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  1. Ceramide Production Mediates Aldosterone-Induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) Damages.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yumei; Pan, Yu; Bian, Zhixiang; Chen, Peihua; Zhu, Shijian; Gu, Huiyi; Guo, Liping; Hu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the underlying mechanism of aldosterone (Aldo)-induced vascular endothelial cell damages by focusing on ceramide. We confirmed that Aldo (at nmol/L) inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) survival, and induced considerable cell apoptosis. We propose that ceramide (mainly C18) production might be responsible for Aldo-mediated damages in HUVECs. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an anti-ceramide lipid, attenuated Aldo-induced ceramide production and following HUVEC damages. On the other hand, the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor PDMP or the ceramide (C6) potentiated Aldo-induced HUVEC apoptosis. Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, almost completely blocked Aldo-induced C18 ceramide production and HUVEC damages. Molecularly, ceramide synthase 1 (CerS-1) is required for C18 ceramide production by Aldo. Knockdown of CerS-1 by targeted-shRNA inhibited Aldo-induced C18 ceramide production, and protected HUVECs from Aldo. Reversely, CerS-1 overexpression facilitated Aldo-induced C18 ceramide production, and potentiated HUVEC damages. Together, these results suggest that C18 ceramide production mediates Aldo-mediated HUVEC damages. MR and CerS-1 could be the two signaling molecule regulating C18 ceramide production by Aldo.

  2. Ceramide Production Mediates Aldosterone-Induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell (HUVEC) Damages

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yumei; Pan, Yu; Bian, Zhixiang; Chen, Peihua; Zhu, Shijian; Gu, Huiyi; Guo, Liping; Hu, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Here, we studied the underlying mechanism of aldosterone (Aldo)-induced vascular endothelial cell damages by focusing on ceramide. We confirmed that Aldo (at nmol/L) inhibited human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) survival, and induced considerable cell apoptosis. We propose that ceramide (mainly C18) production might be responsible for Aldo-mediated damages in HUVECs. Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), an anti-ceramide lipid, attenuated Aldo-induced ceramide production and following HUVEC damages. On the other hand, the glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) inhibitor PDMP or the ceramide (C6) potentiated Aldo-induced HUVEC apoptosis. Eplerenone, a mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) antagonist, almost completely blocked Aldo-induced C18 ceramide production and HUVEC damages. Molecularly, ceramide synthase 1 (CerS-1) is required for C18 ceramide production by Aldo. Knockdown of CerS-1 by targeted-shRNA inhibited Aldo-induced C18 ceramide production, and protected HUVECs from Aldo. Reversely, CerS-1 overexpression facilitated Aldo-induced C18 ceramide production, and potentiated HUVEC damages. Together, these results suggest that C18 ceramide production mediates Aldo-mediated HUVEC damages. MR and CerS-1 could be the two signaling molecule regulating C18 ceramide production by Aldo. PMID:26788916

  3. Plant proteolytic enzyme papain abrogates angiogenic activation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of physiologic and pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. It is known that cysteine proteases from plants, like bromelain and papain are capable to suppress inflammatory activation. Recent studies have demonstrated that they may interfere with angiogenesis related pathways as well. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of papain on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. Methods Cell viability after prolonged treatment with papain was investigated by life cell staining and lactate dehydrogenase release assay. Angiogenic activation was assessed by ELISA against phosphorylated proteins AKT, MEK1/2, ERK1/2, SAPK/JNK and p38-MAPK. Growth inhibition was determined by means of an MTT-assay and cell migration by means of a scratch assay. Capability to form a capillary network was investigated using a tube formation assay. Results Papain did not induce proteolysis or cell detachment of HUVEC in a concentration range between 0 and 25 μg/mL. Four hours treatment with 10 μg/mL papain resulted in a reduced susceptibility of endothelial cells to activation by VEGF as determined by phosphorylation levels of Akt, MEK1/2, SAPK/JNK. Papain exerted a distinct inhibitory effect on cell growth, cell migration and tube formation with inhibition of tube formation detectable at concentrations as low as 1 μg/mL. Bromelain and ficin displayed similar effects with regard to cell growth and tube formation. Conclusion Papain showed a strong anti-angiogenic effect in VEGF activated HUVEC. This effect may be due to interference with AKT, MEK1/2 and SAPK/JNK phosphorylation. Two other plant derived cysteine proteases displayed similar inhibition of HUVEC cell growth and tube formation. These findings indicate that plant proteolytic enzymes may have potential as preventive and therapeutic agents against angiogenesis related human diseases

  4. Cytoprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Δ-17 Fatty Acid Desaturase in Injured Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Haoyu; Wang, Chengming

    2017-01-01

    Background The beneficial effect of Δ-17 FAD is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective mechanism of fatty acids against atherosclerotic (AS) damage induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and to identify the molecular mechanisms involved. Material/Methods The ox-LDL was used to induce lipotoxicity in HUVECs to establish a model of oxidative injury. HUVECs were transfected with Δ-17FAD lentivirus to induce cytoprotective effects. We evaluated the alterations in cell proliferation and apoptosis, and oxidative stress index, including levels of nitric oxide (NO), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), SOD enzyme, LDH, GSH-PX, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. Results The ox-LDL-induced excessive cellular apoptosis of HUVECs was abrogated by upregulation of Δ-17 FAD. Importantly, Δ-17 FAD converted ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ARA into ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid EPA. Further, Δ-17 FAD overexpression promoted the proliferation of HUVECS, and inhibited ox-LDL-induced lipid peroxidation of HUVECs. The levels of nitric oxide, GSH-PX, and SOD enzyme were increased, and the activity of MDA and LDH was suppressed by the upregulation of Δ-17 FAD. In addition, upregulation of Δ-17 FAD significantly increased VEGF expression. In vitro tube formation assay showed that Δ-17 FAD significantly promoted angiogenesis. Conclusions These results suggest that Δ-17 fatty acid desaturase plays a beneficial role in the prevention of ox-LDL-induced cellular damage. PMID:28373637

  5. Cytoprotective Effects and Mechanisms of Δ-17 Fatty Acid Desaturase in Injured Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haoyu; Wang, Chengming

    2017-04-04

    BACKGROUND The beneficial effect of Δ-17 FAD is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the protective mechanism of fatty acids against atherosclerotic (AS) damage induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and to identify the molecular mechanisms involved. MATERIAL AND METHODS The ox-LDL was used to induce lipotoxicity in HUVECs to establish a model of oxidative injury. HUVECs were transfected with Δ-17FAD lentivirus to induce cytoprotective effects. We evaluated the alterations in cell proliferation and apoptosis, and oxidative stress index, including levels of nitric oxide (NO), malonyldialdehyde (MDA), SOD enzyme, LDH, GSH-PX, and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression. RESULTS The ox-LDL-induced excessive cellular apoptosis of HUVECs was abrogated by upregulation of Δ-17 FAD. Importantly, Δ-17 FAD converted ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ARA into ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid EPA. Further, Δ-17 FAD overexpression promoted the proliferation of HUVECS, and inhibited ox-LDL-induced lipid peroxidation of HUVECs. The levels of nitric oxide, GSH-PX, and SOD enzyme were increased, and the activity of MDA and LDH was suppressed by the upregulation of Δ-17 FAD. In addition, upregulation of Δ-17 FAD significantly increased VEGF expression. In vitro tube formation assay showed that Δ-17 FAD significantly promoted angiogenesis. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that Δ-17 fatty acid desaturase plays a beneficial role in the prevention of ox-LDL-induced cellular damage.

  6. [Impact of sera from children with active Henoch-Schönlein purpura on human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) and protective effects of methylprednisolone against HUVECs injury].

    PubMed

    Wu, Lin; Yuan, Li-Ping; Fei, Wen-Jun; Deng, Fang; Zhang, Qin; Hu, Bo; Lu, Ling

    2012-01-01

    To observe the changes of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) induced by the sera from children with active Henoch-Sch-nlein purpura (HSP) and the protective effects of methylprednisolone against HUVECs injury. HUVECs were divided into four groups based on the culture conditions: blank control group, normal serum group, HSP serum group, and HSP serum plus methylprednisolone group. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-8 in the supernatants of each group were detected using ELISA and the nitric oxide (NO) level by nitrate reductase determination. Moreover, the expressions of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and Fractalkine in HUVECs were examined by semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot, respectively. The levels of IL-8, TNF-α, and NO in the HSP serum group were significantly higher than those in the blank control and normal serum groups (P<0.05). Compared with the HSP serum group, the levels of IL-8, TNF-α, and NO in the HSP serum plus methylprednisolone group decreased significantly (P<0.05). The mRNA expression levels of NF-κB and Fractalkine in the HSP serum group were significantly higher than those in the blank control group (P<0.05). The protein expression levels of NF-κB and Fractalkine in the HSP serum group were significantly higher than those in the blank control and normal control group (P<0.05). Compared with the HSP serum group, the mRNA and protein expression levels of NF-κB and Fractalkine in the HSP serum plus methylprednisolone group decreased significantly (P<0.05). The sera from children with active HSP can induce the in vitro cultured HUVECs to become activated and excrete cytokines. Methylprednisolone may inhibit NF-κB expression, reduce the production of inflammatory factors, and thus alleviate vascular inflamation.

  7. Biological effects of simulated microgravity on human umbilical vein endothelial cell line HUVEC-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming; Cheng, Zhenlong; Liang, Shujian; Sun, Yeqing

    Microgravity has been reported to have multiple influences on human cells. To investigate the biological effects of simulated microgravity on human endothelial cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cell HUVEC-C was treated with microgravity for 24 hours and restored at 1 g gravity for extra 24 hours (group 1) and 48 hours and restored for 24 hours (group 2). Microgravity was simulated by using a two-dimensionally rotating clinostat, set on 30 rpm. As controls, cells were cultured paralleled at 1 g gravity. Two groups of treated cells and control cells were harvested at 0, 12, 24, 48 and 72 (for group 2 and control only) hours for proliferation, cell cycles, apoptosis, proteome and microarray analysis. The influences of microgravity on cell proliferation were controversial in previous reports, and in our experiment, inhibitory effect was observed at 12 hour, and cell number of the treatment groups presented 9.26% decrease compared with that of control. Cell cycle distribution was analyzed using flow cytometry. The G2/M cell cycle arrest also occurred at 12 hour in both treatment groups, the cell rates at G2/M phase were 24% higher than in control. Effect of simulated microgravity on cell apoptosis was observed only after 48-hour-treatment, resulted in percentage of apoptotic cells increased by 53-67% compared with control. After cells returned to normal conditions for 24 hours, levels of cell proliferation, cell cycle and cell apoptosis in treatment groups were comparable to control. In order to investigate the molecular mechanism, we analyzed the treated cells at proteomic and transcriptomic levels respectively. Two-dimensional electrophoresis showed that after 24- hour-restoration under normal conditions, 189 proteins in control group disappeared and 187 new proteins presented in group 1; 469 proteins disappeared and 291 new proteins presented in group 2. By using microarray, we found that expression levels of 56 genes were up-regulated and 45 down-regulated in

  8. Human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) have a sex: characterisation of the phenotype of male and female cells.

    PubMed

    Addis, Roberta; Campesi, Ilaria; Fois, Marco; Capobianco, Giampiero; Dessole, Salvatore; Fenu, Grazia; Montella, Andrea; Cattaneo, Maria Grazia; Vicentini, Lucia M; Franconi, Flavia

    2014-01-01

    Human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) are widely used to study the endothelial physiology and pathology that might be involved in sex and gender differences detected at the cardiovascular level. This study evaluated whether HUVECs are sexually dimorphic in their morphological, proliferative and migratory properties and in the gene and protein expression of oestrogen and androgen receptors and nitric oxide synthase 3 (NOS3). Moreover, because autophagy is influenced by sex, its degree was analysed in male and female HUVECs (MHUVECs and FHUVECs). Umbilical cords from healthy, normal weight male and female neonates born to healthy non-obese and non-smoking women were studied. HUVEC morphology was analysed by electron microscopy, and their function was investigated by proliferation, viability, wound healing and chemotaxis assays. Gene and protein expression for oestrogen and androgen receptors and for NOS3 were evaluated by real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively, and the expression of the primary molecules involved in autophagy regulation [protein kinase B (Akt), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), beclin-1 and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3)] were detected by Western blotting. Cell proliferation, migration NOS3 mRNA and protein expression were significantly higher in FHUVECs than in MHUVECs. Conversely, beclin-1 and the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio were higher in MHUVECs than in FHUVECs, indicating that male cells are more autophagic than female cells. The expression of oestrogen and androgen receptor genes and proteins, the protein expression of Akt and mTOR and cellular size and shape were not influenced by sex. Body weights of male and female neonates were not significantly different, but the weight of male babies positively correlated with the weight of the mother, suggesting that the mother's weight may exert a different influence on male and female babies. The results indicate that sex differences exist in prenatal life and are

  9. The angiogenic behaviors of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in co-culture with osteoblast-like cells (MG-63) on different titanium surfaces.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bin; Andrukhov, Oleh; Berner, Simon; Schedle, Andreas; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui

    2014-08-01

    Interaction between osteogenesis and angiogenesis plays an important role in implant osseointegration. In the present study we investigated the influence of titanium surface properties on the angiogenic behaviors of endothelial cells grown in direct contact co-culture with osteoblasts. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and osteoblast-like cells (MG-63 cells) were grown in direct co-culture on the following titanium surfaces: acid-etched (A), hydrophilic A (modA), coarse-gritblasted and acid-etched (SLA) and hydrophilic SLA (SLActive). Cell proliferation was evaluated by cell counting combined with flow cytometry. The expression of von Willebrand Factor (vWF), thrombomodulin (TM), endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR), E-Selectin, as well as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors Flt-1 and KDR in HUVECs and VEGF in MG-63 were measured by qPCR. The dynamic behavior of endothelial cells was recorded by time-lapse microscopy. Proliferation of HUVECs was highest on A, followed by SLA, modA and SLActive surfaces. The expression of vWF, TM, EPCR, E-Selectin and Flt-1 in HUVECs was significantly higher on A than on all other surfaces. The expression of KDR in HUVECs grown on A surface was below detection limit. VEGF expression in MG-63 cells was significantly higher on SLActive vs SLA and modA vs A surfaces. Time-lapse microscopy revealed that HUVECs moved quickest and formed cell clusters earlier on A surface, followed by SLA, modA and SLActive surface. In co-culture conditions, proliferation and expression of angiogenesis associated genes in HUVECs are promoted by smooth hydrophobic Ti surface, which is in contrast to previous mono-culture studies. Copyright © 2014 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The volatile oil of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma induces endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in HUVEC cells.

    PubMed

    Maiwulanjiang, Maitinuer; Bi, Cathy W C; Lee, Pinky S C; Xin, Guizhong; Miernisha, Abudureyimu; Lau, Kei M; Xiong, Aizhen; Li, Ning; Dong, Tina T X; Aisa, Haji A; Tsim, Karl W K

    2015-01-01

    Nardostahyos Radix et Rhizoma (NRR; the root and rhizome of Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) is a widely used medicinal herb. Historically, NRR is being used for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To search for active ingredients of NRR, we investigated the vascular benefit of NRR volatile oil in (i) the vasodilation in rat aorta ring, and (ii) the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By measuring the fluorescence signal in cultures, application of NRR volatile oil resulted in a rapid activation of NO release as well as the phosphorylation of eNOS: both inductions were markedly reduced by L-NAME. In parallel, the phosphorylation level of Akt kinase was markedly increased by the oil treatment, which was partially attenuated by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. This inhibitor also blocked the NRR-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. In HUVECs, application of NRR volatile oil elevated the intracellular Ca(2+) level, and BAPTA-AM, a Ca(2+) chelator, reduced the Ca(2+) surge: the blockage were also applied to NRR-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. These findings suggested the volatile oil of NRR was the major ingredient in triggering the vascular dilatation, and which was mediated via the NO production.

  11. The Volatile Oil of Nardostachyos Radix et Rhizoma Induces Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity in HUVEC Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maiwulanjiang, Maitinuer; Bi, Cathy W. C.; Lee, Pinky S. C.; Xin, Guizhong; Miernisha, Abudureyimu; Lau, Kei M.; Xiong, Aizhen; Li, Ning; Dong, Tina T. X.; Aisa, Haji A.; Tsim, Karl W. K.

    2015-01-01

    Nardostahyos Radix et Rhizoma (NRR; the root and rhizome of Nardostachys jatamansi DC.) is a widely used medicinal herb. Historically, NRR is being used for the treatment of cardiovascular and neurological diseases. To search for active ingredients of NRR, we investigated the vascular benefit of NRR volatile oil in (i) the vasodilation in rat aorta ring, and (ii) the release of nitric oxide (NO) and the phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). By measuring the fluorescence signal in cultures, application of NRR volatile oil resulted in a rapid activation of NO release as well as the phosphorylation of eNOS: both inductions were markedly reduced by L-NAME. In parallel, the phosphorylation level of Akt kinase was markedly increased by the oil treatment, which was partially attenuated by PI3K/Akt inhibitor LY294002. This inhibitor also blocked the NRR-induced NO production and eNOS phosphorylation. In HUVECs, application of NRR volatile oil elevated the intracellular Ca2+ level, and BAPTA-AM, a Ca2+ chelator, reduced the Ca2+ surge: the blockage were also applied to NRR-induced eNOS phosphorylation and NO production. These findings suggested the volatile oil of NRR was the major ingredient in triggering the vascular dilatation, and which was mediated via the NO production. PMID:25643147

  12. Steady and disturbed flow effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vascular system: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Arslan, Nurullah; Isik, Sevim; Uykan, Ozge

    2010-01-01

    Coronary artery disease is still one of the most important reasons of the death in the world. The endothelium is the membrane of special cells which lines the interior surface of blood vessels forming an interface between circulating blood in the lumen and the rest of the vessel wall. Endothelial cells (ECs) line the entire circulatory system, from the heart to the smallest capillary. ECs dysfunction has been linked with atherosclerosis through their response to fluid forces. ECs change their morphology when exposed to mechanical stresses. The morphological responses include reorientation, elongation, and rearrangement of adhering molecules. Atherosclerotic lesions are formed in specific arterial regions, where low and oscillatory endothelial shear stress (ESS) occur. In this study, the effects of steady and disturbed flow over human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at different flow rates and periods were determined. Steady flow experiments were performed at flow rate of 1000 cm3/min for twenty four hours. Disturbed flow experiments simulating the flow in branching regions of arterial systems were carried out at flow rates of 250 cm3/min for five hours. The results obtained testified to the morphological changes easily observed. The directional alignment of the cells was determined in the steady flow experiments. Under disturbed flow conditions we observed not only the cell movement at the stagnation point but also the polygonal cell shape downstream the flow field.

  13. TNFα-Damaged-HUVECs Microparticles Modify Endothelial Progenitor Cell Functional Activity

    PubMed Central

    Luna, Carlos; Carmona, Andrés; Alique, Matilde; Carracedo, Julia; Ramirez, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) have an important role in the maintenance of vascular integrity and homeostasis. While there are many studies that explain EPCs mechanisms action, there are few studies that demonstrate how they interact with other emerging physiological elements such as Endothelial Microparticles (EMPs). EMPs are membranous structures with a size between 100 and 1000 nm that act as molecular information transporter in biological systems and are known as an important elements in develop different pathologies; moreover a lot of works explains that are novel biomarkers. To elucidate these interactions, we proposed an in vitro model of endothelial damage mediated by TNFalpha, in which damaged EMPs and EPCs are in contact to assess EPCs functional effects. We have observed that damaged EMPs can modulate several EPCs classic factors as colony forming units (CFUs), contribution to repair a physically damaged endothelium (wound healing), binding to mature endothelium, and co-adjuvants to the formation of new vessels in vitro (angiogenesis). All of these in a dose-dependent manner. Damaged EMPs at a concentration of 103 MPs/ml have an activating effect of these capabilities, while at concentrations of 105 MPs/ml these effects are attenuated or reduced. This in vitro model helps explain that in diseases where there is an imbalance between these two elements (EPCs and damaged EMPs), the key cellular elements in the regeneration and maintenance of vascular homeostasis (EPCs) are not fully functional, and could explain, at least in part, endothelial dysfunction associated in various pathologies. PMID:26733886

  14. [Deposition of von Willebrand factor in human endothelial cells HUVEC in the endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by an excess of homocysteine in vitro].

    PubMed

    Ignashkova, T I; Mesitov, M V; Rybakov, A S; Moskovtsev, A A; Sokolovskaia, A A; Kubatiev, A A

    2012-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (vWF) is an adhesive glycoprotein synthesized and secreted by endothelial cells and megakaryocytes. Violation of vWF secretion by endothelial cells is a characteristic feature of endothelial dysfunction in hyperhomocysteinemia. In our study we examined to clarify the concentration-dependent effect of homocysteine (Hcy) on the expression of vWF. Our studies have shown that homocysteine excess induces changes in the intracellular deposition of von Willebrand factor in cultured human endothelial cells in vitro. Primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were incubated with the various concentrations of D,L-homocysteine (0.025 - 5 mM). Homocysteine at a concentration of 0.025 and 0.25 mM after 18 h incubation caused an increase in the intracellular fraction of vWF in HUVEC cells. High concentrations of homocysteine induced a dose-dependent decrease in the intracellular fraction of vWF. These dose-dependent variations may indicate the modulation by homocysteine of different mechanisms of the deposition, the constitutive secretion and the degradation of vWF in human endothelial cells. We proposed that Endoplasmic reticulum stress, in HUVEC cells by the action of an excess of homocysteine associated with increased intracellular levels of vWF at a relatively low concentration of the inducer. We found decline in intracellular vWF at the same duration but higher concentrations of inducer, which may be due to the ER-associated protein degradation.

  15. Cyclopeptide RA-V inhibits angiogenesis by down-regulating ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HUVEC and HMEC-1 endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Grace GL; Fan, Jun-Ting; Lee, Julia KM; Zeng, Guang-Zhi; Ho, Tina WF; Fung, Kwok-Pui; Leung, Ping-Chung; Tan, Ning-Hua; Lau, Clara BS

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Anti-angiogenic agents have recently become one of the major adjuvants for cancer therapy. A cyclopeptide, RA-V, has been shown to have anti-tumour activities. Its in vitro anti-angiogenic activities were evaluated in the present study, and the underlying mechanisms were also assessed. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Two endothelial cell lines, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), were used. The effects of RA-V on the proliferation, cell cycle phase distribution, migration, tube formation and adhesion were assessed. Western blots and real-time PCR were employed to examine the protein and mRNA expression of relevant molecules. KEY RESULTS RA-V inhibited HUVEC and HMEC-1 proliferation dose-dependently with IC50 values of 1.42 and 4.0 nM respectively. RA-V inhibited migration and tube formation of endothelial cells as well as adhesion to extracellular matrix proteins. RA-V treatment down-regulated the protein and mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2. Regarding intracellular signal transduction, RA-V interfered with the activation of ERK1/2 in both cell lines. Furthermore, RA-V significantly decreased the phosphorylation of JNK in HUVEC whereas, in HMEC-1, p38 MAPK was decreased. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS RA-V exhibited anti-angiogenic activities in HUVEC and HMEC-1 cell lines with changes in function of these endothelial cells. The underlying mechanisms of action involved the ERK1/2 signalling pathway. However, RA-V may regulate different signalling pathways in different endothelial cells. These findings suggest that RA-V has the potential to be further developed as an anti-angiogenic agent. PMID:21518338

  16. Osteogenic properties of hydrophilic and hydrophobic titanium surfaces evaluated with osteoblast-like cells (MG63) in coculture with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Andrukhov, Oleh; Berner, Simon; Matejka, Michael; Wieland, Marco; Rausch-Fan, Xiaohui; Schedle, Andreas

    2010-11-01

    Osteogenesis on titanium (Ti) surfaces is a complex process involving cell-substrate and cell-cell interaction of osteoblasts and endothelial cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the osteogenic properties of Ti surfaces on osteoblasts in the presence of endothelial cells (ECs). Osteoblast-like cells (MG63 cells) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were grown in cocultures on four kinds of Ti surfaces: acid-etched (A), coarse-grit-blasted and acid-etched (SLA), hydrophilic A (modA) and hydrophilic SLA (modSLA) surfaces. MG63 cells in single cultures served as controls. Cell ratios and cell types in cocultures were determined and isolated using flow cytometry. Cell numbers were obtained by direct cell counting. In MG63 cells, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was determined and protein levels of osteocalcin (OC) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). The mRNA levels of ALP, OC and OPG of sorted MG63 cells were determined with real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). MG63 cells proliferated in the presence of HUVECs, which showed higher cell numbers on Ti surfaces (A, SLA, modSLA) after 72h, and lower cell numbers on Ti surfaces (modA, SLA, modSLA) after 120h in comparison to single cultures. Protein and mRNA levels of ALP and OPG were higher in cocultures than in single cultures, while OC exhibited a lower expression. These three parameters were higher expressed on modA, SLA and modSLA surfaces compared to A surfaces. Cocultures of osteoblasts and endothelial cells represent the most recently developed research model for investigating osteogenesis and angiogenesis which play both a major role in bone healing. This paper investigates for the first time the osteogenic properties of titanium surfaces used for dental implants with a coculture system with osteoblast-like cells and endothelial cells: (1) In cocultures with ECs (HUVECs) osteoblast-like cells (MG63 cells) show enhanced expression

  17. Physical supports from liver cancer cells are essential for differentiation and remodeling of endothelial cells in a HepG2-HUVEC co-culture model

    PubMed Central

    Chiew, Geraldine Giap Ying; Fu, Afu; Perng Low, Kar; Qian Luo, Kathy

    2015-01-01

    Blood vessel remodeling is crucial in tumor growth. Growth factors released by tumor cells and endothelium-extracellular matrix interactions are highlighted in tumor angiogenesis, however the physical tumor-endothelium interactions are highly neglected. Here, we report that the physical supports from hepatocellular carcinoma, HepG2 cells, are essential for the differentiation and remodeling of endothelial cells. In a HepG2-HUVEC co-culture model, endothelial cells in direct contact with HepG2 cells could differentiate and form tubular structures similar to those plated on matrigel. By employing HepG2 cell sheet as a supportive layer, endothelial cells formed protrusions and sprouts above it. In separate experiments, fixed HepG2 cells could stimulate endothelial cells differentiation while the conditioned media could not, indicating that physical interactions between tumor and endothelial cells were indispensable. To further investigate the endothelium-remodeling mechanisms, the co-culture model was treated with inhibitors targeting different angiogenic signaling pathways. Inhibitors targeting focal adhesions effectively inhibited the differentiation of endothelial cells, while the growth factor receptor inhibitor displayed little effect. In conclusion, the co-culture model has provided evidences of the essential role of cancer cells in the differentiation and remodeling of endothelial cells, and is a potential platform for the discovery of new anti-angiogenic agents for liver cancer therapy. PMID:26053957

  18. Influence of carboxylic acid functionalization on the cytotoxic effects induced by single wall carbon nanotubes on human endothelial cells (HUVEC).

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Praena, Daniel; Pichardo, Silvia; Sánchez, Elena; Grilo, Antonio; Cameán, Ana Maria; Jos, Angeles

    2011-12-01

    A vast variety of nanomaterials have been developed in the recent years, being carbon nanotubes (CNTs) the ones that have attracted more attention, due to its unique properties which make them suitable for numerous applications. Consequently, it is predicted that tons of CNTs will be produced worldwide every year, being its exposure of toxicological concern. Nanomaterials, once into the body, can translocate from the uptake sites to the blood circulation or the lymphatic system, resulting in distribution throughout the body. Thus, the vascular endothelium can be in contact with them and can suffer from their toxic effects. In this regard, the aim of this work was to investigate the cytotoxicity of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) on human endothelial cells evaluating the influence of acid carboxylic functionalization and also the exposure time (24 and 48 h). Biomarkers assessed were neutral red uptake, protein content, a tetrazolium salt metabolization and cell viability by means of the Trypan blue exclusion test. Cells were exposed to concentrations between 0 and 800 μg/mL SWCNTs for 24 and 48 h. Results have shown that both SWCNTs and carboxylic acid functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (COOH-SWCNTs) induce toxic effects in HUVEC cells in a concentration- and time-dependent way. Moreover, the carboxylic acid functionalization results in a higher toxicity compared to the SWCNTs.

  19. Trans Fatty Acids Suppress TNF-α-Induced Inflammatory Gene Expression in Endothelial (HUVEC) and Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Marine S; Julien, Pierre; Bilodeau, Jean-François; Barbier, Olivier; Rudkowska, Iwona

    2017-04-01

    Trans fatty acids (TFA) intake has been linked to cardiovascular diseases and liver diseases; yet the effect of TFA on inflammation remains controversial. Accordingly, the objective of this paper was to determine the in vitro effects of TFA on inflammatory gene expression. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells were treated for 24 h with either trans-vaccenic acid (tVA), trans-palmitoleic acid (tPA) or elaidic acid (EA) at concentrations of 5-150 µM, or with a mixture of tVA and tPA (150/50 µM). All TFA were highly incorporated into cell membranes, as determined by gas chromatography, representing 15-20% of total fatty acids in HUVEC and 3-8% in HepG2 cells. Incorporation of EA, a common industrial TFA, increased the ratio of the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD-1), a key enzyme involved in fatty acid metabolism. Ruminant TFA, including tVA, tPA and the mixture of tVA and tPA, significantly reduced the TNF-α-induced gene expression of TNF, VCAM-1 and SOD2 in HUVEC, as well as TNF and IL-8 in HepG2 cells. EA also decreased inflammatory gene expression in HUVEC, but not in HepG2 cells. The inhibition of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ did not influence the effects of TFA on gene expression. Overall, physiological and supraphysiological concentrations of TFA, especially tVA and tPA, prevented inflammatory gene expression in vitro. This effect is independent of PPAR-γ activation and may be due to an alteration of fatty acid metabolism in cell membranes caused by the high incorporation of TFA.

  20. Sargaquinoic Acid Inhibits TNF-α-Induced NF-κB Signaling, Thereby Contributing to Decreased Monocyte Adhesion to Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs).

    PubMed

    Gwon, Wi-Gyeong; Lee, Bonggi; Joung, Eun-Ji; Choi, Min-Woo; Yoon, Nayoung; Shin, Taisun; Oh, Chul-Woong; Kim, Hyeung-Rak

    2015-10-21

    Sargaquinoic acid (SQA) has been known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study investigated the effects of SQA isolated from Sargassum serratifolium on the inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). SQA decreased the expression of cell adhesion molecules such as intracellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 as well as chemotactic cytokines such as interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in TNF-α-treated HUVECs. As a result, SQA prevented monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-induced adhesion. SQA also inhibited TNF-α-induced nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) translocation into the nucleus by preventing proteolytic degradation of inhibitor κB-α. Overall, SQA protects against TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation through inhibition of the NF-κB pathway in HUVECs. These data suggest that SQA may be used as a therapeutic agent for vascular inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  1. Transcriptome analysis of human primary endothelial cells (HUVEC) from umbilical cords of gestational diabetic mothers reveals candidate sites for an epigenetic modulation of specific gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ambra, R; Manca, S; Palumbo, M C; Leoni, G; Natarelli, L; De Marco, A; Consoli, A; Pandolfi, A; Virgili, F

    2014-01-01

    Within the complex pathological picture associated to diabetes, high glucose (HG) has "per se" effects on cells and tissues that involve epigenetic reprogramming of gene expression. In fetal tissues, epigenetic changes occur genome-wide and are believed to induce specific long term effects. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) obtained at delivery from gestational diabetic women were used to study the transcriptomic effects of chronic hyperglycemia in fetal vascular cells using Affymetrix microarrays. In spite of the small number of samples analyzed (n=6), genes related to insulin sensing and extracellular matrix reorganization were found significantly affected by HG. Quantitative PCR analysis of gene promoters identified a significant differential DNA methylation in TGFB2. Use of Ea.hy926 endothelial cells confirms data on HUVEC. Our study corroborates recent evidences suggesting that epigenetic reprogramming of gene expression occurs with persistent HG and provides a background for future investigations addressing genomic consequences of chronic HG. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Effects of Chinese medicinal herbs on expression of brain-derived Neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its interaction with human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells and endothelial HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Jen-Hwey; Chen, Fang-Pey; Tsai, Yi-Fang; Lin, Man-Ting; Tseng, Ling-Ming; Shyr, Yi-Ming

    2017-08-12

    Our previous study demonstrated that an up-regulation of the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling pathway is involved the mechanism causing the recurrence of triple negative breast cancer. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of commonly used Chinese medicinal herbs on MDA-MB-231 and HUVEC cells and how they interact with BDNF. Human TNBC MDA-MB-231 cells and human endothelial HUVEC cells were used to explore the effect of commonly used Chinese herbal medicines on cancer cells alone, on endothelial cells alone and on cancer cell/endothelial cell interactions; this was done via functional studies, including migration and invasion assays. Furthermore, Western blot analysis and real-time PCR investigations were also used to investigate migration signal transduction, invasion signal transduction, and angiogenic signal transduction in these systems. Finally, the effect of the Chinese medicinal herbs on cancer cell/endothelial cell interactions was assessed using co-culture and ELISA. In terms of autoregulation, BDNF up-regulated TrkB gene expression in both MDA-MB-231 and HUVEC cells. Furthermore, BDNF enhanced migration by MDA-MB-231 cells via Rac, Cdc42 and MMP, while also increasing the migration of HUVEC cells via MMP and COX-2 expression. As measured by ELISA, the Chinese herbal medicinal herbs A. membranaceus, P. lactiflora, L. chuanxiong, P. suffruticosa and L. lucidum increased BDNF secretion by MDA-MB-231 cells. Similarly, using a co-culture system with MDA-MB-231 cells, A. membranaceus and L. lucidum modulated BDNF-TrkB signaling by HUVEC cells. We conclude that BDNF plays an important role in the metastatic interaction between MDA-MB-231 and HUVEC cells. Some Chinese medicinal herbs are able to enhance the BDNF-related metastatic potential of the interaction between cancer cells and endothelial cells. These findings provide important information that should help with the development of integrated medical therapies for breast

  3. Inhibitory effects of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) on H₂O₂-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) injury and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) atherosclerotic mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Li; Guo, Xiaobing; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is initiated by vascular endothelial cell injury, which is induced by lipid and protein oxidation. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA), a dietary fat-derived lipid, has shown atheroprotective effect. In vitro studies demonstrated that OEA showed cytoprotective effects on H2O2-induced primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) injury model. Further investigation of the cytoprotective effects of OEA demonstrated that OEA exerted its function by scavenging for reactive oxygen species, as well as increasing anti-oxidative enzymes, reducing lipid peroxidation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells and apoptosis-related proteins expression. The in vivo study using an ApoE-/- mouse model fed with high-fat diet for 8 weeks showed that OEA (10 mg/kg/day, i.g.) administration reduced blood lipid levels, prevented endothelial cell damage and inhibited early AS plaque formation. In conclusion, our results suggested that OEA exerted a pharmacological effect on ameliorating atherosclerotic plaque formation through the inhibition of oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell injury and therefore OEA can be a potential candidate drug for anti-atherosclerosis.

  4. Inhibitory effects of oleoylethanolamide (OEA) on H2O2-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) injury and apolipoprotein E knockout (ApoE-/-) atherosclerotic mice

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Li; Guo, Xiaobing; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS) is initiated by vascular endothelial cell injury, which is induced by lipid and protein oxidation. Oleoylethanolamide (OEA), a dietary fat-derived lipid, has shown atheroprotective effect. In vitro studies demonstrated that OEA showed cytoprotective effects on H2O2-induced primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) injury model. Further investigation of the cytoprotective effects of OEA demonstrated that OEA exerted its function by scavenging for reactive oxygen species, as well as increasing anti-oxidative enzymes, reducing lipid peroxidation, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells and apoptosis-related proteins expression. The in vivo study using an ApoE-/- mouse model fed with high-fat diet for 8 weeks showed that OEA (10 mg/kg/day, i.g.) administration reduced blood lipid levels, prevented endothelial cell damage and inhibited early AS plaque formation. In conclusion, our results suggested that OEA exerted a pharmacological effect on ameliorating atherosclerotic plaque formation through the inhibition of oxidative stress-induced endothelial cell injury and therefore OEA can be a potential candidate drug for anti-atherosclerosis. PMID:26261506

  5. Gene Expression and Activity Profiling Reveal a Significant Contribution of Exo-Phosphotransferases to the Extracellular Nucleotides Metabolism in HUVEC Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Wujak, Magdalena; Hetmann, Anna; Porowińska, Dorota; Roszek, Katarzyna

    2016-11-11

    Purinergic signaling maintains local tissue homeostasis in blood vessels via the regulation of vascular tone, blood platelet aggregation, cell proliferation, and differentiation as well as inflammatory responses. Extracellular purines are important signaling molecules in the vasculature, and both purine-hydrolysing as well as -phosphorylating enzymes are considered to selectively govern extracellular nucleotide/nucleoside metabolism. Recent studies have provided some evidence for the existence of these enzymes in a soluble form in human blood and their secretion into the extracellular space under physiological and pathological conditions. However, the comprehensive analysis of endothelium-derived enzymes involved in purine metabolic pathways has received no attention so far. In the presented study, in vitro cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are shown to be an abundant source of exo-nucleotidases comprising 5'-nucleotidase (exo-5'-NT), and nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolases (exo-NTPDase) as well as phosphotransferases, represented by nucleoside diphosphate kinase (exo-NDPK) and adenylate kinase (exo-AK). An attempt is also made to demonstrate that, in contrast to the metabolic pattern determined on the endothelial cell surface, exo-phosphorylating activities markedly predominate over exo-hydrolytic ones. We present for the first time the expression profiles of genes encoding isoenzymes belonging to distinct nucleotide kinase and nucleotidase families. The genes encoding NDPK1, NDPK2, AK1, and AK2 phosphotransferases have been shown to be expressed at the highest level in HUVEC cells. The data indicate the coexistence of secreted and cell-associated factors of endothelial origin mediating ATP-consuming and ATP-generating pathways with the predominance of exo-phosphotransferases activity. The described enzymes contribute to the regulation of purinergic signal duration and extent in the venous vasculature. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1

  6. miR-22 contributes to endosulfan-induced endothelial dysfunction by targeting SRF in HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Dan; Guo, Yubing; Liu, Tong; Li, Shuai; Sun, Yeqing

    2017-03-05

    microRNAs (miRNAs) function in the posttranscriptional gene regulation, providing new insights into the epigenetic mechanism of toxicity induced by environmental pollutants. miR-22 was discovered to regulate cell proliferation and apoptosis in response to environmental toxicants. We have reported that endosulfan can cause endothelial toxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In the present study, we investigated the involvement of miR-22 in endosulfan-induced endothelial dysfunction. The expression level of miR-22 was increased in a dose-dependent manner by endosulfan exposure. Overexpression of miR-22 induced apoptosis and inflammation in HUVECs. Anti-miR-22 transfection significantly attenuated the increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells, caspase-3 activity and Interleukin (IL)-6, 8 mRNA levels in endosulfan-exposed HUVECs. Luciferase reporter assay confirmed that SRF and STAG2 were novel direct targets of miR-22. Endosulfan decreased mRNA expression of both SRF and STAG2, but only suppressed protein expression of SRF. Knockdown of SRF via siRNAs resulted in apoptosis and inflammation whereas STAG2 siRNAs only caused abnormal mitosis in HUVECs. Taken together, these findings will shed light on the role and mechanism of miR-22 in endosulfan-induced endothelial dysfunction via SRF in HUVECs.

  7. Effects of Neonicotinoids on Promoter-Specific Expression and Activity of Aromatase (CYP19) in Human Adrenocortical Carcinoma (H295R) and Primary Umbilical Vein Endothelial (HUVEC) Cells.

    PubMed

    Caron-Beaudoin, Élyse; Denison, Michael S; Sanderson, J Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme aromatase (CYP19; cytochrome P450 19) in humans undergoes highly tissue- and promoter-specific regulation. In hormone-dependent breast cancer, aromatase is over-expressed via several normally inactive promoters (PII, I.3, I.7). Aromatase biosynthesizes estrogens, which stimulate breast cancer cell proliferation. The placenta produces estrogens required for healthy pregnancy and the major placental CYP19 promoter is I.1. Exposure to certain pesticides, such as atrazine, is associated with increased CYP19 expression, but little is known about the effects of neonicotinoid insecticides on CYP19. We developed sensitive and robust RT-qPCR methods to detect the promoter-specific expression of CYP19 in human adrenocortical carcinoma (H295R) and primary umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells, and determined the potential promoter-specific disruption of CYP19 expression by atrazine and the commonly used neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam. In H295R cells, atrazine concentration-dependently increased PII- and I.3-mediated CYP19 expression and aromatase catalytic activity. Thiacloprid and thiamethoxam induced PII- and I.3-mediated CYP19 expression and aromatase activity at relatively low concentrations (0.1-1.0 µM), exhibiting non-monotonic concentration-response curves with a decline in gene induction and catalytic activity at higher concentrations. In HUVEC cells, atrazine slightly induced overall (promoter-indistinct) CYP19 expression (30 µM) and aromatase activity (≥ 3 µM), without increasing I.1 promoter activity. None of the neonicotinoids increased CYP19 expression or aromatase activity in HUVEC cells. Considering the importance of promoter-specific (over)expression of CYP19 in disease (breast cancer) or during sensitive developmental periods (pregnancy), our newly developed RT-qPCR methods will be helpful tools in assessing the risk that neonicotinoids and other chemicals may pose to exposed women. © The Author 2015

  8. A large mobility of hydrophilic molecules at the outmost layer controls the protein adsorption and adhering behavior with the actin fiber orientation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC).

    PubMed

    Kakinoki, Sachiro; Seo, Ji-Hun; Inoue, Yuuki; Ishihara, Kazuhiko; Yui, Nobuhiko; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2013-01-01

    Adhesion behaviors of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are interestingly affected by the mobility of hydrophilic chains on the material surfaces. Surfaces with different molecular mobilities were prepared using ABA-type block copolymers consisting polyrotaxane (PRX) or poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) central block (A block), and amphiphilic anchoring B blocks of poly(2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine-co-n-butyl methacrylate) (PMB). Two different molecular mobilities of the PRX chains were designed by using normal α-cyclodextrin (α-CD) or α-CD whose hydroxyl groups were converted to methoxy groups in a given ratio to improve its molecular mobility (PRX-PMB and OMe-PRX-PMB). The surface mobility of these materials was assessed as the mobility factor (Mf), which is measured by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring system. HUVECs adhered on OMe-PRX-PMB surface much more than PRX-PMB and PMB-block-PEG-block-PMB (PEG-PMB) surfaces. These different HUVEC adhesions were correlated with the density of cell-binding site of adsorbed fibronectin. In addition, the alignment of the actin cytoskeleton of adhered HUVECs was strongly suppressed on the PEG-PMB, PRX-PMB, and OMe-PRX-PMB in response to the increased Mf value. Remarkably, the HUVECs adhered on the OMe-PRX-PMB surface with much less actin organization. We concluded that not only the cell adhesion but also the cellular function are regulated by the molecular mobility of the outmost material surfaces.

  9. Polyphenolics from açaí ( Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and red muscadine grape (Vitis rotundifolia ) protect human umbilical vascular Endothelial cells (HUVEC) from glucose- and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation and target microRNA-126.

    PubMed

    Noratto, Giuliana D; Angel-Morales, Gabriela; Talcott, Stephen T; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2011-07-27

    Endothelial anti-inflammatory effects of açaí (Ac) and red muscadine grape (Gp) polyphenolics have not been extensively investigated. It was hypothesized that polyphenolics from Ac and Gp exert comparable protective effects in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) upon inflammatory stress. Furthermore, this study investigated whether microRNAs relevant to endothelial function might be regulated by Ac and Gp. Results showed that Ac and Gp (5-20 mg gallic acid equivalent/L) protected HUVEC against glucose-induced oxidative stress and inflammation. Glucose-induced expression of interleukin-6 and -8 was down-regulated by Ac and Gp at mRNA and protein levels. Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 1 μg/L)-induced inflammation, Ac and Gp inhibited gene expression of adhesion molecules and NF-κB activation to similar extents, although Gp was more effective in decreasing PECAM-1 and ICAM-1 protein. Of the screened microRNAs, only microRNA-126 expression was found to be modulated by Ac and Gp as the underlying mechanism to inhibit gene and protein expression of VCAM-1.

  10. Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines bind to platelets. Incubation with platelets induces CD15 and P-selectin dependent adhesion of the cell lines to Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial cells (HUVEC)

    PubMed Central

    Ohana, Ofra Malka; Ozer, Janet; Prinsloo, Isebrand; Benharroch, Daniel; Gopas, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma is believed to spread in an orderly fashion within the lymphatic compartment. In a minority of cases, after reaching the spleen, the neoplasm disseminates, reminiscent of metastasis. In the spleen, the Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg tumor cells come across platelets in the blood vessels and mainly in the splenic red pulp. Based on this knowledge, we investigated the possibility of platelets inducing cell adhesion in Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines. We showed that L428 and KMH-2 cells strongly adhere to thrombin-activated platelets. Cell adhesion to platelets is partially dependent on CD15 antigens (LewisX), mainly sialyl-CD15, and P-selectin. KMH-2, as compared to L428 cells, showed increased binding due to its differential high expression of the sialyl-CD15. As a consequence of incubation with platelets, KMH-2 cells also produced increased amounts of tumor necrosis factors α (TNFα) followed by enhanced binding to human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). Incubation of both cell lines with activated platelets also induced activation of AP-1 transcription complex. Our findings are consistent with the concept that platelets play a critical role in the dissemination of HRS cells in HL, predominantly in the spleen, by increasing cell adhesion and thus promoting their proliferative and migratory properties beyond the lymphatic system. PMID:26418972

  11. Hodgkin lymphoma cell lines bind to platelets. Incubation with platelets induces CD15 and P-selectin dependent adhesion of the cell lines to Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial cells (HUVEC).

    PubMed

    Ohana, Ofra Malka; Ozer, Janet; Prinsloo, Isebrand; Benharroch, Daniel; Gopas, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Hodgkin's lymphoma is believed to spread in an orderly fashion within the lymphatic compartment. In a minority of cases, after reaching the spleen, the neoplasm disseminates, reminiscent of metastasis. In the spleen, the Hodgkin-Reed-Sternberg tumor cells come across platelets in the blood vessels and mainly in the splenic red pulp. Based on this knowledge, we investigated the possibility of platelets inducing cell adhesion in Hodgkin's lymphoma cell lines. We showed that L428 and KMH-2 cells strongly adhere to thrombin-activated platelets. Cell adhesion to platelets is partially dependent on CD15 antigens (Lewis(X)), mainly sialyl-CD15, and P-selectin. KMH-2, as compared to L428 cells, showed increased binding due to its differential high expression of the sialyl-CD15. As a consequence of incubation with platelets, KMH-2 cells also produced increased amounts of tumor necrosis factors α (TNFα) followed by enhanced binding to human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC). Incubation of both cell lines with activated platelets also induced activation of AP-1 transcription complex. Our findings are consistent with the concept that platelets play a critical role in the dissemination of HRS cells in HL, predominantly in the spleen, by increasing cell adhesion and thus promoting their proliferative and migratory properties beyond the lymphatic system.

  12. Lemon grass (Cymbopogon citratus (D.C) Stapf) polyphenols protect human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) from oxidative damage induced by high glucose, hydrogen peroxide and oxidised low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Campos, J; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Leiva, E; Guzmán, L; Orrego, R; Fernández, P; González, M; Radojkovic, C; Zuñiga, F A; Lamperti, L; Pastene, E; Aguayo, C

    2014-05-15

    The aromatic herb Cymbopogon citratus Stapf is widely used in tropical and subtropical countries in cooking, as a herbal tea, and in traditional medicine for hypertension and diabetes. Some of its properties have been associated with the in vitro antioxidant effect of polyphenols isolated from their aerial parts. However, little is known about C. citratus effects on endothelial cells oxidative injury. Using chromatographic procedures, a polyphenol-rich fraction was obtained from C. citratus (CCF) and their antioxidant properties were assessed by cooper-induced LDL oxidation assay. The main constituents of the active CCF, identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with diode-array detection and mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-MS), were chlorogenic acid, isoorientin and swertiajaponin. CCF 10 and 100 μg/ml diminishes reactive oxidative species (ROS) production in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs), challenged with high D-glucose (60% inhibition), hydrogen peroxide (80% inhibition) or oxidised low-density lipoprotein (55% inhibition). CCF 10 or 100 μg/ml did not change nitric oxide (NO) production. However, CCF was able to inhibit vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane A2 receptor agonist U46619, which suggest a NO-independent vasodilatador effect on blood vessels. Our results suggest that lemon grass antioxidant properties might prevent endothelial dysfunction associated to an oxidative imbalance promoted by different oxidative stimuli.

  13. The effect of artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) extract on ROS generation in HUVEC cells.

    PubMed

    Juzyszyn, Z; Czerny, B; Pawlik, A; Droździk, M

    2008-09-01

    The effect of an artichoke extract on induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in cultured human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) and its reductive properties were evaluated. Preincubation of HUVEC cells with the artichoke extract at concentrations of 25-100 microg/mL for 24 h abolished ROS generation induced by LPS and oxyLDL as evaluated by the fluorescence intensity of 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). Potent, concentration-dependent reductive properties of the artichoke extract were demonstrated by the reduction kinetics of cytochrome c in reference to ascorbate were also revealed. The results of the present study the warrant application of artichoke extracts as endothelium protecting agents.

  14. Characterization of human leukocyte-HUVEC adhesion: Effect of cell preparation methods.

    PubMed

    Marino, Franca; Schembri, Laura; Rasini, Emanuela; Pinoli, Monica; Scanzano, Angela; Luini, Alessandra; Congiu, Terenzio; Cosentino, Marco

    2017-04-01

    Sample manipulation to obtain isolated granulocytes represents a key, and often necessary, step in the in vitro studies. We investigated by the means of flow cytometry and microscopic techniques (both optical microscopy [OM] and scanning electron microscopy [SEM]), the granulocyte-endothelium adhesion and the role of sample manipulation. By means of a co-culture method, we have analysed the adhesion of human leukocytes, originated from two different blood samples (fresh venous blood [FB] and buffy coat [BC]), to the human umbilical venous endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer. Cultured HUVEC were analysed for adhesion molecule expression by means of flow cytometry, while the morphological changes were evaluated by means of SEM. Cell adhesion was evaluated by means of flow cytometry and both OM and SEM. HUVEC expressed under resting conditions the adhesion molecules ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin and their expression was upregulated by stimulation with TNF-α (0.1-10ng/ml) as well as with LPS (1μg/ml). SEM analysis showed that stimulation with both stimuli profoundly affect cell morphology. Flow cytometric evaluation of cell adhesion showed that the ability of cells to adhere to HUVEC monolayer was quite different in the two preparations, with the lowest adhesion for FB in all the cell subsets analysed. Finally, isolated granulocytes were able to adhere to HUVEC monolayer more than cells identified in FB or BC and the adhesion was increased during activation of HUVEC with 10ng/ml of TNF-α. Our data showed that cell manipulation necessary for the isolation of specific immune cells from whole blood profoundly affect the ability of these cells to adhere to the HUVEC monolayer although their functional properties remain unchanged. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Salidroside Suppresses HUVECs Cell Injury Induced by Oxidative Stress through Activating the Nrf2 Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yao; Zhang, Ya-Jie; Liu, Wei-Wei; Shi, Ai-Wu; Gu, Ning

    2016-08-09

    Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Salidroside (SAL), one of the main effective constituents of Rhodiola rosea, has been reported to suppress oxidative stress-induced cardiomyocyte injury and necrosis by promoting transcription of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-regulated genes such as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone1) (NQO1). However, it has not been indicated whether SAL might ameliorate endothelial injury induced by oxidative stress. Here, our study demonstrated that SAL might suppress HUVEC cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway. The results of our study indicated that SAL decreased the levels of intercellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde (MDA), and improved the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), resulting in protective effects against oxidative stress-induced cell damage in HUVECs. It suppressed oxidative stress damage by inducing Nrf2 nuclear translocation and activating the expression of Nrf2-regulated antioxidant enzyme genes such as HO-1 and NQO1 in HUVECs. Knockdown of Nrf2 with siRNA abolished the cytoprotective effects against oxidative stress, decreased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and NQO1, and inhibited the nucleus translocation of Nrf2 in HUVECs. This study is the first to demonstrate that SAL suppresses HUVECs cell injury induced by oxidative stress through activating the Nrf2 signaling pathway.

  16. Genistein ameliorated endothelial nitric oxidase synthase uncoupling by stimulating sirtuin-1 pathway in ox-LDL-injured HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hua-ping; Zhao, Jia-hui; Yu, Hai-xia; Guo, Dong-xing

    2016-03-01

    Endothelial nitric oxidase synthase (eNOS) uncoupling plays a causal role in endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Genistein consumption has been associated with the prevention of atherosclerosis. However, the effect of genistein on eNOS uncoupling has not been reported. A model of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced injury on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was established to evaluate the effect of genistein on eNOS uncoupling. We investigated the effect of genistein on NADPH oxidase-dependent superoxide production, NOX4 expression, BH4 synthesis and oxidation, the expression of GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GCH1) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). The results showed that genistein decreased superoxide production and NOX4 expression, enhanced the ratio of BH4/BH2, augmented the expressions of GCH1 and DHFR. Accompanied with genistein ameliorating eNOS uncoupling, genistein elevated the expression of sirtuin-1; furthermore, the effects of genistein on eNOS uncoupling were blunted with sirtuin-1 siRNA. The present study indicated that genistein ameliorated eNOS uncoupling was concerned with sirtuin-1 pathway in ox-LDL-injured HUVECs.

  17. A ferulic acid (FA)-eluting system for biodegradable magnesium stent: Cells response of HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Erlin; Shen, Feng

    2015-08-01

    A new drug-eluting system was designed for biodegradable magnesium stents, in which ferulic acid (FA) was used as drug due to its promotion function to endothelial cells and PHBHHx as drug delivery due to its biodegradability and biocompatibility. A 5 and 10% FA were added in PHBHHx to prepare FA containing PHBHHX films. The cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation on these films was investigated in order to assess cell response of HUVECs. It was also found that FA enhanced the adhesion, spreading and proliferation of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. Cell viability after H2 O2 injury and NO production of HUVECs were also studied. The results indicated that FA effectively inhibited H2 O2 -induced injury and promotes NO production. It was also shown that alkali treatment improved the cell adhesion, spreading and proliferation while the treatment reduces the FA release and in turn reduces the inhibition on H2 O2 -induced injury and NO production. However, alkali treatment itself had no influence on the H2 O2 induced injure and NO production. The tensile shear strength between the FA containing coating and Mg substrate was also tested. All results demonstrated that FA containing PHBHHx films exhibited strong promotion to the endothelialization and could be a choice for surface modification of magnesium stent.

  18. Lactobacillus Casei Decreases Organophosphorus Pesticide Diazinon Cytotoxicity in Human HUVEC Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Bagherpour Shamloo, Hasan; Golkari, Saber; Faghfoori, Zeinab; Movassaghpour, AliAkbar; Lotfi, Hajie; Barzegari, Abolfazl; Yari Khosroushahi, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Exposure to diazinon can trigger acute and chronic toxicity and significantly induces DNA damage and proapoptotic effects in different human cells. Due to the significance of probiotic bacteria antitoxin effect, this study aimed to investigate the effect of Lactobacillus casei on diazinon (DZN) cytotoxicity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in vitro. Methods: The cytotoxicity assessments were performed by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole) staining and flow cytometric methodologies. Results: Cytotoxic assessments through flow cytometry/ DAPI staining demonstrated that apoptosis is the main cytotoxic mechanism of diazinon in HUVEC cells and L. casei could decrease the diazinon cytotoxic effects on toxicants. Conclusion: the screen of total bacterial secreted metabolites can be considered as a wealthy source to find the new active compounds to introduce as reducing agricultural remained pesticide cytotoxicity effects on the human food chain. PMID:27478782

  19. HUVEC cell affinity evaluation and integrin-mediated mechanism study on PHSRN-modified polymer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Wang, Wei; Wang, Jun; Yuan, Zhi; Tang, Shiming; Liu, Min; Tang, Hua

    2011-05-01

    To investigate the role of the peptide Pro-His-Ser-Arg-Asn (PHSRN) in cell adhesion and growth, PHSRN- and Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS)-containing polymers (P-PN5 and P-GS5, respectively) were synthesized by modification of poly(D,L-lactide-co-beta-malic acid) (PLMA) with the corresponding peptides. The cell affinities of the modified polymers were evaluated by adhesion and proliferation experiments with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The results showed that P-PN5 had comparable ability to that of P-GS5 in supporting HUVEC adhesion and growth. Furthermore, the integrin-mediated mechanism of cell-substrate interaction was investigated. The results showed that P-PN5 had similar binding affinity and binding strength towards α(5)β(1) compared to those of P-GS5. The findings suggest that PHSRN is capable of mediating the adhesion and growth of HUVECs independently and that PHSRN-modified polymers might be used as biologically compatible materials. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [Study of injury model in human umbilical vein endothelial cells].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fei; Chang, Hong; Xie, Zhenyuan

    2004-01-01

    To establishment the injury by oxidized low density lipoprotein in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Huvecs were exposed to OX-LDL in vitro, then MTT and MDA of Huvecs were measured. After endothelium cells were exposed to different dose of OX-LDL 24 hours, MTT was decreased significantly, especially in the high dose OX-LDL group. OX-LDL could lead injury to Huvecs and might be related to atherosclerosis.

  1. Expression of the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor in Cultured Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: Regulation in Response to Cell Density

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Steven D.; Hobbs, Justin T.; Tracy, Steven M.; Chapman, Nora M.

    1999-01-01

    Primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) express the human coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor (HCAR). Whereas HCAR expression in HeLa cells was constant with respect to cell density, HCAR expression in HUVEC increased with culture confluence. HCAR expression in HUVEC was not quantitatively altered by infection with coxsackievirus B. PMID:10400813

  2. Androgen receptor in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Estay, Verónica; Carreño, Daniela V; San Francisco, Ignacio F; Sotomayor, Paula; Godoy, Alejandro S; Smith, Gary J

    2015-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-inducible transcription factor, and a member of the steroid-thyroid-retinoid receptor superfamily, that mediates the biological effects of androgens in a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. AR expression was identified in vascular cells nearly 20 years ago, and recent research has shown that AR mediates a variety of actions of androgens in endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. In this mini-review, we review evidence indicating the importance of AR in human endothelial cell (HUVEC) homeostatic and pathogenic processes. Although a role for AR in the modulation of HUVEC biology is evident, the molecular mechanisms by which AR regulates HUVEC homeostasis and disease processes are not fully understood. Understanding these mechanisms could provide critical insights into the processes of pathogenesis of diseases ranging from cardiovascular disease to cancer that are major causes of human morbidity and mortality. PMID:25563353

  3. Identification of potential target genes of ROR-alpha in THP1 and HUVEC cell lines.

    PubMed

    Gulec, Cagri; Coban, Neslihan; Ozsait-Selcuk, Bilge; Sirma-Ekmekci, Sema; Yildirim, Ozlem; Erginel-Unaltuna, Nihan

    2017-04-01

    ROR-alpha is a nuclear receptor, activity of which can be modulated by natural or synthetic ligands. Due to its possible involvement in, and potential therapeutic target for atherosclerosis, we aimed to identify ROR-alpha target genes in monocytic and endothelial cell lines. We performed chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) followed by tiling array (ChIP-on-chip) for ROR-alpha in monocytic cell line THP1 and endothelial cell line HUVEC. Following bioinformatic analysis of the array data, we tested four candidate genes in terms of dependence of their expression level on ligand-mediated ROR-alpha activity, and two of them in terms of promoter occupancy by ROR-alpha. Bioinformatic analyses of ChIP-on-chip data suggested that ROR-alpha binds to genomic regions near the transcription start site (TSS) of more than 3000 genes in THP1 and HUVEC. Potential ROR-alpha target genes in both cell types seem to be involved mainly in membrane receptor activity, signal transduction and ion transport. While SPP1 and IKBKA were shown to be direct target genes of ROR-alpha in THP1 monocytes, inflammation related gene HMOX1 and heat shock protein gene HSPA8 were shown to be potential target genes of ROR-alpha. Our results suggest that ROR-alpha may regulate signaling receptor activity, and transmembrane transport activity through its potential target genes. ROR-alpha seems also to play role in cellular sensitivity to environmental substances like arsenite and chloroprene. Although, the expression analyses have shown that synthetic ROR-alpha ligands can modulate some of potential ROR-alpha target genes, functional significance of ligand-dependent modulation of gene expression needs to be confirmed with further analyses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Biological effects of eukaryotic recombinant plasmid pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 transfection on T24 cells and HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Tian, Da-Wei; Hu, Hai-Long; Sun, Yan; Tang, Yang; Lei, Ming-De; Liu, Li-Wei; Han, Rui-Fa; Wu, Chang-Li

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the biological effect on T24 cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) of transfection with brain-specific angiogenesis inhibitor-1 (BAI-1). The recombinant plasmid pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 was transfected into human superficial bladder tumor cells (T24) and HUVECs, in parallel with the vector control. mRNA and protein expression levels of BAI‑1 were then detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively. Cell apoptosis of T24 cells and HUVECs prior and subsequent to transfection with BAI‑1 was analyzed by flow cytometric analysis. Proliferation of T24 cells and HUVECs prior and subsequent to transfection of BAI-1 was assessed by the MTT method. T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver‑M61‑BA1‑1 were classed as the experimental group; T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with p‑Receiver‑M61 were the control group. qPCR and western blotting methods confirmed that there was positive expression of BAI‑1 in T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver‑M61‑BAI‑1, however BAI‑1 was not expressed in T24 cells and HUVECs transfected with pReceiver‑M61. The results of the MTT assay demonstrated that absorbance was markedly reduced in HUVECs at 12, 48 and 72 h subsequent to transfection with pReceiver-M61-BAI-1 when compared with that of the control group and in T24 cells transfected with p‑Receiver-M61-BAI-1. Furthermore, flow cytometry results also indicated that the apoptotic rate of HUVECs transfected with p‑Receiver‑M61‑BAI‑1 was significantly increased compared with that of the control group and T24 cells transfected with p‑Receiver‑M61‑BAI‑1. BAI‑1 was observed to markedly inhibit the proliferation of vascular endothelial cells in vitro, however, no direct inhibition by BAI‑1 was observed in T24 cells. In conclusion, BAI-1 is suggested to be a potential novel therapautic target for the inhibition of

  5. Docosahexaenoic acid regulates gene expression in HUVEC cells treated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    PubMed

    Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Czepiel, Jacek; Totoń-Żurańska, Justyna; Jurczyszyn, Artur; Perucki, William; Wołkow, Paweł

    2015-07-16

    The molecular mechanism of inflammation and carcinogenesis induced by exposure of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is not clearly understood. Our study was undertaken due to the strong pro-carcinogenic potential and reactivity of PAH-metabolites, as well as the susceptibility of polyunsaturated fatty acids to oxidation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the pro- or anti-inflammatory impact of n-3 docosahexaenoic acid on human primary umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. We analysed the influence of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and/or PAHs supplementation on the fatty acid profile of cell membranes, on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), and glutathione S transferase Mu1 (GSTM1) protein expression as well as on the prostaglandin synthase 2 (PTGS2), AHR, GSTM1, PLA2G4A, and cytochrome P450 CYP1A1 gene expression. We observed that COX-2 and AHR protein expression was increased while GSTM1 expression was decreased in cells exposed to DHA and PAHs. Docosahexaenoic acid down-regulated CYP1A1 and up-regulated the AHR and PTGS2 genes. Our findings suggested that DHA contributes significantly to alleviate the harmful effects caused by PAHs in endothelial cells. Moreover, these results suggest that a diet rich in n-3 fatty acids is helpful to reduce the harmful effects of PAHs exposure on human living in heavily polluted areas.

  6. Copper enhances EDNO (endothelium-derived nitric oxide) activity by cultured human vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, T; Oguri, T; Ueda, D; Tada, M

    1996-06-01

    The effect of copper sulfate (Cu) on viable cell number, endothelium-derived nitric oxide (EDNO), and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in cultured human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) was investigated. The viable cell number was not affected by the addition of Cu (1.0-500.0 microM). To assess the effect of EDNO by HUVEC, platelet aggregation experiments were performed, using cuvettes lined with HUVEC. Thrombin (0.05 units/ml)-induced platelet aggregation was markedly inhibited in the presence of HUVEC compared with aggregation in the absence of HUVEC. The HUVEC-dependent anti-platelet aggregatory effect was slightly reduced when HUVEC were pretreated with indomethacin (IND; 1.0 micro M), an inhibitor of the cyclo-oxygenase pathway. However, the thrombin-induced platelet aggregation in the presence of HUVEC pretreated with IND was smaller than that in the absence of HUVEC, which is dependent on EDNO. The anti-platelet aggregatory effect of HUVEC pretreated with IND was increased dose-dependently by 48-hour pretreatment of HUVEC with Cu (1.0-100.0 microM). To assess the effect of Cu on NOS, HUVEC were stained with NOS/NADPH diaphorase. However, there were no significant differences in the NOS-positive HUVEC cell count between cells without Cu and those with various concentrations of Cu. These findings suggest that Cu stimulates the activity of EDNO, which action may be dependent on Cu decreasing EDNO-oxidative damage.

  7. Overexpression of HTRA1 Leads to Down-Regulation of Fibronectin and Functional Changes in RF/6A Cells and HUVECs

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Wenzhen; Wu, Xi; Zhou, Peng; Li, Xiaoxin

    2012-01-01

    Multiple genetic studies have suggested that high-temperature requirement serine protease (HTRA1) is associated with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). To date, no functional studies have investigated the biological effect of HTRA1 on vascular endothelial cells, essential vascular components involved in polypoidal vascular abnormalities and arteriosclerosis-like changes. In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effect of HTRA1 on the regulation of fibronectin, laminin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and matrix metalloparoteinases 2 (MMP-2) and the role of HTRA1 in choroid-retina endothelial (RF/6A) and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of HTRA1 was used to explore effects of the protease on RF/6A and HUVEC cells in vitro. HTRA1 overexpression inhibited the proliferation, cell cycle, migration and tube formation of RF/6A and HUVEC cells, effects that might contribute to the early stage of PCV pathological lesions. Fibronectin mRNA and protein levels were significantly down-regulated following the upregulation of HTRA1, whereas the expressions of laminin, VEGF and MMP-2 were unaffected by alterations in HTRA1 expression. The decreased biological function of vascular endothelial cells and the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin, may be involved in a contributory role for HTRA1 in PCV pathogenesis. PMID:23056244

  8. Overexpression of HTRA1 leads to down-regulation of fibronectin and functional changes in RF/6A cells and HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jingjing; Huang, Lvzhen; Yu, Wenzhen; Wu, Xi; Zhou, Peng; Li, Xiaoxin

    2012-01-01

    Multiple genetic studies have suggested that high-temperature requirement serine protease (HTRA1) is associated with polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV). To date, no functional studies have investigated the biological effect of HTRA1 on vascular endothelial cells, essential vascular components involved in polypoidal vascular abnormalities and arteriosclerosis-like changes. In vitro studies were performed to investigate the effect of HTRA1 on the regulation of fibronectin, laminin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and matrix metalloparoteinases 2 (MMP-2) and the role of HTRA1 in choroid-retina endothelial (RF/6A) and human umbilical vein endothelial (HUVEC) cells. Lentivirus-mediated overexpression of HTRA1 was used to explore effects of the protease on RF/6A and HUVEC cells in vitro. HTRA1 overexpression inhibited the proliferation, cell cycle, migration and tube formation of RF/6A and HUVEC cells, effects that might contribute to the early stage of PCV pathological lesions. Fibronectin mRNA and protein levels were significantly down-regulated following the upregulation of HTRA1, whereas the expressions of laminin, VEGF and MMP-2 were unaffected by alterations in HTRA1 expression. The decreased biological function of vascular endothelial cells and the degradation of extracellular matrix proteins, such as fibronectin, may be involved in a contributory role for HTRA1 in PCV pathogenesis.

  9. Intrinsic FGF2 and FGF5 promotes angiogenesis of human aortic endothelial cells in 3D microfluidic angiogenesis system

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Ha-Rim; Jeong, Hyo Eun; Joo, Hyung Joon; Choi, Seung-Cheol; Park, Chi-Yeon; Kim, Jong-Ho; Choi, Ji-Hyun; Cui, Long-Hui; Hong, Soon Jun; Chung, Seok; Lim, Do-Sun

    2016-01-01

    The human body contains different endothelial cell types and differences in their angiogenic potential are poorly understood. We compared the functional angiogenic ability of human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using a three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic cell culture system. HAECs and HUVECs exhibited similar cellular characteristics in a 2D culture system; however, in the 3D microfluidic angiogenesis system, HAECs exhibited stronger angiogenic potential than HUVECs. Interestingly, the expression level of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)2 and FGF5 under vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A stimulation was significantly higher in HAECs than in HUVECs. Moreover, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of FGF2 and FGF5 more significantly attenuated vascular sprouting induced from HAECs than HUVECs. Our results suggest that HAECs have greater angiogenic potential through FGF2 and FGF5 upregulation and could be a compatible endothelial cell type to achieve robust angiogenesis. PMID:27357248

  10. Endothelial cell preservation at hypothermic to normothermic conditions using clinical and experimental organ preservation solutions.

