscope, binocular attachment for endoscope, eyepiece attachment for prescription lens, teaching attachment, inflation bulb, measuring device...

  20. Ultrasonography of the eye and orbit.

    PubMed

    Dudea, Sorin M

    2011-06-01

    Ultrasonography (US) is, quite often, the first imaging modality used in eye and orbit assessment. The indications of ophthalmic US cover a wide range of disease where direct clinical assessment is impossible or of little value. Doppler US enhances the ability to assess blood flow in the main arteries and veins. In order to take full advantage of all the possibilities US has to offer the examiner thorough knowledge of the examination technique and normal US anatomy of the eye and orbit is required. This paper reviews the basics of the examination technique and ultrasound anatomy of the eye and orbit.

  1. Diagnostic ultrasonography for peripheral vascular emergencies.

    PubMed

    Cook, Thomas; Nolting, Laura; Barr, Caleb; Hunt, Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Over the past decade, emergency and critical care physicians have been empowered with the ability to use bedside ultrasonography to assist in the evaluation and management of a variety of emergent conditions. Today a single health care provider at the bedside with Duplex ultrasound technology can evaluate peripheral vascular calamities that once required significant time and a variety of health care personnel for the diagnosis. This article highlights peripheral thromboembolic disease, aneurysm, pseudoaneurysm, and arterial occlusion in the acute care setting. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effectiveness of a Critical Care Ultrasonography Course.

    PubMed

    Greenstein, Yonatan Y; Littauer, Ross; Narasimhan, Mangala; Mayo, Paul H; Koenig, Seth J

    2017-01-01

    Widespread use of critical care ultrasonography (CCUS) for the management of patients in the ICU requires an effective training program. The effectiveness of national and regional CCUS training courses is not known. This study describes a national-level, simulation-based, 3-day CCUS training program and evaluates its effectiveness. Five consecutive CCUS courses, with a total of 363 people, were studied. The 3-day CCUS training program consisted of didactic lectures, ultrasonography interpretation sessions, and hands-on modules with live models. Thoracic, vascular, and abdominal ultrasonography were taught in addition to goal-directed echocardiography. Learners rotated between hands-on training and interpretation sessions. The teacher-to-learner ratio was 1:3 during hands-on training. Interpretation sessions were composed of interactive small groups that reviewed normal and abnormal ultrasonography images. Learners completed a video-based examination before and after completion of the courses. Hands-on image acquisition skills were tested at the completion of the course. Average scores on the pretest and posttest were 57% and 90%, respectively (P < .001). The average score on the hands-on test was 86%. Learners aged 20 to 39 years compared with learners ≥ 40 years old scored better on the pretest (64% vs 51%; P < 0.001), posttest (91% vs 88%; P < .010), and hands-on test (90% vs 82%; P < .001). Learners demonstrated a significant improvement in written test scores that assessed cognitive and image interpretation abilities. In addition, they demonstrated acquisition of practical skills as evidenced by high scores during hands-on testing. Further studies are needed to determine if a simulation-based CCUS course will translate into effective clinical practice and to measure the durability of training. This 3-day course is an effective method to train large groups of critical care clinicians in the skills requisite for CCUS (image acquisition and image

  3. Ultrasonography of bovine urinary tract disorders.

    PubMed

    Floeck, Martina

    2009-11-01

    Ultrasonography is a helpful diagnostic tool in cattle with urinary tract disorders. It can be used to diagnose pyelonephritis, urolithiasis, hydronephrosis, renal cysts, renal tumors, amyloidosis, cystitis, bladder paralysis, bladder rupture, bladder neoplasms, and, occasionally, nephrosis, glomerulonephritis, and embolic nephritis. This article describes the anatomy, scanning technique, indications, limitations, normal and pathologic sonographic appearance of the bovine urinary tract. References from horses and humans are included, especially when the sonographic findings in these species may complement the understanding of similar diseases reported in cattle.

  4. Complications of endoscopic intranasal ethmoidectomy.

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, J A

    1987-11-01

    A consecutive series of 90 patients undergoing endoscopic intranasal ethmoidectomy was reviewed. There were 26 complications (29%) in 19 patients in this group. Eight complications (8%) including CSF leak, temporary blindness, and hemorrhage were considered major with the latter occurring most commonly. Synechiae were the most commonly occurring minor complications. Endoscopic nasal sinus surgery performed by inexperienced operators carries with it the same risks and complications as traditional intranasal sinus surgery. Any surgeon who does not routinely perform traditional intranasal ethmoidectomy should accrue endoscopic experience through appropriate didactic training and multiple cadaver dissections (akin to otologic training).

  5. Endoscopic management of esophageal varices.

    PubMed

    Poza Cordon, Joaquin; Froilan Torres, Consuelo; Burgos García, Aurora; Gea Rodriguez, Francisco; Suárez de Parga, Jose Manuel

    2012-07-16

    The rupture of gastric varices results in variceal hemorrhage, which is one the most lethal complications of cirrhosis. Endoscopic therapies for varices aim to reduce variceal wall tension by obliteration of the varix. The two principal methods available for esophageal varices are endoscopic sclerotherapy (EST) and band ligation (EBL). The advantages of EST are that it is cheap and easy to use, and the injection catheter fits through the working channel of a diagnostic gastroscope. Endoscopic variceal ligation obliterates varices by causing mechanical strangulation with rubber bands. The following review aims to describe the utility of EBL and EST in different situations, such as acute bleeding, primary and secondary prophylaxis.

  6. Gangliocytic paraganglioma, a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal bleeding: Endoscopic ultrasound findings presented

    SciTech Connect

    Smithline, A.E.; Hawes, R.H.; Kopecky, K.K.; Cummings, O.W.; Kumar, S. )

    1993-01-01

    Gangliocytic paraganglioma (GP) is an uncommon benign neurogenic tumor of the digestive tract that is usually located in the descending duodenum. Patients with GP usually present with upper gastrointestinal hemorrhage, which reflects the tendency of the tumor to ulcerate the mucosa. The authors report a patient in whom the tumor was overlooked on routine radiologic examinations and initial endoscopy. It was discovered in the distal transverse duodenum at small bowel enteroscopy. The findings of endoscopic ultrasonography are correlated with radiographic and histologic examination. 10 refs.

  7. [RovoIving ultrasonic probe for medical endoscope imaging system based on USB2.0].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaodong; Wen, Shijie; Yu, Daoyin

    2008-10-01

    This paper mainly introduces the design and implementation of rotary scanning imaging for Endoscopic Ultrasonography System based on USB2.0. The ultrasonic pulse-echo imaging technique has been used. In the paper, we simply introduce the emission circuit, receiving circuit and isolation circuit. According to the character of rotary scanning, we design the synchronous control circuit based on FPGA and data transmission circuit based on USB2.0. Finally the original polar coordinate image is transformed to rectangular coordinate grey image through coordinate transformation. The system performances have been validated by the experimental result gotten by scanning a specific object with continuous rotary motor.

  8. Usefulness of ultrasonography in assessment of laryngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Xia, C-X; Zhao, H-X; Yan, F; Li, S-L; Zhang, S-M

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of ultrasonography in assessing laryngeal cancer. Methods: 72 patients with laryngeal carcinoma proven by surgery and pathology were enrolled. The pre-therapeutic ultrasonography and CT images were retrospectively evaluated, including tumour detection, localisation and invasion of intra- and extralaryngeal structures. A comparative assessment was made between the detection rate, correspondence rate of localisation and sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography and CT. The mobility of the larynx was observed on real-time ultrasonography and compared with laryngoscopy. Results: The detection rate of ultrasonography [63 (87.5%)/72] was lower than that of CT [72 (100.0%)/72] (p=0.006). The primary foci were accurately located in 59 (93.7%) of 63 lesions using ultrasonography compared with 70 (97.2%) of 72 lesions using CT (p=0.392). In the evaluation of invasion, the sensitivity and specificity of ultrasonography were similar to that of CT in most of the intra- and extralaryngeal structures (p=0.059–1.000). A higher specificity was obtained during the assessment of the paraglottic space involvement when using ultrasonography than CT (94.9% vs 66.7%, p=0.001). For vocal cord fixation, no statistical difference was found between ultrasonography and laryngoscopy (p=0.223). Conclusion: Ultrasonography could be used as a valuable supplementary imaging method to CT and laryngoscopy in the assessment of laryngeal carcinoma, even in male adults with some calcifications of the thyroid cartilage. Advances in knowledge: Our study demonstrates that ultrasonography, which has been used scarcely in the larynx, could supply useful information on the detection, localisation and intra- and extralaryngeal invasion of laryngeal carcinoma. PMID:24004487

  9. [Reversal of portal blood flow in cirrhosis. Clinical, endoscopic and ultrasound endoscopic correlations in 72 patients].

    PubMed

    Letard, J C; Boustière, C; Romy, P; Jouffre, C; Patouillard, B; Etaix, J P; Barthélémy, C; Veyret, C; Audigier, J C

    1993-01-01

    From January to December 1991, the portal venous system was evaluated by Doppler ultrasonography in 72 patients with liver cirrhosis. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the prevalence of spontaneous reversal of blood flow in the portal vein and to assess the relationship between Doppler ultrasound investigation and clinical, biochemical, endoscopic (70 patients), and endosonographic (44 patients) features. Reversed flow was quite frequent (alternating: 17%, permanent: 22%) and its prevalence did not differ in relation to age, sex, serum gammaglobulin concentration and Child-Pugh class. In patients with reversed portal venous flow, the prevalence of hepatic encephalopathy was higher (39% vs 13.5%, P < 0.05), but the prevalence of esophageal or gastric varices was not related to that pattern. Endosonography detected gastric wall abnormalities in a higher proportion of patients with reversed portal flow than in patients without it (P < 0.05). This study suggests that reversal of flow in the portal vein could play a role in the development of the gastric wall abnormalities in liver cirrhosis, which are detected by endosonography but not by endoscopy.

  10. Severe acute cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination: A case report.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhen-Hai; Wu, Ya-Guang; Qin, Cheng-Kun; Su, Zhong-Xue; Xu, Jian; Xian, Guo-Zhe; Wu, Shuo-Dong

    2012-10-21

    Endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) is considered as a possible etiological factor for severe cholangitis. We herein report a case of severe cholangitis after endoscopic sphincterotomy induced by barium examination. An adult male patient presented with epigastric pain was diagnosed as having choledocholithiasis by ultrasonography. EST was performed and the stone was completely cleaned. Barium examination was done 3 d after EST and severe cholangitis appeared 4 h later. The patient was recovered after treated with tienam for 4 d. Barium examination may induce severe cholangitis in patients after EST, although rare, barium examination should be chosen cautiously. Cautions should be also used when EST is performed in patients younger than 50 years to avoid the damage to the sphincter of Oddi.

  11. [Endoscopic diagnostics and treatment of submucous tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract].

    PubMed

    Starkov, Iu G; Solodinina, E N; Shishin, K V; Novozhilova, A V; Kurushkina, N A

    2011-01-01

    The endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) is considered to be the leading method of diagnostic of the submucous gastrointestinal tumors. Results of diagnostics and treatment of submucous tumors of the upper gastrointestinal tract in 38 patients were analyzed. EUS was performed in 37 (97,4%) of patients, which allowed to detect the origin, size and localization of the tumor. The differential diagnostic algorithm was suggested together with certain indications for various surgical treatment modalities. Thereby, endoscopic ablation is reasonable when the tumor invades not deeper than muscle plate of mucosa or the submucose layer. Laparoscopic full-layer resection of the organ wall is necessary when the tumor invades the muscle layer. Larger tumors or those of any size, but with preoperative signs of high malignancy must be eradicated through laparotomy, meeting all principles of oncology.

  12. Foveated endoscopic lens

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. We present a foveated miniature endoscopic lens implemented by amplifying the optical distortion of the lens. The resulting system provides a high-resolution region in the central field of view and low resolution in the outer fields, such that a standard imaging fiber bundle can provide both the high resolution needed to determine tissue health and the wide field of view needed to determine the location within the inspected organ. Our proof of concept device achieves 7∼8  μm resolution in the fovea and an overall field of view of 4.6 mm. Example images and videos show the foveated lens’ capabilities. PMID:22463022

  13. Internal snapping hip syndrome in dynamic ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Maczuch, Jarosław; Skupiński, Jarosław; Kukawska-Sysio, Karolina; Wawrzynek, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    Snapping hip syndrome is an audible or palpable snap in a hip joint during movement which may be accompanied by pain or locking. It is typically seen in young athletes performing activities requiring repeated extreme movements of the hip. It may also follow a physical trauma, intramuscular injections or surgeries. There are two main forms of snapping hip: extra- or intra-articular. Extra-articular snapping hip is elicited by an abnormal movement of specific tendons and is divided into two forms: internal and external. The internal form of snapping hip syndrome is attributed to an abrupt movement of an iliopsoas tendon against an iliopectineal eminence. Radiograph results in patients with this form of snapping tend to be normal. Dynamic ultrasound is the gold standard diagnostic technique in both forms of extra-articular snapping hip syndrome. The objective of the following text is to describe a step-by-step dynamic ultrasonography examination in internal extra-articular snapping hip syndrome in accordance to the proposed checklist protocol. To evaluate abrupt movement of an involved tendon, the patient needs to perform specific provocation tests during the examination. With its real-time imaging capabilities, dynamic ultrasonography detects the exact mechanism of the abnormal tendon friction during hip movement in a noninvasive way. It also allows for a diagnosis of additional hip tissue changes which may be causing the pain. PMID:27679733

  14. [Carpal tunnel syndrome. The contribution of ultrasonography].

    PubMed

    Pardal-Fernandez, J M

    2014-11-16

    Carpal tunnel syndrome is the most frequent mononeuropathy. Its incidence is huge and the ensuing community health problems are therefore the cause of much concern. Such a situation has made it necessary to develop a key point in the management of the illness, that is, to find flexible, sensitive, specific and cost-effective diagnostic procedures. Today tools of proven worth are now available, especially electrophysiology, and quite recently we also have ultrasonography. Both of these techniques allow us to confirm and characterise neuropathies due to entrapment and indeed a large number of papers dealing with ultrasound imaging have been published in the literature over the last few years. It therefore comes as no surprise that many renowned authors have acknowledged the usefulness of this technique. Here, we review the pathophysiological and diagnostic aspects of carpal tunnel syndrome, with greater emphasis on how ultrasonography has contributed to the morphological evaluation of the entrapped nerve. This method has proved itself to have significant advantages not only due to its being readily available, inexpensive, fast and painless, but also, and above all, because of its high capacity to detect neural and perineural alterations. A critical review of the literature supports this thesis and shows its incorporation into routine daily evaluation to be highly recommendable.

  15. The contribution of ultrasonography to intrauterine contraception.

    PubMed

    Defoort, P; Thiery, M

    1981-01-01

    Various methods of assessing the presence and position of the IUD device within the uterine cavity have been developed (barium sulfate in the IUD matrix, tail strings, uterine sounding, radiography), but all have distinct disadvantages (risk of infection, inadvertent displacing of IUD). Diagnostic ultrasound, or ultrasonography, is a non-invasive, rapid technic with no known biological side effects. It requires no patient preparation except a distended bladder, and it can be repeated at will. This paper reviews the possibilities and limitations of ultrasound, and discusses principles of echographic IUD detection. Ultrasonography can prove the presence and location of an IUD in utero in uncomplicated cases of missing threads. It reduces pregnancy rates significantly by establishing early displacement or expulsion of IUD. It is important that the echographer be aware of the clinical context, and if possible, the type of IUD he is looking for, especially in diagnosing partial penetration and breakage. In a small number of cases, there are situations in which the method will be unreliable, and anticipated success rates will be similar to those of blind clinical trials (e.g., significant number of misdiagnoses). These include: 1) the missing tail, where the uterus appears not to contain the IUD; and 2) incipient pregnancy. Radiographic studies are indicated for both situations.

  16. Endoscopic surgery - exploring the modalities

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Daniel Jin Keat; Tan, Kok-Yang

    2015-01-01

    The adoption of endoscopic surgery continues to expand in clinical situations with the recent natural orifice transluminal endoscopic surgery technique enabling abdominal organ resection to be performed without necessitating any skin incision. In recent years, the development of numerous devices and platforms have allowed for such procedures to be carried out in a safer and more efficient manner, and in some ways to better simulate triangulation and surgical tasks (e.g., suturing and dissection). Furthermore, new novel techniques such as submucosal tunneling, endoscopic full-thickness resection and hybrid endo-laparoscopic approaches have further widened its use in more advanced diseases. Nevertheless, many of these new innovations are still at their pre-clinical stage. This review focuses on the various innovations in endoscopic surgery, with emphasis on devices and techniques that are currently in human use. PMID:26649156

  17. Endoscopic septoplasty: Tips and pearls.

    PubMed

    Pons, Y; Champagne, C; Genestier, L; Ballivet de Régloix, S

    2015-12-01

    This article is designed to provide a step-by-step description of our endoscopic septoplasty technique and discuss its difficulties and technical tips. Endoscopic septoplasty comprises 10 steps: diagnostic endoscopy, subperichondral infiltration, left mucosal incision, dissection of the left subperichondral flap, cartilage incision (0.5 centimetre posterior to the mucosal incision), dissection of the right subperichondral flap, anterior cartilage resection, perpendicular plate dissection, dissection and resection of the maxillary crest, endoscopic revision, mucosal suture and Silastic stents. A satisfactory postoperative result was observed at 3 months in 97% of cases in this series. The main contraindication to endoscopic septoplasty is anterior columellar deviation of the nasal septum requiring a conventional procedure. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Real-time ultrasonography for location of IUDs.

