Science.gov

Sample records for endurance running capacity

  1. Endurance capacity of mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Meek, Thomas H; Lonquich, Brian P; Hannon, Robert M; Garland, Theodore

    2009-09-15

    Mice from four lines bred for high voluntary wheel activity run approximately 3-fold more revolutions per day and have elevated maximal oxygen consumption during forced treadmill exercise, as compared with four unselected control (C) lines. We hypothesized that these high runner (HR) lines would have greater treadmill endurance-running capacity. Ninety-six mice from generation 49 were familiarized with running on a motorized treadmill for 3 days. On days 4 and 5, mice were given an incremental speed test (starting at 20 m min(-1), increased 1.5 m min(-1) every 2 min) and endurance was measured as the total time or distance run to exhaustion. Blood samples were taken to measure glucose and lactate concentrations at rest during the photophase, during peak nightly wheel running, and immediately following the second endurance test. Individual differences in endurance time were highly repeatable between days (r=0.79), and mice tended to run longer on the second day (paired t-test, P<0.0001). Blood glucose following the treadmill test was low for all animals ( approximately 53 mg dl(-1)) and lactate was high ( approximately 6.5 mmol l(-1)), suggesting that exhaustion occurred. The HR lines had significantly higher endurance than the C lines (1-tailed P<0.05), whether or not body mass was used as a covariate in the analysis. The relationship between line means for wheel running and treadmill endurance differed between the sexes, reinforcing previous studies that indicate sex-specific responses to selective breeding. HR mice appear to have a higher endurance capacity than reported in the literature for inbred strains of mice or transgenics intended to enhance endurance.

  2. Effects of Cycling Versus Running Training on Sprint and Endurance Capacity in Inline Speed Skating

    PubMed Central

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of running versus cycling training on sprint and endurance capacity in inline speed skating. Sixteen elite athletes (8 male, 8 female, 24 ± 8 yrs) were randomly assigned into 2 training groups performing either 2 session per week of treadmill running or ergometer cycling in addition to 3 skating specific sessions (technique, plyometrics, parkour) for 8 weeks. Training intensity was determined within non-specific (cycling or running) and effects on specific endurance capacity within a specific incremental exercise test. Before and after the intervention all athletes performed a specific (300m) and one non-specific (30s cycling or 200m running) all-out sprint test according to the group affiliation. To determine the accumulation of blood lactate (BLa) and glucose (BGL) 20 μl arterialized blood was drawn at rest, as well as in 1 min intervals for 10 min after the sprint test. The sport-specific peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) was significantly increased (+17%; p = 0.01) in both groups and highly correlated with the sprint performance (r = -0.71). BLa values decreased significantly (-18%, p = 0.02) after the specific sprint test from pre to post-testing without any group effect. However, BGL values only showed a significant decrease (-2%, p = 0.04) in the running group. The close relationship between aerobic capacity and sprint performance in inline speed skating highlights the positive effects of endurance training. Although both training programs were equally effective in improving endurance and sprint capacities, the metabolic results indicate a faster recovery after high intensity efforts for all athletes, as well as a higher reliance on the fat metabolism for athletes who trained in the running group. Key points In addition to a highly developed aerobic performance inline speed skaters also require a highly trained anaerobic capacity to be effective in the sprint sections such as the mass start, tactical attacks

  3. Effects of carbohydrate ingestion 15 min before exercise on endurance running capacity.

    PubMed

    Tokmakidis, Savvas P; Karamanolis, Ioannis A

    2008-06-01

    This study examined the effects of pre-exercise carbohydrate ingestion on exercise metabolism and endurance running capacity. Eleven active subjects (VO(2) (max) 49.0 +/- 1.7 mL x kg(-1) x min(-1), mean +/- SE) performed two exercise trials 15 min after ingesting glucose (G; 1 g x kg body mass(-1)) and placebo (CON). Each subject ran on a level treadmill for 5 min at 60%, 45 min at 70%, and then at 80% of VO(2) (max) until exhaustion. Serum glucose and plasma insulin reached their peak concentrations (p < 0.01) 15 min after glucose ingestion and declined at the onset of exercise. Serum glycerol concentrations were lower (p < 0.01) in the G trial than in the CON trial after 30 min of exercise to exhaustion. In addition, after 45 min of exercise to exhaustion, the levels of free fatty acids were lower in G than in CON (p < 0.05). No differences were observed in carbohydrate oxidation rates during exercise between treatments (G, 2.53 +/- 0.08 g x min(-1); CON, 2.40 +/- 0.09 g x min(-1)). Time to exhaustion was 12.8% longer in G (p < 0.01) than in CON. These results suggest that glucose ingestion 15 min before prolonged exercise provides an additional carbohydrate source to the exercising muscle, thus improving endurance running capacity.

  4. Serotonin-mediated central fatigue underlies increased endurance capacity in mice from lines selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Fonseca, Ivana A T; Thompson, Zoe; Barber, Curtis; Garland, Theodore

    2016-07-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is implicated in central fatigue, and 5-HT1A pharmaceuticals are known to influence locomotor endurance in both rodents and humans. We studied the effects of a 5-HT1A agonist and antagonist on both forced and voluntary exercise in the same set of mice. This cohort of mice was taken from 4 replicate lines of mice that have been selectively bred for high levels of voluntary wheel running (HR) as compared with 4 non-selected control (C) lines. HR mice run voluntarily on wheels about 3× as many revolutions per day as compared with C, and have greater endurance during forced treadmill exercise. We hypothesized that drugs targeting serotonin receptors would have differential effects on locomotor behavior of HR and C mice. Subcutaneous injections of a 5-HT1A antagonist (WAY-100,635), a combination of 5-HT1A agonist and a 5-HT1A/1B partial agonist (8-OH-DPAT+pindolol), or physiological saline were given to separate groups of male mice before the start of each of three treadmill trials. The same manipulations were used later during voluntary wheel running on three separate nights. WAY-100,635 decreased treadmill endurance in HR but not C mice (dose by linetype interaction, P=0.0014). 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol affected treadmill endurance (P<0.0001) in a dose-dependent manner, with no dose by linetype interaction. Wheel running was reduced in HR but not C mice at the highest dose of 8-OH-DPAT+pindolol (dose by linetype, P=0.0221), but was not affected by WAY-100,635 treatment. These results provide further evidence that serotonin signaling is an important determinant of performance during both forced and voluntary exercise. Although the elevated wheel running of HR mice does not appear related to alterations in serotonin signaling, their enhanced endurance capacity does. More generally, our results indicate that both forced and voluntary exercise can be affected by an intervention that acts (primarily) centrally. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  5. Beverage carbohydrate concentration influences the intermittent endurance capacity of adolescent team games players during prolonged intermittent running.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shaun M; Turner, Anthony P; Sanderson, Mark F; Sproule, John

    2012-03-01

    This study investigated the influence of consuming a 2, 6, and 10% carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solution on the intermittent endurance capacity and sprint performance of adolescent team games players. Seven participants (five males and two females; mean age 13.3 ± 0.5 years, height 1.71 ± 0.05 m, body mass (BM) 62.0 ± 6.3 kg) performed three trials separated by 3-7 days. In each trial, they completed four 15-min periods of part A of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST) followed by an intermittent run to exhaustion (part B). Participants consumed 5 ml kg(-1) BM of the solution during the 5-min pre-exercise period, and a further 2 ml kg(-1) BM every 15 min during part A of the LIST. Intermittent endurance capacity increased by 34% with ingestion of the 6% CHO-E solution compared with the 10% solution (5.5 ± 0.8 vs. 4.1 ± 1.5 min, P < 0.05), equating to a distance of 931 ± 172 versus 706 ± 272 m (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference between the 2% (4.8 ± 1.2 min) and 6% (P = 0.10) or the 2 and 10% solutions (P = 0.09). Carbohydrate concentration did not significantly influence mean 15-m sprint time (P = 0.38). These results suggest that the carbohydrate concentration of an ingested solution influences the intermittent endurance capacity of adolescent team games players with a 6% solution significantly more effective than a 10% solution.

  6. Training modalities: impact on endurance capacity.

    PubMed

    Flueck, Martin; Eilers, Wouter

    2010-03-01

    Endurance athletes demonstrate an exceptional resistance to fatigue when exercising at high intensity. Much research has been devoted to the contribution of aerobic capacity for the economy of endurance performance. Important aspects of the fine-tuning of metabolic processes and power output in the endurance athlete have been overlooked. This review addresses how training paradigms exploit bioenergetic pathways in recruited muscle groups to promote the endurance phenotype. A special focus is laid on the genome-mediated mechanisms that underlie the conditioning of fatigue resistance and aerobic performance by training macrocycles and complements. The available data on work-induced muscle plasticity implies that different biologic strategies are exploited in athletic and untrained populations to boost endurance capacity. Olympic champions are probably endowed with a unique constitution that renders the conditioning of endurance capacity for competition particularly efficient. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Endurance running performance in athletes with asthma.

    PubMed

    Freeman, W; Williams, C; Nute, M G

    1990-01-01

    Laboratory assessment was made during maximal and submaximal exercise on 16 endurance trained male runners with asthma (aged 35 +/- 9 years) (mean +/- S.D.). Eleven of these asthmatic athletes had recent performance times over a half-marathon, which were examined in light of the results from the laboratory tests. The maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max) of the group was 61.8 +/- 6.3 ml kg-1 min-1 and the maximum ventilation (VEmax) was 138.7 +/- 24.7 l min-1. These maximum cardio-respiratory responses to exercise were positively correlated to the degree of airflow obstruction, defined as the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (expressed as a percentage of predicted normal). The half-marathon performance times of 11 of the athletes ranged from those of recreational to elite runners (82.4 +/- 8.8 min, range 69-94). Race pace was correlated with VO2max (r = 0.863, P less than 0.01) but the highest correlation was with the running velocity at a blood lactate concentration of 2 mmol l-1 (r = 0.971, P less than 0.01). The asthmatic athletes utilized 82 +/- 4% VO2max during the half-marathon, which was correlated with the %VO2max at 2 mmol l-1 blood lactate (r = 0.817, P less than 0.01). The results of this study suggest that athletes with mild to moderate asthma can possess high VO2max values and can develop a high degree of endurance fitness, as defined by their ability to sustain a high percentage of VO2max over an endurance race. In athletes with more severe airflow obstruction, the maximum ventilation rate may be reduced and so VO2max may be impaired. The athletes in the present study have adapted to this limitation by being able to sustain a higher %VO2max before the accumulation of blood lactate, which is an advantage during an endurance race. Therefore, with appropriate training and medication, asthmatics can successfully participate in endurance running at a competitive level.

  8. Ingesting a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte solution improves endurance capacity, but not sprint performance, during intermittent, high-intensity shuttle running in adolescent team games players aged 12-14 years.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shaun M; Turner, Anthony P; Gray, Shirley; Sanderson, Mark F; Sproule, John

    2010-07-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the influence of consuming a 6% carbohydrate-electrolyte (CHO-E) solution on the intermittent, high-intensity endurance performance and capacity of adolescent team games players. Fifteen participants (mean age 12.7 +/- 0.8 years) performed two trials separated by 3-7 days. In each trial, they completed 60 min of exercise composed of four 15-min periods of part A of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test, followed by an intermittent run to exhaustion (part B). In a double-blind, randomised, counterbalanced fashion participants consumed either the 6% CHO-E solution or a non-carbohydrate (CHO) placebo (5 ml kg(-1) BM) during the 5 min pre-trial and after each 15-min period of part A (2 ml kg(-1) BM). Time to fatigue was increased by 24.4% during part B when CHO was ingested (5.1 +/- 1.8 vs. 4.1 +/- 1.6 min, P < 0.05), with distance covered in part B also significantly greater in the CHO trial (851 +/- 365 vs. 694 +/- 278 m, P < 0.05). No significant between-trials differences were observed for mean 15-m sprint time (P = 0.35), peak sprint time (P = 0.77), or heart rate (P = 0.08) during part A. These results demonstrate, for the first time, that ingestion of a CHO-E solution significantly improves the intermittent, high-intensity endurance running capacity of adolescent team games players during an exercise protocol designed to simulate the physiological demands of team games.

  9. Should Body Size Categories Be More Common in Endurance Running Events?

    PubMed

    Buresh, Robert

    2018-05-01

    Thousands of endurance running events are held each year in the United States, and most of them use age and sex categories to account for documented effects of those factors on running performance. However, most running events do not provide categories of body mass, despite abundant evidence that it, too, dramatically influences endurance running performance. The purposes of this article are to (1) discuss how body mass affects endurance running performance, (2) explain several mechanisms through which body mass influences endurance running performance, and (3) suggest possible ways in which body mass might be categorized in endurance running events.

  10. Comparability and repeatability of three commonly used methods for measuring endurance capacity.

    PubMed

    Baxter-Gilbert, James; Mühlenhaupt, Max; Whiting, Martin J

    2017-12-01

    Measures of endurance (time to exhaustion) have been used to address a wide range of questions in ecomorphological and physiological research, as well as being used as a proxy for survival and fitness. Swimming, stationary (circular) track running, and treadmill running are all commonly used methods for measuring endurance. Despite the use of these methods across a broad range of taxa, how comparable these methods are to one another, and whether they are biologically relevant, is rarely examined. We used Australian water dragons (Intellagama lesueurii), a species that is morphologically adept at climbing, swimming, and running, to compare these three methods of endurance and examined if there is repeatability within and between trial methods. We found that time to exhaustion was not highly repeatable within a method, suggesting that single measures or a mean time to exhaustion across trials are not appropriate. Furthermore, we compared mean maximal endurance times among the three methods, and found that the two running methods (i.e., stationary track and treadmill) were similar, but swimming was distinctly different, resulting in lower mean maximal endurance times. Finally, an individual's endurance rank was not repeatable across methods, suggesting that the three endurance trial methods are not providing similar information about an individual's performance capacity. Overall, these results highlight the need to carefully match a measure of performance capacity with the study species and the research questions being asked so that the methods being used are behaviorally, ecologically, and physiologically relevant. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A metabolomic study of the PPARδ agonist GW501516 for enhancing running endurance in Kunming mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Gao, Rong; Xie, Xinni; Zheng, Zhibing; Li, Haijing; Li, Song; Dong, Fangting; Wang, Lili

    2015-05-06

    Exercise can increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) expression in skeletal muscle. PPARδ regulates muscle metabolism and reprograms muscle fibre types to enhance running endurance. This study utilized metabolomic profiling to examine the effects of GW501516, a PPARδ agonist, on running endurance in mice. While training alone increased the exhaustive running performance, GW501516 treatment enhanced running endurance and the proportion of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-positive muscle fibres in both trained and untrained mice. Furthermore, increased levels of intermediate metabolites and key enzymes in fatty acid oxidation pathways were observed following training and/or treatment. Training alone increased serum inositol, glucogenic amino acids, and branch chain amino acids. However, GW501516 increased serum galactose and β-hydroxybutyrate, independent of training. Additionally, GW501516 alone raised serum unsaturated fatty acid levels, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, but levels increased even more when combined with training. These findings suggest that mechanisms behind enhanced running capacity are not identical for GW501516 and training. Training increases energy availability by promoting catabolism of proteins, and gluconeogenesis, whereas GW501516 enhances specific consumption of fatty acids and reducing glucose utilization.

  12. A metabolomic study of the PPARδ agonist GW501516 for enhancing running endurance in Kunming mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Gao, Rong; Xie, Xinni; Zheng, Zhibing; Li, Haijing; Li, Song; Dong, Fangting; Wang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Exercise can increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) expression in skeletal muscle. PPARδ regulates muscle metabolism and reprograms muscle fibre types to enhance running endurance. This study utilized metabolomic profiling to examine the effects of GW501516, a PPARδ agonist, on running endurance in mice. While training alone increased the exhaustive running performance, GW501516 treatment enhanced running endurance and the proportion of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-positive muscle fibres in both trained and untrained mice. Furthermore, increased levels of intermediate metabolites and key enzymes in fatty acid oxidation pathways were observed following training and/or treatment. Training alone increased serum inositol, glucogenic amino acids, and branch chain amino acids. However, GW501516 increased serum galactose and β-hydroxybutyrate, independent of training. Additionally, GW501516 alone raised serum unsaturated fatty acid levels, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, but levels increased even more when combined with training. These findings suggest that mechanisms behind enhanced running capacity are not identical for GW501516 and training. Training increases energy availability by promoting catabolism of proteins, and gluconeogenesis, whereas GW501516 enhances specific consumption of fatty acids and reducing glucose utilization. PMID:25943561

  13. Defining the determinants of endurance running performance in the heat

    PubMed Central

    James, Carl A.; Hayes, Mark; Willmott, Ashley G. B.; Gibson, Oliver R.; Schlader, Zachary J.; Maxwell, Neil S.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT In cool conditions, physiologic markers accurately predict endurance performance, but it is unclear whether thermal strain and perceived thermal strain modify the strength of these relationships. This study examined the relationships between traditional determinants of endurance performance and time to complete a 5-km time trial in the heat. Seventeen club runners completed graded exercise tests (GXT) in hot (GXTHOT; 32°C, 60% RH, 27.2°C WBGT) and cool conditions (GXTCOOL; 13°C, 50% RH, 9.3°C WBGT) to determine maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max), running economy (RE), velocity at V̇O2max (vV̇O2max), and running speeds corresponding to the lactate threshold (LT, 2 mmol.l−1) and lactate turnpoint (LTP, 4 mmol.l−1). Simultaneous multiple linear regression was used to predict 5 km time, using these determinants, indicating neither GXTHOT (R2 = 0.72) nor GXTCOOL (R2 = 0.86) predicted performance in the heat as strongly has previously been reported in cool conditions. vV̇O2max was the strongest individual predictor of performance, both when assessed in GXTHOT (r = −0.83) and GXTCOOL (r = −0.90). The GXTs revealed the following correlations for individual predictors in GXTHOT; V̇O2max r = −0.7, RE r = 0.36, LT r = −0.77, LTP r = −0.78 and in GXTCOOL; V̇O2max r = −0.67, RE r = 0.62, LT r = −0.79, LTP r = −0.8. These data indicate (i) GXTHOT does not predict 5 km running performance in the heat as strongly as a GXTCOOL, (ii) as in cool conditions, vV̇O2max may best predict running performance in the heat. PMID:28944273

  14. Effect of speed endurance and strength training on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Vorup, Jacob; Tybirk, Jonas; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Ravnholt, Tanja; Dalsgaard, Sarah; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-07-01

    To investigate the effects of combined strength and speed endurance (SE) training along with a reduced training volume on performance, running economy and muscular adaptations in endurance-trained runners. Sixteen male endurance runners (VO2-max: ~60 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) were randomly assigned to either a combined strength and SE training (CSS; n = 9) or a control (CON; n = 7) group. For 8 weeks, CSS replaced their normal moderate-intensity training (~63 km week(-1)) with SE (2 × week(-1)) and strength training (2 × week(-1)) as well as aerobic high (1 × week(-1)) and moderate (1 × week(-1)) intensity training with a reduction in total volume of ~58 %, whereas CON continued their training (~45 km week(-1)). In CSS, 400-m and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test performance was improved by 5 % (P < 0.01) and 19 % (P < 0.001), respectively, during the intervention period. Maximal aerobic speed was 0.6 km h(-1) higher (P < 0.05), and maximal activity of lactate dehydrogenase subunits 1 and 2 was 17 % (P < 0.05) higher after compared to before the intervention period. Time to exhaustion and peak blood lactate during an incremental treadmill test was 9 % (P < 0.05) and 32 % (P < 0.01), respectively, higher and expression of Na(+)-K(+) pump β1 subunit was 15 % higher (P < 0.05) after compared to before the intervention period. 10-K performance, maximum oxygen uptake and running economy were unchanged. In CON, no changes were observed. Adding strength and speed endurance training, along with a reduced training volume, can improve short-term exercise capacity and induce muscular adaptations related to anaerobic capacity in endurance-trained runners.

  15. Vitamins and endurance training. Food for running or faddish claims?

    PubMed

    van der Beek, E J

    1985-01-01

    The inter-relationship of food and physical performance, food is considered as a conglomerate of nutrients and man is depicted as a kind of organic pudding. This 'machine' concept of human performance in combination with the mysticism surrounding vitamins, has led to the faddish belief that additional vitamins are necessary to improve physical performance by means of supercharging the metabolic processes in the body. Various vitamins and their dietary recommendations as well as the indicators for vitamin status are discussed. It is concluded that a marginal or subclinical deficiency state can be defined as an intermediate between optimal vitamin status and frank clinical deficiency. Marginal deficiency is characterised by biochemical values deviating from statistically derived reference limits as well as the absence of clinical signs and symptoms of vitamin deficiency. Besides the static, mostly biochemical, indicators of vitamin status, more functional indicators are considered, among them work capacity. An extensive historical review on depletion studies, epidemiological surveys and supplementation studies is presented. It is concluded that a restricted intake of some B-complex vitamins-individually and in combination-of approximately less than 35 to 45% of the recommended dietary allowance may lead to decreased endurance capacity within a few weeks. Studies on ascorbic acid (vitamin C) depletion and fat-soluble vitamin A deficiency have noted no decrease of endurance capacity. However, in a few recent epidemiological surveys, biochemical vitamin C deficiency was actually shown to decrease aerobic power. Although the general conclusion is that a reduced water-soluble vitamin intake decreases endurance capacity, it is believed that further controlled experimentation is needed with B-complex vitamins and vitamin C individually. Furthermore, usually employed reference limits for vitamins need reappraisal translating them into impairment limits. With respect to the

  16. Calcaneus length determines running economy: implications for endurance running performance in modern humans and Neandertals.

    PubMed

    Raichlen, David A; Armstrong, Hunter; Lieberman, Daniel E

    2011-03-01

    The endurance running (ER) hypothesis suggests that distance running played an important role in the evolution of the genus Homo. Most researchers have focused on ER performance in modern humans, or on reconstructing ER performance in Homo erectus, however, few studies have examined ER capabilities in other members of the genus Homo. Here, we examine skeletal correlates of ER performance in modern humans in order to evaluate the energetics of running in Neandertals and early Homo sapiens. Recent research suggests that running economy (the energy cost of running at a given speed) is strongly related to the length of the Achilles tendon moment arm. Shorter moment arms allow for greater storage and release of elastic strain energy, reducing energy costs. Here, we show that a skeletal correlate of Achilles tendon moment arm length, the length of the calcaneal tuber, does not correlate with walking economy, but correlates significantly with running economy and explains a high proportion of the variance (80%) in cost between individuals. Neandertals had relatively longer calcaneal tubers than modern humans, which would have increased their energy costs of running. Calcaneal tuber lengths in early H. sapiens do not significantly differ from those of extant modern humans, suggesting Neandertal ER economy was reduced relative to contemporaneous anatomically modern humans. Endurance running is generally thought to be beneficial for gaining access to meat in hot environments, where hominins could have used pursuit hunting to run prey taxa into hyperthermia. We hypothesize that ER performance may have been reduced in Neandertals because they lived in cold climates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Endurance capacity is not correlated with endothelial function in male university students.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Zeng, Xian-bo; Yao, Feng-juan; Wu, Fang; Su, Chen; Fan, Zhen-guo; Zhu, Zhu; Tao, Jun; Huang, Yi-jun

    2014-01-01

    Endurance capacity, assessed by 1000-meter (1000 m) run of male university students, is an indicator of cardiovascular fitness in Chinese students physical fitness surveillance. Although cardiovascular fitness is related to endothelial function closely in patients with cardiovascular diseases, it remains unclear whether endurance capacity correlates with endothelial function, especially with circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs), a new sensitive marker of endothelial dysfunction in young students. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between endurance capacity and endothelial function in male university students. Forty-seven healthy male university students (mean age, 20.1 ± 0.6 years; mean height, 172.4 ± 6.3 cm; and mean weight, 60.0 ± 8.2 kg) were recruited in this study. The measurement procedure of 1000 m run time was followed to Chinese national students Constitutional Health Criterion. Endothelium function was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in the brachial artery measured by ultrasonic imaging, and the level of circulating EMPs was measured by flow cytometry. Cardiovascular fitness indicator--maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max)--was also measured on a cycle ergometer using a portable gas analyzer. 1000 m run time was correlated with VO2max (r  =  -0.399, p<0.05). However, there were no correlations between VO2max and FMD or levels of circulating CD31+/CD42- microparticles. Similarly, no correlations were found between 1000 m run time and FMD, and levels of circulating CD31+/CD42- microparticles in these male university students (p>0.05). The correlations between endurance capacity or cardiovascular fitness and endothelial function were not found in healthy Chinese male university students. These results suggest that endurance capacity may not reflect endothelial function in healthy young adults with well preserved FMD and low level of circulating CD31+/CD42-EMPs.

  18. Endurance Capacity Is Not Correlated with Endothelial Function in Male University Students

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Fang; Su, Chen; Fan, Zhen-guo; Zhu, Zhu; Tao, Jun; Huang, Yi-jun

    2014-01-01

    Background Endurance capacity, assessed by 1000-meter (1000 m) run of male university students, is an indicator of cardiovascular fitness in Chinese students physical fitness surveillance. Although cardiovascular fitness is related to endothelial function closely in patients with cardiovascular diseases, it remains unclear whether endurance capacity correlates with endothelial function, especially with circulating endothelial microparticles (EMPs), a new sensitive marker of endothelial dysfunction in young students. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between endurance capacity and endothelial function in male university students. Methods Forty-seven healthy male university students (mean age, 20.1±0.6 years; mean height, 172.4±6.3 cm; and mean weight, 60.0±8.2 kg) were recruited in this study. The measurement procedure of 1000 m run time was followed to Chinese national students Constitutional Health Criterion. Endothelium function was assessed by flow-mediated vasodilation (FMD) in the brachial artery measured by ultrasonic imaging, and the level of circulating EMPs was measured by flow cytometry. Cardiovascular fitness indicator - maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) - was also measured on a cycle ergometer using a portable gas analyzer. Results 1000 m run time was correlated with VO2max (r = −0.399, p<0.05). However, there were no correlations between VO2max and FMD or levels of circulating CD31+/CD42- microparticles. Similarly, no correlations were found between 1000 m run time and FMD, and levels of circulating CD31+/CD42- microparticles in these male university students (p>0.05). Conclusion The correlations between endurance capacity or cardiovascular fitness and endothelial function were not found in healthy Chinese male university students. These results suggest that endurance capacity may not reflect endothelial function in healthy young adults with well preserved FMD and low level of circulating CD31+/CD42-EMPs. PMID:25101975

  19. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  20. Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, Jussi; Vesterinen, Ville; Taipale, Ritva; Capostagno, Benoit; Häkkinen, Keijo; Nummela, Ari

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of heavy resistance, explosive resistance, and muscle endurance training on neuromuscular, endurance, and high-intensity running performance in recreational endurance runners. Twenty-seven male runners were divided into one of three groups: heavy resistance, explosive resistance or muscle endurance training. After 6 weeks of preparatory training, the groups underwent an 8-week resistance training programme as a supplement to endurance training. Before and after the 8-week training period, maximal strength (one-repetition maximum), electromyographic activity of the leg extensors, countermovement jump height, maximal speed in the maximal anaerobic running test, maximal endurance performance, maximal oxygen uptake ([V·]O(₂max)), and running economy were assessed. Maximal strength improved in the heavy (P = 0.034, effect size ES = 0.38) and explosive resistance training groups (P = 0.003, ES = 0.67) with increases in leg muscle activation (heavy: P = 0.032, ES = 0.38; explosive: P = 0.002, ES = 0.77). Only the heavy resistance training group improved maximal running speed in the maximal anaerobic running test (P = 0.012, ES = 0.52) and jump height (P = 0.006, ES = 0.59). Maximal endurance running performance was improved in all groups (heavy: P = 0.005, ES = 0.56; explosive: P = 0.034, ES = 0.39; muscle endurance: P = 0.001, ES = 0.94), with small though not statistically significant improvements in [V·]O(₂max) (heavy: ES = 0.08; explosive: ES = 0.29; muscle endurance: ES = 0.65) and running economy (ES in all groups < 0.08). All three modes of strength training used concurrently with endurance training were effective in improving treadmill running endurance performance. However, both heavy and explosive strength training were beneficial in improving neuromuscular characteristics, and heavy resistance training in particular contributed to improvements in high-intensity running characteristics. Thus, endurance

  1. [Studies on the shade-endurance capacity of Glycyrrhiza uralensis].

    PubMed

    Wei, Sheng-li; Wang, Wen-quan; Chen, Xiu-hua; Qin, Shu-ying; Chen, Xiu-tian

    2005-01-01

    To study the shade-endurance property of Glycyrrhiza uralensis and provide rationale for the practice of inter-cropping G. uralensis with trees. Black shading nets were used to provide five different environments of light intensities (light penetration rates of 100%, 75%, 65%, 50% and 25%, respectively). To assess the shade-endurance capacity of G. uralensis, several aspects were evaluated, including growth characters, physiological and ecological characters, biomass, and chemical contents. G. uralensis is a light-favored plant. The growth indices such as plant height, stem diameter, leaves number, root diameter, biomass, and daily average photosynthetic rate (Pn) are highest when light permeation rate is 100%. All these indices decrease when light intensity decreases. However, G. uralensis possesses shade-endurance capacity to some degree; it adapts to the shading environment by increasing the leaf area and chlorophyll contents. Shading has no obvious effect on the absolute light energy utilization rate (Eu) or Fv/Fm ratio. The influence of shading on the chemical contents of G. uralensis is obvious.

  2. Kinematic changes during running-induced fatigue and relations with core endurance in novice runners.

    PubMed

    Koblbauer, Ian F; van Schooten, Kimberley S; Verhagen, Evert A; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2014-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate kinematic changes experienced during running-induced fatigue. Further, the study examined relations between kinematic changes and core endurance. Repeated measures and correlation. Seventeen novice runners participated in a running-induced fatigue protocol and underwent core endurance assessment. Participants ran at a steady state corresponding to an intensity of 13 on the Borg scale and continued until 2min after a Borg score of 17 or 90% of maximum heart rate was reached. Kinematic data were analyzed for the lower extremities and trunk throughout a running protocol and, on separate days, core endurance measures were recorded. Changes in pre- and post-fatigue running kinematics and their relations with core endurance measures were analyzed. Analysis of peak joint angles revealed significant increases in trunk flexion (4°), decreases in trunk extension (3°), and increases in non-dominant ankle eversion (1.6°) as a result of running-induced fatigue. Post-fatigue increased trunk flexion changes displayed a strong to moderate positive relation with trunk extensor core endurance measures, in contrast to expected negative relations. Novice runners displayed an overall increase in trunk inclination and increased ankle eversion peak angles when fatigued utilizing a running-induced fatigue protocol. As most pronounced changes were found for the trunk, trunk kinematics appear to be significantly affected during fatigued running and should not be overlooked. Core endurance measures displayed unexpected relations with running kinematics and require further investigation to determine the significance of these relations. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training on running performance and running economy in recreational marathon runners.

    PubMed

    Ferrauti, Alexander; Bergermann, Matthias; Fernandez-Fernandez, Jaime

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a concurrent strength and endurance training program on running performance and running economy of middle-aged runners during their marathon preparation. Twenty-two (8 women and 14 men) recreational runners (mean ± SD: age 40.0 ± 11.7 years; body mass index 22.6 ± 2.1 kg·m⁻²) were separated into 2 groups (n = 11; combined endurance running and strength training program [ES]: 9 men, 2 women and endurance running [E]: 7 men, and 4 women). Both completed an 8-week intervention period that consisted of either endurance training (E: 276 ± 108 minute running per week) or a combined endurance and strength training program (ES: 240 ± 121-minute running plus 2 strength training sessions per week [120 minutes]). Strength training was focused on trunk (strength endurance program) and leg muscles (high-intensity program). Before and after the intervention, subjects completed an incremental treadmill run and maximal isometric strength tests. The initial values for VO2peak (ES: 52.0 ± 6.1 vs. E: 51.1 ± 7.5 ml·kg⁻¹·min⁻¹) and anaerobic threshold (ES: 3.5 ± 0.4 vs. E: 3.4 ± 0.5 m·s⁻¹) were identical in both groups. A significant time × intervention effect was found for maximal isometric force of knee extension (ES: from 4.6 ± 1.4 to 6.2 ± 1.0 N·kg⁻¹, p < 0.01), whereas no changes in body mass occurred. No significant differences between the groups and no significant interaction (time × intervention) were found for VO2 (absolute and relative to VO2peak) at defined marathon running velocities (2.4 and 2.8 m·s⁻¹) and submaximal blood lactate thresholds (2.0, 3.0, and 4.0 mmol·L⁻¹). Stride length and stride frequency also remained unchanged. The results suggest no benefits of an 8-week concurrent strength training for running economy and coordination of recreational marathon runners despite a clear improvement in leg strength, maybe because of an insufficient sample size or a short

  4. Prevalence in running events and running performance of endurance runners following a vegetarian or vegan diet compared to non-vegetarian endurance runners: the NURMI Study.

    PubMed

    Wirnitzer, Katharina; Seyfart, Tom; Leitzmann, Claus; Keller, Markus; Wirnitzer, Gerold; Lechleitner, Christoph; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Rosemann, Thomas; Knechtle, Beat

    2016-01-01

    Beneficial and detrimental effects of various vegetarian and vegan diets on the health status are well known. Considering the growing background numbers of vegetarians and vegans, the number of vegetarian and vegan runners is likely to rise, too. Therefore, the Nutrition and Running High Mileage (NURMI) Study was designed as a comparative study to investigate the prevalence of omnivores, vegetarians, and vegans in running events and to detect potential differences in running performance comparing these three subgroups. The NURMI Study will be conducted in three steps following a cross-sectional design. Step 1 will determine epidemiological aspects of endurance runners (any distance) using a short standardized questionnaire. Step 2 will investigate dietary habits and running history from eligible participants (capable of running a half-marathon at least) using an extended standardized questionnaire. Step 3 will collect data after a running event on finishing time and final ranking as well as a post-race rating of perceived exertion, mood status, nutrient and fluid intake during the race. Our study will provide a major contribution to overcome the lack of data on the prevalence and running performance of vegetarian and vegan runners in endurance running events. We estimate the prevalence of vegetarians and vegans participating in a running event to be less compared to the respective proportion of vegetarians and vegans to the general population. Furthermore we will validate the subject's self-assessment of their respective diet. This comparative study may identify possible effects of dietary behavior on running performance und may detect possible differences between the respective subgroups: omnivorous, vegetarian and vegan runners. Trial registration Current controlled trials, ISRCTN73074080.

  5. Contribution of creatine to protein homeostasis in athletes after endurance and sprint running.

    PubMed

    Tang, Fu-Chun; Chan, Chun-Chen; Kuo, Po-Ling

    2014-02-01

    Few studies have focused on the metabolic changes induced by creatine supplementation. This study investigated the effects of creatine supplementation on plasma and urinary metabolite changes of athletes after endurance and sprint running. Twelve male athletes (20.3 ± 1.4 y) performed two identical (65-70 % maximum heart rate reserved) 60 min running exercises (endurance trial) before and after creatine supplementation (12 g creatine monohydrate/day for 15 days), followed by a 5-day washout period. Subsequently, they performed two identical 100 m sprint running exercises (power trial) before and after 15 days of creatine supplementation in accordance with the supplementary protocol of the endurance trial. Body composition measurements were performed during the entire study. Plasma samples were examined for the concentrations of glucose, lactate, branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), free-tryptophan (f-TRP), glutamine, alanine, hypoxanthine, and uric acid. Urinary samples were examined for the concentrations of hydroxyproline, 3-methylhistidine, urea nitrogen, and creatinine. Creatine supplementation significantly increased body weights of the athletes of endurance trial. Plasma lactate concentration and ratio of f-TRP/BCAAs after recovery from endurance running were significantly decreased with creatine supplementation. Plasma purine metabolites (the sum of hypoxanthine and uric acid), glutamine, urinary 3-methylhistidine, and urea nitrogen concentrations tended to decrease before running in trials with creatine supplements. After running, urinary hydroxyproline concentration significantly increased in the power trial with creatine supplements. The findings suggest that creatine supplementation tended to decrease muscle glycogen and protein degradation, especially after endurance exercise. However, creatine supplementation might induce collagen proteolysis in athletes after sprint running.

  6. Systems-level computational modeling demonstrates fuel selection switching in high capacity running and low capacity running rats

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Nathan R.

    2018-01-01

    High capacity and low capacity running rats, HCR and LCR respectively, have been bred to represent two extremes of running endurance and have recently demonstrated disparities in fuel usage during transient aerobic exercise. HCR rats can maintain fatty acid (FA) utilization throughout the course of transient aerobic exercise whereas LCR rats rely predominantly on glucose utilization. We hypothesized that the difference between HCR and LCR fuel utilization could be explained by a difference in mitochondrial density. To test this hypothesis and to investigate mechanisms of fuel selection, we used a constraint-based kinetic analysis of whole-body metabolism to analyze transient exercise data from these rats. Our model analysis used a thermodynamically constrained kinetic framework that accounts for glycolysis, the TCA cycle, and mitochondrial FA transport and oxidation. The model can effectively match the observed relative rates of oxidation of glucose versus FA, as a function of ATP demand. In searching for the minimal differences required to explain metabolic function in HCR versus LCR rats, it was determined that the whole-body metabolic phenotype of LCR, compared to the HCR, could be explained by a ~50% reduction in total mitochondrial activity with an additional 5-fold reduction in mitochondrial FA transport activity. Finally, we postulate that over sustained periods of exercise that LCR can partly overcome the initial deficit in FA catabolic activity by upregulating FA transport and/or oxidation processes. PMID:29474500

  7. Do Running Kinematic Characteristics Change over a Typical HIIT for Endurance Runners?

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2016-10-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. Do running kinematic characteristics change over a typical HIIT for endurance runners?. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2907-2917, 2016-The purpose of this study was to describe kinematic changes that occur during a common high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) session for endurance runners. Twenty-eight male endurance runners participated in this study. A high-speed camera was used to measure sagittal-plane kinematics at the first and the last run during a HIIT (4 × 3 × 400 m). The dependent variables were spatial-temporal variables, joint angles during support and swing, and foot strike pattern. Physiological variables, rate of perceived exertion, and athletic performance were also recorded. No significant changes (p ≥ 0.05) in kinematic variables were found during the HIIT session. Two cluster analyses were performed, according to the average running pace-faster vs. slower, and according to exhaustion level reached-exhausted group vs. nonexhausted group (NEG). At first run, no significant differences were found between groups. As for the changes induced by the running protocol, significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found between faster and slower athletes at toe-off in θhip and θknee, whereas some changes were found in NEG in θhip during toe-off (+4.3°) and θknee at toe-off (-5.2°) during swing. The results show that a common HIIT session for endurance runners did not consistently or substantially perturb the running kinematics of trained male runners. Additionally, although some differences between groups have been found, neither athletic performance nor exhaustion level reached seems to be determinant in the kinematic response during a HIIT, at least for this group of moderately trained endurance runners.

  8. Acute and Chronic Effects of Endurance Running on Inflammatory Markers: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Barros, Edilberto S.; Nascimento, Dahan C.; Prestes, Jonato; Nóbrega, Otávio T.; Córdova, Claúdio; Sousa, Fernando; Boullosa, Daniel A.

    2017-01-01

    In order to understand the effect of endurance running on inflammation, it is necessary to quantify the extent to which acute and chronic running affects inflammatory mediators. The aim of this study was to summarize the literature on the effects of endurance running on inflammation mediators. Electronic searches were conducted on PubMED and Science Direct with no limits of date and language of publication. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomized controlled trials (NRCTs) investigating the acute and chronic effects of running on inflammation markers in runners were reviewed by two researchers for eligibility. The modified Downs and Black checklist for the assesssments of the methodological quality of studies was subsequently used. Fifty-one studies were finally included. There were no studies with elite athletes. Only two studies were chronic interventions. Results revealed that acute and chronic endurance running may affect anti- and pro-inflammatory markers but methodological differences between studies do not allow comparisons or generalization of the results. The information provided in this systematic review would help practitioners for better designing further studies while providing reference values for a better understanding of inflammatory responses after different running events. Further longitudinal studies are needed to identify the influence of training load parameters on inflammatory markers in runners of different levels and training background. PMID:29089897

  9. Relationship between Achilles tendon length and running performance in well-trained male endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiromasa; Suga, Tadashi; Takao, Kenji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Misaki, Jun; Miyake, Yuto; Nagano, Akinori; Isaka, Tadao

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between Achilles tendon (AT) length and running performance, including running economy, in well-trained endurance runners. We also examined the reasonable portion of the AT related to running performance among AT lengths measured in three different portions. The AT lengths at three portions and cross-sectional area (CSA) of 30 endurance runners were measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Each AT length was calculated as the distance from the calcaneal tuberosity to the muscle-tendon junction of the soleus, gastrocnemius medialis (GM AT ), and gastrocnemius lateralis, respectively. These AT lengths were normalized with shank length. The AT CSA was calculated as the average of 10, 20, and 30 mm above the distal insertion of the AT and normalized with body mass. Running economy was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-minutes submaximal treadmill running trials at 14, 16, and 18 km/h, respectively. Among three AT lengths, only a GM AT correlated significantly with personal best 5000-m race time (r=-.376, P=.046). Furthermore, GM AT correlated significantly with energy cost during submaximal treadmill running trials at 14 km/h and 18 km/h (r=-.446 and -.429, respectively, P<.05 for both), and a trend toward such significance was observed at 16 km/h (r=-.360, P=.050). In contrast, there was no correlation between AT CSA and running performance. These findings suggest that longer AT, especially GM AT , may be advantageous to achieve superior running performance, with better running economy, in endurance runners. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effects of Endurance and Endurance Strength Training on Body Composition and Physical Capacity in Women with Abdominal Obesity.

    PubMed

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Mądry, Edyta; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Ratajczak, Marzena; Kryściak, Jakub; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    To compare the effects of endurance training with endurance strength training on the anthropometric, body composition, physical capacity, and circulatory parameters in obese women. 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into groups A and B, and asked to perform endurance (A) and endurance strength training (B) for 3 months, 3 times/week, for 60 min. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and Graded Exercise Test were performed before and after training. Significant decreases in body mass, BMI, total body fat, total body fat mass, and waist and hip circumference were observed after both types of intervention. Marked increases in total body lean and total body fat-free mass were documented in group B. In both groups, significant increases in peak oxygen uptake, time to exhaustion, maximal work rate, and work rate at ventilatory threshold were accompanied by noticeably decreased resting heart rate, resting systolic blood pressure, and resting and exercise diastolic blood pressure. No significant differences were noticed between groups for the investigated parameters. Our findings demonstrate evidence for a favorable and comparable effect of 3-month endurance and endurance strength training on anthropometric parameters, body composition, physical capacity, and circulatory system function in women with abdominal obesity. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  11. Effects of Endurance and Endurance Strength Training on Body Composition and Physical Capacity in Women with Abdominal Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Skrypnik, Damian; Bogdański, Paweł; Mądry, Edyta; Karolkiewicz, Joanna; Ratajczak, Marzena; Kryściak, Jakub; Pupek-Musialik, Danuta; Walkowiak, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Aims To compare the effects of endurance training with endurance strength training on the anthropometric, body composition, physical capacity, and circulatory parameters in obese women. Methods 44 women with abdominal obesity were randomized into groups A and B, and asked to perform endurance (A) and endurance strength training (B) for 3 months, 3 times/week, for 60 min. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and Graded Exercise Test were performed before and after training. Results Significant decreases in body mass, BMI, total body fat, total body fat mass, and waist and hip circumference were observed after both types of intervention. Marked increases in total body lean and total body fat-free mass were documented in group B. In both groups, significant increases in peak oxygen uptake, time to exhaustion, maximal work rate, and work rate at ventilatory threshold were accompanied by noticeably decreased resting heart rate, resting systolic blood pressure, and resting and exercise diastolic blood pressure. No significant differences were noticed between groups for the investigated parameters. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate evidence for a favorable and comparable effect of 3-month endurance and endurance strength training on anthropometric parameters, body composition, physical capacity, and circulatory system function in women with abdominal obesity. PMID:25968470

  12. Effect of stride frequency on thermoregulatory responses during endurance running in distance runners.

    PubMed

    Amano, Tatsuro; Ishitobi, Masaki; Ogura, Yukio; Inoue, Yoshimitsu; Koga, Shunsaku; Nishiyasu, Takeshi; Kondo, Narihiko

    2016-10-01

    Changing stride frequency may influence oxygen uptake and heart rate during running as a function of running economy and central command. This study investigated the influence of stride frequency manipulation on thermoregulatory responses during endurance running. Seven healthy endurance runners ran on a treadmill at a velocity of 15km/h for 60min in a controlled environmental chamber (ambient temperature 27°C and relative humidity 50%), and stride frequency was manipulated. Stride frequency was intermittently manipulated by increasing and decreasing frequency by 10% from the pre-determined preferred frequency. These periods of increase or decrease were separated by free frequency running in the order of free stride frequency, stride frequency manipulation (increase or decrease), free stride frequency, and stride frequency manipulation (increase or decrease) for 15min each. The increased and decreased stride frequencies were 110% and 91% of the free running frequency, respectively (196±6, 162±5, and 178±5steps/min, respectively, P<0.01). Compared to the control, stride frequency manipulation did not affect rectal temperature, heart rate, or the rate of perceived exhaustion during running. Whole-body sweat loss increased significantly when stride frequency was manipulated (1.48±0.11 and 1.57±0.11kg for control and manipulated stride frequencies, respectively, P<0.05), but stride frequency had a small effect on sweat loss overall (Cohen's d=0.31). A higher mean skin temperature was also observed under mixed frequency conditions compared to that in the control (P<0.05). While the precise mechanisms underlying these changes remain unknown (e.g. running economy or central command), our results suggest that manipulation of stride frequency does not have a large effect on sweat loss or other physiological variables, but does increase mean skin temperature during endurance running. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Effects of fluid, electrolyte and substrate ingestion on endurance capacity.

    PubMed

    Maughan, R J; Fenn, C E; Leiper, J B

    1989-01-01

    The availability of carbohydrate (CHO) as a substrate for the exercising muscles is known to be a limiting factor in the performance of prolonged cycle exercise, and provision of exogenous CHO in the form of glucose can increase endurance capacity. The present study examined the effects of ingestion of fluids and of CHO in different forms on exercise performance. Six male volunteers exercised to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer at a workload which required approximately 70% of Vo2max. After one preliminary trial, subjects performed this exercise test on six occasions, one week apart. Immediately before exercise, and at 10-min intervals throughout, subjects ingested 100 ml of one of the following: control (no drink), water, glucose syrup, fructose syrup, glucose-fructose syrup or a dilute glucose-electrolyte solution. Each of the syrup solutions contained approximately 36 g CHO per 100 ml; the isotonic glucose-electrolyte solution contained 4 g glucose per 100 ml. A randomised Latin square order of administration of trials was employed. Expired air samples for determination of Vo2, respiratory exchange ratio and rate of CHO oxidation were collected at 15-min intervals. Venous blood samples were obtained before and after exercise. Subjects drinking the isotonic glucose-electrolyte solution exercised longer (90.8 (12.4) min, mean (SEM] than on the control test (70.2 (8.3) min; p less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Resting sympatho-vagal balance is related to 10 km running performance in master endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Cataldo, Angelo; Bianco, Antonino; Paoli, Antonio; Cerasola, Dario; Alagna, Saverio; Messina, Giuseppe; Zangla, Daniele; Traina, Marcello

    2018-01-12

    Relationships between heart rate recovery after exercise (HRR, baseline heart rate variability measures (HRV), and time to perform a 10Km running trial (t10Km) were evaluated in "master" athletes of endurance to assess whether the measured indexes may be useful for monitoring the training status of the athletes. Ten "master" athletes of endurance, aged 40-60 years, were recruited. After baseline measures of HRV, the athletes performed a graded maximal test on treadmill and HRR was measured at 1 and 2 minutes from recovery. Subsequently they performed a 10Km running trial and t10Km was related to HRV and HRR indexes. The time to perform a 10Km running trial was significantly correlated with baseline HRV indexes. No correlation was found between t10Km and HRR. Baseline HRV measures, but not HRR, were significantly correlated with the time of performance on 10km running in "master" athletes. The enhanced parasympathetic function at rest appears to be a condition to a better performance on 10km running. HRV can be simple and useful measurements for monitoring the training stratus of athletes and their physical condition in proximity of a competition.

  15. Does Carbohydrate Intake During Endurance Running Improve Performance? A Critical Review.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Patrick B

    2016-12-01

    Wilson, PB. Does carbohydrate intake during endurance running improve performance? A critical review. J Strength Cond Res 30(12): 3539-3559, 2016-Previous review articles assessing the effects of carbohydrate ingestion during prolonged exercise have not focused on running. Given the popularity of distance running and the widespread use of carbohydrate supplements, this article reviewed the evidence for carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running. The criteria for inclusion were (a) experimental studies reported in English language including a performance task, (b) moderate-to-high intensity exercise >60 minutes (intermittent excluded), and (c) carbohydrate ingestion (mouth rinsing excluded). Thirty studies were identified with 76 women and 505 men. Thirteen of the 17 studies comparing a carbohydrate beverage(s) with water or a placebo found a between-condition performance benefit with carbohydrate, although heterogeneity in protocols precludes clear generalizations about the expected effect sizes. Additional evidence suggests that (a) performance benefits are most likely to occur during events >2 hours, although several studies showed benefits for tasks lasting 90-120 minutes; (b) consuming carbohydrate beverages above ad libitum levels increases gastrointestinal discomfort without improving performance; (c) carbohydrate gels do not influence performance for events lasting 16-21 km; and (d) multiple saccharides may benefit events >2 hours if intake is ≥1.3 g·min Given that most participants were fasted young men, inferences regarding women, adolescents, older runners, and those competing in fed conditions are hampered. Future studies should address these limitations to further elucidate the role of carbohydrate ingestion during endurance running.

  16. The effects of wearing undersized lower-body compression garments on endurance running performance.

    PubMed

    Dascombe, Ben J; Hoare, Trent K; Sear, Joshua A; Reaburn, Peter R; Scanlan, Aaron T

    2011-06-01

    To examine whether wearing various size lower-body compression garments improves physiological and performance parameters related to endurance running in well-trained athletes. Eleven well-trained middle-distance runners and triathletes (age: 28.4 ± 10.0 y; height: 177.3 ± 4.7 cm; body mass: 72.6 ± 8.0 kg; VO2max: 59.0 ± 6.7 mL·kg-1·min-1) completed repeat progressive maximal tests (PMT) and time-to-exhaustion (TTE) tests at 90% VO2max wearing either manufacturer-recommended LBCG (rLBCG), undersized LBCG (uLBCG), or loose running shorts (CONT). During all exercise testing, several systemic and peripheral physiological measures were taken. The results indicated similar effects of wearing rLBCG and uLBCG compared with the control. Across the PMT, wearing either LBCG resulted in significantly (P < .05) increased oxygen consumption, O2 pulse, and deoxyhemoglobin (HHb) and decreased running economy, oxyhemoglobin, and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) at low-intensity speeds (8-10 km·h-1). At higher speeds (12-18 km·h-1), wearing LBCG increased regional blood flow (nTHI) and HHb values, but significantly lowered heart rate and TOI. During the TTE, wearing either LBCG significantly (P < .05) increased HHb concentration, whereas wearing uLBCG also significantly (P < .05) increased nTHI. No improvement in endurance running performance was observed in either compression condition. The results suggest that wearing LBCG facilitated a small number of cardiorespiratory and peripheral physiological benefits that appeared mostly related to improvements in venous flow. However, these improvements appear trivial to athletes, as they did not correspond to any improvement in endurance running performance.

  17. Examining the relationship between endogenous pain modulation capacity and endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Flood, Andrew; Waddington, Gordon; Cathcart, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to examine the relationship between pain modulatory capacity and endurance exercise performance. Twenty-seven recreationally active males between 18 and 35 years of age participated in the study. Pain modulation was assessed by examining the inhibitory effect of a noxious conditioning stimulus (cuff occlusion) on the perceived intensity of a second noxious stimulus (pressure pain threshold). Participants completed two, maximal voluntary contractions followed by a submaximal endurance time task. Both performance tasks involved an isometric contraction of the non-dominant leg. The main analysis uncovered a correlation between pain modulatory capacity and performance on the endurance time task (r = -.425, p = .027), such that those with elevated pain modulation produced longer endurance times. These findings are the first to demonstrate the relationship between pain modulation responses and endurance exercise performance.

  18. Organizational capacity needs of consumer-run organizations.

    PubMed

    Wituk, Scott; Vu, Chi C; Brown, Louis D; Meissen, Greg

    2008-05-01

    Consumer-run organizations (CROs) are self-help oriented organizations that are run entirely by consumers (people who use or have used mental health services). The current study utilizes an organizational capacity framework to explore the needs of operating CROs. This framework includes four core capacity areas: (1) technical, (2) management, (3) leadership, and (4) adaptive capacity. An analysis reveals that the greatest organizational needs are related to technical and management capacities. Implications are discussed in terms of strategies and activities that CRO leaders and mental health professionals and administrators can use to strengthen the organizational capacity of CROs in their community.

  19. Effects of acute supplementation of Panax ginseng on endurance running in a hot & humid environment

    PubMed Central

    Ping, Fadzel Wong Chee; Keong, Chen Chee; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Athletes in Malaysia need to perform in a hot and humid environment due to the climatic nature of the country. c0 hronic supplementation of Panax ginseng (PG) (a deciduous perennial plant belonging to the Araliaceae family) enhances physical performance. As the ergogenic effect of acute supplementation of PG on endurance performance has not been explored in the Malaysian population especially in a hot and humid condition this study was taken up. Methods: Nine heat adapted recreational runners (age : 25.4 ± 6.9 yr, body mass : 57.6 ± 8.4 kg; body height : 168.3 ± 7.6 cm) were recruited in this placebo-controlled double-blind randomized study. Subjects ingested 200 mg of PG one hour before the exercise test on treadmill at 70 per cent of their VO2max in a laboratory environment of 31 °C and 70 per cent relative humidity. They drank 3 ml/kg body weight of cool water every 20 min during the exercise to prevent adverse effects of dehydration. Blood samples were drawn every 20 min for the analysis of glucose, lactate, insulin and free fatty acids. Oxygen uptake was determined every 20 min while heart rate, body and skin temperatures, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 10 min during the trials. Results: Endurance running time to exhaustion did not differ between PG and placebo trials. Heart rate, skin temperature, core body temperature, oxygen uptake, RPE, plasma insulin, glucose, free fatty acid and lactate levels during the endurance exercise did not show any significant differences between the trials. Interpretation & conclusions: We conclude that acute supplementation of 200 mg of PG did not affect the endurance running performance of the heat-adapted male recreational runners in the heat. PMID:21321426

  20. Effects of acute supplementation of Panax ginseng on endurance running in a hot & humid environment.

    PubMed

    Ping, Fadzel Wong Chee; Keong, Chen Chee; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    Athletes in Malaysia need to perform in a hot and humid environment due to the climatic nature of the country. Chronic supplementation of Panax ginseng (PG) (a deciduous perennial plant belonging to the Araliaceae family) enhances physical performance. As the ergogenic effect of acute supplementation of PG on endurance performance has not been explored in the Malaysian population especially in a hot and humid condition this study was taken up. Nine heat adapted recreational runners (age: 25.4 ± 6.9 yr, body mass: 57.6 ± 8.4 kg; body height: 168.3 ± 7.6 cm) were recruited in this placebo-controlled double-blind randomized study. Subjects ingested 200 mg of PG one hour before the exercise test on treadmill at 70 per cent of their VO2max in a laboratory environment of 31° C and 70 per cent relative humidity. They drank 3 ml/kg body weight of cool water every 20 min during the exercise to prevent adverse effects of dehydration. Blood samples were drawn every 20 min for the analysis of glucose, lactate, insulin and free fatty acids. Oxygen uptake was determined every 20 min while heart rate, body and skin temperatures, and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 10 min during the trials. Endurance running time to exhaustion did not differ between PG and placebo trials. Heart rate, skin temperature, core body temperature, oxygen uptake, RPE, plasma insulin, glucose, free fatty acid and lactate levels during the endurance exercise did not show any significant differences between the trials. We conclude that acute supplementation of 200 mg of PG did not affect the endurance running performance of the heat-adapted male recreational runners in the heat.

  1. Effects of acute moderate hypoxia on anaerobic capacity in endurance-trained runners.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Birgit; Frese, Falko; Menold, Elmar; Bärtsch, Peter

    2007-09-01

    While there is some controversy whether anaerobic capacity might be improved after altitude training little is known about changes in anaerobic capacity during hypoxic exposure in highly trained athletes. In order to analyze the effects of acute moderate normobaric hypoxia on anaerobic capacity, 18 male competitive triathletes, middle- and long-distance runners VO2max 67.4 +/- 3.8 ml kg min(-1) performed 2 supra-VO2max treadmill runs with the same speed, one in normoxia and one after 4 h exposure to normobaric hypoxia (FiO(2) 0.15), for estimation of their maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) and measurement of peak capillary lactate and peak capillary ammonia concentration. MAOD was not significantly different in normoxia and in moderate hypoxia while time to exhaustion and accumulated O(2) uptake were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced in hypoxia compared to normoxia by 28 and 45%, respectively. The reduction in time to exhaustion was significantly correlated to the decrement in accumulated O(2) uptake (R = 0.730, P = 0.001). In hypoxia, there was a tendency for peak capillary lactate concentration to be decreased compared to normoxia (12.9 +/- 2.1 vs. 13.8 +/- 2.2 mmol l(-1), P = 0.082); peak capillary ammonia concentration was significantly decreased in hypoxia (97 +/- 52 vs. 121 +/- 44 micromol l(-1), P = 0.032). In conclusion, anaerobic capacity is not significantly changed during acute exposure to moderate hypoxia in endurance-trained athletes. The performance reduction during all-out exercise of short duration has to be attributed to the decrement in aerobic capacity.

  2. Effects of Cycling vs. Running Training on Endurance Performance in Preparation for Inline Speed Skating.

    PubMed

    Stangier, Carolin; Abel, Thomas; Hesse, Clemens; Claen, Stephanie; Mierau, Julia; Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K

    2016-06-01

    Winter weather conditions restrict regular sport-specific endurance training in inline speed skating. As a result, this study was designed to compare the effects of cycling and running training programs on inline speed skaters' endurance performance. Sixteen (8 men, 8 women) high-level athletes (mean ± SD 24 ± 8 years) were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (running and cycling). Both groups trained twice a week for 8 weeks, one group on a treadmill and the other on a cycle ergometer. Training intensity and duration was individually calculated (maximal fat oxidation: ∼52% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak: 500 kcal per session). Before and after the training intervention, all athletes performed an incremental specific (inline speed skating) and 1 nonspecific (cycling or running) step test according to the group affiliation. In addition to blood lactate concentration, oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2), ventilatory equivalent (VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), and heart rate were measured. The specific posttest revealed significantly increased absolute V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak values (2.9 ± 0.4, 3.4 ± 0.7, p = 0.01) and submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values (p ≤ 0.01). VE/V[Combining Dot Above]O2 and RER significantly decreased at maximal (46.6 ± 6.6, 38.5 ± 3.4, p = 0.005; 1.1 ± 0.03, 1.0 ± 0.04, p = 0.001) and submaximal intensities (p ≤ 0.04). None of the analysis revealed a significant group effect (p ≥ 0.15). The results indicate that both cycling vs. running exercise at ∼52% of V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak had a positive effect on the athletes' endurance performance. The increased submaximal V[Combining Dot Above]O2 values indicate a reduction in athletes' inline speed skating technique. Therefore, athletes would benefit from a focus on technique training in the subsequent period.

  3. Sprint, agility, strength and endurance capacity in wheelchair basketball players

    PubMed Central

    Granados, C; Otero, M; Badiola, A; Olasagasti, J; Bidaurrazaga-Letona, I; Iturricastillo, A; Gil, SM

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were, firstly, to determine the reliability and reproducibility of an agility T-test and Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test; and secondly, to analyse the physical characteristics measured by sprint, agility, strength and endurance field tests in wheelchair basketball (WB) players. 16 WB players (33.06 ± 7.36 years, 71.89 ± 21.71 kg and sitting body height 86.07 ± 6.82 cm) belonging to the national WB league participated in this study. Wheelchair sprint (5 and 20 m without ball, and 5 and 20 m with ball) agility (T-test and pick-up test) strength (handgrip and maximal pass) and endurance (Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test) were performed. T-test and Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test showed good reproducibility values (intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.74-0.94). The WB players’ results in 5 and 20 m sprints without a ball were 1.87 ± 0.21 s and 5.70 ± 0.43 s and with a ball 2.10 ± 0.30 s and 6.59 ± 0.61 s, being better than those reported in the literature. Regarding the pick-up test results (16.05 ± 0.52 s) and maximal pass (8.39 ± 1.77 m), players showed worse values than those obtained in elite players. The main contribution of the present study is the characterization of the physical performance profile of WB players using a field test battery. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the agility T-test and the aerobic Yo-Yo 10 m recovery test are reliable; consequently they may be appropriate instruments for measuring physical fitness in WB. PMID:25729153

  4. Regulation of step frequency in transtibial amputee endurance athletes using a running-specific prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Oudenhoven, Laura M; Boes, Judith M; Hak, Laura; Faber, Gert S; Houdijk, Han

    2017-01-25

    Running specific prostheses (RSP) are designed to replicate the spring-like behaviour of the human leg during running, by incorporating a real physical spring in the prosthesis. Leg stiffness is an important parameter in running as it is strongly related to step frequency and running economy. To be able to select a prosthesis that contributes to the required leg stiffness of the athlete, it needs to be known to what extent the behaviour of the prosthetic leg during running is dominated by the stiffness of the prosthesis or whether it can be regulated by adaptations of the residual joints. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how athletes with an RSP could regulate leg stiffness during distance running at different step frequencies. Seven endurance runners with an unilateral transtibial amputation performed five running trials on a treadmill at a fixed speed, while different step frequencies were imposed (preferred step frequency (PSF) and -15%, -7.5%, +7.5% and +15% of PSF). Among others, step time, ground contact time, flight time, leg stiffness and joint kinetics were measured for both legs. In the intact leg, increasing step frequency was accompanied by a decrease in both contact and flight time, while in the prosthetic leg contact time remained constant and only flight time decreased. In accordance, leg stiffness increased in the intact leg, but not in the prosthetic leg. Although a substantial contribution of the residual leg to total leg stiffness was observed, this contribution did not change considerably with changing step frequency. Amputee athletes do not seem to be able to alter prosthetic leg stiffness to regulate step frequency during running. This invariant behaviour indicates that RSP stiffness has a large effect on total leg stiffness and therefore can have an important influence on running performance. Nevertheless, since prosthetic leg stiffness was considerably lower than stiffness of the RSP, compliance of the residual leg should

  5. The effects of creatine and glycerol hyperhydration on running economy in well trained endurance runners

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Ingestion of creatine (Cr) and glycerol (Gly) has been reported to be an effective method in expanding water compartments within the human body, attenuating the rise in heart rate (HR) and core temperature (Tcore) during exercise in the heat. Despite these positive effects, a substantial water retention could potentially impair endurance performance through increasing body mass (BM) and consequently impacting negatively on running economy (RE). The objective of the present study was to investigate the effects of a combined Cr and Gly supplementation on thermoregulatory and cardiovascular responses and RE during running for 30 min at speed corresponding to 60% of maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) in hot and cool conditions. Methods Cr·H2O (11.4 g), Gly (1 g·kg-1 BM) and Glucose polymer (75 g) were administered twice daily to 15 male endurance runners during a 7-day period. Exercise trials were conducted pre- and post-supplementation at 10 and 35°C and 70% relative humidity. Results BM and total body water increased by 0.90 ± 0.40 kg (P < 0.01; mean ± SD) and 0.71 ± 0.42 L (P < 0.01), respectively following supplementation. Despite the significant increase in BM, supplementation had no effect on V˙O2 and therefore RE. Both HR and Tcore were attenuated significantly after supplementation (P < 0.05, for both). Nevertheless, thermal comfort and rating of perceived exertion was not significantly different between pre- and post-supplementation. Similarly, no significant differences were found in sweat loss, serum osmolality, blood lactate and in plasma volume changes between pre- and post-supplementation. Conclusions Combining Cr and Gly is effective in reducing thermal and cardiovascular strain during exercise in the heat without negatively impacting on RE. PMID:22176668

  6. Effect of thyme extract supplementation on lipid peroxidation, antioxidant capacity, PGC-1α content and endurance exercise performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Khani, Mostafa; Motamedi, Pezhman; Dehkhoda, Mohammad Reza; Dabagh Nikukheslat, Saeed; Karimi, Pouran

    2017-01-01

    Athletes have a large extent of oxidant agent production. In the current study, we aimed to determine the influence of thyme extract on the endurance exercise performance, mitochondrial biogenesis, and antioxidant status in rats. Twenty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups receiving either normal drinking water (non-supplemented group, n  = 10) or thyme extract, 400 mg/kg, (supplemented group, n  = 10). Rats in both groups were subjected to endurance treadmill training (27 m/min, 10% grade, 60 min, and 5 days/week for 8 weeks). Finally, to determine the endurance capacity, time to exhaustion treadmill running at 36 m/min speed was assessed. At the end of the endurance capacity test, serum and soleus muscle samples were collected and their superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration were measured. Protein expression of PGC-1α, as a marker of mitochondrial biogenesis, was also determined in the soleus muscle tissue by immunoblotting assay. Findings revealed that the exhaustive running time in the treatment group was significantly ( p  < 0.05) prolonged. Both serum and soleus muscle MDA levels, as an index of lipid peroxidation, had a threefold increase in the thyme extract supplemented group (t 18  = 8.11, p  < 0.01; t 18  = 4.98, p  < 0.01 respectively). The activities of SOD and GPx of the soleus muscle were significantly ( p  < 0.05) higher in the non-supplemented group, while there was no significant difference in serum SOD, GPx activities, and total antioxidant capacity between groups. Furthermore, thyme supplementation significantly ( p  < 0.05) decreased PGC-1α expression. Thyme extract supplementation increased endurance exercise tolerance in intact animals, although decrease of oxidative stress and regulation of the PGC-1α protein expression are not considered as underlying molecular mechanisms.

  7. Effects of high intensity training and continuous endurance training on aerobic capacity and body composition in recreationally active runners.

    PubMed

    Hottenrott, Kuno; Ludyga, Sebastian; Schulze, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of two different training programs (high-intensity-training vs. continuous endurance training) on aerobic power and body composition in recreationally active men and women and to test whether or not participants were able to complete a half marathon after the intervention period. Thirty-four recreational endurance runners were randomly assigned either to a Weekend-Group (WE, n = 17) or an After-Work- Group (AW, n = 17) for a 12 week-intervention period. WE weekly completed 2 h 30 min of continuous endurance running composed of 2 sessions on the weekend. In contrast, AW performed 4 30 min sessions of high intensity training and an additional 30 min endurance run weekly, always after work. During an exhaustive treadmill test aerobic power was measured and heart rate was continuously recorded. Body composition was assessed using bio-impedance. Following the intervention period all subjects took part in a half-marathon. AW significantly improved peak oxygen uptake (VO2 peak) from 36.8 ± 4.5 to 43.6 ± 6.5 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], velocity at lactate threshold (VLT) from 9.7 ± 2.2 to 11.7 ± 1.8 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat from 5.6 ± 2.2 to 4.7 ± 1.9 In WE VO2 peak signifi-cantly increased from 38.8 ± 5.0 to 41.5 ± 6.0 [mL.min(-1).kg(-1)], VLT from 9.9 ± 1.3 to 11.2 ± 1.7 [km.h(-1)] and visceral fat was reduced from 5.7 ± 2.1 to 5.4 ± 1.9 (p < 0.01). Only the improvements of VO2 peak were significantly greater in AW compared with WE (pre/post group interaction: F=15.4, p = 0.01, η(2) = 0.36). Both groups completed a half marathon with no significant differences in performance (p = 0.63). Short, intensive endurance training sessions of about 30 min are effective in improving aerobic fitness in recreationally active runners. Key pointsContinuous endurance training and high intensity training lead to significant improvements of aerobic capacity and body compositionBoth training methods enable recreationally active

  8. Can endurance training improve physical capacity and quality of life in young Fontan patients?

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Eva R; Lundell, Bo; Söderström, Liselott; Sjöberg, Gunnar

    2018-03-01

    Children after Fontan palliation have reduced exercise capacity and quality of life. Our aim was to study whether endurance training could improve physical capacity and quality of life in Fontan patients. Fontan patients (n=30) and healthy age- and gender-matched control subjects (n=25) performed a 6-minute walk test at submaximal capacity and a maximal cycle ergometer test. Quality of life was assessed with Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Version 4.0 questionnaires for children and parents. All tests were repeated after a 12-week endurance training programme and after 1 year. Patients had decreased submaximal and maximal exercise capacity (maximal oxygen uptake 35.0±5.1 ml/minute per·kg versus 43.7±8.4 ml/minute·per·kg, p<0.001) and reported a lower quality of life score (70.9±9.9 versus 85.7±8.0, p<0.001) than controls. After training, patients improved their submaximal exercise capacity in a 6-minute walk test (from 590.7±65.5 m to 611.8±70.9 m, p<0.05) and reported a higher quality of life (p<0.01), but did not improve maximal exercise capacity. At follow-up, submaximal exercise capacity had increased further and improved quality of life was sustained. The controls improved their maximal exercise capacity (p<0.05), but not submaximal exercise capacity or quality of life after training. At follow-up, improvement of maximal exercise capacity was sustained. We believe that an individualised endurance training programme for Fontan patients improves submaximal exercise capacity and quality of life in Fontan patients and the effect on quality of life appears to be long-lasting.