    PubMed

    Post, Ivo C J H; de Boon, Wadim M I; Heger, Michal; van Wijk, Albert C W A; Kroon, Jeffrey; van Buul, Jaap D; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2013-10-15

    Endothelial barrier function is pivotal for the outcome of organ transplantation. Since hypothermic preservation (gold standard) is associated with cold-induced endothelial damage, endothelial barrier function may benefit from organ preservation at warmer temperatures. We therefore assessed endothelial barrier integrity and viability as function of preservation temperature and perfusion solution, and hypothesized that endothelial cell preservation at subnormothermic conditions using metabolism-supporting solutions constitute optimal preservation conditions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were preserved at 4-37°C for up to 20 h using Ringer's lactate, histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate solution, University of Wisconsin (UW) solution, Polysol, or endothelial cell growth medium (ECGM). Following preservation, the monolayer integrity, metabolic capacity, and ATP content were determined as positive parameters of endothelial cell viability. As negative parameters, apoptosis, necrosis, and cell activation were assayed. A viability index was devised on the basis of these parameters. HUVEC viability and barrier integrity was compromised at 4°C regardless of the preservation solution. At temperatures above 20°C, the cells' metabolic demands outweighed the preservation solutions' supporting capacity. Only UW maintained HUVEC viability up to 20°C. Despite high intracellular ATP content, none of the solutions were capable of sufficiently preserving HUVEC above 20°C except for ECGM. Optimal HUVEC preservation is achieved with UW up to 20°C. Only ECGM maintains HUVEC viability at temperatures above 20°C. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization and comparison of embryonic stem cell-derived KDR+ cells with endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xuan; Cheng, Lamei; Duan, Huaxin; Lin, Ge; Lu, Guangxiu

    2012-09-01

    Growing interest in utilizing endothelial cells (ECs) for therapeutic purposes has led to the exploration of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) as a potential source for endothelial progenitors. In this study, ECs were induced from hESC lines and their biological characteristics were analyzed and compared with both cord blood endothelial progenitor cells (CBEPCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. The results showed that isolated embryonic KDR+ cells (EC-KDR+) display characteristics that were similar to CBEPCs and HUVECs. EC-KDR+, CBEPCs and HUVECs all expressed CD31 and CD144, incorporated DiI-Ac-LDL, bound UEA1 lectin, and were able to form tube-like structures on Matrigel. Compared with CBEPCs and HUVECs, the expression level of endothelial progenitor cell markers such as CD133 and KDR in EC-KDR+ was significantly higher, while the mature endothelial marker vWF was lowly expressed in EC-KDR+. In summary, the study showed that EC-KDR+ are primitive endothelial-like progenitors and might be a potential source for therapeutic vascular regeneration and tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Kisspeptin-10 induces endothelial cellular senescence and impaired endothelial cell growth.

    PubMed

    Usui, Sayaka; Iso, Yoshitaka; Sasai, Masahiro; Mizukami, Takuya; Mori, Hiroyoshi; Watanabe, Takuya; Shioda, Seiji; Suzuki, Hiroshi

    2014-07-01

    The KPs (kisspeptins) are a family of multifunctional peptides with established roles in cancer metastasis, puberty and vasoconstriction. The effects of KPs on endothelial cells have yet to be determined. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of KP-10 on endothelial cell growth and the mechanisms underlying those effects. The administration of recombinant KP-10 into the hindlimbs of rats with ischaemia significantly impaired blood flow recovery, as shown by laser Doppler, and capillary growth, as shown using histology, compared with the controls. HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells) express the KP receptor and were treated with KP-10 in culture studies. KP-10 inhibited endothelial cell tube formation and proliferation in a significant and dose-dependent manner. The HUVECs treated with KP exhibited the senescent phenotype, as determined using a senescence-associated β-galactosidase assay, cell morphology analysis, and decreased Sirt1 (sirtuin 1) expression and increased p53 expression shown by Western blot analysis. Intriguingly, a pharmacological Rho kinase inhibitor, Y-27632, was found to increase the proliferation of HUVECs and to reduce the number of senescent phenotype cells affected by KP-10. In conclusion, KP-10 suppressed endothelial cells growth both in vivo and in vitro in the present study. The adverse effect of KP on endothelial cells was attributable, at least in part, to the induction of cellular senescence.

  13. Endothelial juxtaposition of distinct adult stem cells activates angiogenesis signaling molecules in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Elham; Nassiri, Seyed Mahdi; Rahbarghazi, Reza; Siavashi, Vahid; Araghi, Atefeh

    2015-12-01

    Efficacy of therapeutic angiogenesis needs a comprehensive understanding of endothelial cell (EC) function and biological factors and cells that interplay with ECs. Stem cells are considered the key components of pro- and anti-angiogenic milieu in a wide variety of physiopathological states, and interactions of EC-stem cells have been the subject of controversy in recent years. In this study, the potential effects of three tissue-specific adult stem cells, namely rat marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (rBMSCs), rat adipose-derived stem cells (rADSCs) and rat muscle-derived satellite cells (rSCs), on the endothelial activation of key angiogenic signaling molecules, including VEGF, Ang-2, VEGFR-2, Tie-2, and Tie2-pho, were investigated. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and rat lung microvascular endothelial cells (RLMECs) were cocultured with the stem cells or incubated with the stem cell-derived conditioned media on Matrigel. Following HUVEC-stem cell coculture, CD31-positive ECs were flow sorted and subjected to western blotting to analyze potential changes in the expression of the pro-angiogenic signaling molecules. Elongation and co-alignment of the stem cells were seen along the EC tubes in the EC-stem cell cocultures on Matrigel, with cell-to-cell dye communication in the EC-rBMSC cocultures. Moreover, rBMSCs and rADSCs significantly improved endothelial tubulogenesis in both juxtacrine and paracrine manners. These two latter stem cells dynamically up-regulated VEGF, Ang-2, VREGR-2, and Tie-2 but down-regulated Tie2-pho and the Tie2-pho/Tie-2 ratio in HUVECs. Induction of pro-angiogenic signaling in ECs by marrow- and adipose-derived MSCs further indicates the significance of stem cell milieu in angiogenesis dynamics.

  14. Three-Dimensional Cell Grafting Enhances the Angiogenic Efficacy of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bhang, Suk Ho; Lee, Seahyoung; Lee, Tae-Jin; La, Wan-Geun; Yang, Hee-Seok; Cho, Seung-Woo

    2012-01-01

    Despite the great potential of cell therapy for ischemic disease, poor cell survival after engraftment in ischemic tissue limits its efficacy. Here we tested a hypothesis that three-dimensionally grafted human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) spheroids would exhibit improved angiogenic efficacy following transplantation into mouse ischemic limbs compared with HUVECs prepared by conventional two-dimensional monolayer culture. One day after surgical induction of hindlimb ischemia in athymic mice, HUVECs cultured in monolayer or HUVEC spheroids were transplanted intramuscularly into ischemic limbs. Four weeks after the treatment, in the spheroid HUVEC transplantation group, we observed increased hypoxia-inducible factor-1α expression, decreased apoptosis, and increased HUVEC survival in the ischemic tissue compared with the monolayer HUVEC transplantation group. Transplantation of HUVEC spheroids also resulted in enhanced and prolonged secretion of paracrine factors as well as enhanced expression of factors involved in the recruitment of circulating angiogenic progenitor cells. In summary, transplantation of HUVECs as spheroids enhanced cell survival, increased paracrine factor secretion, and showed a potential as a therapeutic method to treat ischemic tissue damages by promoting angiogenesis. PMID:21902465

  15. Cellular senescence determines endothelial cell damage induced by uremia.

    PubMed

    Carracedo, Julia; Buendía, Paula; Merino, Ana; Soriano, Sagrario; Esquivias, Elvira; Martín-Malo, Alejandro; Aljama, Pedro; Ramírez, Rafael

    2013-08-01

    Renal dysfunction is closely associated with endothelial damage leading to cardiovascular disease. However, the extent to which endothelial damage induced by uremia is modulated by aging is poorly known. Aging can render endothelial cells more susceptible to apoptosis through an oxidative stress-dependent pathway. We examined whether senescence-associated to oxidative stress determines the injury induced by the uremia in endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) was incubated with human uremic serum and, in the animal model, endothelial cells were obtained from aortas of uremic and no uremic rats. Vitamin C was used to prevent oxidative stress. Senescence, assessed by telomere length and enzyme-betagalactosidase (β-gal), reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial depolarization (JC-1 probe), caspase 3, and apoptosis were determined by flow cytometry. NF-κB activity was determined by Western blot. Uremic serum increased ROS and NF-κB in young and aging HUVEC. However only in aging cells, uremic serum induced apoptosis (vs young HUVEC, p<0.01). The endothelial damage induced by uremia seems to be related with the increased oxidative stress, since in both HUVEC and in the experimental model of renal disease in rats, vitamin C prevents endothelial apoptosis. However, vitamin C did not decrease the oxidative stress associated to senescence. These results showed that as compared with young cells, senescent cells have high sensitivity to damage associated to the oxidative stress induced by the uremia. Consequently, protecting senescent endothelial cells from increased oxidative stress might be an effective therapeutic approach in the treatment of vascular disorders in chronic kidney diseases. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Biophysiochemical properties of endothelial cells cultured on bio-inspired collagen films

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In this study, we investigated the effect of the extracellular matrix on endothelial dysfunction by careful observation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured on denatured collagen film. Results HUVECs on denatured collagen film showed relatively high surface roughness compared with normal HUVECs. The expression levels of MMP-1, MMP-2 and CD146 increased in the ECs on denatured collagen film. In addition, we examined the accumulation of fluorescent beads on HUVEC layers subjected to circulatory flow. The number of accumulated fluorescent beads increased on the disorganized HUVEC layers. Conclusions The proposed in vitro study using bio-inspired collagen films could potentially be used in the size- and ligand-based design of drugs to treat endothelial dysfunction caused by circulatory vascular diseases. PMID:24984812

  17. Renal cell carcinoma alters endothelial receptor expression responsible for leukocyte adhesion.

    PubMed

    Juengel, Eva; Krueger, Geraldine; Rutz, Jochen; Nelson, Karen; Werner, Isabella; Relja, Borna; Seliger, Barbara; Fisslthaler, Beate; Fleming, Ingrid; Tsaur, Igor; Haferkamp, Axel; Blaheta, Roman A

    2016-04-12

    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) escapes immune recognition. To elaborate the escape strategy the influence of RCC cells on endothelial receptor expression and endothelial leukocyte adhesion was evaluated. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were co-cultured with the RCC cell line, Caki-1, with and without tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha. Intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), endothelial (E)-selectin, standard and variants (V) of CD44 were then analysed in HUVEC, using flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. To determine which components are responsible for HUVEC-Caki-1 interaction causing receptor alteration, Caki-1 membrane fragments versus cell culture supernatant were applied to HUVECS. Adhesion of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) to endothelium was evaluated by co-culture adhesion assays. Relevance of endothelial receptor expression for adhesion to endothelium was determined by receptor blockage. Co-culture of RCC and HUVECs resulted in a significant increase in endothelial ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin, CD44 V3 and V7 expression. Previous stimulation of HUVECs with TNF-alpha and co-cultivation with Caki-1 resulted in further elevation of endothelial CD44 V3 and V7 expression, whereas ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression were significantly diminished. Since Caki-1 membrane fragments also caused these alterations, but cell culture supernatant did not, cell-cell contact may be responsible for this process. Blocking ICAM-1, VCAM-1, E-selectin or CD44 with respective antibodies led to a significant decrease in PBL and PMN adhesion to endothelium. Thus, exposing HUVEC to Caki-1 results in significant alteration of endothelial receptor expression and subsequent endothelial attachment of PBL and PMN.

  18. [Functional regulation of endothelial Myosin light chain kinase in extravascular migration of fibrosarcoma cells].

    PubMed

    Xin, Hua; Han, Zhen-guo

    2009-03-01

    To evaluate the functional regulation of endothelial Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) in extravascular migration of fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. An in vitro model of fibrosarcoma cell transmigration across a monolayer of HUVEC cultured on collagen gel was applied to observe extravascular migration of HT1080 cells,and were the electrical resistance of HUVEC monolayer and endothelial MLC phosphorylation in extravascular migration of HT1080 cells. HT1080 cells migrated through endothelial cells into collagen gel, the electrical resistance of a HUVEC monolayer was reduced and endothelial MLC phosphorylation was enhanced in extravascular migration of fibrosarcoma cells. Endothelial MLCK inhibitor (ML-7) blocked extravascular migration of HT1080 cells and inhibited reduction of electrical resistance of a HUVEC monolayer and enhancement of endothelial MLC phosphorylation in extravascular migration of HT1080 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Endothelial MLCK regulates fibrosarcoma cell transendothelial migration through MLC phosphorylation, leading to cytoskeletal reorganization and endothelial cell constriction, then fibrosarcoma cells migrate into extravascular tissue through the gaps between endothelial cells.

  19. Early responses of vascular endothelial cells to topographic cues.

    PubMed

    Dreier, Britta; Gasiorowski, Joshua Z; Morgan, Joshua T; Nealey, Paul F; Russell, Paul; Murphy, Christopher J

    2013-08-01

    Vascular endothelial cells in vivo are exposed to multiple biophysical cues provided by the basement membrane, a specialized extracellular matrix through which vascular endothelial cells are attached to the underlying stroma. The importance of biophysical cues has been widely reported, but the signaling pathways that mediate cellular recognition and response to these cues remain poorly understood. Anisotropic topographically patterned substrates with nano- through microscale feature dimensions were fabricated to investigate cellular responses to topographic cues. The present study focuses on early events following exposure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to these patterned substrates. In serum-free medium and on substrates without protein coating, HUVECs oriented parallel to the long axis of underlying ridges in as little as 30 min. Immunocytochemistry showed clear differences in the localization of the focal adhesion proteins Src, p130Cas, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in HUVECs cultured on topographically patterned surfaces and on planar surfaces, suggesting involvement of these proteins in mediating the response to topographic features. Knockdown experiments demonstrated that FAK was not necessary for HUVEC alignment in response to topographic cues, although FAK knockdown did modulate HUVEC migration. These data identify key events early in the cellular response to biophysical stimuli.

  20. 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural from black garlic extract prevents TNFα-induced monocytic cell adhesion to HUVECs by suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression, reactive oxygen species generation and NF-κB activation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Choi, Young-Whan; Lee, Eun Na; Park, Jin Kyeong; Kim, Sun-Gun; Park, Da-Jung; Kim, Bong-Seon; Lim, Young-Tak; Yoon, Sik

    2011-07-01

    5-Hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) is a common Maillard reaction product; the reaction occurs during heat-processing and the preparation of many types of foods and beverages. Although 5-HMF has been proposed to have harmful effects, recently, its beneficial effects, including antioxidant, cytoprotective and antitumor effects have become increasingly apparent. It was found recently that a chloroform extract of aged black garlic shows antiinflammatory properties when administered to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). This study investigated the antiinflammatory potential of 5-HMF purified from the chloroform extract of aged black garlic in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-stimulated HUVECs. Treatment of HUVECs with 5-HMF strongly suppressed TNF-α-induced cell surface and total protein expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) as well as their mRNA expression. In addition, 5-HMF significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species formation, and markedly reduced THP-1 monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. Furthermore, 5-HMF significantly inhibited NF-κB transcription factor activation in TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs. The data provide new evidence of the antiinflammatory properties of 5-HMF in support of its potential therapeutic use for the prevention and management of vascular diseases such as atherosclerosis through mechanisms involving the inhibition of VCAM-1 expression and NF-κB activation in vascular endothelial cells. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Decellularized extracellular matrix of human umbilical vein endothelial cells promotes endothelial differentiation of stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth.

    PubMed

    Gong, Ting; Heng, Boon Chin; Xu, Jianguang; Zhu, Shaoyue; Yuan, Changyong; Lo, Edward Chin Man; Zhang, Chengfei

    2017-04-01

    Dental stem cells can serve as a potential source of functional endothelial cells for tissue engineering applications, but the endothelial-lineage differentiation efficiency is rather low even with growth factors and mechanical stimuli, which greatly limits their clinical applications. This is partly due to the deficiency of standard two-dimensional (2-D) culture systems, which is unable to recapitulate the three-dimensional (3-D) in vivo milieu that is rich in extracellular matrix. Hence, we extracted decellularized extracellular matrix from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs-DECM) to provide a bioactive substratum conducive to the endothelial differentiation of dental stem cells. Compared to cells plated on tissue culture polystyrene (TCP), stem cells from exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHED) cultured on the HUVECs-DECM demonstrated more regular arrangement and elongated morphology. HUVECs-DECM significantly enhanced the rapid adhesion and proliferation rates of SHED, as demonstrated by WST-8 assay and immunocytochemistry indicating higher expression levels of vinculin by newly adherent SHED on HUVECs-DECM versus TCP. In addition, there was twofold to fivefold higher mRNA expression levels of endothelial-specific markers CD31 and VEGFR-2 in SHED after seven days of culture on DECM versus TCP. Functional testing with in vitro matrigel angiogenesis assay identified more capillary-like structure formation with significantly higher tubule length in SHED induced by DECM versus TCP. Hence, the results of this study provide a better understanding of the unique characteristics of cell-specific ECM and demonstrated the potential use of HUVECs-DECM as a culture substratum conducive for stimulating the endothelial differentiation of SHED for therapeutic angiogenic applications. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part A: 105A: 1083-1093, 2017.

  2. Interactions between endothelial cells and T cells modulate responses to mixed neutron/gamma radiation.

    PubMed

    Cary, Lynnette H; Noutai, Daniel; Salber, Rudolph E; Williams, Margaret S; Ngudiankama, Barbara F; Whitnall, Mark H

    2014-06-01

    Detonation of an improvised nuclear device near a population center would cause significant casualties from the acute radiation syndrome (ARS) due to exposure to mixed neutron/gamma fields (MF). The pathophysiology of ARS involves inflammation, microvascular damage and alterations in immune function. Interactions between endothelial cells (EC) and hematopoietic cells are important not only for regulating immune cell traffic and function, but also for providing the microenvironment that controls survival, differentiation and migration of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells in blood-forming tissues. Endothelial cells/leukocyte interactions also influence tumor progression and the results of anticancer therapies. In this study, we hypothesized that irradiation of endothelial cells would modulate their effects on hematopoietic cells and vice versa. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and immortalized T lymphocytes (Jurkat cells) were cultured individually and in co-culture after exposure to mixed fields. Effects of nonirradiated cells were compared to effects of irradiated cells and alterations in signaling pathways were determined. Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) p38 and p44/42 (ERK1/2) in HUVEC exhibited higher levels of phosphorylated protein after exposure to mixed field radiation. IL-6, IL-8, G-CSF, platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and angiopoietin 2 (ANG2) protein expression were upregulated in HUVEC by exposure to mixed field radiation. PCR arrays using HUVEC mRNA revealed alterations in gene expression after exposure to mixed fields and/or co-culture with Jurkat cells. The presence of HUVEC also influenced the function of Jurkat cells. Nonirradiated Jurkat cells showed an increase in proliferation when co-cultured with nonirradiated HUVEC, and a decrease in proliferation when co-cultured with irradiated HUVEC. Additionally, nonirradiated Jurkat cells incubated in media from irradiated HUVEC exhibited upregulation of activated

  3. Revisiting the expression and function of follicle-stimulation hormone receptor in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Stelmaszewska, Joanna; Chrusciel, Marcin; Doroszko, Milena; Akerfelt, Malin; Ponikwicka-Tyszko, Donata; Nees, Matthias; Frentsch, Marco; Li, Xiangdong; Kero, Jukka; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Wolczynski, Slawomir; Rahman, Nafis A.

    2016-01-01

    Expression of follicle-stimulation hormone receptor (FSHR) is confined to gonads and at low levels to some extragonadal tissues like human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). FSH-FSHR signaling was shown to promote HUVEC angiogenesis and thereafter suggested to have an influential role in pregnancy. We revisited hereby the expression and functionality of FSHR in HUVECs angiogenesis, and were unable to reproduce the FSHR expression in human umbilical cord, HUVECs or immortalized HUVECs (HUV-ST). Positive controls as granulosa cells and HEK293 cells stably transfected with human FSHR cDNA expressed FSHR signal. In contrast to positive control VEGF, FSH treatment showed no effects on tube formation, nitric oxide production, wound healing or cell proliferation in HUVEC/HUV-ST. Thus, it remains open whether the FSH-FSHR activation has a direct regulatory role in the angiogenesis of HUVECs. PMID:27848975

  4. The in vitro interaction of Sporothrix schenckii with human endothelial cells is modulated by cytokines and involves endothelial surface molecules.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Camila Castro; De Lima, Osana Cunha; De Carvalho, Laís; Lopes-Bezerra, Leila Maria; Morandi, Verônica

    2004-04-01

    Sporothrix schenckii is the etiological agent of sporotrichosis, a subcutaneous mycosis that can evolve to systemic complications in immunocompromised patients. Interactions with endothelium are thought to be essential for systemic infections. In the present work, we studied the interaction between S. schenckii and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). S. schenckii interacts with HUVECs in a time-dependent manner. Morphological analysis showed that yeasts locate to interendothelial junctions. Ultrastructural studies showed that internalized yeasts were found inside endocytic vacuoles as early as 2 h, without causing any detectable damage to HUVECs after 24 h of infection. The viability of infected HUVECs was confirmed by the MTT assay. When HUVECs were treated with different concentrations of Interleukin-1beta or transforming growth factor-beta, a significant dose-dependent increase in cell-associated yeasts was observed. The preliminary analysis of the endothelial surface ligands for S. schenckii cells revealed two major molecules, with Mr of approximately 90 and 135 kDa. The interaction of endothelial cell surface molecules with S. schenckii yeast cells was modulated by divalent cations. This is the first demonstration that S. schenckii is able to adhere and invade endothelial cells without significantly affect cellular integrity. Our results suggest the contribution of cytokine-modulated calcium-dependent molecules to this process.

  5. Adhesion of endothelial cells and endothelial progenitor cells on peptide-linked polymers in shear flow.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Cooper, Stuart

    2013-05-01

    The initial adhesion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), cord blood endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), and human blood outgrowth endothelial cells (HBOECs) was studied under radial flow conditions. The surface of a variable shear-rate device was either coated with polymer films or covered by synthetic fibers. Spin-coating was applied to produce smooth polymer films, while fibrous scaffolds were generated by electrospinning. The polymer was composed of hexyl methacrylate, methyl methacrylate, poly(ethylene glycol) methacrylate (PEGMA), and CGRGDS peptide. The peptide was incorporated into the polymer system by coupling to an acrylate-PEG-N-hydroxysuccinimide comonomer. A shear-rate-dependent increase of the attached cells with time was observed with all cell types. The adhesion of ECs increased on RGD-linked polymer surfaces compared to polymers without adhesive peptides. The number of attached ECFCs and HBOECs are significantly higher than that of HUVECs within the entire shear-rate range and surfaces examined, especially on RGD-linked polymers at low shear rates. Their superior adhesion ability of endothelial progenitor cells under flow conditions suggests they are a promising source for in vivo seeding of vascular grafts and shows the potential to be used for self-endothelialized implants.

  6. Improved Cryopreservation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: A Systematic Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sultani, A. Billal; Marquez-Curtis, Leah A.; Elliott, Janet A. W.; McGann, Locksley E.

    2016-10-01

    Cryopreservation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) facilitated their commercial availability for use in vascular biology, tissue engineering and drug delivery research; however, the key variables in HUVEC cryopreservation have not been comprehensively studied. HUVECs are typically cryopreserved by cooling at 1 °C/min in the presence of 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We applied interrupted slow cooling (graded freezing) and interrupted rapid cooling with a hold time (two-step freezing) to identify where in the cooling process cryoinjury to HUVECs occurs. We found that linear cooling at 1 °C/min resulted in higher membrane integrities than linear cooling at 0.2 °C/min or nonlinear two-step freezing. DMSO addition procedures and compositions were also investigated. By combining hydroxyethyl starch with DMSO, HUVEC viability after cryopreservation was improved compared to measured viabilities of commercially available cryopreserved HUVECs and viabilities for HUVEC cryopreservation studies reported in the literature. Furthermore, HUVECs cryopreserved using our improved procedure showed high tube forming capability in a post-thaw angiogenesis assay, a standard indicator of endothelial cell function. As well as presenting superior cryopreservation procedures for HUVECs, the methods developed here can serve as a model to optimize the cryopreservation of other cells.

  7. Improved Cryopreservation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells: A Systematic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Sultani, A. Billal; Marquez-Curtis, Leah A.; Elliott, Janet A. W.; McGann, Locksley E.

    2016-01-01

    Cryopreservation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) facilitated their commercial availability for use in vascular biology, tissue engineering and drug delivery research; however, the key variables in HUVEC cryopreservation have not been comprehensively studied. HUVECs are typically cryopreserved by cooling at 1 °C/min in the presence of 10% dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO). We applied interrupted slow cooling (graded freezing) and interrupted rapid cooling with a hold time (two-step freezing) to identify where in the cooling process cryoinjury to HUVECs occurs. We found that linear cooling at 1 °C/min resulted in higher membrane integrities than linear cooling at 0.2 °C/min or nonlinear two-step freezing. DMSO addition procedures and compositions were also investigated. By combining hydroxyethyl starch with DMSO, HUVEC viability after cryopreservation was improved compared to measured viabilities of commercially available cryopreserved HUVECs and viabilities for HUVEC cryopreservation studies reported in the literature. Furthermore, HUVECs cryopreserved using our improved procedure showed high tube forming capability in a post-thaw angiogenesis assay, a standard indicator of endothelial cell function. As well as presenting superior cryopreservation procedures for HUVECs, the methods developed here can serve as a model to optimize the cryopreservation of other cells. PMID:27708349

  8. Neuropilin2 expressed in gastric cancer endothelial cells increases the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells in response to VEGF

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woo Ho; Lee, Sun Hee; Jung, Myung Hwan; Seo, Ji Heun; Kim, Jin; Kim, Min A; Lee, You Mie

    2009-08-01

    The structure and characteristics of the tumor vasculature are known to be different from those of normal vessels. Neuropilin2 (Nrp2), which is expressed in non-endothelial cell types, such as neuronal or cancer cells, functions as a receptor for both semaphorin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). After isolating tumor and normal endothelial cells from advanced gastric cancer tissue and normal gastric mucosa tissues, respectively, we identified genes that were differentially expressed in gastric tumor endothelial (TEC) and normal endothelial cells (NEC) using DNA oligomer chips. Using reverse transcriptase-PCR, we confirmed the chip results by showing that Nrp2 gene expression is significantly up-regulated in TEC. Genes that were found to be up-regulated in TEC were also observed to be up-regulated in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that were co-cultured with gastric cancer cells. In addition, HUVECs co-cultured with gastric cancer cells showed an increased reactivity to VEGF-induced proliferation and migration. Moreover, overexpression of Nrp2 in HUVECs significantly enhanced the proliferation and migration induced by VEGF. Observation of an immunohistochemical analysis of various human tumor tissue arrays revealed that Nrp2 is highly expressed in the tumor vessel lining and to a lesser extent in normal tissue microvessels. From these results, we suggest that Nrp2 may function to increase the response to VEGF, which is more significant in TEC than in NEC given the differential expression, leading to gastric TEC with aggressive angiogenesis phenotypes.

  9. Role of Rutin on Nitric Oxide Synthesis in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zakaria, Zaiton; Chua, Kien Hui; Megat Mohd Nordin, Nor Anita; Abdullah Mahdy, Zaleha

    2014-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), is a major antiatherogenic factor in the blood vessel. Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis. Decreased availability of endothelial NO promotes the progression of endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Rutin is a flavonoid with multiple cardiovascular protective effects. This study aimed to investigate the effects of rutin on eNOS and NO production in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC were divided into four groups: control; oxidative stress induction with 180 μM H2O2; treatment with 300 μM rutin; and concomitant induction with rutin and H2O2 for 24 hours. HUVEC treated with rutin produced higher amount of NO compared to control (P < 0.01). In the oxidative stress-induced HUVEC, rutin successfully induced cells' NO production (P < 0.01). Rutin promoted NO production in HUVEC by inducing eNOS gene expression (P < 0.05), eNOS protein synthesis (P < 0.01), and eNOS activity (P < 0.05). Treatment with rutin also led to increased gene and protein expression of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) in HUVEC. Therefore, upregulation of eNOS expression by rutin may be mediated by bFGF. The results showed that rutin may improve endothelial function by augmenting NO production in human endothelial cells. PMID:25093198

  10. Late outgrowth endothelial cells resemble mature endothelial cells and are not derived from bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Tura, Olga; Skinner, Elizabeth M; Barclay, G Robin; Samuel, Kay; Gallagher, Ronald C J; Brittan, Mairi; Hadoke, Patrick W F; Newby, David E; Turner, Marc L; Mills, Nicholas L

    2013-02-01

    A decade of research has sought to identify circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPC) in order to harness their potential for cardiovascular regeneration. Endothelial outgrowth cells (EOC) most closely fulfil the criteria for an EPC, but their origin remains obscure. Our aim was to identify the source and precursor of EOC and to assess their regenerative potential compared to mature endothelial cells. EOC are readily isolated from umbilical cord blood (6/6 donors) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (4/6 donors) but not from bone marrow (0/6) or peripheral blood following mobilization with granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (0/6 donors). Enrichment and depletion of blood mononuclear cells demonstrated that EOC are confined to the CD34(+)CD133(-)CD146(+) cell fraction. EOC derived from blood mononuclear cells are indistinguishable from mature human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) by morphology, surface antigen expression, immunohistochemistry, real-time polymerase chain reaction, proliferation, and functional assessments. In a subcutaneous sponge model of angiogenesis, both EOC and HUVEC contribute to de novo blood vessel formation giving rise to a similar number of vessels (7.0 ± 2.7 vs. 6.6 ± 3.7 vessels, respectively, n = 9). Bone marrow-derived outgrowth cells isolated under the same conditions expressed mesenchymal markers rather than endothelial cell markers and did not contribute to blood vessels in vivo. In this article, we confirm that EOC arise from CD34(+)CD133(-)CD146(+) mononuclear cells and are similar, if not identical, to mature endothelial cells. Our findings suggest that EOC do not arise from bone marrow and challenge the concept of a bone marrow-derived circulating precursor for endothelial cells. Copyright © 2012 AlphaMed Press.

  11. Endothelial cell polarization and chemotaxis in a microfluidic device.

    PubMed

    Shamloo, Amir; Ma, Ning; Poo, Mu-Ming; Sohn, Lydia L; Heilshorn, Sarah C

    2008-08-01

    The directed migration of endothelial cells is an early and critical step in angiogenesis, or new blood vessel formation. In this study, the polarization and chemotaxis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in response to quantified gradients of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were examined. To accomplish this, a microfluidic device was designed and fabricated to generate stable concentration gradients of biomolecules in a cell culture chamber while minimizing the fluid shear stress experienced by the cells. Finite element simulation of the device geometry produced excellent agreement with the observed VEGF concentration distribution, which was found to be stable across multiple hours. This device is expected to have wide applicability in the study of shear-sensitive cells such as HUVEC and non-adherent cell types as well as in the study of migration through three-dimensional matrices. HUVEC were observed to chemotax towards higher VEGF concentrations across the entire range of concentrations studied (18-32 ng mL(-1)) when the concentration gradient was 14 ng mL(-1) mm(-1). In contrast, shallow gradients (2 ng mL(-1) mm(-1)) across the same concentration range were unable to induce HUVEC chemotaxis. Furthermore, while all HUVEC exposed to elevated VEGF levels (both in steep and shallow gradients) displayed an increased number of filopodia, only chemotaxing HUVEC displayed an asymmetric distribution of filopodia, with enhanced numbers of protrusions present along the leading edge. These results suggest a two-part requirement to induce VEGF chemotaxis: the VEGF absolute concentration enhances the total number of filopodia extended while the VEGF gradient steepness induces filopodia localization, cell polarization, and subsequent directed migration.

  12. [Endothelial cell adhesion molecules].

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N; Norkin, I A; Puchin'ian, D M; Shirokov, V Iu; Zhdanova, O Iu

    2014-01-01

    The review presents current data concerning the functional role of endothelial cell adhesion molecules belonging to different structural families: integrins, selectins, cadherins, and the immunoglobulin super-family. In this manuscript the regulatory mechanisms and factors of adhesion molecules expression and distribution on the surface of endothelial cells are discussed. The data presented reveal the importance of adhesion molecules in the regulation of structural and functional state of endothelial cells in normal conditions and in pathology. Particular attention is paid to the importance of these molecules in the processes of physiological and pathological angiogenesis, regulation of permeability of the endothelial barrier and cell transmigration.

  13. Effect of bacterial peptidoglycan on erythrocyte death and adhesion to endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Abed, Majed; Towhid, Syeda T; Pakladok, Tatsiana; Alesutan, Ioana; Götz, Friedrich; Gulbins, Erich; Lang, Florian

    2013-05-01

    Peptidoglycans, bacterial wall components, have previously been shown to trigger eryptosis, the suicidal erythrocyte death, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Phosphatidylserine exposing erythrocytes adhere to the vascular wall at least partially by interaction of erythrocytic phosphatidylserine with endothelial CXC chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16). The present study explored whether peptidoglycan exposure fosters the adhesion of erythrocytes to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). To this end, HUVEC were treated for 48 h with peptidoglycan (10 μg/ml) and CXCL16 abundance determined by confocal microscopy and FACS analysis. Moreover, human erythrocytes were exposed for 48 h to peptidoglycan (10 μg/ml) and phosphatidylserine exposure estimated from binding of fluorescent annexin-V, cell volume from forward scatter in FACS analysis and erythrocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from trapping of labeled erythrocytes in a flow chamber. As a result, bacterial peptidoglycan exposure was followed by increased CXCL16 expression in HUVEC as well as erythrocyte shrinkage, phosphatidylserine exposure and adhesion to HUVEC under flow conditions at arterial shear rates. The adhesion was significantly attenuated but not abrogated in the presence of either, erythrocyte phosphatidylserine-coating annexin-V (5 μl/ml) or CXCL16 neutralizing antibody directed against endothelial CXCL16 (4 μg/ml). In conclusion, exposure to peptidoglycan increases endothelial CXCL16 expression and leads to eryptosis followed by phosphatidylserine- and CXCL16-mediated adhesion of eryptotic erythrocytes to vascular endothelial cells.

  14. Migration of FGF7-stimulated epithelial cells and VEGF-A-stimulated HUVECs depends on EGFR transactivation by ADAM17

    PubMed Central

    Maretzky, Thorsten; Evers, Astrid; Zhou, Wenhui; Swendeman, Steven L.; Wong, Pui-Mun; Rafii, Shahin; Reiss, Karina; Blobel, Carl P.

    2011-01-01

    The fibroblast growth factor receptor 2-IIIb (FGFR2b) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) are tyrosine kinases that can promote cell migration and proliferation and have important roles in embryonic development and cancer. Here we show that FGF7/FGFR2b-dependent activation of EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling and cell migration in epithelial cells require stimulation of the membrane-anchored metalloproteinase ADAM17 and release of HB-EGF. Moreover, VEGF-A/VEGFR2-induced migration of HUVECs also depends on EGFR/ERK1/2 signaling and shedding of the ADAM17 substrate HB-EGF. The pathway used by the FGF7/FGFR2b signaling axis to stimulate shedding of substrates of ADAM17, including ligands of the EGFR, involves Src, p38 MAP-kinase and PI3K, but does not require the cytoplasmic domain of ADAM17. Based on these findings, ADAM17 emerges as a central component in a triple membrane-spanning pathway between the FGFR2b or VEGFR2 and the EGFR/ERK1/2 that is required for cell migration in keratinocytes and presumably also in endothelial cells. PMID:21407195

  15. Fibroblast nemosis induces angiogenic responses of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Enzerink, Anna; Rantanen, Ville; Vaheri, Antti

    2010-03-10

    Increasing evidence points to a central link between inflammation and activation of the stroma, especially of fibroblasts therein. However, the mechanisms leading to such activation mostly remain undescribed. We have previously characterized a novel type of fibroblast activation (nemosis) where clustered fibroblasts upregulated the production of cyclooxygenase-2, secretion of prostaglandins, proteinases, chemotactic cytokines, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), and displayed activated nuclear factor-{kappa}B. Now we show that nemosis drives angiogenic responses of endothelial cells. In addition to HGF, nemotic fibroblasts secreted vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and conditioned medium from spheroids promoted sprouting and networking of human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC). The response was partly inhibited by function-blocking antibodies against HGF and VEGF. Conditioned nemotic fibroblast medium promoted closure of HUVEC and human dermal microvascular endothelial cell monolayer wounds, by increasing the motility of the endothelial cells. Wound closure in HUVEC cells was partly inhibited by the antibodies against HGF. The stromal microenvironment regulates wound healing responses and often promotes tumorigenesis. Nemosis offers clues to the activation process of stromal fibroblasts and provides a model to study the part they play in angiogenesis-related conditions, as well as possibilities for therapeutical approaches desiring angiogenesis in tissue.

  16. Metabolic Profiling in Association with Vascular Endothelial Cell Dysfunction Following Non-Toxic Cadmium Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaofei; Nong, Qingjiao; Mao, Baoyu; Pan, Xue

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the metabolic profile of non-toxic cadmium (Cd)-induced dysfunctional endothelial cells using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs (n = 6 per group) were treated with 0, 1, 5, or 10 μM cadmium chloride (CdCl2) for 48 h. Cell phenotypes, including nitric oxide (NO) production, the inflammatory response, and oxidative stress, were evaluated in Cd-exposed and control HUVECs. Cd-exposed and control HUVECs were analysed using gas chromatography time-of-flight/mass spectrometry. Compared to control HUVECs, Cd-exposed HUVECs were dysfunctional, exhibiting decreased NO production, a proinflammatory state, and non-significant oxidative stress. Further metabolic profiling revealed 24 significantly-altered metabolites in the dysfunctional endothelial cells. The significantly-altered metabolites were involved in the impaired tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, activated pyruvate metabolism, up-regulated glucogenic amino acid metabolism, and increased pyrimidine metabolism. The current metabolic findings further suggest that the metabolic changes linked to TCA cycle dysfunction, glycosylation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP), and compensatory responses to genomic instability and energy deficiency may be generally associated with dysfunctional phenotypes, characterized by decreased NO production, a proinflammatory state, and non-significant oxidative stress, in endothelial cells following non-toxic Cd exposure. PMID:28872622

  17. Hepatocyte growth factor protects human endothelial cells against advanced glycation end products-induced apoposis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yijun . E-mail: zhou-yijun@hotmail.com; Wang Jiahe; Zhang Jin

    2006-06-02

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) form by a non-enzymatic reaction between reducing sugars and biological proteins, which play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. In this study, we assessed AGEs effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) growth, proliferation and apoptosis. Additionally, we investigated whether hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), an anti-apoptotic factor for endothelial cells, prevents AGEs-induced apoptosis of HUVECs. HUVECs were treated with AGEs in the presence or absence of HGF. Treatment of HUVECs with AGEs changed cell morphology, decreased cell viability, and induced DNA fragmentation, leading to apoptosis. Apoptosis was induced by AGEs in a dose- and time-dependent fashion. AGEs markedly elevated Bax and decreased NF-{kappa}B, but not Bcl-2 expression. Additionally, AGEs significantly inhibited cell growth through a pro-apoptotic action involving caspase-3 and -9 activations in HUVECs. Most importantly, pretreatment with HGF protected against AGEs-induced cytotoxicity in the endothelial cells. HGF significantly promoted the expression of Bcl-2 and NF-{kappa}B, while decreasing the activities of caspase-3 and -9 without affecting Bax level. Our data suggest that AGEs induce apoptosis in endothelial cells. HGF effectively attenuate AGEs-induced endothelial cell apoptosis. These findings provide new perspectives in the role of HGF in cardiovascular disease.

  18. Homocysteine injures vascular endothelial cells by inhibiting mitochondrial activity

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fengyong; Qi, Xiujing; Gao, Zheng; Yang, Xingju; Zheng, Xingfeng; Duan, Chonghao; Zheng, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of homocysteine (Hcy) in the pathogenesis of pulmonary embolism (PE) and the associated molecular mechanisms in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Hcy contents were detected with high-performance liquid chromatography. Apoptosis was detected by flow cytometry using Annexin-V staining. Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) activity was assessed with an enzyme activity assay, and the expression levels of COX 17 were determined by western blot analysis. Intracellular reactive oxygen species levels were measured using a microplate reader with a fluorescence probe. The results demonstrated that, compared with the control group, the serum Hcy levels were significantly elevated in the PE group, suggesting that Hcy may be an indicator for PE. Following treatment with Hcy, the apoptosis rate was markedly elevated in HUVECs. Moreover, Hcy decreased COX activity and downregulated the expression of COX 17 in HUVECs. Furthermore, Hcy increased the ROS levels in these endothelial cells. However, all the above-mentioned physiopathological changes induced by Hcy in HUVECs could be restored by folic acid. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that Hcy inhibited COX activity, downregulated COX 17 expression, increased intracellular ROS levels and enhanced apoptosis in endothelial cells. PMID:27698720

  19. Glioblastoma cells block radiation-induced programmed cell death of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Brown, Charles K; Khodarev, Nikolai N; Yu, Jianqing; Moo-Young, Tricia; Labay, Edwardine; Darga, Thomas E; Posner, Mitchell C; Weichselbaum, Ralph R; Mauceri, Helena J

    2004-05-07

    We demonstrate that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) grown in co-culture (CC) with U87 glioblastoma cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP-U87) exhibit resistance to radiation-mediated apoptosis. cDNA macroarray analysis reveals increases in the accumulation of RNAs for HUVEC genes encoding cell adhesion molecules, growth factor-related proteins, and cell cycle regulatory/DNA repair proteins. An increase in protein expression of integrin alphav, integrin beta1, MAPK(p42), Rad51, DNA-PK(CS), and ataxia telangiectasia gene (ATM) was detected in HUVEC grown in CC with GFP-U87 cells compared with HUVEC grown in mono-culture. Treatment with anti-VEGF antibody decreases the expression of integrin alphav, integrin beta1, DNA-PK(CS) and ATM with a corresponding increase in ionizing radiation (IR)-induced apoptosis. These data support the concept that endothelial cells growing in the tumor microenvironment may develop resistance to cytotoxic therapies due to the up-regulation by tumor cells of endothelial cells genes associated with survival.

  20. Serglycin in Quiescent and Proliferating Primary Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Reine, Trine M.; Vuong, Tram T.; Rutkovskiy, Arkady; Meen, Astri J.; Vaage, Jarle; Jenssen, Trond G.; Kolset, Svein O.

    2015-01-01

    Proteoglycans are fundamental components of the endothelial barrier, but the functions of the proteoglycan serglycin in endothelium are less described. Our aim was to describe the roles of serglycin in processes relevant for endothelial dysfunction. Primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured in vitro and the expression of proteoglycans was investigated. Dense cell cultures representing the quiescent endothelium coating the vasculature was compared to sparse activated cell cultures, relevant for diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular disease. Secretion of 35S- proteoglycans increased in sparse cultures, and we showed that serglycin is a major component of the cell-density sensitive proteoglycan population. In contrast to the other proteoglycans, serglycin expression and secretion was higher in proliferating compared to quiescent HUVEC. RNAi silencing of serglycin inhibited proliferation and wound healing, and serglycin expression and secretion was augmented by hypoxia, mechanical strain and IL-1β induced inflammation. Notably, the secretion of the angiogenic chemokine CCL2 resulting from IL-1β activation, was increased in serglycin knockdown cells, while angiopoietin was not affected. Both serglycin and CCL2 were secreted predominantly to the apical side of polarized HUVEC, and serglycin and CCL2 co-localized both in perinuclear areas and in vesicles. These results suggest functions for serglycin in endothelial cells trough interactions with partner molecules, in biological processes with relevance for diabetic complications, cardiovascular disease and cancer development. PMID:26694746

  1. Expression of leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecules on monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells on plasma treated PET and PTFE in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pu, F R; Williams, R L; Markkula, T K; Hunt, J A

    2002-12-01

    We used a coculture model to evaluate the inflammatory potential of ammonia gas plasma modified PET and PTFE by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry. In these studies, human endothelial cells from umbilical cord (HUVEC) and promonocytic U937 cells were used. HUVECs grown on polystyrene tissue culture coverslips and HUVECs stimulated with tumour necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) were used as controls. U937 adhesion to endothelium on each surface was evaluated at day 1 and day 7. To further investigate the role of leukocyte-endothelial cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) in cell-to-cell interaction on material surfaces, the expression of the leukocyte-endothelial CAMs: ICAM-1, VCAM-1, PECAM-1, and E-selectin on HUVECs were evaluated after U937 cell adhesion. The results demonstrated that plasma treated PET (T-PET) and treated PTFE (T-PTFE) did not increase U937 cell adhesion compared to the negative control. Maximal adhesion of U937 cells to HUVEC was observed on TNF-alpha stimulated endothelium with significant differences between day 1 and day 7, which is consistent with our prior observation that T-PET and T-PTFE did not cause HUVECs to increase the expression of adhesion molecules. After U937 cell adhesion, the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 of HUVECs were not different on T-PET and T-PTFE compared with the negative control. However, the expression of E-selectin was reduced on day 1, but not on day 7. The effects of plasma treated PET and PTFE on HUVEC adhesion and proliferation were also studied. On day 1 there were slight increases in the growth of HUVECs on both of T-PET and T-PTFE but this was not statistically significant. On day 7, the cell number increased significantly on the surfaces compared to the negative control. The results demonstrate that the plasma treatment of PET and PTFE with ammonia improves the adhesion and growth of endothelial cells and these surfaces do not exhibit a direct inflammatory effect in terms of monocyte adhesion and expression of

  2. Mechanical property quantification of endothelial cells using scanning acoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shelke, A.; Brand, S.; Kundu, T.; Bereiter-Hahn, J.; Blase, C.

    2012-04-01

    The mechanical properties of cells reflect dynamic changes of cellular organization which occur during physiologic activities like cell movement, cell volume regulation or cell division. Thus the study of cell mechanical properties can yield important information for understanding these physiologic activities. Endothelial cells form the thin inner lining of blood vessels in the cardiovascular system and are thus exposed to shear stress as well as tensile stress caused by the pulsatile blood flow. Endothelial dysfunction might occur due to reduced resistance to mechanical stress and is an initial step in the development of cardiovascular disease like, e.g., atherosclerosis. Therefore we investigated the mechanical properties of primary human endothelial cells (HUVEC) of different age using scanning acoustic microscopy at 1.2 GHz. The HUVECs are classified as young (tD < 90 h) and old (tD > 90 h) cells depending upon the generation time for the population doubling of the culture (tD). Longitudinal sound velocity and geometrical properties of cells (thickness) were determined using the material signature curve V(z) method for variable culture condition along spatial coordinates. The plane wave technique with normal incidence is assumed to solve two-dimensional wave equation. The size of the cells is modeled using multilayered (solid-fluid) system. The propagation of transversal wave and surface acoustic wave are neglected in soft matter analysis. The biomechanical properties of HUVEC cells are quantified in an age dependent manner.

  3. Mylar and Teflon-AF as cell culture substrates for studying endothelial cell adhesion.

    PubMed

    Anamelechi, Charles C; Truskey, George A; Reichert, W Monty

    2005-12-01

    The textured and opaque nature of Dacron and ePTFE has prevented the use of these fabrics in conventional cell culture techniques normally employed to optimize cell attachment and retention. This lack of optimization has led, in part, to the poor performance of endothelialization strategies for improving vascular graft patency. Here we show that thin, transparent films of Mylar and Teflon-AF are viable in vitro cell culture mimics of Dacron and ePTFE vascular graft materials, particularly for the study of protein mediated endothelial cell (EC) attachment, spreading and adhesion. Glass substrates were used as controls. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle analysis showed that Mylar and Teflon-AF have surface chemistries that closely match Dacron and ePTFE. (125)I radiolabeling was used to quantify fibronectin (FN) adsorption, and FN and biotinylated-BSA "dual ligand" co-adsorption onto glass, Mylar and Teflon-AF substrates. Native human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and streptavidin-incubated biotinylated-HUVEC (SA-b-HUVEC) spreading was measured using phase contrast microscopy. Cell retention and adhesion was determined using phase contrast microscopy under laminar flow. All surfaces lacking protein pre-treatment, regardless of surface type, showed the lowest degree of cell spreading and retention. Dual ligand treated Mylar films showed significantly greater SA-b-HUVEC spreading up to 2 h, but were similar to HUVEC on FN treated Mylar at longer times; whereas SA-b-HUVEC spreading on dual ligand treated Teflon-AF was never significantly different from HUVEC on FN treated Teflon-AF at any time point. SA-b-HUVEC retention was significantly greater on dual ligand treated Mylar compared to HUVEC on FN treated Mylar over the entire range of shear stresses tested (3.54-28.3 dynes/cm(2)); whereas SA-b-HUVEC retention to dual ligand and HUVEC retention to FN treated Teflon-AF gave similar results at each shear stress, with only the mid

  4. PAF mediates neutrophil adhesion to thrombin or TNF-stimulated endothelial cells under shear stress.

    PubMed

    Macconi, D; Foppolo, M; Paris, S; Noris, M; Aiello, S; Remuzzi, G; Remuzzi, A

    1995-07-01

    Platelet-activating factor (PAF) is known to modulate polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) adhesion to endothelial cells cultured under static conditions and activated by thrombin. In contrast, there are no data on the role of PAF in PMN adhesion to cells exposed to flow conditions and activated by stimuli other than thrombin. Here we used the PAF receptor antagonist L-659,989 to evaluate PMN adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in basal conditions or upon challenge with thrombin or tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Experiments were performed under dynamic flow using a parallel-plate flow chamber and a computer-based image analysis system. Rolling and adhesion of PMNs to endothelial cells significantly increased upon stimulation with thrombin. Thrombin-stimulated HUVEC also synthesized higher amounts of PAF than untreated cells. Pretreatment of PMNs with L-659,989 significantly reduced their rolling and adhesion to thrombin-activated HUVEC. Stimulation of HUVEC with TNF-alpha significantly increased the number of rolling and adherent PMNs as compared with untreated cells. Adhesion of PMNs to and migration across TNF-alpha-stimulated HUVEC were reduced by L-659,989, whereas cell rolling was unchanged. We conclude that PAF mediates leukocyte interaction under flow conditions with HUVEC activated by inflammatory stimuli.

  5. Dihydroartemisinin induces endothelial cell anoikis through the activation of the JNK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiao; Guo, Ling; Zhou, Xia; Dong, Fengyun; Li, Liqun; Cheng, Zuowang; Xu, Yinghua; Liang, Jiyong; Xie, Qi; Liu, Ju

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is required for the growth and metastasis of solid tumors. The anti-malarial agent dihydroartemisinin (DHA) demonstrates potent anti-angiogenic activity, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not yet fully understood. During the process of angiogenesis, endothelial cells migrating from existing capillaries may undergo programmed cell death after detaching from the extracellular matrix, a process that is defined as anchorage-dependent apoptosis or anoikis. In the present study, DHA-induced cell death was compared in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured in suspension and attached to culture plates. In suspended HUVECs, the cell viability was decreased and apoptosis was increased with the treatment of 50 µM DHA for 5 h, while the same treatment did not affect the attached HUVECs. In addition, 50 µM DHA increased the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in suspended HUVECs, but not in attached HUVECs, for up to 5 h of treatment. The JNK inhibitor, SP600125, reversed DHA-induced cell death in suspended HUVECs, suggesting that the JNK pathway may mediate DHA-induced endothelial cell anoikis. The data from the present study indicates a novel mechanism for understanding the anti-angiogenic effects of DHA, which may be used as a component for chemotherapy. PMID:27602117

  6. Proinflammatory response of human endothelial cells to Brucella infection.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Mariana C; Bregante, Julieta; Delpino, M Victoria; Barrionuevo, Paula; Fossati, Carlos A; Giambartolomei, Guillermo H; Baldi, Pablo C

    2011-09-01

    Although vascular pathologies such as vasculitis, endocarditis and mycotic aneurysms have been described in brucellosis patients, the interaction of Brucella with the endothelium has not been characterized. In this study we show that Brucella abortus and Brucella suis can infect and replicate in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in the microvascular endothelial cell line HMEC-1. Infection led to an increased production of IL-8, MCP-1 and IL-6 in HUVEC and HMEC-1 cells, and an increased expression of adhesion molecules (CD54 in both cells, CD106 and CD62E in HUVEC). Experiments with purified antigens from the bacterial outer membrane revealed that lipoproteins (Omp19) but not lipopolysaccharide mediate these proinflammatory responses. Infection of polarized HMEC-1 cells resulted in an increased capacity of these cells to promote the transmigration of neutrophils from the apical to the basolateral side of the monolayer, and the same phenomenon was observed when the cells were stimulated with live bacteria from the basolateral side. Overall, these results suggest that Brucella spp. can infect and survive within endothelial cells, and can induce a proinflammatory response that might be involved in the vascular manifestations of brucellosis. Copyright © 2011 Institut Pasteur. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Polyphenols action against oxidative stress formation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Łuczaj, Wojciech; Zapora, Ewa; Szczepański, Marek; Wnuczko, Krzysztof; Skrzydlewska, Elzbieta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), theaflavins (TFs) and black tea extract (BTE) on oxidative stress formation as well as on antioxidant system of human vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC were incubated for 0,5 h with 100 mM tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) for oxidative stress formation. The influence of EGCG, TFs, and BTE on oxidative stress and antioxidant system parameters was investigated by the pre-incubation for 2 h with 50 mg/mL of each compound. Half hour exposure to t-BHP caused statistically significant decrease in GSH-Px activity and in the content of GSH, vitamin A, vitamin E as well as tryptophan. Moreover, pretreatment of cells with t-BHP caused statistically significant increase in activities of Cu,Zn-SOD, GSSG-R and in the level of MDA and dityrosine. Pretreated with t-BHP endothelial cells, subjected to EGCG, TFs and black tea extract, are partially protected against oxidative activity of t-BHP causing statistically significant increase in GSH-Px activity, GSH and tryptophan level and decrease in MDA and dityrosine level in comparison with HUVEC pretreated with t-BHP group. These results indicate the beneficial effect of tea polyphenolic compounds on HUVEC antioxidant abilities and, in consequence, their protective effect in cell components.

  8. Oxytocin stimulates migration and invasion in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cattaneo, M G; Chini, B; Vicentini, L M

    2007-01-01

    Background and purpose: It has recently been reported that oxytocin is produced by some tumour cell types, and that oxytocin receptors, belonging to the G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) family, are expressed in a variety of cell types. Among these, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) respond to oxytocin with an increased proliferation, suggesting a possible role for the hormone in the regulation of angiogenesis. Experimental approach: We employed chemotaxis and chemoinvasion assays to characterize the effect of oxytocin on HUVEC motility, and immunoblot analysis to study its molecular mechanisms of action. Key results: We showed that oxytocin stimulates migration and invasion in HUVECs via oxytocin receptor activation. Searching for the molecular mechanism(s) responsible for oxytocin's pro-migratory effect, we identified the Gq coupling of oxytocin receptors and phospholipase C (PLC) as the main effectors of oxytocin's action in HUVECs. We also found that oxytocin stimulates the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) via the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI-3-K)/AKT pathway, and that the activation of PI-3-K and formation of nitric oxide (NO) are required for the pro-migratory effect of oxytocin. Conclusions and implications: The ability of oxytocin to stimulate HUVEC motility and invasion suggests that the hormone can participate in physiopathological processes where activation of endothelial cells plays an important role, for example, in angiogenesis. Interestingly, both the AKT and eNOS phosphorylation induced by oxytocin receptor activation depended on PLC activity, thus suggesting the existence of a still undefined mechanism connecting PLC to the PI-3-K/AKT pathway, upon oxytocin stimulation. PMID:18059319

  9. Effects of cryopreservation on excretory function, cellular adhesion molecules and vessel lumen formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Guoping; Lai, Binbin; Hong, Huaxing; Lin, Peng; Chen, Weifu; Zhu, Zhong; Chen, Haixiao

    2017-01-01

    Cryopreservation is widely used in regenerative medicine for tissue preservation. In the present study, the effects of cryopreservation on excretory function, cellular adhesion molecules and vessel lumen formation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were investigated. After 0, 4, 8, 12 or 24 weeks of cryopreservation in liquid nitrogen, the HUVECs were thawed. The excretory functions markers (endothelin-1, prostaglandin E1, von Willebrand factor and nitric oxide) of HUVECs were measured by ELISA assay. The expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HUVECs was analyzed using flow cytometry. An angiogenesis assay was used to determine the angiogeneic capabilities of the thawed HUVECs. The results demonstrated that cryopreserved/thawed and recultivated HUVECs were unsuitable for tissue-engineered microvascular construction. Specifically, the excretory function of the cells was significantly decreased in the post-cryopreserved HUVECs at 24 weeks. In addition, the level of ICAM-1 in HUVECs was significantly upregulated from the fourth week of cryopreservation. Furthermore, the tube-like structure-forming potential was weakened with increasing cryopreservation duration, and the numbers of lumen and the length of the pipeline were decreased in the thawed HUVECs, in a time-dependent manner. In conclusion, the results of the present study revealed that prolonged cryopreservation may lead to HUVEC dysfunction and did not create stable cell lines for tissue-engineered microvascular construction. PMID:28586042

  10. TSG attenuates LPC-induced endothelial cells inflammatory damage through notch signaling inhibition.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Liang, Yuan; Song, Fan; Xu, Shouzhu; Nian, Lun; Zhou, Xuanxuan; Wang, Siwang

    2016-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) induces inflammation in endothelial cells (ECs) but the mechanism is not fully understood. The Notch signaling pathway is involved in chronic EC inflammation, but its functions in LPC-induced endothelial inflammatory damage and 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside's (TSG) protective effect during LPC-induced inflammatory damage in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) is largely unknown. We report that Notch signaling activation contributed to LPC-induced injury in HUVECs, and that TSG protected HUVECs from LPC-induced injury by antagonizing Notch signaling activation by LPC. γ-secretase inhibitor (DAPT), a specific inhibitor of the Notch signaling pathway, and Notch1 siRNA were used to inhibit Notch activity. HUVECs were exposed to LPC in the presence or absence of TSG, DAPT, and Notch1 siRNA. LPC treatment of HUVECs resulted in reduced cell viability, and Notch1 and Hes1 upregulation. Either silencing of Notch1 by siRNA or pharmacological inhibition of Notch signaling by DAPT prevented the loss of cell viability, and induction of apoptosis, and enhanced expression Notch1, Hes1 and MCP-1 by LPC in HUVECs. Similarly, TSG reduced LPC stimulation of Notch1, Hes1, and MCP-1 expression, prevented the release of IL-6 and CRP and rescued HUVECs from LPC-induced cell damage. Our data indicate that the Notch signaling pathway is a crucial mediator of endothelial inflammatory damage and that TSG protects against endothelial inflammatory damage by inhibiting the Notch signaling pathway. Our findings suggest that targeting Notch signaling by natural products such as TSG is a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment of chronic inflammation associated diseases, including atherosclerosis. © 2015 IUBMB Life, 68(1):37-50, 2016.

  11. In vitro endothelial cell susceptibility to xenobiotics: comparison of three cell types.

    PubMed

    L'Azou, B; Fernandez, P; Bareille, R; Beneteau, M; Bourget, C; Cambar, J; Bordenave, L

    2005-03-01

    In three different endothelial cell (EC) cultures (primary human umbilical cord vein, so-called HUVEC; and immortalized cell lines HBMEC and EA-hy-926), the effects of different xenobiotics were studied in order to standardize vascular EC models for in vitro pharmacotoxicological studies. Cell characteristics were first investigated by the production and the mRNA levels of known endothelial markers in the three EC culture models. EC secretory products, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and von Willebrand factor (vWF), were present in the supernatant of the immortalized cell lines. The mRNA levels of vWF, tPA, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1/CD31), and beta -integrin subunit, which are involved in the control of platelet function, coagulation, and fibrinolysis as well as in cell-matrix interactions, were investigated in all EC types. For at least three parameters, cultured cells provided marked characteristics of EC phenotype, in HUVEC and in immortalized cell lines, regardless of their origin from the macro- or microcirculation. Toxicity experiments were assessed after 24 h exposure to cadmium, cyclosporin A and cisplatin by MTT assay. These experiments show nonsignificant difference in susceptibility to cyclosporin A and cadmium on HUVEC, HBMEC, and EA-hy-926. However, HBMEC, seems to be highly susceptible to cisplatin compared to HUVEC, the latter being more sensitive than EA-hy-926. For experiments conducted with cyclosporin and cadmium, cell lines could constitute an alternative material for routine cytotoxicity studies.

  12. Fulvic Acid Attenuates Resistin-Induced Adhesion of HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Shih; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lu, Chien-Chang; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Su, Yu-Ping; Lee, Ko-Chao

    2015-12-09

    A high level of serum resistin has recently been found in patients with a number of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Hence, resistin may play a role in CRC development. Fulvic acid (FA), a class of humic substances, possesses pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on cancer pathophysiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistin on the endothelial adhesion of CRC and to determine whether FA elicits an antagonistic mechanism to neutralize this resistin effect. Human HCT-116 (p53-negative) and SW-48 (p53-positive) CRC cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the experiments. Treatment of both HCT-116 and SW-48 cells with resistin increases the adhesion of both cells to HUVECs. This result indicated that p53 may not regulate this resistin effect. A mechanistic study in HCT-116 cells further showed that this resistin effect occurs via the activation of NF-κB and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Co-treating cells with both FA and resistin revealed that FA significantly attenuated the resistin-increased NF-κB activation and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression and the consequent adhesion of HCT-116 cells to HUVECs. These results demonstrate the role of resistin in promoting HCT-116 cell adhesion to HUVECs and indicate that FA might be a potential candidate for the inhibition of the endothelial adhesion of CRC in response to resistin.

  13. Inhibition of telomerase in the endothelial cells disrupts tumor angiogenesis in glioblastoma xenografts.

    PubMed

    Falchetti, Maria Laura; Mongiardi, Maria Patrizia; Fiorenzo, Paolo; Petrucci, Giovanna; Pierconti, Francesco; D'Agnano, Igea; D'Alessandris, Giorgio; Alessandri, Giulio; Gelati, Maurizio; Ricci-Vitiani, Lucia; Maira, Giulio; Larocca, Luigi Maria; Levi, Andrea; Pallini, Roberto

    2008-03-15

    Tumor angiogenesis is a complex process that involves a series of interactions between tumor cells and endothelial cells (ECs). In vitro, glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cells are known to induce an increase in proliferation, migration and tube formation by the ECs. We have previously shown that in human GBM specimens the proliferating ECs of the tumor vasculature express the catalytic component of telomerase, hTERT, and that telomerase can be upregulated in human ECs by exposing these cells to GBM in vitro. Here, we developed a controlled in vivo assay of tumor angiogenesis in which primary human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were subcutaneously grafted with or without human GBM cells in immunocompromised mice as Matrigel implants. We found that primary HUVECs did not survive in Matrigel implants, and that telomerase upregulation had little effect on HUVEC survival. In the presence of GBM cells, however, the grafted HUVECs not only survived in Matrigel implants but developed tubule structures that integrated with murine microvessels. Telomerase upregulation in HUVECs enhanced such effect. More importantly, inhibition of telomerase in HUVECs completely abolished tubule formation and greatly reduced survival of these cells in the tumor xenografts. Our data demonstrate that telomerase upregulation by the ECs is a key requisite for GBM tumor angiogenesis. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Microbubble-enhanced ultrasound exposure improves gene transfer in vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Nie, Fang; Xu, Hui-Xiong; Tang, Qing; Lu, Ming-De

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To explore the effects of ultrasound exposure combined with microbubble contrast agent (SonoVue) on the permeability of the cellular membrane and on the expression of plasmid DNA encoding enhanced green fluorescent protein (pEGFP) transfer into human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). METHODS: HUVECs with fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FD500) and HUVECs with pEGFP were exposed to continuous wave (1.9 MHz, 80.0 mW/cm2) for 5 min, with or without a SonoVue. The percentage of FD500 taken by the HUVECs and the transient expression rate of pEGFP in the HUVECs were examined by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry, respectively. RESULTS: The percentage of FD500-positive HUVECs in the group of ultrasound exposure combined with SonoVue was significantly higher than that of the group of ultrasound exposure alone (24.0% ± 5.5% vs 66.6% ± 4.1%, P < 0.001). Compared with the group of ultrasound exposure alone, the transfection expression rate of pEGFP in HUVECs was markedly increased with the addition of SonoVue (16.1% ± 1.9% vs 1.5% ± 0.2%, P < 0.001). No statistical significant difference was observed in the HUVECs survival rates between the ultrasound group with and without the addition of SonoVue (94.1% ± 2.3% vs 91.1% ± 4.1%). CONCLUSION: The cell membrane permeability of HUVECs and the transfection efficiency of pEGFP into HUVECs exposed to ultrasound are significantly increased after addition of an ultrasound contrast agent without obvious damage to the survival of HUVECs. This non-invasive gene transfer method may be a useful tool for clinical gene therapy of hepatic tumors. PMID:17167842

  15. Tricin, flavonoid from Njavara reduces inflammatory responses in hPBMCs by modulating the p38MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways and prevents inflammation associated endothelial dysfunction in HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Shalini, V; Pushpan, Chithra K; G, Sindhu; A, Jayalekshmy; A, Helen

    2016-02-01

    Previous studies revealed the potent anti-inflammatory activity of tricin, the active component of Njavara rice bran. Here, we report the involvement of specific signaling pathways in the protective effect of tricin against LPS induced inflammation in hPBMCs and the role of tricin in modulating endothelial dysfunction in LPS induced HUVECs. Pretreatment with tricin (15μM) significantly inhibited the release of TNF-α and was comparable to the specific pathway blockers like ERK inhibitor (PD98059), JNK inhibitor (SP600125) and p38 inhibitor (SB203580), whereas an increased release of TNF-α was observed in PI3K/Akt inhibitor (LY294002) treated cells. Tricin alone and combination treatment of tricin and SB203580 showed more significant inhibition of activation of COX-2 and TNF-α than that of SB203580 alone treated group. Combination treatment of tricin and LY294002 showed increased activation of COX-2 and TNF-α, proved that PI3K activation is essential for the anti-inflammatory effect of tricin. Studies conducted on HUVECs revealed the protective effect of tricin against endothelial dysfunction associated with LPS induced inflammation by inhibiting the activation of proinflammatory mediators like TNF-α, IFN-γ, MCP 1 by modulating NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. ELISA and flow cytometric analysis again confirmed the protection of tricin against endothelial damage, especially from the decreased activation of cell adhesion molecules like ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-Selectin upon tricin treatment. This work establishes the mechanism behind the potent anti-inflammatory activity of the flavonoid tricin.

  16. Evaluation of endothelial cells differentiated from amniotic fluid-derived stem cells.

    PubMed

    Benavides, Omar M; Petsche, Jennifer J; Moise, Kenneth J; Johnson, Anthony; Jacot, Jeffrey G

    2012-06-01

    Amniotic fluid holds great promise as a stem cell source, especially in neonatal applications where autologous cells can be isolated and used. This study examined chemical-mediated differentiation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells (AFSC) into endothelial cells and verified the function of AFSC-derived endothelial cells (AFSC-EC). AFSC were isolated from amniotic fluid obtained from second trimester amnioreduction as part of therapeutic intervention from pregnancies affected with twin-twin transfusion syndrome. Undifferentiated AFSC were of normal karyotype with a subpopulation of cells positive for the embryonic stem cell marker SSEA4, hematopoietic stem cell marker c-kit, and mesenchymal stem cell markers CD29, CD44, CD73, CD90, and CD105. Additionally, these cells were negative for the endothelial marker CD31 and hematopoietic differentiation marker CD45. AFSC were cultured in endothelial growth media with concentrations of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) ranging from 1 to 100 ng/mL. After 2 weeks, AFSC-EC expressed von Willebrand factor, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, CD31, VE-cadherin, and VEGF receptor 2. Additionally, the percentage of cells expressing CD31 was positively correlated with VEGF concentration up to 50 ng/mL, with no increase at higher concentrations. AFSC-EC showed a decrease in stem cells markers c-kit and SSEA4 and were morphologically similar to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). In functional assays, AFSC-EC formed networks and metabolized acetylated low-density lipoprotein, also characteristic of HUVEC. Nitrate levels for AFSC-EC, an indirect measure of nitric oxide synthesis, were significantly higher than undifferentiated controls and significantly lower than HUVEC. These results indicate that AFSC can differentiate into functional endothelial-like cells and may have the potential to provide vascularization for constructs used in regenerative medicine strategies.