    PubMed

    Reiertsen, O

    1981-04-01

    Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, non-ionizing and painless technique used to locate IUDs in the uterine cavity. This study evaluates the reliability and precision of real-time ultrasonography in locating IUDs. 151 IUD users (duration of use, 2 days to 108 months) were subjected to ultrasonography to detect and locate the IUD. Indications for ultrasonography are: 1) no visible IUD strings (61 patients); 2) pregnant after IUD insertion (7); 3) abnormal uterine pain or bleeding (50); and 4) control of IUD (33). 90% of the women used standard copper-bearing devices (Copper 7; Multiload; Gravigard). Ultrasonography detected the IUD in utero in 128 cases with no false positive results. It did not detect the IUD in 23 cases (expulsion occurred in 18 patients; IUD was removed in 2 cases due to IUD perforation; IUD was erroneously not detected in 3 cases (false negative)) Hysterography was performed in 57 women to confirm ultrasonographic findings. Ultrasonography diagnosed IUD in situ in 54 cases; it was confirmed by hysterography in 44 cases (81%). Hysterography diagnosed penetration of the uterine wall by the IUD; ultrasonography failed to detect all cases of penetration. Ultrasonography is reliable in detecting an IUD in utero but not within the uterine cavity. However, it helps in IUD management by increasing contraceptive efficiency through early diagnoses of expulsion and cervical location of the IUD.

  19. Endoscopic Distal Tibiofibular Syndesmosis Arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Lui, Tun Hing

    2016-04-01

    Chronic distal tibiofibular syndesmosis disruption can be managed by endoscopic arthrodesis of the syndesmosis. This is performed through the proximal anterolateral and posterolateral portals. The scar tissue and bone block are resected to facilitate the subsequent reduction of the syndesmosis. The reduction of the syndesmosis can be guided either arthroscopically or endoscopically. The tibial and fibular surfaces of the tibiofibular overlap can be microfractured to facilitate subsequent fusion.

  20. Point-of-care ultrasonography by pediatric emergency medicine physicians.

    PubMed

    Marin, Jennifer R; Lewiss, Resa E

    2015-04-01

    Emergency physicians have used point-of-care ultrasonography since the 1990 s. Pediatric emergency medicine physicians have more recently adopted this technology. Point-of-care ultrasonography is used for various scenarios, particularly the evaluation of soft tissue infections or blunt abdominal trauma and procedural guidance. To date, there are no published statements from national organizations specifically for pediatric emergency physicians describing the incorporation of point-of-care ultrasonography into their practice. This document outlines how pediatric emergency departments may establish a formal point-of-care ultrasonography program. This task includes appointing leaders with expertise in point-of-care ultrasonography, effectively training and credentialing physicians in the department, and providing ongoing quality assurance reviews.

  1. Powered Endoscopic Nasal Septal Surgery.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Aderito de; Iniciarte, Livia; Levine, Howard

    2005-01-01

    While nasal endoscopy is typically used for diagnosis and sinus surgery, endoscopy can be combined with powered instrumentation to perform nasal septal surgery. Powered Endoscopic Nasal Septum Surgery (PENSS) is an easy, effective and quick alternative to traditional headlight approaches to septoplasty. PENSS limits the dissection to the area of the deviation and markedly reduces the extent of subperichondrial dissection. This is particularly valuable in patients who have undergone prior septal cartilage resection. PENSS was used in 2,730 patients over 8 years. Surgical indications and technique are discussed. These patients had either isolated nasal septal deformities associated with other rhinologic pathology (sinusitis, adenoid hypertrophy polyps and external nasal deformity). PENSS was utilized with video assistance to allow an enhanced view of the endoscopic operative field. These patients were operated upon in an outpatient surgical suite and were seen for a post-operative video endoscopic evaluation at 5, 10, 15 and 20 days after surgery. The patients who had associated functional endoscopic sinus surgery were evaluated as needed until 6 weeks after surgery. There were no delayed complications. Endoscopic resection of septal spurs, deformities and deviations can be performed safely alone or in combination with endoscopic sinus surgery with minimal additional morbidity.

  2. [Endoscopic approaches to the orbit].

    PubMed

    Cebula, H; Lahlou, A; De Battista, J C; Debry, C; Froelich, S

    2010-01-01

    During the last decade, the use of endoscopic endonasal approaches to the pituitary has increased considerably. The endoscopic endonasal and transantral approaches offer a minimally invasive alternative to the classic transcranial or transconjunctival approaches to the medial aspect of the orbit. The medial wall of the orbit, the orbital apex, and the optic canal can be exposed through a middle meatal antrostomy, an anterior and posterior ethmoidectomy, and a sphenoidotomy. The inferomedial wall of the orbit can be also perfectly visualized through a sublabial antrostomy or an inferior meatal antrostomy. Several reports have described the use of an endoscopic approach for the resection or the biopsy of lesions located on the medial extraconal aspect of the orbit and orbital apex. However, the resection of intraconal lesions is still limited by inadequate instrumentation. Other indications for the endoscopic approach to the orbit are the decompression of the orbit for Graves' ophthalmopathy and traumatic optic neuropathy. However, the optimal management of traumatic optic neuropathy remains very controversial. Endoscopic endonasal decompression of the optic nerve in case of tumor compression could be a more valid indication in combination with radiation therapy. Finally, the endoscopic transantral treatment of blowout fracture of the floor of the orbit is an interesting option that avoids the eyelid or conjunctive incision of traditional approaches. The collaboration between the neurosurgeon and the ENT surgeon is mandatory and reduces the morbidity of the approach. Progress in instrumentation and optical devices will certainly make this approach promising for intraconal tumor of the orbit.

  3. Endoscopic treatment of pancreatic calculi.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Jang, Sung Ill; Rhee, Kwangwon; Lee, Dong Ki

    2014-05-01

    Chronic pancreatitis is a progressive inflammatory disease that destroys pancreatic parenchyma and alters ductal stricture, leading to ductal destruction and abdominal pain. Pancreatic duct stones (PDSs) are a common complication of chronic pancreatitis that requires treatment to relieve abdominal pain and improve pancreas function. Endoscopic therapy, extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), and surgery are treatment modalities of PDSs, although lingering controversies have hindered a consensus recommendation. Many comparative studies have reported that surgery is the superior treatment because of reduced duration and frequency of hospitalization, cost, pain relief, and reintervention, while endoscopic therapy is effective and less invasive but cannot be used in all patients. Surgery is the treatment of choice when endoscopic therapy has failed, malignancy is suspected, or duodenal stricture is present. However, in patients with the appropriate indications or at high-risk for surgery, endoscopic therapy in combination with ESWL can be considered a first-line treatment. We expect that the development of advanced endoscopic techniques and equipment will expand the role of endoscopic treatment in PDS removal.

  4. Midline filum of the sellar dura: a useful landmark during endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Zada, Gabriel; Kim, Albert H; Governale, Lance S; Laws, Edward R

    2010-12-01

    During endoscopic transsphenoidal pituitary surgery, identification and constant awareness of the midline is imperative to prevent injury to critical lateral structures, such as the internal carotid arteries. To describe the relevance of a midline filum of the sellar dura which, when present, can serve as a useful intraoperative anatomic marker. Intraoperative video recordings of twenty patients undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery were retrospectively reviewed to assess for the presence and location of a midline dural filum or apparent central dural vascular structure. Prospective intraoperative data were gathered on an additional 16 patients. A midline dural filum was identified in 18 of 36 patients (50%) undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. This structure was identified on the midline in all cases, as confirmed by intraoperative neuronavigation and comparison with the vomer. The midline dural filum was identified as a strand-like dural extension (13 patients) or as a small vascular dural structure usually exhibiting low pressure venous bleeding (5 patients). Samples of the midline dural filum were obtained from 2 patients for histopathological analysis, which demonstrated dense collagenous connective tissue without evidence of vessel wall or ductal epithelium. In addition to anatomic structures such as the vomer and midline sphenoid sinus septations, a midline dural filum serves as a useful marker during the sellar phase of endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery. Along with intraoperative neuronavigation and Doppler ultrasonography of the cavernous carotid arteries, identification of this structure may further aid in safeguarding against injury to critical paramedian structures.

  5. High prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) scores are associated with elevated Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) grade and biopsy Gleason score, at magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasonography fusion software-based targeted prostate biopsy after a previous negative standard biopsy.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Stefano; Passera, Roberto; Cattaneo, Giovanni; Manfredi, Matteo; Mele, Fabrizio; Fiori, Cristian; Bollito, Enrico; Cirillo, Stefano; Porpiglia, Francesco

    2016-11-01

    To determine the association among prostate cancer gene 3 (PCA3) score, Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System (PI-RADS) grade and Gleason score, in a cohort of patients with elevated prostate-specific antigen (PSA), undergoing magnetic resonance imaging/ultrasonography fusion software-based targeted prostate biopsy (TBx) after a previous negative randomised 'standard' biopsy (SBx). In all, 282 patients who underwent TBx after previous negative SBx and a PCA3 urine assay, were enrolled. The associations between PCA3 score/PI-RADS and PCA3 score/Gleason score were investigated by K-means clustering, a receiver operating characteristic analysis and binary logistic regression. The PCA3 score difference for the negative vs positive TBx cohorts was highly statistically significant. A 1-unit increase in the PCA3 score was associated to a 2.4% increased risk of having a positive TBx result. A PCA3 score of >80 and a PI-RADS grade of ≥4 were independent predictors of a positive TBx. The association between the PCA3 score and PI-RADS grade was statistically significant (the median PCA3 score for PI-RADS grade groups 3, 4, and 5 was 58, 104, and 146, respectively; P = 0.006). A similar pattern was detected for the relationship between the PCA3 score and Gleason score; an increasing PCA3 score was associated with a worsening Gleason score (median PCA3 score equal to 62, 105, 132, 153, 203, and 322 for Gleason Score 3+4, 4+3, 4+4, 4+5, 5+4, and 5+5, respectively; P < 0.001). TBx improved PCA3 score diagnostic and prognostic performance for prostate cancer. The PCA3 score was directly associated both with biopsy Gleason score and PI-RADS grade: notably, in the 'indeterminate' PI-RADS grade 3 subgroup. © 2016 The Authors BJU International © 2016 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Shape memory alloy-based biopsy device for active locomotive intestinal capsule endoscope.

    PubMed

    Le, Viet Ha; Hernando, Leon-Rodriguez; Lee, Cheong; Choi, Hyunchul; Jin, Zhen; Nguyen, Kim Tien; Go, Gwangjun; Ko, Seong-Young; Park, Jong-Oh; Park, Sukho

    2015-03-01

    Recently, capsule endoscopes have been used for diagnosis in digestive organs. However, because a capsule endoscope does not have a locomotive function, its use has been limited to small tubular digestive organs, such as small intestine and esophagus. To address this problem, researchers have begun studying an active locomotive intestine capsule endoscope as a medical instrument for the whole gastrointestinal tract. We have developed a capsule endoscope with a small permanent magnet that is actuated by an electromagnetic actuation system, allowing active and flexible movement in the patient's gut environment. In addition, researchers have noted the need for a biopsy function in capsule endoscope for the definitive diagnosis of digestive diseases. Therefore, this paper proposes a novel robotic biopsy device for active locomotive intestine capsule endoscope. The proposed biopsy device has a sharp blade connected with a shape memory alloy actuator. The biopsy device measuring 12 mm in diameter and 3 mm in length was integrated into our capsule endoscope prototype, where the device's sharp blade was activated and exposed by the shape memory alloy actuator. Then the electromagnetic actuation system generated a specific motion of the capsule endoscope to extract the tissue sample from the intestines. The final biopsy sample tissue had a volume of about 6 mm(3), which is a sufficient amount for a histological analysis. Consequently, we proposed the working principle of the biopsy device and conducted an in-vitro biopsy test to verify the feasibility of the biopsy device integrated into the capsule endoscope prototype using the electro-magnetic actuation system. © IMechE 2015.

  7. Endoscopic Septoplasty-Two Handed Technique with Endoscope Holder: A Novel Approach.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mubarak M; Parab, Sapna R

    2016-12-01

    The popularity of endoscopes has been expanding not only in diagnostics but also in therapeutics. The traditional septal surgery also has come under the purview of endoscopic surgery in the last few decades. Endoscopic septoplasty has definitely many advantages over the conventional procedure. But the only disadvantage of endoscopic surgery is that it is a single handed technique as the other hand is used for holding the endoscope which may compromise the overall surgical time as the hemostasis and suctioning of the surgical field off the blood cannot be done simultaneously, in addition to the surgeon fatigue associated with holding the endoscope in the left hand. Endoscope holder allows both hands of the surgeon to be free for surgical manipulation and also imitates more or less same actions of the left hand. To report the preliminary use of Khan's endoscope holder for endoscopic septoplasty. Prospective Non Randomized Clinical Study. Khan's Endoscope Holder, which was primarily designed for endoscopic ear surgery, has been used for two handed technique of endoscopic septoplasty. The design of the Endoscope holder is described in detail. A total of 49 endoholder assisted endoscopic septoplasties were operated from Nov 2014 to Jan 2015 in MIMER Medical College and Sushrut ENT Hospital, Talegaon D, Pune, India. Our Endoscope Holder is a good option for two handed technique in Endoscopic Septoplasty due to its advantages. The study reports the successful usage and applicability of the endo holder for endoscopic Septoplasty. Level of evidence IV.

  8. Magnetic resonance imaging of pelvic endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Méndez Fernández, R; Barrera Ortega, J

    Endometriosis is common in women of reproductive age; it can cause pelvic pain and infertility. It is important to diagnose endometriosis and to thoroughly evaluate its extension, especially when surgical treatment is being considered. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with careful examination technique and interpretation enables more accurate and complete diagnosis and staging than ultrasonography, especially in cases of deep pelvic endometriosis. Furthermore, MRI can identify implants in sites that can be difficult to access in endoscopic or laparoscopic explorations. In this article, we describe the appropriate MRI protocol for the study of pelvic endometriosis and the MRI signs of pelvic organ involvement. It is necessary to know the subtle findings and to look for them so we can ensure that they are not overlooked. We describe clinical grading systems for endometriosis and review the diagnostic efficacy of MRI in comparison with other imaging techniques and surgery. Copyright © 2017 SERAM. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Clinical outcome of endoscopic management of duodenal Dieulafoy's lesions: endoscopic band ligation versus endoscopic hemoclip placement.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jeong-Seon; Kim, Hyung-Keun; Kim, Sung Soo; Chae, Hiun-Suk; Cho, Hyunjung; Cho, Young-Seok

    2016-08-01

    The most appropriate type of endoscopic hemostasis for bleeding due to duodenal Dieulafoy's lesions (DLs) is not yet established. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of mechanical endoscopic hemostasis for duodenal DLs and long-term outcome after successful hemostasis, as well as to compare the efficacy and safety of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) and endoscopic hemoclip placement (EHP). Patients admitted to the emergency unit with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding from duodenal DLs were enrolled in this study. The data were collected prospectively, but data analysis was performed retrospectively. Twenty-four patients with duodenal DLs were treated with EBL (n = 11) or EHP (n = 13). There were no significant differences between groups with respect to clinical or endoscopic characteristics, apart from the number of epinephrine (three cases with EBL vs. 11 cases with EHP; p = 0.011). Primary hemostasis was achieved in all patients. Recurrent bleeding was observed in one patient (9.1 %) from the EBL group and in five patients (38.5 %) from the EHP group (p = 0.166). The recurrent bleeding in the patient from the EBL group was treated by EHP. In the EHP group, all five patients achieved successful secondary hemostasis by endoscopic treatment (EBL in two patients and EHP in three patients). There were no differences in secondary outcomes between the two groups, including the number of endoscopic sessions required, need for angiographic embolization or emergent surgery, transfusion requirements, or length of hospital stay. No complications occurred, and there was no recurrence of bleeding in either group during the follow-up period. Mechanical endoscopic treatments are effective and safe for the treatment of bleeding duodenal DLs. A large-scale, randomized, controlled study is required to confirm the efficacy and safety of EBL and EHP for the management of bleeding duodenal DLs.