  9. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity.

    PubMed

    Karvinen, Sira M; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  10. Voluntary Running Aids to Maintain High Body Temperature in Rats Bred for High Aerobic Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Karvinen, Sira M.; Silvennoinen, Mika; Ma, Hongqiang; Törmäkangas, Timo; Rantalainen, Timo; Rinnankoski-Tuikka, Rita; Lensu, Sanna; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Kainulainen, Heikki

    2016-01-01

    The production of heat, i.e., thermogenesis, is a significant component of the metabolic rate, which in turn affects weight gain and health. Thermogenesis is linked to physical activity (PA) level. However, it is not known whether intrinsic exercise capacity, aging, and long-term voluntary running affect core body temperature. Here we use rat models selectively bred to differ in maximal treadmill endurance running capacity (Low capacity runners, LCR and High capacity Runners, HCR), that as adults are divergent for aerobic exercise capacity, aging, and metabolic disease risk to study the connection between PA and body temperature. Ten high capacity runner (HCR) and ten low capacity runner (LCR) female rats were studied between 9 and 21 months of age. Rectal body temperature of HCR and LCR rats was measured before and after 1-year voluntary running/control intervention to explore the effects of aging and PA. Also, we determined whether injected glucose and spontaneous activity affect the body temperature differently between LCR and HCR rats at 9 vs. 21 months of age. HCRs had on average 1.3°C higher body temperature than LCRs (p < 0.001). Aging decreased the body temperature level of HCRs to similar levels with LCRs. The opportunity to run voluntarily had a significant impact on the body temperature of HCRs (p < 0.001) allowing them to maintain body temperature at a similar level as when at younger age. Compared to LCRs, HCRs were spontaneously more active, had higher relative gastrocnemius muscle mass and higher UCP2, PGC-1α, cyt c, and OXPHOS levels in the skeletal muscle (p < 0.050). These results suggest that higher PA level together with greater relative muscle mass and higher mitochondrial content/function contribute to the accumulation of heat in the HCRs. Interestingly, neither aging nor voluntary training had a significant impact on core body temperature of LCRs. However, glucose injection resulted in a lowering of the body temperature of LCRs (p < 0

  11. Enzymatic and hormonal responses following a 24 h endurance run and a 10 h triathlon race.

    PubMed

    Fellmann, N; Sagnol, M; Bedu, M; Falgairette, G; Van Praagh, E; Gaillard, G; Jouanel, P; Coudert, J

    1988-01-01

    Muscle cell leakage and hormonal changes were compared immediately after and during the 3 days following a 24 h endurance run (R24h) in 8 subjects, and a 10 h triathlon non-competitive race (T10h) in 6 subjects. The study showed three main differences: 1) plasma enzyme increases were considerably more significant in R24h than in T10h: compared with resting levels, creatine kinase increased x 120 after R24h but only x 2 after T10h; lactic dehydrogenase x 4, as opposed to x 1.5; and transaminases only showed an increase after R24h. The plasma myoglobin increase after R24h was double that found after T10h; 2) for the same magnitude of plasma aldosterone and cortisol after R24h and T10h (3 times the resting levels), a highly significant decrease in urinary Na+ (p less than 0.001) and an increase in urinary K+ (p less than 0.01) were found only after R24h; and 3) the plasma free noradrenaline level increased significantly after R24h (x 2.6) whereas it was unchanged after T10h. In contrast, the plasma level of conjugated dopamine increased only after T10h (x 3.7, p less than 0.05). These results suggest that long-distance running causes more muscular lesions than the triathlon, and that important factors other than aldosterone are probably involved in the regulation of urinary electrolyte excretions during T10h.

  12. Validation of an Instrument to Assess the Mental Capacity to Sign an Enduring Power of Attorney.

    PubMed

    Ko, R Sf; Lui, V Wc; Lai, K C; Chiu, C Cy; Lam, L Cw

    2017-03-01

    To describe the validation of an instrument to assess the mental capacity of an individual to sign an enduring power of attorney. An instrument named Capacity Assessment to Sign an Enduring Power of Attorney (CASEPA) was developed following a literature review, focus group discussions, expert reviews, and pilot testing. Chinese persons aged ≥ 60 years who had a range of cognitive abilities were recruited from elderly care centres in Hong Kong to explore its psychometric properties. A total of 85 participants were included. For inter-rater reliability, the intraclass correlation coefficient was 0.93 for understanding, 0.87 for appreciation, and 0.84 for reasoning. For internal consistency, the Cronbach's alpha was 0.75 for understanding, 0.74 for appreciation, and 0.86 for reasoning. The content validity was examined by an international expert in mental capacity and psychiatry and by 5 local experts in the fields of mental health, law, psychiatry, psychology, and geriatrics. The clinician ratings correlated with the ability score for understanding (r = 0.74, p < 0.001), appreciation (r = 0.73, p < 0.001) and reasoning (r = 0.73, p < 0.001). The CASEPA is a potentially useful tool to assess the mental capacity of an individual to sign an enduring power of attorney.

  13. Effects of prolonged strenuous endurance exercise on plasma myosin heavy chain fragments and other muscular proteins. Cycling vs running.

    PubMed

    Koller, A; Mair, J; Schobersberger, W; Wohlfarter, T; Haid, C; Mayr, M; Villiger, B; Frey, W; Puschendorf, B

    1998-03-01

    This study evaluates creatine kinase, myosin heavy chain, and cardiac troponin blood levels following three types of exercise: 1) short-distance uphill or downhill running; 2) alpine ultramarathon; and 3) alpine long-distance cycling. Comparative field study; follow-up up to 10 days. Department of Sports Medicine. All biochemical markers were analysed at the Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry. Subjects included healthy, trained males (N = 53). All subjects were nonsmokers and free from medication prior to and during the study. Each volunteer was an experienced runner or cyclist, who had at least once successfully finished the Swiss Alpine Marathon of Davos or the Otztal-Radmarathon before. Running or cycling. Plasma concentrations of creatine kinase, myosin heavy chain fragments and cardiac troponins were measured to diagnose skeletal and cardiac muscle damage, respectively. Skeletal muscle protein release is markedly different between uphill and downhill running, with very little evidence for muscle damage in the uphill runners. There is considerable muscle protein leakage in the ultramarathoners (67 km distance; 30 km downhill running). In contrast, only modest amounts of skeletal muscle damage are found after alpine long-distance cycling (230 km distance). This study proves that there is slow-twitch skeletal muscle fiber damage after prolonged strenuous endurance exercise and short-distance downhill running. Exhaustive endurance exercise involving downhill running and short-distance downhill running lead to more pronounced injury than strenuous endurance exercise involving concentric actions. From our results there is no reason for suggesting that prolonged intense exercise may induce myocardial injury in symptom-less athletes without cardiac deseases.

  14. Effects of acute supplementation of caffeine and Panax ginseng on endurance running performance in a hot and humid environment.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Ping, Fadzel Wong Chee; Keong, Chen Chee

    2011-12-01

    Acute supplementation of Panax ginseng (PG) is known not to impose any significant effect on endurance performance of recreational Malaysian runners, while caffeine augments the ergogenic property of some herbs. The present study was aimed to examine the effects of acute supplementation of caffeine and PG on endurance running performance in a hot and humid condition. Nine heat adapted Malaysian recreational runners (age : 25.4 ± 6.9 years, body mass : 57.6 ± 8.4 kg; body height : 168.3 ± 7.6 cm) ingested either placebo or combined dose of 5 mg x kg(-1) of body weight of caffeine and 200 mg of PG one hour before the running on treadmill at 70% of VO2(max) in this placebo-controlled double blind randomised study in a laboratory environment of 31 degrees C and 70% relative humidity. They drank 3 ml x kg(-1) of body weight of cool water every 20 minutes during the exercise to prevent dehydration. Blood samples were withdrawn and oxygen uptake was recorded every 20 minutes while heart rate, core body temperature, skin temperature and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded every 10 minutes during the trials. Endurance time was significantly different (P < 0.05) between experimental and placebo trials. Heart rate, skin temperature, core body temperature, oxygen uptake, RPE, plasma insulin, glucose, free fatty acid and lactate levels during the endurance exercise did not show any significant difference between the trials. Thus, we conclude that combined and acute supplementation of caffeine and PG in the said doses improved the endurance running performance of the heat-adapted male recreational runners.

  15. Among-Individual Variation in Desert Iguanas (Squamata: Dipsosaurus dorsalis): Endurance Capacity Is Positively Related to Home Range Size.

    PubMed

    Singleton, Jennifer M; Garland, Theodore

    Among species of lizards, endurance capacity measured on a motorized treadmill is positively related to daily movement distance and time spent moving, but few studies have addressed such relationships at the level of individual variation within a sex and age category in a single population. Both endurance capacity and home range size show substantial individual variation in lizards, rendering them suitable for such studies. We predicted that these traits would be positively related because endurance capacity is one of the factors that has the potential to limit home range size. We measured the endurance capacity and home range size of adult male desert iguanas (Dipsosaurus dorsalis). Lizards were field captured for measurements of endurance, and home range data were gathered using visual identification of previously marked individuals. Endurance was significantly repeatable between replicate trials, conducted 1-17 d apart ([Formula: see text] for log-transformed values, [Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). The log of the higher of two endurance trials was positively but not significantly related to log body mass. The log of home range area was positively but not significantly related to log body mass, the number of sightings, or the time span from first to last sighting. As predicted, log endurance was positively correlated with log home range area ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], one-tailed [Formula: see text]; for body-mass residual endurance values: [Formula: see text], one-tailed [Formula: see text]). These results suggest that endurance capacity may have a permissive effect on home range size. Alternatively, individuals with larger home ranges may experience training effects (phenotypic plasticity) that increase their endurance.

  16. Increase in swimming endurance capacity of mice by capsaicin-induced adrenal catecholamine secretion.

    PubMed

    Kim, K M; Kawada, T; Ishihara, K; Inoue, K; Fushiki, T

    1997-10-01

    Increase in endurance swimming capacity caused by capsaicin (CAP), a pungent component of red pepper, -induced increase of fat metabolism in mice was investigated using an adjustable-current water pool. The mice administered CAP via a stomach tube, showed longer swimming time until exhaustion than the control group of mice, in a dose-dependent manner. The maximal effect was observed at a dose of 10 mg/kg while more than 15 mg/kg had no effect. The increase of endurance was observed only when CAP was administered two hours before swimming. After the administration of CAP, the serum glucose concentration rapidly increased and then decreased within 60 min, while the concentration of serum-free fatty acids gradually increased through 3 hours. The residual glycogen concentration of the gastrocnemius muscle after 30 min of swimming was significantly higher in the CAP-administered mice than in control mice, suggesting that use of the serum free fatty acids spared muscle glycogen consumption. The serum adrenaline concentration significantly increased with twin peaks at 30 min and two hours after administration of CAP. An experiment using adrenalectomized mice was done to confirm that the effect of CAP is due to increased energy metabolism through the secretion of adrenaline from the adrenal gland. The swimming endurance capacity of the adrenalectomized mice was not increased by CAP administration, although adrenaline injection induced a 58% increase in the endurance time. These results suggest that the increase of swimming endurance induced by CAP in mice is caused by an increase in fatty acid utilization due to CAP-induced adrenal catecholamine secretion.

  17. Tocotrienols and Whey Protein Isolates Substantially Increase Exercise Endurance Capacity in Diet -Induced Obese Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Aguila, Jay; McConell, Glenn K.; McAinch, Andrew J.; Mathai, Michael L.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims Obesity and impairments in metabolic health are associated with reductions in exercise capacity. Both whey protein isolates (WPIs) and vitamin E tocotrienols (TCTs) exert favorable effects on obesity-related metabolic parameters. This research sought to determine whether these supplements improved exercise capacity and increased glucose tolerance in diet-induced obese rats. Methods Six week old male rats (n = 35) weighing 187 ± 32g were allocated to either: Control (n = 9), TCT (n = 9), WPI (n = 8) or TCT + WPI (n = 9) and placed on a high-fat diet (40% of energy from fat) for 10 weeks. Animals received 50mg/kg body weight and 8% of total energy intake per day of TCTs and/or WPIs respectively. Food intake, body composition, glucose tolerance, insulin sensitivity, exercise capacity, skeletal muscle glycogen content and oxidative enzyme activity were determined. Results Both TCT and WPI groups ran >50% longer (2271 ± 185m and 2195 ± 265m respectively) than the Control group (1428 ± 139m) during the run to exhaustion test (P<0.05), TCT + WPI did not further improve exercise endurance (2068 ± 104m). WPIs increased the maximum in vitro activity of beta-hydroxyacyl-CoA in the soleus muscle (P<0.05 vs. Control) but not in the plantaris. Citrate synthase activity was not different between groups. Neither supplement had any effect on weight gain, adiposity, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity. Conclusion Ten weeks of both TCTs and WPIs increased exercise endurance by 50% in sedentary, diet-induced obese rats. These positive effects of TCTs and WPIs were independent of body weight, adiposity or glucose tolerance. PMID:27058737

  18. Registry on acute cardiovascular events during endurance running races: the prospective RACE Paris registry.

    PubMed

    Gerardin, Benoît; Collet, Jean-Philippe; Mustafic, Hazrije; Bellemain-Appaix, Anne; Benamer, Hakim; Monsegu, Jacques; Teiger, Emmanuel; Livarek, Bernard; Jaffry, Murielle; Lamhaut, Lionel; Fleischel, Catherine; Aubry, Pierre

    2016-08-21

    Long distance running races are associated with a low risk of life-threatening events much often attributed to hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. However, retrospective analyses of aetiology lack consistency. Incidence and aetiology of life-threatening/fatal events were assessed in long distance races in the prospective Registre des Accidents Cardiaques lors des courses d'Endurance (RACE Paris Registry) from October 2006 to September 2012. Characteristics of life-threatening/fatal events were analysed by interviewing survivors and reviewing medical records including post-mortem data of each case. Seventeen life-threatening events were identified of 511 880 runners of which two were fatal. The vast majority were cardiovascular events (13/17) occurring in experienced male runners [mean (±SD) age 43 ± 10 years], with infrequent cardiovascular risk factors, atypical warning symptoms prior to the race or negative treadmill test when performed. Acute myocardial ischaemia was the predominant aetiology (8 of 13) and led to immediate myocardial revascularization. All cases with initial shockable rhythm survived. There was no difference in event rate according to marathons vs. half-marathons and events were clustered at the end of the race. A meta-analysis of all available studies including the RACE Paris registry (n = 6) demonstrated a low prevalence of life-threatening events (0.75/100 000) and that presentation with non-shockable rhythm [OR = 29.9; 95% CI (4.0-222.5), P = 0.001] or non-ischaemic aetiology [OR = 6.4; 95% CI (1.4-28.8), P = 0.015] were associated with case-fatality. Life-threatening/fatal events during long distance races are rare, most often unpredictable and mainly due to acute myocardial ischaemia. Presentation with non-shockable rhythm and non-ischaemic aetiology are the major determinant of case fatality. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Diurnal effects of prior heat stress exposure on sprint and endurance exercise capacity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Otani, Hidenori; Kaya, Mitsuharu; Tamaki, Akira; Goto, Heita; Goto, Takayuki; Shirato, Minayuki

    2018-03-21

    Active individuals often perform exercises in the heat following heat stress exposure (HSE) regardless of the time-of-day and its variation in body temperature. However, there is no information concerning the diurnal effects of a rise in body temperature after HSE on subsequent exercise performance in a hot environnment. This study therefore investigated the diurnal effects of prior HSE on both sprint and endurance exercise capacity in the heat. Eight male volunteers completed four trials which included sprint and endurance cycling tests at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity. At first, volunteers completed a 30-min pre-exercise routine (30-PR): a seated rest in a temperate environment in AM (AmR) or PM (PmR) (Rest trials); and a warm water immersion at 40 °C to induce a 1 °C increase in core temperature in AM (AmW) or PM (PmW) (HSE trials). Volunteers subsequently commenced exercise at 0800 h in AmR/AmW and at 1700 h in PmR/PmW. The sprint test determined a 10-sec maximal sprint power at 5 kp. Then, the endurance test was conducted to measure time to exhaustion at 60% peak oxygen uptake. Maximal sprint power was similar between trials (p = 0.787). Time to exhaustion in AmW (mean±SD; 15 ± 8 min) was less than AmR (38 ± 16 min; p < 0.01) and PmR (43 ± 24 min; p < 0.01) but similar with PmW (24 ± 9 min). Core temperature was higher from post 30-PR to 6 min into the endurance test in AmW and PmW than AmR and PmR (p < 0.05) and at post 30-PR and the start of the endurance test in PmR than AmR (p < 0.05). The rate of rise in core temperature during the endurance test was greater in AmR than AmW and PmW (p < 0.05). Mean skin temperature was higher from post 30-PR to 6 min into the endurance test in HSE trials than Rest trials (p < 0.05). Mean body temperature was higher from post 30-PR to 6 min into the endurance test in AmW and PmW than AmR and PmR (p < 0.05) and the start to 6 min into the endurance test in PmR than AmR (p < 0

  20. Exercise Increases Markers of Spermatogenesis in Rats Selectively Bred for Low Running Capacity.

    PubMed

    Torma, Ferenc; Koltai, Erika; Nagy, Enikő; Ziaaldini, Mohammad Mosaferi; Posa, Aniko; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative stress effect of exercise training on testis function is under debate. In the present study we used a unique rat model system developed by artificial selection for low and high intrinsic running capacity (LCR and HCR, respectively) to evaluate the effects of exercise training on apoptosis and spermatogenesis in testis. Twenty-four 13-month-old male rats were assigned to four groups: control LCR (LCR-C), trained LCR (LCR-T), control HCR (HCR-C), and trained HCR (HCR-T). Ten key proteins connecting aerobic exercise capacity and general testes function were assessed, including those that are vital for mitochondrial biogenesis. The VO2 max of LCR-C group was about 30% lower than that of HCR-C rats, and the SIRT1 levels were also significantly lower than HCR-C. Twelve weeks of training significantly increased maximal oxygen consumption in LCR by nearly 40% whereas HCR remained unchanged. LCR-T had significantly higher levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1α), decreased levels of reactive oxygen species and increased acetylated p53 compared to LCR-C, while training produced no significant changes for these measures in HCR rats. BAX and Blc-2 were not different among all four groups. The levels of outer dense fibers -1 (Odf-1), a marker of spermatogenesis, increased in LCR-T rats, but decreased in HCR-TR rats. Moreover, exercise training increased the levels of lactate dehydrogenase C (LDHC) only in LCR rats. These data suggest that rats with low inborn exercise capacity can increase whole body oxygen consumption and running exercise capacity with endurance training and, in turn, increase spermatogenesis function via reduction in ROS and heightened activity of p53 in testes.

  1. Effects of acute supplementation of caffeine on cardiorespiratory responses during endurance running in a hot & humid climate.

    PubMed

    Ping, Wong Chee; Keong, Chen Chee; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2010-07-01

    Athletes in Malaysia need to perform in a hot and humid climate. Chronic supplementation of caffeine on endurance performance have been studied extensively in different populations. However, concurrent research on the effects of acute supplementation of caffeine on cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise in the Malaysian context especially in a hot and humid environment is unavailable. Nine heat adapted recreational Malaysian male runners (aged: 25.4+/-6.9 yr) who were nonusers of caffeine (23.7+/-12.6 mg per day) were recruited in this placebo--controlled double--blind randomized study. Caffeine (5 mg per kg of body weight) or placebo was ingested in the form of a capsule one hour prior to the running exercise trial at 70 per cent of VO2max on a motorised treadmill in a heat-controlled laboratory (31 degrees C, 70% relative humidity). Subjects drank 3 ml of cool water per kg of body weight every 20 min during the running trials to avoid the adverse effects of dehydration. Heart rate, core body temperature and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were recorded at intervals of 10 min, while oxygen consumption was measured at intervals of 20 min. Running time to exhaustion was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the caffeine trial compared to the placebo trial. Heart rate, core body temperature, oxygen uptake and RPE did not show any significant variation between the trials but it increased significantly during exercise from their respective resting values in both trials (P<0.001). Our study showed that ingestion of 5 mg of caffeine per kg of body weight improved the endurance running performance but did not impose any significant effect on other individual cardiorespiratory parameters of heat-acclimated recreational runners in hot and humid conditions.

  2. Astrocytic glycogen-derived lactate fuels the brain during exhaustive exercise to maintain endurance capacity

    PubMed Central

    Matsui, Takashi; Omuro, Hideki; Liu, Yu-Fan; Soya, Mariko; Shima, Takeru; McEwen, Bruce S.; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-01-01

    Brain glycogen stored in astrocytes provides lactate as an energy source to neurons through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to maintain neuronal functions such as hippocampus-regulated memory formation. Although prolonged exhaustive exercise decreases brain glycogen, the role of this decrease and lactate transport in the exercising brain remains less clear. Because muscle glycogen fuels exercising muscles, we hypothesized that astrocytic glycogen plays an energetic role in the prolonged-exercising brain to maintain endurance capacity through lactate transport. To test this hypothesis, we used a rat model of exhaustive exercise and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry–based metabolomics to observe comprehensive energetics of the brain (cortex and hippocampus) and muscle (plantaris). At exhaustion, muscle glycogen was depleted but brain glycogen was only decreased. The levels of MCT2, which takes up lactate in neurons, increased in the brain, as did muscle MCTs. Metabolomics revealed that brain, but not muscle, ATP was maintained with lactate and other glycogenolytic/glycolytic sources. Intracerebroventricular injection of the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol did not affect peripheral glycemic conditions but suppressed brain lactate production and decreased hippocampal ATP levels at exhaustion. An MCT2 inhibitor, α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamate, triggered a similar response that resulted in lower endurance capacity. These findings provide direct evidence for the energetic role of astrocytic glycogen-derived lactate in the exhaustive-exercising brain, implicating the significance of brain glycogen level in endurance capacity. Glycogen-maintained ATP in the brain is a possible defense mechanism for neurons in the exhausted brain. PMID:28515312

  3. Astrocytic glycogen-derived lactate fuels the brain during exhaustive exercise to maintain endurance capacity.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Takashi; Omuro, Hideki; Liu, Yu-Fan; Soya, Mariko; Shima, Takeru; McEwen, Bruce S; Soya, Hideaki

    2017-06-13

    Brain glycogen stored in astrocytes provides lactate as an energy source to neurons through monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) to maintain neuronal functions such as hippocampus-regulated memory formation. Although prolonged exhaustive exercise decreases brain glycogen, the role of this decrease and lactate transport in the exercising brain remains less clear. Because muscle glycogen fuels exercising muscles, we hypothesized that astrocytic glycogen plays an energetic role in the prolonged-exercising brain to maintain endurance capacity through lactate transport. To test this hypothesis, we used a rat model of exhaustive exercise and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics to observe comprehensive energetics of the brain (cortex and hippocampus) and muscle (plantaris). At exhaustion, muscle glycogen was depleted but brain glycogen was only decreased. The levels of MCT2, which takes up lactate in neurons, increased in the brain, as did muscle MCTs. Metabolomics revealed that brain, but not muscle, ATP was maintained with lactate and other glycogenolytic/glycolytic sources. Intracerebroventricular injection of the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor 1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-d-arabinitol did not affect peripheral glycemic conditions but suppressed brain lactate production and decreased hippocampal ATP levels at exhaustion. An MCT2 inhibitor, α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamate, triggered a similar response that resulted in lower endurance capacity. These findings provide direct evidence for the energetic role of astrocytic glycogen-derived lactate in the exhaustive-exercising brain, implicating the significance of brain glycogen level in endurance capacity. Glycogen-maintained ATP in the brain is a possible defense mechanism for neurons in the exhausted brain.

  4. Relations between muscle endurance and subjectively reported fatigue, walking capacity, and participation in mildly affected adolescents with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Eken, Maaike M; Houdijk, Han; Doorenbosch, Caroline A M; Kiezebrink, Francisca E M; van Bennekom, Coen A M; Harlaar, Jaap; Dallmeijer, Annet J

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the relation between muscle endurance and subjectively reported fatigue, walking capacity, and participation in mildly affected adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP) and peers with typical development. In this case-control study, knee extensor muscle endurance was estimated from individual load-endurance curves as the load corresponding to a 15-repetition maximum in 17 adolescents with spastic CP (six males, 11 females; age 12-19y) and 18 adolescents with typical development (eight males, 10 females; age 13-19y). Questionnaires were used to assess subjectively reported fatigue (Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory Multidimensional Fatigue Scale) and participation (Life-Habits questionnaire). Walking capacity was assessed using the 6-minute walk test. Relations were determined using multiple regression analyses. Muscle endurance related significantly to subjectively reported fatigue and walking capacity in adolescents with CP, while no relations were found for adolescents with typical development (subjectively reported fatigue: regression coefficient β [95% confidence intervals] for CP=23.72 [6.26 to 41.18], for controls=2.72 [-10.26 to 15.69]; walking capacity β for CP=125m [-87 to 337], for controls=2m [-86 to 89]). The 15-repetition maximum did not relate to participation in adolescents with CP. Subjectively reported fatigue and reduced walking capacity in adolescents with CP are partly caused by lower muscle endurance of knee extensors. Training of muscle endurance might contribute to reducing the experience of fatigue and improving walking capacity. Reduced muscle endurance seems to have no effect on participation. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  5. Angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan enhances running endurance of skeletal muscle through activation of the PPAR-δ/AMPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoli; Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Liqun; Ma, Shuangtao; Yang, Dachun; Zhao, Zhigang; Yan, Zhencheng; He, Hongbo; Cao, Tingbing; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2011-07-01

    Clinical trials have shown that angiotensin II receptor blockers reduce the new onset of diabetes in hypertensives; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the effects of telmisartan on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-δ) and the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in cultured myotubes, as well as on the running endurance of wild-type and PPAR-δ-deficient mice. Administration of telmisartan up-regulated levels of PPAR-δ and phospho-AMPKα in cultured myotubes. However, PPAR-δ gene deficiency completely abolished the telmisartan effect on phospho-AMPKαin vitro. Chronic administration of telmisartan remarkably prevented weight gain, enhanced running endurance and post-exercise oxygen consumption, and increased slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibres in wild-type mice, but these effects were absent in PPAR-δ-deficient mice. The mechanism is involved in PPAR-δ-mediated stimulation of the AMPK pathway. Compared to the control mice, phospho-AMPKα level in skeletal muscle was up-regulated in mice treated with telmisartan. In contrast, phospho-AMPKα expression in skeletal muscle was unchanged in PPAR-δ-deficient mice treated with telmisartan. These findings highlight the ability of telmisartan to improve skeletal muscle function, and they implicate PPAR-δ as a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. © 2011 The Authors Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine © 2011 Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Angiotensin II receptor blocker telmisartan enhances running endurance of skeletal muscle through activation of the PPAR-δ/AMPK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Xiaoli; Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Liqun; Ma, Shuangtao; Yang, Dachun; Zhao, Zhigang; Yan, Zhencheng; He, Hongbo; Cao, Tingbing; Liu, Daoyan; Zhu, Zhiming

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Clinical trials have shown that angiotensin II receptor blockers reduce the new onset of diabetes in hypertensives; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. We investigated the effects of telmisartan on peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPAR-δ) and the adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway in cultured myotubes, as well as on the running endurance of wild-type and PPAR-δ-deficient mice. Administration of telmisartan up-regulated levels of PPAR-δ and phospho-AMPKα in cultured myotubes. However, PPAR-δ gene deficiency completely abolished the telmisartan effect on phospho-AMPKαin vitro. Chronic administration of telmisartan remarkably prevented weight gain, enhanced running endurance and post-exercise oxygen consumption, and increased slow-twitch skeletal muscle fibres in wild-type mice, but these effects were absent in PPAR-δ-deficient mice. The mechanism is involved in PPAR-δ-mediated stimulation of the AMPK pathway. Compared to the control mice, phospho-AMPKα level in skeletal muscle was up-regulated in mice treated with telmisartan. In contrast, phospho-AMPKα expression in skeletal muscle was unchanged in PPAR-δ-deficient mice treated with telmisartan. These findings highlight the ability of telmisartan to improve skeletal muscle function, and they implicate PPAR-δ as a potential therapeutic target for the prevention of type 2 diabetes. PMID:20477906

  7. Effect of speed endurance training and reduced training volume on running economy and single muscle fiber adaptations in trained runners.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christiansen, Danny; Christensen, Peter M; Almquist, Nicki W; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether improved running economy with a period of speed endurance training and reduced training volume could be related to adaptations in specific muscle fibers. Twenty trained male (n = 14) and female (n = 6) runners (maximum oxygen consumption (VO 2 -max): 56.4 ± 4.6 mL/min/kg) completed a 40-day intervention with 10 sessions of speed endurance training (5-10 × 30-sec maximal running) and a reduced (36%) volume of training. Before and after the intervention, a muscle biopsy was obtained at rest, and an incremental running test to exhaustion was performed. In addition, running at 60% vVO 2 -max, and a 10-km run was performed in a normal and a muscle slow twitch (ST) glycogen-depleted condition. After compared to before the intervention, expression of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) was lower (P < 0.05) and dystrophin was higher (P < 0.05) in ST muscle fibers, and sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase 1 (SERCA1) was lower (P < 0.05) in fast twitch muscle fibers. Running economy at 60% vVO 2 -max (11.6 ± 0.2 km/h) and at v10-km (13.7 ± 0.3 km/h) was ~2% better (P < 0.05) after the intervention in the normal condition, but unchanged in the ST glycogen-depleted condition. Ten kilometer performance was improved (P < 0.01) by 3.2% (43.7 ± 1.0 vs. 45.2 ± 1.2 min) and 3.9% (45.8 ± 1.2 vs. 47.7 ± 1.3 min) in the normal and the ST glycogen-depleted condition, respectively. VO 2 -max was the same, but vVO 2 -max was 2.0% higher (P < 0.05; 19.3 ± 0.3 vs. 18.9 ± 0.3 km/h) after than before the intervention. Thus, improved running economy with intense training may be related to changes in expression of proteins linked to energy consuming processes in primarily ST muscle fibers. © 2018 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  8. United States Army Special Operations Forces and Building Enduring Partner Enabler Capacity in Operation Enduring Freedom-Philippines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-22

    forces supporting Operation Enduring Freedom- Philippines operate under the Kapit Bisig Framework, a mutually agreed US and Government of the Republic of...within either the Western or Eastern Mindanao Command structures and areas of responsibility. AFP maintenance operations rely heavily upon BDAR64 and...deficiencies found in the Philippine defense structure . The results of the 2003 JDA were devastating. The JDA findings revealed that the AFP was only

  9. Responsiveness of the Countermovement Jump and Handgrip Strength to an Incremental Running Test in Endurance Athletes: Influence of Sex

    PubMed Central

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Delgado-Floody, Pedro; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á.

    2018-01-01

    Abstract The present study analyzed the acute effects of an incremental running test on countermovement jump (CMJ) and handgrip strength performance in endurance athletes, considering the effect of post-exercise recovery time and sex. Thirty-three recreationally trained long-distance runners, 20 men and 13 women, participated voluntarily in this study. The participants performed the Léger test, moreover, the CMJ and handgrip strength tests were carried out before and after the running test and during different stages of recovery (at the 1st min of recovery (posttest1), 5th min of recovery (posttest2), and 10th min of recovery (posttest3)). Two-way analysis of variance revealed a significant improvement in the CMJ (pre-posttest1, p = 0.001) and handgrip strength (pre-posttest2, p = 0.017) during recovery time. The Pearson’s Chi-2 test showed no significant relationship (p ≥ 0.05) between sex and post-activation potentiation (PAP). A linear regression analysis pointed to heart rate recovery as a predictive factor of CMJ improvement (PAP). In conclusion, despite significant fatigue reached during the Léger test, the long-distance runners did not experience an impaired CMJ and handgrip strength performance, either men or women, achieving an improvement (PAP) in posttest conditions. The results obtained showed no significant relationship between sex and PAP. Moreover, significant effect of recovery after running at high intensity on CMJ performance and handgrip strength was found. Finally, the data suggest that PAP condition can be predicted by heart rate recovery in endurance runners. PMID:29599872

  10. Caffeine stimulates voluntary wheel running in mice without increasing aerobic capacity.

    PubMed

    Claghorn, Gerald C; Thompson, Zoe; Wi, Kristianna; Van, Lindsay; Garland, Theodore

    2017-03-01

    The "energy drink" Red Bull and the "sports drink" Gatorade are often marketed to athletes, with claims that they cause performance gains. However, both are high in sugars, and also consumed by non-athletes. Few studies have addressed the effects of these drinks or their biologically active components in rodent exercise models. We used three experiments to test effects on both voluntary exercise behavior and maximal aerobic capacity in lines of mice known to differ in "athletic" traits. Mice from four replicate High Runner (HR) lines have been selectively bred for voluntary running on wheels, and run approximately three times as many revolutions per day as do mice from four non-selected Control (C) lines. HR mice also have higher endurance and maximal oxygen consumption (VO 2 max) during forced treadmill exercise. In Experiment 1, we tested the hypothesis that Gatorade or Red Bull might cause or allow mice to increase their voluntary wheel running. On days 5 and 6 of 6days of wheel access, as is used to select breeders, HR mice ran 3.3-fold more than C, and females ran 1.2-fold more than males, with no linetype by sex interaction. On day 7, mice were administered Gatorade, Red Bull or tap water. During the subsequent 19-hour period, Gatorade had no statistical effect on running, but Red Bull significantly increased distance run by both sexes and in both HR and C lines. The increase in distance run caused by Red Bull was attributable to time spent running, not an increase in mean (or maximum) speed. As previous studies have found that sucrose alone does not generally increase wheel running, we tested two other active ingredients in Red Bull, caffeine and taurine, in Experiment 2. With a similar testing protocol, caffeine alone and caffeine+taurine increased running by about half the magnitude of Red Bull. In Experiment 3, we tested the hypothesis that Red Bull or caffeine alone can increase physiological performance ability during aerobic exercise, measured as VO 2

  11. Effects of solar radiation on endurance exercise capacity in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    Otani, Hidenori; Kaya, Mitsuharu; Tamaki, Akira; Watson, Phillip; Maughan, Ronald J

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the effects of variations in solar radiation on endurance exercise capacity and thermoregulatory responses in a hot environment. Eight male volunteers performed four cycle exercise trials at 70 % maximum oxygen uptake until exhaustion in an environmental chamber maintained at 30 °C and 50 % relative humidity. Volunteers were tested under four solar radiation conditions: 800, 500, 250 and 0 W/m(2). Exercise time to exhaustion was less on the 800 W/m(2) trial (23 ± 4 min) than on all the other trials (500 W/m(2) 30 ± 7 min; P < 0.05, 250 W/m(2) 43 ± 10 min; P < 0.001, 0 W/m(2) 46 ± 10 min; P < 0.001), and on the 500 W/m(2) trial than the 250 W/m(2) (P < 0.05) and 0 W/m(2) (P < 0.01) trials. There were no differences in core (rectal) temperature, total sweat loss, heart rate, skin blood flow, cutaneous vascular conductance and percentage changes in plasma volume between trials (P > 0.05). Mean skin temperature was higher on the 800 W/m(2) trial than the 250 and 0 W/m(2) trials (P < 0.05), and on the 500 W/m(2) trial than the 0 W/m(2) trial (P < 0.05). The core-to-skin temperature gradient was narrower on the 800 W/m(2) trial than the 250 and 0 W/m(2) trials (P < 0.05). The present study demonstrates that endurance exercise capacity in a hot environment falls progressively as solar radiation increases.

  12. Specificity of endurance, sprint and strength training on physical performance capacity in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Häkkinen, K; Mero, A; Kauhanen, H

    1989-03-01

    Three prebubescent athlete groups of endurance runners (E; n = 4), sprinters (S; n = 4) and weightlifters (WL; n = 4) and one control group (C; n = 6) as well as one junior but postpubescent weightlifter group (JWL; n = 6) volunteered as subjects in order to investigate specific effects of endurance, sprint and strength training on physical performance capacity during a 1 year follow-up period. The prepubescent E-group had higher (p less than 0.05) VO2 max (66.5 +/- 2.9 ml x kg1 x min-1) already at the beginning of the study than the other three groups. The prepubescent WL-group demonstrated greater (p less than 0.05) maximal muscular strength than the E-group and the WL-group increased its strength greatly by 21.4% (p less than 0.05) during the follow-up. No significant differences were observed in physical performance capacity between the prepubescent WL- and S-groups. Both groups demonstrated a slightly (ns.) better force-time curve recorded from the leg extensor muscles than the E-group and significant (p less than 0.05) increases occurred in these two groups in dynamic explosive performance during the follow-up. The postpubescent JWL-group demonstrated much greater (p less than 0.001) muscular mass and maximal strength than the prepubescent groups. No significant changes occurred in explosive types of performances in these athletes but significant (p less than 0.05) increase took place in the maximal neural activation and strength of the leg extensor muscles during the 1 year.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Glucose-fructose likely improves gastrointestinal comfort and endurance running performance relative to glucose-only.

    PubMed

    Wilson, P B; Ingraham, S J

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to determine whether glucose-fructose (GF) ingestion, relative to glucose-only, would alter performance, metabolism, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, and psychological affect during prolonged running. On two occasions, 20 runners (14 men) completed a 120-min submaximal run followed by a 4-mile time trial (TT). Participants consumed glucose-only (G) or GF (1.2:1 ratio) beverages, which supplied ∼ 1.3 g/min of carbohydrate. Substrate use, blood lactate, psychological affect [Feeling Scale (FS)], and GI distress were measured. Differences between conditions were assessed using magnitude-based inferential statistics. Participants completed the TT 1.9% (-1.9; -4.2, 0.4) faster with GF, representing a likely benefit. FS ratings were possibly higher and GI symptoms were possibly-to-likely lower with GF during the submaximal period and TT. Effect sizes for GI distress and FS ratings were relatively small (Cohen's d = ∼0.2 to 0.4). GF resulted in possibly higher fat oxidation during the submaximal period. No clear differences in lactate were observed. In conclusion, GF ingestion - compared with glucose-only - likely improves TT performance after 2 h of submaximal running, and GI distress and psychological affect are likely mechanisms. These results apply to runners consuming fluid at 500-600 mL/h and carbohydrate at 1.0-1.3 g/min during running at 60-70% VO2peak . © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Red grape leaf extract improves endurance capacity by facilitating fatty acid utilization in skeletal muscle in mice.

    PubMed

    Minegishi, Yoshihiko; Haramizu, Satoshi; Hase, Tadashi; Murase, Takatoshi

    2011-09-01

    Improving endurance capacity leads to increased athletic performance and active lifestyles. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the intake of red grape leaf extract (RGLE), used as a traditional herbal medicine in the Mediterranean area, on endurance capacity in mice. Male BALB/c mice were divided into three experimental groups with similar swimming times and body weights; control group, 0.2% (w/w) and 0.5% RGLE group. Swimming times were measured for evaluation of endurance capacity once a week during the 10-week experimental period. Blood and tissues were collected from anesthetized mice immediately after 30 min of swimming exercise, and analyzed blood component and fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity, and gene expression in soleus muscle and mesenteric adipose tissue. Endurance capacity was improved by RGLE in a dose-related manner, and was significantly longer in the 0.5% RGLE group than in the control group at week 10. Plasma lactate levels after exercise in the 0.5% RGLE group were significantly lower than that in the control group. RGLE induced the upregulation of hormone-sensitive lipase mRNA in mesenteric adipose tissue, increased the plasma free fatty acid concentration after exercise, and enhanced fatty acid oxidation enzyme activity in the soleus muscle. Furthermore, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator 1α (Pgc1α) and its downstream target genes were also significantly upregulated in the soleus muscle in the 0.5% RGLE group. Intake of RGLE upregulated Pgc1α expression and facilitated fatty acid oxidation in skeletal muscle, and these effects contributed, in part, to improve endurance capacity.

  15. The Effects of Intermittent Hypoxic Training on Aerobic Capacity and Endurance Performance in Cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Czuba, Milosz; Waskiewicz, Zbigniew; Zajac, Adam; Poprzecki, Stanislaw; Cholewa, Jaroslaw; Roczniok, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) with 95 % of lactate threshold workload (WRLT) on aerobic capacity and endurance performance in well-trained cyclists. Twenty male elite cyclists, randomly divided into a hypoxia (H) group (n=10; age 22 ± 2.7years; VO2max 67.8 ± 2.5 ml·kg-1·min-1; body height (BH) 1.78 ± 0.05 m; body mass (BM) 66.7 ± 5.4kg; fat free mass (FFM) 59.3 ± 5.1kg; fat content (FAT%) 11.3 ± 2.1%), and a control (C) group (n = 10; age 23.5 ± 3. 5years; VO2max 67.7 ± 2.0 ml·kg-1·min-1; BH 1.79 ± 3.2 m; BM 69.2 ± 5.5 kg; FFM 63.6 ± 4.8 kg; FAT% 7.9 ± 1.94 %) took part in the research project. The training program used during the experiment was the same for the both groups. For three weeks, the subjects in H group performed 3 training sessions per week in normobaric hypoxia environment (IHT - O2 = 15. 2%). During the elemental core of the IHT session, the intensity was set at 95% WRLT for 30-min in 1st microcycle, 35-min in 2nd microcycle and 40-min in 3rd microcycle. The same training procedure was provided in C group, yet the intensity of the main sessions were set at 100% WRLT in the normoxia environment. The results indicate a significant (p < 0.05) increase in VO2max,VO2LT, WRmax, WRLT and change in lactate concentration (∆LA) during incremental test in H group. Also a significant (p < 0.05) decrease in time of the time trial was seen, associated with a significant increase (p < 0.05) in average generated power (Pavg) and average speed (Vavg) during the time trial. The intermittent hypoxic training (IHT) applied in this research did not significantly affect the hematological variables considered: number of erythrocytes (RBC), hemoglobin concentration (HGB) and haematocrit value (HCT). Significant blood value increases (p < 0.05) were only observed in MCV in H group. This data suggests that intermittent hypoxic training at lactate threshold intensity and medium duration (30

  16. INJURY PATTERNS IN ADOLESCENT ELITE ENDURANCE ATHLETES PARTICIPATING IN RUNNING, ORIENTEERING, AND CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING

    PubMed Central

    Floström, Frida; Frohm, Anna; Heijne, Annette

    2017-01-01

    Background Prospective injury registration studies, monitoring adolescent elite athletes, are sparse in running, orienteering and cross-country skiing, yet essential for developing prevention programs. Purpose The aims of this study were to describe the injury prevalence/incidence, severity grade, injury location, risk factors and the prevalence of illness in running (RU), orienteering (OR) and cross-country skiing athletes (CR). Study Design Prospective cohort study. Methods One hundred fifty adolescent elite athletes (age range 16-19), participating in orienteering (25 females, 20 males), running (13 females, 18 males), cross-country skiing (38 females, 36 males), from 12 National Sports High Schools in Sweden, were prospectively followed over one calendar year using a reliable and validated web-based questionnaire. Results The main finding was that the average weekly injury prevalence was higher during the pre-season compared to the competitive season in all three sports. RU reported the significantly (p<0.05) highest average weekly injury prevalence (32.4%) and substantial injury prevalence (17.0%), compared to OR (26.0, 8.2%) and CR (21.1%, 8.9%). Most injuries occurred in the lower extremity (RU 94.4%; OR 91.9%; CR 49.9%) and foot and knee injuries had the highest severity grade in all three sports. History of serious injury (p=0.002, OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.7) and current injury at study start (p=0.004, OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.5-11.2) were identified as the strongest risk factors for substantial injury. Younger athletes aged 16 (p=0.019, OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.8) and 17 (p=0.045, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0-5.9), had a significantly higher injury risk for substantial injury compared to older athletes aged 18-19. Conclusion Practitioners should be aware of the increased injury risk during pre-season and in younger athletes. By focus on prevention of foot and knee injuries, the injuries with the highest severity grade will be targeted in adolescent elite athletes participating in

  17. INJURY PATTERNS IN ADOLESCENT ELITE ENDURANCE ATHLETES PARTICIPATING IN RUNNING, ORIENTEERING, AND CROSS-COUNTRY SKIING.

    PubMed

    von Rosen, Philip; Floström, Frida; Frohm, Anna; Heijne, Annette

    2017-10-01

    Prospective injury registration studies, monitoring adolescent elite athletes, are sparse in running, orienteering and cross-country skiing, yet essential for developing prevention programs. The aims of this study were to describe the injury prevalence/incidence, severity grade, injury location, risk factors and the prevalence of illness in running (RU), orienteering (OR) and cross-country skiing athletes (CR). Prospective cohort study. One hundred fifty adolescent elite athletes (age range 16-19), participating in orienteering (25 females, 20 males), running (13 females, 18 males), cross-country skiing (38 females, 36 males), from 12 National Sports High Schools in Sweden, were prospectively followed over one calendar year using a reliable and validated web-based questionnaire. The main finding was that the average weekly injury prevalence was higher during the pre-season compared to the competitive season in all three sports. RU reported the significantly (p<0.05) highest average weekly injury prevalence (32.4%) and substantial injury prevalence (17.0%), compared to OR (26.0, 8.2%) and CR (21.1%, 8.9%). Most injuries occurred in the lower extremity (RU 94.4%; OR 91.9%; CR 49.9%) and foot and knee injuries had the highest severity grade in all three sports. History of serious injury (p=0.002, OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.6-9.7) and current injury at study start (p=0.004, OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.5-11.2) were identified as the strongest risk factors for substantial injury. Younger athletes aged 16 (p=0.019, OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.8) and 17 (p=0.045, OR 2.4, 95% CI 1.0-5.9), had a significantly higher injury risk for substantial injury compared to older athletes aged 18-19. Practitioners should be aware of the increased injury risk during pre-season and in younger athletes. By focus on prevention of foot and knee injuries, the injuries with the highest severity grade will be targeted in adolescent elite athletes participating in running, orienteering and cross-country skiing. 2b.

  18. Self-efficacy and enjoyment of middle school children performing the progressive aerobic cardiovascular endurance run (PACER).

    PubMed

    Kane, Irene; Robertson, Robert J; Fertman, Carl I; Nagle, Elizabeth F; McConnaha, Wendell R; Rabin, Bruce S

    2013-10-01

    Self-efficacy and enjoyment were examined among 34 middle school children (M age = 12.5 yr.) performing the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER). Exercise self-efficacy (running) and physical activity enjoyment were measured after viewing a video illustrating the PACER, and subsequently following a PACER test. Significantly greater pre- than post-exercise self-efficacy was reported; enjoyment scores did not differ. Ratings of self-efficacy were higher before exercise than after, but enjoyment scores were not significantly different. A significant correlation was found between post-exercise self-efficacy and enjoyment, but not between pre-exercise self-efficacy and enjoyment. Although positive correlations were found between PACER laps and pre-/post-exercise self-efficacy, correlations with ratings of enjoyment were not significant. Exercise self-efficacy was associated with children's beliefs about the task-specific PACER aerobic exercise; however, exercise enjoyment was stable. Children's self-efficacy and enjoyment beliefs should be considered when developing interventional strategies to promote aerobic exercise participation.

  19. Bovid mortality profiles in paleoecological context falsify hypotheses of endurance running-hunting and passive scavenging by early Pleistocene hominins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunn, Henry T.; Pickering, Travis Rayne

    2010-11-01

    The world's first archaeological traces from 2.6 million years ago (Ma) at Gona, in Ethiopia, include sharp-edged cutting tools and cut-marked animal bones, which indicate consumption of skeletal muscle by early hominin butchers. From that point, evidence of hominin meat-eating becomes increasingly more common throughout the Pleistocene archaeological record. Thus, the substantive debate about hominin meat-eating now centers on mode(s) of carcass resource acquisition. Two prominent hypotheses suggest, alternatively, (1) that early Homo hunted ungulate prey by running them to physiological failure and then dispatching them, or (2) that early Homo was relegated to passively scavenging carcass residues abandoned by carnivore predators. Various paleontologically testable predictions can be formulated for both hypotheses. Here we test four predictions concerning age-frequency distributions for bovids that contributed carcass remains to the 1.8 Ma. old FLK 22 Zinjanthropus (FLK Zinj, Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania) fauna, which zooarchaeological and taphonomic data indicate was formed predominantly by early Homo. In all but one case, the bovid mortality data from FLK Zinj violate test predictions of the endurance running-hunting and passive scavenging hypotheses. When combined with other taphonomic data, these results falsify both hypotheses, and lead to the hypothesis that early Homo operated successfully as an ambush predator.

  20. Short-term heat acclimation improves the determinants of endurance performance and 5-km running performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    James, Carl A; Richardson, Alan J; Watt, Peter W; Willmott, Ashley G B; Gibson, Oliver R; Maxwell, Neil S

    2017-03-01

    This study investigated the effect of 5 days of controlled short-term heat acclimation (STHA) on the determinants of endurance performance and 5-km performance in runners, relative to the impairment afforded by moderate heat stress. A control group (CON), matched for total work and power output (2.7 W·kg -1 ), differentiated thermal and exercise contributions of STHA on exercise performance. Seventeen participants (10 STHA, 7 CON) completed graded exercise tests (GXTs) in cool (13 °C, 50% relative humidity (RH), pre-training) and hot conditions (32 °C, 60% RH, pre- and post-training), as well as 5-km time trials (TTs) in the heat, pre- and post-training. STHA reduced resting (p = 0.01) and exercising (p = 0.04) core temperature alongside a smaller change in thermal sensation (p = 0.04). Both groups improved the lactate threshold (LT, p = 0.021), lactate turnpoint (LTP, p = 0.005) and velocity at maximal oxygen consumption (vV̇O 2max ; p = 0.031) similarly. Statistical differences between training methods were observed in TT performance (STHA, -6.2(5.5)%; CON, -0.6(1.7)%, p = 0.029) and total running time during the GXT (STHA, +20.8(12.7)%; CON, +9.8(1.2)%, p = 0.006). There were large mean differences in change in maximal oxygen consumption between STHA +4.0(2.2) mL·kg -1 ·min -1 (7.3(4.0)%) and CON +1.9(3.7) mL·kg -1 ·min -1 (3.8(7.2)%). Running economy (RE) deteriorated following both training programmes (p = 0.008). Similarly, RE was impaired in the cool GXT, relative to the hot GXT (p = 0.004). STHA improved endurance running performance in comparison with work-matched normothermic training, despite equality of adaptation for typical determinants of performance (LT, LTP, vV̇O 2max ). Accordingly, these data highlight the ergogenic effect of STHA, potentially via greater improvements in maximal oxygen consumption and specific thermoregulatory and associated thermal perception adaptations absent in normothermic training.

  1. Carbohydrate gel ingestion significantly improves the intermittent endurance capacity, but not sprint performance, of adolescent team games players during a simulated team games protocol.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Shaun M; Turner, Anthony P; Sanderson, Mark F; Sproule, John

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of ingesting a carbohydrate (CHO) gel on the intermittent endurance capacity and sprint performance of adolescent team games players. Eleven participants [mean age 13.5 ± 0.7 years, height 1.72 ± 0.08 m, body mass (BM) 62.1 ± 9.4 kg] performed two trials separated by 3-7 days. In each trial, they completed four 15 min periods of part A of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LIST), followed by an intermittent run to exhaustion (part B). In the 5 min pre-exercise, participants consumed 0.818 mL kg(-1) BM of a CHO or a non-CHO placebo gel, and a further 0.327 mL kg(-1) BM every 15 min during part A of the LIST (38.0 ± 5.5 g CHO h(-1) in the CHO trial). Intermittent endurance capacity was increased by 21.1% during part B when the CHO gel was ingested (4.6 ± 2.0 vs. 3.8 ± 2.4 min, P < 0.05, r = 0.67), with distance covered in part B significantly greater in the CHO trial (787 ± 319 vs. 669 ± 424 m, P < 0.05, r = 0.57). Gel ingestion did not significantly influence mean 15 m sprint time (P = 0.34), peak sprint time (P = 0.81), or heart rate (P = 0.66). Ingestion of a CHO gel significantly increases the intermittent endurance capacity of adolescent team games players during a simulated team games protocol.

  2. No association between ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D polymorphisms and endurance running times in 698 Caucasian athletes.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Ioannis D; Lockey, Sarah J; Voisin, Sarah; Herbert, Adam J; Garton, Fleur; Houweling, Peter J; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Maciejewska-Skrendo, Agnieszka; Sawczuk, Marek; Massidda, Myosotis; Calò, Carla Maria; Astratenkova, Irina V; Kouvatsi, Anastasia; Druzhevskaya, Anastasiya M; Jacques, Macsue; Ahmetov, Ildus I; Stebbings, Georgina K; Heffernan, Shane; Day, Stephen H; Erskine, Robert; Pedlar, Charles; Kipps, Courtney; North, Kathryn N; Williams, Alun G; Eynon, Nir

    2018-01-03

    Studies investigating associations between ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D genotypes and endurance athletic status have been limited by small sample sizes from mixed sport disciplines and lack quantitative measures of performance. To examine the association between ACTN3 R577X and ACE I/D genotypes and best personal running times in a large homogeneous cohort of endurance runners. We collected a total of 1064 personal best 1500, 3000, 5000 m and marathon running times of 698 male and female Caucasian endurance athletes from six countries (Australia, Greece, Italy, Poland, Russia and UK). Athletes were genotyped for ACTN3 R577X and ACE ID variants. There was no association between ACTN3 R577X or ACE I/D genotype and running performance at any distance in men or women. Mean (SD) marathon times (in s) were for men: ACTN3 RR 9149 (593), RX 9221 (582), XX 9129 (582) p = 0.94; ACE DD 9182 (665), ID 9214 (549), II 9155 (492) p = 0.85; for women: ACTN3 RR 10796 (818), RX 10667 (695), XX 10675 (553) p = 0.36; ACE DD 10604 (561), ID 10766 (740), II 10771 (708) p = 0.21. Furthermore, there were no associations between these variants and running time for any distance in a sub-analysis of athletes with personal records within 20% of world records. Thus, consistent with most case-control studies, this multi-cohort quantitative analysis demonstrates it is unlikely that ACTN3 XX genotype provides an advantage in competitive endurance running performance. For ACE II genotype, some prior studies show an association but others do not. Our data indicate it is also unlikely that ACE II genotype provides an advantage in endurance running.

  3. Heat acclimation responses of an ultra-endurance running group preparing for hot desert-based competition.

    PubMed

    Costa, Ricardo J S; Crockford, Michael J; Moore, Jonathan P; Walsh, Neil P

    2014-01-01

    Heat acclimation induces adaptations that improve exercise tolerance in hot conditions. Here we report novel findings into the effects of ultra-marathon specific exercise load in increasing hot ambient conditions on indices of heat acclimation. Six male ultra-endurance runners completed a standard pre-acclimation protocol at 20°C ambient temperature (T amb), followed by a heat acclimation protocol consisting of six 2 h running exercise-heat exposures (EH) at 60% VO2max on a motorised treadmill in an environmental chamber. Three EH were performed at 30°C T amb, followed by another three EH at 35°C T amb. EH were separated by 48 h within T amb and 72 h between T amb. Nude body mass (NBM), blood and urine samples were collected pre-exercise; while NBM and urine were collected post-exercise. Rectal temperature (T re), heart rate (HR), thermal comfort rating (TCR) and rating of perceived exertion were measured pre-exercise and monitored every 5 min during exercise. Water was provided ad libitum during exercise. Data were analysed using a repeated measures and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), with post hoc Tukey's HSD. Significance was accepted as P< 0.05. Overall mean T re was significantly lower during 30°C EH3 and 35°C EH3 compared with their respective EH1 (-0.20 and-0.23°C, respectively; P<0.05). Similarly, overall mean HR was significantly lower during 30°C EH3 and 35°C EH3 compared with their respective EH1 (8 and 7 bpm respectively; P<0.05). A significant decrease in overall mean TCR was observed during 35°C EH3, compared with 35°C EH1 (P< 0.05). Significant increases in resting pre-exercise plasma volume (estimated from Hb and Hct) were observed by 30°C EH3 (7.9%; P< 0.05). Thereafter, plasma volume remained above baseline throughout the experimental protocol. Two EH of 2 h at 60% VO2max at 30°C T amb was sufficient to initiate heat acclimation in all ultra-endurance runners. Further, heat acclimation responses occurred with increasing EH to 35

  4. Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run and Body Mass Index among an Ethnically Diverse Sample of 10-15-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beets, Michael W.; Pitetti, Kenneth H.; Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined the cardiovascular fitness (CVF, Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run [PACER], number of laps completed) and the prevalence of at risk of overweight (AR) and overweight (OW) among 10-15-year-olds (48% girls) from the following ethnic backgrounds: African American (n = 2,604), Asian-Pacific Islander (n = 3,888),…

  5. Endurance Running Training Individually-Guided By Hrv In Untrained Women.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Danilo F; Ferraro, Zachary M; Adamo, Kristi B; Machado, Fabiana A

    2017-05-30

    The aim of this study was to analyze the effects of HRV-guided training compared to a standardized prescription on i) time to complete 5-km running performance (t5km), ii) peak treadmill running speed (Vpeak) and its time limit (tlim at Vpeak), and iii) autonomic cardiac modulation (i.e., parasympathetic activity and recovery) in untrained women. Additionally, we correlated changes in t5km with changes in Vpeak, tlim at Vpeak and autonomic cardiac modulation. Thirty-six untrained women were divided into a HRV-guided training group (HRVG) and a control group (CG). The CG followed a pre-defined program, alternating moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT). The determination of MICT or HIIT was based on the pre-training HRV for HRVG. MICT was performed if HRV was < mean - 1 SD of previous measures. Otherwise, HIIT was prescribed. The t5km, Vpeak, tlim at Vpeak, parasympathetic activity (i.e., rMSSD) and parasympathetic reactivation (i.e., HRR) were measured before and after the training period. The t5km decreased to a greater magnitude in the HRVG (-17.5±5.6% vs. -14±4.7%; Effect Size (ES) between-group difference=moderate). rMSSD and tlim at Vpeak only improved in HRVG (+23.3±27.8% and +23.6±31.9%, respectively). The HRVG experienced greater improvements in Vpeak and HRR (Vpeak: 10±7.3% vs. 8.2±4.7%; HRR: 19.1±28.1% vs. 12.6±12.9%; ES between-group difference=small). Although HRVG performed less MICT than CG, the volume of MICT was negatively related to changes in t5km. Vpeak changes were highly correlated with t5km changes. The greater improvements in HRVG for t5km and autonomic modulation reinforce the potential application of this tool.

  6. Black tea high-molecular-weight polyphenol stimulates exercise training-induced improvement of endurance capacity in mouse via the link between AMPK and GLUT4.

    PubMed

    Eguchi, Tomoaki; Kumagai, Chiaki; Fujihara, Takashi; Takemasa, Thoru; Ozawa, Tetsuo; Numata, Osamu

    2013-01-01

    Aerobic exercise can promote "fast-to-slow transition" in skeletal muscles, i.e. an increase in oxidative fibers, mitochondria, and myoglobin and improvement in glucose and lipid metabolism. Here, we found that mice administered Mitochondria Activation Factor (MAF) combined with exercise training could run longer distances and for a longer time compared with the exercise only group; MAF is a high-molecular-weight polyphenol purified from black tea. Furthermore, MAF intake combined with exercise training increased phosphorylation of AMPK and mRNA level of glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4). Thus, our data demonstrate for the first time that MAF activates exercise training-induced intracellular signaling pathways that involve AMPK, and improves endurance capacity.

  7. Incorporating sprint training with endurance training improves anaerobic capacity and 2,000-m Erg performance in trained oarsmen.

    PubMed

    Stevens, Alexander W J; Olver, Terry T; Lemon, Peter W R

    2015-01-01

    A 2,000-m time-trial performance, aerobic capacity, and anaerobic capacity were assessed in 16 trained oarsmen after sprint interval training (SIT) replaced a portion of an endurance-based training program (EBTSIT) vs. an endurance-based program alone (EBTAlone). The EBTSIT involved 10 SIT sessions over 4 weeks, in addition to 12 continuous exercise sessions, 2 anaerobic threshold exercise sessions, and 4 strength training sessions. The EBTAlone consisted of 20 continuous, 6 anaerobic threshold, 2 interval exercise sessions, and 8 strength training sessions. Time-trial performance (2,000-m erg performance) improved with EBTSIT (baseline = 414.6 ± 18.5, post = 410.6 ± 17.5 seconds; p < 0.001) but only approached significance in EBTAlone (baseline = 413.0 ± 27.7, post = 411.4 ± 27.9 seconds; p = 0.06). In a 60-second "all-out" anaerobic capacity test, peak power output (PPO) increased significantly with EBTSIT (PPO: EBTSIT: baseline = 566 ± 82, post = 623 ± 60 W; p = 0.02) but not with EBTAlone (EBTAlone: baseline = 603 ± 81, post = 591 ± 123 W; p = 0.59). Changes in average power output (APO) also approached significance (p = 0.07) (APO: EBTSIT: baseline = 508 ± 48, post = 530 ± 52 W; EBTAlone: baseline = 532 ± 55, post = 533 ± 68 W). Neither group experienced any change in aerobic capacity ((Equation is included in full-text article.)or ventilatory threshold; p ≥ 0.16). We conclude that replacing a portion of EBT with SIT can improve both 2,000-m erg performance and anaerobic capacity, while maintaining aerobic fitness in trained oarsmen. Incorporating SIT within endurance training programs may be useful during periods of low-volume training, to improve performance without sacrificing aerobic capacity.

  8. 'Pre-Run, Re-Run': An innovative research capacity building exercise.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Margaret; Brien, Donna Lee

    2017-11-01

    Within higher education it is ironic that experienced and novice researchers rarely take the opportunity to come together to share their research - whether these be to discuss findings, puzzles or developing projects. Within this paper, an innovative strategy building on these assumptions is described. It is entitled: 'Pre-run, Re-run' and is a learning community where specific processes are modelled by all to help build professional communication, collegial respect, and scholarship. Our evaluation showed that there is value in bringing together researchers especially when they have diverse profiles. Also, mixing experience with naivety, by inviting professors and junior staff to fraternize equally, offers the possibility for wide ranging discussion, as well as sharing a range of successful techniques, knowledge of the big picture and ways around obstacles that would otherwise be off-putting for novices. The less experienced perspective can equally be revitalizing because newcomers to scholarship often bring a fresh focus and enthusiasm and energy for practice. While this was a local innovation, which may not be generalizable to all settings, others hoping to bring together disciplines may benefit from utilizing the successful methods to build a productive, mixed research culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of muscle buffer capacity and repeated-sprint ability of untrained, endurance-trained and team-sport athletes.

    PubMed

    Edg E, Johann; Bishop, David; Hill-Haas, Stephen; Dawson, Brian; Goodman, Carmel

    2006-02-01

    We measured the muscle buffer capacity (betam) and repeated-sprint ability (RSA) of young females, who were either team-sport athletes (n = 7), endurance trained (n = 6) or untrained but physically active (n = 8). All subjects performed a graded exercise test to determine VO(2peak) followed 2 days later by a cycle test of RSA (5 x 6 s, every 30 s). Resting muscle samples (Vastus lateralis) were taken to determine betam. The team-sport group had a significantly higher betam than either the endurance-trained or the untrained groups (181+/- 27 vs. 148 +/- 11 vs. 122 +/- 32 micromol H(+) g dm(-1) pH(-1) respectively; P < 0.05). The team-sport group also completed significantly more relative total work (299 +/- 27 vs. 263 +/- 31 vs. 223 +/- 21 J kg(-1), respectively; P < 0.05) and absolute total work (18.2 +/- 1.6 vs. 14.6 +/- 2.4 vs. 13.0 +/- 1.9 kJ, respectively; P < 0.05) than the endurance-trained or untrained groups during the RSA test. The team-sport group also had a greater post-exercise blood lactate concentration, but not blood pH. There was a significant correlation between betam and RSA (r = 0.67; P < 0.05). Our findings show that young females competing in team sports have a larger betam than either endurance-trained or untrained females. This may be the result of the intermittent, high-intensity activity during training and the match play of team-sport athletes. The team-sport athletes also had a greater RSA than either the endurance-trained or untrained subjects. The greater total work by team-sport athletes was predominantly due to a better performance during the early sprints of the repeated-sprint bout.

  10. Aerobic capacity in speed-power athletes aged 20-90 years vs endurance runners and untrained participants.

    PubMed

    Kusy, K; Zieliński, J

    2014-02-01

    We studied relationships between age and aerobic capacity in three groups of subjects adhering to different exercise modalities. A total of 203 men aged 20-90 years were examined: 52 speed-power track and field athletes (SP), 89 endurance runners (ER) and 62 untrained individuals (UT). Maximal exercise characteristics were obtained during a graded treadmill test until exhaustion: oxygen uptake (VO2max), heart rate (HRmax), oxygen pulse (O2 Pulsemax) and maximal distance (Distmax). Information about training history and weekly training amount was collected. A linear model of regression was adopted. VO2max in SP was lower than in ER, but significantly higher than in UT. The cross-sectional rates of decline in body mass-adjusted VO2max and Distmax were significantly smaller in SP than in ER and UT. About 80 years of age, the levels of VO2max and Distmax reached similar values in SP and ER. The decline in HRmax, but not in O2 Pulsemax was suggested as a cardiac adaptation accounting for between-group differences in VO2max loss. Weekly training volume was a significant positive predictor of age-related changes in aerobic capacity. In conclusion, not only endurance, but also speed-power exercise appears adequate to ensure an elevated aerobic capacity at old age. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Upregulation of circulating IL-15 by treadmill running in healthy individuals: is IL-15 an endocrine mediator of the beneficial effects of endurance exercise?

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yoshiaki; Watanabe, Keiichi; Kantani, Tomomi; Hayashi, Junichi; Ishida, Nobuhiko; Kaneki, Masao

    2011-01-01

    The beneficial effects of endurance exercise include insulin-sensitization and reduction of fat mass. Limited knowledge is available about the mechanisms by which endurance exercise exerts the salutary effects. Myokines, cytokines secreted by skeletal muscle, have been recognized as a potential mediator. Recently, a role of skeletal muscle-derived interleukin-15 (IL-15) in improvement of fat-lean body mass composition and insulin sensitivity has been proposed. Yet, previous studies have reported that endurance training does not increase production or secretion of IL-15 in skeletal muscle. Here, we show that in opposition to previous findings, 30-min treadmill running at 70% of age-predicted maximum heart rate resulted in a significant increase in circulating IL-15 level in untrained healthy young men. These findings suggest that IL-15 might play a role in the systemic anti-obesogenic and insulin-sensitizing effects of endurance exercise, not only as a paracrine and autocrine but also as an endocrine factor.

  12. Impact of an incremental running test on jumping kinematics in endurance runners: can jumping kinematic explain the post-activation potentiation phenomenon?

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Molina-Molina, Alejandro; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed to determine whether kinematic data during countermovement jump (CMJ) might explain post-activation potentiation (PAP) phenomenon after an exhausting running test. Thirty-three trained endurance runners performed the Léger Test; an incremental test which consists of continuous running between two lines 20 m apart. CMJ performance was determined before (pre-test) and immediately after the protocol (post-test). Sagittal plane, video of CMJs was recorded and kinematic data were obtained throughout 2-Dimensional analysis. In addition to the duration of eccentric and concentric phases of CMJ, hip, knee and ankle angles were measured at four key points during CMJ: the lowest position of the squat, take-off, landing, and at the lowest position after landing. Additionally, heart rate was monitored, and rate of perceived exertion was recorded at post-test. Analysis of variance revealed a significant improvement in CMJ (p = 0.002) at post-test. Cluster analysis grouped according to whether PAP was experienced (responders group: RG, n = 25) or not (non-responders group: NRG, n = 8) relative to CMJ change from rest to post-test. RG significantly improved (p < 0.001) the performance in CMJ, whereas NRG remained unchanged. Kinematic data did not show significant differences between RG and NRG. Thus, the data suggest that jumping kinematic does not provide the necessary information to explain PAP phenomenon after intensive running exercises in endurance athletes.

  13. Streamflow variability and optimal capacity of run-of-river hydropower plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basso, S.; Botter, G.

    2012-10-01

    The identification of the capacity of a run-of-river plant which allows for the optimal utilization of the available water resources is a challenging task, mainly because of the inherent temporal variability of river flows. This paper proposes an analytical framework to describe the energy production and the economic profitability of small run-of-river power plants on the basis of the underlying streamflow regime. We provide analytical expressions for the capacity which maximize the produced energy as a function of the underlying flow duration curve and minimum environmental flow requirements downstream of the plant intake. Similar analytical expressions are derived for the capacity which maximize the economic return deriving from construction and operation of a new plant. The analytical approach is applied to a minihydro plant recently proposed in a small Alpine catchment in northeastern Italy, evidencing the potential of the method as a flexible and simple design tool for practical application. The analytical model provides useful insight on the major hydrologic and economic controls (e.g., streamflow variability, energy price, costs) on the optimal plant capacity and helps in identifying policy strategies to reduce the current gap between the economic and energy optimizations of run-of-river plants.