  17. Cross-Talk between CLL Cells and Bone Marrow Endothelial Cells: Role of Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription-3

    PubMed Central

    Badoux, Xavier; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Harris, David; Li, Ping; Liu, Zhiming; Burger, Jan; O’Brien, Susan; Ferrajoli, Alessandra; Keating, Michael J.; Estrov, Zeev

    2014-01-01

    Summary Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) bone marrow is characterized by increased angiogenesis. However, the molecular mediators of neovascularization and the biological significance of increased endothelial cell proliferation in CLL require further investigation. Because signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT)-3 is constitutively activated in CLL we studied the role of STAT3 in modulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression and the effect of vascular endothelial cells on CLL cells. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) we found that anti-STAT3 antibodies immunoprecipitated DNA of STAT3, VEGF and other STAT3-regulated genes. In addition, STAT3-short interfering RNA significantly reduced mRNA levels of VEGF in CLL cells suggesting that STAT3 induces VEGF expression in CLL. Remarkably, bone marrow CLL cells expressed high levels of VEGF and high VEGF levels were detected in the plasma of patients with untreated CLL and correlated with white blood cell count. CLL bone marrow biopsies revealed increased microvascular density and attachment of CLL cells to endothelial cells. Co-culture of CLL and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cells showed a similar attachment. Furthermore, co-culture studies with HUVEC showed that HUVEC protected CLL cells from spontaneous apoptosis by direct cell-to-cell contact as assessed by flow cytometry using Annexin V. Our data suggest that constitutively activated STAT3 induces VEGF production by CLL cells and CLL cells derive a survival advantage from endothelial cells via cell-to cell contact. PMID:21733558

  18. [Effects of endothelial lipase on mRNA expression of adhesion molecule of human umbilical vascular endothelial cells].

    PubMed

    Fang, Yu-qiang; Huang, Lan; Zhao, Xiao-hui; Yin, Yang-guang; Kang, Hua-li; Deng, Meng-yang

    2007-12-01

    To explore the relationship between human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) and endothelial lipase (EL), and the effect of EL on expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecule (ICAM). HUVECs was treated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-alpha) 10 microg/L and the mRNA of adhesion molecules [intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and E-selectin] were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Then the effect of 50 microg/L anti-endothelial lipase (anti-EL) antibody on the influence of TNF-alpha on these adhesion molecules was observed. After being treated with TNF-alpha, the mRNA of adhesion molecules expressed by HUVECs were significant up-regulated, there was significant difference compared with control group (all P<0.01). These effects of TNF-alpha were significantly abolished by 50 microg/L anti-EL antibody (P<0.05 or P<0.01). EL can affect the expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cell adhesion molecule. This effect of EL may play a role in the pathophysiologic process in the pathogenesis progress of atherosclerosis.

  19. Mutual interaction between endothelial cells and mural cells enhances BMP9 signaling in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tachida, Yuki; Izumi, Nanae; Sakurai, Toyo; Kobayashi, Hideki

    2017-03-15

    Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is characterized by the formation of abnormal vascular networks and caused by the mutation of genes involved in BMP9 signaling. It is also known that the interaction between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells (MCs) is critical to maintain vessel integrity. However, it has not yet fully been uncovered whether the EC-MC interaction affects BMP9 signaling or not. To elucidate this point, we analyzed BMP9 signaling in a co-culture of several types of human primary culture ECs and MCs. The co-culture activated the Notch pathway in both types of cells in a co-culture- and BMP9-dependent manner. In HUVECs, the genes induced by BMP9 were significantly and synergistically induced in the presence of pericytes, fibroblasts or mesenchymal stem cells. The synergistic induction was greatly reduced in a non-contact condition. In fibroblasts, PDGFRB expression was potently induced in the presence of HUVECs, and BMP9 additively increased this response. Taken together, these results suggest that the EC-MC interaction potentiates BMP9 signaling both in ECs and MCs and plays a critical role in the maintenance of proper vessel functions.

  20. Mutual interaction between endothelial cells and mural cells enhances BMP9 signaling in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Tachida, Yuki; Izumi, Nanae; Sakurai, Toyo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is characterized by the formation of abnormal vascular networks and caused by the mutation of genes involved in BMP9 signaling. It is also known that the interaction between endothelial cells (ECs) and mural cells (MCs) is critical to maintain vessel integrity. However, it has not yet fully been uncovered whether the EC–MC interaction affects BMP9 signaling or not. To elucidate this point, we analyzed BMP9 signaling in a co-culture of several types of human primary culture ECs and MCs. The co-culture activated the Notch pathway in both types of cells in a co-culture- and BMP9-dependent manner. In HUVECs, the genes induced by BMP9 were significantly and synergistically induced in the presence of pericytes, fibroblasts or mesenchymal stem cells. The synergistic induction was greatly reduced in a non-contact condition. In fibroblasts, PDGFRB expression was potently induced in the presence of HUVECs, and BMP9 additively increased this response. Taken together, these results suggest that the EC–MC interaction potentiates BMP9 signaling both in ECs and MCs and plays a critical role in the maintenance of proper vessel functions. PMID:28298363

  1. High glucose induced endothelial to mesenchymal transition in human umbilical vein endothelial cell.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chun-Hong; Suriguga; Gong, Meng; Liu, Wen-Juan; Cui, Ning-Xuan; Wang, Ying; Du, Xin; Yi, Zong-Chun

    2017-06-01

    Studies have shown that endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) could contribute to the progression of diabetic nephropathy, diabetic renal fibrosis, and cardiac fibrosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of high glucose and related mechanism of MAPK inhibitor or specific antioxidant on the EndMT. In vitro human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were cultured with 11mM, 30mM, 60mM and 120mM glucose for 0, 24, 48, 72 and 168h. Endothelial cell morphology was observed with microscope, and RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression of endothelial markers VE-cadherin and CD31, mesenchymal markers α-SMA and collagen I, and transforming growth factor TGF-β1. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the expression of CD31 and α-SMA. The concentration of TGF-β1 in the supernatant was detected by ELISA. ERK1/2 phosphorylation level was detected by Western blot analysis. High glucose induced EndMT and increased the TGF-β1 level in HUVEC cells. Cells in high glucose for 7 days showed a significant decrease in mRNA expression of CD31 and VE-cadherin, and a significant increase in that of α-SMA and collagen I, while lost CD31 staining and acquired α-SMA staining. ERK signaling pathway blocker PD98059 significantly attenuated the high glucose-induced increase in the ERK1/2 phosphorylation level. PD98059 and NAC both inhibited high glucose-induced TGF-β1 expression and attenuated EndMT marker protein synthesis. High glucose could induce HUVEC cells to undergo EndMT. NAC and ERK signaling pathway may play important role in the regulation of the TGF-β1 biosynthesis during high glucose-induced EndMT. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of immortalized human umbilical and iliac vein endothelial cell lines after transfection with SV40 large T-antigen.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, E B; Veenstra, R; van Wijk, R; Molema, G; Hoekstra, A; Ruiters, M H; van der Meer, J

    2000-01-01

    Most in vitro studies of human endothelial cells have relied on cells derived from human umbilical veins (HUVEC); however, heterogeneity of primary cultured endothelial cells can make critical interpretation of results difficult. Several endothelial cell lines have been produced to serve as a more constant source of endothelial cells. In this study, we characterized the endothelial cell lines EVLB3 and EVLC2 derived from HUVEC, and EVLK1 and EVLK2 derived from human iliac vein endothelial cells (HIVEC). These cell lines maintained the typical endothelial cell cobblestone morphology and appeared to be growth factor independent. They lost PECAM-1 and von Willebrand factor, GP96 was reduced to the level of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMC), but aSMC-actin was far less than in vascular SMC. Antigen levels of tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) were comparable with young endothelial cells, and mRNA was present for tPA, PAI-1, tissue factor (TF), tissue factor pathway inhibitor and thrombomodulin. This study revealed that mRNA and protein expression of coagulation and fibrinolytic factors was influenced by the stage of cell confluence. No differences could be detected between the endothelial cell lines derived from HUVEC and HIVEC. These cell lines may be a useful tool for studies on cellular interactions of fibrinolytic components or exploring the regulation of TF expression.

  3. Fabrication of Biomimetic Bone Tissue Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Three-Dimensional Constructs Incorporating Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Jun-Ichi; Hashimoto, Masanori; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Itsumi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Imazato, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The development of technologies to promote vascularization of engineered tissue would drive major developments in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recently, we succeeded in fabricating three-dimensional (3D) cell constructs composed of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the majority of cells within the constructs underwent necrosis due to a lack of nutrients and oxygen. We hypothesized that incorporation of vascular endothelial cells would improve the cell survival rate and aid in the fabrication of biomimetic bone tissues in vitro. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of endothelial cells combined with the MSC constructs (MSC/HUVEC constructs) during short- and long-term culture. When human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incorporated into the cell constructs, cell viability and growth factor production were increased after 7 days. Furthermore, HUVECs were observed to proliferate and self-organize into reticulate porous structures by interacting with the MSCs. After long-term culture, MSC/HUVEC constructs formed abundant mineralized matrices compared with those composed of MSCs alone. Transmission electron microscopy and qualitative analysis revealed that the mineralized matrices comprised porous cancellous bone-like tissues. These results demonstrate that highly biomimetic bone tissue can be fabricated in vitro by 3D MSC constructs incorporated with HUVECs.

  4. Fabrication of Biomimetic Bone Tissue Using Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Three-Dimensional Constructs Incorporating Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Jun-Ichi; Hashimoto, Masanori; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Itoh, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Itsumi; Matsumoto, Takuya; Imazato, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    The development of technologies to promote vascularization of engineered tissue would drive major developments in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Recently, we succeeded in fabricating three-dimensional (3D) cell constructs composed of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). However, the majority of cells within the constructs underwent necrosis due to a lack of nutrients and oxygen. We hypothesized that incorporation of vascular endothelial cells would improve the cell survival rate and aid in the fabrication of biomimetic bone tissues in vitro. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of endothelial cells combined with the MSC constructs (MSC/HUVEC constructs) during short- and long-term culture. When human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incorporated into the cell constructs, cell viability and growth factor production were increased after 7 days. Furthermore, HUVECs were observed to proliferate and self-organize into reticulate porous structures by interacting with the MSCs. After long-term culture, MSC/HUVEC constructs formed abundant mineralized matrices compared with those composed of MSCs alone. Transmission electron microscopy and qualitative analysis revealed that the mineralized matrices comprised porous cancellous bone-like tissues. These results demonstrate that highly biomimetic bone tissue can be fabricated in vitro by 3D MSC constructs incorporated with HUVECs. PMID:26047122

  5. Nitric oxide production contributes to the angiogenic properties of vascular endothelial growth factor in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Papapetropoulos, A; García-Cardeña, G; Madri, J A; Sessa, W C

    1997-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. To investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in VEGF-induced proliferation and in vitro angiogenesis, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used. VEGF stimulated the growth of HUVEC in an NO-dependent manner. In addition, VEGF promoted the NO-dependent formation of network-like structures in HUVEC cultured in three dimensional (3D) collagen gels. Exposure of cells to VEGF led to a concentration-dependent increase in cGMP levels, an indicator of NO production, that was inhibited by nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. VEGF-stimulated NO production required activation of tyrosine kinases and increases in intracellular calcium, since tyrosine kinase inhibitors and calcium chelators attenuated VEGF-induced NO release. Moreover, two chemically distinct phosphoinositide 3 kinase (PI-3K) inhibitors attenuated NO release after VEGF stimulation. In addition, HUVEC incubated with VEGF for 24 h showed an increase in the amount of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) protein and the release of NO. In summary, both short- and long-term exposure of human EC to VEGF stimulates the release of biologically active NO. While long-term exposure increases eNOS protein levels, short-term stimulation with VEGF promotes NO release through mechanisms involving tyrosine and PI-3K kinases, suggesting that NO mediates aspects of VEGF signaling required for EC proliferation and organization in vitro. PMID:9399960

  6. Deoxynivalenol inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Deng, Chao; Ji, Changyun; Qin, Weisen; Cao, Xifeng; Zhong, Jialian; Li, Yugu; Srinivas, Swaminath; Feng, Youjun; Deng, Xianbo

    2016-04-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON) is a stable mycotoxins found in cereals infected by certain fungal species and causes adverse health effects in animals and human such as vomiting, diarrhea and reproductive toxicity. In this study, we investigated the toxic and apoptotic effects of DON in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), a good model for studying inflammation. The results show that DON significantly inhibited the viability of HUVECs. DON could also inhibit the proliferation of HUVECs through G2/M phase arrest in cell cycle progression. Moreover, oxidative stress induced by DON was indicated by observations of increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, DON also causes mitochondrial damage by decreasing the mitochondrial membrane potential and inducing apoptosis by up-regulation of apoptosis-related genes like caspase-3, caspase-9, and Bax genes, and down-regulation of Bcl-2 gene. These results together suggest that DON could induce cell cycle arrest, oxidative stress, and apoptosis in HUVECs.

  7. Toxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinying; Tan, Yanbin; Mao, Hui; Zhang, Minming

    2010-01-01

    Iron oxide nanoparticles (IONPs) have been employed for hyperthermia treatments, stem cell therapies, cell labeling, and imaging modalities. The biocompatibility and cytotoxic effects of iron oxide nanoparticles when used in biomedical applications, however, are an ongoing concern. Endothelial cells have a critical role in this research dealing with tumors, cardiovascular disease and inflammation. However, there is little information dealing with the biologic effects of IONPs on the endothelial cell. This paper deals with the influence of dextran and citric acid coated IONPs on the behavior and function of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). After exposing endothelial cells to IONPs, dose-dependent effects on HUVECs viability, cytoskeleton and function were determined. Both citric acid and dextran coated particles appeared to be largely internalized by HUVECs through endocytosis and contribute to eventual cell death possibly by apoptosis. Cytoskeletal structures were greatly disrupted, as evidenced by diminished vinculin spots, and disorganized actin fiber and tubulin networks. The capacity of HUVECs to form a vascular network on Matrigel™ diminished after exposure to IONPs. Cell migration/invasion were inhibited significantly even at very low iron concentrations (0.1 mM). The results of this study indicate the great importance of thoroughly understanding nanoparticle-cell interactions, and the potential to exploit this understanding in tumor therapy applications involving IONPs as thermo/chemoembolization agents. PMID:20957160

  8. Platelet adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells cultured on anionic hydrogel scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong Mei; Tanaka, Masaru; Gong, Jian Ping; Yasuda, Kazunori; Yamamoto, Sadaaki; Shimomura, Masatsugu; Osada, Yoshihito

    2007-04-01

    In this work we describe experiments designed to understand the human platelet adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured on various kinds of chemically cross-linked anionic hydrogels, which were synthesized by radical polymerization. HUVECs could proliferate to sub-confluent or confluent on poly(acrylic acid) (PAA), poly(2-acrylamido-2-methyl-propane sulfonic acid sodium salt) (PNaAMPS), and poly(sodium p-styrene sulfonate) (PNaSS) gels. The proliferation behavior was not sensitive to the cross-linker concentration of the gels. However, the platelet adhesion on the HUVECs cultured on these gels showed different behavior, as revealed by human platelet adhesion test in static conditions. Only a few platelets adhered on the HUVEC sheets cultured on PNaAMPS gels with 4 and 10mol% cross-linker concentrations, and completely no platelet adhered on the HUVEC sheets cultured on PNaSS gels with 4 and 10mol% cross-linker concentrations. On the other hand, a large number of platelets adhered on the HUVECs cultured on PAA gels with 1, 2mol% cross-linker concentrations and PNaAMPS gel with 2mol% cross-linker concentration. Furthermore, the study showed that promote of the glycocalyx of HUVECs with transforming growth factor-beta(1) (TGF-beta(1)) decreased platelet adhesion, and degrade the glycocalyx with heparinase I increased platelet adhesion. The results suggested that the glycocalyx of cultured HUVECs modulates platelet compatibility, and the amount of glycocalyx secreted by HUVECs dependents on the chemical structure and cross-linker concentration of gel scaffolds. This result should be applied to make the hybrid artificial blood vessel composes of gels and endothelial cells with high platelet compatibility.

  9. Does cellular sex matter? Dimorphic transcriptional differences between female and male endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lorenz, Mario; Koschate, Janina; Kaufmann, Katharina; Kreye, Corinna; Mertens, Michael; Kuebler, Wolfgang M; Baumann, Gert; Gossing, Gabriele; Marki, Alex; Zakrzewicz, Andreas; Miéville, Christian; Benn, Andreas; Horbelt, Daniel; Wratil, Paul R; Stangl, Karl; Stangl, Verena

    2015-05-01

    Significant sex differences exist in cardiovascular diseases. Although an impact of gonadal hormones is presumed, it is largely unknown whether sexually dimorphic gene expression also plays a role and whether cells themselves show intrinsic sex differences. We performed whole genome expression analyses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) from 20 male and 20 female donors and compared levels of gene transcription between the sexes. To further assess whether there is a sex-specific response to stress, we subjected male and female HUVEC to shear for 24 h and analysed changes in gene expression. Genes indicative for greater immune responsiveness were stronger expressed in female compared to male HUVEC. There was a significant enrichment of 77 immune-related genes in female HUVEC. These increased transcriptional levels in female cells were verified for 20 genes by real-time RT-PCR. 6.7% of all mRNAs were regulated by shear stress. Female HUVEC showed a more pronounced transcriptional response to shear than did their male counterparts. In addition to quantitative differences, a number of genes were regulated in the opposite direction between the two sexes by shear stress. Functionally, female HUVEC showed a higher cell viability after serum starvation and an increased tube formation capacity compared to male cells. These findings underscore the importance for differentiation between male and female cells in cell culture experiments. This may apply not only to endothelial cells but might be generalized to other cell types as well. The observed sexual dimorphisms in gene expression in endothelial cells may contribute to sex differences between males and females in endothelial function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Oxidized-LDL induce morphological changes and increase stiffness of endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chouinard, Julie A.; Grenier, Guillaume; Khalil, Abdelouahed; Vermette, Patrick

    2008-10-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that oxidized low-density lipoproteins (ox-LDL) play a critical role in endothelial injury contributing to the age-related physio-pathological process of atherosclerosis. In this study, the effects of native LDL and ox-LDL on the mechanical properties of living human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM) force measurements. The contribution of filamentous actin (F-actin) and vimentin on cytoskeletal network organization were also examined by fluorescence microscopy. Our results revealed that ox-LDL had an impact on the HUVEC shape by interfering with F-actin and vimentin while native LDL showed no effect. AFM colloidal force measurements on living individual HUVEC were successfully used to measure stiffness of cells exposed to native and ox-LDL. AFM results demonstrated that the cell body became significantly stiffer when cells were exposed for 24 h to ox-LDL while cells exposed for 24 h to native LDL displayed similar rigidity to that of the control cells. Young's moduli of LDL-exposed HUVEC were calculated using two models. This study thus provides quantitative evidence on biomechanical mechanisms related to endothelial cell dysfunction and may give new insight on strategies aiming to protect endothelial function in atherosclerosis.

  11. Coenzyme Q10 prevents high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Sekizaki, Naoto; Suzuki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Shinjiro; Wada, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Tadashi; Kimura, Ikuko; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2007-07-02

    Hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of vascular complications in diabetes. Although some clinical evidences suggest the use of an antioxidant reagent coenzyme Q10 in diabetes with hypertension, the direct effect of coenzyme Q10 on the endothelial functions has not been examined. In the present study, we therefore investigated the protective effect of coenzyme Q10 against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC exposed to high glucose (30 mM) exhibited abnormal properties, including the morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis, overproduction of reactive oxygen species, activation of protein kinase Cbeta2, and increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase expression. Treatment with coenzyme Q10 strongly inhibited these changes in HUVEC under high glucose condition. In addition, coenzyme Q10 inhibited high glucose-induced cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase, an endogenous caspase-3 substrate. These results suggest that coenzyme Q10 prevents reactive oxygen species-induced apoptosis through inhibition of the mitochondria-dependent caspase-3 pathway. Moreover, consistent with previous reports, high glucose caused upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in HUVEC, and promoted the adhesion of U937 monocytic cells. Coenzyme Q10 displayed potent inhibitory effects against these endothelial abnormalities. Thus, we provide the first evidence that coenzyme Q10 has a beneficial effect in protecting against the endothelial dysfunction by high glucose-induced oxidative stress in vitro.

  12. Human cytomegalovirus and human umbilical vein endothelial cells: restriction of primary isolation to blood samples and susceptibilities of clinical isolates from other sources to adaptation.

    PubMed

    Gerna, Giuseppe; Percivalle, Elena; Sarasini, Antonella; Revello, M Grazia

    2002-01-01

    In immunocompromised patients with disseminated infection, human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is widespread in the microvascular endothelium of multiple organs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used in parallel to human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELF) to recover HCMV from blood samples of immunocompromised patients. Using the shell vial technique, comparable median numbers of p72-positive HUVEC and HELF cells were found with the 26 HCMV-positive buffy coat samples out of 150 examined. Analysis of other clinical samples inoculated as controls revealed, in the presence of highly infected HELF monolayers, either the presence of very few infected HUVEC with urine specimens (n = 10 samples) or the lack of infected HUVEC with throat washes (n = 3) or amniotic fluid samples (n = 2). Thus, peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) appear essential for primary isolation of HCMV in HUVEC. In this respect, HCMV strains, recovered from clinical samples other than buffy coats in HELF only, could be readily adapted to growth in HUVEC by coculturing PBL from healthy blood donors with infected HELF and then inoculating infected PBL onto HUVEC. Recently elucidated mechanisms of interaction of leukocytes and HUVEC with bidirectional transfer of virus seem to provide the basis for the restriction of HCMV primary isolation in HUVEC to blood samples. However, virus strains recovered from only HELF could be adapted to growth in HUVEC when inoculated with HELF-derived (either cell-associated or cell-free) HCMV strains upon primary isolation. In conclusion, due to the in vitro selection of virus variants provided with both PBL tropism and HUVEC tropism, HCMV recovery in HUVEC is PBL mediated and substantially restricted to blood samples. Lack of HCMV recovery in HUVEC from clinical samples other than blood leads to the assumption that epithelial cells, such as urinary, amniotic, or pharyngeal cells, do not possess adequate adhesion molecules to establish close contacts with HUVEC.

  13. Endothelial Cells Can Regulate Smooth Muscle Cells in Contractile Phenotype through the miR-206/ARF6&NCX1/Exosome Axis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Xiao; He, Yu; Hou, Xue; Zhang, Zhenming; Wang, Rui; Wu, Qiong

    2016-01-01

    Active interactions between endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are critical to maintaining the SMC phenotype. Exosomes play an important role in intercellular communication. However, little is known about the mechanisms that regulate endothelial cells and SMCs crosstalk. We aimed to determine the mechanisms underlying the regulation of the SMC phenotype by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through exosomes. We found that HUVECs overexpressing miR-206 upregulated contractile marker (α-SMA, Smoothelin and Calponin) mRNA expression in SMCs. We also found that the expression of miR-206 by HUVECs reduced exosome production by regulating ADP-Ribosylation Factor 6 (ARF6) and sodium/calcium exchanger 1 (NCX1). Using real-time PCR and western blot analysis, we showed that HUVEC-derived exosomes decreased the expression of contractile phenotype marker genes (α-SMA, Smoothelin and Calponin) in SMCs. Furthermore, a reduction of the miR-26a-containing exosomes secreted from HUVECs affects the SMC phenotype. We propose a novel mechanism in which miR-206 expression in HUVECs maintains the contractile phenotype of SMCs by suppressing exosome secretion from HUVECs, particularly miR-26a in exosomes, through targeting ARF6 and NCX1. PMID:27031991

  14. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide stimulates thymidine incorporation in endothelial cells: role of endothelin-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Ke-Hong; Zhong, Qing; Isales, Carlos M.; Iscules, C. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We have previously characterized the receptor for glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIPR) in vascular endothelial cells (EC). Different EC types were found to contain distinct GIPR splice variants. To determine whether activation of the GIPR splice variants resulted in different cellular responses, we examined GIP effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), which contain two GIPR splice variants, and compared them with a spontaneously transformed human umbilical vein EC line, ECV 304, which contains four GIPR splice variants. GIP dose-dependently stimulated HUVEC and ECV 304 proliferation as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. GIP increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) secretion from HUVEC but not from ECV 304. Use of the endothelin B receptor blocker BQ-788 resulted in an inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation in HUVEC but not in ECV 304. These findings suggest that, although GIP increases [3H]thymidine incorporation in both HUVEC and ECV 304, this proliferative response is mediated by ET-1 only in HUVEC. These differences in cellular response to GIP may be related to differences in activation of GIPR splice variants.

  15. Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide stimulates thymidine incorporation in endothelial cells: role of endothelin-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Ke-Hong; Zhong, Qing; Isales, Carlos M.; Iscules, C. M. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    We have previously characterized the receptor for glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIPR) in vascular endothelial cells (EC). Different EC types were found to contain distinct GIPR splice variants. To determine whether activation of the GIPR splice variants resulted in different cellular responses, we examined GIP effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), which contain two GIPR splice variants, and compared them with a spontaneously transformed human umbilical vein EC line, ECV 304, which contains four GIPR splice variants. GIP dose-dependently stimulated HUVEC and ECV 304 proliferation as measured by [3H]thymidine incorporation. GIP increased endothelin-1 (ET-1) secretion from HUVEC but not from ECV 304. Use of the endothelin B receptor blocker BQ-788 resulted in an inhibition of [3H]thymidine incorporation in HUVEC but not in ECV 304. These findings suggest that, although GIP increases [3H]thymidine incorporation in both HUVEC and ECV 304, this proliferative response is mediated by ET-1 only in HUVEC. These differences in cellular response to GIP may be related to differences in activation of GIPR splice variants.

  16. [Effects of crocetin on VCAM-1 expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shu-guo; Zhao, Meng-qiu; Ren, You-nan; Yang, Jie-ren; Qian, Zhi-yu

    2015-01-01

    Crocetin, a naturally occurring carotenoid, possesses antioxidant and antiatherosclerotic properties, of which the underlying mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effects of crocetin (0.1, 1, 10 μmol·L(-1)) on angiotensin II (Ang II, 0.1 μmol·L(-1)) induced expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion. The effects of crocetin on the activation of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also observed. The results demonstrated that crocetin notably suppressed Ang II induced NF-κB activation (P<0.01) and VCAM-1 expression (P<0.05, P<0.01) in HUVECs, accompanied by a markedly reduced monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion (P<0.05, P<0.01). In addition, preincubation with crocetin resulted in a significant enhancement of cellular antioxidant capacity (P<0.05, P<0.01), while Ang II induced intracellular ROS decreased markedly (P<0.05, P<0.01). These results indicated that crocetin was capable of suppressing Ang II induced VCAM-1 expression and monocyte-endothelial cell adhesion by suppression of NF-κB activation, which might be derived from the enhancement of antioxidant capacity and subsequent reduction of intracellular ROS.

  17. Molecular Hydrogen Alleviates Cellular Senescence in Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Hara, Fumihiko; Tatebe, Junko; Watanabe, Ippei; Yamazaki, Junichi; Ikeda, Takanori; Morita, Toshisuke

    2016-08-25

    Substantial evidence indicates that molecular hydrogen (H2) has beneficial vascular effects because of its antioxidant and/or anti-inflammatory effects. Thus, hydrogen-rich water may prove to be an effective anti-aging drink. This study examined the effects of H2on endothelial senescence and clarified the mechanisms involved. Hydrogen-rich medium was produced by a high-purity hydrogen gas generator. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) for various time periods in normal or hydrogen-rich medium. The baseline H2concentration in hydrogen-rich medium was 0.55±0.07 mmol/L. This concentration gradually decreased, and H2was almost undetectable in medium after 12 h. At 24 h after TCDD exposure, HUVECs treated with TCDD exhibited increased 8OHdG and acetyl-p53 expression, decreased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+))/NADH ratio, impaired Sirt1 activity, and enhanced senescence-associated β-galactosidase. However, HUVECs incubated in hydrogen-rich medium did not exhibit these TCDD-induced changes accompanying Nrf2 activation, which was observed even after H2was undetectable in the medium. Chrysin, an inhibitor of Nrf2, abolished the protective effects of H2on HUVECs. H2has long-lasting antioxidant and anti-aging effects on vascular endothelial cells through the Nrf2 pathway, even after transient exposure to H2. Hydrogen-rich water may thus be a functional drink that increases longevity. (Circ J 2016; 80: 2037-2046).

  18. Induction of cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 mRNA expression in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Yukiko; Takahashi, Satoru

    2014-08-22

    Cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 (CRIM1) is expressed in vascular endothelial cells and plays a crucial role in angiogenesis. In this study, we investigated the expression of CRIM1 mRNA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). CRIM1 mRNA levels were not altered in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-stimulated monolayer HUVECs or in cells in collagen gels without VEGF. In contrast, the expression of CRIM1 mRNA was elevated in VEGF-stimulated cells in collagen gels. The increase in CRIM1 mRNA expression was observed even at 2h when HUVECs did not form tubular structures in collagen gels. Extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) 1/2, Akt and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) were activated by VEGF in HUVECs. The VEGF-induced expression of CRIM1 mRNA was significantly abrogated by PD98059 or PF562271, but was not affected by LY294002. These results demonstrate that CRIM1 is an early response gene in the presence of both angiogenic stimulation (VEGF) and environmental (extracellular matrix) factors, and Erk and FAK might be involved in the upregulation of CRIM1 mRNA expression in vascular endothelial cells. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Shear stress reduces protease activated receptor-1 expression in human endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Shear stress has been shown to regulate several genes involved in the thrombotic and proliferative functions of endothelial cells. Thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor-1: PAR-1) increases at sites of vascular injury, which suggests an important role for PAR-1 in vascular diseases. However, the effect of shear stress on PAR-1 expression has not been previously studied. This work investigates effects of shear stress on PAR-1 gene expression in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). Cells were exposed to different shear stresses using a parallel plate flow system. Northern blot and flow cytometry analysis showed that shear stress down-regulated PAR-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in both HUVECs and HMECs but with different thresholds. Furthermore, shear-reduced PAR-1 mRNA was due to a decrease of transcription rate, not increased mRNA degradation. Postshear stress release of endothelin-1 in response to thrombin was reduced in HUVECs and HMECs. Moreover, inhibitors of potential signaling pathways applied during shear stress indicated mediation of the shear-decreased PAR-1 expression by protein kinases. In conclusion, shear stress exposure reduces PAR-1 gene expression in HMECs and HUVECs through a mechanism dependent in part on protein kinases, leading to altered endothelial cell functional responses to thrombin.

  20. Shear stress reduces protease activated receptor-1 expression in human endothelial cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, K. T.; Eskin, S. G.; Patterson, C.; Runge, M. S.; McIntire, L. V.

    2001-01-01

    Shear stress has been shown to regulate several genes involved in the thrombotic and proliferative functions of endothelial cells. Thrombin receptor (protease-activated receptor-1: PAR-1) increases at sites of vascular injury, which suggests an important role for PAR-1 in vascular diseases. However, the effect of shear stress on PAR-1 expression has not been previously studied. This work investigates effects of shear stress on PAR-1 gene expression in both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs). Cells were exposed to different shear stresses using a parallel plate flow system. Northern blot and flow cytometry analysis showed that shear stress down-regulated PAR-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels in both HUVECs and HMECs but with different thresholds. Furthermore, shear-reduced PAR-1 mRNA was due to a decrease of transcription rate, not increased mRNA degradation. Postshear stress release of endothelin-1 in response to thrombin was reduced in HUVECs and HMECs. Moreover, inhibitors of potential signaling pathways applied during shear stress indicated mediation of the shear-decreased PAR-1 expression by protein kinases. In conclusion, shear stress exposure reduces PAR-1 gene expression in HMECs and HUVECs through a mechanism dependent in part on protein kinases, leading to altered endothelial cell functional responses to thrombin.

  1. Blocking IL-22, a potential treatment strategy for adenomyosis by inhibiting crosstalk between vascular endothelial and endometrial stromal cells

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Wen-Qing; Yu, Jia-Jun; Zhu, Lei; Zhou, Wen-Jie; Chang, Kai-Kai; Wang, Qing; Li, Ming-Qing

    2015-01-01

    Our previous work has demonstrated that interleukin-22 (IL-22) enhances the invasiveness of endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) of adenomyosis in an autocrine manner. In the present study, we further investigated whether IL-22 mediated crosstalk between vascular endothelial cells (VECs) and ESCs in vitro. Here we found that VECs in ectopic lesion from women with adenomyosis highly expressed IL-22 receptors IL-22R1 and IL-10R2. Both recombinant human IL-22 (rhIL-22) and IL-22 from ESCs increased IL-22R1 and IL-10R2 expression on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment with rhIL-22 led to an elevation of HUVECs viability, but did not influence HUVECs apoptosis. In contrast, anti-human IL-22 neutralizing antibody (α-IL-22) inhibited HUVECs viability induced by supernatants of ESCs. Stimulation with rhIL-22 or ESCs up-regulated CD105 expression on HUVECs and promoted angiogenesis, and α-IL-22 could reverse these effect induced by ESC. Compared to non-treated HUVECs, HUVECs educated by rh-IL-22 or ESCs could further up-regulate Ki-67 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, and down-regulate Fas ligand (FasL) expression in ESCs. However, these effects induced by ESC-educated HUVECs were inhibited by α-IL-22. These results suggest that IL-22 derived from ESC promotes IL-22 receptors expression and enhances the viability, activation and angiogenesis of HUVEC. In turn, the educated HUVEC may further stimulate proliferation and restricts apoptosis of ESC. The integral effect may contribute to the progress of adenomyosis. Blocking IL-22 can disturb crosstalk between ESC and VEC mediated by IL-22, suggesting that blocking IL-22 may be a potential treatment strategy for adenomyosis. PMID:26692924

  2. Angiogenic functions of voltage-gated Na+ Channels in human endothelial cells: modulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling.

    PubMed

    Andrikopoulos, Petros; Fraser, Scott P; Patterson, Lisa; Ahmad, Zahida; Burcu, Hakan; Ottaviani, Diego; Diss, James K J; Box, Carol; Eccles, Suzanne A; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2011-05-13

    Voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) activity has previously been reported in endothelial cells (ECs). However, the exact isoforms of VGSCs present, their mode(s) of action, and potential role(s) in angiogenesis have not been investigated. The main aims of this study were to determine the role of VGSC activity in angiogenic functions and to elucidate the potentially associated signaling mechanisms using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model system. Real-time PCR showed that the primary functional VGSC α- and β-subunit isoforms in HUVECs were Nav1.5, Nav1.7, VGSCβ1, and VGSCβ3. Western blots verified that VGSCα proteins were expressed in HUVECs, and immunohistochemistry revealed VGSCα expression in mouse aortic ECs in vivo. Electrophysiological recordings showed that the channels were functional and suppressed by tetrodotoxin (TTX). VGSC activity modulated the following angiogenic properties of HUVECs: VEGF-induced proliferation or chemotaxis, tubular differentiation, and substrate adhesion. Interestingly, different aspects of angiogenesis were controlled by the different VGSC isoforms based on TTX sensitivity and effects of siRNA-mediated gene silencing. Additionally, we show for the first time that TTX-resistant (TTX-R) VGSCs (Nav1.5) potentiate VEGF-induced ERK1/2 activation through the PKCα-B-RAF signaling axis. We postulate that this potentiation occurs through modulation of VEGF-induced HUVEC depolarization and [Ca(2+)](i). We conclude that VGSCs regulate multiple angiogenic functions and VEGF signaling in HUVECs. Our results imply that targeting VGSC expression/activity could be a novel strategy for controlling angiogenesis.

  3. Tissue-engineered endothelial cell layers on surface-modified Ti for inhibiting in vitro platelet adhesion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiupeng; He, Fupo; Li, Xia; Ito, Atsuo; Sogo, Yu; Maruyama, Osamu; Kosaka, Ryo; Ye, Jiandong

    2013-06-01

    A tissue-engineered endothelial layer was prepared by culturing endothelial cells on a fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2)-l-ascorbic acid phosphate magnesium salt n-hydrate (AsMg)-apatite (Ap) coated titanium plate. The FGF-2-AsMg-Ap coated Ti plate was prepared by immersing a Ti plate in supersaturated calcium phosphate solutions supplemented with FGF-2 and AsMg. The FGF-2-AsMg-Ap layer on the Ti plate accelerated proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and showed slightly higher, but not statistically significant, nitric oxide release from HUVECs than on as-prepared Ti. The endothelial layer maintained proper function of the endothelial cells and markedly inhibited in vitro platelet adhesion. The tissue-engineered endothelial layer formed on the FGF-2-AsMg-Ap layer is promising for ameliorating platelet activation and thrombus formation on cardiovascular implants.

  4. A comparison of the tube forming potentials of early and late endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Mukai, Nana; Akahori, Taichi; Komaki, Motohiro; Li, Qin; Kanayasu-Toyoda, Toshie; Ishii-Watabe, Akiko; Kobayashi, Akiko; Yamaguchi, Teruhide; Abe, Mayumi; Amagasa, Teruo; Morita, Ikuo

    2008-02-01

    The identification of circulating endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) has revolutionized approaches to cell-based therapy for injured and ischemic tissues. However, the mechanisms by which EPCs promote the formation of new vessels remain unclear. In this study, we obtained early EPCs from human peripheral blood and late EPCs from umbilical cord blood. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were also used. Cells were evaluated for their tube-forming potential using our novel in vitro assay system. Cells were seeded linearly along a 60 mum wide path generated by photolithographic methods. After cells had established a linear pattern on the substrate, they were transferred onto Matrigel. Late EPCs formed tubular structures similar to those of HUVECs, whereas early EPCs randomly migrated and failed to form tubular structures. Moreover, late EPCs participate in tubule formation with HUVECs. Interestingly, late EPCs in Matrigel migrated toward pre-existing tubular structures constructed by HUVECs, after which they were incorporated into the tubules. In contrast, early EPCs promote sprouting of HUVECs from tubular structures. The phenomena were also observed in the in vivo model. These observations suggest that early EPCs cause the disorganization of pre-existing vessels, whereas late EPCs constitute and orchestrate vascular tube formation.

  5. Inhibition of human endothelial cell proliferation by ShIF, a vacuolar H(+)-ATPase-like protein.

    PubMed

    Tulin, Edgardo E; Onoda, Nobuhisa; Hasegawa, Masakazu; Nomura, Hitoshi; Kitamura, Toshio

    2002-01-24

    ShIF is a bone marrow stroma cell-derived factor originally identified to support proliferation of bone marrow cells in vitro. This protein shares high sequence homology to the yeast vacuolar H(+)-ATPase subunit, Vph1p, and the 116 kDa proton pump of the rat and bovine synaptic vesicle, Vpp1. We examined the function of ShIF in the proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). ShIF inhibited HUVEC proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. Recombinant ShIF added at 10 and 20 ng/ml inhibited HUVEC proliferation by 21.6 and 44.3%, respectively and increasing the concentration of ShIF to 100 ng/ml inhibited proliferation by as much as 55.5%. When HUVEC cells were cultured at various concentrations of ShIF in the presence of anti-ShIF antibody, the inhibitory effects of ShIF to HUVEC proliferation were abrogated by 89-91% indicating that the activity of ShIF to HUVEC was specific. HUVEC cultured in the presence of ShIF and bafilomycin, a specific inhibitor of ATPase, resulted to a 90% growth inhibition. Thus, ShIF may act as an antagonist to the ATPase complex by disrupting the production of cellular ATP thereby decreasing the ability of HUVEC to proliferate.

  6. Androgen exposure increases human monocyte adhesion to vascular endothelium and endothelial cell expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1.

    PubMed

    McCrohon, J A; Jessup, W; Handelsman, D J; Celermajer, D S

    1999-05-04

    Male sex is an independent risk factor for coronary artery disease. Owing to the importance of monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells in the development of atherosclerosis, we hypothesized that androgens might promote this process. We therefore studied the effects of the nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on human monocyte adhesion to human endothelial cells and on endothelial cell-surface expression of adhesion molecules. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were grown to confluence in media supplemented with postmenopausal female serum, then exposed for 48 hours to either DHT (40 and 400 nmol/L), with or without the androgen receptor blocker hydroxyflutamide (HF) (4 micromol/L); HF alone; or vehicle control (ethanol 0.1%). Human monocytes obtained by elutriation were incubated for 1 hour with the HUVECs at 37 degrees C, and adhesion was measured by light microscopy. Compared with vehicle control, monocyte adhesion was increased in the androgen-treated HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner (116+/-6% and 128+/-3% for DHT 40 and 400 nmol/L respectively; P<0.001). HF blocked this increase (P>/=0.3 compared with control). Surface expression of endothelial cell adhesion molecules was measured by ELISA and revealed an increased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in the DHT-treated HUVECs (125+/-5% versus 100+/-4% in controls; P=0.002), an effect also antagonized by HF (P>/=0.3 compared with controls). Furthermore, the DHT-related increase in adhesion was completely blocked by coincubation with anti-VCAM-1 antibody. Comparable results were obtained in arterial endothelial cells and in endothelium stimulated with the cytokine tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Androgen exposure is associated with increased human monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, a proatherogenic effect mediated at least in part by an increased endothelial cell-surface expression of VCAM-1.

  7. Matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression by interaction between monocytes and vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Hojo, Y; Ikeda, U; Takahashi, M; Sakata, Y; Takizawa, T; Okada, K; Saito, T; Shimada, K

    2000-08-01

    There is accumulating evidence of complicated interactions among vascular cells, i.e. endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells and monocytes/macrophages, in the regulation of vascular function and remodeling. We have investigated the mechanisms responsible for matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 expression by interactions between monocytes and vascular endothelial cells. THP-1 cells (human monocytic cell line) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cocultured. MMP-1 levels in the culture medium were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Collagenolytic activity in the culture medium was measured by fluorescence labeled-collagen digestion. Immunohistochemistry using an anti-MMP antibody was carried out to determine which types of cell produce MMP-1. The addition of THP-1 cells to HUVECs for 48 h induced increases in MMP-1 levels and collagenolytic activity, which were 5- and 2-fold relative to those of HUVECs alone, respectively. A separate coculture experiment revealed that direct contact of THP-1 cells and HUVECs contributed to enhanced MMP-1 production in the cocolture. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that both types of cell produce MMP-1 in the coculture. Neutralizing anti-interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor- alpha antibodies inhibited MMP-1 production by the coculture. The Src kinase and MEK inhibitors significantly inhibited MMP-1 production by the coculture. Coculture of THP-1 cells and HUVECs induced significant increases in Src and mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase activities. Enhanced MMP-1 expression induced by monocyte-endothelial cell interactions may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and plaque rupture.

  8. Lymphatic endothelial cells support tumor growth in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Esak; Pandey, Niranjan B.; Popel, Aleksander S.

    2014-01-01

    Tumor lymphatic vessels (LV) serve as a conduit of tumor cell dissemination, due to their leaky nature and secretion of tumor-recruiting factors. Though lymphatic endothelial cells (LEC) lining the LV express distinct factors (also called lymphangiocrine factors), these factors and their roles in the tumor microenvironment are not well understood. Here we employ LEC, microvascular endothelial cells (MEC), and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) cultured in triple-negative MDA-MB-231 tumor-conditioned media (TCM) to determine the factors that may be secreted by various EC in the MDA-MB-231 breast tumor. These factors will serve as endothelium derived signaling molecules in the tumor microenvironment. We co-injected these EC with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells into animals and showed that LEC support tumor growth, HUVEC have no significant effect on tumor growth, whereas MEC suppress it. Focusing on LEC-mediated tumor growth, we discovered that TCM-treated LEC (‘tumor-educated LEC') secrete high amounts of EGF and PDGF-BB, compared to normal LEC. LEC-secreted EGF promotes tumor cell proliferation. LEC-secreted PDGF-BB induces pericyte infiltration and angiogenesis. These lymphangiocrine factors may support tumor growth in the tumor microenvironment. This study shows that LV serve a novel role in the tumor microenvironment apart from their classical role as conduits of metastasis. PMID:25068296

  9. Knockdown of ezrin suppresses the migration and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Liang-ping; Huang, Lei; Tian, Xun; Liang, Feng-qi; Wei, Jun-cheng; Zhang, Xian; Li, Sha; Zhang, Qing-hua

    2016-04-01

    Progressive tumor growth is dependent on angiogenesis. The mechanisms by which endothelial cells (ECs) are incorporated to develop new blood vessels are not well understood. Recent studies reveal that the ezrin radixin moesin (ERM) family members are key regulators of cellular activities such as adhesion, morphogenetic change, and migration. We hypothesized that ezrin, one of the ERM family members, may play important roles in ECs organization during angiogenesis, and new vessels formation in preexisting tissues. To test this hypothesis, in this study, we investigated the effects of ezrin gene silencing on the migration and angiogenesis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. HUVECs were transfected with plasmids with ezrin-targeting short hairpin RNA by using the lipofectamine-2000 system. Wound assay in vitro and three-dimensional culture were used to detect the migration and angiogenesis capacity of HUVECs. The morphological changes of transfected cells were observed by confocal and phase contrast microscopy. Our results demonstrated that the decreased expression of ezrin in HUVECs significantly induced the morphogenetic changes and cytoskeletal reorganization of the transfected cells, and also reduced cell migration and angiogenesis capacity in vitro, suggesting that ezrin play an important role in the process of HUVECs migration and angiogenesis.

  10. Cathepsin L derived from skeletal muscle cells transfected with bFGF promotes endothelial cell migration.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ji Hyung; Im, Eun Kyoung; Jin, Tae Won; Lee, Seung-Min; Kim, Soo Hyuk; Choi, Eun Young; Shin, Min-Jeong; Lee, Kyung Hye; Jang, Yangsoo

    2011-04-30

    Gene transfer of basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) has been shown to induce significant endothelial migration and angiogenesis in ischemic disease models. Here, we investigate what factors are secreted from skeletal muscle cells (SkMCs) transfected with bFGF gene and whether they participate in endothelial cell migration. We constructed replication-defective adenovirus vectors containing the human bFGF gene (Ad/bFGF) or a control LacZ gene (Ad/LacZ) and obtained conditioned media, bFGF-CM and LacZ-CM, from SkMCs infected by Ad/bFGF or Ad/LacZ, respectively. Cell migration significantly increased in HUVECs incubated with bFGF-CM compared to cells incubated with LacZ-CM. Interestingly, HUVEC migration in response to bFGF-CM was only partially blocked by the addition of bFGF-neutralizing antibody, suggesting that bFGF-CM contains other factors that stimulate endothelial cell migration. Several proteins, matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), and cathepsin L, increased in bFGF-CM compared to LacZ-CM; based on 1-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Their increased mRNA and protein levels were confirmed by RT-PCR and immunoblot analysis. The recombinant human bFGF protein induced MMP-1, PAI-1, and cathepsin L expression in SkMCs. Endothelial cell migration was reduced in groups treated with bFGF-CM containing neutralizing antibodies against MMP-1 or PAI-1. In particular, HUVECs treated with bFGF-CM containing cell-impermeable cathepsin L inhibitor showed the most significant decrease in cell migration. Cathepsin L protein directly promotes endothelial cell migration through the JNK pathway. These results indicate that cathepsin L released from SkMCs transfected with the bFGF gene can promote endothelial cell migration.

  11. Factor VIII Is Synthesized in Human Endothelial Cells, Packaged in Weibel-Palade Bodies and Secreted Bound to ULVWF Strings.

    PubMed

    Turner, Nancy A; Moake, Joel L

    2015-01-01

    The cellular synthesis site and ensuing storage location for human factor VIII (FVIII), the coagulation protein deficient in hemophilia A, has been elusive. FVIII stability and half-life is dependent on non-covalent complex formation with von Willebrand factor (VWF) to avoid proteolysis and clearance. VWF is synthesized in megakaryocytes and endothelial cells, and is stored and secreted from platelet alpha granules and Weibel-Palade bodies of endothelial cells. In this paper we provide direct evidence for FVIII synthesis in 2 types of primary human endothelial cells: glomerular microvascular endothelial cells (GMVECs) and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Gene expression quantified by real time PCR revealed that levels of F8 and VWF are similar in GMVECs and HUVECs. Previous clinical studies have shown that stimulation of vasopressin V2 receptors causes parallel secretion of both proteins. In this study, we found that both endothelial cell types express AVPR2 (vasopressin V2 receptor gene) and that AVPR2 mRNA levels are 5-fold higher in GMVECs than HUVECs. FVIII and VWF proteins were detected by fluorescent microscopy in Weibel-Palade bodies within GMVECs and HUVECs using antibodies proven to be target specific. Visual presence of FVIII and VWF in Weibel-Palade bodies was confirmed by correlation measurements. The high extent of correlation was compared with negative correlation values obtained from FVIII detection with cytoplasmic proteins, β-actin and Factor H. FVIII activity was positive in GMVEC and HUVEC cell lysates. Stimulated GMVECs and HUVECs were found to secrete cell-anchored ultra-large VWF strings covered with bound FVIII.

  12. Prolactin stimulates integrin-mediated adhesion of circulating mononuclear cells to endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Montes de Oca, Pável; Macotela, Yazmín; Nava, Gabriel; López-Barrera, Fernando; de la Escalera, Gonzalo Martínez; Clapp, Carmen

    2005-05-01

    Attachment of leukocytes to endothelial cells is an essential step for the extravasation and recruitment of cells at sites of inflammation. The pituitary hormone prolactin (PRL) is involved in the inflammatory process. Here, we show that treatment with PRL of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) stimulates their adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) activated by interleukin-1beta. Stimulation of adhesion by PRL is mediated via integrins leukocyte functional antigen-1 (LFA-1) and very late antigen-4 (VLA-4), because immunoneutralization of both integrins prevents PRL action. Also, PRL promotes the adhesion of PBMC to immobilized intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and fibronectin, ligands for LFA-1 and VLA-4, respectively. Stimulation of integrin-mediated cell adhesion by PRL may involve the activation of chemokine receptors, because PRL upregulates the expression of the G-protein-coupled chemokine receptor CXCR3 in PBMC, and pertussis toxin, a specific G-protein inhibitor, blocks PRL stimulation of PBMC adhesion to HUVEC. In addition, PRL stimulates tyrosine phosphorylation pathways leading to leukocyte adhesion. PRL triggered the tyrosine phosphorylation of Janus kinase-2, of signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 and 5, and of the focal adhesion protein paxillin. Furthermore, genistein, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, blocked PRL-stimulated adhesion of PBMC and Jurkat T-cells to HUVEC. These results suggest that PRL promotes integrin-mediated leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells via chemokine receptors and tyrosine phosphorylation signaling pathways.

  13. Integrated Microfluidic Platform with Multiple Functions To Probe Tumor-Endothelial Cell Interaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling; Lin, Xuexia; Lin, Luyao; Feng, Qiang; Kitamori, Takehiko; Lin, Jin-Ming; Sun, Jiashu

    2017-09-19

    Interaction between tumor and endothelial cells could affect tumor growth and progression and induce drug resistance during cancer therapy. Investigation of tumor-endothelial cell interaction involves cell coculture, protein detection, and analysis of drug metabolites, which are complicated and time-consuming. In this work, we present an integrated microfluidic device with three individual components (cell coculture component, protein detection component, and pretreatment component for drug metabolites) to probe the interaction between tumor and endothelial cells. Cocultured cervical carcinoma cells (CaSki cells) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) show higher resistance to chemotherapeutic agents than single-cultured cells, indicated by higher cell viability, increased expression of angiogenic proteins, and elevated level of paclitaxel metabolites under coculture conditions. This integrated microfluidic platform with multiple functions facilitates understanding of the interaction between tumor and endothelial cells, and it may become a promising tool for drug screening within an engineered tumor microenvironment.

  14. LR-90 prevents methylglyoxal-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Figarola, James L; Singhal, Jyotsana; Rahbar, Samuel; Awasthi, Sanjay; Singhal, Sharad S

    2014-05-01

    Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound known to induce cellular injury and cytoxicity, including apoptosis in vascular cells. Vascular endothelial cell apoptosis has been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether the advanced glycation end-product inhibitor LR-90 could prevent MGO-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were pre-treated with LR-90 and then stimulated with MGO. Cell morphology, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated by light microscopy, MTT assay, and Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining, respectively. Levels of Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and caspase activities were assessed by Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured with fluorescent probes. LR-90 dose-dependently prevented MGO-associated HUVEC cytotoxicity and apoptotic biochemical changes such as loss of MMP, increased Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 and 9. Additionally, LR-90 blocked intracellular ROS formation and MAPK (p44/p42, p38, JNK) activation, though the latter seem to be not directly involved in MGO-induced HUVEC apoptosis. LR-90 prevents MGO-induced HUVEC apoptosis by inhibiting ROS and associated mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic signaling cascades, suggesting that LR-90 possess cytoprotective ability which could be beneficial in prevention of diabetic related-atherosclerosis.

  15. LR-90 prevents methylglyoxal-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Figarola, James L.; Singhal, Jyotsana; Rahbar, Samuel; Awasthi, Sanjay

    2014-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive dicarbonyl compound known to induce cellular injury and cytoxicity, including apoptosis in vascular cells. Vascular endothelial cell apoptosis has been implicated in the pathophysiology and progression of atherosclerosis. We investigated whether the advanced glycation end-product inhibitor LR-90 could prevent MGO-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were pre-treated with LR-90 and then stimulated with MGO. Cell morphology, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were evaluated by light microscopy, MTT assay, and Annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide double staining, respectively. Levels of Bax, Bcl-2, cytochrome c, mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and caspase activities were assessed by Western blotting. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured with fluorescent probes. LR-90 dose-dependently prevented MGO-associated HUVEC cytotoxicity and apoptotic biochemical changes such as loss of MMP, increased Bax/Bcl-2 protein ratio, mitochondrial cytochrome c release and activation of caspase-3 and 9. Additionally, LR-90 blocked intracellular ROS formation and MAPK (p44/p42, p38, JNK) activation, though the latter seem to be not directly involved in MGO-induced HUVEC apoptosis. LR-90 prevents MGO-induced HUVEC apoptosis by inhibiting ROS and associated mitochondrial-dependent apoptotic signaling cascades, suggesting that LR-90 possess cytoprotective ability which could be beneficial in prevention of diabetic related-atherosclerosis. PMID:24615331

  16. Expression, localization and control of activin A release from human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Borges, Lavinia E; Bloise, Enrrico; Dela Cruz, Cynthia; Massai, Lauretta; Ciarmela, Pasquapina; Apa, Rosanna; Luisi, Stefano; Severi, Filiberto M; Petraglia, Felice; Reis, Fernando M

    2015-01-01

    Activin-A is a member of the TGFβ superfamily found in maternal and umbilical cord blood throughout gestation. We investigated whether human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) express activin-A in vivo and tested the effects of vasoactive (endothelin-1), pro-inflammatory (interferon-γ, interleukin-8) and anti-inflammatory (dexamethasone, urocortin) factors on activin-A release by isolated HUVEC in vitro. Activin βA subunit protein and mRNA were strongly localized in the endothelial cells of umbilical veins and were also detectable in scattered cells of the cord connective tissue. Dimeric activin-A was detected in the HUVEC culture medium at picomolar concentrations. Activin-A release by HUVEC decreased after cell incubation with urocortin (p < 0.01), whereas no effect was observed with interleukin-8, interferon-γ, endothelin-1 or dexamethasone. In summary, activin-A is present in the human umbilical vein endothelium in vivo and is produced and released by isolated HUVEC. Activin-A secretion is inhibited in vitro by urocortin, a neuropeptide with predominantly anti-inflammatory action.

  17. Inhibition of THP-1 cell adhesion to endothelial cells by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol is dependent on intracellular concentration of the antioxidants.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Noriko; Hanyu, Ryuhei; Nonaka, Aya; Okimoto, Yuko; Kodama, Tatsuhiko

    2003-06-15

    Vitamin E analogs such as alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol have been shown to reduce endothelial expression of adhesion molecules. The reactivity of alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol in inhibiting lipid peroxidation in vitro was essentially identical but the inhibition of adhesion of THP-1 cells, a monocytic-"like" cell line, to endothelial cells differs substantially. To determine the mechanism underlying this response, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were assessed for their ability to accumulate vitamin E analogs. alpha-Tocotrienol accumulated in HUVECs to levels approximately 10-fold greater than that of alpha-tocopherol. The decrease in expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and the adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs by alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol was also determined. Both alpha-tocopherol and alpha-tocotrienol suppressed VCAM-1 expression and adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. The efficacy of tocotrienol for reduction of VCAM-1 expression and adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs was also 10-fold higher than that of tocopherol. The inhibitory effects of vitamin E analogs on the adhesiveness of endothelial cells clearly correlated with their intracellular concentrations. The data demonstrated that, in assessing the biological responses of antioxidants, intracellular accumulation and metabolism were additional important factors that must be considered.

  18. Uptake and metabolism of (-)-epicatechin in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Mateos, Ana; Toro-Funes, Natalia; Cifuentes-Gomez, Tania; Cortese-Krott, Miriam; Heiss, Christian; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2014-10-01

    Accumulating evidence suggest that diets rich in cocoa flavanols may have beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. The major cocoa flavanol monomer, (-)-epicatechin (EC), is readily absorbed and circulates primarily as glucuronidated, sulfated, and O-methylated metabolites in human plasma. However, cellular metabolism, for example in endothelial cells, is less well defined. In the present study we detail the uptake and cellular metabolism of EC and its major in vivo metabolites, (-)-epicatechin-3'-β-D-glucuronide (E3G), (-)-epicatechin-3'-sulfate (E3S), 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-5-sulfate (3ME5S), and 3'-O-methyl-(-)-epicatechin-7-sulfate (3ME7S) in human endothelial (HUVEC), liver (HepG2) and intestinal epithelial cells (Caco-2 monolayer). Our results indicate that EC associates with HUVECs, leading to its intracellular metabolism to 3ME7G and 3ME7S. In contrast, none of the metabolites were taken up by the cells. The metabolic rate and pattern of metabolism in HUVECs was similar to that observed in HepG2 cells, whilst in Caco-2 cells EC was metabolized to E3G, 3ME5G, 3ME7G, 4ME5G, 4ME7G and 3ME7S. Our data support the notion that endothelial cells may contribute significantly to EC metabolism. However, major human circulating metabolites are not accounted for in these model systems underscoring that caution should be taken when drawing conclusions on in vivo flavanol metabolism from in vitro experiments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Pleiotrophin Induces Nitric Oxide Dependent Migration of Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Heiss, Christian; Wong, Maelene L.; Block, Vanessa I.; Lao, David; Real, Wendy May; Yeghiazarians, Yerem; Lee, Randall J.; Springer, Matthew L.

    2009-01-01

    Pleiotrophin (PTN) is produced under ischemic conditions and has been shown to induce angiogenesis in vivo. We studied whether or not PTN exerts chemotaxis of pro-angiogenic early endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs), a population of circulating cells that have been reported to participate in and stimulate angiogenesis. Chemotaxis of EPCs, isolated from blood of healthy humans (n=5), was measured in transwell assays. PTN at 10–500 ng/mL elicited dose-dependent chemotaxis of both EPCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), but not of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells (CASMCs) and T98G glioblastoma cells that lack PTN receptors. The degree of chemotaxis was comparable to that induced by the angiogenic factors VEGF and SDF-1α. Chemotaxis to PTN was blocked by the NOS inhibitors L-NNA and L-NMMA, the NO scavenger PTIO, the phosphoinositide-3 kinase inhibitor wortmannin, and the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor ODQ, suggesting dependence of EPC chemotaxis on these pathways. PTN induced NOS-dependent production of NO to a similar degree as did VEGF, as indicated by the NO indicator DAF-2. PTN increased proliferation in EPCs and HUVECs to a similar extent as VEGF, but did not induce proliferation of CASMCs. While L-NNA abolished PTN-induced migration in EPCs and HUVECs, it did not inhibit PTN- and VEGF-enhanced proliferation and also caused proliferation by itself. These data suggest that PTN may mediate its pro-angiogenic effects by increasing the local number of not only endothelial cells but also early EPCs at angiogenic sites. PMID:17960557

  20. [Effect of Conditioned Medium from Endothelial Cells on Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype of Hepatoma Cells].

    PubMed

    Feng, Chuan; Yang, Xianjiong; Sun, Jinghui; Luo, Qing; Song, Guanbin

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate the influences of conditioned medium from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on cancer stem cell phenotype of human hepatoma cells. HUVEC and human hepatoma cells (MHCC97H) were cultured, respectively, and then the MHCC97H cells were co-cultured with conditioned medium from HUVEC (EC-CM) with Transwell system. Anti-cancer drug sensitivity, colony-formation, migration/invasion ability, expression of cancer stem cell marker and sphere formation were performed to determine the cancer stem cell phenotype in MHCC97H cells. We found that MHCC97H cells co-cultured with EC-CM exhibited significantly higher colony-formation ability and lower sensitivity of anti-cancer drugs 5-FU and Cis. Transwell assay showed that treatment with EC-CM obviously increased migration and invasion of MHCC97H cells. Moreover, increased sphere forming capability and expression of CD133 in MHCC97H cells were observed after co-cultured with EC-CM. These results suggested that EC-CM could promote cancer stem cell phenotype of hepatoma cells.

  1. Hyperketonemia increases monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and is mediated by LFA-1 expression in monocytes and ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Rains, Justin L.

    2011-01-01

    Frequent episodes of hyperketonemia are associated with a higher incidence of vascular disease. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that hyperketonemia increases monocyte-endothelial cell (EC) adhesion and the development of vascular disease in diabetes. Human U937 and THP-1 monocyte cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with acetoacetate (AA) (0–10 mM) or β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) (0–10 mM) for 24 h prior to evaluating adhesion and adhesion molecule expression. The results demonstrate a significant (P < 0.01) increase in both U937 and THP-1 adhesion to HUVEC monolayers treated with 4 mM AA compared with control. Equal concentrations of BHB resulted in similar increases in monocyte-EC adhesion. Similarly, treatments of AA or BHB to isolated monocytes from human blood also show increases in adhesion to endothelial cells. intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was significantly increased on the surface of HUVECs and an increase in total protein expression with AA treatment compared with control. The expression level of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) was increased in monocytes treated with AA, and LFA-1 affinity was altered from low to high affinity following treatment with both AA and BHB. Monocyte adhesion could be blocked when cells were preincubated with an antibody to ICAM-1 or LFA-1. Results also show a significant increase in IL-8 and MCP-1 secretion in monocytes and HUVECs treated with 0–10 mM AA. These results suggest that hyperketonemia can induce monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and that it is mediated via increased ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells and increased expression and affinity of LFA-1 in monocytes. PMID:21540444

  2. Hyperketonemia increases monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and is mediated by LFA-1 expression in monocytes and ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rains, Justin L; Jain, Sushil K

    2011-08-01

    Frequent episodes of hyperketonemia are associated with a higher incidence of vascular disease. The objective of this study was to examine the hypothesis that hyperketonemia increases monocyte-endothelial cell (EC) adhesion and the development of vascular disease in diabetes. Human U937 and THP-1 monocyte cell lines and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with acetoacetate (AA) (0-10 mM) or β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) (0-10 mM) for 24 h prior to evaluating adhesion and adhesion molecule expression. The results demonstrate a significant (P < 0.01) increase in both U937 and THP-1 adhesion to HUVEC monolayers treated with 4 mM AA compared with control. Equal concentrations of BHB resulted in similar increases in monocyte-EC adhesion. Similarly, treatments of AA or BHB to isolated monocytes from human blood also show increases in adhesion to endothelial cells. intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) was significantly increased on the surface of HUVECs and an increase in total protein expression with AA treatment compared with control. The expression level of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) was increased in monocytes treated with AA, and LFA-1 affinity was altered from low to high affinity following treatment with both AA and BHB. Monocyte adhesion could be blocked when cells were preincubated with an antibody to ICAM-1 or LFA-1. Results also show a significant increase in IL-8 and MCP-1 secretion in monocytes and HUVECs treated with 0-10 mM AA. These results suggest that hyperketonemia can induce monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells and that it is mediated via increased ICAM-1 expression in endothelial cells and increased expression and affinity of LFA-1 in monocytes.

  3. Re-endothelialization of rat lung scaffolds through passive, gravity-driven seeding of segment-specific pulmonary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Scarritt, Michelle E; Pashos, Nicholas C; Motherwell, Jessica M; Eagle, Zachary R; Burkett, Brian J; Gregory, Ashley N; Mostany, Ricardo; Weiss, Daniel J; Alvarez, Diego F; Bunnell, Bruce A

    2016-12-12

    Effective re-endothelialization is critical for the use of decellularized scaffolds for ex vivo lung engineering. Current approaches yield insufficiently re-endothelialized scaffolds that hemorrhage and become thrombogenic upon implantation. Herein, gravity-driven seeding coupled with bioreactor culture facilitated widespread distribution and engraftment of endothelial cells throughout rat lung scaffolds. Initially, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were seeded into the pulmonary artery by either gravity-driven, variable flow perfusion seeding or pump-driven, pulsatile flow perfusion seeding. Gravity seeding evenly distributed cells and supported cell survival and re-lining of the vascular walls while perfusion pump-driven seeding led to increased cell fragmentation and death. Using gravity seeding, rat pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) and rat pulmonary vein endothelial cells (PVECs) attached in intermediate and large vessels, while rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) deposited mostly in microvessels. Combination seeding of PAECs, PVECs, and MVECs led to positive VE-cadherin staining. In addition, combination seeding improved barrier function as assessed by serum albumin extravasation; however, leakage was observed in the distal portions of the re-endothelialized tissue suggesting that recellularization of the alveoli is necessary to complete barrier function of the capillary-alveolar network. Overall, these data indicate that vascular recellularization of rat lung scaffolds is achieved through gravity seeding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  4. Hydrogen sulfide prevents H₂O₂-induced senescence in human umbilical vein endothelial cells through SIRT1 activation.

    PubMed

    Suo, Rong; Zhao, Zhan-Zhi; Tang, Zhi-Han; Ren, Zhong; Liu, Xing; Liu, Lu-Shan; Wang, Zuo; Tang, Chao-Ke; Wei, Dang-Heng; Jiang, Zhi-Sheng

    2013-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the attenuation of endothelial cell senescence by H2S and to explore the mechanisms underlying the anti-aging effects of H2S. Senescence was induced in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) by incubation in 25 µmol/l H2O2 for 1 h. Senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity was examined to determine the effects of H2S on senescent HUVECs. The results indicated that SA-β-gal activity in the H2O2-treated HUVECs was 11.2 ± 1.06%, which was attenuated in the NaHS group. Pretreatment with nicotinamide (NAM), a sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) inhibitor, inhibited the reduction in senescence associated with H2S. Immunoblot analyses revealed that SIRT1 levels in senescent HUVECs treated with NaHS (60 µM) were indistinguishable from controls; however, analyses of SIRT1 activity indicated that SIRT1 enzyme activity was enhanced. In addition, we found that H2S improves the function of senescent HUVECs. The present study demonstrated that H2S protects against HUVEC senescence, potentially through modulation of SIRT1 activity. Furthermore, this study establishes a novel endothelial protective effect of H2S.

  5. Functionalization of CoCr surfaces with cell adhesive peptides to promote HUVECs adhesion and proliferation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castellanos, Maria Isabel; Mas-Moruno, Carlos; Grau, Anna; Serra-Picamal, Xavier; Trepat, Xavier; Albericio, Fernando; Joner, Michael; Gil, Francisco Javier; Ginebra, Maria Pau; Manero, Jose María; Pegueroles, Marta

    2017-01-01

    Biomimetic surface modification with peptides that have specific cell-binding moieties is a promising approach to improve endothelialization of metal-based stents. In this study, we functionalized CoCr surfaces with RGDS, REDV, YIGSR peptides and their combinations to promote endothelial cells (ECs) adhesion and proliferation. An extensive characterization of the functionalized surfaces was performed by XPS analysis, surface charge and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D), which demonstrated the successful immobilization of the peptides to the surface. Cell studies demonstrated that the covalent functionalization of CoCr surfaces with an equimolar combination of RGDS and YIGSR represents the most powerful strategy to enhance the early stages of ECs adhesion and proliferation, indicating a positive synergistic effect between the two peptide motifs. Although these peptide sequences slightly increased smooth muscle cells (SMCs) adhesion, these values were ten times lower than those observed for ECs. The combination of RGDS with the REDV sequence did not show synergistic effects in promoting the adhesion or proliferation of ECs. The strategy presented in this study holds great potential to overcome clinical limitations of current metal stents by enhancing their capacity to support surface endothelialization.

  6. The anticoagulant effect of PGI2S and tPA in transgenic umbilical vein endothelial cells is linked to up-regulation of PKA and PKC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian-Hua; Yuan, Lin-Jing; Zhong, Zhi-Min; Wen, Zhe-Sheng; Deng, Jian-Ming; Liang, Rong-Xin; Zheng, Min

    2014-02-19

    The selection of vascular grafts for coronary artery bypass surgery is crucial for a positive outcome. This study aimed to establish a novel line of vascular endothelial cells with a potent anticoagulant effect. A lentiviral vector was used to stably transfect human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with PGI2S alone (HUVEC-PGI2S) or both PGI2S and tPA (HUVEC-PGI2S-tPA). Both HUVEC-PGI2S and HUVEC-PGI2S-tPA cells over-expressing PGI2S and tPA were compared to mock-transfected cells. The enzyme-linked immuno sorbent assay (ELISAs) demonstrated that the anticoagulation components, ATIII and PLG, were up-regulated and coagulation factor FVIII was down-regulated in both cell lines. QRT-PCR and western blotting demonstrated the vasodilation and platelet disaggregation proteins PKA, PKC, and PTGIR were up-regulated in both cell lines, but MAPK expression was not altered in either cell line. However, cell viability and colony formation assays and cell cycle analysis demonstrated that both cell lines had a lower rate of cell growth and induced G1 phase arrest. HUVEC-PGI2S and HUVEC-PGI2S-tPA cells have a potent anticoagulant effect and their use in vascular heterografts may decrease the risk of thrombosis.