  10. Ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of pediatric spinal anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Dhingani, Dhaval Durlabhbhai; Boruah, Deb Kumar; Dutta, Hemonta Kumar; Gogoi, Rudra Kanta

    2016-01-01

    Context: Spinal dysraphisms are congenital abnormalities of the spine due to imperfect fusion of midline mesenchymal, bony and neural structures. Imaging plays a vital role in their evaluation as significant portion of patients may present with concurrent anomalies that need to be corrected simultaneously to avoid repeat surgeries. Aims: The aims of the study were to evaluate Spinal dysraphisms using USG and MRI and to correlate imaging findings with operative findings in patients undergoing surgery. Settings and Design: Hospital based observational study conducted over a period of year. Materials and Methods: 38 cases of both sexes and below 12 years of age with spinal dysraphism were studied. USG was performed in 29 cases where acoustic window was available for proper evaluation. MRI was performed in all cases. USG findings were compared with MRI findings and operative follow up was taken in 23 cases who underwent operative management. Statistical Analysis Used: Results were analysed using percentage and arithmetic mean. Results: 39.47 % cases were male and 60.53 % cases were female. Neonatal period was the most common presenting age group. Closed spinal dysraphism (63.16%) was more common than open (36.84%). 79.31% cases showed full agreement between spinal USG and MRI examinations and 6 out of 20.69% showed partial agreement. On operative correlation, USG findings were confirmatory in 91.30% cases and MRI findings were confirmatory in 100% cases. Conclusions: USG can be used as the initial modality for evaluation of spinal dysraphism as well as for screening of suspected cases. MRI is indicated to confirm abnormal USG findings, which shows all concurrent abnormalities and also provides additional anatomical details relevant to surgical planning. PMID:27857788

  11. Advanced endoscopic submucosal dissection with traction

    PubMed Central

    Imaeda, Hiroyuki; Hosoe, Naoki; Kashiwagi, Kazuhiro; Ohmori, Tai; Yahagi, Naohisa; Kanai, Takanori; Ogata, Haruhiko

    2014-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has been established as a standard treatment for early stage gastric cancer (EGC) in Japan and has spread worldwide. ESD has been used not only for EGC but also for early esophageal and colonic cancers. However, ESD is associated with several adverse events, such as bleeding and perforation, which requires more skill. Adequate tissue tension and clear visibility of the tissue to be dissected are important for effective and safe dissection. Many ESD methods using traction have been developed, such as clip-with-line method, percutaneous traction method, sinker-assisted method, magnetic anchor method, external forceps method, internal-traction method, double-channel-scope method, outerroute method, double-scope method, endoscopic-surgical-platform, and robot-assisted method. Each method has both advantages and disadvantages. Robotic endoscopy, enabling ESD with a traction method, will become more common due to advances in technology. In the near future, simple, noninvasive, and effective ESD using traction is expected to be developed and become established as a worldwide standard treatment for superficial gastrointestinal neoplasias. PMID:25031787

  12. Bedside ultrasonography by emergency physicians for anterior talofibular ligament injury

    PubMed Central

    Gün, Cem; Ünlüer, Erden Erol; Vandenberk, Nergiz; Karagöz, Arif; Sentürk, Güldehen Ozmen; Oyar, Orhan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Our objective was to study the accuracy of emergency physician (EP) performed bedside ultrasonography (BUS) in patients with suspected anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) injury. Materials and Methods: After a 6-h training program, from January to December 2011, an EP used BUS to prospectively evaluate patients presenting to the emergency department (ED) with suspected ATFL injury. Then, patients underwent ankle X-ray and Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging. Outcome was determined by official radiology reports of the MR imaging. BUS and MR imaging results were compared using Chi-square testing. Results: Of the 65 enrolled patients, 30 patients were BUS positive. Of these, MR imaging results agreed with the BUS findings in 30 patients. In 35 cases, BUS was negative, and 33 of these were corroborated by MR imaging. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and negative likelihood ratio for BUS were 93.8%, 100%, 100%, 94.3%, and 0.06%, respectively. The diagnostic accuracy of BUS was not statistically different from MR imaging (K = 0.938, P = 0.001). Conclusion: BUS for the diagnosis of ATFL injury is another application of BUS in the ED. EPs can diagnose ATFL injury using BUS with a high degree of accuracy. PMID:23960377

  13. Transcanal Endoscopic Ear Surgery for Middle Ear Cholesteatoma.

    PubMed

    Glikson, Eran; Yousovich, Ruth; Mansour, Jobran; Wolf, Michael; Migirov, Lela; Shapira, Yisgav

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical parameters, outcomes, and complications of transcanal endoscopic ear surgeries for middle ear cholesteatoma. Retrospective study. Tertiary university-affiliated medical center. Adult patients (age >18) who underwent transcanal endoscopic ear surgeries for cholesteatoma, between March 2009 and March 2015. Transcanal endoscopic surgery was indicated when the cholesteatoma did not extend posterior to the anterior limb of the lateral semicircular canal. Rigid endoscopes 4 and 2.7 mm in diameter, 0, 30, 45, and 70 degrees were used with angled picks, suction, and forceps.Preoperative assessment included high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bones and/or non echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and pure-tone audiometry. Residual or recurrent disease was diagnosed by clinical examination and/or magnetic resonance imaging findings consistent with cholesteatoma. Intra- and postoperative complications, pre- and postoperative audiometric results were recorded. Sixty operations (56 patients, mean age = 43.6) were included.Six operations (10%) were performed under local anesthesia. The most common sites of cholesteatoma involvement were: posterior epitympanum (n = 51, 91%), anterior epitympanum (n = 19, 33.9%), posterior mesotympanum (n = 13, 23.2%), and sinus tympani (n = 11, 19.6%). Intraoperative ossicular chain reconstruction was performed in 18 (30%) cases.Our overall residual and recurrence rates were 10% (n = 6) and 8.3% (n = 5), respectively, with mean duration of follow up of 35 months. The most common sites of residual disease were the mastoid cavity/antrum (n = 3, 50%), tympanic cavity, and posterior mesotympanum. Overall minor and major complication rates were 16.6 and 6%, respectively. Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery was found to be an acceptable and safe technique for the exposure and eradication of middle ear and/or attic cholesteatoma.

  14. Intraportal endovascular ultrasonography for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, T; Nakao, A; Takagi, H

    1998-01-01

    Intraportal endovascular ultrasonography (IPEUS) is a new diagnostic procedure for pancreatic cancer. In portal invasion, subtle invasion and compression are difficult to differentiate with conventional imaging techniques such as computed tomography and angiography. IPEUS is performed with an 8-French, 20-MHz intravascular ultrasound catheter. IPEUS provides high-resolution, real-time images perpendicular to the portal vein axis. With IPEUS, the portal vein wall is visualized as an echogenic band. A subtle portal invasion can be detected by observing this portal vein wall. Moreover, the segment II of the extrapancreatic nerve plexus is visualized as an echogenic area around the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery (IPDA). The extrapancreatic nerve plexus invasion can be diagnosed as low echoic infiltration of the area around the IPDA. In the diagnosis of portal vein and extrapancreatic nerve plexus invasion, IPEUS provides a good diagnostic value and important information for the staging of local extension of the pancreatic cancer.

  15. Current status of ultrasonography of the finger

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The recent development of advanced high-resolution transducers has enabled the fast, easy, and dynamic ultrasonographic evaluation of small, superficial structures such as the finger. In order to best exploit these advances, it is important to understand the normal anatomy and the basic pathologies of the finger, as exemplified by the following conditions involving the dorsal, volar, and lateral sections of the finger: sagittal band injuries, mallet finger, and Boutonnière deformity (dorsal aspect); flexor tendon tears, trigger finger, and volar plate injuries (volar aspect); gamekeeper’s thumb (Stener lesions) and other collateral ligament tears (lateral aspect); and other lesions. This review provides a basis for understanding the ultrasonography of the finger and will therefore be useful for radiologists. PMID:26753604

  16. Interventional musculoskeletal ultrasonography: Precautions and contraindications.

    PubMed

    Draghi, F; Robotti, G; Jacob, D; Bianchi, S

    2010-09-01

    In recent years ultrasonography (US) has emerged as the imaging technique of choice for guiding diagnostic and therapeutic procedures including those related to the musculoskeletal system. However, the absence of ionizing radiation and the elevated safety of the method must not lead us to forget that there are precautions and contraindications to keep in mind, which are crucial to the protection of both the patient and the physician.Among these precautions it is first of all essential to obtain the patient's accurate clinical history including current medication, particularly if it involves drugs influencing the blood clotting, and information related to possible allergies. The patient should furthermore receive detailed information concerning the procedure (sterile precautions as well as possible side-effects of the drugs which will be injected). In addition to this, there must be a close contact between the radiologist and the patient's general physician (GP) in order to obtain the best possible result of the procedure.

  17. Prenatal diagnosis of hypophosphatasia congenita using ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Congenital hypophosphatasia is a rare fatal skeletal dysplasia. Antenatal determinants of Epub ahead of print lethality include small thoracic circumference with pulmonary hypoplasia and severe micromelia. These features were present in the fetus of a 25-year-old female who came for an anomaly scan in her second trimester of pregnancy. Additional findings of generalized demineralization and osteochondral spurs led to the diagnosis of hypophosphatasia congenita. The pregnancy was terminated, and the findings were confirmed on autopsy. Common differential diagnoses with clues to diagnose the above mentioned condition have been discussed here. Early and accurate detection of this medical condition is important as no treatment has been established for this condition. Therefore, antenatal ultrasonography helps in diagnosing and decision making with respect to the current pregnancy and lays the foundation for the genetic counseling of the couple. PMID:25971898

  18. Transcutaneous ultrasonography of the avian urogenital tract.

    PubMed

    Hofbauer, H; Krautwald-Junghanns, M E

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide a survey of the diagnostic use of transcutaneous sonographic examination of the urogenital tract of pet birds. Possibilities and limitations in imaging normal and altered components of this organ system are discussed. Ultrasonographic examination of the avian urogenital tract was evaluated in 386 pet birds. Abnormal clinical signs were present in 289 birds; 97 birds were normal. Transcutaneous ultrasonography proved to be a useful, noninvasive, and fast diagnostic tool, especially in imaging laminated eggs and changes of the oviduct. Until now, these pathologic changes were not diagnosable in birds with other common noninvasive methods (e.g. radiography). The imaging of low-grade changes of the oviduct, disorders of the kidney without enlargement of the organ, as well as roughening of the egg shell proved to be difficult. Sonographic imaging of neither the normal kidney nor the inactive gonads was possible.

  19. [Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) for the internist].

    PubMed

    Stern, J-B; Wyplosz, B; Girard, P; Validire, P; Escaut, L; Caliandro, R

    2016-11-01

    Endobronchial ultrasonography (EBUS) is a recent mini-invasive technique allowing transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) of mediastinal lymph nodes as well as peribronchial lesions. EBUS was initially developed for lung cancer mediastinal staging. Over the years, indications for EBUS have been progressively extended to the scope of inflammatory disorders, mediastinal lymphomas, and infectious diseases. Particularly in immunosuppressed patients, including HIV-infected patients, EBUS allows the diagnosis of several diseases that involve the mediastinum, avoiding invasive surgical explorations such as mediastinoscopy or thoracoscopy. This review aims at discussing the technical aspects, and specifies indications, results, and limits of EBUS for the internist. Copyright © 2016 Société nationale française de médecine interne (SNFMI). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  20. Huge biloma after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy

    PubMed Central

    Alkhateeb, Harith M.; Aljanabi, Thaer J.; Al-azzawi, Khairallh H.; Alkarboly, Taha A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Biliary leak can occur as a complication of biliary surgery, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography manipulations and endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy. Consequently, bile may collect in the abdominal cavity, a condition called biloma. Rarely, it may reach a massive size. Case presentation A 72-year-old man presented with gastric upset with gradual abdominal distension reaching a large size due to intra-abdominal bile collection (biloma) after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography plus endoscopic biliary sphincterotomy and stenting for post laparoscopic cholecystectomy common bile duct stricture. This huge biloma was treated by percutaneous insertion of a tube drain for a few days, evacuating the collection successfully without recurrence. Discussion This patient might sustain injury to the common bile duct either by the guide wire or stent, or the injury occurred at the angle between the common bile duct and duodenum during sphincterotomy of the ampulla. Although any of these rents may lead to a bile leak, causing a huge biloma, they could be successfully treated by percutaneous drainage. Conclusions (1) Following endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography, a patient’s complaints should not be ignored. (2) A massive biloma can occur due to such procedures. (3) Conservative treatment with minimal invasive technique can prove to be effective. PMID:26402876

  1. A technique with manipulator-assisted endoscope guidance for functional endoscopic sinus surgery: proof of concept.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Milos; Gröbner, Christina; Dietz, Andreas; Krinninger, Maximillian; Lüth, Tim C; Strauss, Gero

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to examine the theoretical feasibility of a new manipulator system for endoscope guidance in functional endoscopic sinus surgery. The accuracy of endoscope positioning and time of endoscope movement with an endoscope manipulator system were determined with an artificial sinus model. A laboratory trial was performed. The time for 60 repetitions of manual compared to manipulator-assisted endoscope movements directed at 3 different target positions was evaluated. In addition, the alignment of the position vector for each endoscope movement was examined. A zero-degree Hopkins II telescope with a camera was used to head for the target positions. First, the endoscope movements were done manually, and afterward the endoscope manipulator system was used for endoscope guidance. The alignment of the position vector of the endoscope was measured with a portable measuring arm. There was no statistical difference between the time for manual and manipulator-assisted endoscope movements for all target positions. The alignment of the position vector of the endoscope was statistically different at 2 target positions: anterior ethmoid left side and ostium of maxillary sinus left side. There was no statistical difference at all other positions. The endoscope manipulator system has the potential to be integrated into the operating workflow without extending the time for endoscope guidance. The surgeon will be able to use both hands for the manipulation of the instruments. Less frequent endoscope movements and instrument changes may be expected after technical modification.

  2. Endoscopic submucosal dissection.

    PubMed

    Maple, John T; Abu Dayyeh, Barham K; Chauhan, Shailendra S; Hwang, Joo Ha; Komanduri, Sri; Manfredi, Michael; Konda, Vani; Murad, Faris M; Siddiqui, Uzma D; Banerjee, Subhas

    2015-01-01

    ESD is an established effective treatment modality for premalignant and early-stage malignant lesions of the stomach, esophagus, and colorectum. Compared with EMR, ESD is generally associated with higher rates of en bloc, R0, and curative resections and a lower rate of local recurrence. Oncologic outcomes with ESD compare favorably with competing surgical interventions, and ESD also serves as an excellent T-staging tool to identify noncurative resections that will require further treatment. ESD is technically demanding and has a higher rate of adverse events than most endoscopic procedures including EMR. As such,sufficient training is critical to ensure safe conduct and high-quality resections. A standardized training model for Western endoscopists has not been clearly established,but will be self-directed and include courses, animal model training, and optimally an observership at an expert center.Numerous dedicated ESD devices are now available in the United States from different manufacturers. Although the use of ESD in the United States is increasing, issues related to technical difficulty, limited training opportunities and mentors, risk of adverse events, long procedure duration,and suboptimal reimbursement may limit ESD adoption in the United States to a modest number of academic referral centers for the foreseeable future.

  3. Targeted Endoscopic Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Li, Meng; Wang, Thomas D

    2011-01-01

    Summary Endoscopy has undergone explosive technological growth in over recent years, and with the emergence of targeted imaging, its truly transformative power and impact in medicine lies just over the horizon. Today, our ability to see inside the digestive tract with medical endoscopy is headed toward exciting crossroads. The existing paradigm of making diagnostic decisions based on observing structural changes and identifying anatomical landmarks may soon be replaced by visualizing functional properties and imaging molecular expression. In this novel approach, the presence of intracellular and cell surface targets unique to disease are identified and used to predict the likelihood of mucosal transformation and response to therapy. This strategy can result in the development of new methods for early cancer detection, personalized therapy, and chemoprevention. This targeted approach will require further development of molecular probes and endoscopic instruments, and will need support from the FDA for streamlined regulatory oversight. Overall, this molecular imaging modality promises to significantly broaden the capabilities of the gastroenterologist by providing a new approach to visualize the mucosa of the digestive tract in a manner that has never been seen before. PMID:19423025

  4. A high definition Mueller polarimetric endoscope for tissue characterisation (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Ji; Elson, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    The mechanism of most medical endoscopes is based on the interaction between light and biological tissue, inclusive of absorption, elastic scattering and fluorescence. In essence, the metrics of those interactions are obtained from the fundamental properties of light as an electro-magnetic waves, namely, the radiation intensity and wavelength. As another fundamental property of light, polarisation can not only reveal tissue scattering and absorption information from a different perspective, but is also able to provide a fresh insight into directional tissue birefringence properties induced by birefringent compositions and anisotropic fibrous structures, such as collagen, elastin, muscle fibre, etc at the same time. Here we demonstrate a low cost high definition Muller polarimetric endoscope with minimal alteration of a rigid endoscope. By imaging birefringent tissue mimicking phantoms and a porcine bladder, we show that this novel endoscopic imaging modality is able to provide different information of interest from unpolarised endoscopic imaging, including linear depolarization, circular depolarization, birefringence, optic axis orientation and dichroism. This endoscope can potentially be employed for better tissue visualisation and benefit endoscopic investigations and intra-operative guidance.

  5. Ensuring the Safety of Your Endoscopic Procedure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the design of endoscopes to ensure patient safety. Quality Assurance and Training Any facility in which gastrointestinal endoscopy is performed must have an effective quality assurance program in place to ensure that endoscopes ...

