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Sample records for endothelin a-receptor blockade

  1. Endothelin A-receptor blockade worsens endotoxin-induced hepatic microcirculatory changes and necrosis.

    PubMed

    Nishida, T; Huang, T P; Seiyama, A; Hamada, E; Kamiike, W; Ueshima, S; Kazuo, H; Matsuda, H

    1998-08-01

    Endothelin 1 is considered to be an important regulator of sinusoidal blood flow and increases during endotoxemia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of endothelin 1 in hepatic microcirculation, oxygen transport, and liver injury during endotoxemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were continuously infused with 2.5 mL/h of saline, 0.8 mg . kg-1 . h-1 of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), 3 mg . kg-1 . h-1 of BQ-485, an endothelin A-receptor antagonist, or LPS plus BQ-485 for 7 hours. BQ-485 infusion had no significant effect on hepatic microcirculation and liver injury. LPS increased the plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and total bilirubin and decreased the hepatic adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and bile flow rate. LPS + BQ-485 infusion further increased the plasma levels of AST and total bilirubin and decreased the bile flow rate and the hepatic ATP level. Dual-spot microspectroscopy revealed mild decreases in sinusoidal erythrocyte velocity and oxygen transport in the LPS group and profound decreases in these parameters in the LPS + BQ-485 group. Histological examinations revealed massive necrotic changes in the pericentral regions of the LPS + BQ-485 group. These results suggest that blockade of endothelin A receptors disturbs hepatic microcirculation and oxygen transport and aggravates the necrotic injury induced by endotoxin.

  2. Endothelin A-receptor blockade in experimental diabetes improves glucose balance and gastrointestinal function.

    PubMed

    Balsiger, Bruno; Rickenbacher, Andreas; Boden, Penelope Jane; Biecker, Erwin; Tsui, Janice; Dashwood, Michael; Reichen, Jürg; Shaw, Sidney George

    2002-08-01

    Secondary complications of diabetes mellitus often involve gastrointestinal dysfunction. In the experimental Goto Kakizaki rat, a model of Type II diabetes, hyperglycaemia and reduced glucose clearance is associated with elevated plasma endothelin (ET)-1 levels and selective decreases in nitric oxide synthase in circular muscle, longitudinal muscle and neuronal elements of the gastrointestinal tract. Functionally, this is accompanied by decreased nitrergic relaxatory responses of jejunal longitudinal muscle to tetrodotoxin-sensitive electrical field stimulation. Long-term treatment with a selective ET A-type receptor antagonist, markedly reduced hyperglycaemia and restored plasma glucose clearance rates towards normal. This was associated with a restoration of N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester-sensitive relaxatory responses of jejunal longitudinal muscle to electrical field stimulation. The results indicate that beneficial effects of ETA receptor blockade on gastrointestinal function may result from an improvement in insulin sensitivity with concomitant reduction of the severity of hyperglycaemia. ETA receptor blockade may represent a new therapeutic principle for improving glucose tolerance in Type II diabetes and could be beneficial in alleviating or preventing hyperglycaemia-related secondary complications in this condition.

  3. Late-onset endothelin-A receptor blockade reduces podocyte injury in homozygous Ren-2 rats despite severe hypertension.

    PubMed

    Opocenský, Martin; Kramer, Herbert J; Bäcker, Angela; Vernerová, Zdenka; Eis, Václav; Cervenka, Ludek; Certíková Chábová, Vera; Tesar, Vladimír; Vanecková, Ivana

    2006-11-01

    We have recently found in male homozygous hypertensive Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGRs) fed a high-salt diet that early onset selective endothelin (ET) A (ET(A)) or nonselective ET(A)/ET B (ET(B)) receptor blockade improved survival rate and reduced proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, and cardiac hypertrophy, whereas selective ET(A) receptor blockade also significantly attenuated the rise in blood pressure. Because antihypertensive therapy in general is known to be more efficient when started at early age, our study was performed to determine whether onset of ET receptor blockade at a later age in animals with established hypertension will have similar protective effects as does early-onset therapy. Male homozygous TGRs and age-matched normotensive Hannover Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a high-salt diet between days 51 and 90 of age. TGRs received vehicle (untreated), the selective ET(A) receptor blocker atrasentan (ABT-627), or the nonselective ET(A)/ET(B) receptor blocker bosentan. Survival rates in untreated and bosentan-treated TGRs were 50% and 64%, respectively, whereas with atrasentan, survival rate of TGR was 96%, thus, similar to 93% in Hannover Sprague-Dawley rats. From day 60 on, systolic blood pressure in atrasentan-treated TGRs was transiently lower (P<0.05) than in untreated or bosentan-treated TGRs. Glomerular podocyte injury was substantially reduced with atrasentan treatment independent of severe hypertension and strongly correlated with survival (P<0.001). Our data indicate that in homozygous TGR ET receptors play an important role also in established hypertension. Selective ET(A) receptor blockade not only reduces podocyte injury and end-organ damage but also improves growth and survival independently of hypertension.

  4. Up-Regulation of Endothelin Type A Receptor in Human and Rat Radiation Proctitis: Preclinical Therapeutic Approach With Endothelin Receptor Blockade

    SciTech Connect

    Jullien, Nicolash; Blirando, Karl; Milliat, Fabien; Benderitter, Marc; Francois, Agnes

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Rectum radiation damage and fibrosis are often associated with radiation therapy of pelvic tumors. The endothelin (ET) system has been implicated in several fibrotic diseases but never studied in the context of gastrointestinal radiation damage. This study assessed modifications in ET type 1 (ET-1), ET type A receptor (ET{sub A}), and ET type B receptor (ET{sub B}) localization and/or expression in irradiated human rectal tissue and in a rat model of delayed colorectal injury. We also evaluated the therapeutic potential of long-term ET receptor blockade. Methods and Materials: Routine histological studies of sections of healthy and radiation-injured human rectum tissue were done; the sections were also immunostained for ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} receptors. The rat model involved the delivery of 27 Gy in a single dose to the colons and rectums of the animals. The ET-1/ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} expression and ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} localization were studied at 10 weeks postexposure. The abilities of bosentan and atrasentan to protect against delayed rectal injury were also investigated. Results: The immunolocalization of ET{sub A} and ET{sub B} in healthy human rectums was similar to that in rat rectums. However, strong ET{sub A} immunostaining was seen in the presence of human radiation proctitis, and increased ET{sub A} mRNA levels were seen in the rat following colorectal irradiation. Immunostaining for ET{sub A} was also strongly positive in rats in areas of radiation-induced mucosal ulceration, atypia, and fibroproliferation. However, neither bosentan nor atrasentan prevented radiation damage to the rectum when given long term. The only effect seen for atrasentan was an increased number of sclerotic vessel sections in injured tissues. Conclusions: As the result of the overexpression of ET{sub A}, radiation exposure deregulates the endothelin system through an 'ET{sub A} profile' in the human and rodent rectum. However, therapeutic interventions involving mixed or

  5. Selective blockade of the endothelin subtype A receptor decreases early atherosclerosis in hamsters fed cholesterol.

    PubMed Central

    Kowala, M. C.; Rose, P. M.; Stein, P. D.; Goller, N.; Recce, R.; Beyer, S.; Valentine, M.; Barton, D.; Durham, S. K.

    1995-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that endothelin and its receptors may be involved in atherogenesis. To test this hypothesis, cholesterol-fed hamsters were treated with a selective endothelin subtype A (ETA) receptor antagonist BMS-182874. Characterization of hamster atherosclerotic plaques indicated that they contained a fibrous cap of smooth muscle cells, large macrophage-foam cells, and epitopes of oxidized low density lipoprotein. Messenger RNA for both ETA and ETB receptors was detected in aortic endothelial cells, in medial smooth muscle cells, and in macrophage-foam cells and smooth muscle cells of the fibro-fatty plaques. BMS-182874 inhibited the endothelin-1-induced pressor response whereas the depressor effect was unaltered, suggesting that vascular ETA receptors were selectively blocked in vivo. In hyperlipidemic hamsters, BMS-182874 decreased the area of the fatty streak by reducing the number and size of macrophage-foam cells. The results indicated that ETA receptors and thus endothelin promoted the early inflammatory phase of atherosclerosis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:7717449

  6. Early endothelin-A receptor blockade decreases blood pressure and ameliorates end-organ damage in homozygous Ren-2 rats.

    PubMed

    Vanêcková, Ivana; Kramer, Herbert J; Bäcker, Angela; Vernerová, Zdena; Opocensky, Martin; Cervenka, Ludêk

    2005-10-01

    We have recently found that nonselective endothelin ETA/ETB receptor blockade markedly improves survival rate and ameliorates end-organ damage in male homozygous rats transgenic (TGR) for the mouse Ren-2 renin gene without lowering blood pressure. Because activation of the ETA receptor may be responsible for the detrimental effects of ET in the development of hypertension, this study was performed to determine whether ETA or ETA/ETB receptor blockade exerts these beneficial effects. TGR and age-matched normotensive Hannover Sprague-Dawley rats fed a high-salt diet received either vehicle or bosentan and atrasentan (ABT-627) as nonselective ETA/ETB and selective ETA receptor blockers, respectively, from 29 until 90 days of age. The survival rate of 48% in untreated TGR was significantly (P<0.01) improved to 79% by bosentan and to 92% by ABT-627 (ABT-627 versus bosentan P<0.05). Proteinuria, glomerulosclerosis, and cardiac hypertrophy, as well as ET-1 content in left ventricular tissue, were significantly reduced by bosentan and to a greater degree by ABT-627, which also significantly attenuated the rise in blood pressure (P<0.05). Our data indicate that the ET system, especially via ETA receptors, plays an important role in the development of hypertensive end-organ damage and confirm the concept that the predominant role of ETB receptors within the peripheral vasculature is to mediate the vasorelaxant actions of ET-1. They also demonstrate that selective blockade of ETA receptors is superior to nonselective ETA/ETB in attenuating hypertension, hypertensive organ damage, and survival rate.

  7. Effects of combined endothelin A receptor and renin-angiotensin system blockade on the course of end-organ damage in 5/6 nephrectomized Ren-2 hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Vaněčková, Ivana; Kujal, Petr; Husková, Zuzana; Vaňourková, Zdeňka; Vernerová, Zdenka; Certíková Chábová, Věra; Skaroupková, Petra; Kramer, Herbert J; Tesař, Vladimír; Červenka, Luděk

    2012-01-01

    Our previous studies in rats with ablation nephrectomy have shown similar cardiorenal protective effects of renin-angiotensin system (RAS)-dependent treatment (combination of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor blocker) and RAS-independent treatment (combination of α- and β-adrenoreceptor antagonist and diuretics). Moreover, selective blockade of endothelin (ET) receptor type A (ET(A)) improved survival rate and attenuated hypertension and organ damage in Ren-2 transgenic rats. Therefore, we were interested in whether ET(A) receptor blockade could have additive effects to the classical blockade of the RAS. Transgenic rats underwent 5/6 renal ablation at the age of 2 months and were treated for 20 weeks with RAS blockers alone (angiotensin II receptor blocker - losartan, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor - trandolapril), ET(A) receptor blocker alone (atrasentan) or with the combination of RAS and ET(A) receptor blockade. RAS blockade normalized blood pressure and improved survival. It decreased cardiac hypertrophy and proteinuria as well as tissue angiotensin II and ET-1 levels. In contrast, ET(A) receptor blockade only partially improved survival rate, reduced blood pressure, attenuated the development of cardiac hypertrophy and transiently reduced proteinuria. However, no additive cardio- and renoprotective effects of ET(A) and RAS blockade were noted at the end of the study. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Acute renal effects of endothelin-A blockade: interspecies differences.

    PubMed

    Cernacek, P; Strmen, J; Levy, M

    1998-01-01

    The acute renal effects of LU135252 (LU), a selective endothelin-A (ETA) receptor antagonist, were studied in conscious rats after i.p. administration of 1-10 mg/kg LU, and in clearance studies in anesthetized dogs during left intrarenal infusion of 0.01-0.1 mg/kg/min. In the rat (n = 12), LU (10 mg/kg i.p.) decreased diuresis (-36%), excretion of Na (-55%) and Cl (-38%) but not of K and creatinine, as measured in 8-h collections in metabolic cages. Excretion of oral NaCl load (5% of body weight) during 4 h decreased from 68 +/- 2% (vehicle) to 50.5 +/- 5% (LU; n = 12, p < 0.01). Blood pressure was not affected. In contrast, left intrarenal LU infusion at 0.01, 0.03 and 0.1 mg/kg/min in the dog (n = 4) had no effect on renal hemodynamics or excretory function, whereas it mildly decreased blood pressure. In addition, intrarenal LU (0.03 mg/kg/ min; n = 6) had no effect on the renal response to volume expansion (7% bw) by 0.9% NaCl i.v. These markedly different effects of acute ETA blockade were observed at similar systemic plasma levels of LU in the two species. It is concluded that in the rat, but not in the dog, acute blockade of ETA receptors can impair renal excretory function, most likely at the tubule level. This interspecies difference in the role of endogenous ET in the regulation of renal function is probably due to a different ET receptor profile and distribution in rat and dog kidneys.

  9. Effect of endothelin-1 and endothelin receptor blockade on the release of microparticles.

    PubMed

    Jung, Christian; Lichtenauer, Michael; Wernly, Bernhard; Franz, Marcus; Goebel, Bjoern; Rafnsson, Arnar; Figulla, Hans-Reiner; Pernow, John

    2016-08-01

    Increased levels of endothelial cell microparticles (EMP) are known to reflect endothelial dysfunction (ED). In diabetes mellitus type 2 (T2DM), the expression of endothelin (ET)-1 is increased. As treatment with an ET-1 antagonist significantly inhibited atherosclerosis in animal models, we sought to investigate whether treatment with ET-1 antagonists affects EMP levels in vitro and in vivo in patients with T2DM. In vitro study: Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) were stimulated with ET-1 alone and ET-1 in combination with a dual ET-A and ET-B endothelin receptor blocker. In vivo study: Patients with T2DM were randomized to treatment with the ET receptor antagonist bosentan or placebo. After 4 weeks, the patients were re-examined and blood samples were obtained. EMP counts in supernatants and plasma samples were determined using flow cytometry. In vitro study: In supernatants of ET-1-stimulated HUVECs, the increased release of EMP was reduced significantly by co-incubation with an ET-1 receptor antagonist (e.g. CD31+/CD42b-EMP decreased from 37·1% ± 2·8 to 31·5% ± 2·8 SEM, P = 0·0078). In vivo study: No changes in EMP levels in blood samples of patients with T2DM were found after 4 weeks of bosentan treatment (n = 36, P = ns). Our in vitro results suggest that ET-1 stimulates the release of EMP from HUVECs via a receptor-dependent mechanism. Co-incubation with an endothelin receptor blocker abolished ET-1-dependent EMP release. However, treatment with bosentan for 4 weeks failed to alter EMP levels in patients with T2DM. Other factors seem to have influenced EMP release in patients with T2DM independent of ET-1 receptor-mediated mechanisms. © 2016 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  10. Endothelin receptor blockade ameliorates renal injury by inhibition of RhoA/Rho-kinase signalling in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tsung-Ming; Chung, Tun-Hui; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Chang, Nen-Chung

    2014-04-01

    Excessive production of fibrosis is a feature of hypertension-induced renal injury. Activation of RhoA/Rho-kinase (ROCK) axis has been shown in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. We assessed whether selective endothelin receptor blockers can attenuate renal fibrosis by inhibiting RhoA/ROCK axis in DOCA-salt rats. At 4 weeks after the start of DOCA-salt treatment and uninephrectomization, male Wistar rats were randomized into three groups for 4 weeks: vehicle, ABT-627 (endothelin-A receptor inhibitor) and A192621 (endothelin-B receptor inhibitor). DOCA-salt was characterized by increased blood pressure, decreased renal function, increased proteinuria, increased glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis with myofibroblast accumulation, increased renal endothelin-1 levels and RhoA activity along with increased expression of connective tissue growth factor at both mRNA and protein levels as compared with uninephrectomized control male Wistar rats. Treatment with a selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, eplerenone, ameliorated proteinuria. Impaired renal function and histological changes were overcome by treatment with ABT-627, but not with A192621. The beneficial effects of bosentan, a nonspecific endothelin receptor blocker, on proteinuria, RhoA activity, and connective tissue growth factor levels were similar to ABT-627. Furthermore, in an isolated perfuse kidney, a RhoA inhibitor, C3 exoenzyme, and two ROCK inhibitors, fasudil and Y-27632, significantly attenuated connective tissue growth factor levels. These results indicate that DOCA-salt elevates renal endothelin-1 levels and RhoA activity via activation of mineralocorticoid receptor, resulting in renal fibrosis and proteinuria. Endothelin-A receptor blockade can attenuate DOCA-salt-induced renal fibrosis probably through the inhibition of RhoA/ROCK activity and connective tissue growth factor expression.

  11. Brain microvessel endothelin type A receptors are coupled to ceramide production.

    PubMed

    Collado, M Pilar; Latorre, Eduardo; Fernández, Inmaculada; Aragonés, M Dolores; Catalán, R Edgardo

    2003-06-20

    Treatment of brain microvessels with endothelin-1 evoked an early decrease in the sphingomyelin levels concomitantly with an increase in those of ceramides. These responses were time- and concentration-dependent. Evidence also shows that endothelin type A receptors are involved. This is the first report on the involvement of an agonist in the regulation of the ceramide signal transduction system on blood-brain barrier and shows a new pathway likely involved in the regulation of the cerebral microvascular functioning.

  12. Endothelin receptor a blockade is an ineffective treatment for adriamycin nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Roderick J; Zhou, Lili; Zhou, Dong; Lin, Lin; Liu, Youhua

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin is a vasoconstricting peptide that plays a key role in vascular homeostasis, exerting its biologic effects via two receptors, the endothelin receptor A (ETA) and endothelin receptor B (ETB). Activation of ETA and ETB has opposing actions, in which hyperactive ETA is generally vasoconstrictive and pathologic. Selective ETA blockade has been shown to be beneficial in renal injuries such as diabetic nephropathy and can improve proteinuria. Atrasentan is a selective pharmacologic ETA blocker that preferentially inhibits ETA activation. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of ETA blockade by atrasentan in ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in murine adriamycin nephropathy, a model of human focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. We found that ETA expression was unaltered during the course of adriamycin nephropathy. Whether initiated prior to injury in a prevention protocol (5 mg/kg/day, i.p.) or after injury onset in a therapeutic protocol (7 mg/kg or 20 mg/kg three times a week, i.p.), atrasentan did not significantly affect the initiation and progression of adriamycin-induced albuminuria (as measured by urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratios). Indices of glomerular damage were also not improved in atrasentan-treated groups, in either the prevention or therapeutic protocols. Atrasentan also failed to improve kidney function as determined by serum creatinine, histologic damage, and mRNA expression of numerous fibrosis-related genes such as collagen-I and TGF-β1. Therefore, we conclude that selective blockade of ETA by atrasentan has no effect on preventing or ameliorating proteinuria and kidney injury in adriamycin nephropathy.

  13. Tramadol antinociception is potentiated by clonidine through α₂-adrenergic and I₂-imidazoline but not by endothelin ET(A) receptors in mice.

    PubMed

    Andurkar, Shridhar V; Gendler, Liya; Gulati, Anil

    2012-05-15

    Tramadol is a centrally acting analgesic that acts via μ-opioid agonism and by blocking the neuronal uptake of norepinephrine and serotonin. Clonidine potentiates the antinociceptive effects of tramadol; however the receptors involved in this potentiation have not been studied. Endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonists potentiate antinociceptive effects of morphine and oxycodone; however the effects of endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonists on tramadol antinociception have not been evaluated. This study was conducted to determine the effect of clonidine on tramadol antinociception; the role of opioid, α₂-adrenergic and I₂-imidazoline receptors in clonidine potentiation of tramadol antinociception; and the effect of endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonists in modulating tramadol antinociception. Antinociceptive (tail-flick and hot-plate) latencies were measured in male Swiss Webster mice treated with tramadol; clonidine plus tramadol; or antagonists plus tramadol. Mice were pretreated with naloxone (opioid antagonist), yohimbine (α₂-adrenoceptor antagonist), idazoxan (α₂-adrenoceptor/I₂-imidazoline antagonist), BMS182874 or BQ123 (endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonists) to study the involvement of these receptors. Tramadol produced a dose dependent increase in antinociceptive latencies. Tramadol antinociception was partially blocked by naloxone but not by yohimbine or idazoxan. Clonidine potentiated tramadol antinociception; potentiation was blocked by naloxone, yohimbine and idazoxan. Idazoxan produced a more pronounced blockade of potentiation than yohimbine. BMS182874 or BQ123 had no effect on tramadol antinociception, indicating that endothelin ET(A) receptors are not involved in tramadol antinociception in mice. Results demonstrate the involvement of opioid but not α₂-adrenergic/I₂-imidazoline receptors in tramadol antinociception and that opioid, α₂-adrenergic and I₂-imidazoline receptors are involved in clonidine potentiation of tramadol

  14. Angiotensin II enhances endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction through upregulating endothelin type A receptor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yan-Jie; Kwok, Ching-Fai; Juan, Chi-Chang; Hsu, Yung-Pei; Shih, Kuang-Chung; Chen, Chin-Chang; Ho, Low-Tone

    2014-08-22

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the most potent vasoconstrictor by binding to endothelin receptors (ETAR) in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). The complex of angiotensin II (Ang II) and Ang II type one receptor (AT1R) acts as a transient constrictor of VSMCs. The synergistic effect of ET-1 and Ang II on blood pressure has been observed in rats; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. We hypothesize that Ang II leads to enhancing ET-1-mediated vasoconstriction through the activation of endothelin receptor in VSMCs. The ET-1-induced vasoconstriction, ET-1 binding, and endothelin receptor expression were explored in the isolated endothelium-denuded aortae and A-10 VSMCs. Ang II pretreatment enhanced ET-1-induced vasoconstriction and ET-1 binding to the aorta. Ang II enhanced ETAR expression, but not ETBR, in aorta and increased ET-1 binding, mainly to ETAR in A-10 VSMCs. Moreover, Ang II-enhanced ETAR expression was blunted and ET-1 binding was reduced by AT1R antagonism or by inhibitors of PKC or ERK individually. In conclusion, Ang II enhances ET-1-induced vasoconstriction by upregulating ETAR expression and ET-1/ETAR binding, which may be because of the AngII/Ang II receptor pathways and the activation of PKC or ERK. These findings suggest the synergistic effect of Ang II and ET-1 on the pathogenic development of hypertension. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Endothelin A receptor activation on mesangial cells initiates Alport glomerular disease.

    PubMed

    Dufek, Brianna; Meehan, Daniel T; Delimont, Duane; Cheung, Linda; Gratton, Michael Anne; Phillips, Grady; Song, Wenping; Liu, Shiguang; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2016-08-01

    Recent work demonstrates that Alport glomerular disease is mediated through a biomechanical strain-sensitive activation of mesangial actin dynamics. This occurs through a Rac1/CDC42 cross-talk mechanism that results in the invasion of the subcapillary spaces by mesangial filopodia. The filopodia deposit mesangial matrix proteins in the glomerular basement membrane, including laminin 211, which activates focal adhesion kinase in podocytes culminating in the up-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines and metalloproteinases. These events drive the progression of glomerulonephritis. Here we test whether endothelial cell-derived endothelin-1 is up-regulated in Alport glomeruli and further elevated by hypertension. Treatment of cultured mesangial cells with endothelin-1 activates the formation of drebrin-positive actin microspikes. These microspikes do not form when cells are treated with the endothelin A receptor antagonist sitaxentan or under conditions of small, interfering RNA knockdown of endothelin A receptor mRNA. Treatment of Alport mice with sitaxentan results in delayed onset of proteinuria, normalized glomerular basement membrane morphology, inhibition of mesangial filopodial invasion of the glomerular capillaries, normalization of glomerular expression of metalloproteinases and proinflammatory cytokines, increased life span, and prevention of glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Thus endothelin A receptor activation on mesangial cells is a key event in initiation of Alport glomerular disease in this model.

  16. ENDOTHELIN-A RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM IN EMBRYO CULTURE: WINDOW OF SENSITIVITY AND TIMING OF DEFECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    BRANNEN, K.C., J.M. ROGERS, and E.S. HUNTER, Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Endothelin-A receptor antagonism in embryo culture: w...

  17. ENDOTHELIN-A RECEPTOR ANTAGONISM IN EMBRYO CULTURE: WINDOW OF SENSITIVITY AND TIMING OF DEFECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    BRANNEN, K.C., J.M. ROGERS, and E.S. HUNTER, Curriculum in Toxicology, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, North Carolina, and Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Endothelin-A receptor antagonism in embryo culture: w...

  18. Endothelin

    PubMed Central

    Hyndman, Kelly A.; Dhaun, Neeraj; Southan, Christopher; Kohan, Donald E.; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Pollock, David M.; Webb, David J.; Maguire, Janet J.

    2016-01-01

    The endothelins comprise three structurally similar 21-amino acid peptides. Endothelin-1 and -2 activate two G-protein coupled receptors, ETA and ETB, with equal affinity, whereas endothelin-3 has a lower affinity for the ETA subtype. Genes encoding the peptides are present only among vertebrates. The ligand-receptor signaling pathway is a vertebrate innovation and may reflect the evolution of endothelin-1 as the most potent vasoconstrictor in the human cardiovascular system with remarkably long lasting action. Highly selective peptide ETA and ETB antagonists and ETB agonists together with radiolabeled analogs have accurately delineated endothelin pharmacology in humans and animal models, although surprisingly no ETA agonist has been discovered. ET antagonists (bosentan, ambrisentan) have revolutionized the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, with the next generation of antagonists exhibiting improved efficacy (macitentan). Clinical trials continue to explore new applications, particularly in renal failure and for reducing proteinuria in diabetic nephropathy. Translational studies suggest a potential benefit of ETB agonists in chemotherapy and neuroprotection. However, demonstrating clinical efficacy of combined inhibitors of the endothelin converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase has proved elusive. Over 28 genetic modifications have been made to the ET system in mice through global or cell-specific knockouts, knock ins, or alterations in gene expression of endothelin ligands or their target receptors. These studies have identified key roles for the endothelin isoforms and new therapeutic targets in development, fluid-electrolyte homeostasis, and cardiovascular and neuronal function. For the future, novel pharmacological strategies are emerging via small molecule epigenetic modulators, biologicals such as ETB monoclonal antibodies and the potential of signaling pathway biased agonists and antagonists. PMID:26956245

  19. Immunoreactive endothelin-1 and endothelin a receptor in basilar artery perivascular nerves of young and adult capybaras.

    PubMed

    Loesch, Andrzej; Dashwood, Michael R; Coppi, Antonio A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative morphological study was the immunocytochemical and ultrastructural comparison of perivascular nerves of the basilar artery (BA) of young (6-month-old) and adult (12-month-old) capybaras - adult capybaras showed regression of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The study focused on immunolabeling for the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin A receptor (ETA) as well as for the synapse marker synaptophysin (SYP). In the BA of young capybaras, immunoreactivity for ET-1, ETA receptor and SYP was detected in perivascular nerve varicosities and/or intervaricosities. Immunoreactivity for ET-1 and ETA receptor was also displayed by some Schwann cells, which accompanied perivascular nerves. In addition to the presence of the above-described perivascular nerve characteristics, the BA of adult animals also revealed structurally altered perivascular nerves, where axon profiles were irregular in shape with dense axoplasm, while the cytoplasm of Schwann cells was vacuolated and contained myelin-like figures. These structurally altered perivascular nerves displayed immunoreactivity for ET-1, ETA receptor and SYP. These results show that the ET-1 system is present in some of the BA perivascular nerves and it is likely that this system is affected during animal maturation when ICA regression takes place. The role of ET-1 in cerebrovascular nerves is still unclear but its involvement in neural (sensory) control of cerebral blood flow and nerve function is possible. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Dual Endothelin Receptor Blockade Abrogates Right Ventricular Remodeling and Biventricular Fibrosis in Isolated Elevated Right Ventricular Afterload

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Eva Amalie; Sun, Mei; Honjo, Osami; Hjortdal, Vibeke E.; Redington, Andrew N.; Friedberg, Mark K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Pulmonary arterial hypertension is usually fatal due to right ventricular failure and is frequently associated with co-existing left ventricular dysfunction. Endothelin-1 is a powerful pro-fibrotic mediator and vasoconstrictor that is elevated in pulmonary arterial hypertension. Endothelin receptor blockers are commonly used as pulmonary vasodilators, however their effect on biventricular injury, remodeling and function, despite elevated isolated right ventricular afterload is unknown. Methods Elevated right ventricular afterload was induced by progressive pulmonary artery banding. Seven rabbits underwent pulmonary artery banding without macitentan; 13 received pulmonary artery banding + macitentan; and 5 did not undergo inflation of the pulmonary artery band (sham-operated controls). Results: Right and left ventricular collagen content was increased with pulmonary artery banding compared to sham-operated controls and ameliorated by macitentan. Right ventricular fibrosis signaling (connective tissue growth factor and endothelin-1 protein levels); extra-cellular matrix remodeling (matrix-metalloproteinases 2 and 9), apoptosis and apoptosis-related peptides (caspases 3 and 8) were increased with pulmonary artery banding compared with sham-operated controls and decreased with macitentan. Conclusion Isolated right ventricular afterload causes biventricular fibrosis, right ventricular apoptosis and extra cellular matrix remodeling, mediated by up-regulation of endothelin-1 and connective tissue growth factor signaling. These pathological changes are ameliorated by dual endothelin receptor blockade despite persistent elevated right ventricular afterload. PMID:26765263

  1. Selective endothelin B receptor blockade does not influence BNP-induced natriuresis in man.

    PubMed

    van der Zander, K; Houben, A J H M; Webb, D J; Udo, E; Kietselaer, B; Hofstra, L; De Mey, J G R; de Leeuw, P W

    2006-03-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) both exhibit natriuretic activity within the human kidney. Furthermore, they both act partly through activation of the endothelial nitric oxide pathway. Since ET-1 may cause vasodilation and natriuresis via stimulation of the ET-B receptor, the aim of the present study was to investigate whether renal ET-B receptors participate in the renal actions of BNP. In this placebo-controlled, crossover study, we infused BNP (4 pmol/kg/min) or placebo (i.v.) for 1 h, with or without co-infusion of the ET-B receptor antagonist BQ-788 (50 nmol/min) for 15 min on 4 separate days, in 10 healthy subjects (mean age 54+/-6 years.). During infusion, we measured effective renal plasma flow (ERPF), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) using PAH/inulin clearance. Cardiac output was measured before and after infusion, using echocardiography. Blood pressure and heart rate (HR) were monitored as well. Urine and plasma samples were taken every hour to measure diuresis, natriuresis, cyclic 3',5' guanosine monophosphate, and ET-1 levels. BNP with or without ET-B receptor blockade increased natriuresis and diuresis. In addition, BNP alone increased GFR and filtered load, without changing ERPF. BQ-788 infusion did not affect renal hemodynamics or natriuresis. Neither BNP nor BQ-788 altered cardiac output, blood pressure, and heart rate. In conclusion, the present study shows that selective ET-B receptor blockade has no effect on the BNP-induced natriuresis and glomerular filtration rate.

  2. Impact of endothelin blockade on acute exercise-induced changes in blood flow and endothelial function in type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Schreuder, Tim H A; van Lotringen, Jaap H; Hopman, Maria T E; Thijssen, Dick H J

    2014-09-01

    Positive vascular effects of exercise training are mediated by acute increases in blood flow. Type 2 diabetes patients show attenuated exercise-induced increases in blood flow, possibly mediated by the endothelin pathway, preventing an optimal stimulus for vascular adaptation. We examined the impact of endothelin receptor blockade (bosentan) on exercise-induced blood flow in the brachial artery and on pre- and postexercise endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients (n = 9, 60 ± 7 years old) and control subjects (n = 10, 60 ± 5 years old). Subjects reported twice to the laboratory to perform hand-grip exercise in the presence of endothelin receptor blockade or placebo. We examined brachial artery endothelial function (via flow-mediated dilatation) before and after exercise, as well as blood flow during exercise. Endothelin receptor blockade resulted in a larger increase in blood flow during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.046), but not in control subjects (P = 0.309). Exercise increased shear rate across the exercise protocol, unaffected by endothelin receptor blockade. Exercise did not alter brachial artery diameter in either group, but endothelin receptor blockade resulted in a larger brachial artery diameter in type 2 diabetes patients (P = 0.033). Exercise significantly increased brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation in both groups, unaffected by endothelin receptor blockade. Endothelin receptor blockade increased exercise-induced brachial artery blood flow in type 2 diabetes patients, but not in control subjects. Despite this effect of endothelin receptor blockade on blood flow, we found no impact on baseline or post-exercise endothelial function in type 2 diabetes patients or control subjects, possibly related to normalization of the shear stimulus during exercise. The successful increase in blood flow during exercise in type 2 diabetes patients through endothelin receptor blockade may have beneficial effects in

  3. Control of Endothelin-A Receptor Expression by Progesterone Is Enhanced by Synergy With Gata2

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanping; Knutsen, Gregory R.; Brown, Matthew D.

    2013-01-01

    The endothelin-A receptor (Ednra) is involved in several physiological, pathological, and developmental pathways. Known for its function in vasoconstriction after being activated by endothelin-1, Ednra also controls cephalic neural crest cell development and appears to play a role in several pathologies, including cancer and periodontitis. However, the mechanisms regulating Ednra expression have not been identified despite its important functions. In this study, we investigated the role progesterone plays in Ednra gene expression in vivo and in vitro. In mice, pregnancy promotes Ednra expression in the heart, kidney, lung, uterus, and placenta, and the up-regulation is mediated by progesterone. We determined that the conserved region between −5.7 and −4.2 kb upstream of the mouse Ednra gene is necessary for the progesterone response. We also found that progesterone mediates Ednra activation through progesterone receptor B activation by its recruitment to PRE6, one of the 6 progesterone response elements found in that locus. However, gene activation by means of a GATA2 site was also necessary for the progesterone response. The Gata2 transcription factor enhances the progesterone response mediated by the progesterone receptor B. Together these results indicate that progesterone regulates Ednra expression by synergizing with Gata2 activity, a previously unknown mechanism. This mechanism may have an impact on pathologies involving the endothelin signaling. PMID:23592430

  4. Involvement of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and endothelin-A receptors in the effect of agmatine on morphine and oxycodone-induced hypothermia in mice.

    PubMed

    Bhalla, Shaifali; Andurkar, Shridhar V; Gulati, Anil

    2013-10-01

    Potentiation of opioid analgesia by endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist, BMS182874, and imidazoline receptor/α₂-adrenoceptor agonists such as clonidine and agmatine are well known. It is also known that agmatine blocks morphine hyperthermia in rats. However, the effect of agmatine on morphine or oxycodone hypothermia in mice is unknown. The present study was carried out to study the role of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors in morphine and oxycodone hypothermia in mice. Body temperature was determined over 6 h in male Swiss Webster mice treated with morphine, oxycodone, agmatine, and combination of agmatine with morphine or oxycodone. Yohimbine, idazoxan, and BMS182874 were used to determine involvement of α₂-adrenoceptors, imidazoline, and ET(A) receptors, respectively. Morphine and oxycodone produced significant hypothermia that was not affected by α₂-adrenoceptor antagonist yohimbine, imidazoline receptor/α₂ adrenoceptor antagonist idazoxan, or ET(A) receptor antagonist, BMS182874. Agmatine did not produce hypothermia; however, it blocked oxycodone but not morphine-induced hypothermia. Agmatine-induced blockade of oxycodone hypothermia was inhibited by idazoxan and yohimbine. The blockade by idazoxan was more pronounced compared with yohimbine. Combined administration of BMS182874 and agmatine did not produce changes in body temperature in mice. However, when BMS182874 was administered along with agmatine and oxycodone, it blocked agmatine-induced reversal of oxycodone hypothermia. This is the first report demonstrating that agmatine does not affect morphine hypothermia in mice, but reverses oxycodone hypothermia. Imidazoline receptors and α₂-adrenoceptors are involved in agmatine-induced reversal of oxycodone hypothermia. Our findings also suggest that ET(A) receptors may be involved in blockade of oxycodone hypothermia by agmatine.

  5. Disruption of the endothelin A receptor in the nephron causes mild fluid volume expansion.

    PubMed

    Stuart, Deborah; Rees, Sara; Woodward, Stephanie K; Koesters, Robert; Strait, Kevin A; Kohan, Donald E

    2012-12-05

    Endothelin, via endothelin A receptors (ETA), exerts multiple pathologic effects that contribute to disease pathogenesis throughout the body. ETA antagonists ameliorate many experimental diseases and have been extensively utilized in clinical trials. The utility of ETA blockers has been greatly limited, however, by fluid retention, sometimes leading to heart failure or death. To begin to examine this issue, the effect of genetic disruption of ETA in the nephron on blood pressure and salt handling was determined. Mice were generated with doxycycline-inducible nephron-specific ETA deletion using Pax8-rtTA and LC-1 transgenes on the background of homozygous loxP-flanked ETA alleles. Arterial pressure, Na metabolism and measures of body fluid volume status (hematocrit and impedance plethysmography) were assessed. Absence of nephron ETA did not alter arterial pressure whether mice were ingesting a normal or high Na diet. Nephron ETA disruption did not detectably affect 24 hr Na excretion or urine volume regardless of Na intake. However, mice with nephron ETA knockout that were fed a high Na diet had mild fluid retention as evidenced by an increase in body weight and a fall in hematocrit. Genetic deletion of nephron ETA causes very modest fluid retention that does not alter arterial pressure. Nephron ETA, under normal conditions, likely do not play a major role in regulation of Na excretion or systemic hemodynamics.

  6. Endothelin receptor subtype A blockade does not affect the haemodynamic recovery from haemorrhage during xenon/remifentanil or isoflurane/remifentanil anaesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Francis, Roland C E; Höhne, Claudia; Klein, Adrian; Kaisers, Udo X; Pickerodt, Philipp A; Boemke, Willehad

    2010-05-01

    To test the compensatory role of endothelin-1 when acute blood loss is superimposed on anaesthesia, by characterizing the effect of systemic endothelin receptor subtype A (ET(A)) blockade on the haemodynamic and hormonal responses to haemorrhage in dogs anaesthetized with xenon/remifentanil (X/R) or isoflurane/remifentanil (I/R). Prospective experimental randomized controlled study. Six female Beagle dogs, 13.4 +/- 1.3 kg. Animals were anaesthetized with remifentanil 0.5 microg kg(-1) minute(-1) plus either 0.8% isoflurane (I/R) or 63% xenon (X/R), with and without (Control) the systemic intravenous endothelin receptor subtype A antagonist atrasentan (four groups, n = 6 each). After 60 minutes of baseline anaesthesia, the dogs were bled (20 mL kg(-1)) over 5 minutes and hypovolemia was maintained for 1 hour. Continuous haemodynamic monitoring was performed via femoral and pulmonary artery catheters; vasoactive hormones were measured before and after haemorrhage. In Controls, systemic vascular resistance (SVR), vasopressin and catecholamine plasma concentrations were higher with X/R than with I/R anaesthesia at pre-haemorrhage baseline. The peak increase after haemorrhage was higher during X/R than during I/R anaesthesia (SVR 7420 +/- 867 versus 5423 +/- 547 dyne seconds cm(-5); vasopressin 104 +/- 23 versus 44 +/- 6 pg mL(-1); epinephrine 2956 +/- 310 versus 177 +/- 99 pg mL(-1); norepinephrine 862 +/- 117 versus 195 +/- 33 pg mL(-1), p < 0.05). Haemorrhage reduced central venous pressure from 3 +/- 1 to 1 +/- 1 cm H(2)O (I/R, ns) and from 8 +/- 1 to 5 +/- 1 cm H(2)O (X/R, p < 0.05), but did not reduce mean arterial pressure, nor cardiac output. Atrasentan did not alter the haemodynamic and hormonal response to haemorrhage during either anaesthetic protocol. Selective ET(A) receptor blockade with atrasentan did not impair the haemodynamic and hormonal compensation of acute haemorrhage during X/R or I/R anaesthesia in dogs.

  7. Effects of dual endothelin receptor blockade on sympathetic activation and arrhythmogenesis during acute myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Kolettis, Theofilos M; Baltogiannis, Giannis G; Tsalikakis, Dimitrios G; Tzallas, Alexandros T; Agelaki, Maria G; Fotopoulos, Andreas; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I; Kyriakides, Zenon S

    2008-02-02

    The effects of dual (ETA and ETB) endothelin receptor blockade on ventricular arrhythmogenesis during acute myocardial infarction are not well defined. We randomly allocated Wistar rats to bosentan (100 mg/kg daily, n=24), a dual endothelin receptor antagonist, or vehicle (n=23). After 7 days of treatment, myocardial infarction was induced by permanent coronary ligation. Ventricular tachyarrhythmias were evaluated for 24 h following ligation, using a miniature telemetry electrocardiogram recorder. Action potential duration was measured from monophasic epicardial recordings and sympathetic activation was assessed by heart rate variability and catecholamine serum level measurements. Compared to controls (1012+/-185 s), bosentan (59+/-24 s) markedly decreased (P<0.00001) the total duration of ventricular tachyarrhythmias during the delayed (1-24 h) phase post-ligation, with a modest effect during the early (0-1 h) phase (132+/-38 s, versus 43+/-18 s, respectively, P=0.053). Treatment did not affect infarct size or total mortality. Action potential duration at 90% repolarization prolonged in controls (from 93.1+/-4.7 ms to 117.6+/-6.9 ms), displaying increased temporal dispersion (from 4.14+/-0.45 ms to 10.42+/-2.51 ms, both P<0.001), but was preserved in treated animals. Bosentan decreased norepinephrine, but increased epinephrine levels 24 h post-ligation. Low frequency spectra of heart rate variability, an index of net sympathetic tone, were lower in bosentan-treated rats. Dual endothelin-1 receptor blockade decreases ventricular tachyarrhythmias during myocardial infarction without reperfusion, by preventing repolarization inhomogeneity. Diverse treatment effects on sympathetic activation may ameliorate the antiarrhythmic action.

  8. Plasma endothelin-1 and single nucleotide polymorphisms of endothelin-1 and endothelin type A receptor genes as risk factors for normal tension glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Kosior-Jarecka, Ewa; Łukasik, Urszula; Aung, Tin; Khor, Chiea Chuen; Kocki, Janusz; Żarnowski, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of endothelin and endothelin receptor type A genes can constitute a risk factor for normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and high tension glaucoma (HTG). Methods The study included 160 patients with NTG, 124 patients with HTG, and 165 healthy controls. To analyze the frequency of polymorphic variants of the endothelin EDN gene (K198N) and the endothelin receptor type A gene EDN RA (C1222T, C70G, G231A), DNA was isolated from peripheral blood, and SNP genotyping was performed using the real-time PCR (RT–PCR) method. Plasma endothelin (ET) concentrations were detected using an enzyme immunoassay. Endothelin levels were compared with genotype and allele distributions, patients’ clinical status, and various risk factors for NTG. Results There was a significant difference between the patients with NTG and HTG and the controls (p = 0.035, p = 0.008) regarding the genotype of the C1222T and C70G polymorphism. Plasma concentrations of ET did not differ between the NTG and HTG groups, and no significant correlation with intraocular pressure (IOP), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA), and the cup to disc ratio (c/d ratio) was seen in patients with NTG. Plasma endothelin levels showed a noticeably positive correlation with age in the NTG group (R = 0.249, p = 0.042). Higher endothelin levels corresponded to more advanced visual field damage. No statistical difference was observed between variant genotypes of K198N and the ET-1 plasma concentration in patients with NTG, whereas a slightly higher ET level was observed in the patients with HTG with the GT genotype in comparison to those with the GG genotype (p = 0.001). The C1222T polymorphism significantly affected the plasma ET level in patients with NTG. The TT genotype carriers had the highest ET level, and the CC genotype carriers the lowest (p = 0.034). The AA variant genotype of the G231A polymorphism exhibited the highest

  9. Dual Endothelin-A/Endothelin-B Receptor Blockade and Cardiac Remodeling in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction.

    PubMed

    Valero-Munoz, Maria; Li, Shanpeng; Wilson, Richard M; Boldbaatar, Batbold; Iglarz, Marc; Sam, Flora

    2016-11-01

    Despite the increasing prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in humans, there remains no evidence-based therapies for HFpEF. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) antagonists are a possibility because elevated ET-1 levels are associated with adverse cardiovascular effects, such as arterial and pulmonary vasoconstriction, impaired left ventricular (LV) relaxation, and stimulation of LV hypertrophy. LV hypertrophy is a common phenotype in HFpEF, particularly when associated with hypertension. In the present study, we found that ET-1 levels were significantly elevated in patients with chronic stable HFpEF. We then sought to investigate the effects of chronic macitentan, a dual ET-A/ET-B receptor antagonist, on cardiac structure and function in a murine model of HFpEF induced by chronic aldosterone infusion. Macitentan caused LV hypertrophy regression independent of blood pressure changes in HFpEF. Although macitentan did not modulate diastolic dysfunction in HFpEF, it significantly reduced wall thickness and relative wall thickness after 2 weeks of therapy. In vitro studies showed that macitentan decreased the aldosterone-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These changes were mediated by a reduction in the expression of cardiac myocyte enhancer factor 2a. Moreover, macitentan improved adverse cardiac remodeling, by reducing the stiffer cardiac collagen I and titin n2b expression in the left ventricle of mice with HFpEF. These findings indicate that dual ET-A/ET-B receptor inhibition improves HFpEF by abrogating adverse cardiac remodeling via antihypertrophic mechanisms and by reducing stiffness. Additional studies are needed to explore the role of dual ET-1 receptor antagonists in patients with HFpEF. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Dual Endothelin-A/Endothelin-B Receptor Blockade and Cardiac Remodeling in Heart Failure With Preserved Ejection Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Valero-Munoz, Maria; Li, Shanpeng; Wilson, Richard M.; Boldbaatar, Batbold; Iglarz, Marc; Sam, Flora

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite the increasing prevalence of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) in humans, there remains no evidence-based therapies for HFpEF. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) antagonists are a possibility because elevated ET-1 levels are associated with adverse cardiovascular effects, such as arterial and pulmonary vasoconstriction, impaired left ventricular (LV) relaxation, and stimulation of LV hypertrophy. LV hypertrophy is a common phenotype in HFpEF, particularly when associated with hypertension. Methods and Results In the present study, we found that ET-1 levels were significantly elevated in patients with chronic stable HFpEF. We then sought to investigate the effects of chronic macitentan, a dual ET-A/ET-B receptor antagonist, on cardiac structure and function in a murine model of HFpEF induced by chronic aldosterone infusion. Macitentan caused LV hypertrophy regression independent of blood pressure changes in HFpEF. Although macitentan did not modulate diastolic dysfunction in HFpEF, it significantly reduced wall thickness and relative wall thickness after 2 weeks of therapy. In vitro studies showed that macitentan decreased the aldosterone-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy. These changes were mediated by a reduction in the expression of cardiac myocyte enhancer factor 2a. Moreover, macitentan improved adverse cardiac remodeling, by reducing the stiffer cardiac collagen I and titin n2b expression in the left ventricle of mice with HFpEF. Conclusions These findings indicate that dual ET-A/ET-B receptor inhibition improves HFpEF by abrogating adverse cardiac remodeling via antihypertrophic mechanisms and by reducing stiffness. Additional studies are needed to explore the role of dual ET-1 receptor antagonists in patients with HFpEF. PMID:27810862

  11. Role of Endothelin-1/Endothelin-A receptor-mediated signaling pathway in the aortic arch patterning in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Yanagisawa, H.; Hammer, R. E.; Richardson, J. A.; Williams, S. C.; Clouthier, D. E.; Yanagisawa, M.

    1998-01-01

    The intercellular signaling mediated by endothelins and their G protein-coupled receptors has recently been shown to be essential for the normal embryonic development of subsets of neural crest cell derivatives. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is proteolytically generated from its inactive precursor by endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) and acts on the endothelin-A (ETA) receptor. Genetic disruption of this ET-1/ECE-1/ETA pathway results in defects in branchial arch- derived craniofacial tissues, as well as defects in cardiac outflow and great vessel structures, which are derived from cephalic (cardiac) neural crest. In this study, in situ hybridization of ETA-/- and ECE-1(-)/- embryos with a cardiac neural crest marker, cellular retinoic acid-binding protein-1, shows that the migration of neural crest cells from the neural tube to cardiac outflow tract is not affected in these embryos. Immunostaining of an endothelial marker, platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule CD-31, shows that the initial formation of the branchial arch arteries is not disturbed in ETA-/- or ECE-1(-)/- embryos. To visualize the subsequent patterning of arch vessels in detail, we generated ETA-/- or ECE-1(-)/- embryos that expressed an SM22alpha-lacZ marker transgene in arterial smooth muscle cells. Wholemount X-gal staining of these mutant embryos reveals that the abnormal regression and persistence of specific arch arteries results in disturbance of asymmetrical remodeling of the arch arteries. These defects include abnormal regression of arch arteries 4 and 6, enlargement of arch artery 3, and abnormal persistence of the bilateral ductus caroticus and right dorsal aorta. These abnormalities eventually lead to various types of great vessel malformations highly similar to those seen in neural crest-ablated chick embryos and human congenital cardiac defects. This study demonstrates that ET-1/ETA-mediated signaling plays an essential role in a complex process of aortic arch patterning by affecting

  12. miR-30a inhibits endothelin A receptor and chemoresistance in ovarian carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Rosanò, Laura; Tocci, Piera; Semprucci, Elisa; Di Castro, Valeriana; Caprara, Valentina; Ferrandina, Gabriella; Sacconi, Andrea; Blandino, Giovanni; Bagnato, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Drug resistance remains the major clinical barrier to successful treatment in epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOC) patients, and the evidence of microRNA involvement in drug resistance has been recently emerging. Endothelin-1 (ET-1)/ETA receptor (ETAR) axis is aberrantly activated in chemoresistant EOC cells and elicits pleiotropic effects promoting epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the acquisition of chemoresistance. However, the relationship between ETAR and miRNA is still unknown. Hence, in this study we evaluated whether dysregulation of miRNA might enhance ETAR expression in sensitive and resistant EOC cells. Based on bioinformatic tools, we selected putative miRNA able to recognize the 3′UTR of ETAR. An inverse correlation was observed between the expression levels of miR-30a and ETAR in both EOC cell lines and tumor samples. miR-30a was found to specifically bind to the 3′UTR of ETAR mRNA, indicating that ETAR is a direct target of miR-30a. Overexpression of miR-30a decreased Akt and mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathway activation, cell proliferation, invasion, plasticity, EMT marker levels, and vascular endothelial growth factor release. Interestingly, ectopic expression of miR-30a re-sensitized platinum-resistant EOC cells to cisplatinum-induced apoptosis. Consistently, resistant EOC xenografts overexpressing miR-30a resulted in significantly less tumor growth than controls. Together our study provides a new perspective on the regulatory mechanism of ETAR gene. Interestingly, our findings highlight that blockade of ETAR regulatory axis is the mechanism underlying the tumor suppressor function of miR-30a in chemoresistant EOC cells. PMID:26675258

  13. Endothelin-1 stimulates human adipocyte lipolysis through the ET A receptor.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, A K S; van Harmelen, V; Stenson, B M; Aström, G; Wåhlén, K; Laurencikiene, J; Rydén, M

    2009-01-01

    Levels of the vascular peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) are significantly elevated in obesity. Adipose tissue-derived ET-1 attenuates insulin-mediated antilipolysis in human visceral adipocytes through the activation of the ET receptor B (ET(B)R), thereby linking ET-1 to insulin resistance. Whether ET-1 has direct effects on lipolysis in human adipocytes is not known. Endothelin-1 receptor (ETR) mRNA expression was determined by quantitative PCR in 130 non-obese and obese subjects. ET-1 mRNA in different adipose tissue regions was also assessed. ETR protein expression was analyzed by western blotting in 37 subjects. The effect of ET-1 on lipolysis was assessed in freshly isolated adipocytes and in vitro differentiated adipocytes from human donors. Freshly isolated human adipocytes incubated with different concentrations of ET-1 showed no acute effect on lipolysis. In contrast, a 24 h incubation in primary cultures of human adipocytes resulted in a significant 50% increase in lipolysis. This effect was concentration dependent and could be mimicked by an agonist of the ET(A) receptor but not with a selective ET(B)R agonist. Adipocyte differentiation was not affected by any of the agonists. In subcutaneous (s.c.) adipose tissue from 19 non-obese and 18 obese subjects, the protein expression of ET(A)R was significantly higher in obese subjects whereas there was no difference in ET(B)R expression. Interestingly, the differences in protein expression were not observed at the mRNA level as ET(A)R expression was similar between lean and obese subjects. Long-term but not acute incubation of human adipocytes with ET-1 results in a significant increase in lipolysis. This appears to be mediated through the activation of ET(A)R, demonstrating a yet another receptor-specific effect of ET-1. In addition, the protein expression of ET(A)R is increased in s.c. adipose tissue in obesity, possibly through post-transcriptional mechanisms. An increased effect of ET-1 could be a mechanism

  14. Neuroprotection by adenosine A2A receptor blockade in experimental models of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Ken; Kurokawa, Masako; Aoyama, Shiro; Kuwana, Yoshihisa

    2002-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptors are abundant in the caudate-putamen and involved in the motor control in several species. In MPTP-treated monkeys, A2A receptor-blockade with an antagonist alleviates parkinsonian symptoms without provoking dyskinesia, suggesting this receptor may offer a new target for the antisymptomatic therapy of Parkinson's disease. In the present study, a significant neuroprotective effect of A2A receptor antagonists is shown in experimental models of Parkinson's disease. Oral administration of A2A receptor antagonists protected against the loss of nigral dopaminergic neuronal cells induced by 6-hydroxydopamine in rats. A2A antagonists also prevented the functional loss of dopaminergic nerve terminals in the striatum and the ensuing gliosis caused by MPTP in mice. The neuroprotective property of A2A receptor antagonists may be exerted by altering the packaging of these neurotoxins into vesicles, thus reducing their effective intracellular concentration. We therefore conclude that the adenosine A2A receptor may provide a novel target for the long-term medication of Parkinson's disease, because blockade of this receptor exerts both acutely antisymptomatic and chronically neuroprotective activities.

  15. Selective endothelin receptor blockade in resistant hypertension: results of the DORADO trial.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Guido

    2011-01-01

    Effective treatment of resistant hypertension still remains an unmet goal of antihypertensive drug treatment. The DORADO trial recently evaluated the efficacy and safety profile of the selective endothelin receptor blocker darusentan in almost 400 hypertensive patients treated with more than four antihypertensive drugs (including a diuretic) but without effective blood pressure control. The trial results show that > 50% of patients treated with the drug exhibit clinical blood pressure < 140/90 mmHg and well-controlled ambulatory blood pressure values. Darusentan, however, was associated with a high incidence of peripheral edema and fluid retention, a side effect that may reduce the safety profile of the drug and its tolerability. Although these data are promising, the drug requires further evaluation, with particularly regard to the long term.

  16. Role of endothelin-A receptors in optic nerve head red cell flux regulation during isometric exercise in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Boltz, Agnes; Schmidl, Doreen; Werkmeister, René M; Lasta, Michael; Kaya, Semira; Palkovits, Stefan; Told, Reinhard; Frantal, Sophie; Garhöfer, Gerhard; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an important regulator of vascular tone in the eye. It appears to play a role in ocular disease because of its strong vasoconstrictor action, its role in intraocular pressure homeostasis, and its neurotoxic potential. We have previously shown that ET-1 is involved in choroidal red cell flux (RCF) regulation during isometric exercise in healthy humans. In the present study we hypothesized that ET-1 also plays a role in optic nerve head (ONH) RCF regulation during isometric exercise. To test this hypothesis, we performed a randomized, double-masked, placebo-controlled, two-way crossover study in 15 healthy volunteers. Subjects were randomized to receive intravenous infusions of the specific endothelin type A receptor antagonist BQ-123 and placebo on two different study days. During these infusion periods, subjects performed squatting for 6 min to increase ocular perfusion pressure (OPP). ONH RCF was assessed with laser-Doppler flowmetry, and OPP was calculated from mean arterial pressure and intraocular pressure. BQ-123 did not change OPP or ONH RCF at baseline. The relative increase in OPP during isometric exercise was comparable between both groups (between 84 and 88%, P = 0.76 between groups; P < 0.001 vs. baseline). Isometric exercise increased ONH RCF during placebo and BQ-123, but the increase was more pronounced when the endothelin type-A receptor antagonist was administered (placebo, 27.3 ± 5.4%; and BQ-123, 39.2 ± 4.4%; P = 0.007 between groups). The present data indicate that ET-1 regulates red cell flux in the ONH beyond the autoregulatory range.

  17. Combined endothelin a blockade and chlorthalidone treatment in a rat model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chunhua; Jeon, Yejoo; Kleven, Daniel T; Pollock, Jennifer S; White, John J; Pollock, David M

    2014-11-01

    Experiments determined whether the combination of endothelin A (ETA) receptor antagonist [ABT-627, atrasentan; (2R,3R,4S)-4-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-[2-(dibutylamino)-2-oxoethyl]-2-(4-methoxyphenyl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid] and a thiazide diuretic (chlorthalidone) would be more effective at lowering blood pressure and reducing renal injury in a rodent model of metabolic syndrome compared with either treatment alone. Male Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high-fat (36% fat), high-salt (4% NaCl) diet for 4 weeks. Separate groups of rats were then treated with vehicle (control), ABT-627 (ABT; 5 mg/kg per day, in drinking water), chlorthalidone (CLTD; 5 mg/kg per day, in drinking water), or both ABT plus CLTD. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was recorded continuously by telemetry. After 4 weeks, both ABT and CLTD severely attenuated the development of hypertension, whereas the combination further reduced MAP compared with ABT alone. All treatments prevented proteinuria. CLTD and ABT plus CLTD significantly reduced nephrin (a podocyte injury marker) and kidney injury molecule-1 (a tubulointerstitial injury marker) excretion. ABT, with or without CLTD, significantly reduced plasma 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine, a measure of DNA oxidation, whereas CLTD alone had no effect. All treatments suppressed the number of ED1(+) cells (macrophages) in the kidney. Plasma tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2 were reduced only in the combined ABT and CLTD group. These results suggest that ABT and CLTD have antihypertensive and renal-protective effects in a model of metabolic syndrome that are maximally effective when both drugs are administered together. The findings support the hypothesis that combined ETA antagonist and diuretic treatment may provide therapeutic benefit for individuals with metabolic syndrome consuming a Western diet. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. Antifibrotic effects of ambrisentan, an endothelin-A receptor antagonist, in a non-alcoholic steatohepatitis mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Okamoto, Toshiaki; Koda, Masahiko; Miyoshi, Kennichi; Onoyama, Takumi; Kishina, Manabu; Matono, Tomomitsu; Sugihara, Takaaki; Hosho, Keiko; Okano, Junichi; Isomoto, Hajime; Murawaki, Yoshikazu

    2016-01-01

    AIM To examine the effects of the endothelin type A receptor antagonist ambrisentan on hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in a steatohepatitis mouse model. METHODS Fatty liver shionogi (FLS) FLS-ob/ob mice (male, 12 wk old) received ambrisentan (2.5 mg/kg orally per day; n = 8) or water as a control (n = 5) for 4 wk. Factors were compared between the two groups, including steatosis, fibrosis, inflammation, and endothelin-related gene expression in the liver. RESULTS In the ambrisentan group, hepatic hydroxyproline content was significantly lower than in the control group (18.0 μg/g ± 6.1 μg/g vs 33.9 μg/g ± 13.5 μg/g liver, respectively, P = 0.014). Hepatic fibrosis estimated by Sirius red staining and areas positive for α-smooth muscle actin, indicative of activated hepatic stellate cells, were also significantly lower in the ambrisentan group (0.46% ± 0.18% vs 1.11% ± 0.28%, respectively, P = 0.0003; and 0.12% ± 0.08% vs 0.25% ± 0.11%, respectively, P = 0.047). Moreover, hepatic RNA expression levels of procollagen-1 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) were significantly lower by 60% and 45%, respectively, in the ambrisentan group. Inflammation, steatosis, and endothelin-related mRNA expression in the liver were not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSION Ambrisentan attenuated the progression of hepatic fibrosis by inhibiting hepatic stellate cell activation and reducing procollagen-1 and TIMP-1 gene expression. Ambrisentan did not affect inflammation or steatosis. PMID:27574547

  19. The Endothelin Type A Receptor as a Potential Therapeutic Target in Preeclampsia

    PubMed Central

    Bakrania, Bhavisha; Duncan, Jeremy; Warrington, Junie P.; Granger, Joey P.

    2017-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) is a disorder of pregnancy typically characterized by new onset hypertension after gestational week 20 and proteinuria. Although PE is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and death worldwide, the mechanisms of the pathogenesis of the disease remain unclear and treatment options are limited. However, there is increasing evidence to suggest that endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays a critical role in the pathophysiology of PE. Multiple studies report that ET-1 is increased in PE and some studies report a positive correlation between ET-1 and the severity of symptoms. A number of experimental models of PE are also associated with elevated tissue levels of prepro ET-1 mRNA. Moreover, experimental models of PE (placental ischemia, sFlt-1 infusion, Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α infusion, and Angiotensin II type 1 receptor autoantibody (AT1-AA) infusion) have proven to be susceptible to Endothelin Type A (ETA) receptor antagonism. While the results are promising, further work is needed to determine whether ET antagonists could provide an effective therapy for the management of preeclampsia. PMID:28264495

  20. Endothelin Receptor Blockade Ameliorates Vascular Fragility in Endothelial Cell–Specific Fli-1–Knockout Mice by Increasing Fli-1 DNA Binding Ability

    PubMed Central

    Akamata, Kaname; Asano, Yoshihide; Yamashita, Takashi; Noda, Shinji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Takahashi, Takehiro; Ichimura, Yohei; Toyama, Tetsuo; Trojanowska, Maria; Sato, Shinichi

    2016-01-01

    Objective It is generally accepted that blockade of endothelin receptors has potentially beneficial effects on vasculopathy associated with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The aim of this study was to clarify the molecular mechanism underlying these effects using endothelial cell–specific Fli-1–knockout (Fli-1 ECKO) mice, an animal model of SSc vasculopathy. Methods Levels of messenger RNA for target genes and the expression and phosphorylation levels of target proteins were determined in human and murine dermal microvascular endothelial cells by real-time quantitative reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting, respectively. The binding of Fli-1 to the target gene promoters was evaluated using chromatin immunoprecipitation. Expression levels of Fli-1 and α-smooth muscle actin in murine skin were evaluated using immunohistochemistry. Vascular structure and permeability were evaluated in mice injected with fluorescein isothiocyanate–dextran and Evans blue dye, respectively. Results In human dermal microvascular endothelial cells, endothelin 1 induced phosphorylation of Fli-1 at Thr312 through the sequential activation of c-Abl and protein kinase Cδ, leading to a decrease in Fli-1 protein levels as well as a decrease in binding of Fli-1 to the target gene promoters, whereas bosentan treatment reversed those effects. In Fli-1 ECKO mice, 4 weeks of treatment with bosentan increased endothelial Fli-1 expression, resulting in vascular stabilization and the restoration of impaired leaky vessels. Conclusion The vascular fragility of Fli-1 ECKO mice was improved by bosentan through the normalization of Fli-1 protein levels and activity in endothelial cells, which may explain, in part, the mechanism underlying the beneficial effects of endothelin receptor blockade on SSc vasculopathy. PMID:25707716

  1. Effect of clazosentan, a selective endothelin A receptor antagonist, and tezosentan, a dual endothelin A/B antagonist, on pulsatile shear stress induced constriction of the iliac in the anaesthetized pig.

    PubMed

    Ruane-O'Hora, Therese; Rae, Mark George; Markos, Farouk

    2011-08-01

    1. The effects of changes in mean and pulsatile shear stress on the diameter of the iliac of the anaesthetized pig were investigated in the presence of clazosentan and tezosentan. 2. A total of 17 pigs were used. Mean shear stress was increased by infusing acetylcholine downstream (2-20 μg/min) through the deep femoral artery. Pulsatile shear stress was enhanced first by injecting varying volumes (1-10 mL) of calcium gluconate (stock 10 mg/mL) directly into the left ventricle. Second, by electrical stimulation of the left sympathetic nerves to the heart (1-16 Hz, 4 min duration, supramaximal voltage). 3. An increase in mean shear stress induced a vasodilation that was not altered significantly by the selective endothelin A antagonist clazosentan (10 mg/kg i.v.). Similarly, the vasoconstriction induced by an increase in pulsatile shear stress brought about by either calcium gluconate injections or left sympathetic nerve stimulation was unaffected by clazosentan. However, tezosentan (10 mg/kg i.v.), significantly attenuated the vasoconstriction induced by an increase in pulsatile shear stress. 4. In conclusion, an increase in pulsatile shear stress causes vasoconstriction of the pig iliac artery, which is attenuated by dual endothelin receptor antagonism, but not by specific endothelin A blockade.

  2. Remodeling of striatal NMDA receptors by chronic A(2A) receptor blockade in Huntington's disease mice.

    PubMed

    Martire, Alberto; Ferrante, Antonella; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Armida, Monica; Ferretti, Roberta; Pézzola, Antonella; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Popoli, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Excitotoxicity plays a major role in the pathogenesis of Huntington disease (HD), a fatal neurodegenerative disorder. Adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) modulate excitotoxicity and have been suggested to play a pathogenetic role in HD. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of A(2A)R blockade on the expression and functions of NMDA receptors in the striatum of HD mice (R6/2). We found that 3 weeks' treatment with SCH 58261 (0.01 mg/kg/day i.p. from the 8th week of age) modified NR1 and NR2A/NR2B expression in the striatum of R6/2 (Western blotting) while had no effect on NMDA-induced toxicity in corticostriatal slices (electrophysiological experiments). In conclusion, in vivo A(2A)R blockade induced a remodeling of NMDA receptors in the striatum of HD mice. Even though the functional relevance of the above effect remains to be fully elucidated, these results add further evidence to the modulatory role of A(2A)Rs in HD.

  3. Minimally Modified LDL Upregulates Endothelin Type A Receptors in Rat Coronary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Cao, Lei; Xu, Cang-Bao; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated the effects of mmLDL on the expression of endothelin type A (ETA) receptors in coronary arteries. Rat coronary arteries were organ-cultured for 24 h. The contractile responses were recorded using a myographic system. ETA receptor mRNA and protein expressions were determined using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that organ-culturing in the presence of mmLDL enhanced the arterial contractility mediated by the ETA receptor in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Culturing with mmLDL (10 μg/mL) for 24 h shifted the concentration-contractile curves toward the left significantly with increased Emax of 228% ± 20% from control of 100% ± 10% and significantly increased ETA receptor mRNA and protein levels. Inhibition of the protein kinase C, extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), or NF-κB activities significantly attenuated the effects of mmLDL. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor or the p38 pathway inhibitor, however, had no such effects. The results indicate that mmLDL upregulates the ETA receptors in rat coronary arterial smooth muscle cells mainly via activating protein kinase C, ERK1/2, and the downstream transcriptional factor, NF-κB. PMID:23861561

  4. Long-Term Endothelin-A Receptor Antagonism Provides Robust Renal Protection in Humanized Sickle Cell Disease Mice.

    PubMed

    Kasztan, Malgorzata; Fox, Brandon M; Speed, Joshua S; De Miguel, Carmen; Gohar, Eman Y; Townes, Tim M; Kutlar, Abdullah; Pollock, Jennifer S; Pollock, David M

    2017-03-27

    Sickle cell disease (SCD)-associated nephropathy is a major source of morbidity and mortality in patients because of the lack of efficacious treatments targeting renal manifestations of the disease. Here, we describe a long-term treatment strategy with the selective endothelin-A receptor (ETA) antagonist, ambrisentan, designed to interfere with the development of nephropathy in a humanized mouse model of SCD. Ambrisentan preserved GFR at the level of nondisease controls and prevented the development of proteinuria, albuminuria, and nephrinuria. Microscopy studies demonstrated prevention of podocyte loss and structural alterations, the absence of vascular congestion, and attenuation of glomerulosclerosis in treated mice. Studies in isolated glomeruli showed that treatment reduced inflammation and oxidative stress. At the level of renal tubules, ambrisentan treatment prevented the increased excretion of urinary tubular injury biomarkers. Additionally, the treatment strategy prevented tubular brush border loss, diminished tubular iron deposition, blocked the development of interstitial fibrosis, and prevented immune cell infiltration. Furthermore, the prevention of albuminuria in treated mice was associated with preservation of cortical megalin expression. In a separate series of identical experiments, combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonism provided only some of the protection observed with ambrisentan, highlighting the importance of exclusively targeting the ETA receptor in SCD. Our results demonstrate that ambrisentan treatment provides robust protection from diverse renal pathologies in SCD mice, and suggest that long-term ETA receptor antagonism may provide a strategy for the prevention of renal complications of SCD.

  5. ETA receptor blockade attenuates hypertension and decreases reactive oxygen species in ETB receptor-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Elmarakby, Ahmed A; Dabbs Loomis, E; Pollock, Jennifer S; Pollock, David M

    2004-11-01

    We hypothesize that endothelin-A receptor stimulation contributes to the elevated blood pressure and superoxide production in endothelin-B receptor-deficient rats on a high salt diet. Experiments were conducted on homozygous endothelin-B-deficient (sl/sl) and wild-type rats (wt) fed a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 3 weeks. Separate groups were given normal drinking water or water containing the endothelin-A receptor antagonist, ABT-627 (5 mg/kg per day; n = 8-9 in all groups). On a normal salt diet, (sl/sl) rats had a significantly elevated systolic blood pressure compared with wt (138 +/- 3 vs 117 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). High salt diet caused a significant increase in systolic blood pressure in (sl/sl) rats compared with wt (158 +/- 2 vs 138 +/- 3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). Endothelin-A receptor blockade decreased systolic blood pressure in (sl/sl) rats on high salt (125 +/- 5 mmHg; P < 0.05 vs without antagonist) without affecting the systolic blood pressure in wt (119 +/- 4 mmHg). Aortic superoxide production (lucigenin chemiluminescence) and plasma 8-isoprostane were elevated in sl/sl rats and were significantly reduced by endothelin-A receptor blockade in sl/sl, but not in wt rats. These findings suggest that endothelin-1, through the endothelin-A receptor, contributes to salt-induced hypertension and vascular superoxide production in endothelin-B-deficient rats.

  6. Endothelin A receptor blocker atrasentan lowers blood pressure by the reduction of nifedipine-sensitive calcium influx in Ren-2 transgenic rats fed a high-salt diet.

    PubMed

    Vaněčková, Ivana; Dobešová, Zdenka; Kuneš, Jaroslav; Vernerová, Zdenka; Zicha, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Our previous experiments demonstrated that selective endothelin A (ETA) receptor blockade had antihypertensive effects in Ren-2 transgenic rats (TGRs), but the mechanisms responsible for this change of blood pressure (BP) have not been explored yet. Four-week-old male heterozygous TGRs and their normotensive controls--Hannover Sprague-Dawley (HanSD) rats--were fed high-salt diet (2% NaCl) and were treated with selective ETA receptor blocker atrasentan (5 mg/kg per day) for 8 weeks. At the end of the study, the contribution of principle vasoactive systems was evaluated by the sequential blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (captopril), sympathetic nervous system (pentolinium) and nitric oxide synthase [N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)]. The role of calcium influx through L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels in BP maintenance was evaluated using nifedipine. In a separate group of animals, the efficiency of distinct vasodilator systems--prostanoids (blocked by nonselective cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin) and Ca-activated K channels (inhibited by tetraethylammonium)--was also analyzed. Atrasentan attenuated the development of hypertension in heterozygous TGRs, but had no effects in Hannover Sprague-Dawley rats. Moreover, atrasentan moderately attenuated renin-angiotensin system-dependent vasoconstriction, whereas it had no effect on sympathetic vasoconstriction. The nifedipine-sensitive BP component was markedly decreased by atrasentan treatment. In contrast, vasodilatation mediated by nitric oxide, endogenous prostanoids or Ca-activated K channels was reduced in atrasentan-treated TGRs, indicating the absence of compensatory augmentation of endothelin B receptor-mediated vasodilation in these animals. BP-lowering effect of chronic atrasentan treatment in TGRs was mainly caused by reduced Ca influx through L-type voltage-dependent calcium channels due to missing ETA receptor-dependent vasoconstriction and attenuated angiotensin II

  7. Endothelin ETA receptor antagonism in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Nasser, Suzanne A; El-Mas, Mahmoud M

    2014-08-15

    Since the discovery of the endothelin system in 1988, it has been implicated in numerous physiological and pathological phenomena. In the cardiovascular system, endothelin-1 (ET-1) acts through intracellular pathways of two endothelin receptors (ETA and ETB) located mainly on smooth muscle and endothelial cells to regulate vascular tone and provoke mitogenic and proinflammatory reactions. The endothelin ETA receptor is believed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of several cardiovascular disease including systemic hypertension, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), dilated cardiomyopathy, and diabetic microvascular dysfunction. Growing evidence from recent experimental and clinical studies indicates that the blockade of endothelin receptors, particularly the ETA subtype, grasps promise in the treatment of major cardiovascular pathologies. The simultaneous blockade of endothelin ETB receptors might not be advantageous, leading possibly to vasoconstriction and salt and water retentions. This review summarizes the role of ET-1 in cardiovascular modulation and the therapeutic potential of endothelin receptor antagonism.

  8. Endothelin B Receptor, a New Target in Cancer Immune Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kandalaft, Lana E.; Facciabene, Andrea; Buckanovich, Ron J.; Coukos, George

    2010-01-01

    The endothelins and their G protein-coupled receptors A and B have been implicated innumerous diseases and have recently emerged as pivotal players in a variety of malignancies. Tumors over-express the endothelin 1 (ET-1) ligand and the endothelin-A-receptor (ETAR). Their interaction induces tumor growth and metastasis by promoting tumor cell survival and proliferation, angiogenesis, and tissue remodeling. On the basis of results from xenograft models, drug development efforts have focused on antagonizing the autocrine-paracrine effects mediated by ET-1/ETAR. In this review, we discuss a novel role of the endothelin-B-receptor (ETBR) in tumorigenesis and the effect of its blockade during cancer immune therapy. We highlight key characteristics of the B receptor such as its specific overexpression in the tumor compartment; and specifically, in the tumor endothelium, where its activation by ET-1 suppresses T-cell adhesion and homing to tumors. We also review our recent findings on the effects of ETBR-specific blockade in increasing T-cell homing to tumors and enhancing the efficacy of otherwise ineffective immunotherapy. PMID:19567593

  9. Adenosine A2A receptor blockade differentially influences excitotoxic mechanisms at pre- and postsynaptic sites in the rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Tebano, Maria Teresa; Pintor, Annita; Frank, Claudio; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Martire, Alberto; Pepponi, Rita; Potenza, Rosa Luisa; Grieco, Rosa; Popoli, Patrizia

    2004-07-01

    Adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonists are being regarded as potential neuroprotective drugs, although the mechanisms underlying their effects need to be better studied. The aim of this work was to investigate further the mechanism of the neuroprotective action of A(2A) receptor antagonists in models of pre- and postsynaptic excitotoxicity. In microdialysis studies, the intrastriatal perfusion of the A(2A) receptor antagonist ZM 241385 (5 and 50 nM) significantly reduced, in an inversely dose-dependent way, the raise in glutamate outflow induced by 5 mM quinolinic acid (QA). In rat corticostriatal slices, ZM 241385 (30-100 nM) significantly reduced 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced paired-pulse inhibition (PPI; an index of neurotransmitter release), whereas it worsened the depression of field potential amplitude elicited by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA; 12.5 and 50 microM). The A(2A) antagonist SCH 58261 (30 nM) mimicked the effects of ZM 241385, whereas the A(2A) agonist CGS 21680 (100 nM) showed a protective influence toward 50 microM NMDA. In rat striatal neurons, 50 nM ZM 241385 did not affect the increase in [Ca(2+)](i) or the release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) induced by 100 and 300 microM NMDA, respectively. The ability of ZM 241385 to prevent QA-induced glutamate outflow and 4-AP-induced effects confirms that A(2A) receptor antagonists have inhibitory effects on neurotransmitter release, whereas the results obtained toward NMDA-induced effects suggest that A(2A) receptor blockade does not reduce, or even amplifies, excitotoxic mechanisms due to direct NMDA receptor stimulation. This indicates that the neuroprotective potential of A(2A) antagonists may be evident mainly in models of neurodegeneration in which presynaptic mechanisms play a major role.

  10. Adenosine A2A Receptor Blockade Prevents Rotenone-Induced Motor Impairment in a Rat Model of Parkinsonism

    PubMed Central

    Fathalla, Ahmed M.; Soliman, Amira M.; Ali, Mohamed H.; Moustafa, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological studies implicate the blockade of adenosine receptorsas an effective strategy for reducing Parkinson’s disease (PD) symptoms. The objective of this study is to elucidate the possible protective effects of ZM241385 and 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine, two selective A2A and A1 receptor antagonists, on a rotenone rat model of PD. Rats were split into four groups: vehicle control (1 ml/kg/48 h), rotenone (1.5 mg/kg/48 h, s.c.), ZM241385 (3.3 mg/kg/day, i.p) and 8-cyclopentyl-1, 3-dipropylxanthine (5 mg/kg/day, i.p). After that, animals were subjected to behavioral (stride length and grid walking) and biochemical (measuring concentration of dopamine levels using high performance liquid chromatography, HPLC). In the rotenone group, rats displayed a reduced motor activity and disturbed movement coordination in the behavioral tests and a decreased dopamine concentration as foundby HPLC. The effect of rotenone was partially prevented in the ZM241385 group, but not with 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine administration. The administration of ZM241385 improved motor function and movement coordination (partial increase of stride length and partial decrease in the number of foot slips) and an increase in dopamine concentration in the rotenone-injected rats. However, the 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine and rotenone groups were not significantly different. These results indicate that selective A2A receptor blockade by ZM241385, but not A1 receptor blockadeby 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine, may treat PD motor symptoms. This reinforces the potential use of A2A receptor antagonists as a treatment strategy for PD patients. PMID:26973484

  11. Overexpression of Endothelin-A-receptor in breast cancer: regulation by estradiol and cobalt-chloride induced hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wülfing, Pia; Götte, Martin; Sonntag, Barbara; Kersting, Christian; Schmidt, Hartmut; Wülfing, Christian; Buerger, Horst; Greb, Robert; Böcker, Werner; Kiesel, Ludwig

    2005-04-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the potential significance of Endothelin (ET)-1 and its receptors, ETAR and ETBR, in the development and progression of breast cancer. The objective of this study was to assess the expression levels and potential regulation of the "ET axis" in human non-neoplastic and neoplastic breast tissue as well as in various human breast cancer cell lines. Expression of ET-1, ETAR and ETBR was evaluated in 31 neoplastic and 7 non-neoplastic breast tissue samples and in six human breast cancer cell lines using conventional and quantitative real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. The effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and cobalt-chloride (CoCl2) treatment on ET-1, ETAR and ETBR expression were studied in vitro. ETAR mRNA expression levels were found to be statistically significantly higher in breast cancer specimens than in non-neoplastic breast tissue (p<0.001). For ET-1 and ETBR mRNA expression, no significant difference was observed between the two groups. All cell lines exhibited expression of ET-1 and ETAR mRNA, whereas none showed significant ETBR mRNA expression. We observed a strong and reproducible induction of ETAR mRNA and protein expression by E2 and CoCl2 in MDA-MB-468 and BT-474 cells and in MDA-MB-453 and SK-BR-3 cells with a maximum increase after 8 and 16 h of treatment, respectively, while MCF-7 and HBL-100 cells showed a constitutive expression pattern. The present data suggest a novel mechanism in the regulation of ETAR expression in breast cancer. Based on these findings, a combination of ETAR-antagonists with adjuvant endocrine treatment seems to be a reasonable therapeutic strategy.