  14. Endurance running ability at adolescence as a predictor of blood pressure levels and hypertension in men: a 25-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Mikkelsson, L; Kaprio, J; Kautiainen, H; Nupponen, H; Tikkanen, M J; Kujala, U M

    2005-01-01

    The aim was to study whether aerobic fitness measured by a maximal endurance running test at adolescence predicts prevalence of hypertension or blood pressure levels in adulthood. From the 413 (197 slow runners and 216 fast runners) participating in a 2000-meter running test at adolescence in 1976 and responding to a health and fitness questionnaire in 2001, 29 subjects (15 very slow runners and 14 very fast runners) participated in a clinical follow-up study in 2001. Compared to those who were fast runners in adolescence, those who were slow runners tended to have higher age-adjusted risk of hypertension at follow-up (OR 2.7, 95 % CI 0.9 to 7.5; p=0.07). The result persisted after further adjustment for body mass index at follow-up (OR 2.9, 95 % CI 1.0 to 8.3; p=0.05). Diastolic blood pressure was higher for very slow runners at adolescence compared to very fast runners, the age-adjusted mean diastolic blood pressure being 90 mm Hg (95 % CI 86 to 93) vs. 83 mm Hg (95 % CI 80 to 87), age-adjusted p=0.013. High endurance type fitness in adolescence predicts low risk of hypertension and low resting diastolic blood pressure levels in adult men.

  15. Separate and combined effects of exposure to heat stress and mental fatigue on endurance exercise capacity in the heat.

    PubMed

    Otani, Hidenori; Kaya, Mitsuharu; Tamaki, Akira; Watson, Phillip

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to pre-exercise heat stress and mental fatigue on endurance exercise capacity in a hot environment. Eight volunteers completed four cycle exercise trials at 80% maximum oxygen uptake until exhaustion in an environmental chamber maintained at 30 °C and 50% relative humidity. The four trials required them to complete a 90 min pre-exercise routine of either a seated rest (CON), a prolonged demanding cognitive task to induce mental fatigue (MF), warm water immersion at 40 °C during the last 30 min to induce increasing core temperature (WI), or a prolonged demanding cognitive task and warm water immersion at 40 °C during the last 30 min (MF + WI). Core temperature when starting exercise was higher following warm water immersion (~38 °C; WI and MF + WI) than with no water immersion (~36.8 °C; CON and MF, P < 0.001). Self-reported mental fatigue when commencing exercise was higher following cognitive task (MF and MF + WI) than with no cognitive task (CON and WI; P < 0.05). Exercise time to exhaustion was reduced by warm water immersion (P < 0.001) and cognitive task (P < 0.05). Compared with CON (18 ± 7 min), exercise duration reduced 0.8, 26.6 and 46.3% in MF (17 ± 7 min), WI (12 ± 5 min) and MF + WI (9 ± 3 min), respectively. This study demonstrates that endurance exercise capacity in a hot environment is impaired by either exposure to pre-exercise heat stress or mental fatigue, and this response is synergistically increased during combined exposure to them.

  16. Effects of caffeine on endurance capacity and psychological state in young females and males exercising in the heat.

    PubMed

    Suvi, Silva; Timpmann, Saima; Tamm, Maria; Aedma, Martin; Kreegipuu, Kairi; Ööpik, Vahur

    2017-01-01

    Acute caffeine ingestion is considered effective in improving endurance capacity and psychological state. However, current knowledge is based on the findings of studies that have been conducted on male subjects mainly in temperate environmental conditions, but some physiological and psychological effects of caffeine differ between the sexes. The purpose of this study was to compare the physical performance and psychological effects of caffeine in young women and men exercising in the heat. Thirteen male and 10 female students completed 2 constant-load walks (60% of thermoneutral peak oxygen consumption on a treadmill until volitional exhaustion) in a hot-dry environment (air temperature, 42 °C; relative humidity, 20%) after caffeine (6 mg·kg -1 ) and placebo (wheat flour) ingestion in a double-blind, randomly assigned, crossover manner. Caffeine, compared with placebo, induced greater increases (p < 0.05) in heart rate (HR) and blood lactate concentrations in both males and females but had no impact on rectal or skin temperatures or on walking time to exhaustion in subjects of either gender. Caffeine decreased (p < 0.05) ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue in males, but not in females. In females, but not in males, a stronger belief that they had been administered caffeine was associated with a shorter time to exhaustion. In conclusion, acute caffeine ingestion increases HR and blood lactate levels during exercise in the heat, but it has no impact on thermoregulation or endurance capacity in either gender. Under exercise-heat stress, caffeine reduces ratings of perceived exertion and fatigue in males but not in females.

  17. Effect of the timing of ice slurry ingestion for precooling on endurance exercise capacity in a warm environment.

    PubMed

    Takeshima, Keisuke; Onitsuka, Sumire; Xinyan, Zheng; Hasegawa, Hiroshi

    2017-04-01

    It has been demonstrated that precooling with ice slurry ingestion enhances endurance exercise capacity in the heat. However, no studies have yet evaluated the optimal timing of ice slurry ingestion for precooling. This study aimed to investigate the effects of varying the timing of ice slurry ingestion for precooling on endurance exercise capacity in a warm environment. Ten active male participants completed 3 experimental cycling trials to exhaustion at 55% peak power output (PPO) after 15min of warm-up at 30% PPO at 30°C and 80% relative humidity. Three experimental conditions were set: no ice slurry ingestion (CON), pre-warm-up ice slurry ingestion (-1°C; 7.5gkg -1 ) (PRE), and post-warm-up ice slurry ingestion (POST). Rectal and mean skin temperatures at the beginning of exercise in the POST condition (37.1±0.2°C, 33.8±0.9°C, respectively) were lower than those in the CON (37.5±0.3°C; P<0.001, 34.8±0.8°C; P<0.01, respectively) and PRE (37.4±0.2°C; P<0.01, 34.6±0.7°C; P<0.01, respectively) conditions. These reductions increased heat storage capacity and resulted in improved exercise capacity in the POST condition (60.2±8.7min) compared to that in the CON (52.0±11.9min; effect size [ES]=0.78) and PRE (56.9±10.4min; ES=0.34) conditions. Ice slurry ingestion after warm-up effectively reduced both rectal and skin temperatures and increased cycling time to exhaustion in a warm environment. Timing ice slurry ingestion to occur after warm-up may be effective for precooling in a warm environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Effects of upper-body sprint-interval training on strength and endurance capacities in female cross-country skiers

    PubMed Central

    Vandbakk, Kristine; Welde, Boye; Kruken, Andrea Hovstein; Baumgart, Julia; Ettema, Gertjan; Karlsen, Trine; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of adding upper-body sprint-intervals or continuous double poling endurance training to the normal training on maximal upper-body strength and endurance capacity in female cross-country skiers. In total, 17 female skiers (age: 18.1±0.8yr, body mass: 60±7 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 3.30±0.37 L.min-1) performed an 8-week training intervention. Here, either two weekly sessions of six to eight 30-s maximal upper-body double poling sprint-intervals (SIG, n = 8) or 45–75 min of continuous low-to-moderate intensity double poling on roller skis (CG, n = 9) were added to their training. Before and after the intervention, the participants were tested for physiological and kinematical responses during submaximal and maximal diagonal and double poling treadmill roller skiing. Additionally, we measured maximal upper-body strength (1RM) and average power at 40% 1RM in a poling-specific strength exercise. SIG improved absolute VO2max in diagonal skiing more than CG (8% vs 2%, p<0.05), and showed a tendency towards higher body-mass normalized VO2max (7% vs 2%, p = 0.07). Both groups had an overall improvement in double poling peak oxygen uptake (10% vs 6% for SIG and CG) (both p<0.01), but no group-difference was observed. SIG improved 1RM strength more than CG (18% vs 10%, p<0.05), while there was a tendency for difference in average power at 40% 1RM (20% vs 14%, p = 0.06). Oxygen cost and kinematics (cycle length and rate) in double poling and diagonal remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that adding upper-body sprint-interval training is more effective than continuous endurance training in improving upper-body maximal strength and VO2max. PMID:28241030

  19. Run-of-river power plants in Alpine regions: Whither optimal capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaro, G.; Botter, G.

    2015-07-01

    Although run-of-river hydropower represents a key source of renewable energy, it cannot prevent stresses on river ecosystems and human well-being. This is especially true in Alpine regions, where the outflow of a plant is placed several kilometers downstream of the intake, inducing the depletion of river reaches of considerable length. Here multiobjective optimization is used in the design of the capacity of run-of-river plants to identify optimal trade-offs between two contrasting objectives: the maximization of the profitability and the minimization of the hydrologic disturbance between the intake and the outflow. The latter is evaluated considering different flow metrics: mean discharge, temporal autocorrelation, and streamflow variability. Efficient and Pareto-optimal plant sizes are devised for two representative case studies belonging to the Piave river (Italy). Our results show that the optimal design capacity is strongly affected by the flow regime at the plant intake. In persistent regimes with a reduced flow variability, the optimal trade-off between economic exploitation and hydrologic disturbance is obtained for a narrow range of capacities sensibly smaller than the economic optimum. In erratic regimes featured by an enhanced flow variability, instead, the Pareto front is discontinuous and multiple trade-offs can be identified, which imply either smaller or larger plants compared to the economic optimum. In particular, large capacities reduce the impact of the plant on the streamflow variability at seasonal and interannual time scale. Multiobjective analysis could provide a clue for the development of policy actions based on the evaluation of the environmental footprint of run-of-river plants.

  20. Aerobic endurance capacity affects spatial memory and SIRT1 is a potent modulator of 8-oxoguanine repair.

    PubMed

    Sarga, L; Hart, N; Koch, L G; Britton, S L; Hajas, G; Boldogh, I; Ba, X; Radak, Z

    2013-11-12

    Regular exercise promotes brain function via a wide range of adaptive responses, including the increased expression of antioxidant and oxidative DNA damage-repairing systems. Accumulation of oxidized DNA base lesions and strand breaks is etiologically linked to for example aging processes and age-associated diseases. Here we tested whether exercise training has an impact on brain function, extent of neurogenesis, and expression of 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (Ogg1) and SIRT1 (silent mating-type information regulation 2 homolog). To do so, we utilized strains of rats with low- and high-running capacity (LCR and HCR) and examined learning and memory, DNA synthesis, expression, and post-translational modification of Ogg1 hippocampal cells. Our results showed that rats with higher aerobic/running capacity had better spatial memory, and expressed less Ogg1, when compared to LCR rats. Furthermore, exercise increased SIRT1 expression and decreased acetylated Ogg1 (AcOgg1) levels, a post-translational modification important for efficient repair of 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-oxoG). Our data on cell cultures revealed that nicotinamide, a SIRT1-specific inhibitor, caused the greatest increase in the acetylation of Ogg1, a finding further supported by our other observations that silencing SIRT1 also markedly increased the levels of AcOgg1. These findings imply that high-running capacity is associated with increased hippocampal function, and SIRT1 level/activity and inversely correlates with AcOgg1 levels and thereby the repair of genomic 8-oxoG. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sex differences and the effects of modified combat regulations on endurance capacity in judo athletes: A meta-analytic approach.

    PubMed

    Sterkowicz-Przybycień, Katarzyna; Fukuda, David H

    2016-06-01

    Judo requires endurance capacity to recover from its high-intensity intermittent actions. This systematic review aimed to evaluate VO2max and the anaerobic threshold in competitive male and female judo athletes. Twelve eligible studies were chosen for quantitative meta-analysis, including results for 188 male and 159 female athletes. Combined values were calculated and compared by gender prior to and following altered combat regulations in 2003. No significant differences in VO2max were noted following the rule changes, but female athletes' values increased to a level comparable to those reported in male athletes prior to the alterations. VO2max in male judo athletes was higher (54.8±1.9 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ) than in female athletes (48.7±2.2 ml·kg -1 ·min -1 ). The effect size of gender was large (d = 1.30) for VO2max and negligible for the anaerobic threshold. Sexual dimorphism exists in VO2max of judo athletes and changes in combat duration did not affect these differences.

  2. Run-of-river power plants in Alpine regions: whither optimal capacity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazzaro, Gianluca; Botter, Gianluca

    2015-04-01

    Hydropower is the major renewable electricity generation technology worldwide. The future expansion of this technology mostly relies on the development of small run-of-river projects, in which a fraction of the running flows is diverted from the river to a turbine for energy production. Even though small hydro inflicts a smaller impact on aquatic ecosystems and local communities compared to large dams, it cannot prevent stresses on plant, animal, and human well-being. This is especially true in mountain regions where the plant outflow is located several kilometers downstream of the intake, thereby inducing the depletion of river reaches of considerable length. Moreover, the negative cumulative effects of run-of-river systems operating along the same river threaten the ability of stream networks to supply ecological corridors for plants, invertebrates or fishes, and support biodiversity. Research in this area is severely lacking. Therefore, the prediction of the long-term impacts associated to the expansion of run-of-river projects induced by global-scale incentive policies remains highly uncertain. This contribution aims at providing objective tools to address the preliminary choice of the capacity of a run-of-river hydropower plant when the economic value of the plant and the alteration of the flow regime are simultaneously accounted for. This is done using the concepts of Pareto-optimality and Pareto-dominance, which are powerful tools suited to face multi-objective optimization in presence of conflicting goals, such as the maximization of the profitability and the minimization of the hydrologic disturbance induced by the plant in the river reach between the intake and the outflow. The application to a set of case studies belonging to the Piave River basin (Italy) suggests that optimal solutions are strongly dependent the natural flow regime at the plant intake. While in some cases (namely, reduced streamflow variability) the optimal trade-off between economic

  3. Is back pain during childhood or adolescence associated with muscle strength, muscle endurance or aerobic capacity: three systematic literature reviews with one meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Lardon, Arnaud; Leboeuf-Yde, Charlotte; Le Scanff, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Back pain is a common condition during childhood and adolescence. The causes of back pain are largely unknown but it seems plausible that some physical factors such as back muscle strength, back muscle endurance and aerobic capacity may play a role in its development, in particular in the early years. The objectives of this review were to investigate in childhood and adolescence 1) if muscular strength in trunk extension is associated with back pain, 2) if muscular endurance in trunk extension is associated with back pain and 3) if aerobic capacity is associated with back pain. Three systematic critical literature reviews with one meta-analysis. Systematic searches were made in June 2014 in PubMed, Embase and SportDiscus including longitudinal, retrospective or cross-sectional studies on back pain for subjects <20 years. Articles were accepted if they were written in French or English. The review process followed the AMSTAR recommendations. The possibility of conducting a meta-analysis was assessed for each research question. Four articles were included for the first objective, four for the second and three for the last. None of the included articles found an association between back muscle strength in extension and back pain. For the second objective, a protective association between back muscle endurance in extension and back pain was found, later confirmed in a meta-analysis (OR = 0.75, 95 % CI 0.58-0.98). The association between aerobic capacity and back pain is not clear. High back muscle endurance in extension appears protective of back pain in youngsters, but the roles of high back muscle strength in extension and aerobic capacity are less clear.

  4. Salivary and plasma cortisol and testosterone responses to interval and tempo runs and a bodyweight-only circuit session in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Amy Vivien; Nielsen, Birthe Vejby; Allgrove, Judith

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the acute response to plasma and salivary cortisol and testosterone to three training protocols. Ten trained endurance athletes participated in three experimental trials, such as interval training (INT), tempo run (TEMP) and bodyweight-only circuit training (CIR), on separate days. Blood and saliva samples were collected pre- and 0, 15, 30 and 60 min post-exercise. Peak post-exercise salivary cortisol was higher than pre-exercise in all trials (P < 0.01). After INT, salivary cortisol remained elevated above pre-exercise than 60 min post-exercise. Salivary testosterone also increased post-exercise in all trials (P < 0.05). Plasma and salivary cortisol were correlated between individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.88) and within individuals (r = 0.81, 0.73-0.87) (P < 0.01). Plasma and salivary testosterone was also correlated between (r = 0.57, 0.43-0.69) and within individuals (r = 0.60, 0.45-0.72), (P < 0.01). Peak cortisol and testosterone levels occurred simultaneously in plasma and saliva, but timing of post-exercise hormone peaks differed between trials and individuals. Further investigation is required to identify the mechanisms eliciting an increase in hormones in response to CIR. Furthermore, saliva is a valid alternative sampling technique for measurement of cortisol, although the complex, individual and situation dependent nature of the hormone response to acute exercise should be considered.

  5. Cd-Resistant Strains of B. cereus S5 with Endurance Capacity and Their Capacities for Cadmium Removal from Cadmium-Polluted Water

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Huiqing; Wu, Qingping; Wu, Guojie; Gu, Qihui; Wei, Linting

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to identify Cd-resistant bacterial strains with endurance capacity and to evaluate their ability to remove cadmium ions from cadmium-polluted water. The Bacillus cereusS5 strain identified in this study had the closest genetic relationship with B. cereus sp. Cp1 and performed well in the removal of Cd2+ions from solution. The results showed that both the live and dead biomasses of the Cd2+-tolerant B. cereus S5 strain could absorb Cd2+ ions in solution but that the live biomass of the B. cereus S5 strain outperformed the dead biomass at lower Cd2+concentrations. An analysis of the cadmium tolerance genes of B. cereus S5 identified ATPase genes that were associated with cadmium tolerance and involved in the ATP pumping mechanism. The FTIR spectra revealed the presence of amino, carboxyl and hydroxyl groups on the pristine biomass and indicated that the cadmium ion removal ability was related to the structure of the strain. The maximum absorption capacity of the B. cereus S5 strain in viable spore biomass was 70.16 mg/g (dry weight) based on a pseudo-second-order kinetic model fit to the experimental data. The Langmuir and Langmuir-Freundlich isotherm adsorption models fit the cadmium ion adsorption data well, and the kinetic curves indicated that the adsorption rate was second-order. For Cd2+ concentrations (mg/L) of 1–109 mg/L, good removal efficiency (>80%) was achieved using approximately 3.48–10.3 g/L of active spore biomass of the B. cereus S5 strain. A cadmium-tolerant bacteria-activated carbon-immobilized column could be used for a longer duration and exhibited greater treatment efficacy than the control column in the treatment of cadmium-polluted water. In addition, a toxicity assessment using mice demonstrated that the biomass of the B. cereus S5 strain and its fermentation products were non-toxic. Thus, the isolated B. cereus S5 strain can be considered an alternative biological adsorbent for use in emergency responses to

  6. Ice ingestion with a long rest interval increases the endurance exercise capacity and reduces the core temperature in the heat.

    PubMed

    Naito, Takashi; Iribe, Yuka; Ogaki, Tetsuro

    2017-01-05

    The timing in which ice before exercise should be ingested plays an important role in optimizing its success. However, the effects of differences in the timing of ice ingestion before exercise on cycling capacity, and thermoregulation has not been studied. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of length of time after ice ingestion on endurance exercise capacity in the heat. Seven males ingested 1.25 g kg body mass -1 of ice (0.5 °C) or cold water (4 °C) every 5 min, six times. Under three separate conditions after ice or water ingestion ([1] taking 20 min rest after ice ingestion, [2] taking 5 min rest after ice ingestion, and [3] taking 5 min rest after cold water ingestion), seven physically active male cyclists exercised at 65% of their maximal oxygen uptake to exhaustion in the heat (35 °C, 30% relative humidity). Participants cycled significantly longer following both ice ingestion with a long rest interval (46.0 ± 7.7 min) and that with a short rest interval (38.7 ± 5.7 min) than cold water ingestion (32.3 ± 3.2 min; both p < 0.05), and the time to exhaustion was 16% (p < 0.05) longer for ice ingestion with a long rest interval than that with a short rest interval. Ice ingestion with a long rest interval (-0.55 ± 0.07 °C; both p < 0.05) allowed for a greater drop in the core temperature than both ice ingestion with a short rest interval (-0.36 ± 0.16 °C) and cold water ingestion (-0.11 ± 0.14 °C). Heat storage under condition of ice ingestion with a long rest interval during the pre-exercise period was significantly lower than that observed with a short rest interval (-4.98 ± 2.50 W m -2 ; p < 0.05) and cold water ingestion (2.86 ± 4.44 W m -2 ). Therefore, internal pre-cooling by ice ingestion with a long rest interval had the greatest benefit on exercise capacity in the heat, which is suggested to be driven by a reduced rectal temperature and heat storage before

  7. Mitochondria-specific antioxidant supplementation does not influence endurance exercise training-induced adaptations in circulating angiogenic cells, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity or maximal oxygen uptake.

    PubMed

    Shill, Daniel D; Southern, W Michael; Willingham, T Bradley; Lansford, Kasey A; McCully, Kevin K; Jenkins, Nathan T

    2016-12-01

    Reducing excessive oxidative stress, through chronic exercise or antioxidants, can decrease the negative effects induced by excessive amounts of oxidative stress. Transient increases in oxidative stress produced during acute exercise facilitate beneficial vascular training adaptations, but the effects of non-specific antioxidants on exercise training-induced vascular adaptations remain elusive. Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) are an exercise-inducible subset of white blood cells that maintain vascular integrity. We investigated whether mitochondria-specific antioxidant (MitoQ) supplementation would affect the response to 3 weeks of endurance exercise training in CACs, muscle mitochondrial capacity and maximal oxygen uptake in young healthy men. We show that endurance exercise training increases multiple CAC types, an adaptation that is not altered by MitoQ supplementation. Additionally, MitoQ does not affect skeletal muscle or whole-body aerobic adaptations to exercise training. These results indicate that MitoQ supplementation neither enhances nor attenuates endurance training adaptations in young healthy men. Antioxidants have been shown to improve endothelial function and cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effects of antioxidants on exercise training-induced vascular adaptations remain elusive. General acting antioxidants combined with exercise have not impacted circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). We investigated whether mitochondria-specific antioxidant (MitoQ) supplementation would affect the response to 3 weeks of endurance exercise training on CD3 + , CD3 + /CD31 + , CD14 + /CD31 + , CD31 + , CD34 + /VEGFR2 + and CD62E + peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), muscle mitochondrial capacity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max ) in healthy men aged 22.1 ± 0.7 years, with a body mass index of 26.9 ± 0.9 kg m -2 , and 24.8 ± 1.3% body fat. Analysis of main effects revealed that training induced 33, 105 and 285% increases in CD14 + /CD31

  8. Mitochondria‐specific antioxidant supplementation does not influence endurance exercise training‐induced adaptations in circulating angiogenic cells, skeletal muscle oxidative capacity or maximal oxygen uptake

    PubMed Central

    Shill, Daniel D.; Southern, W. Michael; Willingham, T. Bradley; Lansford, Kasey A.; McCully, Kevin K.

    2016-01-01

    Key points Reducing excessive oxidative stress, through chronic exercise or antioxidants, can decrease the negative effects induced by excessive amounts of oxidative stress. Transient increases in oxidative stress produced during acute exercise facilitate beneficial vascular training adaptations, but the effects of non‐specific antioxidants on exercise training‐induced vascular adaptations remain elusive.Circulating angiogenic cells (CACs) are an exercise‐inducible subset of white blood cells that maintain vascular integrity.We investigated whether mitochondria‐specific antioxidant (MitoQ) supplementation would affect the response to 3 weeks of endurance exercise training in CACs, muscle mitochondrial capacity and maximal oxygen uptake in young healthy men.We show that endurance exercise training increases multiple CAC types, an adaptation that is not altered by MitoQ supplementation. Additionally, MitoQ does not affect skeletal muscle or whole‐body aerobic adaptations to exercise training.These results indicate that MitoQ supplementation neither enhances nor attenuates endurance training adaptations in young healthy men. Abstract Antioxidants have been shown to improve endothelial function and cardiovascular outcomes. However, the effects of antioxidants on exercise training‐induced vascular adaptations remain elusive. General acting antioxidants combined with exercise have not impacted circulating angiogenic cells (CACs). We investigated whether mitochondria‐specific antioxidant (MitoQ) supplementation would affect the response to 3 weeks of endurance exercise training on CD3+, CD3+/CD31+, CD14+/CD31+, CD31+, CD34+/VEGFR2+ and CD62E+ peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), muscle mitochondrial capacity, and maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max ) in healthy men aged 22.1 ± 0.7 years, with a body mass index of 26.9 ± 0.9 kg m–2, and 24.8 ± 1.3% body fat. Analysis of main effects revealed that training induced 33, 105 and 285% increases

  9. Effects of intrinsic aerobic capacity and ovariectomy on voluntary wheel running and nucleus accumbens dopamine receptor gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A.; Padilla, Jaume; Zidon, Terese; Welly, Rebecca J.; Will, Matthew J.; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Ruegsegger, Gregory N.; Booth, Frank W.; Thyfault, John P.; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.

    2016-01-01

    Rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) aerobic capacity show a stark divergence in wheel running behavior, which may be associated with dopamine (DA) system in the brain. HCR possess greater motivation for voluntary running along with greater brain DA activity compared to LCR. We recently demonstrated that HCR are not immune to ovariectomy (OVX)-associated reductions in spontaneous cage (i.e. locomotor) activity. Whether HCR and LCR rats differ in their OVX-mediated voluntary wheel running response is unknown. PURPOSE To determine whether HCR are protected from OVX-associated reduction in voluntary wheel running. METHODS Forty female HCR and LCR rats (age ~27 weeks) had either SHM or OVX operations, and given access to a running wheel for 11 weeks. Weekly wheel running distance was monitored throughout the intervention. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) was assessed for mRNA expression of DA receptors at sacrifice. RESULTS Compared to LCR, HCR ran greater distance and had greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression (both line main effects, P<0.05). Wheel running distance was significantly, positively correlated with the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression across animals. In both lines, OVX reduced wheel running (P<0.05). Unexpectedly, although HCR started with significantly greater voluntary wheel running, they had greater OVX-induced reduction in wheel running than LCR such that no differences were found 11 weeks after OVX between HCROVX and LCROVX (interaction, P<0.05). This significant reduction in wheel running in HCR was associated with an OVX-mediated reduction in the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. CONCLUSION DA system in the NAc region may play a significant role in motivation to run in female rats. Compared to LCR, HCR rats run significantly more, which associates with greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. However, despite greater inherent motivation to run and an associated brain DA m

  10. Improving capacity to monitor and support sustainability of mental health peer-run organizations.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, Laysha; Leaf, Philip J

    2014-02-01

    Peer-run mental health organizations are managed and staffed by people with lived experience of the mental health system. These understudied organizations are increasingly recognized as an important component of the behavioral health care and social support systems. This Open Forum describes the National Survey of Peer-Run Organizations, which was conducted in 2012 to gather information about peer-run organizations and programs, organizational operations, policy perspectives, and service systems. A total of 895 entities were identified and contacted as potential peer-run organizations. Information was obtained for 715 (80%) entities, and 380 of the 715 responding entities met the criteria for a peer-run organization. Implementation of the Affordable Care Act may entail benefits and unintended consequences for peer-run organizations. It is essential that we understand this population of organizations and continue to monitor changes associated with policies intended to provide better access to care that promotes wellness and recovery.

  11. Effects of intrinsic aerobic capacity and ovariectomy on voluntary wheel running and nucleus accumbens dopamine receptor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Park, Young-Min; Kanaley, Jill A; Padilla, Jaume; Zidon, Terese; Welly, Rebecca J; Will, Matthew J; Britton, Steven L; Koch, Lauren G; Ruegsegger, Gregory N; Booth, Frank W; Thyfault, John P; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J

    2016-10-01

    Rats selectively bred for high (HCR) and low (LCR) aerobic capacity show a stark divergence in wheel running behavior, which may be associated with the dopamine (DA) system in the brain. HCR possess greater motivation for voluntary running along with greater brain DA activity compared to LCR. We recently demonstrated that HCR are not immune to ovariectomy (OVX)-associated reductions in spontaneous cage (i.e. locomotor) activity. Whether HCR and LCR rats differ in their OVX-mediated voluntary wheel running response is unknown. To determine whether HCR are protected from OVX-associated reduction in voluntary wheel running. Forty female HCR and LCR rats (age ~27weeks) had either SHM or OVX operations, and given access to a running wheel for 11weeks. Weekly wheel running distance was monitored throughout the intervention. Nucleus accumbens (NAc) was assessed for mRNA expression of DA receptors at sacrifice. Compared to LCR, HCR ran greater distance and had greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression (both line main effects, P<0.05). Wheel running distance was significantly, positively correlated with the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression across animals. In both lines, OVX reduced wheel running (P<0.05). Unexpectedly, although HCR started with significantly greater voluntary wheel running, they had greater OVX-induced reduction in wheel running than LCR such that no differences were found 11weeks after OVX between HCROVX and LCROVX (interaction, P<0.05). This significant reduction in wheel running in HCR was associated with an OVX-mediated reduction in the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. The DA system in the NAc region may play a significant role in motivation to run in female rats. Compared to LCR, HCR rats run significantly more, which associates with greater ratio of excitatory/inhibitory DA mRNA expression. However, despite greater inherent motivation to run and an associated brain DA mRNA expression profile, HCR rats

  12. Development of an aerobic capacity prediction model from one-mile run/walk performance in adolescents aged 13-16 years.

    PubMed

    Burns, Ryan D; Hannon, James C; Brusseau, Timothy A; Eisenman, Patricia A; Shultz, Barry B; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F; Welk, Gregory J; Mahar, Matthew T

    2016-01-01

    A popular algorithm to predict VO2Peak from the one-mile run/walk test (1MRW) includes body mass index (BMI), which manifests practical issues in school settings. The purpose of this study was to develop an aerobic capacity model from 1MRW in adolescents independent of BMI. Cardiorespiratory endurance data were collected on 90 adolescents aged 13-16 years. The 1MRW was administered on an outside track and a laboratory VO2Peak test was conducted using a maximal treadmill protocol. Multiple linear regression was employed to develop the prediction model. Results yielded the following algorithm: VO2Peak = 7.34 × (1MRW speed in m s(-1)) + 0.23 × (age × sex) + 17.75. The New Model displayed a multiple correlation and prediction error of R = 0.81, standard error of the estimate = 4.78 ml kg(-1) · min(-1), with measured VO2Peak and good criterion-referenced (CR) agreement into FITNESSGRAM's Healthy Fitness Zone (Kappa = 0.62; percentage agreement = 84.4%; Φ = 0.62). The New Model was validated using k-fold cross-validation and showed homoscedastic residuals across the range of predicted scores. The omission of BMI did not compromise accuracy of the model. In conclusion, the New Model displayed good predictive accuracy and good CR agreement with measured VO2Peak in adolescents aged 13-16 years.

  13. Drink temperature influences fluid intake and endurance capacity in men during exercise in a hot, dry environment.

    PubMed

    Mündel, Toby; King, Jenny; Collacott, Esther; Jones, David A

    2006-09-01

    The effect of different drink temperatures on the perception of exertion and exercise endurance has not been extensively investigated. Consequently, the purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of drink temperature on fluid intake and endurance during cycling in the heat. Eight healthy, non-acclimated males (26 +/- 7 years; maximum oxygen uptake, 54 +/- 5 ml kg(-1) min(-1); mean +/- S.D.) cycled to exhaustion at 34 degrees C and at 65% of their peak aerobic power, consuming a drink at either 19 degrees C (CON) or 4 degrees C (COLD). Six of the eight subjects cycled for longer during COLD, with exhaustion occurring at 62 +/- 4 min, compared to 55 +/- 4 min for CON (P < 0.05; mean +/- S.E.M.). Subjects consumed significantly more fluid during COLD compared to CON (1.3 +/- 0.3 l h(-1) compared to 1.0 +/- 0.2 l h(-1); P < 0.05). Heart rate tended to be lower by approximately 5 beats min(-1) during COLD, and rectal temperature during the second half of the exercise period was approximately 0.25 degrees C lower during the COLD trial; however, these trends were not significant (P = 0.08 and P = 0.07, respectively). No differences were observed between trials for ventilation, concentrations of prolactin, glucose and lactate or perceived exertion. It is concluded that a drink at 4 degrees C during exercise in the heat enhances fluid consumption and improves endurance by acting as a heat sink, attenuating the rise in body temperature and therefore reducing the effects of heat stress.

  14. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Aegle marmelos fruit on radical scavenging activity and exercise-endurance capacity in mice.

    PubMed

    Nallamuthu, Ilaiyaraja; Tamatam, Anand; Khanum, Farhath

    2014-05-01

    Aegle marmelos L. Corr (Rutaceae) is an important Indian Ayurvedic medicinal plant used for the treatment of various ailments. However, little information is available on the anti-fatigue properties of its fruit. Evaluation of the physical endurance and exercise-induced oxidative stress modulating properties of A. marmelos fruit in mice. Radical scavenging activity of the fruit hydroalcoholic extract was evaluated using in vitro systems. The extract was further evaluated for its endurance-enhancing properties at three oral doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg b.wt) in BALB/c mice for 21 d using a swimming test. The extract exhibited significant scavenging activity against DPPH (IC₅₀, 351 ± 37 µg/ml) and ABTS radicals (IC₅₀, 228 ± 25 µg/ml), respectively, with the polyphenol content of 95 µg/mg extract. It also inhibited AAPH radical-induced oxidation of biomolecules such as BSA protein (63%), plasmid DNA (81%) and lipids (80.5%). Administration of extract resulted in an increase in the duration of swimming time to exhaustion by 23.4 and 47.5% for medium and higher doses, respectively. The extract significantly normalized the fatigue-related biochemical parameters and also down-regulated the swim stress-induced over-expression of heat shock protein-70 and up-regulated the skeletal muscle metabolic regulators (GLUT-4 and AMPK1-α) by 2- and 3-fold, respectively, at the higher dose in muscle tissues. Our study demonstrates the anti-fatigue properties of A. marmelos fruit, most probably manifested by delaying the accumulation of serum lactic acid, increasing the fat utilization and up-regulating the skeletal muscle metabolic regulators.

  15. The Association Analysis between ACE and ACTN3 Genes Polymorphisms and Endurance Capacity in Young Cross-Country Skiers: Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Mägi, Agnes; Unt, Eve; Prans, Ele; Raus, Liina; Eha, Jaan; Veraksitš, Alar; Kingo, Külli; Kõks, Sulev

    2016-01-01

    Endurance performance depends on the integration of several phenotypic traits influenced by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Objectives of the study were: (1) to examine the genotypic frequencies of the ACE I/D, ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and endurance performance-related phenotypes, (2) to evaluate the dynamics of endurance performance parameters during a 5-year period in relation to ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X genotypes in Estonian young skiers. Determination of VO2peak was performed in 58 skiers aged 15-19 years (41 males, 17 females) during a 5-year period. The control group consisted of 322 healthy non-athletic subjects (145 males, 177 females). The study groups were genotyped for the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X variants. Frequencies of the ACE ID and ACTN3 RR genotypes were significantly higher (p = 0.047 and p = 0.003, respectively) and the RX genotype was lower (p = 0.008) in young male skiers compared with controls. A significant relationship was found between change (Δ) of training volume and ΔVO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1) (r = 0.475, p = 0.002). No significant main effect was detected between VO2peak (mL·kg-1·min-1) dynamics (comparison with the previous age group data) and ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X genotypes interactions (F = 0.571, p = 0.770 and F = 0.650 and p = 0.705, respectively) in all young skiers. Study results indicated a significantly higher frequency of the ACE ID and ACTN3 RR genotypes among Estonian young male skiers compared with the male control group. Significant genotype-related differences in dynamics of VO2peak during a 5-year period were not found. In the future, longitudinal research including different gene variants may contribute to a better understanding of the nature of endurance performance. Key points Significantly higher prevalence of the ACE ID and the ACTN3 RR genotypes were found among Estonian young male skiers compared with the male control group, which may be an advantage for the explosive speed and power capacity in

  16. The Association Analysis between ACE and ACTN3 Genes Polymorphisms and Endurance Capacity in Young Cross-Country Skiers: Longitudinal Study.

    PubMed

    Mägi, Agnes; Unt, Eve; Prans, Ele; Raus, Liina; Eha, Jaan; Veraksitš, Alar; Kingo, Külli; Kõks, Sulev

    2016-06-01

    Endurance performance depends on the integration of several phenotypic traits influenced by multiple environmental and genetic factors. Objectives of the study were: (1) to examine the genotypic frequencies of the ACE I/D, ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms and endurance performance-related phenotypes, (2) to evaluate the dynamics of endurance performance parameters during a 5-year period in relation to ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X genotypes in Estonian young skiers. Determination of VO2peak was performed in 58 skiers aged 15-19 years (41 males, 17 females) during a 5-year period. The control group consisted of 322 healthy non-athletic subjects (145 males, 177 females). The study groups were genotyped for the ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X variants. Frequencies of the ACE ID and ACTN3 RR genotypes were significantly higher (p = 0.047 and p = 0.003, respectively) and the RX genotype was lower (p = 0.008) in young male skiers compared with controls. A significant relationship was found between change (Δ) of training volume and ΔVO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) (r = 0.475, p = 0.002). No significant main effect was detected between VO2peak (mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) dynamics (comparison with the previous age group data) and ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X genotypes interactions (F = 0.571, p = 0.770 and F = 0.650 and p = 0.705, respectively) in all young skiers. Study results indicated a significantly higher frequency of the ACE ID and ACTN3 RR genotypes among Estonian young male skiers compared with the male control group. Significant genotype-related differences in dynamics of VO2peak during a 5-year period were not found. In the future, longitudinal research including different gene variants may contribute to a better understanding of the nature of endurance performance. Key pointsSignificantly higher prevalence of the ACE ID and the ACTN3 RR genotypes were found among Estonian young male skiers compared with the male control group, which may be an advantage for the explosive speed and power

  17. Greater endurance capacity and improved dyspnoea with acute oxygen supplementation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis patients without resting hypoxaemia.

    PubMed

    Dowman, Leona M; McDonald, Christine F; Bozinovski, Steven; Vlahos, Ross; Gillies, Rebecca; Pouniotis, Dodie; Hill, Catherine J; Goh, Nicole S L; Holland, Anne E

    2017-07-01

    Supplemental oxygen is commonly prescribed in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), although its benefits have not been proven. The aims of this study were to investigate the effect of oxygen on oxidative stress, cytokine production, skeletal muscle metabolism and physiological response to exercise in IPF. Eleven participants with IPF received either oxygen, at an FiO 2 of 0.50, or compressed air for 1 h at rest and during a cycle endurance test at 85% of peak work rate. Blood samples collected at rest and during exercise were analysed for markers of oxidative stress, skeletal muscle metabolism and cytokines. The protocol was repeated a week later with the alternate intervention. Compared with air, oxygen did not adversely affect biomarker concentrations at rest and significantly improved endurance time (mean difference = 99 ± 81s, P = 0.002), dyspnoea (-1 ± 1 U, P = 0.02), systolic blood pressure (BP; -11 ± 11 mm Hg, P = 0.006), nadir oxyhaemoglobin saturation (SpO 2 ; 8 ± 6%, P = 0.001), SpO 2 at 2-min (7 ± 6%, P = 0.003) and 5-min isotimes (5 ± 3, P < 0.001) and peak exercise xanthine concentrations (-42 ± 73 µmol/L, P = 0.03). Air significantly increased IL-10 (5 ± 5 pg/mL, P = 0.04) at 2-min isotime. Thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARs), IL-6, TNF-α, creatine kinase, lactate, heart rate and fatigue did not differ between the two interventions at any time point. In patients with IPF, breathing oxygen at FiO 2 of 0.50 at rest seems safe. During exercise, oxygen improves exercise tolerance, alleviates exercise-induced hypoxaemia and reduces dyspnoea. A potential relationship between oxygen administration and improved skeletal muscle metabolism should be explored in future studies. © 2017 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  18. Inclusion of Exercise Intensities Above the Lactate Threshold in VO2/Running Speed Regression Does not Improve the Precision of Accumulated Oxygen Deficit Estimation in Endurance-Trained Runners

    PubMed Central

    Reis, Victor M.; Silva, António J.; Ascensão, António; Duarte, José A.

    2005-01-01

    The present study intended to verify if the inclusion of intensities above lactate threshold (LT) in the VO2/running speed regression (RSR) affects the estimation error of accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) during a treadmill running performed by endurance-trained subjects. Fourteen male endurance-trained runners performed a sub maximal treadmill running test followed by an exhaustive supra maximal test 48h later. The total energy demand (TED) and the AOD during the supra maximal test were calculated from the RSR established on first testing. For those purposes two regressions were used: a complete regression (CR) including all available sub maximal VO2 measurements and a sub threshold regression (STR) including solely the VO2 values measured during exercise intensities below LT. TED mean values obtained with CR and STR were not significantly different under the two conditions of analysis (177.71 ± 5.99 and 174.03 ± 6.53 ml·kg-1, respectively). Also the mean values of AOD obtained with CR and STR did not differ under the two conditions (49.75 ± 8.38 and 45.8 9 ± 9.79 ml·kg-1, respectively). Moreover, the precision of those estimations was also similar under the two procedures. The mean error for TED estimation was 3.27 ± 1.58 and 3.41 ± 1.85 ml·kg-1 (for CR and STR, respectively) and the mean error for AOD estimation was 5.03 ± 0.32 and 5.14 ± 0.35 ml·kg-1 (for CR and STR, respectively). The results indicated that the inclusion of exercise intensities above LT in the RSR does not improve the precision of the AOD estimation in endurance-trained runners. However, the use of STR may induce an underestimation of AOD comparatively to the use of CR. Key Points It has been suggested that the inclusion of exercise intensities above the lactate threshold in the VO2/power regression can significantly affect the estimation of the energy cost and, thus, the estimation of the AOD. However data on the precision of those AOD measurements is rarely provided. We have

  19. Effects of chronic NaHCO3 ingestion during interval training on changes to muscle buffer capacity, metabolism, and short-term endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Edge, Johann; Bishop, David; Goodman, Carmel

    2006-09-01

    This study determined the effects of altering the H(+) concentration during interval training, by ingesting NaHCO(3) (Alk-T) or a placebo (Pla-T), on changes in muscle buffer capacity (beta m), endurance performance, and muscle metabolites. Pre- and posttraining peak O(2) uptake (V(O2 peak)), lactate threshold (LT), and time to fatigue at 100% pretraining V(O2 peak) intensity were assessed in 16 recreationally active women. Subjects were matched on the LT, were randomly placed into the Alk-T (n = 8) or Pla-T (n = 8) groups, and performed 8 wk (3 days/wk) of six to twelve 2-min cycle intervals at 140-170% of their LT, ingesting NaHCO(3) or a placebo before each training session (work matched between groups). Both groups had improvements in beta m (19 vs. 9%; P < 0.05) and V(O2 peak) (22 vs. 17%; P < 0.05) after the training period, with no differences between groups. There was a significant correlation between pretraining beta m and percent change in beta m (r = -0.70, P < 0.05). There were greater improvements in both the LT (26 vs. 15%; P = 0.05) and time to fatigue (164 vs. 123%; P = 0.05) after Alk-T, compared with Pla-T. There were no changes to pre- or postexercise ATP, phosphocreatine, creatine, and intracellular lactate concentrations, or pH(i) after training. Our findings suggest that training intensity, rather than the accumulation of H(+) during training, may be more important to improvements in beta m. The group ingesting NaHCO(3) before each training session had larger improvements in the LT and endurance performance, possibly because of a reduced metabolic acidosis during training and a greater improvement in muscle oxidative capacity.

  20. n-3 Fatty Acid Supplementation During 4 Weeks of Training Leads to Improved Anaerobic Endurance Capacity, but not Maximal Strength, Speed, or Power in Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Gravina, Leyre; Brown, Frankie F; Alexander, Lee; Dick, James; Bell, Gordon; Witard, Oliver C; Galloway, Stuart D R

    2017-08-01

    Omega-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA) supplementation could promote adaptation to soccer-specific training. We examined the impact of a 4-week period of n-3 FA supplementation during training on adaptations in 1RM knee extensor strength, 20-m sprint speed, vertical jump power, and anaerobic endurance capacity (Yo-Yo test) in competitive soccer players. Twenty six soccer players were randomly assigned to one of two groups: n-3 FA supplementation (n-3 FA; n = 13) or placebo (n = 13). Both groups performed two experimental trial days. Assessments of physical function and respiratory function were conducted pre (PRE) and post (POST) supplementation. Training session intensity, competitive games and nutritional intake were monitored during the 4-week period. No differences were observed in respiratory measurements (FEV1, FVC) between groups. No main effect of treatment was observed for 1RM knee extensor strength, explosive leg power, or 20 m sprint performance, but strength improved as a result of the training period in both groups (p < .05). Yo-Yo test distance improved with training in the n-3 FA group only (p < .01). The mean difference (95% CI) in Yo-Yo test distance completed from PRE to POST was 203 (66-340) m for n-3 FA, and 62 (-94-217) m for placebo, with a moderate effect size (Cohen's d of 0.52). We conclude that 4 weeks of n-3 FA supplementation does not improve strength, power or speed assessments in competitive soccer players. However, the increase in anaerobic endurance capacity evident only in the n-3 FA treatment group suggests an interaction that requires further study.

  1. Home-based telerehabilitation via real-time videoconferencing improves endurance exercise capacity in patients with COPD: The randomized controlled TeleR Study.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Ling Ling Y; McNamara, Renae J; Moddel, Chloe; Alison, Jennifer A; McKenzie, David K; McKeough, Zoe J

    2017-05-01

    Telerehabilitation has the potential to increase access to pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) for patients with COPD who have difficulty accessing centre-based PR due to poor mobility, lack of transport and cost of travel. We aimed to determine the effect of supervised, home-based, real-time videoconferencing telerehabilitation on exercise capacity, self-efficacy, health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and physical activity in patients with COPD compared with usual care without exercise training. Patients with COPD were randomized to either a supervised home-based telerehabilitation group (TG) that received exercise training three times a week for 8 weeks or a control group (CG) that received usual care without exercise training. Outcomes were measured at baseline and following the intervention. Thirty-six out of 37 participants (mean ± SD age = 74 ± 8 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV 1 ) = 64 ± 21% predicted) completed the study. Compared with the CG, the TG showed a statistically significant increase in endurance shuttle walk test time (mean difference = 340 s (95% CI: 153-526, P < 0.001)), an increase in self-efficacy (mean difference = 8 points (95% CI: 2-14, P < 0.007)), a trend towards a statistically significant increase in the Chronic Respiratory Disease Questionnaire total score (mean difference = 8 points (95% CI: -1 to 16, P = 0.07)) and no difference in physical activity (mean difference = 475 steps per day (95% CI: -200 to 1151, P = 0.16)). This study showed that telerehabilitation improved endurance exercise capacity and self-efficacy in patients with COPD when compared with usual care. © 2016 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  2. Oxidative Capacity and Fatigability in Run Trained Malignant Hyperthermia Susceptible Mice

    PubMed Central

    Rouviere, Clement; Corona, Benjamin T.; Ingalls, Christopher P.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Malignant Hyperthermia model mice (RyR1Y522S/wt) are more vulnerable to exercise-induced muscle injury and fatigability and adapt less to run training. Methods Following 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running, we measured anterior crural muscle fatigability, muscle injury, and cytochrome oxidase (COX) and citrate synthase (CS). Results Although RyR1Y522S/wt mice ran without experiencing MH episodes, they ran 42% less distance than wild type (WT) mice. Muscles from WT mice exhibited increased fatigue resistance and COX content after training. Muscles from RyR1Y522S/wt mice demonstrated no significant change in fatigability or COX and CS after training. However, muscles from RyR1Y522S/wt mice displayed less intrinsic fatigability and greater COX/CS content and muscle damage than WT mice. Discussion RyR1Y522S/wt mice can run without experiencing rhabdomyolysis, and their inability to adapt to training appears to stem from intrinsic enhancement of mitochondrial enzymes and fatigue resistance. PMID:22431093

  3. Oxidative capacity and fatigability in run-trained malignant hyperthermia-susceptible mice.

    PubMed

    Rouviere, Clement; Corona, Benjamin T; Ingalls, Christopher P

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that malignant hyperthermia model mice (RyR1Y522S/wt) are more vulnerable to exercise-induced muscle injury and fatigability and adapt less to run training. After 6 weeks of voluntary wheel running, we measured anterior crural muscle fatigability, muscle injury, and cytochrome oxidase (COX) and citrate synthase (CS). Although RyR1Y522S/wt mice ran without undergoing MH episodes, they ran 42% less distance than wild-type (WT) mice. Muscles from WT mice exhibited increased fatigue resistance and COX content after training. Muscles from RyR1Y522S/wt mice demonstrated no significant change in fatigability or COX and CS after training. However, muscles from RyR1Y522S/wt mice displayed less intrinsic fatigability and greater COX/CS content and muscle damage than WT mice. RyR1Y522S/wt mice can run without having rhabdomyolysis, and their inability to adapt to training appears to stem from intrinsic enhancement of mitochondrial enzymes and fatigue resistance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Predictors of high-intensity running capacity in collegiate women during a soccer game.

    PubMed

    McCormack, William P; Stout, Jeffrey R; Wells, Adam J; Gonzalez, Adam M; Mangine, Gerald T; Fragala, Maren S; Hoffman, Jay R

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to determine which physiological assessments best predicted high-intensity running (HIR) performance during a women's collegiate soccer game. A secondary purpose was to examine the relationships among physiological performance measures including muscle architecture on soccer performance (distance covered, HIR, and sprints during the game) during a competitive collegiate women's soccer game. Ten National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Division I women soccer players performed physiological assessments within a 2-week period before a competitive regulation soccer game performed during the spring season. Testing consisted of height, body mass, ultrasound measurement of dominant (DOMleg), and nondominant leg (NDOMleg) vastus lateralis for muscle thickness (MT) and pennation angle (PA), VO2max, running economy, and Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) for peak power (PP), mean power (MP), and fatigue rate (FR). During the game, distance run, HIR, and sprints were measured using a 10-Hz global positioning system. Stepwise regression revealed that VO2max, dominant leg thickness, and dominant leg PA were the strongest predictors of HIR distance during the game (R = 0.989, SEE = 115.5 m, p = 0.001). V[Combining Dot Above]O2max was significantly correlated with total distance run (r = 0.831; p = 0.003), HIR (r = 0.755; p = 0.012), WAnTPP (r = -0.737; p = 0.015), WAnTPP·kg (r = -0.706; p = 0.022), and WAnTFR (r = -0.713; p = 0.021). DOMlegMT was significantly correlated with WAnTFR (r = 0.893; p = 0.001). DOMlegPA was significantly correlated with WAnTFR (r = 0.740; p = 0.023). The NDOMlegPA was significantly correlated to peak running velocity (r = 0.781; p = 0.013) and WAnT MP·kg (r = 0.801; p = 0.01). Results of this study indicate that V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and muscle architecture are important characteristics of NCAA Division I women soccer players and may predict HIR distance during a competitive contest.

  5. A Combination of Amino Acids and Caffeine Enhances Sprint Running Capacity in a Hot, Hypoxic Environment.

    PubMed

    Eaton, Tom R; Potter, Aaron; Billaut, François; Panchuk, Derek; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J; Chen, Ting-Ting; McQuade, Leon; Stepto, Nigel K

    2016-02-01

    Heat and hypoxia exacerbate central nervous system (CNS) fatigue. We therefore investigated whether essential amino acid (EAA) and caffeine ingestion attenuates CNS fatigue in a simulated team sport-specific running protocol in a hot, hypoxic environment. Subelite male team sport athletes (n = 8) performed a repeat sprint running protocol on a nonmotorized treadmill in an extreme environment on 4 separate occasions. Participants ingested one of four supplements: a double placebo, 3 mg.kg-1 body mass of caffeine + placebo, 2 x 7 g EAA (Musashi Create)+placebo, or caffeine + EAA before each exercise session using a randomized, double-blind crossover design. Electromyography (EMG) activity and quadriceps evoked responses to magnetic stimulation were assessed from the dominant leg at preexercise, halftime, and postexercise. Central activation ratio (CAR) was used to quantify completeness of quadriceps activation. Oxygenation of the prefrontal cortex was measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. Mean sprint work was higher (M = 174 J, 95% CI [23, 324], p < .05, d = 0.30; effect size, likely beneficial) in the caffeine + EAA condition versus EAAs alone. The decline in EMG activity was less (M = 13%, 95% CI [0, 26]; p < .01, d = 0.58, likely beneficial) in caffeine + EAA versus EAA alone. Similarly, the pre- to postexercise decrement in CAR was significantly less (M = -2.7%, 95% CI [0.4, 5.4]; p < .05, d = 0.50, likely beneficial) when caffeine + EAA were ingested compared with placebo. Cerebral oxygenation was lower (M = -5.6%, 95% CI [1.0, 10.1]; p < .01, d = 0.60, very likely beneficial) in the caffeine + EAA condition compared with LNAA alone. Co-ingestion of caffeine and EAA appears to maintain muscle activation and central drive, with a small improvement in running performance.

  6. Slow loaded breathing training improves blood pressure, lung capacity and arm exercise endurance for older people with treated and stable isolated systolic hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ublosakka-Jones, Chulee; Tongdee, Phailin; Pachirat, Orathai; Jones, David A

    2018-03-28

    Hypertension and reduced lung function are important features of aging. Slow loaded breathing training reduces resting blood pressure and the question is whether this can also improve lung function. Thirty-two people (67 ± 5 years, 16 male) with controlled isolated systolic hypertension undertook an eight weeks randomised controlled training trial with an inspiratory load of 25% maximum inspiratory pressure (MIP) at 6 breaths per minute (slow loaded breathing; SLB) or deep breathing control (CON). Outcome measures were resting blood pressure (BP) and heart rate; MIP; lung capacity; chest and abdominal expansion; arm cranking exercise endurance at 50% heart rate reserve. Home based measurement of resting systolic BP decreased by 20 mm Hg (15 to 25) (Mean and 95%CI) for SLB and by 5 mm Hg (1 to 7) for CON. Heart rate and diastolic BP also decreased significantly for SLB but not CON. MIP increased by 15.8 cm H 2 O (11.8 to 19.8) and slow vital capacity by 0.21 L (0.15 to 0.27) for SLB but not for CON. Chest and abdominal expansion increased by 2.3 cm (2.05 to 2.55) and 2.5 cm (2.15 to 2.85), respectively for SLB and by 0.5 cm (0.26 to 0.74) and 1.7 cm (1.32 to 2.08) for CON. Arm exercise time increased by 4.9 min (3.65 to 5.15) for SLB with no significant change for CON. Slow inspiratory muscle training is not only effective in reducing resting BP, even in older people with well controlled isolated systolic hypertension but also increases inspiratory muscle strength, lung capacity and arm exercise duration. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Effect of a 10-week strength training program and recovery drink on body composition, muscular strength and endurance, and anaerobic power and capacity.

    PubMed

    Chromiak, Joseph A; Smedley, Brianne; Carpenter, William; Brown, Robert; Koh, Yun S; Lamberth, John G; Joe, Lee Ann; Abadie, Ben R; Altorfer, Greg

    2004-05-01

    groups. Muscular endurance expressed as the number of repetitions completed with 85% of the one repetition maximum was unchanged; external work, which was estimated as repetitions completed x resistance used, increased for the 45-degree leg press but not for the bench press over the 10-wk training period; there were no time x group interactions for either measurement. Anaerobic power and capacity improved, but there were no differences between groups for these variables or for fatigue rate. Consumption of a recovery drink after strength training workouts did not promote greater gains in FFM compared with consumption of a carbohydrate-only drink; however, a trend toward a greater increase in FFM in the supplement group suggests the need for longer-term studies. Performance variables such as muscle strength and endurance and anaerobic performance were not improved when compared with the carbohydrate-only group.

  8. Divergent skeletal muscle respiratory capacities in rats artificially selected for high and low running ability: a role for Nor1?

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Erin J.; Stepto, Nigel K.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Inactivity-related diseases are becoming a huge burden on Western society. While there is a major environmental contribution to metabolic health, the intrinsic properties that predispose or protect against particular health traits are harder to define. We used rat models of inborn high running capacity (HCR) and low running capacity (LCR) to determine inherent differences in mitochondrial volume and function, hypothesizing that HCR rats would have greater skeletal muscle respiratory capacity due to an increase in mitochondrial number. Additionally, we sought to determine if there was a link between the expression of the orphan nuclear receptor neuron-derived orphan receptor (Nor)1, a regulator of oxidative metabolism, and inherent skeletal muscle respiratory capacity. LCR rats were 28% heavier (P < 0.0001), and fasting serum insulin concentrations were 62% greater than in HCR rats (P = 0.02). In contrast, HCR rats had better glucose tolerance and reduced adiposity. In the primarily oxidative soleus muscle, maximal respiratory capacity was 21% greater in HCR rats (P = 0.001), for which the relative contribution of fat oxidation was 20% higher than in LCR rats (P = 0.02). This was associated with increased citrate synthase (CS; 33%, P = 0.009) and β-hydroxyacyl-CoA (β-HAD; 33%, P = 0.0003) activities. In the primarily glycolytic extensor digitum longus muscle, CS activity was 29% greater (P = 0.01) and β-HAD activity was 41% (P = 0.0004) greater in HCR rats compared with LCR rats. Mitochondrial DNA copy numbers were also elevated in the extensor digitum longus muscles of HCR rats (35%, P = 0.049) and in soleus muscles (44%, P = 0.16). Additionally, HCR rats had increased protein expression of individual mitochondrial respiratory complexes, CS, and uncoupling protein 3 in both muscle types (all P < 0.05). In both muscles, Nor1 protein was greater in HCR rats compared with LCR rats (P < 0.05). We propose that the differential expression of Nor1 may contribute to the

  9. Changes in mRNA levels for brain-derived neurotrophic factor after wheel running in rats selectively bred for high- and low-aerobic capacity

    PubMed Central

    Groves-Chapman, Jessica L.; Murray, Patrick S.; Stevens, Kristin L.; Monroe, Derek; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Holmes, Philip V.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated levels of exercise-induced brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) messenger RNA (mRNA) within the hippocampal formation in rats selectively bred for 1) high intrinsic (i.e., untrained) aerobic capacity (High Capacity Runners, HCR), 2) low intrinsic aerobic capacity (Low Capacity Runners, LCR), and 3) unselected Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats with or without free access to running wheels for three weeks. The specific aim of the study was to determine whether a dose-response relationship exists between cumulative running distance and levels of BDNF mRNA. No additional treatments or behavioral manipulations were used. HCR, LCR, and SD rats were grouped by strain and randomly assigned to sedentary or activity (voluntary access to activity wheel) conditions. Animals were killed after 21 days of exposure to the assigned conditions. Daily running distances (mean ± standard deviation meters/d) during week three were: HCR (4726 ± 3220), SD (2293 ± 3461), LCR (672 ± 323). Regardless of strain, levels of BDNF mRNA in CA1 were elevated in wheel runners compared to sedentary rats and this difference persisted after adjustment for age (p=0.040). BDNF mRNA was not affected by intrinsic aerobic capacity and was not related to total running distance. The results support that BDNF mRNA expression is increased by unlimited access to activity wheel running for 3 weeks but is not dependent upon accumulated running distance. PMID:22024546

  10. Rapamycin increases grip strength and attenuates age-related decline in maximal running distance in old low capacity runner rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Qian-Li; Yang, Huanle; Li, Hui-Fen; Abadir, Peter M; Burks, Tyesha N; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Carlson, Joshua; Chen, Laura; Walston, Jeremy D; Leng, Sean X

    2016-04-01

    Rapamycin is known to extend lifespan. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled study of enteric rapamycin-treatment to evaluate its effect on physical function in old low capacity runner (LCR) rats, a rat model selected from diverse genetic background for low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity without genomic manipulation and characterized by increased complex disease risks and aging phenotypes. The study was performed in 12 male and 16 female LCR rats aged 16-22 months at baseline. The treatment group was fed with rapamycin-containing diet pellets at approximately 2.24mg/kg body weight per day and the placebo group with the same diet without rapamycin for six months. Observation was extended for additional 2 months. Physical function measurements include grip strength measured as maximum tensile force using a rat grip strength meter and maximum running distance (MRD) using rat physical treadmill test. The results showed that rapamycin improved grip strength by 13% (p=.036) and 60% (p=.001) from its baseline in female and male rats, respectively. Rapamycin attenuated MRD decline by 66% (p=.001) and 46% (p=.319) in females and males, respectively. These findings provide initial evidence for beneficial effect of rapamycin on physical functioning in an aging rat model of high disease risks with significant implication in humans.

  11. Rapamycin increases grip strength and attenuates age-related decline in maximal running distance in old low capacity runner rats

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Qian-Li; Yang, Huanle; Li, Hui-Fen; Abadir, Peter M.; Burks, Tyesha N.; Koch, Lauren G.; Britton, Steven L.; Carlson, Joshua; Chen, Laura; Walston, Jeremy D.; Leng, Sean X.

    2016-01-01

    Rapamycin is known to extend lifespan. We conducted a randomized placebo-controlled study of enteric rapamycin-treatment to evaluate its effect on physical function in old low capacity runner (LCR) rats, a rat model selected from diverse genetic background for low intrinsic aerobic exercise capacity without genomic manipulation and characterized by increased complex disease risks and aging phenotypes. The study was performed in 12 male and 16 female LCR rats aged 16-22 months at baseline. The treatment group was fed with rapamycin-containing diet pellets at approximately 2.24mg/kg body weight per day and the placebo group with the same diet without rapamycin for six months. Observation was extended for additional 2 months. Physical function measurements include grip strength measured as maximum tensile force using a rat grip strength meter and maximum running distance (MRD) using rat physical treadmill test. The results showed that rapamycin improved grip strength by 13% (p=.036) and 60% (p<.001) from its baseline in female and male rats, respectively. Rapamycin attenuated MRD decline by 66% (p<.001) and 46% (p=.319) in females and males, respectively. These findings provide initial evidence for beneficial effect of rapamycin on physical functioning in an aging rat model of high disease risks with significant implication in humans. PMID:26997106

  12. Lizard threat display handicaps endurance.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Y

    2003-01-01

    Honest-signalling theory asserts that threat displays reliably advertise attributes that influence fighting success. Endurance, as measured by treadmill performance, predicts the outcome of agonistic interactions among lizards. If threat displays in lizards function to advertise endurance capacity then variation in threat displays should correlate with endurance. I tested this prediction for the duration of threat posturing in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) and examined whether threat displays act as quality handicaps, reliable signals that expend the attribute that is advertised. Individual variation in the duration of threat posturing correlated with endurance, while an experimental reduction of endurance diminished the duration of threat posturing. As expected of a quality handicap, endurance fell below baseline after display production. A restriction of aerobic metabolism can account for this effect. In threat posturing, lateral compression of the thorax may interfere with respiration or with circulation, limiting aerobic metabolism and causing a compensatory increase in anaerobic metabolism, thereby generating lactate and diminishing locomotor capacity. Concentrations of lactate measured after display production were higher than baseline, consistent with the proposed mechanism. By restricting aerobic metabolism, the threat posture can act as a quality handicap, simultaneously advertising and expending the endurance capacity of displaying lizards. PMID:12803896

  13. Evolutionary Aspects of Human Exercise – Born to Run Purposefully

    PubMed Central

    Mattson, Mark P.

    2012-01-01

    This article is intended to raise awareness of the adaptive value of endurance exercise (particularly running) in the evolutionary history of humans, and the implications of the genetic disposition to exercise for the aging populations of modern technology-driven societies. The genome of Homo sapiens has evolved to support the svelte phenotype of an endurance runner, setting him/her apart from all other primates. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the competitive advantages conferred by exercise capacity in youth can also provide a survival benefit beyond the reproductive period. These mechanisms include up-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in protecting cells against oxidative stress, disposing of damaged proteins and organelles, and enhancing bioenergetics. Particularly fascinating are the signaling mechanisms by which endurance running changes the structure and functional capabilities of the brain and, conversely, the mechanisms by which the brain integrates metabolic, cardiovascular and behavioral responses to exercise. As an emerging example, I highlight the roles of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a mediator of the effects of exercise on the brain, and BDNF s critical role in regulating metabolic and cardiovascular responses to endurance running. A better understanding of such healthspan-extending actions of endurance exercise may lead to new approaches for improving quality of life as we advance in the coming decades and centuries. PMID:22394472

  14. Evolutionary aspects of human exercise--born to run purposefully.

    PubMed

    Mattson, Mark P

    2012-07-01

    This article is intended to raise awareness of the adaptive value of endurance exercise (particularly running) in the evolutionary history of humans, and the implications of the genetic disposition to exercise for the aging populations of modern technology-driven societies. The genome of Homo sapiens has evolved to support the svelte phenotype of an endurance runner, setting him/her apart from all other primates. The cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the competitive advantages conferred by exercise capacity in youth can also provide a survival benefit beyond the reproductive period. These mechanisms include up-regulation of genes encoding proteins involved in protecting cells against oxidative stress, disposing of damaged proteins and organelles, and enhancing bioenergetics. Particularly fascinating are the signaling mechanisms by which endurance running changes the structure and functional capabilities of the brain and, conversely, the mechanisms by which the brain integrates metabolic, cardiovascular and behavioral responses to exercise. As an emerging example, I highlight the roles of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as a mediator of the effects of exercise on the brain, and BDNF's critical role in regulating metabolic and cardiovascular responses to endurance running. A better understanding of such 'healthspan-extending' actions of endurance exercise may lead to new approaches for improving quality of life as we advance in the coming decades and centuries. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. 'Endurance' Untouched

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a cylindrical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

  16. Frequency of exercise-induced ST-T-segment deviations and cardiac arrhythmias in recreational endurance athletes during a marathon race: results of the prospective observational Berlin Beat of Running study.

    PubMed

    Herm, Juliane; Töpper, Agnieszka; Wutzler, Alexander; Kunze, Claudia; Krüll, Matthias; Brechtel, Lars; Lock, Jürgen; Fiebach, Jochen B; Heuschmann, Peter U; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Endres, Matthias; Jungehulsing, Gerhard Jan; Haeusler, Karl Georg

    2017-08-03

    While regular physical exercise has many health benefits, strenuous physical exercise may have a negative impact on cardiac function. The 'Berlin Beat of Running' study focused on feasibility and diagnostic value of continuous ECG monitoring in recreational endurance athletes during a marathon race. We hypothesised that cardiac arrhythmias and especially atrial fibrillation are frequently found in a cohort of recreational endurance athletes. The main secondary hypothesis was that pathological laboratory findings in these athletes are (in part) associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Prospective observational cohort study including healthy volunteers. One hundred and nine experienced marathon runners wore a portable ECG recorder during a marathon race in Berlin, Germany. Athletes underwent blood tests 2-3 days prior, directly after and 1-2 days after the race. Overall, 108 athletes (median 48 years (IQR 45-53), 24% women) completed the marathon in 249±43 min. Blinded ECG analysis revealed abnormal findings during the marathon in 18 (16.8%) athletes. Ten (9.3%) athletes had at least one episode of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, one of whom had atrial fibrillation; eight (7.5%) individuals showed transient ST-T-segment deviations. Abnormal ECG findings were associated with advanced age (OR 1.11 per year, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.23), while sex and cardiovascular risk profile had no impact. Directly after the race, high-sensitive troponin T was elevated in 18 (16.7%) athletes and associated with ST-T-segment deviation (OR 9.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 51.5), while age, sex and cardiovascular risk profile had no impact. ECG monitoring during a marathon is feasible. Abnormal ECG findings were present in every sixth athlete. Exercise-induced transient ST-T-segment deviations were associated with elevated high-sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) values. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01428778; Results. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article

  17. A comparison of muscle strength and endurance, exercise capacity, fatigue perception and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy subjects: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has significant systemic effects that substantially impact quality of life and survival. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare peripheral muscle strength and endurance, exercise capacity, fatigue perception and quality of life between patients with COPD and healthy subjects. Methods Twenty COPD patients (mean FEV1 49.3 ± 19.2%) and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. Pulmonary function testing and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed. Peripheral muscle strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer, peripheral muscle endurance was evaluated with sit-ups, squats and modified push-ups tests. Fatigue perception was assessed using the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). General quality of life was determined with the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and cough-specific quality of life was evaluated with the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Results Pulmonary functions, strength of shoulder abductor and flexor muscles, numbers of sit-ups and squats, 6MWT distance and 6MWT% were significantly lower in COPD patients than in healthy subjects (p < 0.05). FIS psychosocial sub-dimension and total scores, NHP scores for all sub-dimensions except pain sub-dimension of the COPD group were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (p < 0.05). The LCQ physical, psychological and social sub-dimensions and total scores were significantly lower in COPD patients than in healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Conclusions Pulmonary functions, peripheral muscle strength and endurance, exercise capacity and quality of life were adversely affected in patients with COPD. There are greater effect of fatigue on psychosocial functioning and general daily life activities and effect of cough on the quality of life in patients with COPD. This study supports the idea that COPD patients must be evaluated in a comprehensive manner for planning pulmonary

  18. A comparison of muscle strength and endurance, exercise capacity, fatigue perception and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and healthy subjects: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Calik-Kutukcu, Ebru; Savci, Sema; Saglam, Melda; Vardar-Yagli, Naciye; Inal-Ince, Deniz; Arikan, Hulya; Aribas, Zeynep; Ozer, Ozge; Bosnak-Guclu, Meral; Coplu, Lutfi

    2014-01-27

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has significant systemic effects that substantially impact quality of life and survival. The purpose of this study was to assess and compare peripheral muscle strength and endurance, exercise capacity, fatigue perception and quality of life between patients with COPD and healthy subjects. Twenty COPD patients (mean FEV1 49.3 ± 19.2%) and 20 healthy subjects were included in the study. Pulmonary function testing and six-minute walk test (6MWT) were performed. Peripheral muscle strength was measured with a hand-held dynamometer, peripheral muscle endurance was evaluated with sit-ups, squats and modified push-ups tests. Fatigue perception was assessed using the Fatigue Impact Scale (FIS) and Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). General quality of life was determined with the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP), and cough-specific quality of life was evaluated with the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ). Pulmonary functions, strength of shoulder abductor and flexor muscles, numbers of sit-ups and squats, 6MWT distance and 6MWT% were significantly lower in COPD patients than in healthy subjects (p < 0.05). FIS psychosocial sub-dimension and total scores, NHP scores for all sub-dimensions except pain sub-dimension of the COPD group were significantly higher than those of healthy subjects (p < 0.05). The LCQ physical, psychological and social sub-dimensions and total scores were significantly lower in COPD patients than in healthy subjects (p < 0.05). Pulmonary functions, peripheral muscle strength and endurance, exercise capacity and quality of life were adversely affected in patients with COPD. There are greater effect of fatigue on psychosocial functioning and general daily life activities and effect of cough on the quality of life in patients with COPD. This study supports the idea that COPD patients must be evaluated in a comprehensive manner for planning pulmonary rehabilitation programs.