  6. Ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological appearances of the caecum in cats presenting with chronic clinical signs of caecocolic disease.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Harriet; Pey, Pascaline; Baril, Aurélie; Charpentier, Julie; Desquilbet, Loic; Le Poder, Sophie; Château-Joubert, Sophie; Laloy, Eve; Freiche, Valerie

    2017-02-01

    Objectives This study aimed to describe the ultrasonographic, endoscopic and histological characteristics of the caecum and ileocaecocolic junction in cats suffering from chronic clinical signs compatible with caecocolic disease. Methods Cats presenting with clinical signs suggestive of a caecocolic disease were prospectively recruited. All cats underwent an ultrasonographic examination of the caecum, ileum, colon, ileocolic lymph nodes and local mesenteric fat, in addition to comprehensive abdominal ultrasonography. This was followed by a colonoscopy with a macroscopic assessment of the caecocolic mucosa; caecocolic tissue samples were systematically collected for histologic analysis. Results Eighteen cats were included. Eleven of 18 cats had ultrasonographic abnormalities adjacent to the ileocaecocolic junction (lymphadenopathy, local steatitis) and 13/18 cats had abnormalities directly related to the junction (wall thickening, loss of wall layering). Seventeen of 18 cats had at least one ultrasonographic abnormality. Endoscopically, hyperaemia, oedema, discoloration and/or erosions were found in all cats. Each cat was classified as having mild or moderate-to-severe lesions according to endoscopic results; no classification could be established statistically for ultrasonographic results. The accentuation of the dimpled pattern tended to be inversely related to the severity of endoscopic lesion scoring. Histologically, a large proportion of cats showed typhlitis (13/16), one had lymphoma and two were normal. All cats with typhlitis also had colitis. There was only slight agreement between endoscopic and histological caecal results regarding the severity of lesions. Loss of caecal wall layering on ultrasound was found in 7/18 cats and, surprisingly, did not appear as a reliable predictor of the severity of inflammation or of malignancy; neither did local steatitis nor lymph node size. Conclusions and relevance Ultrasonography and endoscopy should not be used as the

  7. Fibromatosis associated with silicone breast implant: ultrasonography and MR imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Shim, Hyun Seok; Kim, Seon-Jeong; Kim, Ok Hwa; Jung, Hyun Kyung; Kim, Suk Jung; Kim, Woogyeong; Kim, Woon Won

    2014-01-01

    Desmoid type fibromatosis is an uncommon benign disease entity of which its etiology is currently unknown. It constitutes 0.3% of all solid neoplasms, but it is rarely seen in the breast and even more scarcely reported to develop in association with breast implant. We present ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 29-year-old female patient with fibromatosis after breast implant surgery. Knowledge of imaging findings of breast fibromatosis associated with implant will be helpful for accurate diagnosis and appropriate management.

  8. Endoscopic surgery in chronic achilles tendinopathies: A preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Maquirriain, Javier; Ayerza, Miguel; Costa-Paz, Matías; Muscolo, D Luis

    2002-03-01

    The objective of this prospective study was to evaluate preliminary results of an endoscopic-assisted surgical technique for patients suffering from chronic Achilles tendinopathies. Case series. Endoscopic operations were performed on 7 consecutive patients involved in recreational sports suffering from chronic Achilles tendon (AT) lesions in whom conservative treatment had failed. Diagnoses included 2 patients with pure peritendinitis, 4 with peritendinitis and degenerative tendinosis, and 1 with a chronic partial tear. Patients were preoperatively and postoperatively evaluated at a mean follow-up period of 16 months (range, 6 to 27 months) with a 0-100 points rating system. All patients were studied preoperatively with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and 6 were re-evaluated with the same procedure after surgery. All surgical interventions were performed on an ambulatory basis and 5 under local anesthesia. The surgical endoscopic technique consisted of peritenon release and debridement in cases with pure peritendinitis. In addition, 2 longitudinal tenotomies were performed in cases with degenerative tendinosis or partial tears. According to the scoring system used, all 7 patients had improved final outcome after surgery from a mean of 39 points preoperatively to 88 points postoperatively. The patient with an AT partial tear achieved the lowest score. The only complications were a minor hematoma and edema that resolved spontaneously. Postoperative MRI in patients with tendinosis failed to show evidence of degenerative areas. Endoscopic surgery may be a valid alternative to treat Achilles tendinopathies unresponsive to conservative treatment because of potential lower morbidity.

  9. Endoscopic capacity in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Perl, Daniel; Leddin, Desmond; Bizos, Damon; Veitch, Andrew; N'Dow, James; Bush-Goddard, Stephanie; Njie, Ramou; Lemoine, Maud; Anderson, Suzanne T; Igoe, John; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Shah, Brijen

    2016-03-01

    Levels of endoscopic demand and capacity in West Africa are unclear. This paper aims to: 1. describe the current labor and endoscopic capacity, 2. quantify the impact of a mixed-methods endoscopy course on healthcare professionals in West Africa, and 3. quantify the types of diagnoses encountered. In a three-day course, healthcare professionals were surveyed on endoscopic resources and capacity and were taught through active observation of live cases, case discussion, simulator experience and didactics. Before and after didactics, multiple-choice exams as well as questionnaires were administered to assess for course efficacy. Also, a case series of 23 patients needing upper GI endoscopy was done. In surveying physicians, less than half had resources to perform an EGD and none could perform an ERCP, while waiting time for emergency endoscopy in urban populations was at least one day. In assessing improvement in medical knowledge among participants after didactics, objective data paired with subjective responses was more useful than either alone. Of 23 patients who received endoscopy, 7 required endoscopic intervention with 6 having gastric or esophageal varices. Currently the endoscopic capacity in West Africa is not sufficient. A formal GI course with simulation and didactics improves gastrointestinal knowledge amongst participants.

  10. Endoscope-Assisted Combined Supracerebellar Infratentorial and Endoscopic Transventricular Approach to the Pineal Region: A Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Syed, Hasan R; Ryan, Joshua E; Jean, Walter C; Anaizi, Amjad

    2016-01-01

    Neoplasms of the pineal region comprise less than 2% of all intracranial lesions. A variety of techniques have been adapted to gain access to the pineal region. Classic approaches employ the use of the microscope. More recently, the endoscope has been utilized to improve access to such deep-seated lesions. A 62-year-old female presented with a heterogeneously enhancing lesion in the pineal region with associated hydrocephalus. On exam, the patient exhibited Parinaud’s syndrome. The patient initially underwent a single burr hole endoscopic third ventriculostomy and biopsy of the lesion. Initial pathology was consistent with a grade III astrocytoma. Following a period of recuperation, she returned for definitive surgical resection. A suboccipital craniectomy was performed in the sitting position. Prior to dural opening, an endoscope was inserted into the right lateral ventricle through the prior burr hole.The endoscope was passed through the foramen of Monro and the tumor could be visualized along the posterior third ventricle. The patient underwent a standard supracerebellar infratentorial approach aided by the microscope. After initial debulking of the pineal lesion, an endoscope was utilized to guide the depth of resection and assist in dissection with transventricular manipulation of the tumor. During the final stages of resection from the craniotomy, the endoscope was used to help visualize the posterior supracerebellar corridor. This assisted in the assessment of the extent of resection. The endoscope was also utilized for the removal of intraventricular blood products following tumor resection. The patient was extubated and transferred to the intensive care unit. A postoperative contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed greater than 95% resection, with expected residual within the midbrain. The combined supracerebellar infratentorial and transventricular endoscope-assisted approach provided maximum visualization and aided in optimal

  11. Clinical Practice Guidelines for Endoscope Reprocessing

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyun Jin

    2015-01-01

    Gastrointestinal endoscopy is effective and safe for the screening, diagnosis, and treatment of gastrointestinal disease. However, issues regarding endoscope-transmitted infections are emerging. Many countries have established and continuously revise guidelines for endoscope reprocessing in order to prevent infections. While there are common processes used in endoscope reprocessing, differences exist among these guidelines. It is important that the reprocessing of gastrointestinal endoscopes be carried out in accordance with the recommendations for each step of the process. PMID:26473117

  12. Value of ultrasonography for detecting chronic injury of the lateral ligaments of the ankle joint compared with ultrasonography findings

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Y; Cai, Y

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of ultrasonography in the diagnosis of chronic lateral ankle ligament injury. Methods: A total of 120 ankles in 120 patients with a clinical suspicion of chronic ankle ligament injury were examined by ultrasonography by using a 5- to 17-MHz linear array transducer before surgery. The results of ultrasonography were compared with the operative findings. Results: There were 18 sprains and 24 partial and 52 complete tears of the anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL); 26 sprains, 27 partial and 12 complete tears of the calcaneofibular ligament (CFL); and 1 complete tear of the posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL) at arthroscopy and operation. Compared with operative findings, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasonography were 98.9%, 96.2% and 84.2%, respectively, for injury of the ATFL and 93.8%, 90.9% and 83.3%, respectively, for injury of the CFL. The PTFL tear was identified by ultrasonography. The accuracy of identification between acute-on-chronic and subacute–chronic patients did not differ. The accuracies of diagnosing three grades of ATFL injuries were almost the same as those of diagnosing CFL injuries. Conclusion: Ultrasonography provides useful information for the evaluation of patients presenting with chronic pain after ankle sprain. Advances in knowledge: Intraoperative findings are the reference standard. We demonstrated that ultrasonography was highly sensitive and specific in detecting chronic lateral ligments injury of the ankle joint. PMID:24352708

  13. Gallstone disease: Symptoms, diagnosis and endoscopic management of common bile duct stones.

    PubMed

    Caddy, Grant R; Tham, Tony C K

    2006-01-01

    Bile duct stones (BDS) are often suspected on history and clinical examination alone but symptoms may be variable ranging from asymptomatic to complications such as biliary colic, pancreatitis, jaundice or cholangitis. The majority of BDS can be diagnosed by transabdominal ultrasound, computed tomography, endoscopic ultrasound or magnetic resonance cholangiography prior to endoscopic or laparoscopic removal. Approximately 90% of BDS can be removed following endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERC)+sphincterotomy. Most of the remaining stones can be removed using mechanical lithotripsy. Patients with uncorrected coagulopathies may be treated with ERC+pneumatic dilatation of the sphincter of Oddi. Shockwave lithotripsy (intraductal and extracorporeal) and laser lithotripsy have also been used to fragment large bile duct stones prior to endoscopic removal. The role of medical therapy in treatment of BDS is currently uncertain. This review focuses on the clinical presentation, investigation and current management of BDS.

  14. Recent development in multifunctional endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gono, Kazuhiro

    2008-02-01

    We have developed the novel video endoscope imaging techniques; Narrow band imaging (NBI), Auto-Fluorescence Imaging (AFI), Infra-Red Imaging (IRI) and Endo-Cytoscopy System (ECS). The purpose of these imaging techniques is to emphasize the important tissue features associated with early stage of lesions. We have already launched the new medical endoscope system including NBI, AFI and IRI (EVIS LUCERA SPECTRUM, OLYMPUS MEDICAL SYSTEMS Co., Ltd., Fig.1). Moreover ECS, which has enough magnification to observe cell nuclei on a superficial mucosa under methylene blue dye staining, is the endoscopic instrument with ultra-high optical zoom. In this paper we demonstrate the concepts and the medical efficacy of each technology.

  15. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique’s benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument’s flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system. PMID:24887743

  16. Guideline Implementation: Processing Flexible Endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Bashaw, Marie A

    2016-09-01

    The updated AORN "Guideline for processing flexible endoscopes" provides guidance to perioperative, endoscopy, and sterile processing personnel for processing all types of reusable flexible endoscopes and accessories in all procedural settings. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel safely and effectively process flexible endoscopes to prevent infection transmission. The key points address verification of manual cleaning, mechanical cleaning and processing, storage in a drying cabinet, determination of maximum storage time before reprocessing is needed, and considerations for implementing a microbiologic surveillance program. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Motion magnification for endoscopic surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, A. Jonathan; Baxter, John S. H.; de Ribaupierre, Sandrine; Peters, Terry M.

    2014-03-01

    Endoscopic and laparoscopic surgeries are used for many minimally invasive procedures but limit the visual and haptic feedback available to the surgeon. This can make vessel sparing procedures particularly challenging to perform. Previous approaches have focused on hardware intensive intraoperative imaging or augmented reality systems that are difficult to integrate into the operating room. This paper presents a simple approach in which motion is visually enhanced in the endoscopic video to reveal pulsating arteries. This is accomplished by amplifying subtle, periodic changes in intensity coinciding with the patient's pulse. This method is then applied to two procedures to illustrate its potential. The first, endoscopic third ventriculostomy, is a neurosurgical procedure where the floor of the third ventricle must be fenestrated without injury to the basilar artery. The second, nerve-sparing robotic prostatectomy, involves removing the prostate while limiting damage to the neurovascular bundles. In both procedures, motion magnification can enhance subtle pulsation in these structures to aid in identifying and avoiding them.

  18. Endoscopic Management of Bladder Diverticula

    PubMed Central

    Pham, Khanh N.; Jeldres, Claudio; Hefty, Thomas; Corman, John M.

    2016-01-01

    A 50-year-old man with benign prostatic hyperplasia and urinary retention had a very large diverticulum on the posterior wall of the bladder. The patient was managed with transurethral resection of the prostate and endoscopic fulguration of the bladder diverticulum mucosa using the Orandi technique. There was near-complete resolution of the bladder diverticulum following endoscopic management, obviating the need for bladder diverticulectomy. The patient now empties his bladder, with a postvoid residual < 50 mL and the absence of urinary tract infection after 6-month follow-up. We report the successful treatment of a large bladder diverticulum with endoscopic fulguration to near-complete resolution. This minimally invasive technique is a useful alternative in patients unfit for a more extensive surgical approach. PMID:27601971

  19. Total extraperitoneal endoscopic hernioplasty (TEP).

    PubMed

    Kuthe, A; Mainik, F; Flade-Kuthe, R

    2014-04-01

    One can no longer think about modern hernia surgery without mentioning endoscopic techniques. But due to their high technical demands the learning curve is comparatively long. And by technical mistakes and their consequences (pain, recurrence, complications) the benefits of the endoscopic techniques can easily be turned to drawbacks. The following text explains the steps of the total extraperitoneal endoscopic hernioplasty (TEP) technique in detail pointing out alternatives and risks. From preparation, indication and positioning, from trocar placement to extraperitoneal dissection and mesh placement, the principles of TEP are elucidated in respect of local anatomy and possible complications. The text as well as the accompanying video in the Mediathek are based on the authors' 20 years of experience in the TEP technique. Both of them may help in safe TEP application to minimise the complication rate as well as recurrences. Then patients can benefit from the advantages of this technique.

  20. Catheter-based photoacoustic endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Joon-Mo; Li, Chiye; Chen, Ruimin; Zhou, Qifa; Shung, K. Kirk; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-06-01

    We report a flexible shaft-based mechanical scanning photoacoustic endoscopy (PAE) system that can be potentially used for imaging the human gastrointestinal tract via the instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. The development of such a catheter endoscope has been an important challenge to realize the technique's benefits in clinical settings. We successfully implemented a prototype PAE system that has a 3.2-mm diameter and 2.5-m long catheter section. As the instrument's flexible shaft and scanning tip are fully encapsulated in a plastic catheter, it easily fits within the 3.7-mm diameter instrument channel of a clinical video endoscope. Here, we demonstrate the intra-instrument channel workability and in vivo animal imaging capability of the PAE system.

  1. Endoscopic surgery of pituitary tumors.

    PubMed

    Dhepnorrarat, Rataphol Chris; Ang, Beng Ti; Sethi, Dharambir Singh

    2011-08-01

    Endoscopic pituitary surgery has been gaining wide acceptance as the first-line treatment of most functional pituitary adenomas. This technique has many advantages over traditional procedures, and growing evidence supports its use for endocrine control of functioning tumors. This article reviews data on the different modalities of treatment of functioning pituitary adenomas and compares the results. Endoscopic pituitary surgery controls tumor growth and endocrinopathy as well as or better than other treatment modalities. Complication rates are low and patient recovery is fast. Furthermore, surgery provides a means of achieving prompt decompression of neurologic structures and endocrine remission.

  2. Procedures of endoscopic periradicular surgery.

    PubMed

    Yura, Shinya; Ooi, Kazuhiro; Izumiyama, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    When a tooth with an apical lesion is identified, an apicoectomy is frequently performed when nonsurgical treatment is considered unfeasible or has previously failed. However, the treatment is usually difficult in molars. This article describes a minimally invasive procedure for removing a gutta-percha point under the maxillary sinus mucosa using an ultrathin arthroscope and a visualization approach in apicoectomy using an intranasal endoscope. These surgical techniques using endoscopes are minimally invasive and reliable procedures that provide limited incision and bone removal and respect the integrity of the maxillary sinus.

  3. Training for advanced endoscopic procedures.

    PubMed

    Feurer, Matthew E; Draganov, Peter V

    2016-06-01

    Advanced endoscopy has evolved from diagnostic ERCP to an ever-increasing array of therapeutic procedures including EUS with FNA, ablative therapies, deep enteroscopy, luminal stenting, endoscopic suturing and endoscopic mucosal resection among others. As these procedures have become increasingly more complex, the risk of potential complications has also risen. Training in advanced endoscopy involves more than obtaining a minimum number of therapeutic procedures. The means of assessing a trainee's competence level and ability to practice independently continues to be a matter of debate. The use of quality indicators to measure performance levels may be beneficial as more advanced techniques and procedures become available.