  12. Selective endothelinA receptor antagonism with sitaxsentan for pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with connective tissue disease

    PubMed Central

    Girgis, Reda E; Frost, Adaani E; Hill, Nicholas S; Horn, Evelyn M; Langleben, David; McLaughlin, Vallerie V; Oudiz, Ronald J; Robbins, Ivan M; Seibold, James R; Shapiro, Shelley; Tapson, Victor F; Barst, Robyn J

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Endothelin receptor antagonism has become an important component in the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) associated with connective tissue disease (CTD). The purpose of this study was to analyse the safety and effectiveness of sitaxsentan, a selective antagonist of the ETA receptor, in a cohort of patients with PAH and CTD. Short‐term clinical and haemodynamic effects and longer‐term follow‐up data are presented. Methods A post hoc subgroup analysis was performed on 42 patients who had PAH associated with CTD, out of a group of 178 patients enrolled in a 12‐week, double‐blind, randomised clinical trial of sitaxsentan versus placebo. Data from 33 patients assigned to sitaxsentan 100 mg or 300 mg daily were pooled and compared with nine placebo‐treated patients. There were 41 patients entered into the blinded extension study, in which all patients received either 100 mg or 300 mg sitaxsentan once daily. Results Patients treated with sitaxsentan had a mean (SD) increase in 6 minute walk distance of 20 (5) m from baseline to week 12 (p = 0.037), whereas the placebo group had a decrease of 38 (84) m, resulting in a placebo‐subtracted treatment effect of 58 m (p = 0.027). Parallel improvements in quality of life and haemodynamics were also observed. No patient discontinued their drug during the 12‐week trial. In the blinded extension study (median treatment duration 26 weeks), more patients were in functional class I–II than in III–IV (p<0.001) at the end of the study compared with the start of active therapy. Elevation of hepatic transaminase levels occurred in two patients. Conclusions Sitaxsentan appears to be efficacious in patients with PAH associated with CTD. PMID:17472992

  13. Endothelin-1 induces proliferation of human lung fibroblasts and IL-11 secretion through an ET(A) receptor-dependent activation of MAP kinases.

    PubMed

    Gallelli, Luca; Pelaia, Girolamo; D'Agostino, Bruno; Cuda, Giovanni; Vatrella, Alessandro; Fratto, Donatella; Gioffrè, Vincenza; Galderisi, Umberto; De Nardo, Marilisa; Mastruzzo, Claudio; Salinaro, Elisa Trovato; Maniscalco, Mauro; Sofia, Matteo; Crimi, Nunzio; Rossi, Francesco; Caputi, Mario; Costanzo, Francesco S; Maselli, Rosario; Marsico, Serafino A; Vancheri, Carlo

    2005-11-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is implicated in the fibrotic responses characterizing interstitial lung diseases, as well as in the airway remodeling process occurring in asthma. Within such a context, the aim of our study was to investigate, in primary cultures of normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLFs), the ET-1 receptor subtypes, and the intracellular signal transduction pathways involved in the proliferative effects of this peptide. Therefore, cells were exposed to ET-1 in the presence or absence of an overnight pre-treatment with either ET(A) or ET(B) selective receptor antagonists. After cell lysis, immunoblotting was performed using monoclonal antibodies against the phosphorylated, active forms of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). ET-1 induced a significant increase in MAPK phosphorylation pattern, and also stimulated fibroblast proliferation and IL-6/IL-11 release into cell culture supernatants. All these effects were inhibited by the selective ET(A) antagonist BQ-123, but not by the specific ET(B) antagonist BQ-788. The stimulatory influence of ET-1 on IL-11, but not on IL-6 secretion, was prevented by MAPK inhibitors. Therefore, such results suggest that in human lung fibroblasts ET-1 exerts a profibrogenic action via an ET(A) receptor-dependent, MAPK-mediated induction of IL-11 release and cell proliferation.

  14. Protection from renal ischemia reperfusion injury by an endothelin-A receptor antagonist BQ-123 in relation to nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Erdogan, Hasan; Fadillioglu, Ersin; Emre, Memet Hanifi

    2006-12-07

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the protective effect of endothelin-A (ET(A)) receptor antagonist BQ-123 against renal ischemia reperfusion (I/R) injury is related to nitric oxide (NO) production. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into six groups: control, I/R, N sup omega nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), BQ, BQ+L-NAME, BQ+L-NAME+L-Arg groups. After urethane anesthesia, 30min renal ischemia and 2h reperfusion were performed in all groups except control group. Mean arterial pressures (MAP) during reperfusion in all L-NAME-treated groups were higher than during pre-ischemia and ischemia, however, MAP at 60th and 120th minute of reperfusion in control and BQ groups were lower than during ischemia. MAP of L-NAME-treated groups were significantly higher than the other groups during reperfusion period. The I/R caused lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation, however, BQ-123 treatment prevented oxidant injury. The inhibition of NO production prevented effect of BQ-123 treatment. Also, BQ-123 treatment caused an increase in superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Both BQ-123 and L-NAME treatments prevented high xanthine oxidase activity. BQ-123 prevented risen myeloperoxidase activity and L-NAME reversed this effect of BQ-123 just like the addition of L-arginine to the treatment altered the effect of L-NAME. The plasma BUN was affected as increasing manner from L-NAME treatments; on the other hand, plasma Cr and Na concentrations were affected as decreasing manner from BQ-123 treatments. ET(A) receptor antagonist BQ-123 may be revealed a protective agent against renal I/R injury with a possible secondary pathway via its antioxidant effects. We suggest that BQ-123 may mediate the protective effect via a NO-dependent mechanism.

  15. Renal endothelin system and excretory function in Wistar-Kyoto and Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Girchev, R; Bäcker, A; Markova, P; Kramer, H J

    2006-01-01

    The role of the kidney endothelin system in the renal regulation of fluid and electrolyte excretion was investigated in Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Long-Evans (LE) rats in which we found previously marked differences in the renal excretory responses to endothelin A receptor blockade. The selective endothelin A and B receptor antagonists BQ-123 (16.4 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)) and BQ-788 (25 nmol kg(-1) min(-1)) were infused i.v. for 50 min in conscious chronically instrumented WKY and LE rats and their renal function and renal endothelin system were studied. Without effects on glomerular filtration rate or renal blood flow, BQ-123 and BQ-788 decreased by more than 50% (P < 0.01) both urine flow rate and electrolyte excretion in WKY rats but only urine flow rate (P < 0.05) in LE rats. Endothelin-1 content, preproET-1/GPDH mRNA ratio, B(max) and K(d) of total endothelin receptors in renal cortex did not differ between the two strains. In contrast, plasma endothelin-1 concentration (0.58 +/- 0.04 vs. 1.05 +/- 0.01 femtomol mL(-1); P < 0.01), renal papillary ET-1 concentration (68 +/- 5 vs. 478 +/- 62 fmol mg(-1) protein; P < 0.01) and preproET-1/GPDH mRNA ratio (0.65 +/- 0.09 vs. 0.88 +/- 0.05; P < 0.05) as well as total endothelin receptor number in renal papilla (B(max) 5.3 +/- 0.4 vs. and 9.0 +/- 1.2 pmol mg(-1) protein; P < 0.05) were markedly lower in LE than in WKY rats. In vitro studies showed that in both strains ET(B) receptors on renal cortical membranes amounted between 65% and 67% and on papillary membranes between 85% and 88%. The present data show that the selective ET(A) or ET(B) receptor blockade differentially affects tubular water and salt handling, which becomes apparent in conditions of low renal papillary endothelin receptor number and tissue endothelin-1 concentration.

  16. Specific endothelin ET(A) receptor antagonism does not modulate insulin-induced hemodynamic effects in the human kidney, eye, or forearm.

    PubMed

    Rab, Anna; Dallinger, Susanne; Polak, Kaija; Pleiner, Johannes; Polska, Elzbieta; Wolzt, Michael; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2004-05-01

    There is evidence that hyperinsulinemia may stimulate endothelin-1 (ET-1) generation or release, which may affect diabetic vascular complications. BQ-123, a specific ET(A) receptor antagonist, was used to investigate if insulin-induced vascular effects are influenced by an acute ET-1 release. Two randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind, cross-over studies were performed. In protocol 1, 12 healthy subjects received, on separate study days, infusions of BQ-123 (60 microg/min for 30 min) during placebo clamp conditions, BQ-123 during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia (3 mU/kg/min for 390 min), or placebo during euglycemic hyperinsulinemia. Fundus pulsation amplitude (FPA) was measured to assess pulsatile choroidal blood flow, and mean flow velocity (MFV) of the ophtalmic artery was measured by color Doppler imaging. In protocol 2, eight healthy subjects received, on separate study days, intra-arterial infusions of BQ-123 (32 microg/min for 120 min) during placebo or insulin clamp. Forearm blood flow was measured with bilateral plethysmography, expressing the ratio of responses in the intervention arm and in the control arm. Insulin alone increased FPA (+10%, p < 0.001) and forearm blood flow (+19%). BQ-123 increased FPA, MFV, and forearm blood flow ratio in the absence and presence of exogenous insulin, but this effect was not different between normo- and hyperinsulinemic conditions. ET-1 plasma concentrations were not affected by insulin. In conclusion, these data do not support the concept that hyperinsulinemia increases ET-1 generation in healthy subjects. Our results, however, cannot necessarily be extrapolated to diabetic and obese subjects.

  17. Preliminary study of the specific endothelin a receptor antagonist zibotentan in combination with docetaxel in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Trump, Donald L; Payne, Heather; Miller, Kurt; de Bono, Johann S; Stephenson, Joe; Burris, Howard A; Nathan, Faith; Taboada, Maria; Morris, Thomas; Hubner, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    This two-part study assessed the safety and tolerability of combined treatment with zibotentan (ZD4054), a specific endothelin A receptor antagonist, plus docetaxel in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Part A was an open-label, dose-finding phase to determine the safety and toxicity profile of zibotentan in combination with docetaxel. Patients received once-daily oral zibotentan 10 mg (initial cohort) or 15 mg in combination with docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) (administered on day 1 of each 21-day cycle) for up to 10 cycles. Part B was a double-blind phase which evaluated the safety and preliminary activity of zibotentan plus docetaxel. Patients were randomized 2:1 to receive zibotentan (at the highest tolerated dose identified in part A) plus docetaxel or placebo plus docetaxel. Six patients were enrolled in part A (n  = 3, zibotentan 10 mg; n = 3, zibotentan 15 mg). No dose-limiting toxicity was observed, thus zibotentan 15 mg in combination with docetaxel was evaluated in part B (n = 20, zibotentan plus docetaxel; n = 11, placebo plus docetaxel). CTCAE grade ≥3, most commonly neutropenia or leucopenia, were reported in 10 (50%) and nine (82%) patients in the zibotentan and placebo groups, respectively. One (17%) patient receiving placebo achieved complete response, two (22%) patients receiving zibotentan achieved partial response and stable disease occurred in six (67%) and three (50%) patients receiving zibotentan and placebo, respectively. The tolerability of zibotentan plus docetaxel was consistent with the known profiles of each drug. Sufficient preliminary activity was seen with this combination to merit continued development. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Differential effects of presynaptic versus postsynaptic adenosine A2A receptor blockade on Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) self-administration in squirrel monkeys.

    PubMed

    Justinová, Zuzana; Redhi, Godfrey H; Goldberg, Steven R; Ferré, Sergi

    2014-05-07

    Different doses of an adenosine A2A receptor antagonist MSX-3 [3,7-dihydro-8-[(1E)-2-(3-ethoxyphenyl)ethenyl]-7 methyl-3-[3-(phosphooxy)propyl-1-(2 propynil)-1H-purine-2,6-dione] were found previously to either decrease or increase self-administration of cannabinoids delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) or anandamide in squirrel monkeys. It was hypothesized that the decrease observed with a relatively low dose of MSX-3 was related to blockade of striatal presynaptic A2A receptors that modulate glutamatergic neurotransmission, whereas the increase observed with a higher dose was related to blockade of postsynaptic A2A receptors localized in striatopallidal neurons. This hypothesis was confirmed in the present study by testing the effects of the preferential presynaptic and postsynaptic A2A receptor antagonists SCH-442416 [2-(2-furanyl)-7-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propyl]-7H-pyrazolo[4,3-e][1,2,4]triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidin-5-amine] and KW-6002 [(E)-1, 3-diethyl-8-(3,4-dimethoxystyryl)-7-methyl-3,7-dihydro-1H-purine-2,6-dione], respectively, in squirrel monkeys trained to intravenously self-administer THC. SCH-442416 produced a significant shift to the right of the THC self-administration dose-response curves, consistent with antagonism of the reinforcing effects of THC. Conversely, KW-6002 produced a significant shift to the left, consistent with potentiation of the reinforcing effects of THC. These results show that selectively blocking presynaptic A2A receptors could provide a new pharmacological approach to the treatment of marijuana dependence and underscore corticostriatal glutamatergic neurotransmission as a possible main mechanism involved in the rewarding effects of THC.

  19. Blockade of Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptors Suppresses Behavioral Sensitization and Naloxone-Precipitated Withdrawal Symptoms in Morphine-Treated Mice

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Gang; Wu, Xian; Tao, Xinrong; Mao, Ruoying; Liu, Xueke; Zhang, Yong-Mei; Li, Guangwu; Stackman, Robert W.; Dong, Liuyi; Zhang, Gongliang

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prescription of opioids is fueling an epidemic of addiction and overdose deaths. Morphine is a highly addictive drug characterized by a high relapse rate – even after a long period of abstinence. Serotonin (5-HT) neurotransmission participates in the development of morphine dependence, as well as the expression of morphine withdrawal. In this study, we examined the effect of blockade of 5-HT2A receptors (5-HT2ARs) on morphine-induced behavioral sensitization and withdrawal in male mice. 5-HT2AR antagonist MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) suppressed acute morphine (5.0 mg/kg, s.c.)-induced increase in locomotor activity. Mice received morphine (10 mg/kg, s.c.) twice a day for 3 days and then drug treatment was suspended for 5 days. On day 9, a challenge dose of morphine (10 mg/kg) was administered to induce the expression of behavioral sensitization. MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) pretreatment suppressed the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. Another cohort of mice received increasing doses of morphine over a 7-day period to induce morphine-dependence. MDL 11,939 (0.5 mg/kg, i.p.) prevented naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-dependent mice on day 7. Moreover, chronic morphine treatment increased 5-HT2AR protein level and decreased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases in the prefrontal cortex. Together, these results by the first time demonstrate that 5-HT2ARs modulate opioid dependence and blockade of 5-HT2AR may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of morphine use disorders. Highlights (i) Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors suppresses the expression of morphine-induced behavioral sensitization. (ii) Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors suppresses naloxone-precipitated withdrawal in morphine-treated mice. (iii) Chronic morphine exposure induces an increase in 5-HT2A receptor protein level and a decrease in ERK protein phosphorylation in prefrontal cortex. PMID:28082900

  20. Endothelin antagonists: new bullets against lung injury?

    PubMed

    Leeman, Marc

    2005-06-01

    Acute lung injury is a syndrome of inflammation and of increased permeability of the blood-gas barrier. Endothelins are thought to exert proinflammatory effects. Kuklin and colleagues show that the endothelin receptor antagonist tezosentan reduces pulmonary edema in endotoxemic sheep, in parallel with a prevention of protein kinase C-alpha activation. In turn, the level of some cytokines increased after tezosentan treatment. Whether these contrasting effects of endothelin blockade on inflammatory mechanisms have clinical relevance and whether these agents might benefit patients with acute lung injury is unknown.

  1. The effect of endothelin A and B receptor blockade on cutaneous vascular and sweating responses in young men during and following exercise in the heat.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Singh, Maya S; Halili, Lyra; Louie, Jeffrey C; Kenny, Glen P

    2016-12-01

    During exercise, cutaneous vasodilation and sweating responses occur, whereas these responses rapidly decrease during postexercise recovery. We hypothesized that the activation of endothelin A (ETA) receptors, but not endothelin B (ETB) receptors, attenuate cutaneous vasodilation during high-intensity exercise and contribute to the subsequent postexercise suppression of cutaneous vasodilation. We also hypothesized that both receptors increase sweating during and following high-intensity exercise. Eleven men (24 ± 4 yr) performed an intermittent cycling protocol consisting of two 30-min bouts of moderate- (40% V̇o2peak) and high-intensity (75% V̇o2peak) exercise in the heat (35°C), each separated by a 20- and 40-min recovery period, respectively. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweat rate were evaluated at four intradermal microdialysis skin sites: 1) lactated Ringer (control), 2) 500 nM BQ123 (a selective ETA receptor blocker), 3) 300 nM BQ788 (a selective ETB receptor blocker), or 4) a combination of BQ123 + BQ788. There were no between-site differences in CVC during each exercise bout (all P > 0.05); however, CVC following high-intensity exercise was greater at BQ123 (56 ± 9%max) and BQ123 + BQ788 (55 ± 14%max) sites relative to the control site (43 ± 12%max) (all P ≤ 0.05). Sweat rate did not differ between sites throughout the protocol (all P > 0.05). We show that neither ETA nor ETB receptors modulate cutaneous vasodilation and sweating responses during and following moderate- and high-intensity exercise in the heat, with the exception that ETA receptors may partly contribute to the suppression of cutaneous vasodilation following high-intensity exercise.

  2. GABA(A) receptor blockade in dorsomedial and ventromedial nuclei of the hypothalamus evokes panic-like elaborated defensive behaviour followed by innate fear-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Renato Leonardo; Uribe-Mariño, Andrés; Castiblanco-Urbina, Maria Angélica; Elias-Filho, Daoud Hibraim; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2009-12-11

    Dysfunction in the hypothalamic GABAergic system has been implicated in panic syndrome in humans. Furthermore, several studies have implicated the hypothalamus in the elaboration of pain modulation. Panic-prone states are able to be experimentally induced in laboratory animals to study this phenomenon. The aim of the present work was to investigate the involvement of medial hypothalamic nuclei in the organization of panic-like behaviour and the innate fear-induced oscillations of nociceptive thresholds. The blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the neuronal substrates of the ventromedial or dorsomedial hypothalamus was followed by elaborated defensive panic-like reactions. Moreover, innate fear-induced antinociception was consistently elicited after the escape behaviour. The escape responses organized by the dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei were characteristically more elaborated, and a remarkable exploratory behaviour was recorded during GABA(A) receptor blockade in the medial hypothalamus. The motor characteristic of the elaborated defensive escape behaviour and the patterns of defensive alertness and defensive immobility induced by microinjection of the bicuculline either into the dorsomedial or into the ventromedial hypothalamus were very similar. This was followed by the same pattern of innate fear-induced antinociceptive response that lasted approximately 40 min after the elaborated defensive escape reaction in both cases. These findings suggest that dysfunction of the GABA-mediated neuronal system in the medial hypothalamus causes panic-like responses in laboratory animals, and that the elaborated escape behaviour organized in both dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei are followed by significant innate-fear-induced antinociception. Our findings indicate that the GABA(A) receptor of dorsomedial and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei are critically involved in the modulation of panic-like behaviour.

  3. Chronic and acute adenosine A2A receptor blockade prevents long-term episodic memory disruption caused by acute cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Mouro, Francisco M; Batalha, Vânia L; Ferreira, Diana G; Coelho, Joana E; Baqi, Younis; Müller, Christa E; Lopes, Luísa V; Ribeiro, Joaquim A; Sebastião, Ana M

    2017-05-01

    Cannabinoid-mediated memory impairment is a concern in cannabinoid-based therapies. Caffeine exacerbates cannabinoid CB1 receptor (CB1R)-induced memory deficits through an adenosine A1 receptor-mediated mechanism. We now evaluated how chronic or acute blockade of adenosine A2A receptors (A2ARs) affects long-term episodic memory deficits induced by a single injection of a selective CB1R agonist. Long-term episodic memory was assessed by the novel object recognition (NOR) test. Mice received an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of the CB1/CB2 receptor agonist WIN 55,212-2 (1 mg/kg) immediately after the NOR training, being tested for novelty recognition 24 h later. Anxiety levels were assessed by the Elevated Plus Maze test, immediately after the NOR. Mice were also tested for exploratory behaviour at the Open Field. For chronic A2AR blockade, KW-6002 (istradefylline) (3 mg/kg/day) was administered orally for 30 days; acute blockade of A2ARs was assessed by i.p. injection of SCH 58261 (1 mg/kg) administered either together with WIN 55,212-2 or only 30 min before the NOR test phase. The involvement of CB1Rs was assessed by using the CB1R antagonist, AM251 (3 mg/kg, i.p.). WIN 55,212-2 caused a disruption in NOR, an action absent in mice also receiving AM251, KW-6002 or SCH 58261 during the encoding/consolidation phase; SCH 58251 was ineffective if present during retrieval only. No effects were detected in the Elevated Plus maze or Open Field Test. The finding that CB1R-mediated memory disruption is prevented by antagonism of adenosine A2ARs, highlights a possibility to prevent cognitive side effects when therapeutic application of CB1R drugs is desired.

  4. Selective blockade of 5-HT2A receptors attenuates the increased temperature response in brown adipose tissue to restraint stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Ootsuka, Youichirou; Blessing, William W; Nalivaiko, Eugene

    2008-03-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that 5-HT2A receptors may be involved in the central control of thermoregulation and of the cardiovascular system. Our aim was to test whether these receptors mediate thermogenic and tachycardiac responses induced by acute psychological stress. Three groups of adult male Hooded Wistar rats were instrumented with: (i) a thermistor in the interscapular area (for recording brown adipose tissue temperature) and an ultrasound Doppler probe (to record tail blood flow); (ii) temperature dataloggers to record core body temperature; (iii) ECG electrodes. On the day of the experiment, rats were subjected to a 30-min restraint stress preceded by s.c. injection of either vehicle or SR-46349B (a serotonin 2A receptor antagonist) at doses of 0.01, 0.1 and 1.0 mg/kg. The restraint stress caused a rise in brown adipose tissue temperature (from, mean +/- s.e.m., 36.6 +/- 0.2 to 38.0 +/- 0.2 degrees C), transient cutaneous vasoconstriction (tail blood flow decreased from 12 +/- 2 to 5 +/- 1 cm/s), increase in heart rate (from 303 +/- 15 to 453 +/- 15 bpm at the peak, then reduced to 393 +/- 12 bpm at the steady state), and defaecation (6 +/- 1 pellets per restraint session). The core body temperature was not affected by the restraint. Blockade of 5-HT2A receptors attenuated the increase in brown adipose tissue temperature and transient cutaneous vasoconstriction, but not tachycardia and defaecation elicited by restraint stress. These results indicate that psychological stress causes activation of 5-HT2A receptors in neural pathways that control thermogenesis in the brown adipose tissue and facilitate cutaneous vasoconstriction.

  5. Sex differences in endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone in middle-aged and older adults.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Brian L; Westby, Christian M; Greiner, Jared J; Van Guilder, Gary P; Desouza, Christopher A

    2010-02-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is lower in middle-aged and older women than men. Increased endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstriction has been linked to the etiology of a number of cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, heart failure, and hypertension. It is unknown whether a sex difference in endothelin-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone exists in middle-aged and older adults. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that middle-aged and older men would demonstrate greater ET-1-mediated vasoconstrictor tone than age-matched women. Forearm blood flow in response to intra-arterial infusions of endothelin (ET)-1, BQ-123 (a selective ET(A) receptor antagonist), and BQ-788 (a selective ET(B) receptor antagonist) was assessed by venous occlusion plethysmography in 21 women (age: 58 + or - 1 yr; body mass index: 26.0 + or - 1.0 kg/m(2)) and 25 men (age: 57 + or - 2 yr; body mass index: 26.8 + or - 0.7 kg/m(2)). In response to BQ-123, the increase in forearm blood flow from baseline was significantly higher in the men than the women (24 + or - 5% vs. 9 + or - 5%; P < 0.05). In contrast, the increase in forearm blood flow in response to BQ-123 coinfused with BQ-788 was greater in the women than the men, such that the maximum vasodilation to dual endothelin receptor blockade was similar between men and women (approximately 25%). There was no difference in the vasoconstrictor response to ET-1 between the sexes. These results indicate that middle-aged and older men are under greater ET(A) receptor-mediated vasoconstrictor tone than age-matched women. Since the ET(A) receptor is the predominant receptor subtype in the coronary vasculature, this sex difference in vasoconstrictor tone may be a mechanism contributing to the sex difference in the prevalence of coronary heart disease in middle-aged and older adults.

  6. Protective effects of endothelin-1 on acute pancreatitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kogire, M; Inoue, K; Higashide, S; Takaori, K; Echigo, Y; Gu, Y J; Sumi, S; Uchida, K; Imamura, M

    1995-06-01

    Endothelin-1, a 21-residue peptide isolated from vascular endothelial cells, has a broad spectrum of actions. To clarify the involvement of endothelin-1 in acute pancreatitis, we examined the effects of endothelin-1 and its receptor antagonist BQ-123 on cerulein-induced pancreatitis in rats. Rats were infused intravenously with heparin-saline (control), endothelin-1 (100 pmol/kg/hr), cerulein (5 micrograms/kg/hr), or cerulein plus endothelin-1 for 3.5 hr. In another experiment, cerulein or cerulein plus BQ-123 (3 mg/kg/hr) was infused. Infusion of cerulein caused hyperamylasemia and pancreatic edema. Endothelin-1, when infused with cerulein, decreased the extent of pancreatic edema with a significant increase in the pancreatic dry- to wet-weight ratio. Histological changes induced by cerulein were markedly attenuated when endothelin-1 was given with cerulein. In contrast, endothelin-receptor blockade with BQ-123 further augmented pancreatic edema caused by cerulein. The extent of inflammatory cell infiltration was greater than BQ-123 was given with cerulein. Endothelin-1 or BQ-123 had no influence on hyperamylasemia. This study suggests that endothelin-1 has protective effects on experimental acute pancreatitis.

  7. Endothelin Type A Receptor Genotype is a Determinant of Quantitative Traits of Metabolic Syndrome in Asian Hypertensive Families: A SAPPHIRe Study

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Low-Tone; Hsu, Yung-Pei; Hsiao, Chin-Fu; Ting, Chih-Tai; Shih, Kuang-Chung; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Masaki, Kamal; Grove, John; Quertermous, Thomas; Juan, Chi-Chung; Lin, Ming-Wei; Chiang, Shu-Chiung; Chen, Yii-Der I.

    2013-01-01

    Co-heritability of hypertension and insulin resistance (IR) within families not only implies genetic susceptibility may be responsible for these complex traits but also suggests a rational that biological candidate genes for hypertension may serve as markers for features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Thus we determined whether the T323C polymorphism (rs5333) of endothelin type A (ETA) receptor, a predominant receptor evoking potent vasoconstrictive action of endothelin-1, contributes to susceptibility to IR-associated hypertension in 1694 subjects of Chinese and Japanese origins. Blood pressures (BPs) and biochemistries were measured. Fasting insulin level, insulin-resistance homeostasis model assessment (HOMAIR) score, and area under curve of insulin concentration (AUCINS) were selected for assessing insulin sensitivity. Genotypes were obtained by methods of polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Foremost findings were that minor allele frequency of the T323C polymorphism was noticeable lower in our overall Asian subjects compared to multi-national population reported in gene database; moreover both the genotypic and allelic frequencies of the polymorphism were significantly different between the two ethnic groups we studied. The genotype distributions at TT/TC/CC were 65, 31, 4% in Chinese and 51, 41, 8% in Japanese, respectively (p < 0.0001). Additionally, carriers of the C homozygote revealed characteristics of IR, namely significantly higher levels of fasting insulin, HOMAIR score, and AUCINS at 29.3, 35.3, and 39.3%, respectively, when compared to their counterparts with TT/TC genotypes in Chinese. Meanwhile, the CC genotype was associated with a higher level of high density lipoprotein cholesterol in Japanese. No association of the polymorphism with BP was observed. This study demonstrated for the first time that T323C polymorphism of ETA receptor gene was associated with an adverse insulin response in Chinese and a

  8. 5-HT1A receptor blockade targeting the basolateral amygdala improved stress-induced impairment of memory consolidation and retrieval in rats.

    PubMed

    Sardari, M; Rezayof, A; Zarrindast, M-R

    2015-08-06

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the possible role of basolateral amygdala (BLA) 5-HT1A receptors in memory formation under stress. We also examined whether the blockade of these receptors is involved in stress-induced state-dependent memory. Adult male Wistar rats received cannula implants that bilaterally targeted the BLA. Long-term memory was examined using the step-through type of passive avoidance task. Behavioral stress was evoked by exposure to an elevated platform (EP) for 10, 20 and 30min. Post-training exposure to acute stress (30min) impaired the memory consolidation. In addition, pre-test exposure to acute stress-(20 and 30min) induced the impairment of memory retrieval. Interestingly, the memory impairment induced by post-training exposure to stress was restored in the animals that received 20- or 30-min pre-test stress exposure, suggesting stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Post-training BLA-targeted injection of a selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist, (S)-WAY-100135 (2μg/rat), prevented the impairing effect of stress on memory consolidation. Pre-test injection of the same doses of (S)-WAY-100135 that was targeted to the BLA also reversed stress-induced memory retrieval impairment. It should be considered that post-training or pre-test BLA-targeted injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (0.5-2μg/rat) by itself had no effect on the memory formation. Moreover, pre-test injection of (S)-WAY-100135 (2μg/rat) that targeted the BLA inhibited the stress-induced state-dependent memory retrieval. Taken together, our findings suggest that post-training or pre-test exposure to acute stress induced the impairment of memory consolidation, retrieval and state-dependent learning. The BLA 5-HT1A receptors have a critical role in learning and memory under stress.

  9. Endothelin A (ET(A)) receptors are involved in augmented adrenergic vasoconstriction and blunted nitric oxide-mediated relaxation of penile arteries from insulin-resistant obese zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Ana; Contreras, Cristina; Martínez, Pilar; Muñoz, Mercedes; Martínez, Ana Cristina; García-Sacristán, Albino; Hernández, Medardo; Prieto, Dolores

    2014-06-01

    Endothelin 1 (ET-1) levels and receptors are up-regulated in the erectile tissue of diabetic patients and animal models of erectile dysfunction (ED). The present study assessed the role of ET-1 receptors in the impaired adrenergic vasoconstriction and nitrergic relaxation of penile arteries from a rat model of insulin resistance. The effect of ET receptor antagonists was evaluated on the contractile responses to electrical field stimulation (EFS) of penile arteries from obese Zucker rats (OZRs) compared with lean Zucker rats (LZRs). ET receptor expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Changes in neural nitrergic relaxation and adrenergic vasoconstriction and the expression of ET receptors in perivascular nerves were assessed. ET-1 (10(-10)  M) enhanced EFS-induced vasoconstriction, and treatment with the adrenergic neurotoxin guanethidine reduced the contractions induced by ET-1 in penile arteries from both LZRs and OZRs, thus supporting the hypothesis that ET-1 releases noradrenaline from adrenergic nerves. ET-1 antagonized neural nitric oxide (NO)-mediated relaxant responses in LZR arteries, antagonizing relaxations induced by the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine to a larger extent in arteries from OZRs. ET(A) and ET(B) receptors were expressed in perivascular fibers colocalized with the neuronal marker protein gene product 9.5 in penile arteries from OZRs. The ET(A) receptor antagonist BQ-123 reversed the enhancing effect of ET-1 on the vasoconstriction elicited by EFS and the ET-1-induced inhibition of nitrergic relaxations in LZRs, restoring them to control levels in penile arteries of OZRs. ET-1 enhances adrenergic vasoconstriction through presynaptic ET(A) receptors and antagonizes neural NO-mediated relaxation through postsynaptic smooth muscle ET(A) receptors in penile arteries from OZRs, which likely contributes to the augmented vasoconstriction and blunted nitrergic relaxation of erectile tissue under conditions of insulin resistance

  10. Chemical Synthesis of Tetracyclic Terpenes and Evaluation of Antagonistic Activity on Endothelin-A Receptors and Voltage-gated Calcium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianyu; Aguilar, Angelo; Zou, Bende; Bao, Weier; Koldas, Serkan; Aibin, Shi; Desper, John; Wangemann, Philine; Xie, Xinmin Simon; Hua, Duy H.

    2015-01-01

    A class of tetracyclic terpenes was synthesized and evaluated for antagonistic activity of endothelin-1 (ET-1) induced vasoconstriction and inhibitory activity of voltage-activated Ca2+ channels. Three repeated Robinson annulation reactions were utilized to construct the tetracyclic molecules. A stereoselective reductive Robinson annulation was discovered for the formation of optically pure tricyclic terpenes. Stereoselective addition of cyanide to the hindered α-face of tetracyclic enone (-)-18 was found and subsequent transformation into the aldehyde function was affected by the formation of bicyclic hemiiminal (-)-4. Six selected synthetic tetracyclic terpenes show inhibitory activities in ET-1 induced vasoconstriction in the gerbil spiral modiolar artery with putative affinity constants ranging between 93 and 319 nM. Moreover, one compound, (-)-3, was evaluated further and found to inhibit voltage-activated Ca2+ currents but not to affect Na+ or K+ currents in dorsal root ganglion cells under similar concentrations. These observations imply a dual mechanism of action. In conclusion, tetracyclic terpenes represent a new class of hit molecules for the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension and vascular related diseases. PMID:26190460

  11. Chemical synthesis of tetracyclic terpenes and evaluation of antagonistic activity on endothelin-A receptors and voltage-gated calcium channels.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianyu; Aguilar, Angelo; Zou, Bende; Bao, Weier; Koldas, Serkan; Shi, Aibin; Desper, John; Wangemann, Philine; Xie, Xinmin Simon; Hua, Duy H

    2015-09-01

    A class of tetracyclic terpenes was synthesized and evaluated for antagonistic activity of endothelin-1 (ET-1) induced vasoconstriction and inhibitory activity of voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels. Three repeated Robinson annulation reactions were utilized to construct the tetracyclic molecules. A stereoselective reductive Robinson annulation was discovered for the formation of optically pure tricyclic terpenes. Stereoselective addition of cyanide to the hindered α-face of tetracyclic enone (-)-18 was found and subsequent transformation into the aldehyde function was affected by the formation of bicyclic hemiiminal (-)-4. Six selected synthetic tetracyclic terpenes show inhibitory activities in ET-1 induced vasoconstriction in the gerbil spiral modiolar artery with putative affinity constants ranging between 93 and 319 nM. Moreover, one compound, (-)-3, was evaluated further and found to inhibit voltage-activated Ca(2+) currents but not to affect Na(+) or K(+) currents in dorsal root ganglion cells under similar concentrations. These observations imply a dual mechanism of action. In conclusion, tetracyclic terpenes represent a new class of hit molecules for the discovery of new drugs for the treatment of pulmonary hypertension and vascular related diseases.

  12. Neuroprotection by estradiol: a role of aromatase against spine synapse loss after blockade of GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lepu; Lehan, Nadine; Wehrenberg, Uwe; Disteldorf, Erik; von Lossow, Richard; Mares, Ute; Jarry, Hubertus; Rune, Gabriele M

    2007-01-01

    Estrogen has been suggested to be pro-epileptic by reducing GABA synthesis, resulting in increased spine density and a decreased threshold for seizures in the hippocampus, which, once they occur, are characterized by a dramatic spine loss in the affected brain areas. As considerable amounts of estradiol are synthesized in the hippocampus, in this study we focused on aromatase, the rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen synthesis in order to examine the role of locally synthesized estrogens in epilepsy. To this end, we first examined the effects of letrozole, a potent aromatase inhibitor, on GABA metabolism in single interneurons of hippocampal dispersion cultures. Letrozole downregulated estradiol release into the medium, as well as glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) expression and GABA synthesis, and decreased the number of GAD positive cells in the cultures. Next, we counted spine synapses and measured estradiol release of hippocampal slice cultures, in which GABA(A) receptors had been blocked by bicuculline, in order to mimic epileptic activity. Treatment of slice cultures with bicuculline resulted in a dramatic decrease in the number of spine synapses and in a significant suppression of estrogen synthesis. The decrease in synapse number in response to bicuculline was restored by combined application of estradiol and bicuculline. Surprisingly, estradiol alone had no effect on either spine synapse number or on GAD expression and GABA synthesis. "Rescue" of synapse number in "epileptic slices" by estradiol and maintenance of GABA metabolism by hippocampus-derived estradiol points to a neuroprotective role of aromatase in epilepsy. Re-filling of estradiol stores after their depletion due to overexcitation may therefore add to therapeutical strategies in epilepsy.

  13. Recovery from ketamine-induced amnesia by blockade of GABA-A receptor in the medial prefrontal cortex of mice.

    PubMed

    Farahmandfar, Maryam; Akbarabadi, Ardeshir; Bakhtazad, Atefeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2017-03-06

    Ketamine and other noncompetitive N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists are known to induce deficits in learning and cognitive performance sensitive to prefrontal cortex (PFC) functions. The interaction of a glutamatergic and GABAergic systems is essential for many cognitive behaviors. In order to understand the effect of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)/glutamate interactions on learning and memory, we investigated the effects of intra medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) injections of GABAergic agents on ketamine-induced amnesia using a one-trial passive avoidance task in mice. Pre-training systemic administration of ketamine (5, 10 and 15mg/kg, i.p.) dose-dependently decreased the memory acquisition of a one-trial passive avoidance task. Pre-training intra-mPFC injection of muscimol, GABAA receptor agonist (0.05, 0.1 and 0.2μg/mouse) and baclofen GABAB receptor agonist (0.05, 0.1, 0.5 and 1μg/mouse), impaired memory acquisition. However, co-pretreatment of different doses of muscimol and baclofen with a lower dose of ketamine (5mg/kg), which did not induce amnesia by itself, caused inhibition of memory formation. Our data showed that sole pre-training administration of bicuculline, GABA-A receptor antagonist and phaclofen GABA-B receptor antagonist into the mPFC, did not affect memory acquisition. In addition, the amnesia induced by pre-training ketamine (15mg/kg) was significantly decreased by the pretreatment of bicuculline (0.005, 0.1 and 0.5μg/mouse). It can be concluded that GABAergic system of the mPFC is involved in the ketamine-induced impairment of memory acquisition.

  14. Systemic modulation of serotonergic synapses via reuptake blockade or 5HT1A receptor antagonism does not alter perithreshold taste sensitivity in rats.

    PubMed

    Mathes, Clare M; Spector, Alan C

    2014-09-01

    Systemic blockade of serotonin (5HT) reuptake with paroxetine has been shown to increase sensitivity to sucrose and quinine in humans. Here, using a 2-response operant taste detection task, we measured the effect of paroxetine and the 5HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 on the ability of rats to discriminate sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid from water. After establishing individual psychometric functions, 5 concentrations of each taste stimulus were chosen to represent the dynamic portion of the concentration-response curve, and the performance of the rats to these stimuli was assessed after vehicle, paroxetine (7mg/kg intraperitoneally), and WAY100635 (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously; 1mg/kg intravenously) administration. Although, at times, overall performance across concentrations dropped, at most, 5% from vehicle to drug conditions, no differences relative to vehicle were seen on the parameters of the psychometric function (asymptote, slope, or EC50) after drug administration. In contrast to findings in humans, our results suggest that modulation of 5HT activity has little impact on sucrose detectability at perithreshold concentrations in rats, at least at the doses used in this task. In the rat model, the purported paracrine/neurocrine action of serotonin in the taste bud may work in a manner that does not impact overt taste detection behavior. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Systemic Modulation of Serotonergic Synapses via Reuptake Blockade or 5HT1A Receptor Antagonism Does Not Alter Perithreshold Taste Sensitivity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Alan C.

    2014-01-01

    Systemic blockade of serotonin (5HT) reuptake with paroxetine has been shown to increase sensitivity to sucrose and quinine in humans. Here, using a 2-response operant taste detection task, we measured the effect of paroxetine and the 5HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100635 on the ability of rats to discriminate sucrose, NaCl, and citric acid from water. After establishing individual psychometric functions, 5 concentrations of each taste stimulus were chosen to represent the dynamic portion of the concentration–response curve, and the performance of the rats to these stimuli was assessed after vehicle, paroxetine (7mg/kg intraperitoneally), and WAY100635 (0.3mg/kg subcutaneously; 1mg/kg intravenously) administration. Although, at times, overall performance across concentrations dropped, at most, 5% from vehicle to drug conditions, no differences relative to vehicle were seen on the parameters of the psychometric function (asymptote, slope, or EC50) after drug administration. In contrast to findings in humans, our results suggest that modulation of 5HT activity has little impact on sucrose detectability at perithreshold concentrations in rats, at least at the doses used in this task. In the rat model, the purported paracrine/neurocrine action of serotonin in the taste bud may work in a manner that does not impact overt taste detection behavior. PMID:25056731

  16. Chronic administration of an endothelin-A receptor antagonist improves exercise capacity in rats with myocardial infarction-induced congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Miyauchi, Takashi; Fujimori, Akira; Maeda, Seiji; Iemitsu, Motoyuki; Sakai, Satoshi; Shikama, Hisataka; Tanabe, Takumi; Matsuda, Mitsuo; Goto, Katsutoshi; Yamaguchi, Iwao

    2004-11-01

    The effects of long-term administration of YM598, a selective endothelin-A antagonist, on improving the exercise tolerance of chronic heart failure model rats were examined using a treadmill exercise loading test. Rats were acclimatized to the treadmill apparatus and the coronary artery was ligated to prepare a myocardial infarction-induced congestive heart failure (CHF) model. Starting 10 days postoperatively, when the acute phase of infarction was over, YM598 was administered orally once daily for approximately 25 weeks at a dose of 1 mg/kg. At weeks 20 and 24 the treadmill test was performed. YM598 prolonged running time, which had been shortened as a result of heart failure. The weights, relative to the body weight, of the left and right ventricles and lungs of surviving rats with CHF were significantly greater than those of sham-operated rats, suggesting hypertrophy of the ventricles and congestion of the lungs. Administration of YM598 markedly reduced ventricular hypertrophy and pulmonary congestion. Examination of cardiac function revealed that, in surviving CHF rats, the peak positive first derivative of left ventricular pressure was significantly lower, and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, right ventricular systolic pressure and central venous pressure were significantly higher in comparison to sham-operated rats. These data demonstrate that, in rats with CHF, the contractile and diastolic capacity of the left ventricle decreased and pulmonary hypertension and systemic congestion occurred. Long-term administration of YM598 improved left ventricular function of CHF rats to the level of sham-operated rats, and reduced the workload placed on the right side of the heart. Histological examination revealed that long-term treatment with YM598 prevented fibrosis of the surviving left ventricular myocardium. In conclusion, long-term administration of YM598 to rats with CHF improved exercise tolerance and inhibited remodeling of cardiac muscles, leading to

  17. Endothelin-converting enzyme inhibitors: their application in cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Cerdeira, Ana Sofia; Brás-Silva, Carmen; Leite-Moreira, Adelino F

    2008-03-01

    Endothelin, a potent vasoconstrictor first described in 1988 by Yanagisawa, is an important regulator of cardiovascular function. Hyperactivation of the endothelin system has been implicated in the pathogenesis of various cardiovascular disorders including myocardial infarction, restenosis, hypertension, heart failure and Chagas cardiopathy. Various attempts have been made to suppress this axis. Although promising, the results of clinical trials on endothelin receptor antagonists have been disappointing. There is growing interest in blockade of endothelin formation. Several selective and non-selective endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) inhibitors have been developed, the latter with the possibility of simultaneously blocking angiotensin-converting enzyme and neutral endopeptidase, combining inhibition more than one axis. This article reviews the different ECE inhibitors, with particular emphasis on their potential clinical application in cardiovascular diseases.

  18. Endothelin-1 decreases ethanolamine plasmalogen levels and evokes PAF production in brain microvessels.

    PubMed

    Collado, M Pilar; Latorre, Eduardo; Fernández, Inmaculada; Aragonés, M Dolores; Catalán, R Edgardo

    2003-11-01

    Treatment of brain microvessels with Endothelin-1 evoked a decrease in ethanolamine plasmalogen levels by calcium-independent phospholipase A(2). In contrast, the diacyl molecular forms of ethanolamine phospholipids were unaffected. Evidence also shows that Endothelin type A receptors are involved. Concomitantly, PAF production mediated by CoA-independent transacylase was observed. This is the first evidence of involvement of these pathways on the Endothelin-1 mechanism of action on the blood-brain barrier.

  19. Endothelin-1 as a master regulator of whole-body Na+ homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Speed, Joshua S; Heimlich, J Brett; Hyndman, Kelly A; Fox, Brandon M; Patel, Vivek; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Pollock, Jennifer S; Titze, Jens M; Pollock, David M

    2015-12-01

    The current study was designed to determine whether vascular endothelial-derived endothelin-1 (ET-1) is important for skin Na(+) buffering. In control mice (C57BL/6J), plasma Na(+) and osmolarity were significantly elevated in animals on high- vs. low-salt (HS and LS, respectively) intake. The increased plasma Na(+) and osmolarity were associated with increased ET-1 mRNA in vascular tissue. There was no detectable difference in skin Na(+):H2O in HS fed mice (0.119 ± 0.005 mM vs. 0.127 ± 0.007 mM; LS vs. HS); however, skin Na(+):H2O was significantly increased by blockade of the endothelin type A receptor with ABT-627 (0.116 ± 0.006 mM vs. 0.137 ± 0.007 mM; LS vs. HS; half-maximal inhibitory concentration, 0.055 nM). ET-1 peptide content in skin tissue was increased in floxed control animals on HS (85.9 ± 0.9 pg/mg vs. 106.4 ± 6.8 pg/mg; P < 0.05), but not in vascular endothelial cell endothelin-1 knockout (VEET KO) mice (76.4 ± 5.7 pg/mg vs. 65.7 ± 7.9 pg/mg; LS vs. HS). VEET KO mice also had a significantly elevated skin Na(+):H2O (0.113 ± 0.007 mM vs. 0.137 ± 0.005 mM; LS vs. HS; P < 0.05). Finally, ET-1 production was elevated in response to increasing extracellular osmolarity in cultured human endothelial cells. These data support the hypothesis that increased extrarenal vascular ET-1 production in response to HS intake is mediated by increased extracellular osmolarity and plays a critical role in regulating skin storage of Na(+).

  20. Endothelin-1 decreases [Ca2+]i via Na+/Ca2+ exchanger in CHO cells stably expressing endothelin ETA receptor.

    PubMed

    Horinouchi, Takahiro; Nishimoto, Arata; Nishiya, Tadashi; Lu, Lingyun; Kajita, Emi; Miwa, Soichi

    2007-07-02

    Endothelin ET(A) receptor couples to Gq/11 protein that transduces a variety of receptor signals to modulate diverse cellular responses including Ca2+ mobilization. Stimulation of endothelin ETA receptor with endothelin-1 is generally believed to induce an increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) via Gq/11 protein. Here we provide the first convincing evidence that endothelin-1 elicited Gq/11 protein-dependent and -independent 'decrease' in [Ca2+]i via Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCX) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells stably expressing human endothelin ETA receptor. In the cells treated with 1 microM thapsigargin, an inhibitor of endoplasmic Ca2+ pump, that induces an increase in [Ca2+]i via capacitative Ca2+ entry, endothelin-1 induced a decrease in [Ca2+]i which was partially inhibited by YM-254890, a specific inhibitor of Gq/11, indicating that Gq/11-dependent and independent pathways are involved in the decrease. The endothelin-1-induced decrease in [Ca2+]i was markedly suppressed by 3',4'-dichlorobenzamil hydrochloride, a potent NCX inhibitor, and also by a replacement of extracellular Na+ with Li+, which was not transported by NCX, indicating a major role of NCX operating in the forward mode in the endothelin-1-induced decrease in [Ca2+]i. Molecular approach with RT-PCR demonstrated the expression of mRNA for NCX1, NCX2 and NCX3. These results suggest that stimulation of endothelin ETA receptor with endothelin-1 activates the forward mode NCX through Gq/11-dependent and -independent mechanisms: the NCX exports Ca2+ out of the cell depending on Na+ gradient across the cell membrane, resulting in the decrease in [Ca2+]i.

  1. Role of Endothelin in Mediating Soluble fms-like Tyrosine Kinase-1 (sFlt-1)-induced Hypertension in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Sydney R.; LaMarca, B. Babbette D.; Cockrell, Kathy; Granger, Joey P.

    2010-01-01

    While soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1 (sFlt-1), an antagonist of vascular endothelial growth factor and placental growth factor has been implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension during preeclampsia (PE), the mechanisms whereby enhanced sFlt-1 production leads to hypertension remain unclear. Both sFlt-1 and endothelin-1 production are elevated in women with PE and in placental ischemic animal models of PE, however, the importance of endothelin-1 and sFlt-1 interactions in control of blood pressure during pregnancy is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of endothelin-1 in mediating sFlt-1-induced hypertension in pregnant rats. To achieve this goal, sFlt-1 (3.7μg/kg/day for 6 days) was infused into normal pregnant rats (NP) and pregnant rats treated with a selective endothelin type A receptor antagonist, ABT 627 (5 mg/kg/day for 6 days). Plasma concentration of sFlt-1 increased from 735±34 pg/ml in NP rats to 2498±645 pg/ml, (p<0.05) with infusion of sFlt-1. Arterial pressure increased from 100±1 mmHg in NP rats to 122±3 mmHg, (p<0.05) in sFlt-1 infused rats. Chronic increases in plasma sFlt-1 in NP rats increased preproendothelin mRNA expression in the renal cortices ≈ 3 fold. In addition, chronic ETA blockade completely abolished the blood pressure response to sFlt-1 in pregnant rats (104±3 vs. 100±1 mmHg, p<0.05), while the ETA receptor antagonist had no effect on arterial pressure in NP rats (105±2 vs. 100±1mm Hg). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that endothelin-1, via endothelin type A receptor activation, plays an important role in mediating the hypertension in response to excess sFlt-1 during pregnancy. PMID:20026766

  2. Blockade of GABA, type A, receptors in the rat pontine reticular formation induces rapid eye movement sleep that is dependent upon the cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Marks, G A; Sachs, O W; Birabil, C G

    2008-09-22

    The brainstem reticular formation is an area important to the control of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. The antagonist of GABA-type A (GABA(A)) receptors, bicuculline methiodide (BMI), injected into the rat nucleus pontis oralis (PnO) of the reticular formation resulted in a long-lasting increase in REM sleep. Thus, one factor controlling REM sleep appears to be the number of functional GABA(A) receptors in the PnO. The long-lasting effect produced by BMI may result from secondary influences on other neurotransmitter systems known to have long-lasting effects. To study this question, rats were surgically prepared for chronic sleep recording and additionally implanted with guide cannulas aimed at sites in the PnO. Multiple, 60 nl, unilateral injections were made either singly or in combination. GABA(A) receptor antagonists, BMI and gabazine (GBZ), produced dose-dependent increases in REM sleep with GBZ being approximately 35 times more potent than BMI. GBZ and the cholinergic agonist, carbachol, produced very similar results, both increasing REM sleep for about 8 h, mainly through increased period frequency, with little reduction in REM latency. Pre-injection of the muscarinic antagonist, atropine, completely blocked the REM sleep-increase by GBZ. GABAergic control of REM sleep in the PnO requires the cholinergic system and may be acting through presynaptic modulation of acetylcholine release.

  3. Endothelin in human brain and pituitary gland: Presence of immunoreactive endothelin, endothelin messenger ribonucleic acid, and endothelin receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Takahashi, K.; Ghatei, M.A.; Jones, P.M.; Murphy, J.K.; Lam, H.C.; O'Halloran, D.J.; Bloom, S.R. )

    1991-03-01

    The presence of immunoreactive (IR) endothelin, endothelin mRNA, and endothelin receptors in human brain and pituitary gland has been studied by RIA, Northern blot hybridization, and receptor assay. IR endothelin was detected in all five brain regions examined (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, brain stem, basal ganglia, and hypothalamus) (6-10 fmol/g wet wt) and spinal cord (22 +/- 6 fmol/g wet wt, n = 7, mean +/- SEM). Higher concentrations of IR endothelin were found in the pituitary gland (147 +/- 30 fmol/g wet wt). Fast protein liquid chromatographic analysis of the IR endothelin in pituitary gland showed a large IR peak in the position of endothelin-3 and a smaller peak in the position of endothelin-1, whereas IR endothelin in the hypothalamus and brain stem was mainly endothelin-1. Endothelin messenger RNA was detected by Northern blot hybridization in the pituitary but not in hypothalamus. The receptor assay showed that 125I-endothelin-1 binding sites were present in large numbers in all five brain regions but were much less abundant in the pituitary gland. Binding capacity and dissociation constant were 5052 +/- 740 fmol/mg protein and 0.045 +/- 0.007 nM in brain stem and 963 +/- 181 fmol/mg protein and 0.034 +/- 0.009 nM in hypothalamus. In the pituitary gland, there were two classes of binding sites for endothelin with dissociation constants of 0.059 +/- 0.002 nM (binding capacity = 418 +/- 63 fmol/mg protein) and 0.652 +/- 0.103 nM (binding capacity = 1717 +/- 200 fmol/mg protein). Endothelin-1, -2 and -3 were almost equipotent in displacing the binding (IC50 approximately 0.04 nM). These findings are in accord with the possibility that endothelin acts as a neurotransmitter, neuromodulator or neurohormone in man.

  4. Endothelin-1 as a master regulator of whole-body Na+ homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Joshua S.; Heimlich, J. Brett; Hyndman, Kelly A.; Fox, Brandon M.; Patel, Vivek; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Pollock, Jennifer S.; Titze, Jens M.; Pollock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    The current study was designed to determine whether vascular endothelial-derived endothelin-1 (ET-1) is important for skin Na+ buffering. In control mice (C57BL/6J), plasma Na+ and osmolarity were significantly elevated in animals on high- vs. low-salt (HS and LS, respectively) intake. The increased plasma Na+ and osmolarity were associated with increased ET-1 mRNA in vascular tissue. There was no detectable difference in skin Na+:H2O in HS fed mice (0.119 ± 0.005 mM vs. 0.127 ± 0.007 mM; LS vs. HS); however, skin Na+:H2O was significantly increased by blockade of the endothelin type A receptor with ABT-627 (0.116 ± 0.006 mM vs. 0.137 ± 0.007 mM; LS vs. HS; half-maximal inhibitory concentration, 0.055 nM). ET-1 peptide content in skin tissue was increased in floxed control animals on HS (85.9 ± 0.9 pg/mg vs. 106.4 ± 6.8 pg/mg; P < 0.05), but not in vascular endothelial cell endothelin-1 knockout (VEET KO) mice (76.4 ± 5.7 pg/mg vs. 65.7 ± 7.9 pg/mg; LS vs. HS). VEET KO mice also had a significantly elevated skin Na+:H2O (0.113 ± 0.007 mM vs. 0.137 ± 0.005 mM; LS vs. HS; P < 0.05). Finally, ET-1 production was elevated in response to increasing extracellular osmolarity in cultured human endothelial cells. These data support the hypothesis that increased extrarenal vascular ET-1 production in response to HS intake is mediated by increased extracellular osmolarity and plays a critical role in regulating skin storage of Na+.—Speed, J. S., Heimlich, J. B., Hyndman, K. A., Fox, B. M., Patel, V., Yanagisawa, M., Pollock, J. S., Titze, J. M., Pollock, D. M. Endothelin-1 as a master regulator of whole-body Na+ homeostasis. PMID:26268928

  5. The modified Geller-Seifter test in rats was insensitive to GABAB receptor positive modulation or blockade, or 5-HT1A receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Neil E; Hanania, Taleen

    2010-03-17

    Both the GABA(B) receptor positive modulator GS39783 and the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP46381 exhibit anxiolytic-like properties in animal models. In the present studies, the effects of GS39783 and CGP46381 in the modified Geller-Seifter task were assessed. First, the predictive validity of the task was confirmed by assessing the effects of multiple anxiolytic and non-anxiolytic compounds on punished and unpunished responding. Rats were trained in the modified Geller-Seifter task. After successful acquisition of the task, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, MPEP, haloperidol, GS39783, 8-OH-DPAT, alprazolam and CGP46381 were tested consecutively. For each test compound, doses were administered in a randomized, counter-balanced, within-subjects design. Drug tests were performed only when rats exhibited baseline performance (the punished and time-out response rates were less than 10% of the unpunished response rate). Chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, alprazolam and MPEP released punished responding with variable effects on unpunished responding. Haloperidol had a small but significant effect on punished responding at an intermediate dose, and decreased unpunished responding at the highest dose tested. In contrast, administration of the GABA(B) receptor positive modulator GS398783 or the GABA(B) receptor antagonist CGP46381 at doses up to 30 mg/kg had no effects on either punished or unpunished responding. The 5-HT(1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT did not release punished responding, but significantly decreased unpunished responding at the highest dose tested. The modified Geller-Seifter task generally exhibits good predictive validity for anxiolytic-like compounds. Neither GABA(B) receptor positive allosteric modulation nor blockade exhibited anxiolytic-like properties in the modified Geller-Seifter task. The 5-HT(1A) partial agonist buspirone was similarly ineffective. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Influence of ETR-p1/f1 antisense peptide on endothelin-induced constriction in rat renal arcuate arteries

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaochun; Richards, Nicholas T; Johns, Edward J; Kohsaka, Takeo; Nakamura, Akio; Okada, Hidechika

    1997-01-01

    This study set out to examine the endothelin receptor subtypes mediating vasoconstriction in the rat renal arcuate artery. This was done in isolated vessels 120–200 μm in diameter, incubated with a selective agonist and the novel ‘antisense' peptide to part of the human endothelinA receptor. Groups of vessels (n=6) were incubated with increasing concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1), from 1 to 100 nM, which caused a 65% maximal contraction at the highest dose with an pEC50 of 8.16±0.11 M. By contrast, in six other vessels sarafotoxin 6c over the same dose range gave a minimal contraction (around 5% of maximum). Preincubation of six vessels with the antisense peptide ETR p1/f1 at 1 μM had no effect on the ET-1 induced vasoconstriction, in terms of displacement of the concentration-response curve or the maximal tension achieved by the agonist. In the six vessels exposed to 4 μM ETR p1/f1, there was a significant shift of the concentration-response curve and a lower pEC50 at 7.78±0.09 M (P<0.05). At the highest concentrations of ETR p1/f1, there was a marked suppression of all responses to ET-1, which at the maximal concentrations tested, 0.1 μM, only reached some 10% of the maximal achievable contraction. Increasing ET-1 concentrations up to 2 μM in vessels incubated with 40 μM ETR-p1/f1 showed that the blockade could be overcome and that the relationship was shifted to the right (P<0.001) by approximately one log unit with a pEC50 of 7.13±0.11 M. A Schild plot of the data indicated the antagonist to be acting competitively at a single population of receptors. At the highest concentrations tested, 40 μM, ETR-p1/f1 had no effect on noradrenaline-induced contractions, indicating a lack of non-specific actions. Together, these data suggest that at the rat renal arcuate artery the endothelinA receptor is the predominant functional receptor mediating contraction. Furthermore, this study has shown the potential usefulness of this novel

  7. Endothelin antagonists for diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Donald E; Pollock, David M

    2013-01-01

    Numerous pre-clinical studies have implicated endothelin-1 in the pathogenesis of diabetic and non-diabetic chronic kidney disease (CKD). Renal endothelin-1 production is almost universally increased in kidney disease. The pathologic effects of endothelin-1, including vasoconstriction, proteinuria, inflammation, cellular injury and fibrosis, are likely mediated by the endothelin A (ETA) receptor. ETA antagonism alone, and/or combined ETA/B blockade, reduces CKD progression. Based on the strong pre-clinical data, several clinical trials using ETA antagonists were conducted. Small trials involving acute intravenous endothelin receptor blockade suggest that ETA, but not ETB, blockade exerts protective renal and vascular effects in CKD patients. A large phase 3 trial (ASCEND) examined the effects of avosentan, an endothelin receptor antagonist, on renal disease progression in diabetic nephropathy. Proteinuria was reduced after 3–6 months of treatment. However the study was terminated due to increased morbidity and mortality associated with avosentan-induced fluid retention. Several phase 2 trials using avosentan at lower doses than in ASCEND, atrasentan or sitaxsentan (the latter two being highly ETA-selective) showed reductions in proteinuria on top of renin-angiotensin system blockade. Infrequent and clinically insignificant fluid retention was observed at the most effective doses. Additional trials using ETA blockers are ongoing or being planned in patients with diabetic nephropathy or focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Moving forward, such studies must be conducted with careful patient selection and attention to dosing in order to minimize adverse side effects. Nonetheless, there is cause for optimism that this class of agents will ultimately prove to be effective for the treatment of CKD. PMID:23228194

  8. Submucosal microinfusion of endothelin and adrenaline mobilizes ECL-cell histamine in rat stomach, and causes mucosal damage: a microdialysis study.

    PubMed

    Bernsand, M; Ericsson, P; Bjorkqvist, M; Zhao, C-M; Hakanson, R; Norlen, P

    2003-10-01

    Rat stomach ECL cells release histamine in response to gastrin. Submucosal microinfusion of endothelin or adrenaline, known to cause vasoconstriction and gastric lesions, mobilized striking amounts of histamine. While the histamine response to gastrin is sustainable for hours, that to endothelin and adrenaline was characteristically short-lasting (1-2 h). The aims of this study were to identify the cellular source of histamine mobilized by endothelin and adrenaline, and examine the differences between the histamine-mobilizing effects of gastrin, and of endothelin and adrenaline. Endothelin, adrenaline or gastrin were administered by submucosal microinfusion. Gastric histamine mobilization was monitored by microdialysis. Local pretreatment with the H1-receptor antagonist mepyramine and the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine did not prevent endothelin- or adrenaline-induced mucosal damage. Submucosal microinfusion of histamine did not cause damage. Acid blockade by ranitidine or omeprazole prevented the damage, suggesting that acid back diffusion contributes. Gastrin raised histidine decarboxylase (HDC) activity close to the probe, without affecting the histamine concentration. Endothelin and adrenaline lowered histamine by 50-70%, without activating HDC. Histamine mobilization declined upon repeated administration. Endothelin reduced the number of histamine-immunoreactive ECL cells locally, and reduced the number of secretory vesicles. Thus, unlike gastrin, endothelin (and adrenaline) is capable of exhausting ECL-cell histamine. Microinfusion of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (known to deplete ECL cells but not mast cells of histamine) reduced the histamine-mobilizing effect of endothelin by 80%, while 1-week pretreatment with omeprazole enhanced it, supporting the involvement of ECL cells. Somatostatin or the prostanoid misoprostol inhibited gastrin-, but not endothelin-stimulated histamine release, suggesting that endothelin and gastrin mobilize histamine via

  9. Hypertension in an Animal Model of HELLP Syndrome is Associated With Activation of Endothelin 1.

    PubMed

    Morris, Rachael; Spencer, Shauna-Kay; Kyle, Patrick B; Williams, Jan Michael; Harris, Al'shondra; Owens, Michelle Y; Wallace, Kedra

    2016-01-01

    Women with hypertensive forms of pregnancy such as hemolysis-elevated liver enzymes-low platelet syndrome have increased circulating endothelin 1; however, the relationship between hypertension and endothelin 1 has not been studied. Using an animal model, we sought to determine whether there was an increased activation/dysfunction of endothelin 1, the effect of endothelin 1 receptor-A blockade on hypertension and other manifestations of hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes, and low platelets syndrome. On gestational day 12, timed-pregnant rats were infused with soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (sFlt-1) and soluble endoglin (sEndoglin; 4.7 and 7 µg/kg) via mini-osmotic pumps for 8 days. A subset of rats were treated with receptor-A antagonist (ABT-627, 5mg/kg) for 8 days. Rats with hemolysis-elevated liver enzymes-low platelet syndrome had significantly increased hypertension (P = .0001), circulating endothelin 1 (P = .03), and a significant 3.3- and 7.2-fold increase in preproendothelin messenger RNA (mRNA) expression in the placenta and liver (P = .01 and .04). Urinary protein:creatinine ratio was significantly increased in these animals (P = .0007), and circulating factors from these rats stimulated a significant increase in endothelial cell secretion of endothelin 1 (P = .001) in an in vitro assay. Blockade of the endothelin 1 receptor A significantly decreased hypertension (P = .001), circulating endothelin 1, and interleukin 17 (P = .004 and .003), placental preproendothelin mRNA expression (P = .016), and urinary protein:creatinine ratio (P = .007) in rats with hemolysis-elevated liver enzymes-low platelet syndrome. Blockade of the endothelin 1 receptor A significantly decreased hemolysis (P = .009), liver enzymes (P = .011), and significantly increased platelet levels (P = .03) and decreased circulating CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes (P = .0004 and .0001) in rats infused with sFlt-1 and sEndoglin. These data support the hypothesis that endothelin 1 activation

  10. Celecoxib, but not indomethacin, ameliorates the hypertensive and perivascular fibrotic actions of cyclosporine in rats: Role of endothelin signaling

    SciTech Connect

    El-Mas, Mahmoud M.; Helmy, Maged W.; Ali, Rabab M.; El-Gowelli, Hanan M.

    2015-04-01

    The immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine (CSA) is used with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in arthritic conditions. In this study, we investigated whether NSAIDs modify the deleterious hypertensive action of CSA and the role of endothelin (ET) receptors in this interaction. Pharmacologic, protein expression, and histopathologic studies were performed in rats to investigate the roles of endothelin receptors (ET{sub A}/ET{sub B}) in the hemodynamic interaction between CSA and two NSAIDs, indomethacin and celecoxib. Tail-cuff plethysmography measurements showed that CSA (20 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}, 10 days) increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate (HR). CSA hypertension was associated with renal perivascular fibrosis and divergent changes in immunohistochemical signals of renal arteriolar ET{sub A} (increases) and ET{sub B} (decreases) receptors. While these effects of CSA were preserved in rats treated concomitantly with indomethacin (5 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}), celecoxib (10 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}) abolished the pressor, tachycardic, and fibrotic effects of CSA and normalized the altered renal ET{sub A}/ET{sub B} receptor expressions. Selective blockade of ET{sub A} receptors by atrasentan (5 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}) abolished the pressor response elicited by CSA or CSA plus indomethacin. Alternatively, BQ788 (ET{sub B} receptor blocker, 0.1 mg kg{sup −1} day{sup −1}) caused celecoxib-sensitive elevations in SBP and potentiated the pressor response evoked by CSA. Together, the improved renovascular fibrotic and endothelin receptor profile (ET{sub A} downregulation and ET{sub B} upregulation) mediate, at least partly, the protective effect of celecoxib against the hypertensive effect of CSA. Clinically, the use of celecoxib along with CSA in the management of arthritic conditions might provide hypertension-free regimen. - Highlights: • Chronic CSA causes hypertension and renal perivascular fibrosis in rats.

  11. Roles of prostaglandins and nitric oxide in the effect of endothelin-1 on renal hemodynamics.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Smith, M J; Young, D B

    1996-09-01

    It is known that endothelin-1 stimulates the release of nitric oxide and prostaglandins in various vascular beds. We designed the present study to analyze the roles of prostaglandins and nitric oxide in the effect of endothelin-1 on the regulation of renal hemodynamics and renin release. We used N omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) and meclofenamic acid to inhibit the production of nitric oxide and prostaglandins, respectively. With a nonfiltering kidney model, renal blood flow was reduced 21% in dogs treated with L-NAME and 18% in dogs treated with meclofenamic acid. Inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandins, however, produced opposite effects on estimated glomerular hydraulic pressure: L-NAME increased glomerular hydraulic pressure from 63.1 +/- 0.9 to 64.6 +/- 1.3 mm Hg (P < .01), and meclofenamic acid reduced glomerular hydraulic pressure from 63.3 +/- 1.4 to 59.8 +/- 1.6 mm Hg (P < .01). Endothelin-1 infusion produced a dose-dependent reduction in renal blood flow after blockade of nitric oxide and prostaglandins. The responses of glomerular hydraulic pressure were different in the two groups during endothelin-1 infusion. Endothelin-1 progressively reduced glomerular hydraulic pressure in a dose-dependent fashion in the meclofenamic acid group. However, endothelin-1 slightly increased glomerular hydraulic pressure until the infusion rate reached 5.0 ng/kg per minute. At that rate, endothelin-1 reduced glomerular hydraulic pressure from 63.3 +/- 1.4 to 47.0 +/- 1.4 mm Hg in the meclofenamic acid group (P < .01), a more than 25% reduction, whereas at the same dose, endothelin-1 reduced glomerular hydraulic pressure only less than 2% in the L-NAME group. In addition, blockade of nitric oxide and prostaglandins did not alter the inhibitory effect of endothelin-1 on renin release in the non-filtering kidney. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that the release of nitric oxide and prostaglandins might modulate the effects of endothelin-1 on the

  12. The Association of Endothelin-1 Signaling with Bone Alkaline Phosphatase Expression and Protumorigenic Activities in Canine Osteosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Z L; Pondenis, H C; Masyr, A; Byrum, M L; Wycislo, K L; Fan, T M

    2015-01-01

    Canine osteosarcoma (OS) is an aggressive sarcoma characterized by pathologic skeletal resorption and pulmonary metastases. A number of negative prognostic factors, including bone alkaline phosphatase, have been identified in dogs with OS, but the underlying biologic factors responsible for such observations have not been thoroughly investigated. Endothelin-1-mediated signaling is active during bone repair, and is responsible for osteoblast migration, survival, proliferation, and bone alkaline phosphatase expression. The endothelin-1 signaling axis is active in canine OS cells, and this pathway is utilized by malignant osteoblasts for promoting cellular migration, survival, proliferation, and bone alkaline phosphatase activities. 45 dogs with appendicular OS. The expressions of endothelin-1 and endothelin A receptor were studied in OS cell lines and in samples from spontaneously occurring tumors. Activities mediated by endothelin-1 signaling were investigated by characterizing responses in 3 OS cell lines. In 45 dogs with OS, bone alkaline phosphatase concentrations were correlated with primary tumor osteoproductivity. Canine OS cells express endothelin-1 and endothelin A receptor, and this signaling axis mediates OS migration, survival, proliferation, and bone alkaline phosphatase activities. In OS-bearing dogs, circulating bone alkaline phosphatase activities were positively correlated with primary tumor relative bone mineral densities. Canine OS cells express endothelin-1 and functional endothelin A receptors, with the potential for a protumorigenic signaling loop. Increases in bone alkaline phosphatase activity are associated with osteoblastic OS lesions, and might be an epiphenomenon of active endothelin-1 signaling or excessive osteoproduction within the localized bone microenvironment. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  13. Endothelin, microcirculation and hemorheology.

    PubMed

    Vulpis, V

    1999-01-01

    Although a large amount of data concerning microcirculation and cardiovascular disease exists, little is known about microcirculation and hypertension. This is largely due to the difficulty in selectively examining capillaries and metarterioles, independently from small arteries or large vessels. The physiological role of capillaries and metarterioles, the two elements that make up the microcycle, is peculiar and closely related to metabolic exchange. During the hypertensive state, several factors can alter these mechanisms. These include elevated plasma viscosity, abnormal membrane properties of red blood cells, and an increase in fibrinogen, LTL and hematocrit levels. The question of whether an abnormal release of endothelium derived vasoactive factors from capillaries, or an abnormal production of chemical factors by blood cells running through the vasculature area is present in hypertensives is fascinating, but unfortunately neither experimental nor clinical data has yet been able to answer it. Recently, evidence of the formation of endothelin by red blood cells from endogenous precursors was given, suggesting that red blood cells may modulate the vascular tone both directly, through the release of ATP or endothelin-1, and indirectly, when hemolysis occurs and hemoglobin is released. The pathological significance of these findings has not been clearly demonstrated in hypertension thus far, although it is reasonable to hypothesise that there are clinical implications for the pathogenesis and the progression of vascular damage during the hypertensive state.

  14. Endothelin and endothelin receptors in the renal and cardiovascular systems.

    PubMed

    Vignon-Zellweger, Nicolas; Heiden, Susi; Miyauchi, Takashi; Emoto, Noriaki

    2012-10-15

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a multifunctional hormone which regulates the physiology of the cardiovascular and renal systems. ET-1 modulates cardiac contractility, systemic and renal vascular resistance, salt and water renal reabsorption, and glomerular function. ET-1 is responsible for a variety of cellular events: contraction, proliferation, apoptosis, etc. These effects take place after the activation of the two endothelin receptors ET(A) and ET(B), which are present - among others - on cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, smooth muscle and endothelial cells, glomerular and tubular cells of the kidney. The complex and numerous intracellular pathways, which can be contradictory in term of functional response depending on the receptor type, cell type and physiological situation, are described in this review. Many diseases share an enhanced ET-1 expression as part of the pathophysiology. However, the use of endothelin blockers is currently restricted to pulmonary arterial hypertension, and more recently to digital ulcer. The complexity of the endothelin system does not facilitate the translation of the molecular knowledge to clinical applications. Endothelin antagonists can prevent disease development but secondary undesirable effects limit their usage. Nevertheless, the increasing understanding of the effects of ET-1 on the cardiac and renal physiology maintains the endothelin system as a promising therapeutic target.

  15. Evolution of endothelin receptors in vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Braasch, Ingo; Schartl, Manfred

    2014-12-01

    Endothelin receptors are G protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) of the β-group of rhodopsin receptors that bind to endothelin ligands, which are 21 amino acid long peptides derived from longer prepro-endothelin precursors. The most basal Ednr-like GPCR is found outside vertebrates in the cephalochordate amphioxus, but endothelin ligands are only present among vertebrates, including the lineages of jawless vertebrates (lampreys and hagfishes), cartilaginous vertebrates (sharks, rays, and chimaeras), and bony vertebrates (ray-finned fishes and lobe-finned vertebrates including tetrapods). A bona fide endothelin system is thus a vertebrate-specific innovation with important roles for regulating the cardiovascular system, renal and pulmonary processes, as well as for the development of the vertebrate-specific neural crest cell population and its derivatives. Expectedly, dysregulation of endothelin receptors and the endothelin system leads to a multitude of human diseases. Despite the importance of different types of endothelin receptors for vertebrate development and physiology, current knowledge on endothelin ligand-receptor interactions, on the expression of endothelin receptors and their ligands, and on the functional roles of the endothelin system for embryonic development and in adult vertebrates is very much biased towards amniote vertebrates. Recent analyses from a variety of vertebrate lineages, however, have shown that the endothelin system in lineages such as teleost fish and lampreys is more diverse and is divergent from the mammalian endothelin system. This diversity is mainly based on differential evolution of numerous endothelin system components among vertebrate lineages generated by two rounds of whole genome duplication (three in teleosts) during vertebrate evolution. Here we review current understanding of the evolutionary history of the endothelin receptor family in vertebrates supplemented with surveys on the endothelin receptor gene complement of

  16. Endothelin-1 mediated induction of extracellular matrix genes in strial marginal cells underlies strial pathology in Alport mice.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Daniel T; Delimont, Duane; Dufek, Brianna; Zallocchi, Marisa; Phillips, Grady; Gratton, Michael Anne; Cosgrove, Dominic

    2016-11-01

    Alport syndrome, a type IV collagen disorder, manifests as glomerular disease associated with hearing loss with thickening of the glomerular and strial capillary basement membranes (SCBMs). We have identified a role for endothelin-1 (ET-1) activation of endothelin A receptors (ETARs) in glomerular pathogenesis. Here we explore whether ET-1 plays a role in strial pathology. Wild type (WT) and Alport mice were treated with the ETAR antagonist, sitaxentan. The stria vascularis was analyzed for SCBM thickness and for extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Additional WT and Alport mice were exposed to noise or hypoxia and the stria analyzed for hypoxia-related and ECM genes. A strial marginal cell line cultured under hypoxic conditions, or stimulated with ET-1 was analyzed for expression of hypoxia-related and ECM transcripts. Noise exposure resulted in significantly elevated ABR thresholds in Alport mice relative to wild type littermates. Alport stria showed elevated expression of collagen α1(IV), laminin α2, and laminin α5 proteins relative to WT. SCBM thickening and elevated ECM protein expression was ameliorated by ETAR blockade. Stria from normoxic Alport mice and hypoxic WT mice showed upregulation of hypoxia-related, ECM, and ET-1 transcripts. Both ET-1 stimulation and hypoxia up-regulated ECM transcripts in cultured marginal cells. We conclude that ET-1 mediated activation of ETARs on strial marginal cells results in elevated expression of ECM genes and thickening of the SCBMs in Alport mice. SCBM thickening results in hypoxic stress further elevating ECM and ET-1 gene expression, exacerbating strial pathology.

  17. Endothelin ETB1 receptor agonism as a new therapeutic strategy in pulmonary arterial hypertension and chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ramirez, Giuseppe A

    2013-11-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension and post-ischemic chronic heart failure are highly prevalent diseases with high morbidity and mortality rates due to chronic vascular injury and extensive remodeling responses at the level of the vessel walls. Endothelins play a central role in this setting, through a complex signaling system that mainly affects endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells. ETA and ETB2 endothelin receptors are thought to mediate pro-ischemic responses, while ETB1 receptor activity could account for the overall protective effect of ETB signaling in physiology. The pharmacologic modulation of the endothelin system has mainly focused on the dual non-selective blockade of ETA and ETB endothelin receptors or to the selective blockade of ETA-related pathways to date. Good clinical results were achieved in the setting of pulmonary hypertension but no advantage has been demonstrated for heart failure. Restoring and enhancing the physiological protective role of ETB1-signaling with concomitant blockade of ETB2 could possibly improve the efficacy of current therapies in the setting of pulmonary arterial hypertension and post-ischemic chronic heart failure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The endothelin B receptor plays a crucial role in the adhesion of neutrophils to the endothelium in sickle cell disease

    PubMed Central

    Koehl, Bérengère; Nivoit, Pierre; El Nemer, Wassim; Lenoir, Olivia; Hermand, Patricia; Pereira, Catia; Brousse, Valentine; Guyonnet, Léa; Ghinatti, Giulia; Benkerrou, Malika; Colin, Yves; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis

    2017-01-01

    Although the primary origin of sickle cell disease is a hemoglobin disorder, many types of cells contribute considerably to the pathophysiology of the disease. The adhesion of neutrophils to activated endothelium is critical in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease and targeting neutrophils and their interactions with endothelium represents an important opportunity for the development of new therapeutics. We focused on endothelin-1, a mediator involved in neutrophil activation and recruitment in tissues, and investigated the involvement of the endothelin receptors in the interaction of neutrophils with endothelial cells. We used fluorescence intravital microscopy analyses of the microcirculation in sickle mice and quantitative microfluidic fluorescence microscopy of human blood. Both experiments on the mouse model and patients indicate that blocking endothelin receptors, particularly ETB receptor, strongly influences neutrophil recruitment under inflammatory conditions in sickle cell disease. We show that human neutrophils have functional ETB receptors with calcium signaling capability, leading to increased adhesion to the endothelium through effects on both endothelial cells and neutrophils. Intact ETB function was found to be required for tumor necrosis factor α-dependent upregulation of CD11b on neutrophils. Furthermore, we confirmed that human neutrophils synthesize endothelin-1, which may be involved in autocrine and paracrine pathophysiological actions. Thus, the endothelin-ETB axis should be considered as a cytokine-like potent pro-inflammatory pathway in sickle cell disease. Blockade of endothelin receptors, including ETB, may provide major benefits for preventing or treating vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell patients. PMID:28385784

  19. Variation in genes in the endothelin pathway and endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation in an elderly population.

    PubMed

    Lind, L; Syvänen, A-C; Axelsson, T; Lundmark, P; Hägg, S; Larsson, A

    2013-05-01

    Indirect evidences by blockade of the endothelin receptors have suggested a role of endothelin in endothelium-dependent vasodilation. This study aimed to investigate whether circulating levels of endotehlin-1 or genetic variations in genes in the endothelin pathway were related to endothelium-dependent vasodilation. In 1016 seventy-year-old participants of the population-based Prospective Study of the Vasculature in Uppsala Seniors (PIVUS) study (52% women), we measured endothelium-dependent vasodilation using the invasive forearm technique with acetylcholine given in the brachial artery (EDV) and the brachial artery ultrasound technique with measurement of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). Plasma endothelin-1 levels were measured and 60 SNPs in genes in the endothelin pathway (ECE1, EDN1, EDNRA, EDNRB) were genotyped. No significant associations were found between circulating endothelin levels and EDV or FMD. No single genotype was related to EDV or FMD following adjustment for multiple testing, but a genotype score for 3 SNPs (rs11618266 in EDNRB, rs17675063 in EDNRA, rs3026868 in ECE1) was significantly related to EDV (beta coefficient 0.070, 95% CI 0.025-0.12, P = 0.002) when adjusting for gender, systolic blood pressure, HDL and LDL cholesterol, serum triglycerides, BMI, diabetes, smoking, antihypertensive medication or statins and CRP. This score was also related to nitroprusside-induced vasodilation in the forearm. A combination of genotypes in the endothelin pathway was related to both endothelium-dependent and endothelium-independent vasodilation in forearm resistance vessels, but not in the brachial artery in an elderly population, giving evidence for a role of the endothelin system in resistance vessel reactivity independent of major cardiovascular risk factors. Acta Physiologica © 2013 Scandinavian Physiological Society.