  7. Biocompatibility of pure titanium modified by human endothelial cell-derived extracellular matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Xiaoqing; Wang, Jin; Zhu, Ying; Tu, Qiufen; Huang, Nan

    2010-04-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) used to modify biomaterial surface is a promising method for improving cardiovascular material hemocompatibility. In the present work, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are cultured and native ECM is obtained on pure titanium surface. Fourier infrared spectrum (FTIR) test proves the existence of amide I and amide II band on the modified titanium surface. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) further confirms the chemical composition and binding types of the ECM proteins on the titanium substrate. The results of light microscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM) exhibit the morphology of HUVEC derived ECM. There are higher water contact angles on the ECM modified samples. Furthermore, some ECM components, including fibronectin (FN), laminin (LN) and type IV collagen (IV-COL) are presented on ECM-covered titanium surface by immunofluorescence staining. The biological behavior of cultured HUVECs and adherent platelets on different samples are investigated by in vitro HUVECs culture and platelet adhesion. Cells exhibit better morphology and their proliferation ability greatly improve on the ECM-covered titanium. At the same time, the platelet adhesion and spreading are inhibited on ECM-covered titanium surface. These investigations demonstrate that ECM produced by HUVECs cannot only improve adhesion and proliferation ability of endothelial cell but also inhibit adhesion and activation of platelets. Thus, the approach described here may provide a basis for preparation of modified surface in cardiovascular implants application.

  8. Activation of GPR4 by Acidosis Increases Endothelial Cell Adhesion through the cAMP/Epac Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Leffler, Nancy R.; Asch, Adam S.; Witte, Owen N.; Yang, Li V.

    2011-01-01

    Endothelium-leukocyte interaction is critical for inflammatory responses. Whereas the tissue microenvironments are often acidic at inflammatory sites, the mechanisms by which cells respond to acidosis are not well understood. Using molecular, cellular and biochemical approaches, we demonstrate that activation of GPR4, a proton-sensing G protein-coupled receptor, by isocapnic acidosis increases the adhesiveness of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) that express GPR4 endogenously. Acidosis in combination with GPR4 overexpression further augments HUVEC adhesion with U937 monocytes. In contrast, overexpression of a G protein signaling-defective DRY motif mutant (R115A) of GPR4 does not elicit any increase of HUVEC adhesion, indicating the requirement of G protein signaling. Downregulation of GPR4 expression by RNA interference reduces the acidosis-induced HUVEC adhesion. To delineate downstream pathways, we show that inhibition of adenylate cyclase by inhibitors, 2′,5′-dideoxyadenosine (DDA) or SQ 22536, attenuates acidosis/GPR4-induced HUVEC adhesion. Consistently, treatment with a cAMP analog or a Gi signaling inhibitor increases HUVEC adhesiveness, suggesting a role of the Gs/cAMP signaling in this process. We further show that the cAMP downstream effector Epac is important for acidosis/GPR4-induced cell adhesion. Moreover, activation of GPR4 by acidosis increases the expression of vascular adhesion molecules E-selectin, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, which are functionally involved in acidosis/GPR4-mediated HUVEC adhesion. Similarly, hypercapnic acidosis can also activate GPR4 to stimulate HUVEC adhesion molecule expression and adhesiveness. These results suggest that acidosis/GPR4 signaling regulates endothelial cell adhesion mainly through the Gs/cAMP/Epac pathway and may play a role in the inflammatory response of vascular endothelial cells. PMID:22110680

  9. Fat-derived factor omentin stimulates endothelial cell function and ischemia-induced revascularization via endothelial nitric oxide synthase-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Sonomi; Shibata, Rei; Kikuchi, Ryosuke; Izumiya, Yasuhiro; Rokutanda, Taku; Araki, Satoshi; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki; Ohashi, Koji; Daida, Hiroyuki; Kihara, Shinji; Ogawa, Hisao; Murohara, Toyoaki; Ouchi, Noriyuki

    2012-01-02

    Obesity-related diseases are associated with vascular dysfunction and impaired revascularization. Omentin is a fat-derived secreted protein, which is down-regulated in association with obese complications. Here, we investigated whether omentin modulates endothelial cell function and revascularization processes in vitro and in vivo. Systemic delivery of an adenoviral vector expressing omentin (Ad-omentin) enhanced blood flow recovery and capillary density in ischemic limbs of wild-type mice in vivo, which were accompanied by increased phosphorylation of Akt and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). In cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), a physiological concentration of recombinant omentin protein increased differentiation into vascular-like structures and decreased apoptotic activity under conditions of serum starvation. Treatment with omentin protein stimulated the phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS in HUVECs. Inhibition of Akt signaling by treatment with dominant-negative Akt or LY294002 blocked the stimulatory effects of omentin on differentiation and survival of HUVECs and reversed omentin-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation. Pretreatment with the NOS inhibitor also reduced the omentin-induced increase in HUVEC differentiation and survival. Omentin protein also stimulated the phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase in HUVECs. Transduction with dominant-negative AMP-activated protein kinase diminished omentin-induced phosphorylation of Akt and omentin-stimulated increase in HUVEC differentiation and survival. Of importance, in contrast to wild-type mice, systemic administration of Ad-omentin did not affect blood flow in ischemic muscle in eNOS-deficient mice in vivo. These data indicate that omentin promotes endothelial cell function and revascularization in response to ischemia through its ability to stimulate an Akt-eNOS signaling pathway.

  10. Disintegrin Metalloprotease (ADAM) 10 Regulates Endothelial Permeability and T Cell Transmigration by Proteolysis of Vascular Endothelial Cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, Beate; Pruessmeyer, Jessica; Maretzky, Thorsten; Ludwig, Andreas; Blobel, Carl P.; Saftig, Paul; Reiss, Karina

    2009-01-01

    Vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin is the major adhesion molecule of endothelial adherens junctions. It plays an essential role in controlling endothelial permeability, vascular integrity, leukocyte transmigration, and angiogenesis. Elevated levels of soluble VE-cadherin are associated with diseases like coronary atherosclerosis. Previous data showed that the extracellular domain of VE-cadherin is released by an unknown metalloprotease activity during apoptosis. In this study, we used gain of function analyses, inhibitor studies and RNA interference experiments to analyze the proteolytic release of VE-cadherin in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). We found that VE-cadherin is specifically cleaved by the disintegrin and metalloprotease ADAM10 in its ectodomain releasing a soluble fragment and generating a carboxyterminal membrane bound stub, which is a substrate for a subsequent γ-secretase cleavage. This ADAM10-mediated proteolysis could be induced by Ca2+-influx and staurosporine treatment, indicating that ADAM10-mediated VE-cadherin cleavage contributes to the dissolution of adherens junctions during endothelial cell activation and apoptosis, respectively. In contrast, protein kinase C activation or inhibition did not modulate VE-cadherin processing. Increased ADAM10 expression was functionally associated with an increase in endothelial permeability. Remarkably, our data indicate that ADAM10 activity also contributes to the thrombin-induced decrease of endothelial cell-cell adhesion. Moreover, knockdown of ADAM10 in HUVECs as well as in T cells by small interfering RNA impaired T cell transmigration. Taken together our data identify ADAM10 as a novel regulator of vascular permeability and demonstrate a hitherto unknown function of ADAM10 in the regulation of VE-cadherin-dependent endothelial cell functions and leukocyte transendothelial migration. PMID:18420943

  11. Regulation of arterial-venous differences in tumor necrosis factor responsiveness of endothelial cells by anatomic context.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meng; Kluger, Martin S; D'Alessio, Alessio; García-Cardeña, Guillermo; Pober, Jordan S

    2008-04-01

    We analyzed tumor necrosis factor (TNF) responses of human umbilical artery and vein endothelial cells (HUAECs and HUVECs) in organ and cell culture. In organ culture, TNF induced expression of E-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1 on HUVECs but only ICAM-1 on HUAECs. Activation of nuclear factor-kappaB, c-jun, and ATF2 by TNF was comparable in HUAECs and HUVECs, whereas binding of transcription factors and p300 co-activator to the E-selectin enhancer was lower in HUAECs compared to HUVECs. In cell culture, HUAECs rapidly acquired inducible E-selectin and VCAM-1 whereas ICAM-1 inducibility decreased. Culture of HUVECs rapidly decreased TNF responses of all three genes. By 72 hours in cell culture, TNF-treated HUVECs and HUAECs showed comparable adhesion molecule induction and transcription factor binding to the E-selectin enhancer. Freshly isolated HUAECs expressed higher levels of Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF2) than HUVECs, consistent with greater KLF2 induction by arterial levels of shear stress in vitro. KLF2 expression decreased rapidly in both cell types during culture. Transduction of HUVECs with KLF2 reduced TNF-mediated induction of E-selectin and VCAM-1 while increasing ICAM-1 induction and reduced transcription factor/co-activator binding to the E-selectin enhancer. In conclusion, the differential responses of HUAECs and HUVECs to TNF in organ culture correlate with transcription factor/co-activator binding to DNA and converge during cell culture. Flow-induced expression of KLF2 contributes to the in situ responses of HUAECs but not of HUVECs.

  12. Scutellarin promotes in vitro angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Zhong-Xiu-Zi; Huang, Da-Yong; Li, Hai-Xia; Zhang, Li-Na; Lv, Yan-Hong; Cui, Hai-Dong; Zheng, Jin-Hua

    2010-09-10

    Research highlights: {yields} It has been shown that scutellarin exhibits a variety of pharmacological actions, including anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory, vasodilator as well as cardiovascular and cerebrovascular ischemia protective effects, indicating beneficial vascular effects of scutellarin. Therefore, it is speculated that scutellarin may be able to stimulate angiogenesis, which could be beneficial in the treatment of ischemic disease, wound healing and tissue regeneration. {yields} The purpose of the present study was to elucidate the direct angiogenic actions of scutellarin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. {yields} Our results showed that scutellarin to directly induce in vitro angiogenesis, which is closely correlated with upregulated MMP-2 expression, suggesting a potential for increasing angiogenesis. -- Abstract: Angiogenesis is critical to a wide range of physiological and pathological processes. Scutellarin, a major flavonoid of a Chinese herbal medicine Erigeron breviscapus (Vant.) Hand. Mazz. has been shown to offer beneficial effects on cardiovascular and cerebrovascular functions. However, scutellarin's effects on angiogenesis and underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated. Here, we studied angiogenic effects of scutellarin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. Scutellarin was found by MTT assay to induce proliferation of HUVECs. In scutellarin-treated HUVECs, a dramatic increase in migration was measured by wound healing assay; Transwell chamber assay found significantly more invading cells in scutellarin-treated groups. Scutellarin also promoted capillary-like tube formation in HUVECs on Matrigel, and significantly upregulated platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 at both mRNA and protein levels. Scutellarin's angiogenic mechanism was investigated in vitro by measuring expression of angiogenic factors associated with cell migration and invasion. Scutellarin strongly induced MMP-2

  13. Decrease of fibrinolytic activity in human endothelial cells by arsenite.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shinn-Jong; Lin, Tsun-Mei; Wu, Hua-Lin; Han, Huai-Song; Shi, Guey-Yueh

    2002-01-01

    Blackfoot disease (BFD) is an endemic peripheral vascular occlusive disease that occurred in the southwest coast of Taiwan. It is believed that arsenic in the drinking water from artesian wells plays an important role in the development of the disease. We have previously shown that BFD patients had significant lower tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) antigen level and higher plasminogen activator inhibitor, Type 1 (PAI-1) antigen level than normal controls. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of arsenite on the fibrinolytic and anticoagulant activities of cultured macrovascular and microvascular endothelial cells. Incubation of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1), but not human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), with arsenite caused a decrease of t-PA mRNA level, a rise of both PAI-1 mRNA level and PAI activity. Arsenite could also inhibit the thrombomodulin (TM) mRNA expression and reduce the TM antigen level in HMEC-1. In conclusion, arsenite had a greater effect on HMEC-1 as compared to HUVECs in lowering the fibrinolytic activity and may be responsible for the reduced capacity of fibrinolysis associated with BFD.

  14. Morin, a Flavonoid from Moraceae, Inhibits Cancer Cell Adhesion to Endothelial Cells and EMT by Downregulating VCAM1 and Ncadherin.

    PubMed

    Lee, JeongHee; Jin, Hana; Lee, Won Sup; Nagappan, Arulkumar; Choi, Yung Hyun; Kim, Gon Sup; Jung, JinMyung; Ryu, Chung Ho; Shin, Sung Chul; Hong, Soon Chan; Kim, Hye Jung

    2016-01-01

    Morin, a flavonoid found in figs and other Moraceae species, displays a variety of biological actions, exerting antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticarcinogenic effects. Here, we investigated the anticancer activity of morin focusing on antiadhesive influence. We performed experiments with MDAMB231 human breast cancer cells. Morin inhibited TNFinduced cancer cell adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) without showing any toxicity. It further inhibited the expression of VCAM1 on MDAMB231 cells as well as HUVECs. Morin also decreased the expression of Ncadherin on MDAMB231 cells. In addition, there was apparent antimetastatic activity in vivo. In conclusion, this study suggested that morin inhibits cancer cell adhesion to HUVECs by reducing VCAM1, and EMT by targeting Ncadherin, and that it features antimetastatic activity in vivo. Further investigation of possible antimetastatic activity of morin against human breast cancer cells is warranted.

  15. Monolayer formation and shear- resistance of human vein endothelial cells on gelatin-based hydrogels with tailorable elasticity and degradability.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Christian; Vukićević, Radovan; Krüger-Genge, Anne; Neffe, Axel T; Lendlein, Andreas; Jung, Friedrich

    2016-01-01

    The formation of a functionally-confluent and shear-resistant endothelial cell (EC) monolayer on cardiovascular implants is a promising strategy to prevent thrombogenic processes after implantation. On the basis of existing studies with arterial endothelial cells adhering after two hours on gelatin-based hydrogels in marked higher numbers compared to tissue culture plates, we hypothesized that also venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) should be able to adhere and form an endothelial monolayer on these hydrogels after days. Furthermore, variation of the hydrogel composition, which slightly influences the materials elasticity and even more the degradation behaviour, should have no considerable effect on HUVEC. Therefore, the monolayer formation and shear resistance of HUVEC were explored on two gelatin-based hydrogels differing in their elasticity (Young's moduli between 35 and 55 kPa) in comparison to a positive control (HUVEC on glass cover slips) and a negative control (HUVEC on glass cover slips activated with interleukin-1β) after 9 days of culturing. HUVEC density after 9 days of culturing under static conditions was lower on the hydrogels compared to both controls (p < 0.05 each). On G10_LNCO8 slightly more EC adhered than on G10_LNCO5. Staining of the actin cytoskeleton and VE-cadherin revealed a pronounced cell-substrate interaction while the cell-cell interaction was comparable to the controls (HUVEC on glass). The secretion of vasoactive and inflammatory mediators did not differ between the hydrogels and the controls. Adherent HUVEC seeded on the hydrogels were able to resist physiological shear forces and the release of cyto- and chemokines in response to the shear forces did not differ from controls (HUVEC on glass). Therefore, both gelatin-based hydrogels are a suitable substrate for EC and a promising candidate for cardiovascular applications.

  16. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells synergize osteo/odontogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament stem cells in 3D cell sheets.

    PubMed

    Pandula, P K C Prgeeth; Samaranayake, L P; Jin, L J; Zhang, C F

    2014-06-01

    To investigate the expression of osteo/odontogenic differentiation markers and vascular network formation in a 3D cell sheet with varying cell ratios of periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Human PDLSCs were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry, and co-cultured with HUVECs for the construction of cell sheets. Both types of cells were seeded on temperature-responsive culture dishes with PDLSCs alone, HUVECs alone and various ratios of the latter cells (1 : 1, 2 : 1, 5 : 1 and 1 : 5) to obtain confluent cell sheets. The expressions of osteo/odontogenic pathway markers, including alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bone sialoprotein (BSP) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), were analyzed at 3 and 7 d using RT-PCR. Further ALP protein quantification was performed at 7 and 14 d using ALP assay. The calcium nodule formation was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively by alizarin red assay. Histological evaluations of three cell sheet constructs treated with different combinations (PDLSC-PDLSC-PDLSC/PDLSC-HUVEC-PDLSC/co-culture-co-culture-co-culture) were performed with hematoxylin and eosin and immunofluorescence staining. Statistical analysis was performed using t-test (p < 0.05). Significantly higher ALP gene expression was observed at 3 d in 1 : 1 (PDLSC-HUVEC) (2.52 ± 0.67) and 5 : 1 (4.05 ± 1.07) co-culture groups compared with other groups (p < 0.05); this was consistent with ALP protein quantification. However, the expression of BSP and RUNX2 genes was higher at 7 d compared to 3 d. Significant calcium mineralization was detected as quantified by alizarin red assay at 14 d in 1 : 1 (1323.55 ± 6.54 μm) and 5 : 1 (994.67 ± 4.15 μm) co-cultures as compared with monoculture cell sheets (p < 0.05). Hematoxylin and eosin and CD31 immunostaining clearly exemplified the development of a layered cell sheet structure with endothelial cell islands within the constructed PDLSC-HUVEC-PDLSC and co

  17. Fulvic Acid Attenuates Resistin-Induced Adhesion of HCT-116 Colorectal Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wen-Shih; Yang, Jen-Tsung; Lu, Chien-Chang; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Nan; Su, Yu-Ping; Lee, Ko-Chao

    2015-01-01

    A high level of serum resistin has recently been found in patients with a number of cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Hence, resistin may play a role in CRC development. Fulvic acid (FA), a class of humic substances, possesses pharmacological properties. However, the effect of FA on cancer pathophysiology remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of resistin on the endothelial adhesion of CRC and to determine whether FA elicits an antagonistic mechanism to neutralize this resistin effect. Human HCT-116 (p53-negative) and SW-48 (p53-positive) CRC cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used in the experiments. Treatment of both HCT-116 and SW-48 cells with resistin increases the adhesion of both cells to HUVECs. This result indicated that p53 may not regulate this resistin effect. A mechanistic study in HCT-116 cells further showed that this resistin effect occurs via the activation of NF-κB and the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1). Co-treating cells with both FA and resistin revealed that FA significantly attenuated the resistin-increased NF-κB activation and ICAM-1/VCAM-1 expression and the consequent adhesion of HCT-116 cells to HUVECs. These results demonstrate the role of resistin in promoting HCT-116 cell adhesion to HUVECs and indicate that FA might be a potential candidate for the inhibition of the endothelial adhesion of CRC in response to resistin. PMID:26690142

  18. Tumor Vesicle-Associated CD147 Modulates the Angiogenic Capability of Endothelial Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Millimaggi, Danilo; Mari, Marianna; D'Ascenzo, Sandra; Carosa, Eleonora; Jannini, Emmanuele Angelo; Zucker, Stanley; Carta, Gaspare; Pavan, Antonio; Dolo, Vincenza

    2007-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) degradation of extracellular matrix is thought to play an important role in invasion, angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis. Several studies have demonstrated that CD147/extracellular MMP inducer, a membrane-spanning molecule highly expressed in tumor cells, may be involved in the progression of malignancies by regulating expression of MMP in peritumoral stromal cells. In the present study we show that CD147 is expressed in microvesicles derived from epithelial ovarian cancer cells and that CD147-positive vesicles may promote an angiogenic phenotype in endothelial cells in vitro. Vesicles shed by human ovarian carcinoma cell lines OVCAR3, SKOV3, and A2780 expressed different levels of CD147 and stimulated proangiogenic activities of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in a CD147-dependent fashion (OVCAR3 > SKOV3 > A2780). Moreover, vesicles shed by ovarian carcinoma cell line CABA I with low CD147 expression had no significant effect on the development of angiogenic phenotype in HUVECs. The treatment of OVCAR3 cells with small interfering RNA against CD147 suppressed the angiogenic potential of OVCAR3-derived microvesicles. However, transfection of CD147 cDNA into the CABA I cell line enabled CABA I-derived vesicles to induce angiogenesis and to promote MMP genes expression in HUVECs. We therefore conclude that vesicles shed by ovarian cancer cells may induce proangiogenic activities of HUVECs by a CD147-mediated mechanism. PMID:17460779

  19. Disruption of Endothelial Cell Homeostasis Plays a Key Role in the Early Pathogenesis of Coronary Artery Abnormalities in Kawasaki Disease

    PubMed Central

    Ueno, Kentaro; Ninomiya, Yumiko; Hazeki, Daisuke; Masuda, Kiminori; Nomura, Yuichi; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2017-01-01

    Disruption of endothelial cell homeostasis may be associated with the pathogenesis of coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) in Kawasaki disease (KD). We sought to clarify the poorly understood pathogenic role of endothelial cell survival and death in KD vasculitis. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulated with sera from KD patients, compared with sera from patients with bacterial infections, exhibited significant increases in cytotoxicity, high mobility group box protein 1 (HMGB-1), and caspase-3/7 and a decrease in phosphorylated Akt/Akt (pAkt/Akt) ratios. HUVECs stimulated with sera from KD patients treated with immunoglobulin (IG) showed significantly decreased cytotoxicity, HMGB-1, and caspase-3/7 levels and increased pAkt/Akt ratios, as compared with results for untreated HUVECs (P < 0.001, P = 0.008, P = 0.040, and P < 0.001, respectively). In HUVECs stimulated with sera from KD patients, the increased cytotoxicity levels and the suppression of increased pAkt/Akt ratios after subsequent IG treatment were closely related to the development of CAA (P = 0.002 and P = 0.035). Our data reveal that shifting the balance toward cell death rather than survival appears to perturb endothelial cell homeostasis and is closely related to the development of CAA. The cytoprotective effects of IG treatment appear to ameliorate endothelial cell homeostasis. PMID:28255175

  20. Prevention of Osmotic Injury to Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells for Biopreservation: A First Step Toward Biobanking of Endothelial Cells for Vascular Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Niu, Dan; Zhao, Gang; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Ping; Cao, Yunxia

    2016-03-01

    High-survival-rate cryopreservation of endothelial cells plays a critical role in vascular tissue engineering, while optimization of osmotic injuries is the first step toward successful cryopreservation. We designed a low-cost, easy-to-use, microfluidics-based microperfusion chamber to investigate the osmotic responses of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) at different temperatures, and then optimized the protocols for using cryoprotective agents (CPAs) to minimize osmotic injuries and improve processes before freezing and after thawing. The fundamental cryobiological parameters were measured using the microperfusion chamber, and then, the optimized protocols using these parameters were confirmed by survival evaluation and cell proliferation experiments. It was revealed for the first time that HUVECs have an unusually small permeability coefficient for Me2SO. Even at the concentrations well established for slow freezing of cells (1.5 M), one-step removal of CPAs for HUVECs might result in inevitable osmotic injuries, indicating that multiple-step removal is essential. Further experiments revealed that multistep removal of 1.5 M Me2SO at 25°C was the best protocol investigated, in good agreement with theory. These results should prove invaluable for optimization of cryopreservation protocols of HUVECs.

  1. Surface-mediated functional gene delivery: an effective strategy for enhancing competitiveness of endothelial cells over smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Hao; Ren, Ke-feng; Wang, Jin-Lei; Zhang, He; Wang, Bai-liang; Zheng, Shan-mei; Zhou, Yuan-yuan; Ji, Jian

    2013-04-01

    The non-biorecognition of general biomaterials and inherent biospecificity of biological systems pose key challenges to the optimal functions of medical devices. In this study, we constructed the surface-mediated functional gene delivery through layer-by-layer self-assembly of protamine sulfate (PrS) and plasmid DNA encoding hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), aiming at specific enhancing endothelial cells (EC) compeititiveness over smooth muscle cells (SMC). Characterizations of the (PrS/HGF-pDNA) multilayered films present the linear buildup with homogeneous and flat topographical feature. The amount of DNA can be easily controlled. By using these multilayered films, both human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells (HUASMC) can be directly transfected when they contact with the multilayered films. On transfection, increasing secretion of HGF has been detected in both HUVEC and HUASMC culture, which leads to selective promotion of HUVEC proliferation. In the co-culture experiment, we also exhibit the promoted and hindered growth of HUVEC and HUASMC, respectively, which could be attributed to the inverse influence of HUVEC on HUASMC. These results collectively demonstrate that our system can be served as a powerful tool for enhancing competitiveness of EC over SMC, which opens perspectives for the regulation of intercellular competitiveness in the field of interventional therapy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Apoptosis and calcification of vascular endothelial cell under hyperhomocysteinemia.

    PubMed

    Fang, Kuaifa; Chen, Zhujun; Liu, Meng; Peng, Jian; Wu, Pingsheng

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, it is found that increase in Hcy level in blood can directly or indirectly cause vascular endothelial cell injury and induce vascular calcification. However, the mechanism of vascular endothelial cell injury and vascular calcification has not been studied thoroughly. This paper carried out experiment for research aiming at discussing the effect and action mechanism of Hhcy on endothelial cells and vascular calcification. Firstly, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured and then intervened by Hcy of different concentrations (0, 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 mmol/L) and at different action time (3, 6, 12, 24 h). Then apoptosis rate and reactive oxygen were detected by flow cytometry. At the same time, the model for the culture of rat vascular calcification was set up and induced into Hhcy so as to detect the total plasma Hcy level and judge vascular calcification degree. The results showed that with the increase in Hcy concentration and extension of action period, the apoptosis rate and generation of reactive oxygen of HUVECs all significantly increased, and the differences were all statistically significant (P < 0.01). In animal calcification model, mass of black particle deposition was seen after Von Kossa staining of rat vessels in calcification group. Compared with the control group, the vascular calcium content, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteocalcin content in calcification group all increased (P < 0.01). The content of plasma lipid conjugated olefine from highest to lowest wasas follows: calcification plus homoetheionin, homoetheionin, and calcification group. There was no significant difference between the calcification group and control group. All these findings suggested that Hcy could induce the apoptosis of endothelial cells and its effect degree depended on its concentration and action period; Hhcy could promote the calcification of blood vessels, and its mechanism might relate with the strengthening of

  3. Maslinic Acid Inhibits Proliferation of Renal Cell Carcinoma Cell Lines and Suppresses Angiogenesis of Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Thakor, Parth; Song, Wenzhe; Subramanian, Ramalingam B.; Thakkar, Vasudev R.; Vesey, David A.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the introduction of many novel therapeutics in clinical practice, metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) remains a treatment-resistant cancer. As red and processed meat are considered risk factors for RCC, and a vegetable-rich diet is thought to reduce this risk, research into plant-based therapeutics may provide valuable complementary or alternative therapeutics for the management of RCC. Herein, we present the antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of maslinic acid, which occurs naturally in edible plants, particularly in olive fruits, and also in a variety of medicinal plants. Human RCC cell lines (ACHN, Caki-1, and SN12K1), endothelial cells (human umbilical vein endothelial cell line [HUVEC]), and primary cultures of kidney proximal tubular epithelial cells (PTEC) were treated with maslinic acid. Maslinic acid was relatively less toxic to PTEC when compared with RCC under similar experimental conditions. In RCC cell lines, maslinic acid induced a significant reduction in proliferation, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and colony formation. In HUVEC, maslinic acid induced a significant reduction in capillary tube formation in vitro and vascular endothelial growth factor. This study provides a rationale for incorporating a maslinic acid–rich diet either to reduce the risk of developing kidney cancer or as an adjunct to existing antiangiogenic therapy to improve efficacy. PMID:28405545

  4. Monocyte adhesion induced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes and palmitic acid in endothelial cells and alveolar-endothelial co-cultures.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yi; Roursgaard, Martin; Jacobsen, Nicklas Raun; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    Free palmitic acid (PA) is a potential pro-atherogenic stimulus that may aggravate particle-mediated cardiovascular health effects. We hypothesized that the presence of PA can aggravate oxidative stress and endothelial activation induced by multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) exposure in vitro. We investigated the interaction between direct exposure to MWCNTs and PA on THP-1 monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), as well as on indirect exposure in an alveolar-endothelial co-culture model with A549 cells and THP-1-derived macrophages exposed in inserts and the effect measured in the lower chamber on HUVECs and THP-1 cells. The exposure to MWCNTs, including a short (NM400) and long (NM402) type of entangled fibers, was associated with elevated levels of reactive oxygen species as well as a decrease in the intracellular glutathione concentration in HUVEC and A549 monocultures. Both effects were found to be independent of the presence of PA. MWCNT exposure significantly increased THP-1 monocyte adhesion to HUVECs, and co-exposure to PA aggravated the NM400-mediated adhesion but decreased the NM402-mediated adhesion. For the co-cultures, the exposure of A549 cells did not promote THP-1 adhesion to HUVECs in the lower chamber. When THP-1 macrophages were present on the cell culture inserts, there was a modest increase in the adhesion and an increase in interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 levels in the lower chamber whereas no tumor necrosis factor was detected. Overall, this study showed that direct exposure of HUVECs to MWCNTs was associated with oxidative stress and monocyte adhesion and the presence of PA increased the adhesion when exposed to NM400.

  5. Protective effects of quercetin and taraxasterol against H2O2-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell injury in vitro

    PubMed Central

    YANG, DONGWEI; LIU, XINYE; LIU, MIN; CHI, HAO; LIU, JIRONG; HAN, HUAMIN

    2015-01-01

    Due to the association between inflammation and endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis, the blockage of the inflammatory process that occurs on the endothelial cells may be a useful way of preventing atherosclerosis. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to investigate the protective effects of quercetin and taraxasterol against H2O2-induced oxidative damage and inflammation. HUVECs were pretreated with quercetin or taraxasterol at concentrations ranging between 0 and 210 µM for 12 h, prior to being administered different concentrations of H2O2 for 4 h. Cell viability and levels of apoptosis were assessed through cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assays, respectively, to determine the injury to the HUVECs. The viability loss in the H2O2-induced HUVECs was markedly restored in a concentration-dependent manner by pretreatment with quercetin or taraxasterol. This effect was accompanied by significantly decreased expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) and cluster of differentiation (CD)80 for taraxasterol and that of CD80 for quercetin. In conclusion, the present study showed the protective effects of quercetin and taraxasterol against cell injury and inflammation in HUVECs and indicated that the effects were mediated via the downregulation of VCAM-1 and CD80 expression. This study has therefore served as a preliminary investigation on the anti-atherosclerotic and cardiovascular protective effects of quercetin and taraxasterol as dietary supplements. PMID:26622474

  6. Influence of protein histidine phosphatase overexpression and down-regulation on human umbilical-vein endothelial cell viability.

    PubMed

    Seeger, Anna; Rose, Karsten; Ma, Nien Tze; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Klumpp, Susanne; Krieglstein, Josef

    2012-03-01

    PHP (protein histidine phosphatase) is expressed by mammalian tissues, particularly in blood vessel walls. We investigated whether PHP plays a significant role in endothelial cells. By Western blot and immunofluorescence analysis PHP was found in HUVEC (human umbilical-vein endothelial cells). Overexpression of PHP by the use of a plasmid vector, pIRES2-AcGFP1-PHP, induced apoptosis in HUVEC. To exclude the possibility that increased cellular protein alone unspecifically caused cell damage, the inactive H53A mutant of PHP was also overexpressed as a control; it did not lead to apoptosis. Down-regulation of PHP by the RNAi (RNA interference) technique did not affect cell viability. In conclusion, HUVEC are damaged by overexpression, but not down-regulation, of PHP, suggesting a pronounced impact of the enzyme on the cells when its activity is increased.

  7. Piper sarmentosum increases nitric oxide production in oxidative stress: a study on human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ugusman, Azizah; Zakaria, Zaiton; Hui, Chua Kien; Nordin, Nor Anita Megat Mohd

    2010-07-01

    Nitric oxide produced by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) possesses multiple anti-atherosclerotic properties. Hence, enhanced expression of eNOS and increased Nitric oxide levels may protect against the development of atherosclerosis. Piper sarmentosum is a tropical plant with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Piper sarmentosum on the eNOS and Nitric oxide pathway in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECS WERE DIVIDED INTO FOUR GROUPS: control, treatment with 180 microM hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), treatment with 150 microg/mL aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum, and concomitant treatment with aqueous extract of PS and H(2)O(2) for 24 hours. Subsequently, HUVECs were harvested and eNOS mRNA expression was determined using qPCR. The eNOS protein level was measured using ELISA, and the eNOS activity and Nitric oxide level were determined by the Griess reaction. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells treated with aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum showed a marked induction of Nitric oxide. Treatment with PS also resulted in increased eNOS mRNA expression, eNOS protein level and eNOS activity in HUVECs. Aqueous extract of Piper sarmentosum may improve endothelial function by promoting NO production in HUVECs.

  8. IL-17 and insulin/IGF1 enhance adhesion of prostate cancer cells to vascular endothelial cells through CD44-VCAM-1 interaction

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chong; Zhang, Qiuyang; Liu, Sen; Parajuli, Keshab R.; Qu, Yine; Mei, Jiandong; Chen, Zhiquan; Zhang, Hui; Khismatullin, Damir B.; You, Zongbing

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Extravasation is a critical step in cancer metastasis, in which adhesion of intravascular cancer cells to the vascular endothelial cells is controlled by cell surface adhesion molecules. The role of interleukin-17 (IL-17), insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) in adhesion of prostate cancer cells to the vascular endothelial cells is unknown, which is the subject of the present study. METHODS Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human prostate cancer cell lines (PC-3, DU-145, LNCaP, and C4-2B) were analyzed for expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), integrins, and cluster of differentiation 44 (CD44) using flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. The effects of IL-17, insulin and IGF1 on VCAM-1 expression and adhesion of prostate cancer cells to HUVECs were examined. The interaction of VCAM-1 and CD44 was assessed using immunoprecipitation assays. RESULTS Insulin and IGF1 acted with IL-17 to increase VCAM-1 expression in HUVECs. PC-3, DU-145, LNCaP, and C4-2B cells expressed β1 integrin but not α4 integrin. CD44 was expressed by PC-3 and DU-145 cells but not by LNCaP or C4-2B cells. When HUVECs were treated with IL-17, insulin or IGF1, particularly with a combination of IL-17 and insulin (or IGF1), adhesion of PC-3 and DU-145 cells to HUVECs was significantly increased. In contrast, adhesion of LNCaP and C4-2B cells to HUVECs was not affected by treatment of HUVECs with IL-17 and/or insulin/IGF1. CD44 expressed in PC-3 cells physically bound to VCAM-1 expressed in HUVECs. CONCLUSIONS CD44-VCAM-1 interaction mediates the adhesion between prostate cancer cells and HUVECs. IL-17 and insulin/IGF1 enhance adhesion of prostate cancer cells to vascular endothelial cells through increasing VCAM-1 expression in the vascular endothelial cells. These findings suggest that IL-17 may act with insulin/IGF1 to promote prostate cancer metastasis. PMID:25683512

  9. Catalase and superoxide dismutase conjugated with platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule antibody distinctly alleviate abnormal endothelial permeability caused by exogenous reactive oxygen species and vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Han, Jingyan; Shuvaev, Vladimir V; Muzykantov, Vladimir R

    2011-07-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide anion (O(2)()) and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) produced by activated leukocytes and endothelial cells in sites of inflammation or ischemia cause endothelial barrier dysfunction that may lead to tissue edema. Antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) conjugated with antibodies to platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) specifically bind to endothelium, quench the corresponding ROS, and alleviate vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. In the present work, we studied the effects of anti-PECAM/catalase and anti-PECAM/SOD conjugates on the abnormal permeability manifested by transendothelial electrical resistance decline, increased fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran influx, and redistribution of vascular endothelial-cadherin in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers. Anti-PECAM/catalase protected HUVEC monolayers against H(2)O(2)-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase exerted orders of magnitude lower endothelial uptake and no protective effect, similarly to IgG/catalase. Anti-PECAM/catalase, but not anti-PECAM/SOD, alleviated endothelial hyperpermeability caused by exposure to hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase, implicating primarily H(2)O(2) in the disruption of the endothelial barrier in this model. Thrombin-induced endothelial permeability was not affected by treatment with anti-PECAM/AOEs or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin or overexpression of AOEs, indicating that the endogenous ROS play no key role in thrombin-mediated endothelial barrier dysfunction. In contrast, anti-PECAM/SOD, but not anti-PECAM/catalase, inhibited a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced increase in endothelial permeability, identifying a key role of endogenous O(2)() in the VEGF-mediated regulation of endothelial barrier function. Therefore, AOEs targeted to endothelial cells provide versatile molecular tools for testing the roles of

  10. Catalase and Superoxide Dismutase Conjugated with Platelet-Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule Antibody Distinctly Alleviate Abnormal Endothelial Permeability Caused by Exogenous Reactive Oxygen Species and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jingyan; Shuvaev, Vladimir V.

    2011-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) superoxide anion (O2⨪) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) produced by activated leukocytes and endothelial cells in sites of inflammation or ischemia cause endothelial barrier dysfunction that may lead to tissue edema. Antioxidant enzymes (AOEs) catalase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) conjugated with antibodies to platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) specifically bind to endothelium, quench the corresponding ROS, and alleviate vascular oxidative stress and inflammation. In the present work, we studied the effects of anti-PECAM/catalase and anti-PECAM/SOD conjugates on the abnormal permeability manifested by transendothelial electrical resistance decline, increased fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran influx, and redistribution of vascular endothelial-cadherin in human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayers. Anti-PECAM/catalase protected HUVEC monolayers against H2O2-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction. Polyethylene glycol-conjugated catalase exerted orders of magnitude lower endothelial uptake and no protective effect, similarly to IgG/catalase. Anti-PECAM/catalase, but not anti-PECAM/SOD, alleviated endothelial hyperpermeability caused by exposure to hypoxanthine/xanthine oxidase, implicating primarily H2O2 in the disruption of the endothelial barrier in this model. Thrombin-induced endothelial permeability was not affected by treatment with anti-PECAM/AOEs or the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin or overexpression of AOEs, indicating that the endogenous ROS play no key role in thrombin-mediated endothelial barrier dysfunction. In contrast, anti-PECAM/SOD, but not anti-PECAM/catalase, inhibited a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced increase in endothelial permeability, identifying a key role of endogenous O2⨪ in the VEGF-mediated regulation of endothelial barrier function. Therefore, AOEs targeted to endothelial cells provide versatile molecular tools for testing the roles of specific ROS in

  11. Edaravone attenuates monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijuan; Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuated the increase in NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation.

  12. Amadori-glycated phosphatidylethanolamine induces angiogenic differentiations in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Oak, Jeong-Ho; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Oikawa, Shinichi; Miyazawa, Teruo

    2003-12-04

    Glycation has been implicated in the endothelial dysfunction that contributes to both diabetes- and aging-associated vascular complications. The aim of the present study was to determine whether Amadori-glycated phosphatidylethanolamine (Amadori-PE), a lipid-linked glycation compound that is formed at an increased rate in hyperglycemic states, affected proliferation, migration and tube formation of cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Amadori-PE at a low concentration of less than 5 microM significantly enhanced these three factors involved in angiogenesis. Furthermore, stimulation of HUVEC with Amadori-PE resulted in secretion of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), a pivotal enzyme in the initial step of angiogenesis. Our results demonstrated for the first time that Amadori-PE may be an important compound that promotes vascular disease as a result of its angiogenic activity on endothelial cells. We also demonstrated that MMP-2 is a primary mediator of Amadori-PE-driven angiogenesis.

  13. Cellular biomarkers of endothelial health: microparticles, endothelial progenitor cells, and circulating endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Burger, Dylan; Touyz, Rhian M

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction, the shift from a healthy endothelium to a damaged pro-coagulative, pro-inflammatory, and pro-vasoconstrictive phenotype, is an early event in many chronic diseases that frequently precedes cardiovascular complications. Functional assessment of the endothelium can identify endothelial damage and predict cardiovascular risk; however, this assessment provides little information as to the mechanisms underlying development of endothelial dysfunction. Changes in plasma asymmetric dimethyl arginine levels, markers of lipid peroxidation, circulating levels of inflammatory mediators, indices of coagulation and cellular surrogates such as microparticles, circulating endothelial cells, and endothelial progenitor cells may reflect alterations in endothelial status and as such have been defined as "biomarkers" of endothelial function. Biomarkers may be chemical or cellular. This review examines some markers of endothelial dysfunction, with a particular focus on cellular biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction and their diagnostic potential. Copyright © 2012 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. AP-1 transcription factor mediates VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and proliferation.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jing; Ye, Taiyang; Cui, Pengfei; Hua, Qian; Zeng, Huiyan; Zhao, Dezheng

    2016-05-01

    VEGF, upon binding to its endothelial cell specific receptors VEGF-R1 and VEGF-R2, can induce endothelial cell migration, proliferation and angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism of these effects still remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether VEGF promotes human umbilical vascular endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and proliferation through activator protein-1 transcription factor (AP-1) family. We first showed that VEGF induces immediate-early genes AP-1 family gene expression differentially with the profound induction of JunB (both mRNA and protein) under various conditions (PBS, DMSO or control adenoviruses). The increase in AP-1 mRNA expression occurs primarily at the transcriptional level. Inhibition of AP-1 DNA binding activity by adenovirus expressing a potent dominant negative form of c-Fos (Afos) significantly attenuated VEGF-induced HUVEC migration and proliferation and cyclin D1 expression. Knockdown of JunB with adenovirus expressing JunB shRNA reduces VEGF-induced JunB expression and attenuated HUVEC migration. However the shJunB-expressing virus has no effect on VEGF-induced cyclin D1 protein expression and proliferation. These results suggest that VEGF-induced endothelial migration is mediated primarily by induction of JunB whereas the promotion of endothelial proliferation by VEGF is mediated by JunB-independent AP-1 family members.

  15. Stress-Induced Premature Senescence of Endothelial and Endothelial Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Goligorsky, M.S.; Hirschi, K.

    2016-01-01

    This brief overview of premature senescence of dysfunctional endothelial and endothelial progenitor cells provides information on endothelial cell differentiation and specialization, their ontogeny, and controversies related to endothelial stem and progenitor cells. Stressors responsible for the dysfunction of endothelial and endothelial progenitor cells, as well as cellular mechanisms and consequences of endothelial cell dysfunction are presented. Metabolic signatures of dysfunctional endothelial cells and senescence pathways are described. Emerging strategies to rejuvenate endothelial and endothelial progenitor cells conclude the review. PMID:27451101

  16. The effects of cadmium on VEGF-mediated angiogenesis in HUVECs.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jisun; Lim, Wonbong; Ko, Youngjong; Kwon, Hyukil; Kim, Sangwoo; Kim, Oksu; Park, Gyeongju; Choi, Hongran; Kim, Okjoon

    2012-05-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic element that causes morphologic alterations and dysfunction in blood vessels. The altered vascular function caused by cadmium has been implicated in a range of chronic diseases, including hypertension. The effects of cadmium are a multisystem phenomenon involving inflammation, hypertrophy, apoptosis, angiogenesis and important processes involved in vascular remodeling systems. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a major role in cell growth and angiogenesis under pathologic conditions. VEGF secretion is related to anti-apoptosis protein expression and attenuates apoptosis in endothelial cells. This study examined the VEGF-dependent mechanisms of angiogenesis and apoptosis in cadmium-treated endothelial cells (HUVECs). The effects and mechanisms of cadmium in endothelial cells (HUVECs) were examined by exposing the cells to different doses of cadmium chloride (2.5-40 μ m). After the cadmium treatment, the angiogenesis and apoptosis mechanisms related to VEGF in cadmium-treated HUVECs were examined. As a result, the low concentration of cadmium increased the tube formation in HUVECs. In addition, cadmium at concentrations of 5 and 10 μ m increased VEGF secretion and VEGFR2 activity, which suggest that cadmium affects the growth of blood vessels. All three MAPK pathways, namely ERK, JNK and p38, were activated by cadmium in HUVECs. However, high concentrations of cadmium caused cell damage, disrupted tube formation and inhibited VEGF expression and the activities of VEGFR2 and MAPK in HUVECs. Cadmium has dual functions through VEGF-dependent mechanisms in a dose-dependent manner. In this study, the dual effects of cadmium might alter angiogenesis and induce apoptosis through VEGF pathways in HUVECs. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Interfacial energetics approach for analysis of endothelial cell and segmental polyurethane interactions.

    PubMed

    Hill, Michael J; Cheah, Calvin; Sarkar, Debanjan

    2016-08-01

    Understanding the physicochemical interactions between endothelial cells and biomaterials is vital for regenerative medicine applications. Particularly, physical interactions between the substratum interface and spontaneously deposited biomacromolecules as well as between the induced biomolecular interface and the cell in terms of surface energetics are important factors to regulate cellular functions. In this study, we examined the physical interactions between endothelial cells and segmental polyurethanes (PUs) using l-tyrosine based PUs to examine the structure-property relations in terms of PU surface energies and endothelial cell organization. Since, contact angle analysis used to probe surface energetics provides incomplete interpretation and understanding of the physical interactions, we sought a combinatorial surface energetics approach utilizing water contact angle, Zisman's critical surface tension (CST), Kaelble's numerical method, and van Oss-Good-Chaudhury theory (vOGCT), and applied to both substrata and serum adsorbed matrix to correlate human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) behavior with surface energetics of l-tyrosine based PU surfaces. We determined that, while water contact angle of substratum or adsorbed matrix did not correlate well with HUVEC behavior, overall higher polarity according to the numerical method as well as Lewis base character of the substratum explained increased HUVEC interaction and monolayer formation as opposed to organization into networks. Cell interaction was also interpreted in terms of the combined effects of substratum and adsorbed matrix polarity and Lewis acid-base character to determine the effect of PU segments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hypericin, a Naphthodianthrone Derivative, Prevents Methylglyoxal-Induced Human Endothelial Cell Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Do, Moon Ho; Kim, Sun Yeou

    2017-01-01

    Methylglyoxal (MGO) is a highly reactive metabolite of glucose which is known to cause damage and induce apoptosis in endothelial cells. Endothelial cell damage is implicated in the progression of diabetes-associated complications and atherosclerosis. Hypericin, a naphthodianthrone isolated from Hypericum perforatum L. (St. John’s Wort), is a potent and selective inhibitor of protein kinase C and is reported to reduce neuropathic pain. In this work, we investigated the protective effect of hypericin on MGO-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Hypericin showed significant anti-apoptotic activity in MGO-treated HUVECs. Pretreatment with hypericin significantly inhibited MGO-induced changes in cell morphology, cell death, and production of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Hypericin prevented MGO-induced apoptosis in HUVECs by increasing Bcl-2 expression and decreasing Bax expression. MGO was found to activate mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Pretreatment with hypericin strongly inhibited the activation of MAPKs, including P38, JNK, and ERK1/2. Interestingly, hypericin also inhibited the formation of AGEs. These findings suggest that hypericin may be an effective regulator of MGO-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, hypericin downregulated the formation of AGEs and ameliorated MGO-induced dysfunction in human endothelial cells. PMID:27302958

  19. Interaction between chronically HIV-infected promonocytic cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells: role of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines in viral expression modulation

    PubMed Central

    Borghi, M O; Panzeri, P; Shattock, R; Sozzani, S; Dobrina, A; Meroni, P L

    2000-01-01

    HIV type 1 expression was significantly up-regulated in chronically infected promonocytic cell line (U1) co-cultured with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Virus replication, evaluated as supernatant p24 release, was higher when U1 were co-cultured with IL-1β-activated HUVEC than with unstimulated HUVEC. When non-adherent U1 were removed from co-cultures, the remaining U1 cells adherent to the endothelial monolayer still showed enhanced HIV replication in comparison with an equal number of U1 cultured alone. While addition of adhesion molecule blocking antibodies (anti-intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), -vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), -CD18 and -very late antigen-4 (VLA-4)) strongly inhibited adherence of U1 cells to endothelial monolayers, such treatment resulted in only a partial reduction in p24 release. Furthermore, HIV replication in U1 cells was enhanced on culture in HUVEC-conditioned media. Such data suggest that soluble mediators secreted by endothelial monolayers may modulate HIV-1 expression. Indeed, addition of cytokine and chemokine antagonists to both U1/HUVEC co-cultures and to U1 cultured in HUVEC-conditioned media clearly down-regulated p24 release. Anti-IL-6, anti-tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and, particularly, anti-MCP-1 MoAbs reduced p24 release, while anti-IL-8 polyclonal antiserum and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) had no significant effect. Thus, the interaction between HUVEC and infected monocytic cells up-regulates HIV-1 replication predominantly through production of endothelium-derived soluble factors including MCP-1, TNF-α and IL-6. This phenomenon may influence the passage of HIV-1 from latency to productive replication and enhance virus spreading during physiological and/or pathological contact of monocytes with endothelium. PMID:10759769

  20. The effects of kisspeptin-10 on migration and proliferation of endothelial cell

    PubMed Central

    Golzar, Fatemeh; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Migration, expansion and survival of endothelial cells that are an important cellular component of blood vessels plays an important role in the induction of tumor growth. Kisspeptins (kp), peptides that bind to coupled-G protein receptor (GPR54), inhibit each step of metastatic cascade include invasion, migration and homing, angiogenesis, survival and proliferation. In this study we investigated effects of kisspeptin-10, the most potent member of kisspeptin family, on Migration and proliferation of endothelial cells that are necessary for angiogenesis and tumor metastasis. Materials and Methods: We compared migration of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) were treated with 10-100 or 500 nM kp-10 for 24 hours and no treated cells using an in vitro trans membrane migration assay and HUVEC proliferation of treated endothelial cells with 10-100 or 500 nM kp-10 for 48 hours and no treated cells was measured by MTT Cell Proliferation Assay Kit. Analysis of data was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis test followed by the Mann-Whitney test. Results: Migration and proliferation of endothelial cells were increased at lower concentration of kp-10 specially at 100 nM while higher concentration reduced both migration and proliferation. Conclusion: Our data showed that different concentrations of kp-10 have distinct effects on migration and proliferation of endothelial cells. PMID:25789267

  1. Human endothelial cells are activated by interferon-γ plus tumour necrosis factor-α to kill intracellular Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    De Assis, M C; Da Costa, A O; Barja-Fidalgo, T C; Plotkowski, M C

    2000-01-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines have been shown to activate endothelial cells. To investigate the effect of cytokines on the interaction of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, cells were treated with interferon-γ (IFN-γ) plus tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) for 24 hr and exposed to P. aeruginosa suspension for 1 hr. Light microscopy showed that activated cells internalized significantly more bacteria than control cells. To ascertain the effect of cytokines on the microbicidal activity of HUVEC, the concentrations of viable intracellular (IC) bacteria in control and activated cells were determined, at 1 and 5 hr postinfection, by the gentamicin exclusion assay. In control cells, no significant decrease in the concentration of bacteria was detected 5 hr postinfection. In contrast, in activated cells the concentration of viable bacteria at 5 hr was significantly lower. Concentrations of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide detected in supernatants of activated cells were significantly higher than in control cell supernatants. HUVEC anti-P. aeruginosa activity was insensitive to the antioxidants superoxide dismutase, dimethylthiourea and allopurinol as well as to the l-arginine analogues aminoguanidine and NG-monomethyl-l-arginine (l-NMMA), but was significantly inhibited by catalase. Our results indicate that HUVEC can be activated by IFN-γ plus TNF-α to kill IC P. aeruginosa and suggest a role for reactive oxygen radicals, notably hydrogen peroxide, in HUVEC antibacterial activity. PMID:11012781

  2. Cancer microvesicles induce tissue factor-related procoagulant activity in endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Adesanya, Mufuliat Adeola; Maraveyas, Anthony; Madden, Leigh A

    2017-07-01

    : Microvesicles associated with tissue factor (TF) may play a role in cancer-related venous thromboembolism; however, not much is known about their interaction with the tumour stroma, especially the endothelium or any procoagulant changes seen because of this interaction. Using a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma line (UMSCC81B) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), this study explored the interaction of cancer microvesicles released into cell culture media with endothelial cells in vitro, and assessed the procoagulant activity resulting from this interaction. Cell-free media containing UMSCC81B cancer microvesicles supported coagulation in a concentration-dependent manner, suggesting TF and microvesicle presence, this media was then added to HUVECs and flow cytometry analysis showed a subpopulation of HUVECs that had acquired a significantly high expression of TF, which was dependent upon the concentration of UMSCC81B media containing microvesicles present and confocal microscopy confirmed HUVECs associated with labelled microvesicles. The range of TF-positive HUVECs was determined to be 0, 4.2(±1.4), 12.5(±3.72), and 45.9(±18.7)% for microvesicle-positive media concentration of 0, 25, 50, and 100%, respectively, which resulted in decreasing prothrombin values of more than 600 (no clot), 126.4, 65.8, and 47.8 s. Our results demonstrate that procoagulant microvesicles shed by UMSCC81B induced a procoagulant effect in HUVECs through increased clotting activity and cell membrane surface expression of TF.

  3. PU/PTFE-stimulated monocyte-derived soluble factors induced inflammatory activation in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yang; Liu, Xin; Sun, Jiao

    2010-03-01

    Polyurethane (PU) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are two commonly used blood-contacting biomaterials. In the present study, we used a noncontact coculture model to evaluate the thrombosis-causing potential of monocyte-mediated PU and PTFE. We used human endothelial cells from umbilical cord (HUVECs) and human monocytes (THP1 cells). The THP1 cells were directly exposed to PU/PTFE, and the resultant cell-free supernatants were harvested for stimulating HUVECs. The treated HUVECs constituted the test group. HUVECs treated with supernatants of LPS-stimulated THP1 cells were used as the positive controls. To investigate the effects of the supernatant treatment on HUVECs, we measured the expression of the leukocyte-endothelial-cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) CD54 (ICAM-1), CD106 (VCAM-1), and CD62E (E-selectin) and evaluated the release of tissue factor (TF). The results demonstrated that both PU and PTFE induced the expressions of CD62E and TF. These activation effects were accompanied by activation of the NF-kappaB transcription factor. To further investigate the monocyte-derived soluble factors that might contribute to these effects, we evaluated the effects of the PU/PTFE stimulation on the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS), TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 in monocyte monocultures. In comparison with the results for the negative control, both PU and PTFE significantly induced ROS release after 0.5h, while the expressions of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta, and IL-6 were variably increased after 24h. Our results suggest that the biomaterial induces monocytic activation and subsequently causes the release of soluble factors, which contribute to the inflammatory activation in HUVECs.

  4. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells accelerate oxalate-induced apoptosis of human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells in co-culture system which is prevented by pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate.

    PubMed

    Sarıca, Kemal; Aydin, Hasan; Yencilek, Faruk; Telci, Dilek; Yilmaz, Bayram

    2012-10-01

    Oxalate is the most common component of kidney stones and elevated urinary levels induce renal tubular cell toxicity and death which is essential for crystal attachment. Endothelial cells, in some studies have been shown to regulate certain functions of renal proximal tubule cells. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of endothelial cells on tubular cell apoptosis in a co-culture system mimicking the in vivo renal physiological settings. The human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and human renal proximal tubule epithelial cells (RPTEC) were exposed to increasing concentrations (0-1.0 mM) of oxalate with or without 10 μM PDTC pretreatment for 24 h. In HUVEC, RPTEC and HUVEC-RPTEC co-cultures, the cell viability was measured using the WST-1 assay and cell death with the TUNEL analysis using the flow cytometry. The treatment of RPTECs with oxalate lead to 8.9-26.2% cell death which was reduced to 0-1.6% with the PDTC pretreatment. The death rate of RPTECs was significantly increased by 15-19% at different oxalate concentrations when co-cultured with HUVECs. In contrast, cell viability was not substantially altered in PDTC pretreated RPTECs that were co-cultured with HUVECs. Apoptosis was the way of cell death as similar rate of apoptosis was observed in cell culture systems. Although cell viability of RPTECs was further reduced when co-cultured with HUVECs, it was restored with the pretreatment of PDTC. This is the first study focusing on the role of endothelial cells on RPTEC apoptosis following hyperoxaluria.

  5. Endothelial Cells Organize Fibrin Clots into Structures That Are More Resistant to Lysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray Jerome, W.; Handt, Stefan; Hantgan, Roy R.

    2005-06-01

    Acute myocardial infarction is a major cause of death and disability in the United States. Introducing thrombolytic agents into the clot to dissolve occlusive coronary artery thrombi is one method of treatment. However, despite advances in our knowledge of thrombosis and thrombolysis, survival rates following thrombolytic therapy have not improved substantially. This failure highlights the need for further study of the factors mediating clot stabilization. Using laser scanning confocal microscopy of clots formed from fluorescein-labeled fibrinogen, we investigated what effect binding of fibrin to the endothelial surface has on clot structure and resistance to lysis. Fluorescent fibrin clots were produced over human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and the clot structure analyzed. In the presence of HUVEC, fibrin near the endothelial surface was more organized and occurred in tighter bundles compared to fibrin just 50 [mu]m above. The HUVEC influence on fibrin architecture was blocked by inhibitory concentrations of antibodies to [alpha]V or [beta]3 integrin subunits. The regions of the clots associated with endothelial cells were more resistant to lysis than the more homogenous regions distal to endothelium. Thus, our data show that binding of fibrin to integrins on endothelial surfaces produces clots that are more resistant to lysis.

  6. Piper sarmentosum as an antioxidant on oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells induced by hydrogen peroxide*

    PubMed Central

    Hafizah, Abdul Hamid; Zaiton, Zakaria; Zulkhairi, Amom; Mohd Ilham, Adenan; Nor Anita, Megat Mohd Nordin; Zaleha, Abdullah Mahdy

    2010-01-01

    Endothelial cell death due to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) may contribute to the initial endothelial injury, which promotes atherosclerotic lesion formation. Piper sarmentosum (PS), a natural product, has been shown to have an antioxidant property, which is hypothesized to inhibit production of ROS and prevent cell injury. Thus, the present study was designed to determine the effects of PS on the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative cell damage in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In this experiment, HUVECs were obtained by collagenase perfusion of the large vein in the umbilical cord and cultured in medium M200 supplemented with low serum growth supplementation (LSGS). HUVECs were treated with various concentrations of H2O2 (0–1000 µmol/L) and it was observed that 180 µmol/L H2O2 reduced cell viability by 50% as denoted by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Using the above concentration as the positive control, the H2O2-induced HUVECs were concomitantly treated with various concentrations (100, 150, 250 and 300 µg/ml) of three different extracts (aqueous, methanol and hexane) of PS. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) levels showed a significant increase (P<0.05) in HUVECs compared to the negative control. However, PS extracts showed a protective effect on HUVECs from H2O2-induced cell apoptosis with a significant reduction in MDA, SOD, CAT and GPX levels (P<0.05). Furthermore, PS had exhibited ferric reducing antioxidant power with its high phenolic content. Hence, it was concluded that PS plays a beneficial role in reducing oxidative stress in H2O2-induced HUVECs. PMID:20443214

  7. Bisphenol A Disrupts Transcription and Decreases Viability in Aging Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro-Varandas, Edna; Pereira, H. Sofia; Monteiro, Sara; Neves, Elsa; Brito, Luísa; Boavida Ferreira, Ricardo; Viegas, Wanda; Delgado, Margarida

    2014-01-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely utilized endocrine disruptor capable of mimicking endogenous hormones, employed in the manufacture of numerous consumer products, thereby interfering with physiological cellular functions. Recent research has shown that BPA alters epigenetic cellular mechanisms in mammals and may be correlated to enhanced cellular senescence. Here, the effects of BPA at 10 ng/mL and 1 µg/mL, concentrations found in human samples, were analyzed on HT29 human colon adenocarcinona cell line and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) transcriptional analysis of the Long Interspersed Element-1 (LINE-1) retroelement showed that BPA induces global transcription deregulation in both cell lines, although with more pronounced effects in HUVEC cells. Whereas there was an increase in global transcription in HT29 exclusively after 24 h of exposure, this chemical had prolonged effects on HUVEC. Immunoblotting revealed that this was not accompanied by alterations in the overall content of H3K9me2 and H3K4me3 epigenetic marks. Importantly, cell viability assays and transcriptional analysis indicated that prolonged BPA exposure affects aging processes in senescent HUVEC. To our knowledge this is the first report that BPA interferes with senescence in primary vascular endothelial cells, therefore, suggesting its association to the etiology of age-related human pathologies, such as atherosclerosis. PMID:25207595

  8. Bisphenol A disrupts transcription and decreases viability in aging vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro-Varandas, Edna; Pereira, H Sofia; Monteiro, Sara; Neves, Elsa; Brito, Luísa; Ferreira, Ricardo Boavida; Viegas, Wanda; Delgado, Margarida

    2014-09-09

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a widely utilized endocrine disruptor capable of mimicking endogenous hormones, employed in the manufacture of numerous consumer products, thereby interfering with physiological cellular functions. Recent research has shown that BPA alters epigenetic cellular mechanisms in mammals and may be correlated to enhanced cellular senescence. Here, the effects of BPA at 10 ng/mL and 1 µg/mL, concentrations found in human samples, were analyzed on HT29 human colon adenocarcinona cell line and Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVEC). Quantitative Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qRT-PCR) transcriptional analysis of the Long Interspersed Element-1 (LINE-1) retroelement showed that BPA induces global transcription deregulation in both cell lines, although with more pronounced effects in HUVEC cells. Whereas there was an increase in global transcription in HT29 exclusively after 24 h of exposure, this chemical had prolonged effects on HUVEC. Immunoblotting revealed that this was not accompanied by alterations in the overall content of H3K9me2 and H3K4me3 epigenetic marks. Importantly, cell viability assays and transcriptional analysis indicated that prolonged BPA exposure affects aging processes in senescent HUVEC. To our knowledge this is the first report that BPA interferes with senescence in primary vascular endothelial cells, therefore, suggesting its association to the etiology of age-related human pathologies, such as atherosclerosis.

  9. Discovering the infectome of human endothelial cells challenged with Aspergillus fumigatus applying a mass spectrometry label-free approach.

    PubMed

    Curty, N; Kubitschek-Barreira, P H; Neves, G W; Gomes, D; Pizzatti, L; Abdelhay, E; Souza, G H M F; Lopes-Bezerra, L M

    2014-01-31

    Blood vessel invasion is a key feature of invasive aspergillosis. This angioinvasion process contributes to tissue thrombosis, which can impair the access of leukocytes and antifungal drugs to the site of infection. It has been demonstrated that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) are activated and assume a prothrombotic phenotype following contact with Aspergillus fumigatus hyphae or germlings, a process that is independent of fungus viability. However, the molecular mechanisms by which this pathogen can activate endothelial cells, together with the endothelial pathways that are involved in this process, remain unknown. Using a label-free approach by High Definition Mass Spectrometry (HDMS(E)), differentially expressed proteins were identified during HUVEC-A. fumigatus interaction. Among these, 89 proteins were determined to be up- or down-regulated, and another 409 proteins were exclusive to one experimental condition: the HUVEC control or HUVEC:AF interaction. The in silico predictions provided a general view of which biological processes and/or pathways were regulated during HUVEC:AF interaction, and they mainly included cell signaling, immune response and hemostasis pathways. This work describes the first global proteomic analysis of HUVECs following interaction with A. fumigatus germlings, the fungus morphotype that represents the first step of invasion and dissemination within the host. A. fumigatus causes the main opportunistic invasive fungal infection related to neutropenic hematologic patients. One of the key steps during the establishment of invasive aspergillosis is angioinvasion but the mechanism associated with the interaction of A. fumigatus with the vascular endothelium remains unknown. The identification of up- and down-regulated proteins expressed by human endothelial cells in response to the fungus infection can contribute to reveal the mechanism of endothelial response and, to understand the physiopathology of this high mortality

  10. Effects of hypergravity on the angiogenic potential of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Costa-Almeida, Raquel; Carvalho, Daniel T O; Ferreira, Miguel J S; Aresta, Guilherme; Gomes, Manuela E; van Loon, Jack J W A; Van der Heiden, Kim; Granja, Pedro L

    2016-11-01

    Angiogenesis, the formation of blood vessels from pre-existing ones, is a key event in pathology, including cancer progression, but also in homeostasis and regeneration. As the phenotype of endothelial cells (ECs) is continuously regulated by local biomechanical forces, studying endothelial behaviour in altered gravity might contribute to new insights towards angiogenesis modulation. This study aimed at characterizing EC behaviour after hypergravity exposure (more than 1g), with special focus on cytoskeleton architecture and capillary-like structure formation. Herein, human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were cultured under two-dimensional and three-dimensional conditions at 3g and 10g for 4 and 16 h inside the large diameter centrifuge at the European Space Research and Technology Centre (ESTEC) of the European Space Agency. Although no significant tendency regarding cytoskeleton organization was observed for cells exposed to high g's, a slight loss of the perinuclear localization of β-tubulin was observed for cells exposed to 3g with less pronounced peripheral bodies of actin when compared with 1g control cells. Additionally, hypergravity exposure decreased the assembly of HUVECs into capillary-like structures, with a 10g level significantly reducing their organization capacity. In conclusion, short-term hypergravity seems to affect EC phenotype and their angiogenic potential in a time and g-level-dependent manner. © 2016 The Author(s).

  11. Enhancement of proinflammatory and procoagulant responses to silica particles by monocyte-endothelial cell interactions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Xue, Yang; Ding, Tingting; Sun, Jiao

    2012-09-18

    Inorganic particles, such as drug carriers or contrast agents, are often introduced into the vascular system. Many key components of the in vivo vascular environment include monocyte-endothelial cell interactions, which are important in the initiation of cardiovascular disease. To better understand the effect of particles on vascular function, the present study explored the direct biological effects of particles on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and monocytes (THP-1 cells). In addition, the integrated effects and possible mechanism of particle-mediated monocyte-endothelial cell interactions were investigated using a coculture model of HUVECs and THP-1 cells. Fe₃O₄ and SiO₂ particles were chosen as the test materials in the present study. The cell viability data from an MTS assay showed that exposure to Fe₃O₄ or SiO₂ particles at concentrations of 200 μg/mL and above significantly decreased the cell viability of HUVECs, but no significant loss in viability was observed in the THP-1 cells. TEM images indicated that with the accumulation of SiO₂ particles in the cells, the size, structure and morphology of the lysosomes significantly changed in HUVECs, whereas the lysosomes of THP-1 cells were not altered. Our results showed that reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation; the production of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and IL-1β; and the expression of CD106, CD62E and tissue factor in HUVECs and monocytes were significantly enhanced to a greater degree in the SiO₂-particle-activated cocultures compared with the individual cell types alone. In contrast, exposure to Fe₃O₄ particles had no impact on the activation of monocytes or endothelial cells in monoculture or coculture. Moreover, using treatment with the supernatants of SiO₂-particle-stimulated monocytes or HUVECs, we found that the enhancement of proinflammatory response by SiO₂ particles was not

  12. Engineering of Surface Functionality onto Polystyrene Microcarriers for the Attachment and Growth of Human Endothelial Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Gordon M.; Foord, John S.; Griffiths, Jon-Paul; Parker, Emily M.; Moloney, Mark G.; Choong, Cleo

    2014-08-01

    This work reports the effects of introducing diverse chemical functionalities onto the surface of polystyrene microcarrier beads on their ability to function as injectable cell carriers. Cellular adhesion and proliferation, as well as cellular outgrowths from microcarrier surfaces, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), were examined in detail. It was observed that initial cell adhesion appeared to be most significantly decreased by hydrophobicity, whilst cell proliferation appeared to be improved in most chemical functional groups over unmodified polystyrene. Overall, our study highlights the importance of surface chemistry in directing the growth and function of human endothelial cells.

  13. ENDOTHELIAL CELL TOLERANCE TO LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDE CHALLENGE IS INDUCED BY MONOPHOSPHORYL LIPID A

    PubMed Central

    Stark, Ryan J.; Choi, Hyehun; Koch, Stephen R.; Fensterheim, Benjamin A.; Lamb, Fred S.; Sherwood, Edward R.

    2015-01-01

    Prior exposure to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) produces a reduced or “tolerant” inflammatory response to subsequent challenges with LPS, however the potent pro-inflammatory effects of LPS limit its clinical benefit. The adjuvant Monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA) is a weak toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist that induces negligible inflammation but retains potent immunomodulatory properties. We postulated that pre-treatment with MPLA would inhibit the inflammatory response of endothelial cells to secondary LPS challenge. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), were exposed to MPLA (10 µg/ml), LPS (100 ng/ml) or vehicle control. HUVECs were then washed and maintained in culture for 24 hours before being challenged with LPS (100 ng/ml). Supernatants were collected and examined for cytokine production in the presence or absence of siRNA inhibitors of critical TLR4 signaling proteins. Pretreatment with MPLA attenuated IL-6 production to secondary LPS challenge to a similar degree as LPS. The application of MyD88 siRNA dramatically reduced MPLA-induced tolerance while TRIF siRNA had no effect. The tolerant phenotype in endothelial cells was associated with reduced IKK, p38 and JNK phosphorylation and enhanced IRAK-M expression for LPS primed HUVECs, but less so in MPLA primed cells. Instead, MPLA-primed HUVECs demonstrated enhanced ERK phosphorylation. In contrast to leukocytes in which tolerance is largely TRIF-dependent, MyD88 signaling mediated endotoxin tolerance in endothelial cells. Most importantly, MPLA, a vaccine adjuvant with a wide therapeutic window, induced tolerance to LPS in endothelial cells. PMID:26669797

  14. Cigarette smoke exposure impairs VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration: role of NO and reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Sophie Elise; Dussault, Sylvie; Groleau, Jessika; Haddad, Paola; Rivard, Alain

    2006-08-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is one of the earliest pathological effects of cigarette smoking. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) has been shown to be an important regulator of endothelial healing and growth. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that cigarette smoke exposure impairs VEGF actions in endothelial cells. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) inhibited VEGF-induced tube formation in the matrigel assay. CSE did not affect HUVECs proliferation, but significantly reduced cellular migration in response to VEGF. This impaired migratory activity was associated with a reduced expression of alpha(v)beta(3), alpha(v)beta(5), alpha(5)beta(1) and alpha(2)beta(1) integrins. The Akt/eNOS/NO pathway has been shown to be important for VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration. We found that CSE inhibited Akt/eNOS phosphorylation and NO release in VEGF-stimulated HUVECs. This was associated with an increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Importantly, in HUVECs exposed to CSE, treatment with antioxidants (NAC, vitamin C) reduced ROS formation and rescued VEGF-induced NO release, cellular migration and tube formation. Moreover, treatment with NO donors (SNAP, SNP) or a cGMP analog (8-Br-cGMP) rescued integrin expression, cellular migration and tube formation in endothelial cells exposed to CSE. (1) Cigarette smoke exposure impairs VEGF-induced endothelial cell migration and tube formation. (2) The mechanism involves increased generation of ROS, decreased expression of surface integrins together with a blockade of the Akt/eNOS/NO pathway. (3) These findings could contribute to explain the negative effect of cigarette smoking on endothelial function and vessel growth.