  4. Endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy in swine.

    PubMed

    Gholson, C F; Provenza, J M; Doyle, J T; Bacon, B R

    1991-10-01

    Endoscopic retrograde sphincterotomy was performed on four sedated pigs, ages 3-4 months, using a standard human duodenoscope and papillotome. Sphincterotomies, 1 cm in length, were well-tolerated, and all animals recovered promptly, spontaneously regained gastrointestinal function, and gained weight. The first three animals were sacrificed after one week, and autopsy revealed no complications. The fourth animal was sacrificed immediately following the procedure, and no evidence of perforation was found. These observations demonstrate that the pig is a valid experimental model for endoscopic sphincterotomy. Its use in training is limited by technical and anatomic differences from humans. Potential uses of this technique in research are discussed.

  5. Endoscopic brow lifts uber alles.

    PubMed

    Patel, Bhupendra C K

    2006-12-01

    Innumerable approaches to the ptotic brow and forehead have been described in the past. Over the last twenty-five years, we have used all these techniques in cosmetic and reconstructive patients. We have used the endoscopic brow lift technique since 1995. While no one technique is applicable to all patients, the endoscopic brow lift, with appropriate modifications for individual patients, can be used effectively for most patients with brow ptosis. We present the nuances of this technique and show several different fixation methods we have found useful.

  6. Pre-operative ultrasonography and arteriovenous fistulae maturation.

    PubMed

    Bashar, Khalid; Clarke-Moloney, Mary; Walsh, Stewart R

    2014-01-01

    Arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) are preferred for haemodialysis access, but maturation is unpredictable. Clinical examination alone is unreliable for AVF planning. Duplex ultrasonography may provide useful anatomical and physiological data to allow more accurate prediction of likely AVF success. Selective use of duplex ultrasonography appears to enhance AVF success rates, but there are insufficient data to recommend routine duplex screening of AVF candidates. Agreed vessel criteria are needed.

  7. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: anatomy and basic approach

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dong-Kyu; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography. PMID:28260355

  8. Transperineal ultrasonography in perianal Crohn disease: A valuable imaging modality.

    PubMed

    Wright, Emily K; Novak, Kerri L; Lu, Cathy; Panaccione, Remo; Ghosh, Subrata; Wilson, Stephanie R

    2015-01-01

    Aims of treatment for Crohn disease have moved beyond the resolution of clinical symptoms to objective end points including endoscopic and radiological normality. Regular re-evaluation of disease status to safely, readily and reliably detect the presence of inflammation and complications is paramount. Improvements in sonographic technology over recent years have facilitated a growing enthusiasm among radiologists and gastroenterologists in the use of ultrasound for the assessment of inflammatory bowel disease. Transabdominal intestinal ultrasound is accurate, affordable and safe for the assessment of luminal inflammation and complications in Crohn disease, and can be performed with or without the use of intravenous contrast enhancement. Perianal fistulizing disease is a common, complex and often treatment-refractory complication of Crohn disease, which requires regular radiological monitoring. Endoanal ultrasound is invasive, uncomfortable and yields limited assessment of the perineal region. Although magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvis is established, timely access may be a problem. Transperineal ultrasound has been described in small studies, and is an accurate, painless and cost-effective method for documenting perianal fluid collections, fistulas and sinus tracts. In the present article, the authors review the literature regarding perineal ultrasound for the assessment of perianal Crohn disease and use case examples to illustrate its clinical utility.

  9. Endoscope Reprocessing: Update on Controversial Issues

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyun Ho

    2015-01-01

    Several issues concerning endoscope reprocessing remain unresolved based on currently available data. Thus, further studies are required to confirm standard practices including safe endoscope shelf life, proper frequency of replacement of some accessories including water bottles and connecting tubes, and microbiological surveillance testing of endoscopes after reprocessing. The efficacy and cost-effectiveness of newer technology that allows automated cleaning and disinfection is one such controversial issue. In addition, there are no guidelines on whether delayed reprocessing and extended soaking may harm endoscope integrity or increase the bioburden on the external or internal device surfaces. In this review, we discuss the unresolved and controversial issues regarding endoscope reprocessing. PMID:26473115

  10. Usefulness of the indocyanine green fluorescence endoscope in endonasal transsphenoidal surgery.

    PubMed

    Hide, Takuichiro; Yano, Shigetoshi; Shinojima, Naoki; Kuratsu, Jun-ichi

    2015-05-01

    To avoid disorientation during endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery (ETSS), the confirmation of anatomical landmarks is essential. Neuronavigation systems can be pointed at exact sites, but their spatial resolution power is too low for the detection of vessels that cannot be seen on MR images. On Doppler ultrasonography the shape of concealed arteries and veins cannot be visualized. To address these problems, the authors evaluated the clinical usefulness of the indocyanine green (ICG) endoscope. The authors included 38 patients with pituitary adenomas (n = 26), tuberculum sellae meningiomas (n = 4), craniopharyngiomas (n = 3), chordomas (n = 2), Rathke's cleft cyst (n = 1), dermoid cyst (n = 1), or fibrous dysplasia (n = 1). After opening the sphenoid sinus and placing the ICG endoscope, the authors injected 12.5 mg of ICG into a peripheral vein as a bolus and observed the internal carotid arteries (ICAs), cavernous sinus, intercavernous sinus, and pituitary. The ICA was clearly identified by a strong fluorescence signal through the dura mater and the covering thin bone. The intercavernous and cavernous sinuses were visualized a few seconds later. In patients with tuberculum sellae meningiomas, the abnormal tumor arteries in the dura were seen and the vague outline of the attachment was identified. At the final inspection after tumor removal, perforators to the brain, optic nerves, chiasm, and pituitary stalk were visualized. ICG fluorescence signals from the hypophyseal arteries were strong enough to see and spread to the area of perfusion with the passage of time. The ICA and the patent cavernous sinus were detected with the ICG endoscope in real time and at high resolution. The ICG endoscope is very useful during ETSS. The authors suggest that the real-time observation of the blood supply to the optic nerves and pituitary helps to predict the preservation of their function.

  11. Ultrasonography-histopathology correlation in major salivary glands lesions.

    PubMed

    Petrovan, Cecilia; Nekula, Diana Maria; Mocan, Simona Liliana; Voidăzan, Toader Septimiu; Coşarcă, Adina

    2015-01-01

    Major salivary glands display a various and complex pathology, showing different evolution and prognosis, depending on the histopathological form. The choice of an appropriate treatment plan for the best outcome, therefore the proper surgical approach, would imply preoperative knowledge of the histopathological diagnosis. However, any core-biopsy performed prior to surgery presents the risk of a false result and increases the difficulty of latter surgery. Therefore, some complementary examinations are used, among these, ultrasonography. The retrospective study (April 2010-March 2013) conducted in the Clinic of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Emergency County Hospital, Tirgu Mures, Romania, aims to evaluate the relevance of the ultrasonography by itself in leading towards a proper preoperative assessment and diagnosis, and thus, in choosing the proper treatment plan. The study included 33 lesions of the major salivary glands, undergoing first ultrasonography, then curative surgery. Different characteristics (shape, dimension, consistency, vascularization, homogeneity, delimitation) were assessed on ultrasonography as well as on histopathology; finally, the correlation between those two examinations was evaluated, by comparing diagnoses. The results of our study are similar to others, showing that ultrasonography can diagnose preoperatively the majority lesions of major salivary glands. The conclusions of the study sustain the importance of ultrasonography as a routine examination in major salivary glands lesions.

  12. The role of orbital ultrasonography in distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema

    PubMed Central

    Carter, S B; Pistilli, M; Livingston, K G; Gold, D R; Volpe, N J; Shindler, K S; Liu, G T; Tamhankar, M A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the sensitivity and specificity of orbital ultrasonography in distinguishing papilledema from pseudopapilledema in adult patients. Methods The records of all adult patients referred to the neuro-ophthalmology service who underwent orbital ultrasonography for the evaluation of suspected papilledema were reviewed. The details of history, ophthalmologic examination, and results of ancillary testing including orbital ultrasonography, MRI, and lumbar puncture were recorded. Results of orbital ultrasonography were correlated with the final diagnosis of papilledema or pseudopapilledema on the basis of the clinical impression of the neuro-ophthalmologist. Ultrasound was considered positive when the optic nerve sheath diameter was ≥3.3 mm along with a positive 30° test. Results The sensitivity of orbital ultrasonography for detection of papilledema was 90% (CI: 80.2–99.3%) and the specificity in detecting pseudopapilledema was 79% (CI: 67.7–90.7%). Conclusions Orbital ultrasonography is a rapid and noninvasive test that is highly sensitive, but less specific in differentiating papilledema from pseudopapilledema in adult patients, and can be useful in guiding further management of patients in whom the diagnosis is initially uncertain. PMID:25190532

  13. Clinical Outcomes of Percutaneous Endoscopic Surgery for Lumbar Discal Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Sang Woo; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, SeungMyung; Kim, Yong Hyun; Kim, Hyeun Sung

    2012-01-01

    Objective Discal cyst is rare and causes indistinguishable symptoms from lumbar disc herniation. The clinical manifestations and pathological features of discal cyst have not yet been completely known. Discal cyst has been treated with surgery or with direct intervention such as computed tomography (CT) guided aspiration and steroid injection. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the percutaneous endoscopic surgery for lumbar discal cyst over at least 6 months follow-up. Methods All 8 cases of discal cyst with radiculopathy were treated by percutaneous endoscopic surgery by transforaminal approach. The involved levels include L5-S1 in 1 patient, L3-4 in 2, and L4-5 in 5. The preoperative magnetic resonance imaging and 3-dimensional CT with discogram images in all cases showed a connection between the cyst and the involved intervertebral disc. Over a 6-months period, self-reported measures were assessed using an outcome questionaire that incorporated total back-related medical resource utilization and improvement of leg pain [visual analogue scale (VAS) and Macnab's criteria]. Results All 8 patients underwent endoscopic excision of the cyst with additional partial discectomy. Seven patients obtained immediate relief of symptoms after removal of the cyst by endoscopic approach. There were no recurrent lesions during follow-up period. The mean preoperative VAS for leg pain was 8.25±0.5. At the last examination followed longer than 6 month, the mean VAS for leg pain was 2.25±2.21. According to MacNab' criteria, 4 patients (50%) had excellent results, 3 patients (37.5%) had good results; thus, satisfactory results were achieved in 7 patients (87.5%). However, one case had unsatisfactory result with persistent leg pain and another paresthesia. Conclusion The radicular symptoms were remarkably improved in most patients immediately after percutaneous endoscopic cystectomy by transforaminal approach. PMID:22737300

  14. Fast calibration of electromagnetically tracked oblique-viewing rigid endoscopes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinyang; Rice, Christina E; Shekhar, Raj

    2017-06-16

    The oblique-viewing (i.e., angled) rigid endoscope is a commonly used tool in conventional endoscopic surgeries. The relative rotation between its two moveable parts, the telescope and the camera head, creates a rotation offset between the actual and the projection of an object in the camera image. A calibration method tailored to compensate such offset is needed. We developed a fast calibration method for oblique-viewing rigid endoscopes suitable for clinical use. In contrast to prior approaches based on optical tracking, we used electromagnetic (EM) tracking as the external tracking hardware to improve compactness and practicality. Two EM sensors were mounted on the telescope and the camera head, respectively, with considerations to minimize EM tracking errors. Single-image calibration was incorporated into the method, and a sterilizable plate, laser-marked with the calibration pattern, was also developed. Furthermore, we proposed a general algorithm to estimate the rotation center in the camera image. Formulas for updating the camera matrix in terms of clockwise and counterclockwise rotations were also developed. The proposed calibration method was validated using a conventional [Formula: see text], 5-mm laparoscope. Freehand calibrations were performed using the proposed method, and the calibration time averaged 2 min and 8 s. The calibration accuracy was evaluated in a simulated clinical setting with several surgical tools present in the magnetic field of EM tracking. The root-mean-square re-projection error averaged 4.9 pixel (range 2.4-8.5 pixel, with image resolution of [Formula: see text] for rotation angles ranged from [Formula: see text] to [Formula: see text]. We developed a method for fast and accurate calibration of oblique-viewing rigid endoscopes. The method was also designed to be performed in the operating room and will therefore support clinical translation of many emerging endoscopic computer-assisted surgical systems.

  15. Combined Endoscopic and Laparoscopic Management of Postcholecystectomy Mirizzi Syndrome from a Remnant Cystic Duct Stone: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Arpit; Zhurov, Yuriy; Ibrahim, George; Maffei, Anthony; Giannone, Jonathan; Cerabona, Thomas; Kaul, Ashutosh

    2016-01-01

    Mirizzi syndrome has been defined in the literature as common bile duct obstruction resulting from calculi within Hartmann's pouch or cystic duct. We present a case of a 78-year-old female, who developed postcholecystectomy Mirizzi syndrome from a remnant cystic duct stone. Diagnosis of postcholecystectomy Mirizzi syndrome was made on endoscopic retrograde cholangiography (ERCP) performed postoperatively. The patient was treated with a novel strategy by combining advanced endoscopic and laparoscopic techniques in three stages as follows: Stage 1 (initial presentation): endoscopic sphincterotomy with common bile duct stent placement; Stage 2 (6 weeks after Stage 1): laparoscopic ultrasonography to locate the remnant cystic duct calculi followed by laparoscopic retrieval of the calculi and intracorporeal closure of cystic duct stump; Stage 3 (6 weeks after Stage 2): endoscopic removal of common bile duct stent along with performance of completion endoscopic retrograde cholangiogram. In addition, we have performed an extensive review of the various endoscopic and laparoscopic management techniques described in the literature for the treatment of postcholecystectomy syndrome occurring from retained cystic duct stones. PMID:27047698

  16. Vascular access: the impact of ultrasonography.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Carlos Eduardo Saldanha de

    2016-01-01

    Vascular punctures are often necessary in critically ill patients. They are secure, but not free of complications. Ultrasonography enhances safety of the procedure by decreasing puncture attempts, complications and costs. This study reviews important publications and the puncture technique using ultrasound, bringing part of the experience of the intensive care unit of the Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, São Paulo (SP), Brazil, and discussing issues that should be considered in future studies. RESUMO Punções vasculares são muitas vezes necessárias em pacientes gravemente enfermos. São seguras, mas não isentas de complicações. A ultrassonografia associada à técnica de punção gera diminuição do número de tentativas, de complicações e de custos. O presente artigo revisou importantes publicações sobre o tema, bem como técnicas de punções, trazendo parte da experiência do centro de terapia intensiva de adultos do Hospital Israelita Albert Einstein, em São Paulo (SP) e discutindo tópicos que devem ser melhor explorados em estudos futuros.

  17. Stereo Imaging Miniature Endoscope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bae, Youngsam; Manohara, Harish; White, Victor; Shcheglov, Kirill V.; Shahinian, Hrayr

    2011-01-01

    Stereo imaging requires two different perspectives of the same object and, traditionally, a pair of side-by-side cameras would be used but are not feasible for something as tiny as a less than 4-mm-diameter endoscope that could be used for minimally invasive surgeries or geoexploration through tiny fissures or bores. The proposed solution here is to employ a single lens, and a pair of conjugated, multiple-bandpass filters (CMBFs) to separate stereo images. When a CMBF is placed in front of each of the stereo channels, only one wavelength of the visible spectrum that falls within the passbands of the CMBF is transmitted through at a time when illuminated. Because the passbands are conjugated, only one of the two channels will see a particular wavelength. These time-multiplexed images are then mixed and reconstructed to display as stereo images. The basic principle of stereo imaging involves an object that is illuminated at specific wavelengths, and a range of illumination wavelengths is time multiplexed. The light reflected from the object selectively passes through one of the two CMBFs integrated with two pupils separated by a baseline distance, and is focused onto the imaging plane through an objective lens. The passband range of CMBFs and the illumination wavelengths are synchronized such that each of the CMBFs allows transmission of only the alternate illumination wavelength bands. And the transmission bandwidths of CMBFs are complementary to each other, so that when one transmits, the other one blocks. This can be clearly understood if the wavelength bands are divided broadly into red, green, and blue, then the illumination wavelengths contain two bands in red (R1, R2), two bands in green (G1, G2), and two bands in blue (B1, B2). Therefore, when the objective is illuminated by R1, the reflected light enters through only the left-CMBF as the R1 band corresponds to the transmission window of the left CMBF at the left pupil. This is blocked by the right CMBF. The

  18. Experimental telemanipulation in endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Schurr, M O; Breitwieser, H; Melzer, A; Kunert, W; Schmitt, M; Voges, U; Buess, G

    1996-06-01

    Today's rigid endoscopic instruments limit the intracorporeal mobility of the surgical tool and are a severe impediment for the further spread of endoscopic techniques in operative medicine. Since 1992 flexible, steerable instruments with additional links for pivoting and rotating the tip have been developed and experimentally evaluated. The latest versions of this series of instruments are equipped with electromotors for better handling. The next aim in this development is a fully mobile telemanipulator with six motion axes dedicated to use in endoscopic surgery. Its first tests are planned for 1995. For successful operation of an electric telemanipulator, the man-machine interface (MMI) is of cardinal importance. For the definition of surgical requirements for the MMI, a conventional master-slave manipulator designed for technical application was modified for use in guiding a laparoscopic instrument. Master and slave sites of the system were 1.3 km apart and linked by means of a fiber-optic cable. Using this modified telepresence system, remote laparoscopic cholecystectomy was feasible in a phantom model. In a standardized test series using a test parcours, different parameters of the control system were modified, and their influence on the execution time of the parcours tasks was recorded. Well-suited parameter configurations were found and allowed experimental verification and completion of the important aspects of our concepts for development of an endoscopic manipulator MMI.