  20. Endothelin-1 contributes to the Frank-Starling response in hypertrophic rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Piuhola, Jarkko; Szokodi, István; Kinnunen, Pietari; Ilves, Mika; deChâtel, Rudolf; Vuolteenaho, Olli; Ruskoaho, Heikki

    2003-01-01

    Endothelin-1 is involved in mechanical load-induced cardiac growth processes; it also has effects on contractility. The interaction of endothelin-1 and the Frank-Starling response is unknown. The present study aimed to characterize the role of endothelin-1 in the regulation of the Frank-Starling response, one of the major mechanisms regulating cardiac contractile force, in both normal and hypertrophied hearts. Nontransgenic rat hearts and hypertrophic hearts of hypertensive double transgenic rats harboring human angiotensinogen and renin genes were studied in a Langendorff isolated heart setup with a liquid-filled balloon inside the left ventricle used to measure contractile parameters. The rats were studied at compensated phase, before showing any signs of heart failure. Compensated hypertrophy in double transgenic rat hearts resulted in improved contractility at a given level of preload when compared with nontransgenic rat hearts. Hearts of both rat lines showed preserved Frank-Starling responses, that is, increased contractile function in response to increased end-diastolic pressure. The mixed endothelin A/B receptor antagonist bosentan attenuated the Frank-Starling response by 53% (P<0.01) in the double transgenic hearts but not in nontransgenic hearts. The diastolic parameters remained unaffected. The left ventricles of the double transgenic rat hearts showed an 82% higher level of endothelin type A receptor mRNA and a 25% higher level of immunoreactive endothelin-1 compared with nontransgenic rat hearts. The type 1 angiotensin II receptor antagonist CV-11974 had no significant effect on contractile function in response to load in either strain. These results show that endogenous endothelin-1 contributes to the Frank-Starling response in hypertrophied rat hearts by affecting systolic performance.

  1. Endothelin-A -Mediated Vasoconstriction During Exercise With Advancing Age

    PubMed Central

    Barrett-O’Keefe, Zachary; Ives, Stephen J.; Trinity, Joel D.; Morgan, Garrett; Rossman, Matthew J.; Donato, Anthony J.; Runnels, Sean; Morgan, David E.; Gmelch, Benjamin S.; Bledsoe, Amber D.; Richardson, Russell S.

    2015-01-01

    The endothelin-1 vasoconstrictor pathway contributes to age-related elevations in resting peripheral vascular tone primarily through activation of the endothelin subtype A (ETA) receptor. However, the regulatory influence of ETA-mediated vasoconstriction during exercise in the elderly is unknown. Thus, in 17 healthy volunteers (n = 8 young, 24±2 years; n = 9 old, 70±2 years), we examined leg blood flow, mean arterial pressure, leg arterial–venous oxygen (O2) difference, and leg O2 consumption (VO2) at rest and during knee-extensor exercise before and after intra-arterial administration of the ETA antagonist BQ-123. During exercise, BQ-123 administration increased leg blood flow to a greater degree in the old (+29±5 mL/min/W) compared with the young (+16±3 mL/min/W). The increase in leg blood flow with BQ-123 was accompanied by an increase in leg VO2 in both groups, suggesting a reduced efficiency following ETA receptor blockade. Together, these findings have identified an age-related increase in ETA-mediated vasoconstrictor activity that persists during exercise, suggesting an important role of this pathway in the regulation of exercising skeletal muscle blood flow and maintenance of arterial blood pressure in the elderly. PMID:24821105

  2. Autocrine endothelin-3/endothelin receptor B signaling maintains cellular and molecular properties of glioblastoma stem cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Ye, Fei; Yamada, Kazunari; Tso, Jonathan L; Zhang, Yibei; Nguyen, David H; Dong, Qinghua; Soto, Horacio; Choe, Jinny; Dembo, Anna; Wheeler, Hayley; Eskin, Ascia; Schmid, Ingrid; Yong, William H; Mischel, Paul S; Cloughesy, Timothy F; Kornblum, Harley I; Nelson, Stanley F; Liau, Linda M; Tso, Cho-Lea

    2011-12-01

    Glioblastoma stem cells (GSC) express both radial glial cell and neural crest cell (NCC)-associated genes. We report that endothelin 3 (EDN3), an essential mitogen for NCC development and migration, is highly produced by GSCs. Serum-induced proliferative differentiation rapidly decreased EDN3 production and downregulated the expression of stemness-associated genes, and reciprocally, two glioblastoma markers, EDN1 and YKL-40 transcripts, were induced. Correspondingly, patient glioblastoma tissues express low levels of EDN3 mRNA and high levels of EDN1 and YKL-40 mRNA. Blocking EDN3/EDN receptor B (EDNRB) signaling by an EDNRB antagonist (BQ788), or EDN3 RNA interference (siRNA), leads to cell apoptosis and functional impairment of tumor sphere formation and cell spreading/migration in culture and loss of tumorigenic capacity in animals. Using exogenous EDN3 as the sole mitogen in culture does not support GSC propagation, but it can rescue GSCs from undergoing cell apoptosis. Molecular analysis by gene expression profiling revealed that most genes downregulated by EDN3/EDNRB blockade were those involved in cytoskeleton organization, pause of growth and differentiation, and DNA damage response, implicating the involvement of EDN3/EDNRB signaling in maintaining GSC migration, undifferentiation, and survival. These data suggest that autocrine EDN3/EDNRB signaling is essential for maintaining GSCs. Incorporating END3/EDNRB-targeted therapies into conventional cancer treatments may have clinical implication for the prevention of tumor recurrence.

  3. Endothelin-1 activates p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and cytosolic phospholipase A2 in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed Central

    Husain, S; Abdel-Latif, A A

    1999-01-01

    We have shown previously that cytosolic phospholipase A(2) (cPLA(2)) is responsible for endothelin-1-induced release of arachidonic acid for prostaglandin synthesis in cat iris sphincter smooth muscle (CISM) cells [Husain and Abdel-Latif (1998) Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1392, 127-144]. Here we show that p38 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase, but not p42/p44 MAP kinases, plays an important role in the phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2) in endothelin-1-stimulated CISM cells. This conclusion is supported by the following findings. Both p38 MAP kinase and p42/p44 MAP kinases were present in the CISM cells and both were activated by endothelin-1. SB203580, a potent specific inhibitor of p38 MAP kinase, but not the p42/p44 MAP kinases specific inhibitor, PD98059, markedly suppressed endothelin-1-enhanced cPLA(2) phosphorylation, cPLA(2) activity and arachidonic acid release. The addition of endothelin-1 resulted in the phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2). Endothelin-1 stimulated p38 MAP kinase activity in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, and these effects were mediated through the endothelin-A receptor subtype. The protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, RO 31-8220, had no inhibitory effect on endothelin-1-induced p38 MAP kinase activation, suggesting that endothelin-1 activation of p38 MAP kinase is independent of PKC. Pertussis toxin inhibited both endothelin-1 and mastoparan stimulation of p38 MAP kinase activity and arachidonic acid release. The inhibitory effects of pertussis toxin are not mediated through cAMP formation. Mastoparan-stimulated [(3)H]arachidonic acid release and cPLA(2) activation was inhibited by SB203580, but not by RO 31-8220. These data suggest that endothelin-1 binds to the endothelin-A receptor to activate the Gi-protein which, through a series of kinases, leads to the activation of p38 MAP kinase and subsequently to phosphorylation and activation of cPLA(2). Activation of cPLA(2) leads to the liberation of arachidonic acid

  4. Effects of Long-term Blockade of Vasopressin Receptor Types 1a and 2 on Cardiac and Renal Damage in a Rat Model of Hypertensive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tomoyuki; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Watanabe, Heitaro; Morooka, Hanako; Akahoshi, Yasumitsu; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Miyazaki, Shunichi

    2015-11-01

    The effects of chronic blockade of vasopressin type 1a receptors (V1aR) and the additive effects of a type 2 receptor (V2R) antagonist on the treatment of hypertension-induced heart failure and renal injury remain to be unknown. In this study, Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats were chronically treated with a vehicle (CONT), a V1aR antagonist (OPC21268; OPC), a V2R antagonist (tolvaptan; TOLV), or a combination of OPC21268 and tolvaptan (OPC/TOLV) from the pre-hypertrophic stage (6 weeks). No treatment altered blood pressure during the study. Significant improvements were seen in median survival for the OPC and TOLV, and the OPC/TOLV showed a further improvement in Kaplan-Meier analysis. Echocardiography showed suppressed left ventricular hypertrophy in the OPC and OPC/TOLV at 11 weeks with improved function in all treatment groups by 17 weeks. In all treatment groups, improvements were seen in the following: myocardial histological changes, creatinine clearance, urinary albumin excretion, and renal histopathologic damage. Also, key mRNA levels were suppressed (eg, endothelin-1 and collagen). In conclusion, chronic V1aR blockade ameliorated disease progression in this rat model, with additive benefits from the combination of V1aR and V2R antagonists. It was associated with protection of both myocardial and renal damage, independent of blood pressure.

  5. Neural peptidase endothelin-converting enzyme 1 regulates endothelin 1–induced pruritus

    PubMed Central

    Kido-Nakahara, Makiko; Buddenkotte, Jörg; Kempkes, Cordula; Ikoma, Akihiko; Cevikbas, Ferda; Akiyama, Tasuku; Nunes, Frank; Seeliger, Stephan; Hasdemir, Burcu; Mess, Christian; Buhl, Timo; Sulk, Mathias; Müller, Frank-Ulrich; Metze, Dieter; Bunnett, Nigel W.; Bhargava, Aditi; Carstens, Earl; Furue, Masutaka; Steinhoff, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In humans, pruritus (itch) is a common but poorly understood symptom in numerous skin and systemic diseases. Endothelin 1 (ET-1) evokes histamine-independent pruritus in mammals through activation of its cognate G protein–coupled receptor endothelin A receptor (ETAR). Here, we have identified neural endothelin–converting enzyme 1 (ECE-1) as a key regulator of ET-1–induced pruritus and neural signaling of itch. We show here that ETAR, ET-1, and ECE-1 are expressed and colocalize in murine dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons and human skin nerves. In murine DRG neurons, ET-1 induced internalization of ETAR within ECE-1–containing endosomes. ECE-1 inhibition slowed ETAR recycling yet prolonged ET-1–induced activation of ERK1/2, but not p38. In a murine itch model, ET-1–induced scratching behavior was substantially augmented by pharmacological ECE-1 inhibition and abrogated by treatment with an ERK1/2 inhibitor. Using iontophoresis, we demonstrated that ET-1 is a potent, partially histamine-independent pruritogen in humans. Immunohistochemical evaluation of skin from prurigo nodularis patients confirmed an upregulation of the ET-1/ETAR/ECE-1/ERK1/2 axis in patients with chronic itch. Together, our data identify the neural peptidase ECE-1 as a negative regulator of itch on sensory nerves by directly regulating ET-1–induced pruritus in humans and mice. Furthermore, these results implicate the ET-1/ECE-1/ERK1/2 pathway as a therapeutic target to treat pruritus in humans. PMID:24812665

  6. Effects of antagonists for endothelin ET(A) and ET(B) receptors on coronary endothelial and myocardial function after ischemia-reperfusion in anesthetized goats.

    PubMed

    Climent, Belén; Fernández, Nuria; García-Villalón, Angel Luis; Monge, Luis; Sánchez, Ana; Diéguez, Godofredo

    2006-05-01

    To compare the effects of antagonists for endothelin ET(A) and ET(B) receptors on the action of ischemia-reperfusion on endothelial and myocardial function, 30 min of partial or total occlusion followed by 60 min of reperfusion of the left circumflex coronary artery was induced in anesthetized goats treated with intracoronary administration of saline (vehicle), BQ-123 (endothelin ET(A) receptors antagonist) or BQ-788 (endothelin ET(B) receptors antagonist). During reperfusion after partial occlusion, coronary vascular conductance and left ventricle dP/dt were decreased after saline or BQ-788, and they normalized after BQ-123. In these three groups of animals, the coronary effects of acetylcholine (3-100 ng) and sodium nitroprusside (1-10 microg) during reperfusion were as under control. During reperfusion after total occlusion, coronary vascular conductance and left ventricle dP/dt were decreased after saline, and they normalized after BQ-123 or BQ-788. In these three groups of animals, the coronary effects of acetylcholine but not those of sodium nitroprusside during reperfusion were decreased after saline, and they reversed after BQ-123 or BQ-788. Therefore, selective antagonists of endothelin ET(B) and ET(A) receptors may produce similar protection of coronary vasculature and myocardium against reperfusion after severe ischemia. Selective antagonists of endothelin ET(B) receptors, contrarily to those of endothelin ET(A) receptors, may be ineffective to protect coronary vasculature and myocardium against reperfusion after mild ischemia.

  7. Endothelin system in oral squamous carcinoma cells: specific siRNA targeting of ECE-1 blocks cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Awano, Shuji; Dawson, Louise A; Hunter, Alison R; Turner, Anthony J; Usmani, Badar A

    2006-04-01

    The present study focused on the endothelin axis in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells. We investigated the expression and distribution of endothelin-1 (ET-1), its receptors (endothelin-A receptor (ET(A)R) and endothelin-B receptor (ET(B)R)) and isoforms of its specific converting enzyme (ECE-1a, 1b, 1c) and the report on their relative influences on cell proliferation. We also investigated the effect of an ECE-specific inhibitor (ECE-i) and siRNA targeting of the ECE-1 gene on SCC cell proliferation. We observed the expression of ET-1, ET(A)R, ET(B)R and all endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) isoforms in oral SCC cells, but only the expression of ET-1, ET(B)R and ECE-1 was increased when compared to normal human epidermal keratinocytes. ET-1 alone stimulated proliferation of oral SCC cells. Antagonists of either ET(A)R or ET(B)R inhibited ET-1-mediated proliferation. Decreased ECE-1 expression after ECE siRNA treatment reduced SCC cell proliferation. Antiproliferative effects were also observed by inhibiting ECE activity with ECE-i. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates that modulation of the endothelin system in oral SCC cells might provide a novel therapeutic protocol for oral cancer.

  8. Residual Neuromuscular Blockade.

    PubMed

    Plummer-Roberts, Anna L; Trost, Christina; Collins, Shawn; Hewer, Ian

    2016-02-01

    This article provides an update on residual neuromuscular blockade for nurse anesthetists. The neuromuscular junction, pharmacology for producing and reversing neuromuscular blockade, monitoring sites and methods, and patient implications relating to incomplete reversal of neuromuscular blockade are reviewed. Overall recommendations include using multiple settings when employing a peripheral nerve stimulator for monitoring return of neuromuscular function and administering pharmacologic reversal when the train-of-four ratio is below 0.9.

  9. Pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with impaired lysosomal endothelin-1 degradation.

    PubMed

    Recla, Sabine; Hahn, Andreas; Apitz, Christian

    2015-04-01

    We report on a boy with severe pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with mucolipidosis, a rare lysosomal storage disorder. During diagnostic catheterisation, we found increased endothelin-1 levels, but normal big endothelin-1-levels (the precursor form of endothelin-1), which suggests impaired degradation of endothelin-1 rather than increased synthesis. As endothelin-1 degradation takes place in the lysosome, it appears likely that lysosomal dysfunction caused by the underlying disease contributes to the development of pulmonary arterial hypertension in this patient.

  10. Comparison of the role of endothelin, vasopressin and angiotensin in arterial pressure regulation during sevoflurane anaesthesia in dogs.

    PubMed

    Picker, O; Schwarte, L A; Roth, H J; Greve, J; Scheeren, T W L

    2004-01-01

    In this study we aimed to clarify the role of endothelin in arterial pressure regulation during anaesthesia with increasing concentrations of sevoflurane (1-3 MAC) and compare it with those of vasopressin and angiotensin. After an awake control period, on different days, six dogs underwent each of the following four interventions: sevoflurane anaesthesia alone (1-3 MAC), sevoflurane after block of either endothelin receptors using tezosentan (3 mg kg(-1) followed by 3 mg kg(-1) h(-1)), vasopressin V(1a) receptors using [d(CH(2))(5)Tyr(Me(2))]AVP (40 micro g kg(--1)) or angiotensin receptors using losartan (6 mg kg(-1) h(-1)). Plasma concentrations of endothelin, big endothelin, vasopressin and renin were measured. Effects of sevoflurane in the presence and absence of the respective receptor block were analysed and compared using analysis of variance for repeated measures (ANOVA followed by Fisher's PLSD (protected least significant difference) (P<0.05)). Mean arterial pressure decreased in a dose-dependent manner with sevoflurane during all interventions. At 1 MAC, this decrease was greatest during angiotensin receptor block (mean (SEM), -41 (3) mm Hg), intermediate during vasopressin and endothelin receptor block (-31 (4) and -30 (2) mm Hg respectively), and least during sevoflurane alone (-24 (3) mm Hg). The course of systemic vascular resistance mirrored the course of arterial pressure, while cardiac output did not differ between groups. Plasma concentrations of endothelin, big endothelin and renin did not change during any intervention, whereas vasopressin concentration increased from approximately 0.5 to 40 ng litre(-1) at 3 MAC as arterial pressure decreased in all groups. At 1 MAC, angiotensin attenuated the decrease in arterial pressure during sevoflurane anaesthesia more than endothelin and vasopressin. However, at higher MAC only vasopressin was specifically activated to partly compensate for the arterial pressure decrease.

  11. The role of nitric oxide in the regional vasodilator effects of endothelin-1 in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Fozard, J. R.; Part, M. L.

    1992-01-01

    1. The role of nitic oxide (NO) derived from L-arginine in the regional vasodilator effects of endothelin-1 has been investigated in anaesthetized, spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats in which autonomic reflexes were abolished by ganglion blockade. The experimental design incorporated animals infused with phenylephrine to mimic the peripheral vasconstrictor effects of the NO biosynthesis inhibitors and a single dose per animal paradigm to obviate problems of tachyphylaxis to the vasodilator effects of endothelin-1. 2. Infusion of the inhibitor of NO synthase, N-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) at a dose (5 mg kg-1 min-1) which maximally raised blood pressure did not influence either the fall in blood pressure or the vasodilator responses induced in the hindquarters and carotid vascular beds by endothelin-1 (1 nmol kg-1, i.v.) The duration (but not the initial magnitude) of the vasodepressor response to endothelin-1 was however significantly attenuated (by 49%) during infusion of the more potent inhibitor of NO synthase, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), 2 mg kg-1 min-1. 3. Increasing the dose of L-NAME to 10 and 25 mg kg-1min-1 significantly attenuated, but did not abolish, the falls in blood pressure and hindquarters vasodilator responses to acetylcholine, 1 microgram kg-1, and endothelin-1, 1 nmol kg-1 min-1. The effects were selective in that vasodepressor responses to the endothelium-independent vasodilator, sodium nitroprusside, 1-10 micrograms kg-1 min-1, were unaltered.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1628160

  12. Ghrelin restores the endothelin 1/nitric oxide balance in patients with obesity-related metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tesauro, Manfredi; Schinzari, Francesca; Rovella, Valentina; Di Daniele, Nicola; Lauro, Davide; Mores, Nadia; Veneziani, Augusto; Cardillo, Carmine

    2009-11-01

    Obesity is associated with endothelial dysfunction related to decreased NO bioavailability, increased endothelin 1 vasoconstrictor activity, and decreased circulating ghrelin. Therefore, we tested whether exogenous ghrelin may have benefits to improve the balance between endothelin 1 and NO in patients with obesity-related metabolic syndrome. Vasoactive actions of endothelin 1 and NO were assessed in 8 patients with metabolic syndrome and 8 matched controls by evaluating forearm blood flow responses (strain-gauge plethysmography) to intra-arterial infusion of BQ-123 (endothelin A receptor antagonist; 10 nmol/min), followed by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (NO synthase inhibitor; 4 micromol/min), before and after infusion of ghrelin (200 ng/min). In the absence of ghrelin, the vasodilator response to BQ-123 was greater in patients than in controls (P<0.001), whereas infusion of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine induced smaller vasoconstriction in patients than in controls (P=0.006). Importantly, exogenous ghrelin decreased the vasodilator response to BQ-123 (P=0.007 versus saline) and enhanced the magnitude of changes in forearm blood flow induced by NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (P=0.003) in patients but not in controls (both P>0.05). The favorable effect of ghrelin on endothelin A-dependent vasoconstriction was likely related to the stimulation of NO production, because no change in the vascular effect of BQ-123 was observed after ghrelin (P=0.44) in 5 patients with metabolic syndrome during continuous infusion of the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (0.2 microg/min). In patients with metabolic syndrome, ghrelin has benefits to normalize the balance between vasoconstrictor (endothelin 1) and vasodilating (NO) mediators, thus suggesting that this peptide has important peripheral actions to preserve vascular homeostasis in humans.

  13. [Endothelin-1 in pathogenesis of Raynaud's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Knapik-Kordecka, M; Adamiec, R; Ciosek, W

    2001-06-01

    Endothelin is an endogenous vasoconstrictor and plays an important role in pathogenesis of Raynaud's phenomenon. Plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) concentrations following cold exposure in 52 patients with Raynaud's phenomenon were measured. Statistically significant increase of ET-1 and vWF was found in the study group in compare to healthy volunteers. There was positive correlation between ET-1 and vWF in those cases. The dates suggest that ET-changes indicates a vasospastic effect on vascular injury. Treatment with endothelin-receptor antagonist may prevent structural changes in vessel well.

  14. California dreamin' 'bout endothelin: emerging new therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Warner, T D; Elliott, J D; Ohlstein, E H

    1996-05-01

    Progress in our understanding of endothelins has been extremely rapid since their discovery in 1988. A number of pharmaceutical companies have developed potent, orally active, nonpeptide endothelin receptor antagonists with efficacies in a wide variety of animal disease models and potential for treating human disease. However, only time will tell whether or not these compounds are developed into drugs that are perceived as worthy of a place in the therapeutic marketplace. If this is the case, endothelin will have been promoted from the status of striking scientific discovery to therapeutic target in a remarkably short period.

  15. Blockade of striatal adenosine A2A receptor reduces, through a presynaptic mechanism, quinolinic acid-induced excitotoxicity: possible relevance to neuroprotective interventions in neurodegenerative diseases of the striatum.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Pintor, Annita; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Frank, Claudio; Tebano, Maria Teresa; Pèzzola, Antonella; Scarchilli, Laura; Quarta, Davide; Reggio, Rosaria; Malchiodi-Albedi, Fiorella; Falchi, Mario; Massotti, Marino

    2002-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether, and by means of which mechanisms, the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261 [5-amino-7-(2-phenylethyl)-2-(2-furyl)-pyrazolo[4,3-e]-1,2,4-triazolo[1,5-c]pyrimidine] exerted neuroprotective effects in a rat model of Huntington's disease. In a first set of experiments, SCH 58261 (0.01 and 1 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally to Wistar rats 20 min before the bilateral striatal injection of quinolinic acid (QA) (300 nmol/1 microl). SCH 58261 (0.01 but not 1 mg/kg, i.p.) did reduce significantly the effects of QA on motor activity, electroencephalographic changes, and striatal gliosis. Because QA acts by both increasing glutamate outflow and directly stimulating NMDA receptors, a second set of experiments was performed to evaluate whether SCH 58261 acted by preventing the presynaptic and/or the postsynaptic effects of QA. In microdialysis experiments in naive rats, striatal perfusion with QA (5 mm) enhanced glutamate levels by approximately 500%. Such an effect of QA was completely antagonized by pretreatment with SCH 58261 (0.01 but not 1 mg/kg, i.p.). In primary striatal cultures, bath application of QA (900 microm) significantly increased intracellular calcium levels, an effect prevented by the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 [(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo [a,d] cyclohepten-5,10-imine maleate]. In this model, bath application of SCH 58261 (15-200 nm) tended to potentiate QA-induced calcium increase. We conclude the following: (1) the adenosine A2A receptor antagonist SCH 58261 has neuroprotective effects, although only at low doses, in an excitotoxic rat model of HD, and (2) the inhibition of QA-evoked glutamate outflow seems to be the major mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of SCH 58261.

  16. EndothelinA-endothelinB receptor cross-talk in rat basilar artery in situ.

    PubMed

    Yoon, SeongHun; Zuccarello, Mario; Rapoport, Robert M

    2012-04-01

    The rationale for the therapeutic use of dual as opposed to selective endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists stems in part from cross-talk between the ET(A) and ET(B) receptors. However, whether ET(A)-ET(B) receptor cross-talk is present in the cerebral vasculature is difficult to discern since findings of cross-talk contrast even among the few reports available. Thus, this study tested whether ET(A)-ET(B) receptor cross-talk is present in the rat basilar artery. In an in situ cranial window, 0.1 μM sarafotoxin S6c, an ET(B) receptor agonist, relaxed basilar artery basal tone by 54%. ET-1 (3 nM) in the absence and presence of 10 μM BQ123, an ET(A) receptor agonist, induced 13% contraction and 15% relaxation, respectively. In contrast, the 3-nM ET-1 plateau contraction was relaxed by only ∼50% by 3-10 μM BQ123 and 10 μM BQ610, ET(A) receptor antagonists. N(ω)-nitro-L: -arginine, an NO synthase inhibitor, did not enhance contraction to 3 nM ET-1, suggesting that the partial relaxation of the ET-1 plateau contraction did not involve unmasked endothelial ET(B) receptor-mediated relaxation. The ∼50% ET-1 contraction that remained following ET(A) receptor antagonist was relaxed by 3-10 μM BQ788, consistent with an ET(B) receptor-mediated component of contraction. However, 10 μM BQ788 in the absence of prior ET(A) receptor antagonist did not cause relaxation. Subsequent BQ123 addition in the presence of BQ788 completely relaxed the ET-1 contraction. PD145065 (1 μM), an ET(A/B) receptor antagonist, completely relaxed 3-nM ET-1 contracted vessels in both the absence and presence of BQ123. These findings suggest that the inability of ET(A) receptor antagonist to completely relax the ET-1 plateau contraction in rat basilar artery is due to ET(A)-ET(B) receptor cross-talk.

  17. The endothelin B receptor plays a crucial role in the adhesion of neutrophils to the endothelium in sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Koehl, Bérengère; Nivoit, Pierre; El Nemer, Wassim; Lenoir, Olivia; Hermand, Patricia; Pereira, Catia; Brousse, Valentine; Guyonnet, Léa; Ghinatti, Giulia; Benkerrou, Malika; Colin, Yves; Le Van Kim, Caroline; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis

    2017-07-01

    Although the primary origin of sickle cell disease is a hemoglobin disorder, many types of cells contribute considerably to the pathophysiology of the disease. The adhesion of neutrophils to activated endothelium is critical in the pathophysiology of sickle cell disease and targeting neutrophils and their interactions with endothelium represents an important opportunity for the development of new therapeutics. We focused on endothelin-1, a mediator involved in neutrophil activation and recruitment in tissues, and investigated the involvement of the endothelin receptors in the interaction of neutrophils with endothelial cells. We used fluorescence intravital microscopy analyses of the microcirculation in sickle mice and quantitative microfluidic fluorescence microscopy of human blood. Both experiments on the mouse model and patients indicate that blocking endothelin receptors, particularly ETB receptor, strongly influences neutrophil recruitment under inflammatory conditions in sickle cell disease. We show that human neutrophils have functional ETB receptors with calcium signaling capability, leading to increased adhesion to the endothelium through effects on both endothelial cells and neutrophils. Intact ETB function was found to be required for tumor necrosis factor α-dependent upregulation of CD11b on neutrophils. Furthermore, we confirmed that human neutrophils synthesize endothelin-1, which may be involved in autocrine and paracrine pathophysiological actions. Thus, the endothelin-ETB axis should be considered as a cytokine-like potent pro-inflammatory pathway in sickle cell disease. Blockade of endothelin receptors, including ETB, may provide major benefits for preventing or treating vaso-occlusive crises in sickle cell patients. Copyright© 2017 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  18. Time-dependent expression of endothelin-1 in lungs and the effects of TNF-α blocking peptide on acute lung injury in an endotoxemic rat model.

    PubMed

    Jesmin, Subrina; Yamaguchi, Naoto; Zaedi, Sohel; Nusrat Sultana, Sayeeda; Iwashima, Yoshio; Sawamura, Atsushi; Gando, Satoshi

    2011-02-01

    Endothelin (ET)-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases, and some studies suggest that circulating ET-1 is elevated in sepsis. The present study investigated whether ET plays a role in sepsis-mediated acute lung injury and whether its expression could be down regulated by blockade of TNF-α in septic lung. Male Wistar rats at 8 weeks of age were administered with either saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at different time points (1, 3, 6 and 10 h) and various tests were then performed. The features of acute lung injury were observed at 1 h after LPS administration, which gradually became severe with time. Systolic and diastolic pressures were reduced just about one hour after LPS administration, whereas pulmonary TNF-α levels were significantly increased at various time points after LPS administration. LPS induced a time-dependent expression of ET-1 and ET(A) receptor in the lungs compared to control, peaking and increasing by 3 fold at 6 h after induction of endotoxemia, whereas levels of ET(B) receptor, which has vasodilating effects, were remarkably down regulated time-dependently. We conclude that time-dependent increase of ET-1 and ET(A) receptor with the down regulation of ET(B) receptor may play a role in the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in endotoxemia. Finally, treatment of LPS-administered rats with TNF-α blocking peptide for three hours significantly suppressed levels of pulmonary ET-1. These data taken together, led us to conclude that differential alteration in ET expression and its receptors may be mediated by TNF-α and may, in part, account for the pathogenesis of acute lung injury in endotoxemia.

  19. Divergent effects of aging and sex on vasoconstriction to endothelin in coronary arterioles

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, AJ; Chen, B; Dougherty, PJ; Reyes, RA; Shipley, RD; Korzick, DH; Muller-Delp, JM

    2012-01-01

    The risk for cardiovascular disease increases with advancing age; however, the chronological development of heart disease differs in males and females. The purpose of this study was to determine whether age-induced alterations in responses of coronary arterioles to the endogenous vasoconstrictor, endothelin, are sex-specific. Coronary arterioles were isolated from young and old male and female rats to assess vasoconstrictor responses to endothelin (ET), and ETa and ETb receptor inhibitors were used to assess receptor-specific signaling. In intact arterioles from males, ET-induced vasoconstriction was reduced with age, whereas age increased vasoconstrictor responses to ET in intact arterioles from female rats. In intact arterioles from both sexes, blockade of either ETa or ETb eliminated age-related differences in responses to ET; however, denudation of arterioles from both sexes revealed age-related differences in ETa-mediated vasoconstriction. In arterioles from male rats, ETa receptor protein decreased, whereas ETb receptor protein increased with age. In coronary arterioles from females, neither ETa nor ETb receptor protein changed with age, suggesting age-related changes in ET signaling occur downstream of ET receptors. Thus, aging-induced alterations in responsiveness of the coronary resistance vasculature to endothelin are sex-specific, possibly contributing to sexual dimorphism in the risk of cardiovascular disease with advancing age. PMID:23198990

  20. Endothelin receptor B protects granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor mRNA from degradation.

    PubMed

    Jungck, David; Knobloch, Jürgen; Körber, Sandra; Lin, Yingfeng; Konradi, Jürgen; Yanik, Sarah; Stoelben, Erich; Koch, Andrea

    2015-06-01

    Evidence is lacking on the differential effects of the two therapeutic concepts of endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs): the blockade of only the endothelin receptor A (ETAR; selective antagonism) versus both ETAR and endothelin receptor B (ETBR; dual blockade). Ambrisentan, a selective ERA, and bosentan, a dual blocker, are both available for therapy. We hypothesized that there are differences in the potential of ERAs to ameliorate inflammatory processes in human airway smooth muscle cells (HASMCs) and aimed to unravel underlying mechanisms. We used HASMC culture, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction. Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) induced transcription and expression of chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 2 (CXCL2), chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand 3 (CXCL3), granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP12) in HASMCs. In concentration-response experiments, bosentan led to a significantly greater reduction of GM-CSF and MMP12 protein release than ambrisentan, whereas there was no significant difference in their effect on GM-CSF and MMP12 mRNA. Both ERAs reduced CXCL3 protein and mRNA equally but had no effect on CXCL2. Blocking mitogen-activated protein kinases revealed that both ETAR and ETBR signal through p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, but ETBR also signals through extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 to induce GM-CSF expression. In the presence of the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D, bosentan, but not ambrisentan, reduced GM-CSF but not MMP12 or CXCL3 mRNA. In conclusion, blockade of each endothelin receptor subtype reduces GM-CSF transcription, but blocking ETBR additionally protects GM-CSF mRNA from degradation via ERK-1/2. Accordingly, blocking both ETAR and ETBR leads to a stronger reduction of TNFα-induced GM-CSF protein expression. This mechanism might be specific to GM-CSF. Our data stress the anti-inflammatory potential

  1. Autoradiographic localization of endothelin-1 binding sites in porcine skin

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y.D.; Springall, D.R.; Wharton, J.; Polak, J.M. )

    1991-01-01

    Autoradiographic techniques and {sup 125}I-labeled endothelin-1 were used to study the distribution of endothelin-1 binding sites in porcine skin. Specific endothelin-1 binding sites were localized to blood vessels (capillaries, deep cutaneous vascular plexus, arteries, and arterioles), the deep dermal and connective tissue sheath of hair follicles, sebaceous and sweat glands, and arrector pili muscle. Specific binding was inhibited by endothelin-2 and endothelin-3 as well as endothelin-1. Non-specific binding was found in the epidermis and the medulla of hair follicles. No binding was found in connective tissue or fat. These vascular binding sites may represent endothelin receptors, in keeping with the known cutaneous vasoconstrictor actions of the peptide. If all binding sites are receptors, the results suggest that endothelin could also regulate the function of sweat glands and may have trophic effects in the skin.

  2. Glomerular actions of endothelin in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Kon, V; Yoshioka, T; Fogo, A; Ichikawa, I

    1989-01-01

    In Munich-Wistar rats, a micropipette was inserted into a first-order branch of the left main renal artery and continuously infused with human/porcine endothelin (0.4 ng/min). Micropuncture measurements revealed substantial differences within the cortical microcirculation of the same left kidney: SNGFR was some 35% lower in glomeruli exposed to endothelin compared with non-endothelin-perfused glomeruli (P less than 0.005). Similarly, glomerular plasma flow rate was some 38% lower in the endothelin-exposed glomeruli (P less than 0.001). The hypoperfusion and hypofiltration in the endothelin-exposed glomeruli reflected an increase in resistances in the afferent and efferent arterioles. There was no difference in the value of the glomerular capillary ultrafiltration coefficient between the two populations of glomeruli. We also studied kidneys that underwent 25 min of renal artery clamping 48 h before study. Antiendothelin antibody infused into one of the branches of the main renal artery ameliorated the vasoconstriction characteristic of postischemic nephrons: within the cortical microcirculation, the SNGFR in glomeruli exposed to antiendothelin antibody was 27.0 +/- 3.1 nl/min as compared with 17.4 +/- 1.7 measured in glomeruli not perfused with the antibody (P less than 0.001). Similarly, glomerular plasma flow rate was higher in the glomeruli exposed to antiendothelin antibody (128.7 +/- 14.4 nl/min vs. 66.6 +/- 5.6, P less than 0.005). Resistances in both the afferent and efferent arterioles were substantially lower in the antibody-exposed glomeruli. It is, therefore, suggested that endothelin, presumably released from damaged endothelium, may play an important intermediary role in the hypoperfusion and hypofiltration observed in postischemic kidneys. Images PMID:2651481

  3. Interactions of endothelin and insulin: expanding parameters of insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Strawbridge, Andrew B; Elmendorf, Jeffrey S; Mather, Kieren J

    2006-08-01

    Since the discovery of endothelin peptides in the mid-1980s by Yanigasawa and colleagues, accumulating evidence demonstrates that these peptides may function beyond vasoconstriction. Strong epidemiologic associations between insulin resistance and increased endothelin levels or activity have been found, and these associations have prompted studies investigating the interactions of endothelin with insulin. In this review we explore the evidence for such interactions at multiple levels of physiology, ranging from effects on tissue perfusion through modulation of vascular tone to subcellular interactions of endothelin signaling with insulin signaling. The evidence implicating endothelin in insulin resistance and its associated vascular and metabolic abnormalities is reviewed.

  4. Regulation of human retinal blood flow by endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Polak, Kaija; Luksch, Alexandra; Frank, Barbara; Jandrasits, Kerstin; Polska, Elzbieta; Schmetterer, Leopold

    2003-05-01

    There is evidence from in vitro and animal studies that endothelin is a major regulator of retinal blood flow. We set out to characterize the role of the endothelin-system in the blood flow control of the human retina. Two studies in healthy subjects were performed. The study design was randomized, placebo-controlled, double-masked, balanced, two-way crossover in protocol A and three way-way crossover in protocol B. In protocol A 18 healthy male subjects received intravenous endothelin-1 (ET-1) in a dose of 2.5 ng kg (-1)min(-1) for 30 min or placebo on two different study days and retinal vessel diameters were measured. In protocol B 12 healthy male subjects received ET-1 in stepwise increasing doses of 0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5 ng kg (-1)min(-1) (each infusion step over 20 min) in co-infusion with the specific ET(A)-receptor antagonist BQ123 (60 microg min (-1)) or placebo or BQ123 alone investigating retinal vessel diameters, retinal blood velocity and retinal blood flow. Measurements of retinal vessel size were done with the Zeiss retinal vessel analyzer. Measurements of blood velocities were done with bi-directional laser Doppler velocimetry. From these measurements retinal blood flow was calculated. In protocol A exogenous ET-1 tended to decrease retinal arterial diameter, but this effect was not significant versus placebo. No effect on retinal venous diameter was seen. In protocol B retinal venous blood velocity and retinal blood flow was significantly reduced after administration of exogenous ET-1. These effects were significantly blunted when BQ-123 was co-administered. By contrast, BQ-123 alone had no effect on retinal hemodynamic parameters. Concluding, BQ123 antagonizes the effects of exogenously administered ET-1 on retinal blood flow in healthy subjects. In addition, the results of the present study are compatible with the hypothesis that ET-1 exerts its vasoconstrictor effects in the retina mainly on the microvessels.

  5. An investigation into the direct and indirect venoconstrictor effects of endothelin-1 and big endothelin-1 in man.

    PubMed Central

    Haynes, W G; Moffat, S; Webb, D J

    1995-01-01

    1. Endothelin-1 is a potent endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor peptide that is generated through cleavage of its precursor big endothelin-1 by 'endothelin converting enzyme' (ECE) in resistance vessels, including those of the forearm vascular bed. In some animal tissues, but not in resistance vessels of healthy human subjects, endothelin-1 appears to potentiate the actions of the sympathetic nervous system. We examined whether ECE activity is present in human hand veins and whether endothelin-1 or big endothelin-1 potentiate sympathetically mediated venoconstriction. 2. Six healthy subjects received dorsal hand vein infusion of local, non-systemic doses of endothelin-1 (5 pmol min-1), big endothelin-1 (50 pmol min-1) and, as a control, sodium chloride (0.9%; w/v) for 90 min. Vein diameter was measured using the Aellig displacement technique. Sympathetically mediated venoconstriction was elicited using the single deep breath reflex. 3. Endothelin-1 caused a progressive decrease in hand vein diameter, by 49% at 90 min (95% confidence intervals [CI]: -68 to -30%; P = 0.0001). Vein diameter did not change significantly after 90 min infusion of big endothelin-1 (+3%; CI: -11 to +17%; P = 0.0007 vs endothelin-1; P = 0.40 vs baseline) or sodium chloride (+2%; CI: -12 to +16%; P = 0.0002 vs endothelin-1; P = 0.60 vs baseline). Venoconstriction to deep breath was not potentiated by endothelin-1. 4. These results suggest that, in contrast to the situation in forearm resistance vessels, there is little or no local ECE activity in human hand veins and that endothelin does not potentiate sympathetic responses in these cutaneous capacitance vessels. PMID:8554931

  6. Methamphetamine induces the release of endothelin.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Woo; Jones, Susan M; Hostetter, Trisha A; Iliff, Jeffrey J; West, G Alexander

    2016-02-01

    Methamphetamine is a potent psychostimulant drug of abuse that increases release and blocks reuptake of dopamine, producing intense euphoria, factors that may contribute to its widespread abuse. It also produces severe neurotoxicity resulting from oxidative stress, DNA damage, blood-brain barrier disruption, microgliosis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Intracerebral hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke have been reported after intravenous and oral abuse of methamphetamine. Several studies have shown that methamphetamine causes vasoconstriction of vessels. This study investigates the effect of methamphetamine on endothelin-1 (ET-1) release in mouse brain endothelial cells by ELISA. ET-1 transcription as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activation and transcription were measured following methamphetamine treatment. We also examine the effect of methamphetamine on isolated cerebral arteriolar vessels from C57BL/6 mice. Penetrating middle cerebral arterioles were cannulated at both ends with a micropipette system. Methamphetamine was applied extraluminally, and the vascular response was investigated. Methamphetamine treatment of mouse brain endothelial cells resulted in ET-1 release and a transient increase in ET-1 message. The activity and transcription of eNOS were only slightly enhanced after 24 hr of treatment with methamphetamine. In addition, methamphetamine caused significant vasoconstriction of isolated mouse intracerebral arterioles. The vasoconstrictive effect of methamphetamine was attenuated by coapplication of the endothelin receptor antagonist PD145065. These findings suggest that vasoconstriction induced by methamphetamine is mediated through the endothelin receptor and may involve an endothelin-dependent pathway. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Endothelin(A)-endothelin(B) receptor cross talk in endothelin-1-induced contraction of smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Rapoport, Robert M; Zuccarello, Mario

    2012-11-01

    The efficacy of selective endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists may be limited by a functional interaction between the ET(A) and ET(B) receptors. This interaction, also termed "cross talk", is characterized by the dependency of the inhibition of an ET-1 response due to antagonism of one ET receptor subtype upon concomitant antagonism of the other ET receptor subtype. Although a reduction in ET(A)-ET(B) receptor cross talk would presumably increase the efficacy of selective ET receptor antagonists, an approach that accomplishes this aim is largely absent due to a lack of mechanistic understanding. Toward this goal, we evaluated the characteristics and potential dependencies of cross talk in smooth muscle. Smooth muscle was adopted as an exemplar not only because cross talk is widely reported in this tissue type, thereby allowing numerous comparisons, but also significant controversy surrounds the use of selective versus nonselective ET receptor antagonists in ET-1-related pathophysiologies involving smooth muscle. Based on this evaluation, we suggest that ET(A)-ET(B) receptor cross talk is a dynamic process directed by either or both ET receptor subtypes and expressed to varying magnitudes depending on the ET-1 and selective ET receptor antagonist concentrations, tone due to intraluminal pressure/stretch, agonists acting at receptors other than the ET(A)/ET(B) receptors, and endothelial/epithelial function. It is speculated that ET(A)-ET(B) receptor cross talk occurs through signal transduction pathways along with changes at the receptor level. Pharmacologic intervention of the signaling pathways could increase the therapeutic efficacy of ET receptor antagonists.

  8. Involvement of central endothelin receptors in neonatal morphine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Puppala, Bhagya L; Bhalla, Shaifali; Matwyshyn, George; Gulati, Anil

    2006-06-01

    The involvement of central endothelin (ET) receptors in neonatal morphine tolerance has been demonstrated. The present study investigates the role of central ET receptors in morphine withdrawal in neonatal rats. The aim was to determine whether activation of G-proteins coupled to opioid and ET receptors by morphine and various ET receptor modulators is affected during morphine withdrawal in neonatal rats. Pregnant female rats were rendered tolerant to morphine by chronic exposure to morphine pellets during 7 days. On Day 8, pellets were removed and rats were allowed to undergo withdrawal for 24 hrs. Rat pups were delivered by cesarean section. G-protein stimulation induced by morphine; ET-1; the ET(A) receptor antagonist, BMS182874; and the ET(B) receptor agonist, IRL1620, were determined in the brain of neonatal rats undergoing morphine withdrawal by [35S]GTPgammaS binding assay. Morphine produced higher (P < 0.05) maximal stimulation of G-protein in the morphine-withdrawal group (83.60%) compared with the placebo group (66.81%). ET-1-induced G-protein stimulation was also altered, and the median effective concentration (EC50) during morphine withdrawal (170.60 nM) was significantly higher than placebo (62.5 nM; P< 0.05). The maximal stimulation induced by the ET(A) receptor antagonist, BMS182874, in the morphine-withdrawal group (86.07%; EC50 = 31.25 nM) was significantly higher than in the placebo group (EC50 > 1000 nM). The ET(B) agonist, IRL1620, induced G-protein stimulation was similar in placebo (73.43%, EC50 = 13.26 nM) and morphine-withdrawal groups (75.08%, EC(50) = 11.70 nM), respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report indicating involvement of central ET(A) receptors in neonatal morphine withdrawal.

  9. Endothelin-1 Mediates Brain Microvascular Dysfunction Leading to Long-Term Cognitive Impairment in a Model of Experimental Cerebral Malaria

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Brandi D.; Martins, Yuri C.; Akide-Ndunge, Oscar B.; Bruno, Fernando P.; Wang, Hua; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Spray, David C.; Desruisseaux, Mahalia S.

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection causes a wide spectrum of diseases, including cerebral malaria, a potentially life-threatening encephalopathy. Vasculopathy is thought to contribute to cerebral malaria pathogenesis. The vasoactive compound endothelin-1, a key participant in many inflammatory processes, likely mediates vascular and cognitive dysfunctions in cerebral malaria. We previously demonstrated that C57BL6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA, our fatal experimental cerebral malaria model, sustained memory loss. Herein, we demonstrate that an endothelin type A receptor (ETA) antagonist prevented experimental cerebral malaria-induced neurocognitive impairments and improved survival. ETA antagonism prevented blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebral vasoconstriction during experimental cerebral malaria, and reduced brain endothelial activation, diminishing brain microvascular congestion. Furthermore, exogenous endothelin-1 administration to P. berghei NK65-infected mice, a model generally regarded as a non-cerebral malaria negative control for P. berghei ANKA infection, led to experimental cerebral malaria-like memory deficits. Our data indicate that endothelin-1 is critical in the development of cerebrovascular and cognitive impairments with experimental cerebral malaria. This vasoactive peptide may thus serve as a potential target for adjunctive therapy in the management of cerebral malaria. PMID:27031954

  10. Endothelin-1 Mediates Brain Microvascular Dysfunction Leading to Long-Term Cognitive Impairment in a Model of Experimental Cerebral Malaria.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Brandi D; Martins, Yuri C; Akide-Ndunge, Oscar B; Bruno, Fernando P; Wang, Hua; Tanowitz, Herbert B; Spray, David C; Desruisseaux, Mahalia S

    2016-03-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection causes a wide spectrum of diseases, including cerebral malaria, a potentially life-threatening encephalopathy. Vasculopathy is thought to contribute to cerebral malaria pathogenesis. The vasoactive compound endothelin-1, a key participant in many inflammatory processes, likely mediates vascular and cognitive dysfunctions in cerebral malaria. We previously demonstrated that C57BL6 mice infected with P. berghei ANKA, our fatal experimental cerebral malaria model, sustained memory loss. Herein, we demonstrate that an endothelin type A receptor (ETA) antagonist prevented experimental cerebral malaria-induced neurocognitive impairments and improved survival. ETA antagonism prevented blood-brain barrier disruption and cerebral vasoconstriction during experimental cerebral malaria, and reduced brain endothelial activation, diminishing brain microvascular congestion. Furthermore, exogenous endothelin-1 administration to P. berghei NK65-infected mice, a model generally regarded as a non-cerebral malaria negative control for P. berghei ANKA infection, led to experimental cerebral malaria-like memory deficits. Our data indicate that endothelin-1 is critical in the development of cerebrovascular and cognitive impairments with experimental cerebral malaria. This vasoactive peptide may thus serve as a potential target for adjunctive therapy in the management of cerebral malaria.

  11. Neuropathic pain induced by spinal cord injury: Role of endothelin ETA and ETB receptors.

    PubMed

    Forner, S; Martini, A C; de Andrade, E L; Rae, G A

    2016-03-23

    Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a devastating neurologic disorder that often inflicts neuropathic pain, which further impacts negatively on the patient's quality of life. Endothelin peptides, which exert their effects via endothelin A (ETAR) and endothelin B (ETBR) receptors, can contribute to sensory changes associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain, but their role in nociception following SCI is unknown. At different time points after subjecting male Wistar rats to surgery for compression-induced T10 level SCI, the spinal cord levels of ETAR and ETBR were assessed by Western blot and immunohistochemistry, and the corresponding mRNAs by real-time PCR, alongside recordings of behavioural responses to mechanical stimulation of the hind paws with von Frey hairs. SCI was associated with development of hind paw mechanical allodynia from day 14 onwards, and up-regulation of ETAR and ETBR mRNA in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia, and of ETAR protein in the spinal cord. SCI increased ETAR protein expression in spinal grey matter. Treatment on day 21 after surgery with the ETAR selective antagonist BQ-123 (40 and 90 pmol, intrathecally) or the dual ETAR/ETBR antagonist bosentan (30 and 100mg/kg, orally) transiently reduced SCI-induced mechanical allodynia, but the ETBR antagonist BQ-788 was ineffective. Altogether, these data show that SCI upregulates ETAR expression in the spinal cord, which appears to contribute to the hind paw mechanical allodynia associated with this condition. Therapies directed towards blockade of spinal ETAR may hold potential to limit SCI-induced neuropathic pain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 25 years of endothelin research: the next generation.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Noriaki; Vignon-Zellweger, Nicolas; Lopes, Rhéure Alves Moreira; Cacioppo, Joseph; Desbiens, Louisane; Kamato, Danielle; Leurgans, Thomas; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Straube, Julia; Wurm, Raphael; Heiden, Susi; Ergul, Adviye; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Barton, Matthias

    2014-11-24

    In the past three decades, endothelin and endothelin receptor antagonists have received great scientific and clinical interest, leading to the publication of more than 27,000 scientific articles since its discovery. The Thirteenth International Conference on Endothelin (ET-13) was held on September 8-11, 2013, at Tokyo Campus of the University of Tsukuba in Japan. Close to 300 scientists from 25 countries from around the world came to Tokyo to celebrate the anniversary of the discovery of the endothelin peptide discovered 25 years ago at the University of Tsukuba. This article summarizes some of the highlights of the conference, the anniversary celebration ceremony, and particularly the participation of next generation of endothelin researchers in endothelin science and the anniversary celebration. As a particular highlight, next generation endothelin researchers wrote a haiku (a traditional form of Japanese poetry originating from consisting of no more than three short verses and 27 on, or Japanese phonetic units) to describe the magic of endothelin science which they presented to the conference audience at the anniversary ceremony. The text of each haiku - both in its original language together with the English translation - is part of this article providing in an exemplary fashion how poetry can be bridged with science. Finally, we give an outlook towards the next 25 years of endothelin research.

  13. Mitochondrial Fission Inhibitors Suppress Endothelin-1-Induced Artery Constriction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chang; Gao, Jin-Lai; Liu, Ming-Yu; Li, Shan-Liang; Xuan, Xiu-Chen; Zhang, Xin-Zi; Zhang, Xi-Yue; Wei, Yuan-Yuan; Zhen, Chang-Lin; Jin, Jing; Shen, Xin; Dong, De-Li

    2017-07-27

    Endothelin-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension, but the underlying mechanisms remained elusive. Our previous study found that inhibition of mitochondrial fission of smooth muscle cells suppressed phenylephrine- and high K+-induced artery constriction. Here, we studied the effects of mitochondrial fission inhibitors on endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction. The tension of rat mesenteric arteries and thoracic aorta was measured by using a multi-wire myograph system. Mitochondrial morphology of aortic smooth muscle cells was observed by using transmission electron microscopy. Dynamin-related protein-1 selective inhibitor mdivi-1 relaxed endothelin-1-induced constriction, and mdivi-1 pre-treatment prevented endothelin-1-induced constriction of rat mesenteric arteries with intact and denuded endothelium. Mdivi-1 had a similar inhibitory effect on rat thoracic aorta. Another mitochondrial fission inhibitor dynasore showed similar effects as mdivi-1 in rat mesenteric arteries. Mdivi-1 inhibited endothelin-1-induced increase of mitochondrial fission in smooth muscle cells of rat aorta. Rho-associated protein kinase inhibitor Y-27632 which relaxed endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction inhibited endothelin-1-induced mitochondrial fission in smooth muscle cells of rat aorta. Endothelin-1 increases mitochondrial fission in vascular smooth muscle cells, and mitochondrial fission inhibitors suppress endothelin-1-induced vasoconstriction. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Cardiac expression patterns of endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE): implications for conduction system development.

    PubMed

    Sedmera, David; Harris, Brett S; Grant, Elizabeth; Zhang, Ning; Jourdan, Jane; Kurkova, Dana; Gourdie, Robert G

    2008-06-01

    The spatiotemporal distribution of the endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) protein in the embryonic chick heart and the association of this polypeptide with the developing cardiac conduction system is described here for the first time. Further, we show how cardiac hemodynamic load directly affects ECE level and distribution. Endothelin (ET) is a cytokine involved in the inductive recruitment of Purkinje fibers. ET is produced by proteolytic cleavage of Big-ET by ECE. We generated an antibody against chick ECE recognizing a single band at approximately 70 kD to correlate the cardiac expression of this protein with that reported previously for its mRNA. ECE protein expression was more widespread compared to its mRNA, being present in endothelial cells, mesenchymal cells, and myocytes, and particularly enriched in the trabeculae and nascent ventricular conduction system. The myocardial expression was significantly modified under experimentally altered hemodynamic loading. In vivo, ET receptor blockade with bosentan delayed activation sequence maturation. These data support a role for ECE in avian cardiac conduction system differentiation and maturation.

  15. The application of the human beta-globin gene locus control region and murine erythroleukemia cell system to the expression and pharmacological characterization of human endothelin receptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Davies, A; Whiting, E; Bath, C; Tang, E; Brennand, J

    1995-06-01

    The cDNAs encoding both A and B subtypes of the human endothelin receptor have been inserted into mammalian cell expression vectors that utilize the human globin gene, locus control region. These constructs have been introduced into murine erythroleukemia cells and inducible high level expression of the receptors has been achieved (approximately 1.5-pM/mg membrane protein and approximately 13,500 binding sites/cell for both receptor subtypes). Cell lines expressing these receptors were obtained on a rapid time scale (3-4 weeks), facilitated by the need for the analysis of only small numbers of cell clones/receptor (approximately 6). Competitive binding assays with endothelin-1 gave IC50s of 130 +/- 30 pM for endothelin-A receptor and 160 +/- 30 pM for endothelin-B receptor. Similar studies with the different isoforms of endothelin, sarafatoxin-S6b and -S6c, BQ123 and BQ3020, all gave the expected selectivity profiles. The IC50s for all compounds were in close agreement with those reported for native receptors. Thus, this expression system, which has several advantages over other described expression systems, is capable of rapidly providing large quantities of receptor for detailed pharmacological analyses or drug screening. In addition, the expressed receptors display the expected pharmacological profiles in the absence of any complicating, competing interactions from other subtypes or binding sites.

  16. Cardioprotective effects of bosentan, a mixed endothelin type A and B receptor antagonist, during myocardial ischaemia and reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arya Dharamvir; Amit, Saxena; Kumar, Ojha Shreesh; Rajan, Mittal; Mukesh, Nandave

    2006-06-01

    The present study evaluated the cardioprotective potential of bosentan, a mixed endothelin type A and B receptor antagonist, in the myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion model of myocardial infarction. Adult male wistar rats (175-225 g) were divided into three groups: sham operated, non-myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (SHAM); saline-treated myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion control (CON); bosentan-treated myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion (BOS). All animals were anaesthetized and subjected to 40 min. occlusion of left anterior descending coronary artery followed by 120 min. of reperfusion. Saline or drug was administered to the CON or BOS group, respectively, 20 min. after the left anterior descending coronary artery occlusion. Haemodynamic parameters viz. systolic arterial pressure, diastolic arterial pressure and heart rate were recorded throughout the experimental period. Hearts were subsequently excised and processed for histopathological and infarct size evaluation and for biochemical estimation of cardiac specific enzyme creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and myocardial malondialdehyde, a lipid peroxidation marker. Myocardial ischaemic reperfusion resulted in severe myocardial injury, depression of haemodynamic function, significant increase in malondialdehyde levels and decline in CK-MB isoenzyme activity in the heart tissue. Administration of bosentan (3 mg/kg, intravenously) slightly improved haemodynamic effects, decreased myocardial oxygen consumption, significantly (P<0.01) attenuated the rise in malondialdehyde levels and loss of myocardial CK-MB isoenzyme activity compared to the CON group, whereas bosentan administration significantly reduced the percentage area of fiber loss and infarct area. It is therefore concluded that endothelin-1 may mediate myocardial damage produced by ischaemia and reperfusion and that dual blockade of endothelinA and endothelinB receptors may have potential as a mode of therapy for myocardial infarction.

  17. The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease in humans. Several broad and overlapping hypotheses describing the biological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure leads to cardiovascular disease and cardiac dysfunction have been explored, though linkage with specific factors or genes remains limited. Given evidence pointing to autocrine/paracrine signaling systems as modulators of cardiac dysfunction, the present review highlights the emerging role of endothelins as mediators of cardiac dysfunction following particulate matter exposure. Endothelin-1 is a small multifunctional protein expressed in the pulmonary and cardiovascular system, known for its ability to constrict blood vessels. Although endothelin-1 can also directly and indirectly (via secondary signaling events) modulate cardiac contractility, heart rate, and rhythm, research on the role of endothelins in the context of air pollution has tended to focus on the vascular effects. The plausibility of endothelin as a mechanism underlying particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction is further supported by the therapeutic utility of certain endothelin receptor antagonists. Extravascular effects of endothelin on the heart could better explain one mechanism by which particulate matter exposure may lead to cardiac dysfunction. We propose and support the novel hypothesis that autocrine/paracrine signaling systems, such as endothelins, mediate cardiac

  18. The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease in humans. Several broad and overlapping hypotheses describing the biological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure leads to cardiovascular disease and cardiac dysfunction have been explored, though linkage with specific factors or genes remains limited. Given evidence pointing to autocrine/paracrine signaling systems as modulators of cardiac dysfunction, the present review highlights the emerging role of endothelins as mediators of cardiac dysfunction following particulate matter exposure. Endothelin-1 is a small multifunctional protein expressed in the pulmonary and cardiovascular system, known for its ability to constrict blood vessels. Although endothelin-1 can also directly and indirectly (via secondary signaling events) modulate cardiac contractility, heart rate, and rhythm, research on the role of endothelins in the context of air pollution has tended to focus on the vascular effects. The plausibility of endothelin as a mechanism underlying particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction is further supported by the therapeutic utility of certain endothelin receptor antagonists. Extravascular effects of endothelin on the heart could better explain one mechanism by which particulate matter exposure may lead to cardiac dysfunction. We propose and support the novel hypothesis that autocrine/paracrine signaling systems, such as endothelins, mediate cardiac

  19. The endothelin system and endothelin-converting enzyme in the brain: molecular and cellular studies.

    PubMed

    Barnes, K; Turner, A J

    1997-08-01

    The biologically active vasoactive peptides, the endothelins (ETs), are generated from inactive intermediates, the big endothelins, by a unique processing event catalysed by the zinc metalloprotease, endothelin converting enzyme (ECE). In this overview we examine the actions of endothelins in the brain, and focus on the structure and cellular locations of ECE. The heterogeneous distribution in the brain of ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3 is discussed in relation to their hemodynamic, mitogenic and proliferative properties as well as their possible roles as neurotransmitters. The cellular and subcellular localization of ECE in neuronal and in glial cells is compared with that of other brain membrane metalloproteases, neutral endopeptidase-24.11 (neprilysin), angiotensin converting enzyme and aminopeptidase N, which all function in neuropeptide processing and metabolism Unlike these ectoenzymes, ECE exhibits a dual localisation in the cell, being present on the plasma membrane and also, in some instances, being concentrated in a perinuclear region. This differential localization may reflect distinct targeting of different ECE isoforms, ECE-1 alpha, ECE-1 beta, and ECE-2.

  20. A2aR antagonists: Next generation checkpoint blockade for cancer immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Leone, Robert D; Lo, Ying-Chun; Powell, Jonathan D

    2015-01-01

    The last several years have witnessed exciting progress in the development of immunotherapy for the treatment of cancer. This has been due in great part to the development of so-called checkpoint blockade. That is, antibodies that block inhibitory receptors such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 and thus unleash antigen-specific immune responses against tumors. It is clear that tumors evade the immune response by usurping pathways that play a role in negatively regulating normal immune responses. In this regard, adenosine in the immune microenvironment leading to the activation of the A2a receptor has been shown to represent one such negative feedback loop. Indeed, the tumor microenvironment has relatively high concentrations of adenosine. To this end, blocking A2a receptor activation has the potential to markedly enhance anti-tumor immunity in mouse models. This review will present data demonstrating the ability of A2a receptor blockade to enhance tumor vaccines, checkpoint blockade and adoptive T cell therapy. Also, as several recent studies have demonstrated that under certain conditions A2a receptor blockade can enhance tumor progression, we will also explore the complexities of adenosine signaling in the immune response. Despite important nuances to the A2a receptor pathway that require further elucidation, studies to date strongly support the development of A2a receptor antagonists (some of which have already been tested in phase III clinical trials for Parkinson Disease) as novel modalities in the immunotherapy armamentarium.

  1. Plasma endothelin level in the acute stage of Bell palsy.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, M; Iijima, M; Kukimoto, N; Kuga, M

    1996-08-01

    To determine the plasma endothelin level in the acute stage in patients with Bell palsy (based on the hypothesis that endothelin, which is a potent vasoconstrictor, may play a role in the mechanism of the onset of facial nerve paralysis and in view of the fact that the etiology of Bell palsy is still a maze of unknowns). The study involved 62 patients with the acute stage (tested within 10 days of onset) of Bell palsy (i.e., idiopathic acute peripheral facial paralysis) and an additional 36 healthy persons who served as control subjects. To determine the content of endothelin, 2 ml of plasma samples was collected from each subject. Endothelin-1 was extracted and analyzed by a radioimmunoassay by using anti-endothelin-1 antibody. Nihon University Itabashi Hospital, a referral and institutional center in Tokyo, Japan. The patients who were suffering from Bell palsy exhibited a statistically significant (P < .01) increase in the endothelin level compared with that in the 36 normal control subjects. An age-matched comparison (ranges, 20-29 years and 30-39 years) of patients with Bell palsy with normal control subjects revealed a significant difference between the normal group and the group with Bell palsy in the plasma endothelin level for both age groups that were tested (P < .01). The mean value of the endothelin level in patients with Bell palsy was maximal on day 5, and the percentage of patients with abnormally elevated endothelin levels was 100% from days 6 to 9. Endothelin, which has potent vasoconstrictive effects, may contribute to the pathogenesis of the microcirculatory impairment that occurs in patients with Bell palsy, mainly by promoting secondary ischemia.

  2. Traceable Coulomb blockade thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahtela, O.; Mykkänen, E.; Kemppinen, A.; Meschke, M.; Prunnila, M.; Gunnarsson, D.; Roschier, L.; Penttilä, J.; Pekola, J.

    2017-02-01

    We present a measurement and analysis scheme for determining traceable thermodynamic temperature at cryogenic temperatures using Coulomb blockade thermometry. The uncertainty of the electrical measurement is improved by utilizing two sampling digital voltmeters instead of the traditional lock-in technique. The remaining uncertainty is dominated by that of the numerical analysis of the measurement data. Two analysis methods are demonstrated: numerical fitting of the full conductance curve and measuring the height of the conductance dip. The complete uncertainty analysis shows that using either analysis method the relative combined standard uncertainty (k  =  1) in determining the thermodynamic temperature in the temperature range from 20 mK to 200 mK is below 0.5%. In this temperature range, both analysis methods produced temperature estimates that deviated from 0.39% to 0.67% from the reference temperatures provided by a superconducting reference point device calibrated against the Provisional Low Temperature Scale of 2000.

  3. Endothelin mediated contraction of equine laminar veins.

    PubMed

    Keen, J A; Hillier, C; McGorum, B C; Nally, J E

    2008-07-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) may be a key mediator in the pathogenesis of laminitis, but endothelin-mediated responses in the venous microcirculation of the equine foot have yet to be fully characterised. To characterise the response of equine laminar veins to ET-1 and evaluate the ET-1 receptor subtypes that mediate this response. Small veins (150-500 microns) draining the equine digital laminae from healthy horses and ponies subjected to euthanasia at an abattoir were investigated using wire myography. Concentration response curves were constructed for ET-1 in the presence of ETA (BQ123) and ETB (BQ788) receptor antagonists, and L-NAME, a nitric oxide synthase blocker. The selective ETB receptor agonist BQ3020 was investigated alone and following incubation with L-NAME, with or without BQ788. Endothelin-1 contraction of laminar veins was significantly inhibited by BQ123 but not by BQ788. In the presence of L-NAME, sensitivity of laminar veins to ET-1 was enhanced 4-fold, and further addition of BQ788 did not alter this increased sensitivity. BQ3020 induced no venoconstriction; however, in the presence of L-NAME, it caused contraction of veins with approximately 30% of the efficacy of ET-1. The action of BQ3020 in the presence of L-NAME was abolished by BQ788. Both ETA and ETB receptors are involved in the net tonic response to ET-1 in normal laminar veins. A population of ETB receptors may be present on the vascular endothelium and on smooth muscle of laminar veins, and the action of ET-1 at these 2 sites is likely to be approximately equal and opposite. Our results clarify the function of the ET-1 receptor subtypes in laminar veins from healthy horses. Further study of ET-1 receptors in laminitic horses is therefore warranted.

  4. The Future of Endothelin Research: Scientific Mentoring and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Barton, Matthias; Pollock, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelium-dependent regulation of vascular tone was one of the key discoveries in physiology in the 1980s, including the characterization of endothelium-derived vasoactive factors such as endothelin. Young investigators, often while starting research as part of their PhD degree, have been instrumental in carrying out the work that led some of the most important discoveries in the endothelin field. This article reviews the importance of mentoring for research in general and for endothelin research in particular, including examples of outstanding young investigators that have been instrumental in some of the key discoveries in the endothelin field. Recognizing scientific excellence among young investigators has a long tradition in the history of the International Conferences on Endothelin. Winners of “Young Investigator Awards” of the past five endothelin conferences (ET-8, ET-9, ET-10, ET-11, and ET-12) are presented, as well as recipients of the “ET-12 Best Presentation Awards” established on the occasion of the Twelfth International Conference on Endothelin ET-12 in Cambridge in September 2011. PMID:22796368

  5. Endothelin receptor antagonists and cardiovascular diseases of aging.

    PubMed

    Love, M P; McMurray, J J

    2001-01-01

    Our understanding of the role of the endothelin system in human cardiovascular physiology and pathophysiology has evolved very rapidly since the initial description of its constituent parts in 1988. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is the predominant endothelin isoform in the human cardiovascular system and has potent vasoconstrictor, mitogenic and antinatriuretic properties which have implicated it in the pathophysiology of a number of cardiovascular diseases. The effects of ET-1 have been shown to be mediated by 2 principal endothelin receptor subtypes: ET(A) and ET(B). The development of a range of peptidic and nonpeptidic endothelin receptor antagonists represents an exciting breakthrough in human cardiovascular therapeutics. Two main classes of endothelin receptor antagonist have been developed for possible human therapeutic use: ET(A)-selective and nonselective antagonists. Extensive laboratory and clinical research with these agents has highlighted their promise in various cardiovascular diseases. Randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trials have yielded very encouraging results in patients with hypertension and chronic heart failure with more preliminary data suggesting a possible role in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerosis and stroke. Much more research is needed, however, before endothelin receptor antagonists can be considered for clinical use.

  6. Role of nitrergic and endothelin pathways modulations in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Helmy, M W; Helmy, M M; Abd Allah, D M; Abo Zaid, A M; Mohy El-Din, M M

    2014-06-01

    Although the protective role of either nitric oxide (NO) or endothelin (ET) receptors modulation on the severity of cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity has been recognized in previous studies including our own, the possible interaction between the two pathways remains obscure. In this study, we tested for the first time the possible interaction between the nitrergic and endothelin pathways in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats. Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into four groups: control (given a single dose of normal saline, i.p.), cisplatin (6 mg/kg, i.p.), cisplatin + sildenafil (2 mg/kg, i.p.), cisplatin + sildenafil + BQ-123 (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Each of the co-administered drugs was given in two doses; one hour before and one day after the cisplatin dose. Acute cisplatin administration resulted in significant increases in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine levels at 96 hours following cisplatin injection. Increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and caspase-3, decreased nitrite/nitrate level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in kidney homogenates were also observed following cisplatin injection, in addition to a typical 'acute tubular necrosis' pattern. According to the obtained results, the co-adminstration of sildenafil alone with cisplatin offered a reno-protective effect comparable to that obtained following the concurrent administration of both sildenafil and the selective ET-A receptor antagonist BQ-123. Thus, the current study is the first to reveal that the presence of an intact NO/cGMP system may offer a moderate reno-protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity even in the presence of ET-A-mediated vasoconstriction, suggesting the absence of obvious functional interaction between the nitrergic and endothelin pathways in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity in male rats.

  7. Endothelin-1 and endothelin receptor mRNA expression in normal and atherosclerotic human arteries.

    PubMed

    Winkles, J A; Alberts, G F; Brogi, E; Libby, P

    1993-03-31

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor peptide implicated in a number of human diseases including atherosclerosis. ET-1 binds to two distinct G protein-coupled receptors, known as the ETA and ETB receptor subtypes. In this study, we have examined ET-1, ETA and ETB mRNA expression levels in human vascular cells cultured in vitro and in normal and atherosclerotic human arteries. The results indicate that (a) ET-1 mRNA is constitutively expressed by endothelial cells but not by smooth muscle cells, (b) endothelial cells express only ETB mRNA but smooth muscle cells co-express ETA and ETB mRNA, and (c) in comparison to normal aorta, ET-1 mRNA expression is elevated and endothelin receptor mRNA expression is repressed in atherosclerotic lesions.

  8. Endothelin-1 and endothelin receptors in the basilar artery of the capybara.

    PubMed

    Loesch, Andrzej; Gajkowska, Barbara; Dashwood, Michael R; Fioretto, Emerson T; Gagliardo, Karina M; Lima, Ana R De; Ribeiro, Antonio A C M

    2005-02-01

    Little is known about cerebral vasculature of capybara, which seems may serve as a natural model of studying changes in cerebral circulation due to internal carotid artery atrophy at animal sexual maturation. This is the first study of the light- and electron-immunocytochemical localisation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ETA and ETB endothelin receptors in the basilar artery of capybaras (6 to 12-month-old females and males) using an ExtrAvidin detection method. All animals examined showed similar patterns of immunoreactivity. Immunoreactivity for ET-1 was detected in the endothelium and adventitial fibroblasts, whilst immunoreactivity for ETA and ETB receptors was present in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, perivascular nerves and fibroblasts. In endothelial cells immunoreactivity to ET-1 was pronounced in the cytoplasm or on the granular endoplasmic reticulum. Similar patterns of immunolabelling were observed for ETA and ETB receptors, though cytoplasmic location of clusters of immunoprecipitate seems dominant. These results suggest that the endothelin system is present throughout the wall of the basilar artery of capybara.

  9. Identification of the endothelin-1 receptor in the chick heart

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, H.; Kondoh, M.; Watanabe, H.; Hayashi, T.; Murakami, K.; Takahashi, M.; Yanagisawa, M.; Kimura, S.; Goto, K.; Masaki, T.

    1989-01-01

    This study suggests that binding sites for endothelin-1 (ET-1) are distinct from those for dihydropyridine (DHP)-sensitive, voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels and that ET-1 has its own specific receptors in chick cardiac membranes.

  10. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 regulates endothelin-1-induced lipolysis in adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Davies, Jonathon C B; Bain, Stephen C; Kanamarlapudi, Venkateswarlu

    2014-08-15

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) induces lipolysis in adipocytes, where ET-1 chronic exposure results in insulin resistance (IR) through suppression of glucose transporter (GLUT)4 translocation to the plasma membrane and consequently glucose uptake. ARF6 small GTPase, which plays a vital role in cell surface receptors trafficking, has previously been shown to regulate GLUT4 recycling and thereby insulin signalling. ARF6 also plays a role in ET-1 promoted endothelial cell migration. However, ARF6 involvement in ET-1-induced lipolysis in adipocytes is unknown. Therefore, we investigated the role of ARF6 in ET-1-induced lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This was achieved by studying the effect of inhibitors for the activation of ARF6 and other signalling proteins on ET-1 induced lipolysis and ARF6 activation in the adipocytes. Our results indicate that ET-1 induces, through endothelin type A receptor (ETAR), lipolysis, the ARF6 activation and extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK) phosphorylation in adipocytes, further ET-1 stimulated lipolysis is inhibited by the inhibitors of ARF6 activation, ERK phosphorylation and dynamin, which is essential for endocytosis. Our studies also revealed that ARF6 acts upstream of ERK in ET-1-indcued lipolysis. In summary, we determined that ET-1 activation of ETAR signalled through ARF6, which is crucial for lipolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Vascular Dysfunction in Pneumocystis-Associated Pulmonary Hypertension Is Related to Endothelin Response and Adrenomedullin Concentration.

    PubMed

    Siemsen, Dan W; Dobrinen, Erin; Han, Soo; Chiocchi, Kari; Meissner, Nicole; Swain, Steve D

    2016-02-01

    Pulmonary hypertension subsequent to an infectious disease can be due to vascular structural remodeling or to functional alterations within various vascular cell types. In our previous mouse model of Pneumocystis-associated pulmonary hypertension, we found that vascular remodeling was not responsible for observed increases in right ventricular pressures. Here, we report that the vascular dysfunction we observed could be explained by an enhanced response to endothelin-1 (20% greater reduction in lumen diameter, P ≤ 0.05), corresponding to an up-regulation of similar magnitude (P ≤ 0.05) of the endothelin A receptor in the lung tissue. This effect was potentially augmented by a decrease in production of the pulmonary vasodilator adrenomedullin of almost 70% (P ≤ 0.05). These changes did not occur in interferon-γ knockout mice similarly treated, which do not develop pulmonary hypertension under these circumstances. Surprisingly, we did not observe any relevant changes in the vascular endothelial nitric oxide synthase vasodilatory response, which is a common potential site of inflammatory alterations to pulmonary vascular function. Our results indicate the diverse mechanisms by which inflammatory responses to prior infections can cause functionally relevant changes in vascular responses in the lung, promoting the development of pulmonary hypertension.

  12. Endothelin in cerebral vasospasm. Clinical and experimental results.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, M

    1997-06-01

    Since their discovery in 1988, endothelins have attracted scientific interest because of their extremely potent and long lasting vasoconstrictive effects. In the clinical part of the study plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) concentrations of big endothelin-1, endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) were measured serially for 2 weeks after the onset of SAH. Big endothelin-1 was the predominant peptide present in CSF. The CSF concentrations of big ET-1, ET-1 and ET-3 were significantly higher in older than in younger patients. In patients with cerebral vasospasm postoperative concentrations of endothelins in the CSF remained at or were increased above levels measured before surgery. The volume of hematoma in the basal cisterns was predictive of the concentrations of endothelins in CSF. In the experimental study the efficacy of the orally active endothelin-receptor-antagonist RO 47-0203 for the prevention of cerebral vasospasm after experimental SAH, using the canine two-hemorrhage model, was investigated. Twenty-eight beagle dogs were used in this laboratory experiment. Fourteen animals each were assigned to the treatment and to the control group. In the treatment group each dog received two single doses of 30 mg/kg RO 47-0203 orally per day. The diameter of the basilar artery decreased from 1.36 +/- 0.17 mm at day 1 to 1.19 +/- 0.23 mm at day 8 in the treatment group while in the control group the vessel diameter decreased from 1.48 +/- 0.19 mm at day 1 to 1.02 +/- 0.22 mm at day 8. These results corresponded to a decrease of vessel diameter of 13.1% +/- 11.2% in the treatment group and a decrease of vessel diameter of 30.7% +/- 12.4% in the control group (p < 0.001). Concentrations of endothelin-1 in CSF significantly increased with time after SAH. These results underline the important role of endothelin in the development of cerebral vasospasm, and gives for the first time evidence that prevention of cerebral

  13. Contribution of the endothelin and renin–angiotensin systems to the vascular changes in rats chronically treated with ouabain

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Fabiano E; Yogi, Álvaro; Callera, Gláucia E; Tostes, Rita C; Alvarez, Yolanda; Salaices, Mercedes; Alonso, María J; Rossoni, Luciana V

    2004-01-01

    Renin–angiotensin and endothelin systems are involved in the cardiovascular effects produced by treatment with ouabain. We recently demonstrated that the contractile response to phenylephrine is decreased in ouabain-treated rats. The present study investigated whether endothelin-1 (ET-1) and angiotensin II (Ang II) contributes to the vascular changes observed in rats chronically treated with ouabain. Wistar rats were treated with ouabain (8.0 μg day−1, s.c. pellets for 5 weeks) alone or in combination with an endothelin type A receptor (ETA) antagonist, BMS182874 (40 mg kg−1 day−1, per gavage) or an angiotensin type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist, losartan (15 mg kg−1 day−1, p.o.). Treatment with ouabain increased systolic blood pressure and treatment with either losartan or BMS182874 prevented the development of ouabain-induced hypertension. The sensitivity and maximal response for phenylephrine were reduced in aortic rings from ouabain-treated rats. Removal of the endothelium or in vitro exposure to an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 100 μM) increased the responses to phenylephrine, an effect that was more pronounced in aortas from ouabain-treated rats. Endothelial NOS protein (eNOS) expression was increased after ouabain treatment. Treatment with BMS182874, but not with losartan, prevented the effects of ouabain on the reactivity of phenylephrine and in eNOS protein expression. Gene expression of pre–pro-ET-1 and ETA receptors was increased in aortic rings from ouabain-treated rats. ETB receptor gene expression was not altered by ouabain treatment. In conclusion, our results suggest that endothelin and angiotensin systems play an important role in the development of ouabain-induced hypertension. However, ET-1, by activation of ETA receptors, but not Ang II, contributes to changes in vascular reactivity to phenylephrine induced by chronic treatment with ouabain. PMID:15477225

  14. Distinct Actions of Endothelin A-Selective Versus Combined Endothelin A/B Receptor Antagonists in Early Diabetic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Saleh, Mohamed A.; Pollock, Jennifer S.