  19. Endurance exercise and selective breeding for longevity extend Drosophila healthspan by overlapping mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Sujkowski, Alyson; Bazzell, Brian; Carpenter, Kylie; Arking, Robert; Wessells, Robert J

    2015-08-01

    Endurance exercise has emerged as a powerful intervention that promotes healthy aging by maintaining the functional capacity of critical organ systems. In addition, long-term exercise reduces the incidence of age-related diseases in humans and in model organisms. Despite these evident benefits, the genetic pathways required for exercise interventions to achieve these effects are still relatively poorly understood. Here, we compare gene expression changes during endurance training in Drosophila melanogaster to gene expression changes during selective breeding for longevity. Microarrays indicate that 65% of gene expression changes found in flies selectively bred for longevity are also found in flies subjected to three weeks of exercise training. We find that both selective breeding and endurance training increase endurance, cardiac performance, running speed, flying height, and levels of autophagy in adipose tissue. Both interventions generally upregulate stress defense, folate metabolism, and lipase activity, while downregulating carbohydrate metabolism and odorant receptor expression. Several members of the methuselah-like (mthl) gene family are downregulated by both interventions. Knockdown of mthl-3 was sufficient to provide extension of negative geotaxis behavior, endurance and cardiac stress resistance. These results provide support for endurance exercise as a broadly acting anti-aging intervention and confirm that exercise training acts in part by targeting longevity assurance pathways.

  20. The effects of running exercise on oxidative capacity and PGC-1α mRNA levels in the soleus muscle of rats with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagatomo, Fumiko; Fujino, Hidemi; Kondo, Hiroyo; Kouzaki, Motoki; Gu, Ning; Takeda, Isao; Tsuda, Kinsuke; Ishihara, Akihiko

    2012-03-01

    Skeletal muscles in animals with metabolic syndrome exhibit reduced oxidative capacity. We investigated the effects of running exercise on fiber characteristics, oxidative capacity, and mRNA levels in the soleus muscles of rats with metabolic syndrome [SHR/NDmcr-cp (cp/cp); CP]. We divided 5-week-old CP rats into non-exercise (CP) and exercise (CP-Ex) groups. Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY) were used as the control group. CP-Ex rats were permitted voluntary exercise on running wheels for 10 weeks. Triglyceride levels were higher and adiponectin levels lower in the CP and CP-Ex groups than in the WKY group. However, triglyceride levels were lower and adiponectin levels higher in the CP-Ex group than in the CP group. The soleus muscles in CP-Ex rats contained only high-oxidative type I fibers, whereas those in WKY and CP rats contained type I, IIA, and IIC fibers. Muscle succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity was higher in the CP-Ex group than in the CP group; there was no difference in SDH activity between the WKY and CP-Ex groups. Muscle proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) mRNA levels were higher in the CP-Ex group than in the CP group; there was no difference in PGC-1α mRNA levels between the WKY and CP-Ex groups. In CP-Ex rats, longer running distance was associated with increased muscle SDH activity and PGC-1α mRNA levels. We concluded that running exercise restored decreased muscle oxidative capacity and PGC-1α mRNA levels and improved hypertriglyceridemia in rats with metabolic syndrome.

  1. Comparative analysis of the 1-mile run test evaluation formulae: assessment of aerobic capacity in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years.

    PubMed

    Kayihan, Gürhan; Özkan, Ali; Köklü, Yusuf; Eyuboğlu, Ender; Akça, Firat; Koz, Mitat; Ersöz, Gülfem

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare values of aerobic performance in the 1-mile run test (1-MRT) using different formulae. Aerobic capacities of 351 male volunteers working for the Turkish National Police within the age range of 20-23 years were evaluated by the 1-MRT and the 20-metre shuttle run (20-MST). VO2max values were estimated by the prediction equations developed by George et al. (1993), Cureton et al. (1995) and Kline et al. (1987) for the 1-MRT and by Leger and Lambert (1982) for the 20-MST. The difference between the results of the different formulae was significant (p = 0.000). The correlation coefficient between the estimated VO2max using Cureton's equation, George's equation, Kline's equation and the 20-MST were 0.691 (p < 0.001), 0.486 (p < 0.001) and 0.608 (p < 0.001), respectively. The highest correlation coefficient was between the VO2max estimated by the 20-MST and Cureton's equation. Similarly, the highest correlation coefficient (r = -0.779) was between the 1-mile run time and the VO2max estimated by Cureton's equation. When analysing more vigorous exercise than sub-maximal exercise, we suggest that Cureton's equation be used to predict the VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in large numbers of healthy individuals with high VO2max. This research compares the use of 3 different formulae to estimate VO2max from 1-mile run/walk performance in male law enforcement officers aged 20-23 years for the first time and reports the most accurate formula to use when evaluating aerobic capacities of large numbers of healthy individuals.

  2. An Enduring Investment for Global Stability: Establishing Professional Values as the Foundation of Building Partnership Capacity in a Fiscally Constrained 21st Century

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    partnership between U.S. and Colombian forces. This approach requires introspection, understanding, and adaptation across the U.S. national security...status. Not all national militaries focus on external threats. Some environmental or national capacity circumstances require military professionals...desired impact, outcomes, and outputs through a strategic planning process providing direction, consultation with stakeholders, and environmentally driven

  3. Characteristics of Enduring Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Deborah Bainer

    Why do some educational partnerships endure while others soon meet their demise? Leaders of partnerships (N=62) report perceived reasons for their team's endurance vs. decline during telephone interviews. Data suggest strong predictors of partnership endurance (i.e., qualities cited very frequently by interviewees as essential to partnering),…

  4. Neuromuscular factors associated with decline in long-distance running performance in master athletes.

    PubMed

    Brisswalter, Jeanick; Nosaka, Kazunori

    2013-01-01

    This review focuses on neuromuscular factors that may affect endurance performance in master athletes. During the last decade, due to the rapid increase in the number of master or veteran participants in endurance sporting competitions, many studies attempted to identify metabolic factors associated with the decrease in endurance, especially long-distance running performance with ageing, focusing on decreases in maximal oxygen consumption. However, neuromuscular factors have been less studied despite the well-known phenomena of strength loss with ageing. For master athletes to perform better in long-distance running events, it is important to reduce muscle fatigue and/or muscle damage, to improve locomotion efficiency and to facilitate recovery. To date, no consensus exists that regular endurance training is beneficial for improving locomotion efficiency, reducing muscle fatigue and muscle damage, and enhancing recovery capacity in master athletes. Some recent studies seem to indicate that master athletes have similar muscle damage to young athletes, but they require a longer recovery time after a long-distance running event. Further analyses of these parameters in master athletes require more experimental and practical interest from researchers and coaches. In particular, more attention should be directed towards the capacity to maintain muscle function with training and the role of neuromuscular factors in long-distance performance decline with ageing using a more cellular and molecular approach.

  5. Heart rate variability in prediction of individual adaptation to endurance training in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, V; Häkkinen, K; Hynynen, E; Mikkola, J; Hokka, L; Nummela, A

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether nocturnal heart rate variability (HRV) can be used to predict changes in endurance performance during 28 weeks of endurance training. The training was divided into 14 weeks of basic training (BTP) and 14 weeks of intensive training periods (ITP). Endurance performance characteristics, nocturnal HRV, and serum hormone concentrations were measured before and after both training periods in 28 recreational endurance runners. During the study peak treadmill running speed (Vpeak ) improved by 7.5 ± 4.5%. No changes were observed in HRV indices after BTP, but after ITP, these indices increased significantly (HFP: 1.9%, P=0.026; TP: 1.7%, P=0.007). Significant correlations were observed between the change of Vpeak and HRV indices (TP: r=0.75, P<0.001; HFP: r=0.71, P<0.001; LFP: r=0.69, P=0.01) at baseline during ITP. In order to lead to significant changes in HRV among recreational endurance runners, it seems that moderate- and high-intensity training are needed. This study showed that recreational endurance runners with a high HRV at baseline improved their endurance running performance after ITP more than runners with low baseline HRV. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. 14 CFR 33.87 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... particular engine being tested. (2) Any automatic engine control that is part of the engine must control the engine during the endurance test except for operations where automatic control is normally overridden by manual control or where manual control is otherwise specified for a particular test run. (3) Except as...

  7. 14 CFR 33.87 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... particular engine being tested. (2) Any automatic engine control that is part of the engine must control the engine during the endurance test except for operations where automatic control is normally overridden by manual control or where manual control is otherwise specified for a particular test run. (3) Except as...

  8. Anaerobic Threshold: Its Concept and Role in Endurance Sport

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Asok Kumar

    2004-01-01

    aerobic to anaerobic transition intensity is one of the most significant physiological variable in endurance sports. Scientists have explained the term in various ways, like, Lactate Threshold, Ventilatory Anaerobic Threshold, Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation, Onset of Plasma Lactate Accumulation, Heart Rate Deflection Point and Maximum Lactate Steady State. But all of these have great role both in monitoring training schedule and in determining sports performance. Individuals endowed with the possibility to obtain a high oxygen uptake need to complement with rigorous training program in order to achieve maximal performance. If they engage in endurance events, they must also develop the ability to sustain a high fractional utilization of their maximal oxygen uptake (%VO2 max) and become physiologically efficient in performing their activity. Anaerobic threshold is highly correlated to the distance running performance as compared to maximum aerobic capacity or VO2 max, because sustaining a high fractional utilization of the VO2 max for a long time delays the metabolic acidosis. Training at or little above the anaerobic threshold intensity improves both the aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold level. Anaerobic Threshold can also be determined from the speed-heart rate relationship in the field situation, without undergoing sophisticated laboratory techniques. However, controversies also exist among scientists regarding its role in high performance sports. PMID:22977357

  9. Anaerobic threshold: its concept and role in endurance sport.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Asok Kumar

    2004-01-01

    aerobic to anaerobic transition intensity is one of the most significant physiological variable in endurance sports. Scientists have explained the term in various ways, like, Lactate Threshold, Ventilatory Anaerobic Threshold, Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation, Onset of Plasma Lactate Accumulation, Heart Rate Deflection Point and Maximum Lactate Steady State. But all of these have great role both in monitoring training schedule and in determining sports performance. Individuals endowed with the possibility to obtain a high oxygen uptake need to complement with rigorous training program in order to achieve maximal performance. If they engage in endurance events, they must also develop the ability to sustain a high fractional utilization of their maximal oxygen uptake (%VO(2) max) and become physiologically efficient in performing their activity. Anaerobic threshold is highly correlated to the distance running performance as compared to maximum aerobic capacity or VO(2) max, because sustaining a high fractional utilization of the VO(2) max for a long time delays the metabolic acidosis. Training at or little above the anaerobic threshold intensity improves both the aerobic capacity and anaerobic threshold level. Anaerobic Threshold can also be determined from the speed-heart rate relationship in the field situation, without undergoing sophisticated laboratory techniques. However, controversies also exist among scientists regarding its role in high performance sports.

  10. The effects of postexercise consumption of high-molecular-weight versus low-molecular-weight carbohydrate solutions on subsequent high-intensity interval-running capacity.

    PubMed

    McGlory, Chris; Morton, James P

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of postexercise ingestion of different-molecular-weight glucose polymer solutions on subsequent high-intensity interval-running capacity. In a repeated-measures design, 6 men ran for 60 min in the morning at 70% VO2max. Immediately post- and at 1 and 2 hr postexercise, participants consumed a 15% low-molecular-weight (LMW) or high-molecular-weight (HMW) carbohydrate solution, at a rate of 1.2 g of carbohydrate/kg body mass, or an equivalent volume of flavored water (WAT). After recovery, participants performed repeated 1-min intervals at 90% VO2max interspersed with 1 min active recovery (walking) until volitional exhaustion. Throughout the 3-hr recovery period, plasma glucose concentrations were higher (p=.002) during the HMW and LMW conditions than with WAT (M 7.0±0.8, 7.5±1.0, and 5.6±0.2 mmol/L, respectively), although there was no difference (p=.723) between HMW and LMW conditions. Exercise capacity was 13 (43±10 min; 95% CI for differences: 8-18; p=.001) and 11 min (41±9 min; 95% CI for differences; 2-18: p=.016) longer with HMW and LMW solutions, respectively, than with WAT (30±9 min). There was no substantial difference (2 min; 95% CI for differences: -5 to 10; p=.709) in exercise capacity between LMW and HMW solutions. Although this magnitude of difference is most likely trivial in nature, the uncertainty allows for a possible small substantial enhancement of physiological significance, and further research is required to clarify the true nature of the effect.

  11. High Ethanol Fuel Endurance: A Study of the Effects of Running Gasoline with 15% Ethanol Concentration in Current Production Outboard Four-Stroke Engines and Conventional Two-Stroke Outboard Marine Engines

    SciTech Connect

    Hilbert, D.

    2011-10-01

    Three Mercury Marine outboard marine engines were evaluated for durability using E15 fuel -- gasoline blended with 15% ethanol. Direct comparison was made to operation on E0 (ethanol-free gasoline) to determine the effects of increased ethanol on engine durability. Testing was conducted using a 300-hour wide-open throttle (WOT) test protocol, a typical durability cycle used by the outboard marine industry. Use of E15 resulted in reduced CO emissions, as expected for open-loop, non-feedback control engines. HC emissions effects were variable. Exhaust gas and engine operating temperatures increased as a consequence of leaner operation. Each E15 test engine exhibited some deteriorationmore » that may have been related to the test fuel. The 9.9 HP, four-stroke E15 engine exhibited variable hydrocarbon emissions at 300 hours -- an indication of lean misfire. The 300HP, four-stroke, supercharged Verado engine and the 200HP, two-stroke legacy engine tested with E15 fuel failed to complete the durability test. The Verado engine failed three exhaust valves at 285 endurance hours while the 200HP legacy engine failed a main crank bearing at 256 endurance hours. All E0-dedicated engines completed the durability cycle without incident. Additional testing is necessary to link the observed engine failures to ethanol in the test fuel.« less

  12. Mucosal immunity and upper respiratory tract symptoms in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Ihalainen, Johanna K; Schumann, Moritz; Häkkinen, Keijo; Mero, Antti A

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of a 12-week endurance-training intervention on salivary proteins and upper respiratory tract symptoms (URS) in 25 young men. Saliva samples of 25 recreational male endurance runners (age 34.6 years, body mass index = 23.8 kg·m(-2), peak aerobic capacity = 47.2 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were collected before (PRE) and after (POST) the training intervention, in a fasting state, as well as both before and after a maximal incremental treadmill run. The training consisted of both continuous and interval training sessions, 4-6 times per week based on the polarized training approach. Participants filled in Wisconsin Upper Respiratory Symptom Survey-21 and were retrospectively divided into 2 groups according to whether they reported URS (URS group, n = 13) or not (HEALTHY group, n = 12). Basal salivary immunoglobulin A (sa-sIgA) levels were significantly higher (+70%, p < 0.05) in the HEALTHY group both at PRE and POST whereas no significant differences were observed in salivary immunoglobulin M, salivary immunoglobulin G, lysozyme, or salivary α-amylase activity (sAA). Sa-sIgA concentration at PRE significantly correlated with the number of sick-days (R = -0.755, p < 0.001) in all subjects. The incremental treadmill run acutely increased sAA significantly (p < 0.05) at PRE (200%) and POST (166%) in the HEALTHY group but not in the URS group. This study demonstrated that subjects, who experienced URS during the 12 weeks of progressive endurance training intervention, had significantly lower basal sa-sIgA levels both before and after the experimental endurance training period. In addition to sa-sIgA, acute sAA response to exercise might be a possible determinant of susceptibility to URS in endurance runners.

  13. Altitude and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (< 2000-2200 m) and/or too short an altitude training period (<3-4 weeks); (2) the training effect at altitude may have been compromised due to insufficient training stimuli for enhancing the function of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems; and (3) enhanced stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.

  14. Lower Muscle Endurance in Patients with Alcoholic Liver Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andersen, Henning; Aagaard, Niels K.; Jakobsen, Johannes; Dorup, Inge; Vilstrup, Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    Patients with alcoholic liver disease often complain of restricted physical capacity, which could be due to decreased muscle endurance. The aim of this study was to assess the muscular endurance in patients with alcoholic liver disease. In a cross sectional study, 24 patients with alcoholic liver disease and 22 controls were evaluated using…

  15. Applied physiology of marathon running.

    PubMed

    Sjödin, B; Svedenhag, J

    1985-01-01

    Performance in marathon running is influenced by a variety of factors, most of which are of a physiological nature. Accordingly, the marathon runner must rely to a large extent on a high aerobic capacity. But great variations in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2 max) have been observed among runners with a similar performance capacity, indicating complementary factors are of importance for performance. The oxygen cost of running or the running economy (expressed, e.g. as VO2 15 at 15 km/h) as well as the fractional utilisation of VO2 max at marathon race pace (%VO2 Ma X VO2 max-1) [where Ma = mean marathon velocity] are additional factors which are known to affect the performance capacity. Together VO2 max, VO2 15 and %VO2 Ma X VO2 max-1 can almost entirely explain the variation in marathon performance. To a similar degree, these variables have also been found to explain the variations in the 'anaerobic threshold'. This factor, which is closely related to the metabolic response to increasing exercise intensities, is the single variable that has the highest predictive power for marathon performance. But a major limiting factor to marathon performance is probably the choice of fuels for the exercising muscles, which factor is related to the %VO2 Ma X VO2 max-1. Present indications are that marathon runners, compared with normal individuals, have a higher turnover rate in fat metabolism at given high exercise intensities expressed both in absolute (m/sec) and relative (%VO2 max) terms. The selection of fat for oxidation by the muscles is important since the stores of the most efficient fuel, the carbohydrates, are limited. The large amount of endurance training done by marathon runners is probably responsible for similar metabolic adaptations, which contribute to a delayed onset of fatigue and raise the VO2 Ma X VO2max-1. There is probably an upper limit in training kilometrage above which there are no improvements in the fractional utilisation of VO2 max at the marathon

  16. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Same-Session Combined Endurance and Strength Training in Recreational Endurance Runners.

    PubMed

    Schumann, M; Pelttari, P; Doma, K; Karavirta, L; Häkkinen, K

    2016-12-01

    This study examined neuromuscular adaptations in recreational endurance runners during 24 weeks of same-session combined endurance and strength training (E+S, n=13) vs. endurance training only (E, n=14). Endurance training was similar in the 2 groups (4-6x/week). Additional maximal and explosive strength training was performed in E+S always after incremental endurance running sessions (35-45 min, 65-85% HR max ). Maximal dynamic leg press strength remained statistically unaltered in E+S but decreased in E at week 24 (-5±5%, p=0.014, btw-groups at week 12 and 24, p=0.014 and 0.011). Isometric leg press and unilateral knee extension force, EMG of knee extensors and voluntary activation remained statistically unaltered in E+S and E. The changes in muscle cross-sectional (CSA) differed between the 2 groups after 12 (E+S+6±8%, E -5±6%, p<0.001) and 24 (E+S+7±7%, E -6±5%, p<0.001) weeks. 1 000 m running time determined during an incremental field test decreased in E+S and E after 12 (-7±3%, p<0.001 and -8±5%, p=0.001) and 24 (-9±5%, p=0.001 and -13±5%, p<0.001) weeks. Strength training performed always after an endurance running session did not lead to increased maximal strength, CSA, EMG or voluntary activation. This possibly contributed to the finding of no endurance performance benefits in E+S compared to E. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  17. Enduring Partner Capacity: African Civil Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-17

    conflicts in Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria and Ivory Coast all created political refugees. In 2011, the political and electoral crisis in the Ivory ...34 Ivory Coast Refugees Question Security of Returning Home," http://reliefweb.int/node/447842 (accessed November 14, 20 11). 23 There is an established...no disruptive deviant behavior in Botswana, as it also has a huge poaching problem requiring regular military action to control. In 20 I 0, Botswana

  18. Frequency of exercise-induced ST-T-segment deviations and cardiac arrhythmias in recreational endurance athletes during a marathon race: results of the prospective observational Berlin Beat of Running study

    PubMed Central

    Herm, Juliane; Töpper, Agnieszka; Wutzler, Alexander; Kunze, Claudia; Krüll, Matthias; Brechtel, Lars; Lock, Jürgen; Fiebach, Jochen B; Heuschmann, Peter U; Haverkamp, Wilhelm; Endres, Matthias; Jungehulsing, Gerhard Jan; Haeusler, Karl Georg

    2017-01-01

    Objectives While regular physical exercise has many health benefits, strenuous physical exercise may have a negative impact on cardiac function. The ‘Berlin Beat of Running’ study focused on feasibility and diagnostic value of continuous ECG monitoring in recreational endurance athletes during a marathon race. We hypothesised that cardiac arrhythmias and especially atrial fibrillation are frequently found in a cohort of recreational endurance athletes. The main secondary hypothesis was that pathological laboratory findings in these athletes are (in part) associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Design Prospective observational cohort study including healthy volunteers. Setting and participants One hundred and nine experienced marathon runners wore a portable ECG recorder during a marathon race in Berlin, Germany. Athletes underwent blood tests 2–3 days prior, directly after and 1–2 days after the race. Results Overall, 108 athletes (median 48 years (IQR 45–53), 24% women) completed the marathon in 249±43 min. Blinded ECG analysis revealed abnormal findings during the marathon in 18 (16.8%) athletes. Ten (9.3%) athletes had at least one episode of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, one of whom had atrial fibrillation; eight (7.5%) individuals showed transient ST-T-segment deviations. Abnormal ECG findings were associated with advanced age (OR 1.11 per year, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.23), while sex and cardiovascular risk profile had no impact. Directly after the race, high-sensitive troponin T was elevated in 18 (16.7%) athletes and associated with ST-T-segment deviation (OR 9.9, 95% CI 1.9 to 51.5), while age, sex and cardiovascular risk profile had no impact. Conclusions ECG monitoring during a marathon is feasible. Abnormal ECG findings were present in every sixth athlete. Exercise-induced transient ST-T-segment deviations were associated with elevated high-sensitive troponin T (hsTnT) values. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01428778; Results. PMID

  19. The 3-min all-out test is valid for determining critical power but not anaerobic work capacity in tethered running

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate if the 3-min all-out test (3MT) is valid for obtaining critical power intensity (CP) and the amount of work that can be performed above CP (W’) on non-motorized treadmills in tethered running. Eight physically active individuals (24 ± 3 years; 78.3 ± 8.7 kg; 179 ± 5 cm; 9.0 ± 2.5% body fat) performed four different efforts at constant intensity to exhaustion in order to determine CP and W’. The mechanical power values obtained were subsequently plotted with their corresponding time to exhaustion (limit time) for application of three mathematical models: power hyperbolic versus time limit (Hyp), linear power versus 1/time (P vs 1/t) and linear work versus time limit (Ԏ vs t). The 3MT test was carried out on the last day to determine end power (EP) and anaerobic capacity (WEP) using this methodology. EP value of 181.7 ± 52 was similar (p = 0.486) to 178.2 ± 61 (CP Hyp), 191.4 ± 55 (Ԏ vs t) and 188.3 ± 55 (P vs 1/t). WEP value of 17.9 ± 4.8 was not similar (p = 0.000) to 50.2 ± 15.3 (CP Hyp), 44.8 ± 8.7 (Ԏ vs t) and 45.5 ± 8.4 (P vs 1/t). Positive results (r = 0.78–0.98 and ICC = 0.88–0.99) of Pearson correlation and intraclass correlation (ICC–absolute agreement) were found for aerobic applications of conventional CP and 3MT. For anaerobic data, only the three models of conventional CP were correlated (r = 0.76–0.93); however, W’ from the three models was not correlated with WEP (r = 0.37–0.52). The results of this study suggest that 3MT in tethered running on non-motorized treadmills is a valid test for estimating CP aerobic parameters in a single day of application but not anaerobic parameters of W’. PMID:29444141

  20. The Endurance Bioenergy Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Laible, Philip; Michaund, Matt

    2012-07-03

    Argonne biophysicist Dr. Philip Laible and Air Force Major Matt Michaud talks about he endurance bioenergy reactor—a device that contains bacteria that can convert energy from the sun into fuel molecules.

  1. Endurance training in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Keller-Varady, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Adomßent, Björn; Wobrock, Thomas; Schmitt, Andrea; Niklas, Andree; Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend

    2016-08-01

    The aims were to examine the feasibility of and adaptations to endurance training in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and to address the question whether the principles and beneficial effects of endurance training established in the healthy population apply also to patients with schizophrenia. In this controlled interventional study, 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls performed a standardized aerobic endurance training on bicycle ergometers over 12 weeks. Another group of 21 patients with schizophrenia played table soccer. Endurance capacity was measured with incremental cycle ergometry before and after the intervention and 3 months later. A specific set of outcome parameters was defined. The training stimuli can be assumed to be similar in both endurance groups. Endurance capacity improved significantly in the endurance groups, but not in the table soccer group. Patients and healthy controls showed comparable adaptations to endurance training, as assessed by physical working capacity and maximal achieved power. Differences were found in changes of performance at a lactate concentration of 3 mmol/l. Endurance training was feasible and effective in both groups. The principles and types of training that are usually applied to healthy controls need to be verified in patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, patients benefited from endurance training in terms of improvement of endurance capacity and reduction in the baseline deficit in comparison with healthy controls. Therefore, endurance training should be implemented in future therapy programs. These programs need to pay special attention to the differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

  2. Potential Relationship between Passive Plantar Flexor Stiffness and Running Performance.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Hiromasa; Suga, Tadashi; Takao, Kenji; Tanaka, Takahiro; Misaki, Jun; Miyake, Yuto; Nagano, Akinori; Isaka, Tadao

    2018-02-01

    The present study aimed to determine the relationship between passive stiffness of the plantar flexors and running performance in endurance runners. Forty-eight well-trained male endurance runners and 24 untrained male control subjects participated in this study. Plantar flexor stiffness during passive dorsiflexion was calculated from the slope of the linear portion of the torque-angle curve. Of the endurance runners included in the present study, running economy in 28 endurance runners was evaluated by measuring energy cost during three 4-min trials (14, 16, and 18 km/h) of submaximal treadmill running. Passive stiffness of the plantar flexors was significantly higher in endurance runners than in untrained subjects. Moreover, passive plantar flexor stiffness in endurance runners was significantly correlated with a personal best 5000-m race time. Furthermore, passive plantar flexor stiffness in endurance runners was significantly correlated with energy cost during submaximal running at 16 km/h and 18 km/h, and a trend towards such significance was observed at 14 km/h. The present findings suggest that stiffer plantar flexors may help achieve better running performance, with greater running economy, in endurance runners. Therefore, in the clinical setting, passive stiffness of the plantar flexors may be a potential parameter for assessing running performance. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Differences in Resting State Functional Connectivity between Young Adult Endurance Athletes and Healthy Controls

    PubMed Central

    Raichlen, David A.; Bharadwaj, Pradyumna K.; Fitzhugh, Megan C.; Haws, Kari A.; Torre, Gabrielle-Ann; Trouard, Theodore P.; Alexander, Gene E.

    2016-01-01

    -group differences, there were significant associations between connectivity, self-reported physical activity, and estimates of maximum aerobic capacity, suggesting a dose-response relationship between engagement in endurance running and connectivity strength. Together these results suggest that differences in experience with endurance running are associated with differences in functional brain connectivity. High intensity aerobic activity that requires sustained, repetitive locomotor and navigational skills may stress cognitive domains in ways that lead to altered brain connectivity, which in turn has implications for understanding the beneficial role of exercise for brain and cognitive function over the lifespan. PMID:28018192

  4. Bone health in endurance athletes: runners, cyclists, and swimmers.

    PubMed

    Scofield, Kirk L; Hecht, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Weight-bearing exercise has been recognized widely to be beneficial for long-term bone health. However inherent differences in bone-loading characteristics and energy expenditure during participation in endurance sports place many endurance athletes at a relative disadvantage with regard to bone health compared with other athletes. Adolescents and adults who participate in endurance sports, such as running, and non-weight-bearing sports, such as biking and swimming, often have lower bone mineral density (BMD) than athletes participating in ball and power sports, and sometimes their BMD is lower than their inactive peers. Low BMD increases the risk of stress and fragility fractures, both while an athlete is actively competing and later in life. This article reviews the variable effects of distance running, cycling, swimming, and triathlons on bone health; the evaluation of stress and fragility fractures; and the diagnosis, management, and prevention of low BMD in endurance athletes.

  5. Effects of endurance training only versus same-session combined endurance and strength training on physical performance and serum hormone concentrations in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p < 0.001) and 24 (-13% ± 5%, p < 0.001 and -9% ± 5%, p = 0.001). Strength performance decreased in E at week 24 (-5% ± 5%, p = 0.014) but was maintained in E+S (between-groups at week 12 and 24, p = 0.014 and 0.011, respectively). Basal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations remained unaltered in E and E+S but testosterone/sex hormone binding globulin ratio decreased in E+S at week 12 (-19% ± 26%, p = 0.006). At week 0 and 24, endurance loading-induced acute force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p < 0.001) were similar between E and E+S. This study showed no endurance performance benefits when strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S.

  6. Exhaustive submaximal endurance and resistance exercises induce temporary immunosuppression via physical and oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Chan-Ho; Paik, Il-Young; Kwak, Yi-Sub; Jee, Yong-Seok; Kim, Joo-Young

    2015-01-01

    Regular running and strength training are the best ways to improve aerobic capacity and develop the size of skeletal muscles. However, uncontrolled physical activities can often lead to an undertraining or over-training syndrome. In particular, overtraining causes persistent fatigue and reduces physical performance due to changes in the various physiological and immunological factors. In this study, we gave an exhaustive submaximal endurance or resistance exercise to participants and investigated the relationship between physical stress (cortisol level in blood), oxidative stress (intracellular ROS accumulation), and adaptive immune response (CD4:CD8 ratio). Materials and Methods Ten male volunteers were recruited, and performed a submaximal endurance or resistance exercise with 85% of VO2max or 1-repetition maximum until exhaustion. Blood samples were collected at rest, and at 0 and 30 min after the exercise. Cortisol levels, oxidative stress, and immune cell phenotypes in peripheral blood were evaluated. Cortisol levels in the sera increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises and such increments were maintained through the recovery. Intra-cellular ROS levels also increased after the exhaustive endurance and resistance exercises. The ratio of CD4+ T cells to CD8+ T cells after each type of submaximal exercise decreased compared with that at the resting stage, and returned to the resting level at 30 min after the exercise. In this study, an exhaustive endurance or a resistance exercise with submaximal intensity caused excessive physical stress, intra-cellular oxidative stress, and post-exercise immunosuppression. This result suggests that excessive physical stress induced temporary immune dysfunction via physical and oxidative stress. PMID:26331134

  7. The Robust Running Ape: Unraveling the Deep Underpinnings of Coordinated Human Running Proficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kiely, John

    2017-01-01

    In comparison to other mammals, humans are not especially strong, swift or supple. Nevertheless, despite these apparent physical limitations, we are among Natures most superbly well-adapted endurance runners. Paradoxically, however, notwithstanding this evolutionary-bestowed proficiency, running-related injuries, and Overuse syndromes in particular, are widely pervasive. The term ‘coordination’ is similarly ubiquitous within contemporary coaching, conditioning, and rehabilitation cultures. Various theoretical models of coordination exist within the academic literature. However, the specific neural and biological underpinnings of ‘running coordination,’ and the nature of their integration, remain poorly elaborated. Conventionally running is considered a mundane, readily mastered coordination skill. This illusion of coordinative simplicity, however, is founded upon a platform of immense neural and biological complexities. This extensive complexity presents extreme organizational difficulties yet, simultaneously, provides a multiplicity of viable pathways through which the computational and mechanical burden of running can be proficiently dispersed amongst expanded networks of conditioned neural and peripheral tissue collaborators. Learning to adequately harness this available complexity, however, is a painstakingly slowly emerging, practice-driven process, greatly facilitated by innate evolutionary organizing principles serving to constrain otherwise overwhelming complexity to manageable proportions. As we accumulate running experiences persistent plastic remodeling customizes networked neural connectivity and biological tissue properties to best fit our unique neural and architectural idiosyncrasies, and personal histories: thus neural and peripheral tissue plasticity embeds coordination habits. When, however, coordinative processes are compromised—under the integrated influence of fatigue and/or accumulative cycles of injury, overuse, misuse, and disuse

  8. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice.

    PubMed

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-12-02

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. This protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted, plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured via a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  9. Voluntary Wheel Running in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Goh, Jorming; Ladiges, Warren

    2015-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running in the mouse is used to assess physical performance and endurance and to model exercise training as a way to enhance health. Wheel running is a voluntary activity in contrast to other experimental exercise models in mice, which rely on aversive stimuli to force active movement. The basic protocol consists of allowing mice to run freely on the open surface of a slanted plastic saucer-shaped wheel placed inside a standard mouse cage. Rotations are electronically transmitted to a USB hub so that frequency and rate of running can be captured to a software program for data storage and analysis for variable time periods. Mice are individually housed so that accurate recordings can be made for each animal. Factors such as mouse strain, gender, age, and individual motivation, which affect running activity, must be considered in the design of experiments using voluntary wheel running. PMID:26629772

  10. Single and Concurrent Effects of Endurance and Resistance Training on Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Maryam; Tayebi, Seyed Morteza; Safari, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): As not only few evidences but also contradictory results exist with regard to the effects of resistance training (RT) and resistance plus endurance training (ERT) on respiratory system, so the purpose of this research was therefore to study single and concurrent effects of endurance and resistance training on pulmonary function. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven volunteer healthy inactive women were randomly divided into 4 groups: without training as control (C), Endurance Training (ET), RT, and ERT. A spirometry test was taken 24 hrs before and after the training course. The training period (8 weeks, 3 sessions/week) for ET was 20-26 min/session running with 60-80% maximum heart rate (HR max); for RT two circuits/session, 40-60s for each exercise with 60-80% one repetition maximum (1RM), and 1 and 3 minutes active rest between exercises and circuits respectively; and for ERT was in agreement with either ET or RT protocols, but the times of running and circuits were half of ET and RT. Results: ANCOVA showed that ET and ERT increased significantly (P< 0.05) vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flows to 25%-75%; ET, RT and ERT increased significantly (P< 0.05) maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV); and only ET increased significantly (P<0.05) peak expiratory flows (PEF); but ET, RT and ERT had no significant effect (P>0.05) on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusion: In conclusion, ET combined with RT (ERT) has greater effect on VC, FVC, FEF rating at25%-75%, and also on PEF except MVV, rather than RT, and just ET has greater effect rather than ERT. PMID:24250940

  11. Passion and Pacing in Endurance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Schiphof-Godart, Lieke; Hettinga, Florentina J.

    2017-01-01

    Endurance sports are booming, with sports passionates of varying skills and expertise battering city streets and back roads on their weekly or daily exercise rounds. The investments required for performing in endurance exercise are nevertheless considerable, and passion for their sport might explain the efforts endurance athletes are willing to make. Passion may be defined as a strong motivational force and as such might be related to the neurophysiological basis underlying the drive to exercise. A complex relationship between the brain and other systems is responsible for athletes' exercise behavior and thus performance in sports. We anticipate important consequences of athletes' short term choices, for example concerning risk taking actions, on long term outcomes, such as injuries, overtraining and burnout. We propose to consider athletes' type of passion, in combination with neurophysiological parameters, as an explanatory factor inunderstanding the apparent disparity in the regulation of exercise intensity during endurance sports. Previous research has demonstrated that athletes can be passionate toward their sport in either a harmonious or an obsessive way. Although both lead to considerable investments and therefore often to successful performances, obsessive passion may affect athlete well-being and performance on the long run, due to the corresponding inflexible exercise behavior. In this perspective we will thus examine the influence of passion in sport on athletes' short term and long term decision-making and exercise behavior, in particular related to the regulation of exercise intensity, and discuss the expected long term effects of both types of passion for sport. PMID:28265245

  12. Passion and Pacing in Endurance Performance.

    PubMed

    Schiphof-Godart, Lieke; Hettinga, Florentina J

    2017-01-01

    Endurance sports are booming, with sports passionates of varying skills and expertise battering city streets and back roads on their weekly or daily exercise rounds. The investments required for performing in endurance exercise are nevertheless considerable, and passion for their sport might explain the efforts endurance athletes are willing to make. Passion may be defined as a strong motivational force and as such might be related to the neurophysiological basis underlying the drive to exercise. A complex relationship between the brain and other systems is responsible for athletes' exercise behavior and thus performance in sports. We anticipate important consequences of athletes' short term choices, for example concerning risk taking actions, on long term outcomes, such as injuries, overtraining and burnout. We propose to consider athletes' type of passion, in combination with neurophysiological parameters, as an explanatory factor inunderstanding the apparent disparity in the regulation of exercise intensity during endurance sports. Previous research has demonstrated that athletes can be passionate toward their sport in either a harmonious or an obsessive way. Although both lead to considerable investments and therefore often to successful performances, obsessive passion may affect athlete well-being and performance on the long run, due to the corresponding inflexible exercise behavior. In this perspective we will thus examine the influence of passion in sport on athletes' short term and long term decision-making and exercise behavior, in particular related to the regulation of exercise intensity, and discuss the expected long term effects of both types of passion for sport.

  13. Characteristics of Enduring Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Deborah Bainer

    Why do some educational partnerships endure while others soon meet their demise? Leaders of partnerships (N=62), teachers and resource professionals participating in Partnering for Elementary Environmental Science (PEES) and Sciencing with Watersheds, Environmental Education, and Partnerships (SWEEP), reported perceived reasons for their team's…

  14. Thruster endurance test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collett, C.

    1976-01-01

    A test system was built and several short term tests were completed. The test system included, in addition to the 30-cm ion thruster, a console for powering the thruster and monitoring performance, a vacuum facility for simulating a space environment, and a storage and feed system for the thruster propellant. This system was used to perform three short term tests (one 100-hour and two 500-hour tests), an 1108-hour endurance test which was aborted by a vacuum facility failure, and finally the 10,000-hour endurance test. In addition to the two 400 series thrusters which were used in the short term and 1100-hour tests, four more 400 series thrusters were fabricated, checked out, and delivered to NASA. Three consoles similar to the one used in the test program were also fabricated and delivered.

  15. Carbohydrate Dependence During Prolonged, Intense Endurance Exercise.

    PubMed

    Hawley, John A; Leckey, Jill J

    2015-11-01

    A major goal of training to improve the performance of prolonged, continuous, endurance events lasting up to 3 h is to promote a range of physiological and metabolic adaptations that permit an athlete to work at both higher absolute and relative power outputs/speeds and delay the onset of fatigue (i.e., a decline in exercise intensity). To meet these goals, competitive endurance athletes undertake a prodigious volume of training, with a large proportion performed at intensities that are close to or faster than race pace and highly dependent on carbohydrate (CHO)-based fuels to sustain rates of muscle energy production [i.e., match rates of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) hydrolysis with rates of resynthesis]. Consequently, to sustain muscle energy reserves and meet the daily demands of training sessions, competitive athletes freely select CHO-rich diets. Despite renewed interest in high-fat, low-CHO diets for endurance sport, fat-rich diets do not improve training capacity or performance, but directly impair rates of muscle glycogenolysis and energy flux, limiting high-intensity ATP production. When highly trained athletes compete in endurance events lasting up to 3 h, CHO-, not fat-based fuels are the predominant fuel for the working muscles and CHO, not fat, availability becomes rate limiting for performance.

  16. Innovative Operations Measures and Nutritional Support for Mass Endurance Events.

    PubMed

    Chiampas, George T; Goyal, Anita V

    2015-11-01

    Endurance and sporting events have increased in popularity and participation in recent years worldwide, and with this comes the need for medical directors to apply innovative operational strategies and nutritional support to meet such demands. Mass endurance events include sports such as cycling and running half, full and ultra-marathons with over 1000 participants. Athletes, trainers and health care providers can all agree that both participant outcomes and safety are of the utmost importance for any race or sporting event. While demand has increased, there is relatively less published guidance in this area of sports medicine. This review addresses public safety, operational systems, nutritional support and provision of medical care at endurance events. Significant medical conditions in endurance sports include heat illness, hyponatraemia and cardiac incidents. These conditions can differ from those typically encountered by clinicians or in the setting of low-endurance sports, and best practices in their management are discussed. Hydration and nutrition are critical in preventing these and other race-related morbidities, as they can impact both performance and medical outcomes on race day. Finally, the command and communication structures of an organized endurance event are vital to its safety and success, and such strategies and concepts are reviewed for implementation. The nature of endurance events increasingly relies on medical leaders to balance safety and prevention of morbidity while trying to help optimize athlete performance.

  17. 'Endurance': A Daunting Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the approximate size of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in comparison to the impressive impact crater dubbed 'Endurance,' which is roughly 130 meters (430 feet) across. A model of Opportunity has been superimposed on top of an approximate true-color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera. Scientists are eager to explore Endurance for clues to the red planet's history. The crater's exposed walls provide a window to what lies beneath the surface of Mars and thus what geologic processes occurred there in the past. While recent studies of the smaller crater nicknamed 'Eagle' revealed an evaporating body of salty water, that crater was not deep enough to indicate what came before the water. Endurance may be able to help answer this question, but the challenge is getting to the scientific targets: most of the crater's rocks are embedded in vertical cliffs. Rover planners are developing strategies to overcome this obstacle.

    This image is a portion of a larger mosaic taken with the panoramic camera's 480-, 530- and 750-nanometer filters on sols 97 and 98.

  18. Mechanical and morphological properties of different muscle-tendon units in the lower extremity and running mechanics: effect of aging and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Karamanidis, Kiros; Arampatzis, Adamantios

    2005-10-01

    The objectives of this work were (i) to investigate whether chronic endurance running is a sufficient stimulus to counteract the age-related changes in the mechanical and morphological properties of human triceps surae (TS) and quadriceps femoris (QF) muscle-tendon units (MTUs) by comparing runners and non-active subjects at different ages (young and old), (ii) to identify adaptational phenomena in running mechanics due to age-related changes in the mechanical and morphological properties of the TS and QF MTUs, and finally (iii) to examine whether chronic endurance-running exercise is associated with adaptational effects on running characteristics in old and young adults. The investigation was conducted on 30 old and 19 young adult males divided into two subgroups according to their running activity: endurance-runners vs non-active. To analyse the properties of the MTUs, all subjects performed isometric maximal voluntary (MVC) ankle plantarflexion and knee extension contractions at 11 different MTU lengths on a dynamometer. The activation of the TS and QF during MVC was estimated by surface electromyography. The gastrocnemius medialis and the vastus lateralis and their distal aponeuroses were visualized by ultrasonography at rest and during MVC, respectively. Ground reaction forces and kinematic data were recorded during running trials at 2.7 m s(-1). The TS and QF MTU capacities were reduced with aging (lower muscle strength and lower tendon stiffness). Runners and non-active subjects had similar MTU properties, suggesting that chronic endurance-running exercise does not counteract the age-related degeneration of the MTUs. Runners showed a higher mechanical advantage for the QF MTU while running (lower gear ratio) compared to non-active subjects, indicating a task-specific adaptation even at old age. Older adults reacted to the reduced capacities of their MTUs by increasing running safety (higher duty factor, lower flight time) and benefitting from a mechanical

  19. Investigation of Cardiovascular Endurance Levels of Sedentary High School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akyol, Betül; Sögüt, Kayhan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of our study is to examine the cardiovascular endurance systems of sedentary high school students. The 112 sedentary individual was taken to the 1600 meter walking test run, and the 120 sedentary individual Harward step test. While both individuals were participating in the same test, weight, height, oxygen saturation, and heart rate of…

  20. Tolerance of Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) in endurance runners, weightlifters, swimmers and nonathletes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Thirteen endurance runners (R), 12 weightlifters (WL), 12 swimmers (SW) and 10 nonathletes (NA) were tested for their tolerance of lower body negative pressure (LBNP) in consecutive 5 minute stages at -20, -30, -40, -50 and -60 torr. Each subject also performed an exercise test on a bicycle ergometer with progressive workloads to exhaustion to determined aerobic capacity. The R had a much higher aerobic capacity than any of the other groups, but a significantly lower LBNP tolerance. While responses in heart rate and pulse pressure were quite similar in all 4 groups, the rate of increase in leg volume relative to LBNP stress (leg compliance, LC) was considerably greater in R than in the other athletes and NA. The greater LC in R could be attributed not only to a more rapid shift of blood to the lower extremities but also to a greater tendency for edema formation, both contributing to a more rapid loss in effective central blood volume for a given LBNP stress. These results substantiate earlier observations which led to the conclusion that endurance running is not advisable as a training regimen for astronauts.

  1. Tapering strategies in elite British endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Spilsbury, Kate L; Fudge, Barry W; Ingham, Stephen A; Faulkner, Steve H; Nimmo, Myra A

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to explore pre-competition training practices of elite endurance runners. Training details from elite British middle distance (MD; 800 m and 1500 m), long distance (LD; 3000 m steeplechase to 10,000 m) and marathon (MAR) runners were collected by survey for 7 days in a regular training (RT) phase and throughout a pre-competition taper. Taper duration was [median (interquartile range)] 6 (3) days in MD, 6 (1) days in LD and 14 (8) days in MAR runners. Continuous running volume was reduced to 70 (16)%, 71 (24)% and 53 (12)% of regular levels in MD, LD and MAR runners, respectively (P < 0.05). Interval running volume was reduced compared to regular training (MD; 53 (45)%, LD; 67 (23)%, MAR; 64 (34)%, P < 0.05). During tapering, the peak interval training intensity was above race speed in LD and MAR runners (112 (27)% and 114 (3)%, respectively, P < 0.05), but not different in MD (100 (2)%). Higher weekly continuous running volume and frequency in RT were associated with greater corresponding reductions during the taper (R = -0.70 and R = -0.63, respectively, both P < 0.05). Running intensity during RT was positively associated with taper running intensity (continuous intensity; R = 0.97 and interval intensity; R = 0.81, both P < 0.05). Algorithms were generated to predict and potentially prescribe taper content based on the RT of elite runners. In conclusion, training undertaken prior to the taper in elite endurance runners is predictive of the tapering strategy implemented before competition.

  2. Skeletal muscle pathology in endurance athletes with acquired training intolerance

    PubMed Central

    Grobler, L; Collins, M; Lambert, M; Sinclair-Smith, C; Derman, W; St, C; Noakes, T

    2004-01-01

    Background: It is well established that prolonged, exhaustive endurance exercise is capable of inducing skeletal muscle damage and temporary impairment of muscle function. Although skeletal muscle has a remarkable capacity for repair and adaptation, this may be limited, ultimately resulting in an accumulation of chronic skeletal muscle pathology. Case studies have alluded to an association between long term, high volume endurance training and racing, acquired training intolerance, and chronic skeletal muscle pathology. Objective: To systematically compare the skeletal muscle structural and ultrastructural status of endurance athletes with acquired training intolerance (ATI group) with asymptomatic endurance athletes matched for age and years of endurance training (CON group). Methods: Histological and electron microscopic analyses were carried out on a biopsy sample of the vastus lateralis from 18 ATI and 17 CON endurance athletes. The presence of structural and ultrastructural disruptions was compared between the two groups of athletes. Results: Significantly more athletes in the ATI group than in the CON group presented with fibre size variation (15 v 6; p = 0.006), internal nuclei (9 v 2; p = 0.03), and z disc streaming (6 v 0; p = 0.02). Conclusions: There is an association between increased skeletal muscle disruptions and acquired training intolerance in endurance athletes. Further studies are required to determine the nature of this association and the possible mechanisms involved. PMID:15562162

  3. Weird 'Endurance' Rock Ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a bizarre, lumpy rock dubbed 'Wopmay' on the inner slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists say the rock's unusual texture is unlike any others observed so far at Meridiani Planum. Wopmay measures approximately 1 meter (3.3 feet) across. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 195 (Aug. 11, 2004). Opportunity will likely travel to this or a similar rock in coming sols for a closer look at the alien surface.

  4. 'Endurance' Untouched (vertical)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a vertical projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

  5. 'Endurance' Untouched (polar)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree view is presented in a polar projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

  6. Physiological demands of running during long distance runs and triathlons.

    PubMed

    Hausswirth, C; Lehénaff, D

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this review article is to identify the main metabolic factors which have an influence on the energy cost of running (Cr) during prolonged exercise runs and triathlons. This article proposes a physiological comparison of these 2 exercises and the relationship between running economy and performance. Many terms are used as the equivalent of 'running economy' such as 'oxygen cost', 'metabolic cost', 'energy cost of running', and 'oxygen consumption'. It has been suggested that these expressions may be defined by the rate of oxygen uptake (VO2) at a steady state (i.e. between 60 to 90% of maximal VO2) at a submaximal running speed. Endurance events such as triathlon or marathon running are known to modify biological constants of athletes and should have an influence on their running efficiency. The Cr appears to contribute to the variation found in distance running performance among runners of homogeneous level. This has been shown to be important in sports performance, especially in events like long distance running. In addition, many factors are known or hypothesised to influence Cr such as environmental conditions, participant specificity, and metabolic modifications (e.g. training status, fatigue). The decrease in running economy during a triathlon and/or a marathon could be largely linked to physiological factors such as the enhancement of core temperature and a lack of fluid balance. Moreover, the increase in circulating free fatty acids and glycerol at the end of these long exercise durations bear witness to the decrease in Cr values. The combination of these factors alters the Cr during exercise and hence could modify the athlete's performance in triathlons or a prolonged run.

  7. Eating habits modulate short term memory and epigenetical regulation of brain derived neurotrophic factor in hippocampus of low- and high running capacity rats.

    PubMed

    Torma, Ferenc; Bori, Zoltan; Koltai, Erika; Felszeghy, Klara; Vacz, Gabriella; Koch, Lauren; Britton, Steven; Boldogh, Istvan; Radak, Zsolt

    2014-08-01

    Exercise capacity and dietary restriction (DR) are linked to improved quality of life, including enhanced brain function and neuro-protection. Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is one of the key proteins involved in the beneficial effects of exercise on brain. Low capacity runner (LCR) and high capacity runner (HCR) rats were subjected to DR in order to investigate the regulation of BDNF. HCR-DR rats out-performed other groups in a passive avoidance test. BDNF content increased significantly in the hippocampus of HCR-DR groups compared to control groups (p<0.05). The acetylation of H3 increased significantly only in the LCR-DR group. However, chip-assay revealed that the specific binding between acetylated histone H3 and BNDF promoter was increased in both LCR-DR and HCR-DR groups. In spite of these increases in binding, at the transcriptional level only, the LCR-DR group showed an increase in BDNF mRNA content. Additionally, DR also induced the activity of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), while the content of SIRT1 was not altered. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator-1 alpha (PGC-1α) was elevated in HCR-DR groups. But, based on the levels of nuclear respiratory factor-1 and cytocrome c oxidase, it appears that DR did not cause mitochondrial biogenesis. The data suggest that DR-mediated induction of BDNF levels includes chromatin remodeling. Moreover, DR does not induce mitochondrial biogenesis in the hippocampus of LCR/HCR rats. DR results in different responses to a passive avoidance test, and BDNF regulation in LCR and HCR rats. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Resveratrol enhances exercise training responses in rats selectively bred for high running performance.

    PubMed

    Hart, Nikolett; Sarga, Linda; Csende, Zsolt; Koltai, Erika; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Davies, Kelvin J A; Kouretas, Dimitris; Wessner, Barbara; Radak, Zsolt

    2013-11-01

    High Capacity Runner (HCR) rats have been developed by divergent artificial selection for treadmill endurance running capacity to explore an aerobic biology-disease connection. The beneficial effects of resveratrol supplementation have been demonstrated in endurance running and the antioxidant capacity of resveratrol is also demonstrated. In this study we examine whether 12 weeks of treadmill exercise training and/or resveratrol can enhance performance in HCR. Indeed, resveratrol increased aerobic performance and strength of upper limbs of these rats. Moreover, we have found that resveratrol activated the AMP-activated protein kinase, SIRT1, and mitochondrial transcription factor A (p<0.05). The changes in mitochondrial fission/fusion and Lon protease/HSP78 levels suggest that exercise training does not significantly induce damage of proteins. Moreover, neither exercise training nor resveratrol supplementation altered the content of protein carbonyls. Changes in the levels of forkhead transcription factor 1 and SIRT4 could suggest increased fat utilization and improved insulin sensitivity. These data indicate, that resveratrol supplementation enhances aerobic performance due to the activation of the AMPK-SIRT1-PGC-1α pathway. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Lactate-related factors as a critical determinant of endurance.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, K

    1990-04-01

    Many interrelated physiological and/or morphological factors have been demonstrated to influence endurance exercise performance. Some of these factors include skeletal musculature, running economy, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), maximal steady state (MSS), onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), onset of plasma lactate accumulation (OPLA), and anaerobic (or lactate) threshold (AT or LT). The present paper focuses mainly on VO2max, MSS, OBLA, OPLA and LT, all of which have been postulated as a prerequisite in endurance exercise success. This paper consists of: (1) significance of La-related variables, (2) longitudinal studies, (3) comments, and (4) conclusion. Briefly, it is suggested that estimation of endurance exercise potential could be obtained with relatively high precision using laboratoriously measured La-related variables. The most critical determinant of endurance exercise performance such as marathon time is considered running velocity (V) at which LT is detected (V / LT), VO2 / LT, or V / MSS, while V / OBLA appears to be the best predictor of performance in endurance events of 16 km or shorter distances.

  10. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  11. Endurance exercise performance: the physiology of champions

    PubMed Central

    Joyner, Michael J; Coyle, Edward F

    2008-01-01

    Efforts to understand human physiology through the study of champion athletes and record performances have been ongoing for about a century. For endurance sports three main factors – maximal oxygen consumption , the so-called ‘lactate threshold’ and efficiency (i.e. the oxygen cost to generate a give running speed or cycling power output) – appear to play key roles in endurance performance. and lactate threshold interact to determine the ‘performance ‘ which is the oxygen consumption that can be sustained for a given period of time. Efficiency interacts with the performance to establish the speed or power that can be generated at this oxygen consumption. This review focuses on what is currently known about how these factors interact, their utility as predictors of elite performance, and areas where there is relatively less information to guide current thinking. In this context, definitive ideas about the physiological determinants of running and cycling efficiency is relatively lacking in comparison with and the lactate threshold, and there is surprisingly limited and clear information about the genetic factors that might pre-dispose for elite performance. It should also be cautioned that complex motivational and sociological factors also play important roles in who does or does not become a champion and these factors go far beyond simple physiological explanations. Therefore, the performance of elite athletes is likely to defy the types of easy explanations sought by scientific reductionism and remain an important puzzle for those interested in physiological integration well into the future. PMID:17901124

  12. Enduring Strategic Rivalries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S August 2014 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. IDA Paper P-5178 Log: H...license under the clause at DFARS 252.227-7013 (a)(16) [Jun 2013] I N S T I T U T E F O R D E F E N S E A N A L Y S E S IDA Paper P-5178 Enduring...City and its Countryside (London: G. Phillip, 1987), 75-81. 9 See John S. Morrison, John F. Coates, and N . Boris Rankov, The Athenian Trireme: The

  13. 'Endurance' Untouched (3-D)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 2

    This navigation camera mosaic, created from images taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity on sols 115 and 116 (May 21 and 22, 2004) provides a dramatic view of 'Endurance Crater.' The rover engineering team carefully plotted the safest path into the football field-sized crater, eventually easing the rover down the slopes around sol 130 (June 12, 2004). To the upper left of the crater sits the rover's protective heatshield, which sheltered Opportunity as it passed through the martian atmosphere. The 360-degree, stereo view is presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection, with geometric and radiometric seam correction.

    Figure 1 is the left-eye view of a stereo pair and Figure 2 is the right-eye view of a stereo pair.

  14. Barefoot running: does it prevent injuries?

    PubMed

    Murphy, Kelly; Curry, Emily J; Matzkin, Elizabeth G

    2013-11-01

    Endurance running has evolved over the course of millions of years and it is now one of the most popular sports today. However, the risk of stress injury in distance runners is high because of the repetitive ground impact forces exerted. These injuries are not only detrimental to the runner, but also place a burden on the medical community. Preventative measures are essential to decrease the risk of injury within the sport. Common running injuries include patellofemoral pain syndrome, tibial stress fractures, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendonitis. Barefoot running, as opposed to shod running (with shoes), has recently received significant attention in both the media and the market place for the potential to promote the healing process, increase performance, and decrease injury rates. However, there is controversy over the use of barefoot running to decrease the overall risk of injury secondary to individual differences in lower extremity alignment, gait patterns, and running biomechanics. While barefoot running may benefit certain types of individuals, differences in running stance and individual biomechanics may actually increase injury risk when transitioning to barefoot running. The purpose of this article is to review the currently available clinical evidence on barefoot running and its effectiveness for preventing injury in the runner. Based on a review of current literature, barefoot running is not a substantiated preventative running measure to reduce injury rates in runners. However, barefoot running utility should be assessed on an athlete-specific basis to determine whether barefoot running will be beneficial.

  15. Reading 'Endurance Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows the area inside 'Endurance Crater' that the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been examining. The rover is investigating the distinct layers of rock that make up this region. Each layer is defined by subtle color and texture variations and represents a separate chapter in Mars' history. The deeper the layer, the further back in time the rocks were formed. Scientists are 'reading' this history book by systematically studying each layer with the rover's scientific instruments. So far, data from the rover indicate that the top layers are sulfate-rich, like the rocks observed in 'Eagle Crater.' This implies that water processes were involved in forming the materials that make up these rocks.

    In figure 1, the layer labeled 'A' in this picture contains broken-up rocks that most closely resemble those of 'Eagle Crater.' Layers 'B,C and D' appear less broken up and more finely laminated. Layer 'E,' on the other hand, looks more like 'A.' At present, the rover is examining layer 'D.'

    So far, data from the rover indicates that the first four layers consist of sulfate-rich, jarosite-containing rocks like those observed in Eagle Crater. This implies that water processes were involved in forming the materials that make up these rocks, though the materials themselves may have been laid down by wind.

    This image was taken by Opportunity's navigation camera on sol 134 (June 9, 2004).

  16. 'Endurance Crater' Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This overview of 'Endurance Crater' traces the path of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from sol 94 (April 29, 2004) to sol 205 (August 21, 2004). The route charted to enter the crater was a bit circuitous, but well worth the extra care engineers took to ensure the rover's safety. On sol 94, Opportunity sat on the edge of this impressive, football field-sized crater while rover team members assessed the scene. After traversing around the 'Karatepe' region and past 'Burns Cliff,' the rover engineering team assessed the possibility of entering the crater. Careful analysis of the angles Opportunity would face, including testing an Earth-bound model on simulated martian terrain, led the team to decide against entering the crater at that particular place. Opportunity then backed up before finally dipping into the crater on its 130th sol (June 5, 2004). The rover has since made its way down the crater's inner slope, grinding, trenching and examining fascinating rocks and soil targets along the way. The rover nearly made it to the intriguing dunes at the bottom of the crater, but when it got close, the terrain did not look safe enough to cross.

  17. Endurance of rockfall protection fences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerber, W.; Meyer, M.

    2009-04-01

    Research on rockfall protection systems usually focuses on the performance of flexible barriers regarding their limit or design energy retention capacity. This research increased the maximum retention by a factor 15 within the last 15-20 years. Today rockfall energies up to 5'000 kJ can be retained. But this is relevant only for actual projects and newly erected barriers. However, the majority of all barriers installed in the alpine area were built many years ago and there is little knowledge on their long-term performance. Among others this includes not only the consideration of maintenance works such as man and machine power as well as yearly costs, but also the endurance of such barriers over the years. Such information normally stays at the authority or institution that initiated the construction of a protection system and/or is responsible for the maintenance of the object. But even if an institution maintains a large number of barriers, there mostly does not exist a general inventory because the barriers were installed over a time period of sometimes more than 30 years enduring many changes in the inventory procedures, drawings and documentations. Therefore, an actual investigation of all rockfall barriers protecting a sector of the Swiss railways (SBB) was performed in order to obtain an overview of their conditions. This project delivers both a detailed analysis of more than 100 single barriers and a statistically evaluable overview. It also allows a comparison between different generations of barrier types, independently from the different producers of the barriers. In a first step existing catalogues and data belonging to the relevant barriers were evaluated, summarized and mapped into topographic maps using GIS allowing a proper planning of the field trip, optimised regarding route, time consumption and possibly necessary closures of rail tracks. During the field investigations each barrier was inspected and all details regarding structural system

  18. Effects of an individual 12-week community-located "start-to-run" program on physical capacity, walking, fatigue, cognitive function, brain volumes, and structures in persons with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Feys, Peter; Moumdjian, Lousin; Van Halewyck, Florian; Wens, Inez; Eijnde, Bert O; Van Wijmeersch, Bart; Popescu, Veronica; Van Asch, Paul

    2017-11-01

    Exercise therapy studies in persons with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) primarily focused on motor outcomes in mid disease stage, while cognitive function and neural correlates were only limitedly addressed. This pragmatic randomized controlled study investigated the effects of a remotely supervised community-located "start-to-run" program on physical and cognitive function, fatigue, quality of life, brain volume, and connectivity. In all, 42 pwMS were randomized to either experimental (EXP) or waiting list control (WLC) group. The EXP group received individualized training instructions during 12 weeks (3×/week), to be performed in their community aiming to participate in a running event. Measures were physical (VO 2max , sit-to-stand test, Six-Minute Walk Test (6MWT), Multiple Sclerosis Walking Scale-12 (MSWS-12)) and cognitive function (Rao's Brief Repeatable Battery (BRB), Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test (PASAT)), fatigue (Fatigue Scale for Motor and Cognitive Function (FSMC)), quality of life (Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale-29 (MSIS-29)), and imaging. Brain volumes and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were quantified using FSL-SIENA/FIRST and FSL-TBSS. In all, 35 pwMS completed the trial. Interaction effects in favor of the EXP group were found for VO 2max , sit-to-stand test, MSWS-12, Spatial Recall Test, FSMC, MSIS-29, and pallidum volume. VO 2max improved by 1.5 mL/kg/min, MSWS-12 by 4, FSMC by 11, and MSIS-29 by 14 points. The Spatial Recall Test improved by more than 10%. Community-located run training improved aerobic capacity, functional mobility, visuospatial memory, fatigue, and quality of life and pallidum volume in pwMS.

  19. Endurance All Around 3-D

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2004-07-21

    This 360-degree stereo anaglyph of the terrain surrounding NASA Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity was taken on the rover 171st sol on Mars. Opportunity had driven 11 meters 36 feet into Endurance Crater. 3D glasses are necessary.

  20. Effects of endurance exercise on isomyosin patterns in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Fitzsimons, D P; Diffee, G M; Herrick, R E; Baldwin, K M

    1990-05-01

    Although endurance training has been shown to profoundly affect the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, little information is available concerning the impact of endurance training on skeletal muscle isomyosin expression across a variety of muscle fiber types. Therefore, a 10-wk running program (1 h/day, 5 days/wk, 20% grade, 1 mile/h) was conducted to ascertain the effects of endurance training on isomyosin expression in the soleus, vastus intermedius (VI), plantaris (PLAN), red and white medial gastrocnemius (RMG and WMG), and red and white vastus lateralis muscles (RVL and WVL). Evidences of training were noted by the presence of a resting and a submaximal exercise bradycardia, as well as an enhancement in peak O2 consumption in the trained rodents relative to the nontrained controls. No evidence for skeletal muscle hypertrophy was observed subsequent to training when muscle weight was normalized to body weight. Shifts in the isomyosin profile of the trained VI, RMG, RVL, and PLAN were seen relative to the nontrained controls. Specifically, training affected the slow myosin (SM) composition of the VI by decreasing the relative content of the SM2 isoform by 14% while increasing that of the SM1 isoform (P less than 0.05). In addition, training elicited various degrees of a fast to slower myosin transformation in the RMG, RVL, and PLAN. All three muscles showed a significant reduction in the fast myosin 2 isoform (P less than 0.05), with significant increases in intermediate myosin in the RVL and PLAN along with elevations in SM2 in the RMG and PLAN (P less than 0.05).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Selection for intrinsic endurance modifies endocrine stress responsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Waters, R Parrish; Renner, Kenneth J; Summers, Cliff H; Watt, Michael L; Forster, Gina L; Koch, Lauren G; Britton, Steven L; Swallow, John G

    2010-01-01

    Physical exercise dampens an individual’s stress response and decreases symptoms of anxiety and depression disorders. While the extrinsic relationship of exercise and psychological state are established, their intrinsic relationship is unresolved. We investigated the potential intrinsic relationship of exercise with stress responsiveness using NIH rats bidirectionally selected for intrinsic endurance capacity. Selection resulted in two populations, one with high intrinsic endurance (high capacity runners; HCR) and one with low intrinsic endurance (low capacity runners; LCR). Animals from these populations were subjected to the elevated plus maze (EPM) and novel environment to assess levels of anxiety-like behavior, and to restraint stress to determine stress responsiveness. Pre-test plasma corticosterone levels and the response of plasma corticosterone to exposure to the EPM and restraint were analyzed using ELISA. A dexamethasone suppression test was performed to assess negative feedback tone of corticosterone release. Pre-test plasma corticosterone levels were similar between LCR and HCR, and these populations had similar behavioral and corticosterone responses to the EPM. Following restraint, HCR animals exhibited more anxiotypic behavior than LCR animals on the EPM, and exhibited an increase in plasma corticosterone following EPM and restraint that was not observed in LCR animals. HCR animals also exhibited more anxiotypic behavior in the novel environment compared to LCR animals. Plasma corticosterone levels were equally reduced in both populations following dexamethasone administration. Overall, our data suggest a positive genetic relationship between exercise endurance and stress responsiveness, which is at odds with the established extrinsic relationship of these traits. PMID:20682296

  2. Endurance performance and nocturnal HRV indices.

    PubMed

    Nummela, A; Hynynen, E; Kaikkonen, P; Rusko, H

    2010-03-01

    The effects of endurance training on endurance performance characteristics and cardiac autonomic modulation during night sleep were investigated. Twenty-four sedentary subjects trained over four weeks two hours per week at an average running intensity of 76+/-4% of their heart rate reserve. The R to R ECG-intervals were recorded and heart rate variability indices including high frequency power (HFP) were calculated for the nights following the training days every week. The subjects were divided into responders and non-responders according to the improvements in the maximal velocity of the incremental treadmill test (v(max)). The responders improved their v(max) by 10.9+/-46 % (p < 0.001) while no changes were observed in the non-responders (1.6+/-3.0%), although there were no differences in any training load variables between the groups. In the responders nocturnal HFP was significantly higher during the fourth training week compared to the first training week (p=0.036). Furthermore, a significant correlation was observed between the change in v(max) and the change in nocturnal HFP (r=0.482, p=0.042). It was concluded that after similar training, an increase in cardiac vagal modulation was related to improved v(max) in the sedentary subjects. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  3. Pediatric endurance and limb strengthening (PEDALS) for children with cerebral palsy using stationary cycling: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Eileen G; Knutson, Loretta M; Demuth, Sharon K; Siebert, Kara L; Simms, Victoria D; Sugi, Mia H; Souza, Richard B; Karim, Roksana; Azen, Stanley P

    2010-03-01

    Effective interventions to improve and maintain strength (force-generating capacity) and endurance are needed for children with cerebral palsy (CP). This study was performed to examine the effects of a stationary cycling intervention on muscle strength, locomotor endurance, preferred walking speed, and gross motor function in children with spastic diplegic CP. This was a phase I randomized controlled trial with single blinding. The interventions were performed in community-based outpatient physical therapy clinics. Outcome assessments were performed in university laboratories. Sixty-two ambulatory children aged 7 to 18 years with spastic diplegic CP and Gross Motor Function Classification System levels I to III participated in this study. Participants were randomly assigned to cycling or control (no-intervention) groups. Thirty intervention sessions occurred over 12 weeks. Primary outcomes were peak knee extensor and flexor moments, the 600-Yard Walk-Run Test, the Thirty-Second Walk Test, and the Gross Motor Function Measure sections D and E (GMFM-66). Significant baseline-postintervention improvements were found for the 600-Yard Walk-Run Test, the GMFM-66, peak knee extensor moments at 120 degrees /s, and peak knee flexor moments at 30 degrees /s for the cycling group. Improved peak knee flexor moments at 120 degrees/s were found for the control group only, although not all participants could complete this speed of testing. Significant differences between the cycling and control groups based on change scores were not found for any outcomes. Limitations Heterogeneity of the patient population and intrasubject variability were limitations of the study. Significant improvements in locomotor endurance, gross motor function, and some measures of strength were found for the cycling group but not the control group, providing preliminary support for this intervention. As statistical differences were not found in baseline-postintervention change scores between the 2 groups

  4. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  5. Endurance Training and Cardiorespiratory Conditioning after Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Mossberg, Kurt A.; Amonette, William E.; Masel, Brent E.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the importance of cardiorespiratory conditioning after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and provide recommendations for patients recovering from TBI. Method Review of literature assessing the effectiveness of endurance training programs. Main outcomes and results A sedentary lifestyle and lack of endurance are common characteristics of individuals with TBI who have a reduction in peak aerobic capacity of 25-30% compared to healthy sedentary persons. Increased physical activity and exercise training improves cardiorespiratory fitness in many populations with physical and cognitive impairments. Therefore, increasing the endurance and cardiorespiratory fitness of persons with TBI would seem to have important health implications. However, review of the TBI literature reveals that there have been few well-designed, well-controlled studies of physiologic and psychological adaptations of fitness training. Also lacking are long-term follow-up studies of persons with TBI. Conclusions Assessing endurance capacity and cardiorespiratory fitness early in the TBI rehabilitation process merits consideration as a standard of care by professional rehabilitation societies. Also, providing effective, safe and accessible training modalities would seem to be an important consideration for persons with TBI, given the mobility impairments many possess. Long-term follow-up studies are needed to assess the effectiveness of cardiorespiratory training programs on overall morbidity and mortality. PMID:20473091

  6. Effect of ACTN3 gene on strength and endurance in soccer players.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Eduardo M; Coelho, Daniel B; Veneroso, Christiano E; Barros Coelho, Ering J; Cruz, Izinara R; Morandi, Rodrigo F; De A Pussieldi, Guilherme; Carvalho, Maria R S; Garcia, Emerson S; De Paz Fernández, José A

    2013-12-01

    Sports efficiency in activities in which strength and speed are the determining factors has been associated to the ACTN3 gene, which is responsible for the expression of α-actinin-3. Soccer is a mainly aerobic sport because of its long duration, but the acute actions that define the game demand a lot of strength and speed. The purpose of the present study was to compare the performance capacity of soccer players with different genotype groups of ACTN3 (XX, RX, and RR) in strength, speed, and endurance tests. Two hundred professional players of Brazilian soccer first division teams participated in this study. Speed, jump, and endurance test results were compared with the polymorphisms of the ACTN3 gene. It was noticed that RR individuals spent less time to run a 10-m path, compared with XX individuals (p < 0.05). The RR individuals also presented lower time rates at the 20- and 30-m path, compared with RX and XX individuals (p < 0.05). In jump tests, RR individuals presented higher rates, compared with RX and XX individuals (p < 0.05). As for aerobic tests, the XX individuals presented higher rates of V[Combining Dot Above]O2 max, compared with the RR group (p < 0.05), and did not differ from the RX group. The main conclusion of this study is that soccer players of genotype ACTN3/RR are the fastest in short distances and present higher jump potential. ACTN3/XX individuals presented the highest aerobic capacity. These findings can be used in training load adjustment and can influence the development of tactical schemes in soccer matches.