  19. Robust distortion correction of endoscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Nie, Sixiang; Soto-Thompson, Marcelo; Chen, Chao-I.; A-Rahim, Yousif I.

    2008-03-01

    Endoscopic images suffer from a fundamental spatial distortion due to the wide angle design of the endoscope lens. This barrel-type distortion is an obstacle for subsequent Computer Aided Diagnosis (CAD) algorithms and should be corrected. Various methods and research models for the barrel-type distortion correction have been proposed and studied. For industrial applications, a stable, robust method with high accuracy is required to calibrate the different types of endoscopes in an easy of use way. The correction area shall be large enough to cover all the regions that the physicians need to see. In this paper, we present our endoscope distortion correction procedure which includes data acquisition, distortion center estimation, distortion coefficients calculation, and look-up table (LUT) generation. We investigate different polynomial models used for modeling the distortion and propose a new one which provides correction results with better visual quality. The method has been verified with four types of colonoscopes. The correction procedure is currently being applied on human subject data and the coefficients are being utilized in a subsequent 3D reconstruction project of colon.

  20. Endoscopic excision of cheek lipomas.

    PubMed

    Pyon, Jai-Kyong; Park, Bum-Jin; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Cha, Myung-Kyu; Lim, So-Young; Bang, Sa-Ik; Oh, Kap-Sung

    2008-10-01

    Although the removal of forehead and brow benign tumors using an endoscopic technique has proven to be valuable, the efficacy of an endoscopic excision for cheek masses is unclear. A retrospective review was performed on 8 patients with a lipoma (7) and a foreign body granuloma (1) located at the cheek region. There were 7 men and 1 woman with a mean age of 34.8 years (range, 22-54 years). All the excisional procedures were performed with an endoscope through 2 small incisions, one on the hair-bearing sideburns and the other behind the earlobe. The masses varied from 0.7 x 0.7 cm to 4.0 x 3.0 cm in size. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications, and no recurrence was detected after a 5- to 61-month follow-up. An endoscopically assisted excision of cheek lipomas is an effective procedure and might be a good alternative to the more conventional procedures.

  1. Microscopic versus endoscopic pituitary surgery.

    PubMed

    Simal-Julián, Juan Antonio; Miranda-Lloret, Pablo; Pancucci, Giovanni; Evangelista-Zamora, Rocío; Pérez-Borreda, Pedro; Sanromán-Álvarez, Pablo; Cámara-Gómez, Rosa; Botella-Asunción, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    The endoscopic techniques used in pituitary surgery have evolved greatly in recent years. Our objective in this study was to conduct a review of the systematic reviews published in the English language literature, to examine their consistency and conclusions reached following studies comparing microsurgery and endoscopic surgery in hypophyseal surgery. We carried out a bibliographic search on MEDLINE and EMBASE electronic databases, selecting those systematic reviews and meta-analyses published from the year 2000 until January 2013, focusing on comparisons between microsurgical and endoscopic techniques. We concluded with type A consistency that hospital stay was shorter and diabetes insipidus and rhinological complications were less frequent in the endoscopy group. We concluded with type B consistency that lower rates of patient blood loss, shorter operative times, higher rate of gross total resection, lesser association to visual impairment and lower rate of hypopituitarism were observed in the endoscopy group. Vascular complications and cerebrospinal fluid fistulas were reduced with microsurgery. It is crucial to perform a combined analysis of all the systematic reviews treating a specific topic, observing and analysing the trends and how these are affected by new contributions. Randomized multicenter studies are necessary to resolve the controversy over endoscopic and microsurgical approaches in hypophyseal pathology. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurocirugía. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  2. Endoscopic thyroidectomy: the transoral approach

    PubMed Central

    Hellinger, Achim; Kaminski, Cornelia; Benhidjeb, Tahar

    2016-01-01

    Transoral endoscopic thyroid surgery seems to be the logical consequence in the evolution of thyroid surgery. Animal and cadaver studies have shown that different endoscopic techniques can be performed in a safe and successful way. Presently, the minimally invasive aspect and cosmetic advantage seem to be the most important factor for the patients. However, even if these procedures are feasible in patients, the transoral access must still be considered as experimental. In this study then we aim at comparing the available literature on transoral thyroid surgery with our own experience in this field. The access itself needs to be further refined, and even more suitable and better adapted instruments need to be developed so that optimal and safe results that meet all requirements on endocrine surgery can be achieved and all requirements for endocrine surgery are met. The transoral thyroidectomy should only be performed in highly specialized centres for endocrine and endoscopic surgery. As an alternative, a combination with endoscopic non-transoral techniques—so called hybrid techniques—might be useful for our patients. PMID:27294042

  3. A novel ultralow-illumination endoscope system.

    PubMed

    Kim, Keri; Kubota, Misao; Ohkawa, Yuji; Shiraishi, Takashi; Kawai, Teruo; Kobayashi, Akira; Yamashita, Hiromasa; Chiba, Toshio

    2011-06-01

    Endoscopic surgery has become an accepted major type of minimally invasive surgery. However, complications arising from heat generated by sources of endoscopic illumination can include surgical fire or burns, and intense illumination during ob-gyn/fetoscopic surgery might damage fetal ocular development. Fiber-optic bundles for illumination within the endoscope essentially double the outer diameter of the endoscope, which is a major obstacle to miniaturization and decreasing costs. Light cables also decrease the maneuverability of the endoscope We developed a novel endoscope with ultralow illumination to visualize dark body cavities and investigated its feasibility in vivo. An adaptor was created to connect a conventional endoscope to an ultrahigh-sensitivity camera developed by the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK) for broadcasting. The ability to visualize rabbit visceral blood vessels in vivo by the new prototype and by a current endoscope under ultralow illumination provided by a standard light source was compared. In addition, the performance of the two endoscopes was compared using only an extracorporeal flashlight without any specific light source placed within body cavities. The new endoscope could visualize the target under ultralow illumination of approximately 100 lx. Very little could be visualized using the current endoscope, whereas the prototype generated clear images of the rabbit blood vessels under both ultralow illumination and extracorporeal illumination provided by a flashlight. The potential for damage caused by a light source can be minimized using our new endoscope, which results in safer and less invasive procedures. Further studies are under way to develop a nonilluminated endoscope without a light cable or source and to miniaturize the camera to decrease costs and improve the maneuverability of the entire endoscope system.

  4. [A wireless power transmission system for capsule endoscope].

    PubMed

    Xin, Wenhui; Yan, Guozheng; Wang, Wenxing

    2010-06-01

    In order to deliver power to the capsule endoscope, whose position and orientation are always changing when traveling along the alimentary tract, a wireless power transmission system based on electromagnetic coupling was proposed. The system is composed of Helmholtz transmitting coil and three-dimensional receiving coil. Helmholtz coil outside the body generates a uniform magnetic field covering the whole alimentary tract; three-dimensional coil inside retrieves stable power regardless of its position and orientation. The transmitter and receiver were designed and implemented, and the experiments validated the feasibility of the system. The results show that at least 320 mW of usable power can be transmitted to capsule endoscope when its position and orientation are changing at random and the transmitting power is 25W.

  5. Ultrasonography - A diagnostic modality for oral and maxillofacial diseases.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Priya Shirish; Pol, Jaydeep; Sudesh, Ahale Sumeet

    2014-07-01

    Many diseases present themselves in oral and maxillofacial regions and various modalities may be applied for their diagnosis, including intraoral and panoramic radiography, ultrasonography (USG), computer tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and nuclear medicine methods such as positron emission tomography. Of these modalities, USG is easy to-use for the detection of non-invasive and soft tissue related diseases in oral and maxillofacial regions. USG plays an important role in analyzing normal and abnormal structures. In particular, in oral and maxillofacial regions, the USG may be clinically applied to evaluate lymph nodes, subcutaneous, and oral cavity-related diseases. The aim was to correlate the findings of USG and histopathology for the diagnosis of oral and maxillofacial pathology and to evaluate whether USG can be used as an adjunct in diagnosing oral and maxillofacial pathology. A total of 10 clinically diagnosed patients with intraoral cancerous growths, swellings in maxillary and neck region were included in this study. Incision biopsy was obtained for confirming provisional clinical diagnosis. The selected cases were advised USG. All patients were then posted either for hemi-glossectomy, hemi-mandibulectomy, and partial maxillectomy with or without radical neck dissection. Student's t-test and coefficient of correlation was used to statistically analyze significant relationship of both the methods. In all 10 cases, USG correlated well with histopathology findings, it could also delineate tumor extent and measure tumor thickness. USG is an excellent method for the diagnosis of soft tissue lesions and can be used as an adjunct in diagnosing oral and maxillofacial pathology.

  6. Ultrasonography for the diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Himeno, Shinji; Yasuda, Seiei; Oida, Yasuhisa; Mukoyama, Sayuri; Nishi, Takayuki; Mukai, Masaya; Nakasaki, Hisao; Makuuchi, Hiroyasu

    2003-04-01

    Acute appendicitis is usually encountered clinically as acute abdomen. Typical cases are easy to diagnose, but it can sometimes be very difficult to make a diagnosis in atypical cases. We retrospectively studied patients who underwent ultrasonography for right-sided lower abdominal pain suggesting acute appendicitis, and assessed the accuracy of ultrasonic diagnosis. The subjects were 202 patients (100 males and 102 females) aged 6-89 years (mean: 33.3 years). From the ultrasonic findings, appendicitis was classified as follows: 1) catarrhal: a clear layer structure of the appendiceal wall and mucosal edema; 2) phlegmonous: an ill-defined layer structure of the appendiceal wall, moderate enlargement of the apendix, and maximum transverse dimension of > or = 10 mm; and 3) gangrenous: unidentifiable layer structure of the appendiceal wall and marked enlargement to form a mass. The appendix was visualized in 142 of the 202 patients (70.3 %). When the appendix was detected, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of ultrasound for making a diagnosis of appendicitis were 97.6%, 82.0 %, 91.5 %, respectively. With regard to assessment of the severity of inflammation, ultrasonic and histologic findings were concordant in 61.2 % of the patients. However, ultrasound was shown to possibly underestimate the extent of inflammation. On the other hand, 11 of the 60 patients with an undetectable appendix (18.3 %) were clinically diagnosed as having appendicitis. The pathologic diagnosis was catarrhal appendicitis in 3 patients and phlegmonous appendicitis in 8 patients. In patients with an undetectable appendix, the possibility of catarrhal or phlegmonous appendicitis should be kept in mind.

  7. Ultrasonography - A viable tool for airway assessment

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Preethi B; Punetha, Pankaj; Chalam, Kolli S

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Accurate prediction of the Cormack-Lehane (CL) grade preoperatively can help in better airway management of the patient during induction of anaesthesia. Our aim was to determine the utility of ultrasonography in predicting CL grade. Methods: We studied 100 patients undergoing general endotracheal anaesthesia. Mallampati (MP) class, thyromental distance (TMD) and sternomental distance (SMD) were noted. Ultrasound measurements of the anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the hyoid (ANS-Hyoid), anterior neck soft tissue thickness at the level of the vocal cords (ANS-VC) and ratio of the depth of the pre-epiglottic space (Pre-E) to the distance from the epiglottis to the mid-point of the distance between the vocal cords (E-VC) were obtained. CL grade was noted during intubation. Chi-square test was employed to determine if there was any statistical difference in the measurements of patients with different CL grades. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy were calculated for the various parameters. Results: The incidence of difficult intubation was 14%. An ANS-VC >0.23 cm had a sensitivity of 85.7% in predicting a CL Grade of 3 or 4, which was higher than that of MP class, TMD and SMD. However, the specificity, PPV and accuracy were lower than the physical parameters. The NPV was comparable. Conclusion: Ultrasound is a useful tool in airway assessment. ANS-VC >0.23 cm is a potential predictor of difficult intubation. ANS-Hyoid is not indicative of difficult intubation. The ratio Pre-E/E-VC has a low to moderate predictive value. PMID:27942053

  8. Quantitative Muscle Ultrasonography in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyewon; Jee, Sungju; Park, Soo Ho; Ahn, Seung-Chan; Im, Juneho; Sohn, Min Kyun

    2016-12-01

    To assess the reliability of quantitative muscle ultrasonography (US) in healthy subjects and to evaluate the correlation between quantitative muscle US findings and electrodiagnostic study results in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The clinical significance of quantitative muscle US in CTS was also assessed. Twenty patients with CTS and 20 age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. All control and CTS subjects underwent a bilateral median and ulnar nerve conduction study (NCS) and quantitative muscle US. Transverse US images of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) were obtained to measure muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), thickness, and echo intensity (EI). EI was determined using computer-assisted, grayscale analysis. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability for quantitative muscle US in control subjects, and differences in muscle thickness, CSA, and EI between the CTS patient and control groups were analyzed. Relationships between quantitative US parameters and electrodiagnostic study results were evaluated. Quantitative muscle US had high inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the control group. Muscle thickness and CSA were significantly decreased, and EI was significantly increased in the APB of the CTS group (all p<0.05). EI demonstrated a significant positive correlation with latency of the median motor and sensory NCS in CTS patients (p<0.05). These findings suggest that quantitative muscle US parameters may be useful for detecting muscle changes in CTS. Further study involving patients with other neuromuscular diseases is needed to evaluate peripheral muscle change using quantitative muscle US.

  9. Quantitative Muscle Ultrasonography in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the reliability of quantitative muscle ultrasonography (US) in healthy subjects and to evaluate the correlation between quantitative muscle US findings and electrodiagnostic study results in patients with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS). The clinical significance of quantitative muscle US in CTS was also assessed. Methods Twenty patients with CTS and 20 age-matched healthy volunteers were recruited. All control and CTS subjects underwent a bilateral median and ulnar nerve conduction study (NCS) and quantitative muscle US. Transverse US images of the abductor pollicis brevis (APB) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) were obtained to measure muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), thickness, and echo intensity (EI). EI was determined using computer-assisted, grayscale analysis. Inter-rater and intra-rater reliability for quantitative muscle US in control subjects, and differences in muscle thickness, CSA, and EI between the CTS patient and control groups were analyzed. Relationships between quantitative US parameters and electrodiagnostic study results were evaluated. Results Quantitative muscle US had high inter-rater and intra-rater reliability in the control group. Muscle thickness and CSA were significantly decreased, and EI was significantly increased in the APB of the CTS group (all p<0.05). EI demonstrated a significant positive correlation with latency of the median motor and sensory NCS in CTS patients (p<0.05). Conclusion These findings suggest that quantitative muscle US parameters may be useful for detecting muscle changes in CTS. Further study involving patients with other neuromuscular diseases is needed to evaluate peripheral muscle change using quantitative muscle US. PMID:28119835

  10. Current situation of endoscopic biliary cannulation and salvage techniques for difficult cases: Current strategies in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Bhatia, Vikram

    2016-04-01

    In the pancreatobiliary session at Endoscopic Forum Japan (EFJ) 2015, current trends of routine biliary cannulation techniques and salvage techniques for difficult biliary cannulation cases were discussed. Endoscopists from nine Japanese high-volume centers along with two overseas centers participated in the questionnaires and discussion. It was concluded that, currently, in Western countries, the wire-guided cannulation (WGC) technique is favored during initial cannulation attempts. However, the conventional technique using an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography catheter with contrast medium injection is still used as first choice at most Japanese high-volume centers. The WGC technique is used as the second choice at some institutions only. After failed biliary cannulation attempts, the initial salvage option preferred in most centers includes pancreatic guidewire placement, followed by precut techniques as the second salvage choice. Among several precut techniques, the free-hand needle knife sphincterotomy with cutting upwards from the pancreatic duct is most popular. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided rendezvous technique is also carried out as a final salvage option at select institutions.

  11. Comparison of endoscopic and microscopic tympanoplasty.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Che-Hung; Wu, Hsing-Mei

    2017-07-01

    Tympanoplasty was conventionally performed using a microscope for decades. However, since the endoscope began to be used in middle ear surgery in the 1970s, endoscopic tympanoplasty has gained increasing attention. The main objective of this study was to compare endoscopic and microscopic tympanoplasty with and without ossiculoplasty, demonstrating the potential advantages, disadvantages, and outcomes of each. This retrospective study included 126 patients with chronic otitis media who received tympanoplasty from 2013 to 2015 in our hospital. The clinical follow-up continued for at least 3 months postoperatively. Otoscopy and audiometry were conducted before and after the procedure. The different variables affecting surgical outcomes were thoroughly documented in each case. A total of 126 patients (131 ears) were included in this retrospective study. Moreover, 74 and 57 ears underwent endoscopic and microscopic tympanoplasty, respectively. The overall endoscopic tympanoplasty graft uptake rate was 97.7% (128/131). The operation time was significantly shorter in the endoscopic group statistically. A paired t test was used to compare pre- and postoperative audiometry results and showed significant differences between the endoscopic and microscopic groups. However, no statistically significant difference was observed in audiometry improvement between the two groups. No major complications were observed in any of the patients. Our study demonstrated that endoscopic tympanoplasty can be feasibly applied in middle ear surgery. The success rate, audiometry improvement, and complication rate are comparable between endoscopic tympanoplasty and conventional microscopic tympanoplasty. Moreover, the endoscopic group had smaller operation wounds and lower medical expenditures.