    2011-01-01

    Selective endothelin A (ETA) and combined ETA and ETB receptor antagonists are being investigated for use in treating diabetic nephropathy. However, the receptor-specific mechanisms responsible for producing the potential benefits have not been discerned. Thus, we determined the actions of ETA and ETB receptors on measures of glomerular function and renal inflammation in the early stages of diabetic renal injury in rats through the use of selective and combined antagonists. Six weeks after streptozotocin (STZ)-induced hyperglycemia, rats were given 2R-(4-methoxyphenyl)-4S-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-1-(N,N-di(n-butyl)aminocarbonyl-methyl)-pyrrolidine-3R-carboxylic acid (ABT-627) (5 mg/kg/day), a selective ETA antagonist; (2R,3R,4S)-4-(benzo[d][1,3]dioxol-5-yl)-2-(3-fluoro-4-methoxyphenyl)-1-(2-(N-propylpentylsulfonamido)ethyl)pyrrolidine-3-carboxylic acid hydrochloride (A-182086) (10 mg/kg/day), a combined ETA/B antagonist; or vehicle for 1 week. Sham controls received STZ vehicle (saline). Hyperglycemia led to significant proteinuria, increased glomerular permeability to albumin (Palb), nephrinuria, and an increase in total matrix metalloprotease (MMP) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) activities in glomeruli. Plasma and glomerular soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were elevated after 7 weeks of hyperglycemia. Daily administration of both ABT-627 and A-182086 for 1 week significantly attenuated proteinuria, the increase in Palb, nephrinuria, and total MMP and TGF-β1 activity. However, glomerular sICAM-1 and MCP-1 expression was attenuated with ABT-627, but not A-182086, treatment. In summary, both selective ETA and combined ETA/B antagonists reduced proteinuria and glomerular permeability and restored glomerular filtration barrier component integrity, but only ETA-selective blockade had anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects. We conclude that selective ETA antagonists are more likely to be

  15. Endothelin antagonism as an active principle for glaucoma therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Rita; Fromm, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Endothelin, the most potent vasoactive peptide known to date, has been suggested to play a potential role in the pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma. Open-angle glaucoma is the most common optic nerve head neuropathy and is associated with a loss of retinal ganglion cells and visual field damage. Although an increased intraocular pressure is a major risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy, other factors such as a reduced ocular blood flow play an important role for appearance of the disease. Thus, treatment of glaucoma is focused on lowering of intraocular pressure and preventing the occurrence or progression of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Endothelin participates in the regulation of intraocular pressure by an effect on trabecular outflow, the main route for aqueous humour outflow from the eye. Trabecular outflow is modulated by trabecular meshwork contractility which is affected by endothelin. In addition to the effects of endothelin in the anterior part of the eye, the vasoconstrictor causes a decrease in ocular blood flow followed by pathological changes in the retina and the optic nerve head which is assumed to contribute to the degeneration of retinal ganglion cells. In sum, inhibition of endothelin signalling leads to lowering of intraocular pressure and exerts neuroprotective effects. Thus, endothelin antagonism in the eye represents a promising approach for pharmacological treatment of glaucoma. PMID:21054341

  16. The Thirteenth International Conference on Endothelin (ET-13), Tokyo, 2013.

    PubMed

    Emoto, Noriaki; Yanagisawa, Masashi

    2014-11-24

    The Thirteenth International Conference on Endothelin (ET-13) was held from September 8-11, 2013 in Tokyo, Japan chaired by Noriaki Emoto, Kobe Pharmaceutical University, Japan, and Takashi Miyauchi, University of Tsukuba, Japan and held on the Tokyo Campus of Tsukuba University. The International Conferences on Endothelin were launched in December of 1988 shortly after the discovery of endothelin and organized by Sir John Vane, laureate of the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine 1982, as the Conference Chair at The William Harvey Research Institute, London. Since then, the conference has been held every two years alternating between North America, Europe and Asia. In 2013, the conference was again held in Asia and also marked the 25th anniversary of the discovery of endothelin at University of Tsukuba. The 25th anniversary of the discovery of endothelin was celebrated by almost 300 attendees from 25 different countries, the largest number of delegates in the recent history of the conference. Conference delegates who traveled to Japan were from Argentina, Australia, Austria, Brazil, Canada, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Hong Kong, Hungary, Indonesia, Italy, Japan, Korean Republic, Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, Taiwan, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and from Vietnam. In this article we summarize the conference highlights, its speakers, and some of the festivities related to the celebration of the 25th anniversary of the discovery of endothelin.

  17. Endothelin and the neurovascular unit in pediatric traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Armstead, William M; Raghupathi, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study characterized the association between endothelin-1, cerebral hemodynamics, and histopathology after fluid percussion brain injury in the newborn pig. Methods Lateral fluid percussion injury was induced in newborn pigs equipped with a closed cranial window. Cerebral blood flow was determined with radiolabeled microspheres and cerebrospinal fluid endothelin-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay. Results Cerebrospinal fluid endothelin-1 was increased from 26 ± 4 to 296 ± 37 pg/ml (~10−10M) at 8 hours following fluid percussion injury. Post-injury treatment (30 minutes) with the endothelin-1 antagonist BQ-123 (1 mg/kg, intravenous) blocked pial artery vasoconstriction to topical endothelin-1 (~10−10M) and blunted fluid percussion injury-induced reductions in cerebral blood flow at 8 hours post-insult (56 ± 6 and 26±4 ml/minute versus 57 ± 6 and 40 ± 4 ml/minute; 100 g for cerebral blood flow before injury and 8 hours post-fluid percussion injury in vehicle and BQ-123 post-treated animals, respectively). Fluid percussion injury resulted in neuronal cell loss and decreased microtubule associated protein 2 immunoreactivity in the parietal cortex, which were blunted by BQ-123. Discussion These data indicate that fluid percussion injury-induced changes in cerebral hemodynamics are associated with neuronal damage and that endothelin-1 contributes to fluid percussion injury-induced histopathologic changes. PMID:21801587

  18. Role of endothelin-1 in mediating changes in cardiac sympathetic nerve activity in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Abukar, Yonis; May, Clive N; Ramchandra, Rohit

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is associated with increased sympathetic nerve activity to the heart (CSNA), which is directly linked to mortality in HF patients. Previous studies indicate that HF is associated with high levels of plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1), which correlates with the severity of the disease. We hypothesized that blockade of endothelin receptors would decrease CSNA. The effects of intravenous tezosentan (a nonselective ETA and ETB receptor antagonist) (8 mg·kg(-1)·h(-1)) on resting levels of CSNA, arterial pressure, and heart rate were determined in conscious normal sheep (n = 6) and sheep with pacing-induced HF (n = 7). HF was associated with a significant decrease in ejection fraction (from 74 ± 2% to 38 ± 1%, P < 0.001) and a significant increase in resting levels of CSNA burst incidence (from 56 ± 11 to 87 ± 2 bursts/100 heartbeats, P < 0.01). Infusion of tezosentan for 60 min significantly decreased resting mean aterial pressure (MAP) in both normal and HF sheep (-8 ± 4 mmHg and -4 ± 3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05). This was associated with a significant decrease in CSNA (by 25 ± 26% of control) in normal sheep, but there was no change in CSNA in HF sheep. Calculation of spontaneous baroreflex gain indicated significant impairment of the baroreflex control of HR after intravenous tezosentan infusion in normal animals but no change in HF animals. These data suggest that endogenous levels of ET-1 contribute to the baseline levels of CSNA in normal animals, but this effect is absent in HF.

  19. Smooth Muscle Endothelin B Receptors Regulate Blood Pressure but Not Vascular Function or Neointimal Remodeling.

    PubMed

    Miller, Eileen; Czopek, Alicja; Duthie, Karolina M; Kirkby, Nicholas S; van de Putte, Elisabeth E Fransen; Christen, Sibylle; Kimmitt, Robert A; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Castellan, Raphael F P; Kotelevtsev, Yuri V; Kuc, Rhoda E; Davenport, Anthony P; Dhaun, Neeraj; Webb, David J; Hadoke, Patrick W F

    2017-02-01

    The role of smooth muscle endothelinB (ETB) receptors in regulating vascular function, blood pressure (BP), and neointimal remodeling has not been established. Selective knockout mice were generated to address the hypothesis that loss of smooth muscle ETB receptors would reduce BP, alter vascular contractility, and inhibit neointimal remodeling. ETB receptors were selectively deleted from smooth muscle by crossing floxed ETB mice with those expressing cre-recombinase controlled by the transgelin promoter. Functional consequences of ETB deletion were assessed using myography. BP was measured by telemetry, and neointimal lesion formation induced by femoral artery injury. Lesion size and composition (day 28) were analyzed using optical projection tomography, histology, and immunohistochemistry. Selective deletion of ETB was confirmed by genotyping, autoradiography, polymerase chain reaction, and immunohistochemistry. ETB-mediated contraction was reduced in trachea, but abolished from mesenteric veins, of knockout mice. Induction of ETB-mediated contraction in mesenteric arteries was also abolished in these mice. Femoral artery function was unaltered, and baseline BP modestly elevated in smooth muscle ETB knockout compared with controls (+4.2±0.2 mm Hg; P<0.0001), but salt-induced and ETB blockade-mediated hypertension were unaltered. Circulating endothelin-1 was not altered in knockout mice. ETB-mediated contraction was not induced in femoral arteries by incubation in culture medium or lesion formation, and lesion size was not altered in smooth muscle ETB knockout mice. In the absence of other pathology, ETB receptors in vascular smooth muscle make a small but significant contribution to ETB-dependent regulation of BP. These ETB receptors have no effect on vascular contraction or neointimal remodeling. © 2016 The Authors.

  20. Embryonic expression of endothelins and their receptors in lamprey and frog reveals stem vertebrate origins of complex Endothelin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Square, Tyler; Jandzik, David; Cattell, Maria; Hansen, Andrew; Medeiros, Daniel Meulemans

    2016-01-01

    Neural crest cells (NCCs) are highly patterned embryonic cells that migrate along stereotyped routes to give rise to a diverse array of adult tissues and cell types. Modern NCCs are thought to have evolved from migratory neural precursors with limited developmental potential and patterning. How this occurred is poorly understood. Endothelin signaling regulates several aspects of NCC development, including their migration, differentiation, and patterning. In jawed vertebrates, Endothelin signaling involves multiple functionally distinct ligands (Edns) and receptors (Ednrs) expressed in various NCC subpopulations. To test the potential role of endothelin signaling diversification in the evolution of modern, highly patterned NCC, we analyzed the expression of the complete set of endothelin ligands and receptors in the jawless vertebrate, the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus). To better understand ancestral features of gnathostome edn and ednr expression, we also analyzed all known Endothelin signaling components in the African clawed frog (Xenopus laevis). We found that the sea lamprey has a gnathsotome-like complement of edn and ednr duplicates, and these genes are expressed in patterns highly reminiscent of their gnathostome counterparts. Our results suggest that the duplication and specialization of vertebrate Endothelin signaling coincided with the appearance of highly patterned and multipotent NCCs in stem vertebrates. PMID:27677704

  1. Endothelin receptor polymorphisms in the cardiovascular system: potential implications for therapy and screening.

    PubMed

    Holzhauser, Luise; Zolty, Ronald

    2014-11-01

    Since its discovery in 1988, the endothelin system has been employed in multiple physiological and pathological roles. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is not only a major regulator of vascular tone and cardiac contractility but also exerts mitogenic effects and is involved in inflammatory responses. ET-1 acts via two endothelin receptors located mainly on smooth muscle and endothelial cells through complex intracellular pathways differing between receptors and cell types. Polymorphisms of the endothelin receptor A have been associated not only with the risk in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), systolic heart failure and systemic hypertension but are also of prognostic significance in dilated cardiomyopathy. Polymorphisms of endothelin receptors might lead to altered endothelin signaling and influence the response to endothelin receptor antagonist therapy in PAH in light of pharmacogenetics. This review will summarize the role of ET-1 within major cardiovascular pathologies and discuss endothelin receptor polymorphisms with special emphasis on potential therapeutic and screening implications.

  2. Endothelin Regulates Porphyromonas gingivalis-Induced Production of Inflammatory Cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ji-Hye; Lee, Dong Eun; Kang, Si-Mook; Lee, So Yun; Choi, Lin; Sun, Ji Su; Kim, Seul Ki; Park, Wonse; Kim, Baek Il; Yoo, Yun-Jung; Chang, Inik; Shin, Dong Min

    2016-01-01

    Periodontitis is a very common oral inflammatory disease that results in the destruction of supporting connective and osseous tissues of the teeth. Although the exact etiology is still unclear, Gram-negative bacteria, especially Porphyromonas gingivalis in subgingival pockets are thought to be one of the major etiologic agents of periodontitis. Endothelin (ET) is a family of three 21-amino acid peptides, ET-1, -2, and -3, that activate G protein-coupled receptors, ETA and ETB. Endothelin is involved in the occurrence and progression of various inflammatory diseases. Previous reports have shown that ET-1 and its receptors, ETA and ETB are expressed in the periodontal tissues and, that ET-1 levels in gingival crevicular fluid are increased in periodontitis patients. Moreover, P. gingivalis infection has been shown to induce the production of ET-1 along with other inflammatory cytokines. Despite these studies, however, the functional significance of endothelin in periodontitis is still largely unknown. In this study, we explored the cellular and molecular mechanisms of ET-1 action in periodontitis using human gingival epithelial cells (HGECs). ET-1 and ETA, but not ETB, were abundantly expressed in HGECs. Stimulation of HGECs with P. gingivalis or P. gingivalis lipopolysaccharide increased the expression of ET-1 and ETA suggesting the activation of the endothelin signaling pathway. Production of inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, TNFα, and IL-6, was significantly enhanced by exogenous ET-1 treatment, and this effect depended on the mitogen-activated protein kinases via intracellular Ca2+ increase, which resulted from the activation of the phospholipase C/inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate pathway. The inhibition of the endothelin receptor-mediated signaling pathway with the dual receptor inhibitor, bosentan, partially ameliorated alveolar bone loss and immune cell infiltration. These results suggest that endothelin plays an important role in P. gingivalis

  3. Endothelins and NADPH oxidases in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Dammanahalli, Karigowda J; Sun, Zhongjie

    2008-01-01

    1. The endothelin (ET) system and NADPH oxidase play important roles in the regulation of cardiovascular function, as well as in the pathogenesis of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases. 2. Endothelins activate NADPH oxidases and thereby increase superoxide production, resulting in oxidative stress and cardiovascular dysfunction. Thus, NADPH oxidases may mediate the role of endothelins in some cardiovascular diseases. However, the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in mediating ET-induced vasoconstriction and cardiovascular disease remains under debate, as evidenced by conflicting reports from different research teams. Conversely, activation of NADPH oxidase can stimulate ET secretion via ROS generation, which further enhances the cardiovascular effects of NADPH oxidase. However, little is known about how ROS activate the endothelin system. It seems that the relationship between ET-1 and ROS may vary with cardiovascular disorders. 3. Endothelins activate NADPH oxidase via the ET receptor-proline-rich tyrosine kinase-2 (Pyk2)-Rac1 pathway. Rac1 is an important regulator of NADPH oxidase. There is ample evidence supporting direct stimulation by Rac1 of NADPH oxidase activity. In addition, Rac1-induced cardiomyocyte hypertrophy is mediated by the generation of ROS.

  4. Role of endothelin in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando; Busnadiego, Oscar; Lagares, David; Lamas, Santiago

    2011-06-01

    The endothelin (ET) system consists of three peptide ligands (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) and two G-protein-coupled receptors, ET(A) and ET(B). In the cardiovascular system, ETs, particularly ET-1, are expressed in smooth muscle cells, cardiomyocytes, fibroblasts, and notably in vascular endothelial cells. Intense research over the last 10 years has changed the original view of ET-1 as mainly a vasoconstrictor regulating blood pressure, into a biological factor regulating processes such as vascular remodeling, angiogenesis or extracellular matrix synthesis. The advent of specific (and type-selective) ET receptor antagonists has greatly fostered our knowledge of the biological function of ET-1, and has offered a potential therapeutic approach for numerous diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis or fibrosis. In this article, we review the regulation of the expression of vascular ET-1, as well as the contribution of ET-1 to endothelial, smooth muscle and fibroblast cell function, with particular interest in the role of ET-1 in the development of cardiovascular diseases.

  5. Mechanical Stimulation Enhances Endothelin-1 Hyperalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Elizabeth K.; Gear, Robert W.; Levine, Jon D.

    2011-01-01

    When comparing a cumulative dose-response curve for endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced mechanical hyperalgesia to the effect of individual doses (1 ng, 10 ng, 100 ng and 1 µg) administered in separate groups of rats, a marked difference was observed in the peak magnitude of hyperalgesia. Hyperalgesia was measured as decrease in the threshold for mechanically-induced withdrawal of the hind paw. The cumulative dosing protocol produced markedly greater maximum hyperalgesia. To determine whether this was due to the cumulative dosing protocol or to the repeated exposure to the mechanical test stimulus, we evaluated the impact of repeated testing on ET-1-induced mechanical hyperalgesia. While ET-1-induced mechanical hyperalgesia was dose- and time-dependent, repeated testing of nociceptive threshold, at 5 minute intervals, following a single dose of ET-1, produced further decrease in nociceptive threshold. This mechanical stimulation-induced enhancement of ET-1 hyperalgesia lasted only 3–4 hrs, while the hyperalgesia lasted in excess of 5 days. The stimulation-enhanced hyperalgesia also occurred after a second injection of ET-1, administered 24 hours after the initial dose. That this phenomenon is unique to ET-1 is suggested by the observation that while five additional, direct-acting hyperalgesic agents — PGE2, NGF, GDNF, IL-6 and TNFα — induced robust mechanical hyperalgesia, none produced mechanical stimulation-enhanced hyperalgesia. PMID:21277948

  6. Physiology of endothelin and the kidney

    PubMed Central

    Kohan, Donald E.; Inscho, Edward W.; Wesson, Donald; Pollock, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Since its discovery in 1988 as an endothelial cell-derived peptide that exerts the most potent vasoconstriction of any known endogenous compound, endothelin (ET) has emerged as an important regulator of renal physiology and pathophysiology. This review focuses on how the ET system impacts renal function in health; it is apparent that ET regulates multiple aspects of kidney function. These include modulation of glomerular filtration rate and renal blood flow, control of renin release, and regulation of transport of sodium, water, protons and bicarbonate. These effects are exerted through ET interactions with almost every cell type in the kidney, including mesangial cells, podocytes, endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, every section of the nephron, and renal nerves. In addition, while not the subject of the current review, ET can also indirectly affect renal function through modulation of extrarenal systems, including the vasculature, nervous system, adrenal gland, circulating hormones and the heart. As will become apparent, these pleiotropic effects of ET are of fundamental physiologic importance in the control of renal function in health. In addition, to help put these effects into perspective, we will also discuss, albeit to a relatively limited extent, how alterations in the ET system can contribute to hypertension and kidney disease. PMID:23737206

  7. Endothelin therapeutics in cancer: Where are we?

    PubMed

    Rosanò, Laura; Bagnato, Anna

    2016-03-15

    In human cancers, the autocrine and paracrine loop mediated by the aberrantly activation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptor (ET-1R) elicits pleiotropic effects, preferentially mediated by the scaffold protein β-arrestin 1 (β-arr1), on tumor cells and on the host microenvironment, providing a strong rationale for targeting ET-1 receptors. This review describes the most up-to-date preclinical and clinical results obtained by using ET-1 therapeutics. The previous negative clinical results of ET-1 therapeutics should not prevent us from setting the standard of this class of drugs for future well-designed clinical trials. The preclinical data obtained with the dual ETAR and ETBR antagonist macitentan indicate that this molecule, which targets cancer cells and tumor-associated microenvironmental elements, could be a cancer therapeutic option. The field of ET-1 therapeutics will be improved in the next decade, facilitated by the new knowledge on the genomic landscape of the human stroma and tumor, and by the low invasive approaches based on liquid biopsies for the discovery of predictive biomarkers. The information obtained from preclinical studies in patient-derived models and from the Cancer Genome Atlas will set the scene of precision medicine for cancer. Results from these studies are expected to open the possibility that ET-1R antagonists might be more efficacious as molecular cancer therapeutics, able to hamper the functional β-arr1-dependent signaling complexes, either alone or coupled with new targeted approaches.

  8. Endothelin-1 inhibits endothelin-converting enzyme-1 expression in cultured rat pulmonary endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Naomi, S; Iwaoka, T; Disashi, T; Inoue, J; Kanesaka, Y; Tokunaga, H; Tomita, K

    1998-01-27

    The lung expresses large amounts of endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1), which catalyzes a step in the biosynthesis of potent vasoactive endothelin-1 (ET-1) from the inactive intermediate big ET-1. Because there has been no report concerning a possible relationship between ET-1 and ECE-1, we investigated the effects of ET-1 on ECE-1 expression in cultured rat pulmonary endothelial cells. ECE-1 messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in cultured endothelial cells were assayed by Northern and Western blotting, respectively. Incubation with ET-1 for 6 hours caused a significant decrease in ECE-1 mRNA expression. The action of ET-1 on ECE-1 mRNA expression was antagonized by pretreatment with BQ788, a specific ETB receptor antagonist, but not by pretreatment with BQ123, a specific ETA receptor antagonist. The expression of ECE-1 protein was also inhibited at 6 hours after incubation with ET-1. The effects of ET-1 on ECE-1 mRNA and protein expression were shown to be mimicked by ionomycin, a calcium ionophore, but not by 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol 13-acetate, a protein kinase C activator. The present results demonstrate that ET-1 suppressed ECE-1 protein levels by inhibiting ECE-1 mRNA expression through the ETB receptor, suggesting the existence of a feedback action of ET-1 on ECE-1 in pulmonary endothelial cells.

  9. [The effect and mechanism of endothelin-1-induced intracellular free calcium in human lung adenocarcinoma cells SPC-A1.].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Juan; Zhang, Weimin; Ye, Qianjun; Jia, Gang

    2008-08-20

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent mitogen involved in cell growth in human lung adenocarcinoma cells SPC-A1. The increase in intracellular free calcium ([Ca(2+)]i) plays a great role in this process. The aim of this study is to investigate the ET-1-induced [Ca(2+)]i responses in SPC-A1 cells and to explore its cellular mechanism. [Ca(2+)]i was measured by Fura-2/AM fluorescent assay. Endothelin receptors antagonists, calcium channel blockers and intracellular signal transduction blockers were used to study the underlying mechanism of ET-1-induced [Ca(2+)]i responses in SPC-A1 cells. At the concentration of 1*10(-15) mol/L-1*10(-8) mol/L, ET-1 caused a dose-dependent increase of [Ca(2+)]i in SPC-A1 cells (P <0.05) in vitro . The ET-1-induced (1*10(-10) mol/L) increase of [Ca(2+)]i was blocked by BQ123 at 1*10(-7) mol/L (P <0.05), a highly selective endothelin receptor A (ETAR) antagonist, not by BQ788 at 10(-7) mol/L (P >0.05), a highly selective endothelin receptor B (ETBR) antagonist. Depletion of extracellular Ca(2+) with free Ca(2+) solution and 0.1mmol/L ethyleneglycol bis (2-aminoethyl ether) tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or blockade of voltage dependent calcium channel with nifedipine at 1*10(-6) mol/L significantly reduced the ET-1-induced increase of [Ca(2+)]i. The ET-1-induced (1*10(-10) mol/L) increase of [Ca(2+)]i was also significantly attenuated by U73122 at 1*10(-5) mol/L (P <0.05), a phospholipase C inhibitor, and by Ryanodine at 50*10(-6) mol/L. However, Staurosporine (2*10(-9) mol/L), a protein kinas C inhibitor, exerted no significant effect on the ET-1-induced (1*10(-10) mol/L) increase of [Ca(2+)]i. ET-1 elevates [Ca(2+)]i via activation of ETA receptor. Both phospholipase C/Ca(2+) pathway and Ca(2+) influx through voltage dependent Ca(2+) channel activate by ETAR contribute to this process.

  10. Coulomb-blockade and Pauli-blockade magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Széchenyi, Gábor; Pályi, András

    2017-01-01

    Scanning-probe magnetometry is a valuable experimental tool to investigate magnetic phenomena at the micro- and nanoscale. We theoretically analyze the possibility of measuring magnetic fields via the electrical current flowing through quantum dots. We characterize the shot-noise-limited magnetic-field sensitivity of two devices: a single dot in the Coulomb blockade regime, and a double dot in the Pauli blockade regime. Constructing such magnetometers using carbon nanotube quantum dots would benefit from the large, strongly anisotropic and controllable g tensors, the low abundance of nuclear spins, and the small detection volume allowing for nanoscale spatial resolution; we estimate that a sensitivity below 1 μ T/√{Hz} can be achieved with this material. As quantum dots have already proven to be useful as scanning-probe electrometers, our proposal highlights their potential as hybrid sensors having in situ switching capability between electrical and magnetic sensing.

  11. INHIBITION OF ENaC BY ENDOTHELIN-1

    PubMed Central

    Sorokin, Andrey; Staruschenko, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    The amiloride-sensitive epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) is a key player in the regulation of Na+ homeostasis. Its functional activity is under continuous control by a variety of signaling molecules including bioactive peptides of endothelin family. Since ENaC dysfunction is causative for disturbances in total body Na+ levels associated with abnormal regulation of blood volume, blood pressure, and lung fluid balance, the uncovering the molecular mechanisms of inhibitory modulation or inappropriate activation of ENaC is crucial for the successful treatment of a variety of human diseases including hypertension. The precise regulation of ENaC is particularly important for normal Na+ and fluid homeostasis in organs where endothelins are known to act: kidneys, lung and colon. Inhibition of ENaC by endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been established in renal cells and several molecular mechanisms of inhibition of ENaC by ET-1 are proposed and will be reviewed in this chapter. PMID:25817869

  12. Endothelin: A novel peptide in the posterior pituitary system

    SciTech Connect

    Yoshizawa, Toshihiro; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Shinmi, Osamu; Kimura, Sadao; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Masaki, Tomoh; Uchiyama, Yasuo ); Giaid, A.; Gibson, S.J.; Polak, J.M. )

    1990-01-26

    Endothelin (ET), originally characterized as a 21-residue vasoconstrictor peptide from endothelial cells, is present in the porcine spinal cord and may act as a neuropeptide. Endothelin-like immunoreactivity has now been demonstrated by immunohistochemistry in the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclear neurons and their terminals in the posterior pituitary of the pig and the rat. The presence of ET in the porcine hypothalamus was confirmed by reversed-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay. Moreover, in situ hybridization demonstrated ET messenger RNA in porcine paraventricular nuclear neurons. Endothelin-like immunoreactive products in the posterior pituitary of the rat were depleted by water deprivation, suggesting a release of ET under physiological conditions. These findings indicate that ET is synthesized in the posterior pituitary system and may be involved in neurosecretory functions.

  13. Production of endothelin by cultured human endothelial cells following exposure to nicotine or caffeine.

    PubMed

    Lee, W O; Wright, S M

    1999-07-01

    This study evaluated endothelin production by endothelial cells after exposure to nicotine or caffeine. Vasoconstrictive properties have been attributed to both nicotine and caffeine. The presence of endothelin, a potent vasoconstrictor itself, was determined using a radioimmunoassay. The optimal stimulatory doses for nicotine and caffeine were determined to be 1.0 micromol/L and 1.0 mmol/L, respectively. When endothelin production was evaluated over time after exposure to the optimal dose of each agent, it was determined that nicotine stimulated maximum endothelin production within 5 minutes. Caffeine failed to cause a distinct peak of endothelin production within 20 minutes. These results suggest that nicotine may have a possible acute and short-lived effect on the vasoconstrictive response associated with endothelin, while caffeine-induced endothelin release may require more long-term exposure.

  14. Endothelin receptor antagonists for subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jia; Shi, Zhenghong; Yang, Kehu; Tian, Jin Hui; Jiang, Lei

    2012-09-12

    A subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition where blood leaks out of blood vessels over the surface of the brain. Delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND) and the related feature of vasospasm, where patients experience a delayed deterioration, have long been recognized as the leading potentially treatable cause of death and disability in patients with SAH. Endothelin is a potent, long-lasting endogenous vasoconstrictor that has been implicated in the pathogenesis of DIND. Therefore, endothelin receptor antagonists (ETAs) have emerged as a promising therapeutic option for SAH-induced cerebral vasospasm. To assess the efficacy and tolerability of ETAs for SAH. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (December 2011), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library 2011, Issue 11), MEDLINE (1950 to December 2011), EMBASE (1946 to December 2011) and the Chinese Biomedical Database (1978 to December 2011). In an effort to identify further published, unpublished and ongoing trials we searched additional Chinese databases, ongoing trials registers, Google Scholar and Medical Matrix, handsearched journals, scanned reference lists, and contacted researchers and pharmaceutical companies. We only included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared an ETA with placebo for SAH in adult (18 years of age or older) patients who met the diagnostic criteria for SAH based on clinical symptoms, with confirmation on computerized tomography scan results or angiography. Two review authors independently selected RCTs according to the inclusion criteria. We resolved disagreements by discussion with a third review author. Two review authors independently selected relevant articles and assessed their eligibility according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. We resolved disagreements by discussion with a third review author. We used the random-effects model and expressed the results as

  15. Coulomb blockade in graphene nanoribbons.

    PubMed

    Sols, F; Guinea, F; Neto, A H

    2007-10-19

    We propose that recent transport experiments revealing the existence of an energy gap in graphene nanoribbons may be understood in terms of Coulomb blockade. Electron interactions play a decisive role at the quantum dots which form due to the presence of necks arising from the roughness of the graphene edge. With the average transmission as the only fitting parameter, our theory shows good agreement with the experimental data.

  16. Aging and endothelin: determinants of disease.

    PubMed

    Barton, Matthias

    2014-11-24

    Since the beginning of the 20th century human life expectancy has doubled to more than 80 years, and growth and aging of the world population now represent major challenges for healthcare providers, political decision makers, and societies. Cellular senescence is associated with a general, pro-inflammatory state, which represents the common denominator between aging and chronic diseases and their progression. Approaches to interfere with these changes and to allow healthy aging involve modulation of the cellular activity of modifiable molecular mediators (MMMs), such as signaling molecules and growth factors. ET-1 - the biologically predominant member of the endothelin peptide family - is an endothelial cell-derived peptide with a wide variety of developmental and physiological functions, which include embryogenesis, nociception, and natriuresis. In addition, ET-1 is a cytokine-like, multifunctional peptide with pro-inflammatory, mitogenic, and vasoconstrictor properties. If produced in excess amounts ET-1 promotes disease - mainly via activation of its ETA receptor. Because of its multiple disease-promoting functions ET-1 represents an ideal target MMM. Preclinical studies targeting either activity or production of ET-1 - utilizing ERAs, ARBs, or ACEIs, respectively - have demonstrated that partial regression of aging-associated changes in vasculature and kidney is possible. In this article I will review the molecular regulation of ET-1 and its role in the physiology of vascular homeostasis, aging, and cellular senescence. The clinical implications of activators of ET-1 overproduction, modalities for delaying or reversing aging-related cellular changes, as well as interventions to promote healthy aging and early disease prevention - particularly physical activity - are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Glycinergic inhibition in thalamus revealed by synaptic receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Ghavanini, Ahmad A; Mathers, David A; Puil, Ernest

    2005-09-01

    Using juvenile rat brain slices, we examined the possibility that strychnine-sensitive receptors for glycine-like amino acids contributed to synaptic inhibition in ventrobasal thalamus, where gamma-aminobutyrate (GABA) is the prevalent inhibitory transmitter. Ventrobasal nuclei showed staining for antibodies against alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of the glycine receptor. Exogenously applied glycine, taurine and beta-alanine increased membrane conductance, effects antagonized by strychnine, indicative of functional glycine receptors. Using glutamate receptor antagonists, we isolated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and currents (IPSPs and IPSCs) evoked by high-threshold stimulation of medial lemniscus. Like the responses to glycine agonists, these synaptic responses reversed near E(Cl). In comparative tests with GABA receptor antagonists, strychnine attenuated inhibition in a majority of neurons, but did not alter slow, GABA(B) inhibition. For complete blockade, the majority of fast IPSPs required co-application of strychnine with bicuculline or gabazine, GABA(A) receptor antagonists. Strychnine acting with an IC50 approximately = 33 nM, eliminated residual fast inhibition during selective GABA(A) receptor blockade with gabazine. The latency of onset for IPSPs was compatible with polysynaptic pathways or prolonged axonal propagation time. Strychnine lacked effects on monosynaptic, GABAergic IPSPs from zona incerta. The specific actions of strychnine implicated a glycine receptor contribution to fast inhibition in somatosensory thalamus.

  18. Endothelin, a peptide inhibitor of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase in intact renaltubular epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zeidel, M.L.; Brady, H.R.; Kone, B.C.; Gullans, S.R. )

    1989-12-01

    Endothelin, a potent vasoconstrictor released by vascular endothelial cells, can induce natriuresis in vivo. These studies examined the regulation of Na+ transport by endothelin in suspensions of rabbit proximal tubule (PT) and inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells. Endothelin reduced oxygen consumption (QO2) by 18 +/- 1% in IMCD cells but did not alter QO2 in PT cells. In IMCD cells, endothelin inhibited QO2 half maximally at approximately 5 x 10(-12) M. Several lines of evidence indicate that endothelin reduces QO2 by inhibiting the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. (1) Endothelin gave no further inhibition of QO2 after ouabain and blunted the stimulatory effect of amphotericin B on QO2 (+29 +/- 4% in absence of endothelin, 0 +/- 5% in presence of endothelin; n = 6 preparations, P less than 0.001). (2) Endothelin inhibited ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake by 46.6 +/- 8.6% at 10 s and by 35.4 +/- 5.3% at 30 s without altering uptake at (60 min. 3) Addition of endothelin to IMCD cells induced a net K+ efflux with an initial rate of 32.2 +/- 4.8 nmol.min-1.mg protein-1, consistent with inhibition of the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase. In contrast to the response observed in intact cells, in permeabilized IMCD cells endothelin did not inhibit ouabain-sensitive ATPase. Several observations indicated that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) mediates endothelin inhibition of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity. (1) The response to endothelin was blocked by ibuprofen in assays of QO2, net K+ flux, and 86Rb+ uptake. (2) Endothelin and PGE2 gave equivalent, nonadditive inhibition of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ uptake.

  19. Expression of endothelin receptors in frog, chicken, mouse and human pigment cells.

    PubMed

    Scarparo, Ana Cristina; Isoldi, Mauro César; de Lima, Leonardo Henrique Ribeiro Graciani; Visconti, Maria Aparecida; Castrucci, Ana Maria de Lauro

    2007-07-01

    Several reports have shown the participation of vasoactive endothelins (ETs) in the regulation of vertebrate pigment cells. In the present study, we identified ET receptors in pigment cells of vertebrate species by RT-PCR assays, and compared the differential expression of the various subtypes in each species by quantitative PCR. RT-PCR was performed with specific primers for ETC, ETA(X) or ETA in Xenopus laevis melanophores, ETA or ETB(2) in chicken melanocytes, ETA or ETB in murine (B-16, S-91 or Melan-A) or human (SK-Mel 23 or SK-Mel 28) melanoma cells, and the products obtained were confirmed by cloning and sequencing. The results showed the presence of ETA(X), but not ETA mRNA, and confirmed the expression of ETC in X. laevis melanophores. ETA and ETB(2) mRNAs were also demonstrated in chicken melanocytes. ETA and ETB receptor were identified in S-91, B16 and Melan-A murine cells. In human melanoma cells, SK-Mel 23 and SK-Mel 28, we confirmed the presence of ETB mRNA, and also found ETA mRNA. The comparison between the two subtypes present in the pigment cell of each species and among species demonstrated that the expression of ETAs in chicken, mouse, and human melanocytes is negligible, as is the expression of ETA(X) in Xenopus melanophores. The relative expression, as determined by quantitative PCR, was as follows: chicken ETB>SK-Mel 23 ETB>S91 ETB>Xenopus ETC, suggesting that the endothelin system plays a major role in avian and mammalian pigment cell regulation, as compared to lower vertebrates. The phylogenetic analysis revealed that subtype A receptors were probably the most primitive ET receptors, directly deriving from the ancestral type; all the other receptors, B subtypes and C, originated from diverse derivative molecules.

  20. Endothelin receptor A -231 G>A polymorphism: no linkage to primary pediatric headache.

    PubMed

    Lisi, Veronica; Garbo, Greta; Battistella, PierAntonio; Miccichè, Flavia; Stecca, Anna; Terrazzino, Salvatore; Franzoi, Malida; Tripoli, Elisa; Leon, Alberta; Clementi, Maurizio

    2006-03-01

    To assess whether the biallelic -231 G>A polymorphism of the endothelin type A receptor (EDNRA) gene, previously shown to be a marker of increased risk for developing migraine, has a role in the susceptibility to primary pediatric headache. Several studies suggest that endothelin has a role in migraine. A recent association study has shown that the biallelic -231 G>A polymorphism of the EDNRA gene is associated to migraine in an elderly population. A total of 126 consecutive unrelated pediatric patients affected by primary headache, classified according to the International Headache Society criteria in migraine (migraine with aura, n = 3; migraine without aura, n = 80), and tension-type headache (episodic tension-type headache, n = 36; chronic tension-type headache, n = 7) patients, were recruited to the study. Sixty-seven healthy blood donors were used as a control group. Genomic DNA was extracted from buccal swabs or blood samples and analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) for the above-mentioned polymorphism. Allele and genotype frequencies for primary headache patients were analyzed in comparison with the control group. No significant differences were found in the distribution of the EDNRA -231 G>A polymorphic variant when considering both genotype (migraine chi2 = 2.78, P = .25; tension-type headache chi2 = 3.58, P = .17) and allelic frequencies (migraine chi2 = 1.48, P = .22; tension-type headache chi2 = 0.39, P = .56). Furthermore, no significant genotype-related difference was found in relation to clinical features, such as age at onset, frequency, and length of the attacks. Our study shows that the -231 G>A polymorphism in the EDNRA gene is neither associated with primary juvenile headache nor significantly correlated with main clinical features characteristic of the headache pathology in pediatric settings.

  1. β-Arrestin-1 Drives Endothelin-1–Mediated Podocyte Activation and Sustains Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Buelli, Simona; Rosanò, Laura; Gagliardini, Elena; Corna, Daniela; Longaretti, Lorena; Pezzotta, Anna; Perico, Luca; Conti, Sara; Rizzo, Paola; Novelli, Rubina; Morigi, Marina; Zoja, Carlamaria; Remuzzi, Giuseppe; Bagnato, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Activation of endothelin-A receptor (ETAR) by endothelin-1 (ET-1) drives epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in ovarian tumor cells through β-arrestin signaling. Here, we investigated whether this pathogenetic pathway could affect podocyte phenotype in proliferative glomerular disorders. In cultured mouse podocytes, ET-1 caused loss of the podocyte differentiation marker synaptopodin and acquisition of the mesenchymal marker α-smooth muscle actin. ET-1 promoted podocyte migration via ETAR activation and increased β-arrestin-1 expression. Activated ETAR recruited β-arrestin-1 to form a trimeric complex with Src leading to epithelial growth factor receptor (EGFR) transactivation and β-catenin phosphorylation, which promoted gene transcription of Snail. Increased Snail expression fostered ET-1–induced migration as confirmed by Snail knockdown experiments. Silencing of β-arrestin-1 prevented podocyte phenotypic changes and motility and inhibited ETAR-driven signaling. In vitro findings were confirmed in doxorubicin (Adriamycin)-induced nephropathy. Mice receiving Adriamycin developed renal injury with loss of podocytes and hyperplastic lesion formation; β-arrestin-1 expression increased in visceral podocytes and in podocytes entrapped in pseudo-crescents. Administration of the selective ETAR antagonist sitaxsentan prevented podocyte loss, formation of the hyperplastic lesions, and normalized expression of glomerular β-arrestin-1 and Snail. Increased β-arrestin-1 levels in podocytes retrieved from crescents of patients with proliferative glomerulopathies confirmed the translational relevance of these findings and suggest the therapeutic potential of ETAR antagonism for a group of diseases still needing a specific treatment. PMID:24371298

  2. High yield expression and purification of human endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Fassina, G; Merli, S; Germani, S; Ciliberto, G; Cassani, G

    1994-12-01

    A DNA construct encoding human big endothelin (Big ET) preceded by the factor Xa protease recognition site (Ile-Glu-Gly-Arg), fused in frame to the maltose binding protein sequence, has been introduced in DH5-alpha cells. The fusion product (MBP-Big ET) was expressed at a concentration close to 100 micrograms/ml of culture broth and constituted approximately 50% of the total protein content. Crude cell extracts containing the fusion product have been directly treated with trypsin under mild denaturing conditions in order to release big endothelin (1-37) from the adduct. Cleavage yield of the MBP-Big ET adduct was close to 70%. Big ET(1-37) was separated from unrelated peptides derived from the tryptic digest of the bacterial extract by affinity chromatography. The affinity column was prepared by immobilizing a protease resistant peptide ligand able to recognize Big ET with sufficient affinity, selectivity, and specificity. From the affinity step (recovery, 90%), recombinant Big ET(1-37) was obtained with a purity close to 80%. The affinity-purified recombinant product was then digested with alpha-chymotrypsin in order to release endothelin (1-21), which was then purified by RP-HPLC. With this two-step purification protocol, 3 micrograms of endothelin was recovered from 1 ml of bacterial broth, with a purity close to 95%.

  3. Collective multiphoton blockade in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, C. J.; Yang, Y. P.; Agarwal, G. S.

    2017-06-01

    We present a study of collective multiphoton blockade in coherently driven atoms in a single-mode cavity. Considering two atoms strongly coupled to an optical cavity, we show that the two-photon blockade with two-photon antibunching, and the three-photon blockade with three-photon antibunching can be observed simultaneously. The three-photon blockade probes both dressed states in the two-photon and three-photon spaces. The two-photon and three-photon blockades strongly depend on the location of the two atoms in the strong-coupling regime. The asymmetry in the atom-cavity coupling constants opens pathways for multiphoton blockade which is also shown to be sensitive to the atomic decay and pumping strengths. The work presented here predicts many quantum statistical features due to the collective behavior of atoms and can be useful to generate nonclassical photon pairs.

  4. Expression of endothelin in equine laminitis.

    PubMed

    Katwa, L C; Johnson, P J; Ganjam, V K; Kreeger, J M; Messer, N T

    1999-05-01

    Biosynthesis of endothelin-1 (ET-1), the most potent endogenous vasoconstrictor yet identified, is increased following myocardial infarction (MI) in man. Pathological events which occur in the connective tissues of the equine hoof during laminitis are similar in some respects, to changes occurring in the myocardial connective tissues following MI in man. The objective of this study was to determine whether ET-1 expression in connective tissues obtained from the hoof of laminitic horses is increased compared with tissues obtained from healthy horses. Expression of ET-1 in connective tissues of the equine hoof was measured following tissue extraction from 3 groups of horses: horses in which acute laminitis had been induced by the administration of starch; chronically foundered horses; nonlaminitic horses. The concentration of ET-1 in laminar connective tissues obtained from all laminitic horses (1573.0 +/- 392.8 pg/g of tissue; n = 10) was increased when compared with tissues obtained from nonlaminitic horses (392.5 +/- 117.4 pg/g of tissue; n = 5) (P<0.05). The concentration of ET-1 in laminar connective tissues obtained from the experimentally induced, acute laminitic horses (1043.6 +/- 254.4 pg/g of tissue; n = 7) and from the spontaneously affected, chronic laminitic horses (2808.3 +/- 878.6 pg/g of tissue; n = 3) was increased compared with the control group (P<0.05, P<0.01, respectively). The concentration of ET-1 in laminar connective tissues obtained from the chronic laminitic horses was greater than that of the experimentally induced, acute laminitic group (P<0.05). It is suggested that the data provide a strong argument that increased ET-1 expression in the connective tissues of the equine hoof represent a potentially important and hitherto unrecognised component of the pathophysiology of equine laminitis. Further studies are needed to determine whether inhibitors of ET-1 converting enzyme or antagonists of ET-1 receptors might be useful in the treatment

  5. Effects of endothelin family on ANP secretion.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Kuichang; Park, Byung Mun; Choi, Young Tae; Kim, Jong Hun; Cho, Kyung Woo; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2016-08-01

    The endothelins (ET) peptide family consists of ET-1, ET-2, ET-3, and sarafotoxin (s6C, a snake venom) and their actions appears to be different among isoforms. The aim of this study was to compare the secretagogue effect of ET-1 on atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) secretion with ET-3 and evaluate its physiological meaning. Isolated nonbeating atria from male Sprague-Dawley rats were used to evaluate stretch-activated ANP secretion in response to ET-1, ET-2, ET-3, and s6C. Changes in mean blood pressure (MAP) were measured during acute injection of ET-1 and ET-3 with and without natriuretic peptide receptor-A antagonist (A71915) in anesthetized rats. Changes in atrial volume induced by increased atrial pressure from o to 1, 2, 4, or 6cm H2O caused proportional increases in mechanically-stimulated extracellular fluid (ECF) translocation and stretch-activated ANP secretion. ET-1 (10nM) augmented basal and stretch-activated ANP secretion in terms of ECF translocation, which was blocked by the pretreatment with ETA receptor antagonist (BQ123, 1μM) but not by ETB receptor antagonist (BQ788, 1μM). ETA receptor antagonist itself suppressed stretch-activated ANP secretion. As compared to ET-1- induced ANP secretion (3.2-fold by 10nM), the secretagogue effects of ANP secretion by ET-2 was similar (2.8-fold by 10nM) and ET-3 and s6C were less potent (1.7-fold and 1.5-fold by 100nM, respectively). Acute injection of ET-1 or ET-3 increased mean blood pressure (MAP), which was augmented in the presence of natriuretic peptide receptor-A antagonist. Therefore, we suggest that the order of secretagogue effect of ET family on ANP secretion was ET-1≥ET-2>ET-3>s6C and ET-1-induced ANP secretion negatively regulates the pressor effect of ET-1. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Celecoxib offsets the negative renal influences of cyclosporine via modulation of the TGF-β1/IL-2/COX-2/endothelin ET{sub B} receptor cascade

    SciTech Connect

    El-Gowelli, Hanan M.; Helmy, Maged W.; Ali, Rabab M.; El-Mas, Mahmoud M.

    2014-03-01

    Endothelin (ET) signaling provokes nephrotoxicity induced by the immunosuppressant drug cyclosporine A (CSA). We tested the hypotheses that (i): celecoxib, a selective cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, counterbalances renal derangements caused by CSA in rats and (ii) the COX-2/endothelin ET{sub B} receptor signaling mediates the CSA-celecoxib interaction. Ten-day treatment with CSA (20 mg/kg/day) significantly increased biochemical indices of renal function (serum urea, creatinine), inflammation (interleukin-2, IL-2) and fibrosis (transforming growth factor-β{sub 1}, TGF-β{sub 1}). Histologically, CSA caused renal tubular atrophy along with interstitial fibrosis. These detrimental renal effects of CSA were largely reduced in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib (10 mg/kg/day). We also report that cortical glomerular and medullary tubular protein expressions of COX-2 and ET{sub B} receptors were reduced by CSA and restored to near-control values in rats treated simultaneously with celecoxib. The importance of ET{sub B} receptors in renal control and in the CSA-celecoxib interaction was further verified by the findings (i) most of the adverse biochemical, inflammatory, and histopathological profiles of CSA were replicated in rats treated with the endothelin ET{sub B} receptor antagonist BQ788 (0.1 mg/kg/day, 10 days), and (ii) the BQ788 effects, like those of CSA, were alleviated in rats treated concurrently with celecoxib. Together, the data suggest that the facilitation of the interplay between the TGF-β1/IL-2/COX-2 pathway and the endothelin ET{sub B} receptors constitutes the cellular mechanism by which celecoxib ameliorates the nephrotoxic manifestations of CSA in rats. - Highlights: • Celecoxib abolishes nephrotoxic manifestations of CSA in rats. • Blockade of ETB receptors by BQ788 mimicked the nephrotoxic effects of CSA. • CSA or BQ788 reduces renal protein expression of COX-2 and endothelin ETB receptors. • Enhanced TGFβ1/IL-2/COX2/ETB

  7. Interactions between endothelin-1 and atrial natriuretic peptide influence cultured chick cardiac myocyte contractility.

    PubMed

    Bézie, Y; Mesnard, L; Longrois, D; Samson, F; Perret, C; Mercadier, J J; Laurent, S

    1996-09-12

    We have previously shown that rat atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) reduces the contractility of cultured, spontaneously beating chick embryo ventricular cells, an effect opposite to that of endothelin-1. Endothelin-1 has been described as a secretagogue for natriuretic peptides in vitro and in vivo. Natriuretic peptides can inhibit endothelin-1 secretion from cultured endothelial cells, suggesting a negative feedback mechanism between endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes. The aim of this study was to determine whether ANP attenuated the endothelin-1-induced increase in myocyte contractility. Using a video-microscopy system we studied the contractility of isolated cultured chick ventricular myocytes in response to endothelin-1, chicken natriuretic peptide (ChNP), and both. We also used Northern blot analysis to study the time course of ChNP expression in response to endothelin-1. Endothelin-1 (10(-8) M) increased chick cardiomyocyte contractility by 20-25% between 5 and 15 min (P < 0.05). Although ChNP (3 x 10(-7) M) did not significantly change the amplitude of contraction in basal conditions, it prevented the endothelin-1-induced increase in contractility (P < 0.05) when perfused prior to endothelin-1, and reversed it when perfused 5 min after endothelin-1 exposure (P < 0.05). Endothelin-1 significantly increased the accumulation of ChNP mRNA in chick ventricular myocytes as early as the 30 min after exposure (P < 0.05), with a maximal effect after 2 h of stimulation (P < 0.01); no effect was observed after 4 h. These data support an interaction between endothelin-1 and natriuretic peptides as autocrine/paracrine factors regulating the contractile function of chick cardiac myocytes, as well as their antagonistic effects on cardiac cell contractility. The early and transient expression of ChNP mRNA in response to endothelin-1 may be involved in this interaction.

  8. Endothelin-1 receptor antagonist: effects on endothelin- and cyclosporine-treated mesangial cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, M; Breyer, M D; Noland, T D; Homma, T; Hoover, R L; Inagami, T; Kon, V

    1992-06-01

    Endothelin-1 (Et) has profound effects on glomerular microcirculation and mesangial cell contraction. A parameter of mesangial cell contraction was examined by measuring myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLCP) in glomerular mesangial cells in the presence and absence of a newly developed endothelin-1 receptor antagonist (EtA). Addition of Et alone (10 nM) caused a marked increase in MLCP, which, on average, rose by 53 +/- 6% above the level in cells exposed to vehicle (P less than 0.0005). This effect was shown to continue for at least one hour; MLCP at 60 minutes was 64 +/- 12% higher than controls, (P less than 0.025), constituting a unique observation of an in vitro parameter which parallels the characteristic in vivo effect of Et. Treatment of cells with EtA virtually abolished this Et-induced increase in MLCP, which rose by only 2 +/- 3% and -1 +/- 4% for doses of EtA of 44 nM and 66 nM, respectively. Examination of the intracellular calcium concentration, [Ca2+]i, revealed that EtA almost completely abolished the transient increase in [Ca2+]i evoked by Et and also suppressed the early portions of the sustained increase in [Ca2+]i. EtA was ineffective in abolishing [Ca2+]i increase in response to arginine vasopressin. Finally, to evaluate EtA's efficacy in a pathophysiologic setting, we also studied mesangial cells exposed to cyclosporine (Cs). Exposure of mesangial cells to Cs (10(-5) M) for 60 minutes caused a significant increase in MLCP, on average, by 38 +/- 6% above control (P less than 0.0005), while cells exposed to Cs in the presence of EtA increased MLCP significantly less, by only 15 +/- 9%. These data provide further evidence for Et's long-lasting cellular actions, and demonstrate inhibitory effects of an Et receptor antagonist after direct cellular exposure to Et and also after Cs exposure, a pathophysiologic setting which likely involves Et.

  9. Transforming growth factor-beta induces endothelin-1 expression through activation of the Smad signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando; Reimunde, Francisco Manuel; Redondo-Horcajo, Mariano; Lamas, Santiago

    2004-11-01

    Expression of the endothelin-1 gene is subject to complex regulation by different factors, among which transforming growth factor-beta is one of the most important. We have analyzed the mechanism by which transforming growth factor-beta increases endothelin-1 expression in vascular endothelial cells. Transcriptional activation of the endothelin-1 promoter accounted for the transforming growth factor-beta-induced increase in endothelin-1 mRNA levels. Two DNA elements within the promoter are responsible for this effect: a Smad binding element and a proximal activator protein-1 site. Mutation of both elements abolished transforming growth factor-beta responsiveness. Overexpression of the Smad3 isoform strongly potentiates transforming growth factor-beta- induced endothelin-1 promoter activity in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. These results demonstrate that transforming growth factor-beta induces endothelin-1 expression by a functional cooperation between Smads and activator protein-1 through activation of the Smad signaling pathway.

  10. Higher endothelin concentrations in the fetoplacental unit of pregnant women of African ancestry.

    PubMed

    Carbonne, B; Mignot, T M; Papiernik, E; Ferré, F

    1998-03-01

    Immunoreactive endothelin was assayed in maternal and fetal biologic fluids of women of African and European ancestry with normal singleton pregnancies undergoing cesarean section at term for obstetric reasons. Endothelin concentration was found to be higher in the umbilical vein and artery blood of women of African origin. Higher production of endothelins in the fetoplacental unit may place these women at a greater risk of preeclampsia.

  11. Residual neuromuscular blockade in critical care.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Jason; Collins, Angela S; Rowan, Brea O

    2012-06-01

    Neuromuscular blockade is a pharmacological adjunct for anesthesia and for surgical interventions. Neuromuscular blockers can facilitate ease of instrumentation and reduce complications associated with intubation. An undesirable sequela of these agents is residual neuromuscular blockade. Residual neuromuscular blockade is linked to aspiration, diminished response to hypoxia, and obstruction of the upper airway that may occur soon after extubation. If an operation is particularly complex or requires a long anesthesia time, residual neuromuscular blockade can contribute to longer stays in the intensive care unit and more hours of mechanical ventilation. Given the risks of this medication class, it is essential to have an understanding of the mechanism of action of, assessment of, and factors affecting blockade and to be able to identify factors that affect pharmacokinetics.

  12. Endothelin receptors in rat liver: lipocytes as a contractile target for endothelin 1.

    PubMed Central

    Housset, C; Rockey, D C; Bissell, D M

    1993-01-01

    The endothelins (ETs) form a group of three vasoactive peptides (ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3) for which two types of cellular receptors have been identified, types A and B ET receptors (ETA and ETB receptors, respectively). To address possible targets for ETs within the liver, we isolated the four principal liver cell populations and placed them in short-term primary culture. By ligand-binding assay and mRNA levels, expression of ET receptors was greatest on hepatic lipocytes (Ito cells or fat-storing cells), which are perisinusoidal cells exhibiting features of smooth muscle cells. Moreover, lipocytes expressed both ETA and ETB receptors. The mRNA for ETB receptor, but not for ETA receptor, was detectable in sinusoidal endothelial cells and Kupffer cells; neither mRNA was detectable in hepatocytes. Both ET-1 and ET-3 elicited contraction of activated lipocytes cultured on collagen lattices; the EC50 value for ET-1 was 3 +/- 1 nM and for ET-3 was 17 +/- 12 nM. In cell isolates from injured liver (after administration of carbon tetrachloride), expression of ET receptors was unchanged. However, mRNA for ET-1 was significantly increased in activated lipocytes, suggesting an autocrine loop for the initiation of lipocyte contraction. The findings imply that ET-1 may play a role in regulating sinusoidal perfusion through its effect on lipocytes, particularly in injury states. Images Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:8415690

  13. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) induces resistance to bortezomib in human multiple myeloma cells via a pathway involving the ETB receptor and upregulation of proteasomal activity.

    PubMed

    Vaiou, Maria; Pangou, Evanthia; Liakos, Panagiotis; Sakellaridis, Nikos; Vassilopoulos, George; Dimas, Konstantinos; Papandreou, Christos

    2016-10-01

    Bortezomib (BTZ) is used for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). However, a significant proportion of patients may be refractory to the drug. This study aimed to investigate whether the endothelin (ET-1) axis may act as an escape mechanism to treatment with bortezomib in MM cells. NCI-H929 and RPMI-8226 (human MM cell lines) were cultured with or without ET-1, BTZ, and inhibitors of the endothelin receptors. ET-1 levels were determined by ELISA, while the protein levels of its receptors and of the PI3K and MAPK pathways' components by western blot. Effects of ET-1 on cell proliferation were studied by MTT and on the ubiquitin proteasome pathway by assessing the chymotryptic activity of the 20S proteasome in cell lysates. Endothelin receptors A and B (ETAR and ETBR, respectively) were found to be expressed in both cell lines, with the RPMI-8226 cells that are considered resistant to BTZ, expressing higher levels of ETBR and in addition secreting ET-1. Treatment of the NCI-H929 cells with ET-1 increased proliferation, while co-incubation of these cells with ET-1 and BTZ decreased BTZ efficacy with concomitant upregulation of 20S proteasomal activity. Si-RNA silencing or chemical blockade of ETBR abrogated the protective effects of ET-1. Finally, data suggest that the predominant signaling pathway involved in ET-1/ETBR-induced BTZ resistance in MM cells may be the MAPK pathway. Our data suggest a possible role of the ET-1/ETBR axis in regulating the sensitivity of MM cells to BTZ. Thus, combining bortezomib with strategies to target the ET-1 axis could prove to be a novel promising therapeutic approach in MM.

  14. The heart as an extravascular target of endothelin-1 in particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chan, Elizabeth A W; Buckley, Barbara; Farraj, Aimen K; Thompson, Leslie C

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to particulate matter air pollution has been causally linked to cardiovascular disease in humans. Several broad and overlapping hypotheses describing the biological mechanisms by which particulate matter exposure leads to cardiovascular disease have been explored, although linkage with specific factors or genes remains limited. These hypotheses may or may not also lead to particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction. Evidence pointing to autocrine/paracrine signaling systems as modulators of cardiac dysfunction has increased interest in the emerging role of endothelins as mediators of cardiac function following particulate matter exposure. Endothelin-1, a well-described small peptide expressed in the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems, is best known for its ability to constrict blood vessels, although it can also induce extravascular effects. Research on the role of endothelins in the context of air pollution has largely focused on vascular effects, with limited investigation of responses resulting from the direct effects of endothelins on cardiac tissue. This represents a significant knowledge gap in air pollution health effects research, given the abundance of endothelin receptors found on cardiac tissue and the ability of endothelin-1 to modulate cardiac contractility, heart rate, and rhythm. The plausibility of endothelin-1 as a mediator of particulate matter-induced cardiac dysfunction is further supported by the therapeutic utility of certain endothelin receptor antagonists. The present review examines the possibility that endothelin-1 release caused by exposure to PM directly modulates extravascular effects on the heart, deleteriously altering cardiac function. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Detecting phonon blockade with photons

    SciTech Connect

    Didier, Nicolas; Pugnetti, Stefano; Fazio, Rosario; Blanter, Yaroslav M.

    2011-08-01

    Measuring the quantum dynamics of a mechanical system, when few phonons are involved, remains a challenge. We show that a superconducting microwave resonator linearly coupled to the mechanical mode constitutes a very powerful probe for this scope. This new coupling can be much stronger than the usual radiation pressure interaction by adjusting a gate voltage. We focus on the detection of phonon blockade, showing that it can be observed by measuring the statistics of the light in the cavity. The underlying reason is the formation of an entangled state between the two resonators. Our scheme realizes a phonotonic Josephson junction, giving rise to coherent oscillations between phonons and photons as well as a self-trapping regime for a coupling smaller than a critical value. The transition from the self-trapping to the oscillating regime is also induced dynamically by dissipation.

  16. Targeted over-expression of endothelin-1 in astrocytes leads to more severe brain damage and vasospasm after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor, and astrocytic ET-1 is reported to play a role in the pathogenesis of cerebral ischemic injury and cytotoxic edema. However, it is still unknown whether astrocytic ET-1 also contributes to vasogenic edema and vasospasm during subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). In the present study, transgenic mice with astrocytic endothelin-1 over-expression (GET-1 mice) were used to investigate the pathophysiological role of ET-1 in SAH pathogenesis. Results The GET-1 mice experienced a higher mortality rate and significantly more severe neurological deficits, blood–brain barrier breakdown and vasogenic edema compared to the non-transgenic (Ntg) mice following SAH. Oral administration of vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist, SR 49059, significantly reduced the cerebral water content in the GET-1 mice. Furthermore, the GET-1 mice showed significantly more pronounced middle cerebral arterial (MCA) constriction after SAH. Immunocytochemical analysis showed that the calcium-activated potassium channels and the phospho-eNOS were significantly downregulated, whereas PKC-α expression was significantly upregulated in the MCA of the GET-1 mice when compared to Ntg mice after SAH. Administration of ABT-627 (ETA receptor antagonist) significantly down-regulated PKC-α expression in the MCA of the GET-1 mice following SAH. Conclusions The present study suggests that astrocytic ET-1 involves in SAH-induced cerebral injury, edema and vasospasm, through ETA receptor and PKC-mediated potassium channel dysfunction. Administration of ABT-627 (ETA receptor antagonist) and SR 49059 (vasopressin V1a receptor antagonist) resulted in amelioration of edema and vasospasm in mice following SAH. These data provide a strong rationale to investigate SR 49059 and ABT-627 as therapeutic drugs for the treatment of SAH patients. PMID:24156724

  17. Human cultured endothelial cells do secrete endothelin-1

    SciTech Connect

    Clozel, M.; Fischli, W. )

    1989-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been identified in the conditioned medium of porcine endothelial cells. Human endothelin (ET-1) cloned from a placenta cDNA library is similar to porcine, but it is not known whether endothelin itself is secreted by human endothelial cells. To answer this question, a conditioned medium taken every 48 h from confluent cultures of umbilical vein endothelial cells was analyzed by HPLC and all fractions were tested for their ability to inhibit ({sup 125}I)ET-1 binding on human placenta membranes. Only one fraction did inhibit ({sup 125}I)ET-1 binding. When the conditioned medium was spiked with ET-1, the same single fraction inhibited ({sup 125}I)ET-1 binding showing that ET-1, itself, is present in the conditioned medium of human endothelial cells. ET-1 accumulates with time, reaching a plateau at 48 h. ET-1 secretion is not increased by a 24-h incubation of endothelial cells with phorbol myristate acetate, interleukin-1, tumor necrosis factor, thrombin or neuropeptide Y.

  18. Role of Endothelin in Uteroplacental Circulation and Fetal Vascular Function

    PubMed Central

    Paradis, Alexandra; Zhang, Lubo

    2014-01-01

    Endothelins are 21-amino acid peptides involved in vascular homeostasis. Three types of peptide have been identified, with endothelin-1 (ET-1) being the most potent vasoconstrictor currently known. Two endothelin receptor sub-types are found in various tissues, including the brain, heart, blood vessel, lung, and placenta. The ETA-receptor is associated with vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle. Conversely, the ETB-receptor can elicit a vasoconstrictor effect in vascular smooth muscle and a vasodilator effect via its action in endothelial cells. Both receptors play a key role in maintaining circulatory homeostasis and vascular function. Changes in ET-1 expression are found in various disease states, and overexpression of ET-1 is observed in hypertension and preeclampsia in pregnancy. Placental localization of ET-1 implies a key role in regulating the uteroplacental circulation. Additionally, ET-1 is important in the fetal circulation and is involved in the pulmonary circulation and closure of the ductus arteriosus after birth, as well as fetal growth constriction in utero. ET receptor antagonists and nitric oxide donors may provide therapeutic potential in treating conditions associated with overexpression of ET and hypertension. PMID:24063378

  19. Role of endothelin in uteroplacental circulation and fetal vascular function.

    PubMed

    Paradis, Alexandra; Zhang, Lubo

    2013-09-01

    Endothelins are 21-amino acid peptides involved in vascular homeostasis. Three types of peptide have been identified, with endothelin-1 (ET-1) being the most potent vasoconstrictor currently known. Two endothelin receptor subtypes are found in various tissues, including the brain, heart, blood vessel, lung, and placenta. The ETA-receptor is associated with vasoconstriction in vascular smooth muscle. Conversely, the ETB-receptor can elicit a vasoconstrictor effect in vascular smooth muscle and a vasodilator effect via its action in endothelial cells. Both receptors play a key role in maintaining circulatory homeostasis and vascular function. Changes in ET-1 expression are found in various disease states, and overexpression of ET-1 is observed in hypertension and preeclampsia in pregnancy. Placental localization of ET-1 implies a key role in regulating the uteroplacental circulation. Additionally, ET-1 is important in the fetal circulation and is involved in the pulmonary circulation and closure of the ductus arteriosus after birth, as well as fetal growth constriction in utero. ET receptor antagonists and nitric oxide donors may provide therapeutic potential in treating conditions associated with overexpression of ET and hypertension.

  20. Alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade by phentolamine increases the efficacy of vasodilators in penile corpus cavernosum.

    PubMed

    Kim, N N; Goldstein, I; Moreland, R B; Traish, A M

    2000-03-01

    Penile trabecular smooth muscle tone, a major determinant of erectile function, is highly regulated by numerous inter- and intracellular pathways. The interaction between pathways mediating contraction and relaxation has not been studied in detail. To this end, we investigated the functional effects of alpha adrenergic receptor blockade with phentolamine and its interaction with vasodilators (sildenafil, vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) and PGE1) that elevate cyclic nucleotides on penile cavernosal smooth muscle contractility. In organ bath preparations of cavernosal tissue strips contracted with phenylephrine, phentolamine significantly enhanced relaxation induced by sildenafil, VIP and PGE1. Sildenafil, VIP or PGE1 also significantly enhanced relaxation induced by phentolamine in cavernosal tissue strips contracted with phenylephrine. To study the effects of alpha adrenergic receptor blockade and modification of cyclic nucleotide metabolism during active neurogenic input, cavernosal tissue strips in organ bath preparations were contracted with the non-adrenergic agonist endothelin-1 and subjected to electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence or presence of phentolamine and/or sildenafil. EFS (5-40Hz) typically caused biphasic relaxation and contraction responses. Phentolamine alone enhanced relaxation and reduced or prevented contraction to EFS. Sildenafil enhanced relaxation to EFS at lower frequencies (< or = 5 Hz). The combination of phentolamine and sildenafil enhanced EFS-induced relaxation at all frequencies tested. EFS, in the presence of 10 nM phentolamine and 30 nM sildenafil, produced enhanced relaxation responses which were quantitatively similar to those obtained in the presence of 50 nM sildenafil alone. Thus, blockade of alpha-adrenergic receptors with phentolamine increases the efficacy of cyclic nucleotide-dependent vasodilators. Furthermore, phentolamine potentiates relaxation and attenuates contraction in response to endogenous

  1. Vasodilator responses and endothelin-dependent vasoconstriction in metabolically healthy obesity and the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schinzari, Francesca; Iantorno, Micaela; Campia, Umberto; Mores, Nadia; Rovella, Valentina; Tesauro, Manfredi; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Patients with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) do not present the cluster of metabolic abnormalities that define the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Whether MHO is associated with lower impairment of vasoreactivity than the MetS is unknown. For this purpose, forearm blood flow (FBF) responses were measured by strain-gauge plethysmography during the intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and/or the selective endothelin type A (ETA) receptor blocker BQ-123 in 119 obese individuals with MHO (n = 34) or with the MetS (n = 85) and in healthy lean controls (n = 56). ACh and SNP caused a significant vasodilation in both obese and lean participants (all P < 0.001). However, the response to both agents was significantly lower in the obese than in the control group (both P < 0.001). Among the obese participants, the reactivity to ACh was higher in MHO than in MetS patients, whereas the responsiveness to SNP was equally impaired in both groups (P = 0.45). Infusion of BQ-123 significantly increased FBF in obese patients (P < 0001), but not in the lean participants; hence, FBF following ETA receptor blockade was higher in both obese groups than in controls (both P < 0.001). FBF response to BQ-123 was significantly higher in patients with the MetS than in those with MHO (P = 0.007). In conclusion, patients with MHO have abnormal vascular reactivity, although their endothelial dysfunction is less pronounced than in patients with the MetS. These findings indicate that obesity is associated with vascular damage independent of those metabolic abnormalities underlying the MetS. PMID:26374766

  2. Flow regulation of endothelin-1 production in the inner medullary collecting duct.

    PubMed

    Pandit, Meghana M; Inscho, Edward W; Zhang, Shali; Seki, Tsugio; Rohatgi, Rajeev; Gusella, Luca; Kishore, Bellamkonda; Kohan, Donald E

    2015-03-15

    Collecting duct-derived endothelin (ET)-1 is an autocrine inhibitor of Na(+) and water reabsorption; its deficiency causes hypertension and water retention. Extracellular fluid volume expansion increases collecting duct ET-1, thereby promoting natriuresis and diuresis; however, how this coupling between volume expansion and collecting duct ET-1 occurs is incompletely understood. One possibility is that volume expansion increases tubular fluid flow. To investigate this, cultured IMCD3 cells were subjected to static or flow conditions. Exposure to a shear stress of 2 dyn/cm(2) for 2 h increased ET-1 mRNA content by ∼2.3-fold. Absence of perfusate Ca(2+), chelation of intracellular Ca(2+), or inhibition of Ca(2+) signaling (calmodulin, Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase, calcineurin, PKC, or phospholipase C) prevented the flow response. Evaluation of possible flow-activated Ca(2+) entry pathways revealed no role for transient receptor potential (TRP)C3, TRPC6, and TRPV4; however, cells with TRPP2 (polycystin-2) knockdown had no ET-1 flow response. Flow increased intracellular Ca(2+) was blunted in TRPP2 knockdown cells. Nonspecific blockade of P2 receptors, as well as specific inhibition of P2X7 and P2Y2 receptors, prevented the ET-1 flow response. The ET-1 flow response was not affected by inhibition of either epithelial Na(+) channels or the mitochondrial Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger. Taken together, these findings provide evidence that in IMCD3 cells, flow, via polycystin-2 and P2 receptors, engages Ca(2+)-dependent signaling pathways that stimulate ET-1 synthesis.

  3. DOCA-salt treatment enhances responses to endothelin-1 in murine corpus cavernosum1

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, Fernando S.; Giachini, Fernanda R.C.; Lima, Victor V.; Carneiro, Zidonia N.; Nunes, Kênia P.; Ergul, Adviye; Leite, Romulo; Tostes, Rita C.; Webb, R. Clinton

    2008-01-01

    The penis is kept in the flaccid state mainly via a tonic activity of norepinephrine and endothelins (ETs). ET-1 is important in salt-sensitive forms of hypertension. We hypothesized that cavernosal responses to ET-1 are enhanced in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt mice and that blockade of ETA receptors prevents abnormal responses of the corpus cavernosum in DOCA-salt hypertension. Male C57BL/6 mice were unilaterally nephrectomized and treated for 5 weeks with both DOCA and water containing 1% NaCl and 0.2% KCl. Control mice were uninephrectomized and received tap water with no added salt. Animals received either the ETA antagonist atrasentan (5 mg·day−1·kg−1 body weight) or vehicle. DOCA-salt mice displayed increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), and treatment with atrasentan decreased SBP in DOCA-salt mice. Contractile responses in cavernosal strips from DOCA-salt mice were enhanced by ET-1, phenylephrine, and electrical field stimulation (EFS) of adrenergic nerves, whereas relaxations were not altered by IRL-1620 (an ETB agonist), acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, and EFS of nonadrenergic noncholinergic nerves. PD59089 (an ERK1/2 inhibitor), but not Y-27632 (a Rho-kinase inhibitor), abolished enhanced contractions to ET-1 in cavernosum from DOCA-salt mice. Treatment of DOCA-salt mice with atrasentan did not normalize cavernosal responses. In summary, DOCA-salt treatment in mice enhances cavernosal reactivity to contractile, but not to relaxant, stimuli, via ET-1/ETA receptor-independent mechanisms. PMID:18516094

  4. Endothelin-1 inhibits pre-stimulated tracheal submucosal gland secretion and epithelial albumin transport.

    PubMed Central

    Yurdakos, E.; Webber, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    1. Endothelin-1 potently contracts smooth muscle, including that in the airways. However, its effect on airway mucosal function has not so far been studied. 2. We have used the ferret whole trachea in vitro to examine the effect of endothelin-1 on tracheal smooth muscle tone, transepithelial potential difference (p.d.), submucosal gland secretion (including lysozyme secretion from serous cells) and active epithelial albumin transport. In addition we have examined the effects of endothelin on submucosal gland secretion and albumin transport pre-stimulated with the muscarinic agonist methacholine and the alpha-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine. The effects of the Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine on the responses to endothelin have also been assessed. 3. Endothelin (0.1-100 nM) produced concentration-dependent increases in intraluminal tracheal pressure indicating smooth muscle contraction, and in the negativity of the transepithelial p.d. These effects were partially inhibited by nifedipine (10 microM). 4. Endothelin (0.01-100 nM) had no significant effect on baseline rates of mucus, lysozyme or albumin outputs, but produced concentration-dependent reductions in maintained methacholine- and phenylephrine-induced mucus, lysozyme and albumin outputs. In general endothelin was more potent against methacholine-induced effects. All of the concentration-response curves for endothelin were shallow and some appeared to be biphasic, suggesting the possibility of more than one mechanism of action of endothelin. 5. The effects of endothelin (at concentrations greater than 1 nM) on phenylephrine-induced mucus volume, lysozyme and albumin outputs were significantly inhibited by nifedipine. Similarly the effect of endothelin (greater than 1 nM) on methacholine-induced mucus volume and albumin outputs (but not lysozyme output) was attenuated by nifedipine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1810592

  5. Role of endothelin-1/endothelin receptor signaling in fibrosis and calcification in nephrogenic systemic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Motegi, Sei-Ichiro; Okada, Etsuko; Uchiyama, Akihiko; Yamada, Kazuya; Ogino, Sachiko; Yokoyama, Yoko; Takeuchi, Yuko; Monma, Fumiko; Suzuki, Tamio; Ishikawa, Osamu

    2014-09-01

    Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is characterized by systemic fibrosis and abnormal calcification in patients with severe renal dysfunction. It is considered that gadolinium (Gd)-containing contrast agents used for magnetic resonance imaging trigger the development of NSF. However, the causative role of Gd and the mechanism of Gd-induced fibrosis and calcification in NSF are unknown. Recently, it has been known that endothelin-1 (ET-1)/ET receptor (ETR) signalling regulates fibrosis and calcification. The objective was to elucidate the role of ET-1/ETR signalling in Gd-induced fibrosis and calcification in NSF. First, we demonstrated that Gd enhanced proliferation and calcification of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in vitro. Next, we examined the expression of ET-1 and ETR-A in hMSC using proliferation or calcification assay. ET-1 and ETR-A expression in hMSC treated with Gd were elevated. ET-1/ETR signalling inhibitor, bosentan, inhibited Gd-induced proliferation and calcification of hMSC. In addition, bosentan inhibited Gd-induced phosphorylation of ERK and Akt in hMSC. Plasma ET-1 levels of the patients were significantly higher than these of normal individuals and systemic sclerosis patients. In immunofluorescence staining, the expression of ETR-A in fibroblasts in dermal fibrosis lesion of NSF was increased. We conclude that Gd induces proliferation and calcification of hMSC via enhancement of ET-1/ETR signalling. Our results contribute to understand the pathogenesis of NSF. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Requirement of cortical actin organization for bombesin, endothelin, and EGF receptor internalization.

    PubMed

    Lunn, J A; Wong, H; Rozengurt, E; Walsh, J H

    2000-12-01

    The role of actin organization in occupancy-induced receptor internalization remains poorly defined. Here we report that treatment of mouse Swiss 3T3 cells with latrunculin A, a potent inhibitor of actin polymerization (including cortical actin), inhibited the internalization of the endogenous bombesin/gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) receptor, as judged by uptake of (125)I-labeled GRP or fluorescent Cy3-labeled bombesin. In contrast, cells pretreated with cytochalasin D showed minimal inhibition of bombesin/GRP receptor internalization. Similarly, pretreatment of Swiss 3T3 cells with the potent Rho-kinase inhibitor HA-1077, at concentrations (10-20 microM) that abrogated bombesin-mediated stress fiber formation, did not significantly alter receptor-mediated internalization of (125)I-GRP. These results indicate that bombesin/GRP receptor internalization depends on latrunculin A-sensitive cortical actin rather than on rapidly turning over actin stress fibers that are disrupted by either cytochalasin D or HA-1077. The rates and total levels of internalization of the endogenously expressed endothelin A receptor and epidermal growth factor receptor were also markedly reduced by latrunculin A in Swiss 3T3 cells. The potency of latrunculin A for inhibiting G protein-coupled receptor endocytosis was comparable to that for reducing internalization of the epidermal growth factor tyrosine kinase receptor. We conclude that cortical actin structures, disrupted by latrunculin A, are necessary for occupancy-induced receptor internalization in animal cells.

  7. The response of the lamb ductus arteriosus to endothelin: developmental changes and influence of light.

    PubMed

    Coceani, Flavio; Kelsey, Lois; Seidlitz, Eric

    2002-07-26

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a putative messenger of oxygen in the ductus arteriosus. Since the ability of the vessel to contract to oxygen increases with gestation, we wished to ascertain whether ET-1 action is also developmentally regulated. A corollary objective was to assess whether any gestational variation in the ET-1 contraction is due to a change in the ET(A)-mediated action or to a shift in the balance between opposing, contractile (ET(A) - mediated) and relaxant (ET(B)-mediated), actions. Experiments were performed with isolated ductal strips from preterm (0.7 gestation) and near-term fetal lambs. ET-1 contracted the ductus dose-dependently (10(-10)-10(-7) M) at both ages; however, the peak contraction was about double in magnitude at term. Regardless of age, ET-1 contraction was greater with preparations kept in the dark compared to those exposed to light. This effect of light was not seen after removing the endothelium or when treating the intact tissue with the ET(B) antagonist BQ788 (1 microM). In the dark, however, BQ788 did not modify significantly the ET-1 response at either age. We conclude that ET-1 becomes a stronger ductus constrictor with fetal age, conceivably by acting on ET(A) receptors. Hence, the concept of ET-1 mediating the oxygen contraction is further validated. Peculiarly, the ET-1 contraction is curtailed by light through a hitherto undefined ET(B) receptor-linked process.

  8. Alpha 1-adrenergic blockade and sudden cardiac death.

    PubMed

    Vanoli, E; Hull, S S; Foreman, R D; Ferrari, A; Schwartz, P J

    1994-01-01

    The primary goal of the present study was to test whether selective pharmacologic blockade of alpha 1 receptors, and specifically of the subtype alpha 1a, could prevent ventricular fibrillation (VF) during acute myocardial ischemia. The development of new autonomic interventions is of clinical interest in view of the failure of traditional antiarrhythmic drugs to prevent sudden death. Experimental evidence indicates that alpha 1 receptors, and in particular the subtype alpha 1a, may be involved in the genesis of malignant arrhythmias during acute myocardial ischemia and reperfusion. Despite this evidence, questions have been raised about the actual antifibrillatory efficacy of alpha-adrenergic blockade in the acutely ischemic myocardium. The effects of prazosin and of abanoquil (UK 52,046), a highly selective alpha 1a receptor blocker, were tested and compared with propranolol in a conscious animal preparation for sudden death. Ten dogs with a 1-month-old anterior wall myocardial infarction were studied. These dogs had all developed, in control conditions, VF during a 2-minute occlusion of the circumflex coronary artery while exercising (n = 9) or lying on the table (n = 1). Afterwards, the dogs underwent additional tests with the following intravenously administered drugs: abanoquil (n = 10; 1 micrograms/kg), prazosin (n = 9; 0.1 mg/kg), and propranolol (n = 10; 1 mg/kg). Internal control analysis was used. All dogs tested had recurrence of VF with both alpha-adrenergic blockers. Propranolol significantly reduced heart rate during ischemia and prevented VF in 5 of 10 dogs tested (P < 0.05). When heart rate was kept constant by atrial pacing (n = 3), 2 of the 3 animals remained protected by propranolol. Just prior to onset of VF, heart rate was not significantly different in the control and in the abanoquil tests (237 +/- 45 and 253 +/- 34 beats/min, respectively), whereas it was higher (P < 0.05) with prazosin (288 +/- 40 beats/min). Alpha 1 and alpha 1a receptor

  9. Rydberg blockade in a hot atomic beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.; Zhang, X.; Dunning, F. B.

    2017-04-01

    The dipole blockade of very-high-n , n ˜300 , strontium 5 s n f 1F3 Rydberg atoms in a hot atomic beam is studied. For such high n , the blockade radius can exceed the linear dimensions of the excitation volume. Rydberg atoms formed inside the excitation volume can, upon leaving the region, continue to suppress excitation until they have moved farther away than the blockade radius. Moreover, the high density of states originating from the many magnetic sublevels associated with the F states results in a small but finite probability of excitation of L =3 n 1F3 atom pairs at small internuclear separations below the blockade radius. We demonstrate that these effects can be distinguished from one another by the distinct features they imprint on the Mandel Q parameter as a function of the duration of the exciting laser.