  7. Anticipatory Guidance for Long-Distance Running in Young Athletes.

    PubMed

    Blankson, Kwabena L; Brenner, Joel S

    2016-03-01

    More young children are participating in endurance running events such as full and half marathons, and the safety of these events for children has been heavily debated. There is a paucity of evidence on either side of the debate. However, overuse injuries, stress fractures, as well as the potential for psychologic burnout are legitimate concerns. Parents who are seeking advice from pediatricians about child participation in these endurance events should be made aware of these risks. Young children may participate in endurance running events under close supervision from health professionals, coaches, and parents, with full medical evaluation before initiation of training, throughout training, as well as 6 to 12 months post-race. Special attention should be made to the psychologic well-being of the child, with the participation in running being child-driven, not parent- or coach-driven, and emphasis on enjoyment and fitness, not competition. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Physiological limits to endurance exercise performance: influence of sex

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This brief review summarizes factors associated with elite endurance performance, trends in distance running training, and participation by men and more recently women. It is framed in the context of key ideas about the physiological determinants of endurance performance but also touches on some historical and sociological factors relevant to the overall topic. Historical trends that served to increase women's participation in elite endurance events are also discussed as is the role of increased volume and intensity of training. The rapid improvement in women's world record marathon times in the 1970s and 80s are emblematic of these trends and represent a combination of increased training volume and intensity and more competitive opportunities. This occurred as bans on participation by women in endurance events were lifted. For men these same trends evolved over a much longer time frame. The main physiological factor responsible for 10–12% slower times in women compared to men at the elite level are also considered and probably centre aroundV˙O2 max . PMID:28028816

  9. Effects of moderate and heavy endurance exercise on nocturnal HRV.

    PubMed

    Hynynen, E; Vesterinen, V; Rusko, H; Nummela, A

    2010-06-01

    This study examined the effects of endurance exercise on nocturnal autonomic modulation. Nocturnal R-R intervals were collected after a rest day, after a moderate endurance exercise and after a marathon run in ten healthy, physically active men. Heart rate variability (HRV) was analyzed as a continuous four-hour period starting 30 min after going to bed for sleep. In relation to average nocturnal heart rate after rest day, increases to 109+/-6% and 130+/-11% of baseline were found after moderate endurance exercise and marathon, respectively. Standard deviation of R-R intervals decreased to 90+/-9% and 64+/-10%, root-mean-square of differences between adjacent R-R intervals to 87+/-10% and 55+/-16%, and high frequency power to 77+/-19% and 34+/-19% of baseline after moderate endurance exercise and marathon, respectively. Also nocturnal low frequency power decreased to 56+/-26% of baseline after the marathon. Changes in nocturnal heart rate and HRV suggest prolonged dose-response effects on autonomic modulation after exercises, which may give useful information on the extent of exercise-induced nocturnal autonomic modulation and disturbance to the homeostasis.

  10. Side View of 'Endurance Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This picture from the rear hazard-avoidance camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a side view of 'Endurance Crater.' Opportunity took the image on sol 188 (Aug. 4, 2004), before transmitting it and other data to the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. The orbiter then relayed the data to Earth.

  11. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or in...

  12. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or in...

  13. 14 CFR 33.87 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.87 Section 33.87... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.87 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of at least 150 hours of operation...

  14. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or in...

  15. 14 CFR 33.49 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.49 Section 33.49... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.49 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of 150 hours of operation...

  16. 14 CFR 33.87 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.87 Section 33.87... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.87 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of at least 150 hours of operation...

  17. 14 CFR 33.49 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.49 Section 33.49... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.49 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of 150 hours of operation...

  18. 14 CFR 33.87 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.87 Section 33.87... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.87 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of at least 150 hours of operation...

  19. 14 CFR 33.49 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.49 Section 33.49... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.49 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of 150 hours of operation...

  20. Warm-up with a weighted vest improves running performance via leg stiffness and running economy.

    PubMed

    Barnes, K R; Hopkins, W G; McGuigan, M R; Kilding, A E

    2015-01-01

    To determine the effects of "strides" with a weighted-vest during a warm-up on endurance performance and its potential neuromuscular and metabolic mediators. A bout of resistance exercise can enhance subsequent high-intensity performance, but little is known about such priming exercise for endurance performance. A crossover with 5-7 days between an experimental and control trial was performed by 11 well-trained distance runners. Each trial was preceded by a warm-up consisting of a 10-min self-paced jog, a 5-min submaximal run to determine running economy, and six 10-s strides with or without a weighted-vest (20% of body mass). After a 10-min recovery period, runners performed a series of jumps to determine leg stiffness and other neuromuscular characteristics, another 5-min submaximal run, and an incremental treadmill test to determine peak running speed. Clinical and non-clinical forms of magnitude-based inference were used to assess outcomes. Correlations and linear regression were used to assess relationships between performance and underlying measures. The weighted-vest condition resulted in a very-large enhancement of peak running speed (2.9%; 90% confidence limits ±0.8%), a moderate increase in leg stiffness (20.4%; ±4.2%) and a large improvement in running economy (6.0%; ±1.6%); there were also small-moderate clear reductions in cardiorespiratory measures. Relationships between change scores showed that changes in leg stiffness could explain all the improvements in performance and economy. Strides with a weighted-vest have a priming effect on leg stiffness and running economy. It is postulated the associated major effect on peak treadmill running speed will translate into enhancement of competitive endurance performance. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Discriminant musculo-skeletal leg characteristics between sprint and endurance elite Caucasian runners.

    PubMed

    Bex, T; Iannaccone, F; Stautemas, J; Baguet, A; De Beule, M; Verhegghe, B; Aerts, P; De Clercq, D; Derave, W

    2017-03-01

    Excellence in either sprinting or endurance running requires specific musculo-skeletal characteristics of the legs. This study aims to investigate the morphology of the leg of sprinters and endurance runners of Caucasian ethnicity. Eight male sprinters and 11 male endurance runners volunteered to participate in this cross-sectional study. They underwent magnetic resonance imaging and after data collection, digital reconstruction was done to calculate muscle volumes and bone lengths. Sprinters have a higher total upper leg volume compared to endurance runners (7340 vs 6265 cm 3 ). Specifically, the rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and hamstrings showed significantly higher muscle volumes in the sprint group. For the lower leg, only a higher muscle volume was found in the gastrocnemius lateralis for the sprinters. No differences were found in muscle volume distribution, center of mass in the different muscles, or relative bone lengths. There was a significant positive correlation between ratio hamstrings/quadriceps volume and best running performance in the sprint group. Sprinters and endurance runners of Caucasian ethnicity showed the greatest distinctions in muscle volumes, rather than in muscle distributions or skeletal measures. Sprinters show higher volumes in mainly the proximal and lateral leg muscles than endurance runners. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. An 8-Week Ketogenic Low Carbohydrate, High Fat Diet Enhanced Exhaustive Exercise Capacity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Sihui; Huang, Qingyi; Yada, Koichi; Liu, Chunhong; Suzuki, Katsuhiko

    2018-05-25

    Current fueling tactics for endurance exercise encourage athletes to ingest a high carbohydrate diet. However, athletes are not generally encouraged to use fat, the largest energy reserve in the human body. A low carbohydrate, high fat ketogenic diet (KD) is a nutritional approach ensuring that the body utilizes lipids. Although KD has been associated with weight-loss, enhanced fat utilization in muscle and other beneficial effects, there is currently no clear proof whether it could lead to performance advantage. To evaluate the effects of KD on endurance exercise capacity, we studied the performance of mice subjected to a running model after consuming KD for eight weeks. Weight dropped dramatically in KD-feeding mice, even though they ate more calories. KD-feeding mice showed enhanced running time without aggravated muscle injury. Blood biochemistry and correlation analysis indicated the potential mechanism is likely to be a keto-adaptation enhanced capacity to transport and metabolize fat. KD also showed a potential preventive effect on organ injury caused by acute exercise, although KD failed to exert protection from muscle injury. Ultimately, KD may contribute to prolonged exercise capacity.

  3. Strength and Endurance Training Prescription in Healthy and Frail Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Bottaro, Martim; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with declines in the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems, resulting in an impaired capacity to perform daily activities. Frailty is an age-associated biological syndrome characterized by decreases in the biological functional reserve and resistance to stressors due to changes in several physiological systems, which puts older individuals at special risk of disability. To counteract the neuromuscular and cardiovascular declines associated with aging, as well as to prevent and treat the frailty syndrome, the strength and endurance training seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle hypertrophy, strength and power output, as well as endurance performance. The first purpose of this review was discuss the neuromuscular adaptations to strength training, as well as the cardiovascular adaptations to endurance training in healthy and frail elderly subjects. In addition, the second purpose of this study was investigate the concurrent training adaptations in the elderly. Based on the results found, the combination of strength and endurance training (i.e., concurrent training) performed at moderate volume and moderate to high intensity in elderly populations is the most effective way to improve both neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory functions. Moreover, exercise interventions that include muscle power training should be prescribed to frail elderly in order to improve the overall physical status of this population and prevent disability. PMID:24900941

  4. Nutritional strategies to modulate the adaptive response to endurance training.

    PubMed

    Hawley, John A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, advances in molecular biology have allowed scientists to elucidate how endurance exercise training stimulates skeletal muscle remodeling (i.e. promotes mitochondrial biogenesis). A growing field of interest directly arising from our understanding of the molecular bases of training adaptation is how nutrient availability can alter the regulation of many contraction-induced events in muscle in response to endurance exercise. Acutely manipulating substrate availability can exert profound effects on muscle energy stores and patterns of fuel metabolism during exercise, as well as many processes activating gene expression and cell signaling. Accordingly, such interventions when repeated over weeks and months have the potential to modulate numerous adaptive processes in skeletal muscle that ultimately drive the phenotype-specific characteristics observed in highly trained athletes. In this review, the molecular and cellular events that occur in skeletal muscle during and after endurance exercise are discussed and evidence provided to demonstrate that nutrient availability plays an important role in modulating many of the adaptive responses to training. Emphasis is on human studies that have determined the regulatory role of muscle glycogen availability on cell metabolism, endurance training capacity and performance. Copyright © 2013 Nestec Ltd., Vevey/S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Assessing fitness in endurance horses

    PubMed Central

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-01-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels. PMID:22942450

  6. 'Endurance' Goal Across the Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera provides an overview of the rover's drive direction toward 'Endurance Crater,' which is in the upper right corner of image.

    The plains appear to be uniform in character from the rovers current position all the way to Endurance Crater. Granules of various sizes blanket the plains. Spherical granules fancifully called blueberries are present some intact and some broken. Larger granules pave the surface, while smaller grains, including broken blueberries, form small dunes. Randomly distributed 1-centimeter (0.4 inch) sized pebbles (as seen just left of center in the foreground of the image) make up a third type of feature on the plains. The pebbles' composition remains to be determined. Scientists plan to examine these in the coming sols.

    Examination of this part of Mars by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter revealed the presence of hematite, which led NASA to choose Meridiani Planum as Opportunity's landing site. The rover science conducted on the plains of Meridiani Planum serves to integrate what the rovers are seeing on the ground with what orbital data have shown.

    Opportunity will make stop at a small crater called 'Fram' (seen in the upper left, with relatively large rocks nearby) before heading to the rim of Endurance Crater.

  7. Hypertension in master endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Hernelahti, M; Kujala, U M; Kaprio, J; Karjalainen, J; Sarna, S

    1998-11-01

    To determine whether long-term very vigorous endurance training prevents hypertension. Cohort study of master orienteering runners and controls. Finland. In 1995, a health questionnaire was completed by 264 male orienteering runners (response rate 90.4%) who had been top-ranked in competitions among men aged 35-59 years in 1984, and by 388 similarly aged male controls (response rate 87.1%) who were healthy at the age of 20 years and free of overt ischemic heart disease in 1985. Self-report of medication for hypertension. In the endurance athlete group, the crude prevalence (8.7%) of subjects who had used medication for hypertension was less than a third of that in the control group (27.8%). Even after adjusting for age and body mass index, the difference between the groups was still significant (odds ratio for athletes 0.43, 95% confidence interval 0.25-0.76). Long-term vigorous endurance training is associated with a low prevalence of hypertension. Some of the effect can be explained by a lower body mass, but exercise seems to induce a lower rate of hypertension by other mechanisms than by decreasing body weight

  8. The effects of elevated pain inhibition on endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Flood, Andrew; Waddington, Gordon; Keegan, Richard J; Thompson, Kevin G; Cathcart, Stuart

    2017-01-01

    The ergogenic effects of analgesic substances suggest that pain perception is an important regulator of work-rate during fatiguing exercise. Recent research has shown that endogenous inhibitory responses, which act to attenuate nociceptive input and reduce perceived pain, can be increased following transcranial direct current stimulation of the hand motor cortex. Using high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS; 2 mA, 20 min), the current study aimed to examine the effects of elevated pain inhibitory capacity on endurance exercise performance. It was hypothesised that HD-tDCS would enhance the efficiency of the endogenous pain inhibitory response and improve endurance exercise performance. Twelve healthy males between 18 and 40 years of age ( M  = 24.42 ± 3.85) were recruited for participation. Endogenous pain inhibitory capacity and exercise performance were assessed before and after both active and sham (placebo) stimulation. The conditioned pain modulation protocol was used for the measurement of pain inhibition. Exercise performance assessment consisted of both maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and submaximal muscular endurance performance trials using isometric contractions of the non-dominant leg extensors. Active HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, -.32 ± 1.33 kg; post-tDCS, -1.23 ± 1.21 kg) significantly increased pain inhibitory responses relative to the effects of sham HD-tDCS (pre-tDCS, -.91 ± .92 kg; post-tDCS, -.26 ± .92 kg; p  = .046). Irrespective of condition, peak MVC force and muscular endurance was reduced from pre- to post-stimulation. HD-tDCS did not significantly influence this reduction in maximal force (active: pre-tDCS, 264.89 ± 66.87 Nm; post-tDCS, 236.33 ± 66.51 Nm; sham: pre-tDCS, 249.25 ± 88.56 Nm; post-tDCS, 239.63 ± 67.53 Nm) or muscular endurance (active: pre-tDCS, 104.65 ± 42.36 s; post-tDCS, 93.07 ± 33.73 s; sham: pre-tDCS, 123.42 ± 72.48 s; post-tDCS, 100.27 ± 44.25 s). Despite increasing pain

  9. Oxygen consumption and gait variables of Arabian endurance horses measured during a field exercise test.

    PubMed

    Cottin, F; Metayer, N; Goachet, A G; Julliand, V; Slawinski, J; Billat, V; Barrey, E

    2010-11-01

    Arabian horses have morphological, muscular and metabolic features designed for endurance races. Their gas exchange and gait variables were therefore measured during a field exercise test. This study presents original respiratory and locomotor data recorded in endurance horses under field conditions. Respiratory gas exchange ratio (RER) of Arabian horses at the speed required to win endurance races (18 km/h for 120-160 km) are <1 and running economy (RE) is also low in order to maintain exercise intensity using aerobic metabolism for long intervals. The purpose of this study was to measure oxygen consumption and gait variables in Arabian endurance horses running in the field in order to estimate RER and RE. Five Arabian horses trained for endurance racing were test ridden at increasing speeds on the field. Their speed was recorded and controlled by the rider using a GPS logger. Each horse was equipped with a portable respiratory gas analyser, which measured breath-by-breath respiratory variables and heart rate. The gait variables were recorded using tri-axial accelerometer data loggers and software for gait analysis. Descriptive statistics and linear regressions were used to analyse the speed related changes in each variable with P < 0.05 taken as significant. At a canter speed corresponding to endurance race winning speed (18 km/h), horses presented a VO(2) = 42 ± 9 ml/min/kg bwt, RER = 0.96 ± 0.10 and RE (= VO(2) /speed) = 134 ± 27 l/km/kg bwt. Linear relationships were observed between speed and VO(2,) HR and gait variables. Significant correlations were observed between VO(2) and gait variables. The RER of 0.96 at winning endurance speed indicates that Arabian horses mainly use aerobic metabolism based on lipid oxidation and that RER may also be related to a good coordination between running speed, respiratory and gait parameters. © 2010 EVJ Ltd.

  10. Individual responses to combined endurance and strength training in older adults.

    PubMed

    Karavirta, Laura; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kauhanen, Antti; Arija-Blázquez, Alfredo; Sillanpää, Elina; Rinkinen, Niina; Häkkinen, Arja

    2011-03-01

    A combination of endurance and strength training is generally used to seek further health benefits or enhanced physical performance in older adults compared with either of the training modes alone. The mean change within a training group, however, may conceal a wide range of individual differences in the responses. The purpose, therefore, was to examine the individual trainability of aerobic capacity and maximal strength, when endurance and strength training are performed separately or concurrently. For this study, 175 previously untrained volunteers, 89 men and 86 women between the ages of 40 and 67 yr, completed a 21-wk period of either strength training (S) twice a week, endurance training (E) twice a week, combined training (ES) four times per week, or served as controls. Training adaptations were quantified as peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) in a bicycle ergometer test to exhaustion and maximal isometric bilateral leg extension force (MVC) in a dynamometer. A large range in training responses, similar to endurance or strength training alone, was also observed with combined endurance and strength training in both ΔVO2peak (from -8% to 42%) and ΔMVC (from -12% to 87%). There were no significant correlations between the training responses in VO2peak and MVC in the E, S, or especially in the ES group, suggesting that the same subjects did not systematically increase both aerobic capacity and maximal strength. The goal of combined endurance and strength training--increasing both aerobic capacity and maximal strength simultaneously--was only achieved by some of the older subjects. New means are needed to personalize endurance, strength, and especially combined endurance and strength training programs for optimal individual adaptations.

  11. The Effects of Preexercise Caffeinated Coffee Ingestion on Endurance Performance: An Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Simon; Straight, Chad R; Lewis, Richard D

    2016-06-01

    Endurance athletes commonly ingest caffeine as a means to enhance training intensity and competitive performance. A widely-used source of caffeine is coffee, however conflicting evidence exists regarding the efficacy of coffee in improving endurance performance. In this context, the aims of this evidence-based review were threefold: 1) to evaluate the effects of preexercise coffee on endurance performance, 2) to evaluate the effects of coffee on perceived exertion during endurance performance, and 3) to translate the research into usable information for athletes to make an informed decision regarding the intake of caffeine via coffee as a potential ergogenic aid. Searches of three major databases were performed using terms caffeine and coffee, or coffee-caffeine, and endurance, or aerobic. Included studies (n = 9) evaluated the effects of caffeinated coffee on human subjects, provided the caffeine dose administered, administered caffeine ≥ 45 min before testing, and included a measure of endurance performance (e.g., time trial). Significant improvements in endurance performance were observed in five of nine studies, which were on average 24.2% over controls for time to exhaustion trials, and 3.1% for time to completion trials. Three of six studies found that coffee reduced perceived exertion during performance measures significantly more than control conditions (p < .05). Based on the reviewed studies there is moderate evidence supporting the use of coffee as an ergogenic aid to improve performance in endurance cycling and running. Coffee providing 3-8.1 mg/kg (1.36-3.68 mg/lb) of caffeine may be used as a safe alternative to anhydrous caffeine to improve endurance performance.

  12. Carbohydrate-Loading: A Safe and Effective Method of Improving Endurance Performance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beeker, Richard T.; Israel, Richard G.

    Carbohydrate-loading prior to distance events is a common practice among endurance athletes. The purposes of this paper are to review previous research and to clarify misconceptions which may exist concerning carbohydrate-loading. The most effective method of carbohydrate-loading involves a training run of sufficient intensity and duration to…

  13. Digital Physical Activity Data Collection and Use by Endurance Runners and Distance Cyclists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Victor R.; Drake, Joel

    2013-01-01

    The introduction of sensor technologies to sports has allowed athletes to quantify and track their performance, adding an information-based layer to athletic practices. This information layer is particularly prevalent in practices involving formal competition and high levels of physical endurance, such as biking and running. We interviewed 20…

  14. [Endurance capabilities of triathlon competitors with type 1 diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Boehncke, S; Poettgen, K; Maser-Gluth, C; Reusch, J; Boehncke, W-H; Badenhoop, K

    2009-04-01

    Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) aims to prevent complications by strictly optimizing blood glucose levels. Although physical exercise is an important part of metabolic control, endurance sports are considered hazardous for patients with type 1 diabetes because of the extreme physiological stress they represent. To further elucidate the metabolic challenge this form of exercise presented we investigated the performance of triathlon competitors with type 1 diabetes. Ten patients (32-61 years) with type 1 diabetes (disease duration 2-35 years) were followed for three years, during which each year they participated in one triathlon long-distance competitions (2.4 miles swimming, 26.2 miles running and 112 miles cycling; Ironman Germany 2005-2007). Glucose, cortisol, aldosterone, renin, thyroid hormones, testosterone, growth hormone and catecholamines were measured in blood and saliva. Five non-diabetic competitors served as controls. The performance equalled those of age-matched healthy athletes. Several participants experienced hyperglycemia early in the bike leg, whereas all of them developed low blood glucose levels during the marathon leg. Basal insulin supply was reduced up to 50 % on race day. Hormone levels in athletes with type 1 DM and healthy controls were similar. Patients with type 1 DM can successfully sustain extreme endurance challenges. Physiological alterations of the metabolic state complicated by type 1 DM can readily be compensated by adapting intensified insulin therapy and nutritional modifications. Thus 1 DM should not be regarded a contraindication to participating in high endurance sports.

  15. Separating Fact from Fiction: Increasing Running Speed

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murgia, Carla

    2008-01-01

    From a biomechanical point of view, this article explores the common belief that one must increase stride length and frequency in order to increase running speed. The limb length, explosive power, and anaerobic capacity of the athlete, as well as the type of running (sprinting vs. long distance) must be considered before making such a…

  16. An analysis of running skyline load path.

    Treesearch

    Ward W. Carson; Charles N. Mann

    1971-01-01

    This paper is intended for those who wish to prepare an algorithm to determine the load path of a running skyline. The mathematics of a simplified approach to this running skyline design problem are presented. The approach employs assumptions which reduce the complexity of the problem to the point where it can be solved on desk-top computers of limited capacities. The...

  17. Intrinsic aerobic capacity sets a divide for aging and longevity

    PubMed Central

    Koch, Lauren Gerard; Kemi, Ole J.; Qi, Nathan; Leng, Sean X.; Bijma, Piter; Gilligan, Lori J.; Wilkinson, John E.; Wisløff, Helene; Høydal, Morten A.; Rolim, Natale; Abadir, Peter M.; Van Grevenhof, Ilse; Smith, Godfrey L.; Burant, Charles F.; Ellingsen, Øyvind; Britton, Steven L.; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2011-01-01

    Rationale Low aerobic exercise capacity is a powerful predictor of premature morbidity and mortality for healthy adults as well as those with cardiovascular disease For aged populations, poor performance on treadmill or extended walking tests indicates closer proximity to future health declines. Together, these findings suggest a fundamental connection between aerobic capacity and longevity. Objectives Through artificial selective breeding, we developed an animal model system to prospectively test the association between aerobic exercise capacity and survivability (aerobic hypothesis). Methods and Results Laboratory rats of widely diverse genetic backgrounds (N:NIH stock) were selectively bred for low or high intrinsic (inborn) treadmill running capacity. Cohorts of male and female rats from generations 14, 15 and 17 of selection were followed for survivability and assessed for age-related declines in cardiovascular fitness including maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), myocardial function, endurance performance, and change in body mass. Median lifespan for low exercise capacity rats was 28-45% shorter than high capacity rats (hazard ratio, 0.06; P<.001). VO2max, measured across adulthood was a reliable predictor of lifespan (P<.001). During progression from adult to old age, left ventricular myocardial and cardiomyocyte morphology, contractility, and intracellular Ca2+ handling in both systole and diastole, as well as mean blood pressure, were more compromised in rats bred for low aerobic capacity. Physical activity levels, energy expenditure (VO2), and lean body mass were all better sustained with age in rats bred for high aerobic capacity. Conclusions These data obtained from a contrasting heterogeneous model system provide strong evidence that genetic segregation for aerobic exercise capacity can be linked with longevity and useful for deeper mechanistic exploration. PMID:21921265

  18. Intrinsic aerobic capacity sets a divide for aging and longevity.

    PubMed

    Koch, Lauren Gerard; Kemi, Ole J; Qi, Nathan; Leng, Sean X; Bijma, Piter; Gilligan, Lori J; Wilkinson, John E; Wisløff, Helene; Høydal, Morten A; Rolim, Natale; Abadir, Peter M; van Grevenhof, Elizabeth M; Smith, Godfrey L; Burant, Charles F; Ellingsen, Oyvind; Britton, Steven L; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2011-10-28

    Low aerobic exercise capacity is a powerful predictor of premature morbidity and mortality for healthy adults as well as those with cardiovascular disease. For aged populations, poor performance on treadmill or extended walking tests indicates closer proximity to future health declines. Together, these findings suggest a fundamental connection between aerobic capacity and longevity. Through artificial selective breeding, we developed an animal model system to prospectively test the association between aerobic exercise capacity and survivability (aerobic hypothesis). Laboratory rats of widely diverse genetic backgrounds (N:NIH stock) were selectively bred for low or high intrinsic (inborn) treadmill running capacity. Cohorts of male and female rats from generations 14, 15, and 17 of selection were followed for survivability and assessed for age-related declines in cardiovascular fitness including maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2max)), myocardial function, endurance performance, and change in body mass. Median lifespan for low exercise capacity rats was 28% to 45% shorter than high capacity rats (hazard ratio, 0.06; P<0.001). VO(2max), measured across adulthood was a reliable predictor of lifespan (P<0.001). During progression from adult to old age, left ventricular myocardial and cardiomyocyte morphology, contractility, and intracellular Ca(2+) handling in both systole and diastole, as well as mean blood pressure, were more compromised in rats bred for low aerobic capacity. Physical activity levels, energy expenditure (Vo(2)), and lean body mass were all better sustained with age in rats bred for high aerobic capacity. These data obtained from a contrasting heterogeneous model system provide strong evidence that genetic segregation for aerobic exercise capacity can be linked with longevity and are useful for deeper mechanistic exploration of aging.

  19. The physiology of long-distance migration: extending the limits of endurance metabolism.

    PubMed

    Weber, Jean-Michel

    2009-03-01

    Long-distance migrants have evolved specific adaptations that make their athletic records possible. Unique mechanisms explaining their amazing capacity for endurance exercise have now been uncovered, particularly with respect to energy storage, mobilization, transport and utilization. Birds are champions of migration because flying offers a key compromise: it allows more rapid movement than swimming, but has a lower cost of transport than running. High efficiency for muscle contraction, pointed wings, low wingloading, travelling in V-formations, storing fuel as energy-dense lipids and atrophy of non-essential organs are some of their strategies to decrease the cost of transport. The ability to process lipids rapidly also emerges as a crucial component of the migrant phenotype. High lipid fluxes are made possible by lipoprotein shuttles and fatty acid binding proteins (FABPs) that accelerate lipid transport and by upgrading the metabolic machinery for lipolysis and lipid oxidation. Preparation for long flights can include natural doping on n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) from unique invertebrate diets. Muscle performance is improved by restructuring membrane phospholipids and by activating key genes of lipid metabolism through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). The physiological secret to long migrations does not depend on a single ;magic' adaptation but on the integration of multiple adjustments in morphology, biomechanics, behavior, nutrition and metabolism. Research on the physiology of migrants improves the fundamental knowledge of exercise biology, but it also has important implications for wildlife conservation, treating obesity and improving the performance of human athletes.

  20. Cardiorespiratory endurance in relation to body mass in Polish rural children: Preliminary report.

    PubMed

    Gajewska, E; Kalińska, K; Bogdański, P; Sobieska, M

    2015-06-01

    Physical fitness is generally viewed as having morphological, muscular, motor, cardiovascular and metabolic components. Cardiorespiratory fitness describes the capacity of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to carry out prolonged strenuous exercise. It is often considered as the most important indicator of health status. The place of residence is seen as a factor that may influence the feasibility of physically active lifestyles, and thus shaping cardiorespiratory fitness. The study group consisted of 121 children aged 10-16 years, including 60 girls and 61 boys. All of the children lived in rural areas. The investigated group was divided according to age and sex; body height and weight were measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated. All children performed the Cooper's run test and the Ruffier's test. The analysis of BMI for the nutritional status of children in relation to the entire study group demonstrated that 81 children had normal weight, 20 children were overweight and 11 were obese, while 9 children were underweight. The studied group of children showed on average very good and good performance in the Cooper's test, regardless of body weight, whereas the results of the Ruffier's test showed merely weak or medium cardiorespiratory endurance, which was even worse in overweight or obese children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Predictive Indicators of Overuse Injuries in Adolescent Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Silván, Daniel; Díaz-Ocejo, Jaime; Murray, Andrew

    2017-04-01

    To analyze the influence of training exposure and the utility of self-report questionnaires on predicting overuse injuries in adolescent endurance athletes. Five adolescent male endurance athletes (15.7 ± 1.4 y) from a full-time sports academy answered 2 questionnaires (Recovery Cue; RC-q and Oslo Sports Trauma Research questionnaire; OSTRC-q) on a weekly basis for 1 season (37 wk) to detect signs of overtraining and underrecovery (RC-q) and early symptoms of lower-limb injuries (OSTRC-q). All overuse injuries were retrospectively analyzed to detect which variations in the questionnaires in the weeks preceding injury were best associated. Overuse incidence rates were calculated based on training exposure. Lower-limb overuse injuries accounted for 73% of total injuries. The incidence rate for overuse training-related injuries was 10 injuries/1000 h. Strong correlations were observed between individual running exposure and overuse injury incidence (r 2 = .66), number of overuse injuries (r 2 = .69), and days lost (r 2 = .66). A change of 20% or more in the RC-q score in the preceding week was associated with 67% of the lower-limb overuse injuries. Musculoskeletal symptoms were only detected in advance by the OSTRC-q in 27% of the episodes. Training exposure (especially running exposure) was shown to be related to overuse injuries, suggesting that monitoring training load is a key factor for injury prevention. Worsening scores in the RC-q (but not the OSTRC) may be an indicator of overuse injury in adolescent endurance runners when used longitudinally.

  2. An empirical study of race times in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Vickers, Andrew J; Vertosick, Emily A

    2016-01-01

    Studies of endurance running have typically involved elite athletes, small sample sizes and measures that require special expertise or equipment. We examined factors associated with race performance and explored methods for race time prediction using information routinely available to a recreational runner. An Internet survey was used to collect data from recreational endurance runners (N = 2303). The cohort was split 2:1 into a training set and validation set to create models to predict race time. Sex, age, BMI and race training were associated with mean race velocity for all race distances. The difference in velocity between males and females decreased with increasing distance. Tempo runs were more strongly associated with velocity for shorter distances, while typical weekly training mileage and interval training had similar associations with velocity for all race distances. The commonly used Riegel formula for race time prediction was well-calibrated for races up to a half-marathon, but dramatically underestimated marathon time, giving times at least 10 min too fast for half of runners. We built two models to predict marathon time. The mean squared error for Riegel was 381 compared to 228 (model based on one prior race) and 208 (model based on two prior races). Our findings can be used to inform race training and to provide more accurate race time predictions for better pacing.

  3. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system must be made on a representative engine in accordance with paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, as... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or in...

  4. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system must be made on a representative engine in accordance with paragraph (a) or (b) of this section, as... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or in...

  5. Endurance exercise, plasma oxidation and cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Sharman, James E; Geraghty, Dominic P; Shing, Cecilia M; Fraser, David I; Coombes, Jeff S

    2004-12-01

    Although physical activity is beneficial to health, people who exercise at high intensities throughout their lifetime may have increased cardiovascular risk. Aerobic exercise increases oxidative stress and may contribute to atherogenesis by augmented oxidation of plasma lipoproteins. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between aerobic power and markers of oxidative stress, including the susceptibility of plasma to oxidation. Aerobic power was measured in 24 healthy men aged 29+/-9 years (mean+/-SD). Plasma was analysed from subjects of high aerobic power (HAP; VO2max, 64.6+/-6.1 ml/kg/min) and lower aerobic power (LAP;VO2max, 45.1+/-6.3 ml/kg/min) for total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and susceptibility to oxidation. Three measures were used to quantify plasma oxidizability: (1) lag time to conjugated diene formation (lag time); (2) change in absorbance at 234 nm and; (3) slope of the oxidation curve during propagation (slope). The HAP subjects had significantly lower TAC (1.38+/-0.04 versus 1.42+/-0.06 TEAC units; P < 0.05), significantly higher change in absorbance (1.55+/-0.21 versus 1.36+/-0.17 arbitrary units; P < 0.05), but no difference in MDA (P = 0.6), compared to LAP subjects. There was a significant inverse association between TAC and slope (r = -0.49; P < 0.05). Lipoprotein profiles and daily intake of nutrients did not differ between the groups. These findings suggest that people with high aerobic power, due to extreme endurance exercise, have plasma with decreased antioxidant capacity and higher susceptibility to oxidation, which may increase their cardiovascular risk.

  6. High intensity interval training vs. high-volume running training during pre-season conditioning in high-level youth football: a cross-over trial.

    PubMed

    Faude, Oliver; Schnittker, Reinhard; Schulte-Zurhausen, Roman; Müller, Florian; Meyer, Tim

    2013-01-01

    We aimed at comparing the endurance effects of high-intensity interval training (HIIT) with high-volume running training (HVT) during pre-season conditioning in 20 high-level youth football players (15.9 (s 0.8) years). Players either conducted HVT or HIIT during the summer preparation period. During winter preparation they performed the other training programme. Before and after each training period several fitness tests were conducted: multi-stage running test (to assess the individual anaerobic threshold (IAT) and maximal running velocity (Vmax)), vertical jumping height, and straight sprinting. A significant increase from pre- to post-test was observed in IAT velocity (P < 0.001) with a greater increase after HVT (+0.8 km · h(-1) vs. +0.5 km · h(-1) after HIIT, P = 0.04). Maximal velocity during the incremental exercise test also slightly increased with time (P = 0.09). Forty per cent (HIIT) and 15% (HVT) of all players did not improve IAT beyond baseline variability. The players who did not respond to HIIT were significantly slower during 30 m sprinting than responders (P = 0.02). No further significant differences between responders and non-responders were observed. Jump heights deteriorated significantly after both training periods (P < 0.003). Both training programmes seem to be promising means to improve endurance capacity in high-level youth football players during pre-season conditioning.

  7. [Osteoarthritis from long-distance running?].

    PubMed

    Hohmann, E; Wörtler, K; Imhoff, A

    2005-06-01

    Long distance running has become a fashionable recreational activity. This study investigated the effects of external impact loading on bone and cartilage introduced by performing a marathon race. Seven beginners were compared to six experienced recreational long distance runners and two professional athletes. All participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the hip and knee before and after a marathon run. Coronal T1 weighted and STIR sequences were used. The pre MRI served as a baseline investigation and monitored the training effect. All athletes demonstrated normal findings in the pre run scan. All but one athlete in the beginner group demonstrated joint effusions after the race. The experienced and professional runners failed to demonstrate pathology in the post run scans. Recreational and professional long distance runners tolerate high impact forces well. Beginners demonstrate significant changes on the post run scans. Whether those findings are a result of inadequate training (miles and duration) warrant further studies. We conclude that adequate endurance training results in adaptation mechanisms that allow the athlete to compensate for the stresses introduced by long distance running and do not predispose to the onset of osteoarthritis. Significant malalignment of the lower extremity may cause increased focal loading of joint and cartilage.

  8. Enhanced Endurance Performance by Periodization of Carbohydrate Intake: "Sleep Low" Strategy.

    PubMed

    Marquet, Laurie-Anne; Brisswalter, Jeanick; Louis, Julien; Tiollier, Eve; Burke, Louise M; Hawley, John A; Hausswirth, Christophe

    2016-04-01

    We investigated the effect of a chronic dietary periodization strategy on endurance performance in trained athletes. Twenty-one triathletes (V˙O2max: 58.7 ± 5.7 mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) were divided into two groups: a "sleep-low" (SL) (n = 11) and a control (CON) group (n = 10) consumed the same daily carbohydrate (CHO) intake (6 g·kg(-1)·d(-1)) but with different timing over the day to manipulate CHO availability before and after training sessions. The SL strategy consisted of a 3-wk training-diet intervention comprising three blocks of diet-exercise manipulations: 1) "train-high" interval training sessions in the evening with high-CHO availability, 2) overnight CHO restriction ("sleeping-low"), and 3) "train-low" sessions with low endogenous and exogenous CHO availability. The CON group followed the same training program but with high CHO availability throughout training sessions (no CHO restriction overnight, training sessions with exogenous CHO provision). There was a significant improvement in delta efficiency during submaximal cycling for SL versus CON (CON, +1.4% ± 9.3%; SL, +11% ± 15%, P < 0.05). SL also improved supramaximal cycling to exhaustion at 150% of peak aerobic power (CON, +1.63% ± 12.4%; SL, +12.5% ± 19.0%; P = 0.06) and 10-km running performance (CON, -0.10% ± 2.03%; SL, -2.9% ± 2.15%; P < 0.05). Fat mass was decreased in SL (CON, -2.6 ± 7.4; SL, -8.5% ± 7.4% before; P < 0.01), but not lean mass (CON, -0.22 ± 1.0; SL, -0.16% ± 1.7% PRE). Short-term periodization of dietary CHO availability around selected training sessions promoted significant improvements in submaximal cycling economy, as well as supramaximal cycling capacity and 10-km running time in trained endurance athletes.

  9. Performance and Endocrine Responses to Differing Ratios of Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined functional strength and endocrine responses to varying ratios of strength and endurance training in a concurrent training regimen. Thirty resistance trained men completed 6 weeks of 3 d·wk of (a) strength training (ST), (b) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), (c) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1), or (d) no training (CON). Strength training was conducted using whole-body multijoint exercises, whereas endurance training consisted of treadmill running. Assessments of maximal strength, lower-body power, and endocrine factors were conducted pretraining and after 3 and 6 weeks. After the intervention, ST and CT3 elicited similar increases in lower-body strength; furthermore, ST resulted in greater increases than CT1 and CON (all p ≤ 0.05). All training conditions resulted in similar increases in upper-body strength after training. The ST group observed greater increases in lower-body power than all other conditions (all p ≤ 0.05). After the final training session, CT1 elicited greater increases in cortisol than ST (p = 0.008). When implemented as part of a concurrent training regimen, higher volumes of endurance training result in the inhibition of lower-body strength, whereas low volumes do not. Lower-body power was attenuated by high and low frequencies of endurance training. Higher frequencies of endurance training resulted in increased cortisol responses to training. These data suggest that if strength development is the primary focus of a training intervention, frequency of endurance training should remain low.

  10. Age, sex and (the) race: gender and geriatrics in the ultra-endurance age.

    PubMed

    Whyte, Greg

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance challenges were once the stuff of legend isolated to the daring few who were driven to take on some of the greatest physical endurance challenges on the planet. With a growing fascination for major physical challenges during the nineteenth century, the end of the Victorian era witnessed probably the greatest ultra-endurance race of all time; Scott and Amundsen's ill-fated race to the South Pole. Ultra-endurance races continued through the twentieth century; however, these events were isolated to the elite few. In the twenty-first century, mass participation ultra-endurance races have grown in popularity. Endurance races once believed to be at the limit of human durability, i.e. marathon running, are now viewed as middle-distance races with the accolade of true endurance going to those willing to travel significantly further in a single effort or over multiple days. The recent series of papers in Extreme Physiology & Medicine highlights the burgeoning research data from mass participation ultra-endurance events. In support of a true 'mass participation' ethos Knetchtle et al. reported age-related changes in Triple and Deca Iron-ultra-triathlon with an upper age of 69 years! Unlike their shorter siblings, the ultra-endurance races appear to present larger gender differences in the region of 20% to 30% across distance and modality. It would appear that these gender differences remain for multi-day events including the 'Marathon des Sables'; however, this gap may be narrower in some events, particularly those that require less load bearing (i.e. swimming and cycling), as evidenced from the 'Ultraman Hawaii' and 'Swiss Cycling Marathon', and shorter (a term I used advisedly!) distances including the Ironman Triathlon where differences are similar to those of sprint and endurance distances i.e. c. 10%. The theme running through this series of papers is a continual rise in participation to the point where major events now require selection races to remain

  11. Testing the efficacy of existing force-endurance models to account for the prevalence of obesity in the workforce.

    PubMed

    Pajoutan, Mojdeh; Cavuoto, Lora A; Mehta, Ranjana K

    2017-10-01

    This study evaluates whether the existing force-endurance relationship models are predictive of endurance time for overweight and obese individuals, and if not, provide revised models that can be applied for ergonomics practice. Data was collected from 141 participants (49 normal weight, 50 overweight, 42 obese) who each performed isometric endurance tasks of hand grip, shoulder flexion, and trunk extension at four levels of relative workload. Subject-specific fatigue rates and a general model of the force-endurance relationship were determined and compared to two fatigue models from the literature. There was a lack of fit between previous models and the current data for the grip (ICC = 0.8), with a shift toward lower endurance times for the new data. Application of the revised models can facilitate improved workplace design and job evaluation to accommodate the capacities of the current workforce.

  12. Dr. Sheehan on Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, George A.

    This book is both a personal and technical account of the experience of running by a heart specialist who began a running program at the age of 45. In its seventeen chapters, there is information presented on the spiritual, psychological, and physiological results of running; treatment of athletic injuries resulting from running; effects of diet…

  13. Effects of 1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA) on Exercise Capacity and Endothelial Response in Diabetic Mice.

    PubMed

    Przyborowski, Kamil; Wojewoda, Marta; Sitek, Barbara; Zakrzewska, Agnieszka; Kij, Agnieszka; Wandzel, Krystyna; Zoladz, Jerzy Andrzej; Chlopicki, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    1-Methylnicotinamide (MNA), which was initially considered to be a biologically inactive endogenous metabolite of nicotinamide, has emerged as an anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent with the capacity to release prostacyclin (PGI2). In the present study, we characterized the effects of MNA on exercise capacity and the endothelial response to exercise in diabetic mice. Eight-week-old db/db mice were untreated or treated with MNA for 4 weeks (100 mg·kg-1), and their exercise capacity as well as NO- and PGI2-dependent response to endurance running were subsequently assessed. MNA treatment of db/db mice resulted in four-fold and three-fold elevation of urine concentrations of MNA and its metabolites (Met-2PY + Met-4PY), respectively (P<0.01), but did not affect HbA1c concentration, fasting glucose concentration or lipid profile. However, insulin sensitivity was improved (P<0.01). In MNA-treated db/db mice, the time to fatigue for endurance exercise was significantly prolonged (P<0.05). Post-exercise Δ6-keto-PGF1α (difference between mean concentration in the sedentary and exercised groups) tended to increase, and post-exercise leukocytosis was substantially reduced in MNA-treated animals. In turn, the post-exercise fall in plasma concentration of nitrate was not affected by MNA. In conclusion, we demonstrated for the first time that MNA improves endurance exercise capacity in mice with diabetes, and may also decrease the cardiovascular risk of exercise.

  14. Potential Adverse Cardiovascular Effects From Excessive Endurance Exercise

    PubMed Central

    O'Keefe, James H.; Patil, Harshal R.; Lavie, Carl J.; Magalski, Anthony; Vogel, Robert A.; McCullough, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    A routine of regular exercise is highly effective for prevention and treatment of many common chronic diseases and improves cardiovascular (CV) health and longevity. However, long-term excessive endurance exercise may induce pathologic structural remodeling of the heart and large arteries. Emerging data suggest that chronic training for and competing in extreme endurance events such as marathons, ultramarathons, ironman distance triathlons, and very long distance bicycle races, can cause transient acute volume overload of the atria and right ventricle, with transient reductions in right ventricular ejection fraction and elevations of cardiac biomarkers, all of which return to normal within 1 week. Over months to years of repetitive injury, this process, in some individuals, may lead to patchy myocardial fibrosis, particularly in the atria, interventricular septum, and right ventricle, creating a substrate for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Additionally, long-term excessive sustained exercise may be associated with coronary artery calcification, diastolic dysfunction, and large-artery wall stiffening. However, this concept is still hypothetical and there is some inconsistency in the reported findings. Furthermore, lifelong vigorous exercisers generally have low mortality rates and excellent functional capacity. Notwithstanding, the hypothesis that long-term excessive endurance exercise may induce adverse CV remodeling warrants further investigation to identify at-risk individuals and formulate physical fitness regimens for conferring optimal CV health and longevity. PMID:22677079

  15. [Endurance training and cardial adaptation (athlete's heart)].

    PubMed

    Dickhuth, Hans-Hermann; Röcker, Kai; Mayer, Frank; König, Daniel; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike

    2004-06-01

    One essential function of the cardiovascular system is to provide an adequate blood supply to all organs, including the skeletal muscles at rest and during exercise. Adaptation to chronic exercise proceeds mainly via the autonomic nervous system. On the one hand, peripheral muscles influence the autonomic reactions through "feedback" control via ergoreceptors, in particular, mechano- and chemoreceptors. On the other hand, there is central control in the sense of a "feed forward" regulation, e. g., the reaction of an athlete before competition. Along with other influential factors, such as circulatory presso-, chemo-, and volume receptors, the incoming impulses are processed in vegetative centers.A cardiovascular reaction, then, is the result of nerval and humoral sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. At rest, the parasympathetic tone dominates. It reduces heart frequency and conduction velocity. The high vagal tone is initially reduced with increasing physical exertion and switches at higher intensity to increasingly sympathetic activation. This mechanism of reaction to exercise is supported by inverse central and peripheral transmissions.Chronic endurance training leads to an improved local aerobic capacity of the exercised musculature. At rest, it augments parasympathetic activity when the muscle mass is sufficiently large, i. e., 20-30% of the skeletal musculature. The extent of the adaptation depends on individual factors, such as scope, intensity of training, and type of muscle fiber. A higher vagal tone delays the increase in the sympathetic tone during physical exertion. The regulatory range of heart rate, contractility, diastolic function, and blood pressure is increased. In addition, adaptation results in functional and structural changes in the vascular system. Cardiocirculatory work is economized, and maximum performance and oxygen uptake are improved. Endurance training exceeding an individual limit causes harmonic enlargement and hypertrophy of the

  16. [Association between speed and endurance performance with sleep duration in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Chen, T Q; Dong, B; Zhang, W J; Gao, D S; Dong, Y H; Ma, J; Ma, Y H

    2018-06-18

    To analyze the association between sleep duration and athletic performance, and provide scientific basis to improve the 50 m and endurance performance in children and adolescents. All the 119 462 subjects aged 9-15 years in both genders were sampled from 2014 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance by using stratified random cluster sampling method, to measure the height, weight, 50 meters and endurance performance and investigate sleep duration with questionnaire. Their body mass indexes (BMI) were calculated and the students' 50 m, endurance run scores and sleep durations were assessed. Binary Logistic regression was used to analyze the difference between the different sleep groups, and multifactor Logistic regression was used to analyze the relationship between the sleep condition and athletic performance. The prevalence of insufficient sleep was 94.67% in the total subjects, the prevalence was higher among the girls (95.26%)than the boys (94.09%, χ 2 =80.99, P<0.001), and higher among the urban (95.41%) than the rural students(93.93%, χ 2 =128.48, P<0.001).The children with sufficient sleep had better performance in 50 m and endurance run scores( χ 2 50 m =10.10, P 50 m <0.01; χ 2 endurance run =21.76, P<0.001). Logistic regression analysis after controlling the gender, area, grade and BMI showed that children with adequate sleep showed better results(OR 50 m =1.14, 95%CI 50 m =1.05-1.23, P 50 m <0.01; OR endurance run =1.21, 95%CI endurance run =1.11-1.31, P endurance run <0.001). As for gender, the excellent rates of 50 m and endurance run scores in the boys with adequate sleep were higher (P<0.001), but there were no significant difference in 50 m and endurance run excellent rates in the girls of different sleep conditions. The excellent rates of 50 m and endurance run in the urban children and the endurance rate in the rural children and adolescents with adequate sleep were higher than those with insufficient sleep (P<0.01) while there

  17. Impact of a Submaximal Warm-Up on Endurance Performance in Highly Trained and Competitive Male Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zourdos, Michael C.; Bazyler, Caleb D.; Jo, Edward; Khamoui, Andy V.; Park, Bong-Sup; Lee, Sang-Rok; Panton, Lynn B.; Kim, Jeong-Su

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effects of a submaximal running warm-up on running performance in male endurance athletes (n = 16, M[subscript age] = 21 ± 2 years, M[subscript VO2max] = 69.3 ± 5.1 mL/kg/min). Method: Endurance performance was determined by a 30-min distance trial after control and submaximal running…

  18. Effect of salbutamol on neuromuscular function in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Decorte, Nicolas; Bachasson, Damien; Guinot, Michel; Flore, Patrice; Levy, Patrick; Verges, Samuel; Wuyam, Bernard

    2013-10-01

    The potential ergogenic effects of therapeutic inhaled salbutamol doses in endurance athletes have been controversially discussed for decades. We hypothesized that salbutamol inhalation may increase peripheral muscle contractility, reduce fatigability, and improve force recovery after a localized exercise in endurance athletes. Eleven healthy, nonasthmatic male athletes with high aerobic capacities were recruited to be compared in a double-blinded, randomized crossover study of two dose levels of salbutamol (200 and 800 μg) and a placebo administered by inhalation before a quadriceps fatigue test. Subjects performed an incremental exercise protocol consisting in sets of 10 intermittent isometric contractions starting at 20% of maximum voluntary contraction (MVC) with 10% MVC increment until exhaustion. Femoral nerve magnetic stimulation was used during and after MVC to evaluate neuromuscular fatigue after each set, at task failure, and after 10 and 30 min of recovery. Initial MVC and evoked muscular responses were not modified with salbutamol (P > 0.05). The total number of submaximal contractions until task failure significantly differed between treatments (placebo, 72 ± 7; 200 µg, 78 ± 8; and 800 µg, 82 ± 7; P < 0.01). MVC and evoked muscular responses were similarly reduced with all treatments during the fatiguing task (all P > 0.05). Voluntary activation was unaffected by the fatiguing task and treatments (P > 0.05). Supratherapeutic inhaled doses of β2-agonists increased quadriceps endurance during an incremental and localized fatiguing task in healthy endurance-trained athletes without significant effect on neuromuscular fatigue. Further studies are needed to clarify the underlying mechanisms.

  19. Adaptations to Speed Endurance Training in Highly Trained Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Nyberg, Michael; Fiorenza, Matteo; Lund, Anders; Christensen, Magnus; Rømer, Tue; Piil, Peter; Hostrup, Morten; Christensen, Peter M; Holbek, Simon; Ravnholt, Thomas; Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined whether a period of additional speed endurance training would improve intense intermittent exercise performance in highly trained soccer players during the season and whether the training changed aerobic metabolism and the level of oxidative enzymes in type I and type II muscle fibers. During the last 9 wk of the season, 13 semiprofessional soccer players performed additional speed endurance training sessions consisting of two to three sets of 8-10 repetitions of 30-m sprints with 10 s of passive recovery (SET). Before and after SET, subjects completed a double-step exercise protocol that included transitions from standing to moderate-intensity running (~75% HRmax), followed by transitions from moderate- to high-intensity running (~90% HRmax) in which pulmonary oxygen uptake (V˙O2) was determined. In addition, the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 was performed, and a muscle biopsy was obtained at rest. The yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 1 performance was 11.6% ± 6.4% (mean ± SD) better (2803 ± 330 vs 3127 ± 383 m, P < 0.05) after SET compared with before SET. In the transition from standing to moderate-intensity running, phase II pulmonary V˙O2 kinetics was 11.4% ± 16.5% faster (P < 0.05), and the running economy at this intensity was 2.3% ± 3.0% better (P < 0.05). These improvements were apparent despite the content of muscle proteins regulating oxidative metabolism (3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase, COX IV, and OXPHOS), and capillarization was reduced (P < 0.05). The content of 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase and citrate synthase in type I and type II fibers did not change. In highly trained soccer players, additional speed endurance training is associated with an improved ability to perform repeated high-intensity work. To what extent the training-induced changes in V˙O2 kinetics and mechanical efficiency in type I fibers caused the improvement in performance warrants further investigation.

  20. Are H-reflex and M-wave recruitment curve parameters related to aerobic capacity?

    PubMed

    Piscione, Julien; Grosset, Jean-François; Gamet, Didier; Pérot, Chantal

    2012-10-01

    Soleus Hoffmann reflex (H-reflex) amplitude is affected by a training period and type and level of training are also well known to modify aerobic capacities. Previously, paired changes in H-reflex and aerobic capacity have been evidenced after endurance training. The aim of this study was to investigate possible links between H- and M-recruitment curve parameters and aerobic capacity collected on a cohort of subjects (56 young men) that were not involved in regular physical training. Maximal H-reflex normalized with respect to maximal M-wave (H(max)/M(max)) was measured as well as other parameters of the H- or M-recruitment curves that provide information about the reflex or direct excitability of the motoneuron pool, such as thresholds of stimulus intensity to obtain H or M response (H(th) and M(th)), the ascending slope of H-reflex, or M-wave recruitment curves (H(slp) and M(slp)) and their ratio (H(slp)/M(slp)). Aerobic capacity, i.e., maximal oxygen consumption and maximal aerobic power (MAP) were, respectively, estimated from a running field test and from an incremental test on a cycle ergometer. Maximal oxygen consumption was only correlated with M(slp), an indicator of muscle fiber heterogeneity (p < 0.05), whereas MAP was not correlated with any of the tested parameters (p > 0.05). Although higher H-reflex are often described for subjects with a high aerobic capacity because of endurance training, at a basic level (i.e., without training period context) no correlation was observed between maximal H-reflex and aerobic capacity. Thus, none of the H-reflex or M-wave recruitment curve parameters, except M(slp), was related to the aerobic capacity of young, untrained male subjects.

  1. Relationship between scapular muscle and core endurance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Hazar Kanik, Zeynep; Pala, Omer Osman; Gunaydin, Gurkan; Sozlu, Ugur; Alkan, Zeynep Beyza; Basar, Selda; Citaker, Seyit

    2017-01-01

    Scapular muscle endurance and core endurance reportedly influence shoulder injury risk. The exact relationship between scapular muscle endurance and core endurance, and how they impact one another in the healthy subjects remain unclear. To investigate the relationship between scapular muscle endurance and core endurance in healthy subjects. Fifty healthy volunteers (23 males, 27 females; mean age 20.42 ± 1.04 years) were participated in this study. Endurance of the serratus anterior and trapezius muscles was assessed using the scapular muscle endurance test. Sorensen test (endurance of trunk extensor muscles), trunk flexor endurance test, and side bridge test (endurance of lateral core muscles) were conducted to assess the core endurance. Pearson's product moment correlations examined relationships between scapular muscle endurance and each of the core endurance tests scores. Scapular muscle endurance test scores showed a positive correlation with the side bridge test scores (r = 0.414; p = 0.003). No significant correlation was found between scapular muscle endurance test scores and the other core endurance tests scores (p > 0.05). There appears to be a link between the scapular muscle endurance and lateral core muscles in healthy subjects; however, more research is needed to provide a definitive answer on the nature of this relationship. Further studies involving patients with shoulder pathology are warranted.

  2. The value of enduring environmental surrogates as predictors of estuarine benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wildsmith, Michelle D.; Valesini, Fiona J.; Robinson, Samuel F.

    2017-10-01

    This study tested the extent to which spatial differences in the benthic macroinvertebrate assemblages of a temperate microtidal estuary were 'explained' by the enduring (biophysical) vs non-enduring (water and sediment quality) environmental attributes of a diverse range of habitats, and thus the potential of those environmental surrogates to support faunal prediction. Species composition differed significantly among habitats in each season, with the greatest differences occurring in winter and spring and the least in summer. The pattern of habitat differences, as defined by their enduring environmental characteristics, was significantly and well matched with that in the fauna in each season. In contrast, significant matches between the non-enduring environmental and faunal data were only detected in winter and/or spring, and to a lesser extent. Field validation of the faunal prediction capacity of the biophysical surrogate framework at various 'test' sites throughout the estuary showed good agreement between the actual vs predicted key species. These findings demonstrate that enduring environmental criteria, which can be readily measured from mapped data, provide a better and more cost-effective surrogate for explaining spatial differences in the invertebrate fauna of this system than non-enduring criteria, and are thus a promising basis for faunal prediction. The approaches developed in this study are also readily adapted to any estuary worldwide.

  3. Rocker shoe, minimalist shoe, and standard running shoe: a comparison of running economy.

    PubMed

    Sobhani, Sobhan; Bredeweg, Steef; Dekker, Rienk; Kluitenberg, Bas; van den Heuvel, Edwin; Hijmans, Juha; Postema, Klaas

    2014-05-01

    Running with rocker shoes is believed to prevent lower limb injuries. However, it is not clear how running in these shoes affects the energy expenditure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to assess the effects of rocker shoes on running economy in comparison with standard and minimalist running shoes. Cross-over design. Eighteen endurance female runners (age=23.6 ± 3 years), who were inexperienced in running with rocker shoes and with minimalist/barefoot running, participated in this study. Oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, heart rate and rate of perceived exertion were measured while participants completed a 6-min sub-maximal treadmill running test for each footwear condition. The data of the last 2 min of each shoe condition were averaged for analysis. A linear mixed model was used to compare differences among three footwear conditions. Oxygen consumption during running with rocker shoes was on average 4.5% higher than with the standard shoes (p<0.001) and 5.6% higher than with the minimalist shoe (p<0.001). No significant differences were found in heart rate and rate of perceived exertion across three shoe conditions. Female runners, who are not experienced in running with the rocker shoes and minimalist shoes, show more energy expenditure during running with the rocker shoes compared with the standard and minimalist shoes. As the studied shoes were of different masses, part of the effect of increased energy expenditure with the rocker shoe is likely to be due to its larger mass as compared with standard running shoes and minimalist shoes. Copyright © 2013 Sports Medicine Australia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Physiological Adaptations to Chronic Endurance Exercise Training in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1987

    1987-01-01

    In a roundtable format, five doctors explore the reasons why regular physical activity should continue to play a significant role in the rehabilitation of patients with coronary artery disease. Endurance exercise training improves aerobic capacity, reduces blood pressure, and decreases risk. (Author/MT)

  5. Testing of Badminton-Specific Endurance.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Christian M; Højlyng, Mads; Nybo, Lars

    2016-09-01

    Madsen, CM, Højlyng, M, and Nybo, L. Testing of badminton-specific endurance. J Strength Cond Res 30(9): 2582-2590, 2016-In the present study, a novel intermittent badminton endurance (B-ENDURANCE) test was developed and tested in elite (n = 17) and skilled (n = 9) badminton players and in age-matched physically active men (nonbadminton players; n = 8). In addition, B-ENDURANCE test-retest reproducibility was evaluated in 9 badminton players. The B-ENDURANCE test is an incremental test where each level consists of repeated sequences of badminton-specific actions toward the 4 corners of the court. The subject starts in the center of the court in front of a computer screen and within each sequence, he must, in a randomized order, complete 8 actions as dictated by the computer, providing the audiovisual input and verifying that the appropriate sensor is activated within the allocated time. Recovery time between each sequence is 10 seconds throughout the test, but the time to complete each sequence is gradually decreased until the subjects cannot follow the dictated tempo. The B-ENDURANCE test performance for elite players was better (p ≤ 0.05) compared with the skilled players and nonbadminton players. In addition, the B-ENDURANCE test performance correlated (r = 0.8 and p < 0.0001) with elite players' national single rankings. Test-retest coefficient of variation was 7.9% between the first 2 trials (i.e., without a familiarization trial) but reduced to 2.5% when comparing the second and third trials. In conclusion, the B-ENDURANCE test is relevant for the evaluation of badminton-specific endurance but at least 1 familiarization trial is recommended if the test is used for evaluation of longitudinal changes, e.g., tracking training effects.

  6. Metabolic characteristics of keto-adapted ultra-endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Volek, Jeff S; Freidenreich, Daniel J; Saenz, Catherine; Kunces, Laura J; Creighton, Brent C; Bartley, Jenna M; Davitt, Patrick M; Munoz, Colleen X; Anderson, Jeffrey M; Maresh, Carl M; Lee, Elaine C; Schuenke, Mark D; Aerni, Giselle; Kraemer, William J; Phinney, Stephen D

    2016-03-01

    Many successful ultra-endurance athletes have switched from a high-carbohydrate to a low-carbohydrate diet, but they have not previously been studied to determine the extent of metabolic adaptations. Twenty elite ultra-marathoners and ironman distance triathletes performed a maximal graded exercise test and a 180 min submaximal run at 64% VO2max on a treadmill to determine metabolic responses. One group habitually consumed a traditional high-carbohydrate (HC: n=10, %carbohydrate:protein:fat=59:14:25) diet, and the other a low-carbohydrate (LC; n=10, 10:19:70) diet for an average of 20 months (range 9 to 36 months). Peak fat oxidation was 2.3-fold higher in the LC group (1.54±0.18 vs 0.67±0.14 g/min; P=0.000) and it occurred at a higher percentage of VO2max (70.3±6.3 vs 54.9±7.8%; P=0.000). Mean fat oxidation during submaximal exercise was 59% higher in the LC group (1.21±0.02 vs 0.76±0.11 g/min; P=0.000) corresponding to a greater relative contribution of fat (88±2 vs 56±8%; P=0.000). Despite these marked differences in fuel use between LC and HC athletes, there were no significant differences in resting muscle glycogen and the level of depletion after 180 min of running (-64% from pre-exercise) and 120 min of recovery (-36% from pre-exercise). Compared to highly trained ultra-endurance athletes consuming an HC diet, long-term keto-adaptation results in extraordinarily high rates of fat oxidation, whereas muscle glycogen utilization and repletion patterns during and after a 3 hour run are similar. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Exercise economy in skiing and running

    PubMed Central

    Losnegard, Thomas; Schäfer, Daniela; Hallén, Jostein

    2014-01-01

    Substantial inter-individual variations in exercise economy exist even in highly trained endurance athletes. The variation is believed to be determined partly by intrinsic factors. Therefore, in the present study, we compared exercise economy in V2-skating, double poling, and uphill running. Ten highly trained male cross-country skiers (23 ± 3 years, 180 ± 6 cm, 75 ± 8 kg, VO2peak running: 76.3 ± 5.6 mL·kg−1·min−1) participated in the study. Exercise economy and VO2peak during treadmill running, ski skating (V2 technique) and double poling were compared based on correlation analysis. There was a very large correlation in exercise economy between V2-skating and double poling (r = 0.81) and large correlations between V2-skating and running (r = 0.53) and double poling and running (r = 0.58). There were trivial to moderate correlations between exercise economy and the intrinsic factors VO2peak (r = 0.00–0.23), cycle rate (r = 0.03–0.46), body mass (r = −0.09–0.46) and body height (r = 0.11–0.36). In conclusion, the inter-individual variation in exercise economy could be explained only moderately by differences in VO2peak, body mass and body height. Apparently other intrinsic factors contribute to the variation in exercise economy between highly trained subjects. PMID:24478718

  8. On Running and Psychotherapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dukes, Denzel; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Frederic Leer's article "Running as an Adjunct to Psychotherapy" (January 1980 issue of this journal) is criticized by three authors. They focus on the psychological and social effects of running and its usefulness as a treatment for depressed adults. (LAB)

  9. Enduring beliefs about effects of gassing in war: qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To discover the content of enduring beliefs held by first world war veterans about their experience of having been gassed. Design Collection and thematic analysis of written and reported statements from a sample of veterans about gassing. Subjects 103 veterans with a war pension. Results Twelve themes were identified, which were related to individual statements. The systemic nature of chemical weapons played a key part in ideas and beliefs about their capacity to cause enduring harm to health. Unlike shrapnel or a bullet that had a defined physical presence, gas had unseen effects within the body, while its capacity to cause damage was apparent from vesicant effects to skin and eyes. The terror inspired by chemical weapons also served to maintain memories of being gassed, while anti-gas measures were themselves disconcerting or a source of discomfort. Conclusions Chronic symptoms and work difficulties maintained beliefs about the potency of chemical weapons. In the period after the war, gas continued to inspire popular revulsion and was associated with a sense of unfairness. PMID:18156245

  10. Biomechanics of Distance Running.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Peter R., Ed.

    Contributions from researchers in the field of running mechanics are included in the 13 chapters of this book. The following topics are covered: (1) "The Mechanics of Distance Running: A Historical Perspective" (Peter Cavanagh); (2) "Stride Length in Distance Running: Velocity, Body Dimensions, and Added Mass Effects" (Peter Cavanagh, Rodger…

  11. Mean platelet volume (MPV) predicts middle distance running performance.

    PubMed

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Danese, Elisa; Skafidas, Spyros; Tarperi, Cantor; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Schena, Federico

    2014-01-01

    performance. The significant association between baseline MPV and running time suggest that hyperactive platelets may exert some pleiotropic effects on endurance performance.

  12. Combined strength and endurance training in competitive swimmers.

    PubMed

    Aspenes, Stian; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan

    2009-01-01

    swimming force.Two weekly sessions of high-intensity endurance training did not cause improved endurance capacity.It may seem that dry land strength training can improve middle distance performance.

  13. Individual Endurance Training Prescription with Heart Rate Variability.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari; Heikura, Ida; Laine, Tanja; Hynynen, Esa; Botella, Javier; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-07-01

    Measures of HR variability (HRV) have shown potential to be of use in training prescription. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of using HRV in endurance training prescription. Forty recreational endurance runners were divided into the HRV-guided experimental training group (EXP) and traditional predefined training group (TRAD). After a 4-wk preparation training period, TRAD trained according to a predefined training program including two to three moderate- (MOD) and high-intensity training (HIT) sessions per week during an 8-wk intensive training period. The timing of MOD and HIT sessions in EXP was based on HRV, measured every morning. The MOD/HIT session was programmed if HRV was within an individually determined smallest worthwhile change. Otherwise, low-intensity training was performed. Maximal oxygen consumption (V˙O2max) and 3000-m running performance (RS3000m) were measured before and after both training periods. The number of MOD and HIT sessions was significantly lower (P = 0.021, effect size = 0.98) in EXP (13.2 ± 6.0 sessions) compared with TRAD (17.7 ± 2.5 sessions). No other differences in training were found between the groups. RS3000m improved in EXP (2.1% ± 2.0%, P = 0.004) but not in TRAD (1.1% ± 2.7%, P = 0.118) during the intensive training period. A small between-group difference (effect size = 0.42) was found in the change in RS3000m. V˙O2max improved in both groups (EXP: 3.7% ± 4.6%, P = 0.027; TRAD: 5.0% ± 5.2%, P = 0.002). The results of the present study suggest the potential of resting HRV to prescribe endurance training by individualizing the timing of vigorous training sessions.