  12. Preservation of olfaction after unilateral endoscopic approach for resection of esthesioneuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wessell, Aaron; Singh, Ameet; Litvack, Zachary

    2014-08-01

    Objectives We present a case of olfactory preservation after a unilateral transcribriform transethmoidal endoscopic resection of esthesioneuroblastoma. We also discuss the oncologic results of endoscopic and transcranial approaches and describe the potential benefits and limitations of an endoscopic approach. Setting Single academic medical center. Participant and Design The clinical course of a 28-year-old patient who underwent endoscopic en bloc resection of esthesioneuroblastoma through a unilateral transcribriform transethmoidal approach was reviewed. Results Imaging demonstrated a left-sided nasal mass with cribriform plate involvement (Kadish C). Intraoperatively, the left olfactory bulb and epithelium were sacrificed. Negative frozen sections were obtained from the right olfactory epithelium and dura surrounding the right olfactory bulb. Reconstruction was performed using a multilayered closure of fascia, rigid buttress, and nasoseptal flap. Histology was consistent with esthesioneuroblastoma. Postoperative clinical evaluation, endoscopy, and magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated no evidence of residual or recurrent tumor at 18 months. The UPSIT smell testing revealed normal olfaction preoperatively, moderate microsomia at 3 months postoperatively, and mild microsomia at 18 months postoperatively. Conclusions Endoscopic resection of esthesioneuroblastoma has demonstrated similar oncologic control while reducing postoperative morbidity and mortality over transcranial approaches. This case reveals the potential to preserve olfaction while achieving en bloc endoscopic resection of early stage esthesioneuroblastoma.

  13. Improved assessment of renal lesions in pregnancy with magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Putra, Lydia G Johns; Minor, Thomas X; Bolton, Damien M; Appu, Sreevinas; Dowling, Caroline R; Neerhut, Gregory J

    2009-09-01

    To ascertain the potential utility of magnetic resonance imaging in providing additional clarification of those solid renal mass lesions identified at routine antenatal ultrasonography in early pregnancy and influencing the management of such lesions. We present 7 patients in whom magnetic resonance imaging was used to diagnose, stage, and monitor renal lesions detected during pregnancy. Magnetic resonance imaging provided for improved imaging of renal mass lesions identified at antenatal ultrasonography, without the use of ionizing radiation, and permitted management determined by optimal radiographic assessment of such lesions without fetal irradiation. Magnetic resonance imaging is the most appropriate method to further investigate renal masses identified at routine antenatal ultrasonography early in pregnancy.

  14. The usefulness of 3-dimensional endoscope systems in endoscopic surgery.

    PubMed

    Egi, Hiroyuki; Hattori, Minoru; Suzuki, Takahisa; Sawada, Hiroyuki; Kurita, Yuichi; Ohdan, Hideki

    2016-10-01

    The image quality and performance of 3-dimensional video image systems has improved along with improvements in technology. However, objective evaluation on the usefulness of 3-dimensional video image systems is insufficient. Therefore, we decided to investigate the usefulness of 3-dimensional video image systems using the objective endoscopic surgery technology evaluating apparatus that we have developed, the Hiroshima University Endoscopic Surgical Assessment Device (HUESAD). The participants were 28 student volunteers enrolled in Hiroshima University (17 men and 11 women, age: median 22.5, range 20-25), with no one having experienced endoscopic surgery training. Testing was carried out by dividing the subjects into two groups to initially carry out HUESAD with 2-dimensional video imaging (N = 14) and with 3-dimensional video imaging (N = 14). Questionnaires were carried out along with the investigation regarding both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging. The task was carried out for approximately 15 min regarding both 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging. Lastly, the Mental Rotation Test, which is a standard space perception ability test, was used to evaluate the space perception ability. No difference was observed in the nauseous and uncomfortable feeling of practitioners between the two groups. Regarding smoothness, no difference was observed between 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional video imaging (p = 0.8665). Deviation (space perception ability) and approaching time (accuracy) were significantly lower with 3-dimensional video imaging compared to 2-dimensional video imaging. Moreover, the approaching time (accuracy) significantly improved in 3-dimensional video imaging compared to 2-dimensional video imaging in the group with low space perception ability (p = 0.0085). Objective evaluation using HUESAD and subjective evaluation by questionnaire revealed that endoscopic surgery techniques significantly improved in 3-dimensional video

  15. Primary lymphoma of the spleen mimicking simple benign cysts: contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and other imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Ballestri, Stefano; Lonardo, Amedeo; Romagnoli, Dante; Losi, Luisa; Loria, Paola

    2015-04-01

    We report on a case of incidentally detected primary splenic lymphoma mimicking simple benign cysts on abdominal ultrasonography. On contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS), the lesions showed isoenhancement in the arterial phase with progressive washout and marked hypoenhancement in the parenchymal phase. This pattern enabled us to suspect the malignant nature of the disease, thus preventing a dangerous misdiagnosis. Accordingly, further characterization with other imaging studies (computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography) was pursued based on CEUS and taking into account the patient's clinical picture and medical history. Collectively, imaging data led us to a diagnosis of suspected primary splenic malignancy, most probably lymphoma, which was histologically confirmed on the surgical specimen after splenectomy.

  16. Application of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and ultrasonography scores in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Xiao-Han; Yang, Shu-Ping; Shen, Hao-Lin; Lin, Li-Qing; Zhong, Rong; Wu, Rui-Ming; Lv, Guo-Rong

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate diagnostic value of ultrasonography scores (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in evaluating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity. Methods: 39 patients with RA were included and the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, wrist, elbow and knee joints of them were examined by high frequency ultrasound. The severe joints and the related indexes (synovial thickness, synovial blood flow, joint effusion and bone erosion) were exposed. Then scores (0~3) were obtained and the sum was calculated. For 12 patients of the 39, 2.4 ml SonoVue was intravenously injected with observation of synovial enhancing. ROIs time-intensity curve (TIC) was obtained and the parameters including area under curve (AUC), peak intensity (PI) and time to peak (TTP) were analyzed. For 39 patients, the relationships among each parameters, ultrasonography scores, DAS28 scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP, RF, anti-CCP) were analyzed. Results: The US were significantly correlated with DAS28 Scores (r=0.823, P<0.01=. The correlation between US and CRP was better than that between DAS28 scores and CRP (rUS =0.692, rDAS28=0.526, P<0.01). The synovial thickness in US were correlated with DAS28 Scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP) (rDAS28=0.852, rESR=0.779, rCRP=0.587, P<0.01. The AUC and PI in CEUS were significantly correlated with US (rAUC=0.832, rPI=0.809, P<0.01=. The correlations among AUC, PI and ESR were better than that between US and ESR (rAUC=0.907, rPI=0.851, rUS=0.836, P<0.01=. The correlations among AUC, PI and CRP were better than that between US and CRP (rAUC=0.855, rPI=0.854, rUS=0.692, P<0.01. Conclusions: US was almost identical with DAS28 Scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP) in diagnosis of RA activity, while CEUS was almost identical with DAS28 Scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP). In diagnosis of RA, US may be better than DAS28 Scores, while CEUS better than US. Both of them were useful for

  17. Application of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography and ultrasonography scores in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cai, Xiao-Han; Yang, Shu-Ping; Shen, Hao-Lin; Lin, Li-Qing; Zhong, Rong; Wu, Rui-Ming; Lv, Guo-Rong

    2015-01-01

    To investigate diagnostic value of ultrasonography scores (US) and contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in evaluating rheumatoid arthritis (RA) activity. 39 patients with RA were included and the metacarpophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, wrist, elbow and knee joints of them were examined by high frequency ultrasound. The severe joints and the related indexes (synovial thickness, synovial blood flow, joint effusion and bone erosion) were exposed. Then scores (0~3) were obtained and the sum was calculated. For 12 patients of the 39, 2.4 ml SonoVue was intravenously injected with observation of synovial enhancing. ROIs time-intensity curve (TIC) was obtained and the parameters including area under curve (AUC), peak intensity (PI) and time to peak (TTP) were analyzed. For 39 patients, the relationships among each parameters, ultrasonography scores, DAS28 scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP, RF, anti-CCP) were analyzed. The US were significantly correlated with DAS28 Scores (r=0.823, P<0.01=. The correlation between US and CRP was better than that between DAS28 scores and CRP (rUS =0.692, rDAS28=0.526, P<0.01). The synovial thickness in US were correlated with DAS28 Scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP) (rDAS28=0.852, rESR=0.779, rCRP=0.587, P<0.01. The AUC and PI in CEUS were significantly correlated with US (rAUC=0.832, rPI=0.809, P<0.01=. The correlations among AUC, PI and ESR were better than that between US and ESR (rAUC=0.907, rPI=0.851, rUS=0.836, P<0.01=. The correlations among AUC, PI and CRP were better than that between US and CRP (rAUC=0.855, rPI=0.854, rUS=0.692, P<0.01. US was almost identical with DAS28 Scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP) in diagnosis of RA activity, while CEUS was almost identical with DAS28 Scores and biochemical examinations (ESR, CRP). In diagnosis of RA, US may be better than DAS28 Scores, while CEUS better than US. Both of them were useful for evaluation of RA activity.

  18. MAGNETS

    DOEpatents

    Hofacker, H.B.

    1958-09-23

    This patent relates to nmgnets used in a calutron and more particularly to means fur clamping an assembly of magnet coils and coil spacers into tightly assembled relation in a fluid-tight vessel. The magnet comprises windings made up of an assembly of alternate pan-cake type coils and spacers disposed in a fluid-tight vessel. At one end of the tank a plurality of clamping strips are held firmly against the assembly by adjustable bolts extending through the adjacent wall. The foregoing arrangement permits taking up any looseness which may develop in the assembly of coils and spacers.

  19. Diagnostic value of ultrasonography for clinical medial epicondylitis.

    PubMed

    Park, Gi-Young; Lee, Sung-Moon; Lee, Michael Y

    2008-04-01

    To assess the ultrasonographic findings and to evaluate the value of ultrasonography as a diagnostic method for detecting clinical medial epicondylitis. A prospective, single-blind study. An outpatient rehabilitation clinic in a tertiary university hospital. Twenty-one elbows from 18 patients with clinical medial epicondylitis and 25 elbows without medial epicondylitis were evaluated. Not applicable. The clinical diagnosis of medial epicondylitis was based on the patient's symptoms and clinical signs in a physical examination performed by a physiatrist. An experienced radiologist made the real-time ultrasonographic diagnosis based on the detection of at least one of the following abnormal findings: a focal hypoechoic or anechoic area, tendon nonvisualization, intratendinous calcifications, and cortical irregularity. Ultrasonography revealed positive findings in 20 of 21 elbows with medial epicondylitis and was negative in 23 of 25 without medial epicondylitis. Ultrasonography showed sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for clinical medial epicondylitis of 95.2%, 92%, 93.5%, 90.9%, and 95.8%, respectively. Tendinosis was observed in 15 elbows, and a partial-thickness tear, including 1 intrasubstance tear, was detected in 5 elbows. The most common ultrasonographic abnormality was a focal echogenic abnormality (15 hypoechoic, 5 anechoic) of the tendons. Our results indicate that ultrasonography is informative and accurate for the detection of clinical medial epicondylitis. Therefore, ultrasonography should be considered as an initial imaging method for evaluating medial epicondylitis.

  20. Endoscopic and anesthetic feasibility of EUS and ERCP combined in a single session versus two different sessions

    PubMed Central

    Vila, Juan J; Kutz, Marcos; Goñi, Silvia; Ostiz, Miriam; Amorena, Edurne; Prieto, Carlos; Rodriguez, Cristina; Fernández-Urien, Ignacio; Jiménez, Francisco J

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To discuss the feasibility of single session endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) to discuss and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) execution. METHODS: Retrospective endoscopic and anesthetic outcome comparison of performing both EUS and ERCP in a single endoscopic session (Group I) versus performing each procedure in two different sessions (Group II) was made. The following variables were evaluated: epidemiological variables, American Society of Anesthesiologists Physical Status Classification (ASA) level, procedural time, propofol dose, anesthetic complications, endoscopic complications and diagnostic yield, and therapeutic procedures on both groups. T-student, Chi-Square and Fisher test were used for comparison. RESULTS: We included 39 patients in Group I (mean age: 69.85 ± 9.25; 27 men) and 46 in Group II (mean age: 67.46 ± 12.57; 25 men). Procedural time did not differ significantly between both groups (Group Ivs Group II: 93 ± 32.78 vs 98.98 ± 38.17; P >0.05) but the dose of propofol differed (Group I vs Group II: 322.28 ± 250.54 mg vs 516.96 ± 289.06 mg; P = 0.001). Three patients had normal findings on both explorations. Three anesthetic complications [O2 desaturation (2), broncoaspiration (1)] and 9 endoscopic complications [pancreatitis (6), bleeding (1), perforation (1), cholangitis (1)] occurred without significant differences between both groups (P > 0.05). We did not find any significant difference regarding age, sex, ASA scale level, diagnostic yield or therapeutic maneuvers between both groups. CONCLUSION: The performance of EUS and ERCP in a single session offers a similar diagnostic and therapeutic yield, does not entail a higher complication risk and requires a significantly smaller dose of propofol for sedation compared with performing each exploration in a different session. PMID:21455343

  1. Representing flexible endoscope shapes with hermite splines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Elvis C. S.; Fowler, Sharyle A.; Hookey, Lawrence C.; Ellis, Randy E.

    2010-02-01

    Navigation of a flexible endoscope is a challenging surgical task: the shape of the end effector of the endoscope, interacting with surrounding tissues, determine the surgical path along which the endoscope is pushed. We present a navigational system that visualized the shape of the flexible endoscope tube to assist gastrointestinal surgeons in performing Natural Orifice Translumenal Endoscopic Surgery (NOTES). The system used an electromagnetic positional tracker, a catheter embedded with multiple electromagnetic sensors, and graphical user interface for visualization. Hermite splines were used to interpret the position and direction outputs of the endoscope sensors. We conducted NOTES experiments on live swine involving 6 gastrointestinal and 6 general surgeons. Participants who used the device first were 14.2% faster than when not using the device. Participants who used the device second were 33.6% faster than the first session. The trend suggests that spline-based visualization is a promising adjunct during NOTES procedures.

  2. Transmission of Salmonella enteritidis after endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography because of inadequate endoscope decontamination.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Paul; Smith, Andrew; Anderson, Margaret; Stewart, Jackie; Hamilton, Kate; McNamee, Sandra; Curran, Evonne T

    2017-04-01

    We report a historic nosocomial outbreak of Salmonella enteritidis affecting 4 inpatients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The cause was attributed to inadequate decontamination of an on-loan endoscope used over a weekend. This report highlights the risks of using on-loan endoscopes, particularly regarding their commissioning and adherence to disinfection protocols. In an era of increasing antibiotic resistance, transmission of Enterobacteriaceae by endoscopes remains a significant concern.

  3. Novel Concept of Attaching Endoscope Holder to Microscope for Two Handed Endoscopic Tympanoplasty.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mubarak M; Parab, Sapna R

    2016-06-01

    The well established techniques in tympanoplasty are routinely performed with operating microscopes for many decades now. Endoscopic ear surgeries provide minimally invasive approach to the middle ear and evolving new science in the field of otology. The disadvantage of endoscopic ear surgeries is that it is one-handed surgical technique as the non-dominant left hand of the surgeon is utilized for holding and manipulating the endoscope. This necessitated the need for development of the endoscope holder which would allow both hands of surgeon to be free for surgical manipulation and also allow alternate use of microscope during tympanoplasty. To report the preliminary utility of our designed and developed endoscope holder attachment gripping to microscope for two handed technique of endoscopic tympanoplasty. Prospective Non Randomized Clinical Study. Our endoscope holder attachment for microscope was designed and developed to aid in endoscopic ear surgery and to overcome the disadvantage of single handed endoscopic surgery. It was tested for endoscopic Tympanoplasty. The design of the endoscope holder attachment is described in detail along with its manipulation and manoeuvreing. A total of 78 endoholder assisted type 1 endoscopic cartilage tympanoplasties were operated to evaluate its feasibility for the two handed technique and to evaluate the results of endoscopic type 1 cartilage tympanoplasty. In early follow up period ranging from 6 to 20 months, the graft uptake was seen in 76 ears with one residual perforation and 1 recurrent perforations giving a success rate of 97.435 %. Our endocsope holder attachment for gripping microscope is a good option for two handed technique in endoscopic type 1 cartilage tympanoplasty. The study reports the successful application and use of our endoscope holder attachment for gripping microscope in two handed technique of endoscopic type 1 cartilage tympanoplasty and comparable results with microscopic techniques. IV.