  10. Biosynthesis and modulation of endothelin from bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Ohlstein, E H; Arleth, A; Ezekiel, M; Horohonich, S; Ator, M A; Caltabiano, M M; Sung, C P

    1990-01-01

    The biosynthesis and modulation of the vasoconstrictor peptide endothelin was studied in the conditioned medium from cultured bovine pulmonary artery endothelial (BPAE) cells. Conditioned medium from cultured BPAE cells produced contraction of isolated rabbit aortic rings. Incubation of BPAE cells with the protease inhibitors TPCK or isatoic anhydride attenuated the extent of conditioned medium-induced contractions. Incubation of BPAE cells with thrombin produced an enhancement of conditioned medium-induced contraction by approximately 25%. Endothelin levels in conditioned medium were measured by RIA and incubation of BPAE cells with TPCK or isatoic anhydride significantly reduced endothelin levels, whereas incubation with thrombin or transforming growth factor beta-1 stimulated the levels of endothelin in the conditioned medium. These data indicate that endothelin may be modulated by certain protease inhibitors and by platelet and immune cell mediators and suggest a potential new mode of vascular tone regulation.

  11. Identification of endothelin 2 as an inflammatory factor that promotes central nervous system remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kory R.; Miron, Veronique E.; Zhao, Chao; Harrisingh, Marie C.; Swire, Matthew; Williams, Anna; McFarland, Henry F.

    2013-01-01

    The development of new regenerative therapies for multiple sclerosis is hindered by the lack of potential targets for enhancing remyelination. The study of naturally regenerative processes such as the innate immune response represents a powerful approach for target discovery to solve this problem. By ‘mining’ these processes using transcriptional profiling we can identify candidate factors that can then be tested individually in clinically-relevant models of demyelination and remyelination. Here, therefore, we have examined a previously described in vivo model of the innate immune response in which zymosan-induced macrophage activation in the retina promotes myelin sheath formation by oligodendrocytes generated from transplanted precursor cells. While this model is not itself clinically relevant, it does provide a logical starting point for this study as factors that promote myelination must be present. Microarray analysis of zymosan-treated retinae identified several cytokines (CXCL13, endothelin 2, CCL20 and CXCL2) to be significantly upregulated. When tested in a cerebellar slice culture model, CXCL13 and endothelin 2 promoted myelination and endothelin 2 also promoted remyelination. In studies to identify the receptor responsible for this regenerative effect of endothelin 2, analysis of both remyelination following experimental demyelination and of different stages of multiple sclerosis lesions in human post-mortem tissue revealed high levels of endothelin receptor type B in oligodendrocyte lineage cells. Confirming a role for this receptor in remyelination, small molecule agonists and antagonists of endothelin receptor type B administered in slice cultures promoted and inhibited remyelination, respectively. Antagonists of endothelin receptor type B also inhibited remyelination of experimentally-generated demyelination in vivo. Our work therefore identifies endothelin 2 and the endothelin receptor type B as a regenerative pathway and suggests that

  12. High glucose-induced, endothelin-dependent fibronectin synthesis is mediated via NF-kappa B and AP-1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shali; Mukherjee, Suranjana; Chakraborty, Chandan; Chakrabarti, Subrata

    2003-02-01

    Human endothelial cells cultured under high glucose (HG) conditions were shown before to upregulate several basement membrane proteins, including fibronectin (FN), thus mimicking effects of diabetes. Using human macrovascular (HUVEC) and microvascular (HMEC) endothelial cell lines, we evaluated in the present study some of the key molecular signaling events involved in HG-induced FN overexpression. This expression was shown to be dependent on endogenous endothelin (ET) receptor-mediated signaling. We also examined the roles played by protein kinase C (PKC) and the transcription factors nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activating protein (AP)-1 with respect to such changes. HG, PKC activators, and ETs (ET-1 and ET-3) that increased FN expression also caused activation of NF-kappaB and AP-1. Inhibitors of both NF-kappaB and AP-1 prevented HG- and ET-induced FN production. ET receptor blockade also prevented these HG- and ET-mediated changes. The results of this study indicate that glucose-induced increased FN production in diabetes may be mediated via ET-dependent NF-kappaB and AP-1 activation.

  13. Endothelins inhibit mineralization of rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Y; Inoue, A; Shiohama, A; Otsuka, E; Hirose, S; Yamaguchi, A; Hagiwara, H

    1998-01-01

    We examined the effects of members of the endothelin (ET) family on mineralization of rat calvarial osteoblast-like cells. The accumulation of calcium in cells and cell layers was attenuated by ETs with the rank order of potency ET-1 = ET-2 > ET-3. We stained the mineralized nodules by von Kossa staining and measured the number and area of mineralized nodules. The inhibitory effects of ET-1 and ET-2 on the formation of mineralized nodules were stronger than those of ET-3. Our data suggest that ET-1 may inhibit the mineralization process of osteoblastic cells through the ETA receptor.

  14. Endothelin stimulates phospholipase C, Na+/H+ exchange, c-fos expression, and mitogenesis in rat mesangial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Simonson, M S; Wann, S; Mené, P; Dubyak, G R; Kester, M; Nakazato, Y; Sedor, J R; Dunn, M J

    1989-01-01

    A recently described peptide hormone, endothelin, is a potent vasoconstrictor, but it is unclear whether endothelin has other biological actions. These experiments extend the range of biological actions of endothelin to stimulation of mitogenesis. Endothelin at low concentrations (0.1-10 nM) induced mitogenesis by quiescent rat glomerular mesangial cells in culture. Mitogenesis induced by endothelin was accompanied by activation of phospholipase C with increased inositol phosphate turnover and increments of intracellular [Ca2+]. Endothelin also activated Na+/H+ exchange, causing cytosolic alkalinization, and enhanced transcription of the c-fos protooncogene, additional biochemical signals closely linked to proliferation. In addition to being a vasoconstrictor, endothelin thus also functions as a mitogen, presumably through activation of phospholipase C. Images PMID:2536405

  15. The endothelin axis and gelatinase activity in alveolar macrophages after brain-stem death injury: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Allison J; Ware, Robert S; Winterford, Clay; Fraser, John F

    2007-10-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstricting mitogen that has been implicated in the development of primary graft dysfunction. Increased activity of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), specifically MMP-2 and -9, has been associated with tissue damage in acute lung injury and after lung transplantation. Using a validated model of brain-stem death (BSD), we aimed to determine whether alveolar macrophage up-regulation in the pulmonary system is an early feature of BSD injury and if expression levels of ET-1, endothelin A receptors (ET(A)R) and endothelin B receptors (ET(B)R), as well as MMP-2 and -9, are increased in comparison to sham controls. Six control and 8 experimental Wistar-Kyoto rats had a balloon catheter inserted into their subdural space. In the experimental group the balloon was inflated for 4 hours. Lung specimens were immunohistochemically labeled with CD68, ET-1, ET(A)R, ET(B)R, MMP-2 and MMP-9, and 10 fields per slide were assessed. The ratio of alveolar macrophages to polymorphonuclear neutrophils was significantly greater in the BSD group than in controls (9 +/- 4.1 vs 3 +/- 0.5, p = 0.004) and adventitial macrophages increased in BSD lung parenchyma (p < 0.0001). ET-1, ET(A)R and ET(B)R levels were elevated in the experimental group (27.6 +/- 5.7 vs 7 +/- 2.3, 36.1 +/- 4.6 vs 17.7 +/- 2.6 and 60 +/- 7.1 vs 19.8 +/- 3.7, p < 0.0001 inclusive). BSD expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 was double that of controls (14.9 +/- 3.4 vs 30.7 +/- 3.4 and 14.2 +/- 2.2 vs 37 +/- 3.6, respectively, p < 0.0001 inclusive). Alveolar macrophages are rapidly recruited after BSD and may affect peri-operative lung function via increased expression of ET-1, ET(A)R, ET(B)R, MMP-2 and MMP-9.

  16. Pulmonary vasoreactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats--effects of endothelin-1 and leptin.

    PubMed

    Gomart, Samantha; Damoiseaux, Cécile; Jespers, Pascale; Makanga, Martine; Labranche, Nathalie; Pochet, Stéphanie; Michaux, Charles; Berkenboom, Guy; Naeije, Robert; McEntee, Kathleen; Dewachter, Laurence

    2014-02-05

    Systemic hypertension may be associated with an increased pulmonary vascular resistance, which we hypothesized could be, at least in part, mediated by increased leptin. Vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (1 μmol/L), endothelin-1 (10 nmol/L) and leptin (0.001-100 nmol/L) was evaluated in endothelium-intact and -denuded isolated thoracic aorta and pulmonary arteries from spontaneously hypertensive versus control Wistar rats. Arteries were sampled for pathobiological evaluation and lung tissue for morphometric evaluation. In control rats, endothelin-1 induced a higher level of contraction in the pulmonary artery than in the aorta. After phenylephrine or endothelin-1 precontraction, leptin relaxed intact pulmonary artery and aortic rings, while no response was observed in denuded arteries. Spontaneously hypertensive rats presented with increased reactivity to phenylephrine and endothelin-1 in endothelium-intact pulmonary arteries. After endothelin-1 precontraction, endothelium-dependent relaxation to leptin was impaired in pulmonary arteries from hypertensive rats. In both strains of rats, aortic segments were more responsive to leptin than pulmonary artery. In hypertensive rats, pulmonary arteries exhibited increased pulmonary artery medial thickness, associated with increased expressions of preproendothelin-1, endothelin-1 receptors type A and B, inducible nitric oxide synthase and decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase, together with decreased leptin receptor and increased suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expressions. Altered pulmonary vascular reactivity in hypertension may be related to a loss of endothelial buffering of vasoconstriction and decreased leptin-induced vasodilation in conditions of increased endothelin-1.

  17. The human endothelin family: three structurally and pharmacologically distinct isopeptides predicted by three separate genes.

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, A; Yanagisawa, M; Kimura, S; Kasuya, Y; Miyauchi, T; Goto, K; Masaki, T

    1989-01-01

    Three distinct human endothelin-related genes were cloned by screening a genomic DNA library under a low hybridization stringency with a synthetic oligonucleotide probe encoding a portion of the endothelin sequence. Genomic Southern blot analysis with the same oligonucleotide probe showed three corresponding chromosomal loci not only in the human genome but also in porcine and rat genomes. The nucleotide sequences of the three human genes were highly conserved within the regions encoding the 21-residue (mature) endothelins, in spite of the fact that the immediately upstream exon sequences, which encode a part of the propeptides, retained little similarity. Moreover, each of the human genes predicted a putative 21-residue peptide, similar to but distinct from each other: (i) the "classical" endothelin (ET-1), (ii) [Trp6,Leu7]endothelin (ET-2), and (iii) [Thr2,Phe4,Thr5,Tyr6, Lys7,Tyr14]endothelin (ET-3). Synthetic ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3 were prepared according to the deduced amino acid sequences, and the biological activities were assayed by contraction of isolated porcine coronary artery strips and by intravenous injection to anesthetized rats. All these synthetic peptides produced strong vasoconstrictor and pressor responses. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities were considerably different among the three isopeptides, suggesting the possible existence of endothelin receptor subtypes. Images PMID:2649896

  18. Thromboxane prostanoid receptors enhance contractions, endothelin-1, and oxidative stress in microvessels from mice with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Luo, Zaiming; Kohan, Donald; Wellstein, Anton; Jose, Pedro A; Welch, William J; Wilcox, Christopher S; Wang, Dan

    2015-05-01

    Cardiovascular disease is frequent in chronic kidney disease and has been related to angiotensin II, endothelin-1 (ET-1), thromboxane A2, and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Because activation of thromboxane prostanoid receptors (TP-Rs) can generate ROS, which can generate ET-1, we tested the hypothesis that chronic kidney disease induces cyclooxygenase-2 whose products activate TP-Rs to enhance ET-1 and ROS generation and contractions. Mesenteric resistance arterioles were isolated from C57/BL6 or TP-R+/+ and TP-R-/- mice 3 months after SHAM-operation (SHAM) or surgical reduced renal mass (RRM, n=6/group). Microvascular contractions were studied on a wire myograph. Cellular (ethidium: dihydroethidium) and mitochondrial (mitoSOX) ROS were measured by fluorescence microscopy. Mice with RRM had increased excretion of markers of oxidative stress, thromboxane, and microalbumin; increased plasma ET-1; and increased microvascular expression of p22(phox), cyclooxygenase-2, TP-Rs, preproendothelin and endothelin-A receptors, and increased arteriolar remodeling. They had increased contractions to U-46,619 (118 ± 3 versus 87 ± 6, P<0.05) and ET-1 (108 ± 5 versus 89 ± 4, P<0.05), which were dependent on cellular and mitochondrial ROS, cyclooxygenase-2, and TP-Rs. RRM doubled the ET-1-induced cellular and mitochondrial ROS generation (P<0.05). TP-R-/- mice with RRM lacked these abnormal structural and functional microvascular responses and lacked the increased systemic and the increased microvascular oxidative stress and circulating ET-1. In conclusion, RRM leads to microvascular remodeling and enhanced ET-1-induced cellular and mitochondrial ROS and contractions that are mediated by cyclooxygenase-2 products activating TP-Rs. Thus, TP-Rs can be upstream from enhanced ROS, ET-1, microvascular remodeling, and contractility and may thereby coordinate vascular dysfunction in chronic kidney disease.

  19. Sugammadex: A Review of Neuromuscular Blockade Reversal.

    PubMed

    Keating, Gillian M

    2016-07-01

    Sugammadex (Bridion(®)) is a modified γ-cyclodextrin that reverses the effect of the steroidal nondepolarizing neuromuscular blocking agents rocuronium and vecuronium. Intravenous sugammadex resulted in rapid, predictable recovery from moderate and deep neuromuscular blockade in patients undergoing surgery who received rocuronium or vecuronium. Recovery from moderate neuromuscular blockade was significantly faster with sugammadex 2 mg/kg than with neostigmine, and recovery from deep neuromuscular blockade was significantly faster with sugammadex 4 mg/kg than with neostigmine or spontaneous recovery. In addition, recovery from neuromuscular blockade was significantly faster when sugammadex 16 mg/kg was administered 3 min after rocuronium than when patients spontaneously recovered from succinylcholine. Sugammadex also demonstrated efficacy in various special patient populations, including patients with pulmonary disease, cardiac disease, hepatic dysfunction or myasthenia gravis and morbidly obese patients. Intravenous sugammadex was generally well tolerated. In conclusion, sugammadex is an important option for the rapid reversal of rocuronium- or vecuronium-induced neuromuscular blockade.

  20. Association between endothelin receptor B nonsynonymous variants and melanoma risk.

    PubMed

    Soufir, Nadem; Meziani, Roubila; Lacapère, Jean-Jacques; Bertrand, Guylene; Fumeron, Frederic; Bourillon, Agnes; Gérard, Bénédicte; Descamps, Vincent; Crickx, Béatrice; Ollivaud, Laurence; Archimbaud, Alain; Lebbe, Céleste; Basset-Seguin, Nicole; Saiag, Philippe; Grandchamp, Bernard

    2005-09-07

    The endothelin signaling pathway plays a crucial role in melanocyte differentiation and migration. In this study, we investigated whether germline mutations of endothelin receptor B (EDNRB), a gene involved in Hirschsprung disease (HSCR), could also predispose for malignant melanoma (MM). The coding region of EDNRB was sequenced in 137 MM patients and in 130 ethnically matched Caucasian control subjects. Six nonsynonymous EDNRB variants were found in 15 patients (11%), but only two were found in four control subjects (3%, odds ratio [OR] = 3.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.25 to 12; P = .012). Overall, 14 out of 15 MM patients carried EDNRB mutations reported in HSCR, some of which had previously been shown to lead to loss of function. In multivariable logistic regression analysis including skin type, eye and hair color, number of nevi, and dorsal lentigines (freckles), the association between EDNRB mutations and MM risk remained statistically significant (OR = 19.9, 95% CI = 1.34 to 296.2; P = .03). Our data strongly suggest that EDNRB is involved in predisposition for two different multigenic disorders, HSCR and melanoma.

  1. Endothelin receptors mediating functional responses in human small arteries and veins.

    PubMed Central

    Riezebos, J.; Watts, I. S.; Vallance, P. J.

    1994-01-01

    1. In the present study, responses of human omental small arteries and veins to endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 were characterized by use of the ETB receptor selective agonist, sarafotoxin S6c, the ETA receptor antagonist, BQ123, the ETB receptor antagonist, IRL1038, the NO-synthase inhibitor NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 300 microM) and indomethacin (10 microM). 2. Small arteries (internal diameter 413 +/- 22 microns) and parallel running veins (646 +/- 35 microns) were mounted in a myograph under a normalized tension equivalent to 90% of a transmural pressure of 100 mmHg and 19 mmHg in vivo, respectively. 3. In small arteries and veins, endothelin-1 caused a concentration-dependent increase in wall tension (Emax = 3.90 +/- 0.56 mN mm-1 and 1.90 m +/- 0.32 mN mm-1 respectively, P < 0.05) and was equipotent (arteries: pD2 = 8.91 +/- 0.11; veins: pD2 = 8.63 +/- 0.08, NS). In endothelium intact arteries, L-NMMA significantly enhanced the sensitivity to endothelin-1 (pD2 control: 8.92 +/- 0.16; pD2 L-NMMA: 9.37 +/- 0.11; P < 0.05). L-NMMA did not affect the sensitivity of veins to endothelin-1. Indomethacin was without effect in arteries and veins. In veins, endothelin-3 was about a hundred times less potent than endothelin-1 and showed a biphasic response curve. Small arteries did not contract to endothelin-3. Neither small arteries nor veins contracted to sarafotoxin S6c. Furthermore, no relaxation to endothelin-1 or sarafotoxin S6c was seen in any precontracted vessels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8004404

  2. Targeted activation of endothelin-1 exacerbates hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Satwiko, Muhammad Gahan; Ikeda, Koji; Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Yagi, Keiko; Hocher, Berthold; Hirata, Ken-ichi; Emoto, Noriaki

    2015-09-25

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a fatal disease that eventually results in right heart failure and death. Current pharmacologic therapies for PAH are limited, and there are no drugs that could completely cure PAH. Enhanced activity of endothelin system has been implicated in PAH severity and endothelin receptor antagonists have been used clinically to treat PAH. However, there is limited experimental evidence on the direct role of enhanced endothelin system activity in PAH. Here, we investigated the correlation between endothelin-1 (ET-1) and PAH using ET-1 transgenic (ETTG) mice. Exposure to chronic hypoxia increased right ventricular pressure and pulmonary arterial wall thickness in ETTG mice compared to those in wild type mice. Of note, ETTG mice exhibited modest but significant increase in right ventricular pressure and vessel wall thickness relative to wild type mice even under normoxic conditions. To induce severe PAH, we administered SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor, combined with exposure to chronic hypoxia. Treatment with SU5416 modestly aggravated hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pulmonary arterial vessel wall thickening in ETTG mice in association with increased interleukin-6 expression in blood vessels. However, there was no sign of obliterative endothelial cell proliferation and plexiform lesion formation in the lungs. These results demonstrated that enhanced endothelin system activity could be a causative factor in the development of PAH and provided rationale for the inhibition of endothelin system to treat PAH. - Highlights: • Role of endothelin-1 in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) was investigated. • The endothelin-1 transgenic (ETTG) and wild type (WT) mice were analyzed. • ETTG mice spontaneously developed PAH under normoxia conditions. • SU5416 further aggravated PAH in ETTG mice. • Enhanced endothelin system activity could be a causative factor in

  3. Plasma level of big endothelin-1 predicts the prognosis in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yilu; Tang, Yida; Zou, Yubao; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Ling; Tian, Tao; Wang, Jizheng; Bao, Jingru; Hui, Rutai; Kang, Lianming; Song, Lei; Wang, Ji

    2017-09-15

    Cardiac remodeling is one of major pathological process in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Endothelin-1 has been linked to cardiac remodeling. Big endothelin-1 is the precursor of endothelin-1. A total of 245 patients with HCM were enrolled from 1999 to 2011 and partitioned to low, middle and high level groups according to their plasma big endothelin-1 levels. At baseline, significant associations were found between high level of big endothelin-1 and left atrium size, heart function and atrial fibrillation. Big endothelin-1 was positively correlated with N-terminal B-type natriuretic peptide (r=0.291, p<0.001) and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) on magnetic resonance imaging (r=0.222, p=0.016). During a follow-up of 3 (range, 2-5) years, big endothelin-1 level was positively associated with the risks of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular death and progression to NYHA class 3 or 4 (p=0.020, 0.044 and 0.032, respectively). The rate of above events in the highest tertile were 18.1%, 15.7%, 24.2%, respectively. After adjusting for multiple factors related to survival and cardiac function, the significance remained in the association of big endothelin-1 with the risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio (HR)=4.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-22.88; p=0.041) and progression to NYHA class 3 or 4 (HR=4.10, 95%CI 1.32-12.75, p=0.015). Our study showed that high level of plasma big endothelin-1 predicted prognosis for patients with HCM and it can be added to the marker panel in stratifying HCM patients for giving treatment priority to those at high risk. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Endothelin system in intestinal villi: A possible role of endothelin-2/vasoactive intestinal contractor in the maintenance of intestinal architecture.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Mariana; Adur, Javier; Takizawa, Satoshi; Saida, Kaname; Casco, Víctor H

    2012-01-27

    The endothelin system consists of three ligands (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) and at least two receptors (ETA and ETB). In mice ET-2 counterpart is a peptide originally called "vasoactive intestinal contractor" (VIC) for this reason, this peptide is frequently named ET-2/VIC. In intestinal villi, fibroblasts-like cells express endothelin's receptors and response to ET-1 and ET-3 peptides, changing their cellular shape. Several functions have been attributed to these peptides in the "architecture" maintenance of intestinal villi acting over sub-epithelial fibroblasts. Despite this, ET-2/VIC has not been analyzed in depth. In this work we show the intestine gene expression and immunolocalization of ET-1, ET-2 and the ETA and ETB receptors from duodenum to rectus and in the villus-crypt axis in mice, allowing a complete analysis of their functions. While ET-1 is expressed uniformly, ET-2 had a particular distribution, being higher at the bottom of the villi of duodenum, ileum and jejunum and reverting this pattern in the crypts of colon and rectus, where the higher expression was at the top. We postulated that ET-2 would act in a cooperative manner with ET-1, giving to the villus the straight enough to withstand mechanical stress.

  5. Collisional blockade in microscopic optical dipole traps.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, N; Reymond, G; Grangier, P

    2002-07-08

    We analyze the operating regimes of a very small optical dipole trap, loaded from a magneto-optical trap, as a function of the atom loading rate, i.e., the number of atoms per second entering the dipole trap. We show that, when the dipole trap volume is small enough, a "collisional blockade" mechanism locks the average number of trapped atoms on the value 0.5 over a large range of loading rates. We also discuss the "weak loading" and "strong loading" regimes outside the blockade range, and we demonstrate experimentally the existence of these three regimes.

  6. Observation of ionic Coulomb blockade in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jiandong; Liu, Ke; Graf, Michael; Dumcenco, Dumitru; Kis, Andras; di Ventra, Massimiliano; Radenovic, Aleksandra

    2016-08-01

    Emergent behaviour from electron-transport properties is routinely observed in systems with dimensions approaching the nanoscale. However, analogous mesoscopic behaviour resulting from ionic transport has so far not been observed, most probably because of bottlenecks in the controlled fabrication of subnanometre nanopores for use in nanofluidics. Here, we report measurements of ionic transport through a single subnanometre pore junction, and the observation of ionic Coulomb blockade: the ionic counterpart of the electronic Coulomb blockade observed for quantum dots. Our findings demonstrate that nanoscopic, atomically thin pores allow for the exploration of phenomena in ionic transport, and suggest that nanopores may also further our understanding of transport through biological ion channels.

  7. Endothelin-1 protects human melanocytes from UV-induced DNA damage by activating JNK and p38 signalling pathways.

    PubMed

    von Koschembahr, Anne M; Swope, Viki B; Starner, Renny J; Abdel-Malek, Zalfa A

    2015-04-01

    Endothelin-1 is a paracrine factor with mitogenic, melanogenic and survival effects on cultured human melanocytes. We report that endothelin-1 signalling reduced the generation and enhanced the repair of ultraviolet radiation (UV)-induced DNA photoproducts, and inhibited apoptosis of human melanocytes, without increasing cAMP levels, melanin content or proliferation. Treatment with endothelin-1 activated the MAP kinases JNK and p38, as evidenced by phosphorylation of their target, activating transcription factor-2 (ATF-2). Endothelin-1 also enhanced the phosphorylation of JNK, p38 and ATF-2 by UV. The effects of endothelin-1 were dependent on increasing intracellular calcium mobilization by endothelin B receptor signalling. Activation of both JNK and p38 was required for reducing DNA photoproducts, but only JNK partially contributed to the survival effect of endothelin-1. ATF-2 activation depended mainly on JNK, yet was not sufficient for the effect of endothelin-1 on UV-induced DNA damage, suggesting the requirement for other JNK and p38 targets for this effect. Our results underscore the significance of endothelin-1 and endothelin B receptor signalling in reducing the genotoxic effects of UV via activating JNK and p38, hence restoring genomic stability of melanocytes.

  8. Involvement of tissue transglutaminase in endothelin 1-induced hypertrophy in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Wei, Xiao-Li; Meng, Ling-Li; Chi, Mu-Gen; Yan, Jia-Qing; Ma, Xiao-Yun; Jia, Yong-Sheng; Liang, Liang; Yan, Hai-Tao; Zheng, Jian-Quan

    2009-10-01

    A potential link between tissue-type transglutaminase (tTG) and cardiac hypertrophy was suggested recently. However, whether tTG is implicated in hypertrophic agonist-induced cardiac hypertrophy is not yet known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of tTG on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy induced by endothelin (ET) 1. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR and Western blot analysis demonstrated that ET-1 increased the expression of tTG mRNA and protein in cardiomyocytes by activating ET(A) receptors. ET-1 failed to cause increases in cell size and [(3)H]leucine uptake, sarcomere reorganization, and gene induction of the atrial natriuretic factor when cardiomyocytes were treated with monodansylcadaverine, a competitive inhibitor of tTG. Furthermore, the effects of ET-1 on multifunctional activities of tTG were determined by evaluating the incorporation of [(3)H]putrescine into N,N'-dimethylated casein and charcoal absorption, respectively. The results showed that ET-1 did not influence the basal transglutaminase activity of cardiomyocytes but significantly inhibited the 0.1-mmol/L Ca(2+)-stimulated transglutaminase activity. Otherwise, ET-1 elevated the activity of GTPase in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. In vivo, right ventricular hypertrophy induced by 2 weeks of chronic hypoxia was depressed by the tTG inhibitor cystamine (10 to 30 mg/kg, 2 times per day, IP) in a dose-dependent manner. Taken together, our data strongly supported the notion that tTG may act as a positive regulator of the hypertrophic program in response to ET-1. This is probably attributable to the signaling activity of tTG rather than transglutaminase activity.

  9. Selective endothelin a (ETA) receptor antagonist (BQ-123) reduces both myocardial infarct size and oxidant injury.

    PubMed

    Ozdemir, Ramazan; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Polat, Alaadin; Colak, Cemil; Ermis, Necip; Acet, Ahmet

    2006-02-15

    Endothelins (ET) can be considered stress-responsive regulators working in paracrine and autocrine fashion. It has been suggested that elevated levels of ET may be responsible for the low coronary re-flow phenomena. Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) was shown to stimulate ET release in rat heart; however, the mechanism(s) of this effect has not been clarified. Therefore, this study was focused to investigate the effect of BQ-123, selective ETA receptor antagonist, on three aspects of myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MI/R) injury: hemodynamic parameters, infarct size and oxidant-antioxidant status in the absence and presence of ET-1 in an vivo rat model. To produce MI/R, a branch of the descending left coronary artery was occluded for 30 min followed by 2h reperfusion. ECG changes, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured before occlusion and continued both occlusion and reperfusion. Forty rats were randomly assigned to five groups equally: (1) sham-operated rats without coronary ligation, (2) I/R group, (3) I/R+BQ-123-treated group (10 microg/kg/min i.v.), (4) I/R+ET-treated group (25 ng/kg/min i.v.), (5) I/R+ET+BQ-123-treated group. The results are expressed as mean+/-S.E.M. In the ET-1 plus I/R group, the ratio between the infarcted area and area at risk 56+/-1% was significantly higher than I/R group (49+/-1%). In the BQ-123 group with or without exogenous ET-1 treatment in I/R group, this ratio was significantly lower at 40+/-2 and 37+/-1%, respectively. As compared to sham group, I/R increased lipid peroxidation whereas decreased nitric oxide (NO), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) contents. This decreased antioxidant enzymatic defense could result in aggravated oxidative damage in I/R group rat hearts. ET-1 administration group showed severe oxidative damage. BQ-123 administrations to I/R group with or without ET-1 caused significantly decrease in lipid peroxidation and increased in SOD, CAT activities and NO generation

  10. Polymorphisms in Endothelin System Genes, Arsenic Levels and Obesity Risk

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Barquero, Vanesa; de Marco, Griselda; Martínez-Hervas, Sergio; Rentero, Pilar; Galan-Chilet, Inmaculada; Blesa, Sebastian; Morchon, David; Morcillo, Sonsoles; Rojo, Gemma; Ascaso, Juan Francisco; Real, José Tomás; Martín-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Chaves, Felipe Javier

    2015-01-01

    Background/Objectives Obesity has been linked to morbidity and mortality through increased risk for many chronic diseases. Endothelin (EDN) system has been related to endothelial function but it can be involved in lipid metabolism regulation: Receptor type A (EDNRA) activates lipolysis in adipocytes, the two endothelin receptors mediate arsenic-stimulated adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelin system can regulate adiposity by modulating adiponectin activity in different situations and, therefore, influence obesity development. The aim of the present study was to analyze if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the EDN system could be associated with human obesity. Subjects/Methods We analyzed two samples of general-population-based studies from two different regions of Spain: the VALCAR Study, 468 subjects from the area of Valencia, and the Hortega Study, 1502 subjects from the area of Valladolid. Eighteen SNPs throughout five genes were analyzed using SNPlex. Results We found associations for two polymorphisms of the EDNRB gene which codifies for EDN receptor type B. Genotypes AG and AA of the rs5351 were associated with a lower risk for obesity in the VALCAR sample (p=0.048, OR=0.63) and in the Hortega sample (p=0.001, OR=0.62). Moreover, in the rs3759475 polymorphism, genotypes CT and TT were also associated with lower risk for obesity in the Hortega sample (p=0.0037, OR=0.66) and in the VALCAR sample we found the same tendency (p=0.12, OR=0.70). Furthermore, upon studying the pooled population, we found a stronger association with obesity (p=0.0001, OR=0.61 and p=0.0008, OR=0.66 for rs5351 and rs3759475, respectively). Regarding plasma arsenic levels, we have found a positive association for the two SNPs studied with obesity risk in individuals with higher arsenic levels in plasma: rs5351 (p=0.0054, OR=0.51) and rs3759475 (p=0.009, OR=0.53) Conclusions Our results support the hypothesis that polymorphisms of the EDNRB gene may influence the susceptibility to

  11. Polymorphisms in endothelin system genes, arsenic levels and obesity risk.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Barquero, Vanesa; de Marco, Griselda; Martínez-Hervas, Sergio; Rentero, Pilar; Galan-Chilet, Inmaculada; Blesa, Sebastian; Morchon, David; Morcillo, Sonsoles; Rojo, Gemma; Ascaso, Juan Francisco; Real, José Tomás; Martín-Escudero, Juan Carlos; Chaves, Felipe Javier

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has been linked to morbidity and mortality through increased risk for many chronic diseases. Endothelin (EDN) system has been related to endothelial function but it can be involved in lipid metabolism regulation: Receptor type A (EDNRA) activates lipolysis in adipocytes, the two endothelin receptors mediate arsenic-stimulated adipocyte dysfunction, and endothelin system can regulate adiposity by modulating adiponectin activity in different situations and, therefore, influence obesity development. The aim of the present study was to analyze if single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the EDN system could be associated with human obesity. We analyzed two samples of general-population-based studies from two different regions of Spain: the VALCAR Study, 468 subjects from the area of Valencia, and the Hortega Study, 1502 subjects from the area of Valladolid. Eighteen SNPs throughout five genes were analyzed using SNPlex. We found associations for two polymorphisms of the EDNRB gene which codifies for EDN receptor type B. Genotypes AG and AA of the rs5351 were associated with a lower risk for obesity in the VALCAR sample (p=0.048, OR=0.63) and in the Hortega sample (p=0.001, OR=0.62). Moreover, in the rs3759475 polymorphism, genotypes CT and TT were also associated with lower risk for obesity in the Hortega sample (p=0.0037, OR=0.66) and in the VALCAR sample we found the same tendency (p=0.12, OR=0.70). Furthermore, upon studying the pooled population, we found a stronger association with obesity (p=0.0001, OR=0.61 and p=0.0008, OR=0.66 for rs5351 and rs3759475, respectively). Regarding plasma arsenic levels, we have found a positive association for the two SNPs studied with obesity risk in individuals with higher arsenic levels in plasma: rs5351 (p=0.0054, OR=0.51) and rs3759475 (p=0.009, OR=0.53). Our results support the hypothesis that polymorphisms of the EDNRB gene may influence the susceptibility to obesity and can interact with plasma arsenic levels.

  12. Small-molecule endothelin receptor antagonists: a review of patenting activity across therapeutic areas.

    PubMed

    Mucke, Hermann A M

    2009-06-01

    In the field of nonpeptide NCEs with endothelin receptor antagonist activity, a burst in corporate IP filings occurred in the 1990s once the human endothelin system had been characterized, but patent activity has declined in the past decade. Universities have not been active in this area of research to a degree that would have led to many patent applications. While three endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, sitaxentan and ambrisentan) are already available for the treatment of pulmonary arterial hypertension, the use of such compounds for the larger therapy areas of heart failure, cancer and nephropathy is still being evaluated in late-stage clinical trials. Marketed and advanced-stage endothelin receptor blockers have remarkably little chemical diversity; thus, the substantially larger chemical space defined by patenting remains to be explored.

  13. Essential role for endothelin ETB receptors in fever induced by LPS (E. coli) in rats

    PubMed Central

    Fabricio, Aline S C; Silva, Carlos A A; Rae, Giles A; D'Orléans-Juste, Pedro; Souza, Glória E P

    1998-01-01

    The influence of endothelin receptor antagonists on febrile responses to E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was assessed in conscious rats.Intravenous (i.v.) LPS (5.0 μg kg−1) markedly increased rectal temperature to a peak of 1.30°C over baseline at 2.5 h. Pretreatment with the mixed endothelin ETA/ETB receptor antagonist bosentan (10 mg kg−1, i.v.) or the selective endothelin ETB receptor antagonist BQ-788 (N-cis-2,6-dimethyl-piperidinocarbonyl-L-γ-methylleucyl-D-1-methoxycarboyl-D-norleucine; 3 pmol, into a lateral cerebral ventricle–i.c.v.) reduced the peak response to LPS to 0.90 and 0.75°C, respectively. The selective endothelin ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 (cyclo[D-Trp-D-Asp-Pro-D-Val-Leu]; 3 pmol, i.c.v.) was ineffective.Increases in temperature caused by IL-1β (180 fmol, i.c.v.), TNF-α (14.4 pmol, i.c.v.) or IL-1β (150 pmol kg−1, i.v.) were unaffected by BQ-788 (3 pmol, i.c.v.).Central injection of endothelin-1 (0.1 to 3 fmol, i.c.v.) caused slowly-developing and long-lasting increases in rectal temperature (starting 2 h after administration and peaking at 4–6 h between 0.90 and 1.15°C) which were not clearly dose-dependent. The response to endothelin-1 (1 fmol, i.c.v.) was prevented by BQ-788, but not by BQ-123 (each at 3 pmol, i.c.v.). Intraperitoneal pretreatment with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin (2 mg kg−1), which partially reduced LPS-induced fever, did not modify the hyperthermic response to endothelin-1 (3 fmol, i.c.v.).Therefore, central endothelin(s) participates importantly in the development of LPS-induced fever, via activation of a prostanoid-independent endothelin ETB receptor-mediated mechanism possibly not situated downstream from IL-1β or TNF-α in the fever cascade. PMID:9806338

  14. An update of the blockade of the renin angiotensin aldosterone system in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Diego F; Ruiz-Hurtado, Gema; Ruilope, Luis M; Segura, Julián

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Blockade of this system is commonly used in the treatment of cardiovascular (CV) and renal disease. Data from multiple clinical trials have provided good evidence about the benefit of blocking the system as a therapeutic target to reduce CV and renal events. We have reviewed all the tested combinations of different drugs counteracting the effects of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Monotherapy with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi) or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) remains valid in all the guidelines, whereas their dual combination has been discarded due to the absence of proven benefits in high CV risk patients and in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). The combination of the standard therapy with an ACEi or an ARB with a mineralocorticoid receptor blocker is a valid option, but has the inconvenience of frequent hyperkalemia in patients with CKD. Similarly, the addition of the direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, to this standard therapy is not particularly supported in diabetic patients. New dual-acting blockers, for example, those combining valsartan and neprilysin inhibitors (LCZ696-Novartis) or endothelin converting enzyme inhibitors and neprilysin inhibitors (ECEI, Daglutril-Solvay), are currently under investigation.

  15. Neuromuscular blockade in the elderly patient.

    PubMed

    Lee, Luis A; Athanassoglou, Vassilis; Pandit, Jaideep J

    2016-01-01

    Neuromuscular blockade is a desirable or even essential component of general anesthesia for major surgical operations. As the population continues to age, and more operations are conducted in the elderly, due consideration must be given to neuromuscular blockade in these patients to avoid possible complications. This review considers the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of neuromuscular blockade that may be altered in the elderly. Compartment distribution, metabolism, and excretion of drugs may vary due to age-related changes in physiology, altering the duration of action with a need for reduced dosage (eg, aminosteroids). Other drugs (atracurium, cisatracurium) have more reliable duration of action and should perhaps be considered for use in the elderly. The range of interpatient variability that neuromuscular blocking drugs may exhibit is then considered and drugs with a narrower range, such as cisatracurium, may produce more predictable, and inherently safer, outcomes. Ultimately, appropriate neuromuscular monitoring should be used to guide the administration of muscle relaxants so that the risk of residual neuromuscular blockade postoperatively can be minimized. The reliability of various monitoring is considered. This paper concludes with a review of the various reversal agents, namely, anticholinesterase drugs and sugammadex, and the alterations in dosing of these that should be considered for the elderly patient.

  16. TIMAP-protein phosphatase 1-complex controls endothelin-1 production via ECE-1 dephosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Boratkó, Anita; Veréb, Zoltán; Petrovski, Goran; Csortos, Csilla

    2016-04-01

    Endothelin induced signaling pathways can affect blood pressure and vascular tone, but the influence of endothelins on tumor cells is also significant. We have detected elevated endothelin-1 secretion from TIMAP (TGF-β inhibited membrane associated protein) depleted vascular endothelial cells. The autocrine signaling activated by the elevated endothelin-1 level through the ETB receptors evoked an angiogenic-like phenotype, the cells assumed an elongated morphology, and enhanced tube formation and wound healing abilities. The depleted protein, TIMAP, is a highly specific and abundant protein in the endothelial cells, and it is a regulatory/targeting subunit for the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1c). Protein-protein interaction between the TIMAP-PP1c complex and the endothelin converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) was detected, the latter of which is a transmembrane protein that produces the biologically active 21-amino acid form of endothelin-1 from proendothelin. The results indicate that silencing of TIMAP induces a reduction in TIMAP-PP1c activity connected to ECE-1. This leads to an increase in the amount of ECE-1 protein in the plasma membrane and a consequent increase in endothelin-1 secretion. Similarly, activation of PKC, the kinase responsible for ECE-1 phosphorylation increased ECE-1 protein level in the membrane fraction of the endothelial cells. The elevated ECE-1 level was mitigated in time in normal cells, but was clearly preserved in TIMAP-depleted cells. Overall, our results indicate that PKC-phosphorylated ECE-1 is a TIMAP-PP1c substrate and this phosphatase complex has an important role in endothelin-1 production of EC through the regulation of ECE-1 activity.

  17. Correlation between Saliva and Plasma Levels of Endothelin Isoforms ET-1, ET-2, and ET-3.

    PubMed

    Gurusankar, Roma; Kumarathasan, Prem; Saravanamuthu, Anusha; Thomson, Errol M; Vincent, Renaud

    2015-01-01

    Although saliva endothelins are emerging as valuable noninvasive cardiovascular biomarkers, reports on the relationship between isoforms in saliva and plasma remain scarce. We measured endothelins in concurrent saliva and plasma samples (n = 30 males; age 18-63) by HPLC-fluorescence. Results revealed statistically significant positive correlations among all isoforms between saliva and plasma: big endothelin-1 (BET-1, 0.55 ± 0.27 versus 3.35 ± 1.28 pmol/mL; r = 0.38, p = 0.041), endothelin-1 (ET-1, 0.52 ± 0.21 versus 3.45 ± 1.28 pmol/mL; r = 0.53, p = 0.003), endothelin-2 (ET-2, 0.21 ± 0.07 versus 1.63 ± 0.66 pmol/mL; r = 0.51, p = 0.004), and endothelin-3 (ET-3, 0.39 ± 0.19 versus 2.32 ± 1.44 pmol/mL; r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Correlations of BET-1, ET-1, and ET-3 within each compartment were positive in both plasma (p < 0.05) and saliva (p ≤ 0.1), whereas ET-2 was not significantly correlated with other isoforms in either plasma or saliva. For all isoforms, concentrations varied on average fivefold between individuals (90th/10th percentiles); individuals with high plasma endothelin levels generally had high saliva endothelin levels. Our results reveal that salivary ET isoform profiles portray the plasmatic profiles and support the view of coordinated regulation of ET-1 and ET-3, but distinct regulatory pathways for ET-2.

  18. Adenosine A2A receptor antagonism and neuroprotection: mechanisms, lights, and shadows.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Minghetti, Luisa; Tebano, Maria Teresa; Pintor, Annita; Domenici, Maria Rosaria; Massotti, Marino

    2004-01-01

    Adenosine A2A receptor antagonists are regarded as potential neuroprotective drugs, although the mechanisms underlying their effects remain to be elucidated. In this review, quinolinic acid (QA)-induced striatal toxicity was used as a tool to investigate the mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of A2A receptor antagonists. After having examined the effects of selective A2A receptor antagonists toward different mechanisms of QA toxicity, we conclude that (1) the effect elicited by A2A receptor blockade on QA-induced glutamate outflow may be one of the mechanisms of the neuroprotective activity of A2A receptor antagonists; (2) A2A receptor antagonists have a potentially worsening influence on QA-dependent NMDA receptor activation; and (3) the ability of A2A receptor antagonists to prevent QA-induced lipid peroxidation does not correlate with the neuroprotective effects. These results suggest that A2A receptor antagonists may have either potentially beneficial or detrimental influence in models of neurodegeneration that are mainly due to increased glutamate levels or enhanced sensitivity of NMDA receptors, respectively.

  19. The interdependence of Endothelin-1 and Calcium: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Tykocki, Nathan R.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2014-01-01

    The 21 amino acid peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) regulates a diverse array of physiological processes, including vasoconstriction, angiogenesis, nociception, and cell proliferation. Most of the effects of ET-1 are associated with an increase in intracellular calcium concentration. The calcium influx and mobilization pathways activated by ET-1, however, vary immensely. This review will begin with the basics of calcium signaling, and investigate the different ways intracellular calcium concentration can increase in response to a stimulus. The focus will then shift to ET-1, and discuss how ET receptors mobilize calcium. We will also examine how disease alters calcium-dependent responses to ET-1 by discussing changes to ET-1-mediated calcium signaling in hypertension, since there is significant interest in the role of ET-1 in this important disease. A list of unanswered questions regarding ET-mediated calcium signals are also presented, as well as perspectives for future research of calcium mobilization by ET-1. PMID:20662769

  20. Clinical pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the endothelin receptor antagonist macitentan.

    PubMed

    Sidharta, P N; Treiber, A; Dingemanse, J

    2015-05-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease of the lung vascular system, which leads to right-sided heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. Treatments to regulate the pulmonary vascular pressure target the prostacyclin, nitric oxide, and endothelin (ET) pathways. Macitentan, an oral, once-daily, dual ETA and ETB receptor antagonist with high affinity and sustained receptor binding is the first ET receptor antagonist to show significant reduction of the risk of morbidity and mortality in PAH patients in a large-scale phase III study with a long-term outcome. Here we present a review of the available clinical pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship, and drug-drug interaction data of macitentan in healthy subjects, patients with PAH, and in special populations.

  1. Endothelin produces systemic vasodilation independent of the state of consciousness.

    PubMed

    Lippton, H L; Pellett, A; Cairo, J; Summer, W R; Lowe, R F; Sander, G E; Giles, T D; Cohen, G; Levitzky, M G

    1989-01-01

    The effects of endothelin, ET-1, on pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics were studied in the open chest dog and changes in systemic arterial pressure in dogs under conscious and anesthetized states were compared. Rapid intravenous (IV) bolus injections of ET-1, 100-1,000 nanograms/kg, significantly decreased systemic arterial pressure, and significantly decreased systemic vascular resistance whereas left atrial pressure and pulmonary vascular resistance were not altered. Reductions in systemic arterial pressure in response to bolus injection of ET-1, 100 and 300 nanograms/kg IV, during conscious state and during anesthesia were similar, respectively. The present data suggest that ET-1 dilates the systemic vascular bed independent of the animal's state of consciousness. The present data also suggest that when compared to the systemic vascular bed, the pulmonary vascular bed is less responsive to bolus administration of ET-1.

  2. The role of endothelin-1 in pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chester, Adrian H.; Yacoub, Magdi H.

    2014-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a rare but debilitating disease, which if left untreated rapidly progresses to right ventricular failure and eventually death. In the quest to understand the pathogenesis of this disease differences in the profile, expression and action of vasoactive substances released by the endothelium have been identified in patients with PAH. Of these, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is of particular interest since it is known to be an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor and also involved in vascular remodelling. Identification of ET-1 as a target for pharmacological intervention has lead to the discovery of a number of compounds that can block the receptors via which ET-1 mediates its effects. This review sets out the evidence in support of a role for ET-1 in the onset and progression of the disease and reviews the data from the various clinical trials of ET-1 receptor antagonists for the treatment of PAH. PMID:25405182

  3. Therapeutic potential of endothelin receptor antagonism in kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Czopek, Alicja; Moorhouse, Rebecca; Webb, David J; Dhaun, Neeraj

    2016-03-01

    Our growing understanding of the role of the endothelin (ET) system in renal physiology and pathophysiology is from emerging studies of renal disease in animal models and humans. ET receptor antagonists reduce blood pressure and proteinuria in chronic kidney disease and cause regression of renal injury in animals. However, the therapeutic potential of ET receptor antagonism has not been fully explored and clinical studies have been largely limited to patients with diabetic nephropathy. There remains a need for more work in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease (patients requiring maintenance dialysis and those with a functioning kidney transplant), ischemia reperfusion injury, and sickle cell disease. The current review summarizes the most recent advances in both preclinical and clinical studies of ET receptor antagonists in the field of kidney disease. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Early intervention with a potent endothelin-A/endothelin-B receptor antagonist aggravates left ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in rats.

    PubMed

    Oie, Erik; Yndestad, Arne; Robins, Simon P; Børnerheim, Reidar; Asberg, Anders; Attramadal, Håvard

    2002-05-01

    Intervention with selective endothelin (ET)A receptor antagonists within 24h after myocardial infarction (MI) in rats has been reported to aggravate left ventricular (LV) remodeling. In contrast, beneficial effects are reported when initiation of treatment is delayed 7 days or more after MI. However, bosentan, a mixed ET(A)/ET(B) receptor antagonist with low affinity for the ET receptors, has been shown to exert beneficial effects independent of the time point of initiation of treatment after MI. The aim of the present study was to investigate to what extent early intervention with a mixed ET(A)/ET(B) receptor antagonist with higher affinity at the ET receptors (SB 209670) would also exert beneficial effects on postinfarction LV remodeling. After ligation of the left coronary artery, rats were randomized to treatment with SB 209670 (6.25 mg x kg(-1) SC b.i.d., n = 10) or vehicle (n = 12) for 26 days, starting 48h after MI. Treatment with SB 209670 adversely affected the postinfarction remodeling process causing further dilatation of the LV (LV end-diastolic diameter: 10.4+/-0.5 vs 9.1+/-0.2 mm; LV end-systolic diameter: 8.5+/-0.4 vs 7.2+/-0.2 mm, P < 0.05). However, SB 209670 did not significantly affect infarct size, compensatory cardiac hypertrophy, nor the myocardial mRNA levels of procollagen type I and III, and prolyl 4-hydroxylase and lysyl oxidase, 2 important enzymes affecting collagen secretion, stability and functionality. In addition, SB 209670 had no significant effects on LV collagen cross-linking or extent of fibrosis. Thus, our data demonstrate that early intervention with a potent, mixed ET(A)/ET(B) receptor antagonist after MI may promote dilatation of the LV without significant alterations of infarct size and extracellular matrix composition. Our data support the notion that the timing of initiation of ET receptor antagonism after MI is critical and that potent ET receptor antagonists may be harmful during the first few days after MI.

  5. Endothelin-1 Induces Proteinuria by Heparanase-Mediated Disruption of the Glomerular Glycocalyx.

    PubMed

    Garsen, Marjolein; Lenoir, Olivia; Rops, Angelique L W M M; Dijkman, Henry B; Willemsen, Brigith; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Rabelink, Ton J; Berden, Jo H M; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; van der Vlag, Johan

    2016-12-01

    Diabetic nephropathy (DN) is the leading cause of CKD in the Western world. Endothelin receptor antagonists have emerged as a novel treatment for DN, but the mechanisms underlying the protective effect remain unknown. We previously showed that both heparanase and endothelin-1 are essential for the development of DN. Here, we further investigated the role of these proteins in DN, and demonstrated that endothelin-1 activates podocytes to release heparanase. Furthermore, conditioned podocyte culture medium increased glomerular transendothelial albumin passage in a heparanase-dependent manner. In mice, podocyte-specific knockout of the endothelin receptor prevented the diabetes-induced increase in glomerular heparanase expression, consequent reduction in heparan sulfate expression and endothelial glycocalyx thickness, and development of proteinuria observed in wild-type counterparts. Our data suggest that in diabetes, endothelin-1 signaling, as occurs in endothelial activation, induces heparanase expression in the podocyte, damage to the glycocalyx, proteinuria, and renal failure. Thus, prevention of these effects may constitute the mechanism of action of endothelin receptor blockers in DN. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Nephrology.

  6. Histamine H1 and endothelin ETB receptors mediate phospholipase D stimulation in rat brain hippocampal slices.

    PubMed

    Sarri, E; Picatoste, F; Claro, E

    1995-08-01

    Different neurotransmitter receptor agonists [carbachol, serotonin, noradrenaline, histamine, endothelin-1, and trans-(1S,3R)-aminocyclopentyl-1,3-dicarboxylic acid (trans-ACPD)], known as stimuli of phospholipase C in brain tissue, were tested for phospholipase D stimulation in [32P]Pi-prelabeled rat brain cortical and hippocampal slices. The accumulation of [32P]phosphatidylethanol was measured as an index of phospholipase D-catalyzed transphosphatidylation in the presence of ethanol. Among the six neurotransmitter receptor agonists tested, only noradrenaline, histamine, endothelin-1, and trans-ACPD stimulated phospholipase D in hippocampus and cortex, an effect that was strictly dependent of the presence of millimolar extracellular calcium concentrations. The effect of histamine (EC50 18 microM) was inhibited by the H1 receptor antagonist mepyramine with a Ki constant of 0.7 nM and was resistant to H2 and H3 receptor antagonists (ranitidine and tioperamide, respectively). Endothelin-1-stimulated phospholipase D (EC50 44 nM) was not blocked by BQ-123, a specific antagonist of the ETA receptor. Endothelin-3 and the specific ETB receptor agonist safarotoxin 6c were also able to stimulate phospholipase D with efficacies similar to that of endothelin-1, and EC50 values of 16 and 3 nM, respectively. These results show that histamine and endothelin-1 stimulate phospholipase D in rat brain through H1 and ETB receptors, respectively.

  7. The mechanism of action of endothelin in human lung.

    PubMed Central

    McKay, K. O.; Black, J. L.; Armour, C. L.

    1991-01-01

    1 The peptides endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin-2 (ET-2) elicited potent and sustained contractions of human isolated bronchus and pulmonary artery. 2 ET-1 is one of the most potent contractile agonists investigated in these tissues with an EC50 value of 18.3 nM (95% confidence interval: 12.9, 25.9 nM: n = 26) in bronchus and 3.2 nM (95% confidence interval: 0.4, 23.9 nM; n = 5) in the arterial preparation. 3 ET-1 is 2.5 times more potent than ET-2 in both the airway and vascular tissues, and both forms of the peptide have geometric mean EC50 values 5 times greater than in the isolated bronchial tissue than in the pulmonary artery. 4 Neither pretreatment with the voltage-dependent calcium (VDC) channel antagonist verapamil (10 microM) nor with indomethacin (25 microM) significantly altered the response curve to ET-1 in human isolated bronchus. Removal of calcium from the Krebs-Henseleit solution did not affect ET-1-induced responses. 5 Specific binding on the smooth muscle of human airway and pulmonary arterial tissue to both ET-1 and ET-2 was detected in autoradiographic studies. There appeared to be no difference between the peptides in the location nor the density of binding sites. 6 We conclude that contraction of human bronchial tissue by ET-1 is not dependent upon influence of extracellular calcium nor release of prostaglandins or thromboxane A2. It is likely that the action of ET-1 in this tissue is due to binding of this peptide to specific receptors located on the smooth muscle. Images Figure 5 PMID:2015424

  8. Endothelin-1 Pathway Polymorphisms and Outcomes in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gomberg-Maitland, Mardi; Demarco, Teresa; Frost, Adaani E.; Torbicki, Adam; Langleben, David; Pulido, Tomas; Correa-Jaque, Priscilla; Passineau, Michael J.; Wiener, Howard W.; Tamari, Mayumi; Hirota, Tomomitsu; Kubo, Michiaki; Tiwari, Hemant K.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive fatal disease. Variable response and tolerability to PAH therapeutics suggests that genetic differences may influence outcomes. The endothelin pathway is central to pulmonary vascular function, and several polymorphisms and/or mutations in the genes coding for endothelin (ET)-1 and its receptors correlate with the clinical manifestations of other diseases. Objectives: To examine the interaction of ET-1 pathway polymorphisms and treatment responses of patients with PAH treated with ET receptor antagonists (ERAs). Methods: A total of 1,198 patients with PAH were prospectively enrolled from 45 U.S. and Canadian pulmonary hypertension centers or retrospectively from global sites participating in the STRIDE (Sitaxsentan To Relieve Impaired Exercise) trials. Comprehensive objective measures including a 6-minute-walk test, Borg dyspnea score, functional class, and laboratory studies were completed at baseline, before the initiation of ERAs, and repeated serially. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms from ET-1 pathway candidate genes were selected from a completed genome-wide association study performed on the study cohort. Measurements and Main Results: Patient efficacy outcomes were analyzed for a relationship between ET-1 pathway polymorphisms and clinical efficacy using predefined, composite positive and negative outcome measures in 715 European descent samples. A single-nucleotide polymorphism (rs11157866) in the G-protein alpha and gamma subunits gene was significantly associated, accounting for multiple testing, with a combined improvement in functional class and 6-minute-walk distance at 12 and 18 months and marginally significant at 24 months. Conclusions: ET-1 pathway associated polymorphisms may influence the clinical efficacy of ERA therapy for PAH. Further prospective studies are needed. PMID:26252367

  9. Cigarette Smoke Upregulates Rat Coronary Artery Endothelin Receptors In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Zhang, Yaping; Cao, Yong-Xiao; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a strong cardiovascular risk factor and endothelin (ET) receptors are related to coronary artery diseases. The present study established an in vivo secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure model and investigated the hypothesis that cigarette smoke induces ET receptor upregulation in rat coronary arteries and its possible underlying mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings Rats were exposed to SHS for 200 min daily for 8 weeks. The coronary arteries were isolated and examined. The vasoconstriction was studied by a sensitive myograph. The expression of mRNA and protein for receptors was examined by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. Compared to fresh air exposure, SHS increased contractile responses mediated by endothelin type A (ETA) and type B (ETB) receptors in coronary arteries. In parallel, the expression of mRNA and protein for ETA and ETB receptors of smoke exposed rats were higher than that of animals exposed to fresh air, suggesting that SHS upregulates ETA and ETB receptors in coronary arteries in vivo. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the enhanced receptor expression was localized to the smooth muscle cells of coronary arteries. The protein levels of phosphorylated (p)-Raf-1 and p-ERK1/2 in smoke exposed rats were significantly higher than in control rats, demonstrating that SHS induces the activation of the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway. Treatment with Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 suppressed SHS-induced enhanced contraction mediated by ETA receptors, and inhibited the elevated mRNA and protein levels of ETA and ETB receptors caused by SHS. The results of correlation and regression analysis showed that phosphorylation of Raf and ERK1/2 were independent determinants to affect protein expression of ETB and ETA receptors. Conclusions/Significance Cigarette smoke upregulates ETB and ETA receptors in rat coronary artery, which is associated with the activation of the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway. PMID:22412974

  10. Endothelin-1 downregulates Mas receptor expression in human cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhiheng; Tang, Yamei; Yang, Zuocheng; Liu, Shaojun; Liu, Yong; Li, Yan; He, Wei

    2013-09-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) are involved in the pathogenesis of cardiac dysfunction. The Mas receptor is a functional binding site for angiotensin (Ang)‑(1-7), which is now considered a critical component of the RAS and exerts cardioprotective effects. To the best of our knowledge, the present study aimed to examine, for the first time, the effects of ET-1 on Mas expression in cultured human cardiomyocytes. Human cardiomyocytes were treated with ET-1 at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 20 and 30 nM) for varied time periods (0.5, 1.5, 3, 4.5 or 6 h) with or without the transcription inhibitor actinomycin D, endothelin A (ETA) receptor blocker BQ123 and ETB receptor blocker BQ788, or different kinase inhibitors. ET-1 decreased the Mas mRNA level in a statistically significant dose- and time-dependent manner within 4.5 h, which was reflected in the dose-dependent downregulation of Mas promoter activity, Mas protein levels and Ang-(1-7) binding on the cell membrane. Actinomycin D (1 mg/ml), BQ123 (1 µM), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) siRNA and inhibitor PD169316 (25 µM), completely eliminated the inhibitory effects of ET-1 on Mas expression in human cardiomyocytes. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that ET-1 downregulates Mas expression at the transcription level in human cardiomyocytes via the ETA receptor by a p38 MAPK‑dependent mechanism. This study provides novel insights into the function of ET-1 and the Ang‑(1-7)/Mas axis in cardiac pathophysiology.

  11. Endothelin stimulates chloride secretion across canine tracheal epithelium.

    PubMed

    Plews, P I; Abdel-Malek, Z A; Doupnik, C A; Leikauf, G D

    1991-08-01

    The endothelins (ET) are a group of isopeptides produced by a number of cells, including canine tracheal epithelial cells. Because these compounds are endogenous peptides that may activate eicosanoid metabolism, we investigated the effects of ET on Cl secretion in canine tracheal epithelium. Endothelin 1 (ET-1) was found to produce a dose-dependent change in short-circuit current (Isc) that increased slowly and reached a maximal value within 10-15 min. When isopeptides of ET were compared, 300 nM ET-1 and ET-2 produced comparable maximal increases in Isc, whereas ET-3 produced smaller changes in Isc (half-maximal concentrations of 2.2, 7.2, and 10.4 nM, respectively). Ionic substitution of Cl with nontransported anions, iodide and gluconate, reduced ET-1-induced changes in Isc. Furthermore, the response was inhibited by the NaCl cotransport inhibitor, furosemide. In paired tissues, ET-1 significantly increased mucosal net 36Cl flux without significant effect on 22Na flux. The increase in Isc induced by ET was diminished by pretreatment with indomethacin. The second messengers mediating the increase in Isc were investigated in cultured canine tracheal epithelial cells. ET-1 stimulated the release of [3H]arachidonate from membrane phospholipids, increased intracellular Ca2+ (occasionally producing oscillations), and increased adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate accumulation. The latter was diminished by indomethacin. Thus ET is a potent agonist of Cl secretion (with the isopeptides having the following potency: ET-1 greater than or equal to ET-2 greater than ET-3) and acts, in part, through a cyclooxygenase-dependent mechanism.

  12. ETA receptor blockade with atrasentan prevents hypertension with the multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor ABT-869 in telemetry-instrumented rats.

    PubMed

    Banfor, Patricia N; Franklin, Pamela A; Segreti, Jason A; Widomski, Deborah L; Davidsen, Steven K; Albert, Daniel H; Cox, Bryan F; Fryer, Ryan M; Gintant, Gary A

    2009-02-01

    ABT-869 is a novel multitargeted inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor and platelet-derived growth factor receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) with potent antiangiogenic properties that slow tumor progression. Vascular endothelial growth factor receptor blockade has been shown to produce hypertension. Atrasentan is a potent and selective endothelin (ETA) receptor antagonist that lowers blood pressure and affects tumor growth. To assess the utility of ETA receptor blockade in controlling hypertension with RTK inhibition, we evaluated the ability of atrasentan to block hypertension with ABT-869 in conscious, telemetry-instrumented rats. Changes in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated using mean values and the area under the curve (AUC). Atrasentan (0.5, 1.5, and 5.0 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for 5 days) elicited dose-dependent decreases in MAP-AUC (-16.7 +/- 1.3, -20.94 +/- 3.68, and -30.12 +/- 3.57 mm Hg x day, respectively) compared with vehicle. ABT-869 (1, 3, 10, 30 mg kg(-1) d(-1) for 5 days) increased MAP compared with vehicle (MAP-AUC values of -5.52 +/- 3.75, 12.7 +/- 8.4, 37.5 +/- 4.4, and 63.8 +/- 3.3 mm Hg x day, respectively). Pretreatment with atrasentan (5 mg/kg for 5 days) prevented and abolished the hypertensive effects of ABT-869. Thus, ETA receptor blockade effectively alleviated hypertension with RTK inhibition and may serve a dual therapeutic role by preventing hypertension and slowing tumor progression.

  13. Signalling mechanisms of endothelin-induced mitogenesis and melanogenesis in human melanocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Imokawa, G; Yada, Y; Kimura, M

    1996-01-01

    To understand the signalling mechanisms involved in the dual stimulatory effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1) on DNA synthesis and melanization in cultured human melanocytes, we analysed the biological profile of ET-1 receptor and determined the effects of ET-1 on the protein kinase C, cyclic AMP system and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAP kinase) in comparison with their relevant stimulants. The photoaffinity labelling of ET-1 receptors with Denny-Jaff reagents revealed an ET-1 receptor with a molecular mass of 51 kDa in human melanocytes. The ET(A) receptor subtype-sensitive antagonist BQ123(50 nM) or pertussis toxin (100 ng/ml) significantly suppressed the ET-1-induced intracellular calcium mobilization, indicating the presence of pertussis toxin-sensitive G-protein-coupled ET(A) receptors. An assay of protein kinase C activity revealed that 10nM ET-1 translocated cytosolic protein kinase C to membrane-bound protein kinase C within 5 min of the start of incubation. In contrast, receptor-mediated melanocyte activation by ET-1 was accompanied by an elevated level of cyclic AMP (4-fold over control) after 10-60 min of incubation, whereas 60 min of incubation of human melanocytes with c-Kit or c-Met ligands such as stem cell factor (10 nM) or basic fibroblast growth factor (10 nM) did not elevate the cyclic AMP level. We have also demonstrated that a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor, tyrphostin B-42 (10 microM), inhibited the ET-1-induced growth stimulation, suggesting the involvement of the tyrosine kinase pathway in growth stimulation. Consistently, an assay of MAP kinase revealed that ET-1 caused a 10-fold activation of MAP kinase after 5 min of incubation with human melanocytes in a similar way to tyrosine kinase ligands such as stem cell factor and hepatocyte growth factor. Further, the DNA synthesis stimulated by the c-Kit ligand stem cell factor at a concentration of 1 nM was synergistically enhanced by 5 nM ET-1. These results suggest that ET-induced dual

  14. Marine and soil derived natural products: a new source of novel cardiovascular protective agents targeting the endothelin system.

    PubMed

    Planes, Nadir; Caballero-George, Catherina

    2015-06-01

    Inhibition of the endothelin system is a recognized therapeutic approach for treating complex cardiovascular diseases. The search for natural inhibitors of the endothelin system has focused mainly on land, with recent, emerging data suggesting the underestimated potential of marine microorganisms for producing leads with cardioprotective potential. The present work reviews natural products identified as inhibitors of the endothelin system, their origin, their mechanism of action, and their ecological significance. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. The pathophysiology of endothelin in complications after solid organ transplantation: a potential novel therapeutic role for endothelin receptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Raina, Amresh; Horn, Edward T; Benza, Raymond L

    2012-11-15

    Although short-term allograft survival after solid organ transplantation has improved during the past two decades, improvement in long-term graft survival has been less pronounced. Common complications after transplantation include chronic allograft rejection, nephrotoxicity from calcineurin inhibitors (CNIs), and systemic hypertension, which all impact posttransplantation morbidity and mortality. Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent endogenous vasoconstrictor, inducer of fibrosis, and vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation, may play a key role in both the development of CNI-induced nephrotoxicity and endothelial vasculopathy in chronic allograft rejection. ET-1 levels increase after isograft implantation, and ET-1 plays a key role in CNI-induced renal vasoconstriction, sodium retention, and hypertension. Preclinical studies have demonstrated that endothelin receptor antagonists (ERAs) can reduce or prevent CNI-induced hypertension after renal transplantation. In addition, ERAs can ameliorate CNI-induced renal vasoconstriction and improve proteinuria and preserve renal function in animal models of renal transplantation. ET-1 may also play a significant role in cardiac allograft vasculopathy, and in animal models, ERAs improve pulmonary function and ischemic-reperfusion injury in lung transplantation and hepatic function and structure in liver transplantation. Emerging pharmacokinetic data suggest that the selective ERA ambrisentan may be used safely in conjunction with the most commonly used immunosuppressive agents tacrolimus and mycophenolate, albeit with appropriate dose adjustment. The weight of available evidence pointing toward a potential beneficial role of ERAs in ameliorating common complications after solid organ transplantation must be balanced with potential toxicities of ERAs but suggests that a randomized clinical trial of ERAs in transplant patients is warranted.

  16. Endothelin-1 and endothelin converting enzyme-1 in human atherosclerosis--novel targets for pharmacotherapy in atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Ihling, C; Bohrmann, B; Schaefer, H E; Technau-Ihling, K; Loeffler, B M

    2004-07-01

    The role of chronic inflammation in the pathogenesis of the acute coronary syndromes has received increasing attention since active plaques rich in macrophages (Mphi's) are more prone to rupture whereas plaques rich in myofibroblasts are considered to be stable. Functionally, active plaques show a locally enhanced vasoreactivity. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) a potent vasoconstrictor acts in a paracrine fashion to regulate vascular tone. ET-1 is also produced by inflammatory cells suggesting a role for ET-1 in inflammation. Additionally, ET-1 is a mitogen. Endothelin converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) activates ET-1 and may thus contribute to the regulation of vascular tone and cell growth during atherosclerosis. We evaluated the presence of ECE-1 and big ET-1/ET-1 and the activity of ECE-1 in different plaque types. Together with ET-1, ECE-1 is present in endothelial cells (ECs), vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and Mphi's. ECE-1 activity and ET-1-immunoreactivity (IR) both are upregulated during the progression of atherosclerosis from a non-inflammatory to an inflammatory stage. Thus, enhanced production of active ET-1 may contribute to cell growth and regulation of vascular tone in advanced plaques and also in very early stages of atherosclerosis. Furthermore, we examined the presence of ET-1 in coronary plaque tissue obtained by directional coronary atherectomy. ET-1 IR localized to plaque components indicative of chronic inflammation. Semiquantitative analysis of ET-1 IR revealed significantly higher staining grades in active coronary lesions compared with nonactive lesions. The increased ET-1 content in active coronary lesions may be beneficial to the stabilization of the vessel wall after plaque rupture and disadvantageous because it may lead to vasospasm and to the progression of atherosclerosis.

  17. Endothelin-converting enzyme-1 activity, endothelin-1 production, and free radical-dependent vasoconstriction in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jennifer C; Tayler, Hannah M; Love, Seth

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients have reduced cerebral blood flow. This precedes dementia and may contribute to its progression. In mice that overexpress amyloid-β protein precursor, cerebral blood flow declines before the development of plaques or cognitive abnormalities. In the brain, endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a locally acting vasoconstrictor, produced in neurons by endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE)-2 and in endothelial cells by ECE-1. Both ECEs are also capable of cleaving amyloid-β (Aβ). We previously showed ECE-2 and ET-1 to be elevated in postmortem temporal cortex from AD patients, and ECE-2 expression and ET-1 release to be upregulated by Aβ42 in vitro. We have now studied isolated leptomeningeal blood vessels from postmortem brains and found that although ECE-1 level is reduced, ECE-1 activity and ET-1 level are significantly elevated in AD vessels. This is specific to AD as there is no specific change in vascular dementia vessels. In primary cultures of human brain endothelial cells, both Aβ40 and Aβ42 caused a significant increase in ET-1 release, the increase being particularly pronounced with Aβ40. In view of previous studies implicating free radicals in the endothelial dysfunction caused by Aβ40, we examined whether Aβ-mediated ET-1 release could be prevented by the antioxidant superoxide dismutase. Addition of superoxide dismutase to cells exposed to Aβ40 prevented the increase in the concentration of ET-1. Our findings indicate that cerebral vasoconstriction induced by Aβ results in part from a free radical-mediated increase in ECE-1 activity and ET-1 production.

  18. Protection of malonate-induced GABA but not dopamine loss by GABA transporter blockade in rat striatum.

    PubMed

    Zeevalk, Gail D; Manzino, Lawrence; Sonsalla, Patricia K

    2002-07-01

    Previous work has shown that overstimulation of GABA(A) receptors can potentiate neuronal cell damage during excitotoxic or metabolic stress in vitro and that GABA(A) antagonists or GABA transport blockers are neuroprotective under these situations. Malonate, a reversible succinate dehydrogenase/mitochondrial complex II inhibitor, is frequently used in animals to model cell loss in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases. To determine if GABA transporter blockade during mitochondrial impairment can protect neurons in vivo as compared with in vitro studies, rats received a stereotaxic infusion of malonate (2 micromol) into the left striatum to induce a metabolic stress. The nonsubstrate GABA transport blocker, NO711 (20 nmol) was infused in some rats 30 min before and 3 h following malonate infusion. After 1 week, dopamine and GABA levels in the striata were measured. Malonate caused a significant loss of striatal dopamine and GABA. Blockade of the GABA transporter significantly attenuated GABA, but not dopamine loss. In contrast with several in vitro reports, GABA(A) receptors were not a downstream mediator of protection by NO711. Intrastriatal infusion of malonate (2 micromol) plus or minus the GABA(A) receptor agonist muscimol (1 micromol), the GABA(A) Cl- binding site antagonist picrotoxin (50 nmol) or the GABA(B) receptor antagonist saclofen (33 nmol) did not modify loss of striatal dopamine or GABA when examined 1 week following infusion. These data show that GABA transporter blockade during mitochondrial impairment in the striatum provides protection to GABAergic neurons. GABA transporter blockade, which is currently a pharmacological strategy for the treatment of epilepsy, may thus also be beneficial in the treatment of acute and chronic conditions involving energy inhibition such as stroke/ischemia or Huntington's disease. These findings also point to fundamental differences between immature and adult neurons in the

  19. Gene silencing of endothelial von Willebrand Factor attenuates angiotensin II-induced endothelin-1 expression in porcine aortic endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Dushpanova, Anar; Agostini, Silvia; Ciofini, Enrica; Cabiati, Manuela; Casieri, Valentina; Matteucci, Marco; Del Ry, Silvia; Clerico, Aldo; Berti, Sergio; Lionetti, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Expression of endothelin (ET)-1 is increased in endothelial cells exposed to angiotensin II (Ang II), leading to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disorders. Since von Willebrand Factor (vWF) blockade improves endothelial function in coronary patients, we hypothesized that targeting endothelial vWF with short interference RNA (siRNA) prevents Ang II-induced ET-1 upregulation. Nearly 65 ± 2% silencing of vWF in porcine aortic endothelial cells (PAOECs) was achieved with vWF-specific siRNA without affecting cell viability and growth. While showing ET-1 similar to wild type cells at rest, vWF-silenced cells did not present ET-1 upregulation during exposure to Ang II (100 nM/24 h), preserving levels of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity similar to wild type. vWF silencing prevented AngII-induced increase in nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (NOX) activity and superoxide anion (O2−) levels, known triggers of ET-1 expression. Moreover, no increase in O2− or ET-1 levels was found in silenced cells treated with AngII or NOX-agonist phorbol ester (PMA 5 nM/48 h). Finally, vWF was required for overexpression of NOX4 and NOX2 in response to AngII and PMA. In conclusion, endothelial vWF knockdown prevented Ang II-induced ET-1 upregulation through attenuation of NOX-mediated O2− production. Our findings reveal a new role of vWF in preventing of Ang II-induced endothelial dysfunction. PMID:27443965

  20. Reduced contribution of endothelin to the regulation of systemic and pulmonary vascular tone in severe familial hypercholesterolaemia

    PubMed Central

    Bender, Shawn B; de Beer, Vincent J; Tharp, Darla L; van Deel, Elza D; Bowles, Douglas K; Duncker, Dirk J; Laughlin, M Harold; Merkus, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    Vascular dysfunction has been associated with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), a severe form of hyperlipidaemia. We recently demonstrated that swine with FH exhibit reduced exercise-induced systemic, but not pulmonary, vasodilatation involving reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Since NO normally limits endothelin (ET) action, we examined the hypothesis that reduced systemic vasodilatation during exercise in FH swine results from increased ET-mediated vasoconstriction. Systemic and pulmonary vascular responses to exercise were examined in chronically instrumented normal and FH swine in the absence and presence of the ETA/B receptor antagonist tezosentan. Intrinsic reactivity to ET was further assessed in skeletal muscle arterioles. FH swine exhibited ∼9-fold elevation in total plasma cholesterol versus normal swine. Similar to our recent findings, systemic, not pulmonary, vasodilatation during exercise was reduced in FH swine. Blockade of ET receptors caused marked systemic vasodilatation at rest and during exercise in normal swine that was significantly reduced in FH swine. The reduced role of ET in FH swine in vivo was not the result of decreased arteriolar ET responsiveness, as responsiveness was increased in isolated arterioles. Smooth muscle ET receptor protein content was unaltered by FH. However, circulating plasma ET levels were reduced in FH swine. ET receptor antagonism caused pulmonary vasodilatation at rest and during exercise in normal, but not FH, swine. Therefore, contrary to our hypothesis, FH swine exhibit a generalised reduction in the role of ET in regulating vascular tone in vivo probably resulting from reduced ET production. This may represent a unique vascular consequence of severe familial hypercholesterolaemia. PMID:24421352

  1. Reduced contribution of endothelin to the regulation of systemic and pulmonary vascular tone in severe familial hypercholesterolaemia.

    PubMed

    Bender, Shawn B; de Beer, Vincent J; Tharp, Darla L; van Deel, Elza D; Bowles, Douglas K; Duncker, Dirk J; Laughlin, M Harold; Merkus, Daphne

    2014-04-15

    Vascular dysfunction has been associated with familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH), a severe form of hyperlipidaemia. We recently demonstrated that swine with FH exhibit reduced exercise-induced systemic, but not pulmonary, vasodilatation involving reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Since NO normally limits endothelin (ET) action, we examined the hypothesis that reduced systemic vasodilatation during exercise in FH swine results from increased ET-mediated vasoconstriction. Systemic and pulmonary vascular responses to exercise were examined in chronically instrumented normal and FH swine in the absence and presence of the ETA/B receptor antagonist tezosentan. Intrinsic reactivity to ET was further assessed in skeletal muscle arterioles. FH swine exhibited ∼9-fold elevation in total plasma cholesterol versus normal swine. Similar to our recent findings, systemic, not pulmonary, vasodilatation during exercise was reduced in FH swine. Blockade of ET receptors caused marked systemic vasodilatation at rest and during exercise in normal swine that was significantly reduced in FH swine. The reduced role of ET in FH swine in vivo was not the result of decreased arteriolar ET responsiveness, as responsiveness was increased in isolated arterioles. Smooth muscle ET receptor protein content was unaltered by FH. However, circulating plasma ET levels were reduced in FH swine. ET receptor antagonism caused pulmonary vasodilatation at rest and during exercise in normal, but not FH, swine. Therefore, contrary to our hypothesis, FH swine exhibit a generalised reduction in the role of ET in regulating vascular tone in vivo probably resulting from reduced ET production. This may represent a unique vascular consequence of severe familial hypercholesterolaemia.

  2. Cigarette smoke exposure up-regulates endothelin receptor B in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells: molecular and functional consequences

    PubMed Central

    Milara, J; Ortiz, JL; Juan, G; Guijarro, R; Almudever, P; Martorell, M; Morcillo, EJ; Cortijo, J

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Pulmonary arteries from smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients show abnormal endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity. We studied the effect of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) on endothelin receptor B (ETB) expression in human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAECs) and its role in endothelial dysfunction. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH ETB receptor expression was measured by real time RT-PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. Cell contraction, intracellular Ca2+, F/G-actin, RhoA activity, myosin light chain phosphorylation, ET, NO, thromboxane (Tx)A2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured by traction microscopy, fluorescence microscopy, phalloidin fluorescence, colorimetric assay, Western blot, elisa and DCFDA fluorescence respectively. KEY RESULTS Cigarette smoke extract dose-dependently increased ETB receptor expression in HPAECs after 24 h incubation. CSE-induced ETB expression was attenuated by bosentan, the ETB receptor antagonist BQ788, the Rho kinase antagonist Y27632 and the antioxidant N-acetylcysteine. A monoclonal antibody to ET-1 prevented CSE-induced ETB receptor overexpression. Twenty-four hour exposure to ET-1 dose-dependently increased ETB receptor expression, mimicking the effect of CSE. CSE-induced ETB receptor overexpression caused greater cell contraction; increased intracellular Ca2+; increased F/G-actin and RhoA activity; increased myosin light chain phosphorylation; augmented TxA2 and ROS production; and decreased NO after acute ET-1 (10 nM). These effects were attenuated by bosentan, BQ788, Y27632 and N-acetylcysteine. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION Cigarette smoke extract induced ETB receptor overexpression by a feed forward mechanism mediated partly by ET release, promoting HPAEC dysfunction and attenuated by ETB receptor blockade, Rho kinase and ROS inhibition. These results provide support for the use of bosentan in CS-related endothelial dysfunction. PMID:20698855

  3. Change in pharmacological effect of endothelin receptor antagonists in rats with pulmonary hypertension: Role of ETB-receptor expression levels

    PubMed Central

    Sauvageau, Stéphanie; Thorin, Eric; Villeneuve, Louis; Dupuis, Jocelyn

    2013-01-01

    Background and purpose The endothelin (ET) system is activated in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The therapeutic value of pharmacological blockade of ET receptors has been demonstrated in various animal models and led to the current approval and continued development of these drugs for the therapy of human PAH. However, we currently incompletely comprehend what local modifications of this system occur as a consequence of PAH, particularly in small resistance arteries, and how this could affect the pharmacological response to ET receptor antagonists with various selectivities for the receptor subtypes. Therefore, the purposes of this study were to evaluate potential modifications of the pharmacology of the ET system in rat pulmonary resistance arteries from monocrotaline (MCT)-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension. Experimental approach ET-1 levels were quantified by ELISA. PreproET-1, ETA and ETB receptor mRNA expressions were quantified in pulmonary resistance arteries using Q-PCR, while protein expression was evaluated by Western blots. Reactivity to ET-1 of isolated pulmonary resistance arteries was measured in the presence of ETA (A-147627), ETB (A-192621) and dual ETA/B (bosentan) receptor antagonists. Key results In rats with PAH, plasma ET-1 increased (p < 0.001) while pulmonary levels were reduced (p < 0.05). In PAH arteries, preproET-1 (p < 0.05) and ETB receptor (p < 0.001) gene expressions were reduced, as were ETB receptor protein levels (p < 0.05). ET-1 induced similar vasoconstrictions in both groups. In arteries from sham animals, neither bosentan nor the ETA or the ETB receptor antagonists modified the response. In arteries from PAH rats, however, bosentan and the ETA receptor antagonist potently reduced the maximal contraction, while bosentan also reduced sensitivity (p < 0.01). Conclusions and implications The effectiveness of both selective ETA and dual ETA/B receptor antagonists is markedly increased in PAH. Down-regulation of

  4. Activation of purinergic receptors (P2) in the renal medulla promotes endothelin-dependent natriuresis in male rats.

    PubMed

    Gohar, Eman Y; Speed, Joshua S; Kasztan, Malgorzata; Jin, Chunhua; Pollock, David M

    2016-08-01

    Renal endothelin-1 (ET-1) and purinergic signaling systems regulate Na(+) reabsorption in the renal medulla. A link between the renal ET-1 and purinergic systems was demonstrated in vitro, however, the in vivo interaction between these systems has not been defined. To test whether renal medullary activation of purinergic (P2) receptors promotes ET-dependent natriuresis, we determined the effect of increased medullary NaCl loading on Na(+) excretion and inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression in anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats in the presence and absence of purinergic receptor antagonism. Isosmotic saline (NaCl; 284 mosmol/kgH2O) was infused into the medullary interstitium (500 μl/h) during a 30-min baseline urine collection period, followed by isosmotic or hyperosmotic saline (1,800 mosmol/kgH2O) for two further 30-min urine collection periods. Na(+) excretion was significantly increased during intramedullary infusion of hyperosmotic saline. Compared with isosmotic saline, hyperosmotic saline infused into the renal medulla caused significant increases in inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression. Renal intramedullary infusion of the P2 receptor antagonist suramin inhibited the increase in Na(+) excretion and inner medullary ET-1 mRNA expression induced by NaCl loading in the renal medulla. Activation of medullary P2Y2/4 receptors by infusion of UTP increased urinary Na(+) excretion. Combined ETA and ETB receptor blockade abolished the natriuretic response to intramedullary infusion of UTP. These data demonstrate that activation of medullary P2 receptors promotes ET-dependent natriuresis in male rats, suggesting that the renal ET-1 and purinergic signaling systems interact to efficiently facilitate excretion of a NaCl load.