  14. Running and osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Willick, Stuart E; Hansen, Pamela A

    2010-07-01

    The overall health benefits of cardiovascular exercise, such as running, are well established. However, it is also well established that in certain circumstances running can lead to overload injuries of muscle, tendon, and bone. In contrast, it has not been established that running leads to degeneration of articular cartilage, which is the hallmark of osteoarthritis. This article reviews the available literature on the association between running and osteoarthritis, with a focus on clinical epidemiologic studies. The preponderance of clinical reports refutes an association between running and osteoarthritis. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Response of Gut Microbiota to Metabolite Changes Induced by Endurance Exercise.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xia; Zhang, Zhujun; Hu, Bin; Huang, Wei; Yuan, Chao; Zou, Lingyun

    2018-01-01

    A few animal studies have shown that wheel running could reverse an unhealthy status by shifting the gut microbial composition, but no investigations have studied the effect of endurance running, such as marathon running, on human gut microbial communities. Since many findings have shown that marathon running immediately causes metabolic changes in blood, urine, muscles and lymph that potentially impact the gut microbiota (GM) within several hours. Here, we investigated whether the GM immediately responds to the enteric changes in amateur half-marathon runners. Alterations in the metabolic profile and microbiota were investigated in fecal samples based on an untargeted metabolomics methodology and 16S rDNA sequencing analysis. A total of 40 fecal metabolites were found significantly changed after finishing a half-marathon race. The most significantly different metabolites were organic acids (the major increased metabolites) and nucleic acid components (the major decreased metabolites). The enteric changes induced by running did not affect the α-diversity of the GM, but the abundances of certain microbiota members were shown to be significantly different before and after running. The family Coriobacteriaceae was identified as a potential biomarker that links exercise with health improvement. Functional prediction showed a significantly activated "Cell motility" function of GM within participants after running. Correlation analysis indicated that the observed differential GM in our study might have been the shared outcome of running and diet. This study provided knowledge regarding the health impacts of marathon running from the perspective of GM for the first time. Our data indicated that long-distance endurance running can immediately cause striking metabolic changes in the gut environment. Gut microbes can rapidly respond to the altered fecal metabolites by adjusting certain bacterial taxa. These findings highlighted the health-promoting benefits of exercise from

  16. Whole beetroot consumption acutely improves running performance.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Margaret; Eliot, Katie; Heuertz, Rita M; Weiss, Edward

    2012-04-01

    Nitrate ingestion improves exercise performance; however, it has also been linked to adverse health effects, except when consumed in the form of vegetables. The purpose of this study was to determine, in a double-blind crossover study, whether whole beetroot consumption, as a means for increasing nitrate intake, improves endurance exercise performance. Eleven recreationally fit men and women were studied in a double-blind placebo controlled crossover trial performed in 2010. Participants underwent two 5-km treadmill time trials in random sequence, once 75 minutes after consuming baked beetroot (200 g with ≥500 mg nitrate) and once 75 minutes after consuming cranberry relish as a eucaloric placebo. Based on paired t tests, mean running velocity during the 5-km run tended to be faster after beetroot consumption (12.3±2.7 vs 11.9±2.6 km/hour; P=0.06). During the last 1.1 miles (1.8 km) of the 5-km run, running velocity was 5% faster (12.7±3.0 vs 12.1±2.8 km/hour; P=0.02) in the beetroot trial, with no differences in velocity (P≥0.25) in the earlier portions of the 5-km run. No differences in exercise heart rate were observed between trials; however, at 1.8 km into the 5-km run, rating of perceived exertion was lower with beetroot (13.0±2.1 vs 13.7±1.9; P=0.04). Consumption of nitrate-rich, whole beetroot improves running performance in healthy adults. Because whole vegetables have been shown to have health benefits, whereas nitrates from other sources may have detrimental health effects, it would be prudent for individuals seeking performance benefits to obtain nitrates from whole vegetables, such as beetroot. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Five training sessions improves 3000 meter running performance.

    PubMed

    Riiser, A; Ripe, S; Aadland, E

    2015-12-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of two weeks of endurance training on 3000-meter running performance. Secondary we wanted to assess the relationship between baseline running performance and change in running performance over the intervention period. We assigned 36 military recruits to a training group (N.=28) and a control group. The training group was randomly allocated to one of three sub-groups: 1) a 3000 meter group (test race); 2) a 4x4-minutes high-intensity interval group; 3) a continuous training group. The training group exercised five times over a two-week period. The training group improved its 3000 meter running performance with 50 seconds (6%) compared to the control group (P=0.003). Moreover, all sub-groups improved their performance by 37 to 73 seconds (4-8%) compared to the control group (P<0.037). There was a significant relationship between pretest performance and improvement from pre- to post-test (ρ=-0.65, P<0.001) in the training group. We conclude that five endurance training sessions improved 3000 meter running performance and the slowest runners achieved the greatest improvement in running performance.

  18. Is There an Optimal Speed for Economical Running?

    PubMed

    Black, Matthew I; Handsaker, Joseph C; Allen, Sam J; Forrester, Stephanie E; Folland, Jonathan P

    2018-01-01

    The influence of running speed and sex on running economy is unclear and may have been confounded by measurements of oxygen cost that do not account for known differences in substrate metabolism, across a limited range of speeds, and differences in performance standard. Therefore, this study assessed the energy cost of running over a wide range of speeds in high-level and recreational runners to investigate the effect of speed (in absolute and relative terms) and sex (men vs women of equivalent performance standard) on running economy. To determine the energy cost (kcal · kg -1  · km -1 ) of submaximal running, speed at lactate turn point (sLTP), and maximal rate of oxygen uptake, 92 healthy runners (high-level men, n = 14; high-level women, n = 10; recreational men, n = 35; recreational women, n = 33) completed a discontinuous incremental treadmill test. There were no sex-specific differences in the energy cost of running for the recreational or high-level runners when compared at absolute or relative running speeds (P > .05). The absolute and relative speed-energy cost relationships for the high-level runners demonstrated a curvilinear U shape with a nadir reflecting the most economical speed at 13 km/h or 70% sLTP. The high-level runners were more economical than the recreational runners at all absolute and relative running speeds (P < .05). These findings demonstrate that there is an optimal speed for economical running, there is no sex-specific difference, and high-level endurance runners exhibit better running economy than recreational endurance runners.

  19. Influence of mental workload on muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery during intermittent static work.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ranjana K; Agnew, Michael J

    2012-08-01

    Most occupational tasks involve some level of mental/cognitive processing in addition to physical work; however, the etiology of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) due to these demands remains unclear. The aim of this study was to quantify the interactive effects of physical and mental workload on muscle endurance, fatigue, and recovery during intermittent work. Twelve participants, balanced by gender, performed intermittent static shoulder abductions to exhaustion at 15, 35, and 55% of individual maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), in the absence (control) and presence (concurrent) of a mental arithmetic task. Changes in muscular capacity were determined using endurance time, strength decline, electromyographic (EMG) fatigue indicators, muscle oxygenation, and heart rate measures. Muscular recovery was quantified through changes in strength and physiological responses. Mental workload was associated with shorter endurance times, specifically at 35% MVC, and greater strength decline. EMG and oxygenation measures showed similar changes during fatigue manifestation during concurrent conditions compared to the control, despite shorter endurance times. Moreover, decreased heart rate variability during concurrent demand conditions indicated increased mental stress. Although strength recovery was not influenced by mental workload, a slower heart rate recovery was observed after concurrent demand conditions. The findings from this study provide fundamental evidence that physical capacity (fatigability and recovery) is adversely affected by mental workload. Thus, it is critical to determine or evaluate occupational demands based on modified muscular capacity (due to mental workload) to reduce risk of WMSD development.

  20. Changes in fitness and shipboard task performance following circuit weight training programs featuring continuous or interval running.

    PubMed

    Marcinik, E J; Hodgdon, J A; Englund, C E; O'Brien, J J

    1987-01-01

    Pre- and post-physiological data were collected on 57 Navy men (mean age = 19.5 years) who participated in either circuit weight training/continuous run (CWT/CR) (N = 31) or circuit weight training/interval run (CWT/IR) (N = 26) programs. Measured variables included 4 measures of upper torso dynamic strength (one repetition maximum [1 RM] for arm curl, bench press, shoulder press, and lat pull-down); two measures of lower torso dynamic strength (1 RM) for knee extension and leg press); one measure of power (number of revolutions completed on an arm ergometer (Monark) at maximum drag); three measures of muscular endurance (number of repetitions at 60% 1 RM for bench press and leg press and maximal number of bent-knee sit-ups in 120 s); one stamina measure (time to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer (Monark) maximal work capacity [MWC] test; and three simulated shipboard tasks: manikin shoulder drag, open/secure a water tight door and paint bucket carry. Composite shipboard performance derived from the summed time (s) required to complete the three tasks was also calculated. Results show performance on the manikin shoulder drag and majority of evaluative fitness measures was significantly (p less than 0.05) enhanced following both circuit weight training/run formats. Significantly (p less than 0.05) higher values for shoulder press (F = 7.2), arm ergometer (F = 5.3), and sit-ups (F = 6.8) and lower values for leg press muscular endurance (F = 5.1) were observed in CWT/IR when compared to CWT/CR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Vascular characteristics in young women-Effect of extensive endurance training or a sedentary lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Bjarnegård, N; Länne, T; Cinthio, M; Ekstrand, J; Hedman, K; Nylander, E; Henriksson, J

    2018-06-01

    To explore whether high-level endurance training in early age has an influence on the arterial wall properties in young women. Forty-seven athletes (ATH) and 52 controls (CTR), all 17-25 years of age, were further divided into runners (RUN), whole-body endurance athletes (WBA), sedentary controls (SC) and normally active controls (AC). Two-dimensional ultrasound scanning of the carotid arteries was conducted to determine local common carotid artery (CCA) geometry and wall distensibility. Pulse waves were recorded with a tonometer to determine regional pulse wave velocity (PWV) and pulse pressure waveform. Carotid-radial PWV was lower in WBA than in RUN (P < .05), indicating higher arterial distensibility along the arm. Mean arterial pressure was lower in ATH than in CTR and in RUN than in WBA (P < .05). Synthesized aortic augmentation index (AI@75) was lower among ATH than among CTR (-12.8 ± 1.6 vs -2.6 ± 1.2%, P < .001) and in WBA than in RUN (-16.4 ± 2.5 vs -10.7 ± 2.0%, P < .05), suggesting a diminished return of reflection waves to the aorta during systole. Carotid-femoral PWV and intima-media thickness (IMT), lumen diameter and radial distensibility of the CCA were similar in ATH and CTR. Elastic artery distensibility and carotid artery IMT are not different in young women with extensive endurance training over several years and in those with sedentary lifestyle. On the other hand, our data suggest that long-term endurance training is associated with potentially favourable peripheral artery adaptation, especially in sports where upper body work is added. This adaptation, if persisting later in life, could contribute to lower cardiovascular risk. © 2018 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Endurance of Damping Properties of Foam-Filled Tubes

    PubMed Central

    Strano, Matteo; Marra, Alessandro; Mussi, Valerio; Goletti, Massimo; Bocher, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    The favorable energy-absorption properties of metal foams have been frequently proposed for damping or anti-crash applications. The aim of this paper is to investigate the endurance of these properties for composite structures, made by a metal or a hybrid metal-polymeric foam used as the core filling of a tubular metal case. The results of experimental tests are shown, run with two types of structures: 1) square steel tubes filled with aluminum or with hybrid aluminum-polymer foams; 2) round titanium tubes filled with aluminum foams. The paper shows that the damping properties of a foam-filled tube change (improve) with the number of cycles, while all other dynamic properties are nearly constant. This result is very important for several potential applications where damping is crucial, e.g., for machine tools. PMID:28793425

  3. Endurance of Damping Properties of Foam-Filled Tubes.

    PubMed

    Strano, Matteo; Marra, Alessandro; Mussi, Valerio; Goletti, Massimo; Bocher, Philippe

    2015-07-07

    The favorable energy-absorption properties of metal foams have been frequently proposed for damping or anti-crash applications. The aim of this paper is to investigate the endurance of these properties for composite structures, made by a metal or a hybrid metal-polymeric foam used as the core filling of a tubular metal case. The results of experimental tests are shown, run with two types of structures: 1) square steel tubes filled with aluminum or with hybrid aluminum-polymer foams; 2) round titanium tubes filled with aluminum foams. The paper shows that the damping properties of a foam-filled tube change (improve) with the number of cycles, while all other dynamic properties are nearly constant. This result is very important for several potential applications where damping is crucial, e.g., for machine tools.

  4. Activation of PPARδ signaling improves skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism and endurance function in an animal model of ischemic left ventricular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Zizola, Cynthia; Kennel, Peter J.; Akashi, Hirokazu; Ji, Ruiping; Castillero, Estibaliz; George, Isaac; Homma, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    Exercise intolerance in heart failure has been linked to impaired skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Oxidative metabolism and exercise capacity are regulated by PPARδ signaling. We hypothesized that PPARδ stimulation reverts skeletal muscle oxidative dysfunction. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in C57BL/6 mice and the development of ventricular dysfunction was monitored over 8 wk. Mice were randomized to the PPARδ agonist GW501516 (5 mg/kg body wt per day for 4 wk) or placebo 8 wk post-MI. Muscle function was assessed through running tests and grip strength measurements. In muscle, we analyzed muscle fiber cross-sectional area and fiber types, metabolic gene expression, fatty acid (FA) oxidation and ATP content. Signaling pathways were studied in C2C12 myotubes. FA oxidation and ATP levels decreased in muscle from MI mice compared with sham- operated mice. GW501516 administration increased oleic acid oxidation levels in skeletal muscle of the treated MI group compared with placebo treatment. This was accompanied by transcriptional changes including increased CPT1 expression. Further, the PPARδ-agonist improved running endurance compared with placebo. Cell culture experiments revealed protective effects of GW501516 against the cytokine-induced decrease of FA oxidation and changes in metabolic gene expression. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in HF is associated with impaired PPARδ signaling and treatment with the PPARδ agonist GW501516 corrects oxidative capacity and FA metabolism and improves exercise capacity in mice with LV dysfunction. Pharmacological activation of PPARδ signaling could be an attractive therapeutic intervention to counteract the progressive skeletal muscle dysfunction in HF. PMID:25713305

  5. Activation of PPARδ signaling improves skeletal muscle oxidative metabolism and endurance function in an animal model of ischemic left ventricular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Zizola, Cynthia; Kennel, Peter J; Akashi, Hirokazu; Ji, Ruiping; Castillero, Estibaliz; George, Isaac; Homma, Shunichi; Schulze, P Christian

    2015-05-01

    Exercise intolerance in heart failure has been linked to impaired skeletal muscle oxidative capacity. Oxidative metabolism and exercise capacity are regulated by PPARδ signaling. We hypothesized that PPARδ stimulation reverts skeletal muscle oxidative dysfunction. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in C57BL/6 mice and the development of ventricular dysfunction was monitored over 8 wk. Mice were randomized to the PPARδ agonist GW501516 (5 mg/kg body wt per day for 4 wk) or placebo 8 wk post-MI. Muscle function was assessed through running tests and grip strength measurements. In muscle, we analyzed muscle fiber cross-sectional area and fiber types, metabolic gene expression, fatty acid (FA) oxidation and ATP content. Signaling pathways were studied in C2C12 myotubes. FA oxidation and ATP levels decreased in muscle from MI mice compared with sham- operated mice. GW501516 administration increased oleic acid oxidation levels in skeletal muscle of the treated MI group compared with placebo treatment. This was accompanied by transcriptional changes including increased CPT1 expression. Further, the PPARδ-agonist improved running endurance compared with placebo. Cell culture experiments revealed protective effects of GW501516 against the cytokine-induced decrease of FA oxidation and changes in metabolic gene expression. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in HF is associated with impaired PPARδ signaling and treatment with the PPARδ agonist GW501516 corrects oxidative capacity and FA metabolism and improves exercise capacity in mice with LV dysfunction. Pharmacological activation of PPARδ signaling could be an attractive therapeutic intervention to counteract the progressive skeletal muscle dysfunction in HF. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  6. [Effects of branched amino acids in endurance sports: a review].

    PubMed

    Salinas-García, María Elia; Martínez-Sanz, José Miguel; Urdampilleta, Aritz; Mielgo-Ayuso, Juan; Norte Navarro, Aurora; Ortiz-Moncada, Rocio

    2014-11-16

    The report issued by the European Food Safety Agency (EFSA) in 2010 on nutrition and health claims, shows that there is no scientific evidence to support supplementation with branched chain amino acids (BCAAs). The aim of this study is to analyze the effects of consumption of BCAAs in endurance sports. A literature review on the current state of the effect of consumption of dietary supplements of BCAAs. We conducted a search in the PubMed database and snowball strategy. Spanish / English randomized clinical trial related to the consumption of BCAAs, leucine, valine and isoleucine in endurance sports and its effects on muscle damage, athletic performance, central fatigue, anabolic signals during recovery and immune system response published in any country until May 2014. Out of 330 studies identified, 14 met the inclusion criteria. The mean of subjects participating in the study was (11.36±7.43). Only two studies included a group of women. The sports that we found in the studies were: run, cycling, combining cycling and running, Olympic distance triathlon and one study included 2 groups of athletes (Olympic distance triathletes and runners). The effects of BCAAs and muscle damage, athletic performance, central fatigue, anabolic signals during recovery period and immune response were studied at different times: before, during and after training or a combination of these. It is observed that there is a lesser degree of pain and muscle damage, less perceived exertion and mental fatigue, greater anabolic response in recovery period and improved immune response when supplemented with BCAAs, notwithstanding its decision before or during physical activity does not improve athletic performance. No consensus was found in the dose and timing of the most effective decision, although it is more effective if there is 2-3/1/1g relationship between leucine / isoleucine and valine amino acids. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Reliability, sensitivity and validity of the assistant referee intermittent endurance test (ARIET) - a modified Yo-Yo IE2 test for elite soccer assistant referees.

    PubMed

    Castagna, Carlo; Bendiksen, Mads; Impellizzeri, Franco M; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    We examined the reliability and validity of the assistant referee intermittent endurance test (ARIET), a modified Yo-Yo IE2 test including shuttles of sideways running. The ARIET was carried out on 198 Italian (Serie A-B, Lega-Pro and National Level) and 47 Danish elite soccer assistant referees. Reproducibility was tested for 41 assistant referees on four occasions each separated by one week. The ARIET intraclass correlation coefficients and typical error of measurement ranged from 0.96 to 0.99 and 3.1 to 5.7%, respectively. ARIET performance for Serie A and B was 23 and 25% greater than in Lega-Pro (P < 0.001). The lowest cut-off value derived from receiving operator characteristic discriminating Serie A-B from Lega-Pro was 1300 m. The ARIET performance was significantly correlated with VO(2max) (r = 0.78, P < 0.001), %HR(max) after 4 min of ARIET (r = - 0.81, P < 0.001) and Yo-Yo IR1 performance (r = 0.95, P < 0.001), but not sprint performance (r = -0.15; P = 0.58). The results showed that ARIET is a reproducible and valid test that is able to discriminate between assistant referees of different competitive levels. The lack of correlation with sprinting ability and close correlations with aerobic power, intermittent shuttle running and sub-maximal ARIET heart rate loading provide evidence that ARIET is a relevant test for assessment of intermittent endurance capacity of soccer assistant referees.

  8. Running increases ethanol preference.

    PubMed

    Werme, Martin; Lindholm, Sara; Thorén, Peter; Franck, Johan; Brené, Stefan

    2002-07-18

    Wheel running performed by rats is reinforcing, rewarding and possibly addictive. In this study we analyzed if wheel running could affect ethanol preference. Lewis rats, known to be both addiction-prone and to develop an excessive wheel running behavior, were given access to ethanol in a two-bottle free-choice paradigm. The animals reached a high and stable ethanol intake after 5 weeks. In the next phase, rats were subjected to ethanol withdrawal for 1, 2 or 4 weeks with or without access to running wheels. Finally animals were again given access to ethanol in the same two-bottle free-choice paradigm, combined with access to running wheels. The rats that ran in running wheels during 1 or 2, but not 4, weeks of ethanol withdrawal increased both ethanol intake and preference as compared with the control group that did not have access to the wheels. Previous studies have demonstrated that low doses of morphine increases ethanol preference. Here we show that also running potentiates ethanol intake and preference. Thus, running which shares many of the reinforcing properties with addictive drugs appears to potentiate rats to an increased preference for ethanol. Our results describe a behavioral interaction where running increases ethanol consumption.

  9. Triathlon: running injuries.

    PubMed

    Spiker, Andrea M; Dixit, Sameer; Cosgarea, Andrew J

    2012-12-01

    The running portion of the triathlon represents the final leg of the competition and, by some reports, the most important part in determining a triathlete's overall success. Although most triathletes spend most of their training time on cycling, running injuries are the most common injuries encountered. Common causes of running injuries include overuse, lack of rest, and activities that aggravate biomechanical predisposers of specific injuries. We discuss the running-associated injuries in the hip, knee, lower leg, ankle, and foot of the triathlete, and the causes, presentation, evaluation, and treatment of each.

  10. TRPV1 activation improves exercise endurance and energy metabolism through PGC-1α upregulation in mice.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Liqun; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Feng, Xiaoli; Ma, Shuangtao; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Tianqi; Cao, Tingbing; Liu, Daoyan; Nilius, Bernd; Huang, Yu; Yan, Zhencheng; Zhu, Zhiming

    2012-03-01

    Impaired aerobic exercise capacity and skeletal muscle dysfunction are associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Acute administration of capsaicin enhances exercise endurance in rodents, but the long-term effect of dietary capsaicin is unknown. The capsaicin receptor, the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel has been detected in skeletal muscle, the role of which remains unclear. Here we report the function of TRPV1 in cultured C2C12 myocytes and the effect of TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin on energy metabolism and exercise endurance of skeletal muscles in mice. In vitro, capsaicin increased cytosolic free calcium and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression in C2C12 myotubes through activating TRPV1. In vivo, PGC-1α in skeletal muscle was upregulated by capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activation or genetic overexpression of TRPV1 in mice. TRPV1 activation increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration, promoted mitochondrial biogenesis, increased oxidative fibers, enhanced exercise endurance and prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders. Importantly, these effects of capsaicin were absent in TRPV1-deficient mice. We conclude that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin improves energy metabolism and exercise endurance by upregulating PGC-1α in skeletal muscles. The present results indicate a novel therapeutic strategy for managing metabolic diseases and improving exercise endurance.

  11. TRPV1 activation improves exercise endurance and energy metabolism through PGC-1α upregulation in mice

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhidan; Ma, Liqun; Zhao, Zhigang; He, Hongbo; Yang, Dachun; Feng, Xiaoli; Ma, Shuangtao; Chen, Xiaoping; Zhu, Tianqi; Cao, Tingbing; Liu, Daoyan; Nilius, Bernd; Huang, Yu; Yan, Zhencheng; Zhu, Zhiming

    2012-01-01

    Impaired aerobic exercise capacity and skeletal muscle dysfunction are associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Acute administration of capsaicin enhances exercise endurance in rodents, but the long-term effect of dietary capsaicin is unknown. The capsaicin receptor, the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) cation channel has been detected in skeletal muscle, the role of which remains unclear. Here we report the function of TRPV1 in cultured C2C12 myocytes and the effect of TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin on energy metabolism and exercise endurance of skeletal muscles in mice. In vitro, capsaicin increased cytosolic free calcium and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) expression in C2C12 myotubes through activating TRPV1. In vivo, PGC-1α in skeletal muscle was upregulated by capsaicin-induced TRPV1 activation or genetic overexpression of TRPV1 in mice. TRPV1 activation increased the expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and mitochondrial respiration, promoted mitochondrial biogenesis, increased oxidative fibers, enhanced exercise endurance and prevented high-fat diet-induced metabolic disorders. Importantly, these effects of capsaicin were absent in TRPV1-deficient mice. We conclude that TRPV1 activation by dietary capsaicin improves energy metabolism and exercise endurance by upregulating PGC-1α in skeletal muscles. The present results indicate a novel therapeutic strategy for managing metabolic diseases and improving exercise endurance. PMID:22184011

  12. Effects of curative treatment emphasizing endurance training on the performance and blood pressure of hypertensive and normotensives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worms, F.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of normal values of blood pressure after exercise taking into account the blood pressure at the end of the exercise test is discussed. Hypertensives showed a lower working capacity than normotensives. In normotensives, however, systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise correlated well with the working capacity. After the endurance cure submaximal blood pressure was markedly lower in hypertensives with a striking dependence on the level of initial values. Systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise test was not changed significantly. Most probably it is not possible to overcome this malregulation in hypertensives by endurance training alone.

  13. Human torque velocity adaptations to sprint, endurance, or combined modes of training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, M. J.; Callister, R.; Dudley, G. A.; Fleck, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    We had groups of athletes perform sprint and endurance run training independently or concurrently for 8 weeks to examine the voluntary in vivo mechanical responses to each type of training. Pre- and posttraining angle-specific peak torque during knee extension and flexion were determined at 0, 0.84, 1.65, 2.51, 3.35, 4.19, and 5.03 radian.sec-1 and normalized for lean body mass. Knee extension torque in the sprint-trained group increased across all test velocities, the endurance-trained group increased at 2.51, 3.34, 4.19, and 5.03 radian.sec-1, and the group performing the combined training showed no change at any velocity. Knee flexion torque of the sprint and combined groups decreased at 0.84, 1.65, and 2.51 radian.sec-1. Knee flexion torque in the sprint-trained group also decreased at 0 radian.sec-1 and in the combined group at 3.34 radian.sec-1. Knee flexion torque in the endurance-trained group showed no change at any velocity of contraction. Mean knee flexion:extension ratios across the test velocities significantly decreased in the sprint-trained group. Knee extension endurance during 30 seconds of maximal contractions significantly increased in all groups. Only the sprint-trained group showed a significant increase in endurance of the knee flexors. These data suggest that changes in the voluntary in vivo mechanical characteristics of knee extensor and flexor skeletal muscles are specific to the type of run training performed.

  14. The effects of strength training on some parameters of aerobic and anaerobic endurance.

    PubMed

    Sentija, Davor; Marsić, Toso; Dizdar, Drazan

    2009-03-01

    The studies exploring the influence of resistance training on endurance in men have produced inconsistent results. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of an Olympic weight lifting training programme on parameters of aerobic and anaerobic endurance in moderately physically active men. Eleven physical education students (age: 24.1 +/- 1.8 yr, height: 1.77 +/- 0.04 m, body mass: 76.1 +/- 6.4 kg; X +/- SD) underwent a 12-week, 3 times/wk training programme of Olympic weight lifting. Specific exercises to master the lifting technique, and basic exercises for maximal strength and power development were applied, with load intensity and volume defined in relation to individual maximal load (repetitio maximalis, RM). Parameters of both, aerobic and anaerobic endurance were estimated from gas exchange data measured during a single incremental treadmill test to exhaustion, which was performed before, and after completion of the 12-wk programme. After training, there was a small, but significant increase in body mass (75.8 +/- 6.4 vs. 76.6 +/- 6.4, p < 0.05) and peak VO2 (54.9 +/- 5.4 vs. 56.4 +/- 5.3 mL O2/min/kg, p < 0.05), with no significant change of the running speed at the anaerobic threshold (V(AT)) and at exhaustion (V(max)) (both p > 0.05). However, there was a significant increase of anaerobic endurance, estimated from the distance run above V(AT), from V(AT) to V(max), (285 +/- 98 m vs 212 +/- 104 m, p < 0.01). The results of this study indicate that changes in both, anaerobic and aerobic endurance due to a 12-wk period of strength training in untrained persons can be determined from a single incremental treadmill test to exhaustion. The possible causes of those training effects include several possible mechanisms, linked primarily to peripheral adaptation.

  15. Agreement between VO[subscript 2peak] Predicted from PACER and One-Mile Run Time-Equated Laps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Anderson, Katelin; Bai, Yang; Welk, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the agreement between estimated peak oxygen consumption (VO[subscript 2peak]) obtained from the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) fitness test and equated PACER laps derived from One-Mile Run time (MR). Methods: A sample of 680 participants (324 boys and 356 girls) in Grades 7 through 12…

  16. Overcoming the "Run" Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Patricia E.

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that it is not simply experiencing anxiety that affects mathematics performance but also how one responds to and regulates that anxiety (Lyons and Beilock 2011). Most people have faced mathematics problems that have triggered their "run response." The issue is not whether one wants to run, but rather…

  17. SLF Run & Walk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-13

    Kennedy Space Center employees and guests are off to a running start at the KSC Walk Run on the Shuttle Landing Facility runway. The annual event, part of Kennedy’s Safety and Health Days, offers 10K, 5K and 2-mile options in the spirit of friendly competition.

  18. Skin autofluorescence is associated with arterial stiffness and insulin level in endurance runners and healthy controls - Effects of aging and endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Couppé, Christian; Dall, Christian Have; Svensson, Rene Brüggebusch; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Karlsen, Anders; Praet, Stephan; Prescott, Eva; Magnusson, S Peter

    2017-05-01

    Life-long regular endurance exercise yields positive effects on cardiovascular and metabolic function, disease and mortality rate. Glycation may be a major mechanism behind age-related diseases. However, it remains unknown if skin autofluorescence (SAF), which reflects glycation, is related to arterial and metabolic function in life-long endurance runners and sedentary controls. Healthy elderly men: 15 life-long endurance runners (OT) (64±4years) and 12 old untrained (OU) (66±4years), and healthy young men; ten young athletes (YT) (26±4years) matched to OT for running distance, and 12 young untrained (YU) (24±3years) were recruited. Endothelial function (reactive hyperemia index, RHI) and arterial stiffness (augmentation index, AI@75 and AI) were measured by an operator-independent PAT 2000. SAF was non-invasively determined using an autofluorescence spectrometer. For AI@75 there was an effect of age (p<0.0001), but not training (p=0.71). There was an interaction for endothelial function (p<0.05): YT had higher RHI than YU (p<0.05) and OU (p<0.01). SAF was associated with arterial stiffness (r 2 =0.57, p<0.001), insulin and HOMA-index levels after age correction (both r 2 =0.19, p<0.05). To our knowledge, these are the first data to show that skin autofluorescence (SAF) is linked to human arterial stiffness and insulin resistance in well-trained elderly and young men as well as sedentary controls. SAF may in the future be a helpful tool to predict vascular and metabolic dysfunction (early signs of aging and pathology). Surprisingly, endurance running only had modest effects on cardiovascular function compared to lean healthy controls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Running Performance, VO2max, and Running Economy: The Widespread Issue of Endogenous Selection Bias.

    PubMed

    Borgen, Nicolai T

    2018-05-01

    Studies in sport and exercise medicine routinely use samples of highly trained individuals in order to understand what characterizes elite endurance performance, such as running economy and maximal oxygen uptake VO 2max . However, it is not well understood in the literature that using such samples most certainly leads to biased findings and accordingly potentially erroneous conclusions because of endogenous selection bias. In this paper, I review the current literature on running economy and VO 2max , and discuss the literature in light of endogenous selection bias. I demonstrate that the results in a large part of the literature may be misleading, and provide some practical suggestions as to how future studies may alleviate endogenous selection bias.

  20. Influence of slope on subtalar pronation in submaximal running performance

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Vinicius Machado; Detoni, Guilherme Cesca; Ferreira, Cristhian; Portela, Bruno Sergio; Queiroga, Marcos Roberto; Tartaruga, Marcus Peikriszwili

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE : To investigate the slope influence on the maximal subtalar pronation in submaximal running speeds. METHODS : Sixteen endurance runners participated of a running economy (RE) test in a treadmill with different slopes (+1%, +5%, +10%, +15%). For each slope a 4-minute run was performed with no rest break for the purpose of measuring the magnitude of kinematic variables by means of a high frequency video camera positioned in a frontal-posterior plane of the individual. RESULTS : No significant differences were verified in maximal subtalar pronation between legs and between the slopes adopted, showing that changes of running technique due to modifications of slope aren't enough to modify the behavior of maximum subtalar pronation. CONCLUSION : The subtalar pronation is independent of slope, which may be influenced by other intervening variables. Level of Evidence II, Diagnostic Study PMID:24453662

  1. Community Capacity Building as a vital mechanism for enhancing the growth and efficacy of a sustainable scientific software ecosystem: experiences running a real-time bi-coastal "Open Science for Synthesis" Training Institute for young Earth and Environmental scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildhauer, M.; Jones, M. B.; Bolker, B.; Lenhardt, W. C.; Hampton, S. E.; Idaszak, R.; Rebich Hespanha, S.; Ahalt, S.; Christopherson, L.

    2014-12-01

    Continuing advances in computational capabilities, access to Big Data, and virtual collaboration technologies are creating exciting new opportunities for accomplishing Earth science research at finer resolutions, with much broader scope, using powerful modeling and analytical approaches that were unachievable just a few years ago. Yet, there is a perceptible lag in the abilities of the research community to capitalize on these new possibilities, due to lacking the relevant skill-sets, especially with regards to multi-disciplinary and integrative investigations that involve active collaboration. UC Santa Barbara's National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis (NCEAS), and the University of North Carolina's Renaissance Computing Institute (RENCI), were recipients of NSF OCI S2I2 "Conceptualization awards", charged with helping define the needs of the research community relative to enabling science and education through "sustained software infrastructure". Over the course of our activities, a consistent request from Earth scientists was for "better training in software that enables more effective, reproducible research." This community-based feedback led to creation of an "Open Science for Synthesis" Institute— a innovative, three-week, bi-coastal training program for early career researchers. We provided a mix of lectures, hands-on exercises, and working group experience on topics including: data discovery and preservation; code creation, management, sharing, and versioning; scientific workflow documentation and reproducibility; statistical and machine modeling techniques; virtual collaboration mechanisms; and methods for communicating scientific results. All technologies and quantitative tools presented were suitable for advancing open, collaborative, and reproducible synthesis research. In this talk, we will report on the lessons learned from running this ambitious training program, that involved coordinating classrooms among two remote sites, and

  2. The Enduring Value of the Physical Examination.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Junaid A B

    2018-05-01

    This article focuses exclusively on physical examination (PE) in the context of clinical medicine, that is, the interaction between a health care provider and patient. In essence, there is not only benefit (value) to PE but also that it will last (endure) for some time. Both "enduring" and "value" are explored in more depth with respect to the future integration of PE into the clinical assessment of a patient and how its value extends well beyond current diagnostic/cost-based metrics. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Serum Oxidant and Antioxidant Status Following an All-Out 21-km Run in Adolescent Runners Undergoing Professional Training—A One-Year Prospective Trial

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Tom K.; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; Lippi, Giuseppe; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the 1-year longitudinal effect of professional training in adolescent runners on redox balance during intense endurance exercise. Changes in selected serum oxidant and antioxidant status in response to a 21-km running time trial in 10 runners (15.5 ± 1.3 years) undergoing professional training were evaluated twice in 12 months (pre- and post-evaluation). Venous blood samples were collected immediately before and 4-h following the 21-km run for analysis of serum concentrations of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), xanthine oxidase (XO), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC). In pre-evaluation trial, serum TBARS and SOD decreased after the 21-km run (p < 0.05) while XO, GSH, CAT and TAOC were unchanged. In post-evaluation trial, serum TBARS and SOD decreased, whereas XO and CAT increased post-exercise (p < 0.05). Furthermore, pre-exercise serum T-AOC, post-exercise serum XO, CAT, T-AOC (p < 0.05), and GSH (p = 0.057) appeared to be higher than the corresponding pre-evaluation values. The current findings suggest that a professional training regime in adolescent runners is not likely to jeopardize the development of their antioxidant defense. However, uncertainties in the maintenance of redox balance in runners facing increased exercise-induced oxidative stress as a consequence of training-induced enhancement of exercise capacity await further elucidation. PMID:23880864

  4. Circulating micrornas as potential biomarkers of aerobic exercise capacity

    PubMed Central

    Viereck, Janika; Krüger, Karsten; Thum, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose microRNAs (miRs) are crucial intracellular mediators of various biological processes, also affecting the cardiovascular system. Recently, it has been shown that miRs circulate extracellularly in the bloodstream and that such circulating miRs change in response to physical activity. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate heart/muscle specific and inflammation related miRs in plasma of individuals before, directly after, and 24 h after a marathon run and to analyze their relation to conventional biochemical, cardiovascular, and performance indexes. Male endurance athletes (n =14) were recruited for the study after performing a battery of cardiac functional tests. Blood samples were collected before, directly after, and 24 h after a public marathon run. miR-1, miR-133, miR-206, miR-499, miR-208b, miR-21, and miR-155 were measured using individual Taqman assays and normalized to Caenorhabditis elegans miR-39 (cel-39) spike-in control. Moreover, soluble cardiac, inflammatory, and muscle damage markers were determined. As a result, skeletal- and heart muscle-specific miRs showed a significant increase after the marathon. The strongest increase was observed for miR-206. Twenty-four hours after the run, only miR-499 and miR-208b were returned to preexercise levels, whereas the others were still enhanced. In contrast, miR-21 and -155 were not affected by exercise. miR-1, -133a, and -206 correlated to aerobic performance parameters such as maximum oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) and running speed at individual anaerobic lactate threshold (VIAS). miR-1 showed a moderate negative correlation with fractional shortening, whereas miR-133a was positively related to the thickness of intraventricular septum. None of the miRs correlated with cardiac injury markers such as troponin T, troponin I, and pro-brain natriuretic peptide. In conclusion, these findings suggest a potential role for muscle- and heart-specific miRs in cardiovascular adaptation processes

  5. Neck Flexor and Extensor Muscle Endurance in Subclinical Neck Pain: Intrarater Reliability, Standard Error of Measurement, Minimal Detectable Change, and Comparison With Asymptomatic Participants in a University Student Population.

    PubMed

    Lourenço, Ana S; Lameiras, Carina; Silva, Anabela G

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess intrarater reliability and to calculate the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) for deep neck flexor and neck extensor muscle endurance tests, and compare the results between individuals with and without subclinical neck pain. Participants were students of the University of Aveiro reporting subclinical neck pain and asymptomatic participants matched for sex and age to the neck pain group. Data on endurance capacity of the deep neck flexors and neck extensors were collected by a blinded assessor using the deep neck flexor endurance test and the extensor endurance test, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), SEM, and MDC were calculated for measurements taken within a session by the same assessor. Differences between groups for endurance capacity were investigated using a Mann-Whitney U test. The deep neck flexor endurance test (ICC = 0.71; SEM = 6.91 seconds; MDC = 19.15 seconds) and neck extensor endurance test (ICC = 0.73; SEM = 9.84 minutes; MDC = 2.34 minutes) are reliable. No significant differences were found between participants with and without neck pain for both tests of muscle endurance (P > .05). The endurance capacity of the deep neck flexors and neck extensors can be reliably measured in participants with subclinical neck pain. However, the wide SEM and MDC might limit the sensitivity of these tests. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Design of ProjectRun21: a 14-week prospective cohort study of the influence of running experience and running pace on running-related injury in half-marathoners.

    PubMed

    Damsted, Camma; Parner, Erik Thorlund; Sørensen, Henrik; Malisoux, Laurent; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard

    2017-11-06

    Participation in half-marathon has been steeply increasing during the past decade. In line, a vast number of half-marathon running schedules has surfaced. Unfortunately, the injury incidence proportion for half-marathoners has been found to exceed 30% during 1-year follow-up. The majority of running-related injuries are suggested to develop as overuse injuries, which leads to injury if the cumulative training load over one or more training sessions exceeds the runners' load capacity for adaptive tissue repair. Owing to an increase of load capacity along with adaptive running training, the runners' running experience and pace abilities can be used as estimates for load capacity. Since no evidence-based knowledge exist of how to plan appropriate half-marathon running schedules considering the level of running experience and running pace, the aim of ProjectRun21 is to investigate the association between running experience or running pace and the risk of running-related injury. Healthy runners using Global Positioning System (GPS) watch between 18 and 65 years will be invited to participate in this 14-week prospective cohort study. Runners will be allowed to self-select one of three half-marathon running schedules developed for the study. Running data will be collected objectively by GPS. Injury will be based on the consensus-based time loss definition by Yamato et al.: "Running-related (training or competition) musculoskeletal pain in the lower limbs that causes a restriction on or stoppage of running (distance, speed, duration, or training) for at least 7 days or 3 consecutive scheduled training sessions, or that requires the runner to consult a physician or other health professional". Running experience and running pace will be included as primary exposures, while the exposure to running is pre-fixed in the running schedules and thereby conditioned by design. Time-to-event models will be used for analytical purposes. ProjectRun21 will examine if particular

  7. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    PubMed Central

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  8. Run Anyone?... Everyone!

    PubMed Central

    McInnis, W. P.

    1974-01-01

    Fitness and health have become bywords in the past decade, signifying increased emphasis on these factors as necessary for good psychological and physical health. Reasons are given why we should run and how to do it. There is a discussion of the technique of running, and equipment. Brief mention is made of complications. An attempt is made to interest the individual in the benefits of running as a sport as well as the best method for the average person to achieve fitness and health. PMID:20469054

  9. Symmetry in running.

    PubMed

    Raibert, M H

    1986-03-14

    Symmetry plays a key role in simplifying the control of legged robots and in giving them the ability to run and balance. The symmetries studied describe motion of the body and legs in terms of even and odd functions of time. A legged system running with these symmetries travels with a fixed forward speed and a stable upright posture. The symmetries used for controlling legged robots may help in elucidating the legged behavior of animals. Measurements of running in the cat and human show that the feet and body sometimes move as predicted by the even and odd symmetry functions.

  10. Biomechanics and running economy.

    PubMed

    Anderson, T

    1996-08-01

    Running economy, which has traditionally been measured as the oxygen cost of running at a given velocity, has been accepted as the physiological criterion for 'efficient' performance and has been identified as a critical element of overall distance running performance. There is an intuitive link between running mechanics and energy cost of running, but research to date has not established a clear mechanical profile of an economic runner. It appears that through training, individuals are able to integrate and accommodate their own unique combination of dimensions and mechanical characteristics so that they arrive at a running motion which is most economical for them. Information in the literature suggests that biomechanical factors are likely to contribute to better economy in any runner. A variety of anthropometric dimensions could influence biomechanical effectiveness. These include: average or slightly smaller than average height for men and slightly greater than average height for women; high ponderal index and ectomorphic or ectomesomorphic physique; low percentage body fat; leg morphology which distributes mass closer to the hip joint; narrow pelvis and smaller than average feet. Gait patterns, kinematics and the kinetics of running may also be related to running economy. These factors include: stride length which is freely chosen over considerable running time; low vertical oscillation of body centre of mass; more acute knee angle during swing; less range of motion but greater angular velocity of plantar flexion during toe-off; arm motion of smaller amplitude; low peak ground reaction forces; faster rotation of shoulders in the transverse plane; greater angular excursion of the hips and shoulders about the polar axis in the transverse plane; and effective exploitation of stored elastic energy. Other factors which may improve running economy are: lightweight but well-cushioned shoes; more comprehensive training history; and the running surface of intermediate

  11. Effects of resistance training on performance in previously trained endurance runners: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz-Ibañez, Manuel; Rodríguez-Pérez, Manuel

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work was to identify, synthesize and evaluate the results of randomized controlled trials examining the effects of resistance training on performance indicators in previously trained endurance runners. A database search was carried out in PubMed, Science Direct, OvidSPMedLine, Wiley, Web of Science, ProQuest and Google Scholar. In accordance with the PRISMA checklist, 18 published articles dated prior to May 2016 involving 321 endurance runners were reviewed using the PEDro scale. Resistance training led to general improvements in muscular strength, running economy, muscle power factors, and direct performance in distances between 1,500 and 10,000 m. Such improvements were not accompanied by a significant increase in body mass or signs of overtraining. However, improvements did not occur in all cases, suggesting that they might depend on the specific characteristics of the resistance training applied. Although current evidence supports the effectiveness of resistance training to improve performance in already trained endurance runners, the methodological inconsistencies identified suggest that the results should be interpreted with caution. Future studies ought to investigate the benefits of resistance training in endurance runners while considering the existence of possible differentiated effects based on the specific characteristics of the resistance training carried out.

  12. Respiratory muscle endurance, oxygen saturation index in vastus lateralis and performance during heavy exercise.

    PubMed

    Oueslati, Ferid; Boone, Jan; Ahmaidi, Said

    2016-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between respiratory muscle endurance, tissue oxygen saturation index dynamics of leg muscle (TSI) and the time to exhaustion (TTE) during high intensity exercise. Eleven males performed a respiratory muscle endurance test, a maximal incremental running field test (8 km h(-1)+0.5 km h(-1) each 60s) and a high-intensity constant speed field test at 90% VO2max. The TSI in vastus lateralis was monitored with near-infrared spectroscopy. The TSI remained steady between 20 and 80% of TTE. Between 80 and 100% of TTE (7.5 ± 6.1%, p<0.05), a significant drop in TSI concomitant with a minute ventilation increase (16 ± 10 l min(-1)) was observed. Moreover, the increase of ventilation was correlated to the drop in TSI (r=0.70, p<0.05). Additionally, respiratory muscle endurance was significantly correlated to TSI time plateau (20-80% TTE) (r=0.83, p<0.05) and to TTE (r=0.95, p<0.001). The results of the present study show that the tissue oxygen saturation plateau might be affected by ventilatory work and that respiratory muscle endurance could be considered as a determinant of performance during heavy exercise. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The Personal Meaning of Participation: Enduring Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, N.

    1989-01-01

    Examines the personal meaning of participation, discussing recreation and consumer behavior literature, the development of an instrument to measure the concept, and the relationship between commitment to camping and choice of campground setting. Personal meaning of participation seems to be best represented by the concept of enduring involvement.…

  14. Hypoglycemia and endurance exercise: dietary considerations.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, W J

    1990-01-01

    Until recently, common dietary prescription for chronic hypoglycemia has been a high-protein, low-carbohydrate regimen (Airola, 1977; Danowski, 1978). Increasing evidence suggests, however, that a diet rich in complex carbohydrates may be more suitable for those involved in endurance exercise (Costill & Miller, 1980; Sherman & Costill, 1984). Although little original research has been undertaken which deals with the effects of performance-enhancing nutritional techniques on the hypoglycemic exerciser, such practices need to be examined in order to understand the mechanisms involved. Specifically, carbohydrate loading would seem to be as important, if not more so, to the hypoglycemic individual as a means of supercompensating glycogen stores prior to endurance performance. The roles of pre-exercise supplements and carbohydrate feedings during exercise in this context are less clear. Although results are mixed, increasing evidence (Snyder et al., 1983; Okano et al., 1988) suggests that carbohydrates may be consumed before exercise with beneficial effects on performance. Because of rapid gastric emptying characteristic of reactive hypoglycemia, it would appear that pre-exercise supplementation may be of particular value to the hypoglycemic exerciser. Further, recent studies (Bergstrom & Hultman, 1967; Coyle et al., 1983; Foster et al., 1986; Leatt & Jacobs, 1986; Horton, 1988) indicate that carbohydrate solutions taken during exercise are effective in maintaining serum glucose levels and improving endurance performance. Careful monitoring of nutritional factors would appear to be critical in creating a suitable dietary environment for the hypoglycemic endurance exerciser.

  15. Reassessing the causal structure of enduring involvement

    Treesearch

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard T. Kyle; James D. Absher; William E. Hammitt

    2009-01-01

    Guided by tenets of identity theory, we hypothesized a causal structure of enduring involvement suggesting that self-relevant components precede the other dimensions. We used Kyle et al.'s (2004a) Modified Involvement Scale, in which leisure involvement is conceptualized as a multidimensional construct consisting of identity affirmation, identity expression,...

  16. The Enduring Appeal of "Learning Styles"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Catherine

    2010-01-01

    Individualism is the dominant value system in Western cultures and, as such, it affects the conduct of every aspect of human endeavour, including education. One of the most enduring effects on education has been the search for individual differences that can explain and predict variation in student achievement, with the hope that pedagogical…

  17. Enduring Mental Health: Prevalence and Prediction

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We review epidemiological evidence indicating that most people will develop a diagnosable mental disorder, suggesting that only a minority experience enduring mental health. This minority has received little empirical study, leaving the prevalence and predictors of enduring mental health unknown. We turn to the population-representative Dunedin cohort, followed from birth to midlife, to compare people never-diagnosed with mental disorder (N = 171; 17% prevalence) to those diagnosed at 1–2 study waves, the cohort mode (N = 409). Surprisingly, compared to this modal group, never-diagnosed Study members were not born into unusually well-to-do families, nor did their enduring mental health follow markedly sound physical health, or unusually high intelligence. Instead, they tended to have an advantageous temperament/personality style, and negligible family history of mental disorder. As adults, they report superior educational and occupational attainment, greater life satisfaction, and higher-quality relationships. Our findings draw attention to “enduring mental health” as a revealing psychological phenotype and suggest it deserves further study. PMID:27929304

  18. Reassessing the structure of enduring leisure involvement

    Treesearch

    Jinhee Jun; Gerard T. Kyle; Symeon P. Vlachopoulos; Nicholas D. Theodorakis; James D. Absher; William E. Hammitt

    2012-01-01

    Using data collected from U.S. and Greek respondents, we tested an alternate conceptualization of enduring leisure involvement where identity was considered a key driver of other affective and conative outcomes. Rather than existing on the same temporal plane, as has been the tradition in the leisure literature, we observed that identity was an antecedent of the other...

  19. Mental toughness latent profiles in endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Zeiger, Robert S.

    2018-01-01

    Mental toughness in endurance athletes, while an important factor for success, has been scarcely studied. An online survey was used to examine eight mental toughness factors in endurance athletes. The study aim was to determine mental toughness profiles via latent profile analysis in endurance athletes and whether associations exist between the latent profiles and demographics and sports characteristics. Endurance athletes >18 years of age were recruited via social media outlets (n = 1245, 53% female). Mental toughness was measured using the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire (SMTQ), Psychological Performance Inventory-Alternative (PPI-A), and self-esteem was measured using the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE). A three-class solution emerged, designated as high mental toughness (High MT), moderate mental toughness (Moderate MT) and low mental toughness (Low MT). ANOVA tests showed significant differences between all three classes on all 8 factors derived from the SMTQ, PPI-A and the RSE. There was an increased odds of being in the High MT class compared to the Low MT class for males (OR = 1.99; 95% CI, 1.39, 2.83; P<0.001), athletes who were over 55 compared to those who were 18–34 (OR = 2.52; 95% CI, 1.37, 4.62; P<0.01), high sports satisfaction (OR = 8.17; 95% CI, 5.63, 11.87; P<0.001), and high division placement (OR = 2.18; 95% CI, 1.46,3.26; P<0.001). The data showed that mental toughness latent profiles exist in endurance athletes. High MT is associated with demographics and sports characteristics. Mental toughness screening in athletes may help direct practitioners with mental skills training. PMID:29474398

  20. The LHCb Run Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessio, F.; Barandela, M. C.; Callot, O.; Duval, P.-Y.; Franek, B.; Frank, M.; Galli, D.; Gaspar, C.; Herwijnen, E. v.; Jacobsson, R.; Jost, B.; Neufeld, N.; Sambade, A.; Schwemmer, R.; Somogyi, P.

    2010-04-01

    LHCb has designed and implemented an integrated Experiment Control System. The Control System uses the same concepts and the same tools to control and monitor all parts of the experiment: the Data Acquisition System, the Timing and the Trigger Systems, the High Level Trigger Farm, the Detector Control System, the Experiment's Infrastructure and the interaction with the CERN Technical Services and the Accelerator. LHCb's Run Control, the main interface used by the experiment's operator, provides access in a hierarchical, coherent and homogeneous manner to all areas of the experiment and to all its sub-detectors. It allows for automated (or manual) configuration and control, including error recovery, of the full experiment in its different running modes. Different instances of the same Run Control interface are used by the various sub-detectors for their stand-alone activities: test runs, calibration runs, etc. The architecture and the tools used to build the control system, the guidelines and components provided to the developers, as well as the first experience with the usage of the Run Control will be presented

  1. Waiting Endurance Time Estimation of Electric Two-Wheelers at Signalized Intersections

    PubMed Central

    Huan, Mei; Yang, Xiao-bao

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposed a model for estimating waiting endurance times of electric two-wheelers at signalized intersections using survival analysis method. Waiting duration times were collected by video cameras and they were assigned as censored and uncensored data to distinguish between normal crossing and red-light running behavior. A Cox proportional hazard model was introduced, and variables revealing personal characteristics and traffic conditions were defined as covariates to describe the effects of internal and external factors. Empirical results show that riders do not want to wait too long to cross intersections. As signal waiting time increases, electric two-wheelers get impatient and violate the traffic signal. There are 12.8% of electric two-wheelers with negligible wait time. 25.0% of electric two-wheelers are generally nonrisk takers who can obey the traffic rules after waiting for 100 seconds. Half of electric two-wheelers cannot endure 49.0 seconds or longer at red-light phase. Red phase time, motor vehicle volume, and conformity behavior have important effects on riders' waiting times. Waiting endurance times would decrease with the longer red-phase time, the lower traffic volume, or the bigger number of other riders who run against the red light. The proposed model may be applicable in the design, management and control of signalized intersections in other developing cities. PMID:24895659

  2. Waiting endurance time estimation of electric two-wheelers at signalized intersections.

    PubMed

    Huan, Mei; Yang, Xiao-bao

    2014-01-01

    The paper proposed a model for estimating waiting endurance times of electric two-wheelers at signalized intersections using survival analysis method. Waiting duration times were collected by video cameras and they were assigned as censored and uncensored data to distinguish between normal crossing and red-light running behavior. A Cox proportional hazard model was introduced, and variables revealing personal characteristics and traffic conditions were defined as covariates to describe the effects of internal and external factors. Empirical results show that riders do not want to wait too long to cross intersections. As signal waiting time increases, electric two-wheelers get impatient and violate the traffic signal. There are 12.8% of electric two-wheelers with negligible wait time. 25.0% of electric two-wheelers are generally nonrisk takers who can obey the traffic rules after waiting for 100 seconds. Half of electric two-wheelers cannot endure 49.0 seconds or longer at red-light phase. Red phase time, motor vehicle volume, and conformity behavior have important effects on riders' waiting times. Waiting endurance times would decrease with the longer red-phase time, the lower traffic volume, or the bigger number of other riders who run against the red light. The proposed model may be applicable in the design, management and control of signalized intersections in other developing cities.

  3. Fire endurance research at the Forest Products Laboratory

    Treesearch

    R. H. White

    1990-01-01

    Fire endurance research activities and facilities at the FPL concern the ability of a wood member or assembly to withstand the effects of fire while acting as a fire barrier and supporting a load. Fire endurance is generally concerned with the post-flashover portion of the fire. The importance of fire endurance in fire safety is reflected in building code requirements...

  4. Effects of foot orthotics on running economy: methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    Burke, Jeanmarie R; Papuga, M Owen

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to collect preliminary data to address methodological considerations that may impact subject-specific reactions to foot orthotics during running. Six endurance-trained recreational runners recruited from a chiropractic college campus wore their preferred running shoes and then inserted either their custom-made orthotics during 1 testing session or their shoe-fitted insoles during the other testing session. Comfort perception was measured for each footwear condition. Measurements of oxygen consumption (VO2) at several moderate exercise intensities, to mimic recreational running, generated an individual's economy-of-running line. Predicted running velocity at VO(2max) (vVO2max) was calculated as an index of endurance performance. Lower extremity muscle activity was recorded. Descriptive statistics, a repeated-measures analysis of variance model, and a paired t test were used to document any systematic changes in running economy, lower extremity muscle activities, and vVO2max within and across subjects as a function of footwear conditions. Decreases in VO2 at several moderate exercise intensities (F((1,5)footwear) = 10.37, P = .023) and increases in vVO2max (t(5) = 4.20, P = .008) occurred in all 6 subjects while wearing their orthotic intervention vs their shoe-fitted insoles. There were no consistent changes in lower extremity muscle activity. Methodological decisions to use a sustained incremental exercise protocol at several moderate exercise intensities and to measure comfort perception of a custom-molded foot orthosis were effective at documenting systematic improvements in running economy among the 6 recreational runners tested. The development of a less physically demanding sustained exercise protocol is necessary to determine underlying neuromuscular mechanisms and/or clinical effectiveness of orthotic interventions. Copyright © 2012 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Variation in Foot Strike Patterns during Running among Habitually Barefoot Populations

    PubMed Central

    Hatala, Kevin G.; Dingwall, Heather L.; Wunderlich, Roshna E.; Richmond, Brian G.

    2013-01-01

    Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use a forefoot strike in order to avoid generating the high impact forces that would be experienced if they were to strike the ground with their heels first. This finding suggests that our habitually unshod ancestors may have run in a similar way. However, this research was conducted on a single population and we know little about variation in running form among habitually barefoot people, including the effects of running speed, which has been shown to affect strike patterns in shod runners. Here, we present the results of our investigation into the selection of running foot strike patterns among another modern habitually unshod group, the Daasanach of northern Kenya. Data were collected from 38 consenting adults as they ran along a trackway with a plantar pressure pad placed midway along its length. Subjects ran at self-selected endurance running and sprinting speeds. Our data support the hypothesis that a forefoot strike reduces the magnitude of impact loading, but the majority of subjects instead used a rearfoot strike at endurance running speeds. Their percentages of midfoot and forefoot strikes increased significantly with speed. These results indicate that not all habitually barefoot people prefer running with a forefoot strike, and suggest that other factors such as running speed, training level, substrate mechanical properties, running distance, and running frequency, influence the selection of foot strike patterns. PMID:23326341

  6. Variation in foot strike patterns during running among habitually barefoot populations.

    PubMed

    Hatala, Kevin G; Dingwall, Heather L; Wunderlich, Roshna E; Richmond, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Endurance running may have a long evolutionary history in the hominin clade but it was not until very recently that humans ran wearing shoes. Research on modern habitually unshod runners has suggested that they utilize a different biomechanical strategy than runners who wear shoes, namely that barefoot runners typically use a forefoot strike in order to avoid generating the high impact forces that would be experienced if they were to strike the ground with their heels first. This finding suggests that our habitually unshod ancestors may have run in a similar way. However, this research was conducted on a single population and we know little about variation in running form among habitually barefoot people, including the effects of running speed, which has been shown to affect strike patterns in shod runners. Here, we present the results of our investigation into the selection of running foot strike patterns among another modern habitually unshod group, the Daasanach of northern Kenya. Data were collected from 38 consenting adults as they ran along a trackway with a plantar pressure pad placed midway along its length. Subjects ran at self-selected endurance running and sprinting speeds. Our data support the hypothesis that a forefoot strike reduces the magnitude of impact loading, but the majority of subjects instead used a rearfoot strike at endurance running speeds. Their percentages of midfoot and forefoot strikes increased significantly with speed. These results indicate that not all habitually barefoot people prefer running with a forefoot strike, and suggest that other factors such as running speed, training level, substrate mechanical properties, running distance, and running frequency, influence the selection of foot strike patterns.

  7. The Acute Effect of Concurrent Training on Running Performance over 6 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doma, Kenji; Deakin, Glen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the effects of strength training on alternating days and endurance training on consecutive days on running performance for 6 days. Methods: Sixteen male and 8 female moderately trained individuals were evenly assigned into concurrent-training (CCT) and strength-training (ST) groups. The CCT group undertook strength…

  8. Running on Empty: Leptin Signaling in VTA Regulates Reward from Physical Activity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zuxin; Kenny, Paul J

    2015-10-06

    Hunger increases physical activity and stamina to support food-directed foraging behaviors, but underlying mechanisms are unclear. In this issue, Fernandes et al. (2015) show that disruption of leptin-regulated STAT3 signaling in midbrain dopamine neurons increases the rewarding effects of running in mice, which could explain the "high" experienced by endurance runners. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Elevated Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyl Transferase in Skeletal Muscle Augments Exercise Performance and Mitochondrial Respiratory Capacity Following Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Brouwers, Bram; Stephens, Natalie A.; Costford, Sheila R.; Hopf, Meghan E.; Ayala, Julio E.; Yi, Fanchao; Xie, Hui; Li, Jian-Liang; Gardell, Stephen J.; Sparks, Lauren M.; Smith, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    Mice overexpressing NAMPT in skeletal muscle (NamptTg mice) develop higher exercise endurance and maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) following voluntary exercise training compared to wild-type (WT) mice. Here, we aimed to investigate the mechanisms underlying by determining skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity in NamptTg and WT mice. Body weight and body composition, tissue weight (gastrocnemius, quadriceps, soleus, heart, liver, and epididymal white adipose tissue), skeletal muscle and liver glycogen content, VO2max, skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiratory capacity (measured by high-resolution respirometry), skeletal muscle gene expression (measured by microarray and qPCR), and skeletal muscle protein content (measured by Western blot) were determined following 6 weeks of voluntary exercise training (access to running wheel) in 13-week-old male NamptTg (exercised NamptTg) mice and WT (exercised WT) mice. Daily running distance and running time during the voluntary exercise training protocol were recorded. Daily running distance (p = 0.51) and running time (p = 0.85) were not significantly different between exercised NamptTg mice and exercised WT mice. VO2max was higher in exercised NamptTg mice compared to exercised WT mice (p = 0.02). Body weight (p = 0.92), fat mass (p = 0.49), lean mass (p = 0.91), tissue weight (all p > 0.05), and skeletal muscle (p = 0.72) and liver (p = 0.94) glycogen content were not significantly different between exercised NamptTg mice and exercised WT mice. Complex I oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) respiratory capacity supported by fatty acid substrates (p < 0.01), maximal (complex I+II) OXPHOS respiratory capacity supported by glycolytic (p = 0.02) and fatty acid (p < 0.01) substrates, and maximal uncoupled respiratory capacity supported by fatty acid substrates (p < 0.01) was higher in exercised NamptTg mice compared to exercised WT mice. Transcriptomic analyses revealed differential expression for genes involved in

  10. A Home-Based Walking Program Improves Respiratory Endurance in Patients With Acute Myocardial Infarction: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Matos-Garcia, Bruna C; Rocco, Isadora S; Maiorano, Lara D; Peixoto, Thatiana C A; Moreira, Rita Simone L; Carvalho, Antonio C C; Catai, Aparecida Maria; Arena, Ross; Gomes, Walter J; Guizilini, Solange

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate respiratory muscle strength and endurance in the inpatient period in patients who recently experienced myocardial infarction (MI) and investigate the effects of a home-based walking program on respiratory strength and endurance in low-risk patients after MI. Patients were randomized into a usual-care group (UCG) entailing regular care (n = 23) and an intervention group (IG) entailing an outpatient home-based walking program (n = 31). Healthy sex- and age-matched participants served as a control group for respiratory endurance variables. Respiratory muscle strength was evaluated through maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP) and endurance during the inpatient period, at 15 days, and at 60 days after MI. Submaximal functional capacity was determined by a 6-minute walk test (6MWT) at hospital discharge and 60 days after MI. Both groups showed impaired inspiratory muscle strength at hospital discharge. When compared with healthy individuals, after MI, patients had worse respiratory muscle endurance pressure (PTH max  = 73.02 ± 8.40 vs 44.47 ± 16.32; P < 0.05) and time (Tlim = 324.1 ± 12.2 vs 58.7 ± 93.3; P < 0.05). Only the IG showed a significant improvement in MIP and PTH max at 15 days and 60 days after MI (P < 0.05). When comparing groups, the IG achieved higher values for MIP, PTH max , and Tlim 15 and 60 days after MI (P < 0.01). The 60-day assessment revealed that the 6MWT distance and level of physical activity was significantly higher in the IG compared with the UCG. Low-risk patients recently experiencing MI demonstrate impaired MIP and respiratory endurance compared with healthy participants. A home-based walking program improved respiratory endurance and functional capacity. Copyright © 2017 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Western diet increases wheel running in mice selectively bred for high voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Meek, T H; Eisenmann, J C; Garland, T

    2010-06-01

    Mice from a long-term selective breeding experiment for high voluntary wheel running offer a unique model to examine the contributions of genetic and environmental factors in determining the aspects of behavior and metabolism relevant to body-weight regulation and obesity. Starting with generation 16 and continuing through to generation 52, mice from the four replicate high runner (HR) lines have run 2.5-3-fold more revolutions per day as compared with four non-selected control (C) lines, but the nature of this apparent selection limit is not understood. We hypothesized that it might involve the availability of dietary lipids. Wheel running, food consumption (Teklad Rodent Diet (W) 8604, 14% kJ from fat; or Harlan Teklad TD.88137 Western Diet (WD), 42% kJ from fat) and body mass were measured over 1-2-week intervals in 100 males for 2 months starting 3 days after weaning. WD was obesogenic for both HR and C, significantly increasing both body mass and retroperitoneal fat pad mass, the latter even when controlling statistically for wheel-running distance and caloric intake. The HR mice had significantly less fat than C mice, explainable statistically by their greater running distance. On adjusting for body mass, HR mice showed higher caloric intake than C mice, also explainable by their higher running. Accounting for body mass and running, WD initially caused increased caloric intake in both HR and C, but this effect was reversed during the last four weeks of the study. Western diet had little or no effect on wheel running in C mice, but increased revolutions per day by as much as 75% in HR mice, mainly through increased time spent running. The remarkable stimulation of wheel running by WD in HR mice may involve fuel usage during prolonged endurance exercise and/or direct behavioral effects on motivation. Their unique behavioral responses to WD may render HR mice an important model for understanding the control of voluntary activity levels.

  12. Alterations in redox homeostasis in the elite endurance athlete.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Nathan A; Howatson, Glyn; Morton, Katie; Hill, Jessica; Pedlar, Charles R

    2015-03-01

    The production of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen species (RNS) is a fundamental feature of mammalian physiology, cellular respiration and cell signalling, and essential for muscle function and training adaptation. Aerobic and anaerobic exercise results in alterations in redox homeostasis (ARH) in untrained, trained and well trained athletes. Low to moderate doses of ROS and RNS play a role in muscle adaptation to endurance training, but an overwhelming increase in RNS and ROS may lead to increased cell apoptosis and immunosuppression, fatigued states and underperformance. The objectives of this systematic review are: (a) to test the hypotheses that ARH occur in elite endurance athletes; following an acute exercise bout, in an endurance race or competition; across a micro-, meso- or macro-training cycle; following a training taper; before, during and after altitude training; in females with amenorrhoea versus eumenorrhoea; and in non-functional over-reaching (NFOR) and overtraining states (OTS); (b) to report any relationship between ARH and training load and ARH and performance; and (c) to apply critical difference values for measures of oxidative stress/ARH to address whether there is any evidence of ARH being of physiological significance (not just statistical) and thus relevant to health and performance in the elite athlete. Electronic databases, Embase, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus were searched for relevant articles. Only studies that were observational articles of cross-sectional or longitudinal design, and included elite athletes competing at national or international level in endurance sports were included. Studies had to include biomarkers of ARH; oxidative damage, antioxidant enzymes, antioxidant capacity, and antioxidant vitamins and nutrients in urine, serum, plasma, whole blood, red blood cells (RBCs) and white blood cells (WBCs). A total of 3,057 articles were identified from the electronic searches. Twenty-eight articles met the inclusion criteria

  13. Efficacy of Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) in improving cardiorespiratory endurance in healthy athletic adults.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Bakhtiar; Shetty, A; Langade, Deepak G

    2015-01-01

    Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera [L.] Dunal) has been traditionally used for various actions ranging from vitalizer, improve endurance and stamina, promote longevity, improve immunity, and male and female fertility. However, clinical studies are needed to prove the clinical efficacy of this herb, especially in cardiovascular endurance and physical performance. This prospective, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study evaluated the efficacy of Ashwagandha roots extract in enhancing cardiorespiratory endurance and improving the quality of life (QOL) in 50 healthy male/female athletic adults. Cardiorespiratory endurance was assessed by measuring the oxygen consumption at peak physical exertion (VO2 max) levels during a 20 m shuttle run test. The World Health Organization self-reported QOL questionnaire (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environmental factors) was used to assess the QOL. Student's t-test was used to compare the differences in a mean and change from baseline VO2 max levels, whereas Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to assess changes in QOL scores from baseline in the two groups. There was a greater increase from baseline (P < 0.0001) in the mean VO2 max with KSM-66 Ashwagandha (n = 24) compared to placebo (n = 25) at 8 weeks (4.91 and 1.42, respectively) and at 12 weeks (5.67 and 1.86 respectively). The QOL scores for all subdomains significantly improved to a greater extent in the Ashwagandha group at 12 weeks compared to placebo (P < 0.05). The findings suggest that Ashwagandha root extract enhances the cardiorespiratory endurance and improves QOL in healthy athletic adults.

  14. Endurance training attenuates the increase in peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity with intermittent hypoxia

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Amanda J.; Sauder, Charity L.; Cauffman, Aimee E.; Blaha, Cheryl A.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with heart failure and sleep apnea have greater chemoreflex sensitivity, presumably due to intermittent hypoxia (IH), and this is predictive of mortality. We hypothesized that endurance training would attenuate the effect of IH on peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity in healthy humans. Fifteen young healthy subjects (9 female, 26 ± 1 yr) participated. Between visits, 11 subjects underwent 8 wk of endurance training that included running four times/wk at 80% predicted maximum heart rate and interval training, and four control subjects did not change activity. Chemoreflex sensitivity (the slope of ventilation responses to serial oxygen desaturations), blood pressure, heart rate, and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) were assessed before and after 30 min of IH. Endurance training decreased resting systolic blood pressure (119 ± 3 to 113 ± 3 mmHg; P = 0.027) and heart rate (67 ± 3 to 61 ± 2 beats/min; P = 0.004) but did not alter respiratory parameters at rest (P > 0.2). Endurance training attenuated the IH-induced increase in chemoreflex sensitivity (pretraining: Δ 0.045 ± 0.026 vs. posttraining: Δ −0.028 ± 0.040 l·min−1·% O2 desaturation−1; P = 0.045). Furthermore, IH increased mean blood pressure and MSNA burst rate before training (P < 0.05), but IH did not alter these measures after training (P > 0.2). All measurements were similar in the control subjects at both visits (P > 0.05). Endurance training attenuates chemoreflex sensitization to IH, which may partially explain the beneficial effects of exercise training in patients with cardiovascular disease. PMID:28039190

  15. Medium Altitude Endurance Unmanned Air Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernst, Larry L.

    1994-10-01

    The medium altitude endurance unmanned air vehicle (MAE UAV) program (formerly the tactical endurance TE UAV) is a new effort initiated by the Department of Defense to develop a ground launched UAV that can fly out 500 miles, remain on station for 24 hours, and return. It will transmit high resolution optical, infrared, and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of well-defended target areas through satellite links. It will provide near-real-time, releasable, low cost/low risk surveillance, targeting and damage assessment complementary to that of satellites and manned aircraft. The paper describes specific objectives of the MAE UAV program (deliverables and schedule) and the program's unique position as one of several programs to streamline the acquisition process under the cognizance of the newly established Airborne Reconnaissance Office. I discuss the system requirements and operational concept and describe the technical capabilities and characteristics of the major subsystems (airframe, propulsion, navigation, sensors, communication links, ground station, etc.) in some detail.