  4. Endoscopic- Assisted Trephination approach for repair of Frontal Sinus posterior wall fracture in a Child.

    PubMed

    Tarrats, Luis A; Torre-León, Carlos; Almodóvar, Gustavo; Portela, Juan C

    2015-01-01

    A 9 year-old male sustained multiple maxillofacial fractures after falling from a two-store building. Frontal sinuses suffered a bilateral non-displaced linear fractures extending into the anterior and posterior walls. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at this time showed a small encephalocele extending into the right frontal sinus. Operative repair was performed using an Endoscopic-Assisted Trephination approach.

  5. A High-Resolution Endoscope of Small Diameter Using Electromagnetically Vibration of Single Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsunaga, Tadao; Hino, Ryunosuke; Makishi, Wataru; Esashi, Masayoshi; Haga, Yoichi

    For high resolution visual inspection in the narrow space of the human body, small diameter endoscope has been developed which utilize electromagnetically vibration of single fiber. Thin endoscopes are effective for inspection in the narrow space of the human body, for example, in the blood vessel, lactiferous duct for detection infiltration of breast cancer, and periodontal gap between gingiva and tooth. This endoscope consists of single optical fiber and photofabricated driving coils. A collimator lens and a cylindrical permanent magnet are fixed on the optical fiber, and the tilted driving coils have been patterned on a 1.08 mm outer diameter thin tube. The fiber is positioned at the center of the tube which is patterned the coils. When an electrical alternating current at the resonance frequency is supplied to the coils, the permanent magnet which is fixed to the fiber is vibrated electromagnetically and scanned one or two dimensionally. This paper reports small diameter endoscope by using electromagnetically vibration of single fiber. Optical coherence tomography imaging has also been carried out with the fabricated endoscope and cross-section image of sub-surface skin of thumb was observed.

  6. Barrett esophagus: when to endoscope.

    PubMed

    Butt, Joshua; Kandel, Gabor

    2014-01-01

    Increasing interest in identifying an effective strategy for decreasing the burden of esophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC) has been fuelled by the rising EAC rates worldwide, the morbidity associated with esophagectomy, and the development of endoscopic methods for curing early-stage EAC. In the face of this enthusiasm, however, we should be cautious about continuing our current evidence-free approach to screening and one with unclear benefits and unclear costs to the community. The literature is increasingly recognizing that the value of traditional endoscopy for screening and surveillance of Barrett esophagus may be more limited than initially believed. A better understanding of the risk factors for Barrett esophagus and progression to dysplasia and a more individualized risk calculation will be useful in defining populations to consider for Barrett screening. The development of novel, nonendoscopic screening techniques and of less expensive endoscopic techniques holds promise for a cost-effective screening and surveillance method to curtail the increasing rates of EAC.

  7. Endoscopic Palliation of Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Coté, Gregory A.; Sherman, Stuart

    2012-01-01

    Endoscopy has an increasingly important role in the palliation of patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Endoscopic biliary drainage is still requested in the majority of patients who present with obstructive jaundice, and the increased use of self-expandable metallic stents has reduced the incidence of premature stent occlusion. First-line use of metallic stents is expected to be utilized more frequently as neoadjuvant protocols are improved. The efficacy of endoscopy for palliating gastroduodenal obstruction has advanced with the development of through-the-scope, self-expandable gastroduodenal stents. There have been advances in pain management, with endoscopic ultrasound-guided celiac plexus neurolysis reducing opiate requirements and pain for patients with unresectable malignancy. Future applications of endoscopy in pancreatic cancer may include fine needle injection of chemotherapeutic and other agents into the lesion itself. This review will summarize the evidence of endoscopy in the management of patients with pancreatic cancer. PMID:23187846

  8. Endoscopic-Assisted Craniosynostosis Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Honeycutt, Johnnie Harrel

    2014-01-01

    Over the last decade, endoscopy has been increasingly utilized in craniosynostosis surgery. In 2006, the author added endoscopy followed by helmet therapy to the treatment of young craniosynostosis patients. Since then, 73 children have been successfully treated utilizing endoscopic techniques with a transfusion rate of 23%. Most children are discharged on the first postoperative day; helmet therapy begins one week later. A helmet is worn for 4 to 6 months with one helmet replacement. Complications were limited to three reoperations to address suboptimal results, and one reoperation for a persisting skull defect. One sagittal sinus injury was addressed successfully, with resolution of a small intrasinus thrombus and no adverse brain sequelae. Although not applicable to every craniosynostosis patient, properly applied endoscopic-assisted craniosynostosis surgery is safe and effective, adding another option to the treatment armamentarium for craniosynostosis. PMID:25210508

  9. Endoscopic subsurface imaging in tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Demos, S G; Staggs, M; Radousky, H B

    2001-02-12

    The objective of this work is to develop endoscopic subsurface optical imaging technology that will be able to image different tissue components located underneath the surface of the tissue at an imaging depth of up to 1 centimeter. This effort is based on the utilization of existing technology and components developed for medical endoscopes with the incorporation of the appropriate modifications to implement the spectral and polarization difference imaging technique. This subsurface imaging technique employs polarization and spectral light discrimination in combination with image processing to remove a large portion of the image information from the outer layers of the tissue which leads to enhancement of the contrast and image quality of subsurface tissue structures.

  10. Robotically assisted endoscopic ovarian transposition.

    PubMed

    Molpus, Kelly L; Wedergren, June S; Carlson, Mark A

    2003-01-01

    Ovarian transposition is the anatomical relocation of the ovaries from the pelvis to the abdomen. Transposition is beneficial in women who are to undergo pelvic radiation, because it allows maintenance of ovarian function and preservation of assisted reproductive capacity. The da Vinci surgical system (Intuitive Surgical, Mountainview, CA, USA) was used to perform an endoscopic ovarian transposition. The ovaries were mobilized on their respective infundibulopelvic ligaments and sutured to the ipsilateral pericolic gutters. A series, of laboratory sessions using the da Vinci system was completed at our institution's training facility. Surgical experience included cadaveric pelvic dissection and abdominopelvic procedures on anesthetized porcine models. Additional didactic and laboratory training, including a certification examination, was obtained from Intuitive Surgical, Inc. The first clinical case of robotically assisted endoscopic ovarian transposition was performed. Robotically assisted endoscopy was successfully used for ovarian transposition.

  11. [Endoscopic thoracic sympatecomy for hyperhidrosis].

    PubMed

    Smati, Belhassen; Marghali, Adel; Abid, Mohamed; Bakhtri, Malek; Ben Youssef, Atef; Mestiri, Taher; Djilani, Habiba; Kilani, Tarek

    2007-06-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a benin affection representing a social and professional problems and occupational handicaps in young patient. Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy thus provides a radical treatment for severe palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. We describe the technique used in our institut and present results From 1995 to 2002, 32 patients were operated on for hyperhidrosis. There were 17 mens and 15 women raging in age from 15 to 32 years The intervention consisting on destruction by electrocoagulation to the sympathetic trunk There was no major complication and the mean postoperative hospital stay was 2 days. The disappearance of the palmar sweating was immediately after operation. 7 patients complained of compensatory sweating Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis is a safe effect technique for treating palmar and axillary hyperhidrosis. Compensatry sweeting represent the major that necessite a preable information

  12. Endoscopic septoplasty: technique and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Durr, Dory G

    2003-02-01

    Recent literature has already embraced the topic of endoscopic septoplasty, with several published articles on the subject. This approach provides a direct-targeted route to the anatomic deformity, improved visualization, and magnification of the surgical field. It allows improved evaluation of the posterior nasal septal deformities, identification of the degree of mucosal involvement of the posterior ends of the inferior turbinates, and concomitant assessment of the middle meatus. It permits objective documentation of the cause of nasal obstruction with possible use in outcome assessment. It is also an effective teaching method and a motivating approach for the nursing team. We present our experience in a series of 47 patients performed during a 1 1/2-year period and discuss the surgical technique and patients' outcomes. We systematically used the endoscope for all septal and turbinate surgery. We evaluated outcomes using a telephone survey along with a validated disease-specific health status measure and a global rating questionnaire.

  13. Where next for the endoscope?

    PubMed

    Natalin, Ricardo A; Landman, Jaime

    2009-11-01

    The concept of examining the body's interior and its organs dates back to ancient times. The roots of modern endoscopy lie in early nineteenth century Europe, and the intervening centuries have seen a steady evolution of devices and techniques. Nowadays, a wide variety of urinary tract disorders are successfully managed in a minimally invasive manner thanks to the endoscope and related technologies. Distal-sensor, 'digital', endoscopes have the potential to revolutionize the field, and change the way in which we use and think about endoscopy. Virtual endoscopy, capsule endoscopy, and a range of other techniques derived from physics and molecular biology all promise great improvements in visualization of the urinary tract and other urologic structures. Ultimately, the continued improvement of these minimally invasive technologies will enhance the quality of care that we can offer our patients.

  14. Back to Basics: Flexible Endoscope Processing.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa

    2016-05-01

    Flexible endoscopes are important tools in patient care, yet recent outbreaks of infections in patients who have undergone endoscopic procedures have increased awareness of how the complex design of these instruments makes them difficult to clean. This Back to Basics article focuses on flexible endoscope processing and provides sterile processing, endoscopy, and perioperative team members with strategies for successful processing of these instruments. Copyright © 2016 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Cecal Leiomyoma: Can We Attempt Endoscopic Resection?

    PubMed Central

    Badipatla, Kanthi Rekha; Kamireddy, Chandana; Niazi, Masooma; Nayudu, Suresh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal leiomyomas are smooth muscle tumors arising from the muscularis mucosae, muscularis propriae and possibly from smooth muscle of the vessel wall. Management depends on the size, location and the clinical scenario. Endoscopic snare cauterization with or without saline lift has been described in literature for tumors involving the left colon. To the best of our knowledge, endoscopic resection of right colon leiomyoma was never attempted in the past. We present a case of cecal leiomyoma which was resected endoscopically. PMID:28058080

  16. Diagnosis of aortic aneurysms by scintigraphy and ultrasonography

    SciTech Connect

    Caille, G. ); Chatal, J.F.; Tellier, J.L.; Talmant, C.; Guihard, R. )

    1981-10-01

    Angioscintigraphy, performed on 50 patients suspected of aortic aneurysm and complemented by abdominal ultrasonography in 31 cases, disclosed: - Three cases of thoracic aortic aneurysm, 2 of which were confirmed by arteriography and surgery. It was impossible to perform surgery in the third case, no arteriography was done. Strict agreement with standard thoracic images had made the angioscintigraphic diagnosis seem correct. Twenty-seven cases of abdominal aortic aneurysms were confirmed by arteriography or surgery. Ultrasonography disclosed an abdominal aortic aneurysm in 26 cases, 20 of which were confirmed. The agreement of the two procedures in 10 unconfirmed cases led us to consider the diagnosis as correct. Angioscintigraphy appears to be a reliable procedure for detecting thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms. Ultrasonography is the simplest and least costly procedure for study of abdominal aortic aneurysms.

  17. Immersion ultrasonography: simultaneous A-scan and B-scan.

    PubMed

    Coleman, D J; Dallow, R L; Smith, M E

    1979-01-01

    In eyes with opaque media, ophthalmic ultrasound provides a unique source of information that can dramatically affect the course of patient management. In addition, when an ocular abnormality can be visualized, ultrasonography provides information that supplements and complements other diagnostic testing. It provides documentation and differentiation of abnormal states, such as vitreous hemorrhage and intraocular tumor, as well as differentiation of orbital tumors from inflammatory causes of exophthalmos. Additional capabilities of ultrasound are biometric determinations for calculation of intraocular lens implant powers and drug-effectiveness studies. Maximal information is derived from ultrasonography when A-scan and B-scan techniques are employed simultaneously. Flexibility of electronics, variable-frequency transducers, and the use of several different manual scanning patterns aid in detection and interpretation of results. The immersion system of ultrasonography provides these features optimally.

  18. Modified endoscopic left inguinal lymphadenectomy.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Maestro, M; Rios Gonzalez, E; Martinez-Piñeiro, L; Sanchez Gomez, F J

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic Inguinal Lymphadenectomy is an evolution of laparoscopic surgery thanks to background in these techniques. This is a new technique and the indications in the field of penile tumors today are expanding. The technique aims at reducing the morbidity of the procedure without compromising the cancer control or reducing the template of the dissection. We present the modified endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy in a 70 years-old male patient with penile melanoma and positive sentinel lymph node in left inguinal limb. Intraoperative data, pathology, post operatory evolution and oncological follow-up is described Operative time was 120 min. Nine lymph nodes were retrieved and none of then showed positivity at pathology. There were no complications. The drain was kept for five days. After 12 months of follow up, no signs of disease progression were noted. The endoscopic inguinal lymphadenectomy is feasible in clinical practice. New studies with a greater number of patients and long-term follow-up may confirm the oncological efficacy and possible lower morbidity of these new approach. Copyright © 2012 AEU. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. [Laser in gastroenterologic endoscopic therapy].

    PubMed

    Naveau, S; Chaput, J C

    1991-01-21

    Endoscopic gastrointestinal laser therapy was originally inspired by the haemostatic properties of the laser beam and was subsequently used to destroy tumours. In endoscopic gastroenterology, the most commonly used type of laser is the neodyme+-doped yttrium aluminium garnet (Nd:YAG) laser. Endoscopic Nd:YAG laser therapy of obstructive cancers of the oesophagus and cardia rapidly reduces dysphagia in 70 to 100% of the patients. In the treatment of colorectal cancers, the intestinal transit returns to normal in 57 to 83% of the cases, and rectal haemorrhages are controlled in 38 to 92% of the cases. However, sustained results can only be obtained by a maintenance treatment with at least one application every 4 weeks. The Nd:YAG laser makes it possible to destroy villose tumours in patients who cannot, or will not, be operated upon; the number of applications depends on the size of the tumour. Finally, the Nd:YAG laser seems to be able to control bleeding due to gastrointestinal angiodysplasia and to stabilize the course of Rendu-Osler-Weber disease.

  20. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery: a review

    PubMed Central

    Heidary, Behrouz; Phang, Terry P.; Raval, Manoj J.; Brown, Carl J.

    2014-01-01

    Rectal adenomas and cancers occur frequently. Small adenomas can be removed colonoscopically, whereas larger polyps are removed via conventional transanal excision. Owing to technical difficulties, adenomas of the mid- and upper rectum require radical resection. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery (TEM) was first designed as an alternative treatment for these lesions. However, since its development TEM has been also used for a variety of rectal lesions, including carcinoids, rectal prolapse and diverticula, early stage carcinomas and palliative resection of rectal cancers. The objective of this review is to describe the current status of TEM in the treatment of rectal lesions. Since the 1980s, TEM has advanced substantially. With low recurrence rates, it is the method of choice for resection of endoscopically unresectable adenomas. Some studies have shown benefits to its use in treating early T1 rectal cancers compared with radical surgery in select patients. However, for more advanced rectal cancers TEM should be considered palliative or experimental. This technique has also been shown to be safe for the treatment of other uncommon rectal tumours, such as carcinoids. Transanal endoscopic microsurgery may allow for new strategies in the treatment of rectal pathology where technical limitations of transanal techniques have limited endoluminal surgical innovations. PMID:24666451

  1. Portable electronic endoscopic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Lihui; Wang, Liqiang; Ye, Bin; Duan, Huilong

    2010-11-01

    The paper presents a low-power, inexpensive and portable endoscopic imaging system. A 1.3 million pixels CMOS sensor is considered as an image capture. The sensor and the lens system are designed to minify the cannula diameter of the endoscope and therefore minimize the incision size for insertion. LVDS is used for image data transmission between the sensor and CPU to realize a long distance, high speed and low noise system. An ARM 920T based microcontroller is employed as the control core for the image transmission module, display module and other modules. The camera interface and LCD controller are integrated in the microcontroller and both have a dedicated DMA supports to transmit image data though AHB to or from frame buffer located in system memory without CPU intervention. The image is displayed on an 8 inch LCD screen with 800 × 600 resolution and 16 bits of color depth. With the maximum capture and display rate of 15 fps, this system can provide a clear image enough for laparoscopy or industrial application. And with integrated camera, light source and video display function, it can also be used as a portable, miniature and inexpensive endoscope.

  2. Endoscopic treatment of esophageal achalasia.

    PubMed

    Esposito, Dario; Maione, Francesco; D'Alessandro, Alessandra; Sarnelli, Giovanni; De Palma, Giovanni D

    2016-01-25

    Achalasia is a motility disorder of the esophagus characterized by dysphagia, regurgitation of undigested food, chest pain, weight loss and respiratory symptoms. The most common form of achalasia is the idiopathic one. Diagnosis largely relies upon endoscopy, barium swallow study, and high resolution esophageal manometry (HRM). Barium swallow and manometry after treatment are also good predictors of success of treatment as it is the residue symptomatology. Short term improvement in the symptomatology of achalasia can be achieved w