  15. Reprogramming of HUVECs into Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (HiPSCs), Generation and Characterization of HiPSC-Derived Neurons and Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Boakye, Paul A.; Baker, Glen; Smith, Peter A.; Murray, Allan G.; Giuliani, Fabrizio; Jahroudi, Nadia

    2015-01-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are characterized by chronic and progressive structural or functional loss of neurons. Limitations related to the animal models of these human diseases have impeded the development of effective drugs. This emphasizes the need to establish disease models using human-derived cells. The discovery of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology has provided novel opportunities in disease modeling, drug development, screening, and the potential for “patient-matched” cellular therapies in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, with the objective of establishing reliable tools to study neurodegenerative diseases, we reprogrammed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) into iPSCs (HiPSCs). Using a novel and direct approach, HiPSCs were differentiated into cells of central nervous system (CNS) lineage, including neuronal, astrocyte and glial cells, with high efficiency. HiPSCs expressed embryonic genes such as nanog, sox2 and Oct-3/4, and formed embryoid bodies that expressed markers of the 3 germ layers. Expression of endothelial-specific genes was not detected in HiPSCs at RNA or protein levels. HiPSC-derived neurons possess similar morphology but significantly longer neurites compared to primary human fetal neurons. These stem cell-derived neurons are susceptible to inflammatory cell-mediated neuronal injury. HiPSC-derived neurons express various amino acids that are important for normal function in the CNS. They have functional receptors for a variety of neurotransmitters such as glutamate and acetylcholine. HiPSC-derived astrocytes respond to ATP and acetylcholine by elevating cytosolic Ca2+ concentrations. In summary, this study presents a novel technique to generate differentiated and functional HiPSC-derived neurons and astrocytes. These cells are appropriate tools for studying the development of the nervous system, the pathophysiology of various neurodegenerative diseases and the development of potential drugs for their

  16. Endothelial cell effects of cytotoxics: balance between desired and unwanted effects.

    PubMed

    de Vos, F Y F L; Willemse, P H B; de Vries, E G E; Gietema, J A

    2004-10-01

    Since Folkman defined angiogenesis more than 25 years ago as the most important process in tumour growth and metastasis, specific anti-angiogenic agents have been developed. One obvious route to block this process was until recently overlooked, however. Tumour endothelial cells are different from normal endothelial cells and may respond differently to conventional cytotoxics. Chemotherapeutic-induced vascular toxicity has been observed in various clinical studies and seems to be based on endothelial cell damage as seen in vitro in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) models with protracted low-dose cytostatic exposure. Translated into the clinical setting, such "metronomically" administered chemotherapy could lead to anti-angiogenesis enhancing anti-tumour efficacy of cytostatic drugs. This paper reviews the desired anti-tumour endothelial activity versus the unwanted general vascular toxicity of cytostatic drugs. Several ways to enhance the anti-tumour activity and to circumvent the unwanted vascular toxicity of these "accidental" anti-angiogenic drugs will be discussed.

  17. Influence of vancomycin infusion methods on endothelial cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Drouet, Maryline; Chai, Feng; Barthélémy, Christine; Lebuffe, Gilles; Debaene, Bertrand; Décaudin, Bertrand; Odou, Pascal

    2015-02-01

    Peripheral intravenous therapy is frequently used in routine hospital practice and, due to various factors, its most common side effect is phlebitis. The infusion of vancomycin is particularly associated with phlebitis despite its widespread use. French guidelines recommend central intravenous infusion for high concentrations of vancomycin, but peripheral intravenous therapy is often preferred in intensive care units. Methods of vancomycin infusion are either intermittent infusion or continuous infusion. A comparison of these methods under in vitro conditions simulating clinical use could result in better infusion efficacy. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were therefore challenged with clinical doses of vancomycin over a 24- to 72-h period using these infusion methods. Cell death was measured with the alamarBlue test. Concentration-dependent and time-dependent vancomycin toxicity on HUVECs was noted with a 50% lethal dose at 5 mg/ml after 24 h, reaching 2.5 mg/ml after 72 h of infusion, simulating long-term infusion. This toxicity does not seem to be induced by acidic pH. In comparing infusion methods, we observed that continuous infusion induced greater cell toxicity than intermittent infusion at doses higher than 1 g/day. The increasing use of vancomycin means that new guidelines are required to avoid phlebitis. If peripheral intravenous therapy is used to reduce infusion time, along with intermittent infusion, vein irritation and localized phlebitis may be reduced. Further studies have to be carried out to explore the causes of vancomycin endothelial toxicity.

  18. Influence of Vancomycin Infusion Methods on Endothelial Cell Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Drouet, Maryline; Chai, Feng; Barthélémy, Christine; Lebuffe, Gilles; Debaene, Bertrand; Odou, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Peripheral intravenous therapy is frequently used in routine hospital practice and, due to various factors, its most common side effect is phlebitis. The infusion of vancomycin is particularly associated with phlebitis despite its widespread use. French guidelines recommend central intravenous infusion for high concentrations of vancomycin, but peripheral intravenous therapy is often preferred in intensive care units. Methods of vancomycin infusion are either intermittent infusion or continuous infusion. A comparison of these methods under in vitro conditions simulating clinical use could result in better infusion efficacy. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were therefore challenged with clinical doses of vancomycin over a 24- to 72-h period using these infusion methods. Cell death was measured with the alamarBlue test. Concentration-dependent and time-dependent vancomycin toxicity on HUVECs was noted with a 50% lethal dose at 5 mg/ml after 24 h, reaching 2.5 mg/ml after 72 h of infusion, simulating long-term infusion. This toxicity does not seem to be induced by acidic pH. In comparing infusion methods, we observed that continuous infusion induced greater cell toxicity than intermittent infusion at doses higher than 1 g/day. The increasing use of vancomycin means that new guidelines are required to avoid phlebitis. If peripheral intravenous therapy is used to reduce infusion time, along with intermittent infusion, vein irritation and localized phlebitis may be reduced. Further studies have to be carried out to explore the causes of vancomycin endothelial toxicity. PMID:25421476

  19. VUV modification promotes endothelial cell proliferation on PTFE vascular grafts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cezeaux, J. L.; Romoser, C. E.; Benson, R. S.; Buck, C. K.; Sackman, J. E.

    1998-05-01

    Small diameter (⩽6 mm ID ) synthetic vascular grafts, used as lower-limb vessel replacements in patients without suitable autologous saphenous veins, have a failure rate of 53% after 4 yr. Graft failure is due to thrombosis and intimal hyperplasia, an increase in smooth muscle cells in the lumen of the vessel which leads to progressive closing and ultimate occlusion of the vessel. In an effort to increase patency rates of synthetic grafts, investigators have seeded vascular grafts with endothelial cells prior to implantation in an attempt to control both thrombosis and smooth muscle proliferation. This technique has been successful for the development of an endothelial monolayer in animal trials, but has met with limited success in humans. The hydrophobicity, low surface energy, and weak electrical charge of expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) provides conditions which are not optimal for endothelial cell attachment. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) modification of ePTFE on endothelial cell adhesion and proliferation. Pieces of ePTFE graft material were exposed to 10, 20 or 40 W VUV radiation for 10, 20 or 40 min using a UV excimer lamp. Prior to cell adhesion and proliferation experiments, the grafts pieces were autoclaved and cut into pledgets. Half of the pledgets were precoated with fibronectin ( 20 μg/ml). Cell adhesion was measured by seeding 3H-thymidine labeled human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) onto the pledgets for 60 min. The pledgets were then washed and the remaining radioactivity assayed using scintillation counting. For the cell proliferation experiments, pledgets were seeded with unlabeled HUVEC which were allowed to adhere to the graft material for 18 h. The cells were then exposed to 3H-thymidine ( 1 μCi/ml) for approximately 48 h and then washed to remove any unincorporated 3H-thymidine. Incorporation of 3H-thymidine was measured using scintillation counting. Four replicate

  20. Bioglass promotes wound healing by affecting gap junction connexin 43 mediated endothelial cell behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; He, Jin; Yu, Hongfei; Green, Colin R; Chang, Jiang

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that gap junctions play an important role in wound healing, and bioactive glass (BG) has been shown to help healing when applied as a wound dressing. However, the effects of BG on gap junctional communication between cells involved in wound healing is not well understood. We hypothesized that BG may be able to affect gap junction mediated cell behavior to enhance wound healing. Therefore, we set out to investigate the effects of BG on gap junction related behavior of endothelial cells in order to elucidate the mechanisms through which BG is operating. In in vitro studies, BG ion extracts prevented death of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) following hypoxia in a dose dependent manner, possibly through connexin hemichannel modulation. In addition, BG showed stimulatory effects on gap junction communication between HUVECs and upregulated connexin43 (Cx43) expression. Furthermore, BG prompted expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and basic fibroblast growth factor as well as their receptors, and vascular endothelial cadherin in HUVECs, all of which are beneficial for vascularization. In vivo wound healing results showed that the wound closure of full-thickness excisional wounds of rats was accelerated by BG with reduced inflammation during initial stages of healing and stimulated angiogenesis during the proliferation stage. Therefore, BG can stimulate wound healing through affecting gap junctions and gap junction related endothelial cell behaviors, including prevention of endothelial cell death following hypoxia, stimulation of gap junction communication and upregulation of critical vascular growth factors, which contributes to the enhancement of angiogenesis in the wound bed and finally to accelerate wound healing. Although many studies have reported that BG stimulates angiogenesis and wound healing, this work reveals the relationship between BG and gap junction connexin 43 mediated endothelial cell behavior and elucidates

  1. Inhibition of the proliferation and acceleration of migration of vascular endothelial cells by increased cysteine-rich motor neuron 1

    SciTech Connect

    Nakashima, Yukiko; Morimoto, Mayuka; Toda, Ken-ichi; Shinya, Tomohiro; Sato, Keizo; Takahashi, Satoru

    2015-07-03

    Cysteine-rich motor neuron 1 (CRIM1) is upregulated only in extracellular matrix gels by angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). It then plays a critical role in the tube formation of endothelial cells. In the present study, we investigated the effects of increased CRIM1 on other endothelial functions such as proliferation and migration. Knock down of CRIM1 had no effect on VEGF-induced proliferation or migration of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), indicating that basal CRIM1 is not involved in the proliferation or migration of endothelial cells. Stable CRIM1-overexpressing endothelial F-2 cells, termed CR1 and CR2, were constructed, because it was difficult to prepare monolayer HUVECs that expressed high levels of CRIM1. Proliferation was reduced and migration was accelerated in both CR1 and CR2 cells, compared with normal F-2 cells. Furthermore, the transient overexpression of CRIM1 resulted in decreased proliferation and increased migration of bovine aortic endothelial cells. In contrast, neither proliferation nor migration of COS-7 cells were changed by the overexpression of CRIM1. These results demonstrate that increased CRIM1 reduces the proliferation and accelerates the migration of endothelial cells. These CRIM1 effects might contribute to tube formation of endothelial cells. CRIM1 induced by angiogenic factors may serve as a regulator in endothelial cells to switch from proliferating cells to morphological differentiation. - Highlights: • CRIM1 was upregulated only in tubular endothelial cells, but not in monolayers. • Increased CRIM1 reduced the proliferation of endothelial cells. • Increased CRIM1 accelerated the migration of endothelial cells. • Increased CRIM1 had no effect on the proliferation or migration of COS-7 cells.

  2. Shear stress regulates HUVEC hydraulic conductivity by occludin phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Pang, Zhengyu; Antonetti, David A; Tarbell, John M

    2005-11-01

    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) display hydraulic conductivity (L(P)) responses to shear stress that differ markedly from the responses of bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAECs). In HUVECs, 5, 10, and 20 dyn cm(-2) steady shear stress transiently increased L(P) with a return to preshear baseline after a 2-h exposure to shear stress. Pure oscillatory shear stress of 0 +/- 20 dyn cm(-2) (mean+/-amplitude) had no effect on L(P), whereas superposition of oscillatory shear stress on steady shear stress suppressed the effect induced by steady shear stress alone. Shear reversal (amplitude greater than mean) was not necessary for the inhibitory influence of oscillatory shear stress. The transient increase of L(P) by steady shear stress was not affected by incubation with BAPTA-AM (10 microM), suggesting calcium independence of the shear response. Decreasing nitric oxide (NO) concentration with L-NMMA (100 microM), a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitor, did not inhibit the HUVEC L(P) response to shear stress. At the protein level, 10 dyn cm(-2) shear stress did not affect the total content of occludin, but it did elevate the phosphorylation level transiently. The positive correlation between occludin phosphorylation and hydraulic conductivity parallels observations in BAECs and suggests that occludin phosphorylation may be a general mediator of shear-L(P) responses in diverse endothelial cell types.

  3. Prevascularization of self-organizing engineered heart tissue by human umbilical vein endothelial cells abrogates contractile performance.

    PubMed

    Sondergaard, Claus Svane; Witt, Russell; Mathews, Grant; Najibi, Skender; Le, Lisa; Clift, Tracy; Si, Ming-Sing

    2012-12-01

    Establishing vascularization is a critical obstacle to the generation of engineered heart tissue (EHT) of substantial thickness. Addition of endothelial cells to the formative stages of EHT has been demonstrated to result in prevascularization, or the formation of capillary-like structures. The detailed study of the effects of prevascularization on EHT contractile function is lacking. Here, we evaluated the functional impact of prevascularization by human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in self-organizing EHT. EHT fibers were generated by the self-organization of neonatal rat cardiac cells on a fibrin hydrogel scaffold with or without HUVECs. Contractile function was measured and force-length relationship and rate of force production were assessed. Immunofluorescent studies were used to evaluate arrangement and distribution of HUVECs within the EHT fibers. RT-PCR was used to assess the transcript levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1a (Hif-1α). EHT with HUVECs manifested tubule-like structures at the periphery during fiber formation. After fiber formation, HUVECs were heterogeneously located throughout the EHT fiber and human CD31+ tubule-like structures were identified. The expression level of Hif-1α did not change with the addition of HUVECs. However, maximal force and rate of force generation were not improved in HUVECs containing EHT as compared to control EHT fibers. The addition of HUVECs may result in sparse microvascularization of EHT. However, this perceived benefit is overshadowed by a significant decrease in contractile function and highlights the need for perfused vascularization strategies in order to generate EHT that approaches clinically relevant dimensions.

  4. Extracellular histones disarrange vasoactive mediators release through a COX-NOS interaction in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Cremades, Daniel; Bueno-Betí, Carlos; García-Giménez, José Luis; Ibañez-Cabellos, José Santiago; Hermenegildo, Carlos; Pallardó, Federico V; Novella, Susana

    2017-02-28

    Extracellular histones are mediators of inflammation, tissue injury and organ dysfunction. Interactions between circulating histones and vascular endothelial cells are key events in histone-mediated pathologies. Our aim was to investigate the implication of extracellular histones in the production of the major vasoactive compounds released by human endothelial cells (HUVECs), prostanoids and nitric oxide (NO). HUVEC exposed to increasing concentrations of histones (0.001 to 100 μg/ml) for 4 hrs induced prostacyclin (PGI2) production in a dose-dependent manner and decreased thromboxane A2 (TXA2) release at 100 μg/ml. Extracellular histones raised cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) mRNA and protein expression, decreased COX-1 mRNA levels and did not change thromboxane A2 synthase (TXAS) expression. Moreover, extracellular histones decreased both, eNOS expression and NO production in HUVEC. The impaired NO production was related to COX-2 activity and superoxide production since was reversed after celecoxib (10 μmol/l) and tempol (100 μmol/l) treatments, respectively. In conclusion, our findings suggest that extracellular histones stimulate the release of endothelial-dependent mediators through an up-regulation in COX-2-PGIS-PGI2 pathway which involves a COX-2-dependent superoxide production that decreases the activity of eNOS and the NO production. These effects may contribute to the endothelial cell dysfunction observed in histone-mediated pathologies.

  5. Eupatilin protects against tumor necrosis factor-α-mediated inflammation inhuman umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kai; Li, Xi-Ming; Xu, Xiao-Lei; Zhang, Ru-Yan; Cong, Hong-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory responses in the blood vessel play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. Eupatilin, a flavone derived from Artemisia princepsPampanini, has various pharmacological activities, including antioxidant, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory capacities. However, there has been no research examining the function of eupatilin on vascular inflammation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects of eupatilin on tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) activation and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our findings showed that eupatilin reduced U937 cells adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated HUVECs and attenuated TNF-α-induced the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) in HUVECs, as well as the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). Moreover, eupatilininhibits TNF-α-induced phosphorylation of NF-kB p65 and MAPKs in HUVECs. Taken together, the results of the present study suggest that eupatilin inhibited inflammatory reaction through suppressing the ROS/MAPK-NF-ĸB pathway in HUVECs. Thus, eupatilin is proposed as an effective new anti-inflammatory agent to suppress vascular inflammation, and further prevent atherosclerosis.

  6. Improved biocompatibility of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) following conditioning by human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Woods, A M; Rodenberg, E J; Hiles, M C; Pavalko, F M

    2004-02-01

    Small intestinal submucosa (SIS) is a naturally occurring tissue matrix composed of extracellular matrix proteins and various growth factors. SIS is derived from the porcine jejunum and functions as a remodeling scaffold for tissue repair. While SIS has proven to be a useful biomaterial for implants in vivo, problems associated with endothelialization and thrombogenicity of SIS implants may limit its vascular utility. The goal of this study was to determine if the biological properties of SIS could be improved by growing human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on SIS and allowing these cells to deposit human basement membrane proteins on the porcine substrate to create what we have called "conditioned" SIS (c-SIS). Using an approach in which HUVEC were grown for 2 weeks on SIS and then removed via a technique that leaves behind an intact basement membrane, we hypothesized that the surface properties of SIS might be improved. We found that when re-seeded on c-SIS, HUVEC exhibited enhanced organization of cell junctions and had increased metabolic activity compared to cells on native SIS (n-SIS). Furthermore, HUVEC grown on c-SIS released lower amounts of the pro-inflammatory prostaglandin PGI2 into the media compared to cells grown on n-SIS. Additionally, we found that adhesion of resting or activated human platelets to c-SIS was significantly decreased compared to n-SIS suggesting that, in addition to improved cell growth characteristics, conditioning SIS with human basement membrane proteins might decrease its thrombogenic potential. In summary, conditioning of porcine SIS by human endothelial cells improves key biological properties of the material that may improve its usefulness as remodeling scaffold for tissue repair. Identification of critical modifications of SIS by human endothelial cells should help guide future efforts to develop more biocompatible vascular grafts.

  7. Contribution of endothelial cells to human bone-derived cells expansion in coculture.

    PubMed

    Leszczynska, Joanna; Zyzynska-Granica, Barbara; Koziak, Katarzyna; Ruminski, Slawomir; Lewandowska-Szumiel, Malgorzata

    2013-02-01

    Creating a functional vascularized bone tissue remains one of the main goals of bone tissue engineering. Recently, a growing interest in the crosstalk between endothelial cells (EC) and osteoblasts (OB), the two main players in a new bone formation, has been observed. However, only a few reports have addressed a mutual influence of OB and EC on cell proliferation. Our study focuses on this issue by investigating cocultures of human bone-derived cells (HBDC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Three various proportions of cells have been used that is, HBDC:HUVEC 1:1, 1:4, and 4:1 and the cocultures were investigated on day 1, 4, and 7, while HUVEC and HBDC monocultures served as reference. We have detected enhanced alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in a direct HBDC-HUVEC coculture. This effect was not observed when cells were separated by an insert, which is consistent with other reports on various OB-EC lineages. The appearance of gap-junctions in coculture was confirmed by a positive staining for connexin 43. The number of cells of both phenotypes has been determined by flow cytometry: CD-31-positive cells have been considered EC, while CD-31-negative have been counted as OB. We have observed an over 14-fold increase in OB number after a week in the 1:4 HBDC:HUVEC coculture as compared with less than fourfold in monoculture. The increase in HBDC number in 1:1 coculture has been less pronounced and has reached the value of about sevenfold. These results correspond well with the cell proliferation rate, which has been measured by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine incorporation. Moreover, at day 7 EC have been still present in the coculture, which is inconsistent with some other reports. Real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis has revealed the upregulation of ALP and collagen type I genes, but not osteocalcin gene, in all the cocultures grown without pro-osteogenic additives. Our study indicates that HUVEC significantly promote HBDC expansion and

  8. S1PR2 antagonist protects endothelial cells against high glucose-induced mitochondrial apoptosis through the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hengdao; Peng, Hui; Chen, Shuhua; Liu, Yanwei; Xiang, Hong; Chen, Ruifang; Chen, Wei; Zhao, Shaoli; Chen, Pan; Lu, Hongwei

    2017-08-26

    Vascular complications are the main cause of morbidity and mortality associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus. An early hallmark of the onset of vascular complications is endothelial dysfunction and apoptosis. We aimed to explore the role of sphingosine-1-phosphatereceptor 2 (S1PR2) in high glucose-induced endothelial cells apoptosis and to elaborate the underlying mechanism. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in a high glucose with or without S1PR2 antagonist. The apoptosis of the cells was measured by flow cytometry and mitochondrial membrane permeability was detected by the fluorescent probe JC-1. The expression of the related protein was determined by western blot. Cell apoptosis and the loss of mitochondrial membrane permeability were induced under high glucose conditions in HUVECs. The expression of mitochondrial apoptosis related protein bax increased and bcl-2 decreased in high glucose-induced HUVECs. The level of cytochrome c released into the cytoplasm increased when cells were exposed to high glucose. In addition, the expression of p-AKT and p-GSK3β was reduced when HUVECs were treated with high glucose. However, these effects were reversed in HUVECs when cells treated with S1PR2 antagonist. In conclusion, S1PR2 antagonist protects endothelial cells against high glucose-induced mitochondrial apoptosis through the Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Salvianolic acid A inhibits angiotensin II-induced proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells by attenuating the production of ROS

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Luan-luan; Li, Dong-ye; Zhang, Yan-bin; Zhu, Man-yi; Chen, Dan; Xu, Tong-da

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the action of salvianolic acid A (SalA) on angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and the possible signaling pathways mediating this action. Methods: Cell proliferation was examined with MTT assay. The expression levels of Src phosphorylation (phospho-Src), Akt phosphorylation (phospho-Akt), and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in HUVECs were determined by Western blot. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) was estimated using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Results: SalA (6.25–50 μmol/L) did not affect the viability of HUVECs. Treatment of HUVECs with Ang II (1 μmol/L) markedly increased the cell viability; pretreatment of HUVECs with SalA (12.5, 25 and 50 μmol/L) prevented Ang II-induced increase of the cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of HUVECs with Ang II (1 μmol/L) markedly up-regulated the protein expression levels of phospho-Src, phospho-Akt (473) and Nox4; pretreatment of HUVECs with SalA (12.5, 25 and 50 μmol/L) blocked all the effects in a concentration-dependent manner. Treatment of HUVECs with Ang II (1 μmol/L) dramatically increased ROS production in HUVECs; pretreatment of HUVECs with SalA (12.5, 25 and 50 μmol/L) blocked the ROS production in a concentration-dependent manner. Conclusion: SalA inhibits Ang II-induced proliferation of HUVECs via reducing the expression levels of phospho-Src and phospho-Akt (473), thereby attenuating the production of ROS. PMID:22101169

  10. A hot water extract of Curcuma longa inhibits adhesion molecule protein expression and monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-stimulated human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Kengo; Muroyama, Koutarou; Yamamoto, Norio; Murosaki, Shinji

    2015-01-01

    The recruitment of arterial leukocytes to endothelial cells is an important step in the progression of various inflammatory diseases. Therefore, its modulation is thought to be a prospective target for the prevention or treatment of such diseases. Adhesion molecules on endothelial cells are induced by proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and contribute to the recruitment of leukocytes. In the present study, we investigated the effect of hot water extract of Curcuma longa (WEC) on the protein expression of adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion induced by TNF-α in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). Treatment of HUVECs with WEC significantly suppressed both TNF-α-induced protein expression of adhesion molecules and monocyte adhesion. WEC also suppressed phosphorylation and degradation of nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha (IκBα) induced by TNF-α in HUVECs, suggesting that WEC inhibits the NF-κB signaling pathway.

  11. Effect of cAMP derivates on assembly and maintenance of tight junctions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Beese, Michaela; Wyss, Kristin; Haubitz, Marion; Kirsch, Torsten

    2010-09-07

    Endothelial tight and adherens junctions control a variety of physiological processes like adhesion, paracellular transport of solutes or trafficking of activated leukocytes. Formation and maintenance of endothelial junctions largely depend on the microenvironment of the specific vascular bed and on interactions of the endothelium with adjacent cell types. Consequently, primary cultures of endothelial cells often lose their specific junctional pattern and fail to establish tight monolayer in vitro. This is also true for endothelial cells isolated from the vein of human umbilical cords (HUVEC) which are widely used as model for endothelial cell-related studies. We here compared the effect of cyclic 3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and its derivates on formation and stabilization of tight junctions and on alterations in paracellular permeability in HUVEC. We demonstrated by light and confocal laser microscopy that for shorter time periods the sodium salt of 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP/Na) and for longer incubation periods 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (pCPT-cAMP) exerted the greatest effects of all compounds tested here on formation of continuous tight junction strands in HUVEC. We further demonstrated that although all compounds induced protein kinase A-dependent expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin only pCPT-cAMP slightly enhanced paracellular barrier functions. Moreover, we showed that pCPT-cAMP and 8-Br-cAMP/Na induced expression and membrane translocation of tricellulin. pCPT-cAMP and, to a lesser extend, 8-Br-cAMP/Na improved formation of continuous tight junction strands and decreased paracellular permeability in primary HUVEC. We concluded that under these conditions HUVEC represent a feasible in vitro model to study formation and disassembly of endothelial tight junctions and to characterize tight junction-associated proteins.

  12. Effect of cAMP derivates on assembly and maintenance of tight junctions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Endothelial tight and adherens junctions control a variety of physiological processes like adhesion, paracellular transport of solutes or trafficking of activated leukocytes. Formation and maintenance of endothelial junctions largely depend on the microenvironment of the specific vascular bed and on interactions of the endothelium with adjacent cell types. Consequently, primary cultures of endothelial cells often lose their specific junctional pattern and fail to establish tight monolayer in vitro. This is also true for endothelial cells isolated from the vein of human umbilical cords (HUVEC) which are widely used as model for endothelial cell-related studies. Results We here compared the effect of cyclic 3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and its derivates on formation and stabilization of tight junctions and on alterations in paracellular permeability in HUVEC. We demonstrated by light and confocal laser microscopy that for shorter time periods the sodium salt of 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP/Na) and for longer incubation periods 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (pCPT-cAMP) exerted the greatest effects of all compounds tested here on formation of continuous tight junction strands in HUVEC. We further demonstrated that although all compounds induced protein kinase A-dependent expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin only pCPT-cAMP slightly enhanced paracellular barrier functions. Moreover, we showed that pCPT-cAMP and 8-Br-cAMP/Na induced expression and membrane translocation of tricellulin. Conclusions pCPT-cAMP and, to a lesser extend, 8-Br-cAMP/Na improved formation of continuous tight junction strands and decreased paracellular permeability in primary HUVEC. We concluded that under these conditions HUVEC represent a feasible in vitro model to study formation and disassembly of endothelial tight junctions and to characterize tight junction-associated proteins PMID:20822540

  13. Curcumin Attenuates Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Premature Senescence via the Activation of SIRT1 in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yueliu; Hu, Xiaorong; Hu, Gangying; Xu, Changwu; Jiang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial senescence has been proposed to be involved in endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis. Curcumin, a natural phenol, possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effect of curcumin on endothelial senescence is unclear. This study explores the effect of curcumin on hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced endothelial premature senescence and the mechanisms involved. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured, and premature senescence was induced with 100 µM H2O2. Results showed that pretreatment with curcumin significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced HUVECs' premature senescence, which was evidenced by a decreased percentage of senescence-associated β-galactosidase positive cells, improved cell division and decreased expression of senescence-associated protein p21 (all p<0.05). Pretreatment with curcumin decreased oxidative stress and apoptosis in H2O2-treated HUVECs. Treatment of HUVECs with H2O2 also down-regulated the phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), decreased the level of nitric oxide in the culture medium, and inhibited the protein expression and enzymatic activity of silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), while pretreatment with curcumin partly reversed these effects (all p<0.05). Treatment with curcumin alone enhanced the enzymatic activity of SIRT1, but didn't affect cellular senescence, cell growth or apoptosis compared to the Control. The inhibition of SIRT1 using SIRT1 short interfering RNA (siRNA) could decrease the expression and phosphorylation of eNOS and abrogate the protective effect of curcumin on H2O2-induced premature senescence. These findings suggest that curcumin could attenuate oxidative stress-induced HUVECs' premature senescence via the activation of SIRT1.

  14. PRIMING EFFECT OF HOMOCYSTEINE ON INDUCIBLE VASCULAR CELL ADHESION MOLECULE-1 EXPRESSION IN ENDOTHELIAL CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Séguin, Chantal; Abid, Md. Ruhul; Spokes, Katherine C.; Schoots, Ivo G; Brkovic, Alexandre; Sirois, Martin G.; Aird, William C.

    2017-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis, as well as for arterial and venous thrombosis. However, the mechanisms through which elevated circulating levels of homocysteine cause vascular injury and promote thrombosis remain unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that homocysteine (Hcy) sensitizes endothelial cells to the effect of inflammatory mediators. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were incubated with Hcy 1.0 mM for varying time points, and then treated in the absence or presence of 1.5 U/ml thrombin or 10 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Hcy alone had no effect on the expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1. However, Hcy enhanced thrombin- and LPS-mediated induction of VCAM-1 mRNA and protein levels. Consistent with these results, pretreatment of HUVEC with Hcy resulted in a two-fold increase in LSP-mediated induction of leukocyte adhesion. The latter effect was significantly inhibited by anti-VCAM-1 antibodies. Together, these findings suggest that Hcy sensitizes HUVEC to the effect of inflammatory mediators thrombin and LPS, at least in part through VCAM-1 expression and function. PMID:18406566

  15. Sphingosine-1-phosphate induces VEGF-C expression through a MMP-2/FGF-1/FGFR-1-dependent pathway in endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chi-hao; Huang, Yuan-li; Shyu, Ming-kwang; Chen, Shee-uan; Lin, Chih-hsin; Ju, Tsai-kai; Lu, JenHer; Lee, Hsinyu

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), a potent angiogenic factor, induced vascular endothelial growth factor-C (VEGF-C) expression in endothelial cells in vitro and to examine its underlying mechanisms. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were examined. VEGF-C mRNA expression in the cells was assessed using real-time PCR. VEGF-C protein and FGFR-1 phosphorylation in the cells were measured with ELISA. RNA interference was used to downregulate the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), fibroblast growth factor-1 (FGF-1) and FGF receptor-1 (FGFR-1). Incubation of HUVECs with S1P (1, 5, and 10 μmol/L) significantly increased VEGF-C expression. The effect was blocked by pretreatment with the MMP inhibitor GM6001 or the FGFR inhibitor SU5402, but not the EGFR inhibitor AG1478. The effect was also blocked in HUVECs that were transfected with FGFR-1 or MMP-2 siRNA. Furthermore, incubation of HUVECs with S1P (5 μmol/L) significantly increased FGFR-1 phosphorylation, which was blocked by GM6001. Moreover, knockdown of FGF-1, not FGF-2, in HUVECs with siRNAs, blocked S1P-induced VEGF-C expression. S1P induces VEGF-C expression through a MMP-2/ FGF-1/FGFR-1-dependent pathway in HUVECs.

  16. Retinal endothelial cell apoptosis stimulates recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Bhatwadekar, Ashay D; Glenn, Josephine V; Curtis, Tim M; Grant, Maria B; Stitt, Alan W; Gardiner, Tom A

    2009-10-01

    Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) contribute to vascular repair although it is uncertain how local endothelial cell apoptosis influences their reparative function. This study was conducted to determine how the presence of apoptotic bodies at sites of endothelial damage may influence participation of EPCs in retinal microvascular repair. Microlesions of apoptotic cell death were created in monolayers of retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMECs) by using the photodynamic drug verteporfin. The adhesion of early-EPCs to these lesions was studied before detachment of the apoptotic cells or after their removal from the wound site. Apoptotic bodies were fed to normal RMECs and mRNA levels for adhesion molecules were analyzed. Endothelial lesions where apoptotic bodies were left attached at the wound site showed a fivefold enhancement in EPC recruitment (P < 0.05) compared with lesions where the apoptotic cells had been removed. In intact RMEC monolayers exposed to apoptotic bodies, expression of ICAM, VCAM, and E-selectin was upregulated by 5- to 15-fold (P < 0.05-0.001). EPCs showed a characteristic chemotactic response (P < 0.05) to conditioned medium obtained from apoptotic bodies, whereas analysis of the medium showed significantly increased levels of VEGF, IL-8, IL-6, and TNF-alpha when compared to control medium; SDF-1 remained unchanged. The data indicate that apoptotic bodies derived from retinal capillary endothelium mediate release of proangiogenic cytokines and chemokines and induce adhesion molecule expression in a manner that facilitates EPC recruitment.

  17. Induction of autophagy by salidroside through the AMPK-mTOR pathway protects vascular endothelial cells from oxidative stress-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiang-Tao; Wu, Zi-Heng; Wei, Ye; Dai, Ju-Ji; Yu, Guan-Feng; Yuan, FengLai; Ye, Le-Chi

    2017-01-01

    Vascular endothelial cells are highly sensitive to oxidative stress, and this is one of the mechanisms by which widespread endothelial dysfunction is induced in most cardiovascular diseases and disorders. However, how these cells can survive in oxidative stress environments remains unclear. Salidroside, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been shown to confer vascular protective effects. We aimed to understand the role of autophagy and its regulatory mechanisms by treating human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with salidroside under oxidative stress. HUVECs were treated with salidroside and exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). The results indicated that salidroside exerted cytoprotective effects in an H2O2-induced HUVEC injury model and suppressed H2O2-induced apoptosis of HUVECs. Pretreatment with 3-methyladenine (3-MA), an autophagy inhibitor, increased oxidative stress-induced HUVEC apoptosis, while the autophagy activator rapamycin induced anti-apoptosis effects in HUVECs. Salidroside increased autophagy and decreased apoptosis of HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner under oxidative stress. Moreover, 3-MA attenuated salidroside-induced HUVEC autophagy and promoted apoptosis, whereas rapamycin had no additional effects compared with salidroside alone. Salidroside upregulated AMPK phosphorylation but downregulated mTOR phosphorylation under oxidative stress; however, administration of compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, abrogated AMPK phosphorylation and increased mTOR phosphorylation and apoptosis compared with salidroside alone. These results suggest that autophagy is a protective mechanism in HUVECs under oxidative stress and that salidroside might promote autophagy through activation of the AMPK pathway and downregulation of mTOR pathway.

  18. Olmesartan protects endothelial cells against oxidative stress-mediated cellular injury.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Daisuke; Anraku, Makoto; Sakaya, Moe; Hirata, Sumio; Maruyama, Toru; Otagiri, Masaki

    2015-12-01

    The primary cause of death of hemodialysis (HD) patients is cardiovascular disease, and increased oxidative stress has been proposed to be involved in the disease pathogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect of olmesartan on oxidative stress induced by angiotensin II, lipopolysaccharide, indoxyl sulfate, advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which are known to be present at higher concentrations in the blood of HD patients, using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring the mean fluorescence intensity of CM-H2DCFCA, an ROS-sensitive fluorescent dye, in HUVECs. HUVECs were incubated with each of the above compounds in the presence or absence of olmesartan. Moreover, these oxidant-stimulated cells were also treated with the reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), NADPH oxidase inhibitor diphenylene iodonium (DPI) or PKC inhibitor calphostin C. In addition, we investigated the effects of olmesartan on cytotoxicity and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion, which is involved in vascular inflammation in HUVECs induced by AOPP or H2O2. The treatment of these oxidant-stimulated cells with olmesartan resulted in a significant reduction in intracellular ROS production to an extent that was nearly equivalent to that of NAC, DPI or calphostin C. Furthermore, olmesartan reduced the cytotoxicity and VEGF secretion induced by AOPP or H2O2. These results demonstrated that the antioxidant activity of olmesartan might contribute to both its vasculoprotective and anti-hypertensive effects.

  19. Tissue factor: A potent stimulator of Von Willebrand factor synthesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Meiring, Muriel; Allers, W.; Le Roux, E.

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation and dysfunction of endothelial cells are thought to be triggers for the secretion of Von Willebrand factor. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and the coagulation factors, tissue factor and thrombin on the release and cleavage potential of ultra-large von Willebrand factor (ULVWF) and its cleavage protease by cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). HUVEC were treated with IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α, tissue factor (TF) and thrombin, and combinations thereof for 24 hours under static conditions. The cells were then exposed to shear stress after which the VWF-propeptide levels and the VWF cleavage protease, ADAMTS13 content were measured. All treatments and their combinations, excluding IL-6, significantly stimulated the secretion of VWF from HUVEC. The VWF secretion from the HUVEC was stimulated most by the combination of TF with TNF-α. Slightly lower levels of ADAMTS13 secretion were found with all treatments. This may explain the thrombogenicity of patients with inflammation where extremely high VWF levels and slightly lower ADAMTS13 levels are present. PMID:27766025

  20. The Antioxidant Machinery of Young and Senescent Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells and Their Microvesicles

    PubMed Central

    Alique, Matilde; Bohórquez, Lourdes; Ciordia, Sergio; Mena, María C.; Ramírez, Manuel R.

    2017-01-01

    We examine the antioxidant role of young and senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and their microvesicles (MVs). Proteomic and Western blot studies have shown young HUVECs to have a complete and well-developed antioxidant system. Their MVs also contain antioxidant molecules, though of a smaller and more specific range, specialized in the degradation of hydrogen peroxide and the superoxide anion via the thioredoxin-peroxiredoxin system. Senescence was shown to be associated with a large increase in the size of the antioxidant machinery in both HUVECs and their MVs. These responses might help HUVECs and their MVs deal with the more oxidising conditions found in older cells. Functional analysis confirmed the antioxidant machinery of the MVs to be active and to increase in size with senescence. No glutathione or nonpeptide antioxidant (ascorbic acid and vitamin E) activity was detected in the MVs. Endothelial cells and MVs seem to adapt to higher ROS concentrations in senescence by increasing their antioxidant machinery, although this is not enough to recover completely from the senescence-induced ROS increase. Moreover, MVs could be involved in the regulation of the blood plasma redox status by functioning as ROS scavengers. PMID:28642812

  1. Turkish propolis protects human endothelial cells in vitro from homocysteine-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Darendelioglu, Ekrem; Aykutoglu, Gurkan; Tartik, Musa; Baydas, Giyasettin

    2016-05-01

    Chronic cardiovascular and neurodegenerative complications induced by hyperhomocysteinemia have been most relatively associated with endothelial cell injury. Elevated homocysteine (Hcy) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) accompanying with oxidative stress which is hallmarks of the molecular mechanisms responsible for cardiovascular disease. Propolis is a natural product, obtained by honeybee from various oils, pollens, special resins and wax materials, conventionally used with the purpose of treatment by folks Propolis has various biological activities and powerful antioxidant capacity. The flavonoids and phenolic acids, most bioactive components of propolis, have superior antioxidant ability to defend cell from free radicals. This study was designed to examine the protective effects of Turkish propolis (from east of country) on Hcy induced ROS production and apoptosis in human vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). According to results, co-treatment of HUVECs with propolis decreased Hcy-induced ROS overproduction and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels. Furthermore, overproductions of Bax, caspase-9 and caspase-3 protein, elevation of cytochrome c release in Hcy-treated HUVECs were significantly reduced by propolis. It was concluded that propolis has cytoprotective ability against cytotoxic effects of high Hcy in HUVECs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  2. Human β-Defensin 3 Reduces TNF-α-Induced Inflammation and Monocyte Adhesion in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Tianying; Li, Houxuan; Zhou, Qian; Ni, Can; Zhang, Yangheng

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) in the initiation stage of atherosclerosis with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) triggered by tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α. The effects of hBD3 on TNF-α-induced endothelial injury and inflammatory response were evaluated. Our data revealed that first, hBD3 reduced the production of interleukin-6 (IL-6), IL-8, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, hBD3 significantly prevented intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by HUVECs. Second, western blot analysis demonstrated that hBD3 dose-dependently suppressed the protein levels of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in TNF-α-induced HUVECs. As a result, hBD3 inhibited monocyte adhesion to TNF-α-treated endothelial cells. Additionally, hBD3 suppressed TNF-α-induced F-actin reorganization in HUVECs. Third, hBD3 markedly inhibited NF-κB activation by decreasing the phosphorylation of IKK-α/β, IκB, and p65 subunit within 30 min. Moreover, the phosphorylation of p38 and c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway were also inhibited by hBD3 in HUVECs. In conclusion, hBD3 exerts anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects in endothelial cells in response to TNF-α by inhibiting NF-κB and MAPK signaling. PMID:28348463

  3. Identification of laminin α5 short arm peptides active for endothelial cell attachment and tube formation.

    PubMed

    Kikkawa, Yamato; Sugawara, Yumika; Harashima, Nozomi; Fujii, Shogo; Ikari, Kazuki; Kumai, Jun; Katagiri, Fumihiko; Hozumi, Kentaro; Nomizu, Motoyoshi

    2017-02-21

    Laminin-511, a major component of endothelial basement membrane, consists of α5, β1, and γ1 chains. The short arm region of the α5 chain is a structural feature of endothelial laminins. In this study, we identified active sequences for human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) using recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides. The short arm of the α5 chain contains three globular domains [laminin N-terminal globular domain, laminin 4 domain a, and laminin 4 domain b (LN, L4a, and L4b)] and three rod-like elements [laminin epidermal growth factor-like domain a, b, and c (LEa, LEb, and LEc)]. The cell attachment assay using recombinant proteins showed that RGD-independent cell attachment sites were localized in the α5LN-LEa domain. Further, we synthesized 70 peptides covering the amino acid sequences of the α5LN-LEa domain. Of the 70 peptides, A5-16 (mouse laminin α5 230-243: LENGEIVVSLVNGR) potently exhibited endothelial cell attachment activity. An active sequence analysis using N-terminally and C-terminally truncated A5-16 peptides showed that the nine-amino acid sequence IVVSLVNGR was critical for the endothelial cell attachment activity. Cell adhesion to the peptides was dependent on both cations and heparan sulfate. Further, the A5-16 peptide inhibited the capillary-like tube formation of HUVECs with the cells forming small clumps with short tubes. The eight-amino acid sequence EIVVSLVN in the A5-16 peptide was critical to inhibit HUVEC tube formation. This amino acid sequence could be useful for grafts and thus modulate endothelial cell behavior for vascular surgery. Copyright © 2017 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cell Interaction with Fluorine-Incorporated Amorphous Carbon Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshimoto, Yukihiro; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Nagashima, So; Kamijo, Aki; Nakatani, Tatsuyuki; Yamagami, Takuji; Kitamura, Noriko; Kitagawa, Tomoya; Hotta, Atsushi; Takahashi, Koki; Suzuki, Tetsuya

    2012-09-01

    A major clinical concern in coronary intervention for cardiovascular disease is late stent thrombosis after the implantation of drug eluting stents (DES). DES widely used in clinical settings currently utilize polymer coatings, which can induce persistent arterial wall inflammation and delayed vascular healing, resulting in impaired endothelialization. We examined the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for fluorine-incorporated amorphous carbon (a-C:H:F) coatings, which are known to be anti-thrombogenic. a-C:H:F and a-C:H were synthesized on the tissue culture dishes using radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition by varying the ratio of hexafluoroethane and acetylene. HUVECs were seeded on coated dishes for 6 days. The results indicate that the a-C:H:F surface does not disturb HUVEC proliferation in 6 days of culture and is promising for stent materials that allows the preservation of endothelialization, even if the fluorine concentration of a-C:H surface affects the early adhesion of endothelial cells.

  5. Heat-shock protein 60 of Porphyromonas gingivalis may induce dysfunction of human umbilical endothelial cells via regulation of endothelial-nitric oxide synthase and vascular endothelial-cadherin

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Cunjin; Guo, Shijie; Niu, Yuanjie; Yang, Limin; Liu, Bainian; Jiang, Ning; Su, Ming; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has established that periodontitis was an independent risk factor for coronary heart disease (CAD). Porphyromonus gingivalis (P. gingivalis), a major periodontal pathogen, has already been shown to have a significant role in the inflammatory response of CAD in vivo. The aim of the present study was to identify whether P. gingivalis heat-shock protein 60 (HSP60) induced the dysfunction of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro. HUVECs were stimulated with a range of P. gingivalis HSP60 concentrations (1, 10 and 100 ng/l) at different time-points. The levels of vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and cysteinyl aspartate-specific protease-3 (caspase-3) were measured using western blot analysis. The apoptotic rate of HUVECs was detected using flow cytometry. P. gingivalis HSP60 at a concentration of 10 ng/l significantly decreased the expression levels of VE-cadherin and eNOS protein at 24 h stimulation, whereas no difference in these proteins was identified following a low dose of P. gingivalis HSP60 (1 ng/l). P. gingivalis HSP60 at 100 ng/l significantly downregulated the expression levels of VE-cadherin and eNOS protein at 12 h in HUVECs. However, the cleavage of caspase-3 showed an opposing change at different concentrations. Consistently, P. gingivalis HSP60 induced apoptosis of HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. These results indicated that P. gingivalis HSP60 may induce dysfunction and apoptosis in HUVECs via downregulating the expression levels of VE-cadherin and eNOS, and promoting the cleavage of caspase-3. PMID:27446550

  6. Indirect induction of endothelial cell injury by PU- or PTFE-mediated activation of monocytes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xin; Xue, Yang; Sun, Jiao

    2010-01-01

    Polyurethanes (PUs) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) are widely used for making cardiovascular devices, but thrombus formation on the surfaces of these devices is inevitable. Since endothelial injury can lead to thrombosis, most of the studies on PUs or PTFE focused on their damage to endothelial cells. However, few studies have attempted to clarify whether the use of foreign objects as biomaterials can cause endothelial injury by activating the innate immune system. In this study, we aimed to investigate the roles of PU- or PTFE-stimulated immune cells in endothelial-cell injury. First, monocytes (THP-1 cells) were stimulated with PU or PTFE for 24 h and, subsequently, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with the supernatants of the stimulated cells for 24 h. We measured the generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) from THP-1 cells treated with PU and PTFE for 24 h, meanwhile hydrogen dioxide (H(2)O(2)), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β in the supernatants were also detected. Then, we assessed the apoptosis rate of the HUVECs and determined the expression of NO, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and apoptosis-related proteins (p53, Bax, Bcl-2) in the HUVECs. The results showed that large amounts of ROS and low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β) were produced by the stimulated THP-1 cells. After culturing with the supernatants of the PU- or PTFE-stimulated THP-1 cells, the apoptosis rate, NO production and expression of iNOS, p53 and Bax in the HUVECs were up-regulated, while Bcl-2 expression was down-regulated. In conclusion, the release of ROS by PU- or PTFE-treated THP-1 cells may induce iNOS expression and cause apoptosis in HUVECs via the p53, Bax and Bcl-2 proteins. These data provide the interesting finding that endothelial injury in the process of biomaterial-induced thrombosis can be initiated through the release of soluble mediators by monocytes.

  7. Are endothelial cell bioeffects from acoustic droplet vaporization proximity dependent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seda, Robinson; Li, David; Fowlkes, J. Brian; Bull, Joseph

    2013-11-01

    Acoustic droplet vaporization (ADV) produces gas microbubbles that provide a means of selective occlusion in gas embolotherapy. Vaporization and subsequent occlusion occur inside blood vessels supplying the targeted tissue, such as tumors. Theoretical and computational studies showed that ADV within a vessel can impart high fluid mechanical stresses on the vessel wall. Previous in vitro studies have demonstrated that vaporization at an endothelial layer may affect cell attachment and viability. The current study is aimed at investigating the role of vaporization distance away from the endothelial layer. HUVECs were cultured in OptiCell™ chambers until reaching confluence. Dodecafluoropentane microdroplets were added, attaining a 10:1 droplet to cell ratio. A single ultrasound pulse (7.5 MHz) consisting of 16 cycles (~ 2 μs) and a 5 MPa peak rarefactional pressure was used to produce ADV while varying the vaporization distance from the endothelial layer (0 μm, 500 μm, 1000 μm). Results indicated that cell attachment and viability was significantly different if the distance was 0 μm (at the endothelial layer). Other distances were not significantly different from the control. ADV will significantly affect the endothelium if droplets are in direct contact with the cells. Droplet concentration and flow conditions inside blood vessels may play an important role. This work was supported by NIH grant R01EB006476.

  8. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mediates the Anti-Inflammatory Effect of Ethyl Pyruvate in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Wei; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Dajun; Yang, Honggang; Geng, Ting; Xing, Jianzhou; Zhang, Yu; Tan, Songtao; Yi, Dinghua

    2014-01-01

    Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a simple aliphatic ester of the metabolic intermediate pyruvate that has been demonstrated to be a potent anti-inflammatory agent in a variety of in vivo and in vitro model systems. However, the protective effects and mechanisms underlying the actions of EP against endothelial cell (EC) inflammatory injury are not fully understood. Previous studies have confirmed that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays an important role in regulating the pathological process of EC inflammation. In this study, our aim was to explore the effects of EP on tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced inflammatory injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and to explore the role of ERS in this process. TNF-α treatment not only significantly increased the adhesion of monocytes to HUVECs and inflammatory cytokine (sICAM1, sE-selectin, MCP-1 and IL-8) production in cell culture supernatants but it also increased ICAM and MMP9 protein expression in HUVECs. TNF-α also effectively increased the ERS-related molecules in HUVECs (GRP78, ATF4, caspase12 and p-PERK). EP treatment effectively reversed the effects of the TNF-α-induced adhesion of monocytes on HUVECs, inflammatory cytokines and ERS-related molecules. Furthermore, thapsigargin (THA, an ERS inducer) attenuated the protective effects of EP against TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury and ERS. The PERK siRNA treatment not only inhibited ERS-related molecules but also mimicked the protective effects of EP to decrease TNF-α-induced inflammatory injury. In summary, we have demonstrated for the first time that EP can effectively reduce vascular endothelial inflammation and that this effect at least in part depends on the attenuation of ERS. PMID:25470819

  9. Spaceflight of HUVEC: An Integrated eXperiment- SPHINX Onboard the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Versari, S.; Maier, J. A. M.; Norfini, A.; Zolesi, V.; Bradamante, S.

    2013-02-01

    The spaceflight orthostatic challenge can promote in astronauts inadequate cardiovascular responses defined as cardiovascular deconditioning. In particular, disturbance of endothelial functions are known to lead to altered vascular performances, being the endothelial cells crucial in the maintenance of the functional integrity of the vascular wall. In order to evaluate whether weightlessness affects endothelial functions, we designed, developed, and performed the experiment SPHINX - SPaceflight of HUVEC: an INtegrated eXperiment - where HUVEC (Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells) were selected as a macrovascular cell model system. SPHINX arrived at the International Space Station (ISS) onboard Progress 40P, and was processed inside Kubik 6 incubator for 7 days. At the end, all of the samples were suitably fixed and preserved at 6°C until return on Earth on Soyuz 23S.

  10. Dynamic interplay between breast cancer cells and normal endothelium mediates the expression of matrix macromolecules, proteasome activity and functional properties of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gialeli, Ch; Viola, M; Barbouri, D; Kletsas, D; Passi, A; Karamanos, N K

    2014-08-01

    Breast cancer-endothelium interactions provide regulatory signals facilitating tumor progression. The endothelial cells have so far been mainly viewed in the context of tumor perfusion and relatively little is known regarding the effects of such paracrine interactions on the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM), proteasome activity and properties of endothelial cells. To address the effects of breast cancer cell (BCC) lines MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 on the endothelial cells, two cell culture models were utilized; one involves endothelial cell culture in the presence of BCCs-derived conditioned media (CM) and the other co-culture of both cell populations in a Transwell system. Real-time PCR was utilized to evaluate gene expression, an immunofluorescence assay for proteasome activity, and functional assays (migration, adhesion and invasion) and immunofluorescence microscopy for cell integrity and properties. BCC-CM decreases the cell migration of HUVEC. Adhesion and invasion of BCCs are favored by HUVEC and HUVEC-CM. HA levels and the expression of CD44 and HA synthase-2 by HUVEC are substantially upregulated in both cell culture approaches. Adhesion molecules, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, are also highly upregulated, whereas MT1-MMP and MMP-2 expressions are significantly downregulated in both culture systems. Notably, the expression and activity of the proteasome β5 subunit are increased, especially by the action of MDA-MB-231-CM on HUVEC. BCCs significantly alter the expression of matrix macromolecules, proteasome activity and functional properties of endothelial cells. Deep understanding of such paracrine interactions will help to design novel drugs targeting breast cancer at the ECM level. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Matrix-mediated cell behaviour and properties. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Microfibrils and fibrillin-1 induce integrin-mediated signaling, proliferation and migration in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Mariko, Boubacar; Ghandour, Zeinab; Raveaud, Stéphanie; Quentin, Mickaël; Usson, Yves; Verdetti, Jean; Huber, Philippe; Kielty, Cay; Faury, Gilles

    2010-11-01

    Microfibrils are macromolecular complexes associated with elastin to form elastic fibers that endow extensible tissues, such as arteries, lungs, and skin, with elasticity property. Fibrillin-1, the main component of microfibrils, is a 350-kDa glycoprotein for which genetic haploinsufficiency in humans can lead to Marfan syndrome, a severe polyfeatured pathology including aortic aneurysms and dissections. Microfibrils and fibrillin-1 fragments mediate adhesion of several cell types, including endothelial cells, while fibrillin-1 additionally triggers lung and mesangial cell migration. However, fibrillin-1-induced intracellular signaling is unknown. We have studied the signaling events induced in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) by aortic microfibrils as well as recombinant fibrillin-1 Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)-containing fragments PF9 and PF14. Aortic microfibrils and PF14, not PF9, substantially and dose dependently increased HUVEC cytoplasmic and nuclear calcium levels measured using the fluorescent dye Fluo-3. This effect of PF14 was confirmed in bovine aortic endothelial cells. PF14 action in HUVECs was mediated by αvβ3 and α5β1 integrins, phospholipase-C, inosital 1,4,5-trisphosphate, and mobilization of intracellular calcium stores, whereas membrane calcium channels were not or only slightly implicated, as shown in patch-clamp experiments. Finally, PF14 enhanced endothelial cell proliferation and migration. Hence, fibrillin-1 sequences may physiologically activate endothelial cells. Genetic fibrillin-1 deficiency could alter normal endothelial signaling and, since endothelium dysfunction is an important contributor to Marfan syndrome, participate in the arterial anomalies associated with this developmental disease.

  12. Borrelia burgdorferi upregulates expression of adhesion molecules on endothelial cells and promotes transendothelial migration of neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Sellati, T J; Burns, M J; Ficazzola, M A; Furie, M B

    1995-01-01

    The accumulation of leukocytic infiltrates in perivascular tissues is a key step in the pathogenesis of Lyme disease, a chronic inflammatory disorder caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. During an inflammatory response, endothelial cell adhesion molecules mediate the attachment of circulating leukocytes to the blood vessel wall and their subsequent extravasation into perivascular tissues. Using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a whole-cell enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we demonstrated that B. burgdorferi activated endothelium in a dose- and time-dependent fashion as measured by upregulation of the adhesion molecules E-selectin, vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1). As few as one spirochete per endothelial cell stimulated increased expression of these molecules. Expression of E-selectin peaked after spirochetes and HUVEC were coincubated for 4 h and returned to near-basal levels by 24 h. In contrast, expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 peaked at 12 h and remained elevated at 24 h. HUVEC monolayers cultured on acellular amniotic tissue were used to investigate the consequences of endothelial cell activation by spirochetes. After incubation of HUVEC-amnion cultures with B. burgdorferi, subsequently added neutrophils migrated across the endothelial monolayers. This process was mediated by E-selectin and by CD11/CD18 leukocytic integrins. The extent of migration depended on both the number of spirochetes used to stimulate the HUVEC and the length of the coincubation period. These results raise the possibility that B. burgdorferi induces a host inflammatory response and accompanying perivascular damage through activation of vascular endothelium. PMID:7591083

  13. Endothelial-regenerating cells: an expanding universe.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Martin; Nickenig, Georg; Werner, Nikos

    2010-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is the most common cause for cardiovascular diseases and is based on endothelial dysfunction. A growing body of evidence suggests the contribution of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells, monocytic cells, and mature endothelial cells to vessel formation and endothelial rejuvenation. To this day, various subsets of these endothelial-regenerating cells have been identified according to cellular origin, phenotype, and properties in vivo and in vitro. However, the definition and biology, especially of endothelial progenitor cells, is complex and under heavy debate. In this review, we focus on current definitions of endothelial progenitor cells, highlight the clinical relevance of endothelial-regenerating cells, and provide new insights into cell-cell interactions involved in endothelial cell rejuvenation.

  14. The impact of wavelengths of LED light-therapy on endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Rohringer, Sabrina; Holnthoner, Wolfgang; Chaudary, Sidrah; Slezak, Paul; Priglinger, Eleni; Strassl, Martin; Pill, Karoline; Mühleder, Severin; Redl, Heinz; Dungel, Peter

    2017-09-06

    Low level light therapy receives increasing interest in the fields of tissue regeneration and wound healing. Several in vivo studies demonstrated the positive effects of LLLT on angiogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the underlying properties in vitro by comparing the effects of light therapy by light emitting diodes of different wavelengths on endothelial cells in vitro. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with either 475 nm, 516 nm or 635 nm light. Control cells were not illuminated. 2D proliferation was quantified by manual counting. HUVEC migration was analyzed by performing a 2D wound scratch assay and a 3D bead assay. The influence of LLLT on early vasculogenic events was determined in a 3D fibrin co-culture model with adipose-derived stem cells. Stimulation with both red and green pulsed LED light significantly increased HUVEC proliferation and 3D migration. Moreover, HUVEC showed increased 2D migration potential with green light stimulation. The treatment with blue light was ineffective. Several parameters showed that green light was even more potent to stimulate proliferation and migration of endothelial cells than clinically well-established red light therapy. Further studies have to focus on intracellular mechanisms induced by different wavelengths in order to optimize this promising therapy in tissue regeneration.

  15. Osteogenic and angiogenic potentials of monocultured and co-cultured human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells and human-umbilical-vein endothelial cells on three-dimensional porous beta-tricalcium phosphate scaffold.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yunqing; Kim, Sungwoo; Fahrenholtz, Monica; Khademhosseini, Ali; Yang, Yunzhi

    2013-01-01

    The use of biodegradable beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds holds great promise for bone tissue engineering. However, the effects of β-TCP on bone and endothelial cells are not fully understood. This study aimed to investigate cell proliferation and differentiation of mono- or co-cultured human-bone-marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBMSCs) and human-umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) on a three-dimensional porous, biodegradable β-TCP scaffold. In co-culture studies, the ratios of hBMSCs:HUVECs were 5:1, 1:1 and 1:5. Cellular morphologies of HUVECs, hBMSCs and co-cultured HUVECs/hBMSCs on the β-TCP scaffolds were monitored using confocal and scanning electron microscopy. Cell proliferation was monitored by measuring the amount of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) whereas hBMSC and HUVEC differentiation was assessed using the osteogenic and angiogenic markers, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and PECAM-1 (CD31), respectively. Results show that HUVECs, hBMSCs and hBMSCs/HUVECs adhered to and proliferated well on the β-TCP scaffolds. In monoculture, hBMSCs grew faster than HUVECs on the β-TCP scaffolds after 7 days, but HUVECs reached similar levels of proliferation after 14 days. In monoculture, β-TCP scaffolds promoted ALP activities of both hBMSCs and HUVECs when compared to those grown on tissue culture well plates. ALP activity of cells in co-culture was higher than that of hBMSCs in monoculture. Real-time polymerase chain reaction results indicate that runx2 and alp gene expression in monocultured hBMSCs remained unchanged at days 7 and 14, but alp gene expression was significantly increased in hBMSC co-cultures when the contribution of individual cell types was not distinguished.

  16. Nitric Oxide Inhibits Hetero-adhesion of Cancer Cells to Endothelial Cells: Restraining Circulating Tumor Cells from Initiating Metastatic Cascade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yusheng; Yu, Ting; Liang, Haiyan; Wang, Jichuang; Xie, Jingjing; Shao, Jingwei; Gao, Yu; Yu, Suhong; Chen, Shuming; Wang, Lie; Jia, Lee

    2014-03-01

    Adhesion of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to vascular endothelial bed becomes a crucial starting point in metastatic cascade. We hypothesized that nitric oxide (NO) may prevent cancer metastasis from happening by its direct vasodilation and inhibition of cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). Here we show that S-nitrosocaptopril (CAP-NO, a typical NO donor) produced direct vasorelaxation that can be antagonized by typical NO scavenger hemoglobin and guanylate cyclase inhibitor. Cytokines significantly stimulated production of typical CAMs by the highly-purified human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). CAP-NO inhibited expression of the stimulated CAMs (particularly VCAM-1) and the resultant hetero-adhesion of human colorectal cancer cells HT-29 to the HUVECs in a concentration-dependent manner. The same concentration of CAP-NO, however, did not significantly affect cell viability, cell cycle and mitochondrial membrane potential of HT-29, thus excluding the possibility that inhibition of the hetero-adhesion was caused by cytotoxicity by CAP-NO on HT-29. Hemoglobin reversed the inhibition of CAP-NO on both the hetero-adhesion between HT-29 and HUVECs and VCAM-1 expression. These data demonstrate that CAP-NO, by directly releasing NO, produces vasorelaxation and interferes with hetero-adhesion of cancer cells to vascular endothelium via down-regulating expression of CAMs. The study highlights the importance of NO in cancer metastatic prevention.

  17. Bee products prevent VEGF-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Izuta, Hiroshi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Araki, Yoko; Mishima, Satoshi; Hara, Hideaki

    2009-11-17

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. Bee products [royal jelly (RJ), bee pollen, and Chinese red propolis] from the honeybee, Apis mellifera, have been used as traditional health foods for centuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of bee products using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). In an in vitro tube formation assay, HUVECs and fibroblast cells were incubated for 14 days with VEGF and various concentrations of bee products [RJ, ethanol extract of bee pollen, ethanol extract of Chinese red propolis and its constituent, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE)]. To clarify the mechanism of in vitro angiogenesis, HUVEC proliferation and migration were induced by VEGF with or without various concentrations of RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE. RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE significantly suppressed VEGF-induced in vitro tube formation in the descending order: CAPE > Chinese red propolis > bee pollen > RJ. RJ and Chinese red propolis suppressed both VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation and migration. In contrast, bee pollen and CAPE suppressed only the proliferation. Among the bee products, Chinese red propolis and CAPE in particular showed strong suppressive effects against VEGF-induced angiogenesis. These findings indicate that Chinese red propolis and CAPE may have potential as preventive and therapeutic agents against angiogenesis-related human diseases.

  18. Bee products prevent VEGF-induced angiogenesis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of pathogenic angiogenesis in diseases such as cancer and diabetic retinopathy. Bee products [royal jelly (RJ), bee pollen, and Chinese red propolis] from the honeybee, Apis mellifera, have been used as traditional health foods for centuries. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of bee products using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods In an in vitro tube formation assay, HUVECs and fibroblast cells were incubated for 14 days with VEGF and various concentrations of bee products [RJ, ethanol extract of bee pollen, ethanol extract of Chinese red propolis and its constituent, caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE)]. To clarify the mechanism of in vitro angiogenesis, HUVEC proliferation and migration were induced by VEGF with or without various concentrations of RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE. Results RJ, bee pollen, Chinese red propolis, and CAPE significantly suppressed VEGF-induced in vitro tube formation in the descending order: CAPE > Chinese red propolis >> bee pollen > RJ. RJ and Chinese red propolis suppressed both VEGF-induced HUVEC proliferation and migration. In contrast, bee pollen and CAPE suppressed only the proliferation. Conclusion Among the bee products, Chinese red propolis and CAPE in particular showed strong suppressive effects against VEGF-induced angiogenesis. These findings indicate that Chinese red propolis and CAPE may have potential as preventive and therapeutic agents against angiogenesis-related human diseases. PMID:19917137

  19. Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Xia; Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui; Shang, Deya

    2012-08-24

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin reduces expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha} in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin inhibits TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK and NF-{kappa}B activation in HUVECs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Omentin supreeses TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 via ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway. -- Abstract: In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-{alpha}-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B) by preventing NF-{kappa}B inhibitory protein (I{kappa}B{alpha}) degradation and NF-{kappa}B/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-{alpha}-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-{alpha}-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-{alpha}. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-{alpha}-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-{kappa}B pathway.

  20. Propranolol induces apoptosis of human umbilical vein endothelial cells through downregulation of CD147.

    PubMed

    Xie, W; Xie, H; Liu, F; Li, W; Dan, J; Mei, Y; Dan, L; Xiao, X; Li, J; Chen, X

    2013-04-01

    Infantile haemangiomas (IHs) are benign tumours in infancy. Most patients suffering from IHs do not require treatment. However, if there is a dramatic aesthetic or functional impairment, treatment is needed. Currently the most promising therapy for complicated IHs is the oral administration of propranolol, but its mechanism is unclear. To investigate the role of CD147 in propranolol-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Human umbilical vein endothelial cells were treated with propranolol, and the treatment effects were investigated through the following methodology. (i) Cell proliferation and apoptosis were detected using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and flow cytometric analysis. (ii) The expression level of CD147 was measured by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. (iii) HUVECs were transfected with lentivirus encoding CD147 short hairpin (sh)RNA or CD147 cDNA. Ensuing changes in cell proliferation and apoptosis after transfection were measured using the MTT assay and flow cytometry. (iv) The level of phosphorylation of Bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) at Ser112 in HUVECs after propranolol treatment and/or CD147 shRNA transfection was detected by Western blotting. Propranolol inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in HUVECs. It decreased CD147 protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Knocking down CD147 not only induced apoptosis but also exacerbated the apoptosis triggered by propranolol in HUVECs. Overexpression of CD147 can protect HUVECs from apoptosis and propranolol-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, knockdown of both propranolol and CD147 can downregulate Ser112 phosphorylation of BAD, indicating that propranolol and CD147 induce apoptosis in HUVECs through the same signalling transduction pathway. Our studies demonstrate that propranolol-induced apoptosis may be mediated through the downregulation of CD147 in HUVECs

  1. Induction of chemokine production by latent Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus infection of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yiyiang; Ganem, Don

    2007-01-01

    Infection with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS)-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is linked strongly to development of KS, an endothelial neoplasm also characterized by striking neoangiogenesis and infiltration with inflammatory cells. To elucidate the links between endothelial infection and inflammation, primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were examined for the production of chemokines following latent KSHV infection. Several chemokines that are produced in the ground state, including MCP-1, NAP 2 and RANTES, are upregulated significantly by KSHV infection. Moreover, the chemokine CXCL16, which is nearly absent in uninfected cells, is induced significantly following infection. This induction is attributable primarily to expression of vFLIP, a known inducer of NF-kappaB. CXCL16 induces the chemotaxis of activated T cells, whose products have been proposed to positively regulate KS tumour-cell survival and growth. Whilst CXCL16 has also been proposed as a direct endothelial chemoattractant and mitogen, neither proliferation nor chemotaxis of HUVECs was observed following CXCL16 exposure. These results suggest that CXCL16 induction by KSHV contributes to the inflammatory phenotype of KS, but plays little role in the recruitment of endothelial spindle cells.

  2. Acidosis Activation of the Proton-Sensing GPR4 Receptor Stimulates Vascular Endothelial Cell Inflammatory Responses Revealed by Transcriptome Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Lixue; Li, Zhigang; Leffler, Nancy R.; Asch, Adam S.; Chi, Jen-Tsan; Yang, Li V.