  16. Endothelial function in highly endurance-trained and sedentary, healthy young women.

    PubMed

    Moe, Ingvild T; Hoven, Heidi; Hetland, Eva V; Rognmo, Oivind; Slørdahl, Stig A

    2005-05-01

    Endothelial function is reduced by age, chronic heart failure, coronary artery disease, hypertension or type 2 diabetes, and it is shown that aerobic exercise may reverse this trend. The effect of a high aerobic training status on endothelial function in young, healthy subjects is however less clear. The present study was designed to determine whether endothelial function is improved in highly endurance-trained young women compared to sedentary, healthy controls. Brachial artery diameter was measured in 16 endurance-trained (age: 23.7 +/- 2.5 years, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 60.6 +/- 4.5 ml/kg per min) and 14 sedentary females (age: 23.7 +/- 2.1 years, VO2max: 40.5 +/- 5.6 ml/kg per min) at rest, during flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and after sublingual glycerol trinitrate administration, using high-resolution ultrasound. FMD did not differ between the endurance-trained and the sedentary females (14.8% vs 16.4%, p = NS), despite a substantial difference in VO2max of 50% (p < 0.001). The endurance-trained group possessed however, a 9% larger resting brachial artery diameter when adjusted for body surface area. The results of the present study suggest that endothelial function is well preserved in young, healthy women, and that a high aerobic training status due to long term aerobic training does not improve the dilating capacity any further.

  17. Endurance exercise rescues progeroid aging and induces systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation in mtDNA mutator mice

    PubMed Central

    Safdar, Adeel; Bourgeois, Jacqueline M.; Ogborn, Daniel I.; Little, Jonathan P.; Hettinga, Bart P.; Akhtar, Mahmood; Thompson, James E.; Melov, Simon; Mocellin, Nicholas J.; Kujoth, Gregory C.; Prolla, Tomas A.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    A causal role for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutagenesis in mammalian aging is supported by recent studies demonstrating that the mtDNA mutator mouse, harboring a defect in the proofreading-exonuclease activity of mitochondrial polymerase gamma, exhibits accelerated aging phenotypes characteristic of human aging, systemic mitochondrial dysfunction, multisystem pathology, and reduced lifespan. Epidemiologic studies in humans have demonstrated that endurance training reduces the risk of chronic diseases and extends life expectancy. Whether endurance exercise can attenuate the cumulative systemic decline observed in aging remains elusive. Here we show that 5 mo of endurance exercise induced systemic mitochondrial biogenesis, prevented mtDNA depletion and mutations, increased mitochondrial oxidative capacity and respiratory chain assembly, restored mitochondrial morphology, and blunted pathological levels of apoptosis in multiple tissues of mtDNA mutator mice. These adaptations conferred complete phenotypic protection, reduced multisystem pathology, and prevented premature mortality in these mice. The systemic mitochondrial rejuvenation through endurance exercise promises to be an effective therapeutic approach to mitigating mitochondrial dysfunction in aging and related comorbidities. PMID:21368114

  18. How does running memory span work?

    PubMed

    Bunting, Michael; Cowan, Nelson; Saults, J Scott

    2006-10-01

    In running memory span, a list ends unpredictably, and the last few items are to be recalled. This task is of increasing importance in recent research. We argue that there are two very different strategies for performing running span tasks: a low-effort strategy in which items are passively held until the list ends, when retrieval into a capacity-limited store takes place; and a higher-effort strategy in which working memory is continually updated using rehearsal processes during the list presentation. In two experiments, we examine the roles of these two strategies and the consequences of two types of interference.

  19. Differences in energy capacities between tennis players and runners.

    PubMed

    Novak, Dario; Vucetić, Vlatko; Zugaj, Sanja

    2013-05-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine differences between elite athletes and tennis players in order to provide a clearer picture regarding the energy demands in modern tennis. Forty-eight (48) athletes and 24 tennis players from Croatian national leagues were compared in morphological and physiological parameters of an all-out incremental treadmill test with gas exchange measurements. Tennis players' HRmax (192.96+/-7.75 bpm) shows values that are most different to 400-meters sprinters (200.13+/-6.95 bpm). Maximum running speed of tennis players on the treadmill (vmax) is no different with the speed achieved by sprinters, while there are significant differences among other athletes. Values in running speed at anaerobic threshold (vAnT) show no statistically significant difference with the values for athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters. Values of RvO2max for tennis players indicate significant similarities with athlete sprinters and 400-m sprinters while the values of RvO2AnT are nearly identical with the values for sprinters and show no statistically significant differences (p<0.05). The results indicate that values achieved by tennis players approximate most different those of the middle and long distance runners. This singles out the possible importance of the anaerobic capacity and the high level of sprint endurance in tennis players. Knowing these characteristics is the basis for planning and implementing training systems that will enable the increase and optimal usage of energy capacities of tennis players in possibly improving sports results.

  20. ALICE results from Run-1 and Run-2 and perspectives for Run-3 and Run-4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noferini, Francesco; ALICE Collaboration

    2018-05-01

    A review of ALICE is presented focusing on its physics programme and results from the Run-1 and Run-2 data taking periods. Among the four major LHC experiments, ALICE is devoted to the study of the Quark-Gluon Plasma produced in ultra-relativistic heavy-ion collisions (Pb–Pb), but it is also collecting data in smaller systems (pp and p–Pb). This review focuses on the main results collected so far, including the characterization of the QGP via soft and hard probes, and the production rate of light nuclei and hypernuclei. Finally, the perspectives after the detectors upgrades to be performed during 2019-2020 are presented.

  1. Fermilab DART run control

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1996-02-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. The authors discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of the experiences in developing it. They also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system.

  2. Fermilab DART run control

    SciTech Connect

    Oleynik, G.; Engelfried, J.; Mengel, L.

    1995-05-01

    DART is the high speed, Unix based data acquisition system being developed by Fermilab in collaboration with seven High Energy Physics Experiments. This paper describes DART run control, which has been developed over the past year and is a flexible, distributed, extensible system for the, control and monitoring of the data acquisition systems. We discuss the unique and interesting concepts of the run control and some of our experiences in developing it. We also give a brief update and status of the whole DART system.

  3. Run Island, Indonesia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-11-28

    In 1667, the Dutch exchanged Run Island (left-most in the image) with the British for Manhattan (renamed from New Amsterdam to New York). Run Island is one of the smallest, and western-most, of the Banda Islands, part of the Malukus, Indonesia. At the time it was the only source of the incredibly valuable spices nutmeg and mace. The image was acquired January 5, 2016, covers an area of 15.7 by 34.8 kilometers, and is located at 4.5 degrees south, 129.7 degrees east. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA22133

  4. Retrieving Enduring Spatial Representations after Disorientation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaoou; Mou, Weimin; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments tested whether there are enduring spatial representations of objects’ locations in memory. Previous studies have shown that under certain conditions the internal consistency of pointing to objects using memory is disrupted by disorientation. This disorientation effect has been attributed to an absence of or to imprecise enduring spatial representations of objects’ locations. Experiment 1 replicated the standard disorientation effect. Participants learned locations of objects in an irregular layout and then pointed to objects after physically turning to face an object and after disorientation. The expected disorientation was observed. In Experiment 2, after disorientation, participants were asked to imagine they were facing the original learning direction and then physically turned to adopt the test orientation. In Experiment 3, after disorientation, participants turned to adopt the test orientation and then were informed of the original viewing direction by the experimenter. A disorientation effect was not observed in Experiment 2 or 3. In Experiment 4, after disorientation, participants turned to face the test orientation but were not told the original learning orientation. As in Experiment 1, a disorientation effect was observed. These results suggest that there are enduring spatial representations of objects’ locations specified in terms of a spatial reference direction parallel to the learning view, and that the disorientation effect is caused by uncertainty in recovering the spatial reference direction relative to the testing orientation following disorientation. PMID:22682765

  5. Arctigenin Efficiently Enhanced Sedentary Mice Treadmill Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases. PMID:21887385

  6. CCP MRAP Run

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-20

    An MRAP armored vehicle goes through a training run on the Shuttle Landing Facility to support NASA's Commercial Crew Program at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The 45,000-pound mine-resistant. The MRAP offers a mobile bunker for astronauts and ground crews in the unlikely event they have to get away from the launch pad quickly in an emergency.

  7. Who Runs Our Universities?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, David

    2012-01-01

    Inside the academy there is a cultural perspective that it should run itself, in the sense that "business as usual" should be done with no one's hands obviously on the levers. This theory reaches its high point in the "self-government" of Oxford and Cambridge colleges. In this article, the author explores the question,…

  8. SLF Run & Walk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-13

    Kennedy Space Center Director Bob Cabana, center, is joined by a large group of center employees and guests as they participate in the KSC Walk Run on the Shuttle Landing Facility runway. The annual event, part of Kennedy’s Safety and Health Days, offers 10K, 5K and 2-mile options in the spirit of friendly competition.

  9. SLF Run & Walk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-13

    Kennedy Space Center Director Bob Cabana approaches the finish line at the KSC Walk Run on the Shuttle Landing Facility runway. The annual event, part of Kennedy’s Safety and Health Days, offers 10K, 5K and 2-mile options in the spirit of friendly competition.

  10. SLF Run & Walk

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-03-13

    A line of Kennedy Space Center employees and guests stretches down the Shuttle Landing Facility Runway during the KSC Walk Run. The annual event, part of Kennedy’s Safety and Health Days, offers 10K, 5K and 2-mile options in the spirit of friendly competition.

  11. Running Wheel for Earthworms

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, W. Jeffrey; Johnson, Brandon A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the construction and use of a running wheel responsive to the movement of the earthworm. The wheel employs readily available, inexpensive components and is easily constructed. Movement of the wheel can be monitored visually or via standard behavioral laboratory computer interfaces. Examples of data are presented, and possibilities for use in the teaching classroom are discussed. PMID:27385934

  12. Enzymatic capacities of skeletal muscle - Effects of different types of training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, F. W.; Hugman, G. R.

    1981-01-01

    Long-term adaptation mechanisms to maintain homeostasis at increased levels of exertion such as those caused by regular exercise are described. Mitochondrial changes have been found to be a result of endurance exercises, while mitochondrial responses to other types of exercise are small. Further discussion is devoted to long-term changes in glucose transport, hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and the increased sensitivity of an endurance trained muscle to insulin. Less lactate has been found to be produced by the skeletal muscles at the same work rate after adaptation to endurance exercise training, and the capacity for the flux of the two-carbon acetyl chain through the citric acid cycle increases in skeletal muscles in response to endurance training. Finally, endurance training is noted to result in glycogen sparing and an increase in the capacity to utilize fatty acids.

  13. Fitness Assessment Comparison Between the "Jackie Chan Action Run" Videogame, 1-Mile Run/Walk, and the PACER.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Bryan; Siegel, Shannon; Costa, Pablo; Jarvis, Sarah; Klug, Nicholas; Medina, Ernie; Wilkin, Linda

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether a correlation existed among the scores of the "Jackie Chan Studio Fitness(™) Action Run" active videogame (XaviX(®), SSD Company, Ltd., Kusatsu, Japan), the 1-mile run/walk, and Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER) aerobic fitness tests of the FITNESSGRAM(®) (The Cooper Institute, Dallas, TX) in order to provide a potential alternative testing method for days that are not environmentally desirable for outdoor testing. Participants were a convenience sample from physical education classes of students between the ages of 10 and 15 years. Participants (n=108) were randomly assigned to one of three groups with the only difference being the order of testing. The tests included the "Jackie Chan Action Run" active videogame, the 1-mile run/walk, and the PACER. Testing occurred on three different days during the physical education class. Rating of perceived exertion (RPE) was reported. Significant correlations (r=-0.598 to 0.312) were found among the three aerobic fitness tests administered (P<0.05). The RPE for the "Jackie Chan Action Run" was lower than the RPE for the 1-mile run/walk and the PACER (3.81±1.89, 5.93±1.77, and 5.71±2.14, respectively). The results suggest that the "Jackie Chan Action Run" test could be an alternative to the 1-mile run/walk and PACER, allowing physical education teachers to perform aerobic fitness testing in an indoor setting that requires less space. Also, children may be more willing to participate in the "Jackie Chan Action Run" based on the lower RPE.

  14. VO(2peak), myocardial hypertrophy, and myocardial blood flow in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Laaksonen, Marko S; Heinonen, Ilkka; Luotolahti, Matti; Knuuti, Juhani; Kalliokoski, Kari K

    2014-08-01

    Endurance training induces cardiovascular and metabolic adaptations, leading to enhanced endurance capacity and exercise performance. Previous human studies have shown contradictory results in functional myocardial vascular adaptations to exercise training, and we hypothesized that this may be related to different degrees of hypertrophy in the trained heart. We studied the interrelationships between peak aerobic power (V˙O2peak), myocardial blood flow (MBF) at rest and during adenosine-induced vasodilation, and parameters of myocardial hypertrophy in endurance-trained (ET, n = 31) and untrained (n = 17) subjects. MBF and myocardial hypertrophy were studied using positron emission tomography and echocardiography, respectively. Both V˙O2peak (P < 0.001) and left ventricular (LV) mass index (P < 0.001) were higher in the ET group. Basal MBF was similar between the groups. MBF during adenosine was significantly lower in the ET group (2.88 ± 1.01 vs 3.64 ± 1.11 mL·g·min, P < 0.05) but not when the difference in LV mass was taken into account. V˙O2peak correlated negatively with adenosine-stimulated MBF, but when LV mass was taken into account as a partial correlate, this correlation disappeared. The present results show that increased LV mass in ET subjects explains the reduced hyperemic myocardial perfusion in this subject population and suggests that excessive LV hypertrophy has negative effect on cardiac blood flow capacity.

  15. Exercise-induced muscle damage and running economy in humans.

    PubMed

    Assumpção, Cláudio de Oliveira; Lima, Leonardo Coelho Rabello; Oliveira, Felipe Bruno Dias; Greco, Camila Coelho; Denadai, Benedito Sérgio

    2013-01-01

    Running economy (RE), defined as the energy demand for a given velocity of submaximal running, has been identified as a critical factor of overall distance running performance. Plyometric and resistance trainings, performed during a relatively short period of time (~15-30 days), have been successfully used to improve RE in trained athletes. However, these exercise types, particularly when they are unaccustomed activities for the individuals, may cause delayed onset muscle soreness, swelling, and reduced muscle strength. Some studies have demonstrated that exercise-induced muscle damage has a negative impact on endurance running performance. Specifically, the muscular damage induced by an acute bout of downhill running has been shown to reduce RE during subsequent moderate and high-intensity exercise (>65% VO₂max). However, strength exercise (i.e., jumps, isoinertial and isokinetic eccentric exercises) seems to impair RE only for subsequent high-intensity exercise (~90% VO₂max). Finally, a single session of resistance exercise or downhill running (i.e., repeated bout effect) attenuates changes in indirect markers of muscle damage and blunts changes in RE.

  16. Why Does My Nose Run?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Why Does My Nose Run? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Does My Nose Run? ... out the whole story. What's Running? To understand why your nose runs, you need to know what mucus (say: MYOO- ...

  17. CCP MRAP Run

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-20

    An MRAP armored vehicle goes through a training run on the Shuttle Landing Facility to support NASA's Commercial Crew Program at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The 45,000-pound mine-resistant ambush protected vehicle, or MRAP, was originally designed for military applications. The MRAP offers a mobile bunker for astronauts and ground crews in the unlikely event they have to get away from the launch pad quickly in an emergency.

  18. CCP MRAP Run

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-20

    Two MRAP armored vehicles go through a training run on the Shuttle Landing Facility to support NASA's Commercial Crew Program at the agency's Kennedy Space Center in Florida. The 45,000-pound mine-resistant ambush protected vehicle, or MRAPs, were originally designed for military applications. The MRAP offers a mobile bunker for astronauts and ground crews in the unlikely event they have to get away from the launch pad quickly in an emergency.

  19. Impact of endurance exercise on levodopa-associated cortisol release and force increase in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Müller, Thomas; Muhlack, Siegfried

    2008-06-01

    Levodopa (LD) application improves motor symptoms and reduces cortisol levels in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Endurance exercise enhances cortisol release in proportion to the intensity of the effort and thus may counteract the LD associated cortisol decrease. We measured levels of cortisol and LD over an 1-h long interval following administration of soluble 200 mg LD/50 mg benserazide with concomitant maximal grip strength assessment in 16 PD patients under cued conditions during rest and endurance exercise. The motor response, the plasma levels of cortisol and LD did not significantly differ between both conditions. Cortisol concentrations significantly decreased even during exercise. Grip strength only significantly went up during rest. Endurance exercise did not counteract the LD associated decreased cortisol release. Since cortisol improves muscle function, the lack of increase in maximal grip strength following LD administration during exercise may contribute to reduced exercise capacity, which is reported by PD patients.

  20. The valid measurement of running economy in runners.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Andrew J; Ingham, Stephen A; Folland, Jonathan P

    2014-10-01

    Oxygen cost (OC) is commonly used to assess an athlete's running economy, although the validity of this measure is often overlooked. This study evaluated the validity of OC as a measure of running economy by comparison with the underlying energy cost (EC). In addition, the most appropriate method of removing the influence of body mass was determined to elucidate a measure of running economy that enables valid interindividual comparisons. One hundred and seventy-two highly trained endurance runners (males, n = 101; females, n = 71) performed a discontinuous submaximal running assessment, consisting of approximately seven 3-min stages (1 km·h increments), to determine the absolute OC (L·km) and EC (kcal·km) for the four speeds below lactate turn point. Comparisons between models revealed linear ratio scaling to be a more suitable method than power function scaling for removing the influence of body mass for both EC (males, R = 0.589 vs 0.588; females, R = 0.498 vs 0.482) and OC (males, R = 0.657 vs 0.652; females, R = 0.532 vs 0.531). There were stepwise increases in EC and RER with increments in running speed (both, P < 0.001). However, no differences were observed for OC across the four monitored speeds (P = 0.54). Although EC increased with running speed, OC was insensitive to changes in running speed and, therefore, does not appear to provide a valid index of the underlying EC of running, likely due to the inability of OC to account for variations in substrate use. Therefore, EC should be used as the primary measure of running economy, and for runners, an appropriate scaling with body mass is recommended.

  1. Endurance Exercise as an “Endogenous” Neuro-enhancement Strategy to Facilitate Motor Learning

    PubMed Central

    Taubert, Marco; Villringer, Arno; Lehmann, Nico

    2015-01-01

    Endurance exercise improves cardiovascular and musculoskeletal function and may also increase the information processing capacities of the brain. Animal and human research from the past decade demonstrated widespread exercise effects on brain structure and function at the systems-, cellular-, and molecular level of brain organization. These neurobiological mechanisms may explain the well-established positive influence of exercise on performance in various behavioral domains but also its contribution to improved skill learning and neuroplasticity. With respect to the latter, only few empirical and theoretical studies are available to date. The aim of this review is (i) to summarize the existing neurobiological and behavioral evidence arguing for endurance exercise-induced improvements in motor learning and (ii) to develop hypotheses about the mechanistic link between exercise and improved learning. We identify major knowledge gaps that need to be addressed by future research projects to advance our understanding of how exercise should be organized to optimize motor learning. PMID:26834602

  2. Critical determinants of combined sprint and endurance performance: an integrative analysis from muscle fiber to the human body.

    PubMed

    van der Zwaard, Stephan; van der Laarse, Willem J; Weide, Guido; Bloemers, Frank W; Hofmijster, Mathijs J; Levels, Koen; Noordhof, Dionne A; de Koning, Jos J; de Ruiter, Cornelis J; Jaspers, Richard T

    2018-04-01

    Optimizing physical performance is a major goal in current physiology. However, basic understanding of combining high sprint and endurance performance is currently lacking. This study identifies critical determinants of combined sprint and endurance performance using multiple regression analyses of physiologic determinants at different biologic levels. Cyclists, including 6 international sprint, 8 team pursuit, and 14 road cyclists, completed a Wingate test and 15-km time trial to obtain sprint and endurance performance results, respectively. Performance was normalized to lean body mass 2/3 to eliminate the influence of body size. Performance determinants were obtained from whole-body oxygen consumption, blood sampling, knee-extensor maximal force, muscle oxygenation, whole-muscle morphology, and muscle fiber histochemistry of musculus vastus lateralis. Normalized sprint performance was explained by percentage of fast-type fibers and muscle volume ( R 2 = 0.65; P < 0.001) and normalized endurance performance by performance oxygen consumption ( V̇o 2 ), mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, and muscle oxygenation ( R 2 = 0.92; P < 0.001). Combined sprint and endurance performance was explained by gross efficiency, performance V̇o 2 , and likely by muscle volume and fascicle length ( P = 0.056; P = 0.059). High performance V̇o 2 related to a high oxidative capacity, high capillarization × myoglobin, and small physiologic cross-sectional area ( R 2 = 0.67; P < 0.001). Results suggest that fascicle length and capillarization are important targets for training to optimize sprint and endurance performance simultaneously.-Van der Zwaard, S., van der Laarse, W. J., Weide, G., Bloemers, F. W., Hofmijster, M. J., Levels, K., Noordhof, D. A., de Koning, J. J., de Ruiter, C. J., Jaspers, R. T. Critical determinants of combined sprint and endurance performance: an integrative analysis from muscle fiber to the human body.

  3. Are Ultrasonographic Measures of Cervical Flexor Muscles Correlated With Flexion Endurance in Chronic Neck Pain and Asymptomatic Participants?

    PubMed

    Ghamkhar, Leila; Kahlaee, Amir Hossein

    2017-12-01

    This study compared the relationship between some clinical factors and the size of neck flexors in participants with or without chronic neck pain. In this case-control study, the correlation between flexor endurance capacity as well as thickness, cross-section area, and shape ratio of longus colli/capitis and sternocleidomastoid muscles were examined in 30 patients with chronic neck pain and 30 asymptomatic participants. The patients showed lower flexor endurance (P = 0.02), smaller thickness (P = 0.03), and cross-section area (P < 0.01) of longus colli as compared with controls. Longus capitis and sternocleidomastoid size were not different between the two groups. The flexor endurance showed a negative correlation with longus colli shape ratio (r = -0.38, P = 0.03) and a positive correlation with longus capitis cross-section area (r = 0.38, P = 0.03) in the patients with chronic neck pain. In the control group, flexor endurance was negatively correlated with longus colli shape ratio (r = -0.45, P = 0.01) but positively correlated with longus capitis thickness (r = 0.45, P = 0.01) and cross-section area (r = 0.38, P = 0.03). Neck disability and pain intensity indices were not significantly correlated with either flexor muscles endurance or size. The ultrasonographic measures of the deep neck flexor muscles and the flexor endurance test, being associated with each other, could successfully differentiate patients with chronic neck pain from asymptomatic participants. However, the endurance test scores were not correlated with self-reported disability or pain intensity indices.

  4. Wheeled and Tracked Vehicle Endurance Testing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-02

    Vehicle (ATV) 10 10 50 30 Fire Trucks - Crash and Rescue, Brush, Structural 49/56/50 22/16/50 - 29/28/0 a Wheeled Combat 30 40 15 15 Roboticb - 30 50... Wheeled Light W-M = Wheeled Medium W-H = Wheeled Heavy LM-TT = Light/Medium Truck H-TT = Heavy Truck Tractor/Trailer M = Motorcycle FT = Fire ...TYPE Final 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Test Operations Procedure (TOP) 02-2-506A Wheeled and Tracked Vehicle Endurance

  5. Running economy and energy cost of running with backpacks.

    PubMed

    Scheer, Volker; Cramer, Leoni; Heitkamp, Hans-Christian

    2018-05-02

    Running is a popular recreational activity and additional weight is often carried in backpacks on longer runs. Our aim was to examine running economy and other physiological parameters while running with a 1kg and 3 kg backpack at different submaximal running velocities. 10 male recreational runners (age 25 ± 4.2 years, VO2peak 60.5 ± 3.1 ml·kg-1·min-1) performed runs on a motorized treadmill of 5 minutes durations at three different submaximal speeds of 70, 80 and 90% of anaerobic lactate threshold (LT) without additional weight, and carrying a 1kg and 3 kg backpack. Oxygen consumption, heart rate, lactate and RPE were measured and analysed. Oxygen consumption, energy cost of running and heart rate increased significantly while running with a backpack weighing 3kg compared to running without additional weight at 80% of speed at lactate threshold (sLT) (p=0.026, p=0.009 and p=0.003) and at 90% sLT (p<0.001, p=0.001 and p=0.001). Running with a 1kg backpack showed a significant increase in heart rate at 80% sLT (p=0.008) and a significant increase in oxygen consumption and heart rate at 90% sLT (p=0.045 and p=0.007) compared to running without additional weight. While running at 70% sLT running economy and cardiovascular effort increased with weighted backpack running compared to running without additional weight, however these increases did not reach statistical significance. Running economy deteriorates and cardiovascular effort increases while running with additional backpack weight especially at higher submaximal running speeds. Backpack weight should therefore be kept to a minimum.

  6. Characterisation of baroreflex sensitivity of recreational ultra-endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Foulds, Heather J A; Cote, Anita T; Phillips, Aaron A; Charlesworth, Sarah A; Bredin, Shannon S D; Burr, Jamie F; Drury, Chipman Taylor; Ngai, Shirley; Fougere, Renee J; Ivey, Adam C; Warburton, Darren E R

    2014-01-01

    Altered autonomic function has been identified following ultra-endurance event participation among elite world-class athletes. Despite dramatic increases in recreational athlete participation in these ultra-endurance events, the physiological effects on these athletes are less known. This investigation sought to characterise changes in surrogate measures of autonomic function: heart rate variability (HRV), blood pressure variability (BPV) and baroreceptor sensitivity (BRS) following ultra-endurance race participation. Further, we sought to compare baseline measures among ultra-endurance athletes and recreationally active controls not participating in the ultra-endurance race. Recreational ultra-endurance athletes (n = 25, 44.6 ± 8.2 years, 8 females) and recreationally active age, sex and body mass index matched controls (n = 25) were evaluated. Measurements of HRV, BPV and BRS were collected pre- and post-race for recreational ultra-endurance athletes and at baseline, for recreationally active controls. Post-race, ultra-endurance athletes demonstrated significantly greater sympathetic modulation [low frequency (LF) power HRV: 50.3 ± 21.6 normalised units (n.u.) to 65.9 ± 20.4 n.u., p = 0.01] and significantly lower parasympathetic modulation [high frequency (HF) power HRV: 45.0 ± 22.4 n.u. to 23.9 ± 13.1 n.u., p < 0.001] and BRS. Baseline measurements BRS (spectral: 13.96 ± 10.82 ms·mmHg(-1) vs. 11.39 ± 5.33 ms·mmHg(-1)) were similar among recreational ultra-endurance athletes and recreationally active controls, though recreational ultra-endurance athletes demonstrated greater parasympathetic modulation of some HRV and BPV measures. Recreational ultra-endurance athletes experienced increased sympathetic tone and declines in BRS post-race, similar to previously reported elite world-class ultra-endurance athletes, though still within normal population ranges.

  7. Spontaneous Entrainment of Running Cadence to Music Tempo.

    PubMed

    Van Dyck, Edith; Moens, Bart; Buhmann, Jeska; Demey, Michiel; Coorevits, Esther; Dalla Bella, Simone; Leman, Marc

    Since accumulating evidence suggests that step rate is strongly associated with running-related injuries, it is important for runners to exercise at an appropriate running cadence. As music tempo has been shown to be capable of impacting exercise performance of repetitive endurance activities, it might also serve as a means to (re)shape running cadence. The aim of this study was to validate the impact of music tempo on running cadence. Sixteen recreational runners ran four laps of 200 m (i.e. 800 m in total); this task was repeated 11 times with a short break in between each four-lap sequence. During the first lap of a sequence, participants ran at a self-paced tempo without musical accompaniment. Running cadence of the first lap was registered, and during the second lap, music with a tempo matching the assessed cadence was played. In the final two laps, the music tempo was either increased/decreased by 3.00, 2.50, 2.00, 1.50, or 1.00 % or was kept stable. This range was chosen since the aim of this study was to test spontaneous entrainment (an average person can distinguish tempo variations of about 4 %). Each participant performed all conditions. Imperceptible shifts in musical tempi in proportion to the runner's self-paced running tempo significantly influenced running cadence ( p  < .001). Contrasts revealed a linear relation between the tempo conditions and adaptation in running cadence ( p  < .001). In addition, a significant effect of condition on the level of entrainment was revealed ( p  < .05), which suggests that maximal effects of music tempo on running cadence can only be obtained up to a certain level of tempo modification. Finally, significantly higher levels of tempo entrainment were found for female participants compared to their male counterparts ( p  < .05). The applicable contribution of these novel findings is that music tempo could serve as an unprompted means to impact running cadence. As increases in step rate may prove

  8. Selected Activities to Improve Cardiovascular Endurance and Strength and Muscular Endurance; K-3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Sharon

    Activities to help the young child improve his/her physical fitness are difficult to find because of insufficient research supporting the effectiveness of proposed activities. However, several activities are assumed to improve the fitness of various areas of the body while concurrently improving cardiovascular endurance by increasing the heart…

  9. Dietary protein decreases exercise endurance through rapamycin-sensitive suppression of muscle mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Mitsuishi, Masanori; Miyashita, Kazutoshi; Muraki, Ayako; Tamaki, Masanori; Tanaka, Kumiko; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2013-10-01

    Loss of physical performance is linked not only to decreased activity in daily life but also to increased onset of cardiovascular diseases and mortality. A high-protein diet is recommended for aged individuals in order to preserve muscle mass; however, the regulation of muscle mitochondria by dietary protein has not been clarified. We investigated the long-term effects of a high-protein diet on muscle properties, focusing especially on muscle mitochondria. Mice were fed a high-protein diet from the age of 8 wk and examined for mitochondrial properties and exercise endurance at the ages of 20 and 50 wk. Compared with normal chow, a high-protein diet significantly decreased the amount of muscle mitochondria, mitochondrial activity, and running distance at 50 wk, although it increased muscle mass and grip power. Inhibition of TORC1-dependent signal pathways by rapamycin from 8 wk suppressed the decline in mitochondria and exercise endurance observed when mice were fed the high-protein diet in association with preserved AMPK activity. Collectively, these findings suggest a role for dietary protein as a suppressor of muscle mitochondria and indicate that the age-associated decline in exercise endurance might be accelerated by excessive dietary protein through rapamycin-sensitive suppression of muscle mitochondria.

  10. Iron Supplementation during Three Consecutive Days of Endurance Training Augmented Hepcidin Levels.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Aya; Maeda, Naho; Kamei, Akiko; Goto, Kazushige

    2017-07-30

    Iron supplementation contributes an effort to improving iron status among athletes, but it does not always prevent iron deficiency. In the present study, we explored the effect of three consecutive days of endurance training (twice daily) on the hepcidin-25 (hepcidin) level. The effect of iron supplementation during this period was also determined. Fourteen male endurance athletes were enrolled and randomly assigned to either an iron-treated condition (Fe condition, n = 7) or a placebo condition (Control condition; CON, n = 7). They engaged in two 75-min sessions of treadmill running at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on three consecutive days (days 1-3). The Fe condition took 12 mg of iron twice daily (24 mg/day), and the CON condition did not. On day 1, both conditions exhibited significant increases in serum hepcidin and plasma interleukin-6 levels after exercise ( p < 0.05). In the CON condition, the hepcidin level did not change significantly throughout the training period. However, in the Fe condition, the serum hepcidin level on day 4 was significantly higher than that of the CON condition ( p < 0.05). In conclusion, the hepcidin level was significantly elevated following three consecutive days of endurance training when moderate doses of iron were taken.

  11. Iron Supplementation during Three Consecutive Days of Endurance Training Augmented Hepcidin Levels

    PubMed Central

    Ishibashi, Aya; Maeda, Naho; Kamei, Akiko; Goto, Kazushige

    2017-01-01

    Iron supplementation contributes an effort to improving iron status among athletes, but it does not always prevent iron deficiency. In the present study, we explored the effect of three consecutive days of endurance training (twice daily) on the hepcidin-25 (hepcidin) level. The effect of iron supplementation during this period was also determined. Fourteen male endurance athletes were enrolled and randomly assigned to either an iron-treated condition (Fe condition, n = 7) or a placebo condition (Control condition; CON, n = 7). They engaged in two 75-min sessions of treadmill running at 75% of maximal oxygen uptake on three consecutive days (days 1–3). The Fe condition took 12 mg of iron twice daily (24 mg/day), and the CON condition did not. On day 1, both conditions exhibited significant increases in serum hepcidin and plasma interleukin-6 levels after exercise (p < 0.05). In the CON condition, the hepcidin level did not change significantly throughout the training period. However, in the Fe condition, the serum hepcidin level on day 4 was significantly higher than that of the CON condition (p < 0.05). In conclusion, the hepcidin level was significantly elevated following three consecutive days of endurance training when moderate doses of iron were taken. PMID:28758951

  12. Impact of Short-Term Training Camp on Aortic Blood Pressure in Collegiate Endurance Runners

    PubMed Central

    Tomoto, Tsubasa; Sugawara, Jun; Hirasawa, Ai; Imai, Tomoko; Maeda, Seiji; Ogoh, Shigehiko

    2018-01-01

    To investigate the influence of short-term vigorous endurance training on aortic blood pressure (BP), pulse wave analysis was performed in 36 highly trained elite collegiate endurance runners before and after a 7-day intense training camp. Subjects participated three training sessions per day, which mainly consisted of long distance running and sprint training to reach the daily target distance of 26 km. After the camp, they were divided into two groups based on whether the target training was achieved. Aortic systolic BP, pulse pressure, and tension-time index (TTI, a surrogate index of the myocardial oxygen demand) were significantly elevated after the camp in the accomplished group but not in the unaccomplished group, whereas the brachial BP remained unchanged in both groups. The average daily training distance was significantly correlated with the changes in aortic systolic BP (r = 0.608, p = 0.0002), pulse pressure (r = 0.415, p = 0.016), and TTI (r = 0.438, p = 0.011). These results suggest that aortic BP is affected by a short-term vigorous training camp even in highly trained elite endurance athletes presumably due to a greater training volume compared to usual. PMID:29643814

  13. Safety and efficacy of exercise training in adults with Pompe disease: evalution of endurance, muscle strength and core stability before and after a 12 week training program.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Linda E M; Favejee, Marein M; Wens, Stephan C A; Kruijshaar, Michelle E; Praet, Stephan F E; Reuser, Arnold J J; Bussmann, Johannes B J; van Doorn, Pieter A; van der Ploeg, Ans T

    2015-07-19

    Pompe disease is a proximal myopathy. We investigated whether exercise training is a safe and useful adjuvant therapy for adult Pompe patients, receiving enzyme replacement therapy. Training comprised 36 sessions of standardized aerobic, resistance and core stability exercises over 12 weeks. Before and after, the primary outcome measures safety, endurance (aerobic exercise capacity and distance walked on the 6 min walk test) and muscle strength, and secondary outcome measures core stability, muscle function and body composition, were evaluated. Of 25 patients enrolled, 23 successfully completed the training. Improvements in endurance were shown by increases in maximum workload capacity (110 W before to 122 W after training, [95 % CI of the difference 6 · 0 to 19 · 7]), maximal oxygen uptake capacity (69 · 4 % and 75 · 9 % of normal, [2 · 5 to 10 · 4]), and maximum walking distance (6 min walk test: 492 meters and 508, [-4 · 4 to 27 · 7] ). There were increases in muscle strength of the hip flexors (156 · 4 N to 180 · 7 N [1 · 6 to 13 · 6) and shoulder abductors (143 · 1 N to 150 · 7 N [13 · 2 to 35 · 2]). As an important finding in secondary outcome measures the number of patients who were able to perform the core stability exercises rose, as did the core stability balancing time (p < 0.05, for all four exercises). Functional tests showed small reductions in the time needed to climb four steps (2 · 4 sec to 2 · 1, [- 0 · 54 to -0 · 04 ]) and rise to standing position (5 · 8 sec to 4 · 8, [-2 · 0 to 0 · 0]), while time to run, the quick motor function test results and body composition remained unchanged. Our study shows that a combination of aerobic, strength and core stability exercises is feasible, safe and beneficial to adults with Pompe disease.

  14. [Pneumology and Sports: An Outpatient Endurance Training with Sports Medical Guidance as an Effective Non-pharmacological Therapy in Pneumology - a Feasibility Study].

    PubMed

    Ammenwerth, W; Crolow, C; Wurps, H; Schultz, Th; Krüll, M; Ukas, K; Schönfeld, N; Blum, T G; Bauer, T T

    2016-05-01

    In the process of medical rehabilitation muscular endurance training is the main focus. Unfortunately, outpatient rehabilitation opportunities are limited and specialized pulmonary exercise groups ("lung sport groups") rarely available. Therefore we developed an outpatient endurance sports program for patients with respiratory diseases and evaluated its effectiveness. In this feasibility study 31 patients (50 ± 15 years) with diverse respiratory diseases were included. By professional functional exercise testing (incl. CPET and lactate measurement according to the standards of DGP and DGSP) the patients optimal training zone was determined and an individualized 12 week lasting aerobic endurance training with ≥ 3 sessions of 20 - 60 min/week realized. After completion of the exercise training program a significant improvement in dyspnoea (Borg-Scale: 65.7 ± 12.2 vs. 62.2 ± 12.6, p = 0.013), body constitution (BMI: 25.7 ± 3.3 vs. 24.3 ± 3.2 kg/m(2), p = 0.018; portion of body fat: 24.8 ± 5.8 vs. 23.8 ± 6.4 %, p = 0.043) as well as physical capacity (VO2 at 4 mmol/l Laktat: 24.2 ± 6.9 vs. 26.5 ± 7.6 ml/min/kg, p < 0.01; performance at 4 mmol/l Laktat: running/walking (n = 14) + 1.1 km/h, p = 0.018 and biking/bicycle ergometer (n = 17) + 8.7 Watt, p = 0.019) was recorded. These positive developments were also observed in mental and physical quality of life (quality of life questionnaire SF-36: physical score + 9.7 points, mental score + 4.5 points). The evaluated exercise program can easily be trained by the patient in a self-dependent setting and was seen to be an effective sports medical treatment in patients with diverse pulmonary diseases. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. 'Endurance Crater's' Dazzling Dunes (false-color)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    As NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity creeps farther into 'Endurance Crater,' the dune field on the crater floor appears even more dramatic. This false-color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera shows that the dune crests have accumulated more dust than the flanks of the dunes and the flat surfaces between them. Also evident is a 'blue' tint on the flat surfaces as compared to the dune flanks. This results from the presence of the hematite-containing spherules ('blueberries') that accumulate on the flat surfaces.

    Sinuous tendrils of sand less than 1 meter (3.3 feet) high extend from the main dune field toward the rover. Scientists hope to send the rover down to one of these tendrils in an effort to learn more about the characteristics of the dunes. Dunes are a common feature across the surface of Mars, and knowledge gleaned from investigating the Endurance dunes close-up may apply to similar dunes elsewhere.

    Before the rover heads down to the dunes, rover drivers must first establish whether the slippery slope that leads to them is firm enough to ensure a successful drive back out of the crater. Otherwise, such hazards might make the dune field a true sand trap.

  16. Major adverse cardiac events during endurance sports.

    PubMed

    Belonje, Anne; Nangrahary, Mary; de Swart, Hans; Umans, Victor

    2007-03-15

    Major adverse cardiac events in endurance exercise are usually due to underlying and unsuspected heart disease. The investigators present an analysis of major adverse cardiac events that occurred during 2 consecutive annual long distance races (a 36-km beach cycling race and a 21-km half marathon) over the past 5 years. All patients with events were transported to the hospital. Most of the 62,862 participants were men (77%; mean age 40 years). Of these, 4 men (3 runners, 1 cyclist; mean age 48 years) collapsed during (n = 2) or shortly after the races, rendering a prevalence of 0.006%. Two patients collapsed after developing chest pain, 1 of whom needed resuscitation at the event site, which was successful. These patients had acute myocardial infarctions and underwent primary angioplasty. The third patient was resuscitated at the site but did not have coronary disease or inducible ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and collapsed presumably because of catecholamine-induced ventricular fibrillation. The fourth patient experienced heat stroke and had elevated creatine kinase-MB and troponins in the absence of electrocardiographic changes. In conclusion, the risk for major adverse cardiac events during endurance sports in well-trained athletes is very low.

  17. CCP MRAP Run

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2018-04-20

    Following a training run on the Shuttle Landing Facility at NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Florida, MRAP back doors are opened showing seating in the armored vehicle. The 45,000-pound mine-resistant ambush protected vehicle, or MRAP, was originally designed for military applications, but will support the agency's Commercial Crew Program at the spaceport. The MRAP offers a mobile bunker for astronauts and ground crews in the unlikely event they have to get away from the launch pad quickly in an emergency.

  18. Endurance Exercise Ability in the Horse: A Trait with Complex Polygenic Determinism

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, Anne; Robert, Céline; Blouin, Christine; Baste, Fanny; Torquet, Gwendoline; Morgenthaler, Caroline; Rivière, Julie; Mach, Nuria; Mata, Xavier; Schibler, Laurent; Barrey, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Endurance horses are able to run at more than 20 km/h for 160 km (in bouts of 30–40 km). This level of performance is based on intense aerobic metabolism, effective body heat dissipation and the ability to endure painful exercise. The known heritabilities of endurance performance and exercise-related physiological traits in Arabian horses suggest that adaptation to extreme endurance exercise is influenced by genetic factors. The objective of the present genome-wide association study (GWAS) was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to endurance racing performance in 597 Arabian horses. The performance traits studied were the total race distance, average race speed and finishing status (qualified, eliminated or retired). We used three mixed models that included a fixed allele or genotype effect and a random, polygenic effect. Quantile-quantile plots were acceptable, and the regression coefficients for actual vs. expected log10 p-values ranged from 0.865 to 1.055. The GWAS revealed five significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) corresponding to 6 SNPs on chromosomes 6, 1, 7, 16, and 29 (two SNPs) with corrected p-values from 1.7 × 10−6 to 1.8 × 10−5. Annotation of these 5 QTL revealed two genes: sortilin-related VPS10-domain-containing receptor 3 (SORCS3) on chromosome 1 is involved in protein trafficking, and solute carrier family 39 member 12 (SLC39A12) on chromosome 29 is active in zinc transport and cell homeostasis. These two coding genes could be involved in neuronal tissues (CNS). The other QTL on chromosomes 6, 7, and 16 may be involved in the regulation of the gene expression through non-coding RNAs, CpG islands and transcription factor binding sites. On chromosome 6, a new candidate equine long non-coding RNA (KCNQ1OT1 ortholog: opposite antisense transcript 1 of potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 1 gene) was predicted in silico and validated by RT-qPCR in primary cultures of equine myoblasts and fibroblasts. This

  19. Endurance Exercise Ability in the Horse: A Trait with Complex Polygenic Determinism.

    PubMed

    Ricard, Anne; Robert, Céline; Blouin, Christine; Baste, Fanny; Torquet, Gwendoline; Morgenthaler, Caroline; Rivière, Julie; Mach, Nuria; Mata, Xavier; Schibler, Laurent; Barrey, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Endurance horses are able to run at more than 20 km/h for 160 km (in bouts of 30-40 km). This level of performance is based on intense aerobic metabolism, effective body heat dissipation and the ability to endure painful exercise. The known heritabilities of endurance performance and exercise-related physiological traits in Arabian horses suggest that adaptation to extreme endurance exercise is influenced by genetic factors. The objective of the present genome-wide association study (GWAS) was to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) related to endurance racing performance in 597 Arabian horses. The performance traits studied were the total race distance, average race speed and finishing status (qualified, eliminated or retired). We used three mixed models that included a fixed allele or genotype effect and a random, polygenic effect. Quantile-quantile plots were acceptable, and the regression coefficients for actual vs. expected log 10 p -values ranged from 0.865 to 1.055. The GWAS revealed five significant quantitative trait loci (QTL) corresponding to 6 SNPs on chromosomes 6, 1, 7, 16, and 29 (two SNPs) with corrected p -values from 1.7 × 10 -6 to 1.8 × 10 -5 . Annotation of these 5 QTL revealed two genes: sortilin-related VPS10-domain-containing receptor 3 ( SORCS3 ) on chromosome 1 is involved in protein trafficking, and solute carrier family 39 member 12 ( SLC39A12 ) on chromosome 29 is active in zinc transport and cell homeostasis. These two coding genes could be involved in neuronal tissues (CNS). The other QTL on chromosomes 6, 7, and 16 may be involved in the regulation of the gene expression through non-coding RNAs, CpG islands and transcription factor binding sites. On chromosome 6, a new candidate equine long non-coding RNA ( KCNQ1OT1 ortholog: opposite antisense transcript 1 of potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily Q member 1 gene) was predicted in silico and validated by RT-qPCR in primary cultures of equine myoblasts and fibroblasts

  20. Regular moist snuff dipping does not affect endurance exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Björkman, Frida; Edin, Fredrik; Mattsson, C Mikael; Larsen, Filip; Ekblom, Björn

    2017-01-01

    Physiological and medical effects of snuff have previously been obtained either in cross-sectional studies or after snuff administration to non-tobacco users. The effects of snuff cessation after several years of daily use are unknown. 24 participants with >2 years of daily snuff-use were tested before and after >6 weeks snuff cessation (SCG). A control group (CO) of 11 snuff users kept their normal habits. Resting heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) were significantly lower in SCG after snuff cessation, and body mass was increased by 1.4 ± 1.7 kg. Total cholesterol increased from 4.12 ± 0.54 (95% CI 3.89-4.35) to 4.46 ± 0.70 (95% CI 4.16-4.75) mM L-1 in SCG, due to increased LDL, and this change was significantly different from CO. Resting values of HDL, C-reactive protein, and free fatty acids (FFA) remained unchanged in both groups. In SCG group, both HR and BP were reduced during a four-stage incremental cycling test (from 50 to 80% of VO2max) and a prolonged cycling test (60 min at 50% of VO2max). Oxygen uptake (VO2), respiratory exchange ratio, blood lactate (bLa) and blood glucose (bGlu) concentration, and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were unchanged. In CO group, all measurements were unchanged. During the prolonged cycling test, FFA was reduced, but with no significant difference between groups. During the maximal treadmill running test peak values of VO2, pulmonary ventilation (VE), time to exhaustion and bLa were unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, endurance exercise performance (VO2max and maximal endurance time) does not seem to be affected by prolonged snuff use, while effects on cardiovascular risk factors are contradictory. HR and BP during rest and submaximal exercise are reduced after cessation of regular use of snuff. Evidently, the long-time adrenergic stress on circulation is reversible.

  1. The recovery of running ability in an adolescent male after traumatic brain injury: a case study.

    PubMed

    Moriello, Gabriele; Frear, Matthew; Seaburg, Kristin

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this case study was to document outcomes after a rehabilitation program in an adolescent male after traumatic brain injury. Three years after sustaining an injury in a skiing accident, a 17-year-old boy participated in a rehabilitation program with the goal of acquiring the ability to run one mile with his peers. On initial evaluation, the individual had significant left lower extremity weakness, impaired standing balance, limited endurance, and running limitations. He was able to run 10 m wearing a plastic ankle-foot orthosis on the left side but required supervision for safety. The intervention included strength training once weekly for 17 weeks, body weight-supported, treadmill-based locomotor training once weekly for 15 weeks followed by a combination of overground locomotor training and strengthening exercise once weekly for six weeks. After the intervention, muscle strength of the lower extremities increased and the individual was able to run one mile independently. The quality of his running improved, with better mechanics to absorb forces at impact during the absorption phase and increased lower extremity extension during the propulsion phase. A rehabilitation program consisting of strengthening and locomotor training improved running speed, quality, and endurance in an adolescent male after traumatic brain injury. He was able to progress to a less restrictive carbon fiber brace as a result of gains in lower extremity strength. This change in ability allowed him to participate in physical education by running on a track and playing softball with his peers.

  2. Overweight female rats selectively breed for low aerobic capacity exhibit increased myocardial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Megan S.; Ma, Lixin; Pulakat, Lakshmi; Mugerfeld, Irina; Hayden, Melvin R.; Garro, Mona; Knight, William; Britton, Steven L.; Koch, Lauren G.; Sowers, James R.

    2012-01-01

    The statistical association between endurance exercise capacity and cardiovascular disease suggests that impaired aerobic metabolism underlies the cardiovascular disease risk in men and women. To explore this connection, we applied divergent artificial selection in rats to develop low-capacity runner (LCR) and high-capacity runner (HCR) rats and found that disease risks segregated strongly with low running capacity. Here, we tested if inborn low aerobic capacity promotes differential sex-related cardiovascular effects. Compared with HCR males (HCR-M), LCR males (LCR-M) were overweight by 34% and had heavier retroperitoneal, epididymal, and omental fat pads; LCR females (LCR-F) were 20% heavier than HCR females (HCR-F), and their retroperitoneal, but not perireproductive or omental, fat pads were heavier as well. Unlike HCR-M, blood pressure was elevated in LCR-M, and this was accompanied by left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Like HCR-F, LCR-F exhibited normal blood pressure and LV weight as well as increased spontaneous cage activity compared with males. Despite normal blood pressures, LCR-F exhibited increased myocardial interstitial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction, as indicated by increased LV stiffness, a decrease in the initial filling rate, and an increase in diastolic relaxation time. Although females exhibited increased arterial stiffness, ejection fraction was normal. Increased interstitial fibrosis and diastolic dysfunction in LCR-F was accompanied by the lowest protein levels of phosphorylated AMP-actived protein kinase [phospho-AMPK (Thr172)] and silent information regulator 1. Thus, the combination of risk factors, including female sex, intrinsic low aerobic capacity, and overweightness, promote myocardial stiffness/fibrosis sufficient to induce diastolic dysfunction in the absence of hypertension and LV hypertrophy. PMID:22345570

  3. Running stride peak forces inversely determine running economy in elite runners.

    PubMed

    Støren, Øyvind; Helgerud, Jan; Hoff, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between running economy (RE) at 15 km/h(-1) , 3.000-m race time, maximal strength, and a number of physiological, anthropometrical, and mechanical variables. The variables measured included RE, maximal oxygen consumption, heart rate, step length and frequency, contact time, and the peak horizontal and vertical forces of each step. Maximal strength was measured as the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) half-squat using a leg press machine. Eleven male elite endurance athletes with a V(O2)max of 75.8 ± 6.2 mL/kg(-1)/min(-1) participated in this study. After the anthropometric data were collected, they were tested for RE, running characteristics, and force measures on a level treadmill at 15 km/h(-1). The athletes wore contact soles, and the treadmill was placed on a force platform. Maximal oxygen consumption and 1RM were tested after the RE measurements. The sum of horizontal and vertical peak forces revealed a significant inverse correlation (p < 0.05) both with 3,000-m performance (R = 0.71) and RE (R = 0.66). Inverse correlations were also found (p < 0.05) between RE and body height (R = 0.61) and between RE and body fat percentage (R = 0.62). In conclusion, the sum of horizontal and vertical peak forces was found to be negatively correlated to running economy and 3,000-m running performance, indicating that avoiding vertical movements and high horizontal braking force is crucial for a positive development of RE.

  4. Long-term endurance sport is a risk factor for development of lone atrial flutter.

    PubMed

    Claessen, Guido; Colyn, Erwin; La Gerche, André; Koopman, Pieter; Alzand, Becker; Garweg, Christophe; Willems, Rik; Nuyens, Dieter; Heidbuchel, Hein

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate whether in a population of patients with 'lone atrial flutter', the proportion of those engaged in long-term endurance sports is higher than that observed in the general population. An age and sex-matched retrospective case-control study. A database with 638 consecutive patients who underwent ablation for atrial flutter at the University of Leuven. Sixty-one patients (55 men, 90%) fitted the inclusion criteria of 'lone atrial flutter', ie, aged 65 years or less, without documented atrial fibrillation and without identifiable underlying disease (including hypertension). Sex, age and inclusion criteria-matched controls, two for each flutter patient, were selected in a general practice in the same geographical region. Sports activity was evaluated by detailed questionnaires, which were available in 58 flutter patients (95%). A transthoracic echocardiogram was performed in all lone flutter patients. Types of sports, number of years of participation and average number of hours per week. The proportion of regular sportsmen (≥3 h of sports practice per week) among patients with lone atrial flutter was significantly higher than that observed in the general population (50% vs 17%; p<0.0001). The proportion of sportsmen engaged in long-term endurance sports (participation in cycling, running or swimming for ≥3 h/week) was also significantly higher in lone flutter patients than in controls (31% vs 8%; p=0.0003). Those flutter patients performing endurance sports had a larger left atrium than non-sportsmen (p=0.04, by one-way analysis of variance). A history of endurance sports and subsequent left atrial remodelling may be a risk factor for the development of atrial flutter.

  5. Recovery of damaged skeletal muscle in mdx mice through low-intensity endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Frinchi, M; Macaluso, F; Licciardi, A; Perciavalle, V; Coco, M; Belluardo, N; Morici, G; Mudò, G

    2014-01-01

    The lack of dystrophin in mdx mice leads to cycles of muscle degeneration and regeneration processes. Various strategies have been proposed in order to reduce the muscle-wasting component of muscular dystrophy, including implementation of an exercise programme. The aim of this study was to examine how low-intensity endurance exercise affects the degeneration-regeneration process in dystrophic muscle of male mdx mice. Mice were subjected to low-intensity endurance exercise by running on a motorized Rota-Rod for 5 days/week for 6 weeks. Histomorphological analysis showed a significant reduction of measured inflammatory-necrotic areas in both gastrocnemius and quadriceps muscle of exercised mdx mice as compared to matched sedentary mdx mice. The degenerative-regenerative process was also evaluated by examining the protein levels of connexin 39 (Cx39), a specific gene expressed in injured muscles. Cx39 was not detected in sedentary wild type mice, whereas it was found markedly increased in sedentary mdx mice, revealing active muscle degeneration-regeneration process. These Cx39 protein levels were significantly reduced in muscles of mdx mice exercised for 30 and 40 days, revealing together with histomorphological analysis a strong reduction of degeneration process in mice subjected to low-intensity endurance exercise. Muscles of exercised mdx mice did not show significant changes in force and fatigue resistance as compared to sedentary mdx mice. Overall in this study we found that specific low-intensity endurance exercise induces a beneficial effect probably by reducing the degeneration of dystrophic muscle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. Health effects of recreational running in women. Some epidemiological and preventive aspects.

    PubMed

    Marti, B

    1991-01-01

    Estimated maximum oxygen uptake of middle-aged nonelite road race entrants is around 45 to 50 ml/kg/min, which is 40 to 100% higher than values from the female general population. Endurance training, low bodyweight, and nonsmoking of runners explain part of, but not the whole, difference in aerobic capacity observed between athletes and the general population. Sedentary women can improve cardiorespiratory fitness through aerobic exercise programmes, and the women with the lowest level of initial fitness have the highest proportional improvement following training. Regularly exercising women have a significantly reduced risk of fatal and nonfatal coronary events, and low cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with an increased risk of death and nonfatal stroke. The influence of habitual running on the female blood lipid profile is not clear. Cross-sectional studies have found elevated HDL cholesterol concentrations in distance runners, but intervention studies on the effect of jogging on lipid and lipoprotein levels have provided equivocal results. A higher level of physical fitness is associated with a lower risk to subsequently develop hypertension. Experimental studies have shown that moderate intensity aerobic exercise (40 to 60% VO2max) is able to reduce blood pressure significantly in hypertensive subjects. An athletic lifestyle may be associated with a reduced risk of adult-onset diabetes mellitus (via an exercise-induced increase in insulin-sensitivity), and with a reduced risk of cancers of the reproductive system, breast, and colon. Recreational running is also correlated with better weight control. Surveys of recreational and elite distance runners show a great variability in the prevalence of secondary amenorrhoea, between 1 and 44%. Environmental factors determining the risk of amenorrhoea in runners are low body fat content, mileage, and nutritional inadequacy, with low intakes of calories, protein, and fat. Amenorrhoeic athletes in their third and

  7. Veterinary problems of endurance horses in England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Nagy, A; Dyson, S J; Murray, J K

    2017-05-01

    Several studies have shown that a considerable proportion of horses are eliminated from endurance rides due to lameness and metabolic problems. Limited information is available on specific veterinary issues in endurance horses and there are no descriptive data on veterinary problems in a large population of endurance horses. The aim of this study was to describe veterinary problems occurring in endurance horses in England and Wales, the regions of the United Kingdom where endurance rides are organised and regulated by Endurance Great Britain (Endurance GB). A comprehensive online self-completed questionnaire was used for data collection (30th December 2015-29th February 2016) All members of Endurance GB who were the main rider of one or more endurance horses were eligible to participate. From the target population of 1209 horses, 190 questionnaires were completed by riders, resulting in a 15.7% response rate. The most common rider-reported veterinary problem was lameness, affecting 152/190 (80.0%) of endurance horses at some point during their careers and 101/190 (53.2%) of horses in the previous 12 months. Detailed information on the most recent episode of lameness was available for 147 horses. Seventy-six percent of these lameness episodes (112/147) had been initially identified by a veterinarian, but only 52% of these lameness episodes were investigated further by a veterinarian, despite the high proportion of horses affected by lameness and the proportion of horses with recurrent lameness episodes. The second most common veterinary problem was thoracolumbar region pain, followed by non-specific cough, skin disease and colic. Education of endurance riders may improve the number, quality and timing of veterinary investigations, especially for lameness and thoracolumbar region pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Walking, running and the evolution of short toes in humans.

    PubMed

    Rolian, Campbell; Lieberman, Daniel E; Hamill, Joseph; Scott, John W; Werbel, William

    2009-03-01

    The phalangeal portion of the forefoot is extremely short relative to body mass in humans. This derived pedal proportion is thought to have evolved in the context of committed bipedalism, but the benefits of shorter toes for walking and/or running have not been tested previously. Here, we propose a biomechanical model of toe function in bipedal locomotion that suggests that shorter pedal phalanges improve locomotor performance by decreasing digital flexor force production and mechanical work, which might ultimately reduce the metabolic cost of flexor force production during bipedal locomotion. We tested this model using kinematic, force and plantar pressure data collected from a human sample representing normal variation in toe length (N=25). The effect of toe length on peak digital flexor forces, impulses and work outputs was evaluated during barefoot walking and running using partial correlations and multiple regression analysis, controlling for the effects of body mass, whole-foot and phalangeal contact times and toe-out angle. Our results suggest that there is no significant increase in digital flexor output associated with longer toes in walking. In running, however, multiple regression analyses based on the sample suggest that increasing average relative toe length by as little as 20% doubles peak digital flexor impulses and mechanical work, probably also increasing the metabolic cost of generating these forces. The increased mechanical cost associated with long toes in running suggests that modern human forefoot proportions might have been selected for in the context of the evolution of endurance running.

  9. The design of the run Clever randomized trial: running volume, -intensity and running-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Ramskov, Daniel; Nielsen, Rasmus Oestergaard; Sørensen, Henrik; Parner, Erik; Lind, Martin; Rasmussen, Sten

    2016-04-23

    Injury incidence and prevalence in running populations have been investigated and documented in several studies. However, knowledge about injury etiology and prevention is needed. Training errors in running are modifiable risk factors and people engaged in recreational running need evidence-based running schedules to minimize the risk of injury. The existing literature on running volume and running intensity and the development of injuries show conflicting results. This may be related to previously applied study designs, methods used to quantify the performed running and the statistical analysis of the collected data. The aim of the Run Clever trial is to investigate if a focus on running intensity compared with a focus on running volume in a running schedule influences the overall injury risk differently. The Run Clever trial is a randomized trial with a 24-week follow-up. Healthy recreational runners between 18 and 65 years and with an average of 1-3 running sessions per week the past 6 months are included. Participants are randomized into two intervention groups: Running schedule-I and Schedule-V. Schedule-I emphasizes a progression in running intensity by increasing the weekly volume of running at a hard pace, while Schedule-V emphasizes a progression in running volume, by increasing the weekly overall volume. Data on the running performed is collected by GPS. Participants who sustain running-related injuries are diagnosed by a diagnostic team of physiotherapists using standardized diagnostic criteria. The members of the diagnostic team are blinded. The study design, procedures and informed consent were approved by the Ethics Committee Northern Denmark Region (N-20140069). The Run Clever trial will provide insight into possible differences in injury risk between running schedules emphasizing either running intensity or running volume. The risk of sustaining volume- and intensity-related injuries will be compared in the two intervention groups using a competing

  10. Effects of static stretching on 1-mile uphill run performance.

    PubMed

    Lowery, Ryan P; Joy, Jordan M; Brown, Lee E; Oliveira de Souza, Eduardo; Wistocki, David R; Davis, Gregory S; Naimo, Marshall A; Zito, Gina A; Wilson, Jacob M

    2014-01-01

    It is previously demonstrated that static stretching was associated with a decrease in running economy and distance run during a 30-minute time trial in trained runners. Recently, the detrimental effects of static stretching on economy were found to be limited to the first few minutes of an endurance bout. However, economy remains to be studied for its direct effects on performance during shorter endurance events. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of static stretching on 1-mile uphill run performance, electromyography (EMG), ground contact time (GCT), and flexibility. Ten trained male distance runners aged 24 ± 5 years with an average VO2max of 64.9 ± 6.5 mL·kg-1·min-1 were recruited. Subjects reported to the laboratory on 3 separate days interspersed by 72 hours. On day 1, anthropometrics and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max were determined on a motor-driven treadmill. On days 2 and 3, subjects performed a 5-minute treadmill warm-up and either performed a series of 6 lower-body stretches for three 30-second repetitions or sat still for 10 minutes. Time to complete a 1-mile run under stretching and nonstretching conditions took place in randomized order. For the performance run, subjects were instructed to run as fast as possible at a set incline of 5% until a distance of 1 mile was completed. Flexibility from the sit and reach test, EMG, GCT, and performance, determined by time to complete the 1-mile run, were recorded after each condition. Time to complete the run was significantly less (6:51 ± 0:28 minutes) in the nonstretching condition as compared with the stretching condition (7:04 ± 0:32 minutes). A significant condition-by-time interaction for muscle activation existed, with no change in the nonstretching condition (pre 91.3 ± 11.6 mV to post 92.2 ± 12.9 mV) but increased in the stretching condition (pre 91.0 ± 11.6 mV to post 105.3 ± 12.9 mV). A significant condition-by-time interaction for GCT was also present, with no changes in

  11. Effects of endurance training in the leopard shark, Triakis semifasciata.

    PubMed

    Gruber, S J; Dickson, K A

    1997-01-01

    This study is the first to examine the effects of endurance training in an elasmobranch fish. Twenty-four leopard sharks (Triakis semifasciata) were divided randomly into three groups. Eight sharks were killed immediately, eight were forced to swim continuously for 6 wk against a current of 35 cm s-1 (60%-65% of maximal sustainable swimming speed), and eight were held for 6 wk in a tank without induced current. There were no changes due to training in maximal sustainable speed, oxygen consumption rates, percentage of the myotome composed of red and white muscle fibers, blood oxygen-carrying capacity, liver mass, liver lipid, glycogen, and protein concentrations, white muscle protein content, heart ventricle mass, or the specific activities of the enzymes citrate synthase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the heart ventricle. In red myotomal muscle, citrate synthase activity increased 17% as a result of training, but there was no change in muscle fiber diameter. The greatest effects occurred in white myotomal muscle, in which a 34% increase in fiber diameter and a 36% increase in the activities of citrate synthase and lactate dehydrogenase occurred as a result of training. The conditioned fish also had significantly higher growth rates. The observed effects within the myotomal muscle may reflect the higher growth rates of the trained leopard sharks, or they may be a specific response to the increased energetic demands of the training activity, indicating characteristics that limit swimming performance in leopard sharks.

  12. Distance running as an ideal domain for showing a sex difference in competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Deaner, Robert O

    2013-04-01

    Men are over-represented in the arts, sciences, and sports. This has been hypothesized to reflect an evolved male predisposition for enduring competitiveness or long-term motivation to improve one's performance and "show-off." Evidence for this hypothesis is equivocal, however, because there are viable alternative explanations for men's dominance in most cultural display domains. Here, I argue that distance running is an ideal domain for addressing this issue. Distance running is ideal because it indicates enduring competitiveness, allows objective comparisons, and is accessible, acceptable, and popular for both men and women. I review recent studies and present new data showing that substantially more men than women run relatively fast in the U.S., that this sex difference in relative performance can be attributed, at least in part, to men's greater training motivation, and that this pattern has been stable for several decades. Distance running thus provides compelling evidence for an evolved male predisposition for enduring competitiveness. I conclude with suggestions regarding how variation in achievement motivation can be informed by considering how evolved predispositions interact with environmental and social conditions.

  13. Endurance and sprint benefits of high-intensity and supramaximal interval training.

    PubMed

    Cicioni-Kolsky, Daniel; Lorenzen, Christian; Williams, Morgan David; Kemp, Justin Guy

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effect of two different interval training programs-high-intensity interval training (HIT) and supramaximal interval training (SMIT)-on measures of sprint and endurance performance. Physically active individuals (Females: n=32; age 19.3, s=2.2 years; mass 67.6, s=9.1 kg; stature 172.7, s=6.6 cm. Males: n=23; age 20.0, s=2.7 years; mass 71.3, s=8.3 kg; stature 176.6, s=5.8 cm) completed pre-testing that comprised (1) 3000 m time-trial, (2) 40 m sprint, and (3) repeated sprint ability (RSA-6×40 m sprints, 24 s active recovery) performance. Participants were then matched for average 3000 m running velocity (AV) and randomly assigned to one of three groups: (i) HIT, n=19, 4 min at 100% AV, 4 min passive recovery, 4-6 bouts per session; (ii) SMIT, n=20, 30 s at 130% AV, 150 s passive recovery, 7-12 bouts per session; and (iii) control group, n=16, 30 min continuous running at 75% AV. Groups trained three times per week for six weeks. When time to complete each test were compared among groups: (i) improvements in 3000 m time trial performance were greater following SMIT than continuous running, and (ii) improvements in 40 m sprint and RSA performance were greater following SMIT than HIT and continuous running. In addition, a gender effect was observed for the 3000 m time trial only, where females changed more following the training intervention than males. In summary, for concurrent improvements in endurance, sprint and repeated sprint performance, SMIT provides the greatest benefits for physically active individuals.

  14. A framework for the etiology of running-related injuries.

    PubMed

    Bertelsen, M L; Hulme, A; Petersen, J; Brund, R K; Sørensen, H; Finch, C F; Parner, E T; Nielsen, R O

    2017-11-01

    The etiology of running-related injury is important to consider as the effectiveness of a given running-related injury prevention intervention is dependent on whether etiologic factors are readily modifiable and consistent with a biologically plausible causal mechanism. Therefore, the purpose of the present article was to present an evidence-informed conceptual framework outlining the multifactorial nature of running-related injury etiology. In the framework, four mutually exclusive parts are presented: (a) Structure-specific capacity when entering a running session; (b) structure-specific cumulative load per running session; (c) reduction in the structure-specific capacity during a running session; and (d) exceeding the structure-specific capacity. The framework can then be used to inform the design of future running-related injury prevention studies, including the formation of research questions and hypotheses, as well as the monitoring of participation-related and non-participation-related exposures. In addition, future research applications should focus on addressing how changes in one or more exposures influence the risk of running-related injury. This necessitates the investigation of how different factors affect the structure-specific load and/or the load capacity, and the dose-response relationship between running participation and injury risk. Ultimately, this direction allows researchers to move beyond traditional risk factor identification to produce research findings that are not only reliably reported in terms of the observed cause-effect association, but also translatable in practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ultra-endurance sports have no negative impact on indices of arterial stiffness.

    PubMed

    Radtke, Thomas; Schmidt-Trucksäss, Arno; Brugger, Nicolas; Schäfer, Daniela; Saner, Hugo; Wilhelm, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Marathon running has been linked with higher arterial stiffness. Blood pressure is a major contributor to pulse wave velocity (PWV). We examined indices of arterial stiffness with a blood pressure-independent method in marathon runners and ultra-endurance athletes. Male normotensive amateur runners were allocated to three groups according to former participation in competitions: group I (recreational athletes), group II (marathon runners) and group III (ultra-endurance athletes). Indices of arterial stiffness were measured with a non-invasive device (VaSera VS-1500N, Fukuda Denshi, Japan) to determine the cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI, primary endpoint) and brachial-ankle PWV (baPWV). Lifetime training hours were calculated. Cumulative competitions were expressed as marathon equivalents. Linear regression analysis was performed to determine predictors for CAVI and baPWV. Measurements of arterial stiffness were performed in 51 subjects (mean age 44.6 ± 1.2 years): group I (n = 16), group II (n = 19) and group III (n = 16). No between-group differences existed in age, anthropometric characteristics and resting BP. CAVI and baPWV were comparable between all groups (P = 0.604 and P = 0.947, respectively). In linear regression analysis, age was the only independent predictor for CAVI (R(2) = 0.239, β = 0.455, P = 0.001). Systolic BP was significantly associated with baPWV (R(2) = 0.225, β = 0.403, P = 0.004). In middle-aged normotensive athletes marathon running and ultra-endurance sports had no negative impact on arterial stiffness.