  5. Endothelin-1 suppresses insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation and glucose uptake via GPCR kinase 2 in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Horinouchi, Takahiro; Hoshi, Akimasa; Harada, Takuya; Higa, Tsunaki; Karki, Sarita; Terada, Koji; Higashi, Tsunehito; Mai, Yosuke; Nepal, Prabha; Mazaki, Yuichi; Miwa, Soichi

    2016-03-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) reduces insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in skeletal muscle, inducing insulin resistance. Here, we have determined the molecular mechanisms underlying negative regulation by ET-1 of insulin signalling. We used the rat L6 skeletal muscle cells fully differentiated into myotubes. Changes in the phosphorylation of Akt was assessed by Western blotting. Effects of ET-1 on insulin-stimulated glucose uptake was assessed with [(3) H]-2-deoxy-d-glucose ([(3) H]2-DG). The C-terminus region of GPCR kinase 2 (GRK2-ct), a dominant negative GRK2, was overexpressed in L6 cells using adenovirus-mediated gene transfer. GRK2 expression was suppressed by transfection of the corresponding short-interfering RNA (siRNA). In L6 myotubes, insulin elicited sustained Akt phosphorylation at Thr(308) and Ser(473) , which was suppressed by ET-1. The inhibitory effects of ET-1 were prevented by treatment with a selective ETA receptor antagonist and a Gq protein inhibitor, overexpression of GRK2-ct and knockdown of GRK2. Insulin increased [(3) H]2-DG uptake rate in a concentration-dependent manner. ET-1 noncompetitively antagonized insulin-stimulated [(3) H]2-DG uptake. Blockade of ETA receptors, overexpression of GRK2-ct and knockdown of GRK2 prevented the ET-1-induced suppression of insulin-stimulated [(3) H]2-DG uptake. In L6 myotubes overexpressing FLAG-tagged GRK2, ET-1 facilitated the interaction of endogenous Akt with FLAG-GRK2. Activation of ETA receptors with ET-1 suppressed insulin-induced Akt phosphorylation at Thr(308) and Ser(473) and [(3) H]2-DG uptake in a GRK2-dependent manner in skeletal muscle cells. These findings suggest that ETA receptors and GRK2 are potential targets for overcoming insulin resistance. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  6. Dual inhibition of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and endothelin-1 in treatment of chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Plotkin, Horacio

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a pivotal role in treatment of chronic kidney diseases (CKD). However, reversal of the course of CKD or at least long-term stabilization of renal function are often difficult to achieve, and many patients still progress to end-stage renal disease. New treatments are needed to enhance protective actions of RAAS inhibitors (RAASis), such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (ACEIs) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and improve prognosis in CKD patients. Inhibition of endothelin (ET) system in combination with established RAASis may represent such an approach. There are complex interactions between both systems and similarities in their renal physiological and pathophysiological actions that provide theoretical rationale for combined inhibition. This view is supported by some experimental studies in models of both diabetic and nondiabetic CKD showing that a combination of RAASis with ET receptor antagonists (ERAs) ameliorate proteinuria, renal structural changes, and molecular markers of glomerulosclerosis, renal fibrosis, or inflammation more effectively than RAASis or ERAs alone. Practically all clinical studies exploring the effects of RAASis and ERAs combination in nephroprotection have thus far applied add-on designs, in which an ERA is added to baseline treatment with ACEIs or ARBs. These studies, conducted mostly in patients with diabetic nephropathy, have shown that ERAs effectively reduce residual proteinuria in patients with baseline RAASis treatment. Long-term studies are currently being conducted to determine whether promising antiproteinuric effects of the dual blockade will be translated in long-term nephroprotection with acceptable safety profile. PMID:27009050

  7. [Cancer immunotherapy by immuno-checkpoint blockade].

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Yutaka

    2015-10-01

    As cancer immunotherapies utilizing anti-tumor T-cell responses, immuno-checkpoint blockade and adoptive T-cell immunotherapy have recently achieved durable responses even in advanced cancer patients with metastases. Administration of antibodies on the T-cell surface, CTLA-4 and PD-1 (or PD-1 ligand PD-L1), resulted in tumor regression of not only melanoma and renal cell cancer which were known to be relatively sensitive to immunotherapy, but also various malignancies including lung, bladder, ovarian, gastric, and head and neck cancers, as well as hematological malignancies such as Hodgkin and B-cell malignant lymphomas. These findings have changed the status of immunotherapy in the development of cancer treatments. Currently, development of combinations employing cancer immunotherapy with immuno-checkpoint blockade, as well as personalized cancer immunotherapy based on the evaluation of pretreatment immune status, are in progress.

  8. Elevated Plasma Endothelin-1 and Pulmonary Arterial Pressure in Children Exposed to Air Pollution

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Garcidueñas, Lilian; Vincent, Renaud; Mora-Tiscareño, Antonieta; Franco-Lira, Maricela; Henríquez-Roldán, Carlos; Barragán-Mejía, Gerardo; Garrido-García, Luis; Camacho-Reyes, Laura; Valencia-Salazar, Gildardo; Paredes, Rogelio; Romero, Lina; Osnaya, Hector; Villarreal-Calderón, Rafael; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Hazucha, Milan J.; Reed, William

    2007-01-01

    Background Controlled exposures of animals and humans to particulate matter (PM) or ozone air pollution cause an increase in plasma levels of endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor that regulates pulmonary arterial pressure. Objectives The primary objective of this field study was to determine whether Mexico City children, who are chronically exposed to levels of PM and O3 that exceed the United States air quality standards, have elevated plasma endothelin-1 levels and pulmonary arterial pressures. Methods We conducted a study of 81 children, 7.9 ± 1.3 years of age, lifelong residents of either northeast (n = 19) or southwest (n = 40) Mexico City or Polotitlán (n = 22), a control city with PM and O3 levels below the U.S. air quality standards. Clinical histories, physical examinations, and complete blood counts were done. Plasma endothelin-1 concentrations were determined by immunoassay, and pulmonary arterial pressures were measured by Doppler echocardiography. Results Mexico City children had higher plasma endothelin-1 concentrations compared with controls (p < 0.001). Mean pulmonary arterial pressure was elevated in children from both northeast (p < 0.001) and southwest (p < 0.05) Mexico City compared with controls. Endothelin-1 levels in Mexico City children were positively correlated with daily outdoor hours (p = 0.012), and 7-day cumulative levels of PM air pollution < 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) before endothelin-1 measurement (p = 0.03). Conclusions Chronic exposure of children to PM2.5 is associated with increased levels of circulating endothelin-1 and elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure. PMID:17687455

  9. Effect of endothelin-1 on glomerular hydraulic pressure and renin release in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lin, H; Sangmal, M; Smith, M J; Young, D B

    1993-06-01

    The present study was designed to analyze quantitatively the effects of a wide range of endothelin-1 levels on renal hemodynamics and renin release in the canine nonfiltering kidney, including their effects on glomerular hydraulic pressure. Intrarenal infusion of endothelin-1 produced dose-dependent reductions in renal blood flow, but it did not affect glomerular hydraulic pressure until the infused dose reached high rates. At the rate of 1.0 ng/kg per minute, endothelin-1 reduced renal blood flow by 23% (p < 0.01), whereas glomerular hydraulic pressure was not significantly changed from 68.1 +/- 1.3 to 67.4 +/- 1.2 mm Hg. However, with a higher rate of endothelin-1 infusion (5.0 and 10.0 ng/kg per minute), glomerular hydraulic pressure fell to 59.5 +/- 1.3 and 51.5 +/- 1.8 mm Hg (p < 0.01), whereas renal blood flow was reduced from 154.5 +/- 15 to 83.0 +/- 9.5 and 53.5 +/- 9.9 mL/min, respectively. Endothelin-1 infusion also produced an inhibitory effect on renin release. With infusion at 1.0 ng/kg per minute, renin release fell from the control level of 47.9 +/- 5.6 to 26.6 +/- 4.9 units/min per gram kidney weight (p < 0.01), and it fell further to 16.1 +/- 4.3 units/min per gram kidney weight with infusion at 10.0 ng/kg per minute. In summary, endothelin-1 infusion did not affect glomerular hydraulic pressure despite a fall in renal blood flow at low doses, but at high doses it reduced both, suggesting that endothelin-1 exerts separate, dose-dependent effects on preglomerular and postglomerular resistances.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Pulmonary vasoreactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats - Effects of endothelin-1 and leptin

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Systemic hypertension may be associated with an increased pulmonary vascular resistance, which we hypothesized could be, at least in part, mediated by increased leptin. Methods Vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (1 μmol/L), endothelin-1 (10 nmol/L) and leptin (0.001–100 nmol/L) was evaluated in endothelium-intact and -denuded isolated thoracic aorta and pulmonary arteries from spontaneously hypertensive versus control Wistar rats. Arteries were sampled for pathobiological evaluation and lung tissue for morphometric evaluation. Results In control rats, endothelin-1 induced a higher level of contraction in the pulmonary artery than in the aorta. After phenylephrine or endothelin-1 precontraction, leptin relaxed intact pulmonary artery and aortic rings, while no response was observed in denuded arteries. Spontaneously hypertensive rats presented with increased reactivity to phenylephrine and endothelin-1 in endothelium-intact pulmonary arteries. After endothelin-1 precontraction, endothelium-dependent relaxation to leptin was impaired in pulmonary arteries from hypertensive rats. In both strains of rats, aortic segments were more responsive to leptin than pulmonary artery. In hypertensive rats, pulmonary arteries exhibited increased pulmonary artery medial thickness, associated with increased expressions of preproendothelin-1, endothelin-1 receptors type A and B, inducible nitric oxide synthase and decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase, together with decreased leptin receptor and increased suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 expressions. Conclusions Altered pulmonary vascular reactivity in hypertension may be related to a loss of endothelial buffering of vasoconstriction and decreased leptin-induced vasodilation in conditions of increased endothelin-1. PMID:24499246

  11. Endothelin uncouples gap junctions in sustentacular cells and olfactory ensheathing cells of the olfactory mucosa.

    PubMed

    Le Bourhis, Mikaël; Rimbaud, Stéphanie; Grebert, Denise; Congar, Patrice; Meunier, Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    Several factors modulate the first step of odour detection in the rat olfactory mucosa (OM). Among others, vasoactive peptides such as endothelin might play multifaceted roles in the different OM cells. Like their counterparts in the central nervous system, the olfactory sensory neurons are encompassed by different glial-like non-neuronal OM cells; sustentacular cells (SCs) surround their cell bodies, whereas olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) wrap their axons. Whereas SCs maintain both the structural and ionic integrity of the OM, OECs assure protection, local blood flow control and guiding of olfactory sensory neuron axons toward the olfactory bulb. We previously showed that these non-neuronal OM cells are particularly responsive to endothelin in vitro. Here, we confirmed that the endothelin system is strongly expressed in the OM using in situ hybridization. We then further explored the effects of endothelin on SCs and OECs using electrophysiological recordings and calcium imaging approaches on both in vitro and ex vivo OM preparations. Endothelin induced both robust calcium signals and gap junction uncoupling in both types of cells. This latter effect was mimicked by carbenoxolone, a known gap junction uncoupling agent. However, although endothelin is known for its antiapoptotic effect in the OM, the uncoupling of gap junctions by carbenoxolone was not sufficient to limit the cellular death induced by serum deprivation in OM primary culture. The functional consequence of the endothelin 1-induced reduction of the gap junctional communication between OM non-neuronal cells thus remains to be elucidated. © 2014 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Acute increases of renal medullary osmolality stimulate endothelin release from the kidney.

    PubMed

    Boesen, Erika I; Pollock, David M

    2007-01-01

    Experiments conducted in vitro suggest that high osmolality stimulates endothelin production and release by renal tubular epithelial cells. Whether hyperosmotic solutions exert similar effects in vivo is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that increasing renal medullary osmolality enhances urinary excretion of endothelin in anesthetized rats. Isosmotic NaCl (284 mosmol/kgH(2)O) was infused either intravenously (1.5 ml/h) or into the renal medullary interstitium (0.5 ml/h) during a 1-h equilibration period and 30-min baseline urine collection period, followed by either isosmotic or hyperosmotic NaCl (921 or 1,664 mosmol/kgH(2)O iv; 1,714 mosmol/kgH(2)O into renal medulla) for two further 30-min periods. Compared with isosmotic NaCl, infusion of hyperosmotic NaCl into the renal medulla significantly increased the endothelin excretion rate (P < 0.05; from 0.30 +/- 0.02 to 0.49 +/- 0.03 fmol/min). Intravenous infusion of hyperosmotic NaCl also significantly increased endothelin excretion rate in a concentration-dependent manner (from 0.79 +/- 0.07 to 1.77 +/- 0.16 fmol/min and 0.59 +/- 0.04 to 1.11 +/- 0.08 fmol/min for 1,664 and 921 mosmol/kgH(2)O, respectively). To differentiate between effects of osmolality and NaCl, similar experiments were performed using mannitol solutions. Compared with isosmotic mannitol, medullary interstitial infusion of hyperosmotic mannitol (1,820 mosmol/kgH(2)O) significantly increased endothelin excretion rate (P < 0.05; from 0.54 +/- 0.03 to 0.94 +/- 0.12 fmol/min). Thus exposing the renal medulla to hyperosmotic concentrations of either NaCl or mannitol stimulates endothelin release in vivo, consistent with medullary osmolality being an important regulator of renal endothelin synthesis.

  13. A Novel Bidirectional Interaction between endothelin-3 and Retinoic Acid in Rat Enteric Nervous System Precursors

    PubMed Central

    Gisser, Jonathan M.; Cohen, Ariella R.; Yin, Han; Gariepy, Cheryl E.

    2013-01-01

    Background Signaling through the endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) is critical for the development of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and mutations in endothelin system genes cause Hirschsprung’s aganglionosis in humans. Penetrance of the disease is modulated by other genetic factors. Mutations affecting retinoic acid (RA) signaling also produce aganglionosis in mice. Thus, we hypothesized that RA and endothelin signaling pathways may interact in controlling development of the ENS. Methods Rat immunoselected ENS precursor cells were cultured with the EDNRB ligand endothelin-3, an EDNRB-selective antagonist (BQ-788), and/or RA for 3 or 14 days. mRNA levels of genes related to ENS development, RA- and EDNRB-signaling were measured at 3 days. Proliferating cells and cells expressing neuronal, glial, and myofibroblast markers were quantified. Results Culture of isolated ENS precursors for 3 days with RA decreases expression of the endothelin-3 gene and that of its activation enzyme. These changes are associated with glial proliferation, a higher percentage of glia, and a lower percentage of neurons compared to cultures without RA. These changes are independent of EDNRB signaling. Conversely, EDNRB activation in these cultures decreases expression of RA receptors β and γ mRNA and affects the expression of the RA synthetic and degradative enzymes. These gene expression changes are associated with reduced glial proliferation and a lower percentage of glia in the culture. Over 14 days in the absence of EDNRB signaling, RA induces the formation of a heterocellular plexus replete with ganglia, glia and myofibroblasts. Conclusions A complex endothelin-RA interaction exists that coordinately regulates the development of rat ENS precursors in vitro. These results suggest that environmental RA may modulate the expression of aganglionosis in individuals with endothelin mutations. PMID:24040226

  14. Coronary effects of endothelin-1 and vasopressin during acute hypotension in anesthetized goats.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Nuria; Martínez, Ma Angeles; García-Villalón, Angel Luis; Monge, Luis; Diéguez, Godofredo

    2005-06-10

    Coronary effects of endothelin-1 and vasopressin during acute hypotension, and the role of NO and prostanoids in these effects were examined in anesthetized goats. Left circumflex coronary artery flow was measured electromagnetically, and hypotension was induced by constriction of the caudal vena cava in animals non-treated (7 goats) or treated with the inhibitor of NO synthesis N(w)-nitro-L-arginine methyl esther (L-NAME, 5 goats), the cyclooxygenase inhibitor meclofenamate (5 goats) or both drugs (5 goats). Under normotension (22 goats), mean arterial pressure averaged 93 +/- 3 mm Hg and coronary vascular conductance (CVC) 0.37 +/- 0.025 ml/min/mm Hg. Endothelin-1 (0.01-0.3 nmol) and vasopressin (0.03-1 nmol), intracoronarily injected, dose-dependently decreased CVC by up to 56% for endothelin-1 and 40% for vasopressin. During hypotension in every condition tested, mean arterial pressure decreased to approximately 60 mm Hg, and CVC only decreased during hypotension pretreated with L-NAME (23%) or L-NAME + meclofenamate (34%). Under non-treated hypotension, the decreases in CVC by endothelin-1 were augmented approximately 1.5 fold, and those by vasopressin were not modified. This increase in CVR by endothelin-1 was not affected by L-NAME and was reversed by meclofenamate or L-NAME + meclofenamate. The coronary effects of vasopressin were not modified by any of these treatments. Therefore, acute hypotension increases the coronary vasoconstriction in response to endothelin-1 but not to vasopressin. This increased response to endothelin-1 may be related to both inhibition of NO release and release of vasoconstrictor prostanoids.

  15. hERG Blockade by Iboga Alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Alper, Kenneth; Bai, Rong; Liu, Nian; Fowler, Steven J; Huang, Xi-Ping; Priori, Silvia G; Ruan, Yanfei

    2016-01-01

    The iboga alkaloids are a class of naturally occurring and synthetic compounds, some of which modify drug self-administration and withdrawal in humans and preclinical models. Ibogaine, the prototypic iboga alkaloid that is utilized clinically to treat addictions, has been associated with QT prolongation, torsades de pointes and fatalities. hERG blockade as IKr was measured using the whole-cell patch clamp technique in HEK 293 cells. This yielded the following IC50 values: ibogaine manufactured by semisynthesis via voacangine (4.09 ± 0.69 µM) or by extraction from T. iboga (3.53 ± 0.16 µM); ibogaine's principal metabolite noribogaine (2.86 ± 0.68 µM); and voacangine (2.25 ± 0.34 µM). In contrast, the IC50 of 18-methoxycoronaridine, a product of rational synthesis and current focus of drug development was >50 µM. hERG blockade was voltage dependent for all of the compounds, consistent with low-affinity blockade. hERG channel binding affinities (K i) for the entire set of compounds, including 18-MC, ranged from 0.71 to 3.89 µM, suggesting that 18-MC binds to the hERG channel with affinity similar to the other compounds, but the interaction produces substantially less hERG blockade. In view of the extended half-life of noribogaine, these results may relate to observations of persistent QT prolongation and cardiac arrhythmia at delayed intervals of days following ibogaine ingestion. The apparent structure-activity relationships regarding positions of substitutions on the ibogamine skeleton suggest that the iboga alkaloids might provide an informative paradigm for investigation of the structural biology of the hERG channel.

  16. Hippocampal 5-HT1A Receptor and Spatial Learning and Memory

    PubMed Central

    Glikmann-Johnston, Yifat; Saling, Michael M.; Reutens, David C.; Stout, Julie C.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial cognition is fundamental for survival in the topographically complex environments inhabited by humans and other animals. The hippocampus, which has a central role in spatial cognition, is characterized by high concentration of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) receptor binding sites, particularly of the 1A receptor (5-HT1A) subtype. This review highlights converging evidence for the role of hippocampal 5-HT1A receptors in spatial learning and memory. We consider studies showing that activation or blockade of the 5-HT1A receptors using agonists or antagonists, respectively, lead to changes in spatial learning and memory. For example, pharmacological manipulation to induce 5-HT release, or to block 5-HT uptake, have indicated that increased extracellular 5-HT concentrations maintain or improve memory performance. In contrast, reduced levels of 5-HT have been shown to impair spatial memory. Furthermore, the lack of 5-HT1A receptor subtype in single gene knockout mice is specifically associated with spatial memory impairments. These findings, along with evidence from recent cognitive imaging studies using positron emission tomography (PET) with 5-HT1A receptor ligands, and studies of individual genetic variance in 5-HT1A receptor availability, strongly suggests that 5-HT, mediated by the 5-HT1A receptor subtype, plays a key role in spatial learning and memory. PMID:26696889

  17. Corneal stroma PDGF blockade and myofibroblast development

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Harmeet; Chaurasia, Shyam S.; de Medeiros, Fabricio W.; Agrawal, Vandana; Salomao, Marcella Q.; Singh, Nirbhai; Ambati, Balamurali K.; Wilson, Steven E.

    2009-01-01

    Myofibroblast development and haze generation in the corneal stroma is mediated by cytokines, including transforming growth factor beta (TGF β), and possibly other cytokines. This study examined the effects of stromal PDGF-β blockade on the development of myofibroblasts in response to -9.0 diopter photorefractive keratectomy in the rabbit. Rabbits that had haze generating photorefractive keratectomy (PRK, for 9 diopters of myopia) in one eye were divided into three different groups: stromal application of plasmid pCMV.PDGFRB.23KDEL expressing a subunit of PDGF receptor b (domains 2-3, which bind PDGF-B), stromal application of empty plasmid pCMV, or stromal application of balanced salt solution (BSS). The plasmids (at a concentration 1000 ng/μl) or BSS was applied to the exposed stroma immediately after surgery and every 24 hours for 4-5 days until the epithelium healed. The group treated with pCMV.PDGFRB.23KDEL showed lower αSMA+ myofibroblast density in the anterior stroma compared to either control group (P≤ 0.001). Although there was also lower corneal haze at the slit lamp at one month after surgery, the difference in haze after PDGF-B blockade was not statistically significant compared to either control group. Stromal PDGF-B blockade during the early postoperative period following PRK decreases stromal αSMA+ myofibroblast generation. PDGF is an important modulator of myofibroblast development in the cornea. PMID:19133260

  18. Effect of beta blockade on singing performance.

    PubMed

    Gates, G A; Saegert, J; Wilson, N; Johnson, L; Shepherd, A; Hearne, E M

    1985-01-01

    The symptoms associated with performance anxiety, or the so-called stage fright syndrome, are similar to those of alpha and beta adrenergic stimulation. Suppression of symptoms and improvement in instrumentalist's performance after beta blockade suggest that this modality would be of benefit for singers as well. To evaluate the dose-effect relationship of beta blockade upon singing performance and the possible effect of these agents upon performance maturation, we studied 34 singing students during end of semester juries, using a double-blind crossover paradigm. Students performed once with either placebo, 20, 40, or 80 mg of nadolol, and again 48 hours later, with placebo. There was a significant dose-related, limiting effect upon intraperformance cardiac rate. A small, but statistically significant, dichotomous effect upon performance rating was noted: low-dose nadolol tended to enhance performance, whereas larger doses impaired performance. We conclude that the effects of low dose beta blockade upon singing are minimally helpful and high doses may detract from performance ability.

  19. Risk Factors in Normal-Tension Glaucoma and High-Tension Glaucoma in relation to Polymorphisms of Endothelin-1 Gene and Endothelin-1 Receptor Type A Gene

    PubMed Central

    Wróbel-Dudzińska, Dominika; Kosior-Jarecka, Ewa; Łukasik, Urszula; Kocki, Janusz; Witczak, Agnieszka; Mosiewicz, Jerzy; Żarnowski, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research is to analyse the influence of polymorphisms of endothelin-1 gene and endothelin-1 receptor type A gene on the clinical condition of patients with primary open angle glaucoma. Methods. 285 Polish patients took part in the research (160 normal-tension glaucoma and 125 high-tension glaucoma). DNA was isolated by standard methods and genotype distributions of four polymorphisms in genes encoding endothelin-1 (K198N) and endothelin-1 receptor type A polymorphisms (C1222T, C70G, and G231A) were determined. Genotype distributions were compared between NTG and HTG groups. The clinical condition of participants was examined for association with polymorphisms. Results. A similar frequency of occurrence of the polymorphic varieties of the studied genes was observed in patients with NTG and HTG. There is no relation between NTG risk factors and examined polymorphisms. NTG patients with TT genotype of K198N polymorphism presented with the lowest intraocular pressure in comparison to GG + GT genotype (p = 0.03). In NTG patients with CC genotype of C1222T polymorphism (p = 0.028) and GG of C70G polymorphism (p = 0.03) the lowest values of mean blood pressure were observed. Conclusions. The studied polymorphic varieties (K198N, C1222T) do have an influence on intraocular pressure as well as arterial blood pressure in NTG patients. PMID:26697209

  20. VSM growth is stimulated in sympathetic neuron/VSM cocultures: role of TGF-beta2 and endothelin.

    PubMed

    Damon, D H

    2000-02-01

    Sympathetic nerves are purported to stimulate blood vessel growth. The mechanism(s) underlying this stimulation has not been determined. With use of an in vitro coculture model, the present study tests the hypothesis that sympathetic neurons stimulate the growth of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) and evaluates potential mechanisms mediating this stimulation. Sympathetic neurons isolated from superior cervical ganglia (SCG) stimulated the growth of VSM. Growth of VSM in the presence of SCG (856 +/- 81%) was significantly greater than that in the absence of SCG (626 +/- 66%, P < 0.05). SCG did not stimulate VSM growth in transwell cocultures. An antibody that neutralized the activity of transforming growth factor-beta2 (TGF-beta2) inhibited SCG stimulation of VSM growth in coculture. SCG stimulation of VSM growth was also inhibited by an endothelin A receptor antagonist. These data suggest novel mechanisms for sympathetic modulation of vascular growth that may play a role in the physiological and/or pathological growth of the vasculature.

  1. Endothelin and vasopressin influence splanchnic blood flow distribution during and after cardiopulmonary bypass.

    PubMed

    Bomberg, Hagen; Bierbach, Benjamin; Flache, Stephan; Wagner, Isabell; Gläser, Lena; Groesdonk, Heinrich V; Menger, Michael D; Schäfers, Hans-Joachim

    2013-02-01

    Gastrointestinal blood flow can be compromised during and after cardiopulmonary bypass. Endothelin has been shown to be involved in the intestinal microcirculatory disturbance of sepsis. The aim of the present study was to analyze the involvement of the endothelin system on intestinal blood flow regulation during cardiopulmonary bypass and the effect of vasopressin given during cardiopulmonary bypass. A total of 24 pigs were studied in 4 groups (n = 6): group I, sham; group II, ischemia/reperfusion with 1 hour of superior mesenteric artery occlusion; group III, cardiopulmonary bypass for 1 hour; and group IV, 1 hour of cardiopulmonary bypass plus vasopressin administration, maintaining the baseline arterial pressure. All the pigs were reperfused for 90 minutes. During the experiment, the hemodynamics and jejunal microcirculation were measured continuously. The jejunal mucosal expression of endothelin-1 and its receptor subtypes A and B were determined using polymerase chain reaction. During cardiopulmonary bypass, superior mesenteric artery flow was preserved but marked jejunal microvascular impairment occurred compared with baseline (mucosal capillary density, 192.2 ± 5.4 vs 150.8 ± 5.1 cm/cm(2); P = .005; tissue blood flow, 501.7 ± 39.3 vs 332.3 ± 27.9 AU; P = .025). The expression of endothelin-1 after cardiopulmonary bypass (3.2 ± 0.4 vs 12.2 ± 0.8 RQ, P = .006) and endothelin subtype A (0.7 ± 0.2 vs 2.4 ± 0.6 RQ; P = .01) was significantly increased compared to the sham group. Vasopressin administration during cardiopulmonary bypass led to normal capillary density (189.9 ± 3.9 vs 178.0 ± 6.3; P = .1) and tissue blood flow (501.7 ± 39.3 vs 494.7 ± 44.4 AU; P = .4) compared with baseline. The expression of endothelin-1 (3.2 ± 0.4 vs 1.8 ± 0.3 RQ; P = .3) and endothelin subtype A (0.7 ± 0.2 vs 0.9 ± 0.2 RQ; P = .5) was not different from the sham group. Cardiopulmonary bypass leads to microvascular impairment of jejunal microcirculation, which is

  2. Endothelin-1 Plasma Levels in Patients with both Retinitis Pigmentosa and Flammer Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Todorova, M G; Josifova, T; Konieczka, K

    2015-04-01

    Endothelin-1 is a strong endogenous vasoconstrictor and is also an agent reducing the ocular blood flow. Patients with retinitis pigmentosa are known to have reduced ocular blood flow. This can be secondary to retinal atrophy, but may also partially result from an additional condition, such as a Flammer syndrome. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the endothelin-1 plasma levels in retinitis pigmentosa patients with and without Flammer syndrome are different. In the study we included patients with clinical signs and symptoms of retinitis pigmentosa, confirmed by electrophysiological findings. Blood samples were obtained from 6 retinitis pigmentosa patients with and 4 without Flammer syndrome. The results were related to 30 age- and sex-matched control subjects. Endothelin-1 plasma levels were determined by specific radioimmunoassay. The endothelin-1 plasma levels in retinitis pigmentosa patients with Flammer syndrome were significantly higher than those without Flammer syndrome. The mean (±SD) endothelin-1 levels (pg/mL) in retinitis pigmentosa patients with Flammer syndrome were 4.95 (±1.74), range: (2.37-6.76), whereas in patients without Flammer syndrome they were 1.10 (±0.08), range: 1.00-1.20. Our own normal values are: 1.56 (±0.30), range: (0.90-2.13). All retinitis pigmentosa patients with increased endothelin-1 plasma levels had signs and symptoms related to a Flammer syndrome, such as cold extremities, low blood pressure, reduced feeling of thirst, increased sensitivity in general, e.g., increased sensitivity to certain drugs, increased pain sensitivity and increased sense of smell. Endothelin-1 plasma levels were increased in retinitis pigmentosa patients with but not in patients without Flammer syndrome. Many questions remain open: Why so many retinitis pigmentosa patients suffer from Flammer syndrome, why is the endothelin-1 level in such patients higher than in healthy subjects with Flammer syndrome, how much of the ocular blood flow

  3. Nitric oxide protects against ischemic acute renal failure through the suppression of renal endothelin-1 overproduction.

    PubMed

    Kurata, Hayato; Takaoka, Masanori; Kubo, Yasuhiro; Katayama, Tomoaki; Tsutsui, Hidenobu; Takayama, Junji; Matsumura, Yasuo

    2004-11-01

    To elucidate the role of nitric oxide in the pathogenesis of ischemic acute renal failure, we investigated the effects of FK409, a spontaneous nitric oxide donor, and N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, a non-selective nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, on ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal injury and endothelin-1 overproduction in post-ischemic kidneys. Ischemic acute renal failure was induced by occlusion of the left renal artery and vein for 45 minutes followed by reperfusion, 2 weeks after contralateral nephrectomy. At 24 hours after reperfusion, renal function in untreated acute renal failure rats markedly decreased and histological examination revealed severe renal damage of the kidney. Increases in renal endothelin-1 contents were evident in the acute renal failure rats at 2 and 24 hours after reperfusion, respectively. Pretreatment with FK409 (1 or 3 mg/kg, intravenously) dose-dependently ameliorated renal injuries and suppressed the elevation of endothelin-1 content induced by ischemia/reperfusion. In contrast, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (1 or 10 mg/kg, intravenously) pretreatment dose-dependently aggravated renal injuries of acute renal failure rats, and the effect is accompanied by further increase in the renal endothelin-1 contents. These results suggest that both exogenous and endogenous nitric oxide have protective effects against ischemia/reperfusion-induced renal dysfunction and tissue damage, probably through the suppression of endothelin-1 overproduction in post-ischemic kidneys.

  4. Design, synthesis and biological activity of novel non-peptidyl endothelin converting enzyme inhibitors, 1-phenyl-tetrazole-formazan analogues.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Kazuto; Hasegawa, Hirohiko; Umekawa, Kayo; Ueki, Yasuyuki; Ohashi, Naohito; Kanaoka, Masaharu

    2002-05-06

    A novel non-peptidyl endothelin converting enzyme inhibitor was obtained through a pharmacophore analysis of known inhibitors and three-dimensional structure database search. Analogues of the new inhibitor were designed using the structure-activity relationship of known inhibitors and synthesized. In anesthetized rats, intraperitoneal administration of the analogues suppressed the pressor responses induced by big endothelin-1.

  5. Associations between endothelin-1 and adiponectin in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wei-Hsian; Chen, Yung-Hsiang; Wei, Jeng; Jen, Hsu-Lung; Huang, Wen-Ping; Young, Mason Shing; Chen, Der-Cherng; Liu, Po-Len

    2011-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) induces cardiac hypertrophy, whereas adiponectin may elicit protective effects in the vasculature and myocardium. We therefore evaluated the relationship between plasma ET-1 and adiponectin levels in heart failure (HF) patients, and the association between adiponectin expression and ET-1-induced hypertrophy of human cardiomyocytes (HCM) in vitro. One hundred seventeen patients with chronic HF were enrolled into this study. A group of 7 patients with end-stage HF undergoing heart transplantation was included in the histopathological study. Baseline clinical evaluations and laboratory measurements were performed. HCM cultures were studied to investigate the effect of ET-1 on cell size and adiponectin expression. Plasma ET-1, adiponectin, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) increased with the severity of HF. Higher New York Heart Association functional class, plasma ET-1, adiponectin, and NT-proBNP levels were significant predictors of adverse outcomes in these patients. The myocardial expression of adiponectin was significantly higher in the recipient hearts of patients undergoing emergency or urgent heart transplantation. In cell culture, ET-1 significantly increased cell size and adiponectin expression in HCM. Adiponectin was significantly elevated in HF and was significantly associated with ET-1. The study provides a basis for further investigation of ET-1 and adiponectin modulation as a therapeutic strategy for ventricular remodeling in HF. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Regulation of Blood Pressure and Salt Homeostasis by Endothelin

    PubMed Central

    KOHAN, DONALD E.; ROSSI, NOREEN F.; INSCHO, EDWARD W.; POLLOCK, DAVID M.

    2011-01-01

    Endothelin (ET) peptides and their receptors are intimately involved in the physiological control of systemic blood pressure and body Na homeostasis, exerting these effects through alterations in a host of circulating and local factors. Hormonal systems affected by ET include natriuretic peptides, aldosterone, catecholamines, and angiotensin. ET also directly regulates cardiac output, central and peripheral nervous system activity, renal Na and water excretion, systemic vascular resistance, and venous capacitance. ET regulation of these systems is often complex, sometimes involving opposing actions depending on which receptor isoform is activated, which cells are affected, and what other prevailing factors exist. A detailed understanding of this system is important; disordered regulation of the ET system is strongly associated with hypertension and dysregulated extracellular fluid volume homeostasis. In addition, ET receptor antagonists are being increasingly used for the treatment of a variety of diseases; while demonstrating benefit, these agents also have adverse effects on fluid retention that may substantially limit their clinical utility. This review provides a detailed analysis of how the ET system is involved in the control of blood pressure and Na homeostasis, focusing primarily on physiological regulation with some discussion of the role of the ET system in hypertension. PMID:21248162

  7. Plasma levels of endothelin-1 and thrombomodulin in burn patients.

    PubMed

    Nakae, H; Endo, S; Inada, K; Yamada, Y; Takakuwa, T; Yoshida, M

    1996-12-01

    Plasma concentrations of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and thrombomodulin (TM) were determined in patients with burns to examine their relation to the severity of illness. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was also measured, and its relationship to ET-1 and TM determined. Twenty-three burn patients were evaluated, who had a total burn surface area (TBSA) of at least 20 per cent. ET-1 was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). TM and TNF-alpha were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Both the ET-1 and TM concentrations were significantly higher in the patients who developed sepsis than in those who did not and in the patients who eventually died than in those who survived. Maximum plasma concentrations of ET-1 and TM were significantly correlated with the acute physiological and chronic health evaluation II score. There was also a significant correlation between the plasma levels of TNF-alpha and both ET-1 and TM. ET-1 and TM closely reflect the severity of illness in patients with burns in the infectious stage; TNF-alpha may be involved in the production of ET-1 and TM.

  8. High-yield production of recombinant endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Yasufuku, K; Ohashi, H; Katsuta-Enomoto, Y; Fukuroda, T; Noguchi, K; Yano, M

    1992-09-01

    A fusion protein (pETB-42P), which encodes the 42-amino acid leader peptide and the 38-amino acid peptide of human big endothelin (ET)-1, was synthesized in Escherichia coli, isolated as inclusion bodies, and purified by DEAE-chromatography. Trypsin digestion of the purified pETB-42P gave big ET-1(1-37) in a yield of 70%; then pepsin digestion of the purified big ET-1(1-37) gave ET-1(1-21) in a yield of 74% (overall yield: 52%). Sequential trypsin and pepsin digestions of the purified fusion protein in the same reaction vessel also allowed recovery of ET-1 in a yield of 60%. One milligram of ET-1 or 2.0 mg of big ET-1(1-37) was obtained from 1.8 liters of culture broth. Recombinant ET-1 thus obtained was identical to authentic ET-1 in terms of amino acid sequence and vasoconstrictor potency, and recombinant big ET-1(1-37) had almost the same in vitro and in vivo biological activities as big ET-1(1-38).

  9. Endothelin-converting enzymes and related metalloproteases in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Pacheco-Quinto, Javier; Herdt, Aimee; Eckman, Christopher B; Eckman, Elizabeth A

    2013-01-01

    The efficient clearance of amyloid-β (Aβ) is essential to modulate levels of the peptide in the brain and to prevent it from accumulating in senile plaques, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology.We and others have shown that failure in Aβ catabolism can produce elevations in Aβ concentration similar to those observed in familial forms of AD. Based on the available evidence, it remains plausible that in late-onset AD, disturbances in the activity of Aβ degrading enzymes could induce Aβ accumulation, and that this increase could result in AD pathology. The following review presents a historical perspective of the parallel discovery of three vasopeptidases (neprilysin and endothelin-converting enzymes-1 and -2) as important Aβ degrading enzymes. The recognition of the role of these vasopeptidases in Aβ degradation, beyond bringing to light a possible explanation of how cardiovascular risk factors may influence AD risk, highlights a possible risk of the use of inhibitors of these enzymes for other clinical indications such as hypertension. We will discuss in detail the experiments conducted to assess the impact of vasopeptidase deficiency (through pharmacological inhibition or genetic mutation) on Aβ accumulation, as well as the cooperative effect of multiple Aβ degrading enzymes to regulate the concentration of the peptide at multiple sites, both intracellular and extracellular, throughout the brain.

  10. Exercise limits the production of endothelin in the coronary vasculature

    PubMed Central

    de Beer, Vincent J.; Bender, Shawn B.; Taverne, Yannick J.; Gao, Fen; Duncker, Dirk J.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2011-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that endothelin (ET)-mediated coronary vasoconstriction wanes with increasing exercise intensity via a nitric oxide- and prostacyclin-dependent mechanism (Ref. 23). Therefore, we hypothesized that the waning of ET coronary vasoconstriction during exercise is the result of decreased production of ET and/or decreased ET receptor sensitivity. We investigated coronary ET receptor sensitivity using intravenous infusion of ET and coronary ET production using intravenous infusion of the ET precursor Big ET, at rest and during continuous treadmill exercise at 3 km/h in 16 chronically instrumented swine. In the systemic vasculature, Big ET and ET induced similar changes in hemodynamic parameters at rest and during continuous exercise at 3 km/h, indicating that exercise does not alter ET production or receptor sensitivity in the systemic vasculature. In the coronary vasculature, infusion of ET resulted in similar dose-dependent decreases in coronary blood flow and coronary venous oxygen tension and saturation at rest and during exercise. In contrast, administration of Big ET resulted in dose-dependent decreases in coronary blood flow, as well as coronary venous oxygen tension and saturation at rest. These effects of Big ET were significantly reduced during exercise. Altogether, our data indicate that continuous exercise at 3 km/h attenuates ET-mediated coronary vasoconstriction through reduced production of ET from Big ET rather than through reduced ET sensitivity of the coronary vasculature. The decreased ET production during exercise likely contributes to metabolic coronary vasodilation. PMID:21317308

  11. Endothelin-1 enhances the melanogenesis via MITF-GPNMB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Xiaoying; Li, Dongguang; Gu, Weijie; Gao, Tianwen

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plays an indispensable role in epidermal pigmentation in hyperpigmentary disorders due to a central role in melanogenesis. Nevertheless, precise mechanism involved in ET-1-induced hyperpigmentation is still undefined. Glycoprotein (transmembrane) non-metastatic melanoma protein b (GPNMB) is a key element in melanosome formation. Therefore, we speculated that GPNMB was correlated with ET-1-induced pigmentation. After culturing with ET-1, melanin synthesis was significantly up-regulated, accompanying with increased expression of GPNMB and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF). Total number of melanosomes and melanin synthesis were sharply reduced via GPNMB-siRNA transfection, indicating ET-1-induced pigmentation by GPNMB-dependent manner. Furthermore, MITFsiRNA transfection strikingly inhibited GPNMB expression and the melanogenesis, and this suppression failed to be alleviated by ET-1 stimulation. All of these results demonstrated that ET-1 can trigger melanogenesis via the MITF-regulated GPNMB pathway. Taken together, these findings will provide a new explanation of how ET-1 induces hyperpigmentation, and possibly supply a new strategy for cosmetic studies. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(7): 364-369] PMID:23884103

  12. Endothelin-1 induces connective tissue growth factor expression in cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Recchia, Anna Grazia; Filice, Elisabetta; Pellegrino, Daniela; Dobrina, Aldo; Cerra, Maria Carmela; Maggiolini, Marcello

    2009-03-01

    Endothelin (ET)-1 is a vasoconstrictor involved in cardiovascular diseases. Connective tissue growth factor/CCN2 (CTGF) is a fibrotic mediator overexpressed in human atherosclerotic lesions, myocardial infarction, and hypertension. In different cell types CTGF regulates cell proliferation/apoptosis, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and plays important roles in angiogenesis, chondrogenesis, osteogenesis, tissue repair, cancer and fibrosis. In the present study, we investigated the ET-1 signaling which triggers CTGF expression in cultured adult mouse atrial-muscle HL-1 cells used as a model system. ET-1 activated the CTGF promoter and induced CTGF expression at both mRNA and protein levels. Real-time PCR analysis revealed CTGF induction also in isolated rat heart preparations perfused with ET-1. Several intracellular signals elicited by ET-1 via ET receptors and even Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) contributed to the up-regulation of CTGF, including ERK activation and induction of the AP-1 components c-fos and c-jun, as also evaluated by ChIP analysis. Moreover, in cells treated with ET-1 the expression of ECM component decorin was abolished by CTGF silencing, indicating that CTGF is involved in ET-1 induced ECM accumulation not only in a direct manner but also through downstream effectors. Collectively, our data indicate that CTGF could be a mediator of the profibrotic effects of ET-1 in cardiomyocytes. CTGF inhibitors should be considered in setting a comprehensive pharmacological approach towards ET-1 induced cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Effects of endothelin on the mechanical activity and cytosolic calcium level of various types of smooth muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, K.; Ozaki, H.; Kwon, S. C.; Karaki, H.

    1989-01-01

    1. Effects of porcine/human endothelin (endothelin-1), a novel vasoconstrictor peptide, on various smooth muscles were examined. 2. In rat aorta, endothelin (1 pM-30nM) induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. Removal of endothelium shifted the concentration-response curve to the left. When added during the sustained contraction induced by 0.1 microM noradrenaline, endothelin (1 nM) induced a relaxation that was inhibited by removing endothelium or by methylene blue. 3. In rat aorta without endothelium, endothelin (1-30 nM) increased cytosolic Ca2+ level [( Ca2+]cyt) followed by contraction. Endothelin induced less contraction than high K+ at a given [Ca2+] cyt when the concentration of endothelin was lower (1-3nm) and/or during the early phase of the contraction (less than 10 min). In contrast, endothelin induced a greater contraction than KCl after prolonged exposure to high concentrations (greater than 10 nM). 4. The increase in [Ca2+]cyt due to endothelin was strongly inhibited by 10 microM verapamil or 0.3 microM nicardipine although muscle contraction was only partially inhibited. 5.In Ca2+ -free solution, endothelin (30 nM) induced a transient increase in [Ca2+] cyt and a slow increase in muscle tension. After a prolonged incubation in Ca2+-free solution, endothelin (30 nM) still induced a slow increase in tension without changing [Ca2+]cyt. This contraction was inhibited by 1 microM sodium nitropusside or 10 microM forskolin. 6. In canine trachea and guinea-pig uterus, endothelin (30 nM) induced sustained contraction with an increase in [Ca2+]cyt. In the absence of external Ca2+, endothelin (30 nM) induced a sustained contraction in canine trachea without changing [Ca2+]cyt. In guinea-pig vas deferens, taenia caeci and ileal longitudinal muscle, endothelin induced small increases in [Ca2+]cyt and tension. 7. In permeabilized smooth muscles, endothelin (30 nM) did not change the muscle tone. 8. These results suggest that endothelin acts on

  14. The supramammillary nucleus mediates primary reinforcement via GABA(A) receptors.

    PubMed

    Ikemoto, Satoshi

    2005-06-01

    The supramammillary nucleus (SUM), a dorsal layer of the mammillary body, has recently been implicated in positive reinforcement. The present study examined whether GABA(A) receptors in the SUM or adjacent regions are involved in primary reinforcement using intracranial self-administration procedures. Rats learned quickly to lever-press for infusions of the GABA(A) antagonist picrotoxin into the SUM. Although picrotoxin was also self-administered into the posterior hypothalamic nuclei and anterior ventral tegmental area, these regions were less responsive to lower doses of picrotoxin than the SUM. The finding that rats learned to respond selectively on the lever triggering drug infusions is consistent with picrotoxin's reinforcing effect. Coadministration of the GABA(A) agonist muscimol disrupted picrotoxin self-administration, and another GABA(A) antagonist, bicuculline, was also self-administered into the SUM; thus, the reinforcing effect of picrotoxin is mediated by GABA(A) receptors. Since rats did not self-administer the GABA(B) antagonist 2-hydroxysaclofen into the SUM, the role of GABA(B) receptors may be distinct from that of GABA(A) receptors. Pretreatment with the dopamine receptor antagonist SCH 23390 (0.05 mg/kg, i.p.) extinguished picrotoxin self-administration into the SUM, suggesting that the reinforcing effects of GABA(A) receptor blockade depend on normal dopamine transmission. In conclusion, the blockade of GABA(A) receptors in the SUM is reinforcing, and the brain 'reward' circuitry appears to be tonically inhibited via supramammillary GABA(A) receptors and more extensive than the meso-limbic dopamine system.

  15. Residual neuromuscular blockade and postoperative critical respiratory events: literature review.

    PubMed

    Kiekkas, Panagiotis; Bakalis, Nick; Stefanopoulos, Nikolaos; Konstantinou, Evangelos; Aretha, Diamanto

    2014-11-01

    To investigate and synthesise published literature on the associations between residual neuromuscular blockade and critical respiratory events of postoperative adult patients in the postanaesthesia care unit. Residual neuromuscular blockade continues to be common among patients transferred to the postanaesthesia care unit after general anaesthesia, while negative effects of residual neuromuscular blockade on respiratory function have been demonstrated in laboratory volunteers. Literature review. Using key terms, a search was conducted in Cumulative Index for Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Database and EMBASE (January 1990-May 2013) for clinical trials or observational studies on the associations between residual neuromuscular blockade and critical respiratory events, published in English-language journals. Nine articles met the inclusion criteria. Residual neuromuscular blockade definition threshold differed between studies. Among critical respiratory events, only hypoxaemia was investigated in all included studies. Residual neuromuscular blockade was significantly associated with increased incidence of hypoxaemia during postanaesthesia care unit stay in most studies, while associations with the rest of the critical respiratory events were inconclusive. Although limited, existing research has provided evidence that patients with residual neuromuscular blockade are at high risk of early postoperative hypoxaemia. Further studies are needed to investigate independent associations between residual neuromuscular blockade and critical respiratory events, along with causality of these associations. The clinical importance of residual neuromuscular blockade for groups at high risk of critical respiratory events should also be investigated. Healthcare professionals have to be aware of the increased risk of hypoxaemia in patients with residual neuromuscular blockade. Efforts to decrease residual neuromuscular blockade incidence

  16. Immunological and structural characterization of sarafotoxin/endothelin family of peptides.

    PubMed

    Fleminger, G; Bousso-Mittler, D; Bdolah, A; Kloog, Y; Sokolovsky, M

    1989-08-15

    A highly specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was developed for the potent vasoconstrictor peptides, sarafotoxin-b and human endothelin. The antigenic determinants of the antibodies employed in studies with these assays were found to be localized within the amino acid sequence at positions 4-7. This was confirmed by CNBr cleavage of the methionyl residue at position 6 in the sarafotoxin and at position 7 in the endothelin. The chemically characterized modified peptides showed very low cross reactivity in the RIAs. On the other hand, the binding properties as well as the ability to induce phosphoinositide hydrolysis were very similar in the modified and native peptides, indicating that despite cleavage of the peptide bond the biologically active conformation responsible for either binding or phosphoinositide hydrolysis is retained, probably because of the disulfide bonds. Thus, structural alteration might be a valuable means of curtailing some of the various activities induced by the sarafotoxin/endothelin family of peptides.

  17. [Macrophages and the expression of endothelin in sulphur dioxide induced bronchitis in rats

    PubMed

    Jankowska, Beata; Krasnowska, Maryla; Kwaśniewski, Artur; Rabczyński, Jerzy; Kuryszko, Jan; Ogorzałek, Antoni

    2002-06-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of SO2 on bronchial mucosa in rats. Our interest was focused on macrophages function and expression of endothelin. 20 animals were used in the study; 5 of them constituted the control group, 15 of them were submitted to long term SO2 irritation. In animals exposed to SO2 the BALF evaluation revealed the increase of inflammatory cells concentration: neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes. Electron microscope examination demonstrated that macrophages from study group were activated in comparison with healthy rats. Immunoreactive endothelin was found in bronchial specimens and mainly in alveolar macrophages (we used a computer-assisted system of image analysis). The expression of endothelin was significantly increased in study group in comparison with control group.

  18. Assessment of the link between endothelin K198n Snp, endothelin concentration and acute myocardial infarction in Egyptians.

    PubMed

    Abdel Rahman, Mohamed F; Hashad, Ingy M; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; Abdel Maksoud, Sahar M; Gad, Mohamed Z

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to assess the link between EDN K198N SNP, ET-1 serum concentration and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in Egyptians. The study cohort consisted of 84 patients at AMI onset and 84 age-matched healthy controls. Endothelin genotypes and concentrations were determined by sequencing and ELISA, respectively. Genotype distribution was not significantly different between AMI patients and controls (P=.8341). The mean serum ET-1 concentration of patients (13.83±0.7 pg/mL) was significantly higher than controls (7.26±0.2 pg/mL) (P<.0001). ET-1 serum concentrations did not vary significantly among various EDN genotypes in patients (P=.378) and controls (P=.6164). Hence, we conclude that EDN K198N genotypes were not related to either ET-1 concentration or incidence of early-onset AMI in Egyptians. But, AMI patients had higher ET-1 concentrations than controls.

  19. Increased cerebrovascular sensitivity to endothelin-1 in a rat model of obstructive sleep apnea: a role for endothelin receptor B

    PubMed Central

    Durgan, David J; Crossland, Randy F; Lloyd, Eric E; Phillips, Sharon C; Bryan, Robert M

    2015-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with cerebrovascular diseases. However, little is known regarding the effects of OSA on the cerebrovascular wall. We tested the hypothesis that OSA augments endothelin-1 (ET-1) constrictions of cerebral arteries. Repeated apneas (30 or 60 per hour) were produced in rats during the sleep cycle (8 hours) by remotely inflating a balloon implanted in the trachea. Four weeks of apneas produced a 23-fold increase in ET-1 sensitivity in isolated and pressurized posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) compared with PCAs from sham-operated rats (EC50=10−9.2 mol/L versus 10−10.6 mol/L; P<0.001). This increased sensitivity was abolished by the ET-B receptor antagonist, BQ-788. Constrictions to the ET-B receptor agonist, IRL-1620, were greater in PCAs from rats after 2 or 4 weeks of apneas compared with that from sham-operated rats (P=0.013). Increased IRL-1620 constrictions in PCAs from OSA rats were normalized with the transient receptor potential channel (TRPC) blocker, SKF96365, or the Rho kinase (ROCK) inhibitor, Y27632. These data show that OSA increases the sensitivity of PCAs to ET-1 through enhanced ET-B activity, and enhanced activity of TRPCs and ROCK. We conclude that enhanced ET-1 signaling is part of a pathologic mechanism associated with adverse cerebrovascular outcomes of OSA. PMID:25425077

  20. Endothelin-1 increases melanin synthesis in an established sheep skin melanocyte culture.

    PubMed

    Pang, Yamiao; Geng, Jianjun; Qin, Yilong; Wang, Haidong; Fan, Ruiwen; Zhang, Ying; Li, Hongquan; Jiang, Shan; Dong, Changsheng

    2016-08-01

    The aims of the study were to establish a culture system for sheep skin melanocytes and uncover the effects of endothelin-1 on melanin synthesis in cultured melanocytes in order to provide an optimal cell system and a theoretical basis for studying the regulatory mechanism of coat color in sheep. In this study, skin punch biopsies were harvested from the dorsal region of 1-3-yr-old sheep, and skin melanocytes were then obtained by the two-step digestion using dispase II and trypsin/ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). The primary cultures of the melanocytes were established and characterized by dopa-staining, immunocytochemical localization of melanocyte markers, and RT-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of coat color genes. To determine the effect of endothelin-1 on proliferation and melanin synthesis of melanocytes, the cultured cells were treated with different doses of endothelin-1 (10(-7), 10(-8), 10(-9), 10(-10), and 0 mol/L), and the growth rate of melanocytes, production of melanin, expression of related genes, and location of related protein in cultured cells were examined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT), ultraviolet spectrophotometry, qRT-PCR, and immunocytochemical localization, respectively. The results showed that the established melanocyte culture functions properly. Endothelin-1 treatment increased markedly the number of melanocytes and melanin content. In responding to this treatment, expressions of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF), melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), tyrosinase (TYR), and endothelin receptor B (EDNRB) in the melanocytes were significantly up regulated (P < 0.05). Immunocytochemical localization revealed that TYR was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Positive staining of TYR in the melanocytes was significant. The findings demonstrated that the culture system of sheep skin melanocytes was established successfully in vitro, and endothelin-1 promotes the

  1. Specification of the mouse cardiac conduction system in the absence of Endothelin signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Lisa L.; Vedantham, Vasanth; Barnes, Ralston M.; Hu, Jianxin; Robinson, Ashley S.; Bressan, Michael; Srivastava, Deepak; Black, Brian L.

    2014-01-01

    Coordinated contraction of the heart is essential for survival and is regulated by the cardiac conduction system. Contraction of ventricular myocytes is controlled by the terminal part of the conduction system known as the Purkinje fiber network. Lineage analyses in chickens and mice have established that the Purkinje fibers of the peripheral ventricular conduction system arise from working myocytes during cardiac development. It has been proposed, based primarily on gain-of-function studies, that Endothelin signaling is responsible for myocyte-to-Purkinje fiber transdifferentiation during avian heart development. However, the role of Endothelin signaling in mammalian conduction system development is less clear, and the development of the cardiac conduction system in mice lacking Endothelin signaling has not been previously addressed. Here, we assessed the specification of the cardiac conduction system in mouse embryos lacking all Endothelin signaling. We found that mouse embryos that were homozygous null for both ednra and ednrb, the genes encoding the two Endothelin receptors in mice, were born at predicted Mendelian frequency and had normal specification of the cardiac conduction system and apparently normal electrocardiograms with normal QRS intervals. In addition, we found that ednra expression within the heart was restricted to the myocardium while ednrb expression in the heart was restricted to the endocardium and coronary endothelium. By establishing that ednra and ednrb are expressed in distinct compartments within the developing mammalian heart and that Endothelin signaling is dispensable for specification and function of the cardiac conduction system, this work has important implications for our understanding of mammalian cardiac development. PMID:25050930

  2. Specification of the mouse cardiac conduction system in the absence of Endothelin signaling.

    PubMed

    Hua, Lisa L; Vedantham, Vasanth; Barnes, Ralston M; Hu, Jianxin; Robinson, Ashley S; Bressan, Michael; Srivastava, Deepak; Black, Brian L

    2014-09-15

    Coordinated contraction of the heart is essential for survival and is regulated by the cardiac conduction system. Contraction of ventricular myocytes is controlled by the terminal part of the conduction system known as the Purkinje fiber network. Lineage analyses in chickens and mice have established that the Purkinje fibers of the peripheral ventricular conduction system arise from working myocytes during cardiac development. It has been proposed, based primarily on gain-of-function studies, that Endothelin signaling is responsible for myocyte-to-Purkinje fiber transdifferentiation during avian heart development. However, the role of Endothelin signaling in mammalian conduction system development is less clear, and the development of the cardiac conduction system in mice lacking Endothelin signaling has not been previously addressed. Here, we assessed the specification of the cardiac conduction system in mouse embryos lacking all Endothelin signaling. We found that mouse embryos that were homozygous null for both ednra and ednrb, the genes encoding the two Endothelin receptors in mice, were born at predicted Mendelian frequency and had normal specification of the cardiac conduction system and apparently normal electrocardiograms with normal QRS intervals. In addition, we found that ednra expression within the heart was restricted to the myocardium while ednrb expression in the heart was restricted to the endocardium and coronary endothelium. By establishing that ednra and ednrb are expressed in distinct compartments within the developing mammalian heart and that Endothelin signaling is dispensable for specification and function of the cardiac conduction system, this work has important implications for our understanding of mammalian cardiac development.

  3. Determination of the structure of [Nle7]-endothelin by 1H NMR.

    PubMed

    Aumelas, A; Chiche, L; Mahe, E; Le-Nguyen, D; Sizun, P; Berthault, P; Perly, B

    1991-04-01

    [Nle7]-endothelin was synthesized and studied by 1H NMR and distance geometry calculations. The NMR study was performed first in DMSO-d6 and then in 50% acetonitrile/water since this peptide aggregates in pure water. In both cases, all spin systems were identified and assigned with the aid of two-dimensional spectroscopy (2D): COSY (for scalar couplings) and NOESY (for dipolar couplings). On the basis of the acetonitrile/water NMR parameters, and using the DISGEO program, a three-dimensional structure of [Nle7]-endothelin is proposed and discussed.

  4. Impact of Superoxide Dismutase Mimetic AEOL 10150 on the Endothelin System of Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Devi; Kumarathasan, Prem; Thomson, Errol M.; St-Germain, Carly; Blais, Erica; Crapo, James; Vincent, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Endothelin-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor and mitogenic peptide involved in the regulation of vasomotor tone and maintenance of blood pressure. Oxidative stress activates the endothelin system, and is implicated in pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases including hypertension, congestive heart failure, and atherosclerosis. Superoxide dismutase mimetics designed with the aim of treating diseases that involve reactive oxygen species in their pathophysiology may exert a hypotensive effect, but effects on the endothelin system are unknown. Our objective was to determine the effect of the superoxide dismutase mimetic AEOL 10150 on the basal endothelin system in vivo. Male Fischer-344 rats were injected subcutaneously with 0, 2 or 5 mg/kg body weight of AEOL 10150 in saline. Plasma oxidative stress markers and endothelins (bigET-1, ET-1, ET-2, ET-3) as well as lung and heart endothelin/nitric oxide system gene expressions were measured using HPLC-Coularray, HPLC-Fluorescence and RT-PCR respectively. AEOL 10150 reduced (p<0.05) the circulating levels of isoprostane (-25%) and 3-nitrotyrosine (-50%) measured in plasma 2h and 24h after treatment, confirming delivery of a physiologically-relevant dose and the potent antioxidant activity of the drug. The reduction in markers of oxidative stress coincided with sustained 24h decrease (p<0.05) of plasma levels of ET-1 (-50%) and ET-3 (-10%). Expression of preproET-1 and endothelin converting enzyme-1 mRNA were not altered significantly in the lungs. However preproET-1 (not significant) and ECE-1 mRNA (p<0.05) were increased (10–25%) in the heart. Changes in the lungs included decrease (p<0.05) of mRNA for the ET-1 clearance receptor ETB and the vasoconstriction-signaling ETA receptor (-30%), and an early surge of inducible nitric oxide synthase expression followed by sustained decrease (-40% after 24 hours). The results indicate that interception of the endogenous physiological flux of reactive nitrogen species and reactive

  5. Molecular characterization of human and bovine endothelin converting enzyme (ECE-1).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Kröger, B; Jacob, E; Seulberger, H; Subkowski, T; Otter, R; Meyer, T; Schmalzing, G; Hillen, H

    1994-12-19

    A membrane-bound protease activity that specifically converts Big endothelin-1 has been purified from bovine endothelial cells (FBHE). The enzyme was cleaved with trypsin and the peptide sequencing analysis confirmed it to be a zinc chelating metalloprotease containing the typical HEXXH (HELTH) motif. RT-PCR and cDNA screens were employed to isolate the complete cDNAs of the bovine and human enzymes. This human metalloprotease was expressed heterologously in cell culture and oocytes. The catalytic activity of the recombinant enzyme is the same as that determined for the natural enzyme. The data suggest that the characterized enzyme represents the functional human endothelin converting enzyme ECE-1.

  6. Nitrogen Oxide, Endothelin-1, and Serotonin in the Blood of Immature Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Chibireva, M D; Aflyatumova, G N; Matveeva, V L; Bilalova, D F; Kuz'mina, O I; Sadykova, D I; Nigmatullina, R R

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial function is an early and sensitive marker of subclinical increase of BP in children and adolescents. It is associated with an imbalance of the key vasoactive factors (NO, endothelin-1, and serotonin). Immature spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR line) are characterized by increased plasma concentrations of NO and endothelin-1 (by 14.7% and 2.9 times, respectively) and increased serotonin content in the plasma and platelets (by 2.7 and 2.3 times, respectively) in comparison with Wistar-Kyoto rats. Platelet count in the blood of SHR rats is by 50% higher than in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

  7. [Axillary blockade of the brachial plexus. A prospective study of blockade success using electric nerve stimulation].

    PubMed

    Eifert, B; Hähnel, J; Kustermann, J

    1994-12-01

    Axillary block is a common anesthetic technique for operations on the hand and forearm. In our hospital, with many trainees in anaesthesia, only 250-300 axillary blocks per year are performed by about 30 colleagues. This implies a small number of blocks for each anaesthetist. The present study was designed to assess whether it is possible to teach this technique and use it with an adequate degree of success under these conditions. We used a nerve stimulator and studied whether the success of the block under these conditions is independent of anaesthetist's experience in this technique. Furthermore, we examined other factors involved in the success of the block. METHODS. The study included 112 patients subjected to elective surgery of the upper extremity; all received an axillary block. We used a nerve stimulator and injected mepivacaine 1% without adrenaline. The following parameters were recorded: the number of blocks to date performed by the anaesthetist; the minimal current required for nerve stimulation; the dose of local anaesthetic; the time between the end of injection and the beginning of surgery; the quality of sensory and motor blockade after 10, 20, and 30 min. Sensory blockade was assessed by the pinprick method (no blockade, analgesia, anaesthesia); motor blockade was judged by comparing the muscle strength of both arms (no blockade, paresis, paralysis). Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test, with P < 0.05 considered statistically significant. RESULTS. Of the 112 blocks, 95 (85%) were successful; 17 (15%) failed and the patients required general anaesthesia. Eight of the successful blocks showed a decrease in analgesic quality after > or = 70 min and required additional analgesics or general anaesthesia. We found no correlation between the experience of the anaesthetist and the success of the block. The minimal required current for nerve stimulation in the success group was 0.4 mA and differed significantly from the value of 0.6 mA in the

  8. Therapeutic Opportunities for Caffeine and A2A Receptor Antagonists in Retinal Diseases.

    PubMed

    Boia, Raquel; Ambrósio, António Francisco; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Caffeine, the major component of coffee, is the most consumed psychostimulant in the world. Caffeine is an adenosine analog and acts as a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist. The majority of the effects of caffeine are mainly mediated by the blockade of adenosine receptors, and the proved neuroprotective effects of caffeine in brain disorders have been mimicked by the blockade of adenosine A2A receptor (A2AR). A growing body of evidence demonstrates that microglia-mediated neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of brain and retinal diseases. Moreover, the control of microglia reactivity by blocking A2AR has been proposed to be the mechanism underlying the observed protective effects of caffeine. Hence, it is conceivable that caffeine and A2AR antagonists offer therapeutic value for the treatment of retinal diseases, mainly those involving microglia-mediated neuroinflammation. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Flow regulation of collecting duct endothelin-1 production.

    PubMed

    Lyon-Roberts, Brianna; Strait, Kevin A; van Peursem, Evan; Kittikulsuth, Wararat; Pollock, Jennifer S; Pollock, David M; Kohan, Donald E

    2011-03-01

    Collecting duct (CD) endothelin-1 (ET-1) is an important autocrine inhibitor of CD Na(+) reabsorption. Salt loading is thought to increase CD ET-1 production; however, definitive evidence of this, as well as understanding of the mechanisms transducing this effect, is lacking. Tubule fluid flow increases in response to Na(+) loading; hence, we studied flow modulation of CD ET-1 production. Three days of a high-salt diet increased mouse and rat inner medullary CD (IMCD) ET-1 mRNA expression. Acute furosemide infusion increased urinary ET-1 excretion in anesthetized rats. Primary cultures of mouse or rat IMCD detached in response to flow using a closed perfusion chamber, consequently a CD cell line (mpkCCDcl4) was examined. Flow increased ET-1 mRNA at shear stress rates exceeding 1 dyne/cm(2), with the maximal effect seen between 2 and 10 dyne/cm(2). Induction of ET-1 mRNA was first evident after 1 h, and most apparent after 2 h, of flow. Inhibition of calmodulin or dihydropyridine-sensitive Ca(2+) channels did not alter the flow response; however, chelation of intracellular Ca(2+) or removal of extracellular Ca(2+) largely prevented flow-stimulated ET-1 mRNA accumulation. Downregulation of protein kinase C (PKC) using phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, or PKC inhibition with calphostin C, markedly reduced flow-stimulated ET-1 mRNA levels. Flow-stimulated ET-1 mRNA accumulation was abolished by inhibition of phospholipase C (PLC). Taken together, these data indicate that flow increases CD ET-1 production and this is dependent on extracellular and intracellular Ca(2+), PKC, and PLC. These studies suggest a novel pathway for coupling alterations in extracellular fluid volume to CD ET-1 production and ultimately control of CD Na(+) reabsorption.

  10. Elevated endothelin-1 expression in dogs with heartworm disease.

    PubMed

    Uchide, Tsuyoshi; Saida, Kaname

    2005-11-01

    We explored the involvement of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in the pathophysiology of dog dirofilariasis (heartworm disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis) by analyzing mRNA levels of preproendothelin-1 (PPET-1), the precursor form of ET-1, in cardiopulmonary organs as well as ET-1 peptide levels in plasma. To determine the cDNA sequence and primary protein structure of dog PPET-1, we performed molecular cloning of the full-length cDNA. Based on the determined sequence information, comparative expression analysis of PPET-1 mRNA was carried out by real-time polymerase chain reaction on cardiopulmonary organs from healthy (n=5) and filarial (n=5) dogs. Filarial dogs showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher mRNA expression level in the heart (about one hundred times) and lung (about ten times) than healthy dogs. Analysis of plasma ET-1 levels in healthy (n=10) and filarial (n=10) dogs showed that filarial dogs (6.9+/-2.7 pg/ml) have significantly (p<0.01) increased plasma ET-1 levels compared with healthy dogs (1.4+/-0.3 pg/ml). To assess the pathophysiological significance of ET-1 in dirofilariasis relative to other cardiopulmonary disorders, plasma ET-1 levels determined in dogs diagnosed with mitral regurgitation (n=10), tricuspid regurgitation (n=5), ventricular septal defect (n=5), and patent ductus arteriosus (n=5) were compared to plasma ET-1 levels in filarial dogs. Filarial dogs, which commonly develop serious pulmonary hypertension, exhibited by far the highest ET-1 levels of the disease states examined. Based on the fact that ET-1 is a potent bioactive mediator that induces vasoconstriction and promotes vascular remodeling, these findings suggest that ET-1 plays an important role in the pathophysiology of dog dirofilariasis as an aggravating factor by inducing pulmonary hypertension.

  11. Endothelin Receptors, Mitochondria and Neurogenesis in Cerebral Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Gulati, Anil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Neurogenesis is most active during pre-natal development, however, it persists throughout the human lifespan. The putative role of mitochondria in neurogenesis and angiogenesis is gaining importance. Since, ETB receptor mediated neurogenesis and angiogenesis has been identified, the role of these receptors with relevance to mitochondrial functions is of interest. Methods: In addition to work from our laboratory, we undertook an extensive search of bibliographic databases for peer-reviewed research literature. Specific technical terms such as endothelin, mitochondria and neurogenesis were used to seek out and critically evaluate literature that was relevant. Results: The ET family consists of three isopeptides (ET-1, ET-2 and ET-3) that produce biological actions by acting on two types of receptors (ETA and ETB). In the central nervous system (CNS) ETA receptors are potent constrictors of the cerebral vasculature and appear to contribute in the causation of cerebral ischemia. ETA receptor antagonists have been found to be effective in animal model of cerebral ischemia; however, clinical studies have shown no efficacy. Mitochondrial functions are critically important for several neural development processes such as neurogenesis, axonal and dendritic growth, and synaptic formation. ET appears to impair mitochondrial functions through activation of ETA receptors. On the other hand, blocking ETB receptors has been shown to trigger apoptotic processes by activating intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Mitochondria are important for their role in molecular regulation of neurogenesis and angiogenesis. Stimulation of ETB receptors in the adult ischemic brain has been found to promote angiogenesis and neurogenesis mediated through vascular endothelial growth factor and nerve growth factor. It will be interesting to investigate the effect of ETB receptor stimulation on mitochondrial functions in the CNS following cerebral ischemia. Conclusion: The findings of this

  12. Endothelin-induced contraction and mediator release in human bronchus.

    PubMed Central

    Hay, D. W.; Hubbard, W. C.; Undem, B. J.

    1993-01-01

    1. To elucidate the role of acetylcholine and various autacoids in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced contraction in human bronchus, the effects of various receptor antagonists were examined. In addition, the ability of ET-1 to stimulate the release of histamine, peptidoleukotrienes and prostanoids was determined. 2. ET-1 was a potent and effective contractile agonist in human bronchus, possessing similar potency and efficacy to leukotriene D4 (LTD4); EC50 (-log M): ET-1 = 7.76 +/- 0.09, n = 7; LTD4 = 8.46 +/- 0.53, n = 7; P > 0.2; maximum response (% 10 microM pre-carbachol): ET-1 = 103.8 +/- 17.4, n = 7; LTD4 = 95.5 +/- 9.3, n = 7; P > 0.6. 3. The cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, sodium meclofenamate (1 microM) or the potent and selective thromboxane receptor antagonist, SQ 29,548 (1 microM) were without significant effect on ET-1 concentration-response curves. 4. In the presence of sodium meclofenamate (1 microM), the muscarinic receptor antagonist, atropine (1 microM), the platelet activating factor (PAF) receptor antagonist, WEB 2086 (1 microM) or the combination of the H1-histamine receptor antagonist, mepyramine (10 microM) and the leukotriene receptor antagonist, SK&F 104353 (10 microM), were without marked effect on ET-1 concentration-response curves. In addition, the combination of all four receptor antagonists did not antagonize ET-1-induced contraction. 5. ET-1 (0.3 microM) did not stimulate the release of histamine or immunoreactive leukotrienes from human bronchus.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7693285

  13. Endothelin-converting enzyme 2 differentially regulates opioid receptor activity

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, A; Fujita, W; Gomes, I; Bobeck, E; Devi, L A

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Opioid receptor function is modulated by post-activation events such as receptor endocytosis, recycling and/or degradation. While it is generally understood that the peptide ligand gets co-endocytosed with the receptor, relatively few studies have investigated the role of the endocytosed peptide and peptide processing enzymes in regulating receptor function. In this study, we focused on endothelin-converting enzyme 2 (ECE2), a member of the neprilysin family of metallopeptidases that exhibits an acidic pH optimum, localizes to an intracellular compartment and selectively processes neuropeptides including opioid peptides in vitro, and examined its role in modulating μ receptor recycling and resensitization. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The effect of ECE2 inhibition on hydrolysis of the endocytosed peptide was examined using thin-layer chromatography and on μ opioid receptor trafficking using either elisa or microscopy. The effect of ECE2 inhibition on receptor signalling was measured using a cAMP assay and, in vivo, on antinociception induced by intrathecally administered opioids by the tail-flick assay. KEY RESULTS The highly selective ECE2 inhibitor, S136492, significantly impaired μ receptor recycling and signalling by only those ligands that are ECE2 substrates and this was seen both in heterologous cells and in cells endogenously co-expressing μ receptors with ECE2. We also found that ECE2 inhibition attenuated antinociception mediated only by opioid peptides that are ECE2 substrates. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These results suggest that ECE2, by selectively processing endogenous opioid peptides in the endocytic compartment, plays a role in modulating opioid receptor activity. LINKED ARTICLES This article is part of a themed section on Opioids: New Pathways to Functional Selectivity. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2015.172.issue-2 PMID:24990314

  14. Association of Big Endothelin-1 with Coronary Artery Calcification.

    PubMed

    Qing, Ping; Li, Xiao-Lin; Zhang, Yan; Li, Yi-Lin; Xu, Rui-Xia; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Li, Sha; Wu, Na-Qiong; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-01-01

    The coronary artery calcification (CAC) is clinically considered as one of the important predictors of atherosclerosis. Several studies have confirmed that endothelin-1(ET-1) plays an important role in the process of atherosclerosis formation. The aim of this study was to investigate whether big ET-1 is associated with CAC. A total of 510 consecutively admitted patients from February 2011 to May 2012 in Fu Wai Hospital were analyzed. All patients had received coronary computed tomography angiography and then divided into two groups based on the results of coronary artery calcium score (CACS). The clinical characteristics including traditional and calcification-related risk factors were collected and plasma big ET-1 level was measured by ELISA. Patients with CAC had significantly elevated big ET-1 level compared with those without CAC (0.5 ± 0.4 vs. 0.2 ± 0.2, P<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, big ET-1 (Tertile 2, HR = 3.09, 95% CI 1.66-5.74, P <0.001, Tertile3 HR = 10.42, 95% CI 3.62-29.99, P<0.001) appeared as an independent predictive factor of the presence of CAC. There was a positive correlation of the big ET-1 level with CACS (r = 0.567, p<0.001). The 10-year Framingham risk (%) was higher in the group with CACS>0 and the highest tertile of big ET-1 (P<0.01). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for the big ET-1 level in predicting CAC was 0.83 (95% CI 0.79-0.87, p<0.001), with a sensitivity of 70.6% and specificity of 87.7%. The data firstly demonstrated that the plasma big ET-1 level was a valuable independent predictor for CAC in our study.

  15. Congenital diaphragmatic hernia: endothelin-1, pulmonary hypertension, and disease severity.

    PubMed

    Keller, Roberta L; Tacy, Theresa A; Hendricks-Munoz, Karen; Xu, Jie; Moon-Grady, Anita J; Neuhaus, John; Moore, Phillip; Nobuhara, Kerilyn K; Hawgood, Sam; Fineman, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-15

    Endothelin-1 (ET1) is dysregulated in pulmonary hypertension (PH). It may be important in the pathobiology of congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH). We hypothesized that ET1 levels in the first month would be higher in infants with CDH who subsequently expired or were discharged on oxygen (poor outcome). We further hypothesized that ET1 levels would be associated with concurrent severity of PH. We sampled plasma at 24 to 48 hours, and 1, 2, and 4 weeks of age in 40 prospectively enrolled newborns with CDH. We performed echocardiograms to estimate pulmonary artery pressure at less than 48 hours of age and weekly to 4 weeks. PH was classified in relationship to systemic blood pressure (SBP): less than 2/3 SBP, 2/3 SBP-systemic is related to pressure, or systemic-to-suprasystemic pressure. ET1 levels at 1 and 2 weeks were higher in infants with poor outcome compared with infants discharged on room air (median and interquartile range: 27.2 [22.6, 33.7] vs. 19.1 [16.1, 29.5] pg/ml, P = 0.03; and 24.9 [17.6, 39.5] vs. 17.4 [13.7, 21.8] pg/ml, P = 0.01 at 1 and 2 weeks, respectively). Severity of PH was significantly associated with increasing ET1 levels at 2 weeks (16.1 [13.7, 21.8], 21.0 [17.4, 31.1], and 23.6 [21.9, 39.5] pg/ml for increasing PH class, P = 0.03). Increasing severity of PH was also associated with poor outcome at that time (P = 0.001). Infants with CDH and poor outcome have higher plasma ET1 levels and severity of PH than infants discharged on room air. Severity of PH is associated with ET1 levels.

  16. Brain Remodelling following Endothelin-1 Induced Stroke in Conscious Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abeysinghe, Hima C. S.; Bokhari, Laita; Dusting, Gregory J.; Roulston, Carli L.