    2013-01-01

    Acidic tissue microenvironment commonly exists in inflammatory diseases, tumors, ischemic organs, sickle cell disease, and many other pathological conditions due to hypoxia, glycolytic cell metabolism and deficient blood perfusion. However, the molecular mechanisms by which cells sense and respond to the acidic microenvironment are not well understood. GPR4 is a proton-sensing receptor expressed in endothelial cells and other cell types. The receptor is fully activated by acidic extracellular pH but exhibits lesser activity at the physiological pH 7.4 and minimal activity at more alkaline pH. To delineate the function and signaling pathways of GPR4 activation by acidosis in endothelial cells, we compared the global gene expression of the acidosis response in primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) with varying level of GPR4. The results demonstrated that acidosis activation of GPR4 in HUVEC substantially increased the expression of a number of inflammatory genes such as chemokines, cytokines, adhesion molecules, NF-κB pathway genes, and prostaglandin-endoperoxidase synthase 2 (PTGS2 or COX-2) and stress response genes such as ATF3 and DDIT3 (CHOP). Similar GPR4-mediated acidosis induction of the inflammatory genes was also noted in other types of endothelial cells including human lung microvascular endothelial cells and pulmonary artery endothelial cells. Further analyses indicated that the NF-κB pathway was important for the acidosis/GPR4-induced inflammatory gene expression. Moreover, acidosis activation of GPR4 increased the adhesion of HUVEC to U937 monocytic cells under a flow condition. Importantly, treatment with a recently identified GPR4 antagonist significantly reduced the acidosis/GPR4-mediated endothelial cell inflammatory response. Taken together, these results show that activation of GPR4 by acidosis stimulates the expression of a wide range of inflammatory genes in endothelial cells. Such inflammatory response can be suppressed by

  3. Cigarette smoke extract induces aberrant cytochrome-c oxidase subunit II methylation and apoptosis in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Min; Chen, Ping; Peng, Hong; Zhang, Hongliang; Chen, Yan; Cai, Shan; Lu, Qianjin; Guan, Chaxiang

    2015-03-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells contributes to the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. However, the mechanisms responsible for endothelial apoptosis remain poorly understood. We conducted an in vitro study to investigate whether DNA methylation is involved in smoking-induced endothelial apoptosis. Human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) at a range of concentrations (0-10%). HUVECs were also incubated with a demethylating reagent, 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidinem (AZA), with and without CSE. Apoptosis was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling assay and flow cytometry using annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining. We found that CSE treatment significantly increased HUVEC apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot revealed that CSE treatment decreased cytochrome-c oxidase subunit II (COX II) mRNA and protein levels and decreased COX activity. Methylation-specific PCR and direct bisulfite sequencing revealed positive COX II gene methylation. AZA administration partly increased mRNA and protein expressions of COX II, and COX activity decreased by CSE and attenuated the toxic effects of CSE. Our results showed that CSE induced aberrant COX II methylation and apoptosis in HUVECs.

  4. From autophagy to senescence and apoptosis in Angiotensin II-treated vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Shan, Haiyan; Guo, Dawei; Li, Xuelian; Zhao, Xin; Li, Wan; Bai, Xiaojuan

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to explore if cell autophagy is activated by AngII before aging using human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs). The ultrastructural analysis of HUVECs was performed to observe autophagosomes. The LC3-II/LC3-I ratio was determined by western blot assay. The β-gal staining was used to identify cell senescence. The flow cytometry was performed to evaluate cell apoptosis. The BH3 domain analog ABT737 or Beclin-1 knockdown by specific shRNA or valsartan was applied to investigate their effects on cell autophagy, senescence, and apoptosis induced by Ang II. Cell autophagy was initiated after Ang II treatment at 24 h. And cell senescence and apoptosis were observed in Ang II-treated cells at 48 h. The significant interaction of Beclin-1 and Bcl-2 was detected at 48 h after Ang II treatment. Beclin-1 was indispensable to Ang II-induced autophagy, and its BH3 domain was required for the interaction with Bcl-2 to attenuate autophagy. Pretreated with valsartan, cells were present with less autophagic, senescent, and apoptotic cells after Ang II stimulation. In conclusion, Ang II induced autophagy, senescence, and apoptosis of HUVECs progressively, and autophagy presented an early protective effect on vascular endothelial damage due to Ang II. © 2014 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. MiR-29a modulates the angiogenic properties of human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Zeran; Wu, Lingjiao; Zhu, Xiuming; Xu, Jie; Jin, Rong; Li, Guohong; Wu, Fusheng

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •miR-29a may be stimulated by hypoxia in HUVEC. •miR-29a regulates cell cycle, proliferation and tube network formation of HUVEC. •HMG box-containing protein-1(HBP1) is a direct target of miR-29a. •miR-29a has a potential value for treating angiogenesis-associated diseases. -- Abstract: Although extensive investigation has been made on miR-29a in relation to malignancies, only a little information has been provided about the angiogenic property of this miRNA so far. Herein, we sought to investigate the role of miR-29a in regulating cell cycle and angiogenic phenotype of endothelial cells. The results showed that miR-29a is highly expressed and upregulated by hypoxia-mimicking reagents in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Consistent with this preliminary finding, introduction of exogenous agomiR-29a, or Antagomir-29a altered cell cycle progression and promoted, or repressed the proliferation and tube formation of HUVEC, respectively. Furthermore, by using luciferase reporter assay, the expression of HBP1, a suppressor transcription factor was directly regulated by miR-29a through 3′-UTR. Increased or decreased HBP1 protein level was associated with the inhibition or overexpression of miR-29a, respectively. We conclude that miR-29a has a significant role in regulating cell cycle, proliferation and angiogenic properties of HUVEC, and this function is likely mediated through HBP1 protein at the post-transcriptional level. As a novel molecular target, miR-29a may have a potential value for the treatment of angiogenesis-associated diseases such as cardiovascular diseases and cancers.

  6. SIRT1 mediates Sphk1/S1P-induced proliferation and migration of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gao, Zhan; Wang, Hua; Xiao, Feng-Jun; Shi, Xue-Feng; Zhang, Yi-Kun; Xu, Qin Qin; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Ha, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Li-Sheng

    2016-05-01

    Angiogenesis is one of the most important components of embryonic organ formation and vessel growth after birth. Sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) and S1P has been confirmed to participate in various cell signaling pathways and physiological processes including neovascularisation. However, the mechanisms that Sphk1/S1P regulates neovascularisation remain unclear. In this study, we elucidated that Sphk1/S1P upregulates sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a NAD+ dependent deacetylases protease which exerts multiple cellular functions, to regulate the proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. By using CCK8 and Transwell assays, we demonstrated that Sphk1 and SIRT1 knockdown could significantly decrease proliferation and migration of HUVEC cells. Sphk1 inhibition results in SIRT1 downregulation which could be reversed by exogenous S1P in HUVEC cells. Treatment of HUVECs with S1P reverses the impaired proliferation and migration caused by SIRT1 knockdown. Furthermore, Sphk1 knockdown inhibits the phosphorylation of P38 MAPK, ERK and AKT. Treatment of HUVECs with PD98059, SB203580 and Wortmannin, which are the inhibitors of ERK, P38 MAPK and AKT respectively, resulted in decreased SIRT1 expression and reduced migration of HUVEC cells. Thus, we conclude that Sphk1/S1P induces SIRT1 upregulation through multiple pathways including P38 MAPK, ERK and AKT signals. This is the first report to disclose the existence and roles of Sphk1/S1P/SIRT1 axis in regulation of endothelial cell proliferation and migration, which may provide a theoretical basis for angiogenesis.

  7. Nerve growth factor-endothelial cell interaction leads to angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cantarella, Giuseppina; Lempereur, Laurence; Presta, Marco; Ribatti, Domenico; Lombardo, Gabriella; Lazarovici, Philip; Zappalà, Giovanna; Pafumi, Carlo; Bernardini, Renato

    2002-08-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) has important functions during embryonic development and on various tissues and organs under normal and pathological conditions during the extrauterine life. RT-PCR analysis and immunological methods demonstrate that human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) express the NGF receptors trkA(NGFR) and p75NTR. NGF treatment caused a rapid phosphorylation of trkA(NGFR) in HUVECs, determining a parallel increase of phosphorylated ERK1/2. Accordingly, NGF induced a significant increase in HUVEC proliferation that was abolished by the trkA(NGFR) inhibitor K252a. Also, HUVECs express significant levels of NGF under standard culture conditions that were up-regulated during serum starvation. Endogenous NGF was responsible for the basal levels of trkA(NGFR) and ERK1/2 phosphorylation observed in untreated HUVEC cultures. Finally, NGF exerted a potent, direct, angiogenic activity in vivo when delivered onto the chorioallantoic membrane of the chicken embryo. The data indicate that NGF may play an important role in blood vessel formation in the nervous system and in several pathological processes, including tumors and inflammatory diseases. Unraveling mechanisms of NGF-dependent angiogenesis could provide valuable tools for novel therapeutic approaches in antiangiogenic therapy.

  8. Morphology of primary human venous endothelial cell cultures before and after culture medium exchange.

    PubMed

    Krüger-Genge, A; Fuhrmann, R; Jung, F; Franke, R P

    2015-01-01

    The evaluation of the interaction of human, venous endothelial cells (HUVEC) with body foreign materials on the cellular level cannot be performed in vivo, but is investigated in vitro under standard culture conditions. To maintain the vitality, proliferation and morphology of HUVEC seeded on body foreign substrates over days, the cell culture medium is usually exchanged every second day. It is well known, that alterations in the microenvironment of cells bear the risk of influencing cell morphology and function. In the current study the influence of cell culture medium exchange on HUVEC cytoskeletal microfilament structure and function was investigated. HUVEC in the third passage were seeded on extracellular matrix (ECM) - which was secreted from bovine corneal endothelial cells on glass- until functional confluence was reached. The experiment started 11 days after HUVEC seeding with an exchange of the cell culture medium followed by a staining of the actin microfilaments with phalloidin-rhodamin 1.5 and 5 minutes after medium exchange. The microfilaments were documented by use of an Olympus microscope (IMT-2) equipped with a UV lamp and online connected to a TV chain (Sony XC 50 ST/monochrome) implying an OPTIMAS - Image analysis system. Prostacyclin was analysed in the cell culture supernatant. 1.5 min after culture medium exchange in the functionally confluent cultures a slight disturbance of the actin microfilament structure with a broadening of the marginal filament band, a partial disconnection of cell-cell contacts and the appearance of intercellular fenestrations were observed. 5 minutes after medium exchange a redevelopment of the slightly disturbed microfilament structure with a condensation and narrowing of the marginal filament band was seen. 12 h later a further consolidation of the microfilament structure occurred. In addition, a perturbation of the cultured HUVEC occurred after cell culture medium exchange. The prostacyclin concentration in the

  9. Transendothelial migration of effector T cells across inflamed endothelial barriers does not require heparan sulfate proteoglycans.

    PubMed

    Stoler-Barak, Liat; Barzilai, Sagi; Zauberman, Ayelet; Alon, Ronen

    2014-06-01

    Leukocyte diapedesis is a chemotactic multistep process that requires optimal chemoattractant presentation by the endothelial barrier. Recent studies have described a critical role for heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (HSGAGs) in the presentation and functions of chemokines essential for lymphocyte interactions with the lymph node vasculature. We wished to test whether HS expression by a prototypic endothelial cell type, i.e. human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), is critical for their ability to support neutrophil and lymphocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration (TEM) under shear flow. We found that HUVECs deposit HS GAGs mainly at their basolateral compartments in both their resting and inflamed states. We next inactivated the key enzyme involved in HS biosynthesis, exostosin-1 (Ext1). Silencing Ext1 resulted in a complete loss of HS biosynthesis; nonetheless, TNF-α and IL-1β stimulation of key adhesion molecules and inflammatory chemokines necessary for neutrophil or lymphocyte adhesion and TEM remained intact. Ext1 silencing reduced neutrophil arrest and markedly impaired TEM, consistent with a role of basolateral HS GAGs in directing neutrophil crossing of inflamed endothelial barriers. Strikingly, however, the TEM of effector T cells across identically Ext1-silenced HUVECs remained normal. Importantly, the biosynthesis of the main promigratory chemokines for effector T cells and neutrophils, respectively, CCL2 and CXCL1, and their vesicle distributions were also Ext1 independent. These results suggest that transmigrating neutrophils must respond to chemokines transiently presented by apical and basolateral endothelial HS GAGs. In contrast, effector T cells can integrate chemotactic TEM signals directly from intra-endothelial chemokine stores rather than from externally deposited chemokines.

  10. siRNA-knockdown of ADAMTS-13 modulates endothelial cell angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Huiyuan; Lee, Manfai; Kim, Eun Ho; Bishop, Daniel; Rodgers, George M

    2017-09-01

    ADAMTS-13, a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with a thrombospondin type 1 motif, member 13, is a zinc-containing metalloprotease that cleaves von Willebrand factor (vWf). Previous publications by our laboratory have shown that ADAMTS-13 may also be involved in angiogenesis. For this study, we report the successful transient knockdown of endogenous ADAMTS-13 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) via siRNA and the effects of reduced endogenous ADAMTS-13 on HUVEC angiogenesis functions. 15nM of ADAMTS-13 siRNA reduced HUVEC ADAMTS-13 protein levels by 90% after 24h incubation, whereas control siRNA did not affect endogenous ADAMTS-13 levels. Furthermore, this transfection did not affect the HUVEC endogenous protein level of ADAMTS-1, a related family member of ADAMTS-13 indicating the specificity of the siRNA. Transfection of HUVEC with 15nM of ADAMTS-13 siRNA resulted in a 21% decrease in proliferation after 24h incubation. The effects of ADAMTS-13 knockdown on migration of HUVEC across a scratch wound were also evaluated. 24h after transfection with control siRNA, there was increased cell migration across the scratch wound. This dramatic migration did not occur with ADAMTS-13 knockdown cells. Decreased protein levels of endogenous ADAMTS-13 also affected angiogenesis as measured by endothelial cell tube formation using a Matrigel matrix method. The tube lengths, sizes and junction numbers of the ADAMTS-13 knockdown cells were all significantly lower compared to control cells by about 40%. The protein level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), a well-known regulator of angiogenesis, was significantly decreased by 45% upon knockdown of ADAMTS-13. Moreover, activity of the AKT pathway, one of the VEGF angiogenesis downstream signaling pathways was down-regulated by ADAMTS-13 siRNA. These data indicate that in cultured endothelial cells, one role of endogenous ADAMTS-13 is regulation of angiogenesis, mediated through VEGF and AKT signaling pathway

  11. Phosphoproteomic analysis of interacting tumor and endothelial cells identifies regulatory mechanisms of transendothelial migration.

    PubMed

    Locard-Paulet, Marie; Lim, Lindsay; Veluscek, Giulia; McMahon, Kelly; Sinclair, John; van Weverwijk, Antoinette; Worboys, Jonathan D; Yuan, Yinyin; Isacke, Clare M; Jørgensen, Claus

    2016-02-09

    The exit of metastasizing tumor cells from the vasculature, extravasation, is regulated by their dynamic interactions with the endothelial cells that line the internal surface of vessels. To elucidate signals controlling tumor cell adhesion to the endothelium and subsequent transendothelial migration, we performed phosphoproteomic analysis to map cell-specific changes in protein phosphorylation that were triggered by contact between metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells and endothelial cells. From the 2669 unique phosphorylation sites identified, 77 and 43 were differentially phosphorylated in the tumor cells and endothelial cells, respectively. The receptor tyrosine kinase ephrin type A receptor 2 (EPHA2) exhibited decreased Tyr(772) phosphorylation in the cancer cells upon endothelial contact. Knockdown of EPHA2 increased adhesion of the breast cancer cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and their transendothelial migration in coculture cell assays, as well as early-stage lung colonization in vivo. EPHA2-mediated inhibition of transendothelial migration of breast cancer cells depended on interaction with the ligand ephrinA1 on HUVECs and phosphorylation of EPHA2-Tyr(772). When EPHA2 phosphorylation dynamics were compared between cell lines of different metastatic ability, EPHA2-Tyr(772) was rapidly dephosphorylated after ephrinA1 stimulation specifically in cells targeting the lung. Knockdown of the phosphatase LMW-PTP reduced adhesion and transendothelial migration of the breast cancer cells. Overall, cell-specific phosphoproteomic analysis provides a bidirectional map of contact-initiated signaling between tumor and endothelial cells that can be further investigated to identify mechanisms controlling the transendothelial cell migration of cancer cells.

  12. Disruption of endothelial adherens junction by invasive breast cancer cells is mediated by reactive oxygen species and is attenuated by AHCC.

    PubMed

    Haidari, Mehran; Zhang, Wei; Wakame, Koji

    2013-12-18

    The effect of antioxidants on treatment of cancer is still controversial. Previously, we demonstrated that interaction of breast cancer cells with endothelial cells leads to tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin and disruption of endothelial adherens junction (EAJ). The molecular mechanism underlying the anti-metastatic effects of mushroom-derived active hexode correlated compound (AHCC) remains elusive. Several cellular and biochemical techniques were used to determine the contribution of oxidative stress in the disruption of EAJ and to test this hypothesis that AHCC inhibits the breast cancer cell-induced disruption of EAJ. Interaction of breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231 cells) with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) leads to an increase in generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Treatment of HUVECs with H2O2 or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) led to tyrosine phosphorylation of VE-cadherin, dissociation of β-catenin from VE-cadherin complex and increased transendothelial migration (TEM) of MDA-MB-231 cells. Induction of VE-cadherin tyrosine phosphorylation by PMA or by interaction of MDA-MB-231 cells with HUVECs was mediated by HRas and protein kinase C-α signaling pathways. Disruption of EAJ and phosphorylation of VE-cadherin induced by interaction of MDA-MB-231 cells with HUVECs were attenuated when HUVECs were pretreated with an antioxidant, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or AHCC. AHCC inhibited TEM of MDA-MB-231 cells and generation of ROS induced by interaction of MDA-MB-231 cells with HUVECs. Our studies suggest that ROS contributes to disruption of EAJ induced by interaction of MDA-MB-231 cells with HUVECs and AHCC attenuates this alteration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Sirtuin 6 in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lappas, Martha

    2012-01-01

    A prominent feature of inflammatory diseases is endothelial dysfunction. Factors associated with endothelial dysfunction include proinflammatory cytokines, adhesion molecules, and matrix degrading enzymes. At the transcriptional level, they are regulated by the histone deacetylase sirtuin (SIRT) 1 via its actions on the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). The role of SIRT6, also a histone deacetylase, in regulating inflammation in endothelial cells is not known. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of SIRT6 knockdown on inflammatory markers in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). LPS decreased expression of SIRT6 in HUVECs. Knockdown of SIRT6 increased the expression of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8), COX-prostaglandin system, ECM remodelling enzymes (MMP-2, MMP-9 and PAI-1), the adhesion molecule ICAM-1, and proangiogenic growth factors VEGF and FGF-2; cell migration; cell adhesion to leukocytes. Loss of SIRT6 increased the expression of NF-κB, whereas overexpression of SIRT6 was associated with decreased NF-κB transcriptional activity. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the loss of SIRT6 in endothelial cells is associated with upregulation of genes involved in inflammation, vascular remodelling, and angiogenesis. SIRT6 may be a potential pharmacological target for inflammatory vascular diseases. PMID:23132960

  14. Study on the deformation of endothelial cells using a bio-inspired in vitro disease model.

    PubMed

    Seo, Eunseok; Seo, Kyung Won; Park, Ji-Won; Lee, Tae Geol; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-03-01

    A bio-inspired in vitro disease model was developed to investigate the basic biophysics of atherosclerotic diseases. In vivo study was conducted in advance using zebrafish fed with a normal diet and a cholesterol-enriched diet. The endothelial cells (ECs) of the zebrafishes fed with a normal diet are tightly attached and aligned. Their collagen has a fiber-like structure. By contrast, the endothelial cells of the zebrafish on high cholesterol diet are disorganized and their collagen has broken structures. In vitro models of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were established on collagen films to mimic such in vivo experimental results. The normal collagen film simulates the extracellular matrix (ECM) in the blood vessels of a normal zebrafish, and the collagenase-treated collagen film mimics the ECM in blood vessels of an abnormal zebrafish. The HUVECs cultured on the normal collagen film are tightly attached, similar to those of a normal zebrafish. However, the cells cultured on the collagenase-treated collagen film are aggregated and biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction are expressed on the surface of the abnormal endothelial cells established on the denatured collagen film. The present in vitro model using a bio-inspired collagen film has a great potential for the design of novel therapies for clinical treatments of atherosclerosis through better understanding on the outbreak mechanism of atherosclerosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. C-reactive protein activates the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway and induces vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression through CD32 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and aortic endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yao-Jen; Shyu, Kou-Gi; Wang, Bao-Wei; Lai, Ling-Ping

    2006-03-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) contributes to the process of atherosclerosis by inducing pro-inflammatory changes in endothelial cells. However, the exact receptor involved in CRP-induced endothelial changes remains unclear. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) were used for the experiments. After incubation with CRP, immunoblotting showed a significant decrease of IkappaB protein and electrophoretic mobility shift assay showed a significant increase of nuclear NF-kappaB binding capacity. These changes were associated with a significant increase of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression. The mRNA level of CD32, the major binding protein for CRP in endothelial cells, increased significantly as measured by Northern blot and Western blot. When these cells were transfected with siRNA directed against CD32, the mRNA of CD32 decreased significantly. The IkappaB degradation, NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and VCAM-1 up-regulation induced by CRP were all inhibited by treatment with siRNA against CD32. SB203580, a P38 inhibitor, significantly attenuated the CRP-induced responses while SP600125 (c-jun kinase inhibitor) did not. In conclusion, CRP-induced IkappaB degradation, NF-kappaB nuclear translocation and VCAM-1 protein expression in HUVECs and HAECs. CRP also increased the expression of CD32, which might serve as the receptor for CRP in endothelial cells and mediated the effects of CRP.

  16. An in vitro model for spontaneous angiogenesis using rat mesenteric endothelial cells: possible therapeutic perspective for obesity and related disorders.

    PubMed

    Mansouri, Kamran; Khodarahmi, Reza; Ghadami, Seyyed Abolghasem

    2013-08-01

    Abnormal obesity and the related diseases, such as diabetes and cardiovascular disease, are the main causes of mortality, around the world. A key feature of the adipogenesis and obesity is angiogenesis-dependent tissue growth accompanied with extracellular remodeling. In this way, suppression of angiogenesis may be a key point for preventing the adipogenesis. In the present study, to provide a deeper insight to understand obesity and screening for more effective therapeutics, we have developed a three-dimensional in vitro model of microvessel formation under collagen matrix culture using endothelial cells, extracted from a suitable tissue. In a successful approach for developing an angiogenesis model, the rat mesenteric microvascular endothelial cells (RMMECs) were isolated, coated on dextran beads and then suspended in collagen gel. Additionally, the proliferation as well as migration of endothelial cells were analyzed and compared with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). RMMECs showed remarkable migration ability and had higher growth during the logarithmic growth phase, when compared with HUVECs. Also, no significance differences in morphogenesis were observed between HUVECs and RMMECs. The model may be useful in providing insights to develop potential intervention strategies in vivo against obesity-related disorders. Targeting endothelial cells is an interesting and exciting possibility that may be raised in further investigations.

  17. Protection effect of endomorphins on advanced glycation end products induced injury in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Yan, Liping; Niu, Ruilan; Tian, Limin; Zhang, Qi; Quan, Jinxing; Liu, Hua; Wei, Suhong; Guo, Qian

    2013-01-01

    Endomorphins (EMs) have a very important bridge-function in cardiovascular, endocrinological, and neurological systems. This study is to investigate the effects of EMs on the synthesis and secretion of vasoactive substances induced by advanced glycation end products in primary cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Firstly, HUVECs were stimulated with AGEs-bovine serum albumin (AGEs-BSA), bovine serum albumin (BSA), or both AGEs-BSA and EMs together, respectively. Then, HUVEC survival rate was calculated by MTT assay, the levels of NO, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were detected by colorimetric analysis, and the contents of endothelin-1 (ET-1) were detected by ELISA. The mRNA levels of eNOS and ET-1 were measured by RT-PCR. The expression of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) was detected by immunofluorescence assay. The results showed that the mRNA expression and secretion of eNOS were significantly enhanced after incubation with EMs compared to those with AGEs-BSA, while the secretion of NO and iNOS, mRNA expression, and secretion of ET-1 had opposite changes. The fluorescence intensity of p38MAPK in nuclear was decreased after pretreatment with EMs compared to incubation with AGEs-BSA. Conclusion. The present study suggests that EMs have certain protection effect on AGEs-BSA-induced injury in HUVEC.

  18. Human brain microvascular endothelial cells resist elongation due to shear stress.

    PubMed

    Reinitz, Adam; DeStefano, Jackson; Ye, Mao; Wong, Andrew D; Searson, Peter C

    2015-05-01

    Endothelial cells in straight sections of vessels are known to elongate and align in the direction of flow. This phenotype has been replicated in confluent monolayers of bovine aortic endothelial cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in cell culture under physiological shear stress. Here we report on the morphological response of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs) in confluent monolayers in response to shear stress. Using a microfluidic platform we image confluent monolayers of HBMECs and HUVECs under shear stresses up to 16 dyne cm(-2). From live-cell imaging we quantitatively analyze the cell morphology and cell speed as a function of time. We show that HBMECs do not undergo a classical transition from cobblestone to spindle-like morphology in response to shear stress. We further show that under shear stress, actin fibers are randomly oriented in the cells indicating that there is no cytoskeletal remodeling. These results suggest that HBMECs are programmed to resist elongation and alignment under shear stress, a phenotype that may be associated with the unique properties of the blood-brain barrier.

  19. Microrheology and ROCK Signaling of Human Endothelial Cells Embedded in a 3D Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Panorchan, Porntula; Lee, Jerry S. H.; Kole, Thomas P.; Tseng, Yiider; Wirtz, Denis

    2006-01-01

    Cell function is profoundly affected by the geometry of the extracellular environment confining the cell. Whether and how cells plated on a two-dimensional matrix or embedded in a three-dimensional (3D) matrix mechanically sense the dimensionality of their environment is mostly unknown, partly because individual cells in an extended matrix are inaccessible to conventional cell-mechanics probes. Here we develop a functional assay based on multiple particle tracking microrheology coupled with ballistic injection of nanoparticles to measure the local intracellular micromechanical properties of individual cells embedded inside a matrix. With our novel assay, we probe the mechanical properties of the cytoplasm of individual human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) embedded in a 3D peptide hydrogel in the presence or absence of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We found that VEGF treatment, which enhances endothelial migration, increases the compliance and reduces the elasticity of the cytoplasm of HUVECs in a matrix. This VEGF-induced softening response of the cytoplasm is abrogated by specific Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibition. These results establish combined particle-tracking microrheology and ballistic injection as the first method able to probe the micromechanical properties and mechanical response to agonists and/or drug treatments of individual cells inside a matrix. These results suggest that ROCK plays an essential role in the regulation of the intracellular mechanical response to VEGF of endothelial cells in a 3D matrix. PMID:16891369

  20. Epac1 increases migration of endothelial cells and melanoma cells via FGF2-mediated paracrine signaling.

    PubMed

    Baljinnyam, Erdene; Umemura, Masanari; Chuang, Christine; De Lorenzo, Mariana S; Iwatsubo, Mizuka; Chen, Suzie; Goydos, James S; Ishikawa, Yoshihiro; Whitelock, John M; Iwatsubo, Kousaku

    2014-07-01

    Fibroblast growth factor (FGF2) regulates endothelial and melanoma cell migration. The binding of FGF2 to its receptor requires N-sulfated heparan sulfate (HS) glycosamine. We have previously reported that Epac1, an exchange protein activated by cAMP, increases N-sulfation of HS in melanoma. Therefore, we examined whether Epac1 regulates FGF2-mediated cell-cell communication. Conditioned medium (CM) of melanoma cells with abundant expression of Epac1 increased migration of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) and melanoma cells with poor expression of Epac1. CM-induced increase in migration was inhibited by antagonizing FGF2, by the removal of HS and by the knockdown of Epac1. In addition, knockdown of Epac1 suppressed the binding of FGF2 to FGF receptor in HUVEC, and in vivo angiogenesis in melanoma. Furthermore, knockdown of Epac1 reduced N-sulfation of HS chains attached to perlecan, a major secreted type of HS proteoglycan that mediates the binding of FGF2 to FGF receptor. These data suggested that Epac1 in melanoma cells regulates melanoma progression via the HS-FGF2-mediated cell-cell communication. © 2014 The Authors. Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Bortezomib induces autophagic death in proliferating human endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Belloni, Daniela; Veschini, Lorenzo; Foglieni, Chiara; Dell'Antonio, Giacomo; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Ferrarini, Marina; Ferrero, Elisabetta

    2010-04-01

    The proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib has been approved for the treatment of relapsed/refractory multiple myeloma (MM), thanks to its ability to induce MM cell apoptosis. Moreover, Bortezomib has antiangiogenic properties. We report that endothelial cells (EC) exposed to Bortezomib undergo death to an extent that depends strictly on their activation state. Indeed, while quiescent EC are resistant to Bortezomib, the drug results maximally toxic in EC switched toward angiogenesis with FGF, and exerts a moderate effect on subconfluent HUVEC. Moreover, EC activation state deeply influences the death pathway elicited by Bortezomib: after treatment, angiogenesis-triggered EC display typical features of apoptosis. Conversely, death of subconfluent EC is preceded by ROS generation and signs typical of autophagy, including intense cytoplasmic vacuolization with evidence of autophagosomes at electron microscopy, and conversion of the cytosolic MAP LC3 I form toward the autophagosome-associated LC3 II form. Treatment with the specific autophagy inhibitor 3-MA prevents both LC3 I/LC3 II conversion and HUVEC cell death. Finally, early removal of Bortezomib is accompanied by the recovery of cell shape and viability. These findings strongly suggest that Bortezomib induces either apoptosis or autophagy in EC; interfering with the autophagic response may potentiate the antiangiogenic effect of the drug.

  2. Kaempferol induces ATM/p53-mediated death receptor and mitochondrial apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chiu-Fang; Yang, Jai-Sing; Tsai, Fuu-Jen; Chiang, Ni-Na; Lu, Chi-Cheng; Huang, Yu-Syuan; Chen, Chun; Chen, Fu-An

    2016-05-01

    Kaempferol is a member of the flavonoid compounds found in vegetables and fruits. It is shown to exhibit biological impact and anticancer activity, but no report exists on the angiogenic effect of kaempferol and induction of cell apoptosis in vitro. In this study, we investigated the role of kaempferol on anti-angiogenic property and the apoptotic mechanism of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our results demonstrated that kaempferol decreased HUVEC viability in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Kaempferol also induced morphological changes and sub-G1 phase cell population (apoptotic cells). Kaempferol triggered apoptosis of HUVECs as detecting by DNA fragmentation, comet assay and immunofluorescent staining for activated caspase-3. The caspase signals, including caspase-8, -9 and -3, were time-dependently activated in HUVECs after kaempferol exposure. Furthermore, pre-treatment with a specific inhibitor of caspase-8 (Z-IETD-FMK) significantly reduced the activity of caspase-8, -9 and -3, indicating that extrinsic pathway is a major signaling pathway in kaempferol-treated HUVECs. Importantly, kaempferol promoted reactive oxygen species (ROS) evaluated using flow cytometric assay in HUVECs. We further investigated the upstream extrinsic pathway and showed that kaempferol stimulated death receptor signals [Fas/CD95, death receptor 4 (DR4) and DR5] through increasing the levels of phosphorylated p53 and phosphorylated ATM pathways in HUVECs, which can be individually confirmed by N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ATM specific inhibitor (caffeine) and p53 siRNA. Based on these results, kaempferol-induced HUVEC apoptosis was involved in an ROS-mediated p53/ATM/death receptor signaling. Kaempferol might possess therapeutic effects on cancer treatment in anti-vascular targeting.

  3. Folic Acid Attenuates Vascular Endothelial Cell Injury Caused by Hypoxia via the Inhibition of ERK1/2/NOX4/ROS Pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Fei; Lan, Jun; Xia, Wenhao; Tu, Chang; Chen, Benfa; Li, Shicheng; Pan, Weibiao

    2016-06-01

    Coronary artery disease is a disease with high morbidity and mortality, in which vascular endothelial dysfunction plays an important role. Hypoxia leads to the inflammation and oxidative stress in endothelial cells, which results in the endothelial injury. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of folic acid on hypoxia-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Cell counting Kit was used to detect cell survival rate, and apoptotic cells were detected by Hoechst 33258 staining. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was measured using dichloro-dihydro-fluorescein diacetate staining. Western blot was used to determine the protein expressions of extracellular signal protein kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and phosphorylated ERK1/2 (p-ERK1/2), NOX4 subunit of NAPDH and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Folic acid significantly increased the cell survival rate and decreased the apoptosis of HUVECs treated with folic acid compared with hypoxia-treated HUVEC. Folic acid also decreased ROS level, while it increased the nitrite content in HUVECs. In addition, folic acid decreased protein expressions of NOX4 and p-ERK1/2, while it increased the protein expression of eNOS in HUVECs. Furthermore, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), the antioxidant, had similar effect on the cell survival rate and the apoptosis. In addition, DPI (NOX4 inhibitor) and U0126 (ERK1/2 inhibitor) rather than NAC decreased the protein expression of NOX4. NAC, DPI, and U0126 increased the protein expression of eNOS. Furthermore, U0126 rather than DPI and NAC decreased the protein expression of p-ERK1/2. Taken together, the results suggested that hypoxia decreased the cell survival rate and induced apoptosis via ERK1/2/NOX4/ROS pathway, which could be the target of folic acid in protecting the HUVECs from injury caused by hypoxia.

  4. Implication of Long noncoding RNAs in the endothelial cell response to hypoxia revealed by RNA-sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Voellenkle, C.; Garcia-Manteiga, J. M.; Pedrotti, S.; Perfetti, A.; De Toma, I.; Da Silva, D.; Maimone, B.; Greco, S.; Fasanaro, P.; Creo, P.; Zaccagnini, G.; Gaetano, C.; Martelli, F.

    2016-01-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are non-protein coding RNAs regulating gene expression. Although for some lncRNAs a relevant role in hypoxic endothelium has been shown, the regulation and function of lncRNAs is still largely unknown in the vascular physio-pathology. Taking advantage of next-generation sequencing techniques, transcriptomic changes induced by endothelial cell exposure to hypoxia were investigated. Paired-end sequencing of polyadenylated RNA derived from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) exposed to 1% O2 or normoxia was performed. Bioinformatics analysis identified ≈2000 differentially expressed genes, including 122 lncRNAs. Extensive validation was performed by both microarray and qPCR. Among the validated lncRNAs, H19, MIR210HG, MEG9, MALAT1 and MIR22HG were also induced in a mouse model of hindlimb ischemia. To test the functional relevance of lncRNAs in endothelial cells, knockdown of H19 expression was performed. H19 inhibition decreased HUVEC growth, inducing their accumulation in G1 phase of the cell cycle; accordingly, p21 (CDKN1A) expression was increased. Additionally, H19 knockdown also diminished HUVEC ability to form capillary like structures when plated on matrigel. In conclusion, a high-confidence signature of lncRNAs modulated by hypoxia in HUVEC was identified and a significant impact of H19 lncRNA was shown. PMID:27063004

  5. Neutrophil-derived microparticles induce myeloperoxidase-mediated damage of vascular endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Upon activation neutrophil releases microparticles - small plasma membrane vesicles that contain cell surface proteins and cytoplasmic matter, with biological activities. In this study we investigated the potential role of myeloperoxidase in the endothelial cell injury caused by neutrophil-derived microparticles. Results Microparticles were produced by activating human neutrophils with a calcium ionophore and characterized by flow cytometry and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Myeloperoxidase activity was measured by luminol-dependent chemiluminescence. Neutrophil microparticles-induced injuries and morphological alterations in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were evaluated by microscopy and flow cytometry. Neutrophil microparticles were characterized as structures bounded by lipid bilayers and were less than 1 μm in diameter. The microparticles also expressed CD66b, CD62L and myeloperoxidase, which are all commonly expressed on the surface of neutrophils, as well as exposition of phosphatidylserine. The activity of the myeloperoxidase present on the microparticles was confirmed by hypochlorous acid detection. This compound is only catalyzed by myeloperoxidase in the presence of hydrogen peroxide and chloride ion. The addition of sodium azide or taurine inhibited and reduced enzymatic activity, respectively. Exposure of HUVEC to neutrophil microparticles induced a loss of cell membrane integrity and morphological changes. The addition of sodium azide or myeloperoxidase-specific inhibitor-I consistently reduced the injury to the endothelial cells. Taurine addition reduced HUVEC morphological changes. Conclusions We have demonstrated the presence of active myeloperoxidase in neutrophil microparticles and that the microparticle-associated myeloperoxidase cause injury to endothelial cells. Hence, the microparticle-associated myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system may contribute to widespread endothelial cell damage

  6. Trichosanatine alleviates oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced endothelial cells injury via inhibiting the LOX-1/p38 MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jia, Yu-Hua; Zhao, Xiao-Shan; Zhou, Feng-Hua; Pan, Yun-Yun; Wan, Qiang; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Sun, Xue-Gang; Chen, Yu-Yao; Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Sai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The LOX-1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway has been proved to participate in the endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Trichosanatineis is an active compound isolated from the peel of Trichosanthes kirilowii. This study aims to determine whether trichosanatine prevents the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced insult through inhibition of the LOX-1/p38 MAPK pathway in HUVECs. HUVECs were treated with 150 mg/ml ox-LDL for 24 h to establish an ox-LDL-induced endothelial injury model. Cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, LOX-1 and p38 MAPK expression level were measured. The results indicated that HUVECs were pretreated with either 100 mM trichosanatine or LOX-1 shRNA prior to exposure to ox-LDL for 24 h. Exposure of HUVECs to 150 mg/ml ox-LDL for 24 h significantly up-regulated the expression levels of LOX-1. The increased expression levels of LOX-1 were markedly attenuated by pretreatment with 100 mM trichosanatine. In addition, the ox-LDL-induced increase in phosphorylated (p) p38 MAPK expression was ameliorated by pretreatment with LOX-1 shRNA. Pretreatment of HUVECs with either trichosanatine or LOX-1 shRNA before exposure to ox-LDL significantly inhibited the ox-LDL-induced injuries, as evidenced by an increase in cell viability, a decrease in apoptotic cells, a ROS generation and a loss of MMP. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that the LOX-1/p38 MAPK pathway contributes to the ox-LDL-induced injury in HUVECs. Meanwhile, the trichosanatine protects the HUVECs against ox-LDL-induced injury at least in part by inhibiting the activated of LOX-1/p38 MAPK pathway.

  7. Trichosanatine alleviates oxidized low-density lipoprotein induced endothelial cells injury via inhibiting the LOX-1/p38 MAPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Jia, Yu-Hua; Zhao, Xiao-Shan; Zhou, Feng-Hua; Pan, Yun-Yun; Wan, Qiang; Cui, Xiao-Bing; Sun, Xue-Gang; Chen, Yu-Yao; Zhang, Yu; Cheng, Sai-Bo

    2016-01-01

    The LOX-1/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway has been proved to participate in the endothelial dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Trichosanatineis is an active compound isolated from the peel of Trichosanthes kirilowii. This study aims to determine whether trichosanatine prevents the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced insult through inhibition of the LOX-1/p38 MAPK pathway in HUVECs. HUVECs were treated with 150 mg/ml ox-LDL for 24 h to establish an ox-LDL-induced endothelial injury model. Cell viability, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, LOX-1 and p38 MAPK expression level were measured. The results indicated that HUVECs were pretreated with either 100 mM trichosanatine or LOX-1 shRNA prior to exposure to ox-LDL for 24 h. Exposure of HUVECs to 150 mg/ml ox-LDL for 24 h significantly up-regulated the expression levels of LOX-1. The increased expression levels of LOX-1 were markedly attenuated by pretreatment with 100 mM trichosanatine. In addition, the ox-LDL-induced increase in phosphorylated (p) p38 MAPK expression was ameliorated by pretreatment with LOX-1 shRNA. Pretreatment of HUVECs with either trichosanatine or LOX-1 shRNA before exposure to ox-LDL significantly inhibited the ox-LDL-induced injuries, as evidenced by an increase in cell viability, a decrease in apoptotic cells, a ROS generation and a loss of MMP. In conclusion, we have demonstrated for the first time that the LOX-1/p38 MAPK pathway contributes to the ox-LDL-induced injury in HUVECs. Meanwhile, the trichosanatine protects the HUVECs against ox-LDL-induced injury at least in part by inhibiting the activated of LOX-1/p38 MAPK pathway. PMID:28078016

  8. Engineered Microvasculature in PDMS Networks Using Endothelial Cells Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sivarapatna, Amogh; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Xiao, Yang; Han, Edward; Aryal, Binod; Zhou, Jing; Fernandez-Hernando, Carlos; Qyang, Yibing; Hirschi, Karen K; Niklason, Laura E

    2017-08-01

    In this study, we used a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-based platform for the generation of intact, perfusion-competent microvascular networks in vitro. COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite-element analysis and simulation software package, was used to obtain simulated velocity, pressure, and shear stress profiles. Transgene-free human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) were differentiated into partially arterialized endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs) in 5 d under completely chemically defined conditions, using the small molecule glycogen synthase kinase 3β inhibitor CHIR99021 and were thoroughly characterized for functionality and arterial-like marker expression. These cells, along with primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), were seeded in the PDMS system to generate microvascular networks that were subjected to shear stress. Engineered microvessels had patent lumens and expressed VE-cadherin along their periphery. Shear stress caused by flowing medium increased the secretion of nitric oxide and caused endothelial cells s to align and to redistribute actin filaments parallel to the direction of the laminar flow. Shear stress also caused significant increases in gene expression for arterial markers Notch1 and EphrinB2 as well as antithrombotic markers Kruppel-like factor 2 (KLF-2)/4. These changes in response to shear stress in the microvascular platform were observed in hiPSC-EC microvessels but not in microvessels that were derived from HUVECs, which indicated that hiPSC-ECs may be more plastic in modulating their phenotype under flow than are HUVECs. Taken together, we demonstrate the feasibly of generating intact, engineered microvessels in vitro, which replicate some of the key biological features of native microvessels.

  9. Tumor Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Dudley, Andrew C.

    2012-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is a dynamic cellular “organ” that controls passage of nutrients into tissues, maintains the flow of blood, and regulates the trafficking of leukocytes. In tumors, factors such as hypoxia and chronic growth factor stimulation result in endothelial dysfunction. For example, tumor blood vessels have irregular diameters; they are fragile, leaky, and blood flow is abnormal. There is now good evidence that these abnormalities in the tumor endothelium contribute to tumor growth and metastasis. Thus, determining the biological basis underlying these abnormalities is critical for understanding the pathophysiology of tumor progression and facilitating the design and delivery of effective antiangiogenic therapies. PMID:22393533

  10. Long intergenic noncoding RNA 00305 sponges miR-136 to regulate the hypoxia induced apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo-Ya; Jin, Zhe; Zhao, Zhuo

    2017-10-01

    Apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells (VECs) are closely correlated to multiple endotheliocyte-related cardiovascular diseases, for example atherosclerosis. Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been testified to play important role in regulation of VECs. The purpose of this study is to investigate the potential regulation of lncRNA long intergenic noncoding RNA 00305 (LINC00305) on hypoxia induced VECs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were respectively induced with normoxia or hypoxia (1%). Expression levels of lncRNA and miRNA were detected using RT-PCR. Proliferation ability was tested by CCK-8 assay. Apoptosis assay were performed using flow cytometry and TUNEL staining. Target miRNAs prediction was performed using bioinformatics analysis. LINC00305 expression was significantly up-regulated in hypoxia induce HUVECs. Gain- and loss-of-function experiments showed that LINC00305 enhanced expression suppressed the proliferation and enhanced the apoptosis of HUVECs, while LINC00305 lower-expression exerted the opposite effect. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that miR-136 targeted LINC00305 art 3'-UTR. Moreover, rescue experiment confirmed the reversing function of miR-136 to LINC00305 on HUVECs proliferation and apoptosis. Our study revealed the apoptosis-promoting role of LINC00305 in hypoxia-induced HUVECs via acting as miR-136 sponge, suggesting the vital function of lncRNAs on VECs apoptosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  11. Protection of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells against Oxidative Stress by MicroRNA-210

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tianyi; Song, Xianjing; Zhang, Jichang; Zhao, Lei; Shi, Yongfeng; Liu, Jia; Liu, Ning; Xiao, Yanlong; Sun, Wei; Guan, Yinuo

    2017-01-01

    Oxidative stress induces endothelial cell apoptosis and promotes atherosclerosis development. MicroRNA-210 (miR-210) is linked with apoptosis in different cell types. This study aimed to investigate the role of miR-210 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under oxidative stress and to determine the underlying mechanism. HUVECs were treated with different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and cell viability was evaluated using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay and ATP assay. To evaluate the role of miR-210 in H2O2-mediated apoptosis, gain-and-loss-of-function approaches were used, and the effects on apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) level were assayed using flow cytometry. Moreover, miR-210 expression was detected by quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), and expression of the following apoptosis-related genes was assessed by qRT-PCR and Western blot at the RNA and protein level, respectively: caspase-8-associated protein 2 (CASP8AP2), caspase-8, and caspase-3. The results showed that H2O2 induced apoptosis in HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner and increased miR-210 expression. Overexpression of miR-210 inhibited apoptosis and reduced ROS level in HUVECs treated with H2O2. Furthermore, miR-210 downregulated CASP8AP2 and related downstream caspases at protein level. Thus, under oxidative stress, miR-210 has a prosurvival and antiapoptotic effect on HUVECs by reducing ROS generation and downregulating the CASP8AP2 pathway. PMID:28367268

  12. A Human Long Non-Coding RNA ALT1 Controls the Cell Cycle of Vascular Endothelial Cells Via ACE2 and Cyclin D1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Wang, Rui; Ma, Jie-Yi; Wang, Mian; Cui, Jin; Wu, Wei-Bin; Liu, Rui-Ming; Zhang, Chun-Xiang; Li, Wen; Wang, Shen-Ming

    2017-10-05

    ALT1 is a novel long non-coding RNA derived from the alternatively spliced transcript of the deleted in lymphocytic leukemia 2 (DLEU2). To date, ALT1 biological roles in human vascular endothelial cells have not been reported. ALT1 was knocked down by siRNAs. Cell proliferation was analyzed by cck-8. The existence and sequence of human ALT1 were identified by 3' rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The interaction between lncRNA and proteins was analyzed by RNA-Protein pull down assay, RNA immunoprecipitation, and mass spectrometry analysis. ALT1 was expressed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The expression of ALT1 was significantly downregulated in contact-inhibited HUVECs and in hypoxia-induced, growth-arrested HUVECs. Knocking down of ALT1 inhibited the proliferation of HUVECs by G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. We observed that angiotensin converting enzyme Ⅱ(ACE2) was a direct target gene of ALT1. Knocking-down of ALT1 or its target gene ACE2 could efficiently decrease the expression of cyclin D1 via the enhanced ubiquitination and degradation, in which HIF-1α and protein von Hippel-Lindau (pVHL) might be involved. The results suggested the human long non-coding RNA ALT1 is a novel regulator for cell cycle of HUVECs via ACE2 and cyclin D1 pathway. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Origins of circulating endothelial cells and endothelial outgrowth from blood

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi; Weisdorf, Daniel J.; Solovey, Anna; Hebbel, Robert P.

    2000-01-01

    Normal adults have a small number of circulating endothelial cells (CEC) in peripheral blood, and endothelial outgrowth has been observed from cultures of blood. In this study we seek insight into the origins of CEC and endothelial outgrowth from cultures of blood. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of blood samples from bone marrow transplant recipients who had received gender-mismatched transplants 5–20 months earlier showed that most CEC in fresh blood had recipient genotype. Endothelial outgrowth from the same blood samples after 9 days in culture (5-fold expansion) was still predominantly of the recipient genotype. In contrast, endothelial outgrowth after ∼1 month (102-fold expansion) was mostly of donor genotype. Thus, recipient-genotype endothelial cells expanded only ∼20-fold over this period, whereas donor-genotype endothelial cells expanded ∼1000-fold. These data suggest that most CEC in fresh blood originate from vessel walls and have limited growth capability. Conversely, the data indicate that outgrowth of endothelial cells from cultures of blood is mostly derived from transplantable marrow-derived cells. Because these cells have more delayed outgrowth but a greater proliferative rate, our data suggest that they are derived from circulating angioblasts. PMID:10619863

  14. Protective effects of physiological testosterone on advanced glycation end product-induced injury in human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Yaping; Yu, Dan; Wu, Jiahua; Li, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The effect of testosterone, a sex steroid, on endothelial cells is controversial as it is uncertain if it has a protective effect on them. Whether physiological testosterone can inhibit the deleterious effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on endothelial cells remains to be elucidated. The present study focused on elucidating the effect of testosterone on the injury of endothelial cells induced by AGEs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in vitro and treated with AGEs in the presence or absence of various concentrations of testosterone. The cell viability in each group was measured using an MTS assay. Early-stage apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry with Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining, and the expression levels of apoptosis-associated proteins, B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) and caspase-3, were determined using western blot analysis. Oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory parameters in the medium were evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The MTS results showed that AGEs significantly decreased the proliferation of HUVECs, whereas a physiological concentration of testosterone alleviated this damage. Physiological concentrations of testosterone protected the HUVECs from AGE-induced apoptosis, mediated by caspase-3 and Bax/Bcl-2. In addition, treatment of the HUVECs with AGEs caused a significant decrease in anti-oxidative parameters, but increased the concentrations of malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor-α. The activation of Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 was significantly increased by incubation with AGEs. However, pre-incubation with a physiological concentration of testosterone attenuated these changes. Therefore, the data obtained in the present study established the potential role of physiological testosterone in ameliorating AGE-induced damage in HUVECs. PMID:28112379

  15. Protective effects of physiological testosterone on advanced glycation end product‑induced injury in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yaping; Yu, Dan; Wu, Jiahua; Li, Lin

    2017-03-01

    The effect of testosterone, a sex steroid, on endothelial cells is controversial as it is uncertain if it has a protective effect on them. Whether physiological testosterone can inhibit the deleterious effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on endothelial cells remains to be elucidated. The present study focused on elucidating the effect of testosterone on the injury of endothelial cells induced by AGEs. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in vitro and treated with AGEs in the presence or absence of various concentrations of testosterone. The cell viability in each group was measured using an MTS assay. Early‑stage apoptosis was detected using flow cytometry with Annexin V‑fluorescein isothiocyanate/propidium iodide double staining, and the expression levels of apoptosis‑associated proteins, B cell lymphoma‑2 (Bcl‑2), Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax) and caspase‑3, were determined using western blot analysis. Oxidative stress and pro‑inflammatory parameters in the medium were evaluated using an enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay. The MTS results showed that AGEs significantly decreased the proliferation of HUVECs, whereas a physiological concentration of testosterone alleviated this damage. Physiological concentrations of testosterone protected the HUVECs from AGE‑induced apoptosis, mediated by caspase‑3 and Bax/Bcl‑2. In addition, treatment of the HUVECs with AGEs caused a significant decrease in anti‑oxidative parameters, but increased the concentrations of malondialdehyde and tumor necrosis factor‑α. The activation of Janus kinase 2 and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 was significantly increased by incubation with AGEs. However, pre‑incubation with a physiological concentration of testosterone attenuated these changes. Therefore, the data obtained in the present study established the potential role of physiological testosterone in ameliorating AGE‑induced damage in

  16. Edaravone attenuates monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells induced by oxidized low-density lipoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhijuan Cheng, Jianxin; Wang, Liping

    2015-10-30

    Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) plays a vital role in recruitment of monocytes to endothelial cells, which is important during early stages of atherosclerosis development. Edaravone, a potent and novel scavenger of free radicals inhibiting hydroxyl radicals, has been clinically used to reduce the neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In the present study, Edaravone was revealed to markedly reduce oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The inhibitory mechanism of Edaravone was associated with suppression of the chemokine MCP-1 and adhesion molecule VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 expression. In addition, luciferase reporter assay results revealed that administration of Edaravone attenuated the increase in NF-κB transcriptional activity induced by oxLDL. Notably, it's also shown that Edaravone treatment blocked oxLDL induced p65 nuclear translocation in HUVECs. Results indicate that Edaravone negatively regulates endothelial inflammation. - Highlights: • Edaravone reduces oxLDL-induced monocyte adhesion to HUVECs. • Edaravone attenuates oxLDL-induced expression of MCP-1, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1. • Edaravone reduces NF-κB transcriptional activity and p65 nuclear translocation.

  17. Effect of peritoneal dialysis fluid containing osmo-metabolic agents on human endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Bonomini, Mario; Di Silvestre, Sara; Di Tomo, Pamela; Di Pietro, Natalia; Mandatori, Domitilla; Di Liberato, Lorenzo; Sirolli, Vittorio; Chiarelli, Francesco; Indiveri, Cesare; Pandolfi, Assunta; Arduini, Arduino

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of glucose as the only osmotic agent in peritoneal dialysis (PD) solutions (PDSs) is believed to exert local (peritoneal) and systemic detrimental actions, particularly in diabetic PD patients. To improve peritoneal biocompatibility, we have developed more biocompatible PDSs containing xylitol and carnitine along with significantly less amounts of glucose and have tested them in cultured Human Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) obtained from the umbilical cords of healthy (C) and gestational diabetic (GD) mothers. Methods Primary C- and GD-HUVECs were treated for 72 hours with our PDSs (xylitol 0.7% and 1.5%, whereas carnitine and glucose were fixed at 0.02% and 0.5%, respectively) and two glucose-based PDSs (glucose 1.36% or 2.27%). We examined their effects on endothelial cell proliferation (cell count), viability (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazolyl-2)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay), intracellular nitro-oxidative stress (peroxynitrite levels), Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 membrane exposure (flow cytometry), and HUVEC-monocyte interactions (U937 adhesion assay). Results Compared to glucose-based PDSs, our in vitro studies demonstrated that the tested PDSs did not change the proliferative potential both in C- and GD-HUVECs. Moreover, our PDSs significantly improved endothelial cell viability, compared to glucose-based PDSs and basal condition. Notably, glucose-based PDSs significantly increased the intracellular peroxynitrite levels, Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 and Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 membrane exposure, and endothelial cell–monocyte interactions in both C- and GD-HUVECs, as compared with our experimental PDSs. Conclusion Present results show that in control and diabetic human endothelial cell models, xylitol–carnitine-based PDSs do not cause cytotoxicity, nitro-oxidative stress, and inflammation as caused by hypertonic glucose-based PDSs. Since xylitol and carnitine are also known to

  18. Volume changes of human endothelial cells induced by photodynamic treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leunig, Andreas; Staub, Frank; Plesnila, Nick; Peters, Jurgen; Feyh, Jens; Gutmann, Ralph; Goetz, Alwin E.

    1996-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has shown promising results in treatment of malignant tumors. However, the mechanisms leading to tumor destruction during PDT are still not completely understood. In addition to effects on the microcirculation, damage to cellular structures has been observed following exposure of cells to PDT. A phenomenon preceding these events might possibly be cell swelling. We therefore studied the influence of treatment with Photofrin (PF) and laser light on volume changes and cell viability of endothelial cells. Endothelial cells were obtained from human umbilical cord veins (HUVEC) by an adaption of the method of Maruyama (1963). After subcultivation the cells were harvested and transferred as a cell suspension into a specially designed incubation chamber. Cells received either PF in concentrations of 1.5 or 3.0 (mu) g/ml and laser illumination (630 nm; 40 mW/cm2, 4 Joule), PF alone, or laser treatment only. Following start of PF incubation and after phototreatment cell samples were taken for volume measurements using flow cytometry and for studies of cellular morphology using scanning electron microscopy. Simultaneously, cell viability was monitored by the trypan blue exclusion test and colorimetric MTT assay. (abstract truncated)

  19. Interleukin-6 and intercellular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression remains elevated in revived live endothelial cells following spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Muid, S; Froemming, G R A; Ali, A M; Nawawi, H

    2013-12-01

    The effects of spaceflight on cardiovascular health are not necessarily seen immediately after astronauts have returned but can be delayed. It is important to investigate the long term effects of spaceflight on protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation as a predictor for the development of atherosclerosis and potential cardiovascular problems. The objectives of this study were to investigate the (a) protein and gene expression of inflammation and endothelial activation, (b) expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB), signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (STAT-3) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) 3 months post-space flight travel compared to ground controls. HUVEC cultured on microcarriers in fluid processing apparatus were flown to the International Space Station (ISS) by the Soyuz TMA-11 rocket. After landing, the cells were detached from microcarriers and recultured in T-25 cm(2) culture flasks (Revived HUVEC). Soluble protein expression of IL-6, TNF-α, ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and e-selectin were measured by ELISA. Gene expression of these markers and in addition NFκB, STAT-3 and eNOS were measured. Spaceflight induced IL-6 and ICAM-1 remain elevated even after 3 months post spaceflight travel and this is mediated via STAT-3 pathway. The downregulation of eNOS expression in revived HUVEC cells suggests a reduced protection of the cells and the surrounding vessels against future insults that may lead to atherosclerosis. It would be crucial to explore preventive measures, in relation to atherosclerosis and its related complications.

  20. The effect and action mechanism of resveratrol on the vascular endothelial cell by high glucose treatment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xun; Tian, Jie; Bai, Quanhao; Ashraf, Muhammad Aqeel; Sarfraz, Maliha; Zhao, Bojun

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effect and action mechanism of resveratrol on the vascular endothelial cell by high glucose treatment. Primarily cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were pretreated by resveratrol (0.2 μmol/L) and holding for 6 h, and then cultured in Dulbecco Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) within 0.45 mmol/L of palmimte acid and 32.8 mmol/L of glucose, which is holding for 12 h. The cells were collected to analyze the expression of E-selected element. Supernatant of cultured cells, induced by 100 nmol/L insulin for 30 min, was used to analyze the nitric oxide content. Compared with normal control cells, the secretion of nitric oxide is stimulated by insulin decrease, however, the expression of E-selected element increased in HUVEC. Resveratrol treatment increased the secretion of nitric oxide stimulated by insulin and decreased the expression of E-selected element and partly counteracts the impairment of high glucose and palmitate acid on the function of endothelial cells. Resveratrol can improve and protect the function of high glucose and fatty acid cultured endothelial cell, and therefore may be a promising medicine in the prevention or therapy of diabetic macrovascular diseases.

  1. Endothelial cells assemble into a 3-dimensional prevascular network in a bone tissue engineering construct.

    PubMed

    Rouwkema, Jeroen; de Boer, Jan; Van Blitterswijk, Clemens A

    2006-09-01

    To engineer tissues with clinically relevant dimensions, one must overcome the challenge of rapidly creating functional blood vessels to supply cells with oxygen and nutrients and to remove waste products. We tested the hypothesis that endothelial cells, cocultured with osteoprogenitor cells, can organize into a prevascular network in vitro. When cultured in a spheroid coculture model with human mesenchymal stem cells, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) form a 3-dimensional prevascular network within 10 days of in vitro culture. The formation of the prevascular network was promoted by seeding 2% or fewer HUVECs. Moreover, the addition of endothelial cells resulted in a 4-fold upregulation of the osteogenic marker alkaline phosphatase. The addition of mouse embryonic fibroblasts did not result in stabilization of the prevascular network. Upon implantation, the prevascular network developed further and structures including lumen could be seen regularly. However, anastomosis with the host vasculature was limited. We conclude that endothelial cells are able to form a 3-dimensional (3D) prevascular network in vitro in a bone tissue engineering setting. This finding is a strong indication that in vitro prevascularization is a promising strategy to improve implant vascularization in bone tissue engineering.

  2. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells from indoxyl sulfate-induced injury via ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zhaoyu; Lu, Fuhua; Zheng, Yanqun; Zeng, Yuqun; Zou, Chuan; Liu, Xusheng

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE) on indoxyl sulfate-induced Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) injury in vitro and study its mechanism. HUVECs were incubated with indoxyl sulfate at concentrations in the range found in uremic patients. Then we determined the effect of indoxyl sulfate on endothelial phenotype, endothelial function, ROS (reactive oxygen species), cell apoptosis and mitochondrial function. In addition, we detected whether GSPE can suppress the injury of HUVECs induced by indoxyl sulfate and probe the mechanism underlying the protective effects of GSPE by analyzing mitochondrial dysfunction. GSPE treatment significantly attenuated indoxyl sulfate-induced HVUECs injury in a dose- and time-dependent manner. GSPE-enhanced eNOS and VE-cadherin expression, inhibited intracellular ROS level and cell apoptosis, adjust mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced 8-hydroxy-desoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) level induced by indoxyl sulfate. These results suggest that GSPE prevents HUVECs from indoxyl sulfate-induced injury by ameliorating mitochondrial dysfunction and may be a promising agent for treating uremia toxin-induced injury.

  3. Protective effects of coenzyme Q10 against angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuneki, Hiroshi; Tokai, Emi; Suzuki, Takashi; Seki, Takayuki; Okubo, Kyosuke; Wada, Tsutomu; Okamoto, Tadashi; Koya, Sakuji; Kimura, Ikuko; Sasaoka, Toshiyasu

    2013-02-15

    Angiotensin II is the major effector in the renin-angiotensin system, and angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction are profoundly implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension and cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we investigated the effect of an antioxidant reagent, coenzyme Q10, on angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to assess its potential usefulness for antioxidant therapy. Treatment of HUVEC with coenzyme Q10 (1-10μM) increased its intracellular levels in a concentration-dependent manner. Coenzyme Q10 (10μM) prevented the actions of angiotensin II (100nM): overproduction of reactive oxygen species, increases in expression of p22(phox) and Nox2 subunits of NADPH oxidase, and inhibition of insulin-induced nitric oxide production. In addition, coenzyme Q10 prevented angiotensin II-induced upregulation of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) in HUVEC, and inhibited their adhesion to U937 monocytic cells. Moreover, treatment of HUVEC with coenzyme Q10 effectively ameliorated angiotensin II-induced increases in expression of Nox2 subunit of NADPH oxidase, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1. These results provide the first in vitro evidence that coenzyme Q10 is an efficient antioxidant reagent to improve angiotensin II-induced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction, possibly relevant to the causes of cardiovascular disease.

  4. Adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells as monocultures or cocultures with human umbilical vein endothelial cells: performance in vitro and in rat cranial defects.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jinling; Both, Sanne K; Ji, Wei; Yang, Fang; Prins, Henk-Jan; Helder, Marco N; Pan, Juli; Cui, Fu-Zhai; Jansen, John A; van den Beucken, Jeroen J P

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the osteogenic capacity between human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AT-MSCs) and their cocultures with human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in vitro and their biological performance in vivo. First, the optimal cell ratio in cocultures for osteogenic differentiation was determined by seeding AT-MSCs and HUVECs in ratios varying from 100:0 to 0:100 on tissue culture plates. Afterward, AT-MSCs and AT-MSCs/HUVECs (50:50) were seeded on porous titanium fiber mesh scaffolds (Ti) for both in vitro and in vivo osteogenic evaluation. For in vitro evaluation, cell osteogenic differentiation was assessed by alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and calcium assay. For in vivo evaluation, the scaffolds were implanted bilaterally into rat cranial defects (5 mm diameter) and bone formation was assessed histologically and histomorphometrically after 8 weeks. The ratio of 50:50 was chosen in the cocultures because this coculture condition retained similar amount of calcium deposition while using the least amount of AT-MSCs. Moreover, AT-MSCs showed higher osteogenic differentiation in comparison to AT-MSCs/HUVECs on Ti in vitro. Furthermore, superior bone formation was observed in AT-MSCs compared to AT-MSCs/HUVECs in rat cranial defects. In conclusion, AT-MSCs showed significantly higher osteogenic potential compared to AT-MSCs/HUVECs both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Manassantin A and B isolated from Saururus chinensis inhibit TNF-alpha-induced cell adhesion molecule expression of human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Oh Eok; Lee, Hyun Sun; Lee, Seung Woong; Chung, Mi Yeon; Bae, Ki Hwan; Rho, Mun-Chual; Kim, Young-Kook

    2005-01-01

    Leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium is a critical initiating step in inflammation and atherosclerosis. We have herein studied the effect of manassantin A (1) and B (2), dineolignans, on interaction of THP-1 monocytic cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin in HUVEC. When HUVEC were pretreated with 1 and 2 followed by stimulation with TNF-alpha, adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVEC decreased in dose-dependent manner with IC50 values of 5 ng/mL and 7 ng/mL, respectively, without cytotoxicity. Also, 1 and 2 inhibited TNF-alpha-induced up-regulation of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin. The present findings suggest that 1 and 2 prevent monocyte adhesion to HUVEC through the inhibition of ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and E-selectin expression stimulated by TNF-alpha, and may imply their usefulness for the prevention of atherosclerosis relevant to endothelial activation.

  6. Tanshinone IIA Protects Endothelial Cells from H2O2-Induced Injuries via PXR Activation.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Haiyan; Chen, Zhiwu; Ma, Zengchun; Tan, Hongling; Xiao, Chengrong; Tang, Xianglin; Zhang, Boli; Wang, Yuguang; Gao, Yue

    2017-02-06

    Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA) is a pharmacologically active substance extracted from the rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (also known as the Chinese herb Danshen), and is widely used to treat atherosclerosis. The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a nuclear receptor that is a key regulator of xenobiotic and endobiotic detoxification. Tan IIA is an efficacious PXR agonist that has a potential protective effect on endothelial injuries induced by xenobiotics and endobiotics via PXR activation. Previously numerous studies have demonstrated the possible effects of Tan IIA on human umbilical vein endothelial cells, but the further mechanism for its exerts the protective effect is not well established. To study the protective effects of Tan IIA against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we pretreated cells with or without different concentrations of Tan IIA for 24 h, then exposed the cells to 400 μM H2O2 for another 3 h. Therefore, our data strongly suggests that Tan IIA may lead to increased regeneration of glutathione (GSH) from the glutathione disulfide (GSSG) produced during the GSH peroxidase-catalyzed decomposition of H2O2 in HUVECs, and the PXR plays a significant role in this process. Tan IIA may also exert protective effects against H2O2-induced apoptosis through the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway associated with the participation of PXR. Tan IIA protected HUVECs from inflammatory mediators triggered by H2O2 via PXR activation. In conclusion, Tan IIA protected HUVECs against H2O2-induced cell injury through PXR-dependent mechanisms.

  7. Endothelial progenitor cells in atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Fuyong; Zhou, Jun; Gong, Ren; Huang, Xiao; Pansuria, Meghana; Virtue, Anthony; Li, Xinyuan; Wang, Hong; Yang, Xiao-Feng

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are involved in the maintenance of endothelial homoeostasis and in the process of new vessel formation. Experimental and clinical studies have shown that atherosclerosis is associated with reduced numbers and dysfunction of EPCs; and that medications alone are able to partially reverse the impairment of EPCs in patients with atherosclerosis. Therefore, novel EPC-based therapies may provide enhancement in restoring EPCs’ population and improvement of vascular function. Here, for a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying EPC impairment in atherosclerosis, we provide a comprehensive overview on EPC characteristics, phenotypes, and the signaling pathways underlying EPC impairment in atherosclerosis. PMID:22652782

  8. Lipid Rafts Promote trans Fatty Acid-Induced Inflammation in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yao; Liu, Benxin; Deng, Zeyuan; Fan, Yawei; Li, Jing; Li, Hongyan

    2017-01-01

    The effects of two fatty acids, oleic acid (OLA) and elaidic acid (ELA) on normal human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and non-rafts HUVEC were investigated in this study. The expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and IL-6) were analyzed. Western blot was used to analyze the expression levels of inflammation-related proteins (NF-κB, ERK1/2) and toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4). The results showed that the levels of nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65 and phosphorylated ERK1/2 were significantly decreased only in non-lipid rafts cells pretreated with trans fatty acid (TFA). The expression of TLR4 in the ELA-treated normal cells was higher than that in non-lipid rafts HUVEC. When the lipid rafts was destroyed by methyl-β-cyclodextrin, the levels of nuclear translocation of NF-κB p65, phosphorylated ERK1/2 and TLR4 were decreased significantly. Therefore, lipid rafts may be involved in TFA induced-inflammation in HUVEC through blocking the inflammatory signal pathway. Lipid rafts might be a platform for specific receptors such as TLR4 for TFA to activate the pro-inflammation on cell membranes.

  9. [Effect of Agkistrodon Acutus Venom PCA on HUVEC Activity].