  16. Supporting Language Arts Innovations That Endure (Reading Leadership).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanacore, Joseph

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how language arts educators can promote enduring change, including the need for continuous cooperation, collaboration, and reflection; the active involvement of all the stakeholders during every stage of nurturing visions; and how to support this complex growth process with flexibility and with an enduring commitment. (SR)

  17. Endurance Factors Improve Hippocampal Neurogenesis and Spatial Memory in Mice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobilo, Tali; Yuan, Chunyan; van Praag, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    Physical activity improves learning and hippocampal neurogenesis. It is unknown whether compounds that increase endurance in muscle also enhance cognition. We investigated the effects of endurance factors, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor [delta] agonist GW501516 and AICAR, activator of AMP-activated protein kinase on memory and…

  18. Upper Body Muscular Endurance Among Children 2-5 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl P.; And Others

    The upper body muscular endurance of males and females 2-5 years of age was assessed, and relationships relative to sex, age, endurance and selected anthropometric measures were investigated. None of the relationships were found to be of practical predicative value; while upper body muscular strength increased with age, no significant differences…

  19. A Typology of Marital Quality of Enduring Marriages in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Orna; Geron, Yael; Farchi, Alva

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a typology of enduring marriages of Israeli couples married for at least 40 years. Based on the view that marital quality is a multidimensional phenomenon, the typology is derived from a cluster analysis of responses of husbands and wives in 51 couples to the ENRICH scale items. Three types of enduring marriages were found:…

  20. Strength Training for Skeletal Muscle Endurance after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ivey, Frederick M.; Prior, Steven J.; Hafer-Macko, Charlene E.; Katzel, Leslie I.; Macko, Richard F.; Ryan, Alice S.

    2018-01-01

    Background and Purpose Initial studies support the use of strength training (ST) as a safe and effective intervention after stroke. Our previous work shows that relatively aggressive, higher intensity ST translates into large effect sizes for paretic and non-paretic leg muscle volume, myostatin expression, and maximum strength post-stroke. An unanswered question pertains to how our unique ST model for stroke impacts skeletal muscle endurance (SME). Thus, we now report on ST-induced adaptation in the ability to sustain isotonic muscle contraction. Methods Following screening and baseline testing, hemiparetic stroke participants were randomized to either ST or an attention-matched stretch control group (SC). Those in the ST group trained each leg individually to muscle failure (20 repetition sets, 3× per week for 3 months) on each of three pneumatic resistance machines (leg press, leg extension, and leg curl). Our primary outcome measure was SME, quantified as the number of submaximal weight leg press repetitions possible at a specified cadence. The secondary measures included one-repetition maximum strength, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), 10-meter walk speeds, and peak aerobic capacity (VO2 peak). Results ST participants (N = 14) had significantly greater SME gains compared with SC participants (N = 16) in both the paretic (178% versus 12%, P < .01) and non-paretic legs (161% versus 12%, P < .01). These gains were accompanied by group differences for 6MWD (P < .05) and VO2 peak (P < .05). Conclusion Our ST regimen had a large impact on the capacity to sustain submaximal muscle contraction, a metric that may carry more practical significance for stroke than the often reported measures of maximum strength. PMID:27865696

  1. The Running Athlete

    PubMed Central

    Henning, P. Troy

    2014-01-01

    Context: Pelvic stress fractures, osteitis pubis, and snapping hip syndrome account for a portion of the overuse injuries that can occur in the running athlete. Evidence Acquisition: PubMed searches were performed for each entity using the following keywords: snapping hip syndrome, coxa sultans, pelvic stress fracture, and osteitis pubis from 2008 to 2013. Topic reviews, case reports, case series, and randomized trials were included for review. Study Design: Clinical review. Level of Evidence: Level 4. Results: Collectively, 188 articles were identified. Of these, 58 were included in this review. Conclusion: Based on the available evidence, the majority of these overuse injuries can be managed non-operatively. Primary treatment should include removal from offending activity, normalizing regional muscle strength/length imbalances and nutritional deficiencies, and mitigating training errors through proper education of the athlete and training staff. Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy: C PMID:24587861

  2. CFE-2 Experiment Run

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-21

    View of Flight Engineer (FE) Koichi Wakata posing for a photo during a CFE-2 (Capillary Flow Experiment - 2) Interior Corner Flow - 8 (ICF-8) test run. Liquids behave differently in space than they do on Earth, so containers that can process, hold or transport them must be designed carefully to work in microgravity. The Capillary Flow Experiment-2 furthers research on wetting, which is a liquid's ability to spread across a surface, and its impact over large length scales in strange container shapes in microgravity environments. This work will improve capabilities to quickly and accurately predict how related processes occur, and allow us to design better systems to process liquids aboard spacecraft (i.e., liquid fuel tanks, thermals fluids, and water processing for life support). Image was released by astronaut on Twitter.

  3. CFE-2 Experiment Run

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2013-11-11

    View of Flight Engineer (FE) Mike Hopkins initiating a CFE-2 (Capillary Flow Experiment - 2) Interior Corner Flow - 5 (ICF-5) test run. Liquids behave differently in space than they do on Earth, so containers that can process, hold or transport them must be designed carefully to work in microgravity. The Capillary Flow Experiment-2 furthers research on wetting, which is a liquid's ability to spread across a surface, and its impact over large length scales in strange container shapes in microgravity environments. This work will improve our capabilities to quickly and accurately predict how related processes occur, and allow us to design better systems to process liquids aboard spacecraft (i.e., liquid fuel tanks, thermals fluids, and water processing for life support). Image was released by astronaut on Twitter.

  4. SAVAGE RUN WILDERNESS, WYOMING.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, M.E.; Kluender, Steven E.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral evaluation and related surveys were conducted in the Savage Run Wilderness in Wyoming and results of these studies indicate probable mineral-resource potential in four areas. Gold and (or) silver mineralization in veins associated with faults was found in two areas; all known occurrences inside the wilderness are very small in size. Slightly anomalous values of platinum, palladium, and nickel were recorded from rock-chip and stream- sediment samples from the southeast portion of the wilderness where layered mafic rocks predominate, and a probable resource potential exists for platinum, palladium, and nickel. An area of sheared rocks in the northeastern corner of the wilderness has a probable resource potential for copper. The nature of the geologic terrane precludes the occurrence of organic fuels.

  5. Barefoot running: biomechanics and implications for running injuries.

    PubMed

    Altman, Allison R; Davis, Irene S

    2012-01-01

    Despite the technological developments in modern running footwear, up to 79% of runners today get injured in a given year. As we evolved barefoot, examining this mode of running is insightful. Barefoot running encourages a forefoot strike pattern that is associated with a reduction in impact loading and stride length. Studies have shown a reduction in injuries to shod forefoot strikers as compared with rearfoot strikers. In addition to a forefoot strike pattern, barefoot running also affords the runner increased sensory feedback from the foot-ground contact, as well as increased energy storage in the arch. Minimal footwear is being used to mimic barefoot running, but it is not clear whether it truly does. The purpose of this article is to review current and past research on shod and barefoot/minimal footwear running and their implications for running injuries. Clearly more research is needed, and areas for future study are suggested.

  6. Along Endurance Crater's Inner Wall (Left Eye)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view from the base of 'Burns Cliff' in the inner wall of 'Endurance Crater' combines several frames taken by Opportunity's navigation camera during the NASA rover's 280th martian day (Nov. 6, 2004). It is the left-eye member of a stereo pair, presented in a cylindrical-perspective projection with geometric seam correction. The cliff dominates the left and right portions of the image, while the central portion looks down into the crater. The 'U' shape of this mosaic results from the rover's tilt of about 30 degrees on the sloped ground below the cliff. Rover wheel tracks in the left half of the image show some of the slippage the rover experienced in making its way to this point. The site from which this image was taken has been designated as Opportunity's Site 37.

  7. Oral cancer: enduring characteristics and emerging trends.

    PubMed

    Rosebush, Molly S; Rao, Shailaja Kishan; Samant, Sandeep; Gu, Weikuan; Handorf, Charles R; Pfeffer, Lawrence M; Nosrat, Christopher A

    2011-01-01

    Oral cancer is arguably the most serious condition that dental providers may encounter in their practice. The relatively poor prognosis associated with oral cancer highlights the importance of the dental team's awareness of the disease. While many characteristics of oral cancer have endured over time, new research is revealing trends that are changing the way we approach its screening, diagnosis and treatment. In this report, we provide a translational overview of oral cancer, including risk factors, signs and symptoms, clinical management, as well as our recent findings on the role of chronic inflammation in the development of the disease. In addition, our recent genetic profiling approach in both cancer cell lines and in patients has identified potential biomarkers, molecular pathways and therapeutic drugs (Velcade and Aspirin) for oral squamous cell carcinomas. This comprehensive review should be of interest to all dental professionals.

  8. The enduring scientific contributions of Sigmund Freud.

    PubMed

    Gedo, John E

    2002-01-01

    Through the development of a novel observational method, Sigmund Freud made possible the collection of reliable data about man's inner life. The scientific hypotheses he formulated about these formed the initial version of psychoanalysis. Many of these first thoughts have had to be revised in the light of subsequent scientific findings about the operations of the central nervous system, but even these refuted propositions often had much heuristic value. Despite the passage of a whole century, many Freudian hypotheses have retained their scientific standing. Most important among these was Freud's realization that human thought is usually unconscious. His understanding of the role of the automatic repetition of basic patterns of behavior, of the fateful consequences of early childhood emotional vicissitudes in structuring enduring mental dispositions, and of the distinction between two distinct modes of thinking are the most significant among his many contributions.

  9. Intestinal adaptations to a combination of different diets with and without endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Janice L; Bloomer, Richard J; van der Merwe, Marie; Davis, Samantha L; Buddington, Karyl K; Buddington, Randal K

    2016-01-01

    Endurance athletes search for diet regimens that will improve performance and decrease gastrointestinal disturbances during training and events. Although the intestine can adapt to changes in the amount and composition of dietary inputs, the responses to the combination of endurance exercise and diet are poorly understood. We evaluated small intestinal dimensions and mucosal architecture and calculated the capacities of the entire small intestine to digest maltose and maltodextrin and absorb glucose in response to two different diet types; a western human diet and the Daniel Fast, a vegan style diet, and with moderate intensity endurance training or a no-exercise sedentary lifestyle for a 13 week period (n = 7 per group). The influences of diet and exercise, alone and in combination, were analyzed by analysis of variation. Rats fed the western diet gained more weight (P < 0.05) due to more fat mass (P < 0.05), with a similar response for the sedentary compared with the exercised rats in each diet group (P < 0.05). The Daniel Fast rats had longer and heavier intestines with deeper crypts with villi that were wider (P < 0.05), but not taller. Despite increased energetic demands, the exercised rats had shorter and lighter intestines with shorter villi (P < 0.05). Yet, the percentage of mucosa did not differ among groups. Total small intestinal activities for maltase and α-glucoamylase, and capacities for glucose absorption were similar regardless of diet or exercise. These findings indicate the structural responses of the small intestine to a vegan style diet are modified by exercise, but without altering the capacities of the brush border membrane to digest and absorb carbohydrates.

  10. The role of fluid temperature and form on endurance performance in the heat.

    PubMed

    Tan, P M S; Lee, J K W

    2015-06-01

    Exercising in the heat often results in an excessive increase in body core temperature, which can be detrimental to health and endurance performance. Research in recent years has shifted toward the optimum temperature at which drinks should be ingested. The ingestion of cold drinks can reduce body core temperature before exercise but less so during exercise. Temperature of drinks does not seem to have an effect on the rate of gastric emptying and intestinal absorption. Manipulating the specific heat capacity of a solution can further induce a greater heat sink. Ingestion of ice slurry exploits the additional energy required to convert the solution from ice to water (enthalpy of fusion). Body core temperature is occasionally observed to be higher at the point of exhaustion with the ingestion of ice slurry. There is growing evidence to suggest that ingesting ice slurry is an effective and practical strategy to prevent excessive rise of body core temperature and improve endurance performance. This information is especially important when only a fixed amount of fluid is allowed to be carried, often seen in some ultra-endurance events and military operations. Future studies should evaluate the efficacy of ice slurry in various exercise and environmental conditions. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. [Differential patterns of the number and proportion of blood leukocytes following endurance exercise of moderate, strenuous and severe conditions].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, K; Naganuma, S; Mochizuki, M; Shiraishi, M; Nakaji, S; Sugawara, K; Totsuka, M; Sato, K

    1995-06-01

    A study was conducted to elucidate the acute effects of endurance exercise on white blood cells by setting three conditions of different intensity and duration; (a) an upper limit of aerobic exercise for health promotion and (b) superior limits within endurance exercise tolerance for untrained persons were prescribed separately for the same healthy untrained male student volunteers (n = 10) at intensities of 85% and 95% of the individual anaerobic threshold (AT) values for 1 h and 1.5 h, respectively, on a bicycle ergometer. In addition, (c) participants in a 100-km marathon race (n = 20) who continued running for 10-13 h were examined. Every condition caused significant leukocytosis due to predominant neutrophilia and, to a minor degree, a significant increase in monocyte number, the magnitude of which depended on the severity of endurance workload and persisted even 1 h after the termination of exercise. Simultaneously, microscopic evaluation of blood smears revealed the occurrence of an increased proportion of band neutrophils and a decreased proportion of hypersegmented neutrophils (shift to the left) following exercise in condition (b) but not in (a), suggesting that neutrophils are mobilized partly from the bone marrow reserve to the circulation. On the other hand, peripheral lymphopenia was observed after the termination of endurance exercise. These phenomena closely mimicked the known effects of exogenous glucocorticoid administration, suggesting an association with endogenous stress hormone (cortisol) secretion following strenuous exercise.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. Pre-cooling for endurance exercise performance in the heat: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Endurance exercise capacity diminishes under hot environmental conditions. Time to exhaustion can be increased by lowering body temperature prior to exercise (pre-cooling). This systematic literature review synthesizes the current findings of the effects of pre-cooling on endurance exercise performance, providing guidance for clinical practice and further research. Methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Web of Science and SPORTDiscus databases were searched in May 2012 for studies evaluating the effectiveness of pre-cooling to enhance endurance exercise performance in hot environmental conditions (≥ 28°C). Studies involving participants with increased susceptibility to heat strain, cooling during or between bouts of exercise, and protocols where aerobic endurance was not the principle performance outcome were excluded. Potential publications were assessed by two independent reviewers for inclusion and quality. Means and standard deviations of exercise performance variables were extracted or sought from original authors to enable effect size calculations. Results In all, 13 studies were identified. The majority of studies contained low participant numbers and/or absence of sample size calculations. Six studies used cold water immersion, four crushed ice ingestion and three cooling garments. The remaining study utilized mixed methods. Large heterogeneity in methodological design and exercise protocols was identified. Effect size calculations indicated moderate evidence that cold water immersion effectively improved endurance performance, and limited evidence that ice slurry ingestion improved performance. Cooling garments were ineffective. Most studies failed to document or report adverse events. Low participant numbers in each study limited the statistical power of certain reported trends and lack of blinding could potentially have introduced either participant or researcher bias in some studies. Conclusions Current evidence indicates cold water

  13. Fluid and electrolyte balance in ultra-endurance sport.

    PubMed

    Rehrer, N J

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that fluid and electrolyte balance are critical to optimal exercise performance and, moreover, health maintenance. Most research conducted on extreme sporting endeavour (>3 hours) is based on case studies and studies involving small numbers of individuals. Ultra-endurance sportsmen and women typically do not meet their fluid needs during exercise. However, successful athletes exercising over several consecutive days come close to meeting fluid needs. It is important to try to account for all factors influencing bodyweight changes, in addition to fluid loss, and all sources of water input. Increasing ambient temperature and humidity can increase the rate of sweating by up to approximately 1 L/h. Depending on individual variation, exercise type and particularly intensity, sweat rates can vary from extremely low values to more than 3 L/h. Over-hydration, although not frequently observed, can also present problems, as can inappropriate fluid composition. Over-hydrating or meeting fluid needs during very long-lasting exercise in the heat with low or negligible sodium intake can result in reduced performance and, not infrequently, hyponatraemia. Thus, with large rates of fluid ingestion, even measured just to meet fluid needs, sodium intake is vital and an increased beverage concentration [30 to 50 mmol/L (1.7 to 2.9 g NaCl/L) may be beneficial. If insufficient fluids are taken during exercise, sodium is necessary in the recovery period to reduce the urinary output and increase the rate of restoration of fluid balance. Carbohydrate inclusion in a beverage can affect the net rate of water assimilation and is also important to supplement endogenous reserves as a substrate for exercising muscles during ultra-endurance activity. To enhance water absorption, glucose and/or glucose-containing carbohydrates (e.g. sucrose, maltose) at concentrations of 3 to 5% weight/volume are recommended. Carbohydrate concentrations above this may be advantageous in terms of

  14. Pipelines, Pools and Reservoirs: Building Leadership Capacity for Sustained Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Dean

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A crucial aspect of a school's capacity to promote and sustain change and improvement in student learning is the depth, breadth and endurance of both its formal and informal leadership. Shortages of willing leaders, however, have forced governments around the world to expend a considerable amount of time, effort, and money to fill up the…

  15. Critical evaluation of a badminton-specific endurance test.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Michael; Faude, Oliver; Wegmann, Melissa; Meyer, Tim

    2014-03-01

    To overcome the limitations of traditional 1-dimensional fitness tests in analyzing physiological properties of badminton players, a badminton-specific endurance test (BST) was created. This study aimed at analyzing the influence of various fitness dimensions on BST performance. 18 internationally competing male German badminton players (22.4 ± 3.2 y, 79.2 ± 7.7 kg, 1.84 ± 0.06 m, world-ranking position [WRP] 21-501) completed a straight-sprint test, a change-of-direction speed test, various jump tests (countermovement jump, drop jump, standing long jump), a multistage running test (MST), and the BST. During this on-court field test players have to respond to a computerized sign indicating direction and speed of badminton-specific movements by moving into the corresponding corners. Significant correlations were found between performance in MST and BST (individual anaerobic threshold [IAT], r = .63, P = .005; maximum velocity [Vmax], r = .60, P = .009). A negative correlation (r = -.59, P = .014) was observed between IAT in BST and drop-jump contact time. No further associations between performance indices could be detected. Apart from a small portion explained by MST results (IAT, R2 = .40; Vmax, R2 = .36), the majority of BST performance cannot be explained by the determined physiological correlates. Moreover, it was impossible to predict the WRP of a player on the basis of BST results (r = -.15, P = .55). Neither discipline-specific performance nor basic physiological properties were appropriately reflected by a BST in elite badminton players. This does not substantiate its validity for regular use as a testing tool. However, it may be useful for monitoring on-court training sessions.

  16. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Energy Balance of Triathletes during an Ultra-Endurance Event

    PubMed Central

    Barrero, Anna; Erola, Pau; Bescós, Raúl

    2014-01-01

    The nutritional strategy during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET) is one of the main concerns of athletes competing in such events. The purpose of this study is to provide a proper characterization of the energy and fluid intake during real competition in male triathletes during a complete UET and to estimate the energy expenditure (EE) and the fluid balance through the race. Methods: Eleven triathletes performed a UET. All food and drinks ingested during the race were weighed and recorded in order to assess the energy intake (EI) during the race. The EE was estimated from heart rate (HR) recordings during the race, using the individual HR-oxygen uptake (Vo2) regressions developed from three incremental tests on the 50-m swimming pool, cycle ergometer, and running treadmill. Additionally, body mass (BM), total body water (TBW) and intracellular (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW) were assessed before and after the race using a multifrequency bioimpedance device (BIA). Results: Mean competition time and HR was 755 ± 69 min and 137 ± 6 beats/min, respectively. Mean EI was 3643 ± 1219 kcal and the estimated EE was 11,009 ± 664 kcal. Consequently, athletes showed an energy deficit of 7365 ± 1286 kcal (66.9% ± 11.7%). BM decreased significantly after the race and significant losses of TBW were found. Such losses were more related to a reduction of extracellular fluids than intracellular fluids. Conclusions: Our results confirm the high energy demands of UET races, which are not compensated by nutrient and fluid intake, resulting in a large energy deficit. PMID:25558906

  18. Energy balance of triathletes during an ultra-endurance event.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Anna; Erola, Pau; Bescós, Raúl

    2014-12-31

    The nutritional strategy during an ultra-endurance triathlon (UET) is one of the main concerns of athletes competing in such events. The purpose of this study is to provide a proper characterization of the energy and fluid intake during real competition in male triathletes during a complete UET and to estimate the energy expenditure (EE) and the fluid balance through the race. Eleven triathletes performed a UET. All food and drinks ingested during the race were weighed and recorded in order to assess the energy intake (EI) during the race. The EE was estimated from heart rate (HR) recordings during the race, using the individual HR-oxygen uptake (Vo2) regressions developed from three incremental tests on the 50-m swimming pool, cycle ergometer, and running treadmill. Additionally, body mass (BM), total body water (TBW) and intracellular (ICW) and extracellular water (ECW) were assessed before and after the race using a multifrequency bioimpedance device (BIA). Mean competition time and HR was 755 ± 69 min and 137 ± 6 beats/min, respectively. Mean EI was 3643 ± 1219 kcal and the estimated EE was 11,009 ± 664 kcal. Consequently, athletes showed an energy deficit of 7365 ± 1286 kcal (66.9% ± 11.7%). BM decreased significantly after the race and significant losses of TBW were found. Such losses were more related to a reduction of extracellular fluids than intracellular fluids. Our results confirm the high energy demands of UET races, which are not compensated by nutrient and fluid intake, resulting in a large energy deficit.

  19. Comparison of Two Kinds of Endurance Training Programs on the Effects of the Ability to Recover in Amateur Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, Slavko

    2015-01-01

    Background: High intensity intermittent aerobic exercise is an elementary endurance training exercise to build soccer endurance. Many studies exist with professional soccer players. But limited research has been conducted with amateur soccer players. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare and assess the effects of the shuttle-run method and the Hoff-track method on the ability to recover in amateur soccer players within three weeks. Patients and Methods: Two amateur soccer teams were randomly assigned to shuttle-run group (n = 24; SRG) (SRG: shuttle-run group) or Hoff-track group (n = 18; HTG) (HTG: hoff-track group). They performed 2 times/week over three weeks their program. SRG performed a 20 m high speed shuttle-run until exhaustion and HTG covered at their highest speed level an obstacle track. Before and after training the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (YYIRTL2) was conducted. Results: Significant differences were observed within (P < 0.05) and between the groups (P = 0.06; ES = 0.50) in distance covering during YYIRTL2. Conclusions: Both training methods seem to improve the ability to recover in amateur soccer players within a short time period during the competition season. PMID:26448831

  20. Acute effects of high-intensity intermittent training on kinematics and foot strike patterns in endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, P Á; García Pinillos, F; Bujalance-Moreno, P; Soto-Hermoso, V M

    2017-07-01

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate running kinematic characteristics and foot strike patterns (FSP) during early and late stages of actual and common high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT): 5 × 2000 m with 120-s recovery between runs. Thirteen healthy, elite, highly trained male endurance runners participated in this study. They each had a personal record in the half-marathon of 70 ± 2.24 min, and each had a minimum experience of 4 years of training and competition. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored during HIIT. High levels of exhaustion were reached by the athletes during HIIT (HRpeak: 174.30 bpm; RPE: 17.23). There was a significant increase of HRpeak and RPE during HIIT; nevertheless, time for each run remained unchanged. A within-protocol paired t-test (first vs. last run) revealed no significant changes (P ≥ 0.05) in kinematics variables and FSP variables during HIIT. There were no substantial changes on kinematics and FSP characteristics in endurance runners after fatigue induced by a HIIT. Only the minimum ankle alignment showed a significant change. The author suggests that these results might be due to both the high athletic level of participants and their experience in HIIT.

  1. Mathematical analysis of running performance and world running records.

    PubMed

    Péronnet, F; Thibault, G

    1989-07-01

    The objective of this study was to develop an empirical model relating human running performance to some characteristics of metabolic energy-yielding processes using A, the capacity of anaerobic metabolism (J/kg); MAP, the maximal aerobic power (W/kg); and E, the reduction in peak aerobic power with the natural logarithm of race duration T, when T greater than TMAP = 420 s. Accordingly, the model developed describes the average power output PT (W/kg) sustained over any T as PT = [S/T(1 - e-T/k2)] + 1/T integral of T O [BMR + B(1 - e-t/k1)]dt where S = A and B = MAP - BMR (basal metabolic rate) when T less than TMAP; and S = A + [Af ln(T/TMAP)] and B = (MAP - BMR) + [E ln(T/TMAP)] when T greater than TMAP; k1 = 30 s and k2 = 20 s are time constants describing the kinetics of aerobic and anaerobic metabolism, respectively, at the beginning of exercise; f is a constant describing the reduction in the amount of energy provided from anaerobic metabolism with increasing T; and t is the time from the onset of the race. This model accurately estimates actual power outputs sustained over a wide range of events, e.g., average absolute error between actual and estimated T for men's 1987 world records from 60 m to the marathon = 0.73%. In addition, satisfactory estimations of the metabolic characteristics of world-class male runners were made as follows: A = 1,658 J/kg; MAP = 83.5 ml O2.kg-1.min-1; 83.5% MAP sustained over the marathon distance. Application of the model to analysis of the evolution of A, MAP, and E, and of the progression of men's and women's world records over the years, is presented.

  2. Circulating microRNAs as potential biomarkers of aerobic exercise capacity.

    PubMed

    Mooren, Frank C; Viereck, Janika; Krüger, Karsten; Thum, Thomas

    2014-02-15

    Purpose microRNAs (miRs) are crucial intracellular mediators of various biological processes, also affecting the cardiovascular system. Recently, it has been shown that miRs circulate extracellularly in the bloodstream and that such circulating miRs change in response to physical activity. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to investigate heart/muscle specific and inflammation related miRs in plasma of individuals before, directly after, and 24 h after a marathon run and to analyze their relation to conventional biochemical, cardiovascular, and performance indexes. Male endurance athletes (n =14) were recruited for the study after performing a battery of cardiac functional tests. Blood samples were collected before, directly after, and 24 h after a public marathon run. miR-1, miR-133, miR-206, miR-499, miR-208b, miR-21, and miR-155 were measured using individual Taqman assays and normalized to Caenorhabditis elegans miR-39 (cel-39) spike-in control. Moreover, soluble cardiac, inflammatory, and muscle damage markers were determined. As a result, skeletal- and heart muscle-specific miRs showed a significant increase after the marathon. The strongest increase was observed for miR-206. Twenty-four hours after the run, only miR-499 and miR-208b were returned to preexercise levels, whereas the others were still enhanced. In contrast, miR-21 and -155 were not affected by exercise. miR-1, -133a, and -206 correlated to aerobic performance parameters such as maximum oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and running speed at individual anaerobic lactate threshold (VIAS). miR-1 showed a moderate negative correlation with fractional shortening, whereas miR-133a was positively related to the thickness of intraventricular septum. None of the miRs correlated with cardiac injury markers such as troponin T, troponin I, and pro-brain natriuretic peptide. In conclusion, these findings suggest a potential role for muscle- and heart-specific miRs in cardiovascular adaptation processes

  3. Longitudinal analysis of endurance and respiratory function from a natural history study of Morquio A syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harmatz, Paul R; Mengel, Karl Eugen; Giugliani, Roberto; Valayannopoulos, Vassili; Lin, Shuan-Pei; Parini, Rossella; Guffon, Nathalie; Burton, Barbara K; Hendriksz, Christian J; Mitchell, John J; Martins, Ana Maria; Jones, Simon A; Guelbert, Norberto; Vellodi, Ashok; Wijburg, Frits A; Yang, Ke; Slasor, Peter; Decker, Celeste

    2015-02-01

    Baseline data from the Morquio A Clinical Assessment Program (MorCAP) revealed that individuals with Morquio A syndrome show substantial impairment in multiple domains including endurance and respiratory function (Harmatz et al., Mol Genet Metab, 2013). Here, 1- and 2-year longitudinal endurance and respiratory function data are presented. Endurance was assessed using the 6-minute walk test (6MWT) and the 3-minute stair climb test (3MSCT). Respiratory function was evaluated by measuring forced vital capacity (FVC) and maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV). Data were analyzed using repeated measures ANCOVA models. Annualized estimates of change were determined using model estimates and interpolation. 353, 184, and 78 subjects were assessed at Year 0 (baseline), Year 1, and Year 2, respectively. The overall annualized estimate of change (SE) in 6MWT distance was -4.86±3.25m; a larger decline of -6.84±5.38m was observed in the subset of subjects meeting the inclusion/exclusion criteria of the Phase 3 clinical trial of elosulfase alfa (≥5years of age with baseline 6MWT distance ≥30 and ≤325m). In contrast, little change (-0.14±0.60stairs/min) was observed in 3MSCT. Annualized changes (SE) in FVC and MVV were 2.44±0.68% and 1.01±2.38%, respectively. FVC and MVV increased in patients aged ≤14years, but decreased in older patients. The natural history of Morquio A syndrome is characterized by progressive impairment of endurance as measured by the 6MWT. Longitudinal trends in FVC and MVV showing increase in younger patients, but decrease in older patients, are likely to be influenced by growth. Changes in 6MWT may represent a sensitive measure of disease progression in ambulatory Morquio A patients. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  4. Predicting Endurance Time in a Repetitive Lift and Carry Task Using Linear Mixed Models

    PubMed Central

    Ham, Daniel J.; Best, Stuart A.; Carstairs, Greg L.; Savage, Robert J.; Straney, Lahn; Caldwell, Joanne N.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Repetitive manual handling tasks account for a substantial portion of work-related injuries. However, few studies report endurance time in repetitive manual handling tasks. Consequently, there is little guidance to inform expected work time for repetitive manual handling tasks. We aimed to investigate endurance time and oxygen consumption of a repetitive lift and carry task using linear mixed models. Methods Fourteen male soldiers (age 22.4 ± 4.5 yrs, height 1.78 ± 0.04 m, body mass 76.3 ± 10.1 kg) conducted four assessment sessions that consisted of one maximal box lifting session and three lift and carry sessions. The relationships between carry mass (range 17.5–37.5 kg) and the duration of carry, and carry mass and oxygen consumption, were assessed using linear mixed models with random effects to account for between-subject variation. Results Results demonstrated that endurance time was inversely associated with carry mass (R2 = 0.24), with significant individual-level variation (R2 = 0.85). Normalising carry mass to performance in a maximal box lifting test improved the prediction of endurance time (R2 = 0.40). Oxygen consumption presented relative to total mass (body mass, external load and carried mass) was not significantly related to lift and carry mass (β1 = 0.16, SE = 0.10, 95%CI: -0.04, 0.36, p = 0.12), indicating that there was no change in oxygen consumption relative to total mass with increasing lift and carry mass. Conclusion Practically, these data can be used to guide work-rest schedules and provide insight into methods assessing the physical capacity of workers conducting repetitive manual handling tasks. PMID:27379902

  5. Arctigenin enhances swimming endurance of sedentary rats partially by regulation of antioxidant pathways.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ruo-ming; Sun, Yan-yan; Zhou, Ting-ting; Zhu, Zhi-yuan; Zhuang, Jing-jing; Tang, Xuan; Chen, Jing; Hu, Li-hong; Shen, Xu

    2014-10-01

    Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan found in traditional Chinese herbs, has been determined to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection, and endurance enhancement. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidation and anti-fatigue effects of arctigenin in rats. Rat L6 skeletal muscle cell line was exposed to H2O2 (700 μmol/L), and ROS level was assayed using DCFH-DA as a probe. Male SD rats were injected with arctigenin (15 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ip) for 6 weeks, and then the weight-loaded forced swimming test (WFST) was performed to evaluate their endurance. The levels of antioxidant-related genes in L6 cells and the skeletal muscles of rats were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Incubation of L6 cells with arctigenin (1, 5, 20 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the H2O2-induced ROS production. WFST results demonstrated that chronic administration of arctigenin significantly enhanced the endurance of rats. Furthermore, molecular biology studies on L6 cells and skeletal muscles of the rats showed that arctigenin effectively increased the expression of the antioxidant-related genes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (Gsr), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), thioredoxin (Txn) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), through regulation of two potential antioxidant pathways: AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARα in mitochondria and AMPK/p53/Nrf2 in the cell nucleus. Arctigenin efficiently enhances rat swimming endurance by elevation of the antioxidant capacity of the skeletal muscles, which has thereby highlighted the potential of this natural product as an antioxidant in the treatment of fatigue and related diseases.

  6. Arctigenin enhances swimming endurance of sedentary rats partially by regulation of antioxidant pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Ruo-ming; Sun, Yan-yan; Zhou, Ting-ting; Zhu, Zhi-yuan; Zhuang, Jing-jing; Tang, Xuan; Chen, Jing; Hu, Li-hong; Shen, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Arctigenin, a phenylpropanoid dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan found in traditional Chinese herbs, has been determined to exhibit a variety of pharmacological activities, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammation, neuroprotection, and endurance enhancement. In the present study, we investigated the antioxidation and anti-fatigue effects of arctigenin in rats. Methods: Rat L6 skeletal muscle cell line was exposed to H2O2 (700 μmol/L), and ROS level was assayed using DCFH-DA as a probe. Male SD rats were injected with arctigenin (15 mg·kg−1·d−1, ip) for 6 weeks, and then the weight-loaded forced swimming test (WFST) was performed to evaluate their endurance. The levels of antioxidant-related genes in L6 cells and the skeletal muscles of rats were analyzed using real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting. Results: Incubation of L6 cells with arctigenin (1, 5, 20 μmol/L) dose-dependently decreased the H2O2-induced ROS production. WFST results demonstrated that chronic administration of arctigenin significantly enhanced the endurance of rats. Furthermore, molecular biology studies on L6 cells and skeletal muscles of the rats showed that arctigenin effectively increased the expression of the antioxidant-related genes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (Gsr), glutathione peroxidase (GPX1), thioredoxin (Txn) and uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2), through regulation of two potential antioxidant pathways: AMPK/PGC-1α/PPARα in mitochondria and AMPK/p53/Nrf2 in the cell nucleus. Conclusion: Arctigenin efficiently enhances rat swimming endurance by elevation of the antioxidant capacity of the skeletal muscles, which has thereby highlighted the potential of this natural product as an antioxidant in the treatment of fatigue and related diseases. PMID:25152028

  7. Developing Evaluation Capacity through Process Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Jean A.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how to make process use an independent variable in evaluation practice: the purposeful means of building an organization's capacity to conduct and use evaluations in the long run. The goal of evaluation capacity building (ECB) is to strengthen and sustain effective program evaluation practices through a number of activities:…

  8. V02 'overshoot' during moderate-intensity exercise in endurance-trained athletes: the influence of exercise modality.

    PubMed

    Kilding, Andrew E; Jones, Andrew M

    2008-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of exercise modality on the 'overshoot' in V(O2) that has been reported following the onset of moderate-intensity (below the gas exchange threshold, GET) exercise in endurance athletes. Seven trained endurance cyclists and seven trained endurance runners completed six square-wave transitions to a work-rate or running speed requiring 80% of mode-specific GET during both cycle and treadmill running exercise. The kinetics of V(O2) was assessed using non-linear regression and any overshoot in V(O2) was quantified as the integrated volume (IV) of O(2) consumed above the steady-state requirement. During cycling, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in all seven cyclists (IV = 136 +/- 41 ml) and in four runners (IV = 81 +/- 94 ml). During running, an overshoot in V(O2) was evident in four runners (IV = 72 +/- 61 ml) but no cyclists. These data challenge the notion that V(O2) always rises towards a steady-state with near-exponential kinetics in this exercise intensity domain. The greater incidence of the V(O2) overshoot during cycling (11/14 subjects) compared to running (4/14 subjects) indicates that the overshoot phenomenon is related to an interaction between high levels of aerobic fitness and exercise modality. We speculate that a transient loss in muscle efficiency as a consequence of a non-constant ATP requirement following the onset of constant-work-rate exercise or an initially excessive recruitment of motor units (relative to the work-rate) might contribute to the overshoot phenomenon.

  9. The QCD running coupling

    DOE PAGES

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-05-09

    Here, we review present knowledge onmore » $$\\alpha_{s}$$, the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) running coupling. The dependence of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ on momentum transfer $Q$ encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics --from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We will survey our present theoretical and empirical knowledge of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$, including constraints at high $Q^2$ predicted by perturbative QCD, and constraints at small $Q^2$ based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the first, introductory, part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how $$\\alpha_s$$ is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as `` Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization scale ambiguity. We also report recent important experimental measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the ``Principle of Maximum Conformality" which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of the gauge and renormalization scheme. In last part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the low momentum transfer domain, where there has been no consensus on how to define $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ or its analytic behavior. We will discuss the various approaches used for low energy calculations. Among them, we will discuss the light-front holographic approach to QCD in the strongly coupled

  10. The QCD running coupling

    SciTech Connect

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    Here, we review present knowledge onmore » $$\\alpha_{s}$$, the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) running coupling. The dependence of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ on momentum transfer $Q$ encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics --from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We will survey our present theoretical and empirical knowledge of $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$, including constraints at high $Q^2$ predicted by perturbative QCD, and constraints at small $Q^2$ based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the first, introductory, part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how $$\\alpha_s$$ is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as `` Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization scale ambiguity. We also report recent important experimental measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the ``Principle of Maximum Conformality" which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of the gauge and renormalization scheme. In last part of the review, we discuss $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ in the low momentum transfer domain, where there has been no consensus on how to define $$\\alpha_s(Q^2)$$ or its analytic behavior. We will discuss the various approaches used for low energy calculations. Among them, we will discuss the light-front holographic approach to QCD in the strongly coupled

  11. Voluntary resistance running induces increased hippocampal neurogenesis in rats comparable to load-free running.

    PubMed

    Lee, Min Chul; Inoue, Koshiro; Okamoto, Masahiro; Liu, Yu Fan; Matsui, Takashi; Yook, Jang Soo; Soya, Hideaki

    2013-03-14

    Recently, we reported that voluntary resistance wheel running with a resistance of 30% of body weight (RWR), which produces shorter distances but higher work levels, enhances spatial memory associated with hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signaling compared to wheel running without a load (WR) [17]. We thus hypothesized that RWR promotes adult hippocampal neurogenesis (AHN) as a neuronal substrate underlying this memory improvement. Here we used 10-week-old male Wistar rats divided randomly into sedentary (Sed), WR, and RWR groups. All rats were injected intraperitoneally with the thymidine analogue 5-Bromo-2'-deoxuridine (BrdU) for 3 consecutive days before wheel running. We found that even when the average running distance decreased by about half, the average work levels significantly increased in the RWR group, which caused muscular adaptation (oxidative capacity) for fast-twitch plantaris muscle without causing any negative stress effects. Additionally, immunohistochemistry revealed that the total BrdU-positive cells and newborn mature cells (BrdU/NeuN double-positive) in the dentate gyrus increased in both the WR and RWR groups. These results provide new evidence that RWR has beneficial effects on AHN comparable to WR, even with short running distances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Dissociation between running economy and running performance in elite Kenyan distance runners.

    PubMed

    Mooses, Martin; Mooses, Kerli; Haile, Diresibachew Wondimu; Durussel, Jérôme; Kaasik, Priit; Pitsiladis, Yannis Paul

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between running economy (RE) and performance in a homogenous group of competitive Kenyan distance runners. Maximal aerobic capacity (VO2max) (68.8 ± 3.8 ml∙kg(-1)∙min(-1)) was determined on a motorised treadmill in 32 Kenyan (25.3 ± 5.0 years; IAAF performance score: 993 ± 77 p) distance runners. Leg anthropometry was assessed and moment arm of the Achilles tendon determined. While Achilles moment arm was associated with better RE (r(2) = 0.30, P = 0.003) and upper leg length, total leg length and total leg length to body height ratio were correlated with running performance (r = 0.42, P = 0.025; r = 0.40, P = 0.030 and r = 0.38, P = 0.043, respectively), RE and maximal time on treadmill (t(max)) were not associated with running performance (r = -0.01, P = 0.965; r = 0.27; P = 0.189, respectively) in competitive Kenyan distance runners. The dissociation between RE and running performance in this homogenous group of runners would suggest that RE can be compensated by other factors to maintain high performance levels and is in line with the idea that RE is only one of many factors explaining elite running performance.

  13. Is the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism associated with running economy?

    PubMed

    Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Pasqua, Leonardo A; Bueno, Salomão; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; Matsuda, Monique; Marquezini, Monica; Saldiva, Paulo H

    2014-01-01

    The COL5A1 rs12722 polymorphism is considered to be a novel genetic marker for endurance running performance. It has been postulated that COL5A1 rs12722 may influence the elasticity of tendons and the energetic cost of running. To date, there are no experimental data in the literature supporting the relationship between range of motion, running economy, and the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism. Therefore, the main purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of the COL5A1rs12722 polymorphism on running economy and range of motion. One hundred and fifty (n = 150) physically active young men performed the following tests: a) a maximal incremental treadmill test, b) two constant-speed running tests (10 km · h(-1)) and 12 km · h(-1)) to determine the running economy, and c) a sit-and-reach test to determine the range of motion. All of the subjects were genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 single-nucleotide polymorphism. The genotype frequencies were TT = 27.9%, CT = 55.8%, and CC = 16.3%. There were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for running economy measured at 10 km · h(-1) (p = 0.232) and 12 km · h(-1) (p = 0.259). Similarly, there were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for range of motion (p = 0.337). These findings suggest that the previous relationship reported between COL5A1 rs12722 genotypes and running endurance performance might not be mediated by the energetic cost of running.

  14. Is the COL5A1 rs12722 Gene Polymorphism Associated with Running Economy?

    PubMed Central

    Bertuzzi, Rômulo; Pasqua, Leonardo A.; Bueno, Salomão; Lima-Silva, Adriano Eduardo; Matsuda, Monique; Marquezini, Monica; Saldiva, Paulo H.

    2014-01-01

    The COL5A1 rs12722 polymorphism is considered to be a novel genetic marker for endurance running performance. It has been postulated that COL5A1 rs12722 may influence the elasticity of tendons and the energetic cost of running. To date, there are no experimental data in the literature supporting the relationship between range of motion, running economy, and the COL5A1 rs12722 gene polymorphism. Therefore, the main purpose of the current study was to analyze the influence of the COL5A1rs12722 polymorphism on running economy and range of motion. One hundred and fifty (n = 150) physically active young men performed the following tests: a) a maximal incremental treadmill test, b) two constant-speed running tests (10 km•h−1 and 12 km•h−1) to determine the running economy, and c) a sit-and-reach test to determine the range of motion. All of the subjects were genotyped for the COL5A1 rs12722 single-nucleotide polymorphism. The genotype frequencies were TT = 27.9%, CT = 55.8%, and CC = 16.3%. There were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for running economy measured at 10 km•h−1 (p = 0.232) and 12 km•h−1 (p = 0.259). Similarly, there were no significant differences between COL5A1 genotypes for range of motion (p = 0.337). These findings suggest that the previous relationship reported between COL5A1 rs12722 genotypes and running endurance performance might not be mediated by the energetic cost of running. PMID:25188268

  15. Disruption of BCAA metabolism in mice impairs exercise metabolism and endurance.

    PubMed

    She, Pengxiang; Zhou, Yingsheng; Zhang, Zhiyou; Griffin, Kathleen; Gowda, Kavitha; Lynch, Christopher J

    2010-04-01

    Exercise enhances branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism, and BCAA supplementation influences exercise metabolism. However, it remains controversial whether BCAA supplementation improves exercise endurance, and unknown whether the exercise endurance effect of BCAA supplementation requires catabolism of these amino acids. Therefore, we examined exercise capacity and intermediary metabolism in skeletal muscle of knockout (KO) mice of mitochondrial branched-chain aminotransferase (BCATm), which catalyzes the first step of BCAA catabolism. We found that BCATm KO mice were exercise intolerant with markedly decreased endurance to exhaustion. Their plasma lactate and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio in skeletal muscle during exercise and lactate release from hindlimb perfused with high concentrations of insulin and glucose were significantly higher in KO than wild-type (WT) mice. Plasma and muscle ammonia concentrations were also markedly higher in KO than WT mice during a brief bout of exercise. BCATm KO mice exhibited 43-79% declines in the muscle concentration of alanine, glutamine, aspartate, and glutamate at rest and during exercise. In response to exercise, the increments in muscle malate and alpha-ketoglutarate were greater in KO than WT mice. While muscle ATP concentration tended to be lower, muscle IMP concentration was sevenfold higher in KO compared with WT mice after a brief bout of exercise, suggesting elevated ammonia in KO is derived from the purine nucleotide cycle. These data suggest that disruption of BCAA transamination causes impaired malate/aspartate shuttle, thereby resulting in decreased alanine and glutamine formation, as well as increases in lactate-to-pyruvate ratio and ammonia in skeletal muscle. Thus BCAA metabolism may regulate exercise capacity in mice.

  16. Measurement of cervical flexor endurance following whiplash.

    PubMed

    Kumbhare, Dinesh A; Balsor, Brad; Parkinson, William L; Harding Bsckin, Peter; Bedard, Michel; Papaioannou, Alexandra; Adachi, Jonathan D

    2005-07-22

    To investigate measurement properties of a practical test of cervical flexor endurance (CFE) in whiplash patients including inter-rater reliability, sensitivity to clinical change, criterion related validity against the Neck Disability Index (NDI), and discriminant validity for injured versus uninjured populations. Two samples were recruited, 81 whiplash patients, and a convenience sample of 160 subjects who were not seeking treatment and met criteria for normal pain and range of motion. CFE was measured using a stopwatch while the subject, in crook lying, held their head against gravity to fatigue. Inter-rater reliability in whiplash patients was in a range considered 'almost perfect' (Intraclass Correlation=0.96). CFE had greater inter-subject variability than the NDI or range of motion in any of three planes. However, the effect size for improvement in CFE over treatment was as large as the effect sizes for all of those measures. In multivariate regression, CFE changes accounted for changes on the NDI better than the three ranges of motion. CFE discriminated whiplash patients who were within six months of injury (n=71) from age and gender matched normals with high effect size (ES=1.5). These findings provide evidence of reliability and validity for CFE measurement, and demonstrate that CFE detects clinical improvements. Variance on CFE emphasizes the need to consider inter-, and intra-subject standard deviations to interpret scores.

  17. Blood Volume: Its Adaptation to Endurance Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    Expansion of blood volume (hypervolemia) has been well documented in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies as a consequence of endurance exercise training. Plasma volume expansion can account for nearly all of the exercise-induced hypervolemia up to 2-4 wk; after this time expansion may be distributed equally between plasma and red cell volumes. The exercise stimulus for hypervolemia has both thermal and nonthermal components that increase total circulating plasma levels of electrolytes and proteins. Although protein and fluid shifts from the extravascular to intravascular space may provide a mechanism for rapid hypervolemia immediately after exercise, evidence supports the notion that chronic hypervolemia associated with exercise training represents a net expansion of total body water and solutes. This net increase of body fluids with exercise training is associated with increased water intake and decreased urine volume output. The mechanism of reduced urine output appears to be increased renal tubular reabsorption of sodium through a more sensitive aldosterone action in man. Exercise training-induced hypervolemia appears to be universal among most animal species, although the mechanisms may be quite different. The hypervolemia may provide advantages of greater body fluid for heat dissipation and thermoregulatory stability as well as larger vascular volume and filling pressure for greater cardiac stroke volume and lower heart rates during exercise.

  18. Enduring epigenetic landmarks define the cancer microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Pidsley, Ruth; Lawrence, Mitchell G.; Zotenko, Elena; Niranjan, Birunthi; Statham, Aaron; Song, Jenny; Chabanon, Roman M.; Qu, Wenjia; Wang, Hong; Richards, Michelle; Nair, Shalima S.; Armstrong, Nicola J.; Nim, Hieu T.; Papargiris, Melissa; Balanathan, Preetika; French, Hugh; Peters, Timothy; Norden, Sam; Ryan, Andrew; Pedersen, John; Kench, James; Daly, Roger J.; Horvath, Lisa G.; Stricker, Phillip; Frydenberg, Mark; Taylor, Renea A.; Stirzaker, Clare; Risbridger, Gail P.; Clark, Susan J.

    2018-01-01

    The growth and progression of solid tumors involves dynamic cross-talk between cancer epithelium and the surrounding microenvironment. To date, molecular profiling has largely been restricted to the epithelial component of tumors; therefore, features underpinning the persistent protumorigenic phenotype of the tumor microenvironment are unknown. Using whole-genome bisulfite sequencing, we show for the first time that cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) from localized prostate cancer display remarkably distinct and enduring genome-wide changes in DNA methylation, significantly at enhancers and promoters, compared to nonmalignant prostate fibroblasts (NPFs). Differentially methylated regions associated with changes in gene expression have cancer-related functions and accurately distinguish CAFs from NPFs. Remarkably, a subset of changes is shared with prostate cancer epithelial cells, revealing the new concept of tumor-specific epigenome modifications in the tumor and its microenvironment. The distinct methylome of CAFs provides a novel epigenetic hallmark of the cancer microenvironment and promises new biomarkers to improve interpretation of diagnostic samples. PMID:29650553

  19. A Running Start: Resource Guide for Youth Running Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenny, Seth; Becker, Andrew; Armstrong, Tess

    2016-01-01

    The lack of physical activity is an epidemic problem among American youth today. In order to combat this, many schools are incorporating youth running programs as a part of their comprehensive school physical activity programs. These youth running programs are being implemented before or after school, at school during recess at the elementary…

  20. The QCD running coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deur, Alexandre; Brodsky, Stanley J.; de Téramond, Guy F.

    2016-09-01

    We review the present theoretical and empirical knowledge for αs, the fundamental coupling underlying the interactions of quarks and gluons in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). The dependence of αs(Q2) on momentum transfer Q encodes the underlying dynamics of hadron physics-from color confinement in the infrared domain to asymptotic freedom at short distances. We review constraints on αs(Q2) at high Q2, as predicted by perturbative QCD, and its analytic behavior at small Q2, based on models of nonperturbative dynamics. In the introductory part of this review, we explain the phenomenological meaning of the coupling, the reason for its running, and the challenges facing a complete understanding of its analytic behavior in the infrared domain. In the second, more technical, part of the review, we discuss the behavior of αs(Q2) in the high momentum transfer domain of QCD. We review how αs is defined, including its renormalization scheme dependence, the definition of its renormalization scale, the utility of effective charges, as well as "Commensurate Scale Relations" which connect the various definitions of the QCD coupling without renormalization-scale ambiguity. We also report recent significant measurements and advanced theoretical analyses which have led to precise QCD predictions at high energy. As an example of an important optimization procedure, we discuss the "Principle of Maximum Conformality", which enhances QCD's predictive power by removing the dependence of the predictions for physical observables on the choice of theoretical conventions such as the renormalization scheme. In the last part of the review, we discuss the challenge of understanding the analytic behavior αs(Q2) in the low momentum transfer domain. We survey various theoretical models for the nonperturbative strongly coupled regime, such as the light-front holographic approach to QCD. This new framework predicts the form of the quark-confinement potential underlying hadron spectroscopy and

  1. Trunk muscle activation during moderate- and high-intensity running.

    PubMed

    Behm, David G; Cappa, Dario; Power, Geoffrey A

    2009-12-01

    Time constraints are cited as a barrier to regular exercise. If particular exercises can achieve multiple training functions, the number of exercises and the time needed to achieve a training goal may be decreased. It was the objective of this study to compare the extent of trunk muscle electromyographic (EMG) activity during running and callisthenic activities. EMG activity of the external obliques, lower abdominals (LA), upper lumbar erector spinae (ULES), and lumbosacral erector spinae (LSES) was monitored while triathletes and active nonrunners ran on a treadmill for 30 min at 60% and 80% of their maximum heart rate (HR) reserve, as well as during 30 repetitions of a partial curl-up and 3 min of a modified Biering-Sørensen back extension exercise. The mean root mean square (RMS) amplitude of the EMG signal was monitored over 10-s periods with measures normalized to a maximum voluntary contraction rotating curl-up (external obliques), hollowing exercise (LA), or back extension (ULES and LSES). A main effect for group was that triathletes had greater overall activation of the external obliques (p < 0.05), LA (p = 0.01), and LSES (p < 0.05) than did nonrunners. Main effects for exercise type showed that the external obliques had less EMG activity during 60% and 80% runs, respectively, than with the curl-ups (p = 0.001). The back extension exercise provided less ULES (p = 0.009) and LSES (p = 0.0001) EMG activity than the 60% and 80% runs, respectively. In conclusion, triathletes had greater trunk activation than nonrunners did while running, which could have contributed to their better performance. Back-stabilizing muscles can be activated more effectively with running than with a prolonged back extension activity. Running can be considered as an efficient, multifunctional exercise combining cardiovascular and trunk endurance benefits.

  2. Amphetamine enhances endurance by increasing heat dissipation.

    PubMed

    Morozova, Ekaterina; Yoo, Yeonjoo; Behrouzvaziri, Abolhassan; Zaretskaia, Maria; Rusyniak, Daniel; Zaretsky, Dmitry; Molkov, Yaroslav

    2016-09-01

    Athletes use amphetamines to improve their performance through largely unknown mechanisms. Considering that body temperature is one of the major determinants of exhaustion during exercise, we investigated the influence of amphetamine on the thermoregulation. To explore this, we measured core body temperature and oxygen consumption of control and amphetamine-trea ted rats running on a treadmill with an incrementally increasing load (both speed and incline). Experimental results showed that rats treated with amphetamine (2 mg/kg) were able to run significantly longer than control rats. Due to a progressively increasing workload, which was matched by oxygen consumption, the control group exhibited a steady increase in the body temperature. The administration of amphetamine slowed down the temperature rise (thus decreasing core body temperature) in the beginning of the run without affecting oxygen consumption. In contrast, a lower dose of amphetamine (1 mg/kg) had no effect on measured parameters. Using a mathematical model describing temperature dynamics in two compartments (the core and the muscles), we were able to infer what physiological parameters were affected by amphetamine. Modeling revealed that amphetamine administration increases heat dissipation in the core. Furthermore, the model predicted that the muscle temperature at the end of the run in the amphetamine-treated group was significantly higher than in the control group. Therefore, we conclude that amphetamine may mask or delay fatigue by slowing down exercise-induced core body temperature growth by increasing heat dissipation. However, this affects the integrity of thermoregulatory system and may result in potentially dangerous overheating of the muscles. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  3. Sympatho-adrenergic activation by endurance exercise: Effect on metanephrines spillover and its role in predicting athlete's performance.

    PubMed

    Danese, Elisa; Tarperi, Cantor; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Guzzo, Alessandra; Sanchis-Gomar, Fabian; Festa, Luca; Bertinato, Luciano; Montagnana, Martina; Schena, Federico; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2018-03-20

    The sympatho-adrenergic activation during exercise is implicated in many cardiovascular respiratory and metabolic adaptations which have been thought to partially explain the different levels of performance observed between trained and untrained subjects. To date, no evidence exists about the association between competition performance and markers of "acute stress response". We designed this study to investigate; (i) the acute sympatho-adrenergic activation during endurance exercise in recreational runners by measuring plasma levels of free metanephrine (MN) and normethanephrine (NMN) before and after a half-marathon run; (ii) the association between the metanephrines levels and the running time. 26 amateur runners (15 males, 11 females) aged 30 to 63 years were enrolled. The quantification of MN and NMN was performed by LC-MS/MS. Anthropometric ergonomic and routine laboratory data were recorded. Statistical analyses included paired T -test, univariate and multivariate regressions. The post-run values of MN and NMN displayed a nearly 3.5 and 7 fold increase respectively compared to the baseline values ( p < 0.0001 for both). NMN pre-run values and pre/post run delta values showed a significant direct and inverse association ( p = 0.021 and p = 0.033, respectively) with running performance. No correlations were found for MN values. NMN is a reliable marker of sympatho-adrenergic activation by exercise and can predict endurance performance in the individual athlete. Adaptation phenomenon occurring not only in the adrenal medulla might represent the biological mechanism underlying this association. Further studies on sympatho-adrenergic activation, competition performance and training status should contemplate the measurement of these metabolites instead of their unstable precursors.

  4. Muscle Characteristics and Substrate Energetics in Lifelong Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Dubé, John J.; Broskey, Nicholas T.; Despines, Alex A.; Stefanovic-Racic, Maja; Toledo, Frederico G.S.; Goodpaster, Bret H.; Amati, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to explore the effect of lifelong aerobic exercise (i.e. chronic training) on skeletal muscle substrate stores (intramyocellular triglyceride [IMTG] and glycogen), skeletal muscle phenotypes, and oxidative capacity (ox), in older endurance-trained master athletes (OA) compared to non-competitive recreational younger (YA) athletes matched by frequency and mode of training. Methods Thirteen OA (64.8±4.9 yo) exercising ≥ 5 times/week were compared to 14 YA (27.8±4.9 yo) males and females. IMTG, glycogen, fiber types, succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and capillarization were measured by immunohistochemistry in vastus lateralis biopsies. Fat-ox and carbohydrate (CHO)-ox were measured by indirect calorimetry before and after an insulin clamp and during a cycle ergometer graded maximal test. Results V̇O2peak was lower in OA than YA. OA had greater IMTG in all fiber types and lower glycogen stores than YA. This was reflected in greater proportion of type I and less type II fibers in OA. Type I fibers were similar in size, while type II fibers were smaller in OA compared to YA. Both groups had similar SDH content. Numbers of capillaries per fiber were reduced in OA but with a higher number of capillaries per area. Metabolic flexibility and insulin sensitivity were similar in both groups. Exercise metabolic efficiency was higher in OA. At moderate exercise intensities, CHO-ox was lower in OA but with similar Fatox. Conclusion Lifelong exercise is associated with higher IMTG content in all muscle fibers and higher metabolic efficiency during exercise that are not explained by differences in muscle fibers types and other muscle characteristics when comparing older to younger athletes matched by exercise mode and frequency. PMID:26460630

  5. Effect of temperature on fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle mitochondria of untrained and endurance-trained rats.

    PubMed

    Zoladz, Jerzy A; Koziel, Agnieszka; Broniarek, Izabela; Woyda-Ploszczyca, Andrzej M; Ogrodna, Karolina; Majerczak, Joanna; Celichowski, Jan; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wieslawa

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effects of various assay temperatures, representing hypothermia (25°C), normothermia (35°C), and hyperthermia (42°C), on the oxidation of lipid-derived fuels in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria of untrained and endurance-trained rats. Adult 4-month-old male Wistar rats were assigned to a training group (rats trained on a treadmill for 8 weeks) or a sedentary control group. In skeletal muscle mitochondria of both control and trained rats, an increase in the assay temperature from 25°C to 42°C was accompanied by a consistent increase in the oxidation of palmitoylcarnitine and glycerol-3-phosphate. Moreover, endurance training increased mitochondrial capacity to oxidize the lipid-derived fuels at all studied temperatures. The endurance training-induced increase in mitochondrial capacity to oxidize fatty acids was accompanied by an enhancement of mitochondrial biogenesis, as shown by the elevated expression levels of Nrf2, PGC1α, and mitochondrial marker and by the elevated expression levels of mitochondrial proteins involved in fatty acid metabolism, such as fatty acid transporter CD36, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1A (CPT1A), and acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (ACADS). We conclude that hyperthermia enhances but hypothermia attenuates the rate of the oxidation of fatty acids and glycerol-3-phosphate in rat skeletal muscle mitochondria isolated from both untrained and trained rats. Moreover, our results indicate that endurance training up-regulates mitochondrial biogenesis markers, lipid-sustained oxidative capacity, and CD36 and CPT1A proteins involved in fatty acid transport, possibly via PGC1α and Nrf2 signaling pathways.

  6. [Assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity].

    PubMed

    Dreßing, H; Foerster, K; Leygraf, J; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity require thorough knowledge of the legal framework and the relevant case law. This paper explains the concept of the legal capacity to contract and the concept of testamentary capacity with respect to German civil law. The relevance of major mental disorders for the assessment of legal capacity and testamentary capacity is discussed.

  7. Coordinating the 2009 RHIC Run

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab - Mei Bai

    2009-04-13

    Physicists working at the Brookhaven National Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are exploring the puzzle of proton spin as they begin taking data during the 2009 RHIC run. For the first time, RHIC is running at a record energy of 500 giga-elect

  8. Coordinating the 2009 RHIC Run

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab - Mei Bai

    2017-12-09

    Physicists working at the Brookhaven National Lab's Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are exploring the puzzle of proton spin as they begin taking data during the 2009 RHIC run. For the first time, RHIC is running at a record energy of 500 giga-elect

  9. Running energetics in the pronghorn antelope.

    PubMed

    Lindstedt, S L; Hokanson, J F; Wells, D J; Swain, S D; Hoppeler, H; Navarro, V

    1991-10-24

    The pronghorn antelope (Antilocapra americana) has an alleged top speed of 100 km h-1, second only to the cheetah (Acionyx jubatus) among land vertebrates, a possible response to predation in the exposed habitat of the North American prairie. Unlike cheetahs, however, pronghorn antelope are distance runners rather than sprinters, and can run 11 km in 10 min, an average speed of 65 km h-1. We measured maximum oxygen uptake in pronghorn antelope to distinguish between two potential explanations for this ability: either they have evolved a uniquely high muscular efficiency (low cost of transport) or they can supply oxygen to the muscles at unusually high levels. Because the cost of transport (energy per unit distance covered per unit body mass) varies as a predictable function of body mass among terrestrial vertebrates, we can calculate the predicted cost to maintain speeds of 65 and 100 km h-1 in an average 32-kg animal. The resulting range of predicted values, 3.2-5.1 ml O2 kg-1 s-1, far surpasses the predicted maximum aerobic capacity of a 32-kg mammal (1.5 ml O2 kg-1 s-1). We conclude that their performance is achieved by an extraordinary capacity to consume and process enough oxygen to support a predicted running speed greater than 20 ms-1 (70 km h-1), attained without unique respiratory-system structures.

  10. Nutrition for endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, and road cycling.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2011-01-01

    Endurance sports are increasing in popularity and athletes at all levels are looking for ways to optimize their performance by training and nutrition. For endurance exercise lasting 30 min or more, the most likely contributors to fatigue are dehydration and carbohydrate depletion, whereas gastrointestinal problems, hyperthermia, and hyponatraemia can reduce endurance exercise performance and are potentially health threatening, especially in longer events (>4 h). Although high muscle glycogen concentrations at the start may be beneficial for endurance exercise, this does not necessarily have to be achieved by the traditional supercompensation protocol. An individualized nutritional strategy can be developed that aims to deliver carbohydrate to the working muscle at a rate that is dependent on the absolute exercise intensity as well as the duration of the event. Endurance athletes should attempt to minimize dehydration and limit body mass losses through sweating to 2-3% of body mass. Gastrointestinal problems occur frequently, especially in long-distance races. Problems seem to be highly individual and perhaps genetically determined but may also be related to the intake of highly concentrated carbohydrate solutions, hyperosmotic drinks, as well as the intake of fibre, fat, and protein. Hyponatraemia has occasionally been reported, especially among slower competitors with very high intakes of water or other low sodium drinks. Here I provide a comprehensive overview of recent research findings and suggest several new guidelines for the endurance athlete on the basis of this. These guidelines are more detailed and allow a more individualized approach.

  11. Nutritional status of endurance athletes: what is the available information?

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Júlia A D; Da Costa, Teresa H M

    2005-03-01

    Nutritional status is a critical determinant of athletic performance. We question whether currently available studies can give adequate information on nutritional status of endurance athletes. This paper is a critical review of articles published from 1989 to 2003 that investigate nutritional status of endurance athletes. The terms, "nutrition", "diet", or "nutrient", were combined with "endurance athletes" to perform Medline and Pubmed electronic database searches. Two inclusion criteria were considered: (a) study subjects should be adults and (b) articles should report gender-specific values for total energy expenditure and intake of energy, macro and micronutrient from food. Only seven studies fulfilled inclusion criteria. In general, the conclusions of these studies are that endurance athletes have negative energy balance, low intake of carbohydrate, adequate to high intake of protein, and high intake of fat. A critical discussion of the articles' data on vitamins, minerals and trace elements adequacy is conducted using insights and methodology proposed by the newly published assessment and interpretation of Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs). The studies evaluated give an inappropriate evaluation of the prevalence of adequacy/inadequacy of micronutrient intake among endurance athletes. In this work we indicate potential limitations of existing nutritional data, which reflects the misconceptions found in published literature on nutritional group evaluation. This review stresses the need for a comprehensive and well-conducted nutrition assessment planning to fulfill the existing gap in reliable information about micronutrient adequacy of endurance athletes.

  12. Endurance Exercise Attenuates Postprandial Whole-Body Leucine Balance in Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Mazzulla, Michael; Parel, Justin T; Beals, Joseph W; VAN Vliet, Stephan; Abou Sawan, Sidney; West, Daniel W D; Paluska, Scott A; Ulanov, Alexander V; Moore, Daniel R; Burd, Nicholas A

    2017-12-01

    Endurance exercise increases indices of small intestinal damage and leucine oxidation, which may attenuate dietary amino acid appearance and postprandial leucine balance during postexercise recovery. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the effect of an acute bout of endurance exercise on postprandial leucine kinetics and net leucine balance. In a crossover design, seven trained young men (age = 25.6 ± 2.3 yr; V˙O2peak = 61.4 ± 2.9 mL·kg·min; mean ± SEM) received a primed constant infusion of L-[1-C]leucine before and after ingesting a mixed macronutrient meal containing 18 g whole egg protein intrinsically labeled with L-[5,5,5-H3]leucine, 17 g fat, and 60 g carbohydrate at rest and after 60 min of treadmill running at 70% V˙O2peak. Plasma intestinal fatty acid binding protein concentrations and leucine oxidation both increased (P < 0.01) to peaks that were ~2.5-fold above baseline values during exercise with a concomitant decrease (P < 0.01) in nonoxidative leucine disposal. Meal ingestion attenuated (P < 0.01) endogenous leucine rates of appearance at rest and after exercise. There were no differences (both, P > 0.05) in dietary leucine appearance rates or in the amount of dietary protein-derived leucine that appeared into circulation over the 5-h postprandial period at rest and after exercise (62% ± 2% and 63% ± 2%, respectively). Leucine balance over the 5-h postprandial period was positive (P < 0.01) in both conditions but was negative (P < 0.01) during the exercise trial after accounting for exercise-induced leucine oxidation. We demonstrate that endurance exercise does not modulate dietary leucine availability from a mixed meal but attenuates postprandial whole-body leucine balance in trained young men.

  13. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001) immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  14. Respiratory disorders in endurance athletes – how much do they really have to endure?

    PubMed Central

    Bussotti, Maurizio; Di Marco, Silvia; Marchese, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Respiratory disorders are often a cause of morbidity in top level endurance athletes, more often compromising their performance and rarely being a cause of death. Pathophysiological events occurring during exercise, such as bronchospasm, are sometimes followed by clear pathological symptoms represented by asthma related to physical exertion or rarely by pulmonary edema induced by a strenuous effort. Both bronchospasm and the onset of interstitial edema induced by exercise cannot be considered pathological per se, but are more likely findings that occur in several healthy subjects once physical exhaustion during exertion has been reached. Consequently, we get a vision of the respiratory system perfectly tailored to meet the body’s metabolic demands under normal conditions but which is limited when challenged by strenuous exercise, in particular when it happens in an unfavorable environment. As extreme physical effort may elicit a pathological response in healthy subjects, due to the exceeding demand in a perfectly functional system, an overview of the main tools both enabling the diagnosis of respiratory impairment in endurance athletes in a clinical and preclinical phase has also been described. PMID:24744614

  15. An electromyography study of muscular endurance during the posterior shoulder endurance test.

    PubMed

    Evans, Neil A; Dressler, Emily; Uhl, Tim

    2018-05-31

    The primary purpose was to determine if there is a difference between the median frequency slopes of 5 posterior shoulder muscles during the initial portion of the Posterior Shoulder Endurance Test (PSET) at the 90° and 135° shoulder abduction positions. Fifty-five healthy volunteers (31 females) participated. The median frequency of the posterior deltoid (PD), upper trapezius (UT), middle trapezius (MT), lower trapezius (LT), and infraspinatus (INF) was measured during the PSET at 90° and 135° of shoulder abduction. External torque of 13 ± 1 Nm was used for females and 21 ± 1 Nm for males. A fixed effect multi-variable regression model was used to investigate the median frequency slopes. Males and females were analyzed separately. Median frequency slopes demonstrated fatigue in all 5 of the muscles. The PD fatigued greater than the UT in males (p = 0.0215) and greater than the LT in females (p = 0.008). The time to task failure (TTF) was greater at 90° than 135° for females and males (p = 0.016; p = 0.0193) respectively. The PSET causes fatigue in all of the muscles that were tested, with the PD fatiguing at a greater rate compared to one muscle for each sex. This investigation supports using TTF as a clinical measure of shoulder girdle endurance at 90° shoulder abduction. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The enduring impact of violence against children.

    PubMed

    Hillis, Susan D; Mercy, James A; Saul, Janet R

    2017-04-01

    More than one billion children - half of all children in the wor