    2014-01-01

    The extent of stroke damage in patients affects the range of subsequent pathophysiological responses that influence recovery. Here we investigate the effect of lesion size on development of new blood vessels as well as inflammation and scar formation and cellular responses within the subventricular zone (SVZ) following transient focal ischemia in rats (n = 34). Endothelin-1-induced stroke resulted in neurological deficits detected between 1 and 7 days (P<0.001), but significant recovery was observed beyond this time. MCID image analysis revealed varying degrees of damage in the ipsilateral cortex and striatum with infarct volumes ranging from 0.76–77 mm3 after 14 days, where larger infarct volumes correlated with greater functional deficits up to 7 days (r = 0.53, P<0.05). Point counting of blood vessels within consistent sample regions revealed that increased vessel numbers correlated significantly with larger infarct volumes 14 days post-stroke in the core cortical infarct (r = 0.81, P<0.0001), core striatal infarct (r = 0.91, P<0.005) and surrounding border zones (r = 0.66, P<0.005; and r = 0.73, P<0.05). Cell proliferation within the SVZ also increased with infarct size (P<0.01) with a greater number of Nestin/GFAP positive cells observed extending towards the border zone in rats with larger infarcts. Lesion size correlated with both increased microglia and astrocyte activation, with severely diffuse astrocyte transition, the formation of the glial scar being more pronounced in rats with larger infarcts. Thus stroke severity affects cell proliferation within the SVZ in response to injury, which may ultimately make a further contribution to glial scar formation, an important factor to consider when developing treatment strategies that promote neurogenesis. PMID:24809543

  17. Brain remodelling following endothelin-1 induced stroke in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Abeysinghe, Hima C S; Bokhari, Laita; Dusting, Gregory J; Roulston, Carli L

    2014-01-01

    The extent of stroke damage in patients affects the range of subsequent pathophysiological responses that influence recovery. Here we investigate the effect of lesion size on development of new blood vessels as well as inflammation and scar formation and cellular responses within the subventricular zone (SVZ) following transient focal ischemia in rats (n = 34). Endothelin-1-induced stroke resulted in neurological deficits detected between 1 and 7 days (P<0.001), but significant recovery was observed beyond this time. MCID image analysis revealed varying degrees of damage in the ipsilateral cortex and striatum with infarct volumes ranging from 0.76-77 mm3 after 14 days, where larger infarct volumes correlated with greater functional deficits up to 7 days (r = 0.53, P<0.05). Point counting of blood vessels within consistent sample regions revealed that increased vessel numbers correlated significantly with larger infarct volumes 14 days post-stroke in the core cortical infarct (r = 0.81, P<0.0001), core striatal infarct (r = 0.91, P<0.005) and surrounding border zones (r = 0.66, P<0.005; and r = 0.73, P<0.05). Cell proliferation within the SVZ also increased with infarct size (P<0.01) with a greater number of Nestin/GFAP positive cells observed extending towards the border zone in rats with larger infarcts. Lesion size correlated with both increased microglia and astrocyte activation, with severely diffuse astrocyte transition, the formation of the glial scar being more pronounced in rats with larger infarcts. Thus stroke severity affects cell proliferation within the SVZ in response to injury, which may ultimately make a further contribution to glial scar formation, an important factor to consider when developing treatment strategies that promote neurogenesis.

  18. Endothelin receptor antagonists influence cardiovascular morphology in uremic rats.

    PubMed

    Nabokov, A V; Amann, K; Wessels, S; Münter, K; Wagner, J; Ritz, E

    1999-02-01

    In is generally held that renal failure results in blood pressure (BP)-independent structural changes of the myocardium and the vasculature. The contribution, if any, of endothelin (ET) to these changes has been unknown. We morphometrically studied random samples of the left ventricle myocardium and small intramyocardial arteries in subtotally (5/6) nephrectomized (SNx) male Sprague-Dawley rats treated with either the selective ETA receptor antagonist BMS182874 (30 mg/kg/day) or the nonselective ETA/ETB receptor antagonist Ro46-2005 (30 mg/kg/day) in comparison with either sham-operated rats, untreated SNx, or SNx rats treated with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor trandolapril (0.1 mg/kg/day). Eight weeks later, systolic BP was lower in trandolapril-treated SNx compared with untreated SNx animals. No decrease in BP was seen following either ET receptor antagonist at the dose used. A significantly increased volume density of the myocardial interstitium was found in untreated SNx rats as compared with sham-operated controls. Such interstitial expansion was prevented by trandolapril and either ET receptor antagonist. SNx caused a substantial increase in the wall thickness of small intramyocardial arteries. The increase was prevented by trandolapril or BMS182874 treatment. The arteriolar wall:lumen ratio was significantly lower in all treated groups when compared with untreated SNx. In contrast, only trandolapril, but not the ET receptor antagonists, attenuated thickening of the aortic media in SNx animals. The ETA-selective and ETA/ETB-nonselective receptor antagonists appear to prevent development of myocardial fibrosis and structural changes of small intramyocardial arteries in experimental chronic renal failure. This effect is independent of systemic BP.

  19. Noradrenaline blockade specifically enhances metacognitive performance

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Tobias U; Allen, Micah; Purg, Nina; Moutoussis, Michael; Rees, Geraint; Dolan, Raymond J

    2017-01-01

    Impairments in metacognition, the ability to accurately report one’s performance, are common in patients with psychiatric disorders, where a putative neuromodulatory dysregulation provides the rationale for pharmacological interventions. Previously, we have shown how unexpected arousal modulates metacognition (Allen et al., 2016). Here, we report a double-blind, placebo-controlled, study that examined specific effects of noradrenaline and dopamine on both metacognition and perceptual decision making. Signal theoretic analysis of a global motion discrimination task with adaptive performance staircasing revealed that noradrenergic blockade (40 mg propranolol) significantly increased metacognitive performance (type-II area under the curve, AUROC2), but had no impact on perceptual decision making performance. Blockade of dopamine D2/3 receptors (400 mg amisulpride) had no effect on either metacognition or perceptual decision making. Our study is the first to show a pharmacological enhancement of metacognitive performance, in the absence of any effect on perceptual decision making. This enhancement points to a regulatory role for noradrenergic neurotransmission in perceptual metacognition. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.24901.001 PMID:28489001

  20. Effects of captopril on the renin angiotensin system, oxidative stress, and endothelin in normal and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Bolterman, Rodney J; Manriquez, Melissa C; Ortiz Ruiz, M Clara; Juncos, Luis A; Romero, J Carlos

    2005-10-01

    There is substantial evidence suggesting that angiotensin II plays an important role in elevating blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats, despite normal plasma renin activity, and that converting enzyme inhibitors (captopril) can effectively normalize blood pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rats. One mechanism by which angiotensin II induces hypertension is via oxidative stress and endothelin, as seen in subpressor angiotensin II-induced hypertension. In fact, it has been shown that antioxidants lower mean arterial pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats. However, the relationship between angiotensin II, oxidative stress, and endothelin in the spontaneously hypertensive rats is still relatively undefined. This study examines the relationship between mean arterial pressure, plasma renin activity, angiotensin II, oxidative stress, and endothelin in spontaneously hypertensive rats compared with normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats, and the effects of captopril on this association. Untreated spontaneously hypertensive rats had increased plasma angiotensin II levels despite normal plasma renin activity, oxidative stress, and endothelin. Captopril treatment in spontaneously hypertensive rats lowered mean arterial pressure, angiotensin II, oxidative stress, and endothelin, and increased plasma renin activity. In contrast, captopril increased plasma renin activity (suggesting effective captopril treatment) but did not significantly alter mean arterial pressure, angiotensin II, oxidative stress, or endothelin of Wistar Kyoto rats. These results suggest that in spontaneously hypertensive rats, angiotensin II is a primary instigator of hypertension, and that captopril selectively lowers angiotensin II, oxidant stress, and endothelin, which in turn may contribute to the blood pressure-lowering efficacy of captopril in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

  1. Loss of the endothelin signal pathway in C6 rat glioma cells persistently infected with measles virus.

    PubMed Central

    Tas, P W; Koschel, K

    1991-01-01

    Endothelin 1 causes a strong Ca2+ signal in C6 rat glioma cells as measured by fura-2 fluorescence. This endothelin 1-induced Ca2+ signal was not observed when the cells were persistently infected with a measles virus strain of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE, strain Lec). Binding of 125I-labeled endothelin 1 to the C6/SSPE cells was less than 5% of the binding to the C6 control cells, suggesting that the impairment in signal transduction was due to a loss of binding sites for endothelin 1. Treatment of the C6/SSPE cells with measles antiserum resulted in the loss of expression of viral proteins located in the membrane as well as inside the cells (antigenic modulation), but it restored neither the endothelin 1-induced Ca2+ rise nor the 125I-endothelin 1 binding. Cocultivation of uninfected C6 cells with C6/SSPE cells (9:1 ratio) resulting in contact-mediated transmission of measles virus showed that the 125I-endothelin 1 binding activity was gradually lost as a consequence of persistent virus infection. PMID:1650480

  2. Elevated Plasma Endothelin-1 Levels in Normal Tension Glaucoma and Primary Open-Angle Glaucoma: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shengjie; Zhang, Aiping

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. The aim of this meta-analysis was to clarify the association between the plasma endothelin-1 level and the risks of normal tension glaucoma (NTG) and primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). Methods. Relevant publications were collected from three databases including PubMed, EMBASE, and the Web of Science through December 31, 2015. In this study, the terms “(endothelin OR ET) AND glaucoma” were searched. Review Manager 5.2 was used to process the data. Results. Seven studies (212 cases, 164 controls) were included for the NTG analysis. The mean plasma endothelin-1 level in the NTG subjects was 0.60 pg/mL (p = 0.02, 95% CI: 0.17–1.04) higher than that of the healthy controls. Six studies (160 cases, 174 controls) were included for the POAG analysis, and the endothelin-1 level was 0.63 pg/mL (p = 0.007, 95% CI: 0.12–1.15) higher in the POAG subjects than in the healthy controls. Additionally, two studies influenced the meta-analysis results regarding the association of plasma endothelin-1 with POAG by sensitivity analysis, and the probability of publication bias was low. Conclusions. The observation that NTG and POAG subjects showed significantly elevated endothelin-1 plasma concentrations suggests that a higher plasma level of endothelin-1 might increase the risk of NTG and POAG development. PMID:27965889

  3. Endothelin-1, but not angiotensin II, induces afferent arteriolar myosin diphosphorylation as a potential contributor to prolonged vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Takeya, Kosuke; Wang, Xuemei; Kathol, Iris; Loutzenhiser, Kathy; Loutzenhiser, Rodger; Walsh, Michael P

    2015-02-01

    Bolus administration of endothelin-1 elicits long-lasting renal afferent arteriolar vasoconstriction, in contrast to transient constriction induced by angiotensin II. Vasoconstriction is generally evoked by myosin regulatory light chain (LC20) phosphorylation at Ser19 by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK), which is enhanced by Rho-associated kinase (ROCK)-mediated inhibition of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP). LC20 can be diphosphorylated at Ser19 and Thr18, resulting in reduced rates of dephosphorylation and relaxation. Here we tested whether LC20 diphosphorylation contributes to sustained endothelin-1 but not transient angiotensin II-induced vasoconstriction. Endothelin-1 treatment of isolated arterioles elicited a concentration- and time-dependent increase in LC20 diphosphorylation at Thr18 and Ser19. Inhibition of MLCK or ROCK reduced endothelin-1-evoked LC20 mono- and diphosphorylation. Pretreatment with an ETB but not an ETA receptor antagonist abolished LC20 diphosphorylation, and an ETB receptor agonist induced LC20 diphosphorylation. In contrast, angiotensin II caused phosphorylation exclusively at Ser19. Thus, endothelin-1 and angiotensin II induce afferent arteriolar constriction via LC20 phosphorylation at Ser19 due to calcium activation of MLCK and ROCK-mediated inhibition of MLCP. Endothelin-1, but not angiotensin II, induces phosphorylation of LC20 at Thr18. This could contribute to the prolonged vasoconstrictor response to endothelin-1.

  4. Vascular endothelial cells mediate mechanical stimulation-induced enhancement of endothelin hyperalgesia via activation of P2X2/3 receptors on nociceptors.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Elizabeth K; Green, Paul G; Bogen, Oliver; Alvarez, Pedro; Levine, Jon D

    2013-02-13

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is unique among a broad range of hyperalgesic agents in that it induces hyperalgesia in rats that is markedly enhanced by repeated mechanical stimulation at the site of administration. Antagonists to the ET-1 receptors, ET(A) and ET(B), attenuated both initial as well as stimulation-induced enhancement of hyperalgesia (SIEH) by endothelin. However, administering antisense oligodeoxynucleotide to attenuate ET(A) receptor expression on nociceptors attenuated ET-1 hyperalgesia but had no effect on SIEH, suggesting that this is mediated via a non-neuronal cell. Because vascular endothelial cells are both stretch sensitive and express ET(A) and ET(B) receptors, we tested the hypothesis that SIEH is dependent on endothelial cells by impairing vascular endothelial function with octoxynol-9 administration; this procedure eliminated SIEH without attenuating ET-1 hyperalgesia. A role for protein kinase Cε (PKCε), a second messenger implicated in the induction and maintenance of chronic pain, was explored. Intrathecal antisense for PKCε did not inhibit either ET-1 hyperalgesia or SIEH, suggesting no role for neuronal PKCε; however, administration of a PKCε inhibitor at the site of testing selectively attenuated SIEH. Compatible with endothelial cells releasing ATP in response to mechanical stimulation, P2X(2/3) receptor antagonists eliminated SIEH. The endothelium also appears to contribute to hyperalgesia in two ergonomic pain models (eccentric exercise and hindlimb vibration) and in a model of endometriosis. We propose that SIEH is produced by an effect of ET-1 on vascular endothelial cells, sensitizing its release of ATP in response to mechanical stimulation; ATP in turn acts at the nociceptor P2X(2/3) receptor.

  5. Growth inhibitory properties of endothelin-1 in human hepatic myofibroblastic Ito cells. An endothelin B receptor-mediated pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Mallat, A; Fouassier, L; Préaux, A M; Gal, C S; Raufaste, D; Rosenbaum, J; Dhumeaux, D; Jouneaux, C; Mavier, P; Lotersztajn, S

    1995-01-01

    Ito cells play a pivotal role in the development of liver fibrosis associated with chronic liver diseases. During this process, Ito cells acquire myofibroblastic features, proliferate, and synthesize fibrosis components. Considering the reported mitogenic properties of endothelin-1 (ET-1), we investigated its effects on the proliferation of human Ito cells in their myofibroblastic phenotype. Both ET receptor A (ETA: 20%) and ET receptor B (ETB: 80%) binding sites were identified, using a selective ETA antagonist, BQ 123, and a selective ETB agonist, sarafotoxin S6C (SRTX-C). ET-1 did not stimulate proliferation of myofibroblastic Ito cells. In contrast, ET-1 inhibited by 60% DNA synthesis and proliferation of cells stimulated with either human serum or platelet-derived growth factor -BB (PDGF-BB). PD 142893, a nonselective ETA/ETB antagonist totally blunted this effect. SRTX-C was as potent as ET-1, while BQ 123 did not affect ET-1-induced growth inhibition. Analysis of the intermediate steps leading to growth-inhibition by ET-1 revealed that activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase by serum or PDGF-BB was decreased by 50% in the presence of SRTX-C. In serum-stimulated cells, SRTX-C reduced c-jun mRNA expression by 50% whereas c-fos or krox 24 mRNA expression were not affected. We conclude that ET-1 binding to ETB receptors causes a potent growth inhibition of human myofibroblastic Ito cells, which suggests that this peptide could play a key role in the negative control of liver fibrogenesis. Our results also point out that, in addition to its well known promitogenic effects, ET-1 may also exert negative control of growth on specific cells. Images PMID:7615814

  6. Impaired endothelin calcium signaling coupled to endothelin type B receptors in penile arteries from insulin-resistant obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Cristina; Sánchez, Ana; Martínez, Pilar; Climent, Belén; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Hernández, Medardo; Prieto, Dolores

    2013-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction is considered as an early sign of subclinical vascular disease and endothelial dysfunction and a highly prevalent condition in diabetic patients. The current study assessed whether impaired vascular effects of endothelin (ET)-1 may contribute to the vascular dysfunction of penile arteries from a rat model of insulin resistance. The effect of ETA and ETB receptor antagonists was assessed on the intracellular Ca(2+) [Ca(2+) ]i and contractile responses to ET-1 in penile arteries from obese Zucker rats (OZR) and lean Zucker rats (LZR), and ET receptor expression in the arterial wall was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Changes in ET-1 [Ca(2+) ]i and vasoconstriction and ET receptor expression were evaluated in penile arteries from insulin-resistant rats. ET-1-induced vasoconstriction was associated with a higher increase in smooth muscle [Ca(2+) ]i in penile arteries from OZR compared with LZR. Removal of the endothelium inhibited and enhanced contractions to the lowest and highest doses of ET-1, respectively, mainly in OZR. The selective ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 inhibited ET-1 vasoconstriction and [Ca(2+) ]i response in both LZR and OZR. The ETB receptor antagonist BQ-788 had little effect in healthy arteries but markedly inhibited ET-1-induced increases in [Ca(2+) ]i and vasoconstriction in arteries from OZR. ETA receptors were located on the smooth muscle and endothelium of penile arteries, whereas ETB receptors were found on the arterial endothelium in LZR and OZR, and also on the smooth muscle in OZR, immunostaining for both receptors being higher in OZR. Penile arteries from OZR exhibit an impaired ET-1 Ca(2+) signaling along with changes in the ET receptor profile. Thus, whereas ET-1 contraction and the associated [Ca(2+) ]i increase are mediated by smooth muscle ETA receptors in healthy arteries, ETB receptors contribute to contraction and are coupled to the augmented ET-1 [Ca(2+) ]i response under conditions of insulin resistance

  7. Clinical and prognostic value of endothelin-1 and big endothelin-1 expression in children with pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Latus, Heiner; Karanatsios, Georg; Basan, Ulrike; Salser, Kirstin; Müller, Simon; Khalil, Markus; Kreuder, Joachim; Schranz, Dietmar; Apitz, Christian

    2016-07-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension is known to be associated with increased expression of endothelin (ET)-1 and its precursor big ET-1. Therefore, we hypothesised that in children with pulmonary hypertension (PH) altered levels of ET-1 and big ET-1 may have clinical and prognostic impact. Sixty-six children with different forms of PH (mean age 10.4±9.7 years) were included. Blood samples were taken from the pulmonary artery and a systemic artery. Levels of ET-1/big ET-1 were measured via ELISA method and compared with clinical and haemodynamic data. To assess prognostic relevance, Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was conducted with definition of end point as the composite of mortality, lung transplantation, use of intravenous prostanoids and Potts shunt creation. ET-1 levels ranged between 0.09 and 11.64 (mean 1.48±2.34) fmol/mL, and big ET-1 levels between 0.05 and 2.92 (mean 0.84±0.58) fmol/mL. No significant relationships were found between ET-1/big ET-1 levels and functional class as well as haemodynamic indices of PH severity. Mean follow-up after catheterisation was 63.2±44.1 months. While 31 of the 66 (47%) patients with PH reached a predefined end point, there was no significant relation between levels of ET-1/big ET-1 and patient outcome. Although children with PH had alterations in ET-1/big ET-1 expression, which may reflect changes in net release or lung clearance, levels of ET-1/big ET-1 showed no correlation with clinical and haemodynamic parameters, and were not able to predict outcome. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Endothelin-1 and endothelin-2 initiate and maintain contractile responses by different mechanisms in rat mesenteric and cerebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Compeer, M G; Janssen, G M J; De Mey, J G R

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Endothelin (ET)-1 and ET-2 cause potent long-lasting vasoconstrictions by tight binding to smooth muscle ETA receptors. We tested the hypotheses that different mechanisms mediate initiation and maintenance of arterial contractile responses to ET-1 and ET-2 and that this differs among vascular beds. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Segments of rat mesenteric resistance artery (MRA) and basilar artery (BA) were studied in wire myographs with and without functional antagonists. KEY RESULTS Sensitivity and maximum of MRA contractile responses to ET-1 were not, or only moderately, reduced by stimulation of soluble GC, AC or K+-channels and by an inhibitor of receptor-operated ion channels. However, each of these reduced maintenance of ET-1 effects and relaxed ET-1-induced contractions in MRA. A calcium channel antagonist did not alter sensitivity, maximum and maintenance of ET-1 effects, but relaxed ET-1-induced contractions in MRA. A PLC inhibitor prevented contractile responses to ET-1 and ET-2 in MRA and BA, and relaxed ET-1- and ET-2-induced responses in MRA and ET-1 effects in BA. A Rho-kinase inhibitor did not modify sensitivity, maximum and maintenance of responses to both peptides in both arteries but relaxed ET-2, but not ET-1, effects in MRA and ET-1 effects in BA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS PLC played a key role in arterial contractile responses to ETs, but ET-1 and ET-2 initiated and maintained vasoconstriction through different mechanisms, and these differed between MRA and BA. Selective functional antagonism may be considered for agonist- and vascular bed selective pharmacotherapy of ET-related diseases. PMID:23941276

  9. Modulation of vascular tone by endothelin-1: role of preload, endothelial integrity and concentration of endothelin-1.

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, J. L.; Lawson, D. L.; Yang, B. C.; Mehta, P.; Nichols, W. W.

    1992-01-01

    1. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been shown to exert both arterial relaxant and constrictor effects. To examine the mechanisms of these divergent effects, rat aortic rings were suspended in an organ bath (baseline preload, 5 g) and exposed to ET-1 (10(-11) to 10(-7) M). ET-1 contracted these rings in a concentration-dependent fashion. 2. When aortic rings were contracted with noradrenaline (NA) to 1 g of tension, ET-1 caused further contraction of these rings. In rings precontracted to 2 to 4 g of tension, low concentrations of ET-1 (10(-11) to 10(-9) M) caused a significant relaxation, but high concentrations (greater than or equal to 5 x 10(-9) M) caused a marked contraction, indicating both relaxant and contractile effects of ET-1 depending on the preload and ET-1 concentration. 3. To determine the mechanism of ET-1-induced relaxation, aortic rings were pretreated with the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor indomethacin, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA) an inhibitor of synthesis of endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF), or oxyhaemoglobin (Hb) which decreases the activity of EDRF, prior to their exposure to ET-1. Both indomethacin and L-NMMA markedly (P less than 0.01) attenuated ET-1-induced relaxation, whereas Hb totally abolished it. Removal of the endothelium from aortic rings also abolished ET-1-mediated relaxation. 4. The relaxant effect of ET-1 in NA-precontracted rings was associated with marked accumulation of guanosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic GMP), whereas ET-1-induced contraction of quiescent rings was not. 5.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1324065

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency and fluorescence in blockaded Rydberg atomic system.

    PubMed

    Li, Cheng; Zheng, Huaibin; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Yao, Xin; Zhang, Yunzhe; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2013-10-28

    We investigate the interaction between dark states and Rydberg excitation blockade by using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), fluorescence, and four-wave mixing (FWM) signals both theoretically and experimentally. By scanning the frequency detunings of the probe and dressing fields, respectively, we first observe these signals (three coexisting EIT windows, two fluorescence signals, and two FWM signals) under Rydberg excitation blockade. Next, frequency detuning dependences of these signals are obtained, in which the modulated results are well explained by introducing the dressing effects (leading to the dark states) with the corrected factor of the Rydberg excitation blockade. In addition, the variations by changing the principal quantum number n of Rydberg state shown some interesting phenomena resulting from Rydberg blockade are observed. The unique nature of such blockaded signals can have potential application in the demonstration of quantum computing.

  11. Endothelin-2 signaling in the neural retina promotes the endothelial tip cell state and inhibits angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rattner, Amir; Yu, Huimin; Williams, John; Smallwood, Philip M.; Nathans, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin signaling is required for neural crest migration and homeostatic regulation of blood pressure. Here, we report that constitutive overexpression of Endothelin-2 (Edn2) in the mouse retina perturbs vascular development by inhibiting endothelial cell migration across the retinal surface and subsequent endothelial cell invasion into the retina. Developing endothelial cells exist in one of two states: tip cells at the growing front and stalk cells in the vascular plexus behind the front. This division of endothelial cell states is one of the central organizing principles of angiogenesis. In the developing retina, Edn2 overexpression leads to overproduction of endothelial tip cells by both morphologic and molecular criteria. Spatially localized overexpression of Edn2 produces a correspondingly localized endothelial response. Edn2 overexpression in the early embryo inhibits vascular development at midgestation, but Edn2 overexpression in developing skin and brain has no discernible effect on vascular structure. Inhibition of retinal angiogenesis by Edn2 requires expression of Endothelin receptor A but not Endothelin receptor B in the neural retina. Taken together, these observations imply that the neural retina responds to Edn2 by synthesizing one or more factors that promote the endothelial tip cell state and inhibit angiogenesis. The response to Edn2 is sufficiently potent that it overrides the activities of other homeostatic regulators of angiogenesis, such as Vegf. PMID:24043815

  12. Bosentan, a mixed endothelin receptor antagonist, induces antidepressant-like activity in mice.

    PubMed

    Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Borghi, Sergio M; Staurengo-Ferrari, Larissa; Filgueiras, Guilherme B; Estanislau, Célio; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2014-02-07

    Endothelins are peptides described initially as potent vasoactive mediators. Recently, studies reported that endothelins can modulate the production and release of cytokines by immune cells. In turn, cytokines are involved in depression disorders and also in the effectiveness of some antidepressants. Therefore, we investigated the effects of treating mice with bosentan, a mixed endothelin receptor antagonist, in widely used models for assessing antidepressant activity of compounds, the forced swimming (FST) and the tail suspension tests (TST). Moreover, the influence of bosentan treatment on circulating IL-6 levels was also addressed after FST. The results show that bosentan treatment induced a bell shaped dose-dependent antidepressant-like effect with increase in circulating IL-6 levels in animals exposed to FST. Bosentan also presented antidepressant-like effect in TST. Similar results were obtained with nortriptyline treatment in the FST and TST. Possible anxiogenic effect of bosentan was excluded using the elevated plus maze test. Therefore, this is the first study to demonstrate the antidepressant-like activity of bosentan in mice, unveiling a previous unrecognized role of endothelin in depression and its possible relation with increased circulating IL-6 levels.

  13. The Endothelin System Has a Significant Role in the Pathogenesis and Progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Correa, Andre F.; Bailão, Alexandre M.; Bastos, Izabela M. D.; Orme, Ian M.; Soares, Célia M. A.; Kipnis, Andre

    2014-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem, and although multiple studies have addressed the relationship between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the host on an immunological level, few studies have addressed the impact of host physiological responses. Proteases produced by bacteria have been associated with important alterations in the host tissues, and a limited number of these enzymes have been characterized in mycobacterial species. M. tuberculosis produces a protease called Zmp1, which appears to be associated with virulence and has a putative action as an endothelin-converting enzyme. Endothelins are a family of vasoactive peptides, of which 3 distinct isoforms exist, and endothelin 1 (ET-1) is the most abundant and the best-characterized isoform. The aim of this work was to characterize the Zmp1 protease and evaluate its role in pathogenicity. Here, we have shown that M. tuberculosis produces and secretes an enzyme with ET-1 cleavage activity. These data demonstrate a possible role of Zmp1 for mycobacterium-host interactions and highlights its potential as a drug target. Moreover, the results suggest that endothelin pathways have a role in the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis infections, and ETA or ETB receptor signaling can modulate the host response to the infection. We hypothesize that a balance between Zmp1 control of ET-1 levels and ETA/ETB signaling can allow M. tuberculosis adaptation and survival in the lung tissues. PMID:25267836

  14. The endothelin system has a significant role in the pathogenesis and progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Correa, Andre F; Bailão, Alexandre M; Bastos, Izabela M D; Orme, Ian M; Soares, Célia M A; Kipnis, Andre; Santana, Jaime M; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula

    2014-12-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major global health problem, and although multiple studies have addressed the relationship between Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the host on an immunological level, few studies have addressed the impact of host physiological responses. Proteases produced by bacteria have been associated with important alterations in the host tissues, and a limited number of these enzymes have been characterized in mycobacterial species. M. tuberculosis produces a protease called Zmp1, which appears to be associated with virulence and has a putative action as an endothelin-converting enzyme. Endothelins are a family of vasoactive peptides, of which 3 distinct isoforms exist, and endothelin 1 (ET-1) is the most abundant and the best-characterized isoform. The aim of this work was to characterize the Zmp1 protease and evaluate its role in pathogenicity. Here, we have shown that M. tuberculosis produces and secretes an enzyme with ET-1 cleavage activity. These data demonstrate a possible role of Zmp1 for mycobacterium-host interactions and highlights its potential as a drug target. Moreover, the results suggest that endothelin pathways have a role in the pathogenesis of M. tuberculosis infections, and ETA or ETB receptor signaling can modulate the host response to the infection. We hypothesize that a balance between Zmp1 control of ET-1 levels and ETA/ETB signaling can allow M. tuberculosis adaptation and survival in the lung tissues. Copyright © 2014, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  15. Combined TRPC3 and TRPC6 blockade by selective small-molecule or genetic deletion inhibits pathological cardiac hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Kinya; Rainer, Peter P.; Shalkey Hahn, Virginia; Lee, Dong-ik; Jo, Su-Hyun; Andersen, Asger; Liu, Ting; Xu, Xiaoping; Willette, Robert N.; Lepore, John J.; Marino, Joseph P.; Birnbaumer, Lutz; Schnackenberg, Christine G.; Kass, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic neurohormonal and mechanical stresses are central features of heart disease. Increasing evidence supports a role for the transient receptor potential canonical channels TRPC3 and TRPC6 in this pathophysiology. Channel expression for both is normally very low but is increased by cardiac disease, and genetic gain- or loss-of-function studies support contributions to hypertrophy and dysfunction. Selective small-molecule inhibitors remain scarce, and none target both channels, which may be useful given the high homology among them and evidence of redundant signaling. Here we tested selective TRPC3/6 antagonists (GSK2332255B and GSK2833503A; IC50, 3–21 nM against TRPC3 and TRPC6) and found dose-dependent blockade of cell hypertrophy signaling triggered by angiotensin II or endothelin-1 in HEK293T cells as well as in neonatal and adult cardiac myocytes. In vivo efficacy in mice and rats was greatly limited by rapid metabolism and high protein binding, although antifibrotic effects with pressure overload were observed. Intriguingly, although gene deletion of TRPC3 or TRPC6 alone did not protect against hypertrophy or dysfunction from pressure overload, combined deletion was protective, supporting the value of dual inhibition. Further development of this pharmaceutical class may yield a useful therapeutic agent for heart disease management. PMID:24453217

  16. Murine study of portal hypertension associated endothelin-1 hypo-response

    PubMed Central

    Theodorakis, Nicholas; Maluccio, Mary; Skill, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate endothelin-1 hypo-responsive associated with portal hypertension in order to improve patient treatment outcomes. METHODS: Wild type, eNOS-/- and iNOS-/- mice received partial portal vein ligation surgery to induce portal hypertension or sham surgery. Development of portal hypertension was determined by measuring the splenic pulp pressure, abdominal aortic flow and portal systemic shunting. To measure splenic pulp pressure, a microtip pressure transducer was inserted into the spleen pulp. Abdominal aortic flow was measured by placing an ultrasonic Doppler flow probe around the abdominal aorta between the diaphragm and celiac artery. Portal systemic shunting was calculated by injection of fluorescent microspheres in to the splenic vein and determining the percentage accumulation of spheres in liver and pulmonary beds. Endothelin-1 hypo-response was evaluated by measuring the change in abdominal aortic flow in response to endothelin-1 intravenous administration. In addition, thoracic aorta endothelin-1 contraction was measured in 5 mm isolated thoracic aorta rings ex-vivo using an ADI small vessel myograph. RESULTS: In wild type and iNOS-/- mice splenic pulp pressure increased from 7.5 ± 1.1 mmHg and 7.2 ± 1 mmHg to 25.4 ± 3.1 mmHg and 22 ± 4 mmHg respectively. In eNOS-/- mice splenic pulp pressure was increased after 1 d (P = NS), after which it decreased and by 7 d was not significantly elevated when compared to 7 d sham operated controls (6.9 ± 0.6 mmHg and 7.3 ± 0.8 mmHg respectively, P = 0.3). Abdominal aortic flow was increased by 80% and 73% in 7 d portal vein ligated wild type and iNOS when compared to shams, whereas there was no significant difference in 7 d portal vein ligated eNOS-/- mice when compared to shams. Endothelin-1 induced a rapid reduction in abdominal aortic blood flow in wild type, eNOS-/- and iNOS-/- sham mice (50% ± 8%, 73% ± 9% and 47% ± 9% respectively). Following portal vein ligation endothelin-1 reduction in

  17. Novel drug development for neuromuscular blockade.

    PubMed

    Prabhakar, Amit; Kaye, Alan D; Wyche, Melville Q; Salinas, Orlando J; Mancuso, Kenneth; Urman, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacological advances in anesthesia in recent decades have resulted in safer practice and better outcomes. These advances include improvement in anesthesia drugs with regard to efficacy and safety profiles. Although neuromuscular blockers were first introduced over a half century ago, few new neuromuscular blockers and reversal agents have come to market and even fewer have remained as common clinically employed medications. In recent years, newer agents have been studied and are presented in this review. With regard to nondepolarizer neuromuscular blocker agents, the enantiomers Gantacurium and CW002, which are olefinic isoquinolinium diester fumarates, have shown potential for clinical application. Advantages include ultra rapid reversal of neuromuscular blockade via cysteine adduction and minimal systemic hemodynamic effects with administration.

  18. Experimental realization of a Coulomb blockade refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feshchenko, A. V.; Koski, J. V.; Pekola, J. P.

    2014-11-01

    We present an experimental realization of a Coulomb blockade refrigerator (CBR) based on a single-electron transistor (SET). In the present structure, the SET island is interrupted by a superconducting inclusion to permit charge transport while preventing heat flow. At certain values of the bias and gate voltages, the current through the SET cools one of the junctions. The measurements follow the theoretical model down to ˜80 mK, which was the base temperature of the current measurements. The observed cooling increases rapidly with decreasing temperature, in agreement with the theory, reaching about a 15 mK drop at the base temperature. The CBR appears as a promising electronic cooler at temperatures well below 100 mK.

  19. Beta blockade and physical training in rats.

    PubMed

    Harri, M

    1982-01-01

    Beta adrenergic blocking agents are widely used in the treatment of hypertension. Recent findings indicate that long-term physical training also could reduce elevated blood pressure and many physicians therefore recommend their patients to include physical training in their everyday program. However, it is not known whether a combination of beta blockade and physical training influences the responses of an organism to physical training. This problem was investigated using laboratory rats as an experimental animal model. Both swimming and running training were used, and a group of animals was trained without any medication while the other group performed their daily training session under the influence of 10 mg/kg of propranolol. Some of the effects produced by swimming training, such as hypertrophy of brown adipose tissue and heart muscle, resting bradycardia, increased tachycardic and tail skin temperature responses to isoprenaline, increased calorigenic response to noradrenaline and delayed cooling rate in cold water were similar to those produced by cold acclimation or repeated noradrenaline injections. It is thus tempting to conclude that the training-induced release of noradrenaline was responsible for the changes mentioned. Propranolol, when associated with the training, effectively hampered these changes. Running training increased the activity of oxidative enzymes in the skeletal muscle much more than did swimming training or repeated noradrenaline injections. Furthermore, running training neither induced hypertrophy of the brown fat nor enhanced calorigenic response to noradrenaline; it even led to enhanced rate of body cooling in cold water. Therefore the adaptive changes caused by running training most probably are not due to cold acclimation effects in spite of that propranolol, when associated with the running sessions, antagonized the development of running-induced changes, too. Some of these changes, such as cardiomegaly, training bradycardia and

  20. Collecting duct-specific endothelin B receptor knockout increases ENaC activity

    PubMed Central

    Bugaj, Vladislav; Mironova, Elena; Kohan, Donald E.

    2012-01-01

    Collecting duct (CD)-derived endothelin-1 (ET-1) acting via endothelin B (ETB) receptors promotes Na+ excretion. Compromise of ET-1 signaling or ETB receptors in the CD cause sodium retention and increase blood pressure. Activity of the epithelial Na+ channel (ENaC) is limiting for Na+ reabsorption in the CD. To test for ETB receptor regulation of ENaC, we combined patch-clamp electrophysiology with CD-specific knockout (KO) of endothelin receptors. We also tested how ET-1 signaling via specific endothelin receptors influences ENaC activity under differing dietary Na+ regimens. ET-1 significantly decreased ENaC open probability in CD isolated from wild-type (WT) and CD ETA KO mice but not CD ETB KO and CD ETA/B KO mice. ENaC activity in WT and CD ETA but not CD ETB and CD ETA/B KO mice was inversely related to dietary Na+ intake. ENaC activity in CD ETB and CD ETA/B KO mice tended to be elevated under all dietary Na+ regimens compared with WT and CD ETA KO mice, reaching significance with high (2%) Na+ feeding. These results show that the bulk of ET-1 inhibition of ENaC activity is mediated by the ETB receptor. In addition, they could explain the Na+ retention and elevated blood pressure observed in CD ET-1 KO, CD ETB KO, and CD ETA/B KO mice consistent with ENaC regulation by ET-1 via ETB receptors contributing to the antihypertensive and natriuretic effects of the local endothelin system in the mammalian CD. PMID:21918182

  1. Renal medullary endothelin-1 is decreased in Dahl salt-sensitive rats

    PubMed Central

    Speed, Joshua S.; LaMarca, Babbette; Berry, Hunter; Cockrell, Kathy; George, Eric M.

    2011-01-01

    Although it is well established that the renal endothelin (ET-1) system plays an important role in regulating sodium excretion and blood pressure through activation of renal medullary ETB receptors, the role of this system in Dahl salt-sensitive (DS) hypertension is unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the DS rat has abnormalities in the renal medullary endothelin system when maintained on a high sodium intake. The data indicate that Dahl salt-resistant rats (DR) on a high-salt diet had a six-fold higher urinary endothelin excretion than in the DR rats with low Na+ intake (17.8 ± 4 pg/day vs. 112 ± 44 pg/day). In sharp contrast, urinary endothelin levels increased only twofold in DS rats in response to a high Na+ intake (13 ± 2 pg/day vs. 29.8 ± 5.5 pg/day). Medullary endothelin concentration in DS rats on a high-Na+ diet was also significantly lower than DR rats on a high-Na+ diet (31 ± 2.8 pg/mg vs. 70.9 ± 5 pg/mg). Furthermore, DS rats had a significant reduction in medullary ETB receptor expression compared with DR rats while on a high-Na+ diet. Finally, chronic infusion of ET-1 directly into the renal medulla blunted Dahl salt-sensitive hypertension. These data indicate that a decrease in medullary production of ET-1 in the DS rat could play an important role in the development of salt-sensitive hypertension observed in the DS rat. PMID:21613578

  2. Intracrine endothelin signalling evokes IP3-dependent increases in nucleoplasmic Ca2+ in adult cardiac myocytes*

    PubMed Central

    Merlen, Clémence; Farhat, Nada; Luo, Xiaoyan; Chatenet, David; Tadevosyan, Artavazd; Villeneuve, Louis R.; Gillis, Marc-Antoine; Nattel, Stanley; Thorin, Eric; Fournier, Alain; Allen, Bruce G.

    2013-01-01

    Endothelin receptors are present on the nuclear membranes in adult cardiac ventricular myocytes. The objectives of the present study were to determine 1) which endothelin receptor subtype is in cardiac nuclear membranes, 2) if the receptor and ligand traffic from the cell surface to the nucleus, and 3) the effect of increased intracellular ET-1 on nuclear Ca2+ signalling. Confocal microscopy using fluorescently-labeled endothelin analogs confirmed the presence of ETB at the nuclear membrane of rat cardiomyocytes in skinned-cells and isolated nuclei. Furthermore, in both cardiac myocytes and aortic endothelial cells, endocytosed ET:ETB complexes translocated to lysosomes and not the nuclear envelope. Although ETA and ETB can form heterodimers, the presence or absence of ETA did not alter ETB trafficking. Treatment of isolated nuclei with peptide: N-glycosidase F did not alter the electrophoretic mobility of ETB. The absence of N-glycosylation further indicating that these receptors did not originate at the cell surface. Intracellular photolysis of a caged ET-1 analog ([Trp-ODMNB21]ET-1) evoked an increase in nucleoplasmic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]n) that was attenuated by the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate and prevented by pre-treatment with ryanodine. A caged cell-permeable analog of the ETB-selective antagonist IRL-2500 blocked the ability of intracellular cET-1 to increase [Ca2+]n whereas extracellular application of ETA and ETB receptor antagonists did not. These data suggest that 1) the endothelin receptor in the cardiac nuclear membranes is ETB, 2) ETB traffic directly to the nuclear membrane after biosynthesis, 3) exogenous endothelins are not ligands for ETB on nuclear membranes, and 4) ETB associated with the nuclear membranes regulate nuclear Ca2+ signalling. PMID:23756157

  3. Horizon 2020 in Diabetic Kidney Disease: The Clinical Trial Pipeline for Add-On Therapies on Top of Renin Angiotensin System Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Gomez, Maria Vanessa; Sanchez-Niño, Maria Dolores; Sanz, Ana Belen; Martín-Cleary, Catalina; Ruiz-Ortega, Marta; Egido, Jesus; Navarro-González, Juan F.; Ortiz, Alberto; Fernandez-Fernandez, Beatriz

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic kidney disease is the most frequent cause of end-stage renal disease. This implies failure of current therapeutic approaches based on renin-angiotensin system (RAS) blockade. Recent phase 3 clinical trials of paricalcitol in early diabetic kidney disease and bardoxolone methyl in advanced diabetic kidney disease failed to meet the primary endpoint or terminated on safety concerns, respectively. However, various novel strategies are undergoing phase 2 and 3 randomized controlled trials targeting inflammation, fibrosis and signaling pathways. Among agents currently undergoing trials that may modify the clinical practice on top of RAS blockade in a 5-year horizon, anti-inflammatory agents currently hold the most promise while anti-fibrotic agents have so far disappointed. Pentoxifylline, an anti-inflammatory agent already in clinical use, was recently reported to delay estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) loss in chronic kidney disease (CKD) stage 3–4 diabetic kidney disease when associated with RAS blockade and promising phase 2 data are available for the pentoxifylline derivative CTP-499. Among agents targeting chemokines or chemokine receptors, the oral small molecule C-C chemokine receptor type 2 (CCR2) inhibitor CCX140 decreased albuminuria and eGFR loss in phase 2 trials. A dose-finding trial of the anti-IL-1β antibody gevokizumab in diabetic kidney disease will start in 2015. However, clinical development is most advanced for the endothelin receptor A blocker atrasentan, which is undergoing a phase 3 trial with a primary outcome of preserving eGFR. The potential for success of these approaches and other pipeline agents is discussed in detail. PMID:26239562

  4. Effects of age and caloric restriction in the vascular response of renal arteries to endothelin-1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Amor, Sara; García-Villalón, Angel Luis; Rubio, Carmen; Carrascosa, Jose Ma; Monge, Luis; Fernández, Nuria; Martín-Carro, Beatriz; Granado, Miriam

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular alterations are the most prevalent cause of impaired physiological function in aged individuals with kidney being one the most affected organs. Aging-induced alterations in renal circulation are associated with a decrease in endothelium-derived relaxing factors such as nitric oxide (NO) and with an increase in contracting factors such as endothelin-1(ET-1). As caloric restriction (CR) exerts beneficial effects preventing some of the aging-induced alterations in cardiovascular system, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of age and caloric restriction in the vascular response of renal arteries to ET-1 in aged rats. Vascular function was studied in renal arteries from 3-month-old Wistar rats fed ad libitum (3m) and in renal arteries from 8-and 24-month-old Wistar rats fed ad libitum (8m and 24m), or subjected to 20% caloric restriction during their three last months of life (8m-CR and 24m-CR). The contractile response to ET-1 was increased in renal arteries from 8m and 24m compared to 3m rats. ET-1-induced contraction was mediated by ET-A receptors in all experimental groups and also by ET-B receptors in 24m rats. Caloric restriction attenuated the increased contraction to ET-1 in renal arteries from 8m but not from 24m rats possibly through NO release proceeding from ET-B endothelial receptors. In 24m rats, CR did not attenuate the aging-increased response of renal arteries to ET-1, but it prevented the aging-induced increase in iNOS mRNA levels and the aging-induced decrease in eNOS mRNA levels in arterial tissue. In conclusion, aging is associated with an increased response to ET-1 in renal arteries that is prevented by CR in 8m but not in 24m rats.

  5. A novel radiologand [[sup 125]I]BQ-3020 selective for endothelin (ET[sub B]) receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Ihara, Masaki; Saeki, Toshihiko; Fukuroda, Takahiro; Kimura, Sachiyo; Ozaki, Satoshi; Yano, Mitsuo ); Patel, A.C. )

    1992-01-01

    A linear endothelin (ET) analog, N-acetyl-LeuMetAspLysGluAlaValTryPheAlaHisLeuAspIleIleTrp (BQ-3020), is highly selective for ET[sub B] receptors. BQ-3020 displaces [[sup 125]I]ET-1 binding to ET[sub B] receptors in porcine cerebellar membranes at a concentration 4,700 times lower than that of ET[sub A] receptors on aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). BQ-3929 as well as ET-1 and ET-3 elicits vasoconstriction in the rabbit pulmonary artery. The ET[sub A] antagonist BB-123 failed to inhibit this BQ-3020-induced vasocontraction. Futhermore, BQ-3929 elicits endothelium-dependent vasodilation. These data indicate that BQ-3020 has ET[sub B]agonistic activity. The radioligand [[sup 125]I]BQ-3020 binds to cerebellar membranes at single high affinity sites, whereas it scarcely binds to VSMC. [[sup 125]I]BQ-3020 binding to the cerebellum was displaced by BQ-3020, ET-1 and ET-3 in a nonselective manner. However, the binding of [[sup 125]I]BQ-3020 was insensitive to the ET[sub A] antagonist BQ-123 and other bioactive peptides. Both [[sup 125]I]ET-1 and [[sup 125]I]BQ-3020 show slow onset and offset binding kinetics to ET[sub B] receptors. These data indicate that the radioligand [[sup 125]I]BQ-3020 selectively labels ET[sub B] receptors and that the slow binding kinetics of ET-1 are dependent on the peptide sequence from Leu[sup 6] to Trp[sup 21], but not on the structure formed by its two disulfide bridges.

  6. Green tea extract inhibits paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by suppression of oxidative stress and endothelin-l expression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak-Ryul; Park, Byung-Kyu; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Lee, Yun-Song; Lee, Dong-Soon; Kim, Hyun-Kuk; Kim, Joo-Young; Shim, Tae-Sun; Lee, Sang-Do

    2006-01-01

    Paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis involves two factors, direct injury by oxygen free radicals and indirect injury by inflammatory cells and fibroblasts. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) has been shown to act as a mediator of pulmonary fibrosis, and its formation increases during oxidative stress. We investigated whether green tea extract (GTE), which has antioxidant properties, inhibits paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis and whether ET-1 is involved in this process. Paraquat (0.3 mg/kg) was instilled into the right lungs of rats, following which the rats were either not further treated (Group P, n = 7), or they were administered 1% GTE mixed with feed (Group PG; n = 7) or the ET(A) receptor antagonist ZD2574 (10 mg/kg through gavage; Group PZ; n = 7) for two weeks. As control, we used rats instilled with saline (Group N; n = 6). Two weeks after paraquat instillation, we assayed the degree of pulmonary fibrosis by light microscopic morphometry and hydroxyproline content; lipid peroxidation as a marker of oxidative stresses by measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA); ET-1 by immunohistochemistry; and prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Compared with Group N, significant pulmonary fibrosis was observed in Group P, accompanied by increases in MDA, ET-1, and prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression. Compared with Group P, Group PG showed significant decreases in pulmonary fibrosis, along with decreases in MDA, ET-1, and prepro-ET-1 mRNA expression. We also observed significant decreases in pulmonary fibrosis in Group PZ compared with Group P. These findings suggest that GTE inhibits paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis by suppression of oxidative stress and ET-1 expression.

  7. Exogenous sphingosine 1-phosphate and sphingosine kinase activated by endothelin-1 induced myometrial contraction through differential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Leiber, Denis; Banno, Yoshiko; Tanfin, Zahra

    2007-01-01

    Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), a bioactive sphingolipid involved in diverse biological processes, is generated by sphingosine kinase (SphK) and acts via intracellular and/or extracellular mechanisms. We used biochemical, pharmacological, and physiological approaches to investigate in rat myometrium the contractile effect of exogenous S1P and the possible contribution of SphK in endothelin-1 (ET-1)-mediated contraction. S1P stimulated uterine contractility (EC(50) = 1 microM and maximal response = 5 microM) by a pertussis toxin-insensitive and a phospholipse C (PLC)-independent pathway. Phosphorylated FTY720, which interacts with all S1P receptors, except S1P(2) receptors, failed to mimic S1P contractile response, indicating that the effects of S1P involved S1P(2) receptors that are expressed in myometrium. Contraction mediated by S1P and ET-1 required extracellular calcium and Rho kinase activation. Inhibition of SphK reduced ET-1-mediated contraction. ET-1, via ET(A) receptors coupled to pertussis toxin-insensitive G proteins, stimulated SphK1 activity and induced its translocation to the membranes. Myometrial contraction triggered by ET-1 is consecutive to the sequential activation of PLC, protein kinase C, SphK1 and Rho kinase. Prolonged exposure of the myometrium to S1P downregulated S1P(2) receptors and abolished the contraction induced by exogenous S1P. However, in these conditions, the tension triggered by ET-1 was not reduced, indicating that SphK activated by ET-1 contributed to its contractile effect via a S1P(2) receptor-independent process. Our findings demonstrated that exogenous S1P and SphK activity regulated myometrial contraction and may be of physiological relevance in the regulation of uterine motility during gestation and parturition.

  8. Energy Gaps and Interaction Blockade in Confined Quantum Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Capelle, K.; Borgh, M.; Kaerkkaeinen, K.; Reimann, S. M.

    2007-07-06

    We investigate universal properties of strongly confined particles that turn out to be dramatically different from what is observed for electrons in atoms and molecules. For a large class of harmonically confined systems, such as small quantum dots and optically trapped atoms, many-body particle addition and removal energies, and energy gaps, are accurately obtained from single-particle eigenvalues. Transport blockade phenomena are related to the derivative discontinuity of the exchange-correlation functional. This implies that they occur very generally, with Coulomb blockade being a particular realization of a more general phenomenon. In particular, we predict a van der Waals blockade in cold atom gases in traps.

  9. Unconventional Photon Blockade Based on Two-Photon Tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y. H.; Shen, H. Z.

    2017-09-01

    The study on the unconventional photon blockade mainly focus on Kerr nonlinearity. In this paper, we study the unconventional photon blockade based on another kind of nonlinearity, that is two-photon tunneling. The optimal conditions for strong antibunching are found by analytic calculations and numerical simulations, and the results are compared with the unconventional photon blockade based on Kerr nonlinearity, we find that the two-photon tunneling system has advantages for the larger antibunching area. Finally, we show that, after the symmetric-antisymmetric mode transformation, the two kinds of nonlinearities are equivalent from the perspective of photon antibunching.

  10. Paravertebral blockade of the brachial plexus in dogs.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Kip A; Creighton, Catherine M

    2008-11-01

    Local anesthetic techniques have the unique ability to block peripheral nociceptive input associated with surgical trauma and inflammation and to prevent sensitization of central nociceptive pathways and the development of pathologic pain. Complete neural blockade of the canine brachial plexus is difficult to achieve using the traditional axillary technique. This article describes paravertebral blockade of the brachial plexus in dogs and a new modified paravertebral technique. Both techniques are relatively easy to perform and produce complete blockade of the forelimb, including the shoulder. A review of relevant clinical anatomy and guidelines for using electrical nerve locators are also included.

  11. Optimal Photon Blockade on the Maximal Atomic Coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yang; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Chang-shui

    2016-12-01

    There is generally no obvious evidence in any direct relation between photon blockade and atomic coherence. Here instead of only illustrating the photon statistics, we show an interesting relation between the steady-state photon blockade and the atomic coherence by designing a weakly driven cavity QED system with a two-level atom trapped. It is shown for the first time that the maximal atomic coherence has a perfect correspondence with the optimal photon blockade. The negative effects of the strong dissipations on photon statistics, atomic coherence and their correspondence are also addressed. The numerical simulation is also given to support all of our results.

  12. Intradermal administration of endothelin-1 attenuates endothelium-dependent and -independent cutaneous vasodilation via Rho kinase in young adults.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Naoto; Amano, Tatsuro; Halili, Lyra; Louie, Jeffrey C; Zhang, Sarah Y; McNeely, Brendan D; Kenny, Glen P

    2017-01-01

    We recently showed that intradermal administration of endothelin-1 diminished endothelium-dependent and -independent cutaneous vasodilation. We evaluated the hypothesis that Rho kinase may be a mediator of this response. We also sought to evaluate if endothelin-1 increases sweating. In 12 adults (25 ± 6 yr), we measured cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) and sweating during 1) endothelium-dependent vasodilation induced via administration of incremental doses of methacholine (0.25, 5, 100, and 2,000 mM each for 25 min) and 2) endothelium-independent vasodilation induced via administration of 50 mM sodium nitroprusside (20-25 min). Responses were evaluated at four skin sites treated with either 1) lactated Ringer solution (Control), 2) 400 nM endothelin-1, 3) 3 mM HA-1077 (Rho kinase inhibitor), or 4) endothelin-1+HA-1077. Pharmacological agents were intradermally administered via microdialysis. Relative to the Control site, endothelin-1 attenuated endothelium-dependent vasodilation (CVC at 2,000 mM methacholine, 80 ± 10 vs. 56 ± 15%max, P < 0.01); however, this response was not detected when the Rho kinase inhibitor was simultaneously administered (CVC at 2,000 mM methacholine for Rho kinase inhibitor vs. endothelin-1 + Rho kinase inhibitor sites: 73 ± 9 vs. 72 ± 11%max, P > 0.05). Endothelium-independent vasodilation was attenuated by endothelin-1 compared with the Control site (CVC, 92 ± 13 vs. 70 ± 14%max, P < 0.01). However, in the presence of Rho kinase inhibition, endothelin-1 did not affect endothelium-independent vasodilation (CVC at Rho kinase inhibitor vs. endothelin-1+Rho kinase inhibitor sites: 81 ± 9 vs. 86 ± 10%max, P > 0.05). There was no between-site difference in sweating throughout (P > 0.05). We show that in young adults, Rho kinase is an important mediator of the endothelin-1-mediated attenuation of endothelium-dependent and -independent cutaneous vasodilation, and that endothelin-1 does not increase sweating. Copyright © 2017 the

  13. Characterizing the role of endothelin-1 in the progression of cardiac hypertrophy in aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) null mice

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, Amie K.; Goens, M. Beth; Nunez, Bethany A.; Walker, Mary K. . E-mail: mkwalker@unm.edu

    2006-04-15

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor characterized to play a role in detection and adaptation to environmental stimuli. Genetic deletion of AhR results in hypertension, and cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis, associated with elevated plasma angiotensin II (Ang II) and endothelin-1 (ET-1), thus AhR appears to contribute to cardiovascular homeostasis. In these studies, we tested the hypothesis that ET-1 mediates cardiovascular pathology in AhR null mice via ET{sub A} receptor activation. First, we determine the time courses of cardiac hypertrophy, and of plasma and tissue ET-1 expression in AhR wildtype and null mice. AhR null mice exhibited increases in heart-to-body weight ratio and age-related expression of cardiac hypertrophy markers, {beta}-myosin heavy chain ({beta}-MHC), and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), which were significant at 2 months. Similarly, plasma and tissue ET-1 expression was significantly elevated at 2 months and increased further with age. Second, AhR null mice were treated with ET{sub A} receptor antagonist, BQ-123 (100 nmol/kg/day), for 7, 28, or 58 days and blood pressure, cardiac fibrosis, and cardiac hypertrophy assessed, respectively. BQ-123 for 7 days significantly reduced mean arterial pressure in conscious, catheterized mice. BQ-123 for 28 days significantly reduced the histological appearance of cardiac fibrosis. Treatment for 58 days significantly reduced cardiac mass, assessed by heart weight, echocardiography, and {beta}-MHC and ANF expression; and reduced cardiac fibrosis as determined by osteopontin and collagen I mRNA expression. These findings establish ET-1 and the ET{sub A} receptor as primary determinants of hypertension and cardiac pathology in AhR null mice.

  14. Effects of a new dihydropyridine derivative, S12968 (pranedipine), and its stereoisomer, S12967, on renal effects of endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Montañés, I; Flores, O; Eleno, N; López-Novoa, J M

    1994-11-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess in rats the prevention by two enantiomers of a new dihydropyridine derivative (pranedipine) (called S12967 for the dextrogyre (+) and S12968 for the levogyre (-) molecules) of the renal and cardiovascular effects induced by endothelin-1. The injection of endothelin-1 (1 nmol/kg body weight) induced a sharp and transient decrease in urine flow, sodium and potassium excretion, glomerular filtration rate, renal plasma flow, and renal blood flow, a significant increase in renal vascular resistance, and a small but significant increase in arterial pressure. Treatment with S12968 alone (0.3 mg/kg) induced a 2.5-fold increase in urine flow and potassium excretion and a 4.5-fold increase in sodium excretion. Pretreatment with S12968 completely blocked the endothelin-1 induced increase in arterial pressure, did not affect the acute effect of endothelin-1 on urine flow, sodium and potassium excretion, filtration rate, and renal blood flow, but blunted the effect on renal vascular resistance. Administration of S12967 alone (1 mg/kg) did not induce changes in either renal function or arterial pressure. In S12967-treated animals, endothelin-1 also induced a transient increase in arterial pressure nad renal vascular resistance but failed to change renal function in a significant manner. In summary, the above reported experiments show that at the higher, nonhypotensive doses, the levogyre enantiomer (S12968) of a new dihydropyridine derivative (pranedipine) completely prevented the hypertensive effect of endothelin 1, and partially prevented the effect of endothelin-1 on renal vascular resistance. The dextrogyre enantiomer (S12967) had almost no effect on either mean arterial pressure or renal vascular resistance but completely blocked the endothelin-1-induced decrease in urine flow and urinary sodium excretion.

  15. Effects of age and caloric restriction on the cardiac and coronary response to endothelin-1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Granado, Miriam; Rubio, Carmen; Amor, Sara; Monge, Luis; Fernández, Nuria; Carreño-Tarragona, Gonzalo; Carrascosa, José M; García-Villalón, Ángel Luis

    2014-12-01

    Aging is associated with alterations in the cardiovascular system such as increased vasoconstriction and decreased vasodilatation. Some of these changes are partially reversed by caloric restriction. Endothelin-1 is a potent vasoconstrictor which levels increased with age. The aim of this study is to analyze the role of endothelin-1 in the cardiac and coronary changes induced by age and whether these changes may be attenuated by a three-month caloric restriction. Hearts from young (3 months old), aged (24 months old) and aged rats after 3 months of caloric restriction were perfused according to the Langendorff technique. Coronary vasoconstriction to endothelin-1 was reduced in old rats, and endothelin-1 increased myocardial contractility (dP/dt) and heart rate in old but not in young rats. These changes observed in old rats were partly reversed by caloric restriction. Also, in the myocardial tissue of old rats the gene expression of endothelin-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-a) was increased, and the gene expression of endothelin ETB receptors and endothelial nitric oxide syntase (eNOS) was reduced, compared with young rats. Aging induced changes in the expression of ETB receptors and eNOS were reversed by caloric restriction. These results suggest that aging produces alterations in myocardial and coronary responses to endothelin-1, that may be related to changes in expression of nitric oxide synthases and/or endothelin receptor subtypes, with some of these changes being prevented by caloric restriction. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Does endothelin mobilize calcium from intracellular store sites in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells in primary culture

    SciTech Connect

    Miasiro, N.; Yamamoto, H.; Kanaide, H.; Nakamura, M.

    1988-10-14

    In the presence of endothelin, there was a rapid increase in the /sup 45/Ca++ efflux from primary cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells, both in physiological salt solution and in calcium free medium containing 2 mM EGTA. The /sup 45/Ca++ influx was not affected. The endothelin-induced, transient increase in cytosolic calcium concentration is probably mainly due to release of calcium from the intracellular store in vascular smooth muscle cells.

  17. Activity blockade and GABAA receptor blockade produce synaptic scaling through chloride accumulation in embryonic spinal motoneurons and interneurons.

    PubMed

    Lindsly, Casie; Gonzalez-Islas, Carlos; Wenner, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Synaptic scaling represents a process whereby the distribution of a cell's synaptic strengths are altered by a multiplicative scaling factor. Scaling is thought to be a compensatory response that homeostatically controls spiking activity levels in the cell or network. Previously, we observed GABAergic synaptic scaling in embryonic spinal motoneurons following in vivo blockade of either spiking activity or GABAA receptors (GABAARs). We had determined that activity blockade triggered upward GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, thus increasing the driving force for these currents. To determine whether chloride accumulation also underlies GABAergic scaling following GABAAR blockade we have developed a new technique. We expressed a genetically encoded chloride-indicator, Clomeleon, in the embryonic chick spinal cord, which provides a non-invasive fast measure of intracellular chloride. Using this technique we now show that chloride accumulation underlies GABAergic scaling following blockade of either spiking activity or the GABAAR. The finding that GABAAR blockade and activity blockade trigger scaling via a common mechanism supports our hypothesis that activity blockade reduces GABAAR activation, which triggers synaptic scaling. In addition, Clomeleon imaging demonstrated the time course and widespread nature of GABAergic scaling through chloride accumulation, as it was also observed in spinal interneurons. This suggests that homeostatic scaling via chloride accumulation is a common feature in many neuronal classes within the embryonic spinal cord and opens the possibility that this process may occur throughout the nervous system at early stages of development.

  18. Binding of antipsychotic drugs to cortical 5-HT2A receptors: a PET study of chlorpromazine, clozapine, and amisulpride in schizophrenic patients.

    PubMed

    Trichard, C; Paillère-Martinot, M L; Attar-Levy, D; Recassens, C; Monnet, F; Martinot, J L

    1998-04-01

    This study examined the binding to cortical serotonin 5-HT2A receptors of conventional doses of the typical neuroleptic chlorpromazine in comparison with clozapine, the prototype atypical antipsychotic, and amisulpride, a specific dopamine D2-D3 blocker. Seventeen schizophrenic patients treated with chlorpromazine (75-700 mg/day), four treated with clozapine (200-600 mg/day), and five treated with amisulpride (200-1200 mg/day) were studied. Cortical 5-HT2A binding was estimated by reference to the values for 14 antipsychotic-free schizophrenic subjects with the use of positron emission tomography and [18F]setoperone, a high-affinity radioligand for cortical 5-HT2A receptors. A dose-dependent decrease in the number of available cortical binding sites for [18F] setoperone was demonstrated in the chlorpromazine group; for the highest dose, there was a virtual lack of sites available for binding. A very low percentage of available binding sites was also observed in the clozapine-treated patients at all doses. This suggests a high level of 5-HT2A blockade with both clozapine and high doses of chlorpromazine. No significant binding of amisulpride to 5-HT2A receptors was detected. A high level of 5-HT2A receptor blockade does not appear specific to clozapine in comparison with high doses of chlorpromazine, suggesting that the distinct clinical profiles of both drugs are unrelated to 5-HT2A blockade itself.

  19. Sarafotoxin S6c is a relatively weak displacer of specifically bound /sup 125/I-endothelin

    SciTech Connect

    Nayler, W.G.; Gu, X.H.; Casley, D.J.

    1989-05-30

    Sarafotoxin S6a, S6b and S6c are chemically related vasoconstrictor polypeptides obtained from the venom of the snake, Atractaspis engaddensis. Each contains twenty one amino acid residues, two intrachain cysteine linkages and a long hydrophobic tail. Structurally these polypeptides resemble endothelin. Binding studies with /sup 125/I-endothelin showed that /sup 125/I-endothelin bound to rat ventricular membranes is totally displaceable by sarafotoxin S6b and endothelin, with IC50 values of 0.21 and 0.16 nM, respectively. Sarafotoxin S6c, which differs from sarafotoxin S6b in containing threonine instead of serine at residue 2, arginine instead of lysine at residue 4, and glutamic acid instead of lysine at residue 9, only weakly displaced bound /sup 125/I-endothelin (IC50, 854 nM). These results indicate that the ability of the sarafotoxins to interact with the endothelin binding site is not solely dependent on the long hydrophobic tail or the cysteine linkages.

  20. Mechanism of action of endothelin in rat cardiac muscle: cross-bridge kinetics and myosin light chain phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Rossmanith, G H; Hoh, J F; Turnbull, L; Ludowyke, R I

    1997-01-01

    1. The molecular mechanism of inotropic action of endothelin was investigated in rat ventricular muscle by studying its effects on characteristics of isometric twitch, barium-induced steady contracture and the level of incorporation of 32Pi into myosin light chain 2. 2. Exposure of rat papillary muscle to endothelin caused an increase in isometric twitch force but did not alter the twitch-time parameters. 3. Endothelin did not significantly change the maximum contracture tension but did cause an increase in contracture tension at submaximal levels of activation, without changes in the tension-to-stiffness ratio and kinetics of attached cross-bridges. Kinetics of attached cross-bridges were deduced during steady contracture from complex-stiffness values, and in particular from the frequency at which muscle stiffness assumes a minimum value, fmin. Endothelin did not alter fmin. 4. Endothelin caused an increase in the level of incorporation of 32Pi into myosin light chain 2 without a concurrent change in the level of incorporation of 32Pi into troponin I. 5. We conclude that the inotropic action of endothelin is not due to an increase in the kinetics of attached cross-bridges, nor due to a change in the force per unit cross-bridge, but may result from an increased divalent cation sensitivity caused by elevated myosin light chain 2 phosphorylation, resembling post-tetanic potentiation in fast skeletal muscle fibres. Images Figure 3 Figure 5 PMID:9409484

  1. [Hepatotoxicity in patients treated with endothelin receptor antagonists: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials].

    PubMed

    Macías Saint-Gerons, Diego; de la Fuente Honrubia, César; Montero Corominas, Dolores; Catalá-López, Ferrán

    2014-04-22

    We evaluated the risk of hepatotoxicity associated to endothelin receptor antagonists. Systematic searches in PubMed/MEDLINE, the Cochrane Library as well as regulatory agencies websites were performed. Randomized controlled trials in patients receiving endothelin receptor antagonists (bosentan, sitaxentan or ambrisentan) in at least one treatment group were included. Prior to data extraction, definitions of hepatotoxicity were established. Effect sizes with 95% confidence intervals were calculated using random effects models. Heterogeneity was analysed using Cochran's Q and I(2) tests. Publication bias was assessed using Egger's method and funnel plots were generated. Twenty-one trials met the inclusion criteria (3,644 patients). Bosentan was the evaluated drug in 1,689 (74%) patients who received endothelin receptor antagonists. Compared with controls, relative risk for any hepatic adverse reaction was 2.92 (1.85-4.62; I(2)=30.6%). When hepatotoxicity was defined as elevations of liver alanine or aspartate aminotransferases equal or greater than 3 times the upper limit of normal, relative risk was 2.98 (1.69-5.25; I(2) = 40.9%). No evidence of publication bias was found (Egger's method: p = 0.68). Our results suggest an increased risk of hepatotoxicity in patients receiving endothelin receptor antagonists. Given the limited data available for endothelin receptor antagonists other than bosentan, it is not possible to draw firm conclusions about the individual risk associated for the remaining endothelin receptor antagonists. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  2. Phosphatidic acid increases in response to noradrenaline and endothelin-1 in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ye, H; Wolf, R A; Kurz, T; Corr, P B

    1994-12-01

    The aim was to assess whether noradrenaline and endothelin-1 can stimulate endogenous production of phosphatidic acid in adult ventricular myocytes. After stimulation of rabbit ventricular myocytes with noradrenaline and endothelin-1, total lipids were extracted using the Bligh and Dyer procedure and separated by thin layer chromatography, and phosphatidic acid was quantified using photodensitometric analysis of visualised lipids with CuSO4/H3PO4. Noradrenaline (10(-5) M) elicited a rapid increase in phosphatidic acid at 2 min, followed by a decrease at 5 min. A second delayed and sustained increase in phosphatidic acid occurred at 10 min. The response to noradrenaline (10(-9) to 10(-5) M) was concentration dependent with a half maximum response (EC50) of 3.1 x 10(-8) M and the maximum effect at 10(-6) M. The increase in phosphatidic acid production in response to noradrenaline was abolished by an alpha 1 adrenergic receptor blocking agent (2-[beta-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-ethylaminomethyl]tetralone) but unaffected by the beta adrenergic blocking agent L-propranolol. An increase in phosphatidic acid was also elicited in rabbit ventricular myocytes in response to endothelin-1. The response was time and concentration dependent with the maximal increase at 12 min, EC50 5.3 x 10(-9) M, and maximum effect at 10(-6) M. Both noradrenalin and endothelin-1 stimulated phosphatidylbutanol production in the presence of butanol (100 mM), indicating that both agonists activate phospholipase D. Noradrenaline at physiological concentrations elicits both a rapid and a delayed increase in phosphatidic acid in adult rabbit ventricular myocytes. Endothelial-1, at physiological concentrations, also stimulates an increase in the mass of phosphatidic acid in myocytes, but the increase induced by endothelin-1 is monophasic, in contrast to the biphasic response seen during stimulation with noradrenaline. Activation of phospholipase D contributes to the increase in phosphatidic acid seen during

  3. Selective relaxant binding agents for reversal of neuromuscular blockade.

    PubMed

    Bom, Anton; Epemolu, Ola; Hope, Frank; Rutherford, Samantha; Thomson, Karen

    2007-06-01

    Traditionally, reversal of neuromuscular blockade during anaesthesia was achieved by increasing the acetylcholine concentration in the neuromuscular junction using acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. However, this is ineffective against profound blockade. Furthermore, the increase in acetylcholine level is not limited to the neuromuscular junction, resulting in unwanted side effects requiring co-treatment with muscarinic antagonists. Selective relaxant binding agents offer a new approach for the reversal of neuromuscular blockade: encapsulation of the neuromuscular blocking agent, resulting in inactivation. As part of this new approach, cyclodextrin molecules have been designed that selectively encapsulate steroidal neuromuscular blocking agents. Both animal and human experiments have demonstrated that fast, effective and complete recovery from both normal and profound neuromuscular blockade is now possible. Furthermore, these cyclodextrin derivatives do not have the unwanted side effects of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.

  4. Phonon blockade in a quadratically coupled optomechanical system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Hong; Liao, Chang-Geng; Shang, Xiao; Ye, Ming-Yong; Lin, Xiu-Min

    2017-07-01

    Phonon blockade is achieved in a quadratically coupled optomechanical system, in which the nonlinear interaction between phonons is induced by a driving field via radiation pressure. It is different from the previous standard methods, where the nonlinear interaction for observing phonon blockade is obtained by coupling the mechanical resonator to a two-level system. The effective coupling strength can be tuned by controlling the amplitudes of the driving field, which allows large nonlinearities for the optomechanical system. The second-order correlation function is discussed both analytically and numerically to characterize the phonon statistical properties and the results show that the phonon blockade is available when the effective coupling strength is larger than the mechanical decay rate. This work provides a possible way to experimentally realize phonon blockade.

  5. Dual renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockade: promises and pitfalls.

    PubMed

    Chrysant, Steven G; Chrysant, George S

    2015-01-01

    Single renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) blockade has been shown to be effective and safe for the treatment of hypertension, coronary heart disease (CHD), heart failure (HF), diabetes, and chronic kidney disease (CKD) with proteinuria. Due to the action of RAAS blockers at various levels of the RAAS cascade, it was hypothesized that dual RAAS blockade would result in more complete inhibition of angiotensin II (Ang II) production and be more effective in blocking its detrimental cardiovascular remodeling effects. Unfortunately, several clinical trials in patients with hypertension, CHD, HF, and CKD with proteinuria have demonstrated no superiority of dual versus single RAAS blockade, but a higher incidence of adverse events. Based on these findings, dual RAAS blockade is no longer recommended for the routine treatment of various cardiovascular diseases, except diabetic nephropathy with proteinuria and HF with reduced ejection fraction. All the new information gathered from studies within the last 3 years will be presented in this review.

  6. Rydberg blockade effects at n ˜300 in strontium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X.; Dunning, F. B.; Yoshida, S.; Burgdörfer, J.

    2015-11-01

    Rydberg blockade at n ˜300 , is examined using strontium n F13 Rydberg atoms excited in an atomic beam in a small volume defined by two tightly focused crossed laser beams. The observation of blockade for such states is challenging due to their extreme sensitivity to stray fields and the many magnetic sublevels associated with F states which results in a high local density of states. Nonetheless, with a careful choice of laser polarization to selectively excite only a limited number of these sublevels, sizable blockade effects are observed on an ˜0.1 mm length scale extending blockade measurements into the near-macroscopic regime and enabling study of the dynamics of strongly coupled many-body high-n Rydberg systems under carefully controlled conditions.

  7. Blockade involving high- n, n ~ 300 , strontium Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim; Zhang, Xinyue; Dunning, F. Barry

    2016-05-01

    The blockade of high- n strontium n1F3 Rydberg states contained in a hot atomic beam is investigated both theoretically and experimentally. One difficulty in such experiments is that, once created, Rydberg atoms move out of the excitation volume reducing blockade effects. While the effects of such motion are apparent, the data provide strong evidence of blockade, consistent with theoretical predictions. Because of their relatively high angular momentum (L = 3) , a pair of n1F3 Rydberg atoms have many degenerate states whose degeneracy is removed by Rydberg-Rydberg interactions yielding a high density of states near the target energy. To evaluate the effect of blockade not only the energy shifts but also the modification of the oscillator strengths for excitation have to be taken into account. The n-scaling of the interactions and the importance of high-order multipoles will also be discussed. Research supported by the NSF and Robert A. Welch Foundation.

  8. Radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockades: a snapshot in 2016

    PubMed Central

    Koo, Taeryool; Kim, In Ah

    2016-01-01

    Immune checkpoint blockades including monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4), programmed death-1 (PD-1), and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) have been emerged as a promising anticancer therapy. Several immune checkpoint blockades have been approved by US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and have shown notable success in clinical trials for patients with advanced melanoma and non-small cell lung cancer. Radiotherapy is a promising combination partner of immune checkpoint blockades due to its potent pro-immune effect. This review will cover the current issue and the future perspectives for combined with radiotherapy and immune checkpoint blockades based upon the available preclinical and clinical data. PMID:28030901

  9. Constitutive ALK5-Independent c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase Activation Contributes to Endothelin-1 Overexpression in Pulmonary Fibrosis: Evidence of an Autocrine Endothelin Loop Operating through the Endothelin A and B Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Shi-Wen, Xu; Rodríguez-Pascual, Fernando; Lamas, Santiago; Holmes, Alan; Howat, Sarah; Pearson, Jeremy D.; Dashwood, Michael R.; du Bois, Roland M.; Denton, Christopher P.; Black, Carol M.; Abraham, David J.; Leask, Andrew

    2006-01-01

    The signal transduction mechanisms generating pathological fibrosis are almost wholly unknown. Endothelin-1 (ET-1), which is up-regulated during tissue repair and fibrosis, induces lung fibroblasts to produce and contract extracellular matrix. Lung fibroblasts isolated from scleroderma patients with chronic pulmonary fibrosis produce elevated levels of ET-1, which contribute to the persistent fibrotic phenotype of these cells. Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) induces fibroblasts to produce and contract matrix. In this report, we show that TGF-β induces ET-1 in normal and fibrotic lung fibroblasts in a Smad-independent ALK5/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/Ap-1-dependent fashion. ET-1 induces JNK through TAK1. Fibrotic lung fibroblasts display constitutive JNK activation, which was reduced by the dual ETA/ETB receptor inhibitor, bosentan, providing evidence of an autocrine endothelin loop. Thus, ET-1 and TGF-β are likely to cooperate in the pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis. As elevated JNK activation in fibrotic lung fibroblasts contributes to the persistence of the myofibroblast phenotype in pulmonary fibrosis by promoting an autocrine ET-1 loop, targeting the ETA and ETB receptors or constitutive JNK activation by fibrotic lung fibroblasts is likely to be of benefit in combating chronic pulmonary fibrosis. PMID:16809784

  10. Control of neuromuscular blockade in the presence of sensor faults.

    PubMed

    Lemos, João M; Magalhães, Hugo; Mendonça, Teresa; Dionísio, Rui

    2005-11-01

    The problem of embedding sensor fault tolerance in feedback control of neuromuscular blockade is considered. For tackling interruptions of feedback measurements, a structure based upon Bayesian inference as well as a predictive filter is proposed. This algorithm is general and can be applied to different situations. Here, it is incorporated in an adaptive automatic system for feedback control of neuromuscular blockade using continuous infusion of muscle relaxants. A significant contribution consists in the experimental clinical testing of the algorithm in patients undergoing surgery.

  11. From Napoleon To Netanyahu: Blockading Through Two Centuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    galley ship in ancient times, blockading continues to be a fundamental activity of navies. Over the centuries, its meaning and roles evolved in...of the latter, strategic importance. This does not mean that they were not both necessary and effective. Throughout the history of warfare and...Throughout blockading’s history , this is AU/ACSC/Howard, J/AY16 4 readily visible by the wide variety of names blockading activities receive by those

  12. Interleukin-6 blockade in ocular inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Mesquida, M; Leszczynska, A; Llorenç, V; Adán, A

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a key cytokine featuring redundancy and pleiotropic activity. It plays a central role in host defence against environmental stress such as infection and injury. Dysregulated, persistent interleukin (IL)-6 production has been implicated in the development of various autoimmune, chronic inflammatory diseases and even cancers. Significant elevation of IL-6 has been found in ocular fluids derived from refractory/chronic uveitis patients. In experimental autoimmune uveitis models with IL-6 knock-out mice, IL-6 has shown to be essential for inducing inflammation. IL-6 blockade can suppress acute T helper type 17 (Th17) responses via its differentiation and, importantly, can ameliorate chronic inflammation. Tocilizumab, a recombinant humanized anti-IL-6 receptor antibody, has been shown to be effective in several autoimmune diseases, including uveitis. Herein, we discuss the basic biology of IL-6 and its role in development of autoimmune conditions, focusing particularly on non-infectious uveitis. It also provides an overview of efficacy and safety of tocilizumab therapy for ocular inflammatory diseases. PMID:24528300

  13. Prolonged sensory-selective nerve blockade

    PubMed Central

    Sagie, Itay; Kohane, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory-selective local anesthesia has long been a key goal in local anesthetic development. For example, it allows women to be pain-free during labor without compromising their ability to push. Here we show that prolonged sensory-selective nerve block can be produced by specific concentrations of surfactants—such as are used to enhance drug flux across skin—in combination with QX-314, a lidocaine derivative that has relative difficulty penetrating nerves. For example, injection of 25 mM QX-314 in 30 mM octyltrimethylammonium bromide (OTAB) lasted up to 7 h. Sensory selectivity was imparted to varying degrees by cationic, neutral, and anionic surfactants, and also was achieved with another lidocaine derivative, QX-222. Simultaneous injection of OTAB at a s.c. injection site remote from the sciatic nerve did not result in prolonged sensory-specific nerve blockade from QX-314, suggesting that the observed effect is due to a local interaction between the surfactant and the lidocaine derivative, not a systemic effect. PMID:20133669

  14. Costimulation Blockade in Kidney Transplantation: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Malvezzi, Paolo; Jouve, Thomas; Rostaing, Lionel

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In the setting of solid-organ transplantation, calcineurin inhibitor (CNI)-based therapy remains the cornerstone of immunosuppression. However, long-term use of CNIs is associated with some degree of nephrotoxicity. This has led to exploring the blockade of some costimulation pathways as an efficient immunosuppressive tool instead of using CNIs. The only agent already in clinical use and approved by the health authorities for kidney transplant patients is belatacept (Nulojix), a fusion protein that interferes with cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein 4. Belatacept has been demonstrated to be as efficient as cyclosporine-based immunosuppression and is associated with significantly better renal function, that is, no nephrotoxicity. However, in the immediate posttransplant period, significantly more mild/moderate episodes of acute rejection have been reported, favored by the fact that cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated protein pathway has an inhibitory effect on the alloimmune response; thereby its inhibition is detrimental in this regard. This has led to the development of antibodies that target CD28. The most advanced is FR104, it has shown promise in nonhuman primate models of autoimmune diseases and allotransplantation. In addition, research into blocking the CD40-CD154 pathway is underway. A phase II study testing ASK1240, that is, anti-CD40 antibody has been completed, and the results are pending. PMID:27472094

  15. Orbital excitation blockade and algorithmic cooling in quantum gases.

    PubMed

    Bakr, Waseem S; Preiss, Philipp M; Tai, M Eric; Ma, Ruichao; Simon, Jonathan; Greiner, Markus

    2011-12-21

    Interaction blockade occurs when strong interactions in a confined, few-body system prevent a particle from occupying an otherwise accessible quantum state. Blockade phenomena reveal the underlying granular nature of quantum systems and allow for the detection and manipulation of the constituent particles, be they electrons, spins, atoms or photons. Applications include single-electron transistors based on electronic Coulomb blockade and quantum logic gates in Rydberg atoms. Here we report a form of interaction blockade that occurs when transferring ultracold atoms between orbitals in an optical lattice. We call this orbital excitation blockade (OEB). In this system, atoms at the same lattice site undergo coherent collisions described by a contact interaction whose strength depends strongly on the orbital wavefunctions of the atoms. We induce coherent orbital excitations by modulating the lattice depth, and observe staircase-like excitation behaviour as we cross the interaction-split resonances by tuning the modulation frequency. As an application of OEB, we demonstrate algorithmic cooling of quantum gases: a sequence of reversible OEB-based quantum operations isolates the entropy in one part of the system and then an irreversible step removes the entropy from the gas. This technique may make it possible to cool quantum gases to have the ultralow entropies required for quantum simulation of strongly correlated electron systems. In addition, the close analogy between OEB and dipole blockade in Rydberg atoms provides a plan for the implementation of two-quantum-bit gates in a quantum computing architecture with natural scalability.