    PubMed

    Sang, Jin-Feng; Zhang, Gen-Bao; Zhou, Shu-Yan; Ji, Na

    2017-04-01

    To investigate the effects of Agkistrodon acutus venom protein C activator(PCA) on ultrastructure of human umbilical vein endothelial cells(HUVEC), and the levels of tissue factor(TF), vascular von Willebrand factor (vWF) and endothelin-1 secreted by HUVEC and to clarify the anti-thrombotic mechanism of PCA. The experiments were divided into control group(DMEM), LPS group (LPS 0.1 µg/ml), PCA group(PCA 1 µg/ml) and PCA+LPS group (1 µg/ml PCA+ 0.1 µg/ml LPS). The morphology of endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and the number of autophagosome in HUVEC were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The TF, vWF and ET-1 were measured in the medium of each group by ELISA; RT-PCR was used to detect mRNA expression level of vWF and ET-1 in cells; and the protein expression level of TF in cells was detected by Western blot. Compared with the control group, the ultrastructural changes of HUVEC in the LPS group included the cell membrane getting rough, swelling of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum, and autophagosome increase, however, the ultrastructure differences between PCA and control group were not significant. Compared with the ultrastructure of HUVECs in LPS group, the swelling of mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum disappeared in the LPS+PCA group, and the number of autophagosome decreased obviously. Compared with the control group, the content of ET-1, vWF and TF in cell culture supernatant, and the protein expression level of vWF, ET-1 gene and TF protein were significantly increased in LPS group (P<0.05); the expression levels of the 3 factors in the cell culture supernatant and cells in PCA group were not significantly different from the control group (P>0.05). The expression levels of TF, vWF and ET-1 in LPS group were significantly lower than those in LPS+PCA group (P<0.05). PCA(1 µg/ml) can reduce the ultrastructural changes of HUVEC induced by LPS, and inhibit the increase of TF, vWF and ET-1 secretion from HUVEC induced by LPS.

  10. Dynamic adhesion of eryptotic erythrocytes to endothelial cells via CXCL16/SR-PSOX.

    PubMed

    Borst, Oliver; Abed, Majed; Alesutan, Ioana; Towhid, Syeda T; Qadri, Syed M; Föller, Michael; Gawaz, Meinrad; Lang, Florian

    2012-02-15

    Suicidal death of erythrocytes, or eryptosis, is characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling leading to phosphatidylserine exposure at the cell surface. Eryptosis is triggered by increase of cytosolic Ca2+ activity, which may result from treatment with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin or from energy depletion by removal of glucose. The present study tested the hypothesis that phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface fosters adherence to endothelial cells of the vascular wall under flow conditions at arterial shear rates and that binding of eryptotic cells to endothelial cells is mediated by the transmembrane CXC chemokine ligand 16 (CXCL16). To this end, human erythrocytes were exposed to energy depletion (for 48 h) or treated with the Ca2+ ionophore ionomycin (1 μM for 30 min). Phosphatidylserine exposure was quantified utilizing annexin-V binding, cell volume was estimated from forward scatter in FACS analysis, and erythrocyte adhesion to human vascular endothelial cells (HUVEC) was determined in a flow chamber model. As a result, both, ionomycin and glucose depletion, triggered eryptosis and enhanced the percentage of erythrocytes adhering to HUVEC under flow conditions at arterial shear rates. The adhesion was significantly blunted in the presence of erythrocyte phosphatidylserine-coating annexin-V (5 μl/ml), of a neutralizing antibody against endothelial CXCL16 (4 μg/ml), and following silencing of endothelial CXCL16 with small interfering RNA. The present observations demonstrate that eryptotic erythrocytes adhere to endothelial cells of the vascular wall in part by interaction of phosphatidylserine exposed at the erythrocyte surface with endothelial CXCL16.

  11. Enhanced Translation of Heme Oxygenase-2 Preserves Human Endothelial Cell Viability during Hypoxia*

    PubMed Central

    He, Jeff Z.; Ho, J. J. David; Gingerich, Sheena; Courtman, David W.; Marsden, Philip A.; Ward, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    Heme oxygenases (HOs) -1 and -2 catalyze the breakdown of heme to release carbon monoxide, biliverdin, and ferrous iron, which may preserve cell function during oxidative stress. HO-1 levels decrease in endothelial cells exposed to hypoxia, whereas the effect of hypoxia on HO-2 expression is unknown. The current study was carried out to determine if hypoxia alters HO-2 protein levels in human endothelial cells and whether this enzyme plays a role in preserving their viability during hypoxic stress. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs), and human blood outgrowth endothelial cells were exposed to 21% or 1% O2 for 48 or 16 h in the presence or absence of tumor necrosis factor-α (10 ng/ml) or H2O2 (100 μm). In all three endothelial cell types HO-1 mRNA and protein levels were decreased following hypoxic incubation, whereas HO-2 protein levels were unaltered. In HUVECs HO-2 levels were maintained during hypoxia despite a 57% reduction in steady-state HO-2 mRNA level and a 43% reduction in total protein synthesis. Polysome profiling revealed increased HO-2 transcript association with polysomes during hypoxia consistent with enhanced translation of these transcripts. Importantly, inhibition of HO-2 expression by small interference RNA increased oxidative stress, exacerbated mitochondrial membrane depolarization, and enhanced caspase activation and apoptotic cell death in cells incubated under hypoxic but not normoxic conditions. These data indicate that HO-2 is important in maintaining endothelial viability and may preserve local regulation of vascular tone, thrombosis, and inflammatory responses during reductions in systemic oxygen delivery. PMID:20118244

  12. Elasticity Modulation of Fibroblast-Derived Matrix for Endothelial Cell Vascular Morphogenesis and Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Du, Ping; Suhaeri, Muhammad; Subbiah, Ramesh; Van, Se Young; Park, Jimin; Kim, Sang Heon; Park, Kwideok; Lee, Kangwon

    2016-03-01

    Biophysical properties of the microenvironment, including matrix elasticity and topography, are known to affect various cell behaviors; however, the specific role of each factor is unclear. In this study, fibroblast-derived matrix (FDM) was used as cell culture substrate and physically modified to investigate the influence of its biophysical property changes on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) behavior in vitro. These FDMs were physically modified by simply storing them at different temperatures: the one stored at 4°C, maintained its original properties, was considered natural FDM, whereas the ones stored at -20°C or -80°C, exhibited a distinct surface morphology, were considered physically modified FDM. Physical modification induced matrix fiber rearrangement in FDM, forming different microstructures on the surface as characterized by focused ion beam (FIB)-cryoSEM. A significant increase of matrix elasticity was found with physically modified FDMs as determined by atomic force microscopy. HUVEC and hMSC behaviors on these natural and physically modified FDMs were observed and compared with each other and with gelatin-coated coverslips. HUVECs showed a similar adhesion level on these substrates at 3 h, but exhibited different proliferation rates and morphologies at 24 h; HUVECs on natural FDM proliferated relatively slower and assembled to capillary-like structures (CLSs). It is observed that HUVECs assembled to CLSs on natural FDMs are independent on the exogenous growth factors and yet dependent on nonmuscle myosin II activity. This result indicates the important role of matrix mechanical properties in regulating HUVECs vascular morphogenesis. As for hMSCs multilineage differentiation, adipogenesis is improved on natural FDM that with lower matrix elasticity, while osteogenesis is accelerated on physically modified FDMs that with higher matrix elasticity, these results further confirm the crucial

  13. VEGF promotes the transcription of the human PRL-3 gene in HUVEC through transcription factor MEF2C.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jianliang; Cao, Shaoxian; Wang, Lu; Xu, Rui; Chen, Gong; Xu, Qiang

    2011-01-01

    Phosphatase of regenerating liver 3 (PRL-3) is known to be overexpressed in many tumors, and its transcript level is high in the vasculature and endothelial cells of malignant tumor tissue. However, the mechanism(s) underlying its enhanced expression and its function in endothelial cells remain unknown. Here, we report that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) can induce PRL-3 transcription in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). An analysis of its 5'UTR revealed that PRL-3 transcription is initiated from two distinct sites, which results in the formation of the two transcripts, PRL-3-iso1 and PRL-3-iso2, but only the latter is up-regulated in HUVEC by VEGF. The PRL-3-iso2 promoter region includes two functional MEF2 (myocyte enhancer factor2) binding sites. The over-expression of the constitutively active form of MEF2C promotes the abundance of the PRL-3-iso2 transcript in a number of human cell lines. The siRNA-induced knockdown of MEF2C abolished the stimulative effect of VEGF on PRL-3 transcript in HUVEC, indicating that the VEGF-induced promotion of PRL-3 expression requires the presence of MEF2C. Finally, blocking PRL-3 activity or expression suppresses tube formation by HUVEC. We suggest that PRL-3 functions downstream of the VEGF/MEF2C pathway in endothelial cells and may play an important role in tumor angiogenesis.

  14. Selected activities of Citrus maxima Merr. fruits on human endothelial cells: enhancing cell migration and delaying cellular aging.

    PubMed

    Buachan, Paiwan; Chularojmontri, Linda; Wattanapitayakul, Suvara K

    2014-04-21

    Endothelial injury and damage as well as accumulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) in aging play a significant role in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Recent studies show an association of high citrus fruit intake with a lower risk of CVD and stroke but the mechanisms involved are not fully understood. This study investigated the effects of pummelo (Citrus maxima Merr. var. Tubtim Siam, CM) fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) migration and aging. The freeze-dried powder of fruit extract was characterized for antioxidant capacity (FRAP assay) and certain natural antioxidants, including ascorbic acid, gallic acid, hesperidin, and naringin (HPLC). Short-term (48 h) co-cultivation of HUVECs with CM enhanced cell migration as evaluated by a scratch wound assay and Boyden chamber assay. A long-term treatment with CM for 35 days significantly increased HUVEC proliferation capability as indicated by population doubling level (PDL). CM also delayed the onset of aging phenotype shown by senescence-associated β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) staining. Furthermore, CM was able to attenuate increased ROS levels in aged cells when determined by 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCDHF) while eNOS mRNA expression was increased but the eNOS protein level was not changed. Thus, further in vivo and clinical studies are warranted to support the use of pummelo as a functional fruit for endothelial health and CVD risk reduction.

  15. Sensitization of human umbilical vein endothelial cells to Shiga toxin: involvement of protein kinase C and NF-kappaB.

    PubMed Central

    Louise, C B; Tran, M C; Obrig, T G

    1997-01-01

    Infection of humans with Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Shigella dysenteriae 1 is strongly associated with vascular endothelial cell damage and the development of hemolytic-uremic syndrome. The cytotoxic effect of Shiga toxins on vascular endothelial cells in vitro is enhanced by prior exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or either of the host cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1). The purpose of this study was to examine individual signal transduction components involved in the sensitization of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) to Shiga toxin 1. The results demonstrate that class I and II protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are required for sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or LPS but not by TNF or IL-1. Thus, the specific competitive inhibitor of class I/II PKC, 1-O-hexadecyl-2-O-methyl-rac-glycerol (AMG), prevented only the action of PMA and LPS on HUVEC. Additional data obtained with ATP binding site inhibitors which affect all PKCs (i.e., classes I, II, and III) suggest that TNF may utilize class III PKC isozymes in the Shiga toxin sensitization of HUVEC. Transcriptional activator NF-kappaB did not appear to be involved in the sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin by LPS, TNF, IL-1, or PMA. Thus, the specific serine protease inhibitor L-1-tosylamido-2-phenylethyl chloromethyl ketone (TPCK) did not inhibit the sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin by LPS, TNF, IL-1, or PMA despite its ability to inhibit NF-kappaB activation and the induction of the NF-kappaB-dependent tissue factor gene by these agents. Finally, all-trans retinoic acid partially inhibited the sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin, by unknown mechanisms which also appeared to be independent of NF-kappaB activation. These results indicate that PKC plays a role in the sensitization of HUVEC to Shiga toxin in response to some, but not all, sensitizing agents. In contrast, NF

  16. Procyanidin B2 3,3″-di-O-gallate inhibits endothelial cells growth and motility by targeting VEGFR2 and integrin signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rahul; Deep, Gagan; Wempe, Michael F; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2015-01-01

    Targeting angiogenesis, one of the hallmarks of carcinogenesis, using non-toxic phytochemicals has emerged as a translational opportunity for angioprevention and to control advanced stages of malignancy. Herein, we investigated the inhibitory effects and associated mechanism/s of action of Procyanidin B2-3,3″-di- O-gallate (B2G2), a major component of grape seed extract, on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human prostate microvascular endothelial cells (HPMECs). Our results showed that B2G2 (10-40 μM) inhibits growth and induces death in both HUVECs and HPMECs. Additional studies revealed that B2G2 causes a G1 arrest in cell cycle progression of HUVECs by down-regulating cyclins (D1 and A), CDKs (Cdk2 and Cdc2) and Cdc25c phosphatase and up-regulating CDK inhibitors (p21 and p27) expression. B2G2 also induced strong apoptotic death in HUVECs through increasing p53, Bax and Smac/Diablo expression while decreasing Bcl-2 and survivin levels. Additionally, B2G2 inhibited the growth factors-induced capillary tube formation in HUVECs and HPMECs. Interestingly, conditioned media (CCM) from prostate cancer (PCA) cells (LNCaP and PC3) grown under normoxic (~21% O2) and hypoxic (1% O2) conditions significantly enhanced the tube formation in HUVECs, which was compromised in presence of conditioned media from B2G2-treated PCA cells. B2G2 also inhibited the motility and invasiveness of both HUVECs and HPMECs. Mechanistic studies showed that B2G2 targets VEGFR2/PI3K/Akt and integrin signaling molecules which are important for endothelial cells survival, proliferation, tube formation and motility. Overall, we report that B2G2 inhibits several attributes of angiogenesis in cell culture; therefore, it warrants further investigation for efficacy for angioprevention and cancer control.

  17. Nicotine promotes vascular endothelial growth factor secretion by human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions and improves the proliferation and tube formation capacity of human umbilical endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongbo; Wu, Lanxiang; Wang, Yahui; Zhou, Jiayi; Li, Ruixia; Zhou, Jiabing; Wang, Zehua; Xu, Congjian

    2017-04-01

    Pre-eclampsia, characterized as defective uteroplacental vascularization, remains the major cause of maternal and fetal mortality and morbidity. Previous epidemiological studies demonstrated that cigarette smoking reduced the risk of pre-eclampsia. However, the molecular mechanism remains elusive. In the present study, it is demonstrated that a low dose of nicotine decreased soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (sFlt1) secretion in human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions. Nicotine was then observed to promote vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion by reducing sFlt1 secretion and increasing VEGF mRNA transcription. Further data showed that nicotine enhanced hypoxia-mediated hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) expression and HIF-1α small interfering RNA abrogated nicotine-induced VEGF secretion, indicating that HIF-1α may be responsible for nicotine-mediated VEGF transcription under hypoxic conditions. Moreover, conditioned medium from human trophoblast cells treated with nicotine under hypoxic conditions promoted the proliferation and tube formation capacity of human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVEC) by promoting VEGF secretion. These findings indicate that nicotine may promote VEGF secretion in human trophoblast cells under hypoxic conditions by reducing sFlt1 secretion and up-regulating VEGF transcription and improve the proliferation and tube formation of HUVEC cells, which may contribute to elucidate the protective effect of cigarette smoking against pre-eclampsia. Copyright © 2017 Reproductive Healthcare Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. SIRT1 inhibits inflammatory response partly through regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanxiang; Wang, Ping; Yang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Weirong; Zhang, Jiye; He, Yanhao; Zhang, Wei; Jing, Ting; Wang, Bo; Lin, Rong

    2016-09-01

    Emerging evidence has indicated that vascular endothelial cells (ECs) not only form the barrier between blood and the vessel wall but also serve as conditional innate immune cells. Our previous study found that SIRT1, a class III histone deacetylase, inhibits the inflammatory response in ECs. Recent studies revealed that SIRT1 also participates in the modulation of immune responses. Although the NLRP3 inflammasome is known to be a crucial component of the innate immune system, there is no direct evidence demonstrating the anti-inflammatory effect of SIRT1 on ECs through the NLRP3 inflammasome. In this study, we observed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) triggered the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs). Moreover, SIRT1 expression was reduced in HUVECs stimulated with LPS and ATP. SIRT1 activator inhibited the expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and C-reactive protein (CRP), whereas SIRT1 knockdown resulted in significant increases in MCP-1 and CRP levels in HUVECs stimulated with LPS and ATP. Importantly, the lack of SIRT1 enhanced NLRP3 inflammasome activation and subsequent caspase-1 cleavage. On the other hand, NLRP3 siRNA blocked the activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in HUVECs stimulated with LPS plus ATP. Further study revealed that NLRP3 inflammasome blockade significantly reduced MCP-1 and CRP production in HUVECs. In vivo studies indicated that implantation of the periarterial carotid collar inhibited arterial SIRT1 expression in rabbits. Meanwhile, treatment with a SIRT1 activator decreased the expression levels of MCP-1 and CRP in collared arteries and the interleukin (IL)-1β level in serum. Taken together, these findings indicate that NLRP3 inflammasome activation promoted endothelial inflammation and that SIRT1 inhibits the inflammatory response partly through regulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in ECs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Selenoprotein expression in endothelial cells from different human vasculature and species.

    PubMed

    Miller, S; Walker, S W; Arthur, J R; Lewin, M H; Pickard, K; Nicol, F; Howie, A F; Beckett, G J

    2002-10-09

    Selenium (Se) can protect endothelial cells (EC) from oxidative damage by altering the expression of selenoproteins with antioxidant function such as cytoplasmic glutathione peroxidase (cyGPX), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (PHGPX) and thioredoxin reductase (TR). If the role of Se on EC function is to be studied, it is essential that a model system be chosen which reflects selenoprotein expression in human EC derived from vessels prone to developing atheroma. We have used [75Se]-selenite labelling and selenoenzyme measurements to compare the selenoproteins expressed by cultures of EC isolated from different human vasculature with EC bovine and porcine aorta. Only small differences were observed in selenoprotein expression and activity in EC originating from human coronary artery, human umbilical vein (HUVEC), human umbilical artery and the human EC line EAhy926. The selenoprotein profile in HUVEC was consistent over eight passages and HUVEC isolated from four cords also showed little variability. In contrast, EC isolated from pig and bovine aorta showed marked differences in selenoprotein expression when compared to human cells. This study firmly establishes the suitability and consistency of using HUVEC (and possibly the human cell line EAhy926) as a model to study the effects of Se on EC function in relation to atheroma development in the coronary artery. Bovine or porcine EC appear to be an inappropriate model.

  20. Mussel-inspired coating of polydopamine directs endothelial and smooth muscle cell fate for re-endothelialization of vascular devices.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhilu; Tu, Qiufen; Zhu, Ying; Luo, Rifang; Li, Xin; Xie, Yichu; Maitz, Manfred F; Wang, Jin; Huang, Nan

    2012-09-01

    Polydopamine (PDAM), a mussel adhesive protein inspired coating that can be easily deposited onto a wide range of metallic, inorganic, and organic materials, gains interest also in the field of biomaterials. In this work, PDAM is applied as coating on 316L stainless steel (SS) stents and the response of cells of the blood vessel wall, human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC), and human umbilical artery smooth muscle cell (HUASMC) as predictors for re-endothelialization is tested. It is found that the PDAM-modified surface significantly enhances HUVEC adhesion, proliferation, and migration, release of nitric oxide (NO), and secretion of prostaglandin I(2) (PGI(2) ). Additionally, the PDAM-modified surface shows a remarkable ability to decrease the adhesion and proliferation of HUASMCs. As a blood-contacting material, the PDAM tends to improve the hemocompatibility compared with the substrate 316L SS. It is noteworthy that the PDAM coating shows good resistance to the deformation behavior of compression and expansion of a stent. These data suggest the potential of PDAM as a blood-contacting material for the application in vascular stents or grafts. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Cell death in a co-culture of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells in a medium lacking glucose and arginine.

    PubMed

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Human primary hepatocytes are able to survive in a medium without glucose and arginine that is instead supplemented with galactose and ornithine (hepatocyte selection medium; HSM). This is because the cells produce glucose and arginine by the action of galactokinase (GALK) and ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC), respectively. It was expected that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells do not survive in HSM. In the current study, HCC cell lines (namely HLE, HLF, PLC/PRL/5, Hep3B and HepG2) and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in HSM, and the expression levels of GALK1, GALK2 and OTC were analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. HLE, HLF and PLC/PRL/5 cells died on day 11, while Hep3B, HepG2 and HUVECs died on day 7. HLF cells were further analyzed as these cells had lower expression levels of GALK1, GALK2 and OTC compared with adult liver cells, and survived until day 11. In these cells, the expression levels of GALK1, GALK2 and OTC did not change on days 3 and 7 as compared to day 0. In addition, a co-culture of HLF cells with HUVECs was established and the medium was changed to HSM. It was observed that HLF cells and HUVECs in co-culture were damaged in HSM. In summary, HCC cells and HUVECs died in a medium without glucose and arginine that was supplemented with galactose and ornithine. HCC cells and HUVECs were damaged in HSM, suggesting a potential application for treatment with the medium.

  2. Cell death in a co-culture of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells in a medium lacking glucose and arginine

    PubMed Central

    Tomizawa, Minoru; Shinozaki, Fuminobu; Motoyoshi, Yasufumi; Sugiyama, Takao; Yamamoto, Shigenori; Ishige, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    Human primary hepatocytes are able to survive in a medium without glucose and arginine that is instead supplemented with galactose and ornithine (hepatocyte selection medium; HSM). This is because the cells produce glucose and arginine by the action of galactokinase (GALK) and ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC), respectively. It was expected that hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells do not survive in HSM. In the current study, HCC cell lines (namely HLE, HLF, PLC/PRL/5, Hep3B and HepG2) and human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured in HSM, and the expression levels of GALK1, GALK2 and OTC were analyzed by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction. HLE, HLF and PLC/PRL/5 cells died on day 11, while Hep3B, HepG2 and HUVECs died on day 7. HLF cells were further analyzed as these cells had lower expression levels of GALK1, GALK2 and OTC compared with adult liver cells, and survived until day 11. In these cells, the expression levels of GALK1, GALK2 and OTC did not change on days 3 and 7 as compared to day 0. In addition, a co-culture of HLF cells with HUVECs was established and the medium was changed to HSM. It was observed that HLF cells and HUVECs in co-culture were damaged in HSM. In summary, HCC cells and HUVECs died in a medium without glucose and arginine that was supplemented with galactose and ornithine. HCC cells and HUVECs were damaged in HSM, suggesting a potential application for treatment with the medium. PMID:28123551

  3. Monosialic ganglioside GM3 specifically suppresses the monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells for inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seok-Jo; Chung, Tae-Wook; Choi, Hee-Jung; Jin, Un-Ho; Ha, Ki-Tae; Lee, Young-Choon; Kim, Cheorl-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is well known as a significant angiogenic factor, and also functions as a proinflammatory cytokine, which induces adhesion of leukocyte to endothelial cells in inflammation reaction. In this study, we show that ganglioside GM3 inhibits the VEGF-induced expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) through activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) via protein kinase B (AKT) signaling in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), relating with leukocyte recruitment to endothelial cells under inflammatory conditions. In addition, ganglioside GM3 significantly reduced the monocyte adhesion to HUVECs as determined by the monolayer cell adhesion assay. Furthermore, in VEGF-injected mice for the inflammatory condition, ganglioside GM3 markedly decreased the expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in vein tissues. These results suggest that ganglioside GM3 has an anti-inflammatory role by suppressing the expression of inflammatory-related molecules during in vitro and in vivo inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Oxidative stress and apoptosis are induced in human endothelial cells exposed to urban particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Montiel-Dávalos, Angélica; Ibarra-Sánchez, María de Jesús; Ventura-Gallegos, José Luis; Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto; López-Marure, Rebeca

    2010-02-01

    Correlations between exposure to particle matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter Endothelial cells seem to play a relevant role in the responses to PM due to their participation in pro-inflammatory events. In this study we determined the effect of PM(2.5) and PM(10) from Mexico City on human endothelial cells by means of evaluating reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), NF-kappaB translocation and cell death. For this purpose we used human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) as a model. The production of ROS was determined by the reduction of H(2)DCFDA and NO by Griess reagent. The translocation of NF-kappaB was evaluated by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and the cellular death by the translocation of phosphatidylserine. TNF-alpha was used as a positive control for endothelial cell activation. PM(2.5) and PM(10) induced the production of ROS (77% and 126% increase, respectively, vs. control) and NO (up to 132% and 233% increase, respectively, vs. control). PM(2.5) and PM(10) also induced the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. All these events were associated with apoptosis. In conclusion, the activation of HUVEC induced by PM(2.5) and PM(10) is related with an oxidative stress, suggesting that these particles may participate in the development of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases.

  5. Cyclic and constant hyperoxia cause inflammation, apoptosis and cell death in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, J; Hafner, C; Schramel, J P; Kaun, C; Krychtiuk, K A; Wojta, J; Boehme, S; Ullrich, R; Tretter, E V; Markstaller, K; Klein, K U

    2016-04-01

    Perioperative high-dose oxygen (O2 ) exposure can cause hyperoxia. While the effect of constant hyperoxia on the vascular endothelium has been investigated to some extent, the impact of cyclic hyperoxia largely remains unknown. We hypothesized that cyclic hyperoxia would induce more injury than constant hyperoxia to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were exposed to cyclic hyperoxia (5-95% O2 ) or constant hyperoxia (95% O2 ), normoxia (21% O2 ), and hypoxia (5% O2 ). Cell growth, viability (Annexin V/propidium iodide and 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide, MTT) lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), release, cytokine (interleukin, IL and macrophage migration inhibitory factor, MIF) release, total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD) of cell lysate were assessed at baseline and 8, 24, and 72 h. A signal transduction pathway finder array for gene expression analysis was performed after 8 h. Constant and cyclic hyperoxia-induced gradually detrimental effects on HUVECs. After 72 h, constant or cyclic hyperoxia exposure induced change in cytotoxic (LDH +12%, P = 0.026; apoptosis +121/61%, P < 0.01; alive cells -15%, P < 0.01; MTT -16/15%, P < 0.01), inflammatory (IL-6 +142/190%, P < 0.01; IL-8 +72/43%, P < 0.01; MIF +147/93%, P < 0.01), or redox-sensitive (SOD +278%, TAC-25% P < 0.01) markers. Gene expression analysis revealed that constant and cyclic hyperoxia exposure differently activates oxidative stress, nuclear factor kappa B, Notch, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor pathways. Extreme hyperoxia exposure induces inflammation, apoptosis and cell death in HUVECs. Although our findings cannot be transferred to clinical settings, results suggest that hyperoxia exposure may cause vascular injury that could play a role in determining perioperative outcome. © 2015 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Online quantitative phase imaging of vascular endothelial cells under fluid shear stress utilizing digital holographic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Odenthal-Schnittler, Maria; Schnittler, Hans Joachim; Kemper, Björn

    2016-03-01

    We have explored the utilization of quantitative phase imaging with digital holographic microscopy (DHM) as a novel tool for quantifying the dynamics of morphologic parameters (morphodynamics) of confluent endothelial cell layers under fluid shear stress conditions. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to fluid shear stress in a transparent cone/plate flow device (BioTech-Flow-System) and imaged with a modular setup for quantitative DHM phase imaging for up to 48 h. The resulting series of quantitative phase image sequences were analyzed for the average surface roughness of the cell layers and cell alignment. Our results demonstrate that quantitative phase imaging is a powerful and reliable tool to quantify the dynamics of morphological adaptation of endothelial cells to fluid shear stress.

  7. Evolving functions of endothelial cells in inflammation.

    PubMed

    Pober, Jordan S; Sessa, William C

    2007-10-01

    Inflammation is usually analysed from the perspective of tissue-infiltrating leukocytes. Microvascular endothelial cells at a site of inflammation are both active participants in and regulators of inflammatory processes. The properties of endothelial cells change during the transition from acute to chronic inflammation and during the transition from innate to adaptive immunity. Mediators that act on endothelial cells also act on leukocytes and vice versa. Consequently, many anti-inflammatory therapies influence the behaviour of endothelial cells and vascular therapeutics influence inflammation. This Review describes the functions performed by endothelial cells at each stage of the inflammatory process, emphasizing the principal mediators and signalling pathways involved and the therapeutic implications.

  8. Expression of human olfactory receptor 10J5 in heart aorta, coronary artery, and endothelial cells and its functional role in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Hee; Yoon, Yeo Cho; Lee, Ae Sin; Kang, NaNa; Koo, JaeHyung; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2015-05-01

    ORs are ectopically expressed in non-chemosensory tissues including muscle, kidney, and keratinocytes; however, their physiological roles are largely unknown. We found that human olfactory receptor 10J5 (OR10J5) is expressed in the human aorta, coronary artery, and umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Lyral induces Ca(2+) and phosphorylation of AKT in HUVEC. A knockdown study showed the inhibition of the lyral-induced Ca(2+) and the phosphorylation AKT and implied that these processes are mediated by OR10J5. In addition, lyral enhanced migration of HUVEC, which were also inhibited by RNAi in a migration assay. In addition, matrigel plug assay showed that lyral enhanced angiogenesis in vivo. Together these data demonstrate the physiological role of OR10J5 in angiogenesis and represent roles of ORs in HUVEC cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Advanced Glycation End Products Inhibit the Proliferation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells by Inhibiting Cathepsin D

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Chang, Ye; Ye, Ning; Dai, Dongxue; Chen, Yintao; Zhang, Naijin; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on the proliferation and migration ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, real-time cell analyzer and 5-Ethynyl-2′-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining. Cell migration was detected by wound-healing and transwell assay. AGEs significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs in a time-and dose-dependent way. Western blotting revealed that AGEs dramatically increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II/I and p62. Immunofluorescence of p62 and acridine orange staining revealed that AGEs significantly increased the expression of p62 and the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, respectively. Chloroquine (CQ) could further promote the expression of LC3 II/I and p62, increase the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and promote cell injury induced by AGEs. In addition, AGEs reduced cathepsin D (CTSD) expression in a time-dependent way. Overexpression of wild-type CTSD significantly decreased the ratio of LC 3 II/I as well as p62 accumulation induced by AGEs, but overexpression of catalytically inactive mutant CTSD had no such effects. Only overexpression of wild-type CTSD could restore the proliferation of HUVECs inhibited by AGEs. However, overexpression of both wild-type CTSD and catalytically inactive mutant CTSD could promote the migration of HUVECs inhibited by AGEs. Collectively, our study found that AGEs inhibited the proliferation and migration in HUVECs and promoted autophagic flux, which in turn played a protective role against AGEs-induced cell injury. CTSD, in need of its catalytic activity, may promote proliferation in AGEs-treated HUVECs independent of the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Meanwhile, CTSD could improve the migration of AGEs-treated HUVECs regardless of its enzymatic activity. PMID:28218663

  10. Advanced Glycation End Products Inhibit the Proliferation of Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells by Inhibiting Cathepsin D.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Chang, Ye; Ye, Ning; Dai, Dongxue; Chen, Yintao; Zhang, Naijin; Sun, Guozhe; Sun, Yingxian

    2017-02-17

    We aimed to investigate the effect of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on the proliferation and migration ability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Cell proliferation was detected by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, real-time cell analyzer and 5-Ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU) staining. Cell migration was detected by wound-healing and transwell assay. AGEs significantly inhibited the proliferation and migration of HUVECs in a time-and dose-dependent way. Western blotting revealed that AGEs dramatically increased the expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) II/I and p62. Immunofluorescence of p62 and acridine orange staining revealed that AGEs significantly increased the expression of p62 and the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles, respectively. Chloroquine (CQ) could further promote the expression of LC3 II/I and p62, increase the accumulation of autophagic vacuoles and promote cell injury induced by AGEs. In addition, AGEs reduced cathepsin D (CTSD) expression in a time-dependent way. Overexpression of wild-type CTSD significantly decreased the ratio of LC 3 II/I as well as p62 accumulation induced by AGEs, but overexpression of catalytically inactive mutant CTSD had no such effects. Only overexpression of wild-type CTSD could restore the proliferation of HUVECs inhibited by AGEs. However, overexpression of both wild-type CTSD and catalytically inactive mutant CTSD could promote the migration of HUVECs inhibited by AGEs. Collectively, our study found that AGEs inhibited the proliferation and migration in HUVECs and promoted autophagic flux, which in turn played a protective role against AGEs-induced cell injury. CTSD, in need of its catalytic activity, may promote proliferation in AGEs-treated HUVECs independent of the autophagy-lysosome pathway. Meanwhile, CTSD could improve the migration of AGEs-treated HUVECs regardless of its enzymatic activity.

  11. Chitosan microsphere scaffold tethered with RGD-conjugated poly(methacrylic acid) brushes as effective carriers for the endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhenyi; Yuan, Shaojun; Liang, Bin; Liu, Yang; Choong, Cleo; Pehkonen, Simo O

    2014-09-01

    Endothelial cell-matrix interactions play a vital role in promoting vascularization of engineered tissues. The current study reports a facile and controllable method to develop a RGD peptide-functionalized chitosan microsphere scaffolds for rapid cell expansion of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Functional poly(methacrylic acid) (PMAA) brushes are grafted from the chitosan microsphere surfaces via surface-initiated ATRP. Subsequent conjugation of RGD peptides on the pendent carboxyl groups of PMAA side chain is accomplished by carbodiimide chemistry to facilitate biocompatibility of the 3D CS scaffolding system. In vitro cell-loading assay of HUVECs exhibits a significant improvment of cell adhesion, spreading, and proliferation on the RGD peptide-immobilized CS microsphere surfaces.

  12. Determination of the prime electrostatic endothelial cell transplantation procedure for e-PTFE vascular prostheses.

    PubMed

    Bowlin, G L; Rittgers, S E; Schmidt, S P; Alexander, T; Sheffer, D B; Milsted, A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent of cellular adhesion (density and morphological maturation), cellular membrane damage, and cellular viability after an electrostatic transplantation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) onto 6-cm segments of 4-mm I.D. e-PTFE (GORE-TEX) vascular prostheses using a prototype electrostatic endothelial cell transplantation device (EECTD). The electrostatic transplantation parameters evaluated were the apparatus-applied voltage and transplantation time. By our definition, the combination of applied voltage and transplantation time that met the a priori criteria of: 1) maximum transplanted cellular viability, 2) maximum transplantation density, 3) maximum morphological maturation (degree of cellular flattening), and 4) minimal cellular membrane damage would be the prime transplantation procedure. The results of the experimentation indicated that the prime conditions for HUVEC transplantation were obtained when +1.0 V was applied for a transplantation time of 16 min. These conditions achieved an average viable graft surface coverage of 97.4+/-1.6% with an average transplantation density of 73,540+/-8.514 HUVECs/cm2. Furthermore, the transplanted HUVECs were morphologically mature (flattened) with minimal apparent cellular membrane damage (lysis or pitting). The overall clinical significance of this study is that viable endothelial cell transplantation to synthetic vascular grafts can be accomplished at high cellular densities and morphological maturation in 16 min using the EECTD. With the promising in vitro transplantation results, the next logical investigations will include additional in vitro evaluations (cellular retention upon shear stress exposure and biochemical assays) followed by in vivo evaluations to examine thromboresistance and influence on intimal/anastomotic hyperplasia.

  13. Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of Steen Solution on Human Lung Spheroids and Human Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Pagano, F; Nocella, C; Sciarretta, S; Fianchini, L; Siciliano, C; Mangino, G; Ibrahim, M; De Falco, E; Carnevale, R; Chimenti, I; Frati, G

    2017-07-01

    Respiratory diseases represent a major healthcare burden worldwide. Lung transplantation (LTx) is the "gold standard" for end-stage patients, strongly limited by shortage of available/suitable donor lungs. Normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has significantly increased the number of lungs suitable for transplantation. Steen solution is used for EVLP, but the mechanisms involved in its beneficial properties remain to be clarified. We investigated the effects of Steen solution in an in vitro protocol of cold starvation and normothermic recovery on human lung spheroids, named pneumospheres (PSs), containing epithelial/basal cells, and on endothelial human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Steen solution significantly preserved the viability of PSs, reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) release by PSs and HUVECs, decreased NADPH-oxidase (NOX) activity in PSs, and reduced inflammatory cytokines expression levels in HUVECs. Steen solution was able to specifically reduce NADPH oxidase 2 (NOX2) isoform activation, particularly in PSs, as detected by soluble-NOX2 peptide and p47-phosphorylation. Interestingly, a specific NOX2 inhibitor could partly mimic the pro-survival effect of Steen on PSs. We provide the first evidence that Steen solution can preserve lung epithelial/progenitor cells viability partially through NOX2 downregulation, and exert antioxidant effects on parenchymal cells, with consequent ROS reduction. These results suggest that NOX2 inhibition might be an additional strategy to reduce cellular damage during LTx procedures. © 2017 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Study of the Actin Cytoskeleton in Live Endothelial Cells Expressing GFP-Actin

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Travis M.; Breslin, Jerome W.

    2011-01-01

    The microvascular endothelium plays an important role as a selectively permeable barrier to fluids and solutes. The adhesive junctions between endothelial cells regulate permeability of the endothelium, and many studies have indicated the important contribution of the actin cytoskeleton to determining junctional integrity1-5. A cortical actin belt is thought to be important for the maintenance of stable junctions1, 2, 4, 5. In contrast, actin stress fibers are thought to generate centripetal tension within endothelial cells that weakens junctions2-5. Much of this theory has been based on studies in which endothelial cells are treated with inflammatory mediators known to increase endothelial permeability, and then fixing the cells and labeling F-actin for microscopic observation. However, these studies provide a very limited understanding of the role of the actin cytoskeleton because images of fixed cells provide only snapshots in time with no information about the dynamics of actin structures5. Live-cell imaging allows incorporation of the dynamic nature of the actin cytoskeleton into the studies of the mechanisms determining endothelial barrier integrity. A major advantage of this method is that the impact of various inflammatory stimuli on actin structures in endothelial cells can be assessed in the same set of living cells before and after treatment, removing potential bias that may occur when observing fixed specimens. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) are transfected with a GFP-β-actin plasmid and grown to confluence on glass coverslips. Time-lapse images of GFP-actin in confluent HUVEC are captured before and after the addition of inflammatory mediators that elicit time-dependent changes in endothelial barrier integrity. These studies enable visual observation of the fluid sequence of changes in the actin cytoskeleton that contribute to endothelial barrier disruption and restoration. Our results consistently show local, actin-rich lamellipodia

  15. Adaptation to oxygen deprivation in cultures of human pluripotent stem cells, endothelial progenitor cells, and umbilical vein endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Abaci, Hasan Erbil; Truitt, Rachel; Luong, Eli; Drazer, German

    2010-01-01

    Hypoxia plays an important role in vascular development through hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) accumulation and downstream pathway activation. We sought to explore the in vitro response of cultures of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), human endothelial progenitor cells (hEPCs), and human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to normoxic and hypoxic oxygen tensions. We first measured dissolved oxygen (DO) in the media of adherent cultures in atmospheric (21% O2), physiological (5% O2), and hypoxic oxygen conditions (1% O2). In cultures of both hEPCs and HUVECs, lower oxygen consumption was observed when cultured in 1% O2. At each oxygen tension, feeder-free cultured hESCs and iPSCs were found to consume comparable amounts of oxygen. Transport analysis revealed that the oxygen uptake rate (OUR) of hESCs and iPSCs decreased distinctly as DO availability decreased, whereas the OUR of all cell types was found to be low when cultured in 1% O2, demonstrating cell adaptation to lower oxygen tensions by limiting oxygen consumption. Next, we examined HIF-1α accumulation and the expression of target genes, including VEGF and angiopoietins (ANGPT; angiogenic response), GLUT-1 (glucose transport), BNIP3, and BNIP3L (autophagy and apoptosis). Accumulations of HIF-1α were detected in all four cell lines cultured in 1% O2. Corresponding upregulation of VEGF, ANGPT2, and GLUT-1 was observed in response to HIF-1α accumulation, whereas upregulation of ANGPT1 was detected only in hESCs and iPSCs. Upregulation of BNIP3 and BNIP3L was detected in all cells after 24-h culture in hypoxic conditions, whereas apoptosis was not detectable using flow cytometry analysis, suggesting that BNIP3 and BNIP3L can lead to cell autophagy rather than apoptosis. These results demonstrate adaptation of all cell types to hypoxia but different cellular responses, suggesting that continuous measurements and control over oxygen environments will

  16. Double-chimera proteins to enhance recruitment of endothelial cells and their progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Behjati, M; Kazemi, M; Hashemi, M; Zarkesh-Esfahanai, S H; Bahrami, E; Hashemi-Beni, B; Ahmadi, R

    2013-08-20

    Enhanced attraction of selective vascular reparative cells is of great importance in order to increase vascular patency after endovascular treatments. We aimed to evaluate efficient attachment of endothelial cells and their progenitors on surfaces coated with mixture of specific antibodies, L-selectin and VE-cadherin, with prohibited platelet attachment. The most efficient conditions for coating of L-selectin-Fc chimera and VE-cadherin-Fc chimera proteins were first determined by protein coating on ELISA plates. The whole processes were repeated on titanium substrates, which are commonly used to coat stents. Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were isolated and characterized by flow cytometry. Cell attachment, growth, proliferation, viability and surface cytotoxicity were evaluated using nuclear staining and MTT assay. Platelet and cell attachment were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy. Optimal concentration of each protein for surface coating was 50 ng/ml. The efficacy of protein coating was both heat and pH independent. Calcium ions had significant impact on simultaneous dual-protein coating (P<0.05). Coating stability data revealed more than one year stability for these coated proteins at 4°C. L-selectin and VE-cadherin (ratio of 50:50) coated surface showed highest EPC and HUVEC attachment, viability and proliferation compared to single protein coated and non-coated titanium surfaces (P<0.05). This double coated surface did not show any cytotoxic effect. Surfaces coated with L-selectin and VE-cadherin are friendly surface for EPC and endothelial cell attachment with less platelet attachment. These desirable factors make the L-selectin and VE-cadherin coated surfaces perfect candidate endovascular device. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Inflammatory response of endothelial cells to hepatitis C virus recombinant envelope glycoprotein 2 protein exposure

    PubMed Central

    Urbaczek, Ana Carolina; Ribeiro, Lívia Carolina de Abreu; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; Afonso, Ana; Nogueira, Camila Tita; Generoso, Wesley Cardoso; Alberice, Juliana Vieira; Rudnicki, Martina; Ferrer, Renila; da Fonseca, Luiz Marcos; da Costa, Paulo Inácio

    2014-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes approximately 10 different structural and non-structural proteins, including the envelope glycoprotein 2 (E2). HCV proteins, especially the envelope proteins, bind to cell receptors and can damage tissues. Endothelial inflammation is the most important determinant of fibrosis progression and, consequently, cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the inflammatory response of endothelial cells to two recombinant forms of the HCV E2 protein produced in different expression systems (Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris). We observed the induction of cell death and the production of nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor A in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulated by the two recombinant E2 proteins. The E2-induced apoptosis of HUVECs was confirmed using the molecular marker PARP. The apoptosis rescue observed when the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was used suggests that reactive oxygen species are involved in E2-induced apoptosis. We propose that these proteins are involved in the chronic inflammation caused by HCV. PMID:25317702

  18. Inflammatory response of endothelial cells to hepatitis C virus recombinant envelope glycoprotein 2 protein exposure.

    PubMed

    Urbaczek, Ana Carolina; Ribeiro, Lívia Carolina de Abreu; Ximenes, Valdecir Farias; Afonso, Ana; Nogueira, Camila Tita; Generoso, Wesley Cardoso; Alberice, Juliana Vieira; Rudnicki, Martina; Ferrer, Renila; Fonseca, Luiz Marcos da; Costa, Paulo Inácio da

    2014-09-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes approximately 10 different structural and non-structural proteins, including the envelope glycoprotein 2 (E2). HCV proteins, especially the envelope proteins, bind to cell receptors and can damage tissues. Endothelial inflammation is the most important determinant of fibrosis progression and, consequently, cirrhosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the inflammatory response of endothelial cells to two recombinant forms of the HCV E2 protein produced in different expression systems (Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris). We observed the induction of cell death and the production of nitric oxide, hydrogen peroxide, interleukin-8 and vascular endothelial growth factor A in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) stimulated by the two recombinant E2 proteins. The E2-induced apoptosis of HUVECs was confirmed using the molecular marker PARP. The apoptosis rescue observed when the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine was used suggests that reactive oxygen species are involved in E2-induced apoptosis. We propose that these proteins are involved in the chronic inflammation caused by HCV.

  19. eNOS-Dependent Antisenscence Effect of a Calcium Channel Blocker in Human Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Toshio; Yamaguchi, Tomoe; Sakakibara, Yasufumi; Taguchi, Kumiko; Maeda, Morihiko; Kuzuya, Masafumi; Hattori, Yuichi

    2014-01-01

    Senescence of vascular endothelial cells is an important contributor to the pathogenesis of age-associated vascular disorders such as atherosclerosis. We investigated the effects of antihypertensive agents on high glucose-induced cellular senescence in human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to high glucose (22 mM) for 3 days increased senescence-associated- β-galactosidase (SA-β-gal) activity, a senescence marker, and decreased telomerase activity, a replicative senescence marker. The calcium channel blocker nifedipine, but not the β1-adrenergic blocking agent atenolol or the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor perindopril, reduced SA-β-gal positive cells and prevented a decrease in telomerase activity in a high-glucose environment. This beneficial effect of nifedipine was associated with reduced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity. Thus, nifedipine prevented high glucose-induced ROS generation and increased basal eNOS phosphorylation level at Ser-1177. Treatment with NG-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME) and transfection of small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting eNOS eliminated the anti-senscence effect of nifedipine. These results demonstrate that nifedipine can prevent endothelial cell senescence in an eNOS-dependent manner. The anti-senescence action of nifedipine may represent a novel mechanism by which it protects against atherosclerosis. PMID:24520379

  20. Pharmacologically active microcarriers for endothelial progenitor cell support and survival.

    PubMed

    Musilli, Claudia; Karam, Jean-Pierre; Paccosi, Sara; Muscari, Claudio; Mugelli, Alessandro; Montero-Menei, Claudia N; Parenti, Astrid

    2012-08-01

    The regenerative potential of endothelial progenitor cell (EPC)-based therapies is limited due to poor cell viability and minimal retention following application. Neovascularization can be improved by means of scaffolds supporting EPCs. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether human early EPCs (eEPCs) could be efficiently cultured on pharmacologically active microcarriers (PAMs), made with poly(d,l-lactic-coglycolic acid) and coated with adhesion/extracellular matrix molecules. They may serve as a support for stem cells and may be used as cell carriers providing a controlled delivery of active protein such as the angiogenic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A). eEPC adhesion to fibronectin-coated PAMs (FN-PAMs) was assessed by means of microscopic evaluation and by means of Alamar blue assay. Phospho ERK(1/2) and PARP-1 expression was measured by means of Western blot to assess the survival effects of FN-PAMs releasing VEGF-A (FN-VEGF-PAMs). The Alamar blue assay or a modified Boyden chamber assay was employed to assess proliferative or migratory capacity, respectively. Our data indicate that eEPCs were able to adhere to empty FN-PAMs within a few hours. FN-VEGF-PAMs increased the ability of eEPCs to adhere to them and strongly supported endothelial-like phenotype and cell survival. Moreover, the release of VEGF-A by FN-PAMs stimulated in vitro HUVEC migration and proliferation. These data strongly support the use of PAMs for supporting eEPC growth and survival and for stimulating resident mature human endothelial cells.

  1. Fluid shear, intercellular stress, and endothelial cell alignment.

    PubMed

    Steward, Robert; Tambe, Dhananjay; Hardin, C Corey; Krishnan, Ramaswamy; Fredberg, Jeffrey J

    2015-04-15

    Endothelial cell alignment along the direction of laminar fluid flow is widely understood to be a defining morphological feature of vascular homeostasis. While the role of associated signaling and structural events have been well studied, associated intercellular stresses under laminar fluid shear have remained ill-defined and the role of these stresses in the alignment process has remained obscure. To fill this gap, we report here the tractions as well as the complete in-plane intercellular stress fields measured within the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer subjected to a steady laminar fluid shear of 1 Pa. Tractions, intercellular stresses, as well as their time course, heterogeneity, and anisotropy, were measured using monolayer traction microscopy and monolayer stress microscopy. Prior to application of laminar fluid flow, intercellular stresses were largely tensile but fluctuated dramatically in space and in time (317 ± 122 Pa). Within 12 h of the onset of laminar fluid flow, the intercellular stresses decreased substantially but continued to fluctuate dramatically (142 ± 84 Pa). Moreover, tractions and intercellular stresses aligned strongly and promptly (within 1 h) along the direction of fluid flow, whereas the endothelial cell body aligned less strongly and substantially more slowly (12 h). Taken together, these results reveal that steady laminar fluid flow induces prompt reduction in magnitude and alignment of tractions and intercellular stress tensor components followed by the retarded elongation and alignment of the endothelial cell body. Appreciably smaller intercellular stresses supported by cell-cell junctions logically favor smaller incidence of gap formation and thus improved barrier integrity.

  2. Fluid shear, intercellular stress, and endothelial cell alignment

    PubMed Central

    Steward, Robert; Tambe, Dhananjay; Hardin, C. Corey; Krishnan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial cell alignment along the direction of laminar fluid flow is widely understood to be a defining morphological feature of vascular homeostasis. While the role of associated signaling and structural events have been well studied, associated intercellular stresses under laminar fluid shear have remained ill-defined and the role of these stresses in the alignment process has remained obscure. To fill this gap, we report here the tractions as well as the complete in-plane intercellular stress fields measured within the human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) monolayer subjected to a steady laminar fluid shear of 1 Pa. Tractions, intercellular stresses, as well as their time course, heterogeneity, and anisotropy, were measured using monolayer traction microscopy and monolayer stress microscopy. Prior to application of laminar fluid flow, intercellular stresses were largely tensile but fluctuated dramatically in space and in time (317 ± 122 Pa). Within 12 h of the onset of laminar fluid flow, the intercellular stresses decreased substantially but continued to fluctuate dramatically (142 ± 84 Pa). Moreover, tractions and intercellular stresses aligned strongly and promptly (within 1 h) along the direction of fluid flow, whereas the endothelial cell body aligned less strongly and substantially more slowly (12 h). Taken together, these results reveal that steady laminar fluid flow induces prompt reduction in magnitude and alignment of tractions and intercellular stress tensor components followed by the retarded elongation and alignment of the endothelial cell body. Appreciably smaller intercellular stresses supported by cell-cell junctions logically favor smaller incidence of gap formation and thus improved barrier integrity. PMID:25652451

  3. Ghrelin protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells against advanced glycation end products-induced apoptosis via NO/cGMP signaling

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengjie; Liu, Ying; Xiang, Ying; Lin, Miao; Gao, Jinling

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the intracellular mechanism involved in the anti-apoptotic effect of ghrelin on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Methods: HUVECs were pretreated with ghrelin before exposure to 200 μg/ml advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-BSA for 48 h. Cell viability and apoptosis were determined by MTT assay and Annexin V/PI staining. Intracellular cGMP levels evaluation and cGMP analogs were employed to explore possible mechanisms. Results: The inhibitory effect on AGEs induced HUVECs apoptosis could be exerted by ghrelin and co-incubation with growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR)-1a antagonist [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 abolished this inhibition. Decreased cGMP level in AGEs induced HUVECs apoptosis was restored by ghrelin pretreatment and abolished by [D-Lys3]-GHRP-6 co-incubation. cGMP analogs (8 Br-cGMP and DB-cGMP) pretreatment also exhibited inhibitory effect on AGEs induced HUVECs apoptosis. Conclusions: Our results demonstrated that ghrelin produces a protective effect on HUVECs through GHS-R1a and cGMP/NO signaling pathway mediates the effect of ghrelin. These observations suggest a novel intracellular mechanism in the process of AGEs induced HUVECs apoptosis. PMID:26629013

  4. MASP-1 Induces a Unique Cytokine Pattern in Endothelial Cells: A Novel Link between Complement System and Neutrophil Granulocytes

    PubMed Central

    Jani, Péter K.; Kajdácsi, Erika; Megyeri, Márton; Dobó, József; Doleschall, Zoltán; Futosi, Krisztina; Tímár, Csaba I.; Mócsai, Attila; Makó, Veronika; Gál, Péter; Cervenak, László

    2014-01-01

    Microbial infection urges prompt intervention by the immune system. The complement cascade and neutrophil granulocytes are the predominant contributors to this immediate anti-microbial action. We have previously shown that mannan-binding lectin-associated serine protease-1 (MASP-1), the most abundant enzyme of the complement lectin pathway, can induce p38-MAPK activation, NFkappaB signaling, and Ca2+-mobilization in endothelial cells. Since neutrophil chemotaxis and transmigration depends on endothelial cell activation, we aimed to explore whether recombinant MASP-1 (rMASP-1) is able to induce cytokine production and subsequent neutrophil chemotaxis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). We found that HUVECs activated by rMASP-1 secreted IL-6 and IL-8, but not IL-1alpha, IL-1ra, TNFalpha and MCP-1. rMASP-1 induced dose-dependent IL-6 and IL-8 production with different kinetics. rMASP-1 triggered IL-6 and IL-8 production was regulated predominantly by the p38-MAPK pathway. Moreover, the supernatant of rMASP-1-stimulated HUVECs activated the chemotaxis of neutrophil granulocytes as an integrated effect of cytokine production. Our results implicate that besides initializing the complement lectin pathway, MASP-1 may activate neutrophils indirectly, via the endothelial cells, which link these effective antimicrobial host defense mechanisms. PMID:24489848

  5. [Protective effect of Huaxia shallot preparation on human umbilical vein endothelial cell injury induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein and its mechanism].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie-mei; Guo, Jie; Tu, Xin; Shi, Zhao-hong; Hao, Jian-jun; Ke, Yu-he; Guan, Jiang-feng; He, Juan-juan

    2007-11-01

    To observe the protective effect of Huaxia shallot preparation on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) injury induced by oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL) in vitro. Ox-LDL was prepared and identified, and HUVECs were cultured. After 2-hour intervention of different drugs and 24-hour following intervention of Ox-LDL, the number of HUVECs was observed by phase contrast optical microscope and the activity of the HUVECs was observed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) technique. Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and nitric oxide (NO) content were assayed by respective kit. The protein expressions and mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferators activated receptor gamma(PPAR-gamma) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) were measured by western blot technique and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Ox-LDL could increase the apoptosis rate of the HUVECs and decrease the NO release as compared with the blank control group (P<0.05). These effects induced by Ox-LDL were all significantly inhibited by Huaxia shallot preparation. It could up-regulate the protein expressions and mRNA levels of PPAR-gamma and eNOS significantly (P<0.05). Huaxia shallot preparation could decrease the apoptosis rate of the HUVECs. Ox-LDL may be involved in the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis by injuring the endothelial cells directly and may cause the endothelial dysfunction. Huaxia shallot preparation can protect against Ox-LDL induced endothelial cell injury by up-regulating the protein expressions and mRNA levels of PPAR-gamma and eNOS. It suggests that Huaxia shallot preparation may play a role in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease.

  6. Dehydroepiandrosterone Protects Endothelial Cells against Inflammatory Events Induced by Urban Particulate Matter and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Huerta-García, Elizabeth; Montiél-Dávalos, Angélica; Alfaro-Moreno, Ernesto; Gutiérrez-Iglesias, Gisela; López-Marure, Rebeca

    2013-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) and nanoparticles (NPs) induce activation and dysfunction of endothelial cells characterized by inhibition of proliferation, increase of adhesion and adhesion molecules expression, increase of ROS production, and death. DHEA has shown anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in HUVEC activated with proinflammatory agents. We evaluated if DHEA could protect against some inflammatory events produced by PM10 and TiO2 NPs in HUVEC. Adhesion was evaluated by a coculture with U937 cells, proliferation by crystal violet staining, and oxidative stress through DCFDA and Griess reagent. PM10 and TiO2 NPs induced adhesion and oxidative stress and inhibited proliferation of HUVEC; however, when particles were added in combination with DHEA, the effects previously observed were abolished independently from the tested concentrations and the time of addition of DHEA to the cultures. These results indicate that DHEA exerts significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects on the damage induced by particles in HUVEC, suggesting that DHEA could be useful to counteract the harmful effects and inflammatory diseases induced by PM and NPs. PMID:23484113

  7. Divergent effects of corticotropin releasing hormone on endothelial cell nitric oxide synthase are associated with different expression of CRH type 1 and 2 receptors

    PubMed Central

    Cantarella, Giuseppina; Lempereur, Laurence; Lombardo, Gabriella; Chiarenza, Andrea; Pafumi, Carlo; Zappalà, Giovanna; Bernardini, Renato

    2001-01-01

    Endothelium is a target for an array of factors involved in inflammation. Endothelial cells express receptors for CRH, a neuropeptide produced during inflammation. We report both the concentration-dependent inhibitory effect of CRH upon cytokine-stimulated nitrite release by H5V murine endothelioma cells, and its stimulatory one in HUVEC cells.Western blot analysis showed that CRH inhibits cytokine-stimulated iNOS protein in H5V cells, and, instead, potentiated it in HUVEC cells.H5V cells expressed both CRH receptors (CRH-R1 and R2) mRNAs, whereas HUVEC cells expressed the CRH-R2 mRNA solely.CRH increased medium nitrites and iNOS protein expression in H5V cells pretreated with the selective CRH-R1 antagonist CP 154,526. However, the selective CRH-R2 antagonist anti-Svg-30 failed to produce similar effects. In fact, anti-Svg-30 inhibited CRH-induced increase of nitrite release and iNOS expression in HUVEC cells.Our results confirm the activating role of CRH on endothelial cells, although it suggests its possible inhibitory role in the late phase of the inflammatory response. NO-mediated effects of CRH on endothelial cells could be exploited in therapeutic strategies related to inflammatory and/or degenerative diseases. PMID:11606324

  8. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-Dioxin Differentially Suppresses Angiogenic Responses in Human Placental Vein and Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Wang, Kai; Zou, Qing-Yun; Magness, Ronald R.; Zheng, Jing

    2015-01-01

    Placental angiogenesis is dramatically increased during pregnancy in association with the elevated placental blood flows to support the rapidly growing fetus. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) is an environmental toxicant and a ligand of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR). Herein, we investigated the effects of TCDD on proliferation, migration, and viability of fetoplacental endothelial cells in response to a complete growth medium which contained serum and growth supplement using human umbilical cord vein (HUVECs) and artery (HUAECs) cells as models. We found that TCDD dose- and time-dependently inhibited (p < 0.05) proliferation of HUVECs and HUAECs. Treatment with TCDD at 10 nM for 6 days inhibited (p < 0.05) migration (by ~30%) of HUAECs, but not HUVECs. TCDD at 10 nM also attenuated (p < 0.05) viability of HUVECs and HUAECs. Interestingly, specific AhR siRNA blocked (p < 0.05) the TCDD-inhibited cellular responses in HUAECs, but not HUVECs. Nonetheless, TCDD at 10 nM neither affected the cell cycle process, nor did it induce cell apoptosis in HUVECs and HUAECs. In addition, TCDD at 10 nM also did not alter activation of ERK1/2 and AKT1 in HUVECs and HUAECs. Collectively, TCDD suppresses proliferation and/or migration (two key steps of angiogenesis) of HUVECs and HUAECs independent and dependent of AhR, respectively. These data suggest that TCDD inhibited growth of HUVECs and HUAECs via decreasing cell viability. Thus, TCDD may inhibit fetoplacental angiogenesis, leading to negative pregnancy outcomes. PMID:26275813

  9. Angiopoietin-1 reduces VEGF-stimulated leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by reducing ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, I; Moon, S O; Park, S K; Chae, S W; Koh, G Y

    2001-09-14

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and angiopoietin-1 (Ang1) are potent vasculogenic and angiogenic factors that hold promise as a means to produce therapeutic vascularization and angiogenesis. However, VEGF also acts as a proinflammatory cytokine by inducing adhesion molecules that bind leukocytes to endothelial cells, an initial and essential step toward inflammation. In the present study, we used human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) to examine the effect of Ang1 on VEGF-induced expression of three adhesion molecules: intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and E-selectin. Interestingly, Ang1 suppressed VEGF-induced expression of these adhesion molecules. Furthermore, Ang1 reduced VEGF-induced leukocyte adhesion to HUVECs. These results demonstrate that Ang1 counteracts VEGF-induced inflammation by reducing VEGF-induced endothelial adhesiveness.

  10. Andrographolide suppresses endothelial cell apoptosis via activation of phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiun-Han; Hsiao, George; Lee, An-Rong; Wu, Chin-Chen; Yen, Mao-Hsiung

    2004-04-01

    Andrographolide (Andro), an active component isolated from the Chinese official herbal Andrographis paniculata, which has been reported to prevent oxygen radical production and thus prevent inflammatory diseases. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms and signaling pathways by which Andro protects human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) from growth factor (GF) deprivation-induced apoptosis. Results demonstrated that HUVECs undergo apoptosis after 18 hr of GF deprivation but that this cell death was suppressed by the addition of Andro in a concentration-dependent manner (1-100 microM). Andro suppresses the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis by inhibiting release of cytochrome c into the cytoplasm and dissipation of mitochondrial potential (Deltapsi(m)), as a consequence, prevented caspase-3 and -9 activation. Treatment of endothelial cells with Andro-induced activation of the protein kinase Akt, an anti-apoptotic signal, and phosphorylation of BAD, a down-stream target of Akt. Suppression of Akt activity by wortmannin, by LY-294002 and by using a dominant negative Akt mutant abolished the anti-apoptotic effect of Andro. In contrast, the ERK1/2 activities were not affected by Andro. The ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059 failed to antagonize the protective effect of Andro. In conclusion, Andro exerts its anti-apoptotic potential via activation of the Akt-BAD pathway in HUVECs and thus may represent a candidate of therapeutic agent for atherosclerosis.

  11. Corni fructus scavenges hydroxy radicals and decreases oxidative stress in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soon-Ok; Kim, Sun Young; Han, Sag-Myung; Kim, Hye-Mi; Ham, Seung-Shi; Kang, Il-Jun

    2006-01-01

    Corni fructus has been used as a tonic, analgesic, and diuretic in Korean herbal medicine. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the antioxidative effect of corni fructus and its capacity to protect cells against oxidative damage. The radical scavenging activity of corni fructus extracts was measured using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and the antioxidant activity was determined by measuring the peroxide value in a linoleic acid emulsion system. In addition, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were treated with corni fructus extracts and incubated with H(2)O(2) to investigate protection against apoptosis induction. Both ethanol and water extracts of corni fructus produced higher DPPH radical scavenging activity than hexane, chloroform, and ethyl acetate extracts. Strong antioxidative activities of both water and ethanol extracts were observed in an emulsion system containing linoleic acid and phosphate buffer. The incubation of HUVECs with the addition of ethanol extract significantly decreased H(2)O(2)-initiated damage of endothelial cells, but the water extract did not. The pretreatment with ethanol extract, but not with water extract, significantly decreased apoptotic damage of the H(2)O(2)-treated HUVECs and kept the morphological normality. This study demonstrates that corni fructus is a potent antioxidant substance, and suggests that further investigation is needed to characterize the difference between extract types and to identify its antioxidant compounds.

  12. Effect of lovastatin on coxsackievirus B3 infection in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Werner, Bianca; Dittmann, Sven; Funke, Carsten; Überla, Klaus; Piper, Cornelia; Niehaus, Karsten; Horstkotte, Dieter; Farr, Martin

    2014-04-01

    The coxsackie and adenovirus receptor (CAR) mediates the entry of coxsackievirus B (CVB) and adenovirus into host cells and is, therefore, a key determinant for the molecular pathogenesis of viral diseases such as myocarditis. The aim was to investigate the influence of HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin on CAR expression in endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were exposed to different concentrations of lovastatin (0.05-5 μmol/l) for up to 48 h. Alterations in CAR expression were examined by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) and flow cytometry. In addition, after treatment with 1 μmol/l lovastatin for 48 h, HUVECs were infected for 8 h with CVB3 and virus replication was detected by qRT-PCR using viral-specific TaqMan probes. We found that lovastatin decreases CAR mRNA expression by up to 80% (p < 0.01) and CAR protein expression by up to 19% (p < 0.01), in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, virus replication of CVB3 was significantly inhibited after lovastatin treatment (p < 0.05). The signaling mechanism of CAR down-regulation by lovastatin depends on the Rac1/Cdc42 pathway. This study shows for the first time that lovastatin reduces the expression of CAR and subsequently the replication of CVB3 in HUVECs.

  13. Endosulfan inducing apoptosis and necroptosis through activation RIPK signaling pathway in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lianshuang; Wei, Jialiu; Ren, Lihua; Zhang, Jin; Yang, Man; Jing, Li; Wang, Ji; Sun, Zhiwei; Zhou, Xianqing

    2017-01-01

    Endosulfan, an organochlorine pesticide, was found in human blood, and its possible cardiovascular toxicity has been suggested. However, the mechanism about endothelial cell injuries induced by endosulfan has remained unknown. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were chosen to explore the toxicity mechanism and were treated with 0, 1, 6, and 12 μg/mL(-1) endosulfan for 24 h, respectively. The results showed that exposure to endosulfan could inhibit the cell viability, increase the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), damage the ultrastructure, and lead to apoptosis and necroptosis in HUVECs. Furthermore, endosulfan upregulated the expressions of receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1), receptor-interacting protein kinase 3 (RIPK3), mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL), caspase 8, and caspase 3, which means the activation of RIPK1 pathways. In addition, endosulfan promoted the increases of ROS, IL-1α, and IL-33 levels while antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) effectively attenuated the cytotoxicity from endosulfan. Taken together, these results have demonstrated that endosulfan induces the apoptosis and necroptosis of HUVECs, where the RIPK pathway plays a pro-necroptotic role and NAC plays an anti-necroptotic role. Our results may contribute to understanding cellular mechanisms for endosulfan-induced cardiovascular toxicity.

  14. PGE1 analog alprostadil induces VEGF and eNOS expression in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Haider, Dominik G; Bucek, Robert A; Giurgea, Aura G; Maurer, Gerald; Glogar, Helmut; Minar, Erich; Wolzt, Michael; Mehrabi, Mohammad R; Baghestanian, Mehrdad

    2005-11-01

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), VEGF, and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1alpha) are important regulators of endothelial function, which plays a role in the pathophysiology of heart failure (HF). PGE1 analog treatment in patients with HF elicits beneficial hemodynamic effects, but the precise mechanisms have not been investigated. We have investigated the effects of the PGE1 analog alprostadil on eNOS, VEGF, and HIF-1alpha expression in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) using RT-PCR and immunoblotting under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, we studied protein expression by immunohistochemical staining in explanted hearts from patients with end-stage HF, treated or untreated with systemic alprostadil. Alprostadil causes an upregulation of eNOS and VEGF protein and mRNA expression in HUVEC and decreases HIF-1alpha. Hypoxia potently increased eNOS, VEGF, and HIF-1alpha synthesis. The alprostadil-induced upregulation of eNOS and VEGF was prevented by inhibition of MAPKs with PD-98056 or U-0126. Consistently, the expression of eNOS and VEGF was increased, and HIF-1alpha was reduced in failing hearts treated with alprostadil. The potent effects of alprostadil on endothelial VEGF and eNOS synthesis may be useful for patients with HF where endothelial dysfunction is involved in the disease process.

  15. Preconditioning of primary human endothelial cells with inflammatory mediators alters the “set point” of the cell

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Youichiro; Otu, Hasan; Wu, Shengqian; Abid, Md. Ruhul; Okada, Hitomi; Libermann, Towia; Kodama, Tatsuhiko; Shih, Shu-Ching; Minami, Takashi; Aird, William C.

    2012-01-01

    Endothelial cells are highly sensitive to changes in the extracellular milieu. Sepsis results in activation of inflammatory and coagulation pathways. We hypothesized that sepsis-associated mediators may alter the response capacity (so-called “set point”) of endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were preincubated in the presence or absence of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), hypoxia, hyperthermia, and/or high glucose; treated with or without thrombin for 4 h; and then processed for RNase protection assays of selected activation markers. Priming with TNF-α and LPS significantly inhibited thrombin-mediated induction of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, tissue factor, and E-selectin, but not platelet-derived growth factor-A or CD44. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, thrombin-treated HUVEC demonstrated inducible binding of p65 NF-κB, an effect that was significantly blunted by pretreatment of cells with TNF-α and LPS. Consistent with these results, TNF-α and LPS attenuated the effect of thrombin on IκB phosphorylation, total cytoplasmic IκB, and nuclear translocation of p65 NF-κB. The inhibitory effect of TNF-α on thrombin signaling persisted for up to 24 h following removal of the cytokine. Taken together, these data suggest that inflammatory mediators prime endothelial cells to modulate subsequent thrombin response. PMID:16172186

  16. Barrier protective effects of 2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranyl acetophenone on lipopolysaccharides-stimulated inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chong, Yi Joong; Musa, Nazmi Firdaus; Ng, Chean Hui; Shaari, Khozirah; Israf, Daud Ahmad; Tham, Chau Ling

    2016-11-04

    2,4,6-trihydroxy-3-geranyl acetophenone (tHGA), is a phloroglucinol compound found naturally in Melicope ptelefolia. Melicope ptelefolia has been used traditionally for centuries as natural remedy for wound infections and inflammatory diseases. Endothelial barrier dysfunction is a pathological hallmark of many diseases and can be caused by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulation. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the possible barrier protective effects of tHGA upon LPS-stimulated inflammatory responses in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were pretreated with tHGA prior to LPS stimulation, where inflammatory parameters including permeability, monocyte adhesion and migration, and release of pro-inflammatory mediators were examined. Additionally, the effect of tHGA on F-actin rearrangement and adhesion protein expression of LPS-stimulated HUVECs was evaluated. It was found that pretreatment with tHGA inhibited monocyte adhesion and transendothelial migration, reduced endothelial hyperpermeability and secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Additionally, tHGA inhibited cytoskeletal rearrangement and adhesion protein expression on LPS-stimulated HUVECs. As the regulation of endothelial barrier dysfunction can be one of the therapeutic strategies to improve the outcome of inflammation, tHGA may be able to preserve vascular barrier integrity of endothelial cells following LPS-stimulated dysfunction, thereby endorsing its potential usefulness in vascular inflammatory diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Far-infrared protects vascular endothelial cells from advanced glycation end products-induced injury via PLZF-mediated autophagy in diabetic mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Cheng-Hsien; Chen, Tso-Hsiao; Wu, Mei-Yi; Chou, Tz-Chong; Chen, Jia-Rung; Wei, Meng-Jun; Lee, San-Liang; Hong, Li-Yu; Zheng, Cai-Mei; Chiu, I-Jen; Lin, Yuh-Feng; Hsu, Ching-Min; Hsu, Yung-Ho

    2017-01-01

    The accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in diabetic patients induces vascular endothelial injury. Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger protein (PLZF) is a transcription factor that can be activated by low-temperature far-infrared (FIR) irradiation to exert beneficial effects on the vascular endothelium. In the present study, we investigated the influence of FIR-induced PLZF activation on AGE-induced endothelial injury both in vitro and in vivo. FIR irradiation inhibited AGE-induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). PLZF activation increased the expression of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinases (PI3K), which are important kinases in the autophagic signaling pathway. FIR-induced PLZF activation led to autophagy in HUVEC, which was mediated through the upregulation of PI3K. Immunofluorescence staining showed that AGEs were engulfed by HUVECs and localized to lysosomes. FIR-induced autophagy promoted AGEs degradation in HUVECs. In nicotinamide/streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, FIR therapy reduced serum AGEs and AGEs deposition at the vascular endothelium. FIR therapy also reduced diabetes-induced inflammatory markers in the vascular endothelium and improved vascular endothelial function. These protective effects of FIR therapy were not found in PLZF-knockout mice. Our data suggest that FIR-induced PLZF activation in vascular endothelial cells protects the vascular endothelium in diabetic mice from AGE-induced injury. PMID:28071754

  18. Human brain endothelial barrier cells are distinctly less vulnerable to silver nanoparticles toxicity than human blood vessel cells: A cell-specific mechanism of the brain barrier?