  16. Endothelins in the cat petrosal ganglion and carotid body: effects and immunolocalization.

    PubMed

    Rey, Sergio; Del Rio, Rodrigo; Alcayaga, Julio; Iturriaga, Rodrigo

    2006-01-19

    In response to hypoxia, chemoreceptor cells of the carotid body (CB) release transmitters, which acting on the petrosal ganglion (PG) neuron terminals, increase the chemoafferent discharge. Additionally, vasoactive molecules produced within the CB may modulate hypoxic chemoreception by controlling blood flow and tissue PO2. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) increases basal CB chemosensory discharges in situ, probably due to its vasoconstrictor action. However, the actions of ET-1 on PG neurons or its expression in the PG are not known. Using immunohistochemistry, we found that endothelin-like peptides are expressed in the cat PG and CB under normoxic conditions. Exogenous applications of ET-1 increased the chemosensory activity in the vascularly perfused CB but were ineffective on either the CB or PG superfused preparations, both of which are devoid of vascular control. Thus, our data indicate that the excitatory effect of ET-1 in the carotid chemoreceptor system appears to be mainly due to a vasoconstrictor effect in the CB blood vessels.

  17. Functional study of endothelin B receptors in satellite glial cells in trigeminal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Feldman-Goriachnik, Rachel; Hanani, Menachem

    2011-07-13

    There is immunohistochemical evidence for endothelin (ET) receptors in satellite glial cells in sensory ganglia, but there is no information on the function of these receptors. We used calcium imaging to study this question in isolated mouse trigeminal ganglia and found that satellite glial cells are highly sensitive to ET-1, with threshold at 0.05 nM. Responses displayed strong desensitization at ET-1 concentrations of more than 1 nM. A large component of the response persisted when Ca was deleted from the external medium, consistent with Ca release from internal stores. The use of receptor selective agents showed that the responses were mediated by ETB receptors. We conclude that satellite glial cells display endothelin receptors, which may participate in neuron-glia communications in the trigeminal ganglia.

  18. Functions, dysfunctions and possible therapeutic relevance of adenosine A2A receptors in Huntington's disease.

    PubMed

    Popoli, Patrizia; Blum, David; Martire, Alberto; Ledent, Catherine; Ceruti, Stefania; Abbracchio, Maria P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this review is to summarize and critically discuss the complex role played by adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)Rs) in Huntington's disease (HD). Since A(2A)Rs are mainly localized on the neurons, which degenerate early in HD, and given their ability to stimulate glutamate outflow and inflammatory gliosis, it was hypothesized that they could be involved in the pathogenesis of HD, and that A(2A)R antagonists could be neuroprotective. This was further sustained by the demonstration that A(2A)Rs and underlying signaling systems undergo profound changes in cellular and animal models of HD. More recently, however, the equation A(2A) receptor blockade=neuroprotection has appeared too simplistic. First, it is now definitely clear that, besides mediating 'bad' responses (for example, stimulation of glutamate outflow and excessive glial activation), A(2A)Rs also promote 'good' responses (such as trophic and antinflammatory effects). This implies that A(2A)R blockade results either in pro-toxic or neuroprotective effects according to the mechanisms involved in a given experimental model. Second, since HD is a chronically progressive disease, the multiple mechanisms involving A(2A)Rs may play different relative roles along the degenerative process. Such different mechanisms can be influenced by A(2A)R activation or blockade in different ways, even leading to opposite outcomes depending on the time of agonist/antagonist administration. The number, and the complexity, of the possible scenarios is further increased by the influence of mutant Huntingtin on both the expression and functions of A(2A)Rs, and by the strikingly different effects mediated by A(2A)Rs expressed by different cell populations within the brain.

  19. Sequence and neuronal expression of mouse endothelin-1 cDNA.

    PubMed

    Kurama, M; Ishida, N; Matsui, M; Saida, K; Mitsui, Y

    1996-07-17

    We have isolated and sequenced a cDNA that encodes mouse endothelin-1 (ET-1). The putative protein contains 202 amino acids corresponds to the prepro-form of ET-1. Twenty-one amino acids sequence of the putative mature ET-1 was identical with that of rat, porcine, bovine, and human. In situ hybridization histochemistry indicate that ET-1 mRNA was expressed in several hypothalamic nuclei including the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in rodent brain.

  20. Decreased Endothelin-1 Plasma Levels in Multiple Sclerosis Patients: A Possible Factor of Vascular Dysregulation?

    PubMed Central

    Jankowska-Lech, Irmina; Terelak-Borys, Barbara; Grabska-Liberek, Iwona; Palasik, Witold; Bik, Wojciech; Wolińska-Witort, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Background Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating autoimmune disease of the central nervous system with possible involvement of vascular dysregulation secondary to endothelial dysfunction caused by destruction of the vessel wall. Vascular dysregulation leads to excessive vasoconstriction or insufficient vasodilatation, resulting in vasospasm mediated by endothelin-1 (ET-1), the most potent and long-lasting mediator. Vascular dysregulation can play an important role in the pathogenesis of some eye disorders and it has been hypothesized that it is a vascular risk factor for glaucomatous optic neuropathy. The aim of this study was to estimate endothelin-1 (ET-1) plasma levels in patients with MS. Material/Methods The MS group consisted of 39 patients (9 males, 30 females), mean age: 38.8±10.02 years, range: 22–62. The control group consisted of 27 healthy volunteers (3 males and 24 females), mean age: 37.4±10.88 years, range: 20–62; clinically, in a non-active stage of the disease. ET-1 plasma levels were measured using the Endothelin-1 ELISA Kit (Immuno-Biological Laboratories Co., Japan). Statistical analysis was performed with the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test for independent groups. Results Endothelin-1 (ET-1) plasma levels were significantly lower in MS patients compared to healthy controls: mean value 0.55±0.44 pg/ml (146.05±118.27 fmol/ml) vs. 0.95±0.48 pg/ml (252.83±127.16 fmol/ml); P=0.012. Conclusions Significantly decreased ET-1 plasma levels in the MS patients could reflect the non-active disease at the time of ET-1 measurements or the effects of immunomodulatory treatment, but it cannot be excluded that decreased ET-1 plasma levels in these patients might result from vascular dysregulation. PMID:25864450

  1. Effects of endothelin-1 on prevention of microvascular endothelium injuries in hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    PubMed

    Korzonek-Szlacheta, Ilona; Gwóźdź, Bolesław

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of posthemorrhagic hypovolemia and hypotension upon the microvascular endothelial cells and on activity of antioxidant enzymes in blood, and to investigate the influence of intravenously injected endothelin-1 in rats. The experiment was conducted on 48 rats anesthetized with ethylurethane, subjected to controlled hypotension (under 35-40 mmHg) for 60 min. Endothelin-1 was administered intravenously once at a dose of 50 pmol/kg in the 5th min of hemorrhagic shock. The control group had blood volume restored after 5 min of hypovolemia with hypotension. The arterial blood pressure, systolic and diastolic, and heart rate were monitored. After 60 min, morphological changes in the capillary endothelium of the small intestine were assessed, using electron microscope, and the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) in blood were measured. Animals with hypovolemia and hypotension, had edematous endothelial cells with injured cell-membrane and mitochondria, alongside of the enhancement in SOD activity (p < 0.05) and drop in the activity of CAT and GSH-PX. No signs of vascular endothelium injuries and no reduced enzymatic activities, except for GSH-PX, were observed after restoring the normal blood pressure by means of endothelin-1 in animals with hypovolemia. Hemorrhagic shock caused injuries in intestinal microcascular endothelium. Intravenously administered endothelin-1 quickly restored normal blood pressure, maintained it over a long time, and prevented the consequences of ischemia in microcirculation, thereby prolonging the survival for animals in hemorrhagic shock.

  2. Endothelin-1 is elevated in Alzheimer's disease and upregulated by amyloid-β.

    PubMed

    Palmer, Jennifer C; Barker, Rachel; Kehoe, Patrick G; Love, Seth

    2012-01-01

    Vascular dysfunction and lowered cerebral blood flow are thought to contribute to the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a potent vasoconstrictor, the production of which is mainly catalyzed by endothelin-converting enzymes (ECEs). We previously showed that ECE-2 is upregulated by amyloid-β (Aβ), and its expression elevated in AD postmortem brain tissue. We have now investigated whether there is a concomitant increase in ET-1. We studied temporal cortex from 20 cases of sporadic AD and 20 matched controls. The cellular distribution of ET-1 was assessed immunohistochemically in paraffin sections. PreproET-1 (EDN1) mRNA and ET-1 protein were measured in homogenates of superior temporal cortex by real-time PCR and sandwich ELISA respectively. Cultured SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells were incubated with 10 μM oligomeric Aβ42 for 24 h, and ET-1 protein level was measured in cell culture supernatants by sandwich ELISA. Antibody to ET-1 labeled neurons throughout the temporal cortex, and the walls of some cerebral blood vessels. ET-1 mRNA measured in the temporal neocortex was significantly elevated in AD when normalized for expression of GAPDH (p = 0.0256) or the neuronal marker neuron-specific enolase (NSE, p = 0.0001). ET-1 protein was also significantly higher in AD than in control tissue, when adjusted for neuronal content by measurement of NSE (p = 0.0275). ET-1 protein in SH-SY5Y cell supernatant rose 1.7-fold after exposure to 10 μM oligomeric Aβ (p = 0.024). These findings provide evidence of overactivity of the endothelin system in AD, further supporting the suggestion that endothelin receptor antagonists may be of value for the treatment of this disease.

  3. Endothelin and its suspected role in the pathogenesis and possible treatment of glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Shoshani, Yochai Z; Harris, Alon; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Rusia, Deepam; Siesky, Brent; Arieli, Yoel; Wirostko, Barbara

    2012-01-01

    To review the role of endothelin in intraocular pressure control, its effect on the trabecular meshwork (TM) and the outflow facility, effect on ocular blood flow and vascular regulation and the potential role of endothelin-1 (ET-1) antagonism in the therapeutic paradigm of glaucoma. A thorough review of the medical literature and a meta-analysis on the level of ET-1 in OAG patients in an attempt to demonstrate the evolving importance of endothelin in glaucoma. ET-1 has been identified in the plasma in concentrations that are markedly increased in a number of systemic as well as ocular pathologies such as glaucoma where underlying vascular dysfunction and pathology play a role. It has been shown that ET-1 induces human TM cell contraction in culture and that it can affect the outflow facility. Evidence indicates that systemic ET-1 regulatory mechanisms and vascular responses to it are also altered in glaucoma. Recently, several endothelin antagonists have been shown to have a potential role in glaucoma therapy. In our meta-analysis, only patients with normal tension glaucoma (NTG) (as opposed to patients with high tension glaucoma (HTG)) had significantly higher plasma ET-1 levels compared to non-glaucomatous control. High tension glaucomaHTG patients had significant higher levels of ET-1 in the aqueous humor. The potential role of ET-1 antagonism in the therapeutic paradigm of glaucoma is an exciting possible new approach in the treatment of OAG patients. In NTG, ET-1 may have both a local and systemic component of vascular dysregulation, while whereas in HTG, the role of ET-1 may be dominantly localized to ocular tissue.

  4. Bosentan, a mixed endothelin receptor antagonist, inhibits superoxide anion-induced pain and inflammation in mice.

    PubMed

    Serafim, Karla G G; Navarro, Suelen A; Zarpelon, Ana C; Pinho-Ribeiro, Felipe A; Fattori, Victor; Cunha, Thiago M; Alves-Filho, Jose C; Cunha, Fernando Q; Casagrande, Rubia; Verri, Waldiceu A

    2015-11-01

    Bosentan is a mixed endothelin receptor antagonist widely used to treat patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension, and the emerging literature suggests bosentan as a potent anti-inflammatory drug. Superoxide anion is produced in large amounts during inflammation, stimulates cytokine production, and thus contributes to inflammation and pain. However, it remains to be determined whether endothelin contributes to the inflammatory response triggered by the superoxide anion. The present study investigated the effects of bosentan in a mouse model of inflammation and pain induced by potassium superoxide, a superoxide anion donor. Male Swiss mice were treated with bosentan (10-100 mg/kg) by oral gavage, 1 h before potassium superoxide injection, and the inflammatory response was evaluated locally and at spinal cord (L4-L6) levels. Bosentan (100 mg/kg) inhibited superoxide anion-induced mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia, overt pain-like behavior (abdominal writhings, paw flinching, and licking), paw edema, myeloperoxidase activity (neutrophil marker) in the paw skin, and leukocyte recruitment in the peritoneal cavity. Bosentan also inhibited superoxide anion-induced interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production, while it enhanced IL-10 production in the paw skin and spinal cord. Bosentan inhibited the reduction of antioxidant capacity (reduced glutathione, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and ABTS radical scavenging ability) induced by the superoxide anion. Finally, we demonstrated that intraplantar injection of potassium superoxide induces the mRNA expression of prepro-endothelin-1 in the paw skin and spinal cord. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that superoxide anion-induced inflammation, pain, cytokine production, and oxidative stress depend on endothelin; therefore, these responses are amenable to bosentan treatment.

  5. 5-HT2A receptors control body temperature in mice during LPS-induced inflammation via regulation of NO production.

    PubMed

    Voronova, Irina P; Khramova, Galina M; Kulikova, Elizabeth A; Petrovskii, Dmitrii V; Bazovkina, Daria V; Kulikov, Alexander V

    2016-01-01

    G protein-coupled 5-HT2A receptors are involved in the regulation of numerous normal and pathological physiological functions. At the same time, its involvement in the regulation of body temperature (Tb) in normal conditions is obscure. Here we study the effect of the 5-HT2A receptor activation or blockade on Tb in sick animals. The experiments were carried out on adult C57BL/6 mouse males. Systemic inflammation and sickness were produced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.1mg/kg, ip), while the 5-HT2A receptor was stimulated or blocked through the administration of the receptor agonist DOI or antagonist ketanserin (1mg/kg), respectively. LPS, DOI or ketanserin alone produced no effect on Tb. However, administration of LPS together with a peripheral or central ketanserin injection reduced Tb (32.2°C). Ketanserin reversed the LPS-induced expression of inducible NO synthase in the brain. Consequently, an involvement of NO in the mechanism of the hypothermic effect of ketanserin in sick mice was hypothesized. Administration of LPS together with NO synthase inhibitor, l-nitro-arginine methyl ester (60mg/kg, ip) resulted in deep (28.5°C) and prolonged (8h) hypothermia, while administration of l-nitro-arginine methyl ester alone produced no effect on Tb. Thus, 5-HT2A receptors play a key role in Tb control in sick mice. Blockade of this GPCR produces hypothermia in mice with systemic inflammation via attenuation of LPS-induced NO production. These results indicate an unexpected role of 5-HT2A receptors in inflammation and NO production and have a considerable biological impact on understanding the mechanism of animal adaptation to pathogens and parasites. Moreover, adverse side effects of 5-HT2A receptor antagonists in patients with inflammation may be expected. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Contribution of 5-HT2A receptors on diaphragmatic recovery after chronic cervical spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun-Ze; Gonzalez-Rothi, Elisa J

    2017-10-01

    Unilateral C2 spinal cord hemisection (C2Hx) interrupts bulbospinal respiratory pathways innervating ipsilateral phrenic motoneurons, resulting in cessation of ipsilateral diaphragm motor output. Plasticity within the spinal neural circuitry controlling the diaphragm can induce partial recovery of phrenic bursting which correlates with the time-dependent return of spinal serotonin (5-HT) immunoreactivity in the vicinity of phrenic motoneurons. The 5-HT2A receptor subtype is present on phrenic motoneurons and its expression is up-regulated after cervical spinal cord injury; however the functional role of these receptors following injury has not been clearly defined. The present study evaluated the functional role of 5-HT2A receptors by testing the hypothesis that pharmacologic blockade would attenuate diaphragm activity in rats with chronic cervical spinal cord injury. Bilateral diaphragm electromyography (EMG) was performed in vagal-intact and spontaneously breathing rats before and after intravenous administration of the 5-HT2A receptor antagonist Ketanserin (1mg/kg). Intravenous ketanserin significantly attenuated ipsilateral diaphragm EMG activity in C2Hx animals but had no impact on diaphragm output in uninjured animals. We conclude that 5-HT2A receptor activation contributes to the recovery of ipsilateral phrenic motor output after chronic cervical spinal cord injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Endothelin-1 critically influences cardiac function via superoxide-MMP9 cascade

    PubMed Central

    Hathaway, Catherine K.; Grant, Ruriko; Hagaman, John R.; Hiller, Sylvia; Li, Feng; Xu, Longquan; Chang, Albert S.; Madden, Victoria J.; Bagnell, C. Robert; Rojas, Mauricio; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Wu, Bingruo; Zhou, Bin; Smithies, Oliver; Kakoki, Masao

    2015-01-01

    We have generated low-expressing and high-expressing endothelin-1 genes (L and H) and have bred mice with four levels of expression: L/L, ∼20%; L/+, ∼65%; +/+ (wild type), 100%; and H/+, ∼350%. The hypomorphic L allele can be spatiotemporally switched to the hypermorphic H allele by Cre-loxP recombination. Young adult L/L and L/+ mice have dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and increased plasma volumes, together with increased ventricular superoxide levels, increased matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Mmp9) expression, and reduced ventricular stiffness. H/+ mice have decreased plasma volumes and significantly heavy stiff hearts. Global or cardiomyocyte-specific switching expression from L to H normalized the abnormalities already present in young adult L/L mice. An epithelial sodium channel antagonist normalized plasma volume and blood pressure, but only partially corrected the cardiomyopathy. A superoxide dismutase mimetic made superoxide levels subnormal, reduced Mmp9 overexpression, and substantially improved cardiac function. Genetic absence of Mmp9 also improved cardiac function, but increased superoxide remained. We conclude that endothelin-1 is critical for maintaining normal contractile function, for controlling superoxide and Mmp9 levels, and for ensuring that the myocardium has sufficient collagen to prevent overstretching. Even a modest (∼35%) decrease in endothelin-1 gene (Edn1) expression is sufficient to cause cardiac dysfunction. PMID:25848038

  8. Endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) is post-transcriptionally regulated by alternative polyadenylation.

    PubMed

    Whyteside, Alison R; Turner, Anthony J; Lambert, Daniel W

    2014-01-01

    Endothelin-converting enzyme-1 (ECE-1) is the enzyme predominantly responsible for producing active endothelin-1 (ET-1), a mitogenic peptide implicated in the aetiology of a number of diseases, including cancer. Elevated levels of ECE-1 have been observed in a range of malignancies, with high expression conferring poor prognosis and aiding the acquisition of androgen independence in prostate cancer. The mechanisms regulating the expression of ECE-1 in cancer cells are poorly understood, hampering the development of novel therapies targeting the endothelin axis. Here we provide evidence that the expression of ECE-1 is markedly inhibited by its 3'UTR, and that alternative polyadenylation (APA) results in the production of ECE-1 transcripts with truncated 3'UTRs which promote elevated protein expression. Abolition of the ECE-1 APA sites reduced protein expression from a reporter vector in prostate cancer cells, suggesting these sites are functional. This is the first study to identify ECE-1 as a target for APA, a regulatory mechanism aberrantly activated in cancer cells, and provides novel information about the mechanisms leading to ECE-1 overexpression in malignant cells.

  9. Activation of the hepatic endothelin-system in rats with biliary liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Rothermund, L; Cho, J J; Leggewie, S; Schwarz, A; Bauer, C; Paul, M; Neumayer, H H; Schuppan, D; Hocher, B

    2000-11-01

    Circulating plasma endothelin-1 (ET-1) is elevated in liver cirrhosis, in a disease-stage-dependent manner. However, ET-1 exerts its effects mainly via paracrine and autocrine pathways. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyze the hepatic endothelin (ET) system in liver cirrhosis resulting from bile duct obstruction (BDO). Wistar rats were subjected for 6 weeks to either sham operation (control) or BDO. Thereafter, hepatic ET-1 concentrations were elevated 7.2-fold in BDO compared to control (p <0.001), whereas big ET-1 was unchanged. The density of both ET receptor subtypes was upregulated in BDO (ETA: 7.4-fold and ETB: 4.9-fold vs control, p < 0.001, respectively). The affinity of both receptor subtypes was significantly reduced in BDO. In conclusion, our data demonstrated for the first time that the hepatic ET system in liver cirrhosis is characterized by a simultaneous upregulation of both ET-1 tissue concentration as well as the density of hepatic ETA- and ETB-receptors, suggesting a synergistic activation of the hepatic ET system in rats with BDO. The increased ET-1 tissue concentration is not a result of an altered big ET-1 synthesis in biliary liver fibrosis, suggesting an increased activity of endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) in liver cirrhosis.

  10. Heterodimerization of endothelin-converting enzyme-1 isoforms regulates the subcellular distribution of this metalloprotease.

    PubMed

    Muller, Laurent; Barret, Alain; Etienne, Eric; Meidan, Rina; Valdenaire, Olivier; Corvol, Pierre; Tougard, Claude

    2003-01-03

    Endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) is a membrane metalloprotease that generates endothelin from its direct precursor big endothelin. Four isoforms of ECE-1 are produced from a single gene through the use of alternate promoters. These isoforms share the same extracellular catalytic domain and contain unique cytosolic tails, which results in their specific subcellular targeting. We investigated the distribution of ECE-1 isoforms in transfected AtT-20 neuroendocrine cells. Whereas ECE-1a and 1c were present at the plasma membrane, ECE-1b and ECE-1d were retained inside the cells. We found that both intracellular isoforms were concentrated in the endosomal system: ECE-1d in recycling endosomes, and ECE-1b in late endosomes/multivesicular bodies. Leucine-based motifs were involved in the intracellular retention of these isoforms, and the targeting of ECE-1b to the degradation pathway required an additional signal in the N terminus. The concentration of ECE-1 isoforms in the endosomal system suggested new functions for these enzymes. Potential novel functions include redistribution of other isoforms through direct interaction. We have showed that ECE-1 isoforms could heterodimerize, and that in such heterodimers the ECE-1b targeting signal was dominant. Interaction of a plasma membrane isoform with ECE-1b resulted in its intracellular localization and decreased its extracellular activity. These data demonstrated that the targeting signals specific for ECE-1b constitute a regulatory domain per se that could modulate the localization and the activity of other isoforms.

  11. Mutations in the Endothelin Receptor Type A Cause Mandibulofacial Dysostosis with Alopecia

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Christopher T.; Weaver, K. Nicole; Zechi-Ceide, Roseli Maria; Madsen, Erik C.; Tavares, Andre L.P.; Oufadem, Myriam; Kurihara, Yukiko; Adameyko, Igor; Picard, Arnaud; Breton, Sylvain; Pierrot, Sébastien; Biosse-Duplan, Martin; Voisin, Norine; Masson, Cécile; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Nitschké, Patrick; Delrue, Marie-Ange; Lacombe, Didier; Guion-Almeida, Maria Leine; Moura, Priscila Padilha; Garib, Daniela Gamba; Munnich, Arnold; Ernfors, Patrik; Hufnagel, Robert B.; Hopkin, Robert J.; Kurihara, Hiroki; Saal, Howard M.; Weaver, David D.; Katsanis, Nicholas; Lyonnet, Stanislas; Golzio, Christelle; Clouthier, David E.; Amiel, Jeanne

    2015-01-01

    The endothelin receptor type A (EDNRA) signaling pathway is essential for the establishment of mandibular identity during development of the first pharyngeal arch. We report four unrelated individuals with the syndrome mandibulofacial dysostosis with alopecia (MFDA) who have de novo missense variants in EDNRA. Three of the four individuals have the same substitution, p.Tyr129Phe. Tyr129 is known to determine the selective affinity of EDNRA for endothelin 1 (EDN1), its major physiological ligand, and the p.Tyr129Phe variant increases the affinity of the receptor for EDN3, its non-preferred ligand, by two orders of magnitude. The fourth individual has a somatic mosaic substitution, p.Glu303Lys, and was previously described as having Johnson-McMillin syndrome. The zygomatic arch of individuals with MFDA resembles that of mice in which EDNRA is ectopically activated in the maxillary prominence, resulting in a maxillary to mandibular transformation, suggesting that the p.Tyr129Phe variant causes an EDNRA gain of function in the developing upper jaw. Our in vitro and in vivo assays suggested complex, context-dependent effects of the EDNRA variants on downstream signaling. Our findings highlight the importance of finely tuned regulation of EDNRA signaling during human craniofacial development and suggest that modification of endothelin receptor-ligand specificity was a key step in the evolution of vertebrate jaws. PMID:25772936

  12. Loss of Function of Endothelin-2 Leads to Reduced Ovulation and CL Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cacioppo, Joseph A.; Oh, Sang Wook; Kim, Hey-young; Cho, Jongki; Lin, Po-Ching Patrick; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Ko, CheMyong

    2014-01-01

    Endothelin-2 (EDN2), a potent vasoconstrictive peptide, is transiently produced by periovulatory follicles at the time of ovulation when corpus luteum (CL) formation begins. EDN2 induces contraction of ovarian smooth muscles ex vivo via an endothelin receptor A-mediated pathway. In this study, we aimed to determine if EDN2 is required for normal ovulation and subsequent CL formation in?vivo. In the ovaries of a mouse model that globally lacks the Edn2 gene (Edn2 knockout mouse; Edn2KO), histology showed that post-pubertal Edn2KO mice possess follicles of all developmental stages, but no corpora lutea. When exogenous gonadotropins were injected to induce super-ovulation, Edn2KO mice exhibited significantly impaired ovulation and CL formation compared to control littermates. Edn2KO ovaries that did ovulate in response to gonadotropins did not contain histologically and functionally identifiable CL. Intra-ovarian injection of EDN2 peptide results suggest partial induction of ovulation in Edn2KO mice. Endothelin receptor antagonism in wild type mice similarly disrupted ovulation, CL formation, and progesterone secretion. Overall, this study suggests that EDN2 is necessary for normal ovulation and CL formation. PMID:24763822

  13. Nitric oxide and endothelin-1 release after one-lung ventilation during thoracoabdominal esophagectomy.

    PubMed

    Lund, M; Ny, L; Malmström, R E; Lundberg, J O; Öst, Å; Björnstedt, M; Lundell, L; Tsai, J A

    2013-01-01

    One-lung ventilation (OLV) is applied during esophagectomy to improve exposure during the thoracic part of the operation. Collapse of lung tissue, shunting of pulmonary blood flow, and changes in alveolar oxygenation during and after OLV may possibly induce an ischemia-reperfusion response in the lung, which may affect the pulmonary endothelium. Such a reaction might thereby contribute to the frequently occurring respiratory complications among these patients. In this small trial, 30 patients were randomized to either OLV (n= 16) or two-lung ventilation (TLV, n= 14) during esophagectomy. Central venous and arterial plasma samples were taken before and after OLV/TLV for analysis of nitrite and a metabolite of nitric oxide (NO), and also during the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 10th postoperative day for analysis of endothelin, another endothelium-derived vasoactive mediator. Lung biopsies were taken before and after OLV or TLV, and analyzed regarding immunofluorescence for isoform of NO synthase, a protein upregulated during inflammatory response and also vascular congestion. No changes in lung isoform of NO synthase immunofluorescence or vascular congestion were registered after neither OLV nor TLV. Plasma nitrite and endothelin levels were similar in the two study groups. We conclude that OLV does not seem to have any influence on key regulators of pulmonary vascular tone and inflammation, i.e. NO and endothelin. From this perspective, OLV seems to be a safe method, which defends its clinical position to facilitate surgical exposure during thoracoabdominal esophagectomy.

  14. Endothelin-1 critically influences cardiac function via superoxide-MMP9 cascade.

    PubMed

    Hathaway, Catherine K; Grant, Ruriko; Hagaman, John R; Hiller, Sylvia; Li, Feng; Xu, Longquan; Chang, Albert S; Madden, Victoria J; Bagnell, C Robert; Rojas, Mauricio; Kim, Hyung-Suk; Wu, Bingruo; Zhou, Bin; Smithies, Oliver; Kakoki, Masao

    2015-04-21

    We have generated low-expressing and high-expressing endothelin-1 genes (L and H) and have bred mice with four levels of expression: L/L, ∼20%; L/+, ∼65%; +/+ (wild type), 100%; and H/+, ∼350%. The hypomorphic L allele can be spatiotemporally switched to the hypermorphic H allele by Cre-loxP recombination. Young adult L/L and L/+ mice have dilated cardiomyopathy, hypertension, and increased plasma volumes, together with increased ventricular superoxide levels, increased matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Mmp9) expression, and reduced ventricular stiffness. H/+ mice have decreased plasma volumes and significantly heavy stiff hearts. Global or cardiomyocyte-specific switching expression from L to H normalized the abnormalities already present in young adult L/L mice. An epithelial sodium channel antagonist normalized plasma volume and blood pressure, but only partially corrected the cardiomyopathy. A superoxide dismutase mimetic made superoxide levels subnormal, reduced Mmp9 overexpression, and substantially improved cardiac function. Genetic absence of Mmp9 also improved cardiac function, but increased superoxide remained. We conclude that endothelin-1 is critical for maintaining normal contractile function, for controlling superoxide and Mmp9 levels, and for ensuring that the myocardium has sufficient collagen to prevent overstretching. Even a modest (∼35%) decrease in endothelin-1 gene (Edn1) expression is sufficient to cause cardiac dysfunction.

  15. Endothelin-1 contributes to endothelial dysfunction and enhanced vasoconstriction through augmented superoxide production in penile arteries from insulin-resistant obese rats: role of ETA and ETB receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, A; Martínez, P; Muñoz, M; Benedito, S; García-Sacristán, A; Hernández, M; Prieto, D

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose We assessed whether endothelin-1 (ET-1) inhibits NO and contributes to endothelial dysfunction in penile arteries in a model of insulin resistance-associated erectile dysfunction (ED). Experimental Approach Vascular function was assessed in penile arteries, from obese (OZR) and lean (LZR) Zucker rats, mounted in microvascular myographs. Changes in basal and stimulated levels of superoxide (O2−) were detected by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence and ET receptor expression was determined by immunohistochemistry. Key Results ET-1 stimulated acute O2− production that was blunted by tempol and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor, apocynin, but markedly enhanced in obese animals. ET-1 inhibited the vasorelaxant effects of ACh and of the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-DL-penicillamine in arteries from both LZR and OZR. Selective ETA (BQ123) or ETB receptor (BQ788) antagonists reduced both basal and ET-1-stimulated superoxide generation and reversed ET-1-induced inhibition of NO-mediated relaxations in OZR, while only BQ-123 antagonized ET-1 actions in LZR. ET-1-induced vasoconstriction was markedly enhanced by NO synthase blockade and reduced by endothelium removal and apocynin. In endothelium-denuded penile arteries, apocynin blunted augmented ET-1-induced contractions in OZR. Both ETA and ETB receptors were expressed in smooth muscle and the endothelial layer and up-regulated in arteries from OZR. Conclusions and Implications ET-1 stimulates ETA-mediated NADPH oxidase-dependent ROS generation, which inhibits endothelial NO bioavailability and contributes to ET-1-induced contraction in healthy penile arteries. Enhanced vascular expression of ETB receptors contributes to augmented ROS production, endothelial dysfunction and increased vasoconstriction in erectile tissue from insulin-resistant obese rats. Hence, antagonism of ETB receptors might improve the ED associated with insulin-resistant states. PMID:25091502

  16. Liganded peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) preserve nuclear histone deacetylase 5 levels in endothelin-treated Sprague-Dawley rat cardiac myocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Haining; Shao, Zongjun; Alibin, Caroline P; Acosta, Crystal; Anderson, Hope D

    2014-01-01

    Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) prevents cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, and we previously reported that diacylglycerol kinase zeta (DGKζ) is critically involved. DGKζ is an intracellular lipid kinase that catalyzes phosphorylation of diacylglycerol; by attenuating DAG signaling, DGKζ suppresses protein kinase C (PKC) and G-protein signaling. Here, we investigated how PPAR-DGKζ signaling blocks activation of the hypertrophic gene program. We focused on export of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) from the nucleus, a key event during hypertrophy, since crosstalk occurs between PPARs and other members of the HDAC family. Using cardiac myocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, we determined that liganded PPARs disrupt endothelin-1 (ET1)-induced nuclear export of HDAC5 in a manner that is dependent on DGKζ. When DGKζ-mediated PKC inhibition was circumvented using a constitutively-active PKCε mutant, PPARs failed to block ET1-induced nuclear retention of HDAC5. Liganded PPARs also prevented (i) activation of protein kinase D (the downstream effector of PKC), (ii) HDAC5 phosphorylation at 14-3-3 protein chaperone binding sites (serines 259 and 498), and (iii) physical interaction between HDAC5 and 14-3-3, all of which are consistent with blockade of nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC5. Finally, the ability of PPARs to prevent neutralization of HDAC5 activity was associated with transcriptional repression of hypertrophic genes. This occurred by first, reduced MEF2 transcriptional activity and second, augmented deacetylation of histone H3 associated with hypertrophic genes expressing brain natriuretic peptide, β-myosin heavy chain, skeletal muscle α-actin, and cardiac muscle α-actin. Our findings identify spatial regulation of HDAC5 as a target for liganded PPARs, and to our knowledge, are the first to describe a mechanistic role for nuclear DGKζ in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, these results implicate modulation of HDAC5

  17. Liganded Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPARs) Preserve Nuclear Histone Deacetylase 5 Levels in Endothelin-Treated Sprague-Dawley Rat Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haining; Shao, Zongjun; Alibin, Caroline P.; Acosta, Crystal; Anderson, Hope D.

    2014-01-01

    Ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) prevents cardiac myocyte hypertrophy, and we previously reported that diacylglycerol kinase zeta (DGKζ) is critically involved. DGKζ is an intracellular lipid kinase that catalyzes phosphorylation of diacylglycerol; by attenuating DAG signaling, DGKζ suppresses protein kinase C (PKC) and G-protein signaling. Here, we investigated how PPAR-DGKζ signaling blocks activation of the hypertrophic gene program. We focused on export of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) from the nucleus, a key event during hypertrophy, since crosstalk occurs between PPARs and other members of the HDAC family. Using cardiac myocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats, we determined that liganded PPARs disrupt endothelin-1 (ET1)-induced nuclear export of HDAC5 in a manner that is dependent on DGKζ. When DGKζ-mediated PKC inhibition was circumvented using a constitutively-active PKCε mutant, PPARs failed to block ET1-induced nuclear retention of HDAC5. Liganded PPARs also prevented (i) activation of protein kinase D (the downstream effector of PKC), (ii) HDAC5 phosphorylation at 14-3-3 protein chaperone binding sites (serines 259 and 498), and (iii) physical interaction between HDAC5 and 14-3-3, all of which are consistent with blockade of nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of HDAC5. Finally, the ability of PPARs to prevent neutralization of HDAC5 activity was associated with transcriptional repression of hypertrophic genes. This occurred by first, reduced MEF2 transcriptional activity and second, augmented deacetylation of histone H3 associated with hypertrophic genes expressing brain natriuretic peptide, β-myosin heavy chain, skeletal muscle α-actin, and cardiac muscle α-actin. Our findings identify spatial regulation of HDAC5 as a target for liganded PPARs, and to our knowledge, are the first to describe a mechanistic role for nuclear DGKζ in cardiac myocytes. In conclusion, these results implicate modulation of HDAC5

  18. Endothelin ETA receptor/lipid peroxides/COX-2/TGF-β1 signalling underlies aggravated nephrotoxicity caused by cyclosporine plus indomethacin in rats

    PubMed Central

    Helmy, Maged W; El-Gowelli, Hanan M; Ali, Rabab M; El-Mas, Mahmoud M

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Cyclosporine (CSA) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are co-prescribed for some arthritic conditions. We tested the hypothesis that this combined regimen elicits exaggerated nephrotoxicity in rats via the up-regulation of endothelin (ET) receptor signalling. Experimental Approach The effects of a 10 day treatment with CSA (20 mg·kg−1·day−1), indomethacin (5 mg·kg−1·day−1) or their combination on renal biochemical, inflammatory, oxidative and structural profiles were assessed. The roles of ETA receptor and COX-2 pathways in the interaction were evaluated. Key Results Oral treatment with CSA or indomethacin elevated serum urea and creatinine, caused renal tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis, increased renal TGF-β1, and reduced immunohistochemical expressions of ETA receptors and COX-2. CSA, but not indomethacin, increased renal ET-1, the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and GSH activity. Compared with individual treatments, simultaneous CSA/indomethacin exposure caused: (i) greater elevations in serum creatinine and renal MDA; (ii) loss of the compensatory increase in GSH; (iii) renal infiltration of inflammatory cells and worsening of fibrotic and necrotic profiles; and (iv) increased renal ET-1 and decreased ETA receptor and COX-2 expressions. Blockade of ETA receptors by atrasentan ameliorated the biochemical, structural, inflammatory and oxidative abnormalities caused by the CSA/indomethacin regimen. Furthermore, atrasentan partly reversed the CSA/indomethacin-evoked reductions in the expression of ETA receptor and COX-2 protein. Conclusions and Implications The exaggerated oxidative insult and associated dysregulation of the ETA receptor/COX-2/TGF-β1 signalling might account for the aggravated nephrotoxicity caused by the CSA/indomethacin regimen. The potential renoprotective effect of ETA receptor antagonism might be exploited therapeutically. PMID:26013701

  19. Relaxation of endothelin-1-induced pulmonary arterial constriction by niflumic acid and NPPB: mechanism(s) independent of chloride channel block.

    PubMed

    Kato, K; Evans, A M; Kozlowski, R Z

    1999-03-01

    We investigated the effects of the Cl- channel blockers niflumic acid, 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)-benzoic acid (NPPB) and 4, 4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) on endothelin-1 (ET-1)-induced constriction of rat small pulmonary arteries (diameter 100-400 microm) in vitro, following endothelium removal. ET-1 (30 nM) induced a sustained constriction of rat pulmonary arteries in physiological salt solution. Arteries preconstricted with ET-1 were relaxed by niflumic acid (IC50: 35.8 microM) and NPPB (IC50: 21.1 microM) in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. However, at concentrations known to block Ca++-activated Cl- channels, DIDS (blockade. One possibility is that these compounds may block the Ca++-dependent contractile processes.

  20. Endothelin induces two types of contractions of rat uterus: phasic contractions by way of voltage-dependent calcium channels and developing contractions through a second type of calcium channels

    SciTech Connect

    Kozuka, M.; Ito, T.; Hirose, S.; Takahashi, K.; Hagiwara, H.

    1989-02-28

    Effects of endothelin on nonvascular smooth muscle have been examined using rat uterine horns and two modes of endothelin action have been revealed. Endothelin (0.3 nM) caused rhythmic contractions of isolated uterus in the presence of extracellular calcium. The rhythmic contractions were completely inhibited by calcium channel antagonists. These characteristics of endothelin-induced contractions were very similar to those induced by oxytocin. Binding assays using /sup 125/I-endothelin showed that endothelin and the calcium channel blockers did not compete for the binding sites. However, endothelin was unique in that it caused, in addition to rhythmic contractions, a slowly developing monophasic contraction that was insensitive to calcium channel blockers. This developing contraction became dominant at higher concentrations of endothelin and was also calcium dependent.

  1. Non-endothelial endothelin counteracts hypoxic vasodilation in porcine large coronary arteries

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The systemic vascular response to hypoxia is vasodilation. However, reports suggest that the potent vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) is released from the vasculature during hypoxia. ET-1 is reported to augment superoxide anion generation and may counteract nitric oxide (NO) vasodilation. Moreover, ET-1 was proposed to contribute to increased vascular resistance in heart failure by increasing the production of asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA). We investigated the role of ET-1, the NO pathway, the potassium channels and radical oxygen species in hypoxia-induced vasodilation of large coronary arteries. Results In prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α, 10 μM)-contracted segments with endothelium, gradual lowering of oxygen tension from 95 to 1% O2 resulted in vasodilation. The vasodilation to O2 lowering was rightward shifted in segments without endothelium at all O2 concentrations except at 1% O2. The endothelin receptor antagonist SB217242 (10 μM) markedly increased hypoxic dilation despite the free tissue ET-1 concentration in the arterial wall was unchanged in 1% O2 versus 95% O2. Exogenous ET-1 reversed hypoxic dilation in segments with and without endothelium, and the hypoxic arteries showed an increased sensitivity towards ET-1 compared to the normoxic controls. Without affecting basal NO, hypoxia increased NO concentration in PGF2α-contracted arteries, and an NO synthase inhibitor, L-NOARG,(300 μM, NG-nitro-L-Arginine) reduced hypoxic vasodilation. NO-induced vasodilation was reduced in endothelin-contracted preparations. Arterial wall ADMA concentrations were unchanged by hypoxia. Blocking of potassium channels with TEA (tetraethylammounium chloride)(10 μM) inhibited vasodilation to O2 lowering as well as to NO. The superoxide scavenger tiron (10 μM) and the putative NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (10 μM) leftward shifted concentration-response curves for O2 lowering without changing vasodilation to 1% O2. PEG (polyethylene glycol) catalase (300

  2. Genetic blockade of adenosine A2A receptors induces cognitive impairments and anatomical changes related to psychotic symptoms in mice.

    PubMed

    Moscoso-Castro, Maria; Gracia-Rubio, Irene; Ciruela, Francisco; Valverde, Olga

    2016-07-01

    Schizophrenia is a chronic severe mental disorder with a presumed neurodevelopmental origin, and no effective treatment. Schizophrenia is a multifactorial disease with genetic, environmental and neurochemical etiology. The main theories on the pathophysiology of this disorder include alterations in dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission in limbic and cortical areas of the brain. Early hypotheses also suggested that nucleoside adenosine is a putative affected neurotransmitter system, and clinical evidence suggests that adenosine adjuvants improve treatment outcomes, especially in poorly responsive patients. Hence, it is important to elucidate the role of the neuromodulator adenosine in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A2A adenosine receptor (A2AR) subtypes are expressed in brain areas controlling motivational responses and cognition, including striatum, and in lower levels in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The aim of this study was to characterize A2AR knockout (KO) mice with complete and specific inactivation of A2AR, as an animal model for schizophrenia. We performed behavioral, anatomical and neurochemical studies to assess psychotic-like symptoms in adult male and female KO and wild-type (WT) littermates. Our results show impairments in inhibitory responses and sensory gating in A2AR KO animals. Hyperlocomotion induced by d-amphetamine and MK-801 was reduced in KO animals when compared to WT littermates. Moreover, A2AR KO animals show motor disturbances, social and cognitive alterations. Finally, behavioral impairments were associated with enlargement of brain lateral ventricles and decreased BDNF levels in the hippocampus. These data highlight the role of adenosine in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and provide new possibilities for the therapeutic management of schizophrenia.

  3. Enhancement of Adipocyte Browning by Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockade

    PubMed Central

    Tsukuda, Kana; Mogi, Masaki; Iwanami, Jun; Kanno, Harumi; Nakaoka, Hirotomo; Wang, Xiao-Li; Bai, Hui-Yu; Shan, Bao-Shuai; Kukida, Masayoshi; Higaki, Akinori; Yamauchi, Toshifumi; Min, Li-Juan; Horiuchi, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Browning of white adipose tissue (WAT) has been highlighted as a new possible therapeutic target for obesity, diabetes and lipid metabolic disorders, because WAT browning could increase energy expenditure and reduce adiposity. The new clusters of adipocytes that emerge with WAT browning have been named ‘beige’ or ‘brite’ adipocytes. Recent reports have indicated that the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a role in various aspects of adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction. The biological effects of angiotensin II, a major component of RAS, are mediated by two receptor subtypes, angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) and type 2 receptor (AT2R). However, the functional roles of angiotensin II receptor subtypes in WAT browning have not been defined. Therefore, we examined whether deletion of angiotensin II receptor subtypes (AT1aR and AT2R) may affect white-to-beige fat conversion in vivo. AT1a receptor knockout (AT1aKO) mice exhibited increased appearance of multilocular lipid droplets and upregulation of thermogenic gene expression in inguinal white adipose tissue (iWAT) compared to wild-type (WT) mice. AT2 receptor-deleted mice did not show miniaturization of lipid droplets or alteration of thermogenic gene expression levels in iWAT. An in vitro experiment using adipose tissue-derived stem cells showed that deletion of the AT1a receptor resulted in suppression of adipocyte differentiation, with reduction in expression of thermogenic genes. These results indicate that deletion of the AT1a receptor might have some effects on the process of browning of WAT and that blockade of the AT1 receptor could be a therapeutic target for the treatment of metabolic disorders. PMID:27992452

  4. Exploring dipole blockade using high- n strontium Rydberg atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinyue; Ye, Shuzhen; Dunning, F. Barry; Hiller, Moritz; Yoshida, Shuhei; Burgdörfer, Joachim

    2014-05-01

    Studies of the production of strongly-polarized quasi-1D high- n, n ~ 300 , strontium `` nF'' Rydberg states in an atomic beam by three-photon excitation in a weak dc field suggest that (in the absence of blockade effects) densities of ~106 cm-3 might be achieved. At such densities the interparticle separation, ~ 100 μm , becomes comparable to that at which dipole blockade effects are expected to become important. Apparatus modifications are underway to allow the exploration of blockade at very high- n and the effects of the high energy level density. Blockade is also being examined through calculations of the energy spectrum for two interaction atoms. Access to the blockade regime promises creation of Rydberg atoms at well-defined separations whose interactions can be coherently controlled using electric field pulses thereby enabling study of the dynamics of strongly-coupled Rydberg systems. Research supported by the NSF, the Robert A. Welch Foundation, and the FWF (Austria).

  5. Theory of spin blockade in a triple quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Chang-Yu; Shim, Yun-Pil; Hawrylak, Pawel

    2011-03-01

    We present a theory of electronic properties and spin blockade in a linear triple quantum dots. We use micoroscopic LCHO-CI and double-band Hubbard model to analyze the electronic and spin properties of a triple quantum dots near a symmetrical quadruple point involving the (1,1,1) configuration which is essential for implementing quantum information processing with electron spin. We calculate spectral functions and relate them via the rate equation, including coupling with a phonon bath, to current as a function of applied bias. We show that the spin blockade in a triple quantum dots can serve as a spectroscopic tool to distinguish spin polarized states from spin depolarized states. We also show that a spin blockade is developed only at high bias when an onsite triplet state on the edge quantum dot connected to the source lead becomes accessible in the transport window. In contradiction to the case of double quantum dot molecule, the onsite triplet is not only essential for lifting spin blockade but also important for building up spin polarisation and spin blockade in the system. The authors would like to acknowledge financial support from NSERC, OGS, and QuantumWorks.

  6. Intravenous platelet blockade with cangrelor during PCI.

    PubMed

    Bhatt, Deepak L; Lincoff, A Michael; Gibson, C Michael; Stone, Gregg W; McNulty, Steven; Montalescot, Gilles; Kleiman, Neal S; Goodman, Shaun G; White, Harvey D; Mahaffey, Kenneth W; Pollack, Charles V; Manoukian, Steven V; Widimsky, Petr; Chew, Derek P; Cura, Fernando; Manukov, Ivan; Tousek, Frantisek; Jafar, M Zubair; Arneja, Jaspal; Skerjanec, Simona; Harrington, Robert A

    2009-12-10

    Intravenous cangrelor, a rapid-acting, reversible adenosine diphosphate (ADP) receptor antagonist, might reduce ischemic events during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study, we randomly assigned 5362 patients who had not been treated with clopidogrel to receive either cangrelor or placebo at the time of PCI, followed by 600 mg of clopidogrel. The primary end point was a composite of death, myocardial infarction, or ischemia-driven revascularization at 48 hours. Enrollment was stopped when an interim analysis concluded that the trial would be unlikely to show superiority for the primary end point. The primary end point occurred in 185 of 2654 patients receiving cangrelor (7.0%) and in 210 of 2641 patients receiving placebo (8.0%) (odds ratio in the cangrelor group, 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71 to 1.07; P=0.17) (modified intention-to-treat population adjusted for missing data). In the cangrelor group, as compared with the placebo group, two prespecified secondary end points were significantly reduced at 48 hours: the rate of stent thrombosis, from 0.6% to 0.2% (odds ratio, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.11 to 0.85; P=0.02), and the rate of death from any cause, from 0.7% to 0.2% (odds ratio, 0.33; 95% CI, 0.13 to 0.83; P=0.02). There was no significant difference in the rate of blood transfusion (1.0% in the cangrelor group and 0.6% in the placebo group, P=0.13), though major bleeding on one scale was increased in the cangrelor group, from 3.5% to 5.5% (P<0.001), because of more groin hematomas. The use of periprocedural cangrelor during PCI was not superior to placebo in reducing the primary end point. The prespecified secondary end points of stent thrombosis and death were lower in the cangrelor group, with no significant increase in the rate of transfusion. Further study of intravenous ADP blockade with cangrelor may be warranted. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00385138.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society

  7. Endothelin 1 and transforming growth factor-β1 correlate with liver function and portal pressure in cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Wereszczynka-Siemiatkowska, Urszula; Swidnicka-Siergiejko, Agnieszka; Siemiatkowski, Andrzej; Bondyra, Zofia; Wasielica-Berger, Justyna; Mroczko, Barbara; Janica, Jacek; Dabrowski, Andrzej

    2015-12-01

    The invasive measurement of hepatic venous pressure gradient is the recommended method for the assessment of portal hypertension. We assessed if the mediators that regulate portal hypertension may be used as noninvasive markers of portal hypertension and liver insufficiency. We explored in prospective, observational study the concentration of endothelin-1, nitric oxide, and transforming growth factor-β1/2 in peripheral and hepatic venous blood; their relationship with the values of portal hypertension and liver insufficiency; and their level changes 4-6 months after non-selective beta-blocker therapy in cirrhotic patients with non-bleeding esophageal varices. (1) Cirrhotics have significantly increased peripheral endothelin 1 and decreased transforming growth factor-β1 levels; (2) peripheral levels of all factors correlated significantly with their hepatic levels; (3) after therapy, peripheral endothelin-1 levels significantly increased, but transforming growth factor-β2 levels decreased and were lower in patients with pressure gradient value normalization; (4) before and after therapy, peripheral and hepatic endothelin-1, transforming growth factor-β1/2 levels correlated significantly with liver failure indicators (laboratory parameters, Child-Pough and MELD scores) and pressure gradient values. Peripheral endothelin-1 and transforming growth factor-β1 levels, which strongly correlate with their hepatic levels, reflect the stage of portal hypertension and liver insufficiency in cirrhosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Decreased endothelin receptor B expression in large primary uveal melanomas is associated with early clinical metastasis and short survival

    PubMed Central

    Smith, S L; Damato, B E; Scholes, A G M; Nunn, J; Field, J K; Heighway, J

    2002-01-01

    The most devastating aspect of cancer is the metastasis of tumour cells to organs distant from the original tumour site. The major problem facing oncologists treating uveal melanoma, the most common cancer of the eye, is metastatic disease. To lower mortality, it is necessary to increase our understanding of the molecular genetic alterations involved in this process. Using suppression subtractive hybridisation, we have analysed differential gene expression between four primary tumours from patients who have developed clinical metastasis and four primary tumours from patients with no evidence of metastasis to date. We have identified endothelin receptor type B as differentially expressed between these tumours and confirmed this observation using comparative multiplex RT–PCR. In a further 33 tumours, reduced endothelin receptor type B expression correlated with death from metastatic disease. Reduced expression also correlated with other known prognostic indicators, including the presence of epithelioid cells, chromosome 3 allelic imbalance and chromosome 8q allelic imbalance. Endothelin receptor type B expression was also reduced in four out of four primary small cell lung carcinomas compared to normal bronchial epithelium. We also show that the observed down-regulation of endothelin receptor type B in uveal melanoma was not due to gene deletion. Our findings suggest a role for endothelin receptor type B in the metastasis of uveal melanoma and, potentially, in the metastasis of other neural crest tumours. British Journal of Cancer (2002) 87, 1308–1313. doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6600620 www.bjcancer.com © 2002 Cancer Research UK PMID:12439722

  9. Landiolol hydrochloride ameliorates acute lung injury in a rat model of early sepsis through the suppression of elevated levels of pulmonary endothelin-1.

    PubMed

    Matsuishi, Yujiro; Jesmin, Subrina; Kawano, Satoru; Hideaki, Sakuramoto; Shimojo, Nobutake; Mowa, Chishimba Nathan; Akhtar, Shila; Zaedi, Sohel; Khatun, Tanzila; Tsunoda, Yoshiya; Kiwamoto, Takumi; Hizawa, Nobuyuki; Inoue, Yoshiaki; Mizutani, Taro

    2016-12-01

    Among the dysfunctions and pathologies associated with sepsis, the underlying molecular mechanisms of sepsis-induced acute lung injury (ALI) are poorly understood. Endothelin (ET)-1, a potent vasoconstrictor and pro-inflammatory peptide, is known to be involved in the pathogenesis of ALI in a rat model of sepsis. Here, we investigated whether landiolol hydrochloride, an ultra-short-acting β-blocker, plays a crucial role in ameliorating and attenuating LPS-induced ALI through modulation of the ET-1 system. Male Wistar rats at 8weeks of age were administered with either saline or lipopolysaccharide (LPS) for three hours (3h) and some of the LPS-administered rats were continuously treated with landiolol for 3h. ALI was induced by LPS, including levels of both circulatory and pulmonary TNF-α and IL-6 but [PaO2] was significantly decreased. LPS also induced a significant increase in levels of pulmonary ET-1 and ET-A receptor, but levels of ET-B receptor, which has vasodilating effects, were remarkably diminished. Further, LPS administration upregulated the pulmonary expression of HIF-1α. Finally, the treatment of LPS-administered rats with landiolol for 3h ameliorated and prevented ALI, normalized the altered levels of pulmonary ET-1 and ET-A receptors. Landiolol also induced significant down-regulation of ET-B receptor in lung tissues in the early hours (phase) of sepsis. However, Landiolol treatment had no effect on the up-regulated inflammatory mediators (TNF-α, IL-6) in both plasma and lung tissues during sepsis, and expression of pulmonary HIF-1α also remained unchanged after landiolol treatment. Collectively, these data led us to conclude that landiolol may ameliorate sepsis-induced ALI via the pulmonary ET system. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Inhibition by atrial and brain natriuretic peptides of endothelin-1 secretion after stimulation with angiotensin II and thrombin of cultured human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kohno, M; Yasunari, K; Yokokawa, K; Murakawa, K; Horio, T; Takeda, T

    1991-01-01

    We examined the inhibition by atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) of endothelin-1 secretion stimulated by angiotensin II (ANGII) and thrombin using cultured human umbilical-vein endothelial cells. ANGII and thrombin dose-dependently stimulated immunoreactive (ir) endothelin-1 secretion. Human ANP(1-28) and human BNP-32 both inhibited such secretion in a dose-dependent way. Inhibition of this secretion by ANP and BNP was paralleled by an increase in the level of cyclic guanosine 5'-monophosphate (GMP). The addition of a cyclic GMP analogue, 8-bromo cyclic GMP, reduced this stimulated secretion. Rat ANP(5-25) was weaker than human ANP(1-28) at inhibiting ir-endothelin-1 secretion and increasing cyclic GMP in the cells. ir-Endothelin-1 in the medium consisted of two components separated by high pressure liquid chromatography; the major one corresponded to endothelin-1(1-21) and the minor one corresponded to big endothelin-1(1-38). Treatment with ANP and BNP did not affect this profile. These findings suggest that human ANP and BNP inhibit endothelin-1 secretion stimulated by ANGII and thrombin in these cells through a cyclic GMP-dependent process. Taken together with endothelin stimulation of ANP and BNP secretion from the heart, our results suggest the existence of a cardiac-endothelium feedback. PMID:1645748

  11. 5-Hydroxytryptamine 1A receptors in the dorsomedial hypothalamus connected to dorsal raphe nucleus inputs modulate defensive behaviours and mediate innate fear-induced antinociception.

    PubMed

    Biagioni, Audrey Franceschi; de Oliveira, Rithiele Cristina; de Oliveira, Ricardo; da Silva, Juliana Almeida; dos Anjos-Garcia, Tayllon; Roncon, Camila Marroni; Corrado, Alexandre Pinto; Zangrossi, Hélio; Coimbra, Norberto Cysne

    2016-03-01

    The dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) is an important brainstem source of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), and 5-HT plays a key role in the regulation of panic attacks. The aim of the present study was to determine whether 5-HT1A receptor-containing neurons in the medial hypothalamus (MH) receive neural projections from DRN and to then determine the role of this neural substrate in defensive responses. The neurotracer biotinylated dextran amine (BDA) was iontophoretically microinjected into the DRN, and immunohistochemical approaches were then used to identify 5HT1A receptor-labelled neurons in the MH. Moreover, the effects of pre-treatment of the dorsomedial hypothalamus (DMH) with 8-OH-DPAT and WAY-100635, a 5-HT1A receptor agonist and antagonist, respectively, followed by local microinjections of bicuculline, a GABAA receptor antagonist, were investigated. We found that there are many projections from the DRN to the perifornical lateral hypothalamus (PeFLH) but also to DMH and ventromedial (VMH) nuclei, reaching 5HT1A receptor-labelled perikarya. DMH GABAA receptor blockade elicited defensive responses that were followed by antinociception. DMH treatment with 8-OH-DPAT decreased escape responses, which strongly suggests that the 5-HT1A receptor modulates the defensive responses. However, DMH treatment with WAY-100635 failed to alter bicuculline-induced defensive responses, suggesting that 5-HT exerts a phasic influence on 5-HT1A DMH neurons. The activation of the inhibitory 5-HT1A receptor had no effect on antinociception. However, blockade of the 5-HT1A receptor decreased fear-induced antinociception. The present data suggest that the ascending pathways from the DRN to the DMH modulate panic-like defensive behaviours and mediate antinociceptive phenomenon by recruiting 5-HT1A receptor in the MH.

  12. Changes of endothelin-1 and big endothelin-1 levels and action potential duration during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in dogs with and without ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Vágó, Hajnalka; Soós, Pál; Zima, Endre; Gellér, László; Keltai, Katalin; Róka, Attila; Kékesi, Violetta; Juhász-Nagy, Alexander; Merkely, Béla

    2004-11-01

    Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion is associated with increased production of endothelin-1 (ET-1). Moreover, exogenous ET-1 has arrhythmogenic properties. Our aim was to investigate the correlation between endogenous ET-1, big ET-1 levels and epicardial monophasic action potential duration during myocardial ischemia-reperfusion in anesthetized dogs. Thirty-minute myocardial ischemia was followed by a 90-minute reperfusion period in 18 mongrel dogs. The total incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF) during ischemia and reperfusion was 11.1% and 33.3%, respectively. During ischemia, the monophasic action potential duration at 90% repolarization (MAPD90) decreased significantly (control versus ischemia, 30 minutes, 224.7 +/- 7.1 ms versus 173.8 +/- 7.6 ms; P < 0.05), while during reperfusion a significant prolongation of MAPD90 was observed (ischemia, 30 minutes versus reperfusion, 30 minutes, 173.8 +/- 7.6 ms versus 249.7 +/- 9.9 ms, P < 0.05). During reperfusion ET-1 and big ET-1 levels increased significantly in the coronary sinus and femoral artery (control versus reperfusion, 90 minutes: coronary sinus ET-1, 15.1 +/- 1.4 fmol/mL versus 22.3 +/- 1.1 fmol/mL; big ET-1, 14.7 +/- 1.9 fmol/mL versus 27.4 +/- 2.3 fmol/mL; P < 0.05). The ET-1 concentration increased to a higher level during ischemia in dogs with VF compared with dogs surviving ischemia-reperfusion (non-VF versus VF: control, 15.1 +/- 1.3 versus 15.2 +/- 1.3; ischemia, 30 minutes, 17.6 +/- 1.2 fmol/mL versus 22 +/- 1.6 fmol/mL; P < 0.05), demonstrating a trend of correlation between endothelin levels and development of VF (P = 0.07). ET-1 and big ET-1 levels increased during reperfusion and in the VF group during ischemia; however, there was no correlation between endothelin levels and MAPD90.

  13. Recent changes in the landscape of combination RAS blockade.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Benjamin J; Smith, Steven M; Choksi, Rushab

    2009-11-01

    The renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a prime target for cardiovascular drug therapy. Inhibition of the RAS lowers blood pressure and confers protection against cardiovascular and renal events. These latter benefits cannot be entirely attributed to blood pressure lowering. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been studied extensively and, while there is irrefutable evidence that these agents mitigate the risk for cardiovascular and renal events, their protection is incomplete. In outcomes studies that have employed ACE-inhibitors or ARBs there has been a relatively high residual event rate in the treatment arm and this has been ascribed, by some, to the fact that neither ACE-inhibitors nor ARBs completely repress RAS. For this reason, combined RAS blockade with an ACE-inhibitor and ARB has emerged as a therapeutic option. In hypertension, combined RAS blockade elicits only a marginal incremental drop in blood pressure and it does not further lower the risk for cardiovascular events. In chronic heart failure and proteinuric renal disease, combining these agents in carefully selected patients is associated with a reduction in clinical events. Irrespective of the setting, dual RAS blockade is associated with an increase in the risk for adverse events, primarily hyperkalemia and worsening renal function. The emergence of the direct renin inhibitor, aliskiren, has afforded clinicians a new strategy for RAS blockade. Renin system blockade with aliskiren plus another RAS agent is the subject of ongoing large-scale clinical trials and early studies suggest promise for this strategy. Currently, combined RAS blockade with an ACE-inhibitor and an ARB should not be routinely employed for hypertension; however, the combination of an ACE-inhibitor or ARB with aliskiren might be considered in some patients given the more formidable blood pressure-lowering profile of this regimen. In carefully selected patients with heart

  14. Dexamethasone added to lidocaine prolongs axillary brachial plexus blockade.

    PubMed

    Movafegh, Ali; Razazian, Mehran; Hajimaohamadi, Fatemeh; Meysamie, Alipasha

    2006-01-01

    Different additives have been used to prolong regional blockade. We designed a prospective, randomized, double-blind study to evaluate the effect of dexamethasone added to lidocaine on the onset and duration of axillary brachial plexus block. Sixty patients scheduled for elective hand and forearm surgery under axillary brachial plexus block were randomly allocated to receive either 34 mL lidocaine 1.5% with 2 mL of isotonic saline chloride (control group, n = 30) or 34 mL lidocaine 1.5% with 2 mL of dexamethasone (8 mg) (dexamethasone group, n = 30). Neither epinephrine nor bicarbonate was added to the treatment mixture. We used a nerve stimulator and multiple stimulations technique in all of the patients. After performance of the block, sensory and motor blockade of radial, median, musculocutaneous, and ulnar nerves were recorded at 5, 15, and 30 min. The onset time of the sensory and motor blockade was defined as the time between last injection and the total abolition of the pinprick response and complete paralysis. The duration of sensory and motor blocks were considered as the time interval between the administration of the local anesthetic and the first postoperative pain and complete recovery of motor functions. Sixteen patients were excluded because of unsuccessful blockade. The duration of surgery and the onset times of sensory and motor block were similar in the two groups. The duration of sensory (242 +/- 76 versus 98 +/- 33 min) and motor (310 +/- 81 versus 130 +/- 31 min) blockade were significantly longer in the dexamethasone than in the control group (P < 0.01). We conclude that the addition of dexamethasone to lidocaine 1.5% solution in axillary brachial plexus block prolongs the duration of sensory and motor blockade.

  15. Adenosine A2B receptor blockade slows growth of bladder and breast tumors.

    PubMed

    Cekic, Caglar; Sag, Duygu; Li, Yuesheng; Theodorescu, Dan; Strieter, Robert M; Linden, Joel

    2012-01-01

    The accumulation of high levels of adenosine in tumors activates A(2A) and A(2B) receptors on immune cells and inhibits their ability to suppress tumor growth. Deletion of adenosine A(2A) receptors (A(2A)ARs) has been reported to activate antitumor T cells, stimulate dendritic cell (DC) function, and inhibit angiogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the effects of intermittent intratumor injection of a nonselective adenosine receptor antagonist, aminophylline (AMO; theophylline ethylenediamine) and, for the first time to our knowledge, a selective A(2B)AR antagonist, ATL801. AMO and ATL801 slowed the growth of MB49 bladder and 4T1 breast tumors in syngeneic mice and reduced by 85% metastasizes of breast cancer cells from mammary fat to lung. Based on experiments with A(2A)AR(-/-) or adenosine A(2B) receptor(-/-) mice, the effect of AMO injection was unexpectedly attributed to A(2B)AR and not to A(2A)AR blockade. AMO and ATL801 significantly increased tumor levels of IFN-γ and the IFN-inducible chemokine CXCL10, which is a ligand for CXCR3. This was associated with an increase in activated tumor-infiltrating CXCR3(+) T cells and a decrease in endothelial cell precursors within tumors. Tumor growth inhibition by AMO or ATL801 was eliminated in CXCR3(-/-) mice and RAG1(-/-) mice that lack mature T cells. In RAG1(-/-) mice, A(2B)AR deletion enhanced CD86 expression on CD11b(-) DCs. Bone marrow chimera experiments demonstrated that CXCR3 and A(2B)AR expression on bone marrow cells is required for the antitumor effects of AMO. The data suggest that blockade of A(2B)ARs enhances DC activation and CXCR3-dependent antitumor responses.

  16. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system prevents acute and immunologically relevant colitis in murine models.

    PubMed

    Okawada, Manabu; Wilson, Michael W; Larsen, Scott D; Lipka, Elke; Hillfinger, John; Teitelbaum, Daniel H

    2016-12-01

    Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been shown to alleviate inflammatory processes in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to determine if blockade of the RAS would be effective in an immunologically relevant colitis model, and to compare outcome with an acute colitis model. A losartan analog, CCG-203025 (C23H26ClN3O5S) containing a highly polar sulfonic acid moiety that we expected would allow localized mucosal antagonism with minimal systemic absorption was selected as an angiotensin II type 1a receptor antagonist (AT1aR-A). Two colitis models were studied: (1) Acute colitis was induced in 8- to 10-week-old C57BL/6J mice by 2.5 % dextran sodium sulfate (DSS, in drinking water) for 7 days. (2) IL10-/-colitis Piroxicam (200 ppm) was administered orally in feed to 5-week-old IL-10-/-mice (C57BL/6J background) for 14 days followed by enalaprilat (ACE-I), CCG-203025 or PBS administered transanally for 14 days. In the DSS model, weight loss and histologic score for CCG-203025 were better than with placebo. In the IL10-/-model, ACE-I suppressed histologic damage better than CCG-203025. Both ACE-I and CCG-203025 reduced pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. This study demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of both ACE-I and AT1aR-A for preventing the development of both acute and immunologically relevant colitis.

  17. Carbenoxolone blockade of neuronal network activity in culture is not mediated by an action on gap junctions

    PubMed Central

    Rouach, N; Segal, M; Koulakoff, A; Giaume, C; Avignone, E

    2003-01-01

    Spontaneous activity in the central nervous system is strongly suppressed by blockers of gap junctions (GJs), suggesting that GJs contribute to network activity. However, the lack of selective GJ blockers prohibits the determination of their site of action, i.e. neuronal versus glial. Astrocytes are strongly coupled through GJs and have recently been shown to modulate synaptic transmission, yet their role in neuronal network activity was not analysed. The present study investigated the effects and site of action of the GJ blocker, carbenoxolone (CBX), on neuronal network activity. To this end, we used cultures of hippocampal or cortical neurons, plated on astrocytes. In these cultures neurons display spontaneous synchronous activity and GJs are found only in astrocytes. CBX induced in these neurons a reversible suppression of spontaneous action potential discharges, synaptic currents and synchronised calcium oscillations. Moreover, CBX inhibited oscillatory activity induced by the GABAA antagonist, bicuculline. These effects were not due to blockade of astrocytic GJs, since they were not mimicked nor occluded by endothelin-1 (ET-1), a peptide known to block astrocytic GJs. Also, these effects were still present in co-cultures of wild-type neurons plated on astrocytes originating from connexin-43 (Cx43) knockout mice, and in neuronal cultures which contain few isolated astrocytes. CBX was not likely to exert its effect through neuronal GJs either, as immunostaining for major neuronal connexins (Cx) as well as dye or electrical coupling, were not detected in the different models of cultured neurons examined. Finally while CBX (at 100 μm) did not modify presynaptic transmitter release and postsynaptic responses to glutamate, it did cause an increase in the action potential threshold and strongly decreased the firing rate in response to a sustained depolarising current. These data demonstrate that CBX does not exert its action on network activity of cultured neurons

  18. Renal denervation mitigates cardiac remodeling and renal damage in Dahl rats: a comparison with β-receptor blockade.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Heitaro; Iwanaga, Yoshitaka; Miyaji, Yuki; Yamamoto, Hiromi; Miyazaki, Shunichi

    2016-04-01

    Chronic activation of the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) contributes to cardiac remodeling and the transition to heart failure (HF). Renal sympathetic denervation (RDN) may ameliorate this damage by improving renal function and sympathetic cardioregulation in hypertensive HF patients with renal injury. The efficacy may be comparable to that of chronic β-blocker treatment. Dahl salt-sensitive hypertensive rats were subjected to RDN in the hypertrophic stage. Another group of Dahl rats were subjected to sham operations and treated chronically with vehicle (CONT) or β-blocker bisoprolol (BISO). Neither RDN nor BISO altered the blood pressure; however, BISO significantly reduced the heart rate (HR). Both RDN and BISO significantly prolonged survival (22.2 and 22.4 weeks, respectively) compared with CONT (18.3 weeks). Echocardiography revealed reduced left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and improved LV function, and histological analysis demonstrated the amelioration of LV myocyte hypertrophy and fibrosis in the RDN and BISO rats at the HF stage. Tyrosine hydroxylase and β1-adrenergic receptor (ADR) expression levels in the LV myocardium significantly increased only in the RDN rats, whereas the α1b-, α1d- and α2c-ADR expression levels increased only in the BISO rats. In both groups, renal damage and dysfunction were also reduced, and this reduction was accompanied by the suppression of endothelin-1, renin and angiotensin-converting enzyme mRNAs. RDN ameliorated the progression of both myocardial and renal damage in the hypertensive rats independent of blood pressure changes. The overall effects were similar to those of β-receptor blockade with favorable effects on HR and α-ADR expression. These findings may be associated with the restoration of the myocardial SNS and renal protection.

  19. Anisotropic blockade using pendular long-range Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiles, Matthew T.; Lee, Hyunwoo; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H.

    2017-05-01

    We propose an experiment to demonstrate a blockade mechanism caused by long-range anisotropic interactions in an ultracold dipolar gas composed of the recently observed "butterfly" Rydberg molecules. At the blockade radius, the strong intermolecular interaction between two adjacent molecules shifts their molecular states out of resonance with the photoassociation laser, preventing their simultaneous excitation. When the molecules are prepared in a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) trap, the interaction's strength can be tuned via a weak external field. The molecular density thus depends strongly on the angle between the trap axis and the field. The available Rydberg and internal molecular states provide a wide range of tunability.

  20. Anisotropic blockade using pendular long-range Rydberg molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eiles, M. T.; Lee, H.; Pérez-Ríos, J.; Greene, C. H.

    2017-07-01

    We propose an experiment to demonstrate a novel blockade mechanism caused by long-range anisotropic interactions in an ultracold dipolar gas composed of the recently observed "butterfly" Rydberg molecules. At the blockade radius, the strong intermolecular interaction between two adjacent molecules shifts their molecular states out of resonance with the photoassociation laser, preventing their simultaneous excitation. When the molecules are prepared in a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) trap, the interaction's strength can be tuned via a weak external field. The molecular density thus depends strongly on the angle between the trap axis and the field. The available Rydberg and molecular states provide a wide range of tunability.

  1. Endothelin-1 inhibits TNF alpha-induced iNOS expression in 3T3-F442A adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Mérial-Kieny, Christelle; Lonchampt, Michel; Cogé, Francis; Verwaerde, Patrick; Galizzi, Jean-Pierre; Boutin, Jean A; Lafontan, Max; Levens, Nigel; Galitzky, Jean; Félétou, Michel

    2003-07-01

    1. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha) by their action on adipocytes have been independently linked to the pathogenesis of insulino-resistance. In isolated adipocytes, TNFalpha induces the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). The purpose of the present work was, in the 3T3-F442A adipocyte cell line, to characterise TNFalpha-induced iNOS expression and to determine whether or not ET-1 could influence TNFalpha-induced iNOS expression and NO production. 2. In differentiated 3T3-F442A, treatment with TNFalpha (20 ng ml(-1)) induced the expression of a functional iNOS as demonstrated by nitrite assay, Western blot, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Northern blot analysis. TNFalpha-induced iNOS expression requires nuclear factor kappaB activation, but does not necessitate the activation of the PI-3 kinase/Akt and P38-MAP kinase pathways. 3. ET-1, but not ET-3, inhibited the TNFalpha-induced expression of iNOS protein and mRNA as well as nitrite production. The effects of ET-1 were blocked by a specific ETA (BQ123, pA(2) 7.4) but not by a specific ETB receptor antagonist (BQ788). 3T3-F442A adipocytes express the mRNAs for prepro-ET-1 and the ET-A receptor subtype, but not for the ET-B subtype. 4. The inhibitory effect of ET-1 was not affected by bisindolylmaleimide, SB 203580 or indomethacin, inhibitors of protein kinase C, p38-MAP kinase and cyclooxygenase, respectively, and was not associated with cAMP production. However, the effect of ET-1 was partially reversed by wortmannin, suggesting the involvement of PI3 kinase in the transduction signal of ET-1. 5. Differentiated 3T3-F442A adipocytes did not release ET-1 with or without exposure to TNFalpha, although the mRNA for preproET-1 was detected in both pre- and differentiated adipocytes. 6. Thus, these results confirm that adipocytes are a target for circulating ET-1 and demonstrate that the activation of the ETA receptor subtype can prevent TNFalpha

  2. Effects of the mammalian vasoconstrictor peptide, endothelin-1, on Tetrahymena pyriformis GL, and the immunocytological detection of endogenous endothelin-like activity.

    PubMed

    Köhidai, L; Csaba, G

    1995-06-01

    The vasoconstrictor endothelin-1 (ET-1) is shown to have significant physiological effects on a unicellular organism, Tetrahymena pyriformis. These responses include: (1) A significant increase in intracellular [Ca2+] induced by 10(-10) M ET-1; (2) Increased chemotaxis, maximal at 10(-10) M; and (3) A small inhibition of proliferation at the 10(-13)-10(-12) M concentration range. Immunocytochemical detection of endogenous ET-1 using rabbit antibodies directed against human or porcine ET-1 indicates that this is a further example of the widening group of vertebrate hormones now known to be synthesized by Tetrahymena. These observations suggest that hormones are of considerable antiquity in their phylogenetic appearance and have been highly conserved throughout evolution.

  3. Tissue-specific and time-dependent regulation of the endothelin axis by the circadian clock protein Per1

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jacob; Welch, Amanda K.; Barilovits, Sarah J.; All, Sean; Cheng, Kit-Yan; Wingo, Charles S.; Cain, Brian D.; Gumz, Michelle L.

    2015-01-01

    Aims The present study is designed to consider a role for the circadian clock protein Per1 in the regulation of the endothelin axis in mouse kidney, lung, liver and heart. Renal endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a regulator of the epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) and blood pressure (BP), via activation of both endothelin receptors, ETA and ETB. However, ET-1 mediates many complex events in other tissues. Main methods Tissues were collected in the middle of murine rest and active phases, at noon and midnight, respectively. ET-1, ETA and ETB mRNA expressions were measured in the lung, heart, liver, renal inner medulla and renal cortex of wild type and Per1 heterozygous mice using real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Key findings The effect of reduced Per1 expression on levels of mRNAs and the time-dependent regulation of expression of the endothelin axis genes appeared to be tissue-specific. In the renal inner medulla and the liver, ETA and ETB exhibited peaks of expression in opposite circadian phases. In contrast, expressions of ET-1, ETA and ETB in the lung did not appear to vary with time, but ET-1 expression was dramatically decreased in this tissue in Per1 heterozygous mice. Interestingly, ET-1 and ETA, but not ETB, were expressed in a time-dependent manner in the heart. Significance Per1 appears to regulate expression of the endothelin axis genes in a tissue-specific and time-dependent manner. These observations have important implications for our understanding of the best time of day to deliver endothelin receptor antagonists. PMID:24721511

  4. Human breast cancer cells contain a phosphoramidon-sensitive metalloproteinase which can process exogenous big endothelin-1 to endothelin-1: a proposed mitogen for human breast fibroblasts.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, K. V.; Schrey, M. P.

    1995-01-01

    Endothelin-1 (ET-1) levels are elevated in human breast tumours compared with normal and benign tissues, and in the presence of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-I) ET-1 is a potent mitogen for human breast fibroblasts. In this study we have examined the ability of intact human breast cancer cell lines to process exogenously added big ET-1 (1-38) to the active mature ET-1 peptide by using a specific radioimmunometric assay. In both hormome-dependent (MCF-7, T47-D) and hormone-independent (MDA-MB-231) breast cancer cell lines the putative endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) exhibited apparent Michaelis-Menten kinetics when converting added big ET-1 to ET-1. Both basal ET-1 production and exogenously added big ET-1 to ET-1 conversion were greatly reduced in all three cell lines in response to the metalloproteinase inhibitor phosphoramidon but were insensitive to other classes of protease inhibitors. Inhibition was also observed when cells were incubated in the presence of the divalent cation chelators 1,10-phenanthroline and EDTA. In MCF-7 cells the optimal pH for the ECE activity using a saponin cell permeabilisation procedure was found to residue within a narrow range of 6.2-7.26. Our results indicate that human breast cancer cells contain a neutral phosphoramidon-sensitive metalloproteinase which can process big ET-1 to ET-1. In the breast this conversion could contribute substantially to the local extracellular levels of this proposed paracrine breast fibroblast mitogen. PMID:7880721

  5. Effect of YM218, a nonpeptide vasopressin V(1A) receptor-selective antagonist, on rat mesangial cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Atsuo; Tsukada, Junko; Tomura, Yuichi; Suzuki, Takeshi; Yatsu, Takeyuki; Shibasaki, Masayuki

    2007-06-01

    Mesangial cell growth constitutes a key feature of progressive glomerular injury. Vasopressin (AVP), a potent peptide vasoconstrictor, acts on mesangial cells through the V(1A) receptors, inducing contraction and cell proliferation. This study examined the effects of YM218, a nonpeptide AVP V(1A) receptor-selective antagonist, on the mitogenic and hypertrophic effects of AVP in rat mesangial cells. When added to mesangial cells whose growth was arrested, AVP concentration-dependently induced hyperplasia and hypertrophy. YM218 potently prevented AVP-induced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of these cells. Furthermore, AVP stimulated endothelin (ET)-1 secretion from mesangial cells in a concentration-dependent manner and this effect was potently inhibited by YM218. ET-1 also induced hyperplasia and hypertrophy in mesangial cells and this effect was completely abolished by ET(A) receptor-selective antagonist YM598. In addition, AVP-induced hyperplasia and hypertrophy were partly inhibited by YM598. These results suggest that AVP may modulate mesangial cell growth not only by its direct action but also through the stimulation of ET-1 secretion. YM218 displays high potency in inhibiting the AVP-induced physiologic responses of mesangial cells via the V(1A) receptors and is a potent pharmacologic probe for investigating the physiologic and pathophysiologic roles of AVP in several renal diseases.

  6. Involvement of endothelins in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension through the modulation of noradrenergic transmission in the rat posterior hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Abramoff, Tamara; Guil, María J; Morales, Vanina P; Hope, Sandra I; Höcht, Christian; Bianciotti, Liliana G; Vatta, Marcelo S

    2015-06-01

    What is the central question of this study? Does ex vivo administration of endothelin-1 and endothelin-3 regulate noradrenergic transmission in the posterior hypothalamus of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats compared with normotensive rats? What is the main finding and its importance? End