    PubMed

    Sokołowska, Paulina; Białkowska, Kamila; Siatkowska, Małgorzata; Rosowski, Marcin; Kucińska, Magdalena; Komorowski, Piotr; Makowski, Krzysztof; Walkowiak, Bogdan

    2017-10-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) constitutes a distinctive and tightly regulated interface between the brain and the peripheral circulation. The objective of studies was to compare responses of human endothelial cells representing the model of blood vessels - EA.hy926 and HUVEC cells and the model of the brain endothelial barrier - HBEC5i cells to silver nanoparticles (SNPs). A contact of SNPs with endothelial cells resulted in a formation of SNP agglomerates. Consequently, the SNPs uptake by endothelial cells affected cell viability and membrane integrity however observed responses were different. Brain endothelial barrier HBEC5i cells were much less vulnerable to SNPs toxicity comparing to EA.hy926 and HUVEC cells. It can be ascribed to the presence of specialized cellular components of the brain barrier, protecting HBEC5i cells against toxic SNPs. Fundamental understanding of SNPs inducing the BBB dysfunction may initiate engineering novel SNPs which are safe for the BBB and thereby safe for the brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Amyloid Precursor Protein Mediates a Tyrosine-kinase Dependent Activation Response in Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Austin, S.A.; Sens, M.A.; Combs, C.K.

    2010-01-01

    Amyloid precursor protein (APP) is a ubiquitously expressed type one integral membrane protein. It has the ability to bind numerous extracellular matrix components and propagate signaling responses via its cytoplasmic phosphotyrosine, 682YENPTY687, binding motif. We recently demonstrated increased protein levels of APP, phosphorylated APP (Tyr682), and beta-amyloid (Aβ) in brain vasculature of atherosclerotic and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) tissue co-localizing primarily within the endothelial layer. This study demonstrates similar APP changes in peripheral vasculature from human and mouse apoE−/− aorta suggesting APP-related changes are not restricted to brain vasculature. Therefore, primary mouse aortic endothelial cells (PAEC) and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were used as a model system to examine the function of APP in endothelial cells. APP multimerization with an anti-N-terminal APP antibody, 22C11, to simulate ligand binding stimulated a Src kinase family dependent increase in protein phosphotyrosine levels, APP phosphorylation, and Aβ secretion. Furthermore, APP multimerization stimulated increased protein levels of the proinflammatory proteins, cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 also in a Src kinase family dependent fashion. Endothelial APP was also involved in mediating monocytic cell adhesion. Collectively, these data demonstrate that endothelial APP regulates immune cell adhesion and stimulates a tyrosine kinase-dependent response driving acquisition of a reactive endothelial phenotype. These APP-mediated events may serve as therapeutic targets for intervention in progressive vascular changes common to cerebrovascular disease and AD. PMID:19923279

  20. Testosterone promotes vascular endothelial cell migration via upregulation of ROCK-2/moesin cascade.

    PubMed

    Liao, Weiyong; Huang, Wenjun; Guo, Yanhong; Xin, Min; Fu, Xiaodong

    2013-12-01

    Cross-sectional studies have demonstrated a reverse relationship between serum level of testosterone (T) and the incidence rate of cardiovascular disease in men, indicating that T exerts beneficial effects in cardiovascular system. However, the endothelial effects of T are poorly understood. Actin remodeling is essential for endothelial cell movement and vascular repair and this process is controlled by the actin-binding protein moesin. In the present study, we studied the effects of T on actin remodeling, moesin expression and phosphorylation, as well as cell migration in cultured human umbilical endothelial cells (hUVECs). We found that T provoked the formation of cortical actin complexes and membrane protrusions in endothelial cells. Treatment with T induced dose- and time-dependent increase of moesin expression and phosphorylation, which was inhibited by the addition of androgen receptor antagonist hydroxyflutamide (HF). Moreover, T enhanced ROCK-2 activity. The ROCK-2 inhibitor Y27632 or the transfection of ROCK-2 siRNA largely inhibited T-induced moesin expression and phosphorylation, indicating that ROCK-2 pathway is crucial for these effects. T promoted endothelial cell migration, which was inhibited by the addition of HF or Y27632. In conclusion, T induces actin cytoskeleton remodeling by regulating moesin expression and activation, resulting in enhanced endothelial cell migration. Our work adds new insights into endothelial mechanisms of T, which is relevant for its vascular actions.

  1. The role of vascular actors in two dimensional dialogue of human bone marrow stromal cell and endothelial cell for inducing self-assembled network.

    PubMed

    Li, Haiyan; Daculsi, Richard; Grellier, Maritie; Bareille, Reine; Bourget, Chantal; Remy, Murielle; Amedee, Joëlle

    2011-02-03

    Angiogenesis is very important for vascularized tissue engineering. In this study, we found that a two-dimensional co-culture of human bone marrow stromal cell (HBMSC) and human umbical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) is able to stimulate the migration of co-cultured HUVEC and induce self-assembled network formation. During this process, expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF₁₆₅) was upregulated in co-cultured HBMSC. Meanwhile, VEGF₁₆₅-receptor2 (KDR) and urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) were upregulated in co-cultured HUVEC. Functional studies show that neutralization of VEGF₁₆₅ blocked the migration and the rearrangement of the cells and downregulated the expression of uPA and its receptor. Blocking of vascular endothelial-cadherin (VE-cad) did not affect the migration of co-cultured HUVEC but suppressed the self-assembled network formation. In conclusion, co-cultures upregulated the expression of VEGF₁₆₅ in co-cultured HBMSC; VEGF₁₆₅ then activated uPA in co-cultured HUVEC, which might be responsible for initiating the migration and the self-assembled network formation with the participation of VE-cad. All of these results indicated that only the direct contact of HBMSC and HUVEC and their respective dialogue are sufficient to stimulate secretion of soluble factors and to activate molecules that are critical for self-assembled network formation which show a great application potential for vascularization in tissue engineering.

  2. Characterization of tissue plasminogen activator binding proteins isolated from endothelial cells and other cell types

    SciTech Connect

    Beebe, D.P.; Wood, L.L.; Moos, M. )

    1990-07-15

    Human tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) was shown to bind specifically to human osteosarcoma cells (HOS), and human epidermoid carcinoma cells (A-431 cells). Crosslinking studies with DTSSP demonstrated high molecular weight complexes (130,000) between {sup 125}I-t-PA and cell membrane protein on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), HOS, and A-431 cells. A 48-65,000 molecular weight complex was demonstrated after crosslinking t-PA peptide (res. 7-20) to cells. Ligand blotting of cell lysates which had been passed over a t-PA affinity column revealed binding of t-PA to 54,000 and 95,000 molecular weight proteins. Several t-PA binding proteins were identified in immunopurified cell lysates, including tubulin beta chain, plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 and single chain urokinase.

  3. SRY gene transferred by extracellular vesicles accelerates atherosclerosis by promotion of leucocyte adherence to endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jin; Guan, Weiwei; Tan, Xiaorong; Chen, Caiyu; Li, Liangpeng; Wang, Na; Zou, Xue; Zhou, Faying; Wang, Jialiang; Pei, Fang; Chen, Xinjian; Luo, Hao; Wang, Xinquan; He, Duofen; Zhou, Lin; Jose, Pedro A; Zeng, Chunyu

    2015-08-01

    We set out to investigate whether and how SRY (sex-determining region, Y) DNAs in plasma EVs (extracellular vesicles) is involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. PCR and gene sequencing found the SRY gene fragment in plasma EVs from male, but not female, patients; EVs from male patients with CAD (coronary artery disease) had a higher SRY GCN (gene copy number) than healthy subjects. Additional studies found that leucocytes, the major source of plasma EVs, had higher SRY GCN and mRNA and protein expression in male CAD patients than controls. After incubation with EVs from SRY-transfected HEK (human embryonic kidney)-293 cells, monocytes (THP-1) and HUVECs (human umbilical vein endothelial cells), which do not endogenously express SRY protein, were found to express newly synthesized SRY protein. This resulted in an increase in the adherence factors CD11-a in THP-1 cells and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule 1) in HUVECs. EMSA showed that SRY protein increased the promoter activity of CD11-a in THP-1 cells and ICAM-1 in HUVECs. There was an increase in THP-1 cells adherent to HUVECs after incubation with SRY-EVs. SRY DNAs transferred from EVs have pathophysiological significance in vivo; injection of SRY EVs into ApoE-/- (apolipoprotein-knockout) mice accelerated atherosclerosis. The SRY gene in plasma EVs transferred to vascular endothelial cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis; this mechanism provides a new approach to the understanding of inheritable CAD in men.

  4. Omentin inhibits TNF-α-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via ERK/NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xia; Li, Xiaonan; Liu, Fuli; Tan, Hui; Shang, Deya

    2012-08-24

    In the present study, we investigated whether omentin affected the expression of intracellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) in tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Our data showed that omentin decreased TNF-α-induced expression of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in HUVECs. In addition, omentin inhibited TNF-α-induced adhesion of THP-1 cells to HUVECs. Further, we found that omentin inhibited TNF-α-activated signal pathway of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by preventing NF-κB inhibitory protein (IκBα) degradation and NF-κB/DNA binding activity. Omentin pretreatment significantly inhibited TNF-α-induced ERK activity and ERK phosphorylation in HUVECs. Pretreatment with PD98059 suppressed TNF-α-induced NF-κB activity. Omentin, NF-kB inhibitor (BAY11-7082) and ERK inhibitor (PD98059) reduced the up-regulation of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 induced by TNF-α. These results suggest that omentin may inhibit TNF-α-induced expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells via blocking ERK/NF-κB pathway.

  5. Human endothelial progenitor cells isolated from COPD patients are dysfunctional.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoran; Xie, Canmao

    2012-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with moderate-to-severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). More than 44% of these patients present with generalized atherosclerosis at autopsy. It is accepted that endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) participate in the repair of dysfunctional endothelium and thus protects against atherosclerosis. However, whether COPD affects the repairing capacity of EPCs is unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether and how EPCs are involved in the vascular repair process in patients with COPD. In our study, EPCs from 25 COPD and 16 control patients were isolated by Ficoll density-gradient centrifugation and identified using fluorescence activated cell sorting. Transwell Migratory Assay was performed to determine the number of EPC colony-forming units and the adherent capacity late-EPCs to human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Following arterial damage in NOD/SCID mice, the number of EPCs incorporated at the injured vascular site was determined using a fluorescence microscope. We found that the number of EPC clusters and cell migration, as well as the expression of CXCR4, was significantly decreased in patients with COPD. Additionally, the number of late-EPCs adherent to HUVEC tubules was significantly reduced, and fewer VEGFR2(+)-staining cells were incorporated into the injured site in COPD patients. Our study demonstrates that EPC capacity of repair was affected in COPD patients, which may contribute to altered vascular endothelium in this patient population.

  6. Evidence of endothelial cell migration after descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty.

    PubMed

    Jacobi, Christina; Zhivov, Andrey; Korbmacher, Judit; Falke, Karen; Guthoff, Rudolf; Schlötzer-Schrehardt, Ursula; Cursiefen, Claus; Kruse, Friedrich E

    2011-10-01

    To investigate the hypothesis that adult corneal endothelial cells can migrate after Descemet membrane endothelial keratoplasty (DMEK). Prospective observational study. Five patients with Fuchs endothelial dystrophy were examined 1 year after uneventful DMEK. These patients had been selected on the basis of slightly decentered grafts and/or large descemetorrhexis showing areas of denuded corneal stroma, which were covered by neither the patients' Descemet membrane (DM) nor the graft. These areas were investigated by in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy using a specially designed Heidelberg Retina Tomograph II and Rostock cornea module equipped with custom-made software. Source data (frame rate 30 Hz, 384 × 384 pixels, 400 × 400 μm) were used to create large-scale maps of the scanned area in automatic real-time composite mode. In each case an on-line mapping with maximum size up to 3.2 × 3.2 mm (3072 × 3072 pixels) was performed. Corneal stroma overlying areas devoid of DM was transparent. In vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy of stroma devoid of DM revealed a monolayer of endothelial cells in all patients observed. The morphologic pattern of these cells was similar to that of endothelial cells on DM grafts but different from the morphology of the patients' own endothelium, suggesting migration of donor endothelial cells from DMEK grafts. The results strongly support the hypothesis that adult corneal endothelial cells are able to migrate in the human eye. Furthermore, we provide evidence to support the hypothesis that grafted endothelium migrates onto the host tissue, repopulating the corneal stroma with a regular endothelial phenotype. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein decreases VEGFR2 expression in HUVECs and impairs angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Min; Jiang, Li

    2016-12-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS), which is triggered by endothelial cell injury, evolves into a chronic inflammatory disease. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is an important risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis; ox-LDL induces atherosclerotic plaque formation via scavenging receptors. The present study used ox-LDL-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the effect of ox-LDL on angiogenesis. ox-LDL decreased HUVEC proliferation by MTT, induced apoptosis by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) staining and markedly suppressed HUVEC tube formation by the Matrigel assay in a dose-dependent manner. Angiogenesis has been correlated with monocyte invasion, plaque instability and atherosclerotic lesion formation. In addition, ox-LDL induced the overproduction of reactive oxygen species using DCFH-DA staining and increased caspase-3 activity. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis and has previously been observed to have a key role in angiogenesis. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that the abundance of VEGFR2 was decreased in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs. These results suggested that ox-LDL impairs angiogenesis via VEGFR2 degradation, thus suggesting that VEGFR2 may be involved in adaptation to oxidative stress and AS.

  8. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein decreases VEGFR2 expression in HUVECs and impairs angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Min; Jiang, Li

    2016-01-01

    Atherosclerosis (AS), which is triggered by endothelial cell injury, evolves into a chronic inflammatory disease. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) is an important risk factor for the development of atherosclerosis; ox-LDL induces atherosclerotic plaque formation via scavenging receptors. The present study used ox-LDL-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to investigate the effect of ox-LDL on angiogenesis. ox-LDL decreased HUVEC proliferation by MTT, induced apoptosis by Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) staining and markedly suppressed HUVEC tube formation by the Matrigel assay in a dose-dependent manner. Angiogenesis has been correlated with monocyte invasion, plaque instability and atherosclerotic lesion formation. In addition, ox-LDL induced the overproduction of reactive oxygen species using DCFH-DA staining and increased caspase-3 activity. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) were detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis and has previously been observed to have a key role in angiogenesis. Furthermore, the present study demonstrated that the abundance of VEGFR2 was decreased in ox-LDL-treated HUVECs. These results suggested that ox-LDL impairs angiogenesis via VEGFR2 degradation, thus suggesting that VEGFR2 may be involved in adaptation to oxidative stress and AS. PMID:28105106

  9. Dehydroepiandrosterone inhibits the TNF-alpha-induced inflammatory response in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Gisela; Mendoza, Criselda; Zapata, Estrella; Montiel, Angélica; Reyes, Elba; Montaño, Luis Felipe; López-Marure, Rebeca

    2007-01-01

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has a protective role against atherosclerosis. We determined the effect of pharmacological doses of DHEA upon the adhesion of monocytic U937 cells to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), as well as the expression of adhesion and chemoattractant molecules, the translocation of NF-kappaB, the degradation of IkappaB-alpha and the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in HUVEC. Adhesion of U937 cells to DHEA-treated HUVEC was evaluated by co-culture experiments using [(3)H]-thymidine-labeled U937 cells. The expression of adhesion and chemoattractant molecules was evaluated by flow cytometry and RT-PCR, respectively; NF-kappaB translocation was determined by Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay (EMSA) and IkappaB-alpha degradation by Western blot. ROS production was determined by the reduction of fluorescent DCFDA. TNF-alpha was used to induce inflammatory responses in HUVEC. One hundred micromolar of DHEA-treatment inhibited the TNF-alpha-induced expression of ICAM-1, E-selectin, ROS production and U937 cells adhesion to HUVEC, and interfered with NF-kappaB translocation and IkappaB-alpha degradation. DHEA at the above mention concentration also inhibited the mRNA expression of MCP-1 and IL-8 in basal conditions but not in TNF-alpha-stimulated conditions. Our results suggest that DHEA inhibits the expression of molecules involved in the inflammatory process, therefore it could be used as an alternative in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis.

  10. 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(E)-propenylbenzofuran promotes endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ladurner, Angela; Atanasov, Atanas G; Heiss, Elke H; Baumgartner, Lisa; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M

    2012-09-15

    Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) mediates important vaso-protective and immunomodulatory effects. Aim of this study was to examine whether lignan derivatives isolated from the roots of the anti-inflammatory medicinal plant Krameria lappacea influence eNOS activity and endothelial nitric oxide (NO) release. The study was performed using cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and HUVEC-derived EA.hy926 cells. Among the eleven isolated compounds only 2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-(E)-propenylbenzofuran (DPPB) was able to increase eNOS enzyme activity. DPPB (1-10 μM) treatment for 24 h induced a significant and dose-dependent increase in eNOS activity as determined by the [(14)C]L-arginine/[(14)C]L-citrulline conversion assay. Immunoblotting studies further revealed a time-dependent DPPB-induced increase in eNOS-Ser(1177) and decrease in eNOS-Thr(495) phosphorylation, as well as increased AMPK phosphorylation at Thr(172), whereas Akt phosphorylation at Ser(473) was not affected. Si-RNA-mediated knockdown of AMPK and inhibition of CaMKKβ by STO 609, as well as intracellular Ca(2+) chelation by Bapta AM abolished the stimulating effect of DPPB on eNOS-Ser(1177) and AMPK-Thr(172) phosphorylation. Furthermore, we could show that DPPB increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations assessed with the fluorescent dye Fluo-3-AM. DPPB enhances eNOS activity and endothelial NO release by raising intracellular Ca(2+) levels and increases signaling through a CaMKKβ-AMPK dependent pathway.

  11. Human umbilical vein endothelial cell interaction with phospholipid polymer nanofibers coated by micro-patterned diamond-like carbon (DLC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Soki; Hasebe, Terumitsu; Suzuki, Tetsuya; Hotta, Atsushi

    2013-03-01

    Blood-contacting medical devices should possess the surface properties with the following two important characteristics: The first is the anti-thrombogenicity of the material surface and the second is the re-endothelialization over the device surface after long-term implantation, because endothelial cells have excellent anticoagulant properties in blood vessels. To develop highly hemocompatible materials that could promote surface endothelialization, we investigated biocompatible polymers coated with thin diamond-like carbon (DLC) film. In this research, we examined the viability of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) for hydrophilic 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) fibers with DLC coatings, both of which were known to be anti-thrombogenic. DLC was synthesized on MPC by varying the ratio of covered area by patterned DLC. HUVECs were seeded on DLC-coated MPC for 6 days. The results indicated that the MPC surface with DLC did not disturb HUVEC proliferation in 6 days of culture. Additionally, we are currently making strong efforts to fabricate MPC fibers with bFGF which is an important growth factor involved in cell proliferation. MPC containing bFGF with DLC coatings could be extensively utilized for blood-contacting medical devices.

  12. Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide ameliorates anoxia/reoxygenation-mediated oxidative stress and apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Song; Li, Wen-Juan; Zhang, Xian-Yi; Yan, Yu-Xin; Nie, Shao-Ping; Gong, De-Ming; Tang, Xiao-Fang; He, Ming; Xie, Ming-Yong

    2017-05-01

    Ganoderma atrum polysaccharide (PSG-1), a main polysaccharide from Ganoderma atrum, possesses potent antioxidant capacity and cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of PSG-1 in oxidative stress and apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) under anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury conditions. The results showed that exposure of HUVECs to A/R triggered cell death and apoptosis. Administration of PSG-1 significantly inhibited A/R-induced cell death and apoptosis in HUVECs. PSG-1-reduced A/R injury was mediated via mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, as evidenced by elevation of mitochondrial Bcl-2 protein and mitochondrial membrane potential, and attenuation of Bax translocation, cytochrome c release and caspases activation. Furthermore, PSG-1 enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione content, and concomitantly attenuated reactive oxygen species generation, lipid peroxidation and glutathione disulfide content. The antioxidant, N-acetyl-l-cysteine, significantly ameliorated all of these endothelial injuries caused by A/R, suggesting that antioxidant activities might play a key role in PSG-1-induced endothelial protection. Taken together, these findings suggested that PSG-1 could be as a promising adjuvant against endothelial dysfunction through ameliorating oxidative stress and apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of shear stress cultivation on cell membrane disruption and intracellular calcium concentration in sonoporation of endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Juyoung; Fan, Zhenzhen; Deng, Cheri X

    2011-01-04

    Microbubble facilitated ultrasound (US) application can enhance intracellular delivery of drugs and genes in endothelial cells cultured in static condition by transiently disrupting the cell membrane, or sonoporation. However, endothelial cells in vivo that are constantly exposed to blood flow may exhibit different sonoporation characteristics. This study investigates the effects of shear stress cultivation on sonoporation of endothelial cells in terms of membrane disruption and changes in the intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)). Sonoporation experiments were conducted using murine brain microvascular endothelial (bEnd.3) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) cultured under static or shear stress (5 dyne/cm(2) for 5 days) condition in a microchannel environment. The cells were exposed to a short US tone burst (1.25 MHz, 8 μs duration, 0.24 MPa) in the presence of Definity™ microbubbles to facilitate sonoporation. Membrane disruption was assessed by propidium iodide (PI) and changes in [Ca(2+)](i) measured by fura-2AM. Results from this study show that shear stress cultivation significantly reduced the impact of ultrasound-driven microbubbles activities on endothelial cells. Cells cultured under shear stress condition exhibited much lower percentage with membrane disruption and changes in [Ca(2+)](i) compared to statically cultured cells. The maximum increases of PI uptake and [Ca(2+)](i) were also significantly lower in the shear stress cultured cells. In addition, the extent of [Ca(2+)](i) waves in shear cultured HUVECs was reduced compared to the statically cultured cells. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A standardized bamboo leaf extract inhibits monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells by modulating vascular cell adhesion protein-1

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sunga; Park, Myoung Soo; Lee, Yu Ran; Lee, Young Chul; Kim, Tae Woo; Do, Seon-Gil; Kim, Dong Seon

    2013-01-01

    Bamboo leaves (Phyllostachys pubescens Mazel ex J. Houz (Poacea)) have a long history of food and medical applications in Asia, including Japan and Korea. They have been used as a traditional medicine for centuries. We investigated the mechanism of anti-inflammatory activity of a bamboo leaf extract (BLE) on tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α)-induced monocyte adhesion in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Exposure of HUVECs to BLE did not inhibit cell viability or cause morphological changes at concentrations ranging from 1 µg/ml to 1 mg/ml. Treatment with 0.1 mg/ml BLE caused 63% inhibition of monocyte adhesion in TNF-α-activated HUVECs, which was associated with 38.4% suppression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 expression. Furthermore, TNF-α-induced reactive oxygen species generation was decreased to 47.9% in BLE treated TNF-α-activated HUVECs. BLE (0.05 mg/ml) also caused about 50% inhibition of interleukin-6 secretion from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated monocyte. The results indicate that BLE may be clinically useful as an anti-inflammatory or anti-oxidant for human cardiovascular disease including atherosclerosis. PMID:23422838

  15. Zoledronate induces autophagic cell death in human umbilical vein endothelial cells via Beclin-1 dependent pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yong; Wang, Zhiyong; Han, Wei; Li, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Zoledronate has been reported to exhibit pro-apoptotic and anti-angiogenic effects in endothelial cells, which partially contributes to bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis of the jaw (BP-ONJ). Zoledronate can also induce autophagic cell death. The present study hypothesized that Zoledronate may activate autophagy to exert pro-apoptotic effects in endothelial cells and aimed to investigate the effect of Zoledronate on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and explore the underlying mechanisms. The current study demonstrated that Zoledronate induced autophagy in HUVECs in a dose-dependent manner, as demonstrated by increased levels of microtubule-associated proteins 1A/1B light chain 3B-II (LC3B-II) and Beclin-1, and decreased levels of sequestome 1 (SQSTM1). In addition, treatment with chloroquine further increased LC3B-II and increased SQSTM1 levels, indicating that Zoledronate induces autophagy by increasing autophagic activity. Flow cytometry and Hoechst 33258 staining revealed that inhibition of autophagy with 3-methyladenine markedly attenuated Zoledronate-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, genetic knockdown of Beclin-1 significantly inhibited autophagy and apoptosis induced by Zoledronate. The present study therefore demonstrated that Zoledronate may promote Beclin-1-mediated autophagy to induce endothelial cell apoptosis, and suggests that blocking autophagy may represent a novel approach for the prevention of BP-ONJ in patients receiving Zoledronate. PMID:27748838

  16. Curcumin attenuates endothelial cell oxidative stress injury through Notch signaling inhibition.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Duan, Weixun; Liang, Zhenxin; Yi, Wei; Yan, Juanjuan; Wang, Ning; Li, Yue; Chen, Wensheng; Yu, Shiqiang; Jin, Zhenxiao; Yi, Dinghua

    2013-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that Notch signaling pathway plays a regulatory role in cellular oxidative stress injury (OSI). In this study, our aim was to explore the role of the Notch signaling pathway in hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced OSI and the protective effect of curcumin during (H(2)O(2))-induced injury in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). DAPT, a specific inhibitor of the Notch signaling pathway, and Notch1 siRNA were used to study Notch activity. Further, HUVECs were exposed to H(2)O(2) in the absence or presence of curcumin. DAPT and Notch1 siRNA significantly inhibited OSI and the expression of Notch1 and Hes1. Curcumin conferred a protective effect on the HUVECs against H(2)O(2), which was evidenced by improved cell viability, adhesive ability and migratory ability and a decreased apoptotic index, decreased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a reduction in several biochemical parameters. Immunofluorescence and Western blotting analyses demonstrated that H(2)O(2) treatment upregulated the expression of Notch1, Hes1, Caspase3, Bax and cytochrome c downregulated the expression of Bcl2, and treatment with curcumin reversed these effects. We demonstrated for the first time that the inhibition of Notch signaling pathway imparts a protective effect against endothelial OSI. The protective effects of curcumin against OSI are at least in part dependent on Notch1 inhibition.

  17. Selective Suppression of Endothelial Cell Apoptosis by the High Molecular Weight Form of Adiponectin

    PubMed Central

    Kobayashi, Hideki; Ouchi, Noriyuki; Kihara, Shinji; Walsh, Kenneth; Kumada, Masahiro; Abe, Yuki; Funahashi, Tohru; Matsuzawa, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Adiponectin is an adipocyte-derived, antiatherogenic protein that is present in serum as three isoforms. Total adiponectin levels are decreased in obese or diabetic humans or animal models. This study was designed to elucidate the relative isoform distribution of adiponectin in human disease states and identify the active form of adiponectin toward vascular endothelial cells. The percentage of high molecular weight form (HMW) per total adiponectin was significantly lower in patients with coronary artery disease than control subjects, whereas the hexamer form was similar and the trimer form was significantly higher. During weight reduction in obese subjects, the HMW form increased and the trimer and hexamer forms decreased. Recombinant adiponectin dose-dependently suppressed apoptosis and caspase-3 activity in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Transduction with dominant-negative AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) abolished the suppressive effect of adiponectin on HUVECs. Gel filtration chromatography was used to separate the adiponectin isoforms, and the antiapoptotic effect toward HUVECs was only observed with the HMW form. These data suggest that HMW adiponectin specifically confers the vascular-protective activities of this adipocytokine. PMID:14752031

  18. Effect of Brazilian propolis on human umbilical vein endothelial cell apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Hongzhuan; Zhao, Jing; Miao, Junying; Li, Yajing; Chu, Yafang; Hu, Fuliang

    2011-01-01

    Brazilian propolis has been widely studied in recent years. Considering the lack of data concerning the effects of Brazilian propolis on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), we examined the effects of ethanol-extracted Brazilian propolis (EEBP) at 12.5, 25 and 50 μg/ml on apoptosis of HUVECs deprived of basic fibroblast growth factor (FGF-2) and serum. A high concentration of the extract induced HUVEC apoptosis at 24h. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of HUVEC apoptosis induced by EEBP by testing the levels of integrin β4, p53, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential. A low concentration of EEBP (12.5 μg/ml) could decrease the expression of integrin β4, p53 and ROS levels, whereas high concentrations (25 and 50 μg/ml) could increase the levels of integrin β4, p53 and ROS at 24h and depress mitochondrial membrane potential level at all times. Considering the doses and the results obtained in this study, Brazilian propolis at high concentrations may be an apoptosis-inducing agent associated with the signal pathway mediated by integrin β4, p53, ROS and mitochondrial membrane potential, thus, propolis should be used in safer levels for human health. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sulforaphane reduces advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-induced inflammation in endothelial cells and rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Matsui, T; Nakamura, N; Ojima, A; Nishino, Y; Yamagishi, S-I

    2016-09-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs)-receptor RAGE interaction evokes oxidative stress and inflammatory reactions, thereby being involved in endothelial cell (EC) damage in diabetes. Sulforaphane is generated from glucoraphanin, a naturally occurring isothiocyanate found in widely consumed cruciferous vegetables, by myrosinase. Sulforaphane has been reported to protect against oxidative stress-mediated cell and tissue injury. However, effects of sulforaphane on AGEs-induced vascular damage remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether and how sulforaphane could inhibit inflammation in AGEs-exposed human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) and AGEs-injected rat aorta. Sulforaphane treatment for 4 or 24 h dose-dependently inhibited the AGEs-induced increase in RAGE, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecular-1 (VCAM-1) gene expression in HUVECs. AGEs significantly stimulated MCP-1 production by, and THP-1 cell adhesion to, HUVECs, both of which were prevented by 1.6 μM sulforaphane. Sulforaphane significantly suppressed oxidative stress generation and NADPH oxidase activation evoked by AGEs in HUVECs. Furthermore, aortic RAGE, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression in AGEs-injected rats were increased, which were suppressed by simultaneous infusion of sulforaphane. The present study demonstrated for the first time that sulforaphane could inhibit inflammation in AGEs-exposed HUVECs and AGEs-infused rat aorta partly by suppressing RAGE expression through its anti-oxidative properties. Inhibition of the AGEs-RAGE axis by sulforaphane might be a novel therapeutic target for vascular injury in diabetes. Copyright © 2016 The Italian Society of Diabetology, the Italian Society for the Study of Atherosclerosis, the Italian Society of Human Nutrition, and the Department of Clinical Medicine and Surgery, Federico II University. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Selenite protects human endothelial cells from oxidative damage and induces thioredoxin reductase.

    PubMed

    Miller, S; Walker, S W; Arthur, J R; Nicol, F; Pickard, K; Lewin, M H; Howie, A F; Beckett, G J

    2001-05-01

    The ability of selenium to protect cultured human coronary artery endothelial cells (HCAEC), human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) and bovine aortic endothelial cells (BAEC) from oxidative damage induced by 100 microM t-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BuOOH) was compared. Preincubation of human endothelial cells for 24 h with sodium selenite at concentrations as low as 5 nM provided significant protection against the harmful effects of 100 microM t-BuOOH, with complete protection being achieved with 40 nM selenite. The preincubation period was required for selenite to exert this protective effect on endothelial cells. When compared with selenium-deficient cells, the activities of cytoplasmic glutathione peroxidase (GPX-1), phospholipid hydroperoxide glutathione peroxidase (GPX-4) and thioredoxin reductase (TR) were each induced approx. 3--4-fold by 40 nM selenite. HCAEC and HUVEC showed great similarity in their relative abilities to resist oxidative damage in the presence and absence of selenite, and the activities of TR and the GPXs were also similar in these cell types. BAEC were more susceptible to damage by 100 microM t-BuOOH than were human endothelial cells, and could not be protected completely by incubation with selenite at concentrations up to 160 nM. The activity of TR in human endothelial cells was approx. 25-fold greater than that in BAEC of a similar selenium status, but GPX-1 and GPX-4 activities were not significantly different between the human and bovine cells. These studies, although performed with a small number of cultures, show for the first time that selenium at low doses can provide significant protection of the human coronary artery endothelium against damage by oxidative stress. TR may be an important antioxidant selenoprotein in this regard, in addition to the GPXs. The data also suggest that HUVEC, but not BAEC, represent a suitable model system in which to study the effects of selenium on the endothelium of human coronary arteries.

  1. Sandwiched polymer fibre in fibrin matrices for the dictation of endothelial cells undergoing angiogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukmana, I.; Djuansjah, J. R. P.

    2013-04-01

    We present here a three-dimensional (3D) sandwich system made by poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibre and fibrin extracellular matrix (ECM) for endothelial cell dictation and angiogenesis guidance. In this three-dimensional system, Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial cells (HUVECs) were firstly cultured for 2 (two) days to cover the PET fibre before sandwiched in two layer fibrin gel containing HUVECs. After 4 (four) days of culture, cel-to-cel connection, tube-like structure and multi-cellular lumen formation were then assessed and validated. Phase contrast and fluorescence imaging using an inverted microscope were used to determine cell-to-cell and cell-ECM interactions. Laser scanning confocal microscopy and histological techniques were used to confirm the development of tube-like structure and multi-cellular lumen formation. This study shows that polymer fibres sandwiched in fibrin gel can be used to dictate endothelial cells undergoing angiogenesis with potential application in cancer and cardiovascular study and tissue engineering vascularisation.

  2. Gold Nanoparticles Inhibit VEGF165-Induced Migration and Tube Formation of Endothelial Cells via the Akt Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Yunlong; Wu, Qing; Qin, Li; Cai, Jiye; Du, Bin

    2014-01-01

    The early stages of angiogenesis can be divided into three steps: endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered the most important proangiogenic factor; in particular, VEGF165 plays a critical role in angiogenesis. Here, we evaluated whether gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) could inhibit the VEGF165-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) migration and tube formation. AuNPs and VEGF165 were coincubated overnight at 4°C, after which the effects on cell migration and tube formation were assessed. Cell migration was assessed using a modified wound-healing assay and a transwell chamber assay; tube formation was assessed using a capillary-like tube formation assay and a chick chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. We additionally detected the cell surface morphology and ultrastructure using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Furthermore, Akt phosphorylation downstream of VEGFR-2/PI3K in HUVECs was determined in a Western blot analysis. Our study demonstrated that AuNPs significantly inhibited VEGF165-induced HUVEC migration and tube formation by affecting the cell surface ultrastructure, cytoskeleton and might have inhibited angiogenesis via the Akt pathway. PMID:24987682

  3. Effect of Zanthoxylum schinifolium on TNF-alpha-induced vascular inflammation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Li Hua; Lee, Yun Jung; Kang, Dae Gill; Kim, Jin Sook; Lee, Ho Sub

    2009-01-01

    Pro-inflammatory cytokines induce the injury of endothelial cells in response to increases of adhesion molecules, leading to vascular inflammation and the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we evaluated an ethanol extract of Zanthoxylum schinifolium (EZS) to determine if it inhibits the expressions of cellular adhesion molecules in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). When pretreatment of HUVEC with EZS, EZS suppressed the expression levels of cell adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-), and E-selectin induced by TNF-alpha. The adhesion of HL-60 cells to TNF-alpha-induced endothelial cells was decreased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, TNF-alpha-induced MCP-1 and IL-8 mRNA expression levels were also attenuated by pretreatment with EZS. In addition, EZS suppressed TNF-alpha-induced production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). EZS inhibited NF-kappaB activation and IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation induced by TNF-alpha, subsequent degradation of IkappaB-alpha. Finally, EZS inhibited TNF-alpha-induced p38 MAPK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Taken together, these results demonstrate that EZS suppresses vascular inflammatory process, which may be closely related to the inhibition of ROS, JNK, p38 MAPK and NF-kappaB activation in HUVEC.

  4. Engineered microvasculature in PDMS networks using endothelial cells derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sivarapatna, Amogh; Ghaedi, Mahboobe; Xiao, Yang; Han, Edward; Aryal, Binod; Zhou, Jing; Fernandez-Hernando, Carlos; Qyang, Yibing; Hirschi, Karen K; Niklason, Laura E

    2017-03-09

    In this study, we used a PDMS-based platform for the generation of intact, perfusioncompetent microvessel networks in vitro. COMSOL Multiphysics, a finite element analysis and simulation software package, was used to obtain simulated velocity, pressure, and shear stress profiles. Transgene-free human iPSCs were differentiated into partially arterialized endothelial cells (hiPSC-ECs) in 5 days under completely chemically defined conditions, using the small molecule GSK3β inhibitor CHIR99021 and thoroughly characterized for functionality and arteriallike marker expression. These cells, along with primary human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), were seeded in the PDMS system to generate microvascular networks that were subjected to shear stress. Engineered microvessels had patent lumens and expressed VE-cadherin along their periphery. Shear stress caused by flowing medium increased the secretion of nitric oxide (NO), caused ECs to align and to re-distribute actin filaments parallel to the direction of the laminar flow. Shear stress also caused significant increases in gene expression for arterial markers Notch1 and EphrinB2, as well as anti-thrombotic markers KLF-2/KLF-4. These changes in response to shear stress in the microvascular platform were observed in hiPSC-EC microvessels, but not in microvessels that were derived from HUVECs, which indicated that hiPSC-ECs may be more plastic in modulating their phenotype under flow than are HUVECs. Taken together, we demonstrate the feasibly of generating intact, engineered microvessels in vitro, which replicate some of the key biological features of native microvessels.

  5. Endothelial cell micropatterning: Methods, effects, and applications

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Deirdre E.J.; Hinds, Monica T.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of flow on endothelial cells have been widely examined for the ability of fluid shear stress to alter cell morphology and function; however, the effects of endothelial cell morphology without flow have only recently been observed. An increase in lithographic techniques in cell culture spurred a corresponding increase in research aiming to confine cell morphology. These studies lead to a better understanding of how morphology and cytoskeletal configuration affect the structure and function of the cells. This review examines endothelial cell micropatterning research by exploring both the many alternative methods used to alter endothelial cell morphology and the resulting changes in cellular shape and phenotype. Micropatterning induced changes in endothelial cell proliferation, apoptosis, cytoskeletal organization, mechanical properties, and cell functionality. Finally, the ways these cellular manipulation techniques have been applied to biomedical engineering research, including angiogenesis, cell migration, and tissue engineering, is discussed. PMID:21761242

  6. Cultures and co-cultures of human blood mononuclear cells and endothelial cells for the biocompatibility assessment of surface modified AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel.

    PubMed

    Stio, Maria; Martinesi, Maria; Treves, Cristina; Borgioli, Francesca

    2016-12-01

    Samples of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel were subjected either to grinding and polishing procedure, or to grinding and then low temperature glow-discharge nitriding treatment, or to grinding, nitriding and subsequently coating with collagen-I. Nitrided samples, even if only ground, show a higher corrosion resistance in PBS solution, in comparison with ground and polished AISI 316L. Biocompatibility was evaluated in vitro by incubating the samples with either peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), tested separately or in co-culture. HUVEC-PBMC co-culture and co-incubation of HUVEC with PBMC culture medium, after the previous incubation of PBMC with metallic samples, allowed to determine whether the incubation of PBMC with the different samples might affect HUVEC behaviour. Many biological parameters were considered: cell proliferation, release of cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and sICAM-1, gelatinolytic activity of MMPs, and ICAM-1 protein expression. Nitriding treatment, with or without collagen coating of the samples, is able to ameliorate some of the biological parameters taken into account. The obtained results point out that biocompatibility may be successfully tested in vitro, using cultures of normal human cells, as blood and endothelial cells, but more than one cell line should be used, separately or in co-culture, and different parameters should be determined, in particular those correlated with inflammatory phenomena.

  7. Endothelial Cell Toxicity of Vancomycin Infusion Combined with Other Antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Drouet, Maryline; Chai, Feng; Barthélémy, Christine; Lebuffe, Gilles; Debaene, Bertrand; Décaudin, Bertrand; Odou, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    French guidelines recommend central intravenous (i.v.) infusion for high concentrations of vancomycin, but peripheral intravenous (p.i.v.) infusion is often preferred in intensive care units. Vancomycin infusion has been implicated in cases of phlebitis, with endothelial toxicity depending on the drug concentration and the duration of the infusion. Vancomycin is frequently infused in combination with other i.v. antibiotics through the same administrative Y site, but the local toxicity of such combinations has been poorly evaluated. Such an assessment could improve vancomycin infusion procedures in hospitals. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were challenged with clinical doses of vancomycin over 24 h with or without other i.v. antibiotics. Cell death was measured with the alamarBlue test. We observed an excess cellular death rate without any synergistic effect but dependent on the numbers of combined infusions when vancomycin and erythromycin or gentamicin were infused through the same Y site. Incompatibility between vancomycin and piperacillin-tazobactam was not observed in our study, and rinsing the cells between the two antibiotic infusions did not reduce endothelial toxicity. No endothelial toxicity of imipenem-cilastatin was observed when combined with vancomycin. p.i.v. vancomycin infusion in combination with other medications requires new recommendations to prevent phlebitis, including limiting coinfusion on the same line, reducing the infusion rate, and choosing an intermittent infusion method. Further studies need to be carried out to explore other drug combinations in long-term vancomycin p.i.v. therapy so as to gain insight into the mechanisms of drug incompatibility under multidrug infusion conditions.

  8. Progenitor endothelial cell involvement in Alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Budinger, Thomas F.

    2003-05-01

    There is compelling evidence that endothelial cells of the brain and periphery are dysfunctional in Alzheimer's Disease. There is evidence for a fundamental defect in, or abnormal aging of, endothelial progenitor cells in atherosclerosis. The possibility that endothelial cell defects are a primary cause for Alzheimer's Disease or other dementias can be researched by molecular and cell biology studies as well as cell trafficking studies using recently demonstrated molecular imaging methods. The evidence for abnormal endothelial function and the methods to explore this hypothesis are presented.

  9. Phagocytosis by macrophages and endothelial cells inhibits procoagulant and fibrinolytic activity of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rui; Gao, Chunyan; Li, Wen; Zhu, Jiuxin; Novakovic, Valerie; Wang, Jing; Ma, Ruishuang; Zhou, Jin; Gilbert, Gary E; Shi, Jialan

    2012-03-08

    The coagulopathy of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is mainly related to procoagulant substances and fibrinolytic activators of APL blasts, but the fate of these leukemic cells is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the removal of APL blasts by macrophages and endothelial cells in vitro and consequent procoagulant and fibrinolytic activity of APL cells. We found that human umbilical vein endothelial cells as well as THP-1 and monocyte-derived macrophages bound, engulfed, and subsequently degraded immortalized APL cell line NB4 and primary APL cells. Lactadherin promoted phagocytosis of APL cells in a time-dependent fashion. Furthermore, factor Xa and prothrombinase activity of phosphatidylserine-exposed target APL cells was time-dependently decreased after incubation with phagocytes (THP-1-derived macrophages or HUVECs). Thrombin production on target APL cells was reduced by 40%-45% after 2 hours of coincubation with phagocytes and 80% by a combination of lactadherin and phagocytes. Moreover, plasmin generation of target APL cells was inhibited 30% by 2 hours of phagocytosis and ∼ 50% by lactadherin-mediated engulfment. These results suggest that engulfment by macrophages and endothelial cells reduce procoagulant and fibrinolytic activity of APL blasts. Lactadherin and phagocytosis could cooperatively ameliorate the clotting disorders in APL.

  10. TRPV1 agonism inhibits endothelial cell inflammation via activation of eNOS/NO pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Youping; Cui, Lin; Xu, Hui; Liu, Suxiao; Zhu, Feiyun; Yan, Fengna; Shen, Si; Zhu, Mingjun

    2017-05-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1) is found to be expressed in endothelial cells (ECs) and activate endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Recent studies implicate TRPV1 in attenuating inflammatory responses. However, the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effects remain unclear. In this study, we investigated whether TRPV1 suppresses inflammatory responses of ECs via eNOS/NO pathway. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and renal microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) isolated from deoxycorticosterone (DOCA)-salt hypertensive mice were cultured in the presence of capsaicin (CAP, a specific TRPV1 agonist) with or without the specific inhibitor of TRPV1, NOS, or Ca(2+)-dependent phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, before lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulation. NO metabolites, protein expression, and inflammatory molecules were evaluated by Griess assay and immune assay-based multiplex analysis, respectively. Monocyte adhesion was determined by measuring the fluorescently labeled human monocytes attached to LPS-stimulated ECs. In HUVECs, treatment with CAP increased NO production, and CAP-induced NO production was accompanied by increased eNOS(ser1177) phosphorylation. Additionally, CAP attenuated LPS-induced cytokine and chemokine production, adhesion molecule expression, activation of NF-κB, and monocyte adhesion in HUVECs, and these effects were abrogated by the inhibition of TRPV1, NOS, or Ca(2+)-dependent PI3K/Akt pathway. Moreover, these protective actions of TRPV1 were also observed in renal MVECs isolated from DOCA-salt hypertensive mice. Our results indicate that TRPV1 activation suppresses the inflammatory response of ECs via the activation of Ca(2+)/PI3K/Akt/eNOS/NO pathway, the protective effects are also documented in ECs derived from salt-sensitive hypertensive mice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Differential Effects of Bartonella henselae on Human and Feline Macro- and Micro-Vascular Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Berrich, Moez; Kieda, Claudine; Grillon, Catherine; Monteil, Martine; Lamerant, Nathalie; Gavard, Julie; Boulouis, Henri Jean; Haddad, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, a zoonotic agent, induces tumors of endothelial cells (ECs), namely bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis in immunosuppressed humans but not in cats. In vitro studies on ECs represent to date the only way to explore the interactions between Bartonella henselae and vascular endothelium. However, no comparative study of the interactions between Bartonella henselae and human (incidental host) ECs vs feline (reservoir host) ECs has been carried out because of the absence of any available feline endothelial cell lines. To this purpose, we have developed nine feline EC lines which allowed comparing the effects of Bartonella strains on human and feline micro-vascular ECs representative of the infection development sites such as skin, versus macro-vascular ECs, such as umbilical vein. Our model revealed intrinsic differences between human (Human Skin Microvascular ECs –HSkMEC and Human Umbilical Vein ECs – iHUVEC) and feline ECs susceptibility to Bartonella henselae infection. While no effect was observed on the feline ECs upon Bartonella henselae infection, the human ones displayed accelerated angiogenesis and wound healing. Noticeable differences were demonstrated between human micro- and macro-vasculature derived ECs both in terms of pseudo-tube formation and healing. Interestingly, Bartonella henselae effects on human ECs were also elicited by soluble factors. Neither Bartonella henselae-infected Human Skin Microvascular ECs clinically involved in bacillary angiomatosis, nor feline ECs increased cAMP production, as opposed to HUVEC. Bartonella henselae could stimulate the activation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in homologous cellular systems and trigger VEGF production by HSkMECs only, but not iHUVEC or any feline ECs tested. These results may explain the decreased pathogenic potential of Bartonella henselae infection for cats as compared to humans and strongly suggest that an autocrine secretion of VEGF by human

  12. Differential effects of Bartonella henselae on human and feline macro- and micro-vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Berrich, Moez; Kieda, Claudine; Grillon, Catherine; Monteil, Martine; Lamerant, Nathalie; Gavard, Julie; Boulouis, Henri Jean; Haddad, Nadia

    2011-01-01

    Bartonella henselae, a zoonotic agent, induces tumors of endothelial cells (ECs), namely bacillary angiomatosis and peliosis in immunosuppressed humans but not in cats. In vitro studies on ECs represent to date the only way to explore the interactions between Bartonella henselae and vascular endothelium. However, no comparative study of the interactions between Bartonella henselae and human (incidental host) ECs vs feline (reservoir host) ECs has been carried out because of the absence of any available feline endothelial cell lines.To this purpose, we have developed nine feline EC lines which allowed comparing the effects of Bartonella strains on human and feline micro-vascular ECs representative of the infection development sites such as skin, versus macro-vascular ECs, such as umbilical vein.Our model revealed intrinsic differences between human (Human Skin Microvascular ECs -HSkMEC and Human Umbilical Vein ECs - iHUVEC) and feline ECs susceptibility to Bartonella henselae infection.While no effect was observed on the feline ECs upon Bartonella henselae infection, the human ones displayed accelerated angiogenesis and wound healing.Noticeable differences were demonstrated between human micro- and macro-vasculature derived ECs both in terms of pseudo-tube formation and healing. Interestingly, Bartonella henselae effects on human ECs were also elicited by soluble factors.Neither Bartonella henselae-infected Human Skin Microvascular ECs clinically involved in bacillary angiomatosis, nor feline ECs increased cAMP production, as opposed to HUVEC.Bartonella henselae could stimulate the activation of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in homologous cellular systems and trigger VEGF production by HSkMECs only, but not iHUVEC or any feline ECs tested.These results may explain the decreased pathogenic potential of Bartonella henselae infection for cats as compared to humans and strongly suggest that an autocrine secretion of VEGF by human skin

  13. Progesterone increases nitric oxide synthesis in human vascular endothelial cells through activation of membrane progesterone receptor-α.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yefei; Dong, Jing; Thomas, Peter

    2015-05-15

    Progesterone exerts beneficial effects on the human cardiovascular system by inducing rapid increases in nitric oxide (NO) production in vascular endothelial cells, but the receptors mediating these nongenomic progesterone actions remain unclear. Using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) as a model, we show that progesterone binds to plasma membranes of HUVECs with the characteristics of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs). The selective mPR agonist Org OD 02-0 had high binding affinity for the progesterone receptor on HUVEC membranes, whereas nuclear PR (nPR) agonists R5020 and medroxyprogesterone acetate displayed low binding affinities. Immunocytochemical and Western blot analyses confirmed that mPRs are expressed in HUVECs and are localized on their plasma membranes. NO levels increased rapidly after treatment with 20 nM progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and a progesterone-BSA conjugate but not with R5020, suggesting that this progesterone action is at the cell surface and initiated through mPRs. Progesterone and Org OD 02-0 (20 nM) also significantly increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and eNOS phosphorylation. Knockdown of mPRα expression by treatment with small-interfering RNA (siRNA) blocked the stimulatory effects of 20 nM progesterone on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation, whereas knockdown of nPR was ineffective. Treatment with PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase inhibitors blocked the stimulatory effects of progesterone, Org OD 02-0, and progesterone-BSA on NO production and eNOS phosphorylation and also prevented progesterone- and Org OD 02-0-induced increases in Akt and ERK phosphorylation. The results suggest that progesterone stimulation of NO production in HUVECs is mediated by mPRα and involves signaling through PI3K/Akt and MAP kinase pathways.

  14. NOR-1 is involved in VEGF-induced endothelial cell growth.

    PubMed

    Rius, Jordi; Martínez-González, José; Crespo, Javier; Badimon, Lina

    2006-02-01

    Neuron-derived orphan receptor-1 (NOR-1) is a transcription factor over-expressed in human atherosclerotic plaques that is involved in vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation. The aim of this study was to analyze whether NOR-1 plays a role in vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) induced endothelial cell growth. VEGF induced an early and transient up-regulation of NOR-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). NOR-1 up-regulation by VEGF is processed through VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) and involves different signaling pathways including increase in cytosolic Ca(2+), activation of protein kinase C and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways (both extracellular-signaling regulated kinase [ERK] and p38 MAPK). VEGF induced CREB activation (phosphorylation in Ser(133)). In transfection assays, a dominant-negative of CREB inhibited NOR-1 promoter activity, while mutation of the three CRE sites in the NOR-1 promoter abolished VEGF-induced NOR-1 promoter activity. Antisense oligonucleotides against NOR-1 inhibited VEGF-induced endothelial cell growth (reduced DNA synthesis, and inhibited cell cycle progression and endothelial cell wound repair after mechanical injury). These results indicate that NOR-1 could be a key transcription factor regulating endothelial cell growth induced by VEGF.

  15. Protectivity of blue honeysuckle extract against oxidative human endothelial cells and rat hepatocyte damage.

    PubMed

    Palíková, Irena; Valentová, Katerina; Oborná, Ivana; Ulrichová, Jitka

    2009-08-12

    The effect of Lonicera caerulea L. (blue honeysuckle) phenolic fraction (18.5% anthocyanins) on cell viability and against oxidative damage in low density lipoproteins (oxLDL), in rat microsomes and in primary cultures of rat hepatocytes and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), was tested. The phenolic fraction was nontoxic to rat hepatocytes and HUVEC at tested concentrations (1-1000 microg/mL) and time intervals up to 24 h inclusive. Phenolic fraction inhibited rat liver microsome peroxidation, induced by tert-butyl hydroperoxide (tBH), with IC(50) values of 160 +/- 20 microg/mL. The fraction at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 microg/mL delayed LDL oxidation, induced by Cu(2+), by 130 +/- 20%, 200 +/- 30%, and 400 +/- 10%, respectively. The treatment of HUVEC with oxidatively modified LDL induced an increase in lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) leakage and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) formation, and resulted in lower formazan formation from 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) uptake, most pronounced for 200 microg/mL (24 h oxidation) after 2 h of incubation. The protective effect of the phenolic fraction against cell damage caused by oxLDL was noted at 0.1 microg/mL for HUVEC and against tBH at 1000 microg/mL for both HUVEC and hepatocytes. The observed protective effects were probably due to the antioxidant properties of L. caerulea constituents, mainly anthocyanins. Microsome peroxidation and LDL oxidation inhibition results provide promising perspectives into the prevention of some oxidative stress-associated diseases. Other data are important in in vitro systems but seem to be accidental in vivo.

  16. Shiga toxin-associated hemolytic-uremic syndrome: combined cytotoxic effects of Shiga toxin, interleukin-1 beta, and tumor necrosis factor alpha on human vascular endothelial cells in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Louise, C B; Obrig, T G

    1991-01-01

    This study explores the relationship between Shiga toxin-producing Shigella or Escherichia coli strains and the development of vascular complications in humans following bacillary dysentery. We propose that endotoxin-elicited interleukin-1 or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) may combine with Shiga toxin to facilitate vascular damage characteristic of hemolytic-uremic syndrome. This study examines the cytotoxic effects of Shiga toxin, interleukin-1, and TNF on cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). Both Shiga toxin and TNF were cytotoxic to HUVEC, although HUVEC obtained from individual umbilical cords differed in their sensitivities to these agents. With Shiga toxin-sensitive HUVEC, combinations of TNF with Shiga toxin resulted in a synergistic cytotoxic effect. In contrast, interleukin-1 was not cytotoxic to HUVEC, nor did it enhance cell death in combination with Shiga toxin. The synergistic cytotoxic response of HUVEC to Shiga toxin and TNF was dose and time dependent for both agents and could be neutralized by monoclonal antibodies directed against either Shiga toxin or TNF. This synergistic response was delayed, being maximal on day 2. Preincubation (24 h) of HUVEC with TNF sensitized the cells to Shiga toxin. TNF alone had no effect on HUVEC protein synthesis but enhanced the inhibitory activity of Shiga toxin. These results are consistent with a role for Shiga toxin in the development of hemolytic-uremic syndrome at the level of the vascular endothelium in humans. PMID:1937774

  17. Fucoidan extract derived from Undaria pinnatifida inhibits angiogenesis by human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Jia; Chang, Alan K; Liu, Bing; Yang, Lili; Li, Qiaomei; Wang, Peisheng; Zou, Xiangyang

    2012-06-15

    In recent years, anti-angiogenic therapy has become an effective strategy for inhibiting tumor growth. Fucoidan is a class of fucose-enriched sulfated polysaccharides found in brown algae, and it is known to have strong anti-tumor property. Using a human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC)-based cell culture model, the present study investigated the anti-angiogenic activity of fucoidan extracted from the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida. Treatment of HUVECs with various concentrations of fucoidan resulted in significant inhibition of cell proliferation, cell migration, tube formation and vascular network formation. However, significant inhibition of cell proliferation only occurred with longer treatment time (48 h instead of 24h or less). About 40% of cell proliferation and cell migration and 61% of tube formation by HUVECs were inhibited by 400 μg/ml fucoidan, the maximum concentration tested. These results appeared to suggest that modulation of angiogenesis by fucoidan might not occur through growth inhibition and apoptosis. Ex vivo angiogenesis assay demonstrated that at 100 μg/ml, fucoidan caused significant reduction in microvessel outgrowth. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses indicated that at 400 μg/ml, fucoidan significantly reduced the expression of the angiogenesis factor VEGF-A in the suppression of angiogenesis activity. Our results showed that fucoidan isolated from U. pinnatifida may have a new therapeutic potential in the prevention angiogenesis-related diseases.

  18. A peptide derived from neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF) blocks neutrophil adherence to endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Madden, K; Janczak, J; McEnroe, G; Lim, D; Hartman, T; Liu, D; Stanton, L

    1997-06-01

    Peptides derived from neutrophil inhibitory factor (NIF), a known antagonist of Mac-1, were evaluated as inhibitors of neutrophil adherence. In vitro assays of adherence employed: 1) human polymorphonuclear cells (PMN), 2) human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), and 3) CHO cells expressing ICAM-1 (CHO-ICAM cells). Cells, pretreated with NIF-derived peptides (0.1-100 microM) for 10 minutes, were permitted to adhere for 20 min in the continued presence of peptide. Cell-based assays: 1) PMN adherence to HUVEC, 2) PMN adhesion to immobilized human serum proteins, and 3) adherence of CHO-ICAM cells to immobilized Mac-1. A NIF-derived peptide of 29 amino acids blocked PMN adherence to HUVEC, but behaved somewhat differently than the parent NIF protein. NIF specifically antagonized Mac-1 dependent adherence, but the peptide blocked neutrophil adherence that was dependent upon both Mac-1 and LFA-1 integrins. CHO-ICAM adherence to Mac-1 was blocked by NIF, but not by the peptide. Binding studies with NIF and the peptide indicate that the molecules bind to different sites. A peptide derived from NIF blocks PMN adherence but, unlike NIF, the mechanism of action is not mediated by direct antagonism Mac-1.

  19. Sanguis draconis, a dragon's blood resin, attenuates high glucose-induced oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yi; Chang, Ting-Chen; Lee, Jie-Jen; Chang, Nen-Chung; Huang, Yung-Kai; Choy, Cheuk-Sing; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia, a characteristic feature of diabetes mellitus, induces endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications by limiting the proliferative potential of these cells. Here we aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Sanguis draconis (SD), a kind of dragon's blood resin that is obtained from Daemonorops draco (Palmae), on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under high-glucose (HG) stimulation and its underlying mechanism. Concentration-dependent (0-50 μg/mL) assessment of cell viability showed that SD does not affect cell viability with a similar trend up to 48 h. Remarkably, SD (10-50 μg/mL) significantly attenuated the high-glucose (25 and 50 mM) induced cell toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. SD inhibited high glucose-induced nitrite (NO) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in HUVEC. Western blot analysis revealed that SD treatments abolished HG-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), nuclear transcription factor, κB (NF-κB), VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and it also blocked the breakdown of PARP-116 kDa protein in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that SD increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased Bax protein expression in HG-stimulated HUVEC. Thus, these results of this study demonstrate for the first time that SD inhibits glucose induced oxidative stress and vascular inflammation in HUVEC by inhibiting the ERK/NF-κB/PARP-1/Bax signaling cascade followed by suppressing the activation of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. These data suggest that SD may have a therapeutic potential in vascular inflammation due to the decreased levels of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and PARP-1 activation.

  20. Sanguis draconis, a Dragon's Blood Resin, Attenuates High Glucose-Induced Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction in Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Yi; Chang, Ting-Chen; Lee, Jie-Jen; Chang, Nen-Chung; Choy, Cheuk-Sing; Jayakumar, Thanasekaran

    2014-01-01

    Hyperglycaemia, a characteristic feature of diabetes mellitus, induces endothelial dysfunction and vascular complications by limiting the proliferative potential of these cells. Here we aimed to investigate the effect of an ethanolic extract of Sanguis draconis (SD), a kind of dragon's blood resin that is obtained from Daemonorops draco (Palmae), on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) under high-glucose (HG) stimulation and its underlying mechanism. Concentration-dependent (0–50 μg/mL) assessment of cell viability showed that SD does not affect cell viability with a similar trend up to 48 h. Remarkably, SD (10–50 μg/mL) significantly attenuated the high-glucose (25 and 50 mM) induced cell toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. SD inhibited high glucose-induced nitrite (NO) and lipid peroxidation (MDA) production and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in HUVEC. Western blot analysis revealed that SD treatments abolished HG-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2), nuclear transcription factor, κB (NF-κB), VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and it also blocked the breakdown of PARP-116 kDa protein in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we found that SD increased the expression of Bcl-2 and decreased Bax protein expression in HG-stimulated HUVEC. Thus, these results of this study demonstrate for the first time that SD inhibits glucose induced oxidative stress and vascular inflammation in HUVEC by inhibiting the ERK/NF-κB/PARP-1/Bax signaling cascade followed by suppressing the activation of VCAM-1 and E-selectin. These data suggest that SD may have a therapeutic potential in vascular inflammation due to the decreased levels of oxidative stress, apoptosis, and PARP-1 activation. PMID:24987732

  1. High molecular weight kininogen inhibition of endothelial cell function on biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Voskerician, G; Anderson, J M; Ziats, N P

    2000-07-01

    Synthetic vascular grafts implanted into humans fail to develop a complete endothelial lining. In previous studies, we have shown that high-molecular-weight kininogens (HMWK) adsorb to the surfaces of biomaterials. In addition, it has been demonstrated that these proteins modulate cellular function. In the present study, we report on the adhesion and proliferation of human umbilical-vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) on tissue culture polystyrene, glass, polyurethane, and Mylar(trade mark) surfaces coated with human HMWK, either single-chain HMWK (SC-HMWK) or double-chain HMWK (DC-HMWK). Surfaces coated with fibronectin served as a positive control for these experiments. Parallel experiments were performed in which HUVEC were allowed to migrate from crosslinked dextran microcarrier beads (Cytodex 2) onto HMWK-coated surfaces. Our results indicate that HMWK-coated surfaces inhibit endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration at 24 and 72 h, and this inhibition is concentration dependent. To determine a potential mechanism for this inhibitory phenomenon, cells were stained for cytoskeletal actin filaments using rhodamine-phalloidin. Endothelial cells on HMWK-coated surfaces displayed F-actin filament reorganization/disassembly, characterized by the absence of peripheral actin bands in focal adhesion contacts. We conclude that HMWK inhibit endothelial cell adhesion, proliferation, and migration on a variety of biomaterial surfaces. This inhibitory effect may play a role in promoting the lack of endothelialization in synthetic vascular grafts, which is thought to play a significant role in the failure of these devices. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  2. [Transplantation of corneal endothelial cells].

    PubMed

    Amano, Shiro

    2002-12-01

    Though conventional corneal transplantation has achieved great success, it still has several drawbacks including limited availability of donor corneas, recurrent allograft rejection, and subsequent graft failure in certain cases. Reconstructing clinically usable corneas by applying the technology of regenerative medicine can offer a solution to these problems, as well as making corneal transplantation a non-emergency surgery and enabling the usage of banked corneal cells. In the present study, we focused on corneal endothelium that is critical for corneal transparency and investigated the reconstruction of cornea utilizing cultured human corneal endothelial cells (HCECs). We succeeded in steadily culturing HCECs by using culture dishes pre-coated with extracellular matrix produced by calf corneal endothelial cells and culture media that contained basic fibroblast growth factor and fetal bovine serum. We performed the following analysis utilizing these cultured HCECs. The older the donor was, the more frequently large senescent cells appeared in the passaged HCECs. The telomeres of HCECs were measured as terminal restriction fragments (TRF) by Southern blotting. HCECs, in vivo from donors in their seventies had a long TRFs of over 12 kilobases. Passaging shortened the TRFs but there was no difference in TRFs among donors of various ages. These results indicated that shortening of telomere length is not related to senescence of HCECs. We investigated the role of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in the senescence of in vivo HCECs. The results indicated that AGE-protein in the aqueous humor is endocytosed into HCECs via AGE receptors expressed on the surface of HCECs and damages HCECs by producing reactive oxygen species and inducing apoptosis, suggesting that AGEs, at least partly, cause the senescence of HECEs. HCECs were cultured using adult human serum instead of bovine serum to get rid of bovine material that can be infected with prions. Primary and passage

  3. Advanced glycation end products induce endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition via downregulating Sirt 1 and upregulating TGF-β in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    He, Wei; Zhang, Jian; Gan, Tian-yi; Xu, Guo-jun; Tang, Bao-peng

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the advanced glycation end products- (AGEs-) induced endothelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EndMT) in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Results demonstrated that AGE-BSAs significantly reduced the cluster of differentiation 31 (CD 31) expression, whereas they promoted the expression of fibroblast-specific protein-1 (FSP-1), α-smooth muscle antibody (α-SMA), and collagen I at both mRNA and protein levels in HUVECs. And the AGE-BSAs also promoted the receptors for AGEs (RAGEs) and receptor I for TGF-β (TGFR I) markedly with a dose dependence, whereas the Sirt 1 was significantly downregulated by the AGE-BSA at both mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the Sirt 1 activity manipulation with its activator, resveratrol (RSV), or its inhibitor, EX527, markedly inhibited or ameliorated the AGE-mediated TGF-β upregulation. And the manipulated Sirt 1 activity positively regulated the AGE-induced CD31, whereas it negatively regulated the AGE-induced FSP-1. Thus, Sirt 1 was confirmed to regulate the AGE-induced EndMT via TGF-β. In summary, we found that AGE-BSA induced EndMT in HUVECs via upregulating TGF-β and downregulating Sirt 1, which also negatively regulated TGF-β in the cell. This study implied the EndMT probably as an important mechanism of AGE-induced cardiovascular injury.

  4. Protein-tyrosine-kinase-dependent expression of cyclo-oxygenase-1 and -2 mRNAs in human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, K; Takayama, H; Tomo, K; Okuma, M

    1997-01-01

    Endothelial cells possess constitutive or inducible cyclo-oxygenase (COX) isoenzymes for prostacyclin production, but the mechanisms for their expression are largely unknown. We found that vanadate, an inhibitor of protein-tyrosine phosphatases, induced the expression of two COX isoenzyme mRNAs in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Vanadate also stimulated an increase in COX-2 protein levels, but did not affect significantly the levels of constitutively expressed COX-1 protein. Synergistic enhancement of expression of the two COX isoenzyme mRNAs was observed on stimulation of HUVEC with vanadate plus interleukin-1alpha. Tyrphostin-47, which as an inhibitor of protein-tyrosine kinases abolished vanadate-induced protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, inhibited expression of the two COX isoenzyme mRNAs in HUVEC stimulated with vanadate or interleukin-1alpha. These data provide conclusive evidence that activation of protein-tyrosine kinases is causally linked to expression of the mRNAs for the two COX isoenzymes in HUVEC. PMID:9065752

  5. Circulating Endothelial Cells and Endothelial Progenitor Cells in Pediatric Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Asmaa Mohamad; Elsayh, Khalid Ibrahim; Mohamad, Ismail Lotfy; Hassan, Gamal Mohamad; Abdou, Madleen Adel A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the number of circulating endothelial cells (CECs) and circulating endothelial progenitor cells (CEPs) in pediatric patients with sepsis and correlating it with the severity of the disease and its outcome. The study included 19 children with sepsis, 26 with complicated sepsis, and 30 healthy controls. The patients were investigated within 48 hours of pediatric intensive care unit admission together with flow cytometric detection of CECs and CEPs. The levels of both CECs and CEPs were significantly higher in patient with sepsis and complicated sepsis than the controls. The levels of CECs were higher in patients with complicated sepsis, whereas the levels of CEPs were lower in patients with complicated sepsis. Comparing the survival and nonsurvival septic patients, the levels of CEPs were signific